Nitric oxide fluxes from an agricultural soil using a flux-gradient method
Taylor, N. M.; Wagner-Riddle, C.; Thurtell, G. W.; Beauchamp, E. G.
1999-05-01
Soil emission of nitric oxide may be a significant source of NOx in rural areas. Agricultural practices may enhance these emissions by addition of nitrogen fertilizers. A system that enables continuous measurement of NO fluxes from agricultural surfaces using the flux-gradient method was developed. Hourly differences in NO concentrations in air sampled at two intake heights (0.6 and 1 m) were determined using a chemiluminescence analyzer. Eddy diffusivities were determined using wind profiles (cup anemometers), and stability corrections calculated using a 5 cm path sonic anemometer. Fast switching of sampling between air intake heights (every 30 s) and determination of concentration values at a frequency of 2 Hz minimized the errors due to fluctuations in background concentration. Low travel times for air samples in the tubing (˜8 s) were estimated to result in small errors in flux values (chemical reactions. The overall resolution of the system was estimated as ˜1 ng N m-2s-1. NO fluxes from a bare soil were measured quasi-continuously from January to June 1995 at Elora, Canada, comprising a total of 1833 hourly values. Daily NO fluxes before nitrogen fertilization were small, increasing after nitrogen fertilizer was added (>10 ng N m-2 s-1). Monthly NO fluxes estimated were similar to those observed in previous studies. The designed system could be easily modified to measure NOx and NO fluxes by using an additional chemiluminescence analyzer. The system also could be adapted to measure fluxes sequentially from various plots, enabling testing of agricultural practices on NO emissions.
HNO3 fluxes to a deciduous forest derived using gradient and REA methods
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pryor, S.C.; Barthelmie, R.J.; Jensen, B.
2002-01-01
Summertime nitric acid concentrations over a deciduous forest in the midwestern United States are reported, which range between 0.36 and 3.3 mug m(-3). Fluxes to the forest are computed using the relaxed eddy accumulation technique and gradient methods. In accord with previous studies, the result...
Gradient heat flux measurement as monitoring method for the diesel engine
Sapozhnikov, S. Z.; Mityakov, V. Yu; Mityakov, A. V.; Vintsarevich, A. V.; Pavlov, A. V.; Nalyotov, I. D.
2017-11-01
The usage of gradient heat flux measurement for monitoring of heat flux on combustion chamber surface and optimization of diesel work process is proposed. Heterogeneous gradient heat flux sensors can be used at various regimes for an appreciable length of time. Fuel injection timing is set by the position of the maximum point on the angular heat flux diagram however, the value itself of the heat flux may not be considered. The development of such an approach can be productive for remote monitoring of work process in the cylinders of high-power marine engines.
Dobramysl, U; Holcman, D
2018-02-15
Is it possible to recover the position of a source from the steady-state fluxes of Brownian particles to small absorbing windows located on the boundary of a domain? To address this question, we develop a numerical procedure to avoid tracking Brownian trajectories in the entire infinite space. Instead, we generate particles near the absorbing windows, computed from the analytical expression of the exit probability. When the Brownian particles are generated by a steady-state gradient at a single point, we compute asymptotically the fluxes to small absorbing holes distributed on the boundary of half-space and on a disk in two dimensions, which agree with stochastic simulations. We also derive an expression for the splitting probability between small windows using the matched asymptotic method. Finally, when there are more than two small absorbing windows, we show how to reconstruct the position of the source from the diffusion fluxes. The present approach provides a computational first principle for the mechanism of sensing a gradient of diffusing particles, a ubiquitous problem in cell biology.
Nelson, A. J.; Koloutsou-Vakakis, S.; Rood, M. J.; Lichiheb, N.; Heuer, M.; Myles, L.
2017-12-01
Ammonia (NH3) is a precursor to fine particulate matter (PM) in the ambient atmosphere. Agricultural activities represent over 80% of anthropogenic emissions of NH3 in the United States. The use of nitrogen-based fertilizers contribute > 50% of total NH3 emissions in central Illinois. The U.S. EPA Science Advisory Board has called for improved methods to measure, model, and report atmospheric NH3 concentrations and emissions from agriculture. High uncertainties in the temporal and spatial distribution of NH3 emissions contribute to poor performance of air quality models in predicting ambient PM concentrations. This study reports and compares NH3 flux measurements of differing temporal resolution obtained with two methods: relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) and flux-gradient (FG). REA and FG systems were operated concurrently above a corn canopy at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) Energy Biosciences Institute (EBI) Energy Farm during the 2014 corn-growing season. The REA system operated during daytime, providing average fluxes over four-hour sampling intervals, where time resolution was limited by detection limit of denuders. The FG system employed a cavity ring-down spectrometer, and was operated continuously, reporting 30 min flux averages. A flux-footprint evaluation was used for quality control, resulting in 1,178 qualified FG measurements, 82 of which were coincident with REA measurements. Similar emission trends were observed with both systems, with peak NH3 emission observed one week after fertilization. For all coincident samples, mean NH3 flux was 205 ± 300 ng-N-m2s-1 and 110 ± 256 ng-N-m2s-1 as measured with REA and FG, respectively, where positive flux indicates emission. This is the first reported inter-comparison of REA and FG methods as used for quantifying NH3 fluxes from cropland. Preliminary analysis indicates the improved temporal resolution and continuous sampling enabled by FG allow for the identification of emission pulses
Connan, O; Maro, D; Hébert, D; Solier, L; Caldeira Ideas, P; Laguionie, P; St-Amant, N
2015-10-01
The behaviour of tritium in the environment is linked to the water cycle. We compare three methods of calculating the tritium evapotranspiration flux from grassland cover. The gradient and eddy covariance methods, together with a method based on the theoretical Penmann-Monteith model were tested in a study carried out in 2013 in an environment characterised by high levels of tritium activity. The results show that each of the three methods gave similar results. The various constraints applying to each method are discussed. The results show a tritium evapotranspiration flux of around 15 mBq m(-2) s(-1) in this environment. These results will be used to improve the entry parameters for the general models of tritium transfers in the environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Volatilization represents a significant loss pathway for many pesticides, herbicides and other agrochemicals. One common method for measuring the volatilization of agrochemicals is the flux-gradient method. Using this method, the chemical flux is estimated as the product of the vertical concentratio...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Bocquet
2011-10-01
Full Text Available A multi-step procedure for investigating ozone surface fluxes over polar snow by the tower gradient method was developed and evaluated. These measurements were then used to obtain five months (April–August 2004 of turbulent ozone flux data at the Summit research camp located in the center of the Greenland ice shield. Turbulent fluxes were determined by the gradient method incorporating tower measurements of (a ozone gradients measured by commercial ultraviolet absorption analyzers, (b ambient temperature gradients using aspirated thermocouple sensors, and (c wind speed gradients determined by cup anemometers. All gradient instruments were regularly inter-compared by bringing sensors or inlets to the same measurement height. The developed protocol resulted in an uncertainty on the order of 0.1 ppbv for 30-min averaged ozone gradients that were used for the ozone flux calculations. This protocol facilitated a lower sensitivity threshold for the ozone flux determination of ∼8 × 10^{−3}μg m^{−2} s^{−1}, respectively ∼0.01 cm s^{−1} for the ozone deposition velocity for typical environmental conditions encountered at Summit. Uncertainty in the 30-min ozone exchange measurements (evaluated by the Monte Carlo statistical approach was on the order of 10^{−2} cm s^{−1}. This uncertainty typically accounted to ~20–100% of the ozone exchange velocities that were determined. These measurements are among the most sensitive ozone deposition determinations reported to date. This flux experiment allowed for measurements of the relatively low ozone uptake rates encountered for polar snow, and thereby the study of their environmental and spring-versus-summer dependencies.
Crystal growth of emerald by flux method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inoue, Mikio; Narita, Eiichi; Okabe, Taijiro; Morishita, Toshihiko.
1979-01-01
Emerald crystals have been formed in two binary fluxes of Li 2 O-MoO 2 and Li 2 O-V 2 O 5 using the slow cooling method and the temperature gradient method under various conditions. In the flux of Li 2 O-MoO 3 carried out in the range of 2 -- 5 of molar ratios (MoO 3 /Li 2 O), emerald was crystallized in the temperature range from 750 to 950 0 C, and the suitable crystallization conditions were found to be the molar ratio of 3 -- 4 and the temperature about 900 0 C. In the flux of Li 2 O-V 2 O 5 carried out in the range of 1.7 -- 5 of molar ratios (V 2 O 5 /Li 2 O), emerald was crystallized in the temperature range from 900 to 1150 0 . The suitable crystals were obtained at the molar ratio of 3 and the temperature range of 1000 -- 1100 0 C. The crystallization temperature rised with an increase in the molar ratio of the both fluxes. The emeralds grown in two binary fluxes were transparent green, having the density of 2.68, the refractive index of 1.56, and the two distinct bands in the visible spectrum at 430 and 600nm. The emerald grown in Li 2 O-V 2 O 5 flux was more bluish green than that grown in Li 2 O-MoO 3 flux. The size of the spontaneously nucleated emerald grown in the former flux was larger than the latter, when crystallized by the slow cooling method. As for the solubility of beryl in the two fluxes, Li 2 O-V 2 O 5 flux was superior to Li 2 O-MoO 3 flux whose small solubility of SiO 2 caused an experimental problem to the temperature gradient method. The suitability of the two fluxes for the crystal growth of emerald by the flux method was discussed from the view point of various properties of above-mentioned two fluxes. (author)
STOCHASTIC GRADIENT METHODS FOR UNCONSTRAINED OPTIMIZATION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nataša Krejić
2014-12-01
Full Text Available This papers presents an overview of gradient based methods for minimization of noisy functions. It is assumed that the objective functions is either given with error terms of stochastic nature or given as the mathematical expectation. Such problems arise in the context of simulation based optimization. The focus of this presentation is on the gradient based Stochastic Approximation and Sample Average Approximation methods. The concept of stochastic gradient approximation of the true gradient can be successfully extended to deterministic problems. Methods of this kind are presented for the data fitting and machine learning problems.
Preconditioning the modified conjugate gradient method ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In this paper, the convergence analysis of the conventional conjugate Gradient method was reviewed. And the convergence analysis of the modified conjugate Gradient method was analysed with our extension on preconditioning the algorithm. Convergence of the algorithm is a function of the condition number of M-1A.
Approximate error conjugation gradient minimization methods
Kallman, Jeffrey S
2013-05-21
In one embodiment, a method includes selecting a subset of rays from a set of all rays to use in an error calculation for a constrained conjugate gradient minimization problem, calculating an approximate error using the subset of rays, and calculating a minimum in a conjugate gradient direction based on the approximate error. In another embodiment, a system includes a processor for executing logic, logic for selecting a subset of rays from a set of all rays to use in an error calculation for a constrained conjugate gradient minimization problem, logic for calculating an approximate error using the subset of rays, and logic for calculating a minimum in a conjugate gradient direction based on the approximate error. In other embodiments, computer program products, methods, and systems are described capable of using approximate error in constrained conjugate gradient minimization problems.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peeters, A. G.; Rath, F.; Buchholz, R.; Grosshauser, S. R.; Strintzi, D.; Weikl, A. [Physics Department, University of Bayreuth, Universitätsstrasse 30, Bayreuth (Germany); Camenen, Y. [Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, PIIM, UMR 7345, Marseille (France); Candy, J. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Casson, F. J. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon (United Kingdom); Hornsby, W. A. [Max Planck Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstrasse 2 85748 Garching (Germany)
2016-08-15
It is shown that Ion Temperature Gradient turbulence close to the threshold exhibits a long time behaviour, with smaller heat fluxes at later times. This reduction is connected with the slow growth of long wave length zonal flows, and consequently, the numerical dissipation on these flows must be sufficiently small. Close to the nonlinear threshold for turbulence generation, a relatively small dissipation can maintain a turbulent state with a sizeable heat flux, through the damping of the zonal flow. Lowering the dissipation causes the turbulence, for temperature gradients close to the threshold, to be subdued. The heat flux then does not go smoothly to zero when the threshold is approached from above. Rather, a finite minimum heat flux is obtained below which no fully developed turbulent state exists. The threshold value of the temperature gradient length at which this finite heat flux is obtained is up to 30% larger compared with the threshold value obtained by extrapolating the heat flux to zero, and the cyclone base case is found to be nonlinearly stable. Transport is subdued when a fully developed staircase structure in the E × B shearing rate forms. Just above the threshold, an incomplete staircase develops, and transport is mediated by avalanche structures which propagate through the marginally stable regions.
Nonlinear conjugate gradient methods in micromagnetics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Fischbacher
2017-04-01
Full Text Available Conjugate gradient methods for energy minimization in micromagnetics are compared. The comparison of analytic results with numerical simulation shows that standard conjugate gradient method may fail to produce correct results. A method that restricts the step length in the line search is introduced, in order to avoid this problem. When the step length in the line search is controlled, conjugate gradient techniques are a fast and reliable way to compute the hysteresis properties of permanent magnets. The method is applied to investigate demagnetizing effects in NdFe12 based permanent magnets. The reduction of the coercive field by demagnetizing effects is μ0ΔH = 1.4 T at 450 K.
Application of DC gradient sounding method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xie Hongrong
2010-01-01
Based on the thought of new observation and reverse method of electronic measuring in deep section proposed by professor Ge Zhongwei, three-pole gradient sound(GS-3A, GS-3B)distribution and observations are applied in mining practice. By changing the work flow and distributing the electronic measurement deep section by some distance, several reception equipments are used in multiple points observations using multiple points-one string continuous observation of electronic differences and polarization. Practices prove that this effective method is suit to two dimensions calculation and ration explanation in electronic sounding of numerical simulate grids. This method is accurate and effects well in geology work. (authors)
Rumsey, Ian C.; Walker, John T.
2016-06-01
The dry component of total nitrogen and sulfur atmospheric deposition remains uncertain. The lack of measurements of sufficient chemical speciation and temporal extent make it difficult to develop accurate mass budgets and sufficient process level detail is not available to improve current air-surface exchange models. Over the past decade, significant advances have been made in the development of continuous air sampling measurement techniques, resulting with instruments of sufficient sensitivity and temporal resolution to directly quantify air-surface exchange of nitrogen and sulfur compounds. However, their applicability is generally restricted to only one or a few of the compounds within the deposition budget. Here, the performance of the Monitor for AeRosols and GAses in ambient air (MARGA 2S), a commercially available online ion-chromatography-based analyzer is characterized for the first time as applied for air-surface exchange measurements of HNO3, NH3, NH4+, NO3-, SO2 and SO42-. Analytical accuracy and precision are assessed under field conditions. Chemical concentrations gradient precision are determined at the same sampling site. Flux uncertainty measured by the aerodynamic gradient method is determined for a representative 3-week period in fall 2012 over a grass field. Analytical precision and chemical concentration gradient precision were found to compare favorably in comparison to previous studies. During the 3-week period, percentages of hourly chemical concentration gradients greater than the corresponding chemical concentration gradient detection limit were 86, 42, 82, 73, 74 and 69 % for NH3, NH4+, HNO3, NO3-, SO2 and SO42-, respectively. As expected, percentages were lowest for aerosol species, owing to their relatively low deposition velocities and correspondingly smaller gradients relative to gas phase species. Relative hourly median flux uncertainties were 31, 121, 42, 43, 67 and 56 % for NH3, NH4+, HNO3, NO3-, SO2 and SO42-, respectively. Flux
Accelerated gradient methods for constrained image deblurring
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bonettini, S; Zanella, R; Zanni, L; Bertero, M
2008-01-01
In this paper we propose a special gradient projection method for the image deblurring problem, in the framework of the maximum likelihood approach. We present the method in a very general form and we give convergence results under standard assumptions. Then we consider the deblurring problem and the generality of the proposed algorithm allows us to add a energy conservation constraint to the maximum likelihood problem. In order to improve the convergence rate, we devise appropriate scaling strategies and steplength updating rules, especially designed for this application. The effectiveness of the method is evaluated by means of a computational study on astronomical images corrupted by Poisson noise. Comparisons with standard methods for image restoration, such as the expectation maximization algorithm, are also reported.
On the Convergence Analysis of the Optimized Gradient Method.
Kim, Donghwan; Fessler, Jeffrey A
2017-01-01
This paper considers the problem of unconstrained minimization of smooth convex functions having Lipschitz continuous gradients with known Lipschitz constant. We recently proposed the optimized gradient method for this problem and showed that it has a worst-case convergence bound for the cost function decrease that is twice as small as that of Nesterov's fast gradient method, yet has a similarly efficient practical implementation. Drori showed recently that the optimized gradient method has optimal complexity for the cost function decrease over the general class of first-order methods. This optimality makes it important to study fully the convergence properties of the optimized gradient method. The previous worst-case convergence bound for the optimized gradient method was derived for only the last iterate of a secondary sequence. This paper provides an analytic convergence bound for the primary sequence generated by the optimized gradient method. We then discuss additional convergence properties of the optimized gradient method, including the interesting fact that the optimized gradient method has two types of worstcase functions: a piecewise affine-quadratic function and a quadratic function. These results help complete the theory of an optimal first-order method for smooth convex minimization.
Large Airborne Full Tensor Gradient Data Inversion Based on a Non-Monotone Gradient Method
Sun, Yong; Meng, Zhaohai; Li, Fengting
2018-03-01
Following the development of gravity gradiometer instrument technology, the full tensor gravity (FTG) data can be acquired on airborne and marine platforms. Large-scale geophysical data can be obtained using these methods, making such data sets a number of the "big data" category. Therefore, a fast and effective inversion method is developed to solve the large-scale FTG data inversion problem. Many algorithms are available to accelerate the FTG data inversion, such as conjugate gradient method. However, the conventional conjugate gradient method takes a long time to complete data processing. Thus, a fast and effective iterative algorithm is necessary to improve the utilization of FTG data. Generally, inversion processing is formulated by incorporating regularizing constraints, followed by the introduction of a non-monotone gradient-descent method to accelerate the convergence rate of FTG data inversion. Compared with the conventional gradient method, the steepest descent gradient algorithm, and the conjugate gradient algorithm, there are clear advantages of the non-monotone iterative gradient-descent algorithm. Simulated and field FTG data were applied to show the application value of this new fast inversion method.
Average electron content gradients and nighttime electron fluxes in the mid-latitude ionosphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ebel, A.; Schmidt, G.; Tauriainen, A.
1976-01-01
Observations of the total electron content (TEC) made at Lindau (52 0 N, 10 0 E) by means of low orbiting satellites during the period March 1970 to December 1972 enabled evaluation of the meridional component of the TEC gradient over the station. The behaviour of this component is investigated in connection with the temporal TEC changes using the medians of both quantities. The gradient reflects well known seasonal changes in the ionosphere such as the semiannual anomaly around noon which leads to relatively strong TEC increases towards the south (up to 9 x 10 15 m -2 degree -1 ). For the time shortly after midnight, a second semiannual variation of the gradient shows up with enhanced southward TEC increases. Regular northward ionization increases are found near sunrise in summer. Average TEC increases or markedly reduced decreases during the night were obtained for almost every month during the observation period. This special phenomenon of the nighttime ionosphere is discussed with respect to maximum input fluxes of different kinds, which would be necessary to produce the observed effects. Under normal nighttime conditions, the TEC gradients can lead to changes in the ionization of up to 3 x 10 12 m -2 s -1 due to horizontal plasma transport, when electric fields of reasonable strength (approximately 2 mV/m) are present. (author)
Patterns of water and heat flux across a biome gradient from tropical forest to savanna in Brazil
Rocha, da H.R.; Manzi, A.O.; Cabral, O.M.; Miller, S.D.; Goulden, M.L.; Saleska, S.R.; Coupe, N.R.; Wofsy, S.C.; Borma, L.S.; Artaxo, P.; Vourlitis, G.; Nogueira, J.S.; Cardoso, F.L.; Nobre, A.D.; Kruijt, B.; Freitas, H.C.; Randow, von C.; Aguiar, R.G.; Maia, J.F.
2009-01-01
We investigated the seasonal patterns of water vapor and sensible heat flux along a tropical biome gradient from forest to savanna. We analyzed data from a network of flux towers in Brazil that were operated within the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA). These tower sites
A new method of determining moisture gradient in wood
Zhiyong Cai
2008-01-01
Moisture gradient in wood and wood composites is one of most important factors that affects both physical stability and mechanical performance. This paper describes a method for measuring moisture gradient in lumber and engineering wood composites as it varies across material thickness. This innovative method employs a collimated radiation beam (x rays or [gamma] rays...
Comparison between Evapotranspiration Fluxes Assessment Methods
Casola, A.; Longobardi, A.; Villani, P.
2009-11-01
Knowledge of hydrological processes acting in the water balance is determinant for a rational water resources management plan. Among these, the water losses as vapour, in the form of evapotranspiration, play an important role in the water balance and the heat transfers between the land surface and the atmosphere. Mass and energy interactions between soil, atmosphere and vegetation, in fact, influence all hydrological processes modificating rainfall interception, infiltration, evapotraspiration, surface runoff and groundwater recharge.A numbers of methods have been developed in scientific literature for modelling evapotranspiration. They can be divided in three main groups: i) traditional meteorological models, ii) energy fluxes balance models, considering interaction between vegetation and the atmosphere, and iii) remote sensing based models. The present analysis preliminary performs a study of fluxes directions and an evaluation of energy balance closure in a typical Mediterranean short vegetation area, using data series recorded from an eddy covariance station, located in the Campania region, Southern Italy. The analysis was performed on different seasons of the year with the aim to assess climatic forcing features impact on fluxes balance, to evaluate the smaller imbalance and to highlight influencing factors and sampling errors on balance closure. The present study also concerns evapotranspiration fluxes assessment at the point scale. Evapotranspiration is evaluated both from empirical relationships (Penmann-Montheit, Penmann F AO, Prestley&Taylor) calibrated with measured energy fluxes at mentioned experimental site, and from measured latent heat data scaled by the latent heat of vaporization. These results are compared with traditional and reliable well known models at the plot scale (Coutagne, Turc, Thorthwaite).
Gradient-type methods in inverse parabolic problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kabanikhin, Sergey; Penenko, Aleksey
2008-01-01
This article is devoted to gradient-based methods for inverse parabolic problems. In the first part, we present a priori convergence theorems based on the conditional stability estimates for linear inverse problems. These theorems are applied to backwards parabolic problem and sideways parabolic problem. The convergence conditions obtained coincide with sourcewise representability in the self-adjoint backwards parabolic case but they differ in the sideways case. In the second part, a variational approach is formulated for a coefficient identification problem. Using adjoint equations, a formal gradient of an objective functional is constructed. A numerical test illustrates the performance of conjugate gradient algorithm with the formal gradient.
Methane fluxes along a salinity gradient on a restored salt marsh, Harpswell, ME
Gunn, Cailene; Johnson, Beverly, ,, Dr.; Dostie, Phil; Bohlen, Curtis; Craig, Matthew
2016-04-01
This study functions as a pilot project to understand the relationship between salinity and methane emissions on a recently restored salt marsh in Casco Bay, Maine. Salt marshes are dynamic and highly productive ecosystems that provide a multitude of ecosystem services including nutrient filtration, storm-water buffering and carbon sequestration. These ecosystems are highly susceptible to anthropogenic alteration. The emplacement of causeways and narrow culverts, restricts tidal flow and leads to loss of healthy salinity gradients. Consequently, numerous salt marshes have experienced increases in freshwater vegetation growth as a result of coastal population expansion. Recent restoration efforts on Long Marsh, Harpswell, ME replaced a severely undersized culvert with a larger one in February, 2014. The salinity gradient has since been restored along much of the marsh, and freshwater vegetation that encroached on the marsh platform has died back. Vegetation and salinity are key indicators and drivers of CH4 emissions on salt marshes. Using static gas chambers, we quantified CH4 fluxes along two transects at five diverse sites ranging from healthy marsh (salinity of 27 to 31 psu) with Spartina vegetation, to regions invaded by Typha and other freshwater vegetation (salinity of 0 to 4 psu). Sampling was executed in the months of July, August and October. CH4 concentrations were determined using a gas chromatograph with a flame-ionization detector. Preliminary findings suggest reintroduction of healthy tidal flows into the marsh inhibits CH4 production, where the lowest fluxes with least variability were observed at the most saline sites with Spartina vegetation. The largest range of CH4 fluxes exhibited emissions from 0.75 μmol CH4/m2/hr to 518.4 μmol CH4/m2/hr at the Typha dominated sites from July to October. Fluxes at the saltwater and brackish regions were far less variable with ranges from 0.94 μmol CH4/m2/hr to 8.2 μmol CH4/m2/hr and 2.6 to 9.5 μmol CH4/m2
The Flux of Euglena gracilis Cells Depends on the Gradient of Light Intensity.
Ogawa, Takuma; Shoji, Erika; Suematsu, Nobuhiko J; Nishimori, Hiraku; Izumi, Shunsuke; Awazu, Akinori; Iima, Makoto
2016-01-01
We have quantified the photomovement behavior of a suspension of Euglena gracilis representing a behavioral response to a light gradient. Despite recent measurements of phototaxis and photophobicity, the details of macroscopic behavior of cell photomovements under conditions of light intensity gradients, which are critical to understand recent experiments on spatially localized bioconvection patterns, have not been fully understood. In this paper, the flux of cell number density under a light intensity gradient was measured by the following two experiments. In the first experiment, a capillary containing the cell suspension was illuminated with different light intensities in two regions. In the steady state, the differences of the cell numbers in the two regions normalized by the total number were proportional to the light difference, where the light intensity difference ranged from 0.5-2.0 μmol m-2 s-1. The proportional coefficient was positive (i.e., the bright region contained many microorganisms) when the mean light intensity was weak (1.25 μmol m-2 s-1), whereas it was negative when the mean intensity was strong (13.75 μmol m-2 s-1). In the second experiment, a shallow rectangular container of the suspension was illuminated with stepwise light intensities. The cell number density distribution exhibited a single peak at the position where the light intensity was about Ic ≃ 3.8 μmol m-2 s-1. These results suggest that the suspension of E. gracilis responded to the light gradient and that the favorable light intensity was Ic.
The Flux of Euglena gracilis Cells Depends on the Gradient of Light Intensity.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Takuma Ogawa
Full Text Available We have quantified the photomovement behavior of a suspension of Euglena gracilis representing a behavioral response to a light gradient. Despite recent measurements of phototaxis and photophobicity, the details of macroscopic behavior of cell photomovements under conditions of light intensity gradients, which are critical to understand recent experiments on spatially localized bioconvection patterns, have not been fully understood. In this paper, the flux of cell number density under a light intensity gradient was measured by the following two experiments. In the first experiment, a capillary containing the cell suspension was illuminated with different light intensities in two regions. In the steady state, the differences of the cell numbers in the two regions normalized by the total number were proportional to the light difference, where the light intensity difference ranged from 0.5-2.0 μmol m-2 s-1. The proportional coefficient was positive (i.e., the bright region contained many microorganisms when the mean light intensity was weak (1.25 μmol m-2 s-1, whereas it was negative when the mean intensity was strong (13.75 μmol m-2 s-1. In the second experiment, a shallow rectangular container of the suspension was illuminated with stepwise light intensities. The cell number density distribution exhibited a single peak at the position where the light intensity was about Ic ≃ 3.8 μmol m-2 s-1. These results suggest that the suspension of E. gracilis responded to the light gradient and that the favorable light intensity was Ic.
Technical note: Development of a gradient tube method for ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Technical note: Development of a gradient tube method for examining microbial population structures in floating sulphur biofilms. ML Bowker, JB Molwantwa, J Gilfillan, R Dorrington, R Kirby, PD Rose ...
preconditioning the modified conjugate gradient method
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Admin
The conventional conjugate method (CGM) was originally developed by Hestenes and. Stiefel (1952) as a method of solution for linear systems. Fletcher and Reeves (1964) built the necessary underlying theory for a successful application of the method to quadratic functional and developed its convergence properties.
A feasible DY conjugate gradient method for linear equality constraints
LI, Can
2017-09-01
In this paper, we propose a feasible conjugate gradient method for solving linear equality constrained optimization problem. The method is an extension of the Dai-Yuan conjugate gradient method proposed by Dai and Yuan to linear equality constrained optimization problem. It can be applied to solve large linear equality constrained problem due to lower storage requirement. An attractive property of the method is that the generated direction is always feasible and descent direction. Under mild conditions, the global convergence of the proposed method with exact line search is established. Numerical experiments are also given which show the efficiency of the method.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schaaf, S.; Daemmgen, U.; Burkart, S. [Federal Agricultural Research Centre, Inst. of Agroecology, Braunschweig (Germany); Gruenhage, L. [Justus-Liebig-Univ., Inst. for Plant Ecology, Giessen (Germany)
2005-04-01
Vertical fluxes of water vapour and carbon dioxide obtained from gradient, eddy covariance (closed and open path systems) and chamber measurements above arable crops were compared with the directly measured energy balance and the harvested net biomass carbon. The gradient and chamber measurements were in the correct order of magnitude, whereas the closed path eddy covariance system showed unacceptably small fluxes. Correction methods based on power spectra analysis yielded increased fluxes. However, the energy balance could not be closed satisfactorily. The application of the open path system proved to be successful. The SVAT model PLATIN which had been adapted to various arable crops was able to depict the components of the energy balance adequately. Net carbon fluxes determined with the corrected closed path data sets, chamber, and SVAT model equal those of the harvested carbon. (orig.)
A Gradient Taguchi Method for Engineering Optimization
Hwang, Shun-Fa; Wu, Jen-Chih; He, Rong-Song
2017-10-01
To balance the robustness and the convergence speed of optimization, a novel hybrid algorithm consisting of Taguchi method and the steepest descent method is proposed in this work. Taguchi method using orthogonal arrays could quickly find the optimum combination of the levels of various factors, even when the number of level and/or factor is quite large. This algorithm is applied to the inverse determination of elastic constants of three composite plates by combining numerical method and vibration testing. For these problems, the proposed algorithm could find better elastic constants in less computation cost. Therefore, the proposed algorithm has nice robustness and fast convergence speed as compared to some hybrid genetic algorithms.
Proximal extrapolated gradient methods for variational inequalities.
Malitsky, Yu
2018-01-01
The paper concerns with novel first-order methods for monotone variational inequalities. They use a very simple linesearch procedure that takes into account a local information of the operator. Also, the methods do not require Lipschitz continuity of the operator and the linesearch procedure uses only values of the operator. Moreover, when the operator is affine our linesearch becomes very simple, namely, it needs only simple vector-vector operations. For all our methods, we establish the ergodic convergence rate. In addition, we modify one of the proposed methods for the case of a composite minimization. Preliminary results from numerical experiments are quite promising.
Wang, Liang-Bi; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Xiao-Xia
2009-01-01
This paper aims to contribute to a better understanding of convective heat transfer. For this purpose, the reason why thermal diffusivity should be placed before the Laplacian operator of the heat flux, and the role of the velocity gradient in convective heat transfer are analysed. The background to these analyses is that, when the energy…
An Improved Local Gradient Method for Sea Surface Wind Direction Retrieval from SAR Imagery
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lizhang Zhou
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Sea surface wind affects the fluxes of energy, mass and momentum between the atmosphere and ocean, and therefore regional and global weather and climate. With various satellite microwave sensors, sea surface wind can be measured with large spatial coverage in almost all-weather conditions, day or night. Like any other remote sensing measurements, sea surface wind measurement is also indirect. Therefore, it is important to develop appropriate wind speed and direction retrieval models for different types of microwave instruments. In this paper, a new sea surface wind direction retrieval method from synthetic aperture radar (SAR imagery is developed. In the method, local gradients are computed in frequency domain by combining the operation of smoothing and computing local gradients in one step to simplify the process and avoid the difference approximation. This improved local gradients (ILG method is compared with the traditional two-dimensional fast Fourier transform (2D FFT method and local gradients (LG method, using interpolating wind directions from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF reanalysis data and the Cross-Calibrated Multi-Platform (CCMP wind vector product. The sensitivities to the salt-and-pepper noise, the additive noise and the multiplicative noise are analyzed. The ILG method shows a better performance of retrieval wind directions than the other two methods.
A hybrid optimization method for biplanar transverse gradient coil design
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qi Feng; Tang Xin; Jin Zhe; Jiang Zhongde; Shen Yifei; Meng Bin; Zu Donglin; Wang Weimin
2007-01-01
The optimization of transverse gradient coils is one of the fundamental problems in designing magnetic resonance imaging gradient systems. A new approach is presented in this paper to optimize the transverse gradient coils' performance. First, in the traditional spherical harmonic target field method, high order coefficients, which are commonly ignored, are used in the first stage of the optimization process to give better homogeneity. Then, some cosine terms are introduced into the series expansion of stream function. These new terms provide simulated annealing optimization with new freedoms. Comparison between the traditional method and the optimized method shows that the inhomogeneity in the region of interest can be reduced from 5.03% to 1.39%, the coil efficiency increased from 3.83 to 6.31 mT m -1 A -1 and the minimum distance of these discrete coils raised from 1.54 to 3.16 mm
Gradient-based methods for production optimization of oil reservoirs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Suwartadi, Eka
2012-07-01
Production optimization for water flooding in the secondary phase of oil recovery is the main topic in this thesis. The emphasis has been on numerical optimization algorithms, tested on case examples using simple hypothetical oil reservoirs. Gradientbased optimization, which utilizes adjoint-based gradient computation, is used to solve the optimization problems. The first contribution of this thesis is to address output constraint problems. These kinds of constraints are natural in production optimization. Limiting total water production and water cut at producer wells are examples of such constraints. To maintain the feasibility of an optimization solution, a Lagrangian barrier method is proposed to handle the output constraints. This method incorporates the output constraints into the objective function, thus avoiding additional computations for the constraints gradient (Jacobian) which may be detrimental to the efficiency of the adjoint method. The second contribution is the study of the use of second-order adjoint-gradient information for production optimization. In order to speedup convergence rate in the optimization, one usually uses quasi-Newton approaches such as BFGS and SR1 methods. These methods compute an approximation of the inverse of the Hessian matrix given the first-order gradient from the adjoint method. The methods may not give significant speedup if the Hessian is ill-conditioned. We have developed and implemented the Hessian matrix computation using the adjoint method. Due to high computational cost of the Newton method itself, we instead compute the Hessian-timesvector product which is used in a conjugate gradient algorithm. Finally, the last contribution of this thesis is on surrogate optimization for water flooding in the presence of the output constraints. Two kinds of model order reduction techniques are applied to build surrogate models. These are proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) and the discrete empirical interpolation method (DEIM
An alternative method for the measurement of neutron flux
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. A simple and easy method for measuring the neutron flux is presented. This paper deals with the experimental verification of neutron dose rate–flux relationship for a non-dissipative medium. Though the neutron flux cannot be obtained from the dose rate in a dissipative medium, experimental result shows that for ...
An alternative method for the measurement of neutron flux
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A simple and easy method for measuring the neutron flux is presented. This paper deals with the experimental verification of neutron dose rate–flux relationship for a non-dissipative medium. Though the neutron flux cannot be obtained from the dose rate in a dissipative medium, experimental result shows that for ...
Surface renewal method for estimating sensible heat flux | Mengistu ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
For short canopies, latent energy flux may be estimated using a shortened surface energy balance from measurements of sensible and soil heat flux and the net irradiance at the surface. The surface renewal (SR) method for estimating sensible heat, latent energy, and other scalar fluxes has the advantage over other ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. J. Bolinius
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Semi-volatile persistent organic pollutants (POPs cycle between the atmosphere and terrestrial surfaces; however measuring fluxes of POPs between the atmosphere and other media is challenging. Sampling times of hours to days are required to accurately measure trace concentrations of POPs in the atmosphere, which rules out the use of eddy covariance techniques that are used to measure gas fluxes of major air pollutants. An alternative, the modified Bowen ratio (MBR method, has been used instead. In this study we used data from FLUXNET for CO2 and water vapor (H2O to compare fluxes measured by eddy covariance to fluxes measured with the MBR method using vertical concentration gradients in air derived from averaged data that simulate the long sampling times typically required to measure POPs. When concentration gradients are strong and fluxes are unidirectional, the MBR method and the eddy covariance method agree within a factor of 3 for CO2, and within a factor of 10 for H2O. To remain within the range of applicability of the MBR method, field studies should be carried out under conditions such that the direction of net flux does not change during the sampling period. If that condition is met, then the performance of the MBR method is neither strongly affected by the length of sample duration nor the use of a fixed value for the transfer coefficient.
Deflation in preconditioned conjugate gradient methods for Finite Element Problems
Vermolen, F.J.; Vuik, C.; Segal, A.
2002-01-01
We investigate the influence of the value of deflation vectors at interfaces on the rate of convergence of preconditioned conjugate gradient methods applied to a Finite Element discretization for an elliptic equation. Our set-up is a Poisson problem in two dimensions with continuous or discontinuous
A Projected Conjugate Gradient Method for Sparse Minimax Problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Kaj; Jonasson, Kristjan
1993-01-01
as it only requires that software for sparse linear programming and a sparse symmetric positive definite equation solver are available. On each iteration a special linear/quadratic model of the function is minimized, but contrary to the usual practice in trust region methods the quadratic model is only...... defined on a one dimensional path from the current iterate to the boundary of the trust region. Conjugate gradients are used to define this path. One iteration involves one LP subproblem and requires three function evaluations and one gradient evaluation. Promising numerical results obtained...
Cadmium filtered neutron flux determination. Comparison of activation methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ollui-Mboulou, Magloire.
1979-01-01
Neutron fluxes under cadmium filters are determined by the cadmium ratio and sandwich activation methods. The thermal neutron flux levels obtained with 7 detectors of different kinds: In, Au, Ag, W, Co, Mn, Zn are compared. The cadmium ratio method was used in locations for which the epithermal and thermal neutron flux ratio are quite different. By irradiating materials under different thicknesses of cadmium it was possible to establish experimental curves from which the flux depression factors for intermediate neutrons may be determined whatever the thickness of the filter used. Whereas the cadmium ratio method can only measure the mean flux above the cadmium cut-off energy the sandwich method enables the flux value to be determined in a narrow band around the resonance energy of each detector used [fr
A gradient activation method for direct methanol fuel cells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Guicheng; Yang, Zhaoyi; Halim, Martin; Li, Xinyang; Wang, Manxiang; Kim, Ji Young; Mei, Qiwen; Wang, Xindong; Lee, Joong Kee
2017-01-01
Highlights: • A gradient activation method was reported firstly for direct methanol fuel cells. • The activity recovery of Pt-based catalyst was introduced into the novel activation process. • The new activation method led to prominent enhancement of DMFC performance. • DMFC performance was improved with the novel activation step by step within 7.5 h. - Abstract: To realize gradient activation effect and recover catalytic activity of catalyst in a short time, a gradient activation method has firstly been proposed for enhancing discharge performance and perfecting activation mechanism of the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). This method includes four steps, i.e. proton activation, activity recovery activation, H 2 -O 2 mode activation and forced discharging activation. The results prove that the proposed method has gradually realized replenishment of water and protons, recovery of catalytic activity of catalyst, establishment of transfer channels for electrons, protons, and oxygen, and optimization of anode catalyst layer for methanol transfer in turn. Along with the novel activation process going on, the DMFC discharge performance has been improved, step by step, to more than 1.9 times higher than that of the original one within 7.5 h. This method provides a practicable activation way for the real application of single DMFCs and stacks.
Maximum gradient method for optimization of some reactor operating parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miasnikov, A.
1976-03-01
The method and the algorithm ensuing therefrom are described for the determination of the optimum operating state of a reactor. The optimum operating state is considered to be the extreme of the selected functional of the radial power distribution. The functional extreme is determined numerically, using a method which is one of the possible variants of the maximum gradient method. The radial distribution of the neutron absorption in regulating rods and the fuel element burnup are considered to be the variable parameters used in the optimization. (author)
The higher order flux mapping method in large size PHWRs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kulkarni, A.K.; Balaraman, V.; Purandare, H.D.
1997-01-01
A new higher order method is proposed for obtaining flux map using single set of expansion mode. In this procedure, one can make use of the difference between predicted value of detector reading and their actual values for determining the strength of local fluxes around detector site. The local fluxes are arising due to constant perturbation changes (both extrinsic and intrinsic) taking place in the reactor. (author)
Discontinuous Skeletal Gradient Discretisation methods on polytopal meshes
Di Pietro, Daniele A.; Droniou, Jérôme; Manzini, Gianmarco
2018-02-01
In this work we develop arbitrary-order Discontinuous Skeletal Gradient Discretisations (DSGD) on general polytopal meshes. Discontinuous Skeletal refers to the fact that the globally coupled unknowns are broken polynomials on the mesh skeleton. The key ingredient is a high-order gradient reconstruction composed of two terms: (i) a consistent contribution obtained mimicking an integration by parts formula inside each element and (ii) a stabilising term for which sufficient design conditions are provided. An example of stabilisation that satisfies the design conditions is proposed based on a local lifting of high-order residuals on a Raviart-Thomas-Nédélec subspace. We prove that the novel DSGDs satisfy coercivity, consistency, limit-conformity, and compactness requirements that ensure convergence for a variety of elliptic and parabolic problems. Links with Hybrid High-Order, non-conforming Mimetic Finite Difference and non-conforming Virtual Element methods are also studied. Numerical examples complete the exposition.
Using nuclear methods for analyzing materials and determining concentration gradients
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Darras, R.
After reviewing the various type of nuclear chemical analysis methods, the possibilities of analysis by activation and direct observation of nuclear reactions are specifically described. These methods make it possible to effect analyses of trace-elements or impurities, even as traces, in materials, with selectivity, accuracy and great sensitivity. This latter property makes them advantageous too for determining major elements in small quantities of available matter. Furthermore, they lend themselves to carrying out superficial analyses and the determination of concentration gradients, given the careful choice of the nature and energy of the incident particles. The paper is illustrated with typical examples of analyses on steels, pure iron, refractory metals, etc [fr
Nitrous oxide flux and nitrogen transformations across a landscape gradient in Amazonia
Livingston, Gerald P.; Vitousek, Peter M.; Matson, Pamela A.
1988-01-01
Nitrous oxide flux and nitrogen turnover were measured in three types of Amazonian forest ecosystems within Reserva Florestal Ducke near Manaus, Brazil. Nitrogen mineralization and nitrate production measured during 10-day laboratory incubations were 3-4 times higher in clay soils associated with 'terra firme' forests on ridge-top and slope positions than in 'campinarana' forests on bottomland sand soils. In contrast, nitrous oxide fluxes did not differ significantly among sites, but were highly variable in space and time. The observed frequency distribution of flux was positively skewed, with a mean overall sites and all sampling times of 1.3 ng N2O-N/sq cm per hr. Overall, the flux estimates were comparable to or greater than those of temperature forests, but less than others reported for Amazoonia. Results from a field fertilization experiment suggest that most nitrous oxide flux was associated with denitrification of soil nitrate.
New convergence results for the scaled gradient projection method
Bonettini, S.; Prato, M.
2015-09-01
The aim of this paper is to deepen the convergence analysis of the scaled gradient projection (SGP) method, proposed by Bonettini et al in a recent paper for constrained smooth optimization. The main feature of SGP is the presence of a variable scaling matrix multiplying the gradient, which may change at each iteration. In the last few years, extensive numerical experimentation showed that SGP equipped with a suitable choice of the scaling matrix is a very effective tool for solving large scale variational problems arising in image and signal processing. In spite of the very reliable numerical results observed, only a weak convergence theorem is provided establishing that any limit point of the sequence generated by SGP is stationary. Here, under the only assumption that the objective function is convex and that a solution exists, we prove that the sequence generated by SGP converges to a minimum point, if the scaling matrices sequence satisfies a simple and implementable condition. Moreover, assuming that the gradient of the objective function is Lipschitz continuous, we are also able to prove the {O}(1/k) convergence rate with respect to the objective function values. Finally, we present the results of a numerical experience on some relevant image restoration problems, showing that the proposed scaling matrix selection rule performs well also from the computational point of view.
Gradient augmented level set method for phase change simulations
Anumolu, Lakshman; Trujillo, Mario F.
2018-01-01
A numerical method for the simulation of two-phase flow with phase change based on the Gradient-Augmented-Level-set (GALS) strategy is presented. Sharp capturing of the vaporization process is enabled by: i) identification of the vapor-liquid interface, Γ (t), at the subgrid level, ii) discontinuous treatment of thermal physical properties (except for μ), and iii) enforcement of mass, momentum, and energy jump conditions, where the gradients of the dependent variables are obtained at Γ (t) and are consistent with their analytical expression, i.e. no local averaging is applied. Treatment of the jump in velocity and pressure at Γ (t) is achieved using the Ghost Fluid Method. The solution of the energy equation employs the sub-grid knowledge of Γ (t) to discretize the temperature Laplacian using second-order one-sided differences, i.e. the numerical stencil completely resides within each respective phase. To carefully evaluate the benefits or disadvantages of the GALS approach, the standard level set method is implemented and compared against the GALS predictions. The results show the expected trend that interface identification and transport are predicted noticeably better with GALS over the standard level set. This benefit carries over to the prediction of the Laplacian and temperature gradients in the neighborhood of the interface, which are directly linked to the calculation of the vaporization rate. However, when combining the calculation of interface transport and reinitialization with two-phase momentum and energy, the benefits of GALS are to some extent neutralized, and the causes for this behavior are identified and analyzed. Overall the additional computational costs associated with GALS are almost the same as those using the standard level set technique.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Diem
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Current bottom–up process models suggest that montane tropical ecosystems are weak atmospheric sources of N2O, although recent empirical studies from the southern Peruvian Andes have challenged this idea. Here we report N2O flux from combined field and laboratory experiments that investigated the process-based controls on N2O flux from montane ecosystems across a large-elevation gradient (600–3700 m a.s.l. in the southern Peruvian Andes. Nitrous oxide flux and environmental variables were quantified in four major habitats (premontane forest, lower montane forest, upper montane forest and montane grassland at monthly intervals over a 30-month period from January 2011 to June 2013. The role of soil moisture content in regulating N2O flux was investigated through a manipulative, laboratory-based 15N-tracer experiment. The role of substrate availability (labile organic matter, NO3− in regulating N2O flux was examined through a field-based litter-fall manipulation experiment and a laboratory-based 15N–NO3− addition study, respectively. Ecosystems in this region were net atmospheric sources of N2O, with an unweighted mean flux of 0.27 ± 0.07 mg N–N2O m−2 d−1. Weighted extrapolations, which accounted for differences in land surface area among habitats and variations in flux between seasons, predicted a mean annual flux of 1.27 ± 0.33 kg N2O–N ha−1 yr−1. Nitrous oxide flux was greatest from premontane forest, with an unweighted mean flux of 0.75 ± 0.18 mg N–N2O m−2 d−1, translating to a weighted annual flux of 0.66 ± 0.16 kg N2O–N ha−1 yr−1. In contrast, N2O flux was significantly lower in other habitats. The unweighted mean fluxes for lower montane forest, montane grasslands, and upper montane forest were 0.46 ± 0.24 mg N–N2O m−2 d−1, 0.07 ± 0.08 mg N–N2O m−2 d−1, and 0.04 ± 0.07 mg N–N2O m−2 d−1
Ewers, B. E.; Pendall, E.; Reed, D. E.; Barnard, H. R.; Whitehouse, F.; Frank, J. M.; Massman, W. J.; Brooks, P. D.; Biederman, J. A.; Harpold, A. A.; Naithani, K. J.; Mitra, B.; Mackay, D. S.; Norton, U.; Borkhuu, B.
2011-12-01
While mountainous areas are critical for providing numerous ecosystem benefits at the regional scale, the strong gradients in environmental controls make predictions difficult. A key part of the problem is quantifying and predicting the feedback between mountain gradients and plant function which then controls ecosystem cycling. The emerging theory of plant hydraulics provides a rigorous yet simple platform from which to generate testable hypotheses and predictions of ecosystem pools and fluxes. Plant hydraulic theory predicts that plant controls over carbon, water, energy and nutrient fluxes can be derived from the limitation of plant water transport from the soil through xylem and out of stomata. In addition, the limit to plant water transport can be predicted by combining plant structure (e.g. xylem diameters or root-to-shoot ratios) and plant function (response of stomatal conductance to vapor pressure deficit or root vulnerability to cavitation). We evaluate the predictions of the plant hydraulic theory by testing it against data from a mountain gradient encompassing sagebrush steppe through subalpine forests (2700 to 3400 m). We further test the theory by predicting the carbon, water and nutrient exchanges from several coniferous trees in the same gradient that are dying from xylem dysfunction caused by blue-stain fungi carried by bark beetles. The common theme of both of these data sets is a change in water limitation caused by either changing precipitation along the mountainous gradient or lack of access to soil water from xylem-occluding fungi. Across all of the data sets which range in scale from individual plants to hillslopes, the data fit the predictions of plant hydraulic theory. Namely, there was a proportional tradeoff between the reference canopy stomatal conductance to water vapor and the sensitivity of that conductance to vapor pressure deficit that quantitatively fits the predictions of plant hydraulic theory. Incorporating this result into
Sebastia, M. T.; Debouk, H.; Ibañez, M.; Llurba, R.; Ribas, A.; Altimir, N.
2016-12-01
Grassland in the Pyrenees is critically threatened by climate and land use changes. Ecologically, these ecosystems contain a rich biodiversity and contribute many ecosystem services, including feed production, soil carbon storage and water regulation. Socioeconomically, grasslands fuel the rural economy in the Pyrenees, including organic stockbreeding, outdoor activities and recreation. Three eddy covariance stations were established in the Eastern Pyrenees between 2009 and 2011 along altitudinal and climatic gradients by the FLUXPYR project (EU INTERREG IV-A-POCTEFA). The network of flux towers on climatically diverse grasslands is included in the European Fluxes Database Cluster. The three locations are representative of the typical managements in the region: Pla de Riart (ES-PRt, 1000 m a.s.l.), intensively managed sown grassland grazed in the fall; La Bertolina (ES-LBr, 1300 m a.s.l.), montane grassland grazed from spring to fall; and Castellar de n'Hug (ES-Cst, 2000 m a.s.l.), subalpine grassland grazed in summer. The flux studies are completed by chamber measurements of CO2, CH4, and N2O fluxes by photoacoustic. The focus of study is the relationship biodiversity-ecosystem function in response to climate, management and other environmental changes. Results show how sown and spontaneous plant diversity regulates grassland functioning including greenhouse gas fluxes. Polycultures in particular have a tendency to increase NEE and Reco compared to monocultures, enhancing CO2 uptake. Grasses are less efficient photosynthetically per biomass unit than other plant functional types, but this is not reflected at the ecosystem scale, where they are dominant. N2O is a greenhouse gas particularly dependent on plant functional diversity and climatic conditions. Soil function responds to changes in plant functional type distribution within the grassland. In conclusion, biodiversity regulates greenhouse gas fluxes in many ways in grasslands in the Pyrenees, through multiple
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gao, Zhongming [Laboratory for Atmospheric Research, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman Washington USA; Russell, Eric S. [Laboratory for Atmospheric Research, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman Washington USA; Missik, Justine E. C. [Laboratory for Atmospheric Research, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman Washington USA; Huang, Maoyi [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Chen, Xingyuan [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Strickland, Chris E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Clayton, Ray [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Arntzen, Evan [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Ma, Yulong [Laboratory for Atmospheric Research, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman Washington USA; Liu, Heping [Laboratory for Atmospheric Research, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman Washington USA
2017-07-12
We evaluated nine methods of soil heat flux calculation using field observations. All nine methods underestimated the soil heat flux by at least 19%. This large underestimation is mainly caused by uncertainties in soil thermal properties.
Total variation superiorized conjugate gradient method for image reconstruction
Zibetti, Marcelo V. W.; Lin, Chuan; Herman, Gabor T.
2018-03-01
The conjugate gradient (CG) method is commonly used for the relatively-rapid solution of least squares problems. In image reconstruction, the problem can be ill-posed and also contaminated by noise; due to this, approaches such as regularization should be utilized. Total variation (TV) is a useful regularization penalty, frequently utilized in image reconstruction for generating images with sharp edges. When a non-quadratic norm is selected for regularization, as is the case for TV, then it is no longer possible to use CG. Non-linear CG is an alternative, but it does not share the efficiency that CG shows with least squares and methods such as fast iterative shrinkage-thresholding algorithms (FISTA) are preferred for problems with TV norm. A different approach to including prior information is superiorization. In this paper it is shown that the conjugate gradient method can be superiorized. Five different CG variants are proposed, including preconditioned CG. The CG methods superiorized by the total variation norm are presented and their performance in image reconstruction is demonstrated. It is illustrated that some of the proposed variants of the superiorized CG method can produce reconstructions of superior quality to those produced by FISTA and in less computational time, due to the speed of the original CG for least squares problems. In the Appendix we examine the behavior of one of the superiorized CG methods (we call it S-CG); one of its input parameters is a positive number ε. It is proved that, for any given ε that is greater than the half-squared-residual for the least squares solution, S-CG terminates in a finite number of steps with an output for which the half-squared-residual is less than or equal to ε. Importantly, it is also the case that the output will have a lower value of TV than what would be provided by unsuperiorized CG for the same value ε of the half-squared residual.
Estimates of the temperature flux-temperature gradient relation above a sea floor
Cimatoribus, A.; van Haren, H.
2016-01-01
The relation between the ux of temperature (or buoyancy), the verti-cal temperature gradient and the height above the bottom, is investigatedin an oceanographic context, using high-resolution temperature measure-ments. The model for the evolution of a strati?ed layer by Balmforthet al. (1998) is
How to choose methods for lake greenhouse gas flux measurements?
Bastviken, David
2017-04-01
Lake greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes are increasingly recognized as important for lake ecosystems as well as for large scale carbon and GHG budgets. However, many of our flux estimates are uncertain and it can be discussed if the presently available data is representative for the systems studied or not. Data are also very limited for some important flux pathways. Hence, many ongoing efforts try to better constrain fluxes and understand flux regulation. A fundamental challenge towards improved knowledge and when starting new studies is what methods to choose. A variety of approaches to measure aquatic GHG exchange is used and data from different methods and methodological approaches have often been treated as equally valid to create large datasets for extrapolations and syntheses. However, data from different approaches may cover different flux pathways or spatio-temporal domains and are thus not always comparable. Method inter-comparisons and critical method evaluations addressing these issues are rare. Emerging efforts to organize systematic multi-lake monitoring networks for GHG fluxes leads to method choices that may set the foundation for decades of data generation and therefore require fundamental evaluation of different approaches. The method choices do not only regard the equipment but also for example consideration of overall measurement design and field approaches, relevant spatial and temporal resolution for different flux components, and accessory variables to measure. In addition, consideration of how to design monitoring approaches being affordable, suitable for widespread (global) use, and comparable across regions is needed. Inspired by discussions with Prof. Dr. Cristian Blodau during the EGU General Assembly 2016, this presentation aims to (1) illustrate fundamental pros and cons for a number of common methods, (2) show how common methodological approaches originally adapted for other environments can be improved for lake flux measurements, (3) suggest
Predictive methods for estimating pesticide flux to air
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Woodrow, J.E.; Seiber, J.N. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)
1996-10-01
Published evaporative flux values for pesticides volatilizing from soil, plants, and water were correlated with compound vapor pressures (VP), modified by compound properties appropriate to the treated matrix (e.g., soil adsorption coefficient [K{sub oc}], water solubility [S{sub w}]). These correlations were formulated as Ln-Ln plots with correlation (r{sup 2}) coefficients in the range 0.93-0.99: (1) Soil surface - Ln flux vs Ln (VP/[K{sub oc} x S{sub w}]); (2) soil incorporation - Ln flux vs Ln [(VP x AR)/(K{sub oc} x S{sub w} x d)] (AR = application rate, d = incorporation depth); (3) plants - Ln flux vs Ln VP; and (4) water - Ln (flux/water conc) vs Ln (VP/Sw). Using estimated flux values from the plant correlation as source terms in the EPA`s SCREEN-2 dispersion model gave downwind concentrations that agreed to within 65-114% with measured concentrations. Further validation using other treated matrices is in progress. These predictive methods for estimating flux, when coupled with downwind dispersion modeling, provide tools for limiting downwind exposures.
Learning Unknown Structure in CRFs via Adaptive Gradient Projection Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei Xue
2016-08-01
Full Text Available We study the problem of fitting probabilistic graphical models to the given data when the structure is not known. More specifically, we focus on learning unknown structure in conditional random fields, especially learning both the structure and parameters of a conditional random field model simultaneously. To do this, we first formulate the learning problem as a convex minimization problem by adding an l_2-regularization to the node parameters and a group l_1-regularization to the edge parameters, and then a gradient-based projection method is proposed to solve it which combines an adaptive stepsize selection strategy with a nonmonotone line search. Extensive simulation experiments are presented to show the performance of our approach in solving unknown structure learning problems.
Magnetic flux concentration methods for magnetic energy harvesting module
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wakiwaka Hiroyuki
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents magnetic flux concentration methods for magnetic energy harvesting module. The purpose of this study is to harvest 1 mW energy with a Brooks coil 2 cm in diameter from environmental magnetic field at 60 Hz. Because the harvesting power is proportional to the square of the magnetic flux density, we consider the use of a magnetic flux concentration coil and a magnetic core. The magnetic flux concentration coil consists of an aircore Brooks coil and a resonant capacitor. When a uniform magnetic field crossed the coil, the magnetic flux distribution around the coil was changed. It is found that the magnetic field in an area is concentrated larger than 20 times compared with the uniform magnetic field. Compared with the aircore coil, our designed magnetic core makes the harvested energy tenfold. According to ICNIRP2010 guideline, the acceptable level of magnetic field is 0.2 mT in the frequency range between 25 Hz and 400 Hz. Without the two magnetic flux concentration methods, the corresponding energy is limited to 1 µW. In contrast, our experimental results successfully demonstrate energy harvesting of 1 mW from a magnetic field of 0.03 mT at 60 Hz.
Determination of soil evaporation fluxes using distributed temperature sensing methods
Serna, J. L.; Cristi Matte, F.; Munoz, J. F.; Suarez, F. I.
2014-12-01
The dynamics of evaporation fluxes in arid soils is an unresolved complex phenomenon that has a major impact on the basin's water availability. In arid zones, evaporation controls moisture contents near the soil surface and drives liquid water and water vapor fluxes through the vadose zone, playing a critical role in both the hydrological cycle and energy balance. However, determining soil evaporation in arid zones is a difficult undertaking. Thus, it is important to develop new measuring techniques that can determine evaporation fluxes. In the last decade, distributed temperature sensing (DTS) methods have been successfully used to investigate a wide range of hydrologic applications. In particular, DTS methods have been used indirectly to monitor soil moisture. Two methods have been developed: the passive and the active method. In the active mode, the DTS system uses cables with metal elements and a voltage difference is applied at the two ends to of the cable to heat it up for a defined time-period. Then, the cumulative temperature increase along the cable is computed and soil moisture is determined by using an empirical relation. DTS technology has also been used to determine water fluxes in porous media, but so far no efforts have been made to determine evaporation fluxes. Here, we investigate the feasibility of using the active DTS method to determine soil evaporation fluxes. To achieve this objective, column experiments were designed to study evaporation from sandy soils with shallow water tables. The soil columns were instrumented with traditional temperature and time-domain-reflectometry probes, and an armored fiber-optic cable that allows using the active method to estimate the soil moisture profile. In the experiments, the water table can be fixed at different depths and soil evaporation can be estimated by measuring the water added to the constant-head reservoir that feeds the column. Thus, allowing the investigation of soil evaporation fluxes from DTS
Impact of Trapped Flux and Thermal Gradients on the SRF Cavity Quality Factor
Kugeler, O; Knobloch, J; Aull, S
2012-01-01
The obtained Q0 value of a superconducting niobium cavity is known to depend on various factors like the RRR of the Niobium material, crystallinity, chemical treatment history, the high-pressure rinsing process, or effectiveness of the magnetic shielding. We have observed that spatial thermal gradients over the cavity length during cool-down appear to contribute to a degradation of Q0. Measurements were performed in the Horizontal Bi-Cavity Test Facility (HoBiCaT) at HZB on TESLA type cavities as well as on disc- and rod-shaped niobium samples equipped with thermal, electrical and magnetic diagnostics. Possible explanations for the effect are discussed.
Review of unfolding methods for neutron flux dosimetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stallmann, F.W.; Kam, F.B.K.
1975-01-01
The primary method in reactor dosimetry is the foil activation technique. To translate the activation measurements into neutron fluxes, a special data processing technique called unfolding is needed. Some general observations about the problems and the reliability of this approach to reactor dosimetry are presented. Current unfolding methods are reviewed. 12 references. (auth)
Santos Basin Geological Structures Mapped by Cross-gradient Method
Jilinski, P.; Fontes, S. L.
2011-12-01
Introduction We mapped regional-scale geological structures localized in offshore zone Santos Basin, South-East Brazilian Coast. The region is dominated by transition zone from oceanic to continental crust. Our objective was to determine the imprint of deeper crustal structures from correlation between bathymetric, gravity and magnetic anomaly maps. The region is extensively studied for oil and gas deposits including large tectonic sub-salt traps. Our method is based on gradient directions and their magnitudes product. We calculate angular differences and cross-product and access correlation between properties and map structures. Theory and Method We used angular differences and cross-product to determine correlated region between bathymetric, free-air gravity and magnetic anomaly maps. This gradient based method focuses on borders of anomalies and uses its morphological properties to access correlation between their sources. We generated maps of angles and cross-product distribution to locate correlated regions. Regional scale potential fields maps of FA and MA are a reflection of the overlaying and overlapping effects of the adjacent structures. Our interest was in quantifying and characterizing the relation between shapes of magnetic anomalies and gravity anomalies. Results Resulting maps show strong correlation between bathymetry and gravity anomaly and bathymetry and magnetic anomaly for large strictures including Serra do Mar, shelf, continental slope and rise. All maps display the regional dominance of NE-SW geological structures alignment parallel to the shore. Special interest is presented by structures transgressing this tendency. Magnetic, gravity anomaly and bathymetry angles map show large correlated region over the shelf zone and smaller scale NE-SW banded structures over abyssal plane. From our interpretation the large band of inverse correlation adjacent to the shore is generated by the gravity effect of Serra do Mar. Disrupting structures including
Phytoplankton size-scaling of net-energy flux across light and biomass gradients.
Malerba, Martino E; White, Craig R; Marshall, Dustin J
2017-12-01
Many studies examine how body size mediates energy use, but few investigate how size simultaneously regulates energy acquisition. Furthermore, rarely energy fluxes are examined while accounting for the role of biotic and abiotic factors in which they are nested. These limitations contribute to an incomplete understanding of how size affects the transfer of energy through individuals, populations, and communities. Here we characterized photosynthesis-irradiance (P-I) curves and per-cell net-energy use for 21 phytoplankton species spanning across four orders of magnitude of size and seven phyla, each measured across six light intensities and four population densities. We then used phylogenetic mixed models to quantify how body size influences the energy turnover rates of a species, and how this changes across environments. Rate-parameters for the P-I curve and net-energy budgets were mostly highly correlated and consistent with an allometric size-scaling exponent of energy flux of a cell decreased with population density and increased with light intensity, but the effect of body size remained constant across all combinations of treatment levels (i.e. no size×populationdensity interaction). The negative effect of population density on photosynthesis and respiration is mostly consistent with an active downregulation of metabolic rates following a decrease in per-cell resource availability, possibly as an adaptive strategy to reduce the minimum requirements of a cell and improve its competitive ability. Also, because an increase in body size corresponds to a less-than-proportional increase in net-energy (i.e. exponentenergy flux can represent an important cost of evolving larger body sizes in autotrophic single-cell organisms. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.
Variation in salt marsh CO2 fluxes across a latitudinal gradient along the US Atlantic coast
Forbrich, I.; Nahrawi, H. B.; Leclerc, M.; O'Connell, J. L.; Mishra, D. R.; Fogarty, M. C.; Edson, J. B.; Lule, A. V.; Vargas, R.; Giblin, A. E.; Alber, M.
2017-12-01
Salt marshes occur at the dynamic interface of land and ocean, where they play an important role as sink and source of nutrients, carbon (C) and sediment. They often are strong carbon sinks, because they continuously accumulate soil organic matter and sediment to keep their position relative to sea level. Decadal average C sequestration rates can be inferred from soil carbon density and mass accumulation rates, but little information about biological and climatic controls on C cycling and storage in these systems exists. In this study, we report measurements of atmospheric CO2 exchange from salt marshes along the US Atlantic coast from Massachusetts to Georgia. These measurements were made over periods from one to five years. Spartina alterniflora is the dominant vegetation at all sites. At the northern most site, Plum Island Ecosystems (PIE) LTER, and the southern most site, Georgia Coastal Ecosystems (GCE) LTER, flux measurements over several years have shown variations in the net CO2 flux influenced by the local climate. For example, annual net C uptake at the PIE LTER over 5 years (2013-2017) depends on rainfall in the growing season (June-August) which modulates soil salinity levels. This pattern is not as evident at the GCE LTER (2014-2015). Furthermore, the growing season length differs between both sites. Based on the CO2 flux measurements, a temperature threshold of 15o C limits the net C uptake at both sites and daily rates of net C uptake are generally smaller during the longer growing season in Georgia. Nevertheless, gross primary production (GPP) is similar for both sites. We will extend this analysis to include sites from Delaware and North Carolina to assess controls (e.g. leaf area using MODIS vegetation indices, temperature, photoperiod) on Spartina phenology and CO2 exchange.
Nitrous Oxide Fluxes in Fertilized L. Plantations across a Gradient of Soil Drainage Classes.
Shrestha, Raj K; Strahm, Brian D; Sucre, Eric B
2014-11-01
The effect of fertilizer management on nitrous oxide (NO) fluxes in agricultural ecosystems is well documented; however, our knowledge of these effects in managed forests is minimal. We established a comprehensive research study to address this knowledge gap across a range of soil drainage classes (poorly, moderately, and well drained) common in southern pine plantation management. Fertilizer treatments in each drainage class comprised of control (no fertilizer), urea + phosphorus (P), and P-coated urea fertilizer (CUF). Fertilization (168 kg N ha) occurred independently during the spring, summer, and fall to assess the effects of application timing. Nitrous oxide sampling, using vented static chambers, started immediately after seasonal fertilizer application and was performed every 6 wk for more than 1 yr. Time-integrated net annual NO emissions increased with urea (1.15 kg NO-N ha) and CUF (0.88 kg NO-N ha) application compared with unfertilized control (0.22 kg NO-N ha). Mean annual NO flux was significantly increased with fall fertilization (1.17 kg NO-N ha) relative to spring (0.73 kg NO-N ha) or summer (0.33 kg NO-N ha). Similarly, average annual NO flux was higher in poorly drained soils (1.40 kg NO-N ha) than in moderately drained (0.46 kg NO-N ha) and well-drained soils (0.39 kg NO-N ha). This study suggests that NO emissions after fertilization can be minimized by avoiding fall fertilization and poorly drained soils and by selecting enhanced-efficiency N fertilizers over urea. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.
Dual-consistency study for Green-Gauss gradient schemes in an unstructured Navier-Stokes method
Stück, Arthur
2017-12-01
A multi-pass reconstruction method for the discrete-adjoint residual is presented that computes the adjoint of the viscous fluxes based on Green-Gauss gradients in an unstructured finite-volume RANS method. The intermediate discrete-adjoint multipliers of the multi-pass reconstruction are the dual viscous stresses containing the dual Green-Gauss gradients. Since the latter are explicitly evaluated on the fly, meaningful discrete-adjoint operators can be identified and compared against their primal counterparts. Numerical experiments are carried out for a 1D diffusion problem, 2D and 3D RANS cases on a sequence of grids to verify the consistency of the dual Green-Gauss gradients. They are compared against a rediscretisation of the adjoint Green-Gauss gradients known from the continuous-adjoint approach. In that sense, the multi-pass residual reconstruction method provides a deeper insight into the effective dual discretisation, an important part of which is the dual Green-Gauss gradient.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kandel, Tanka P; Lærke, Poul Erik; Elsgaard, Lars
2016-01-01
-deployment fluxes by linear regression techniques. Thus, usually the cumulative flux curve becomes downward concave due to the decreased gas diffusion rate. Non-linear models based on biophysical theory usually fit to such curvatures and may reduce the underestimation of fluxes. In this study, we examined...... the effect of increasing chamber enclosure time on SR flux rates calculated using a linear, an exponential and a revised Hutchinson and Mosier model (HMR). Soil respiration rates were measured with a closed chamber in combination with an infrared gas analyzer. During SR flux measurements the chamber......) to obtain a range of fluxes with different shapes of flux curves. The linear method provided more stable flux results during short enclosure times (few min) but underestimated initial fluxes by 15–300% after 45 min deployment time. Non-linear models reduced the underestimation as average underestimation...
A new conjugate gradient method and its global convergence under the exact line search
Omer, Osman; Rivaie, Mohd; Mamat, Mustafa; Abdalla, Awad
2014-12-01
The conjugate gradient methods are numerously used for solving nonlinear unconstrained optimization problems, especially of large scale. Their wide applications are due to their simplicity and low memory requirement. To analyze conjugate gradient methods, two types of line searches are used; exact and inexact. In this paper, we present a new method of nonlinear conjugate gradient methods under the exact line search. The theoretical analysis shows that the new method generates a descent direction in each iteration and globally convergent under the exact line search. Moreover, numerical experiments based on comparing the new method with other well known conjugate gradient methods show that the new is efficient for some unconstrained optimization problems.
Combining two complementary micrometeorological methods to measure CH4 and N2O fluxes over pasture
Laubach, Johannes; Barthel, Matti; Fraser, Anitra; Hunt, John E.; Griffith, David W. T.
2016-03-01
New Zealand's largest industrial sector is pastoral agriculture, giving rise to a large fraction of the country's emissions of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). We designed a system to continuously measure CH4 and N2O fluxes at the field scale on two adjacent pastures that differed with respect to management. At the core of this system was a closed-cell Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, which measured the mole fractions of CH4, N2O and carbon dioxide (CO2) at two heights at each site. In parallel, CO2 fluxes were measured using eddy-covariance instrumentation. We applied two different micrometeorological ratio methods to infer the CH4 and N2O fluxes from their respective mole fractions and the CO2 fluxes. The first is a variant of the flux-gradient method, where it is assumed that the turbulent diffusivities of CH4 and N2O equal that of CO2. This method was reliable when the CO2 mole-fraction difference between heights was at least 4 times greater than the FTIR's resolution of differences. For the second method, the temporal increases of mole fractions in the stable nocturnal boundary layer, which are correlated for concurrently emitted gases, are used to infer the unknown fluxes of CH4 and N2O from the known flux of CO2. This method was sensitive to "contamination" from trace gas sources other than the pasture of interest and therefore required careful filtering. With both methods combined, estimates of mean daily CH4 and N2O fluxes were obtained for 56 % of days at one site and 73 % at the other. Both methods indicated both sites as net sources of CH4 and N2O. Mean emission rates for 1 year at the unfertilised, winter-grazed site were 8.9 (±0.79) nmol CH4 m-2 s-1 and 0.38 (±0.018) nmol N2O m-2 s-1. During the same year, mean emission rates at the irrigated, fertilised and rotationally grazed site were 8.9 (±0.79) nmol CH4 m-2 s-1 and 0.58 (±0.020) nmol N2O m-2 s-1. At this site, the N2O emissions amounted to 1.21 (±0.15) % of the nitrogen
Standard Test Method for Measuring Heat Flux Using Surface-Mounted One-Dimensional Flat Gages
American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia
2009-01-01
1.1 This test method describes the measurement of the net heat flux normal to a surface using flat gages mounted onto the surface. Conduction heat flux is not the focus of this standard. Conduction applications related to insulation materials are covered by Test Method C 518 and Practices C 1041 and C 1046. The sensors covered by this test method all use a measurement of the temperature difference between two parallel planes normal to the surface to determine the heat that is exchanged to or from the surface in keeping with Fourier’s Law. The gages operate by the same principles for heat transfer in either direction. 1.2 This test method is quite broad in its field of application, size and construction. Different sensor types are described in detail in later sections as examples of the general method for measuring heat flux from the temperature gradient normal to a surface (1). Applications include both radiation and convection heat transfer. The gages have broad application from aerospace to biomedical en...
A multiscale mortar multipoint flux mixed finite element method
Wheeler, Mary Fanett
2012-02-03
In this paper, we develop a multiscale mortar multipoint flux mixed finite element method for second order elliptic problems. The equations in the coarse elements (or subdomains) are discretized on a fine grid scale by a multipoint flux mixed finite element method that reduces to cell-centered finite differences on irregular grids. The subdomain grids do not have to match across the interfaces. Continuity of flux between coarse elements is imposed via a mortar finite element space on a coarse grid scale. With an appropriate choice of polynomial degree of the mortar space, we derive optimal order convergence on the fine scale for both the multiscale pressure and velocity, as well as the coarse scale mortar pressure. Some superconvergence results are also derived. The algebraic system is reduced via a non-overlapping domain decomposition to a coarse scale mortar interface problem that is solved using a multiscale flux basis. Numerical experiments are presented to confirm the theory and illustrate the efficiency and flexibility of the method. © EDP Sciences, SMAI, 2012.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Mellouki
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Tropospheric ozone (O3 is a known greenhouse gas responsible for impacts on human and animal health and ecosystem functioning. In addition, O3 plays an important role in tropospheric chemistry, together with nitrogen oxides. The determination of surface-atmosphere exchange fluxes of these trace gases is a prerequisite to establish their atmospheric budget and evaluate their impact onto the biosphere. In this study, O3, nitric oxide (NO and nitrogen dioxide (NO2 fluxes were measured using the aerodynamic gradient method over a bare soil in an agricultural field. Ozone and NO fluxes were also measured using eddy-covariance and automatic chambers, respectively. The aerodynamic gradient measurement system, composed of fast response sensors, was capable to measure significant differences in NO and O3 mixing ratios between heights. However, due to local advection, NO2 mixing ratios were highly non-stationary and NO2 fluxes were, therefore, not significantly different from zero. The chemical reactions between O3, NO and NO2 led to little ozone flux divergence between the surface and the measurement height (less than 1% of the flux on average, whereas the NO flux divergence was about 10% on average. The use of fast response sensors allowed reducing the flux uncertainty. The aerodynamic gradient and the eddy-covariance methods gave comparable O3 fluxes. The chamber NO fluxes were down to 70% lower than the aerodynamic gradient fluxes, probably because of either the spatial heterogeneity of the soil NO emissions or the perturbation due to the chamber itself.
Flux-weakening control methods for hybrid excitation synchronous motor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mingming Huang
2015-09-01
Full Text Available The hybrid excitation synchronous motor (HESM, which aim at combining the advantages of permanent magnet motor and wound excitation motor, have the characteristics of low-speed high-torque hill climbing and wide speed range. Firstly, a new kind of HESM is presented in the paper, and its structure and mathematical model are illustrated. Then, based on a space voltage vector control, a novel flux-weakening method for speed adjustment in the high speed region is presented. The unique feature of the proposed control method is that the HESM driving system keeps the q-axis back-EMF components invariable during the flux-weakening operation process. Moreover, a copper loss minimization algorithm is adopted to reduce the copper loss of the HESM in the high speed region. Lastly, the proposed method is validated by the simulation and the experimental results.
Analytic Method to Estimate Particle Acceleration in Flux Ropes
Guidoni, S. E.; Karpen, J. T.; DeVore, C. R.
2015-01-01
The mechanism that accelerates particles to the energies required to produce the observed high-energy emission in solar flares is not well understood. Drake et al. (2006) proposed a kinetic mechanism for accelerating electrons in contracting magnetic islands formed by reconnection. In this model, particles that gyrate around magnetic field lines transit from island to island, increasing their energy by Fermi acceleration in those islands that are contracting. Based on these ideas, we present an analytic model to estimate the energy gain of particles orbiting around field lines inside a flux rope (2.5D magnetic island). We calculate the change in the velocity of the particles as the flux rope evolves in time. The method assumes a simple profile for the magnetic field of the evolving island; it can be applied to any case where flux ropes are formed. In our case, the flux-rope evolution is obtained from our recent high-resolution, compressible 2.5D MHD simulations of breakout eruptive flares. The simulations allow us to resolve in detail the generation and evolution of large-scale flux ropes as a result of sporadic and patchy reconnection in the flare current sheet. Our results show that the initial energy of particles can be increased by 2-5 times in a typical contracting island, before the island reconnects with the underlying arcade. Therefore, particles need to transit only from 3-7 islands to increase their energies by two orders of magnitude. These macroscopic regions, filled with a large number of particles, may explain the large observed rates of energetic electron production in flares. We conclude that this mechanism is a promising candidate for electron acceleration in flares, but further research is needed to extend our results to 3D flare conditions.
Ledoux, L.A.F.; Berkhoff, Arthur P.; Thijssen, J.M.
The Conjugate Gradient Rayleigh method for the calculation of acoustic reflection and transmission at a rough interface between two media was experimentally verified. The method is based on a continuous version of the conjugate gradient technique and plane-wave expansions. We measured the beam
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mirzaei, M.; Shahverdi, M.
2004-01-01
This paper is proposed to compare the performances of deferent inviscid flux approximation methods in solution of two-dimensional Euler equations. The methods belong to two different group of flux splitting methods: flux difference splitting (FDS) methods and kinetic flux vector splitting (KFVS) method. Here Roe method and Osher method belonging to flux difference splitting (FDS) group have been employed and their performances are compared with that of kinetic flux vector splitting method (KFVS). Roe and Osher methods are based on approximate solution of Riemann problem over computational cell surfaces while the KFVS has a quit different base. In KFVS inviscid fluxes are approximated based on the kinetic theory and correlation between Boltzmann equation and Euler equations. For comparison the performances of the above mentioned methods three different problems have been solved. The first problem is flow over a 10 degree compression-expansion ramp with Mach number of 2.0, the second one is a transonic flow with Mach number of 0.85 over a 4.2% circular bump in a duct and the third is supersonic flow with Mach number of 3.0 over a circular blunt slab. (author)
Performance of different detrending methods in turbulent flux estimation
Donateo, Antonio; Cava, Daniela; Contini, Daniele
2015-04-01
The eddy covariance is the most direct, efficient and reliable method to measure the turbulent flux of a scalar (Baldocchi, 2003). Required conditions for high-quality eddy covariance measurements are amongst others stationarity of the measured data and a fully developed turbulence. The simplest method for obtaining the fluctuating components for covariance calculation according to Reynolds averaging rules under ideal stationary conditions is the so called mean removal method. However steady state conditions rarely exist in the atmosphere, because of the diurnal cycle, changes in meteorological conditions, or sensor drift. All these phenomena produce trends or low-frequency changes superimposed to the turbulent signal. Different methods for trend removal have been proposed in literature; however a general agreement on how separate low frequency perturbations from turbulence has not yet been reached. The most commonly applied methods are the linear detrending (Gash and Culf, 1996) and the high-pass filter, namely the moving average (Moncrieff et al., 2004). Moreover Vickers and Mahrt (2003) proposed a multi resolution decomposition method in order to select an appropriate time scale for mean removal as a function of atmospheric stability conditions. The present work investigates the performance of these different detrending methods in removing the low frequency contribution to the turbulent fluxes calculation, including also a spectral filter by a Fourier decomposition of the time series. The different methods have been applied to the calculation of the turbulent fluxes for different scalars (temperature, ultrafine particles number concentration, carbon dioxide and water vapour concentration). A comparison of the detrending methods will be performed also for different measurement site, namely a urban site, a suburban area, and a remote area in Antarctica. Moreover the performance of the moving average in detrending time series has been analyzed as a function of the
a Borehole-Dilution Method for Quantifying Vertical Darcy Fluxes in the Hyporheic Zone
Augustine, S. D.; Annable, M. D.; Cho, J.
2017-12-01
The borehole dilution method has consistently and successfully been used for estimating local water fluxes, however, this method can be relatively labor intensive and expensive. The focus of this research is aimed at developing a low-cost, borehole dilution method for quantifying vertical water fluxes in the hyporheic zone at the surface-groundwater interface. This would allow for the deployment of multiple units within a targeted surface water body and thus produce high-resolution, spatially distributed data on the infiltration rates over a short period of time with minimal set-up requirements. The device consists of a 2-inch, inner diameter PVC pipe containing short, screened sections in its upper and lower segments. The working unit is driven into the sediment and acts as a continuous flow reactor creating a pathway between the subsurface pore-water and the overlying surface water where the presence of a hydraulic gradient facilitates vertical movement. We developed a simple electrode and tracer-injection system housed within the unit to inject and measure salt tracer concentrations at the desired intervals while monitoring and storing those measurements using open-source Arduino technology. Preliminary lab and field scale trials provided data that was fit to both zero and first order reaction rate functions for analysis. The field test was conducted over approximately one day within a wet retention basin. The initial results estimated a vertical Darcy flux of 113.5 cm/d. Additional testing over a range of expected Darcy fluxes will be presented along with an evaluation considering enhanced water flow due to the high hydraulic conductivity of the device.
Creasy, Arch; Barker, Gregory; Carta, Giorgio
2017-03-01
A methodology is presented to predict protein elution behavior from an ion exchange column using both individual or combined pH and salt gradients based on high-throughput batch isotherm data. The buffer compositions are first optimized to generate linear pH gradients from pH 5.5 to 7 with defined concentrations of sodium chloride. Next, high-throughput batch isotherm data are collected for a monoclonal antibody on the cation exchange resin POROS XS over a range of protein concentrations, salt concentrations, and solution pH. Finally, a previously developed empirical interpolation (EI) method is extended to describe protein binding as a function of the protein and salt concentration and solution pH without using an explicit isotherm model. The interpolated isotherm data are then used with a lumped kinetic model to predict the protein elution behavior. Experimental results obtained for laboratory scale columns show excellent agreement with the predicted elution curves for both individual or combined pH and salt gradients at protein loads up to 45 mg/mL of column. Numerical studies show that the model predictions are robust as long as the isotherm data cover the range of mobile phase compositions where the protein actually elutes from the column. Copyright © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Methods and applications in high flux neutron imaging
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ballhausen, H.
2007-01-01
This treatise develops new methods for high flux neutron radiography and high flux neutron tomography and describes some of their applications in actual experiments. Instead of single images, time series can be acquired with short exposure times due to the available high intensity. To best use the increased amount of information, new estimators are proposed, which extract accurate results from the recorded ensembles, even if the individual piece of data is very noisy and in addition severely affected by systematic errors such as an influence of gamma background radiation. The spatial resolution of neutron radiographies, usually limited by beam divergence and inherent resolution of the scintillator, can be significantly increased by scanning the sample with a pinhole-micro-collimator. This technique circumvents any limitations in present detector design and, due to the available high intensity, could be successfully tested. Imaging with scattered neutrons as opposed to conventional total attenuation based imaging determines separately the absorption and scattering cross sections within the sample. For the first time even coherent angle dependent scattering could be visualized space-resolved. New applications of high flux neutron imaging are presented, such as materials engineering experiments on innovative metal joints, time-resolved tomography on multilayer stacks of fuel cells under operation, and others. A new implementation of an algorithm for the algebraic reconstruction of tomography data executes even in case of missing information, such as limited angle tomography, and returns quantitative reconstructions. The setup of the world-leading high flux radiography and tomography facility at the Institut Laue-Langevin is presented. A comprehensive appendix covers the physical and technical foundations of neutron imaging. (orig.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ravn, Ib
. FLUX betegner en flyden eller strømmen, dvs. dynamik. Forstår man livet som proces og udvikling i stedet for som ting og mekanik, får man et andet billede af det gode liv end det, som den velkendte vestlige mekanicisme lægger op til. Dynamisk forstået indebærer det gode liv den bedst mulige...... kanalisering af den flux eller energi, der strømmer igennem os og giver sig til kende i vore daglige aktiviteter. Skal vores tanker, handlinger, arbejde, samvær og politiske liv organiseres efter stramme og faste regelsæt, uden slinger i valsen? Eller skal de tværtimod forløbe ganske uhindret af regler og bånd...
Negara, Ardiansyah
2013-01-01
Anisotropy of hydraulic properties of subsurface geologic formations is an essential feature that has been established as a consequence of the different geologic processes that they undergo during the longer geologic time scale. With respect to petroleum reservoirs, in many cases, anisotropy plays significant role in dictating the direction of flow that becomes no longer dependent only on the pressure gradient direction but also on the principal directions of anisotropy. Furthermore, in complex systems involving the flow of multiphase fluids in which the gravity and the capillarity play an important role, anisotropy can also have important influences. Therefore, there has been great deal of motivation to consider anisotropy when solving the governing conservation laws numerically. Unfortunately, the two-point flux approximation of finite difference approach is not capable of handling full tensor permeability fields. Lately, however, it has been possible to adapt the multipoint flux approximation that can handle anisotropy to the framework of finite difference schemes. In multipoint flux approximation method, the stencil of approximation is more involved, i.e., it requires the involvement of 9-point stencil for the 2-D model and 27-point stencil for the 3-D model. This is apparently challenging and cumbersome when making the global system of equations. In this work, we apply the equation-type approach, which is the experimenting pressure field approach that enables the solution of the global problem breaks into the solution of multitude of local problems that significantly reduce the complexity without affecting the accuracy of numerical solution. This approach also leads in reducing the computational cost during the simulation. We have applied this technique to a variety of anisotropy scenarios of 3-D subsurface flow problems and the numerical results demonstrate that the experimenting pressure field technique fits very well with the multipoint flux approximation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Law, Beverly E. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)
2016-12-03
Investigate the effects of disturbance and climate variables on processes controlling carbon and water processes at AmeriFlux cluster sites in semi-arid and mesic forests in Oregon. The observations were made at three existing and productive AmeriFlux research sites that represent climate and disturbance gradients as a natural experiment of the influence of climatic and hydrologic variability on carbon sequestration and resulting atmospheric CO_{2} feedback that includes anomalies during the warm/ dry phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation.
Quantifying Methane Fluxes Simply and Accurately: The Tracer Dilution Method
Rella, Christopher; Crosson, Eric; Green, Roger; Hater, Gary; Dayton, Dave; Lafleur, Rick; Merrill, Ray; Tan, Sze; Thoma, Eben
2010-05-01
Methane is an important atmospheric constituent with a wide variety of sources, both natural and anthropogenic, including wetlands and other water bodies, permafrost, farms, landfills, and areas with significant petrochemical exploration, drilling, transport, or processing, or refining occurs. Despite its importance to the carbon cycle, its significant impact as a greenhouse gas, and its ubiquity in modern life as a source of energy, its sources and sinks in marine and terrestrial ecosystems are only poorly understood. This is largely because high quality, quantitative measurements of methane fluxes in these different environments have not been available, due both to the lack of robust field-deployable instrumentation as well as to the fact that most significant sources of methane extend over large areas (from 10's to 1,000,000's of square meters) and are heterogeneous emitters - i.e., the methane is not emitted evenly over the area in question. Quantifying the total methane emissions from such sources becomes a tremendous challenge, compounded by the fact that atmospheric transport from emission point to detection point can be highly variable. In this presentation we describe a robust, accurate, and easy-to-deploy technique called the tracer dilution method, in which a known gas (such as acetylene, nitrous oxide, or sulfur hexafluoride) is released in the same vicinity of the methane emissions. Measurements of methane and the tracer gas are then made downwind of the release point, in the so-called far-field, where the area of methane emissions cannot be distinguished from a point source (i.e., the two gas plumes are well-mixed). In this regime, the methane emissions are given by the ratio of the two measured concentrations, multiplied by the known tracer emission rate. The challenges associated with atmospheric variability and heterogeneous methane emissions are handled automatically by the transport and dispersion of the tracer. We present detailed methane flux
A Comparison of Bulk Aerodynamic Methods for Calculating Air-Sea Flux
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Eleuterio, Daniel
1998-01-01
The Louis et al. (1982) bulk aerodynamic method for air-sea flux estimates is currently used in mesoscale models such as COAMPS, while the TOGA-COARE method is a state of the art flux parameterization involving recent...
Application of the Normalized Full Gradient (NFG) Method to Resistivity Data
AYDIN, ALİ
2010-01-01
This paper proposes the application of the normalized full gradient (NFG) method to resistivity studies and illustrates that the method can greatly reduce the time and work load needed in detecting buried bodies using resistivity measurement. The NFG method calculates resistivity values at desired electrode offsets by extrapolation of a function of resistivity measurements (i.e. the gradient) to other depth levels using resistivity measurements done at one electrode offset only. The performan...
A new convergent conjugate gradient method under the exact line search
Omer, Osman; Mamat, Mustafa; Rivaie, Mohd
2015-05-01
Conjugate gradient methods are widely used for unconstrained optimization problems, especially large scale problems. That is, for its simplicity, low memory requirement, and global convergence properties. In this paper, we study the global convergence properties of a new conjugate gradient method under the exact line search. Under some assumptions, the proofs of the sufficient descent property and the global convergence are given. The numerical results show that our new method is efficient for some unconstrained optimization problems.
Monte Carlo methods for flux expansion solutions of transport problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spanier, J.
1999-01-01
Adaptive Monte Carlo methods, based on the use of either correlated sampling or importance sampling, to obtain global solutions to certain transport problems have recently been described. The resulting learning algorithms are capable of achieving geometric convergence when applied to the estimation of a finite number of coefficients in a flux expansion representation of the global solution. However, because of the nonphysical nature of the random walk simulations needed to perform importance sampling, conventional transport estimators and source sampling techniques require modification to be used successfully in conjunction with such flux expansion methods. It is shown how these problems can be overcome. First, the traditional path length estimators in wide use in particle transport simulations are generalized to include rather general detector functions (which, in this application, are the individual basis functions chosen for the flus expansion). Second, it is shown how to sample from the signed probabilities that arise as source density functions in these applications, without destroying the zero variance property needed to ensure geometric convergence to zero error
Bruchert, V.; Bastviken, D.; Ginters, L.
2011-12-01
Benthic and sea-air fluxes, water column methane measurements, and rates of methanogenesis were determined in a coastal embayment of the central Baltic. The embayment, Himmerfjärden, is an elongated estuarine system of silled sub-basins with water depths up to 50 m and characterized by a pronounced eutrophication and salinity gradient, and episodic late summer/fall bottom water anoxia. Himmerfjärden sediments consist of Holocene mud, sand, and glacial clay. Benthic methane fluxes from sediments were calculated from measurements obtained in the spring, summer, and fall of 2010 and 2011 at 5 stations within the bay area. Sediment data were combined with water column measurements of methane and sea-air flux chamber measurements to establish the spatial and temporal variability of coastal methane emissions to the atmosphere. Along a depth gradient from 3 meter to 70 meter water depth, methane fluxes were between 0.12 and 0.025 mmol m-2 d-1. Bottom water oxygen concentrations had a strong effect on bottom water methane concentrations, but sea-air fluxes of methane were independent of the bottom water oxygen concentrations suggesting efficient oxidation of methane in the water column. Water depth had the strongest effect on methane flux suggesting ebullition as the dominant transport mechanism. In the inner parts of Himmerfjärden, methane concentration profiles showed a pronounced maximum in the mixed layer, which was consistently oversaturated relative to concentrations expected in equilibrium with the atmosphere. These high concentrations may be related to treated sewage discharge to the mixed layer from a local sewage treatment plant. Our combined sediment and water column data suggest that the Himmerfjärden waters are a weak source of methane to the atmosphere. Atmospheric methane fluxes are characterized by significant spatial heterogeneities that are controlled both by present-day nutrient discharge and the distribution of gas-containing Holocene sediments.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Meng Lu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Thickness of tundish cover flux (TCF plays an important role in continuous casting (CC steelmaking process. Traditional measurement method of TCF thickness is single/double wire methods, which have several problems such as personal security, easily affected by operators, and poor repeatability. To solve all these problems, in this paper, we specifically designed and built an instrumentation and presented a novel method to measure the TCF thickness. The instrumentation was composed of a measurement bar, a mechanical device, a high-definition industrial camera, a Siemens S7-200 programmable logic controller (PLC, and a computer. Our measurement method was based on the computer vision algorithms, including image denoising method, monocular range measurement method, scale invariant feature transform (SIFT, and image gray gradient detection method. Using the present instrumentation and method, images in the CC tundish can be collected by camera and transferred to computer to do imaging processing. Experiments showed that our instrumentation and method worked well at scene of steel plants, can accurately measure the thickness of TCF, and overcome the disadvantages of traditional measurement methods, or even replace the traditional ones.
An alternative method for the measurement of neutron flux
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Here, the neutron flux inferred from the neutron count rate obtained with R-12 SDD shows an excellent agreement with the flux inferred from the neutron dose rate in a non-dissipative medium. Keywords. Neutron dose; neutron flux; superheated droplet detector; bubble nucleation. PACS Nos 29.40.Rg; 29.40.–n; 29.25.Dz. 1.
Ghani, N. H. A.; Mohamed, N. S.; Zull, N.; Shoid, S.; Rivaie, M.; Mamat, M.
2017-09-01
Conjugate gradient (CG) method is one of iterative techniques prominently used in solving unconstrained optimization problems due to its simplicity, low memory storage, and good convergence analysis. This paper presents a new hybrid conjugate gradient method, named NRM1 method. The method is analyzed under the exact and inexact line searches in given conditions. Theoretically, proofs show that the NRM1 method satisfies the sufficient descent condition with both line searches. The computational result indicates that NRM1 method is capable in solving the standard unconstrained optimization problems used. On the other hand, the NRM1 method performs better under inexact line search compared with exact line search.
Cheng, Zhen Lei
2016-01-08
This study reports outer-selective thin-film composite (TFC) hollow fiber membranes with extremely low reverse salt fluxes and robustness for harvesting salinity-gradient energy from pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) processes. Almost defect-free polyamide layers with impressive low salt permeabilities were synthesized on top of robust polyethersulfone porous supports. The newly developed TFC-II membrane shows a maximum power density of 7.81 W m−2 using 1 M NaCl and DI water as feeds at 20 bar. Reproducible data obtained in the 2nd and 3rd runs confirm its stability under high hydraulic pressure differences. Comparing to other PRO membranes reported in the literature, the newly developed membrane exhibits not only the smallest slope between water flux decline and ΔPΔP increase but also the lowest ratio of reverse salt flux to water flux. Thus, the effective osmotic driving force could be well maintained even under high pressure operations. For the first time, the effect of feed pressure buildup induced by feed flowrate was evaluated towards PRO performance. A slight increment in feed pressure buildup was found to be beneficial to water flux and power density up to 10.06 W m−2 without comprising the reverse salt flux. We believe this study may open up new perspectives on outer-selective PRO hollow fiber membranes and provide useful insights to understand and design next-generation outer-selective TFC hollow fiber membranes for osmotic power generation.
PHASE GRADIENT METHOD OF MAGNETIC FIELD MEASUREMENTS IN ELECTRIC VEHICLES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. G. Ptitsyna
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Operation of electric and hybrid vehicles demands real time magnetic field control, for instance, for fire and electromagnetic safety. The article deals with a method of magnetic field measurements onboard electric cars taking into account peculiar features of these fields. The method is based on differential methods of measurements, and minimizes the quantity of magnetic sensors.
Methods of total spectral radiant flux realization at VNIIOFI
Ivashin, Evgeniy; Lalek, Jan; Rybczyński, Andrzej; Ogarev, Sergey; Khlevnoy, Boris; Dobroserdov, Dmitry; Sapritsky, Victor
2018-02-01
VNIIOFI carries out works on realization of independent methods for realization of the total spectral radiant flux (TSRF) of incoherent optical radiation sources - reference high-temperature blackbodies (BB), halogen lamps, and LED with quasi-Lambert spatial distribution of radiance. The paper describes three schemes for measuring facilities using photometers, spectroradiometers and computer-controlled high class goniometer. The paper describes different approaches for TSRF realization at the VNIIOFI National radiometric standard on the basis of high-temperature BB and LED sources, and gonio-spectroradiometer. Further, they are planned to be compared, and the use of fixed-point cells (in particular, based on the high-temperature δ(MoC)-C metal-carbon eutectic with a phase transition temperature of 2583 °C corresponding to the metrological optical “source-A”) as an option instead of the BB is considered in order to enhance calibration accuracy.
A conjugate gradient method for the spectral partitioning of graphs
Kruyt, Nicolaas P.
1997-01-01
The partitioning of graphs is a frequently occurring problem in science and engineering. The spectral graph partitioning method is a promising heuristic method for this class of problems. Its main disadvantage is the large computing time required to solve a special eigenproblem. Here a simple and
Hybridization of the probability perturbation method with gradient information
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johansen, Kent; Caers, J.; Suzuki, S.
2007-01-01
Geostatistically based history-matching methods make it possible to devise history-matching strategies that will honor geologic knowledge about the reservoir. However, the performance of these methods is known to be impeded by slow convergence rates resulting from the stochastic nature of the alg...
Accelerated gradient methods for total-variation-based CT image reconstruction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, Jakob Heide; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Hansen, Per Christian
2011-01-01
incorporates several heuristics from the optimization literature such as Barzilai-Borwein (BB) step size selection and nonmonotone line search. The latter uses a cleverly chosen sequence of auxiliary points to achieve a better convergence rate. The methods are memory efficient and equipped with a stopping...... reconstruction can in principle be found by any optimization method, but in practice the large scale of the systems arising in CT image reconstruction preclude the use of memory-demanding methods such as Newton’s method. The simple gradient method has much lower memory requirements, but exhibits slow convergence....... In the present work we address the question of how to reduce the number of gradient method iterations needed to achieve a high-accuracy TV reconstruction. We consider the use of two accelerated gradient-based methods, GPBB and UPN, to solve the 3D-TV minimization problem in CT image reconstruction. The former...
Several emission estimation methods can be used to determine emission fluxes from ground-level area sources, including open-lot beef cattle feedlots. This research determined PM10 emission fluxes from a commercial cattle feedlot in Kansas using WindTrax, a backward Lagrangian stochastic-based atmosp...
A gradient-based method for segmenting FDG-PET images: methodology and validation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geets, Xavier; Lee, John A.; Gregoire, Vincent; Bol, Anne; Lonneux, Max
2007-01-01
A new gradient-based method for segmenting FDG-PET images is described and validated. The proposed method relies on the watershed transform and hierarchical cluster analysis. To allow a better estimation of the gradient intensity, iteratively reconstructed images were first denoised and deblurred with an edge-preserving filter and a constrained iterative deconvolution algorithm. Validation was first performed on computer-generated 3D phantoms containing spheres, then on a real cylindrical Lucite phantom containing spheres of different volumes ranging from 2.1 to 92.9 ml. Moreover, laryngeal tumours from seven patients were segmented on PET images acquired before laryngectomy by the gradient-based method and the thresholding method based on the source-to-background ratio developed by Daisne (Radiother Oncol 2003;69:247-50). For the spheres, the calculated volumes and radii were compared with the known values; for laryngeal tumours, the volumes were compared with the macroscopic specimens. Volume mismatches were also analysed. On computer-generated phantoms, the deconvolution algorithm decreased the mis-estimate of volumes and radii. For the Lucite phantom, the gradient-based method led to a slight underestimation of sphere volumes (by 10-20%), corresponding to negligible radius differences (0.5-1.1 mm); for laryngeal tumours, the segmented volumes by the gradient-based method agreed with those delineated on the macroscopic specimens, whereas the threshold-based method overestimated the true volume by 68% (p = 0.014). Lastly, macroscopic laryngeal specimens were totally encompassed by neither the threshold-based nor the gradient-based volumes. The gradient-based segmentation method applied on denoised and deblurred images proved to be more accurate than the source-to-background ratio method. (orig.)
A modified form of conjugate gradient method for unconstrained optimization problems
Ghani, Nur Hamizah Abdul; Rivaie, Mohd.; Mamat, Mustafa
2016-06-01
Conjugate gradient (CG) methods have been recognized as an interesting technique to solve optimization problems, due to the numerical efficiency, simplicity and low memory requirements. In this paper, we propose a new CG method based on the study of Rivaie et al. [7] (Comparative study of conjugate gradient coefficient for unconstrained Optimization, Aus. J. Bas. Appl. Sci. 5(2011) 947-951). Then, we show that our method satisfies sufficient descent condition and converges globally with exact line search. Numerical results show that our proposed method is efficient for given standard test problems, compare to other existing CG methods.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammed Yusuf Waziri
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We suggest a conjugate gradient (CG method for solving symmetric systems of nonlinear equations without computing Jacobian and gradient via the special structure of the underlying function. This derivative-free feature of the proposed method gives it advantage to solve relatively large-scale problems (500,000 variables with lower storage requirement compared to some existing methods. Under appropriate conditions, the global convergence of our method is reported. Numerical results on some benchmark test problems show that the proposed method is practically effective.
Extension of the Heat Flux Method to Elevated Pressures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Slikker, W.J.
2008-12-15
Laminar premixed flames are used in many residential and industrial applications such as surface and Bunsen burners in boilers and central heating systems. A key parameter for a premixed flame is the laminar burning velocity because practically it determines the rate with which a combustible mixture is consumed and fundamentally it contains the basic information regarding the diffusivity and reactivity of the flame. Also, the laminar burning velocity can be used to estimate the turbulent burning velocity and therefore it is an important parameter in designing combustion systems that work under high temperatures and pressures. Much research has been done to determine the laminar burning velocities of premixed hydrocarbon-air flames at both atmospheric and elevated pressures. For atmospheric pressure the reported burning velocities from various measurement methods agree very well, but for high pressures the results show a lot of scattering. The methods used for measuring the burning velocity at higher pressures need stretch corrections and therefore it is interesting to use a method that does not need to be corrected for stretch and to compare the results. The heat flux method makes use of a flat flame and therefore needs no stretch corrections. This method has successfully been used at (sub) atmospheric pressure and in this work it is extended to elevated pressure for the first time. An experimental setup for pressures up to 3 bar was used for measurements of premixed methane-air flames with equivalence ratios ranging from 0.8 to 1.4 for both 2 and 3 bar. The measured burning velocities are higher than most reported data and numerical calculations based on kinetic mechanisms, but very good agreement with the most recent (2007) experimental data is obtained. With use of experimental data from low pressure experiments obtained with the same setup, a correlation between burning velocity and pressure for stoichiometric methane-air flames is found for pressures ranging
A comparative study of three new conjugate gradient methods with exact line search
Hamoda, Mohamed; Rivaie, Mohd; Abshar, Abdelrhaman; Mamat, Mustafa
2015-10-01
Conjugate Gradient methods play an important role in solving unconstrained optimization, especially for large scale problems. In this paper, we compared the performance profile of the classical conjugate gradient coefficients FR, PRP with three new βk. These three new βk possess global convergence properties using the exact line search. Preliminary numerical results show that the three new βk are very promising and efficient when compared to CG coefficients FR, PRP.
Two-level preconditioned conjugate gradient methods with applications to bubbly flow problems
Tang, J.M.
2008-01-01
The Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient (PCG) method is one of the most popular iterative methods for solving large linear systems with a symmetric and positive semi-definite coefficient matrix. However, if the preconditioned coefficient matrix is ill-conditioned, the convergence of the PCG method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dominique Brun-Battistini
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Richard C. Tolman analyzed the relation between a temperature gradient and a gravitational field in an equilibrium situation. In 2012, Tolman’s law was generalized to a non-equilibrium situation for a simple dilute relativistic fluid. The result in that scenario, obtained by introducing the gravitational force through the molecular acceleration, couples the heat flux with the metric coefficients and the gradients of the state variables. In the present paper it is shown, by explicitly describing the single particle orbits as geodesics in Boltzmann’s equation, that a gravitational field drives a heat flux in this type of system. The calculation is devoted solely to the gravitational field contribution to this heat flux in which a Newtonian limit to the Schwarzschild metric is assumed. The corresponding transport coefficient, which is obtained within a relaxation approximation, corresponds to the dilute fluid in a weak gravitational field. The effect is negligible in the non-relativistic regime, as evidenced by the direct evaluation of the corresponding limit.
Digital module for neutron flux measurement by Campbell method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baratte, G.
1987-02-01
The study reported here concerns a wide range measurement channel for reactor control instrumentation but it may also be useful for specific measurements requiring the Campbell method. A wide range measurement channel allows the processing of the signal issued from a single fission chamber so it's possible to insure control of nuclear reactors in three different running modes: pulse processing, fluctuations and current. The study described in this note includes three parts: - the analogical wide range neutron measurement channel is presented in the first chapter; the fluctuation mode is thoroughly studied; the results of tests and proper limitations of analogical processing are summarized. A theoretical study of the neutron flux measurement by numerical calculation of the fluctuation signal variance is given in the second chapter. The digital module is described in the third chapter; the results of experiments are analysed. The validity of the digital method is proved by means of a practical realisation. The performances obtained with the digital fluctuation test model may be compared with those given by the analogical fluctuation channel which can be used for the control of lower fission rates. The digital module may also be used for any fluctuation measurement where very short response time and broad spectral band of analysis are not strictly necessary [fr
A new type of descent conjugate gradient method with exact line search
Hajar, Nurul; Mamat, Mustafa; Rivaie, Mohd.; Jusoh, Ibrahim
2016-06-01
Nowadays, conjugate gradient (CG) methods are impressive for solving nonlinear unconstrained optimization problems. In this paper, a new CG method is proposed and analyzed. This new CG method satisfies descent condition and its global convergence is established using exact line search. Numerical results show that this new CG method substantially outperforms the previous CG methods. This new CG method is considered robust, efficient and provided faster and stable convergence.
Several flux-calculation (FC) schemes are available for determining soil-to-atmosphere emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) and other trace gases using data from non-steady-state flux chambers. Recently developed methods claim to provide more accuracy in estimating the true pre-deployment flux (f0) comp...
Gradient plasticity crack tip characterization by means of the extended finite element method
Martínez-Pañeda, E.; Natarajan, S.; Bordas, S.
2017-05-01
Strain gradient plasticity theories are being widely used for fracture assessment, as they provide a richer description of crack tip fields by incorporating the influence of geometrically necessary dislocations. Characterizing the behavior at the small scales involved in crack tip deformation requires, however, the use of a very refined mesh within microns to the crack. In this work a novel and efficient gradient-enhanced numerical framework is developed by means of the extended finite element method (X-FEM). A mechanism-based gradient plasticity model is employed and the approximation of the displacement field is enriched with the stress singularity of the gradient-dominated solution. Results reveal that the proposed numerical methodology largely outperforms the standard finite element approach. The present work could have important implications on the use of microstructurally-motivated models in large scale applications. The non-linear X-FEM code developed in MATLAB can be downloaded from http://www.empaneda.com/codes.
A refinement of the analytic function expansion nodal method with interface flux moments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Woo, S. W.; Cho, N. Z.; Noh, J. M.
1999-01-01
A refinement of the AFEN method has been performed by increasing the number of flux expansion terms in the manner that the original basis functions are combined with the transverse-direction linear functions. In this manner, the added terms can be kept to still satisfy the diffusion equation. The additional constraints required are provided by the interface flux moments defined as the weighted-average fluxes at the interface. The refined AFEN method was tested against the OECD-L336 benchmark problem. The results show that the method improves the accuracy in predicting the flux distribution and that it can replace the corner-point fluxes with the interface moments without accuracy degradation. Excluding the corner-point flux increases the flexibility in implementing this method into the existing codes that do not have the corner-point flux scheme and may make it fit better for the non-linear scheme based on two-node problems
A new family of conjugate gradient methods for small-scale unconstrained optimization
Jusoh, Ibrahim; Mamat, Mustafa; Rivaie, Mohd
2013-04-01
Conjugate gradient (CG) methods are famous for solving nonlinear unconstrained optimization problems because they only need low computer memory. In this paper, we propose a new CG coefficient (βk) which has global convergence properties using exact line search. Numerical results based on the number of iterations have shown that the new βk performs better than some other CG methods.
Numerical methods for the design of gradient-index optical coatings.
Anzengruber, Stephan W; Klann, Esther; Ramlau, Ronny; Tonova, Diana
2012-12-01
We formulate the problem of designing gradient-index optical coatings as the task of solving a system of operator equations. We use iterative numerical procedures known from the theory of inverse problems to solve it with respect to the coating refractive index profile and thickness. The mathematical derivations necessary for the application of the procedures are presented, and different numerical methods (Landweber, Newton, and Gauss-Newton methods, Tikhonov minimization with surrogate functionals) are implemented. Procedures for the transformation of the gradient coating designs into quasi-gradient ones (i.e., multilayer stacks of homogeneous layers with different refractive indices) are also developed. The design algorithms work with physically available coating materials that could be produced with the modern coating technologies.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christiansen, Jesper Riis; Levy-Booth, David; Prescott, Cindy E.
2016-01-01
Most studies of greenhouse gas fluxes from forest soils in the coastal rainforest have considered carbon dioxide (CO2), whereas methane (CH4) has not received the same attention. Soil hydrology is a key driver of CH4 dynamics in ecosystems, but the impact on the function and distribution of the u......Most studies of greenhouse gas fluxes from forest soils in the coastal rainforest have considered carbon dioxide (CO2), whereas methane (CH4) has not received the same attention. Soil hydrology is a key driver of CH4 dynamics in ecosystems, but the impact on the function and distribution...
Nagler, Pamela L.; Glenn, Edward P.; Morino, Kiyomi; Neale, Christopher M.U; Cosh, Michael H.
2010-01-01
Riparian evapotranspiration (ET) was measured on a salt cedar (Tamarix spp.) dominated river terrace on the Lower Colorado River from 2007 to 2009 using tissue-heat-balance sap flux sensors at six sites representing very dense, medium dense, and sparse stands of plants. Salt cedar ET varied markedly across sites, and sap flux sensors showed that plants were subject to various degrees of stress, detected as mid-day depression of transpiration and stomatal conductance. Sap flux results were scaled from the leaf level of measurement to the stand level by measuring plant-specific leaf area index and fractional ground cover at each site. Results were compared to Bowen ratio moisture tower data available for three of the sites. Sap flux sensors and flux tower results ranked the sites the same and had similar estimates of ET. A regression equation, relating measured ET of salt cedar and other riparian plants and crops on the Lower Colorado River to the Enhanced Vegetation Index from the MODIS sensor on the Terra satellite and reference crop ET measured at meteorological stations, was able to predict actual ET with an accuracy or uncertainty of about 20%, despite between-site differences for salt cedar. Peak summer salt cedar ET averaged about 6 mm d-1 across sites and methods of measurement.
Shi, Xiangming; Mason, Robert P.; Charette, Matthew A.; Mazrui, Nashaat M.; Cai, Pinghe
2018-02-01
In aquatic environments, sediments are the main location of mercury methylation. Thus, accurate quantification of methylmercury (MeHg) fluxes at the sediment-water interface is vital to understanding the biogeochemical cycling of mercury, especially the toxic MeHg species, and their bioaccumulation. Traditional approaches, such as core incubations, are difficult to maintain at in-situ conditions during assays, leading to over/underestimation of benthic fluxes. Alternatively, the 224Ra/228Th disequilibrium method for tracing the transfer of dissolved substances across the sediment-water interface, has proven to be a reliable approach for quantifying benthic fluxes. In this study, the 224Ra/228Th disequilibrium and core incubation methods were compared to examine the benthic fluxes of both 224Ra and MeHg in salt marsh sediments of Barn Island, Connecticut, USA from May to August, 2016. The two methods were comparable for 224Ra but contradictory for MeHg. The radiotracer approach indicated that sediments were always the dominant source of both total mercury (THg) and MeHg. The core incubation method for MeHg produced similar results in May and August, but an opposite pattern in June and July, which suggested sediments were a sink of MeHg, contrary to the evidence of significant MeHg gradients between overlying water and porewater at the sediment-water interface. The potential reasons for such differences are discussed. Overall, we conclude that the 224Ra/228Th disequilibrium approach is preferred for estimating the benthic flux of MeHg and that sediment is indeed an important MeHg source in this marshland, and likely in other shallow coastal waters.
Strong source heat transfer simulations based on a GalerKin/Gradient - least - squares method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Franca, L.P.; Carmo, E.G.D. do.
1989-05-01
Heat conduction problems with temperature-dependent strong sources are modeled by an equation with a laplacian term, a linear term and a given source distribution term. When the linear-temperature-dependent source term is much larger than the laplacian term, we have a singular perturbation problem. In this case, boundary layers are formed to satisfy the Dirichlet boundary conditions. Although this is an elliptic equation, the standard Galerkin method solution is contaminated by spurious oscillations in the neighborhood of the boundary layers. Herein we employ a Galerkin/Gradient-least-squares method which eliminates all pathological phenomena of the Galerkin method. The method is constructed by adding to the Galerkin method a mesh-dependent term obtained by the least-squares form of the gradient of the Euler-Lagrange equation. Error estimates, numerical simulations in one-and multi-dimensions are given that attest the good stability and accuracy properties of the method [pt
Dowtin, A. L.; Levia, D. F., Jr.
2017-12-01
Throughfall and stemflow are important inputs of water and solutes to forest soils in both rural and urban forests. In metropolitan wooded ecosystems, a number of factors can affect flux-based enrichment ratios, including combustion of fossil fuels and proximity to industry. Use of flux-based enrichment ratios provides a means by which this modification of net precipitation chemistry can be quantified for both throughfall and stemflow, and allows for a characterization of the relative contributions of stemflow and throughfall in the delivery of nutrients and pollutants to forest soils. This study utilizes five mixed deciduous forest stands along an urban-to-rural gradient (3 urban fragments, 1 suburban fragment, and a portion of 1 contiguous rural forest) within a medium-sized metropolitan region of the United States' Northeast megalopolis, to determine how the size, shape, structure, and geographic context of remnant forest fragments determine hydrologic and solute fluxes within them. In situ observations of throughfall and stemflow (the latter of which is limited to Quercus rubra and Quercus alba) within each study plot allow for an identification and characterization of the spatial variability in solute fluxes within and between the respective sites. Preliminary observations indicate significant intra-site variability in solute concentrations as observed in both throughfall and stemflow, with higher concentrations along the respective windward edges of the study plots than at greater depths into their interiors. Higher flux-based stemflow enrichment ratios, for both Q. rubra and Q. alba, were also evident for certain ions (i.e., S2-, NO3-) in the urban forest fragments, with significantly lower ratios observed at the suburban and rural sites. Findings from this research are intended to aid in quantifying the spatial variability of the hydrologic and hydrochemical ecosystem service provisions of remnant metropolitan forest fragments. This research is supported in
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wagle, Pradeep; Xiao, Xiangming; Scott, Russell L.; Kolb, Thomas E.; Cook, David R.; Brunsell, Nathaniel; Baldocchi, Dennis D.; Basara, Jeffrey; Matamala, Roser; Zhou, Yuting; Bajgain, Rajen
2015-12-01
Understanding of the underlying causes of spatial variation in exchange of carbon and water vapor fluxes between grasslands and the atmosphere is crucial for accurate estimates of regional and global carbon and water budgets, and for predicting the impact of climate change on biosphere–atmosphere feedbacks of grasslands. We used ground-based eddy flux and meteorological data, and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) enhanced vegetation index (EVI) from 12 grasslands across the United States to examine the spatial variability in carbon and water vapor fluxes and to evaluate the biophysical controls on the spatial patterns of fluxes. Precipitation was strongly associated with spatial and temporal variability in carbon and water vapor fluxes and vegetation productivity. Grasslands with annual average precipitation <600 mm generally had neutral annual carbon balance or emitted small amount of carbon to the atmosphere. Despite strong coupling between gross primary production (GPP)and evapotranspiration (ET) across study sites, GPP showed larger spatial variation than ET, and EVI had a greater effect on GPP than on ET. Consequently, large spatial variation in ecosystem water use efficiency (EWUE = annual GPP/ET; varying from 0.67 ± 0.55 to 2.52 ± 0.52 g C mm⁻¹ET) was observed. Greater reduction in GPP than ET at high air temperature and vapor pressure deficit caused a reduction in EWUE in dry years, indicating a response which is opposite than what has been reported for forests. Our results show that spatial and temporal variations in ecosystem carbon uptake, ET, and water use efficiency of grasslands were strongly associated with canopy greenness and coverage, as indicated by EVI.
A spectral KRMI conjugate gradient method under the strong-Wolfe line search
Khadijah, Wan; Rivaie, Mohd.; Mamat, Mustafa; Jusoh, Ibrahim
2016-06-01
In this paper, a modification of spectral conjugate gradient (CG) method is proposed which combines the advantages of the spectral CG method and the RMIL method namely as spectral Khadijah-Rivaie-Mustafa-Ibrahim (SKRMI) to solve unconstrained optimization problems. Based on inexact line searches, the objective function generates a sufficient descent direction and the global convergence property for the proposed method has been proved. Moreover, the method reduces to the standard RMIL method if exact line search is applied. Numerical results are also presented to examine the efficiency of the proposed method.
An Improved Direction of Gradient-type Method for Large Scale Unconstrained Optimization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mahboubeh, Farid; Malekmohammadi, Najmeh
2017-01-01
In this paper, a new modiﬁcation of diagonal-gradient-type method for large scale unconstrained optimization is proposed. We utilize information from the proceeding iteration and consider some corrections for the diﬀerence of iterates to improve the current Hessian approximation in diagonal form....
Pilling evaluation of patterned fabrics based on a gradient field method
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Techniková, L.; Tunák, M.; Janáček, Jiří
2016-01-01
Roč. 41, č. 1 (2016), s. 97-101 ISSN 0971-0426 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : 3D surface reconstruction * fabric pilling * gradient field method * patterned fabric * pills detection Subject RIV: JS - Reliability ; Quality Management, Testing Impact factor: 0.430, year: 2016
The influence of deflation vectors at interfaces on the deflated conjugate gradient method
Vermolen, F.J.; Vuik, C.
2001-01-01
We investigate the influence of the value of deflation vectors at interfaces on the rate of convergence of preconditioned conjugate gradient methods. Our set-up is a Laplace problem in two dimensions with continuous or discontinuous coeffcients that vary in several orders of magnitude. In the
Development of the CARS method for measurement of pressure and temperature gradients in centrifuges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zeltmann, A.H.; Valentini, J.J.
1983-12-01
These experiments evaluated the feasibility of applying the CARS technique to the measurement of UF 6 concentrations and pressure gradients in a gas centrifuge. The resultant CARS signals were properly related to system parameters as suggested by theory. The results have been used to guide design of an apparatus for making CARS measurements in a UF 6 gas centrifuge. Ease of measurement is expected for pressures as low as 0.1 torr. Temperature gradients can be measured by this technique with changes in the data acquisition method. 16 references, 8 figures, 2 tables
Applicability of Stokes method for measuring viscosity of mixtures with concentration gradient
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
César Medina
2017-12-01
Full Text Available After measuring density and viscosity of a mixture of glycerin and water contained in a vertical pipe, a variation of these properties according to depth is observed. These gradients are typical of non-equilibrium states related to the lower density of water and the fact that relatively long times are necessary to achieve homogeneity. In the same pipe, the falling velocity of five little spheres is measured as a function of depth, and then a numerical fit is performed which agrees very well with experimental data. Based on the generalization of these results, the applicability of Stokes method is discussed for measuring viscosity of mixtures with a concentration gradient.
Fang, W.; Quan, S. H.; Xie, C. J.; Tang, X. F.; Wang, L. L.; Huang, L.
2016-03-01
In this study, a direct-current/direct-current (DC/DC) converter with maximum power point tracking (MPPT) is developed to down-convert the high voltage DC output from a thermoelectric generator to the lower voltage required to charge batteries. To improve the tracking accuracy and speed of the converter, a novel MPPT control scheme characterized by an aggregated dichotomy and gradient (ADG) method is proposed. In the first stage, the dichotomy algorithm is used as a fast search method to find the approximate region of the maximum power point. The gradient method is then applied for rapid and accurate tracking of the maximum power point. To validate the proposed MPPT method, a test bench composed of an automobile exhaust thermoelectric generator was constructed for harvesting the automotive exhaust heat energy. Steady-state and transient tracking experiments under five different load conditions were carried out using a DC/DC converter with the proposed ADG and with three traditional methods. The experimental results show that the ADG method can track the maximum power within 140 ms with a 1.1% error rate when the engine operates at 3300 rpm@71 NM, which is superior to the performance of the single dichotomy method, the single gradient method and the perturbation and observation method from the viewpoint of improved tracking accuracy and speed.
Analysis of the neutron flux in an annular pulsed reactor by using finite volume method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Silva, Mário A.B. da; Narain, Rajendra; Bezerra, Jair de L., E-mail: mabs500@gmail.com, E-mail: narain@ufpe.br, E-mail: jairbezerra@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia e Geociências. Departamento de Energia Nuclear
2017-07-01
Production of very intense neutron sources is important for basic nuclear physics and for material testing and isotope production. Nuclear reactors have been used as sources of intense neutron fluxes, although the achievement of such levels is limited by the inability to remove fission heat. Periodic pulsed reactors provide very intense fluxes by a rotating modulator near a subcritical core. A concept for the production of very intense neutron fluxes that combines features of periodic pulsed reactors and steady state reactors was proposed by Narain (1997). Such a concept is known as Very Intense Continuous High Flux Pulsed Reactor (VICHFPR) and was analyzed by using diffusion equation with moving boundary conditions and Finite Difference Method with Crank-Nicolson formalism. This research aims to analyze the flux distribution in the Very Intense Continuous Flux High Pulsed Reactor (VICHFPR) by using the Finite Volume Method and compares its results with those obtained by the previous computational method. (author)
Bernal, Javier; Torres-Jimenez, Jose
2015-01-01
SAGRAD (Simulated Annealing GRADient), a Fortran 77 program for computing neural networks for classification using batch learning, is discussed. Neural network training in SAGRAD is based on a combination of simulated annealing and Møller's scaled conjugate gradient algorithm, the latter a variation of the traditional conjugate gradient method, better suited for the nonquadratic nature of neural networks. Different aspects of the implementation of the training process in SAGRAD are discussed, such as the efficient computation of gradients and multiplication of vectors by Hessian matrices that are required by Møller's algorithm; the (re)initialization of weights with simulated annealing required to (re)start Møller's algorithm the first time and each time thereafter that it shows insufficient progress in reaching a possibly local minimum; and the use of simulated annealing when Møller's algorithm, after possibly making considerable progress, becomes stuck at a local minimum or flat area of weight space. Outlines of the scaled conjugate gradient algorithm, the simulated annealing procedure and the training process used in SAGRAD are presented together with results from running SAGRAD on two examples of training data.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huvaz, O. [Turkish Petroleum Corp., Ankara (Turkey). Exploration Group; Thomsen, R.O. [Maersk Oil and Gas AS, Copenhagen (Denmark); Noeth, S. [Schlumberger Data and Consultating Services, Houston, TX (United States)
2005-04-01
A major factor contributing to uncertainty in basin modelling is the determination of the parameters necessary to reconstruct the basin's thermal history. Thermal maturity modelling is widely used in basin modelling for assessing the exploration risk. Of the available models, the chemical kinetic model Easy%Ro has gained wide acceptance. In this study, the thermal gradient at five wells in the Danish North Sea is calibrated against vitrinite reflectance using the Easy%Ro model coupled with an inverse scheme in order to perform sensitivity analysis and to assess the uncertainty. The mean squared residual (MSR) is used as a quantitative measure of mismatch between the modelled and measured reflectance values. A 90% confidence interval is constructed for the determined mean of the squared residuals to assess the uncertainty for the given level of confidence. The sensitivity of the Easy%Ro model to variations in the thermal gradient is investigated using the uncertainty associated with scatter in the calibration data. The best thermal gradient (minimum MSR) is obtained from the MSR curve for each well. The aim is to show how the reconstruction of the thermal gradient is related to the control data and the applied model. The applied method helps not only to determine the average thermal gradient history of a basin, but also helps to investigate the quality of the calibration data and provides a quick assessment of the uncertainty and sensitivity of any parameter in a forward deterministic model. (author)
Guang, Chen; Qibo, Feng; Keqin, Ding; Zhan, Gao
2017-10-01
A subpixel displacement measurement method based on the combination of particle swarm optimization (PSO) and gradient algorithm (GA) was proposed for accuracy and speed optimization in GA, which is a subpixel displacement measurement method better applied in engineering practice. An initial integer-pixel value was obtained according to the global searching ability of PSO, and then gradient operators were adopted for a subpixel displacement search. A comparison was made between this method and GA by simulated speckle images and rigid-body displacement in metal specimens. The results showed that the computational accuracy of the combination of PSO and GA method reached 0.1 pixel in the simulated speckle images, or even 0.01 pixels in the metal specimen. Also, computational efficiency and the antinoise performance of the improved method were markedly enhanced.
Quantitative comparison of in situ soil CO2 flux measurement methods
Jennifer D. Knoepp; James M. Vose
2002-01-01
Development of reliable regional or global carbon budgets requires accurate measurement of soil CO2 flux. We conducted laboratory and field studies to determine the accuracy and comparability of methods commonly used to measure in situ soil CO2 fluxes. Methods compared included CO2...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Jinxin; Qin Pei; Sun Shucun
2007-01-01
The fluxes of trichloromethane (CHCl 3 , CM) and tetrachloromethane (CCl 4 , TCM) were seasonally measured using static flux chambers over an annual cycle in a coastal salt marsh, East China. The salt marsh presented as a large sink for both the compounds in the growing season (from April to October), but it was a minor source for the gas species in the non-growing season. Generally, the cordgrass marsh acted as a sink of CM and TCM. The net consumption of CM and TCM observed in the study marsh may result from the high ambient atmospheric concentrations and enriched soil organic matter that result in anoxic sediments. Higher plants were suggested to be an important sink for CM and TCM in the growing season, but a net source in the non-growing season. However, the mechanism responsible for the plant removal process is not clear. - Cordgrass marshes as a sink for CHCl 3 and CCl 4
Monte Carlo method for polarized radiative transfer in gradient-index media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao, J.M.; Tan, J.Y.; Liu, L.H.
2015-01-01
Light transfer in gradient-index media generally follows curved ray trajectories, which will cause light beam to converge or diverge during transfer and induce the rotation of polarization ellipse even when the medium is transparent. Furthermore, the combined process of scattering and transfer along curved ray path makes the problem more complex. In this paper, a Monte Carlo method is presented to simulate polarized radiative transfer in gradient-index media that only support planar ray trajectories. The ray equation is solved to the second order to address the effect induced by curved ray trajectories. Three types of test cases are presented to verify the performance of the method, which include transparent medium, Mie scattering medium with assumed gradient index distribution, and Rayleigh scattering with realistic atmosphere refractive index profile. It is demonstrated that the atmospheric refraction has significant effect for long distance polarized light transfer. - Highlights: • A Monte Carlo method for polarized radiative transfer in gradient index media. • Effect of curved ray paths on polarized radiative transfer is considered. • Importance of atmospheric refraction for polarized light transfer is demonstrated
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. R. Pinzer
2012-10-01
Full Text Available Dry snow metamorphism under an external temperature gradient is the most common type of recrystallization of snow on the ground. The changes in snow microstructure modify the physical properties of snow, and therefore an understanding of this process is essential for many disciplines, from modeling the effects of snow on climate to assessing avalanche risk. We directly imaged the microstructural changes in snow during temperature gradient metamorphism (TGM under a constant gradient of 50 K m^{−1}, using in situ time-lapse X-ray micro-tomography. This novel and non-destructive technique directly reveals the amount of ice that sublimates and is deposited during metamorphism, in addition to the exact locations of these phase changes. We calculated the average time that an ice volume stayed in place before it sublimated and found a characteristic residence time of 2–3 days. This means that most of the ice changes its phase from solid to vapor and back many times in a seasonal snowpack where similar temperature conditions can be found. Consistent with such a short timescale, we observed a mass turnover of up to 60% of the total ice mass per day. The concept of hand-to-hand transport for the water vapor flux describes the observed changes very well. However, we did not find evidence for a macroscopic vapor diffusion enhancement. The picture of {temperature gradient metamorphism} produced by directly observing the changing microstructure sheds light on the micro-physical processes and could help to improve models that predict the physical properties of snow.
An analytical transport theory method for calculating flux distribution in slab cells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
AbdelKrim, M.S.
2000-01-01
A transport theory method for calculating flux distributions in slab fuel cell is described. Two coupled integral equations for flux in fuel and moderator are obtained; assuming partial reflection at moderator external boundaries. Galerkin technique is used to solve these equations. N umerical results for average fluxes in fuel and moderator also the disadvantage factor are given. Comparison with exact numerical methods, that is for total reflection moderator outer boundaries, show that Galerkin technique gives accurate results for the disadvantage factor and average fluxes
An analytical transport theory method for calculating flux distribution in slab cells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdel Krim, M.S.
2001-01-01
A transport theory method for calculating flux distributions in slab fuel cell is described. Two coupled integral equations for flux in fuel and moderator are obtained; assuming partial reflection at moderator external boundaries. Galerkin technique is used to solve these equations. Numerical results for average fluxes in fuel and moderator and the disadvantage factor are given. Comparison with exact numerical methods, that is for total reflection moderator outer boundaries, show that the Galerkin technique gives accurate results for the disadvantage factor and average fluxes. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nakos, James Thomas
2010-12-01
The purpose of this report is to describe the methods commonly used to measure heat flux in fire applications at Sandia National Laboratories in both hydrocarbon (JP-8 jet fuel, diesel fuel, etc.) and propellant fires. Because these environments are very severe, many commercially available heat flux gauges do not survive the test, so alternative methods had to be developed. Specially built sensors include 'calorimeters' that use a temperature measurement to infer heat flux by use of a model (heat balance on the sensing surface) or by using an inverse heat conduction method. These specialty-built sensors are made rugged so they will survive the environment, so are not optimally designed for ease of use or accuracy. Other methods include radiometers, co-axial thermocouples, directional flame thermometers (DFTs), Sandia 'heat flux gauges', transpiration radiometers, and transverse Seebeck coefficient heat flux gauges. Typical applications are described and pros and cons of each method are listed.
A projection gradient method for computing ground state of spin-2 Bose–Einstein condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Hanquan
2014-01-01
In this paper, a projection gradient method is presented for computing ground state of spin-2 Bose–Einstein condensates (BEC). We first propose the general projection gradient method for solving energy functional minimization problem under multiple constraints, in which the energy functional takes real functions as independent variables. We next extend the method to solve a similar problem, where the energy functional now takes complex functions as independent variables. We finally employ the method into finding the ground state of spin-2 BEC. The key of our method is: by constructing continuous gradient flows (CGFs), the ground state of spin-2 BEC can be computed as the steady state solution of such CGFs. We discretized the CGFs by a conservative finite difference method along with a proper way to deal with the nonlinear terms. We show that the numerical discretization is normalization and magnetization conservative and energy diminishing. Numerical results of the ground state and their energy of spin-2 BEC are reported to demonstrate the effectiveness of the numerical method
Research on n-γ discrimination method based on spectrum gradient analysis of signals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luo Xiaoliang; Liu Guofu; Yang Jun; Wang Yueke
2013-01-01
Having discovered that there are distinct differences between the spectrum gradient of the output neutron and γ-ray signal from liquid scintillator detectors, this paper presented a n-γ discrimination method called spectrum gradient analysis (SGA) based on frequency-domain features of the pulse signals. The basic principle and feasibility of SGA method were discussed and the validity of n-γ discrimination results of SGA was verified by the associated particle neutron flight experiment. The discrimination performance of SGA was evaluated under different conditions of sampling rates ranging from 5 G/s to 250 M/s. The results show that SGA method exhibits insensitivity to noise, strong anti-interference ability, stable discrimination performance and lower amount of calculation in contrast with time-domain n-γ discrimination methods. (authors)
Advanced Online Flux Mapping of CANDU PHWR by Least-Squares Method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hong, In Seob; Kim, Chang Hyo; Suk, Ho Chun
2005-01-01
A least-squares method that solves both the core neutronics design equations and the in-core detector response equations on the least-squares principle is presented as a new advanced online flux-mapping method for CANada Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs). The effectiveness of the new flux-mapping method is examined in terms of online flux-mapping calculations with numerically simulated true flux distribution and detector signals and those with the actual core-follow data for the Wolsong CANDU PHWRs in Korea. The effects of core neutronics models as well as the detector failures and uncertainties of measured detector signals on the effectiveness of the least-squares flux-mapping calculations are also examined.The following results are obtained. The least-squares method predicts the flux distribution in better agreement with the simulated true flux distribution than the standard core neutronics calculations by the finite difference method (FDM) computer code without using the detector signals. The adoption of the nonlinear nodal method based on the unified nodal method formulation instead of the FDM results in a significant improvement in prediction accuracy of the flux-mapping calculations. The detector signals estimated from the least-squares flux-mapping calculations are much closer to the measured detector signals than those from the flux synthesis method (FSM), the current online flux-mapping method for CANDU reactors. The effect of detector failures is relatively small so that the plant can tolerate up to 25% of detector failures without seriously affecting the plant operation. The detector signal uncertainties aggravate accuracy of the flux-mapping calculations, yet the effects of signal uncertainties of the order of 1% standard deviation can be tolerable without seriously degrading the prediction accuracy of the least-squares method. The least-squares method is disadvantageous because it requires longer CPU time than the
Managing dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) contaminated sites continues to be among the most pressing environmental problems currently faced. One approach that has recently been investigated for use in DNAPL site characterization and remediation is mass flux (mass per unit ar...
Determination of Surface Fluxes Using a Bowen Ratio System
African Journals Online (AJOL)
USER
Abstract. Components of the surface fluxes of the energy balance equation were determined using a Campbell Bowen ratio system. The fluxes are obtained by the energy balance Bowen ratio technique, a gradient method that uses vertical gradients of temperature and vapour pressure in combination with point ...
Improvement of GaN epilayer by gradient layer method with molecular-beam epitaxy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Yen-Liang [Department of Physics, Institute of Material Science and Engineering, Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lo, Ikai, E-mail: ikailo@mail.phys.nsysu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, Institute of Material Science and Engineering, Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan, ROC (China); Gau, Ming-Hong; Hsieh, Chia-Ho; Sham, Meng-Wei; Pang, Wen-Yuan; Hsu, Yu-Chi [Department of Physics, Institute of Material Science and Engineering, Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan, ROC (China); Tsai, Jenn-Kai [Department of Electronics Engineering, National Formosa University, Hu-Wei, Yun-Lin County 63208, Taiwan, ROC (China); Schuber, Ralf; Schaadt, Daniel [Institute of Applied Physics/DFG-Center for Functional Nanostructures (CFN), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany)
2012-07-31
We demonstrated a molecular beam epitaxy method to resolve the dilemma between structural and morphological quality in growth of the GaN epilayer. A gradient buffer layer was grown in such a way that the N/Ga ratio was gradually changed from nitrogen-rich to gallium-rich. The GaN epitaxial layer was then grown on the gradient buffer layer. In the X-ray diffraction analysis of GaN(002) rocking curves, we found that the full width at half-maximum was improved from 531.69 Double-Prime to 59.43 Double-Prime for the sample with a gradient buffer layer as compared to a purely gallium-rich grown sample. Atomic force microscopy analysis showed that the root-mean-square roughness of the surface was improved from 18.28 nm to 1.62 nm over an area of 5 Multiplication-Sign 5 {mu}m{sup 2} with respect to a purely nitrogen-rich grown sample. Raman scattering showed the presence of a slightly tilted plane in the gradient layer. Furthermore we showed that the gradient layer can also slash the strain force caused by either Ga-rich GaN epitaxial layer or AlN buffer layer. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The samples were grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The GaN epilayer was grown on sapphire substrate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sample quality was improved by gradient buffer layer.
And still, a new beginning: the Galerkin least-squares gradient method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Franca, L.P.; Carmo, E.G.D. do
1988-08-01
A finite element method is proposed to solve a scalar singular diffusion problem. The method is constructed by adding to the standard Galerkin a mesh-dependent term obtained by taking the gradient of the Euler-lagrange equation and multiplying it by its least-squares. For the one-dimensional homogeneous problem the method is designed to develop nodal exact solution. An error estimate shows that the method converges optimaly for any value of the singular parameter. Numerical results demonstrate the good stability and accuracy properties of the method. (author) [pt
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Danielle eMonteverde
2015-05-01
Full Text Available Vitamin B1, or thiamin, can limit primary productivity in marine environments, however the major marine environmental sources of this essential coenzyme remain largely unknown. Vitamin B1 can only be produced by organisms that possess its complete synthesis pathway, while other organisms meet their cellular B1 quota by scavenging the coenzyme from exogenous sources. Due to high bacterial cell density and diversity, marine sediments could represent some of the highest concentrations of putative B1 producers, yet these environments have received little attention as a possible source of B1 to the overlying water column. Here we report the first dissolved pore water profiles of B1 measured in cores collected in two consecutive years from Santa Monica Basin, CA. Vitamin B1 concentrations were fairly consistent between the two years ranging from 30 pM up to 770 pM. A consistent maximum at ~5 cm sediment depth covaried with dissolved concentrations of iron. Pore water concentrations were higher than water column levels and represented some of the highest known environmental concentrations of B1 measured to date, (over two times higher than maximum water column concentrations suggesting increased rates of cellular production and release within the sediments. A one dimensional diffusion-transport model applied to the B1 profile was used to estimate a diffusive benthic flux of ~0.7 nmol m 2 d-1. This is an estimated flux across the sediment-water interface in a deep sea basin; if similar magnitude B-vitamin fluxes occur in shallow coastal waters, benthic input could prove to be a significant B1-source to the water column and may play an important role in supplying this organic growth factor to auxotrophic primary producers.
Leone, Frank A., Jr.
2015-01-01
A method is presented to represent the large-deformation kinematics of intraply matrix cracks and delaminations in continuum damage mechanics (CDM) constitutive material models. The method involves the additive decomposition of the deformation gradient tensor into 'crack' and 'bulk material' components. The response of the intact bulk material is represented by a reduced deformation gradient tensor, and the opening of an embedded cohesive interface is represented by a normalized cohesive displacement-jump vector. The rotation of the embedded interface is tracked as the material deforms and as the crack opens. The distribution of the total local deformation between the bulk material and the cohesive interface components is determined by minimizing the difference between the cohesive stress and the bulk material stress projected onto the cohesive interface. The improvements to the accuracy of CDM models that incorporate the presented method over existing approaches are demonstrated for a single element subjected to simple shear deformation and for a finite element model of a unidirectional open-hole tension specimen. The material model is implemented as a VUMAT user subroutine for the Abaqus/Explicit finite element software. The presented deformation gradient decomposition method reduces the artificial load transfer across matrix cracks subjected to large shearing deformations, and avoids the spurious secondary failure modes that often occur in analyses based on conventional progressive damage models.
Flux schemes based finite volume method for internal transonic flow with condensation
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Halama, Jan; Benkhaldoun, F.; Fořt, J.
2011-01-01
Roč. 65, č. 8 (2011), s. 953-968 ISSN 0271-2091 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : VFFC flux * SRNH flux * two - phase homogeneous flow * fractional step method * condensation Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.176, year: 2011
Measurement of absolute neutron flux in LWSCR based on the nuclear track method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sadeghzadeh, J.; Nassiri Mofakham, N.; Khajehmiri, Z.
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► Up to now the spectral parameters of thermal neutrons are measured with activation foils that are not always reliable in low flux systems. ► We applied a solid state nuclear track detector to measure the absolute neutron flux in the light water sub-critical reactor (LWSCR). ► Experiments concerning fission track detecting were performed and were investigated using the Monte Carlo code MCNP. ► The neutron fluxes obtained in experiment are in fairly good agreement with the results obtained by MCNP. - Abstract: In the present paper, a solid state nuclear track detector is applied to measure the absolute neutron flux in the light water sub-critical reactor (LWSCR) in Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI). Up to now, the spectral parameters of thermal neutrons have been measured with activation foils that are not always reliable in low flux systems. The method investigated here is the irradiation method. Experiments concerning fission track detecting were performed. The experiment including neutron flux calculation method has also been investigated using the Monte Carlo code MCNP. The analysis shows that the values of neutron flux obtained by experiment are in fairly good agreement with the results obtained by MCNP. Thus, this method may be able to predict the absolute value of neutron flux at LWSCR and other similar reactors.
Pawlowski, M. N.; Crow, S. E.; Sumiyoshi, Y.; Wells, J.; Kikkawa, H. R.
2011-12-01
Agricultural soils can serve as either a sink or a source for atmospheric carbon (C) and other greenhouse gases (GHG). This is particularly true for tropical soils where influences from climate and soil gradients are wide ranging. Current estimates of GHG flux from soil are often under or overestimated due to high variability in sample sites and inconsistencies in land use and vegetation type, making extrapolation to new study systems difficult. This work aimed to identify patterns of trace fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) across two soil types and three species of warm season perennial C4 grasses: Pennisetum purpureum (Napier grass), Panicum maximum (Guinea grass) and Saccharum officinarum (sugar cane) on the islands of Oahu and Maui in Hawaii. Multiple static vented chambers were installed into replicate plots for each species; flux measurements were made during the growth, fertilization and harvest cycles at set time intervals for one hour and analyzed by gas chromatography. Initial results from Oahu indicate no significant differences in CO2 flux between the P. maximum and P. purpureum species after fertilization or at full growth. We observed an average flux of 143 mg m-2 h-1 and 155 mg m-2 h-1 for P. maximum and P. purpureum respectively at full growth for CO2 and 1.7 μg m-2 h-1and 0.3 μg m-2 h-1 for N2O. Additionally, N2O rates sampled after a typical fertilizer application were significantly greater than at full growth (p=0.0005) with flux rates of 25.2 μg m2h-1 and 30.3 μg m2h-1 for P. maximum and P. purpureum respectively. With a global warming potential of 310 for N2O, even short-term spikes following fertilizer application can cause long lasting effects of GHG emission from agricultural soils. CH4 flux was negligible for all species on the Oahu plots during these sample periods. Globally, water limitation is a major factor influencing the potential productivity of agricultural crops and the sustainability of
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhifeng Dai
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Combining the Rosen gradient projection method with the two-term Polak-Ribière-Polyak (PRP conjugate gradient method, we propose a two-term Polak-Ribière-Polyak (PRP conjugate gradient projection method for solving linear equality constraints optimization problems. The proposed method possesses some attractive properties: (1 search direction generated by the proposed method is a feasible descent direction; consequently the generated iterates are feasible points; (2 the sequences of function are decreasing. Under some mild conditions, we show that it is globally convergent with Armijio-type line search. Preliminary numerical results show that the proposed method is promising.
A Differential Equation for Modeling Nesterov's Accelerated Gradient Method: Theory and Insights
Su, Weijie; Boyd, Stephen; Candes, Emmanuel J.
2015-01-01
We derive a second-order ordinary differential equation (ODE) which is the limit of Nesterov's accelerated gradient method. This ODE exhibits approximate equivalence to Nesterov's scheme and thus can serve as a tool for analysis. We show that the continuous time ODE allows for a better understanding of Nesterov's scheme. As a byproduct, we obtain a family of schemes with similar convergence rates. The ODE interpretation also suggests restarting Nesterov's scheme leading to an algorithm, which...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stefanicki, G.; Geissbuehler, P.; Siegwolf, R. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)
1999-08-01
The Eddy covariance technique allows to measure different components of turbulent air fluxes, including the flow of water vapour. Sap flux measurements determine directly the water flow in tree stems. We compared the water flux just above the crowns of trees in a forest by the technique of Eddy covariance and the water flux by the xylem sap flux method. These two completely different approaches showed a good qualitative correspondence. The correlation coefficient is 0.8. With an estimation of the crown diameter of the measured tree we also find a very good quantitative agreement. (author) 3 figs., 5 refs.
Least-squares fitting method for on-line flux mapping of CANDU-PHWR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hong, I.S.; Kim, C.H.; Suk, H.C.
2002-01-01
A least-squares fitting method is developed for advanced on-line flux mapping in the CANDU-PHWR system. The method solves both the core neutronics design equations and the detector response equations on the least-squares principle which leads one to normal equations. The fine-mesh finite difference two-group diffusion theory calculations by SCAN code for Wolsong-3 unit are conducted to obtain the simulated real flux distribution and detector signals. The least-squares flux monitoring calculations are compared with the flux distribution calculation by the SCAN code without detector signals. It is shown that the least-squares method produces the flux distribution in better agreement with reference distribution than the coarse mesh SCAN calculation without detector signals. Through the 500 full power day burnup-history simulations of Wolsong-4 unit for benchmark, the mapped detector signals are compared with real detector signals. Maximum root mean squares (RMS) difference between the mapped detector signals and real detector signals are shown to be about 0.04 % by least-squares method, while it is about 5.43 % by the current flux-synthesis method. It is concluded that the least-squares fitting method is very promising as the advanced flux mapping methodology for CANDU-PHWR. (author)
Loizou, Nicolas
2017-12-27
In this paper we study several classes of stochastic optimization algorithms enriched with heavy ball momentum. Among the methods studied are: stochastic gradient descent, stochastic Newton, stochastic proximal point and stochastic dual subspace ascent. This is the first time momentum variants of several of these methods are studied. We choose to perform our analysis in a setting in which all of the above methods are equivalent. We prove global nonassymptotic linear convergence rates for all methods and various measures of success, including primal function values, primal iterates (in L2 sense), and dual function values. We also show that the primal iterates converge at an accelerated linear rate in the L1 sense. This is the first time a linear rate is shown for the stochastic heavy ball method (i.e., stochastic gradient descent method with momentum). Under somewhat weaker conditions, we establish a sublinear convergence rate for Cesaro averages of primal iterates. Moreover, we propose a novel concept, which we call stochastic momentum, aimed at decreasing the cost of performing the momentum step. We prove linear convergence of several stochastic methods with stochastic momentum, and show that in some sparse data regimes and for sufficiently small momentum parameters, these methods enjoy better overall complexity than methods with deterministic momentum. Finally, we perform extensive numerical testing on artificial and real datasets, including data coming from average consensus problems.
Measuring CO2 fluxes from contrasting soil management practices is important for understanding the role of agriculture in source-sink relationship with CO2 flux. There are several micrometeorological methods for measuring CO2 emissions, however all are expensive and thus do not easily lend themselve...
Solving unconstrained optimization with a new type of conjugate gradient method
Shoid, Syazni; Rivaie, Mohd; Mamat, Mustafa; Mohd, Ismail
2014-06-01
Conjugate gradient (CG) methods have been widely used as schemes to solve large-scale unconstrained optimization problems. Numerous studies and modifications have been done recently to improve this method. In this paper, we proposed a new type of CG coefficients (βk) by modification of Polak and Ribiere (PR) method. This new βk is shown to possess global convergence properties by using exact line searches. Performance comparisons are made with the four most common βk proposed by the early researches. Numerical results also show that this new βk performed better.
Kou, Jisheng
2014-01-01
The gradient theory for the surface tension of simple fluids and mixtures is rigorously analyzed based on mathematical theory. The finite element approximation of surface tension is developed and analyzed, and moreover, an adaptive finite element method based on a physical-based estimator is proposed and it can be coupled efficiently with Newton\\'s method as well. The numerical tests are carried out both to verify the proposed theory and to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The calculation of neutron flux using Monte Carlo method
Günay, Mehtap; Bardakçı, Hilal
2017-09-01
In this study, a hybrid reactor system was designed by using 99-95% Li20Sn80 + 1-5% RG-Pu, 99-95% Li20Sn80 + 1-5% RG-PuF4, and 99-95% Li20Sn80 + 1-5% RG-PuO2 fluids, ENDF/B-VII.0 evaluated nuclear data library and 9Cr2WVTa structural material. The fluids were used in the liquid first wall, liquid second wall (blanket) and shield zones of a fusion-fission hybrid reactor system. The neutron flux was calculated according to the mixture components, radial, energy spectrum in the designed hybrid reactor system for the selected fluids, library and structural material. Three-dimensional nucleonic calculations were performed using the most recent version MCNPX-2.7.0 the Monte Carlo code.
Hakiki, Farizal
2017-07-25
A study performed by Marbun et al. [1] claimed that “A new methodology to predict fracture pressure from former calculations, Matthew–Kelly and Eaton are proposed.” Also, Marbun et al.\\'s paper stated that “A new value of Poisson\\'s and a stress ratio of the formation were generated and the accuracy of fracture gradient was improved.” We found those all statements are incorrect and some misleading concepts are revealed. An attempt to expose the method of fracture gradient determination from industry practice also appears to solidify that our arguments are acceptable to against improper Marbun et al.\\'s claims.
TORT/MCNP coupling method for the calculation of neutron flux around a core of BWR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kurosawa, M.
2005-01-01
For the analysis of BWR neutronics performance, accurate data are required for neutron flux distribution over the In-Reactor Pressure Vessel equipments taking into account the detailed geometrical arrangement. The TORT code can calculate neutron flux around a core of BWR in a three-dimensional geometry model, but has difficulties in fine geometrical modelling and lacks huge computer resource. On the other hand, the MCNP code enables the calculation of the neutron flux with a detailed geometry model, but requires very long sampling time to give enough number of particles. Therefore, a TORT/MCNP coupling method has been developed to eliminate the two problems mentioned above in each code. In this method, the TORT code calculates angular flux distribution on the core surface and the MCNP code calculates neutron spectrum at the points of interest using the flux distribution. The coupling method will be used as the DOT-DOMINO-MORSE code system. This TORT/MCNP coupling method was applied to calculate the neutron flux at points where induced radioactivity data were measured for 54 Mn and 60 Co and the radioactivity calculations based on the neutron flux obtained from the above method were compared with the measured data. (authors)
TORT/MCNP coupling method for the calculation of neutron flux around a core of BWR.
Kurosawa, Masahiko
2005-01-01
For the analysis of BWR neutronics performance, accurate data are required for neutron flux distribution over the In-Reactor Pressure Vessel equipments taking into account the detailed geometrical arrangement. The TORT code can calculate neutron flux around a core of BWR in a three-dimensional geometry model, but has difficulties in fine geometrical modelling and lacks huge computer resource. On the other hand, the MCNP code enables the calculation of the neutron flux with a detailed geometry model, but requires very long sampling time to give enough number of particles. Therefore, a TORT/MCNP coupling method has been developed to eliminate the two problems mentioned above in each code. In this method, the TORT code calculates angular flux distribution on the core surface and the MCNP code calculates neutron spectrum at the points of interest using the flux distribution. The coupling method will be used as the DOT-DOMINO-MORSE code system. This TORT/MCNP coupling method was applied to calculate the neutron flux at points where induced radioactivity data were measured for 54Mn and 60Co and the radioactivity calculations based on the neutron flux obtained from the above method were compared with the measured data.
Sparse Signal Inversion with Impulsive Noise by Dual Spectral Projected Gradient Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liang Ding
2017-01-01
Full Text Available We consider sparse signal inversion with impulsive noise. There are three major ingredients. The first is regularizing properties; we discuss convergence rate of regularized solutions. The second is devoted to the numerical solutions. It is challenging due to the fact that both fidelity and regularization term lack differentiability. Moreover, for ill-conditioned problems, sparsity regularization is often unstable. We propose a novel dual spectral projected gradient (DSPG method which combines the dual problem of multiparameter regularization with spectral projection gradient method to solve the nonsmooth l1+l1 optimization functional. We show that one can overcome the nondifferentiability and instability by adding a smooth l2 regularization term to the original optimization functional. The advantage of the proposed functional is that its convex duality reduced to a constraint smooth functional. Moreover, it is stable even for ill-conditioned problems. Spectral projected gradient algorithm is used to compute the minimizers and we prove the convergence. The third is numerical simulation. Some experiments are performed, using compressed sensing and image inpainting, to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach.
Ionospheric forecasting model using fuzzy logic-based gradient descent method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Venkata Ratnam
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Space weather phenomena cause satellite to ground or satellite to aircraft transmission outages over the VHF to L-band frequency range, particularly in the low latitude region. Global Positioning System (GPS is primarily susceptible to this form of space weather. Faulty GPS signals are attributed to ionospheric error, which is a function of Total Electron Content (TEC. Importantly, precise forecasts of space weather conditions and appropriate hazard observant cautions required for ionospheric space weather observations are limited. In this paper, a fuzzy logic-based gradient descent method has been proposed to forecast the ionospheric TEC values. In this technique, membership functions have been tuned based on the gradient descent estimated values. The proposed algorithm has been tested with the TEC data of two geomagnetic storms in the low latitude station of KL University, Guntur, India (16.44°N, 80.62°E. It has been found that the gradient descent method performs well and the predicted TEC values are close to the original TEC measurements.
Implementation of gradient methods for optimization of underage costs in aviation industry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kontrec Nataša
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Underage costs are not easily quantifiable in spare parts management. These costs occur when a spare part is required and none are available in inventory. This paper provides another approach to underage cost optimization for subassemblies and assemblies in aviation industry. The quantity of spare parts is determined by using a method for airplane spare parts forecasting based on Rayleigh's model. Based on that, the underage cost per unit is determined by using the Newsvendor model. Then, by implementing a transformed accelerated double-step size gradient method, the underage costs for spare sub-assemblies and assemblies in airline industry are optimized.
Ozcan, Aydin; Perego, Claudio; Salvalaglio, Matteo; Parrinello, Michele; Yazaydin, Ozgur
2017-05-01
In this study, we introduce a new non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation method to perform simulations of concentration driven membrane permeation processes. The methodology is based on the application of a non-conservative bias force controlling the concentration of species at the inlet and outlet of a membrane. We demonstrate our method for pure methane, ethane and ethylene permeation and for ethane/ethylene separation through a flexible ZIF-8 membrane. Results show that a stationary concentration gradient is maintained across the membrane, realistically simulating an out-of-equilibrium diffusive process, and the computed permeabilities and selectivity are in good agreement with experimental results.
de Klerk, Etienne; Glineur, Francois; Taylor, Adrien
2016-01-01
We consider the gradient (or steepest) descent method with exact line search applied to a strongly convex function with Lipschitz continuous gradient. We establish the exact worst-case rate of convergence of this scheme, and show that this worst-case behavior is exhibited by a certain convex
de Klerk, Etienne; Glineur, Francois; Taylor, Adrien
2017-01-01
We consider the gradient (or steepest) descent method with exact line search applied to a strongly convex function with Lipschitz continuous gradient. We establish the exact worst-case rate of convergence of this scheme, and show that this worst-case behavior is exhibited by a certain convex
A Robust Gradient Based Method for Building Extraction from LiDAR and Photogrammetric Imagery
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fasahat Ullah Siddiqui
2016-07-01
Full Text Available Existing automatic building extraction methods are not effective in extracting buildings which are small in size and have transparent roofs. The application of large area threshold prohibits detection of small buildings and the use of ground points in generating the building mask prevents detection of transparent buildings. In addition, the existing methods use numerous parameters to extract buildings in complex environments, e.g., hilly area and high vegetation. However, the empirical tuning of large number of parameters reduces the robustness of building extraction methods. This paper proposes a novel Gradient-based Building Extraction (GBE method to address these limitations. The proposed method transforms the Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR height information into intensity image without interpolation of point heights and then analyses the gradient information in the image. Generally, building roof planes have a constant height change along the slope of a roof plane whereas trees have a random height change. With such an analysis, buildings of a greater range of sizes with a transparent or opaque roof can be extracted. In addition, a local colour matching approach is introduced as a post-processing stage to eliminate trees. This stage of our proposed method does not require any manual setting and all parameters are set automatically from the data. The other post processing stages including variance, point density and shadow elimination are also applied to verify the extracted buildings, where comparatively fewer empirically set parameters are used. The performance of the proposed GBE method is evaluated on two benchmark data sets by using the object and pixel based metrics (completeness, correctness and quality. Our experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed method in eliminating trees, extracting buildings of all sizes, and extracting buildings with and without transparent roof. When compared with current state
A Robust Gradient Based Method for Building Extraction from LiDAR and Photogrammetric Imagery.
Siddiqui, Fasahat Ullah; Teng, Shyh Wei; Awrangjeb, Mohammad; Lu, Guojun
2016-07-19
Existing automatic building extraction methods are not effective in extracting buildings which are small in size and have transparent roofs. The application of large area threshold prohibits detection of small buildings and the use of ground points in generating the building mask prevents detection of transparent buildings. In addition, the existing methods use numerous parameters to extract buildings in complex environments, e.g., hilly area and high vegetation. However, the empirical tuning of large number of parameters reduces the robustness of building extraction methods. This paper proposes a novel Gradient-based Building Extraction (GBE) method to address these limitations. The proposed method transforms the Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) height information into intensity image without interpolation of point heights and then analyses the gradient information in the image. Generally, building roof planes have a constant height change along the slope of a roof plane whereas trees have a random height change. With such an analysis, buildings of a greater range of sizes with a transparent or opaque roof can be extracted. In addition, a local colour matching approach is introduced as a post-processing stage to eliminate trees. This stage of our proposed method does not require any manual setting and all parameters are set automatically from the data. The other post processing stages including variance, point density and shadow elimination are also applied to verify the extracted buildings, where comparatively fewer empirically set parameters are used. The performance of the proposed GBE method is evaluated on two benchmark data sets by using the object and pixel based metrics (completeness, correctness and quality). Our experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed method in eliminating trees, extracting buildings of all sizes, and extracting buildings with and without transparent roof. When compared with current state-of-the-art building
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kang Ma
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Coherent gradient sensing (CGS method can be used to measure the slope of a reflective surface, and has the merits of full-field, non-contact, and real-time measurement. In this study, the thermal stress field of thermal barrier coating (TBC structures is measured by CGS method. Two kinds of powders were sprayed onto Ni-based alloy using a plasma spraying method to obtain two groups of film–substrate specimens. The specimens were then heated with an oxy-acetylene flame. The resulting thermal mismatch between the film and substrate led to out-of-plane deformation of the specimen. The deformation was measured by the reflective CGS method and the thermal stress field of the structure was obtained through calibration with the help of finite element analysis. Both the experiment and numerical results showed that the thermal stress field of TBC structures can be successfully measured by CGS method.
Shu, Chi-Wang
1992-01-01
The present treatment of elliptic regions via hyperbolic flux-splitting and high order methods proposes a flux splitting in which the corresponding Jacobians have real and positive/negative eigenvalues. While resembling the flux splitting used in hyperbolic systems, the present generalization of such splitting to elliptic regions allows the handling of mixed-type systems in a unified and heuristically stable fashion. The van der Waals fluid-dynamics equation is used. Convergence with good resolution to weak solutions for various Riemann problems are observed.
Rezaeian, P.; Ataenia, V.; Shafiei, S.
2017-12-01
In this paper, the flux of photons inside the irradiation cell of the Gammacell-220 is calculated using an analytical method based on multipole moment expansion. The flux of the photons inside the irradiation cell is introduced as the function of monopole, dipoles and quadruples in the Cartesian coordinate system. For the source distribution of the Gammacell-220, the values of the multipole moments are specified by direct integrating. To confirm the validation of the presented methods, the flux distribution inside the irradiation cell was determined utilizing MCNP simulations as well as experimental measurements. To measure the flux inside the irradiation cell, Amber dosimeters were employed. The calculated values of the flux were in agreement with the values obtained by simulations and measurements, especially in the central zones of the irradiation cell. In order to show that the present method is a good approximation to determine the flux in the irradiation cell, the values of the multipole moments were obtained by fitting the simulation and experimental data using Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. The present method leads to reasonable results for the all source distribution even without any symmetry which makes it a powerful tool for the source load planning.
Astawa, INGA; Gusti Ngurah Bagus Caturbawa, I.; Made Sajayasa, I.; Dwi Suta Atmaja, I. Made Ari
2018-01-01
The license plate recognition usually used as part of system such as parking system. License plate detection considered as the most important step in the license plate recognition system. We propose methods that can be used to detect the vehicle plate on mobile phone. In this paper, we used Sliding Window, Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG), and Support Vector Machines (SVM) method to license plate detection so it will increase the detection level even though the image is not in a good quality. The image proceed by Sliding Window method in order to find plate position. Feature extraction in every window movement had been done by HOG and SVM method. Good result had shown in this research, which is 96% of accuracy.
SEARCH FOR THE BEST POWER CONTROL PROGRAM AT NPP WITH VVER-1000 USING GRADIENT DESCENT METHOD
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. N. Pelykh
2016-09-01
Full Text Available This article is regarded to the search for the best power control program at nuclear power plant (NPP with VVER- 1000 by gradient descent method for the objective function, which includes the criteria of efficiency, safety and damage. Criteria normalization to the maximum value is carried out when looking for the minimum of the objective function because criteria have different physical nature. There were chosen such objective criteria as depth of fuel burn-up, index of the fuel cladding damage and axial offset - the ratio of the energy at the top and bottom of the reactor core.
González, H. E.; Castro, L. R.; Daneri, G.; Iriarte, J. L.; Silva, N.; Tapia, F.; Teca, E.; Vargas, C. A.
2013-12-01
Patagonian fjord systems, and in particular the fjords and channels associated with the Baker/Pascua Rivers, are currently under conspicuous natural and anthropogenic perturbations. These systems display very high variability, where limnetic and oceanic features overlap generating strong vertical and horizontal physicochemical gradients. The CIMAR 14-Fiordos cruise was conducted in the Chilean fjords located between 47° and 50°S during the spring (October-November) of 2008. The main objectives were to study vertical and horizontal gradients in physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the water column, and to assess plankton dynamics and trophic carbon fluxes in the fjords and channels of central-south Patagonia. The water column was strongly stratified, with a pycnocline at ca. 20 m depth separating a surface layer of silicic acid-rich freshwater discharged by rivers, from the underlying nitrate- and orthophosphate-rich Subantarctic waters. The outflows from the Baker and Pascua Rivers, which range annually between 500 and 1500 m3 s-1, generate the strong land-ocean gradient in salinity (1-32 psu) and inorganic nutrient concentrations (2-8 and 2-24 μM in nitrate and silicic-acid, respectively) we observed along the Baker Fjord. The POC:chl-a ratio fluctuated from 1087 near the fjord’s head to 175 at its oceanic end in the Penas Gulf. This change was mainly due to an increase in diatom dominance and a concurrent decrease in allochthonous POC towards the ocean. Depth-integrated net primary production (NPP) and bacterial secondary production (BSP) fluctuated between 49 and 1215 and 36 and 150 mg C m-2 d-1, respectively, with higher rates in oceanic waters. At a time series station located close to the Baker River mouth, the average NPP was lower (average 360 mg C m-2 d-1) than at more oceanic stations (average 1063 mg C m-2 d-1), and numerically dominated (45%) by the picoplankton (food web is the main trophic pathway in these environments.
Method of formation of a high gradient magnetic field and the device for division of substances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Il'yashenko, E. I.; Glebov, V. A.; Skeltorp, A. T.
2005-01-01
Full text: The method and the device [1] are intended for use as a high-sensitivity magnetic separator for different types of paramagnetic substances and materials from diamagnetic ones, for division of paramagnetic substances and materials on the magnitudes of their paramagnetic susceptibility, for division of diamagnetic substances and materials on magnitudes of their diamagnetic susceptibility. Scopes: to produce pure and super pure substances and materials in electronics, metallurgy and chemistry, separation of biological objects (red blood cells, magnetic bacteria, etc.) in biology and medicine, water treatment removing heavy metals and organic impurities, etc. The main condition for magnetic separation is the magnetic force which acts on a particle of the substance and which is proportional to the magnetic susceptibility of the substance, magnetic induction B and gradient ∇B of the applied magnetic field. Therefore, to increase the sensitivity and selectivity of magnetic separation it will be required to use the largest possible values of the magnetic induction and the gradient of a magnetic field, or their product - B∇B. The device declared in the present work includes the magnetic system such as the open domain structure, consisting of permanent magnets with magnetic anisotropy much greater than the induction of a material of magnets. However, the declared device differs from the open domain structure in that [1]: *the surface of the neighbor poles of magnets is covered with a mask made from sheets of adjustable thickness of a soft magnetic material; *the soft magnetic material of the mask is selected on the basis of the magnitudes of the induction of saturation and magnetic permeability for achievement of the required magnitude of the induction and gradient of the magnetic field; *between the sheets of the mask there is an adjustable gap located symmetrically relative to the junction line of the magnets; *the size and the form of the gap between the
Piret, Cécile
2012-05-01
Much work has been done on reconstructing arbitrary surfaces using the radial basis function (RBF) method, but one can hardly find any work done on the use of RBFs to solve partial differential equations (PDEs) on arbitrary surfaces. In this paper, we investigate methods to solve PDEs on arbitrary stationary surfaces embedded in . R3 using the RBF method. We present three RBF-based methods that easily discretize surface differential operators. We take advantage of the meshfree character of RBFs, which give us a high accuracy and the flexibility to represent the most complex geometries in any dimension. Two out of the three methods, which we call the orthogonal gradients (OGr) methods are the result of our work and are hereby presented for the first time. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.
Gradient ROtating Outer Volume Excitation (GROOVE): A Novel Method for Single-Shot 2-D OVS
Powell, Nathaniel J.; Jang, Albert; Park, Jang-Yeon; Valette, Julien; Garwood, Michael; Marjańska, Małgorzata
2014-01-01
Purpose A new outer volume suppression (OVS) technique is introduced that uses a single pulse and rotating gradients to accomplish frequency-swept excitation. This new technique, which is called Gradient ROtating Outer Volume Excitation (GROOVE), produces a circular or elliptical suppression band rather than suppressing the entire outer volume. Methods Theoretical and k-space descriptions of GROOVE are provided. The properties of GROOVE were investigated with simulations, phantom, and human experiments performed using a 4 T horizontal bore magnet equipped with a TEM coil. Results Similar suppression performance was obtained in phantom and human brain using GROOVE with circular and elliptical shapes. Simulations indicate that GROOVE requires less SAR and time than traditional OVS schemes, but traditional schemes provide a sharper transition zone and less residual signal. Conclusion GROOVE represents a new way of performing OVS in which spins are excited temporally in space on a trajectory which can be tailored to fit the shape of the suppression region. In addition, GROOVE is capable of suppressing tailored regions of space with more flexibility and in a shorter period of time than conventional methods. GROOVE provides a fast, low SAR alternative to conventional OVS methods in some applications (e.g., scalp suppression). PMID:24478130
Yong, Peng; Liao, Wenyuan; Huang, Jianping; Li, Zhenchuan
2018-04-01
Full waveform inversion is an effective tool for recovering the properties of the Earth from seismograms. However, it suffers from local minima caused mainly by the limited accuracy of the starting model and the lack of a low-frequency component in the seismic data. Because of the high velocity contrast between salt and sediment, the relation between the waveform and velocity perturbation is strongly nonlinear. Therefore, salt inversion can easily get trapped in the local minima. Since the velocity of salt is nearly constant, we can make the most of this characteristic with total variation regularization to mitigate the local minima. In this paper, we develop an adaptive primal dual hybrid gradient method to implement total variation regularization by projecting the solution onto a total variation norm constrained convex set, through which the total variation norm constraint is satisfied at every model iteration. The smooth background velocities are first inverted and the perturbations are gradually obtained by successively relaxing the total variation norm constraints. Numerical experiment of the projection of the BP model onto the intersection of the total variation norm and box constraints has demonstrated the accuracy and efficiency of our adaptive primal dual hybrid gradient method. A workflow is designed to recover complex salt structures in the BP 2004 model and the 2D SEG/EAGE salt model, starting from a linear gradient model without using low-frequency data below 3 Hz. The salt inversion processes demonstrate that wavefield reconstruction inversion with a total variation norm and box constraints is able to overcome local minima and inverts the complex salt velocity layer by layer.
Highland, Hyacinth N; Rishika, A Sharma; Almira, S Shaikh; Kanthi, P Bansal
2016-01-01
Infertility being a burning issue, the male itself contributes about 40% as a cause, as evident by statistical data. However, Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) has emerged as a powerful tool in the management of infertility. Sperm preparation techniques govern the selection procedure to separate functional spermatozoa which can then be used in IUI, IVF, and ART and for cryopreservation. The present study was aimed at evaluation of sperm preparation techniques for reliability, performance and to determine the most effective, feasible and economical technique. The subjects under study includes males with normal proven fertility (n=40) and the males with unexplained infertility (n=40). Four sperm separation techniques, viz., Swim-up, Swim-down, Sucrose and Ficoll-400 density gradient techniques were evaluated for their efficacy in separation of good quality fraction of spermatozoa. Sperm viability, morphology and maturation status of spermatozoa were taken as evaluation parameters following the standard methods (WHO 2010). Data was analyzed using student's t -test and the four selected techniques were compared with the normal semen samples for scoring the efficiency of the techniques. Out of the several techniques used, Ficoll-400 was found to be more efficient method for separation of spermatozoa. The percentage of change in each parameter was calculated and taken as the index for recovery of potent sperm from the original sperm. Ficoll-400 density gradient yielded higher percentage of live, mature, morphologically normal spermatozoa in an isolated fraction as compared to other three techniques. It was observed that a combination of Ficoll-400 gradient separation with Swim-up technique could give quality spermatozoa which in-turn would directly have an impact on the success of IVF and other ART techniques.
Leiber-Sauheitl, K.; Fuß, R.; Freibauer, A.
2012-04-01
Due to the UNFCCC report requirements of each country on the emissions of greenhouse gases from key sources the joint research project "Organic Soils" was established in Germany. The project's objective is to improve the data set on greenhousegas emissions from organic soils in Germany. Within 12 German Project Catchments emissions from different types of organic soils, e.g. under different land uses and hydrological conditions, are measured. At the location "Großes Moor" near Gifhorn (Lower Saxony) the effects of small-scale soil organic carbon and groundwater level gradients on the GHG fluxes (CO2, CH4 and N2O) are quantified. The study area is located within a former peat bog altered by drainage and peat cutting, which is currently grassland under extensive agricultural use. The focus of the study is on the acquisition of CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes on six sites via manual closed chambers. In order to calculate the annual CO2 exchange rate, values are interpolated on a 0.5 hour scale between measurement campaigns. In combination with continually logged meteorological parameters, such as the photosynthetic active radiation as well as air and soil temperatures, we calculate the daily CO2 ecosystem exchange of the different sites. During the 2011 campaign, CO2 was determined as the most important greenhouse gas. The groundwater table was the dominant variable influencing gas emissions. Another important factor was the vegetation composition. In detail, highest CO2 emissions occurred with a water table of 40-50 cm below ground level, temperatures above 10°C and low plant biomass amounts. Due to the more complex formation of N2O by a number of processes, each being promoted by different soil conditions, the measurement of N2O fluxes in the field was complemented by a laboratory experiment. In this, the use of stable isotope tracer techniques enabled us to quantify the contribution of single biochemical pathways to the overall formation of N2O under controlled
Time-varying magnetotail magnetic flux calculation: a test of the method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. A. Shukhtina
2009-04-01
Full Text Available We modified the Petrinec and Russell (1996 algorithm to allow the computation of time-varying magnetotail magnetic flux based on simultaneous spacecraft measurements in the magnetotail and near-Earth solar wind. In view of many assumptions made we tested the algorithm against MHD simulation in the artificial event, which provides the input from two artificial spacecraft to compute the magnetic flux F values with our algorithm; the latter are compared with flux values, obtained by direct integration in the tail cross-section. The comparison shows similar time variations of predicted and simulated fluxes as well as their good correlation (cc>0.9 for the input taken from the tail lobe, which somewhat degrades if using the "measurements" from the central plasma sheet. The regression relationship between the predicted and computed flux values is rather stable allowing one to correct the absolute value of predicted magnetic flux.
We conclude that this method is a perspective tool to monitor the tail magnetic flux which is one of the main global magnetotail parameters.
Time-varying magnetotail magnetic flux calculation: a test of the method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. A. Shukhtina
2009-04-01
Full Text Available We modified the Petrinec and Russell (1996 algorithm to allow the computation of time-varying magnetotail magnetic flux based on simultaneous spacecraft measurements in the magnetotail and near-Earth solar wind. In view of many assumptions made we tested the algorithm against MHD simulation in the artificial event, which provides the input from two artificial spacecraft to compute the magnetic flux F values with our algorithm; the latter are compared with flux values, obtained by direct integration in the tail cross-section. The comparison shows similar time variations of predicted and simulated fluxes as well as their good correlation (cc>0.9 for the input taken from the tail lobe, which somewhat degrades if using the "measurements" from the central plasma sheet. The regression relationship between the predicted and computed flux values is rather stable allowing one to correct the absolute value of predicted magnetic flux. We conclude that this method is a perspective tool to monitor the tail magnetic flux which is one of the main global magnetotail parameters.
de Klerk, Etienne; Glineur, François; Taylor, Adrien B.
2016-01-01
We consider the gradient (or steepest) descent method with exact line search applied to a strongly convex function with Lipschitz continuous gradient. We establish the exact worst-case rate of convergence of this scheme, and show that this worst-case behavior is exhibited by a certain convex quadratic function. We also give the tight worst-case complexity bound for a noisy variant of gradient descent method, where exact line-search is performed in a search direction that differs from negative...
A Fast Gradient Method for Nonnegative Sparse Regression With Self-Dictionary
Gillis, Nicolas; Luce, Robert
2018-01-01
A nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) can be computed efficiently under the separability assumption, which asserts that all the columns of the given input data matrix belong to the cone generated by a (small) subset of them. The provably most robust methods to identify these conic basis columns are based on nonnegative sparse regression and self dictionaries, and require the solution of large-scale convex optimization problems. In this paper we study a particular nonnegative sparse regression model with self dictionary. As opposed to previously proposed models, this model yields a smooth optimization problem where the sparsity is enforced through linear constraints. We show that the Euclidean projection on the polyhedron defined by these constraints can be computed efficiently, and propose a fast gradient method to solve our model. We compare our algorithm with several state-of-the-art methods on synthetic data sets and real-world hyperspectral images.
Randomized gradient-free method for multiagent optimization over time-varying networks.
Yuan, Deming; Ho, Daniel W C
2015-06-01
In this brief, we consider the multiagent optimization over a network where multiple agents try to minimize a sum of nonsmooth but Lipschitz continuous functions, subject to a convex state constraint set. The underlying network topology is modeled as time varying. We propose a randomized derivative-free method, where in each update, the random gradient-free oracles are utilized instead of the subgradients (SGs). In contrast to the existing work, we do not require that agents are able to compute the SGs of their objective functions. We establish the convergence of the method to an approximate solution of the multiagent optimization problem within the error level depending on the smoothing parameter and the Lipschitz constant of each agent's objective function. Finally, a numerical example is provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method.
Baldocchi, Dennis
2014-12-01
The application of the eddy covariance flux method to measure fluxes of trace gas and energy between ecosystems and the atmosphere has exploded over the past 25 years. This opinion paper provides a perspective on the contributions and future opportunities of the eddy covariance method. First, the paper discusses the pros and cons of this method relative to other methods used to measure the exchange of trace gases between ecosystems and the atmosphere. Second, it discusses how the use of eddy covariance method has grown and evolved. Today, more than 400 flux measurement sites are operating world-wide and the duration of the time series exceed a decade at dozens of sites. Networks of tower sites now enable scientists to ask scientific questions related to climatic and ecological gradients, disturbance, changes in land use, and management. The paper ends with discussions on where the field of flux measurement is heading. Topics discussed include role of open access data sharing and data mining, in this new era of big data, and opportunities new sensors that measure a variety of trace gases, like volatile organic carbon compounds, methane and nitrous oxide, and aerosols, may yield. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Gradient Augmented Level Set Method for Two Phase Flow Simulations with Phase Change
Anumolu, C. R. Lakshman; Trujillo, Mario F.
2016-11-01
A sharp interface capturing approach is presented for two-phase flow simulations with phase change. The Gradient Augmented Levelset method is coupled with the two-phase momentum and energy equations to advect the liquid-gas interface and predict heat transfer with phase change. The Ghost Fluid Method (GFM) is adopted for velocity to discretize the advection and diffusion terms in the interfacial region. Furthermore, the GFM is employed to treat the discontinuity in the stress tensor, velocity, and temperature gradient yielding an accurate treatment in handling jump conditions. Thermal convection and diffusion terms are approximated by explicitly identifying the interface location, resulting in a sharp treatment for the energy solution. This sharp treatment is extended to estimate the interfacial mass transfer rate. At the computational cell, a d-cubic Hermite interpolating polynomial is employed to describe the interface location, which is locally fourth-order accurate. This extent of subgrid level description provides an accurate methodology for treating various interfacial processes with a high degree of sharpness. The ability to predict the interface and temperature evolutions accurately is illustrated by comparing numerical results with existing 1D to 3D analytical solutions.
Virtual Flux Droop Method – A New Control Strategy of Inverters in Microgrids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hu, Jiefeng; Zhu, Jianguo; Dorrell, David
2014-01-01
The parallel operation of inverters in microgrids is mainly based on the droop method. Conventional voltage droop method consists of adjusting the output voltage frequency and amplitude to achieve autonomous power sharing without control wire interconnections. Nevertheless, the conventional voltage...... droop method shows several drawbacks, such as complicated inner multiloop feedback control, and most importantly, frequency and voltage deviations. This paper proposes a new control strategy in microgrid applications by drooping the virtual flux instead of the inverter output voltage. First......, the relationship between the inverter virtual flux and the active and reactive powers is mathematically obtained. This is used to develop a new flux droop method. In addition, a small-signal model is developed in order to design the main control parameters and study the system dynamics and stability. Furthermore...
A Family of Multipoint Flux Mixed Finite Element Methods for Elliptic Problems on General Grids
Wheeler, Mary F.
2011-01-01
In this paper, we discuss a family of multipoint flux mixed finite element (MFMFE) methods on simplicial, quadrilateral, hexahedral, and triangular-prismatic grids. The MFMFE methods are locally conservative with continuous normal fluxes, since they are developed within a variational framework as mixed finite element methods with special approximating spaces and quadrature rules. The latter allows for local flux elimination giving a cell-centered system for the scalar variable. We study two versions of the method: with a symmetric quadrature rule on smooth grids and a non-symmetric quadrature rule on rough grids. Theoretical and numerical results demonstrate first order convergence for problems with full-tensor coefficients. Second order superconvergence is observed on smooth grids. © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Green, C. T.; Liao, L.; Nolan, B. T.; Juckem, P. F.; Ransom, K.; Harter, T.
2017-12-01
Process-based modeling of regional NO3- fluxes to groundwater is critical for understanding and managing water quality. Measurements of atmospheric tracers of groundwater age and dissolved-gas indicators of denitrification progress have potential to improve estimates of NO3- reactive transport processes. This presentation introduces a regionalized version of a vertical flux method (VFM) that uses simple mathematical estimates of advective-dispersive reactive transport with regularization procedures to calibrate estimated tracer concentrations to observed equivalents. The calibrated VFM provides estimates of chemical, hydrologic and reaction parameters (source concentration time series, recharge, effective porosity, dispersivity, reaction rate coefficients) and derived values (e.g. mean unsaturated zone travel time, eventual depth of the NO3- front) for individual wells. Statistical learning methods are used to extrapolate parameters and predictions from wells to continuous areas. The regional VFM was applied to 473 well samples in central-eastern Wisconsin. Chemical measurements included O2, NO3-, N2 from denitrification, and atmospheric tracers of groundwater age including carbon-14, chlorofluorocarbons, tritium, and triogiogenic helium. VFM results were consistent with observed chemistry, and calibrated parameters were in-line with independent estimates. Results indicated that (1) unsaturated zone travel times were a substantial portion of the transit time to wells and streams (2) fractions of N leached to groundwater have changed over time, with increasing fractions from manure and decreasing fractions from fertilizer, and (3) under current practices and conditions, 60% of the shallow aquifer will eventually be affected by NO3- contamination. Based on GIS coverages of variables related to soils, land use and hydrology, the VFM results at individual wells were extrapolated regionally using boosted regression trees, a statistical learning approach, that related
Gas-Kinetic Theory Based Flux Splitting Method for Ideal Magnetohydrodynamics
Xu, Kun
1998-01-01
A gas-kinetic solver is developed for the ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations. The new scheme is based on the direct splitting of the flux function of the MHD equations with the inclusion of "particle" collisions in the transport process. Consequently, the artificial dissipation in the new scheme is much reduced in comparison with the MHD Flux Vector Splitting Scheme. At the same time, the new scheme is compared with the well-developed Roe-type MHD solver. It is concluded that the kinetic MHD scheme is more robust and efficient than the Roe- type method, and the accuracy is competitive. In this paper the general principle of splitting the macroscopic flux function based on the gas-kinetic theory is presented. The flux construction strategy may shed some light on the possible modification of AUSM- and CUSP-type schemes for the compressible Euler equations, as well as to the development of new schemes for a non-strictly hyperbolic system.
Evaluation of surface renewal and flux-variance methods above agricultural and forest surfaces
Fischer, M.; Katul, G. G.; Noormets, A.; Poznikova, G.; Domec, J. C.; Trnka, M.; King, J. S.
2016-12-01
Measurements of turbulent surface energy fluxes are of high interest in agriculture and forest research. During last decades, eddy covariance (EC), has been adopted as the most commonly used micrometeorological method for measuring fluxes of greenhouse gases, energy and other scalars at the surface-atmosphere interface. Despite its robustness and accuracy, the costs of EC hinder its deployment at some research experiments and in practice like e.g. for irrigation scheduling. Therefore, testing and development of other cost-effective methods is of high interest. In our study, we tested performance of surface renewal (SR) and flux variance method (FV) for estimates of sensible heat flux density. Surface renewal method is based on the concept of non-random transport of scalars via so-called coherent structures which if accurately identified can be used for the computing of associated flux. Flux variance method predicts the flux from the scalar variance following the surface-layer similarity theory. We tested SR and FV against EC in three types of ecosystem with very distinct aerodynamic properties. First site was represented by agricultural wheat field in the Czech Republic. The second site was a 20-m tall mixed deciduous wetland forest on the coast of North Carolina, USA. The third site was represented by pine-switchgrass intercropping agro-forestry system located in coastal plain of North Carolina, USA. Apart from solving the coherent structures in a SR framework from the structure functions (representing the most common approach), we applied ramp wavelet detection scheme to test the hypothesis that the duration and amplitudes of the coherent structures are normally distributed within the particular 30-minutes time intervals and so just the estimates of their averages is sufficient for the accurate flux determination. Further, we tested whether the orthonormal wavelet thresholding can be used for isolating of the coherent structure scales which are associated with
Testing an inversion method for estimating electron energy fluxes from all-sky camera images
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N. Partamies
2004-06-01
Full Text Available An inversion method for reconstructing the precipitating electron energy flux from a set of multi-wavelength digital all-sky camera (ASC images has recently been developed by tomografia. Preliminary tests suggested that the inversion is able to reconstruct the position and energy characteristics of the aurora with reasonable accuracy. This study carries out a thorough testing of the method and a few improvements for its emission physics equations.
We compared the precipitating electron energy fluxes as estimated by the inversion method to the energy flux data recorded by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP satellites during four passes over auroral structures. When the aurorae appear very close to the local zenith, the fluxes inverted from the blue (427.8nm filtered ASC images or blue and green line (557.7nm images together give the best agreement with the measured flux values. The fluxes inverted from green line images alone are clearly larger than the measured ones. Closer to the horizon the quality of the inversion results from blue images deteriorate to the level of the ones from green images. In addition to the satellite data, the precipitating electron energy fluxes were estimated from the electron density measurements by the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR. These energy flux values were compared to the ones of the inversion method applied to over 100 ASC images recorded at the nearby ASC station in Longyearbyen. The energy fluxes deduced from these two types of data are in general of the same order of magnitude. In 35% of all of the blue and green image inversions the relative errors were less than 50% and in 90% of the blue and green image inversions less than 100%.
This kind of systematic testing of the inversion method is the first step toward using all-sky camera images in the way in which global UV images have recently been used to estimate the energy fluxes. The
Testing an inversion method for estimating electron energy fluxes from all-sky camera images
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Partamies
2004-06-01
Full Text Available An inversion method for reconstructing the precipitating electron energy flux from a set of multi-wavelength digital all-sky camera (ASC images has recently been developed by tomografia. Preliminary tests suggested that the inversion is able to reconstruct the position and energy characteristics of the aurora with reasonable accuracy. This study carries out a thorough testing of the method and a few improvements for its emission physics equations. We compared the precipitating electron energy fluxes as estimated by the inversion method to the energy flux data recorded by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP satellites during four passes over auroral structures. When the aurorae appear very close to the local zenith, the fluxes inverted from the blue (427.8nm filtered ASC images or blue and green line (557.7nm images together give the best agreement with the measured flux values. The fluxes inverted from green line images alone are clearly larger than the measured ones. Closer to the horizon the quality of the inversion results from blue images deteriorate to the level of the ones from green images. In addition to the satellite data, the precipitating electron energy fluxes were estimated from the electron density measurements by the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR. These energy flux values were compared to the ones of the inversion method applied to over 100 ASC images recorded at the nearby ASC station in Longyearbyen. The energy fluxes deduced from these two types of data are in general of the same order of magnitude. In 35% of all of the blue and green image inversions the relative errors were less than 50% and in 90% of the blue and green image inversions less than 100%. This kind of systematic testing of the inversion method is the first step toward using all-sky camera images in the way in which global UV images have recently been used to estimate the energy fluxes. The advantages of ASCs, compared to the space-born imagers, are
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Farizal Hakiki
2018-03-01
Full Text Available A study performed by Marbun et al. [1] claimed that “A new methodology to predict fracture pressure from former calculations, Matthew–Kelly and Eaton are proposed.” Also, Marbun et al.'s paper stated that “A new value of Poisson's and a stress ratio of the formation were generated and the accuracy of fracture gradient was improved.” We found those all statements are incorrect and some misleading concepts are revealed. An attempt to expose the method of fracture gradient determination from industry practice also appears to solidify that our arguments are acceptable to against improper Marbun et al.'s claims.
Multiobjective flux balancing using the NISE method for metabolic network analysis.
Oh, Young-Gyun; Lee, Dong-Yup; Lee, Sang Yup; Park, Sunwon
2009-01-01
Flux balance analysis (FBA) is well acknowledged as an analysis tool of metabolic networks in the framework of metabolic engineering. However, FBA has a limitation for solving a multiobjective optimization problem which considers multiple conflicting objectives. In this study, we propose a novel multiobjective flux balance analysis method, which adapts the noninferior set estimation (NISE) method (Solanki et al., 1993) for multiobjective linear programming (MOLP) problems. NISE method can generate an approximation of the Pareto curve for conflicting objectives without redundant iterations of single objective optimization. Furthermore, the flux distributions at each Pareto optimal solution can be obtained for understanding the internal flux changes in the metabolic network. The functionality of this approach is shown by applying it to a genome-scale in silico model of E. coli. Multiple objectives for the poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)] production are considered simultaneously, and relationships among them are identified. The Pareto curve for maximizing succinic acid production vs. maximizing biomass production is used for the in silico analysis of various combinatorial knockout strains. This proposed method accelerates the strain improvement in the metabolic engineering by reducing computation time of obtaining the Pareto curve and analysis time of flux distribution at each Pareto optimal solution. (c) 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2009.
Sensible heat flux of oil palm plantation: Comparing Aerodynamic and Penman-Monteith Methods
Amri Komarudin, Nurul; June, Tania; Meijide, Ana
2017-01-01
Oil Palm (Elaeis guinensis Jacq) has a unique morphological characteristics, in particular it has a uniform canopy. As the plant become older, its canopy coverage will completely cover the surface and influence characteristics of its microclimate. Sensible heat flux estimation of oil palm plantation could be used to identify the contribution of oil palm in reducing or increasing heat to its surrounding environment. Determination of heat flux from oil palm plantation was conducted using two methods, Aerodynamic and Penman-Monteith. The result shows that the two methods have similar diurnal pattern. The sensible heat flux peaks in the afternoon, both for two and twelve years oil palm plantations. Sensible heat flux of young plantation is affected by atmospheric stability (stable, unstable and neutral), and is higher than that of older plantation, with mean values of 0.52 W/m2 (stable), 43.53 W/m2 (unstable), 0.63 W/m2 (neutral), with standard deviation of 0.50, 28.75 and 0.46 respectively. Sensible heat flux estimated by Penman-Monteith method in both young and older plantation was higher than the value determined by Aerodynamic method with respective value of 0.77 W/m2 (stable), 45.13 W/m2 (unstable) and 0.63 W/m2 (neutral) and 0.34 W/m2 (stable), 35.82 W/m2 (unstable) and 0.71 W/m2 (neutral).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wasastjerna, F.; Lux, I.
1980-03-01
A transmission probability method implemented in the program TPHEX is described. This program was developed for the calculation of neutron flux distributions in hexagonal light water reactor fuel assemblies. The accuracy appears to be superior to diffusion theory, and the computation time is shorter than that of the collision probability method. (author)
Lura, Derek; Wernke, Matthew; Alqasemi, Redwan; Carey, Stephanie; Dubey, Rajiv
2012-01-01
This paper presents the probability density based gradient projection (GP) of the null space of the Jacobian for a 25 degree of freedom bilateral robotic human body model (RHBM). This method was used to predict the inverse kinematics of the RHBM and maximize the similarity between predicted inverse kinematic poses and recorded data of 10 subjects performing activities of daily living. The density function was created for discrete increments of the workspace. The number of increments in each direction (x, y, and z) was varied from 1 to 20. Performance of the method was evaluated by finding the root mean squared (RMS) of the difference between the predicted joint angles relative to the joint angles recorded from motion capture. The amount of data included in the creation of the probability density function was varied from 1 to 10 subjects, creating sets of for subjects included and excluded from the density function. The performance of the GP method for subjects included and excluded from the density function was evaluated to test the robustness of the method. Accuracy of the GP method varied with amount of incremental division of the workspace, increasing the number of increments decreased the RMS error of the method, with the error of average RMS error of included subjects ranging from 7.7° to 3.7°. However increasing the number of increments also decreased the robustness of the method.
An online supervised learning method based on gradient descent for spiking neurons.
Xu, Yan; Yang, Jing; Zhong, Shuiming
2017-09-01
The purpose of supervised learning with temporal encoding for spiking neurons is to make the neurons emit a specific spike train encoded by precise firing times of spikes. The gradient-descent-based (GDB) learning methods are widely used and verified in the current research. Although the existing GDB multi-spike learning (or spike sequence learning) methods have good performance, they work in an offline manner and still have some limitations. This paper proposes an online GDB spike sequence learning method for spiking neurons that is based on the online adjustment mechanism of real biological neuron synapses. The method constructs error function and calculates the adjustment of synaptic weights as soon as the neurons emit a spike during their running process. We analyze and synthesize desired and actual output spikes to select appropriate input spikes in the calculation of weight adjustment in this paper. The experimental results show that our method obviously improves learning performance compared with the offline learning manner and has certain advantage on learning accuracy compared with other learning methods. Stronger learning ability determines that the method has large pattern storage capacity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A self-reference PRF-shift MR thermometry method utilizing the phase gradient
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Langley, Jason; Potter, William; Phipps, Corey; Zhao Qun; Huang Feng
2011-01-01
In magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, the most widely used and accurate method for measuring temperature is based on the shift in proton resonance frequency (PRF). However, inter-scan motion and bulk magnetic field shifts can lead to inaccurate temperature measurements in the PRF-shift MR thermometry method. The self-reference PRF-shift MR thermometry method was introduced to overcome such problems by deriving a reference image from the heated or treated image, and approximates the reference phase map with low-order polynomial functions. In this note, a new approach is presented to calculate the baseline phase map in self-reference PRF-shift MR thermometry. The proposed method utilizes the phase gradient to remove the phase unwrapping step inherent to other self-reference PRF-shift MR thermometry methods. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated using numerical simulations with temperature distributions following a two-dimensional Gaussian function as well as phantom and in vivo experimental data sets. The results from both the numerical simulations and experimental data show that the proposed method is a promising technique for measuring temperature. (note)
Variational Level Set Method for Two-Stage Image Segmentation Based on Morphological Gradients
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Zemin Ren
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We use variational level set method and transition region extraction techniques to achieve image segmentation task. The proposed scheme is done by two steps. We first develop a novel algorithm to extract transition region based on the morphological gradient. After this, we integrate the transition region into a variational level set framework and develop a novel geometric active contour model, which include an external energy based on transition region and fractional order edge indicator function. The external energy is used to drive the zero level set toward the desired image features, such as object boundaries. Due to this external energy, the proposed model allows for more flexible initialization. The fractional order edge indicator function is incorporated into the length regularization term to diminish the influence of noise. Moreover, internal energy is added into the proposed model to penalize the deviation of the level set function from a signed distance function. The results evolution of the level set function is the gradient flow that minimizes the overall energy functional. The proposed model has been applied to both synthetic and real images with promising results.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fathizadeh, M.; Aroujalian, A.
2012-01-01
The boundary layer convective heat transfer equations with low pressure gradient over a flat plate are solved using Homotopy Perturbation Method, which is one of the semi-exact methods. The nonlinear equations of momentum and energy solved simultaneously via Homotopy Perturbation Method are in good agreement with results obtained from numerical methods. Using this method, a general equation in terms of Pr number and pressure gradient (λ) is derived which can be used to investigate velocity and temperature profiles in the boundary layer.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gelinas, R.J.; Doss, S.K.; Miller, K.
1981-01-01
The moving finite element (MFE) method has been reduced to practice in the automatic solution program DYLA for general systems of transient partial differential equations (PDEs) in 1-D. Several test examples are presented which illustrate the unique node movement and systematic control features which are intrinsic in the MFE method. Computational dilemmas of numerical diffusion, Gibbs overshooting and undershooting, zone tangling, and grid remap (or re-connection) aliasing, which occur frequently in conventional PDE methods, are essentially eliminated in the MFE mehtod. Arbitrarily large gradients (or shocks) can be solved with extremely high resolution and accuracy for non-coincident, or even counterdirected, propagating wavefronts. Boundary layers of arbitrarily small dimensions are solved with high accuracy simultaneously with the large-scale structures in reactive and non-reactive fluid calculations. The MFE method requires a small fraction of the grid nodes which are used in conventional PDE solution methods because the nodes migrate continuously and systematically to those positions where they are most needed in order to yield accurate PDE solutions on entire problem domains. Courant--Friedrichs--Lewy time-step limits are exceeded by wide margins (by factors of two to several thousand). Finally, the extension of the MFE method to 2-D is briefly discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohtakara, Kazuhiro; Hayashi, Shinya; Hoshi, Hiroaki
2011-01-01
The objective of our study was to describe the dose gradient characteristics of Linac-based stereotactic radiosurgery using Paddick's gradient index (GI) and to elucidate the factors influencing the GI value. Seventy-three plans for brain metastases using the dynamic conformal arcs were reviewed. The GI values were calculated at the 80% and 90% isodose surfaces (IDSs) and at the different target coverage IDSs (D99, D95, D90, and D85). The GI values significantly decreased as the target coverage of the reference IDS increased (the percentage of the IDS decreased). There was a significant inverse correlation between the GI values and target volume. The plans generated with the addition of a 1-mm leaf margin had worse GI values both at the D99 and D95 relative to those without leaf margin. The number and arrangement of arcs also affected the GI value. The GI values are highly sensitive to the IDS selection variability for dose prescription or evaluation, the target volume, and the planning method. To objectively compare the quality of dose gradient between rival plans, it would be preferable to employ the GI defined at the reference IDS indicating the specific target coverage (exempli gratia (e.g.), D95), irrespective of the intended marginal dose. The modified GI (mGI), defined in this study, substituting the denominator of the original GI with the target volume, would be useful to compensate for the false superior GI value in cases of target over-coverage with the reference IDS and to objectively evaluate the dose gradient outside the target boundary. (author)
Inter-comparison of different direct and indirect methods to determine radon flux from soil
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grossi, C.; Vargas, A.; Camacho, A.; Lopez-Coto, I.; Bolivar, J.P.; Xia Yu; Conen, F.
2011-01-01
The physical and chemical characteristics of radon gas make it a good tracer for use in the application of atmospheric transport models. For this purpose the radon source needs to be known on a global scale and this is difficult to achieve by only direct experimental methods. However, indirect methods can provide radon flux maps on larger scales, but their reliability has to be carefully checked. It is the aim of this work to compare radon flux values obtained by direct and indirect methods in a measurement campaign performed in the summer of 2008. Different systems to directly measure radon flux from the soil surface and to measure the related parameters terrestrial γ dose and 226 Ra activity in soil, for indirect estimation of radon flux, were tested. Four eastern Spanish sites with different geological and soil characteristics were selected: Teruel, Los Pedrones, Quintanar de la Orden and Madrid. The study shows the usefulness of both direct and indirect methods for obtaining radon flux data. Direct radon flux measurements by continuous and integrated monitors showed a coefficient of variation between 10% and 23%. At the same time, indirect methods based on correlations between 222 Rn and terrestrial γ dose rate, or 226 Ra activity in soil, provided results similar to the direct measurements, when these proxies were directly measured at the site. Larger discrepancies were found when proxy values were extracted from existing data bases. The participating members involved in the campaign study were the Institute of Energy Technology (INTE) of the Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), Huelva University (UHU), and Basel University (BASEL).
Inter-comparison of different direct and indirect methods to determine radon flux from soil
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grossi, C., E-mail: claudia.grossi@upc.ed [Institute of Energy (INTE), Technical University of Catalonia (UPC) (Spain); Vargas, A.; Camacho, A. [Institute of Energy (INTE), Technical University of Catalonia (UPC) (Spain); Lopez-Coto, I.; Bolivar, J.P. [University of Huelva (Spain); Xia Yu; Conen, F. [University of Basel (Switzerland)
2011-01-15
The physical and chemical characteristics of radon gas make it a good tracer for use in the application of atmospheric transport models. For this purpose the radon source needs to be known on a global scale and this is difficult to achieve by only direct experimental methods. However, indirect methods can provide radon flux maps on larger scales, but their reliability has to be carefully checked. It is the aim of this work to compare radon flux values obtained by direct and indirect methods in a measurement campaign performed in the summer of 2008. Different systems to directly measure radon flux from the soil surface and to measure the related parameters terrestrial {gamma} dose and {sup 226}Ra activity in soil, for indirect estimation of radon flux, were tested. Four eastern Spanish sites with different geological and soil characteristics were selected: Teruel, Los Pedrones, Quintanar de la Orden and Madrid. The study shows the usefulness of both direct and indirect methods for obtaining radon flux data. Direct radon flux measurements by continuous and integrated monitors showed a coefficient of variation between 10% and 23%. At the same time, indirect methods based on correlations between {sup 222}Rn and terrestrial {gamma} dose rate, or {sup 226}Ra activity in soil, provided results similar to the direct measurements, when these proxies were directly measured at the site. Larger discrepancies were found when proxy values were extracted from existing data bases. The participating members involved in the campaign study were the Institute of Energy Technology (INTE) of the Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), Huelva University (UHU), and Basel University (BASEL).
Yeung, E.S.; Chen, G.
1990-05-01
A method and means are disclosed for a spatial and temporal probe for laser generated plumes based on density gradients includes generation of a plume of vaporized material from a surface by an energy source. The probe laser beam is positioned so that the plume passes through the probe laser beam. Movement of the probe laser beam caused by refraction from the density gradient of the plume is monitored. Spatial and temporal information, correlated to one another, is then derived. 15 figs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Seiz, Julie Burger [Union College, Schenectady, NY (United States)
1997-04-01
This paper presents a review of the Direct Stator Flux Field Orientation control method. This method can be used to control an induction motor`s torque and flux directly and is the application of interest for this thesis. This control method is implemented without the traditional feedback loops and associated hardware. Predictions are made, by mathematical calculations, of the stator voltage vector. The voltage vector is determined twice a switching period. The switching period is fixed throughout the analysis. The three phase inverter duty cycle necessary to control the torque and flux of the induction machine is determined by the voltage space vector Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) technique. Transient performance of either the flux or torque requires an alternate modulation scheme which is also addressed in this thesis. A block diagram of this closed loop system is provided. 22 figs., 7 tabs.
Kaporin, I. E.
2012-02-01
In order to precondition a sparse symmetric positive definite matrix, its approximate inverse is examined, which is represented as the product of two sparse mutually adjoint triangular matrices. In this way, the solution of the corresponding system of linear algebraic equations (SLAE) by applying the preconditioned conjugate gradient method (CGM) is reduced to performing only elementary vector operations and calculating sparse matrix-vector products. A method for constructing the above preconditioner is described and analyzed. The triangular factor has a fixed sparsity pattern and is optimal in the sense that the preconditioned matrix has a minimum K-condition number. The use of polynomial preconditioning based on Chebyshev polynomials makes it possible to considerably reduce the amount of scalar product operations (at the cost of an insignificant increase in the total number of arithmetic operations). The possibility of an efficient massively parallel implementation of the resulting method for solving SLAEs is discussed. For a sequential version of this method, the results obtained by solving 56 test problems from the Florida sparse matrix collection (which are large-scale and ill-conditioned) are presented. These results show that the method is highly reliable and has low computational costs.
An Introduction to the Conjugate Gradient Method that Even an Idiot Can Understand
1994-03-07
vectors are orthogonal. Steepest Descent. To see this, set the directional derivative to zero: d f --df(x(i+[)) = 0 Td T -ri~~dj)= 0 dT Ae(i+ 1) = 0...From Equation 40, d Td (i)r(i) -- uTr(i). (42) 28 Jonathan Richard Shewchuk ’(2) d(2 e(2) Figure 27: In the method of Conjugate Gradients, each new...Equation 38: rTi)r(j+l) =r( iyr (j) -- o(j)r T)Ad~j T T a(j)r(i)Ad(j) = r(i)r(j) - r(i)r(j+I) SI rT T) ( ) r(i), = ,T ! rT r(i)Ad(j) = -,T,_ r(i)r(i), i
A primal sub-gradient method for structured classification with the averaged sum loss
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mančev Dejan
2014-12-01
Full Text Available We present a primal sub-gradient method for structured SVM optimization defined with the averaged sum of hinge losses inside each example. Compared with the mini-batch version of the Pegasos algorithm for the structured case, which deals with a single structure from each of multiple examples, our algorithm considers multiple structures from a single example in one update. This approach should increase the amount of information learned from the example. We show that the proposed version with the averaged sum loss has at least the same guarantees in terms of the prediction loss as the stochastic version. Experiments are conducted on two sequence labeling problems, shallow parsing and part-of-speech tagging, and also include a comparison with other popular sequential structured learning algorithms.
Pumpanen, Jukka; Shurpali, Narasinha; Kulmala, Liisa; Kolari, Pasi; Heinonsalo, Jussi
2017-04-01
Soil CO2 efflux forms a substantial part of the ecosystem carbon balance, and it can contribute more than half of the annual ecosystem respiration. Recently assimilated carbon which has been fixed in photosynthesis during the previous days plays an important role in soil CO2 efflux, and its contribution is seasonally variable. Moreover, the recently assimilated C has been shown to stimulate the decomposition of recalcitrant C in soil and increase the mineralization of nitrogen, the most important macronutrient limiting gross primary productivity (GPP) in boreal ecosystems. Podzolic soils, typical in boreal zone, have distinctive layers with different biological and chemical properties. The biological activity in different soil layers has large seasonal variation due to vertical gradient in temperature, soil organic matter and root biomass. Thus, the source of CO2 and its components have a vertical gradient which is seasonally variable. The contribution of recently assimilated C and its seasonal as well as spatial variation in soil are difficult to assess without disturbing the system. The most common method of partitioning soil respiration into its components is trenching which entails the roots being cut or girdling where the flow of carbohydrates from the canopy to roots has been isolated by cutting of the phloem. Other methods for determining the contribution of autotrophic (Ra) and heterotrophic (Rh) respiration components in soil CO2 efflux are pulse labelling with 13CO2 or 14CO2 or the natural abundance of 13C and/or 14C isotopes. Also differences in seasonal and short-term temperature response of soil respiration have been used to separate Ra and Rh. We compared the seasonal variation in Ra and Rh using the trenching method and differences between seasonal and short-term temperature responses of soil respiration. I addition, we estimated the vertical variation in soil biological activity using soil CO2 concentration and the natural abundance of 13C and 12C
Mixed gradient-Tikhonov methods for solving nonlinear ill-posed problems in Banach spaces
Margotti, Fábio
2016-12-01
Tikhonov regularization is a very useful and widely used method for finding stable solutions of ill-posed problems. A good choice of the penalization functional as well as a careful selection of the topologies of the involved spaces is fundamental to the quality of the reconstructions. These choices can be combined with some a priori information about the solution in order to preserve desired characteristics like sparsity constraints for example. To prove convergence and stability properties of this method, one usually has to assume that a minimizer of the Tikhonov functional is known. In practical situations however, the exact computation of a minimizer is very difficult and even finding an approximation can be a very challenging and expensive task if the involved spaces have poor convexity or smoothness properties. In this paper we propose a method to attenuate this gap between theory and practice, applying a gradient-like method to a Tikhonov functional in order to approximate a minimizer. Using only available information, we explicitly calculate a maximal step-size which ensures a monotonically decreasing error. The resulting algorithm performs only finitely many steps and terminates using the discrepancy principle. In particular the knowledge of a minimizer or even its existence does not need to be assumed. Under standard assumptions, we prove convergence and stability results in relatively general Banach spaces, and subsequently, test its performance numerically, reconstructing conductivities with sparsely located inclusions and different kinds of noise in the 2D electrical impedance tomography.
Optimization of viral resuspension methods for carbon-rich soils along a permafrost thaw gradient
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gareth Trubl
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Permafrost stores approximately 50% of global soil carbon (C in a frozen form; it is thawing rapidly under climate change, and little is known about viral communities in these soils or their roles in C cycling. In permafrost soils, microorganisms contribute significantly to C cycling, and characterizing them has recently been shown to improve prediction of ecosystem function. In other ecosystems, viruses have broad ecosystem and community impacts ranging from host cell mortality and organic matter cycling to horizontal gene transfer and reprogramming of core microbial metabolisms. Here we developed an optimized protocol to extract viruses from three types of high organic-matter peatland soils across a permafrost thaw gradient (palsa, moss-dominated bog, and sedge-dominated fen. Three separate experiments were used to evaluate the impact of chemical buffers, physical dispersion, storage conditions, and concentration and purification methods on viral yields. The most successful protocol, amended potassium citrate buffer with bead-beating or vortexing and BSA, yielded on average as much as 2-fold more virus-like particles (VLPs g−1 of soil than other methods tested. All method combinations yielded VLPs g−1 of soil on the 108 order of magnitude across all three soil types. The different storage and concentration methods did not yield significantly more VLPs g−1 of soil among the soil types. This research provides much-needed guidelines for resuspending viruses from soils, specifically carbon-rich soils, paving the way for incorporating viruses into soil ecology studies.
A gradient method for anomalous small-angle x-ray scattering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jemian, P.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Weertman, J.R. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Long, G.G. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Ceramics Div.
1992-09-15
A new method of general applicability for analyzing data from anomalous dispersion small-angle X-ray scattering (ASAXS) measurements is described. ASAXS is used as a contrast variation method to label the scattering from a single element in a complex material containing several types of scatterers. The contrast variation is achieved through the anomalous dispersion of X-rays. Thus only one sample is required for a complete analysis. To label a scatterer by ASAXS, the atomic scattering factor of an element in the sample is varied by the selection of photon energies near the absorption edge of the element. Careful selection of the photon energies allows the contrast of only the labeled scatterer to change. Data from several small-angle scattering measurements, each conducted at a fixed energy, are combined in a single analysis. The gradient method, used as an extension to a standard SAXS data analysis method, is demonstrated by isolating the volume fraction size distribution of Cr{sub 23}C{sub 6} in 9Cr-1 MoVNb steel.
Determination of Energy Fluxes Over Agricultural Surfaces
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Josefina Argete
1994-12-01
Full Text Available An energy budget was conducted over two kinds if surfaces: grass and corn canopy. The net radiative flux and the soil heat flux were directly measured while the latent and sensible heat flux were calculated from the vertical profiles if wet and dry-bulb temperature and wind speed. The crop storage flux was also estimated. Using the gradient or aerodynamic equations, the calculated fluxes when compared to the measured fluxes in the context of an energy budget gave an SEE = 63 Wm-2 over grass and SEE = 81 Wm-2 over corn canopy. The calculated fluxes compared reasonably well with those obtained using the Penman equations.For an energy budget research with limited instrumentation, the aerodynamic method performed satisfactorily in estimating the daytime fluxes, when atmospheric conditions are fully convective, but failed when conditions were stably stratified as during nighttime.
Anibas, Christian; Schneideweind, Uwe; Vandersteen, Gerd; Huysmans, Marijke; Batelaan, Okke
2015-04-01
Knowledge of groundwater-surface water interaction is important for the assessment of water resources and for the investigation of fate and transport of contaminants and nutrients. In streams and rivers exchange fluxes of water are sensitive to local and regional factors such as riverbed hydraulic conductivity and hydraulic gradients. Field monitoring in time and space is therefore indispensible for assessing the variability of groundwater-surface water interaction. Not only the complexity of the examined processes demand novel data processing and characterization tools, the amount of acquired data also urges for new modeling tools. These tools should be easily applicable, allow for a fast computation, and utilize the maximum amount of available data for detailed analysis, including uncertainties. Such analytical tools should be combined with modern field equipment, data processing tools, geographical information systems and geostatistics for best results. A simple and cost effective methodology to estimate groundwater-surface water interaction is the use of temperature as an environmental tracer (ANDERSON, 2005). LPML (VANDERSTEEN et al., 2014) is one of the most advanced analytical 1D coupled water flow and heat transport models, combining a local polynomial method with a maximum likelihood estimator. It is flexible, fast and able to create time series of exchange fluxes, as well as model quality and parameter uncertainty. LPML determines frequency response functions from measured temperature time series and an analytical model, and applies a non-linear optimization technique. With this tool the variability of groundwater-surface water interaction of the Belgian stream Slootbeek was assessed. Multilevel temperature sensors were placed in seven locations to obtain temperature-time series. Located at the streambed top and at six depths below, several months worth of data was collected and analyzed. Results identified a high spatial and temporal variability of
Łazarski, Roman; Burow, Asbjörn Manfred; Grajciar, Lukáš; Sierka, Marek
2016-10-30
A full implementation of analytical energy gradients for molecular and periodic systems is reported in the TURBOMOLE program package within the framework of Kohn-Sham density functional theory using Gaussian-type orbitals as basis functions. Its key component is a combination of density fitting (DF) approximation and continuous fast multipole method (CFMM) that allows for an efficient calculation of the Coulomb energy gradient. For exchange-correlation part the hierarchical numerical integration scheme (Burow and Sierka, Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation 2011, 7, 3097) is extended to energy gradients. Computational efficiency and asymptotic O(N) scaling behavior of the implementation is demonstrated for various molecular and periodic model systems, with the largest unit cell of hematite containing 640 atoms and 19,072 basis functions. The overall computational effort of energy gradient is comparable to that of the Kohn-Sham matrix formation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Application of the pseudo-harmonic method for calculating pertubed flux
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silva, F.C. da; Rotenberg, S.; Thome Filho, Z.D.
1985-01-01
It is realized a semi-analytical test in order to verify the potentiality of the pseudo-harmonic methods to calculate the neutron flux and perturbed eigenvalues. It was chosen for test, the case which the pseudo-harmonics are the Bessel functions to facilitate the analysis. (M.C.K.) [pt
A multigrid Newton-Krylov method for flux-limited radiation diffusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rider, W.J.; Knoll, D.A.; Olson, G.L.
1998-01-01
The authors focus on the integration of radiation diffusion including flux-limited diffusion coefficients. The nonlinear integration is accomplished with a Newton-Krylov method preconditioned with a multigrid Picard linearization of the governing equations. They investigate the efficiency of the linear and nonlinear iterative techniques
A Method for the neutron flux determination during the activation process
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maayouf, R.M.A.; Khalil, M.I.
2000-01-01
The present work deals with an accurate method for determining the neutron flux coming out from a neutron source during the experimental measurements. Accordingly, a suitable detector, followed by preamplifier and amplifier, is connected to a data acquisition system designed specially for this purpose; and the number of neutrons detected during every sampling period is stored in the PC. The historical file can be used to compute the average or the integral flux during any time period; considering the detector efficiency, geometrical arrangement and the amplification gain
A constrained-gradient method to control divergence errors in numerical MHD
Hopkins, Philip F.
2016-10-01
In numerical magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), a major challenge is maintaining nabla \\cdot {B}=0. Constrained transport (CT) schemes achieve this but have been restricted to specific methods. For more general (meshless, moving-mesh, ALE) methods, `divergence-cleaning' schemes reduce the nabla \\cdot {B} errors; however they can still be significant and can lead to systematic errors which converge away slowly. We propose a new constrained gradient (CG) scheme which augments these with a projection step, and can be applied to any numerical scheme with a reconstruction. This iteratively approximates the least-squares minimizing, globally divergence-free reconstruction of the fluid. Unlike `locally divergence free' methods, this actually minimizes the numerically unstable nabla \\cdot {B} terms, without affecting the convergence order of the method. We implement this in the mesh-free code GIZMO and compare various test problems. Compared to cleaning schemes, our CG method reduces the maximum nabla \\cdot {B} errors by ˜1-3 orders of magnitude (˜2-5 dex below typical errors if no nabla \\cdot {B} cleaning is used). By preventing large nabla \\cdot {B} at discontinuities, this eliminates systematic errors at jumps. Our CG results are comparable to CT methods; for practical purposes, the nabla \\cdot {B} errors are eliminated. The cost is modest, ˜30 per cent of the hydro algorithm, and the CG correction can be implemented in a range of numerical MHD methods. While for many problems, we find Dedner-type cleaning schemes are sufficient for good results, we identify a range of problems where using only Powell or `8-wave' cleaning can produce order-of-magnitude errors.
A Method to Assess Flux Hazards at CSP Plants to Reduce Avian Mortality
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ho, Clifford K.; Wendelin, Timothy; Horstman, Luke; Yellowhair, Julius
2017-06-27
A method to evaluate avian flux hazards at concentrating solar power plants (CSP) has been developed. A heat-transfer model has been coupled to simulations of the irradiance in the airspace above a CSP plant to determine the feather temperature along prescribed bird flight paths. Probabilistic modeling results show that the irradiance and assumed feather properties (thickness, absorptance, heat capacity) have the most significant impact on the simulated feather temperature, which can increase rapidly (hundreds of degrees Celsius in seconds) depending on the parameter values. The avian flux hazard model is being combined with a plant performance model to identify alternative heliostat standby aiming strategies that minimize both avian flux hazards and negative impacts on plant performance.
Joint image registration and fusion method with a gradient strength regularization
Lidong, Huang; Wei, Zhao; Jun, Wang
2015-05-01
Image registration is an essential process for image fusion, and fusion performance can be used to evaluate registration accuracy. We propose a maximum likelihood (ML) approach to joint image registration and fusion instead of treating them as two independent processes in the conventional way. To improve the visual quality of a fused image, a gradient strength (GS) regularization is introduced in the cost function of ML. The GS of the fused image is controllable by setting the target GS value in the regularization term. This is useful because a larger target GS brings a clearer fused image and a smaller target GS makes the fused image smoother and thus restrains noise. Hence, the subjective quality of the fused image can be improved whether the source images are polluted by noise or not. We can obtain the fused image and registration parameters successively by minimizing the cost function using an iterative optimization method. Experimental results show that our method is effective with transformation, rotation, and scale parameters in the range of [-2.0, 2.0] pixel, [-1.1 deg, 1.1 deg], and [0.95, 1.05], respectively, and variances of noise smaller than 300. It also demonstrated that our method yields a more visual pleasing fused image and higher registration accuracy compared with a state-of-the-art algorithm.
Gradient-augmented hybrid interface capturing method for incompressible two-phase flow
Zheng, Fu; Shi-Yu, Wu; Kai-Xin, Liu
2016-06-01
Motivated by inconveniences of present hybrid methods, a gradient-augmented hybrid interface capturing method (GAHM) is presented for incompressible two-phase flow. A front tracking method (FTM) is used as the skeleton of the GAHM for low mass loss and resources. Smooth eulerian level set values are calculated from the FTM interface, and are used for a local interface reconstruction. The reconstruction avoids marker particle redistribution and enables an automatic treatment of interfacial topology change. The cubic Hermit interpolation is employed in all steps of the GAHM to capture subgrid structures within a single spacial cell. The performance of the GAHM is carefully evaluated in a benchmark test. Results show significant improvements of mass loss, clear subgrid structures, highly accurate derivatives (normals and curvatures) and low cost. The GAHM is further coupled with an incompressible multiphase flow solver, Super CE/SE, for more complex and practical applications. The updated solver is evaluated through comparison with an early droplet research. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 10972010, 11028206, 11371069, 11372052, 11402029, and 11472060), the Science and Technology Development Foundation of China Academy of Engineering Physics (CAEP), China (Grant No. 2014B0201030), and the Defense Industrial Technology Development Program of China (Grant No. B1520132012).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jibing Wu
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Clustering analysis is a basic and essential method for mining heterogeneous information networks, which consist of multiple types of objects and rich semantic relations among different object types. Heterogeneous information networks are ubiquitous in the real-world applications, such as bibliographic networks and social media networks. Unfortunately, most existing approaches, such as spectral clustering, are designed to analyze homogeneous information networks, which are composed of only one type of objects and links. Some recent studies focused on heterogeneous information networks and yielded some research fruits, such as RankClus and NetClus. However, they often assumed that the heterogeneous information networks usually follow some simple schemas, such as bityped network schema or star network schema. To overcome the above limitations, we model the heterogeneous information network as a tensor without the restriction of network schema. Then, a tensor CP decomposition method is adapted to formulate the clustering problem in heterogeneous information networks. Further, we develop two stochastic gradient descent algorithms, namely, SGDClus and SOSClus, which lead to effective clustering multityped objects simultaneously. The experimental results on both synthetic datasets and real-world dataset have demonstrated that our proposed clustering framework can model heterogeneous information networks efficiently and outperform state-of-the-art clustering methods.
A primal–dual hybrid gradient method for nonlinear operators with applications to MRI
Valkonen, Tuomo
2014-05-01
We study the solution of minimax problems min xmax yG(x) + K(x), y - F*(y) in finite-dimensional Hilbert spaces. The functionals G and F* we assume to be convex, but the operator K we allow to be nonlinear. We formulate a natural extension of the modified primal-dual hybrid gradient method, originally for linear K, due to Chambolle and Pock. We prove the local convergence of the method, provided various technical conditions are satisfied. These include in particular the Aubin property of the inverse of a monotone operator at the solution. Of particular interest to us is the case arising from Tikhonov type regularization of inverse problems with nonlinear forward operators. Mainly we are interested in total variation and second-order total generalized variation priors. For such problems, we show that our general local convergence result holds when the noise level of the data f is low, and the regularization parameter α is correspondingly small. We verify the numerical performance of the method by applying it to problems from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in chemical engineering and medicine. The specific applications are in diffusion tensor imaging and MR velocity imaging. These numerical studies show very promising performance. © 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd.
Schneider, Harold
1959-01-01
This method is investigated for semi-infinite multiple-slab configurations of arbitrary width, composition, and source distribution. Isotropic scattering in the laboratory system is assumed. Isotropic scattering implies that the fraction of neutrons scattered in the i(sup th) volume element or subregion that will make their next collision in the j(sup th) volume element or subregion is the same for all collisions. These so-called "transfer probabilities" between subregions are calculated and used to obtain successive-collision densities from which the flux and transmission probabilities directly follow. For a thick slab with little or no absorption, a successive-collisions technique proves impractical because an unreasonably large number of collisions must be followed in order to obtain the flux. Here the appropriate integral equation is converted into a set of linear simultaneous algebraic equations that are solved for the average total flux in each subregion. When ordinary diffusion theory applies with satisfactory precision in a portion of the multiple-slab configuration, the problem is solved by ordinary diffusion theory, but the flux is plotted only in the region of validity. The angular distribution of neutrons entering the remaining portion is determined from the known diffusion flux and the remaining region is solved by higher order theory. Several procedures for applying the numerical method are presented and discussed. To illustrate the calculational procedure, a symmetrical slab ia vacuum is worked by the numerical, Monte Carlo, and P(sub 3) spherical harmonics methods. In addition, an unsymmetrical double-slab problem is solved by the numerical and Monte Carlo methods. The numerical approach proved faster and more accurate in these examples. Adaptation of the method to anisotropic scattering in slabs is indicated, although no example is included in this paper.
Calibration of groundwater vulnerability mapping using the generalized reduced gradient method
Elçi, Alper
2017-12-01
Groundwater vulnerability assessment studies are essential in water resources management. Overlay-and-index methods such as DRASTIC are widely used for mapping of groundwater vulnerability, however, these methods mainly suffer from a subjective selection of model parameters. The objective of this study is to introduce a calibration procedure that results in a more accurate assessment of groundwater vulnerability. The improvement of the assessment is formulated as a parameter optimization problem using an objective function that is based on the correlation between actual groundwater contamination and vulnerability index values. The non-linear optimization problem is solved with the generalized-reduced-gradient (GRG) method, which is numerical algorithm based optimization method. To demonstrate the applicability of the procedure, a vulnerability map for the Tahtali stream basin is calibrated using nitrate concentration data. The calibration procedure is easy to implement and aims the maximization of correlation between observed pollutant concentrations and groundwater vulnerability index values. The influence of each vulnerability parameter in the calculation of the vulnerability index is assessed by performing a single-parameter sensitivity analysis. Results of the sensitivity analysis show that all factors are effective on the final vulnerability index. Calibration of the vulnerability map improves the correlation between index values and measured nitrate concentrations by 19%. The regression coefficient increases from 0.280 to 0.485. It is evident that the spatial distribution and the proportions of vulnerability class areas are significantly altered with the calibration process. Although the applicability of the calibration method is demonstrated on the DRASTIC model, the applicability of the approach is not specific to a certain model and can also be easily applied to other overlay-and-index methods.
Csiba, Dominik
2017-09-09
In this paper we introduce two novel generalizations of the theory for gradient descent type methods in the proximal setting. First, we introduce the proportion function, which we further use to analyze all known (and many new) block-selection rules for block coordinate descent methods under a single framework. This framework includes randomized methods with uniform, non-uniform or even adaptive sampling strategies, as well as deterministic methods with batch, greedy or cyclic selection rules. Second, the theory of strongly-convex optimization was recently generalized to a specific class of non-convex functions satisfying the so-called Polyak-{\\\\L}ojasiewicz condition. To mirror this generalization in the weakly convex case, we introduce the Weak Polyak-{\\\\L}ojasiewicz condition, using which we give global convergence guarantees for a class of non-convex functions previously not considered in theory. Additionally, we establish (necessarily somewhat weaker) convergence guarantees for an even larger class of non-convex functions satisfying a certain smoothness assumption only. By combining the two abovementioned generalizations we recover the state-of-the-art convergence guarantees for a large class of previously known methods and setups as special cases of our general framework. Moreover, our frameworks allows for the derivation of new guarantees for many new combinations of methods and setups, as well as a large class of novel non-convex objectives. The flexibility of our approach offers a lot of potential for future research, as a new block selection procedure will have a convergence guarantee for all objectives considered in our framework, while a new objective analyzed under our approach will have a whole fleet of block selection rules with convergence guarantees readily available.
Calibration of groundwater vulnerability mapping using the generalized reduced gradient method.
Elçi, Alper
2017-12-01
Groundwater vulnerability assessment studies are essential in water resources management. Overlay-and-index methods such as DRASTIC are widely used for mapping of groundwater vulnerability, however, these methods mainly suffer from a subjective selection of model parameters. The objective of this study is to introduce a calibration procedure that results in a more accurate assessment of groundwater vulnerability. The improvement of the assessment is formulated as a parameter optimization problem using an objective function that is based on the correlation between actual groundwater contamination and vulnerability index values. The non-linear optimization problem is solved with the generalized-reduced-gradient (GRG) method, which is numerical algorithm based optimization method. To demonstrate the applicability of the procedure, a vulnerability map for the Tahtali stream basin is calibrated using nitrate concentration data. The calibration procedure is easy to implement and aims the maximization of correlation between observed pollutant concentrations and groundwater vulnerability index values. The influence of each vulnerability parameter in the calculation of the vulnerability index is assessed by performing a single-parameter sensitivity analysis. Results of the sensitivity analysis show that all factors are effective on the final vulnerability index. Calibration of the vulnerability map improves the correlation between index values and measured nitrate concentrations by 19%. The regression coefficient increases from 0.280 to 0.485. It is evident that the spatial distribution and the proportions of vulnerability class areas are significantly altered with the calibration process. Although the applicability of the calibration method is demonstrated on the DRASTIC model, the applicability of the approach is not specific to a certain model and can also be easily applied to other overlay-and-index methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
A new tracer technique for monitoring groundwater fluxes: the Finite Volume Point Dilution Method.
Brouyère, Serge; Batlle-Aguilar, Jordi; Goderniaux, Pascal; Dassargues, Alain
2008-01-28
Quantification of pollutant mass fluxes is essential for assessing the impact of contaminated sites on their surrounding environment, particularly on adjacent surface water bodies. In this context, it is essential to quantify but also to be able to monitor the variations with time of Darcy fluxes in relation with changes in hydrogeological conditions and groundwater - surface water interactions. A new tracer technique is proposed that generalizes the single-well point dilution method to the case of finite volumes of tracer fluid and water flush. It is called the Finite Volume Point Dilution Method (FVPDM). It is based on an analytical solution derived from a mathematical model proposed recently to accurately model tracer injection into a well. Using a non-dimensional formulation of the analytical solution, a sensitivity analysis is performed on the concentration evolution in the injection well, according to tracer injection conditions and well-aquifer interactions. Based on this analysis, optimised field techniques and interpretation methods are proposed. The new tracer technique is easier to implement in the field than the classical point dilution method while it further allows monitoring temporal changes of the magnitude of estimated Darcy fluxes, which is not the case for the former technique. The new technique was applied to two experimental sites with contrasting objectives, geological and hydrogeological conditions, and field equipment facilities. In both cases, field tracer concentrations monitored in the injection wells were used to fit the calculated modelled concentrations by adjusting the apparent Darcy flux crossing the well screens. Modelling results are very satisfactory and indicate that the methodology is efficient and accurate, with a wide range of potential applications in different environments and experimental conditions, including the monitoring with time of changes in Darcy fluxes.
Tripathi, Ashish; McNulty, Ian; Shpyrko, Oleg G
2014-01-27
Ptychographic coherent x-ray diffractive imaging is a form of scanning microscopy that does not require optics to image a sample. A series of scanned coherent diffraction patterns recorded from multiple overlapping illuminated regions on the sample are inverted numerically to retrieve its image. The technique recovers the phase lost by detecting the diffraction patterns by using experimentally known constraints, in this case the measured diffraction intensities and the assumed scan positions on the sample. The spatial resolution of the recovered image of the sample is limited by the angular extent over which the diffraction patterns are recorded and how well these constraints are known. Here, we explore how reconstruction quality degrades with uncertainties in the scan positions. We show experimentally that large errors in the assumed scan positions on the sample can be numerically determined and corrected using conjugate gradient descent methods. We also explore in simulations the limits, based on the signal to noise of the diffraction patterns and amount of overlap between adjacent scan positions, of just how large these errors can be and still be rendered tractable by this method.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Faming Zhang
2016-11-01
Full Text Available The prediction of travel times is challenging because of the sparseness of real-time traffic data and the intrinsic uncertainty of travel on congested urban road networks. We propose a new gradient–boosted regression tree method to accurately predict travel times. This model accounts for spatiotemporal correlations extracted from historical and real-time traffic data for adjacent and target links. This method can deliver high prediction accuracy by combining simple regression trees with poor performance. It corrects the error found in existing models for improved prediction accuracy. Our spatiotemporal gradient–boosted regression tree model was verified in experiments. The training data were obtained from big data reflecting historic traffic conditions collected by probe vehicles in Wuhan from January to May 2014. Real-time data were extracted from 11 weeks of GPS records collected in Wuhan from 5 May 2014 to 20 July 2014. Based on these data, we predicted link travel time for the period from 21 July 2014 to 25 July 2014. Experiments showed that our proposed spatiotemporal gradient–boosted regression tree model obtained better results than gradient boosting, random forest, or autoregressive integrated moving average approaches. Furthermore, these results indicate the advantages of our model for urban link travel time prediction.
Determining Accuracy of Thermal Dissipation Methods-based Sap Flux in Japanese Cedar Trees
Su, Man-Ping; Shinohara, Yoshinori; Laplace, Sophie; Lin, Song-Jin; Kume, Tomonori
2017-04-01
Thermal dissipation method, one kind of sap flux measurement method that can estimate individual tree transpiration, have been widely used because of its low cost and uncomplicated operation. Although thermal dissipation method is widespread, the accuracy of this method is doubted recently because some tree species materials in previous studies were not suitable for its empirical formula from Granier due to difference of wood characteristics. In Taiwan, Cryptomeria japonica (Japanese cedar) is one of the dominant species in mountainous area, quantifying the transpiration of Japanese cedar trees is indispensable to understand water cycling there. However, no one have tested the accuracy of thermal dissipation methods-based sap flux for Japanese cedar trees in Taiwan. Thus, in this study we conducted calibration experiment using twelve Japanese cedar stem segments from six trees to investigate the accuracy of thermal dissipation methods-based sap flux in Japanese cedar trees in Taiwan. By pumping water from segment bottom to top and inserting probes into segments to collect data simultaneously, we compared sap flux densities calculated from real water uptakes (Fd_actual) and empirical formula (Fd_Granier). Exact sapwood area and sapwood depth of each sample were obtained from dying segment with safranin stain solution. Our results showed that Fd_Granier underestimated 39 % of Fd_actual across sap flux densities ranging from 10 to 150 (cm3m-2s-1); while applying sapwood depth corrected formula from Clearwater, Fd_Granier became accurately that only underestimated 0.01 % of Fd_actual. However, when sap flux densities ranging from 10 to 50 (cm3m-2s-1)which is similar with the field data of Japanese cedar trees in a mountainous area of Taiwan, Fd_Granier underestimated 51 % of Fd_actual, and underestimated 26 % with applying Clearwater sapwood depth corrected formula. These results suggested sapwood depth significantly impacted on the accuracy of thermal dissipation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dorning, J.J.
1991-01-01
A simultaneous pin lattice cell and fuel bundle homogenization theory has been developed for use with nodal diffusion calculations of practical reactors. The theoretical development of the homogenization theory, which is based on multiple-scales asymptotic expansion methods carried out through fourth order in a small parameter, starts from the transport equation and systematically yields: a cell-homogenized bundled diffusion equation with self-consistent expressions for the cell-homogenized cross sections and diffusion tensor elements; and a bundle-homogenized global reactor diffusion equation with self-consistent expressions for the bundle-homogenized cross sections and diffusion tensor elements. The continuity of the angular flux at cell and bundle interfaces also systematically yields jump conditions for the scaler flux or so-called flux discontinuity factors on the cell and bundle interfaces in terms of the two adjacent cell or bundle eigenfunctions. The expressions required for the reconstruction of the angular flux or the 'de-homogenization' theory were obtained as an integral part of the development; hence the leading order transport theory angular flux is easily reconstructed throughout the reactor including the regions in the interior of the fuel bundles or computational nodes and in the interiors of the pin lattice cells. The theoretical development shows that the exact transport theory angular flux is obtained to first order from the whole-reactor nodal diffusion calculations, done using the homogenized nuclear data and discontinuity factors, is a product of three computed quantities: a ''cell shape function''; a ''bundle shape function''; and a ''global shape function''. 10 refs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lu Yang
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Downward shortwave radiation (DSR is an essential parameter in the terrestrial radiation budget and a necessary input for models of land-surface processes. Although several radiation products using satellite observations have been released, coarse spatial resolution and low accuracy limited their application. It is important to develop robust and accurate retrieval methods with higher spatial resolution. Machine learning methods may be powerful candidates for estimating the DSR from remotely sensed data because of their ability to perform adaptive, nonlinear data fitting. In this study, the gradient boosting regression tree (GBRT was employed to retrieve DSR measurements with the ground observation data in China collected from the China Meteorological Administration (CMA Meteorological Information Center and the satellite observations from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR at a spatial resolution of 5 km. The validation results of the DSR estimates based on the GBRT method in China at a daily time scale for clear sky conditions show an R2 value of 0.82 and a root mean square error (RMSE value of 27.71 W·m−2 (38.38%. These values are 0.64 and 42.97 W·m−2 (34.57%, respectively, for cloudy sky conditions. The monthly DSR estimates were also evaluated using ground measurements. The monthly DSR estimates have an overall R2 value of 0.92 and an RMSE of 15.40 W·m−2 (12.93%. Comparison of the DSR estimates with the reanalyzed and retrieved DSR measurements from satellite observations showed that the estimated DSR is reasonably accurate but has a higher spatial resolution. Moreover, the proposed GBRT method has good scalability and is easy to apply to other parameter inversion problems by changing the parameters and training data.
A method for measuring element fluxes in an undisturbed soil: nitrogen and carbon from earthworms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bouche, M.B.
1984-01-01
Data on chemical cycles, as nitrogen or carbon cycles, are extrapolated to the fields or ecosystems without the possibility for checking conclusions; i.e. from scientific knowledge (para-ecology). A new method, by natural introduction of an earthworm compartment into an undisturbed soil, with earthworms labelled both by isotopes ( 15 N, 14 C) and by staining is described. This method allows us to measure fluxes of chemicals. The first results, gathered during the improvement of the method in partly artificial conditions, are cross-checked with other data given by direct observation in the field. Measured flux (2.2 mg N/g fresh mass empty gut/day/15 0 C) is far more important than para-ecological estimations; animal metabolism plays directly an important role in nitrogen and carbon cycles. (author)
Absorbed Heat-flux Method for Ground Simulation of On-orbit Thermal Environment of Satellite
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jeong-Soo Kim
1999-12-01
Full Text Available An absorbed heat-flux method for ground simulation of on-orbit thermal environment of satellite is addressed in this paper. For satellite ground test, high vacuum and extremely low temperature of deep space are achieved by space simulation chamber, while spatial environmental heating is simulated by employing the absorbed heat-flux method. The methodology is explained in detail with test requirement and setup implemented on a satellite. Developed heat-load control system is presented with an adjusted PID-control logic and the system schematic realized is shown. A practical and successful application of the heat simulation method to KOMPSAT(Korea Multi-purpose Satellitethermal environmental test is demonstrated, finally.
Measurement of the epithermal neutron flux of the Argonauta reactor by the Sandwich method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nascimento, H.M.
1973-01-01
A common method of obtaining information about the neutron spectrum in the energy range of 1 eV to a few keV is by using resonance sandwich detectors. A sandwich detector is usually made up of three foils placed one on top of the other, each having the same thickness and being made of the same material which has a pronounced absorption resonance. To make an adequate evaluation, the sandwich method was compared with one using an isolated detector. The results obtained from approximate theoretical calculations were checked experimentally, using In, Au and Mn foils, in an isotropic 1/E flux in the Argonaut Reactor at I.E.N. As practical application of this method, the deviation from a 1/E spectrum of the epithermal neutron flux in the core and external graphite reflector of the Argonaut Reactor has been measured with the sandwich foils previously calibrated in a 1/E spectrum. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bosevski, T.
1986-01-01
An improved collision probability method for thermal-neutron-flux calculation in a cylindrical reactor cell has been developed. Expanding the neutron flux and source into a series of even powers of the radius, one' gets a convenient method for integration of the one-energy group integral transport equation. It is shown that it is possible to perform an analytical integration in the x-y plane in one variable and to use the effective Gaussian integration over another one. Choosing a convenient distribution of space points in fuel and moderator the transport matrix calculation and cell reaction rate integration were condensed. On the basis of the proposed method, the computer program DISKRET for the ZUSE-Z 23 K computer has been written. The suitability of the proposed method for the calculation of the thermal-neutron-flux distribution in a reactor cell can be seen from the test results obtained. Compared with the other collision probability methods, the proposed treatment excels with a mathematical simplicity and a faster convergence. (author)
Sun, Qi; Fu, Shujun
2017-09-20
Fringe orientation is an important feature of fringe patterns and has a wide range of applications such as guiding fringe pattern filtering, phase unwrapping, and abstraction. Estimating fringe orientation is a basic task for subsequent processing of fringe patterns. However, various noise, singular and obscure points, and orientation data degeneration lead to inaccurate calculations of fringe orientation. Thus, to deepen the understanding of orientation estimation and to better guide orientation estimation in fringe pattern processing, some advanced gradient-field-based orientation estimation methods are compared and analyzed. At the same time, following the ideas of smoothing regularization and computing of bigger gradient fields, a regularized singular-value decomposition (RSVD) technique is proposed for fringe orientation estimation. To compare the performance of these gradient-field-based methods, quantitative results and visual effect maps of orientation estimation are given on simulated and real fringe patterns that demonstrate that the RSVD produces the best estimation results at a cost of relatively less time.
Prato, Marco; Bonettini, Silvia; Loris, Ignace; Porta, Federica; Rebegoldi, Simone
2016-10-01
The scaled gradient projection (SGP) method is a first-order optimization method applicable to the constrained minimization of smooth functions and exploiting a scaling matrix multiplying the gradient and a variable steplength parameter to improve the convergence of the scheme. For a general nonconvex function, the limit points of the sequence generated by SGP have been proved to be stationary, while in the convex case and with some restrictions on the choice of the scaling matrix the sequence itself converges to a constrained minimum point. In this paper we extend these convergence results by showing that the SGP sequence converges to a limit point provided that the objective function satisfies the Kurdyka-Łojasiewicz property at each point of its domain and its gradient is Lipschitz continuous.
Experience with the Incomplete Cholesky Conjugate Gradient method in a diffusion code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoebel, W.
1985-01-01
For the numerical solution of sparse systems of linear equations arising from finite difference approximation of the multidimensional neutron diffusion equation fast methods are needed. Effective algorithms for scalar computers may not be likewise suitable on vector computers. In the improved version DIXY2 of the Karlsruhe two-dimensional neutron diffusion code for rectangular geometries an Incomplete Cholesky Conjugate Gradient (ICCG) algorithm has been combined with the originally implemented Cyclically Reduced 4-Lines SOR (CR4LSOR) inner iteration method. The combined procedure is automatically activated for slowly converging applications, thus leading to a drastic reduction of iterations as well as CPU-times on a scalar computer. In a follow-up benchmark study necessary modifications to ICCG and CR4LSOR for their use on a vector computer were investigated. It was found that a modified preconditioning for the ICCG algorithm restricted to the block diagonal matrix is an effective method both on scalar and vector computers. With a splitting of the 9-band-matrix in two triangular Cholesky matrices necessary inversions are performed on a scalar machine by recursive forward and backward substitutions. On vector computers an additional factorization of the triangular matrices into four bidiagonal matrices enables Buneman reduction and the recursive inversion is restricted to a small system. A similar strategy can be realized with CR4LSOR if the unvectorizable Gauss-Seidel iteration is replaced by Double Jacobi and Buneman technique for a vector computer. Compared to single line blocking over the original mesh the cyclical 4-lines reduction of the DIXY inner iteration scheme reduces numbers of iterations and CPU-times considerably
3D DC Resistivity Inversion with Topography Based on Regularized Conjugate Gradient Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jian-ke Qiang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available During the past decades, we observed a strong interest in 3D DC resistivity inversion and imaging with complex topography. In this paper, we implemented 3D DC resistivity inversion based on regularized conjugate gradient method with FEM. The Fréchet derivative is assembled with the electric potential in order to speed up the inversion process based on the reciprocity theorem. In this study, we also analyzed the sensitivity of the electric potential on the earth’s surface to the conductivity in each cell underground and introduced an optimized weighting function to produce new sensitivity matrix. The synthetic model study shows that this optimized weighting function is helpful to improve the resolution of deep anomaly. By incorporating topography into inversion, the artificial anomaly which is actually caused by topography can be eliminated. As a result, this algorithm potentially can be applied to process the DC resistivity data collected in mountain area. Our synthetic model study also shows that the convergence and computation speed are very stable and fast.
Erkkilä, Kukka-Maaria; Ojala, Anne; Bastviken, David; Biermann, Tobias; Heiskanen, Jouni J.; Lindroth, Anders; Peltola, Olli; Rantakari, Miitta; Vesala, Timo; Mammarella, Ivan
2018-01-01
Freshwaters bring a notable contribution to the global carbon budget by emitting both carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) to the atmosphere. Global estimates of freshwater emissions traditionally use a wind-speed-based gas transfer velocity, kCC (introduced by Cole and Caraco, 1998), for calculating diffusive flux with the boundary layer method (BLM). We compared CH4 and CO2 fluxes from BLM with kCC and two other gas transfer velocities (kTE and kHE), which include the effects of water-side cooling to the gas transfer besides shear-induced turbulence, with simultaneous eddy covariance (EC) and floating chamber (FC) fluxes during a 16-day measurement campaign in September 2014 at Lake Kuivajärvi in Finland. The measurements included both lake stratification and water column mixing periods. Results show that BLM fluxes were mainly lower than EC, with the more recent model kTE giving the best fit with EC fluxes, whereas FC measurements resulted in higher fluxes than simultaneous EC measurements. We highly recommend using up-to-date gas transfer models, instead of kCC, for better flux estimates. BLM CO2 flux measurements had clear differences between daytime and night-time fluxes with all gas transfer models during both stratified and mixing periods, whereas EC measurements did not show a diurnal behaviour in CO2 flux. CH4 flux had higher values in daytime than night-time during lake mixing period according to EC measurements, with highest fluxes detected just before sunset. In addition, we found clear differences in daytime and night-time concentration difference between the air and surface water for both CH4 and CO2. This might lead to biased flux estimates, if only daytime values are used in BLM upscaling and flux measurements in general. FC measurements did not detect spatial variation in either CH4 or CO2 flux over Lake Kuivajärvi. EC measurements, on the other hand, did not show any spatial variation in CH4 fluxes but did show a clear difference between CO2
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K.-M. Erkkilä
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Freshwaters bring a notable contribution to the global carbon budget by emitting both carbon dioxide (CO2 and methane (CH4 to the atmosphere. Global estimates of freshwater emissions traditionally use a wind-speed-based gas transfer velocity, kCC (introduced by Cole and Caraco, 1998, for calculating diffusive flux with the boundary layer method (BLM. We compared CH4 and CO2 fluxes from BLM with kCC and two other gas transfer velocities (kTE and kHE, which include the effects of water-side cooling to the gas transfer besides shear-induced turbulence, with simultaneous eddy covariance (EC and floating chamber (FC fluxes during a 16-day measurement campaign in September 2014 at Lake Kuivajärvi in Finland. The measurements included both lake stratification and water column mixing periods. Results show that BLM fluxes were mainly lower than EC, with the more recent model kTE giving the best fit with EC fluxes, whereas FC measurements resulted in higher fluxes than simultaneous EC measurements. We highly recommend using up-to-date gas transfer models, instead of kCC, for better flux estimates. BLM CO2 flux measurements had clear differences between daytime and night-time fluxes with all gas transfer models during both stratified and mixing periods, whereas EC measurements did not show a diurnal behaviour in CO2 flux. CH4 flux had higher values in daytime than night-time during lake mixing period according to EC measurements, with highest fluxes detected just before sunset. In addition, we found clear differences in daytime and night-time concentration difference between the air and surface water for both CH4 and CO2. This might lead to biased flux estimates, if only daytime values are used in BLM upscaling and flux measurements in general. FC measurements did not detect spatial variation in either CH4 or CO2 flux over Lake Kuivajärvi. EC measurements, on the other hand, did not show any spatial variation in CH4 fluxes but did show a clear difference
Determination of surface fluxes using a Bowen ratio system | Kakane ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The fluxes are obtained by the energy balance Bowen ratio technique, a gradient method that uses vertical gradients of temperature and vapour pressure in combination with point measurements of net radiation and soil heat flow from two sets of soil sensors. The Bowen ratio was measured as the ratio of air temperature ...
Wheeler, Mary
2013-11-16
We study the numerical approximation on irregular domains with general grids of the system of poroelasticity, which describes fluid flow in deformable porous media. The flow equation is discretized by a multipoint flux mixed finite element method and the displacements are approximated by a continuous Galerkin finite element method. First-order convergence in space and time is established in appropriate norms for the pressure, velocity, and displacement. Numerical results are presented that illustrate the behavior of the method. © Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013.
Correlated displacement-T2 MRI by means of a pulsed field gradient - milti spin echo method
Windt, C.W.; Vergeldt, F.J.; As, van H.
2007-01-01
A method for correlated displacement-T2 imaging is presented. A Pulsed Field Gradient-Multi Spin Echo (PFG-MSE) sequence is used to record T2 resolved propagators on a voxel-by-voxel basis, making it possible to perform single voxel correlated displacement-T2 analyses. In spatially heterogeneous
Zou, Wenli; Filatov, Michael; Cremer, Dieter
2011-01-01
The analytical energy gradient of the normalized elimination of the small component (NESC) method is derived for the first time and implemented for the routine calculation of NESC geometries and other first order molecular properties. Essential for the derivation is the correct calculation of the
Mente, Carsten; Prade, Ina; Brusch, Lutz; Breier, Georg; Deutsch, Andreas
2011-07-01
Lattice-gas cellular automata (LGCAs) can serve as stochastic mathematical models for collective behavior (e.g. pattern formation) emerging in populations of interacting cells. In this paper, a two-phase optimization algorithm for global parameter estimation in LGCA models is presented. In the first phase, local minima are identified through gradient-based optimization. Algorithmic differentiation is adopted to calculate the necessary gradient information. In the second phase, for global optimization of the parameter set, a multi-level single-linkage method is used. As an example, the parameter estimation algorithm is applied to a LGCA model for early in vitro angiogenic pattern formation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oh, C.H.; Cho, Z.H.; California Univ., Irvine
1986-01-01
A new phase coding method using a selection gradient for high speed NMR flow velocity measurements is introduced and discussed. To establish a phase-velocity relationship of flow under the slice selection gradient and spin-echo RF pulse, the Bloch equation was numerically solved under the assumption that only one directional flow exists, i.e. in the direction of slice selection. Details of the numerical solution of the Bloch equation and techniques related to the numerical computations are also given. Finally, using the numerical calculation, high speed flow velocity measurement was attempted and found to be in good agreement with other complementary controlled measurements. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Möstl
2009-05-01
Full Text Available We analyze a magnetic signature associated with the leading edge of a bursty bulk flow observed by Cluster at −19 RE downtail on 22 August 2001. A distinct rotation of the magnetic field was seen by all four spacecraft. This event was previously examined by Slavin et al. (2003b using both linear force-free modeling as well as a curlometer technique. Extending this work, we apply here single- and multi-spacecraft Grad-Shafranov (GS reconstruction techniques to the Cluster observations and find good evidence that the structure encountered is indeed a magnetic flux rope and contains helical magnetic field lines. We find that the flux rope has a diameter of approximately 1 RE, an axial field of 26.4 nT, a velocity of ≈650 km/s, a total axial current of 0.16 MA and magnetic fluxes of order 105 Wb. The field line twist is estimated as half a turn per RE. The invariant axis is inclined at 40° to the ecliptic plane and 10° to the GSM equatorial plane. The flux rope has a force-free core and non-force-free boundaries. When we compare and contrast our results with those obtained from minimum variance, single-spacecraft force-free fitting and curlometer techniques, we find in general fair agreement, but also clear differences such as a higher inclination of the axis to the ecliptic. We further conclude that single-spacecraft methods have limitations which should be kept in mind when applied to THEMIS observations, and that non-force-free GS and curlometer techniques are to be preferred in their analysis. Some properties we derived for this earthward– moving structure are similar to those inferred by Lui et al. (2007, using a different approach, for a tailward-moving flux rope observed during the expansion phase of the same substorm.
An overview of AmeriFlux data products and methods for data acquisition, processing, and publication
Pastorello, G.; Poindexter, C.; Agarwal, D.; Papale, D.; van Ingen, C.; Torn, M. S.
2014-12-01
The AmeriFlux network encompasses independently managed field sites measuring ecosystem carbon, water, and energy fluxes across the Americas. In close coordination with ICOS in Europe, a new set of fluxes data and metadata products is being produced and released at the FLUXNET level, including all AmeriFlux sites. This will enable continued releases of global standardized set of flux data products. In this release, new formats, structures, and ancillary information are being proposed and adopted. This presentation discusses these aspects, detailing current and future solutions. One of the major revisions was to the BADM (Biological, Ancillary, and Disturbance Metadata) protocols. The updates include structure and variable changes to address new developments in data collection related to flux towers and facilitate two-way data sharing. In particular, a new organization of templates is now in place, including changes in templates for biomass, disturbances, instrumentation, soils, and others. New variables and an extensive addition to the vocabularies used to describe BADM templates allow for a more flexible and comprehensible coverage of field sites and the data collection methods and results. Another extensive revision is in the data formats, levels, and versions for fluxes and micrometeorological data. A new selection and revision of data variables and an integrated new definition for data processing levels allow for a more intuitive and flexible notation for the variety of data products. For instance, all variables now include positional information that is tied to BADM instrumentation descriptions. This allows for a better characterization of spatial representativeness of data points, e.g., individual sensors or the tower footprint. Additionally, a new definition for data levels better characterizes the types of processing and transformations applied to the data across different dimensions (e.g., spatial representativeness of a data point, data quality checks
An accelerated test method of luminous flux depreciation for LED luminaires and lamps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qian, C.; Fan, X.J.; Fan, J.J.; Yuan, C.A.; Zhang, G.Q.
2016-01-01
Light Emitting Diode (LED) luminaires and lamps are energy-saving and environmental friendly alternatives to traditional lighting products. However, current luminous flux depreciation test at luminaire and lamp level requires a minimum of 6000 h testing, which is even longer than the product development cycle time. This paper develops an accelerated test method for luminous flux depreciation to reduce the test time within 2000 h at an elevated temperature. The method is based on lumen maintenance boundary curve, obtained from a collection of LED source lumen depreciation data, known as LM-80 data. The exponential decay model and Arrhenius acceleration relationship are used to determine the new threshold of lumen maintenance and acceleration factor. The proposed method has been verified by a number of simulation studies and experimental data for a wide range of LED luminaire and lamp types from both internal and external experiments. The qualification results obtained by the accelerated test method agree well with traditional 6000 h tests. - Highlights: • We develop an accelerated test method for LED luminaires and lamps. • The method is proposed based on a “Boundary Curve” concept. • The parameters of the boundary curve are extracted from LM-80 test reports. • Qualification results from the proposed method agree with ES requirements.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kobayashi, Fujio; Yamaguchi, Shoichiro
1982-01-01
A method of the reconstruction of computed tomographic images was proposed to reduce the exposure dose to X-ray. The method is the small number of X-ray projection method by accelerative gradient method. The procedures of computation are described. The algorithm of these procedures is simple, the convergence of the computation is fast, and the required memory capacity is small. Numerical simulation was carried out to conform the validity of this method. A sample of simple shape was considered, projection data were given, and the images were reconstructed from 6 views. Good results were obtained, and the method is considered to be useful. (Kato, T.)
A temporal subtraction method for thoracic CT images based on generalized gradient vector flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miyake, Noriaki; Kim, H.; Maeda, Shinya; Itai, Yoshinori; Tan, J.K.; Ishikawa, Seiji; Katsuragawa, Shigehiko
2010-01-01
A temporal subtraction image, which is obtained by subtraction of a previous image from a current one, can be used for enhancing interval changes (such as formation of new lesions and changes in existing abnormalities) on medical images by removing most of the normal structures. If image registration is incorrect, not only the interval changes but also the normal structures would be appeared as some artifacts on the temporal subtraction image. In a temporal subtraction technique for 2-D X-ray image, the effectiveness is shown through a lot of clinical evaluation experiments, and practical use is advancing. Moreover, the MDCT (Multi-Detector row Computed Tomography) can easily introduced on medical field, the development of a temporal subtraction for thoracic CT Images is expected. In our study, a temporal subtraction technique for thoracic CT Images is developed. As the technique, the vector fields are described by use of GGVF (Generalized Gradient Vector Flow) from the previous and current CT images. Afterwards, VOI (Volume of Interest) are set up on the previous and current CT image pairs. The shift vectors are calculated by using nearest neighbor matching of the vector fields in these VOIs. The search kernel on previous CT image is set up from the obtained shift vector. The previous CT voxel which resemble standard the current voxel is detected by voxel value and vector of the GGVF in the kernel. And, the previous CT image is transformed to the same coordinate of standard voxel. Finally, temporal subtraction image is made by subtraction of a warping image from a current one. To verify the proposal method, the result of application to 7 cases and the effectiveness are described. (author)
Porous materials with gradient and biporous structure, methods of their production
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ilyuschenko, A.; Savich, V.; Pilinevich, L.; Rak, A.
2001-01-01
We have worked out the technology of production porous powder materials (PPMs) of bronze, nickel, corrosion resistant steel and titanium powders with gradient and (or) biporous structure: vibrating forming of metal powders (including in electromagnetic field); layer-by-layer forming of metal powders with pore-maker while different proportion of the latter in the layer; forming of powder polymer layer on the preliminary sintered metal PPM surface. We have worked out the technology of production biporous structure by the following methods: metal granules forming and sintering; forming and sintering of metal powder with granules (2-3 mm) and pores-forming powder (size of particles is 0,4-0,63 mm). The novelty is in creation of technological bases of pores sizes regulation from 5 mkm on one PPM surface to 120 mkm on the opposite PPM surface which thickness can be 2-6 mm. PPM porosity can be constant within 0,3-0,6 relative units. More effective are those PPM which pores sizes are changeable and also porosity (from 0,35 to 0,60) from one surface o the opposite one. Two-layer metal-polymer PPM have pores sizes of 20-40 mkm in polymer layer and porosity 0,4-0,5 and, correspondingly, in metal layer 80-100 mkm and 0,45-0,55. In biporous structures made of 2-3 mm metal granules the distance between granules is 300-600 mkm and in granules - 14-30 mkm. The integral porosity of such PPM is 0,55-0,70. The technology of forming and sintering metal powder with granules and pores-making powder (carbamide) enables to regulate the integral porosity within 0,7-0,8 and average pores sizes within 100-1000 mkm with average size of metal powder particles of 0,63-1,0 mm. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand; Ritchie, Ewen
2011-01-01
This paper presents a new method for computation of the nonlinear flux linkage in 3-D finite-element models (FEMs) of electrical machines. Accurate computation of the nonlinear flux linkage in 3-D FEM is not an easy task. Compared to the existing energy-perturbation method, the new technique......-perturbation method. The new method proposed is validated using experimental results on two different permanent magnet machines....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hao Shi
2018-02-01
Full Text Available With the rapid development of remote sensing technologies, SAR satellites like China’s Gaofen-3 satellite have more imaging modes and higher resolution. With the availability of high-resolution SAR images, automatic ship target detection has become an important topic in maritime research. In this paper, a novel ship detection method based on gradient and integral features is proposed. This method is mainly composed of three steps. First, in the preprocessing step, a filter is employed to smooth the clutters and the smoothing effect can be adaptive adjusted according to the statistics information of the sub-window. Thus, it can retain details while achieving noise suppression. Second, in the candidate area extraction, a sea-land segmentation method based on gradient enhancement is presented. The integral image method is employed to accelerate computation. Finally, in the ship target identification step, a feature extraction strategy based on Haar-like gradient information and a Radon transform is proposed. This strategy decreases the number of templates found in traditional Haar-like methods. Experiments were performed using Gaofen-3 single-polarization SAR images, and the results showed that the proposed method has high detection accuracy and rapid computational efficiency. In addition, this method has the potential for on-board processing.
Flux weighted method for solution of stiff neutron dynamic equations and its application
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Huiyun; Jiao Huixian
1987-12-01
To analyze reactivity event for nuclear power plants, it is necessary to solve the neutron dynamic equations, which is a group of typical stiff constant differential equations. Very small time steps could only be adopted when the group of equations is solved by common methods. However, a large time steps might be selected if the Flux Weighted Medthod introduced in this paper is used. Generally, weighted factor θ i1 is set as a constant. Naturally, this treatment method can decrease the accuracy of calculation for the increase of the steadiness of solving the equations. An accurate theoretical formula of 4 x 4 matrix of θ i1 is rigorously derived so that the accuracy of calculation is ensured, as well as the steadiness of solved equations is increased. This method have the advantage over classical Runge-kutta Method and other methods. The time steps could be increased by a factor of 1 ∼ 3 orders of magnitude so as to save a lot of computating time. The programe solving neutron dynamic equation, which is prepared by using Flux Weighted Method, could be sued for real time analog of training simulator, as well as for analysis and computation of reactivity event (including rod jumping out event)
A multipoint flux mixed finite element method on distorted quadrilaterals and hexahedra
Wheeler, Mary
2011-11-06
In this paper, we develop a new mixed finite element method for elliptic problems on general quadrilateral and hexahedral grids that reduces to a cell-centered finite difference scheme. A special non-symmetric quadrature rule is employed that yields a positive definite cell-centered system for the pressure by eliminating local velocities. The method is shown to be accurate on highly distorted rough quadrilateral and hexahedral grids, including hexahedra with non-planar faces. Theoretical and numerical results indicate first-order convergence for the pressure and face fluxes. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.
A Lift-Off-Tolerant Magnetic Flux Leakage Testing Method for Drill Pipes at Wellhead
Wu, Jianbo; Fang, Hui; Li, Long; Wang, Jie; Huang, Xiaoming; Kang, Yihua; Sun, Yanhua; Tang, Chaoqing
2017-01-01
To meet the great needs for MFL (magnetic flux leakage) inspection of drill pipes at wellheads, a lift-off-tolerant MFL testing method is proposed and investigated in this paper. Firstly, a Helmholtz coil magnetization method and the whole MFL testing scheme are proposed. Then, based on the magnetic field focusing effect of ferrite cores, a lift-off-tolerant MFL sensor is developed and tested. It shows high sensitivity at a lift-off distance of 5.0 mm. Further, the follow-up high repeatabilit...
Barker, Brandon E; Sadagopan, Narayanan; Wang, Yiping; Smallbone, Kieran; Myers, Christopher R; Xi, Hongwei; Locasale, Jason W; Gu, Zhenglong
2015-12-01
A major theme in constraint-based modeling is unifying experimental data, such as biochemical information about the reactions that can occur in a system or the composition and localization of enzyme complexes, with high-throughput data including expression data, metabolomics, or DNA sequencing. The desired result is to increase predictive capability and improve our understanding of metabolism. The approach typically employed when only gene (or protein) intensities are available is the creation of tissue-specific models, which reduces the available reactions in an organism model, and does not provide an objective function for the estimation of fluxes. We develop a method, flux assignment with LAD (least absolute deviation) convex objectives and normalization (FALCON), that employs metabolic network reconstructions along with expression data to estimate fluxes. In order to use such a method, accurate measures of enzyme complex abundance are needed, so we first present an algorithm that addresses quantification of complex abundance. Our extensions to prior techniques include the capability to work with large models and significantly improved run-time performance even for smaller models, an improved analysis of enzyme complex formation, the ability to handle large enzyme complex rules that may incorporate multiple isoforms, and either maintained or significantly improved correlation with experimentally measured fluxes. FALCON has been implemented in MATLAB and ATS, and can be downloaded from: https://github.com/bbarker/FALCON. ATS is not required to compile the software, as intermediate C source code is available. FALCON requires use of the COBRA Toolbox, also implemented in MATLAB. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gould, Harvey; Maddi, Jason; Dinneen, Timothy
2000-06-01
Time-invariant electric field gradients have long been used to deflect beams of molecules and neutral atoms. However, time-varying electric field gradients can also be used to accelerate, slow [1,2], cool [2], or bunch these same beams. The possible applications include slowing and cooling thermal beams of molecules and atoms, launching cold atoms from a trap into a fountain, beam transport, and measuring atomic dipole polarizabilities. [1] H.L. Bethlem, G. Berden, and G Meijer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1588 (1999). [2] J. A. Maddi, T.P. Dinneen, and H. Gould, Phys. Rev. A60, 3882 (1999).
Adeli, Ruhollah; Kasesaz, Yaser; Shirmardi, Seyed Pezhman; Ezaty, Arsalan
2018-03-01
For designing an appropriate neutron beam, the determination of neutron flux at any irradiation facility is an important key factor. Due to the importance of determining the thermal and epithermal neutron fluxes in a typical thermal column of a reactor, a simple and accurate technique is introduced in this study. Absolute thermal and epithermal fluxes were measured experimentally at a certain point using the foil activation method by neutron bombardment of bare and cadmium covered Au foils. The relative neutron fluxes were also derived simply by means of Monte Carlo simulation by accurate modelling of the reactor components. Finally, by normalization of the relative distribution flux with regard to information about the absolute neutron flux, the accurate thermal and epithermal neutron distributions were derived, separately. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Benjamin N. Sulman; Daniel Tyler Roman; Todd M. Scanlon; Lixin Wang; Kimberly A. Novick
2016-01-01
The eddy covariance (EC) method is routinely used to measure net ecosystem fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2) and evapotranspiration (ET) in terrestrial ecosystems. It is often desirable to partition CO2 flux into gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (RE), and to partition ET into evaporation and...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bunting, R.W.; Callahan, R.J.; Finkelstein, S.; Lees, R.S.; Strauss, H.W.
1982-01-01
When labeling platelets with indium-111 oxine, albumin density-gradient separation minimizes the time spent to resuspend those platelets that have been centrifuged against a hard surface. Labeling efficiency or platelet viability, as measured by platelet survival or aggregation with adenosine diphosphate, are not adversely affected
WATSFAR: numerical simulation of soil WATer and Solute fluxes using a FAst and Robust method
Crevoisier, David; Voltz, Marc
2013-04-01
To simulate the evolution of hydro- and agro-systems, numerous spatialised models are based on a multi-local approach and improvement of simulation accuracy by data-assimilation techniques are now used in many application field. The latest acquisition techniques provide a large amount of experimental data, which increase the efficiency of parameters estimation and inverse modelling approaches. In turn simulations are often run on large temporal and spatial domains which requires a large number of model runs. Eventually, despite the regular increase in computing capacities, the development of fast and robust methods describing the evolution of saturated-unsaturated soil water and solute fluxes is still a challenge. Ross (2003, Agron J; 95:1352-1361) proposed a method, solving 1D Richards' and convection-diffusion equation, that fulfil these characteristics. The method is based on a non iterative approach which reduces the numerical divergence risks and allows the use of coarser spatial and temporal discretisations, while assuring a satisfying accuracy of the results. Crevoisier et al. (2009, Adv Wat Res; 32:936-947) proposed some technical improvements and validated this method on a wider range of agro- pedo- climatic situations. In this poster, we present the simulation code WATSFAR which generalises the Ross method to other mathematical representations of soil water retention curve (i.e. standard and modified van Genuchten model) and includes a dual permeability context (preferential fluxes) for both water and solute transfers. The situations tested are those known to be the less favourable when using standard numerical methods: fine textured and extremely dry soils, intense rainfall and solute fluxes, soils near saturation, ... The results of WATSFAR have been compared with the standard finite element model Hydrus. The analysis of these comparisons highlights two main advantages for WATSFAR, i) robustness: even on fine textured soil or high water and solute
In situ methods for measuring thermal properties and heat flux on planetary bodies
Kömle, Norbert I.; Hütter, Erika S.; Macher, Wolfgang; Kaufmann, Erika; Kargl, Günter; Knollenberg, Jörg; Grott, Matthias; Spohn, Tilman; Wawrzaszek, Roman; Banaszkiewicz, Marek; Seweryn, Karoly; Hagermann, Axel
2011-01-01
The thermo-mechanical properties of planetary surface and subsurface layers control to a high extent in which way a body interacts with its environment, in particular how it responds to solar irradiation and how it interacts with a potentially existing atmosphere. Furthermore, if the natural temperature profile over a certain depth can be measured in situ, this gives important information about the heat flux from the interior and thus about the thermal evolution of the body. Therefore, in most of the recent and planned planetary lander missions experiment packages for determining thermo-mechanical properties are part of the payload. Examples are the experiment MUPUS on Rosetta's comet lander Philae, the TECP instrument aboard NASA's Mars polar lander Phoenix, and the mole-type instrument HP3 currently developed for use on upcoming lunar and Mars missions. In this review we describe several methods applied for measuring thermal conductivity and heat flux and discuss the particular difficulties faced when these properties have to be measured in a low pressure and low temperature environment. We point out the abilities and disadvantages of the different instruments and outline the evaluation procedures necessary to extract reliable thermal conductivity and heat flux data from in situ measurements. PMID:21760643
Methods for the reconstruction of large scale anisotropies of the cosmic ray flux
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Over, Sven
2010-01-15
In cosmic ray experiments the arrival directions, among other properties, of cosmic ray particles from detected air shower events are reconstructed. The question of uniformity in the distribution of arrival directions is of large importance for models that try to explain cosmic radiation. In this thesis, methods for the reconstruction of parameters of a dipole-like flux distribution of cosmic rays from a set of recorded air shower events are studied. Different methods are presented and examined by means of detailed Monte Carlo simulations. Particular focus is put on the implications of spurious experimental effects. Modifications of existing methods and new methods are proposed. The main goal of this thesis is the development of the horizontal Rayleigh analysis method. Unlike other methods, this method is based on the analysis of local viewing directions instead of global sidereal directions. As a result, the symmetries of the experimental setup can be better utilised. The calculation of the sky coverage (exposure function) is not necessary in this analysis. The performance of the method is tested by means of further Monte Carlo simulations. The new method performs similarly good or only marginally worse than established methods in case of ideal measurement conditions. However, the simulation of certain experimental effects can cause substantial misestimations of the dipole parameters by the established methods, whereas the new method produces no systematic deviations. The invulnerability to certain effects offers additional advantages, as certain data selection cuts become dispensable. (orig.)
Yang, Zili
2017-07-01
Heart segmentation is an important auxiliary method in the diagnosis of many heart diseases, such as coronary heart disease and atrial fibrillation, and in the planning of tumor radiotherapy. Most of the existing methods for full heart segmentation treat the heart as a whole part and cannot accurately extract the bottom of the heart. In this paper, we propose a new method based on linear gradient model to segment the whole heart from the CT images automatically and accurately. Twelve cases were tested in order to test this method and accurate segmentation results were achieved and identified by clinical experts. The results can provide reliable clinical support.
Mazor, Raphael D; Schiff, Kenneth; Ritter, Kerry; Rehn, Andy; Ode, Peter
2010-08-01
Biomonitoring programs are often required to assess streams for which assessment tools have not been developed. For example, low-gradient streams (slopeindices in the state were developed in high-gradient systems. This study evaluated the performance of three sampling methods [targeted riffle composite (TRC), reach-wide benthos (RWB), and the margin-center-margin modification of RWB (MCM)] and two indices [the Southern California Index of Biotic Integrity (SCIBI) and the ratio of observed to expected taxa (O/E)] in low-gradient streams in California for application in this habitat type. Performance was evaluated in terms of efficacy (i.e., ability to collect enough individuals for index calculation), comparability (i.e., similarity of assemblages and index scores), sensitivity (i.e., responsiveness to disturbance), and precision (i.e., ability to detect small differences in index scores). The sampling methods varied in the degree to which they targeted macroinvertebrate-rich microhabitats, such as riffles and vegetated margins, which may be naturally scarce in low-gradient streams. The RWB method failed to collect sufficient numbers of individuals (i.e., >or=450) to calculate the SCIBI in 28 of 45 samples and often collected fewer than 100 individuals, suggesting it is inappropriate for low-gradient streams in California; failures for the other methods were less common (TRC, 16 samples; MCM, 11 samples). Within-site precision, measured as the minimum detectable difference (MDD) was poor but similar across methods for the SCIBI (ranging from 19 to 22). However, RWB had the lowest MDD for O/E scores (0.20 versus 0.24 and 0.28 for MCM and TRC, respectively). Mantel correlations showed that assemblages were more similar within sites among methods than within methods among sites, suggesting that the sampling methods were collecting similar assemblages of organisms. Statistically significant disagreements among methods were not detected, although O/E scores were higher
Residual-based a posteriori error estimation for multipoint flux mixed finite element methods
Du, Shaohong
2015-10-26
A novel residual-type a posteriori error analysis technique is developed for multipoint flux mixed finite element methods for flow in porous media in two or three space dimensions. The derived a posteriori error estimator for the velocity and pressure error in L-norm consists of discretization and quadrature indicators, and is shown to be reliable and efficient. The main tools of analysis are a locally postprocessed approximation to the pressure solution of an auxiliary problem and a quadrature error estimate. Numerical experiments are presented to illustrate the competitive behavior of the estimator.
Standard Test Method for Measuring Heat Flux Using a Water-Cooled Calorimeter
American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia
2005-01-01
1.1 This test method covers the measurement of a steady heat flux to a given water-cooled surface by means of a system energy balance. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1983-01-01
Under the direction of the Cinematography and Photography Standards Committee, a British Standard method has been prepared for determining ISO speed and average gradient of direct-exposure medical and dental radiographic film/film-process combinations. The method determines the speed and gradient, i.e. contrast, of the X-ray films processed according to their manufacturer's recommendations. (U.K.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hayward, Robert M.; Rahnema, Farzad; Zhang, Dingkang
2013-01-01
Highlights: ► A new hybrid stochastic–deterministic transport theory method to couple with diffusion theory. ► The method is implemented in 2D hexagonal geometry. ► The new method produces excellent results when compared with Monte Carlo reference solutions. ► The method is fast, solving all test cases in less than 12 s. - Abstract: A new hybrid stochastic–deterministic transport theory method, which is designed to couple with diffusion theory, is presented. The new method is an extension of the incident flux response expansion method, and it combines the speed of diffusion theory with the accuracy of transport theory. With ease of use in mind, the new method is derived in such a way that it can be implemented with only minimal modifications to an existing diffusion theory method. A new angular expansion, which is necessary for the diffusion theory coupling, is developed in 2D and 3D. The method is implemented in 2D hexagonal geometry, and an HTTR benchmark problem is used to test its accuracy in a standalone configuration. It is found that the new method produces excellent results (with average relative error in partial current less than 0.033%) when compared with Monte Carlo reference solutions. Furthermore, the method is fast, solving all test cases in less than 12 s
The Adjoint Method for Gradient-based Dynamic Optimization of UV Flash Processes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ritschel, Tobias Kasper Skovborg; Capolei, Andrea; Jørgensen, John Bagterp
2017-01-01
This paper presents a novel single-shooting algorithm for gradient-based solution of optimal control problems with vapor-liquid equilibrium constraints. Dynamic optimization of UV flash processes is relevant in nonlinear model predictive control of distillation columns, certain two-phase flow......-component flash process which demonstrate the importance of the optimization solver, the compiler, and the linear algebra software for the efficiency of dynamic optimization of UV flash processes....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Möstl
2009-05-01
Full Text Available We analyze a magnetic signature associated with the leading edge of a bursty bulk flow observed by Cluster at −19 R_{E} downtail on 22 August 2001. A distinct rotation of the magnetic field was seen by all four spacecraft. This event was previously examined by Slavin et al. (2003b using both linear force-free modeling as well as a curlometer technique. Extending this work, we apply here single- and multi-spacecraft Grad-Shafranov (GS reconstruction techniques to the Cluster observations and find good evidence that the structure encountered is indeed a magnetic flux rope and contains helical magnetic field lines. We find that the flux rope has a diameter of approximately 1 R_{E}, an axial field of 26.4 nT, a velocity of ≈650 km/s, a total axial current of 0.16 MA and magnetic fluxes of order 10^{5} Wb. The field line twist is estimated as half a turn per R_{E}. The invariant axis is inclined at 40° to the ecliptic plane and 10° to the GSM equatorial plane. The flux rope has a force-free core and non-force-free boundaries. When we compare and contrast our results with those obtained from minimum variance, single-spacecraft force-free fitting and curlometer techniques, we find in general fair agreement, but also clear differences such as a higher inclination of the axis to the ecliptic. We further conclude that single-spacecraft methods have limitations which should be kept in mind when applied to THEMIS observations, and that non-force-free GS and curlometer techniques are to be preferred in their analysis. Some properties we derived for this earthward– moving structure are similar to those inferred by Lui et al. (2007, using a different approach, for a tailward-moving flux rope observed during the expansion phase of the same substorm.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kolgotin Alexei
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Correlation relationships between aerosol microphysical parameters and optical data are investigated. The results show that surface-area concentrations and extinction coefficients are linearly correlated with a correlation coefficient above 0.99 for arbitrary particle size distribution. The correlation relationships that we obtained can be used as constraints in our inversion of optical lidar data. Simulation studies demonstrate a significant stabilization of aerosol microphysical data products if we apply the gradient correlation method in our traditional regularization technique.
The optimized gradient method for full waveform inversion and its spectral implementation
Wu, Zedong
2016-03-28
At the heart of the full waveform inversion (FWI) implementation is wavefield extrapolation, and specifically its accuracy and cost. To obtain accurate, dispersion free wavefields, the extrapolation for modelling is often expensive. Combining an efficient extrapolation with a novel gradient preconditioning can render an FWI implementation that efficiently converges to an accurate model. We, specifically, recast the extrapolation part of the inversion in terms of its spectral components for both data and gradient calculation. This admits dispersion free wavefields even at large extrapolation time steps, which improves the efficiency of the inversion. An alternative spectral representation of the depth axis in terms of sine functions allows us to impose a free surface boundary condition, which reflects our medium boundaries more accurately. Using a newly derived perfectly matched layer formulation for this spectral implementation, we can define a finite model with absorbing boundaries. In order to reduce the nonlinearity in FWI, we propose a multiscale conditioning of the objective function through combining the different directional components of the gradient to optimally update the velocity. Through solving a simple optimization problem, it specifically admits the smoothest approximate update while guaranteeing its ascending direction. An application to the Marmousi model demonstrates the capability of the proposed approach and justifies our assertions with respect to cost and convergence.
Sproson, D. A. J.; Brooks, I. M.; Norris, S. J.
2012-09-01
The eddy covariance technique is the most direct of the methods that have been used to measure the flux of sea-spray aerosol between the ocean and atmosphere, but has been applied in only a handful of studies. However, unless the aerosol is dried before the eddy covariance measurements are made, the hygroscopic nature of sea-spray may combine with a relative humidity flux to result in a bias in the calculated aerosol flux. "Bulk" methods have been presented to account for this bias, however they rely on assumptions of the shape of the aerosol spectra which may not be valid for near-surface measurements of sea-spray. Here we describe a method of correcting aerosol spectra for relative humidity induced size variations at the high frequency (10 Hz) measurement timescale, where counting statistics are poor and the spectral shape cannot be well represented by a simple power law. Such a correction allows the effects of hygroscopicity and relative humidity flux on the aerosol flux to be explicitly evaluated and compared to the bulk corrections, both in their original form and once reformulated to better represent the measured mean aerosol spectra. In general, the bulk corrections - particularly when reformulated for the measured mean aerosol spectra - perform relatively well, producing flux corrections of the right sign and approximate magnitude. However, there are times when the bulk methods either significantly over- or underestimate the required flux correction. We thus conclude that, where possible, relative humidity corrections should be made at the measurement frequency.
A Lift-Off-Tolerant Magnetic Flux Leakage Testing Method for Drill Pipes at Wellhead.
Wu, Jianbo; Fang, Hui; Li, Long; Wang, Jie; Huang, Xiaoming; Kang, Yihua; Sun, Yanhua; Tang, Chaoqing
2017-01-21
To meet the great needs for MFL (magnetic flux leakage) inspection of drill pipes at wellheads, a lift-off-tolerant MFL testing method is proposed and investigated in this paper. Firstly, a Helmholtz coil magnetization method and the whole MFL testing scheme are proposed. Then, based on the magnetic field focusing effect of ferrite cores, a lift-off-tolerant MFL sensor is developed and tested. It shows high sensitivity at a lift-off distance of 5.0 mm. Further, the follow-up high repeatability MFL probing system is designed and manufactured, which was embedded with the developed sensors. It can track the swing movement of drill pipes and allow the pipe ends to pass smoothly. Finally, the developed system is employed in a drilling field for drill pipe inspection. Test results show that the proposed method can fulfill the requirements for drill pipe inspection at wellheads, which is of great importance in drill pipe safety.
A Lift-Off-Tolerant Magnetic Flux Leakage Testing Method for Drill Pipes at Wellhead
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jianbo Wu
2017-01-01
Full Text Available To meet the great needs for MFL (magnetic flux leakage inspection of drill pipes at wellheads, a lift-off-tolerant MFL testing method is proposed and investigated in this paper. Firstly, a Helmholtz coil magnetization method and the whole MFL testing scheme are proposed. Then, based on the magnetic field focusing effect of ferrite cores, a lift-off-tolerant MFL sensor is developed and tested. It shows high sensitivity at a lift-off distance of 5.0 mm. Further, the follow-up high repeatability MFL probing system is designed and manufactured, which was embedded with the developed sensors. It can track the swing movement of drill pipes and allow the pipe ends to pass smoothly. Finally, the developed system is employed in a drilling field for drill pipe inspection. Test results show that the proposed method can fulfill the requirements for drill pipe inspection at wellheads, which is of great importance in drill pipe safety.
Yablonskiy, Dmitriy A; Sukstanskii, Alexander L; Luo, Jie; Wang, Xiaoqi
2012-01-01
Purpose Macroscopic magnetic field inhomogeneities adversely affect different aspects of MRI images. In quantitative MRI when the goal is to quantify biological tissue parameters, they bias and often corrupt such measurements. The goal of this paper is to develop a method for correction of macroscopic field inhomogeneities that can be applied to a variety of quantitative gradient-echo-based MRI techniques. Methods We have re-analyzed a basic theory of gradient echo (GE) MRI signal formation in the presence of background field inhomogeneities and derived equations that allow for correction of magnetic field inhomogeneity effects based on the phase and magnitude of GE data. We verified our theory by mapping R2* relaxation rate in computer simulated, phantom, and in vivo human data collected with multi-GE sequences. Results The proposed technique takes into account voxel spread function (VSF) effects and allowed obtaining virtually free from artifacts R2* maps for all simulated, phantom and in vivo data except of the edge areas with very steep field gradients. Conclusion The VSF method, allowing quantification of tissue specific R2*-related tissue properties, has a potential to breed new MRI biomarkers serving as surrogates for tissue biological properties similar to R1 and R2 relaxation rate constants widely used in clinical and research MRI. PMID:23233445
Zheng, Lu-Lu; Dou, Hua-Shu; Jiang, Wei; Chen, Xiaoping; Zhu, Zuchao; Cui, Baoling
2016-12-01
Numerical simulation is performed for the three-dimensional turbulent flow field in a centrifugal pump by solving the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations and the RNG k-epsilon turbulent model. The finite volume method and the SIMPLE algorithm are employed for the solution of the system. All the parameters in the centrifugal pump at different blade angular positions are obtained by simulation. The flow structure is analyzed and the distributions of the energy gradient function K are calculated at different blade angular positions based on the energy gradient method. According to the energy gradient method, the location which has larger value of K is easier to cause instability and to be of high turbulence intensity. The result shows that the flow instability is easier to be excited nearing the tongue where the value of K is large. The unstable flow area nearing the tongue is also in agreement with the zone where the velocity decreases rapidly. The sudden variation of velocity contributes to the large value of K. The research result also indicates that the tongue has large impact only on the impeller passages passing the tongue.
Kesteren, van A.J.H.; Hartogensis, O.K.; Dinther, van D.; Moene, A.F.; Bruin, de H.A.R.
2013-01-01
This study introduces four methods for determining turbulent water vapour and carbon dioxide flux densities, the evapotranspiration and CO2 flux respectively. These methods combine scintillometer measurements with point-sampling measurements of scalar quantities and consequently have a faster
Mohamed, Nur Syarafina; Mamat, Mustafa; Rivaie, Mohd
2016-11-01
Conjugate gradient (CG) methods are one of the tools in optimization. Due to its low computational memory requirement, this method is used in solving several of nonlinear unconstrained optimization problems from designs, economics, physics and engineering. In this paper, a new modification of CG family coefficient (βk) is proposed and posses global convergence under exact line search direction. Numerical experimental results based on the number of iterations and central processing unit (CPU) time show that the new βk performs better than some other well known CG methods under some standard test functions.
Pulsed magnetic flux leakage method for hairline crack detection and characterization
Okolo, Chukwunonso K.; Meydan, Turgut
2018-04-01
The Magnetic Flux leakage (MFL) method is a well-established branch of electromagnetic Non-Destructive Testing (NDT), extensively used for evaluating defects both on the surface and far-surface of pipeline structures. However the conventional techniques are not capable of estimating their approximate size, location and orientation, hence an additional transducer is required to provide the extra information needed. This research is aimed at solving the inevitable problem of granular bond separation which occurs during manufacturing, leaving pipeline structures with miniature cracks. It reports on a quantitative approach based on the Pulsed Magnetic Flux Leakage (PMFL) method, for the detection and characterization of the signals produced by tangentially oriented rectangular surface and far-surface hairline cracks. This was achieved through visualization and 3D imaging of the leakage field. The investigation compared finite element numerical simulation with experimental data. Experiments were carried out using a 10mm thick low carbon steel plate containing artificial hairline cracks with various depth sizes, and different features were extracted from the transient signal. The influence of sensor lift-off and pulse width variation on the magnetic field distribution which affects the detection capability of various hairline cracks located at different depths in the specimen is explored. The findings show that the proposed technique can be used to classify both surface and far-surface hairline cracks and can form the basis for an enhanced hairline crack detection and characterization for pipeline health monitoring.
Burt, Adam O.; Tinker, Michael L.
2014-01-01
In this paper, genetic algorithm based and gradient-based topology optimization is presented in application to a real hardware design problem. Preliminary design of a planetary lander mockup structure is accomplished using these methods that prove to provide major weight savings by addressing the structural efficiency during the design cycle. This paper presents two alternative formulations of the topology optimization problem. The first is the widely-used gradient-based implementation using commercially available algorithms. The second is formulated using genetic algorithms and internally developed capabilities. These two approaches are applied to a practical design problem for hardware that has been built, tested and proven to be functional. Both formulations converged on similar solutions and therefore were proven to be equally valid implementations of the process. This paper discusses both of these formulations at a high level.
Negara, Ardiansyah
2015-05-01
Anisotropy of hydraulic properties of the subsurface geologic formations is an essential feature that has been established as a consequence of the different geologic processes that undergo during the longer geologic time scale. With respect to subsurface reservoirs, in many cases, anisotropy plays significant role in dictating the direction of flow that becomes no longer dependent only on driving forces like the pressure gradient and gravity but also on the principal directions of anisotropy. Therefore, there has been a great deal of motivation to consider anisotropy into the subsurface flow and transport models. In this dissertation, we present subsurface flow modeling in single and dual continuum anisotropic porous media, which include the single-phase groundwater flow coupled with the solute transport in anisotropic porous media, the two-phase flow with gravity effect in anisotropic porous media, and the natural gas flow in anisotropic shale reservoirs. We have employed the multipoint flux approximation (MPFA) method to handle anisotropy in the flow model. The MPFA method is designed to provide correct discretization of the flow equations for general orientation of the principal directions of the permeability tensor. The implementation of MPFA method is combined with the experimenting pressure field approach, a newly developed technique that enables the solution of the global problem breaks down into the solution of multitude of local problems. The numerical results of the study demonstrate the significant effects of anisotropy of the subsurface formations. For the single-phase groundwater flow coupled with the solute transport modeling in anisotropic porous media, the results shows the strong impact of anisotropy on the pressure field and the migration of the solute concentration. For the two-phase flow modeling with gravity effect in anisotropic porous media, it is observed that the buoyancy-driven flow, which emerges due to the density differences between the
Prediction of critical heat flux in fuel assemblies using a CHF table method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chun, Tae Hyun; Hwang, Dae Hyun; Bang, Je Geon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Won Pil; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advance Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
1997-12-31
A CHF table method has been assessed in this study for rod bundle CHF predictions. At the conceptual design stage for a new reactor, a general critical heat flux (CHF) prediction method with a wide applicable range and reasonable accuracy is essential to the thermal-hydraulic design and safety analysis. In many aspects, a CHF table method (i.e., the use of a round tube CHF table with appropriate bundle correction factors) can be a promising way to fulfill this need. So the assessment of the CHF table method has been performed with the bundle CHF data relevant to pressurized water reactors (PWRs). For comparison purposes, W-3R and EPRI-1 were also applied to the same data base. Data analysis has been conducted with the subchannel code COBRA-IV-I. The CHF table method shows the best predictions based on the direct substitution method. Improvements of the bundle correction factors, especially for the spacer grid and cold wall effects, are desirable for better predictions. Though the present assessment is somewhat limited in both fuel geometries and operating conditions, the CHF table method clearly shows potential to be a general CHF predictor. 8 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs. (Author)
Analytical methods for quantifying greenhouse gas flux in animal production systems.
Powers, W; Capelari, M
2016-08-01
Given increased interest by all stakeholders to better understand the contribution of animal agriculture to climate change, it is important that appropriate methodologies be used when measuring greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from animal agriculture. Similarly, a fundamental understanding of the differences between methods is necessary to appropriately compare data collected using different approaches and design meaningful experiments. Sources of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide emissions in animal production systems includes the animals, feed storage areas, manure deposition and storage areas, and feed and forage production fields. These 3 gases make up the primary GHG emissions from animal feeding operations. Each of the different GHG may be more or less prominent from each emitting source. Similarly, the species dictates the importance of methane emissions from the animals themselves. Measures of GHG flux from animals are often made using respiration chambers, head boxes, tracer gas techniques, or in vitro gas production techniques. In some cases, a combination of techniques are used (i.e., head boxes in combination with tracer gas). The prominent methods for measuring GHG emissions from housing include the use of tracer gas techniques or direct or indirect ventilation measures coupled with concentration measures of gases of interest. Methods for collecting and measuring GHG emissions from manure storage and/or production lots include the use of downwind measures, often using photoacoustic or open path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, combined with modeling techniques or the use of static chambers or flux hood methods. Similar methods can be deployed for determining GHG emissions from fields. Each method identified has its own benefits and challenges to use for the stated application. Considerations for use include intended goal, equipment investment and maintenance, frequency and duration of sampling needed to achieve desired representativeness
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand; Ritchie, Ewen
2009-01-01
Knowledge of actual flux linkage versus current profiles plays an important role in design verification and performance prediction for switched reluctance motors (SRM's) and permanent magnet motors (PMM's). Various measurement methods have been proposed and discussed so far but each method has its...... the described AC method on an SRM and on a PM motor. For these two motors, the measured flux-linkage-current curves are compared to those measured using other methods. The comparison results show good effectiveness of the proposed AC method for both the SRM and the PM motor....
Lee, Doohee; Lee, Jingu; Lee, Jongho; Nam, Yoonho
2018-02-25
Myelin water imaging (MWI) reportedly corresponds closely to the myelin content in the brain. An MWI technique based on multi-echo gradient echo (mGRE) has recently been proposed as an alternative to the conventional spin-echo-based MWI. However, the mGRE signal is vulnerable to macroscopic field inhomogeneity, which makes MWI unreliable. In the present study, a z-shim-based single-scan correction method is proposed to overcome this limitation. Z-shim gradients in the slice-selection direction were added to an mGRE sequence after an echo time of 12 ms. A 3-pool model corresponding to the proposed sequence was suggested for fitting the acquired signal. The method was evaluated through a comparison with methods without a correction and with post-processing only from non-z-shimmed data. To do this, numerical simulations and in vivo experiments were conducted. The simulation and in vivo experiment results indicated that post-processing alone was not sufficient to offset the macroscopic field inhomogeneity, particularly in inferior regions of the brain. On the other hand, the proposed method compensated the field inhomogeneity in most brain areas. The estimated in vivo myelin water fraction values were in good agreement with literature values obtained by previously proposed field inhomogeneity correction method. The proposed method showed reliable myelin water fraction in most regions of the brain in vivo, including those with severe field inhomogeneity. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.
Central Russia agroecosystem monitoring with CO2 fluxes analysis by eddy covariance method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joulia Meshalkina
2015-07-01
Full Text Available The eddy covariance (EC technique as a powerful statistics-based method of measurement and calculation the vertical turbulent fluxes of greenhouses gases within atmospheric boundary layers provides the continuous, long-term flux information integrated at the ecosystem scale. An attractive way to compare the agricultural practices influences on GHG fluxes is to divide a crop area into subplots managed in different ways. The research has been carried out in the Precision Farming Experimental Field of the Russian Timiryazev State Agricultural University (RTSAU, Moscow in 2013 under the support of RF Government grant # 11.G34.31.0079, EU grant # 603542 LUС4С (7FP and RF Ministry of education and science grant # 14-120-14-4266-ScSh. Arable Umbric Albeluvisols have around 1% of SOC, 5.4 pH (KCl and NPK medium-enhanced contents in sandy loam topsoil. The CO2 flux seasonal monitoring has been done by two eddy covariance stations located at the distance of 108 m. The LI-COR instrumental equipment was the same for the both stations. The stations differ only by current crop version: barley or vetch and oats. At both sites, diurnal patterns of NEE among different months were very similar in shape but varied slightly in amplitude. NEE values were about zero during spring time. CO2 fluxes have been intensified after crop emerging from values of 3 to 7 µmol/s∙m2 for emission, and from 5 to 20 µmol/s∙m2 for sink. Stabilization of the fluxes has come at achieving plants height of 10-12 cm. Average NEE was negative only in June and July. Maximum uptake was observed in June with average values about 8 µmol CO2 m−2 s−1. Although different kind of crops were planted on the fields A and B, GPP dynamics was quite similar for both sites: after reaching the peak values at the mid of June, GPP decreased from 4 to 0.5 g C CO2 m-2 d-1 at the end of July. The difference in crops harvesting time that was equal two weeks did not significantly influence the daily
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
D'Orazio, A; Karimipour, A; Nezhad, A H; Shirani, E
2014-01-01
Laminar mixed convective heat transfer in two-dimensional rectangular inclined driven cavity is studied numerically by means of a double population thermal Lattice Boltzmann method. Through the top moving lid the heat flux enters the cavity whereas it leaves the system through the bottom wall; side walls are adiabatic. The counter-slip internal energy density boundary condition, able to simulate an imposed non zero heat flux at the wall, is applied, in order to demonstrate that it can be effectively used to simulate heat transfer phenomena also in case of moving walls. Results are analyzed over a range of the Richardson numbers and tilting angles of the enclosure, encompassing the dominating forced convection, mixed convection, and dominating natural convection flow regimes. As expected, heat transfer rate increases as increases the inclination angle, but this effect is significant for higher Richardson numbers, when buoyancy forces dominate the problem; for horizontal cavity, average Nusselt number decreases with the increase of Richardson number because of the stratified field configuration
A comparison of recent methods for modelling mercury fluxes at the air-water interface
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fantozzi L.
2013-04-01
Full Text Available The atmospheric pathway of the global mercury flux is known to be the primary source of mercury contamination to most threatened aquatic ecosystems. Notwithstanding, the emission of mercury from surface water to the atmosphere is as much as 50% of total annual emissions of this metal into the atmosphere. In recent years, much effort has been made in theoretical and experimental researches to quantify the total mass flux of mercury to the atmosphere. In this study the most recent atmospheric modelling methods and the information obtained from them are presented and compared using experimental data collected during the Oceanographic Campaign Fenice 2011 (25 October – 8 November 2011, performed on board the Research Vessel (RV Urania of the CNR in the framework of the MEDOCEANOR ongoing program. A strategy for future numerical model development is proposed which is intended to gain a better knowledge of the long-term effects of meteo-climatic drivers on mercury evasional processes, and would provide key information on gaseous Hg exchange rates at the air-water interface.
A novel approach to evaluate soil heat flux calculation: An analytical review of nine methods
Gao, Zhongming; Russell, Eric S.; Missik, Justine E. C.; Huang, Maoyi; Chen, Xingyuan; Strickland, Chris E.; Clayton, Ray; Arntzen, Evan; Ma, Yulong; Liu, Heping
2017-07-01
There are no direct methods to evaluate calculated soil heat flux (SHF) at the surface (G0). Instead, validation and cross evaluation of methods for calculating G0 usually rely on the conventional calorimetric method or the degree of the surface energy balance closure. However, there is uncertainty in the calorimetric method itself, and factors apart from G0 also contribute to nonclosure of the surface energy balance. Here we used a novel approach to evaluate nine different methods for calculating SHF, including the calorimetric method and methods based on analytical solutions of the heat diffusion equation. The SHF (Gz) measured by a self-calibrating SHF plate at a depth of z = 5 cm below the surface (hereafter Gm_5cm) was deployed as a reference. Each SHF calculation method was assessed by comparing the calculated Gz at the same depth (hereafter Gc_5cm) with Gm_5cm. The calorimetric method and simple measurement method performed best in determining Gc_5cm but still underestimated Gm_5cm by 19% during the daytime. Possible causes for this underestimation include errors and uncertainties in SHF measurements and soil thermal properties, as well as the phase lag between Gc_5cm and Gm_5cm. Our results indicate that the calorimetric method achieves the most accurate SHF estimates if self-calibrating SHF plates are deployed at two depths (e.g., 5 cm and 10 cm), soil temperature and water content measurements are made in a few depths between the two plates, and soil thermal properties are accurately quantified.
Iriana, Windy; Tonokura, Kenichi; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Inoue, Gen; Kusin, Kitso; Limin, Suwido H.
2016-09-01
Evaluation of CO2 flux from peatland soil respiration is important to understand the effect of land use change on the global carbon cycle and climate change and particularly to support carbon emission reduction policies. However, quantitative estimation of emitted CO2 fluxes in Indonesia is constrained by existing field data. Current methods for CO2 measurement are limited by high initial cost, manpower, and the difficulties associated with construction issues. Measurement campaigns were performed using a newly developed nocturnal temperature-inversion trap method, which measures the amount of CO2 trapped beneath the nocturnal inversion layer, in the dry season of 2013 at a drained tropical peatland near Palangkaraya, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. This method is cost-effective and data processing is easier than other flux estimation methods. We compared CO2 fluxes measured using this method with the published data from the existing eddy covariance and closed chamber methods. The maximum value of our measurement results was 10% lower than maximum value of eddy covariance method and average value was 6% higher than average of chamber method in drained tropical peatlands. In addition, the measurement results shows good correlation with groundwater table. The results of this comparison suggest that this methodology for the CO2 flux measurement is useful for field research in tropical peatlands.
Yoshikawa, K.; Ueyama, M.; Takagi, K.; Kominami, Y.
2015-12-01
Methane (CH4) budget in forest ecosystems have not been accurately quantified due to limited measurements and considerable spatiotemporal heterogeneity. In order to quantify CH4 fluxes at temperate forest at various spatiotemporal scales, we have continuously measured CH4 fluxes at two upland forests based on the micrometeorological hyperbolic relaxed eddy accumulation (HREA) and automated dynamic closed chamber methods.The measurements have been conducted at Teshio experimental forest (TSE) since September 2013 and Yamashiro forest meteorology research site (YMS) since November 2014. Three automated chambers were installed on each site. Our system can measure CH4 flux by the micrometeorological HREA, vertical concentration profile at four heights, and chamber measurements by a laser-based gas analyzer (FGGA-24r-EP, Los Gatos Research Inc., USA).Seasonal variations of canopy-scale CH4 fluxes were different in each site. CH4 was consumed during the summer, but was emitted during the fall and winter in TSE; consequently, the site acted as a net annual CH4 source. CH4 was steadily consumed during the winter, but CH4 fluxes fluctuated between absorption and emission during the spring and summer in YMS. YMS acted as a net annual CH4 sink. CH4 uptake at the canopy scale generally decreased with rising soil temperature and increased with drying condition for both sites. CH4 flux measured by most of chambers showed the consistent sensitivity examined for the canopy scale to the environmental variables. CH4 fluxes from a few chambers located at a wet condition were independent of variations in soil temperature and moisture at both sites. Magnitude of soil CH4 uptake was higher than the canopy-scale CH4 uptake. Our results showed that the canopy-scale CH4 fluxes were totally different with the plot-scale CH4 fluxes by chambers, suggesting the considerable spatial heterogeneity in CH4 flux at the temperate forests.
Butt, Amjad; Chohan, Muhammad Arshad
2016-08-01
To see the efficacy of different methods of intrauterine insemination preparation for sperm recovery and conception rate. This prospective observational study was carried out at Chohan Reproduction and Assisted Fertility Treatment Centre, Lahore, Pakistan, from January 2014 to July 2014, and comprised infertile couples undergoing intrauterine insemination cycles. Method of sperm preparation for intrauterine insemination during super-ovulation was randomly assigned for swim-up and density gradient techniques. Total sperm count, percentage recovery of motile sperm count, conception rate and cycle fecundity (live births, miscarriages, ectopic pregnancy) were measured.Mean percentages of sperm recovery and motility were compared. SPSS 21 was used for data analysis. Of the 220 couples who underwent 440 cycles, 138(62.7%) suffered from primary infertility and 82(37.27%) from secondary infertility. The mean age of women was 31.75±5.47 years, while that of men was 35.78±5.27 years. Mean duration of infertility in these couples was 5.50±3.51 years. Intrauterine insemination was performed at the first attempt in 180(81.8%) couples, at the second attempt in 37(16.8%) and at the third attempt in 3(1.3%) couples. Mean percentage of sperm motility in post-preparation of density gradient procedure was 83.88±15.02 (day 1) and 84.02±18.51 (day 2) while in swim-up procedure it was 91.02±11.85 (day 1) and 92.28±9.89 (day 2). Mean percentage of sperm concentration after processing in density gradient procedure was higher than swim-up (p=0.368 day 1; p=0.225 day 2) but mean percentage of sperm motility in post-preparation of density gradient procedure was less than swim-up procedure (p=0.000 day 1; p=0.000 day 2). Recovery rates in density gradient were 50.89% on day 1 and 5 13% on day 2compared to 36.69% on day 1 and 37.5%on day 2in swim-up technique (p=0.02). Conception rate was 15%. Despite the difference in percentage recovery of motile sperms in different techniques, cycle
Critical flux determination by flux-stepping
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Beier, Søren; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil
2010-01-01
In membrane filtration related scientific literature, often step-by-step determined critical fluxes are reported. Using a dynamic microfiltration device, it is shown that critical fluxes determined from two different flux-stepping methods are dependent upon operational parameters such as step......, such values are more or less useless in itself as critical flux predictors, and constant flux verification experiments have to be conducted to check if the determined critical fluxes call predict sustainable flux regimes. However, it is shown that using the step-by-step predicted critical fluxes as start...
Distenfeld, Carl H.
1978-01-01
A method for measuring the dose-equivalent for exposure to an unknown and/or time varing neutron flux which comprises simultaneously exposing a plurality of neutron detecting elements of different types to a neutron flux and combining the measured responses of the various detecting elements by means of a function, whose value is an approximate measure of the dose-equivalent, which is substantially independent of the energy spectra of the flux. Also, a personnel neutron dosimeter, which is useful in carrying out the above method, comprising a plurality of various neutron detecting elements in a single housing suitable for personnel to wear while working in a radiation area.
Theobald, Mark R.; Crittenden, Peter D.; Tang, Y. Sim; Sutton, Mark A.
2013-12-01
Penguin colonies represent some of the most concentrated sources of ammonia emissions to the atmosphere in the world. The ammonia emitted into the atmosphere can have a large influence on the nitrogen cycling of ecosystems near the colonies. However, despite the ecological importance of the emissions, no measurements of ammonia emissions from penguin colonies have been made. The objective of this work was to determine the ammonia emission rate of a penguin colony using inverse-dispersion modelling and gradient methods. We measured meteorological variables and mean atmospheric concentrations of ammonia at seven locations near a colony of Adélie penguins in Antarctica to provide input data for inverse-dispersion modelling. Three different atmospheric dispersion models (ADMS, LADD and a Lagrangian stochastic model) were used to provide a robust emission estimate. The Lagrangian stochastic model was applied both in ‘forwards’ and ‘backwards’ mode to compare the difference between the two approaches. In addition, the aerodynamic gradient method was applied using vertical profiles of mean ammonia concentrations measured near the centre of the colony. The emission estimates derived from the simulations of the three dispersion models and the aerodynamic gradient method agreed quite well, giving a mean emission of 1.1 g ammonia per breeding pair per day (95% confidence interval: 0.4-2.5 g ammonia per breeding pair per day). This emission rate represents a volatilisation of 1.9% of the estimated nitrogen excretion of the penguins, which agrees well with that estimated from a temperature-dependent bioenergetics model. We found that, in this study, the Lagrangian stochastic model seemed to give more reliable emission estimates in ‘forwards’ mode than in ‘backwards’ mode due to the assumptions made.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ward, G.J.; Heckbert, P.S.; Technische Hogeschool Delft
1992-04-01
A new method for improving the accuracy of a diffuse interreflection calculation is introduced in a ray tracing context. The information from a hemispherical sampling of the luminous environment is interpreted in a new way to predict the change in irradiance as a function of position and surface orientation. The additional computation involved is modest and the benefit is substantial. An improved interpolation of irradiance resulting from the gradient calculation produces smoother, more accurate renderings. This result is achieved through better utilization of ray samples rather than additional samples or alternate sampling strategies. Thus, the technique is applicable to a variety of global illumination algorithms that use hemicubes or Monte Carlo sampling techniques
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tatu, Aditya Jayant
tracking interfaces, active contour based segmentation methods and others. It can also be used to study shape spaces, as deforming a shape can be thought of as evolving its boundary curve. During curve evolution a curve traces out a path in the infinite dimensional space of curves. Due to application...... defined subspace, the N-links bicycle chain space, i.e. the space of curves with equidistant neighboring landmark points. This in itself is a useful shape space for medical image analysis applications. The Histogram of Gradient orientation based features are many in number and are widely used...
Chernov, A. V.
2015-02-01
The optimal control of a second-order semilinear elliptic diffusion-reaction equation is considered. Sufficient conditions for the convergence of the conditional gradient method are obtained without using assumptions (traditional for optimization theory) that ensure the Lipschitz continuity of the objective functional derivative. The total (over the entire set of admissible controls) preservation of solvability, a pointwise estimate of solutions, and the uniqueness of a solution to the homogeneous Dirichlet problem for a controlled elliptic equation are proved as preliminary results, which are of interest on their own.
A new method for estimating heat flux in superheater and reheater tubes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Purbolaksono, J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, km 7 Jalan Kajang-Puchong, Kajang 43009, Selangor (Malaysia)], E-mail: judha@uniten.edu.my; Khinani, A.; Rashid, A.Z.; Ali, A.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, km 7 Jalan Kajang-Puchong, Kajang 43009, Selangor (Malaysia); Ahmad, J. [Kapar Energy Ventures Sdn Bhd, Jalan Tok Muda, Kapar 42200, Selangor (Malaysia); Nordin, N.F. [TNB Research Sdn Bhd, No. 1 Lorong Air Hitam, Kajang 43000, Selangor (Malaysia)
2009-10-15
In this paper a procedure on how to estimate the heat flux in superheater and reheater tubes utilizing the empirical formula and the finite element modeling is proposed. An iterative procedure consisting of empirical formulae and numerical simulation is used to determine heat flux as both temperature and scale thickness increase over period of time. Estimation results of the heat flux over period of time for two different design temperatures of the steam and different heat transfer parameters are presented.
Flotemersch, Joseph E; North, Sheila; Blocksom, Karen A
2014-02-01
Benthic macroinvertebrates are sampled in streams and rivers as one of the assessment elements of the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Rivers and Streams Assessment. In a 2006 report, the recommendation was made that different yet comparable methods be evaluated for different types of streams (e.g., low gradient vs. high gradient). Consequently, a research element was added to the 2008-2009 National Rivers and Streams Assessment to conduct a side-by-side comparison of the standard macroinvertebrate sampling method with an alternate method specifically designed for low-gradient wadeable streams and rivers that focused more on stream edge habitat. Samples were collected using each method at 525 sites in five of nine aggregate ecoregions located in the conterminous USA. Methods were compared using the benthic macroinvertebrate multimetric index developed for the 2006 Wadeable Streams Assessment. Statistical analysis did not reveal any trends that would suggest the overall assessment of low-gradient streams on a regional or national scale would change if the alternate method was used rather than the standard sampling method, regardless of the gradient cutoff used to define low-gradient streams. Based on these results, the National Rivers and Streams Survey should continue to use the standard field method for sampling all streams.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Werner-Wasik, Maria; Nelson, Arden D.; Choi, Walter; Arai, Yoshio; Faulhaber, Peter F.; Kang, Patrick; Almeida, Fabio D.; Xiao, Ying; Ohri, Nitin; Brockway, Kristin D.; Piper, Jonathan W.; Nelson, Aaron S.
2012-01-01
Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy and consistency of a gradient-based positron emission tomography (PET) segmentation method, GRADIENT, compared with manual (MANUAL) and constant threshold (THRESHOLD) methods. Methods and Materials: Contouring accuracy was evaluated with sphere phantoms and clinically realistic Monte Carlo PET phantoms of the thorax. The sphere phantoms were 10–37 mm in diameter and were acquired at five institutions emulating clinical conditions. One institution also acquired a sphere phantom with multiple source-to-background ratios of 2:1, 5:1, 10:1, 20:1, and 70:1. One observer segmented (contoured) each sphere with GRADIENT and THRESHOLD from 25% to 50% at 5% increments. Subsequently, seven physicians segmented 31 lesions (7–264 mL) from 25 digital thorax phantoms using GRADIENT, THRESHOLD, and MANUAL. Results: For spheres 20 mm (p < 0.065) and <20 mm (p < 0.015). For digital thorax phantoms, GRADIENT was the most accurate (p < 0.01), with a mean absolute % error in volume of 10.99% (11.9% SD), followed by 25% THRESHOLD at 17.5% (29.4% SD), and MANUAL at 19.5% (17.2% SD). GRADIENT had the least systematic bias, with a mean % error in volume of –0.05% (16.2% SD) compared with 25% THRESHOLD at –2.1% (34.2% SD) and MANUAL at –16.3% (20.2% SD; p value <0.01). Interobserver variability was reduced using GRADIENT compared with both 25% THRESHOLD and MANUAL (p value <0.01, Levene’s test). Conclusion: GRADIENT was the most accurate and consistent technique for target volume contouring. GRADIENT was also the most robust for varying imaging conditions. GRADIENT has the potential to play an important role for tumor delineation in radiation therapy planning and response assessment.
Faster PET reconstruction with a stochastic primal-dual hybrid gradient method
Ehrhardt, Matthias J.
2017-08-24
Image reconstruction in positron emission tomography (PET) is computationally challenging due to Poisson noise, constraints and potentially non-smooth priors-let alone the sheer size of the problem. An algorithm that can cope well with the first three of the aforementioned challenges is the primal-dual hybrid gradient algorithm (PDHG) studied by Chambolle and Pock in 2011. However, PDHG updates all variables in parallel and is therefore computationally demanding on the large problem sizes encountered with modern PET scanners where the number of dual variables easily exceeds 100 million. In this work, we numerically study the usage of SPDHG-a stochastic extension of PDHG-but is still guaranteed to converge to a solution of the deterministic optimization problem with similar rates as PDHG. Numerical results on a clinical data set show that by introducing randomization into PDHG, similar results as the deterministic algorithm can be achieved using only around 10 % of operator evaluations. Thus, making significant progress towards the feasibility of sophisticated mathematical models in a clinical setting.
Faster PET reconstruction with a stochastic primal-dual hybrid gradient method
Ehrhardt, Matthias J.; Markiewicz, Pawel; Chambolle, Antonin; Richtárik, Peter; Schott, Jonathan; Schönlieb, Carola-Bibiane
2017-08-01
Image reconstruction in positron emission tomography (PET) is computationally challenging due to Poisson noise, constraints and potentially non-smooth priors-let alone the sheer size of the problem. An algorithm that can cope well with the first three of the aforementioned challenges is the primal-dual hybrid gradient algorithm (PDHG) studied by Chambolle and Pock in 2011. However, PDHG updates all variables in parallel and is therefore computationally demanding on the large problem sizes encountered with modern PET scanners where the number of dual variables easily exceeds 100 million. In this work, we numerically study the usage of SPDHG-a stochastic extension of PDHG-but is still guaranteed to converge to a solution of the deterministic optimization problem with similar rates as PDHG. Numerical results on a clinical data set show that by introducing randomization into PDHG, similar results as the deterministic algorithm can be achieved using only around 10 % of operator evaluations. Thus, making significant progress towards the feasibility of sophisticated mathematical models in a clinical setting.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Hua; Liu Feng; Crozier, Stuart; Xia Ling
2008-01-01
This paper presents a stabilized Bi-conjugate gradient algorithm (BiCGstab) that can significantly improve the performance of the impedance method, which has been widely applied to model low-frequency field induction phenomena in voxel phantoms. The improved impedance method offers remarkable computational advantages in terms of convergence performance and memory consumption over the conventional, successive over-relaxation (SOR)-based algorithm. The scheme has been validated against other numerical/analytical solutions on a lossy, multilayered sphere phantom excited by an ideal coil loop. To demonstrate the computational performance and application capability of the developed algorithm, the induced fields inside a human phantom due to a low-frequency hyperthermia device is evaluated. The simulation results show the numerical accuracy and superior performance of the method.
2012-10-01
New Functional Optimization Approach Related to the Sobolev Gradient 5b. GRANT NUMBER Method 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Lederman , C...the Sobolev Gradient Method Carl Lederman and Jean-Luc Cambier Air Force Research Laboratory, Propulsion Directorate Spacecraft Branch (AFRL/RZSS...17] Lederman , C., Vese, L., and Chien, A., “Registration for 3D Morphological Comparison of Brain Aneurysm Growth” Advances in Visual Computing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Benn eMacdonald
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Parameter inference in mathematical models of biological pathways, expressed as coupled ordinary differential equations (ODEs, is a challenging problem in contemporary systems biology. Conventional methods involve repeatedly solving the ODEs by numerical integration, which is computationally onerous and does not scale up to complex systems. Aimed at reducing the computational costs, new concepts based on gradient matching have recently been proposed in the computational statistics and machine learning literature. In a preliminary smoothing step, the time series data are interpolated; then, in a second step, the parameters of the ODEs are optimised so as to minimise some metric measuring the difference between the slopes of the tangents to the interpolants, and the time derivatives from the ODEs. In this way, the ODEs never have to be solved explicitly. This review provides a concise methodological overview of the current state-of-the-art methods for gradient matching in ODEs, followed by an empirical comparative evaluation based on a set of widely used and representative benchmark data.
Powell, Nathaniel J; Jang, Albert; Park, Jang-Yeon; Valette, Julien; Garwood, Michael; Marjańska, Małgorzata
2015-01-01
To introduce a new outer volume suppression (OVS) technique that uses a single pulse and rotating gradients to accomplish frequency-swept excitation. This new technique, which is called gradient rotating outer volume excitation (GROOVE), produces a circular or elliptical suppression band rather than suppressing the entire outer volume. Theoretical and k-space descriptions of GROOVE are provided. The properties of GROOVE were investigated with simulations, phantom, and human experiments performed using a 4T horizontal bore magnet equipped with a TEM coil. Similar suppression performance was obtained in phantom and human brain using GROOVE with circular and elliptical shapes. Simulations indicate that GROOVE requires less SAR and time than traditional OVS schemes, but traditional schemes provide a sharper transition zone and less residual signal. GROOVE represents a new way of performing OVS in which spins are excited temporally in space on a trajectory that can be tailored to fit the shape of the suppression region. In addition, GROOVE is capable of suppressing tailored regions of space with more flexibility and in a shorter period of time than conventional methods. GROOVE provides a fast, low SAR alternative to conventional OVS methods in some applications (e.g., scalp suppression). © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Measurement of Intestinal and Peripheral Cholesterol Fluxes by a Dual-Tracer Balance Method
Ronda, Onne A H O; van Dijk, Theo H; Verkade, H J; Groen, Albert K
2016-01-01
Long-term elevated plasma cholesterol levels put individuals at risk for developing atherosclerosis. Plasma cholesterol levels are determined by the balance between cholesterol input and output fluxes. Here we describe in detail the methodology to determine the different cholesterol fluxes in mice.
SUMOFLUX: A Generalized Method for Targeted 13C Metabolic Flux Ratio Analysis.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maria Kogadeeva
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Metabolic fluxes are a cornerstone of cellular physiology that emerge from a complex interplay of enzymes, carriers, and nutrients. The experimental assessment of in vivo intracellular fluxes using stable isotopic tracers is essential if we are to understand metabolic function and regulation. Flux estimation based on 13C or 2H labeling relies on complex simulation and iterative fitting; processes that necessitate a level of expertise that ordinarily preclude the non-expert user. To overcome this, we have developed SUMOFLUX, a methodology that is broadly applicable to the targeted analysis of 13C-metabolic fluxes. By combining surrogate modeling and machine learning, we trained a predictor to specialize in estimating flux ratios from measurable 13C-data. SUMOFLUX targets specific flux features individually, which makes it fast, user-friendly, applicable to experimental design and robust in terms of experimental noise and exchange flux magnitude. Collectively, we predict that SUMOFLUX's properties realistically pave the way to high-throughput flux analyses.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takahashi, Norio; Hiyama, Keiko; Kodaira, Mieko; Satoh, Chiyoko.
1990-05-01
We have examined the feasibility of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of RNA:DNA duplexes to detect variations in genomic and cloned DNAs. The result has demonstrated that use of RNA:DNA duplexes makes DGGE much more practical for screening a large number of samples than use of DNA:DNA heteroduplexes, because preparation of RNA probes is easier than that of DNA probes. Three different 32 P-labeled RNA probes were produced. Genomic or cloned DNAs were digested with restriction enzymes and hybridized to labeled RNA probes, and resulting RNA:DNA duplexes were examined by DGGE. The presence of a mismatch(es) was detected as a difference in the mobility of bands on the gel. The experimental conditions were determined using DNA segments from cloned normal and three thalassemic human β-globin genes. The results from experiments on the cloned DNAs suggest that DGGE of RNA:DNA duplexes will detect nucleotide substitutions and deletions in DNA. In the course of these studies, a polymorphism due to a single-base substitution at position 666 of IVS2 (IVS2-666) of the human β-globin gene was directly identified using genomic DNA samples. A study of 59 unrelated Japanese from Hiroshima was undertaken in which the frequency of the allele with C at IVS2-666 was 0.48 and that of the allele with T was 0.52. This approach was found to be very effective for detecting heritable variation and should be a powerful tool for detecting fresh mutations in DNA, which occur outside the known restriction sites. (author)
Wu, Han; Wu, Tso-Ren; Lee, Chun-Juei; Tsai, Yu-Lin; Li, Pei-Yu
2017-04-01
The event of 1771 Japan Ishigaki Earthquake induced a large tsunami with an 80-meter runup height recorded. Several reef boulders transported by the huge tsunami waves were found along the coast and were located at elevation about 30 meters. Considering the limited distance between Yaeyama and Taiwan Islands, this study aimed to understand the behavior of tsunami propagation and the potential hazard in Taiwan. Reconstructing the 1771 event and validating the result with the field survey is the first step. In order to analysis hazard from the potential tsunami sources around the event area, we adopted the Impact Intensity Analysis (IIA), which had been presented in the EGU 2016 and many other international conferences. Instead of using IIA method, we further developed a new method called the Volume Flux Method (VFM). The VFM kept the accuracy of IIA method. However, the efficiency was improved significantly. The analyzed results showed that the source of the 1771 Great Yaeyama Tsunami was most likely located at the south offshore of Ishigaki Island. The wave height and inundation area were matched with the survey map (Geospatial Information Authority of Japan, 1994). The tsunami threat to Taiwan was also simulated. It indicated that the tsunami height would not be greater than 1 meters at east coast of Taiwan if the tsunami source located at nearshore around Ishigaki Island. However, it is noteworthy that the northeast coast of Taiwan was under the tsunami threats if the sources located in the south offshore on the Ryukyu Trench. We will present the detailed result in EGU 2017.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lewicki, J.L.; Bergfeld, D.; Cardellini, C.; Chiodini, G.; Granieri, D.; Varley, N.; Werner, C.
2004-04-27
We present a comparative study of soil CO{sub 2} flux (F{sub CO2}) measured by five groups (Groups 1-5) at the IAVCEI-CCVG Eighth Workshop on Volcanic Gases on Masaya volcano, Nicaragua. Groups 1-5 measured F{sub CO2} using the accumulation chamber method at 5-m spacing within a 900 m{sup 2} grid during a morning (AM) period. These measurements were repeated by Groups 1-3 during an afternoon (PM) period. All measured F{sub CO2} ranged from 218 to 14,719 g m{sup -2}d{sup -1}. Arithmetic means and associated CO{sub 2} emission rate estimates for the AM data sets varied between groups by {+-}22%. The variability of the five measurements made at each grid point ranged from {+-}5 to 167% and increased with the arithmetic mean. Based on a comparison of measurements made by Groups 1-3 during AM and PM times, this variability is likely due in large part to natural temporal variability of gas flow, rather than to measurement error. We compared six geostatistical methods (arithmetic and minimum variance unbiased estimator means of uninterpolated data, and arithmetic means of data interpolated by the multiquadric radial basis function, ordinary kriging, multi-Gaussian kriging, and sequential Gaussian simulation methods) to estimate the mean and associated CO{sub 2} emission rate of one data set and to map the spatial F{sub CO2} distribution. While the CO{sub 2} emission rates estimated using the different techniques only varied by {+-}1.1%, the F{sub CO2} maps showed important differences. We suggest that the sequential Gaussian simulation method yields the most realistic representation of the spatial distribution of F{sub CO2} and is most appropriate for volcano monitoring applications.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dall-Anese, Emiliano [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bernstein, Andrey [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Simonetto, Andrea [IBM Research Center Ireland
2017-11-27
This paper develops an online optimization method to maximize the operational objectives of distribution-level distributed energy resources (DERs) while adjusting the aggregate power generated (or consumed) in response to services requested by grid operators. The design of the online algorithm is based on a projected-gradient method, suitably modified to accommodate appropriate measurements from the distribution network and the DERs. By virtue of this approach, the resultant algorithm can cope with inaccuracies in the representation of the AC power, it avoids pervasive metering to gather the state of noncontrollable resources, and it naturally lends itself to a distributed implementation. Optimality claims are established in terms of tracking of the solution of a well-posed time-varying optimization problem.
A project to study SOC evolution after land use change combining chronosequence and gradient methods
Gabarron-Galeote, Miguel A.; van Wesemael, Bas
2013-04-01
In the last decades the interest in the global C budget has increased enormously and soils have a great importance in this issue since they contain about twice as much carbon as the atmosphere. Land use change (LUC) can cause a change in land cover and an associated change in carbon stocks in soils, so it has a major impact in the balance between inputs and outputs of soil organic carbon (SOC). Improved understanding of land-use impacts on the world's terrestrial carbon balance is thus a necessary part of the global effort to mitigate climate change. The aim of this project is to predict the effects of land use and land management change on (SOC) stocks, characterizing the soil organic carbon cycle and its relationship to the vegetal cover in croplands abandoned different years ago and under different Mediterranean climatic conditions in South of Spain. The study area is located in the Cordillera Bética Litoral, in South of Spain. In this area, a climatic gradient can be observed from West to East: from >1,500 mm year-1 in the Strait of Gibraltar to <250 mm year-1 in the Cabo de Gata. More specifically, the study is focussed on three different areas from the climatic conditions point of view: Gaucín (1010 mm year-1), Almogía, (576 mm year-1) and Gérgal (240 mm year-1). By means of the analyses of aerial photographs (1956, 1977, 1984, 1998 and 2009) all the experimental plots will be selected. After this procedure, the three study areas will be composed by experimental plots of these classes: a) Lands with natural vegetation since 1956. b) Abandoned lands between 1956 and 1977. c) Abandoned lands between 1977 and 1984. d) Abandoned lands between 1984 and 1998. e) Abandoned lands between 1998 and 2005. f) Cultivated lands since 1956. The main expected outcomes of the research project are the characterization of the temporal evolution of SOC in soils, the compilation of experimental areas under different Mediterranean climatic conditions, and the characterization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Haiyun Wu
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Edwardsiella ictaluri causes an economically important bacterial disease in farm-raised catfish in the USA and abroad. To elucidate the route of infection for fish bacterial disease, it is important to monitor both fish health and trace bacteria in the water environment. In this study, we applied an ultra highly sensitive method to detect E. ictaluri using high-gradient immunomagnetic separation (HGIMS with polymerase chain reaction (PCR. HGIMS is a magnetic separation method in which the magnetic force is strengthened by integrating a magnetic gradient between the magnetic filter and nearby column. Immunomagnetic beads were specifically designed to react with the target bacteria, allowing for more efficient collection. The accumulated beads were released from the filter by releasing the magnetic force. After the process, DNA was extracted from the concentrated cells, and PCR was applied to detect E. ictaluri. The HGIMS system had higher detection sensitivity using than the conventional method, and the total assay time, including sample preparation, was about 3.5h. The optimal reaction time of immunomagnetic beads was 15min and the flow rate of the HGIMS system was 10mlminâ1. PCR products of the expected size were obtained from samples concentrated up to 102cfumlâ1. The proposed system appears to be suitable for highly sensitive detection of E. ictaluri. Improvements in the bacteria recovery ability of the immunomagnetic beads will further increase the detection limits. Keywords: Edwardsiella ictaluri, Magnetic separation, Polymerase chain reaction, Fish disease, Bacteria detection, Bioanalytical method
Comparison of myocardial potassium and thallium flux as studied by tracer methods.
Nitsch, J; Steinbeck, G; Lüderitz, B
1980-06-01
Although myocardial scintigraphy with 201thallium is widely applied in humans, the behavior of thallium at the cellular level is still under discussion. We compared the transmembrane fluxes of potassium and thallium in the isolated papillary muscle of guinea pigs. A qualitative conformity exists between potassium and thallium fluxes with respect to heart rate and temperature. Quantative comparison revealed a decreased flux rate of thallium for efflux when compared with potassium. The time dependence of thallium influx indicates that thallium scintigraphy of the myocardium reflects mainly an extracellular distribution.
Automated gas bubble imaging at sea floor - a new method of in situ gas flux quantification
Thomanek, K.; Zielinski, O.; Sahling, H.; Bohrmann, G.
2010-06-01
Photo-optical systems are common in marine sciences and have been extensively used in coastal and deep-sea research. However, due to technical limitations in the past photo images had to be processed manually or semi-automatically. Recent advances in technology have rapidly improved image recording, storage and processing capabilities which are used in a new concept of automated in situ gas quantification by photo-optical detection. The design for an in situ high-speed image acquisition and automated data processing system is reported ("Bubblemeter"). New strategies have been followed with regards to back-light illumination, bubble extraction, automated image processing and data management. This paper presents the design of the novel method, its validation procedures and calibration experiments. The system will be positioned and recovered from the sea floor using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV). It is able to measure bubble flux rates up to 10 L/min with a maximum error of 33% for worst case conditions. The Bubblemeter has been successfully deployed at a water depth of 1023 m at the Makran accretionary prism offshore Pakistan during a research expedition with R/V Meteor in November 2007.
Analysis of the Finite Precision s-Step Biconjugate Gradient Method
2014-03-13
industrial sponsors and affiliates Intel, Google, Nokia, NVIDIA, Oracle, and Samsung . Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations in this...multiprocessors with memory hierarchy, Parallel Comput., 11 (1989), pp. 37–53. [5] , s-step iterative methods for symmetric linear systems, J. Comput. Appl ...University Press, 2012. [10] A. Greenbaum, Estimating the attainable accuracy of recursively computed residual methods, SIAM J. Matrix Anal. Appl ., 18
INAA analysis of rocks: A routine method using Fe as an internal flux monitor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kay, R.W.; Kay, S. Mahlburg
1992-01-01
Over the past decade at Cornell, trace elements in over 2500 rocks have been analyzed by INAA. The samples, mainly volcanic rocks, have known concentrations of major elements (e.g. Si, Ti, Al, Mg, Ca, K, Fe, Na) and the last two of these (Fe and Na) are also determined by activation, using rock standards (e.g. USGS standards BCRl, BHVO, etc.). Differences between Fe determined by INAA and that determined as a part of the major element analysis are mainly attributed to volatile (H 2 O, CO 2 ) loss (especially when major element analyses were done by electron microprobe on fused powders, whereas the INAA analyses were done on the powders), and to flux variability during irradiation. Instead of reporting two values for Fe we use Fe as an internal flux monitor, with Na and the trace elements being reported relative to the given Fe value. The ratio Na/Fe is used as a sensitive check on the identity of the sample and as a monitor of alkali loss affecting the major element analysis. Other than this modification (Kay et aL 1987, also reported in Chappell and Hergt, 1989) we use an INAA method similar to mat practiced by many labs. Powdered samples (about 0.5 g) are sealed in high-purity silica tubes and irradiated in the Cornell Triga reactor. Samples are counted for a minimum of 2 hours (up to 10 hours) 7 and 40 days after irradiation. Data are reduced using a program written at Cornell, with peak and background regions that have been checked for interferences. Corrections are routinely applied for Ce (Fe), Nd (Br), Tb (Th), Eu (Ba), Lu (U), and Yb (Th) (interference is from element in parentheses). A U fission yield correction is applied to La, Ce, Nd, and Ba. A correction for Ta introduced by grinding in WC containers can be made using known Ta/W ratios in the grinding containers. The correction amounted to 10-20% of the Ta gross peak. Recently, samples have been prepared in a ceramic grinding containers; for these, no Ta correction is needed. Trace elements determined
Optimization of Candu fuel management with gradient methods using generalized perturbation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chambon, R.; Varin, E.; Rozon, D.
2005-01-01
CANDU fuel management problems are solved using time-average representation of the core. Optimization problems based on this representation have been defined in the early nineties. The mathematical programming using the generalized perturbation theory (GPT) that was developed has been implemented in the reactor code DONJON. The use of the augmented Lagrangian (AL) method is presented and evaluated in this paper. This approach is mandatory for new constraint problems. Combined with the classical Lemke method, it proves to be very efficient to reach optimal solution in a very limited number of iterations. (authors)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt
, established from a Bunsen burners pilot flame. This principal is somewhat in contrast to the more typical radiation established fluxes. For instance, the ISO 9239 (DS 2000) test method is based on a gas fired radiant panel. And in the ISO 5657 standard, the ignition properties are investigated on test...
Debruin, H.A.R.; Hartogensis, O.K.
2005-01-01
Evidence is presented that in the stable atmospheric surface layer turbulent fluxes of heat and momentum can be determined from the standard deviations of longitudinal wind velocity and temperature, ¿u and ¿T respectively, measured at a single level. An attractive aspect of this method is that it
Becker, F.; Seguin, B.
Climate being the result of many interconnected processes, it can hardly be understood without models which describe these various processes as quantitatively as possible and define the parameters which are relevant for climate studies. Among those, surface processes and therefore surface parameters are now recognized to be of great importance. Some examples are discussed in the first part, showing the great interest to measure the relevant parameters on a multi-year basis, over large areas with sufficiently dense array and on a stable basis, in order to monitor climate changes or to study the impact on climate of the modifications of some relevant parameters which are analysed. Since space observations from satellites fulfil these requirements, it is clear that they will become very soon a fundamental tool for climate studies. Unfortunately, as it is discussed in the second part, satellites do measure only spectral radiances at the top of the atmosphere and the determination of the relevant surface parameters (or fluxes) from these radiances still raises many problems which have to be solved, although many progresses have already been made. The aim of this paper is therefore to review and discuss these problems and the various ways they have been tackled until now. The first part is devoted to an overview of what needs to be measured and why, while the existing methods for determining the most important surface parameters from space observations are presented in the second part where a particular attention is given to the theoretical and experimental validations of these methods, their limits and the problems still to be solved.
A closed-chamber method to measure greenhouse gas fluxes from dry aquatic sediments
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. Lesmeister
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Recent research indicates that greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from dry aquatic sediments are a relevant process in the freshwater carbon cycle. However, fluxes are difficult to measure because of the often rocky substrate and the dynamic nature of the habitat. Here we tested the performance of different materials to seal a closed chamber to stony ground both in laboratory and field experiments. Using on-site material consistently resulted in elevated fluxes. The artefact was caused both by outgassing of the material and production of gas. The magnitude of the artefact was site dependent – the measured CO2 flux increased between 10 and 208 %. Errors due to incomplete sealing proved to be more severe than errors due to non-inert sealing material.Pottery clay as sealing material provided a tight seal between the chamber and the ground and no production of gases was detected. With this approach it is possible to get reliable gas fluxes from hard-substrate sites without using a permanent collar. Our test experiments confirmed that CO2 fluxes from dry aquatic sediments are similar to CO2 fluxes from terrestrial soils.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammad Hamiruce Marhaban
2012-10-01
Full Text Available With their highly robust nature and simple design, switched reluctance machines are finding their way into numerous modern day applications. However, they produce oscillatory torque that generates torque ripple and mechanical vibrations. A double rotor structure to maximize the flux linkage and thereby increase the torque generating capability is proposed. As the machine operates close to saturation, the torque computation depends heavily on the energy conversion as the rotor rolls over the stator for a fixed pole pitch. The flux linkage characteristics are highly non-linear, hence estimation of the magnetic and mechanical parameters is extremely cumbersome. Magnetic circuit analysis by interpretation of the number of flux tubes using integration techniques at different positions of the machine to develop the flux linkage characteristics of the double rotor structure is presented. Computation of the inductances during the movement of rotor from unaligned to aligned is crucial in determining the generated torque. Relevant equations of calculations for inductance and flux linkages in the aligned, partially aligned and unaligned positions are computed. The partially aligned computation is based on the average on two intermediate positions, namely the 1/4th aligned and 3/4th aligned conditions. The static torque characteristics based on the energy conversion principles are used to compute the torque value. Results from simulation and experiments used for performance evaluation of the proposed flux tube analysis for computation of the electro-magnetic torque are presented.
Accelerated gradient methods for total-variation-based CT image reconstruction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, Jakob Heide; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Hansen, Per Christian
2011-01-01
incorporates several heuristics from the optimization literature such as Barzilai-Borwein (BB) step size selection and nonmonotone line search. The latter uses a cleverly chosen sequence of auxiliary points to achieve a better convergence rate. The methods are memory efficient and equipped with a stopping...
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Wilke, DN
2012-07-01
Full Text Available , and is based on a Taylor series expansion using a pure imaginary step. The complex-step method is not subject to subtraction errors as with finite difference approaches when computing first order sensitivities and therefore allows for much smaller step sizes...
Qin, Shunda; Ge, Hongxia; Cheng, Rongjun
2018-02-01
In this paper, a new lattice hydrodynamic model is proposed by taking delay feedback and flux change rate effect into account in a single lane. The linear stability condition of the new model is derived by control theory. By using the nonlinear analysis method, the mKDV equation near the critical point is deduced to describe the traffic congestion. Numerical simulations are carried out to demonstrate the advantage of the new model in suppressing traffic jam with the consideration of flux change rate effect in delay feedback model.
Fakher, Mahmood; Hosseini-Hashemi, Shahrokh
2017-12-01
The static bending and free vibration behavior of Euler nanobeams are studied via nonlocal strain gradient elasticity. Three different approaches to nonlocal strain gradient are investigated including differential form of nonlocal strain gradient, integral nonlocal strain gradient with satisfying higher order boundary conditions and basic form of integral nonlocal strain gradient without satisfying higher order boundary conditions. Two different types of Rayleigh–Ritz method are adopted; in one of them, polynomial is chosen as admissible function and in the other, combination of polynomial and trigonometric are regarded to obviate ill-conditioning and achieve more accurate results in integral nonlocal elasticity in which high number of terms is needed to extract the results with desired accuracy. Next, the bending deflections and natural frequencies of nanobeams with different boundary conditions are obtained. The results show that using integral form of nonlocal strain gradient obviates the paradoxes of differential form. In addition, significant differences are observed between the results. Moreover, comparison between two different integral forms indicates that there are considerable discrepancies, especially in the cases of high material characteristic parameter with low nonlocal parameter. Advantage of using the basic form of nonlocal strain gradient is that it does not need to definition and satisfying the higher order boundary conditions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mahesh Jangid
2018-02-01
Full Text Available Handwritten character recognition is currently getting the attention of researchers because of possible applications in assisting technology for blind and visually impaired users, human–robot interaction, automatic data entry for business documents, etc. In this work, we propose a technique to recognize handwritten Devanagari characters using deep convolutional neural networks (DCNN which are one of the recent techniques adopted from the deep learning community. We experimented the ISIDCHAR database provided by (Information Sharing Index ISI, Kolkata and V2DMDCHAR database with six different architectures of DCNN to evaluate the performance and also investigate the use of six recently developed adaptive gradient methods. A layer-wise technique of DCNN has been employed that helped to achieve the highest recognition accuracy and also get a faster convergence rate. The results of layer-wise-trained DCNN are favorable in comparison with those achieved by a shallow technique of handcrafted features and standard DCNN.
Heat flux viscosity in collisional magnetized plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, C., E-mail: cliu@pppl.gov [Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Fox, W. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Bhattacharjee, A. [Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)
2015-05-15
Momentum transport in collisional magnetized plasmas due to gradients in the heat flux, a “heat flux viscosity,” is demonstrated. Even though no net particle flux is associated with a heat flux, in a plasma there can still be momentum transport owing to the velocity dependence of the Coulomb collision frequency, analogous to the thermal force. This heat-flux viscosity may play an important role in numerous plasma environments, in particular, in strongly driven high-energy-density plasma, where strong heat flux can dominate over ordinary plasma flows. The heat flux viscosity can influence the dynamics of the magnetic field in plasmas through the generalized Ohm's law and may therefore play an important role as a dissipation mechanism allowing magnetic field line reconnection. The heat flux viscosity is calculated directly using the finite-difference method of Epperlein and Haines [Phys. Fluids 29, 1029 (1986)], which is shown to be more accurate than Braginskii's method [S. I. Braginskii, Rev. Plasma Phys. 1, 205 (1965)], and confirmed with one-dimensional collisional particle-in-cell simulations. The resulting transport coefficients are tabulated for ease of application.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Palacios, D.; Greaves, E. D.; Sajo B, L.; Barros, H. [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Apdo. Postal 89000, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Ingles, R. [Universidad Nacional de San Antonio Abad del Cusco, Av. de la Cultura No. 733, Cusco (Peru)
2010-02-15
A method to determine the flux and angular distribution of thermal neutrons with the use of Lr-115 detectors was developed. The use of the Lr-115 detector involves the exposure of a pressed boric acid sample (tablet) as a target, in tight contact with the track detector, to a flux of thermalized neutrons. The self-absorption effects in thin films or foil type thermal neutron detectors can be neglected by using the Lr-115 detector and boric acid tablet setup to operate via backside irradiation. The energy window and the critical angle-residual energy curve were determined by comparisons between the experimental and simulated track parameters. A computer program was developed to calculate the detector registration efficiency, so that the thermal neutron flux can be calculated from the track densities induced in the Lr-115 detector using the derived empirical formula. The proposed setup can serves as directional detector of thermal neutrons. (Author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wei, Jun, E-mail: jvwei@umich.edu; Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping; Chughtai, Aamer; Agarwal, Prachi; Kuriakose, Jean; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Patel, Smita; Kazerooni, Ella [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)
2014-08-15
Purpose: The buildup of noncalcified plaques (NCPs) that are vulnerable to rupture in coronary arteries is a risk for myocardial infarction. Interpretation of coronary CT angiography (cCTA) to search for NCP is a challenging task for radiologists due to the low CT number of NCP, the large number of coronary arteries, and multiple phase CT acquisition. The authors conducted a preliminary study to develop machine learning method for automated detection of NCPs in cCTA. Methods: With IRB approval, a data set of 83 ECG-gated contrast enhanced cCTA scans with 120 NCPs was collected retrospectively from patient files. A multiscale coronary artery response and rolling balloon region growing (MSCAR-RBG) method was applied to each cCTA volume to extract the coronary arterial trees. Each extracted vessel was reformatted to a straightened volume composed of cCTA slices perpendicular to the vessel centerline. A topological soft-gradient (TSG) detection method was developed to prescreen for NCP candidates by analyzing the 2D topological features of the radial gradient field surface along the vessel wall. The NCP candidates were then characterized by a luminal analysis that used 3D geometric features to quantify the shape information and gray-level features to evaluate the density of the NCP candidates. With machine learning techniques, useful features were identified and combined into an NCP score to differentiate true NCPs from false positives (FPs). To evaluate the effectiveness of the image analysis methods, the authors performed tenfold cross-validation with the available data set. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to assess the classification performance of individual features and the NCP score. The overall detection performance was estimated by free response ROC (FROC) analysis. Results: With our TSG prescreening method, a prescreening sensitivity of 92.5% (111/120) was achieved with a total of 1181 FPs (14.2 FPs/scan). On average, six features
Migration of inclusions in solids in stress gradients
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olander, D.R.
1980-01-01
A theoretical method of assessing the influence of stress and temperature gradients on the motion of inclusions in solids is developed. In nonuniform stress fields, the stress distribution on the surface of the cavity must be calculated and transformed to a potential gradient for driving a surface atom flux. The bubble migration velocity is the first Legendre coefficient of the surface flux. Higher order components represent distortion. The stress gradient effect appears only in small-magnitude terms in the surface chemical potential, specifically in the stress effect on the solid atomic volume and in the elastic energy density. The migration velocities of spherical and faceted bubbles in solids are computed and the extent of distortion of a spherical bubble is estimated. The role of vacancy exchange with the bulk solid on the migration velocity is assessed. (author)
Water flux in animals: analysis of potential errors in the tritiated water method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagy, K.A.; Costa, D.
1979-03-01
Laboratory studies indicate that tritiated water measurements of water flux are accurate to within -7 to +4% in mammals, but errors are larger in some reptiles. However, under conditions that can occur in field studies, errors may be much greater. Influx of environmental water vapor via lungs and skin can cause errors exceeding +-50% in some circumstances. If water flux rates in an animal vary through time, errors approach +-15% in extreme situations, but are near +-3% in more typical circumstances. Errors due to fractional evaporation of tritiated water may approach -9%. This error probably varies between species. Use of an inappropriate equation for calculating water flux from isotope data can cause errors exceeding +-100%. The following sources of error are either negligible or avoidable: use of isotope dilution space as a measure of body water volume, loss of nonaqueous tritium bound to excreta, binding of tritium with nonaqueous substances in the body, radiation toxicity effects, and small analytical errors in isotope measurements. Water flux rates measured with tritiated water should be within +-10% of actual flux rates in most situations
Water flux in animals: analysis of potential errors in the tritiated water method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nagy, K.A.; Costa, D.
1979-03-01
Laboratory studies indicate that tritiated water measurements of water flux are accurate to within -7 to +4% in mammals, but errors are larger in some reptiles. However, under conditions that can occur in field studies, errors may be much greater. Influx of environmental water vapor via lungs and skin can cause errors exceeding +-50% in some circumstances. If water flux rates in an animal vary through time, errors approach +-15% in extreme situations, but are near +-3% in more typical circumstances. Errors due to fractional evaporation of tritiated water may approach -9%. This error probably varies between species. Use of an inappropriate equation for calculating water flux from isotope data can cause errors exceeding +-100%. The following sources of error are either negligible or avoidable: use of isotope dilution space as a measure of body water volume, loss of nonaqueous tritium bound to excreta, binding of tritium with nonaqueous substances in the body, radiation toxicity effects, and small analytical errors in isotope measurements. Water flux rates measured with tritiated water should be within +-10% of actual flux rates in most situations.
Comparison of gradient methods for gain tuning of a PD controller applied on a quadrotor system
Kim, Jinho; Wilkerson, Stephen A.; Gadsden, S. Andrew
2016-05-01
Many mechanical and electrical systems have utilized the proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control strategy. The concept of PID control is a classical approach but it is easy to implement and yields a very good tracking performance. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are currently experiencing a significant growth in popularity. Due to the advantages of PID controllers, UAVs are implementing PID controllers for improved stability and performance. An important consideration for the system is the selection of PID gain values in order to achieve a safe flight and successful mission. There are a number of different algorithms that can be used for real-time tuning of gains. This paper presents two algorithms for gain tuning, and are based on the method of steepest descent and Newton's minimization of an objective function. This paper compares the results of applying these two gain tuning algorithms in conjunction with a PD controller on a quadrotor system.
Inertial-dissipation methods and turbulent fluxes at the air-ocean interface
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fairall, C. W.; Larsen, Søren Ejling
1986-01-01
The use of high frequency atmospheric turbulence properties (inertial subrange spectra, structure function parameters or dissipation rates) to infer surface fluxes of momentum, sensible heat and latent heat is more practical for most ocean going platforms than direct covariance measurement....... The relationships required to deduce the fluxes from such data are examined in detail in this paper and several ambiguities and uncertainties are identified. It is noted that, over water, data on water vapor properties (the dimensionless functions for the mean profile, the structure function parameter...... and the variance transport term) are extremely sparse and the influence of sea spray is largely unknown. Special attention is given to flux estimation on the basis of the structure function formalism. Existing knowledge about the relevant similarity functions is summarized and discussed in light of the ambiguities...
Three-dimensional reconstruction from real data using a conjugate gradient-coupled dipole method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chaumet, Patrick C; Belkebir, Kamal
2009-01-01
The aim of the present work is to validate a full vectorial electromagnetic inverse scattering algorithm against experimental data. Data were provided courtesy of Institut Fresnel, Marseille, France. These data were carried out in an anechoic chamber and correspond to different canonical targets as well as one mysterious object which is known only by experimentalists who measured the associated scattered field. The inverse algorithm was first developed in the optical domain and is adapted herein to the microwave domain. It is an iterative approach where the parameter of interest, namely the relative permittivity distribution, is updated gradually by minimizing a cost function describing the discrepancy between data and those that would be obtained via a forward solver for the best available estimate of the relative permittivity. The forward solver is based on the coupled dipole method which was introduced in the seventies to study the scattering of light by non-spherical dielectric grains. The forward and inverse schemes are briefly described and various examples are presented that demonstrate the efficiency of the inverse algorithm
Radon flux measurement methodologies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nielson, K.K.; Rogers, V.C.
1984-01-01
Five methods for measuring radon fluxes are evaluated: the accumulator can, a small charcoal sampler, a large-area charcoal sampler, the ''Big Louie'' charcoal sampler, and the charcoal tent sampler. An experimental comparison of the five flux measurement techniques was also conducted. Excellent agreement was obtained between the measured radon fluxes and fluxes predicted from radium and emanation measurements
Kou, Jisheng
2015-08-01
Surface tension significantly impacts subsurface flow and transport, and it is the main cause of capillary effect, a major immiscible two-phase flow mechanism for systems with a strong wettability preference. In this paper, we consider the numerical simulation of the surface tension of multi-component mixtures with the gradient theory of fluid interfaces. Major numerical challenges include that the system of the Euler-Lagrange equations is solved on the infinite interval and the coefficient matrix is not positive definite. We construct a linear transformation to reduce the Euler-Lagrange equations, and naturally introduce a path function, which is proven to be a monotonic function of the spatial coordinate variable. By using the linear transformation and the path function, we overcome the above difficulties and develop the efficient methods for calculating the interface and its interior compositions. Moreover, the computation of the surface tension is also simplified. The proposed methods do not need to solve the differential equation system, and they are easy to be implemented in practical applications. Numerical examples are tested to verify the efficiency of the proposed methods. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
McElrone, Andrew J; Shapland, Thomas M; Calderon, Arturo; Fitzmaurice, Li; Paw U, Kyaw Tha; Snyder, Richard L
2013-12-12
Advanced micrometeorological methods have become increasingly important in soil, crop, and environmental sciences. For many scientists without formal training in atmospheric science, these techniques are relatively inaccessible. Surface renewal and other flux measurement methods require an understanding of boundary layer meteorology and extensive training in instrumentation and multiple data management programs. To improve accessibility of these techniques, we describe the underlying theory of surface renewal measurements, demonstrate how to set up a field station for surface renewal with eddy covariance calibration, and utilize our open-source turnkey data logger program to perform flux data acquisition and processing. The new turnkey program returns to the user a simple data table with the corrected fluxes and quality control parameters, and eliminates the need for researchers to shuttle between multiple processing programs to obtain the final flux data. An example of data generated from these measurements demonstrates how crop water use is measured with this technique. The output information is useful to growers for making irrigation decisions in a variety of agricultural ecosystems. These stations are currently deployed in numerous field experiments by researchers in our group and the California Department of Water Resources in the following crops: rice, wine and raisin grape vineyards, alfalfa, almond, walnut, peach, lemon, avocado, and corn.
Focus measure method based on the modulus of the gradient of the color planes for digital microscopy
Hurtado-Pérez, Román; Toxqui-Quitl, Carina; Padilla-Vivanco, Alfonso; Aguilar-Valdez, J. Félix; Ortega-Mendoza, Gabriel
2018-02-01
The modulus of the gradient of the color planes (MGC) is implemented to transform multichannel information to a grayscale image. This digital technique is used in two applications: (a) focus measurements during autofocusing (AF) process and (b) extending the depth of field (EDoF) by means of multifocus image fusion. In the first case, the MGC procedure is based on an edge detection technique and is implemented in over 15 focus metrics that are typically handled in digital microscopy. The MGC approach is tested on color images of histological sections for the selection of in-focus images. An appealing attribute of all the AF metrics working in the MGC space is their monotonic behavior even up to a magnification of 100×. An advantage of the MGC method is its computational simplicity and inherent parallelism. In the second application, a multifocus image fusion algorithm based on the MGC approach has been implemented on graphics processing units (GPUs). The resulting fused images are evaluated using a nonreference image quality metric. The proposed fusion method reveals a high-quality image independently of faulty illumination during the image acquisition. Finally, the three-dimensional visualization of the in-focus image is shown.
Oil palm water use: calibration of a sap flux method and a field measurement scheme.
Niu, Furong; Röll, Alexander; Hardanto, Afik; Meijide, Ana; Köhler, Michael; Hendrayanto; Hölscher, Dirk
2015-05-01
Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) water use was assessed by sap flux density measurements with the aim to establish the method and derive water-use characteristics. Thermal dissipation probes were inserted into leaf petioles of mature oil palms. In the laboratory, we tested our set-up against gravimetric measurements and derived new parameters for the original calibration equation that are specific to oil palm petioles. In the lowlands of Jambi, Indonesia, in a 12-year-old monoculture plantation, 56 leaves on 10 palms were equipped with one sensor per leaf. A 10-fold variation in individual leaf water use among leaves was observed, but we did not find significant correlations to the variables trunk height and diameter, leaf azimuthal orientation, leaf inclination or estimated horizontal leaf shading. We thus took an un-stratified approach to determine an appropriate sampling design to estimate stand transpiration (Es, mm day(-1)) rates of oil palm. We used the relative standard error of the mean (SEn, %) as a measure for the potential estimation error of Es associated with sample size. It was 14% for a sample size of 13 leaves to determine the average leaf water use and four palms to determine the average number of leaves per palm. Increasing these sample sizes only led to minor further decreases of the SEn of Es. The observed 90-day average of Es was 1.1 mm day(-1) (error margin ± 0.2 mm day(-1)), which seems relatively low, but does not contradict Penman-Monteith-derived estimates of evapotranspiration. Examining the environmental drivers of Es on an intra-daily scale indicates an early, pre-noon maximum of Es rates (11 am) due to a very sensitive reaction of Es to increasing vapor pressure deficit in the morning. This early peak is followed by a steady decline of Es rates for the rest of the day, despite further rising levels of vapor pressure deficit and radiation; this results in pronounced hysteresis, particularly between Es and vapor pressure deficit.
Kesteren, van A.J.H.; Hartogensis, O.K.; Dinther, van D.; Moene, A.F.; Graf, A.; Holtslag, A.A.M.
2012-01-01
The goal of this study is to test an alternative method for determining turbulent H2O and CO2 fluxes, which has a faster statistical convergence than the classical eddy-covariance method. This enables determining turbulent fluxes during strongly non-stationary conditions, e.g. in the intermittent
Kesteren, van A.J.H.; Hartogensis, O.K.; Dinther, van D.; Moene, A.F.; Graf, A.
2012-01-01
The goal of this study is to test an alternative method for determining turbulent H2O and CO2 fluxes, which has a faster statistical convergence than the classical eddy-covariance method. This enables determining turbulent fluxes during strongly non-stationary conditions, e.g. in the intermittent
Xu, Zhengwei
Modeling of induced polarization (IP) phenomena is important for developing effective methods for remote sensing of subsurface geology and is widely used in mineral exploration. However, the quantitative interpretation of IP data in a complex 3D environment is still a challenging problem of applied geophysics. In this dissertation I use the regularized conjugate gradient method to determine the 3D distribution of the four parameters of the Cole-Cole model based on surface induced polarization (IP) data. This method takes into account the nonlinear nature of both electromagnetic induction (EMI) and IP phenomena. The solution of the 3D IP inverse problem is based on the regularized smooth inversion only. The method was tested on synthetic models with DC conductivity, intrinsic chargeability, time constant, and relaxation parameters, and it was also applied to the practical 3D IP survey data. I demonstrate that the four parameters of the Cole-Cole model, DC electrical resistivity, rho 0 , chargeability, eta time constant, tau and the relaxation parameter, C, can be recovered from the observed IP data simultaneously. There are four Cole-Cole parameters involved in the inversion, in other words, within each cell, there are DC conductivity (sigma0 ), chargeability (eta), time parameters (tau), and relaxation parameters (C) compared to conductivity only, used in EM only inversion. In addition to more inversion parameters used in IP survey, dipole-dipole configuration which requires more sources and receivers. One the other hand, calculating Green tensor and Frechet matrix time consuming and storing them requires a lot of memory. So, I develop parallel computation using MATLAB parallel tool to speed up the calculation.
Klosterhalfen, Anne; Moene, Arnold; Schmidt, Marius; Ney, Patrizia; Graf, Alexander
2017-04-01
Source partitioning of eddy covariance (EC) measurements of CO2 into respiration and photosynthesis is routinely used for a better understanding of the exchange of greenhouse gases, especially between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. The most frequently used methods are usually based either on relations of fluxes to environmental drivers or on chamber measurements. However, they often depend strongly on assumptions or invasive measurements and do usually not offer partitioning estimates for latent heat fluxes into evaporation and transpiration. SCANLON and SAHU (2008) and SCANLON and KUSTAS (2010) proposed an promising method to estimate the contributions of transpiration and evaporation using measured high frequency time series of CO2 and H2O fluxes - no extra instrumentation necessary. This method (SK10 in the following) is based on the spatial separation and relative strength of sources and sinks of CO2 and water vapor among the sub-canopy and canopy. Assuming that air from those sources and sinks is not yet perfectly mixed before reaching EC sensors, partitioning is estimated based on the separate application of the flux-variance similarity theory to the stomatal and non-stomatal components of the regarded fluxes, as well as on additional assumptions on stomatal water use efficiency (WUE). The CO2 partitioning method after THOMAS et al. (2008) (TH08 in the following) also follows the argument that the dissimilarities of sources and sinks in and below a canopy affect the relation between H2O and CO2 fluctuations. Instead of involving assumptions on WUE, TH08 directly screens their scattergram for signals of joint respiration and evaporation events and applies a conditional sampling methodology. In spite of their different main targets (H2O vs. CO2), both methods can yield partitioning estimates on both fluxes. We therefore compare various sub-methods of SK10 and TH08 including own modifications (e.g., cluster analysis) to each other, to established
Modeling chemical gradients in sediments under losing and gaining flow conditions: The GRADIENT code
Boano, Fulvio; De Falco, Natalie; Arnon, Shai
2018-02-01
Interfaces between sediments and water bodies often represent biochemical hotspots for nutrient reactions and are characterized by steep concentration gradients of different reactive solutes. Vertical profiles of these concentrations are routinely collected to obtain information on nutrient dynamics, and simple codes have been developed to analyze these profiles and determine the magnitude and distribution of reaction rates within sediments. However, existing publicly available codes do not consider the potential contribution of water flow in the sediments to nutrient transport, and their applications to field sites with significant water-borne nutrient fluxes may lead to large errors in the estimated reaction rates. To fill this gap, the present work presents GRADIENT, a novel algorithm to evaluate distributions of reaction rates from observed concentration profiles. GRADIENT is a Matlab code that extends a previously published framework to include the role of nutrient advection, and provides robust estimates of reaction rates in sediments with significant water flow. This work discusses the theoretical basis of the method and shows its performance by comparing the results to a series of synthetic data and to laboratory experiments. The results clearly show that in systems with losing or gaining fluxes, the inclusion of such fluxes is critical for estimating local and overall reaction rates in sediments.
Ingwersen, Joachim; Imukova, Kristina; Högy, Petra; Streck, Thilo
2017-04-01
The energy balance of eddy covariance (EC) flux data is normally not closed. Therefore, at least if used for modeling, EC flux data are usually post-closed, i.e. the measured turbulent fluxes are adjusted so as to close the energy balance. At the current state of knowledge, however, it is not clear how to partition the missing energy in the right way. Eddy flux data therefore contain some uncertainty due to the unknown nature of the energy balance gap, which should be considered in model evaluation and the interpretation of simulation results. We propose to construct the post-closure method uncertainty band (PUB), which essentially designates the differences between non-adjusted flux data and flux data adjusted with the three post-closure methods (Bowen ratio, latent heat flux (LE) and sensible heat flux (H) method). To demonstrate this approach, simulations with the NOAH-MP land surface model were evaluated based on EC measurements conducted at a winter wheat stand in Southwest Germany in 2011, and the performance of the Jarvis and Ball-Berry stomatal resistance scheme was compared. The width of the PUB of the LE was up to 110 W/m2 (21% of net radiation). Our study shows that it is crucial to account for the uncertainty of EC flux data originating from lacking energy balance closure. Working with only a single post-closing method might result in severe misinterpretations in model-data comparisons.
Radrizzani, Marina; Lo Cicero, Viviana; Soncin, Sabrina; Bolis, Sara; Sürder, Daniel; Torre, Tiziano; Siclari, Francesco; Moccetti, Tiziano; Vassalli, Giuseppe; Turchetto, Lucia
2014-09-27
Cardiovascular cell therapy represents a promising field, with several approaches currently being tested. The advanced therapy medicinal product (ATMP) for the ongoing METHOD clinical study ("Bone marrow derived cell therapy in the stable phase of chronic ischemic heart disease") consists of fresh mononuclear cells (MNC) isolated from autologous bone marrow (BM) through density gradient centrifugation on standard Ficoll-Paque. Cells are tested for safety (sterility, endotoxin), identity/potency (cell count, CD45/CD34/CD133, viability) and purity (contaminant granulocytes and platelets). BM-MNC were isolated by density gradient centrifugation on Ficoll-Paque. The following process parameters were optimized throughout the study: gradient medium density; gradient centrifugation speed and duration; washing conditions. A new manufacturing method was set up, based on gradient centrifugation on low density Ficoll-Paque, followed by 2 washing steps, of which the second one at low speed. It led to significantly higher removal of contaminant granulocytes and platelets, improving product purity; the frequencies of CD34+ cells, CD133+ cells and functional hematopoietic and mesenchymal precursors were significantly increased. The methodological optimization described here resulted in a significant improvement of ATMP quality, a crucial issue to clinical applications in cardiovascular cell therapy.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shang Wang
2015-04-01
Full Text Available A methodology (HPLC proposed in this paper for simultaneously quantitative determination of ilaprazole and its related impurities in commercial tablets was developed and validated. The chromatographic separation was carried out by gradient elution using an Agilent C8 column (4.6 mm × 250 mm, 5 μm which was maintained at 25 °C. The mobile phase composed of solvent A (methanol and solvent B (solution consisting 0.02 mmol/l monopotassium phosphate and 0.025 mmol/l sodium hydroxide was at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. The samples were detected and quantified at 237 nm using an ultraviolet absorbance detector. Calibration curves of all analytes from 0.5 to 3.5 μg/ml were good linearity (r ≥ 0.9990 and recovery was greater than 99.5% for each analyte. The lower limit of detection (LLOD and quantification (LOQ of this analytical method were 10 ng/ml and 25 ng/ml for all impurities, respectively. The stress studies indicated that the degradation products could not interfere with the detection of ilaprazole and its related impurities and the assay can thus be considered stability-indicating. The method precisions were in the range of 0.41–1.21 while the instrument precisions were in the range of 0.38–0.95 in terms of peak area RSD% for all impurities, respectively. This method is considered stability-indicating and is applicable for accurate and simultaneous measuring of the ilaprazole and its related impurities in commercial enteric-coated tablets.
Jung, Youngkyoo; Samsonov, Alexey A; Bydder, Mark; Block, Walter F
2011-04-01
To remove phase inconsistencies between multiple echoes, an algorithm using a radial acquisition to provide inherent phase and magnitude information for self correction was developed. The information also allows simultaneous support for parallel imaging for multiple coil acquisitions. Without a separate field map acquisition, a phase estimate from each echo in multiple echo train was generated. When using a multiple channel coil, magnitude and phase estimates from each echo provide in vivo coil sensitivities. An algorithm based on the conjugate gradient method uses these estimates to simultaneously remove phase inconsistencies between echoes, and in the case of multiple coil acquisition, simultaneously provides parallel imaging benefits. The algorithm is demonstrated on single channel, multiple channel, and undersampled data. Substantial image quality improvements were demonstrated. Signal dropouts were completely removed and undersampling artifacts were well suppressed. The suggested algorithm is able to remove phase cancellation and undersampling artifacts simultaneously and to improve image quality of multiecho radial imaging, the important technique for fast three-dimensional MRI data acquisition. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shuang Rong
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Aiming to relieve the large amount of wind power curtailment during the heating period in the North China region, a thermal-electric decoupling (TED approach is proposed to both bring down the constraint of forced power output of combined heat and power plants and increase the electric load level during valley load times that assist the power grid in consuming more wind power. The operating principles of the thermal-electric decoupling approach is described, the mathematical model of its profits is developed, the constraint conditions of its operation are listed, also, an improved parallel conjugate gradient is utilized to bypass the saddle problem and accelerate the optimal speed. Numerical simulations are implemented and reveal an optimal allocation of TED which with a rated power of 280 MW and 185 MWh heat storage capacity are possible. This allocation of TED could bring approximately 16.9 billion Yuan of economic profit and consume more than 80% of the surplus wind energy which would be curtailed without the participation of TED. The results in this article verify the effectiveness of this method that could provide a referential guidance for thermal-electric decoupling system allocation in practice.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Khumaedi
2015-07-01
Full Text Available The development of Semarang city requires the availability of water for daily use and industry in line with population growth. Uncontrolled use of water will damage the groundwater system. The purpose of this study was to determine the zone of the decrease of water level to obtain information about area that utilizes excess water. The method used is a micro-gravity vertical gradient between times. Gravity measurements were done at 124 points spread evenly between May and October 2013. The results showed that there was a decrease in ground water level in the Industries area Kaligawe, Tanah Mas, and Tlogosori which was identified with the vertical gradient anomaly of micro gravity between the times from May to October 2013. The regions which have high negative changes in ground water level (1.2-1.4 m / year were the monitoring wells Madukoro 2, LIK Kaligawe and PT Aquaria which are the industrial areas. Exploitation of ground water in industrial areas is relatively high compared to the other regions.Perkembangan kota Semarang yang menuntut ketersediaan air untuk keperluan sehari-hari dan industri seiring dengan pertambahan jumlah penduduk. Pemanfaatan air yang tidak terkendali akan menyebabkan sistem air tanah rusak. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menentukan zona penurunan muka air tanah untuk memperoleh informasi daerah yang memanfaatkan air secara berlebihan. Metode yang digunakan adalah gradien vertikal gaya berat mikro antar waktu. Pengukuran gaya berat di lakukan di 124 titik yang tersebar merata pada periode Mei dan Oktober 2013. Hasil peneltian menunjukkan telah terjadi penurunan muka air tanah di lingkungan Industri Kecil Kaligawe, perumahan Tanah Mas, Perumahan Tlogosori yang ditandai dengan anomali gradien vertikal gaya berat mikro antar waktu Mei-Oktober 2013. Wilayah yang memiliki perubahan muka air tanah negative tinggi (1,2-1,4 m/tahun, berada di sekitar sumur pantau Madukoro 2, LIK Kaligawe dan PT Aquaria dimana tutupan lahan di
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ogura, M., E-mail: agura@phys.sci.osaka-u.ac.jp; Akai, H. [Osaka University, Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science (Japan)
2004-11-15
The electric field gradients (EFGs) of B, N, O and Na in TiO{sub 2} were calculated by the full potential Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker (KKR) Greens function method in the framework of the density functional theory. The agreement with the experiments was much improved from the previous calculations that were based on the muffin-tin potential model.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferreira, C.R.
1984-01-01
It is presented the absorption-production nodal method for steady and dynamical calculations in one-dimension and one group energy. It was elaborated the NOD1D computer code (in FORTRAN-IV language). Calculations of neutron flux and power distributions, burnup, effective multiplication factors and critical boron concentration were made with the NOD1D code and compared with results obtained through the CITATION code, which uses the finite difference method. The nuclear constants were produced by the LEOPARD code. (M.C.K.) [pt
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peter W. Carr; K.M. Fuller; D.R. Stoll; L.D. Steinkraus; M.S. Pasha; Glenn G. Hardin
2005-12-30
A new approach has been developed by modifying a conventional gradient elution liquid chromatograph for the high throughput screening of biological samples to detect the presence of regulated intoxicants. The goal of this work was to improve the speed of a gradient elution screening method over current approaches by optimizing the operational parameters of both the column and the instrument without compromising the reproducibility of the retention times, which are the basis for the identification. Most importantly, the novel instrument configuration substantially reduces the time needed to re-equilibrate the column between gradient runs, thereby reducing the total time for each analysis. The total analysis time for each gradient elution run is only 2.8 minutes, including 0.3 minutes for column reequilibration between analyses. Retention times standard calibration solutes are reproducible to better than 0.002 minutes in consecutive runs. A corrected retention index was adopted to account for day-to-day and column-to-column variations in retention time. The discriminating power and mean list length were calculated for a library of 47 intoxicants and compared with previous work from other laboratories to evaluate fast gradient elution HPLC as a screening tool.
Numerical methods for systems of conservation laws of mixed type using flux splitting
Shu, Chi-Wang
1990-01-01
The essentially non-oscillatory (ENO) finite difference scheme is applied to systems of conservation laws of mixed hyperbolic-elliptic type. A flux splitting, with the corresponding Jacobi matrices having real and positive/negative eigenvalues, is used. The hyperbolic ENO operator is applied separately. The scheme is numerically tested on the van der Waals equation in fluid dynamics. Convergence was observed with good resolution to weak solutions for various Riemann problems, which are then numerically checked to be admissible as the viscosity-capillarity limits. The interesting phenomena of the shrinking of elliptic regions if they are present in the initial conditions were also observed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Courtois, X., E-mail: xavier.courtois@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Escourbiac, F. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, F-13115 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Richou, M.; Cantone, V. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Constans, S. [AREVA-NP, Le Creusot (France)
2013-10-15
Actively cooled plasma facing components (PFCs) have to exhaust high heat fluxes from plasma radiation and plasma–wall interaction. Critical heat flux (CHF) event may occur in the cooling channel due to unexpected heat loading or operational conditions, and has to be detected as soon as possible. Therefore it is essential to develop means of monitoring based on precursory signals providing an early detection of this destructive phenomenon, in order to be able to stop operation before irremediable damages appear. Capabilities of CHF early detection based on acoustic techniques on PFC mock-ups cooled by pressurised water were already demonstrated. This paper addresses the problem of the detection in case of flow rate reduction and of flow dilution resulting from multiple plasma facing units (PFU) which are hydraulically connected in parallel, which is the case of ITER divertor. An experimental study is launched on a dedicated mock-up submitted to heat loads up to the CHF. It shows that the measurement of the acoustic waves, generated by the cooling phenomena, allows the CHF detection in conditions similar to that of the ITER divertor, with a reasonable number of sensors. The paper describes the mock-ups and the tests sequences, and comments the results.
Joubert, F; Hoerter, J A; Mazet, J L
2001-12-01
A challenge in the understanding of creatine kinase (CK) fluxes reflected by NMR magnetization transfer in the perfused rat heart is the choice of a kinetic model of analysis. The complexity of the energetic pathways, due to the presence of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-inorganic phosphate (Pi) exchange, of metabolite compartmentation and of subcellular localization of CK isozymes cannot be resolve from the sole information obtained from a single NMR protocol. To analyze multicompartment exchanges, we propose a new strategy based on the simultaneous analysis of four inversion transfer protocols. The time course of ATP and Phosphocreatine (PCr) magnetizations computed from the McConnell equations were adjusted to their experimental value for exchange networks of increasing complexity (up to six metabolite pools). Exchange schemes were selected by the quality of their fit and their consistency with data from other sources: the size of mitochondrial pools and the ATP synthesis flux. The consideration of ATP-Pi exchange and of ATP compartmentation were insufficient to describe the data. The most appropriate exchange scheme in our normoxic heart involved the discrimination of three specific CK activities (cytosolic, mitochondrial, and close to ATPases). At the present level of heart contractility, the energy is transferred from mitochondria to myofibrils mainly by PCr.
Gasilov, Sergei; Mittone, Alberto; Brun, Emmanuel; Bravin, Alberto; Grandl, Susanne; Mirone, Alessandro; Coan, Paola
2014-03-10
The refractive-index gradient vector field approach establishes a connection between a tomographic data set of differential phase contrast images and the distribution of the partial spatial derivatives of the refractive index in an object. The reconstruction of the refractive index in a plane requires the integration of its gradient field. This work shows how this integration can be efficiently performed by converting the problem to the Poisson equation, which can be accurately solved even in the case of noisy and large datasets. The performance of the suggested method is discussed and demonstrated experimentally by computing the refractive index distribution in both a simple plastic phantom and a complex biological sample. The quality of the reconstruction is evaluated through the direct comparison with other commonly used methods. To this end, the refractive index is retrieved from the same data set using also (1) the filtered backprojection algorithm for gradient projections, and (2) the regularized phase-retrieval procedure. Results show that the gradient vector field approach combined with the developed integration technique provides a very accurate depiction of the sample internal structure. Contrary to the two other techniques, the considered method does not require a preliminary phase-retrieval and can be implemented with any advanced computer tomography algorithm. In this work, analyzer-based phase contrast images are used for demonstration. Results, however, are generally valid and can be applied for processing differential phase-contrast tomographic data sets obtained with other phase-contrast imaging techniques.
Monbureau, E.; Elliott, E. A.; Walters, G.; McKee, B. A.; Rodriguez, A. B.
2014-12-01
Understanding the source and abundance of sediment transported within tidal creeks is essential for studying the connectivity between coastal watersheds and estuaries under conditions of changing land use, storminess and sea-level rise. Furthermore, analysis of the fine grained suspended sediment load (SSL) carried through the system is critical in our understanding of nutrient and contaminant transport, human-induced change, and the effects of climate. Unfortunately traditional methods of SSL collection, including instantaneous measurements and automatic samplers, can be labor intensive, expensive and are often inadequate for geochemical analysis. In estuaries this issue is even more pronounced, due to tidal bi-directional flow. This study tests the efficacy of a modification to an established uni-directional time-integrated sediment sampler (TIMs) design. Our new bi-directional TIMs design utilizes a 'L' shaped outflow tube to collect sediment uniquely in each direction of tidal flow. Laboratory flume experiments using dye and particle image velocimetry (PIV) are used to characterize the flow within the collector, specifically, to quantify the settling velocities and identify the stagnation points. Further laboratory tests of chemically dispersed sediment indicate that bi-directional TIMs capture nearly all incoming particles greater than 4 μm across a range of flow velocities. Field trials were employed in two distinct sampling locations within the tidal zone. Samples of single time point SSL were collected over a four day period and compared to sediment collected by the bi-directional TIMs over the same time frame. Particle size composition from the bi-directional TIMs were representative of the array of single time point samples, but yielded greater mass and proved to be more representative of the overall tidal flux. This work proves the efficacy of the modified bi-directional TIMs design, offering a novel tool for collection of SSL in the tidally dominated
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Meliefste Kees
2006-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Air pollution in São Paulo is constantly being measured by the State of Sao Paulo Environmental Agency, however there is no information on the variation between places with different traffic densities. This study was intended to identify a gradient of exposure to traffic-related air pollution within different areas in São Paulo to provide information for future epidemiological studies. Methods We measured NO2 using Palmes' diffusion tubes in 36 sites on streets chosen to be representative of different road types and traffic densities in São Paulo in two one-week periods (July and August 2000. In each study period, two tubes were installed in each site, and two additional tubes were installed in 10 control sites. Results Average NO2 concentrations were related to traffic density, observed on the spot, to number of vehicles counted, and to traffic density strata defined by the city Traffic Engineering Company (CET. Average NO2concentrations were 63μg/m3 and 49μg/m3 in the first and second periods, respectively. Dividing the sites by the observed traffic density, we found: heavy traffic (n = 17: 64μg/m3 (95% CI: 59μg/m3 – 68μg/m3; local traffic (n = 16: 48μg/m3 (95% CI: 44μg/m3 – 52μg/m3 (p Conclusion The differences in NO2 levels between heavy and local traffic sites are large enough to suggest the use of a more refined classification of exposure in epidemiological studies in the city. Number of vehicles counted, traffic density observed on the spot and traffic density strata defined by the CET might be used as a proxy for traffic exposure in São Paulo when more accurate measurements are not available.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ballhausen, H.
2007-02-07
This treatise develops new methods for high flux neutron radiography and high flux neutron tomography and describes some of their applications in actual experiments. Instead of single images, time series can be acquired with short exposure times due to the available high intensity. To best use the increased amount of information, new estimators are proposed, which extract accurate results from the recorded ensembles, even if the individual piece of data is very noisy and in addition severely affected by systematic errors such as an influence of gamma background radiation. The spatial resolution of neutron radiographies, usually limited by beam divergence and inherent resolution of the scintillator, can be significantly increased by scanning the sample with a pinhole-micro-collimator. This technique circumvents any limitations in present detector design and, due to the available high intensity, could be successfully tested. Imaging with scattered neutrons as opposed to conventional total attenuation based imaging determines separately the absorption and scattering cross sections within the sample. For the first time even coherent angle dependent scattering could be visualized space-resolved. New applications of high flux neutron imaging are presented, such as materials engineering experiments on innovative metal joints, time-resolved tomography on multilayer stacks of fuel cells under operation, and others. A new implementation of an algorithm for the algebraic reconstruction of tomography data executes even in case of missing information, such as limited angle tomography, and returns quantitative reconstructions. The setup of the world-leading high flux radiography and tomography facility at the Institut Laue-Langevin is presented. A comprehensive appendix covers the physical and technical foundations of neutron imaging. (orig.)
Li, ZhaoYu; Chen, Tao; Yan, GuangQing
2016-10-01
A new method for determining the central axial orientation of a two-dimensional coherent magnetic flux rope (MFR) via multipoint analysis of the magnetic-field structure is developed. The method is devised under the following geometrical assumptions: (1) on its cross section, the structure is left-right symmetric; (2) the projected structure velocity is vertical to the line of symmetry. The two conditions can be naturally satisfied for cylindrical MFRs and are expected to be satisfied for MFRs that are flattened within current sheets. The model test demonstrates that, for determining the axial orientation of such structures, the new method is more efficient and reliable than traditional techniques such as minimum-variance analysis of the magnetic field, Grad-Shafranov (GS) reconstruction, and the more recent method based on the cylindrically symmetric assumption. A total of five flux transfer events observed by Cluster are studied using the proposed approach, and the application results indicate that the observed structures, regardless of their actual physical properties, fit the assumed geometrical model well. For these events, the inferred axial orientations are all in excellent agreement with those obtained using the multi-GS reconstruction technique.
Batty, Christopher
2017-02-01
This paper introduces a two-dimensional cell-centred finite volume discretization of the Poisson problem on adaptive Cartesian quadtree grids which exhibits second order accuracy in both the solution and its gradients, and requires no grading condition between adjacent cells. At T-junction configurations, which occur wherever resolution differs between neighboring cells, use of the standard centred difference gradient stencil requires that ghost values be constructed by interpolation. To properly recover second order accuracy in the resulting numerical gradients, prior work addressing block-structured grids and graded trees has shown that quadratic, rather than linear, interpolation is required; the gradients otherwise exhibit only first order convergence, which limits potential applications such as fluid flow. However, previous schemes fail or lose accuracy in the presence of the more complex T-junction geometries arising in the case of general non-graded quadtrees, which place no restrictions on the resolution of neighboring cells. We therefore propose novel quadratic interpolant constructions for this case that enable second order convergence by relying on stencils oriented diagonally and applied recursively as needed. The method handles complex tree topologies and large resolution jumps between neighboring cells, even along the domain boundary, and both Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions are supported. Numerical experiments confirm the overall second order accuracy of the method in the L∞ norm.
Owens, M. J.; Lockwood, M.; Riley, P.; Linker, J.
2017-11-01
A fraction of the magnetic flux which threads the photosphere reaches sufficient coronal altitude to be dragged out by the solar wind and form the heliospheric magnetic field (HMF). Directly measuring this "open solar flux" (OSF) component, however, is difficult. While OSF can be extrapolated from photospheric magnetic field measurements, the most direct method is from in situ spacecraft measurements of the HMF. The difficultly is unambiguously distinguishing between HMF which connects directly back to the Sun (the OSF) and that which is locally distorted by waves, turbulence, and near-Sun reconnection. Suitable temporal filtering of the data can remove such "noise," but the level of filtering cannot be known a priori and varies with solar cycle, solar wind types, etc. Here we use the suprathermal electron beam, or "strahl," to distinguish between different HMF topologies. As strahl moves antisunward on global scales, times when strahl is observed to be moving sunward indicate that the HMF is locally inverted. By subtracting the inverted HMF, we compute the OSF without need for arbitrary filtering of the data. We find that the OSF obtained in this manner is slightly larger than the proposed "kinematic correction" based on observed solar wind velocity structure, though in general agreement. Our new OSF estimate agrees with methods based wholly on HMF data, if the data are first used to compute approximately 1 day averages during solar minimum and approximately 3 day averages during solar maximum, stressing the point that the filter method is unreliable because the required characteristics vary.
Sproson, D. A. J.; Brooks, I. M.; Norris, S. J.
2013-02-01
The eddy covariance technique is the most direct of the methods that have been used to measure the flux of sea-spray aerosol between the ocean and atmosphere, but has been applied in only a handful of studies. However, unless the aerosol is dried before the eddy covariance measurements are made, the hygroscopic nature of sea-spray may combine with a relative humidity flux to result in a bias in the calculated aerosol flux. "Bulk" methods have been presented to account for this bias, however, they rely on assumptions of the shape of the aerosol spectra which may not be valid for near-surface measurements of sea-spray. Here we describe a method of correcting aerosol spectra for relative humidity induced size variations at the high frequency (10 Hz) measurement timescale, where counting statistics are poor and the spectral shape cannot be well represented by a simple power law. Such a correction allows the effects of hygroscopicity and relative humidity flux on the aerosol flux to be explicitly evaluated and compared to the bulk corrections, both in their original form and once reformulated to better represent the measured mean aerosol spectra. In general, the bulk corrections - particularly when reformulated for the measured mean aerosol spectra - perform relatively well, producing flux corrections of the right sign and approximate magnitude. However, there are times when the bulk methods either significantly over- or underestimate the required flux correction. We conclude that, where possible, relative humidity corrections should be made at the measurement frequency.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kiguchi, T.; Kawai, T.
1975-01-01
A method has been developed to optimally and automatically determine the adjustable parameters of the boiling water reactor three-dimensional core simulator FLARE. The steepest gradient method is adopted for the optimization. The parameters are adjusted to best fit the operating data on power distribution measured by traversing in-core probes (TIP). The average error in the calculated TIP readings normalized by the core average is 0.053 at the rated power. The k-infinity correction term has also been derived theoretically to reduce the relatively large error in the calculated TIP readings near the tips of control rods, which is induced by the coarseness of mesh points. By introducing this correction, the average error decreases to 0.047. The void-quality relation is recognized as a function of coolant flow rate. The relation is estimated to fit the measured distributions of TIP reading at the partial power states
A novel method of evaluating the lift force on the bluff body based on Noca’s flux equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sui Xiang-Kun; Jiang Nan
2015-01-01
The influence of experimental error on lift force evaluated by Noca’s flux equation is studied based on adding errors into the direct numerical simulation data for flow past cylinder at Re = 100. As Noca suggested using the low-pass filter to get rid of the high-frequency noise in the evaluated lift force, we verify that his method is inapplicable for dealing with the dataset of 1% experimental error, although the precision is acceptable in practice. To overcome this defect, a novel method is proposed in this paper. The average of the lift forces calculated by using multiple control volume is taken as the evaluation before applying the low-pass filter. The method is applied to an experimental data for flow past a cylinder at approximately Re = 900 to verify its validation. The results show that it improves much better on evaluating the lift forces. (paper)
Thompson, J. F.; Mcwhorter, J. C.; Siddiqi, S. A.; Shanks, S. P.
1973-01-01
Numerical methods of integration of the equations of motion of a controlled satellite under the influence of gravity-gradient torque are considered. The results of computer experimentation using a number of Runge-Kutta, multi-step, and extrapolation methods for the numerical integration of this differential system are presented, and particularly efficient methods are noted. A large bibliography of numerical methods for initial value problems for ordinary differential equations is presented, and a compilation of Runge-Kutta and multistep formulas is given. Less common numerical integration techniques from the literature are noted for further consideration.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aruchunan, E.
2015-01-01
In this paper, we have examined the effectiveness of the quarter-sweep iteration concept on conjugate gradient normal residual (CGNR) iterative method by using composite Simpson's (CS) and finite difference (FD) discretization schemes in solving Fredholm integro-differential equations. For comparison purposes, Gauss- Seidel (GS) and the standard or full- and half-sweep CGNR methods namely FSCGNR and HSCGNR are also presented. To validate the efficacy of the proposed method, several analyses were carried out such as computational complexity and percentage reduction on the proposed and existing methods. (author)
Doronin, D. O.
2018-04-01
The demand in measuring and studies of heat conduction of various media is very urgent now. This article considers the problem of heat conduction monitoring and measurement in various media and materials in any industries and branches of science as well as metrological support of the heat flux measurement equipment. The main study objects are both the sensors manufactured and facilities onto which these sensors will be installed: different cladding structures of the buildings, awnings, rocket fairings, boiler units, internal combustion engines. The Company develops and manufactures different types of heat flux sensors: thermocouple, thin-film, heterogeneous gradient as well as metrological equipment for the gauging calibration of the heat flux density measurement. The calibration shall be performed using both referencing method in the unit and by fixed setting of the heat flux in the unit. To manufacture heterogeneous heat flux gradient sensors (HHFGS) the Company developed and designed a number of units: diffusion welding unit, HHFGS cutting unit. Rather good quality HHFGS prototypes were obtained. At this stage the factory tests on the equipment for the heat flux density measurement equipment are planned. A high-sensitivity heat flux sensor was produced, now it is tested at the Construction Physics Research Institute (Moscow). It became possible to create thin-film heat flux sensors with the sensitivity not worse than that of the sensors manufactured by Captec Company (France). The Company has sufficient premises to supply the market with a wide range of sensors, to master new sensor manufacture technologies which will enable their application range.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hsieh, K.C.; Lin, Y.C.; Sullivan, J.D.
1975-01-01
A simple method to extract information on anisotropy of particle fluxes from data collected by cosmic ray telescopes on spinning spacecraft but without sectored accumulators is presented. Application of this method to specific satellite data demonstrates that it requires no prior assumption on the form of angular distribution of the fluxes; furthermore, self-consistency ensures the validity of the results thus obtained. The examples show perfect agreement with the corresponding magnetic field directions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhen Chen
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Fractal and multi-fractal content area method finds application in a wide variety of geological, geochemical and geophysical fields. In this study, the fractal content-gradient method was used on 1:10,000 scale to delineate geochemical anomalies associated with copper mineralization. Analysis of geochemical data from the Yangla super large Cu-Pb-Zn polymetallic ore district using the fractal content-gradient method, combined with other geological data from this area, indicates that ore-prospecting in the ore district should focus on Cu as the main metal and Pb-Zn and Au as the auxiliary metals. The types of deposits include (in chronological order re-formed sedimentary exhalative (SEDEX, skarns, porphyries, and hydrothermal vein-type deposits. Three ore-prospecting targets are divided on a S–N basis: (1 the Qulong exploration area, in which the targets are porphyry-type Cu deposits; (2 the Zongya exploration area, where the targets are porphyry-type Cu and hydrothermal vein-type Cu-Pb polymetallic deposits; and (3 the Zarelongma exploration area, characterized mainly skarn-type “Yangla-style” massive sulfide Cu-Pb deposits. Our study demonstrates that the fractal content-gradient method is convenient, simple, rapid, and direct for delineating geochemical anomalies and for outlining potential exploration targets.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Masahito Ueyama
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Synthesis studies using multiple-site datasets for eddy covariance potentially contain uncertainties originating from the use of different flux calculation options, because the choice of the process for calculating half-hourly fluxes from raw time series data is left to individual researchers. In this study, we quantified the uncertainties associated with different flux calculation methods at seven sites. The differences in the half-hourly fluxes were small, generally of the order less than a few percentiles, but they were substantial for the annual fluxes. After the standardisation under current recommendations in the FLUXNET communities, we estimated the uncertainties in the annual fluxes associated with the flux calculations to be 2.6±2.7 W m−2 (the mean 90% ± confidence interval for the sensible heat flux, 72±37 g C m−2 yr−1 for net ecosystem exchange (NEE, 12±6% for evapotranspiration, 12±6% for gross primary productivity and 16±10% for ecosystem respiration. The self-heating correction strongly influenced the annual carbon balance (143±93 g C m−2 yr−1, not only for cold sites but also for warm sites, but did not fully account for differences between the open- and closed-path systems (413±189 g C m−2 yr−1.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Durmayaz, A.; Sisman, A.; Cetin Sisman, F.; Yavuz, H.
1997-01-01
The paper presents the xenon poisoning method as an experimental way to determine the average thermal neutron flux (anti φ), the average macroscopic fission cross section (anti Σ f ) and the average total macroscopic absorption cross section (anti Σ a ) together with the reactivity change due to the 135 Xe poisoning. The predictions for the reactivity change due to the 135 Xe poisoning are in good agreement with the results of the experiments. The results of anti φ, anti Σ f and anti Σ a obtained by using the xenon poisoning method are also in satisfactorily agreement with the predictions of TRIGAP and WIMS-D/4 computer codes. The temperature coefficients of the reactivity for the fuel and tank water have also been determined experimentally during this study. (orig.) [de
Permanent Magnet Flux Online Estimation Based on Zero-Voltage Vector Injection Method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Xie, Ge; Lu, Kaiyuan; Kumar, Dwivedi Sanjeet
2015-01-01
In this paper, a simple signal injection method is proposed for sensorless control of PMSM at low speed, which ideally requires one voltage vector only for position estimation. The proposed method is easy to implement resulting in low computation burden. No filters are needed for extracting the h...
Growth of ZrSiO4 single crystal by flux method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ushio, Masumi; Nishitani, Yoshinari
1982-01-01
ZrSiO 4 single crystals were grown from the Na 2 O.3 V 2 O 5 fluxed melt at constant soaking temperatures of 900 0 C and 1000 0 C for periods up to 1710h, using the natural zircon seeds. Temperature difference between the seed and nutrient was 0.5 -- 5 0 C. A solubility curve of the natural zircon in Na 2 O.3 V 2 O 5 was determined. It was found that about 5.7g of the natural crystal dissolved in Na 2 O.3 V 2 O 5 in 48h at 1000 0 C and about 7.5g at 1200 0 C. .the maximum growth weight was about 0.35 2 g under conditions of the temperature difference of 2 0 C and the soaking for 1205h at 1000 0 C. The grown crystal was initially bounded with the c-, m-, p-, a-planes and very small planes consisting of the u- and x-, and finally bounded with the m- and p-planes. The observed linear growth rates of planes of ZrSiO 4 single crystals were in the following order:a(100) > c(001) > p(111) > m(110). The growth rates of a- and m-planes were about 5 -- 7 x 10 -4 mm/h and 0.9 -- 1.0 x 10 -4 mm/h, respectively. The growth hillocks of rounded triangular shape and elliptic shape extended to the direction of c-axis, were observed on the p- and m-planes, respectively. The observed step distence of the spiral and the step height were about 0.97 5 μm and 0.17 2 μm, respectively. The observed linear rate of advance of the step on the m-plane was about 0.4 0 -- 1.2 x 10 -8 cm/s. A linear growth rate of the m-plane was then calculated to be 0.2 5 -- 0.7 1 x 10 -4 mm/h by the BCF theory, which agreed in order of magnitude with the observes growth rate of the m-plabe. (author)
A flux monitoring method for easy and accurate flow rate measurement in pressure-driven flows.
Siria, Alessandro; Biance, Anne-Laure; Ybert, Christophe; Bocquet, Lydéric
2012-03-07
We propose a low-cost and versatile method to measure flow rate in microfluidic channels under pressure-driven flows, thereby providing a simple characterization of the hydrodynamic permeability of the system. The technique is inspired by the current monitoring method usually employed to characterize electro-osmotic flows, and makes use of the measurement of the time-dependent electric resistance inside the channel associated with a moving salt front. We have successfully tested the method in a micrometer-size channel, as well as in a complex microfluidic channel with a varying cross-section, demonstrating its ability in detecting internal shape variations.
Radić, Valentina; Menounos, Brian; Shea, Joseph; Fitzpatrick, Noel; Tessema, Mekdes A.; Déry, Stephen J.
2017-12-01
As part of surface energy balance models used to simulate glacier melting, choosing parameterizations to adequately estimate turbulent heat fluxes is extremely challenging. This study aims to evaluate a set of four aerodynamic bulk methods (labeled as C methods), commonly used to estimate turbulent heat fluxes for a sloped glacier surface, and two less commonly used bulk methods developed from katabatic flow models. The C methods differ in their parameterizations of the bulk exchange coefficient that relates the fluxes to the near-surface measurements of mean wind speed, air temperature, and humidity. The methods' performance in simulating 30 min sensible- and latent-heat fluxes is evaluated against the measured fluxes from an open-path eddy-covariance (OPEC) method. The evaluation is performed at a point scale of a mountain glacier, using one-level meteorological and OPEC observations from multi-day periods in the 2010 and 2012 summer seasons. The analysis of the two independent seasons yielded the same key findings, which include the following: first, the bulk method, with or without the commonly used Monin-Obukhov (M-O) stability functions, overestimates the turbulent heat fluxes over the observational period, mainly due to a substantial overestimation of the friction velocity. This overestimation is most pronounced during the katabatic flow conditions, corroborating the previous findings that the M-O theory works poorly in the presence of a low wind speed maximum. Second, the method based on a katabatic flow model (labeled as the KInt method) outperforms any C method in simulating the friction velocity; however, the C methods outperform the KInt method in simulating the sensible-heat fluxes. Third, the best overall performance is given by a hybrid method, which combines the KInt approach with the C method; i.e., it parameterizes eddy viscosity differently than eddy diffusivity. An error analysis reveals that the uncertainties in the measured meteorological
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaomin Du
2015-05-01
Full Text Available Coal fires that are induced by natural spontaneous combustion or result from human activities occurring on the surface and in underground coal seams destroy coal resources and cause serious environmental degradation. Thermal infrared image data, which directly measure surface temperature, can be an important tool to map coal fires over large areas. As the first of two parts introducing our coal fire detection method, this paper proposes a self-adaptive threshold-based approach for coal fire detection using ASTER thermal infrared data: the self-adaptive gradient-based thresholding method (SAGBT. This method is based on an assumption that the attenuation of temperature along the coal fire’s boundaries generates considerable numbers of spots with extremely high gradient values. The SAGBT method applied mathematical morphology thinning to skeletonize the potential high gradient buffers into the extremely high gradient lines, which provides a self-adaptive mechanism to generate thresholds according to the thermal spatial patterns of the images. The final threshold was defined as an average temperature value reading from the high temperature buffers (segmented by 1.0 σ from the mean and along a sequence of extremely high gradient lines (thinned from the potential high gradient buffers and segmented within the lower bounds, ranging from 0.5 σ to 1.5 σ and with an upper bound of 3.2 σ, where σ is the standard deviation, marking the coal fire areas. The SAGBT method used the basic outer boundary of the coal-bearing strata to simply exclude false alarms. The intermediate thresholds reduced the coupling with the temperature and converged by changing the potential high gradient buffers. This simple approach can be economical and accurate in identifying coal fire areas. In addition, it allows for the identification of thresholds using multiple ASTER TIR scenes in a consistent and uniform manner, and supports long-term coal fire change analyses using
Jensen, Stephanie M; Nguyen, Celina T; Jewett, John C
2016-09-01
Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-transmitted flavivirus that infects approximately 100 million people annually. Multi-day protocols for purification of DENV reduce the infective titer due to viral sensitivity to both temperature and pH. Herein we describe a 5-h protocol for the purification of all DENV serotypes, utilizing traditional gradient-free ultracentrifugation followed by selective virion precipitation. This protocol allows for the separation of DENV from contaminating proteins - including intact C6/36 densovirus, for the production of infective virus at high concentration for protein-level analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Co-evolution of strain design methods based on flux balance and elementary mode analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Machado, Daniel; Herrgard, Markus
2015-01-01
More than a decade ago, the first genome-scale metabolic models for two of the most relevant microbes for biotechnology applications, Escherichia coli and Saccaromyces cerevisiae, were published. Shortly after followed the publication of OptKnock, the first strain design method using bilevel opti...
Validation of the DLW method in Japanese quail at different water fluxes using laser and IRMS
van Trigt, R; Kerstel, E.R.T.; Neubert, R.E.M.; Meijer, H.A.J.; Mclean, M.; Visser, G.H.
2002-01-01
In Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica; n = 9), the doubly labeled water (DLW) method (H-2, O-18) for estimation Of CO2 production (1/day) was validated. To evaluate its sensitivity to water efflux levels (r(H2Oe); g/day) and to assumptions of fractional evaporative water loss (x; dimensionless),
Harabuchi, Yu; Taketsugu, Tetsuya; Maeda, Satoshi
2017-04-01
We report a new approach to search for structures of minimum energy conical intersection (MECIs) automatically. Gradient projection (GP) method and single component artificial force induced reaction (SC-AFIR) method were combined in the present approach. As case studies, MECIs of benzene and naphthalene between their ground and first excited singlet electronic states (S0/S1-MECIs) were explored. All S0/S1-MECIs reported previously were obtained automatically. Furthermore, the number of force calculations was reduced compared to the one required in the previous search. Improved convergence in a step in which various geometrical displacements are induced by SC-AFIR would contribute to the cost reduction.
Bates, Kevin R.; Daniels, Andrew D.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.
1998-01-01
We report a comparison of two linear-scaling methods which avoid the diagonalization bottleneck of traditional electronic structure algorithms. The Chebyshev expansion method (CEM) is implemented for carbon tight-binding calculations of large systems and its memory and timing requirements compared to those of our previously implemented conjugate gradient density matrix search (CG-DMS). Benchmark calculations are carried out on icosahedral fullerenes from C60 to C8640 and the linear scaling memory and CPU requirements of the CEM demonstrated. We show that the CPU requisites of the CEM and CG-DMS are similar for calculations with comparable accuracy.
Improved flux calculations for viscous incompressible flow by the variable penalty method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kheshgi, H.; Luskin, M.
1985-01-01
The Navier-Stokes system for viscous, incompressible flow is considered, taking into account a replacement of the continuity equation by the perturbed continuity equation. The introduction of the approximation allows the pressure variable to be eliminated to obtain the system of equations for the approximate velocity. The penalty approximation is often applied to numerical discretizations since it provides a reduction in the size and band-width of the system of equations. Attention is given to error estimates, and to two numerical experiments which illustrate the error estimates considered. It is found that the variable penalty method provides an accurate solution for a much wider range of epsilon than the classical penalty method. 8 references
A comparison of different methods for improving flux and resolution on SANS instruments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Littrell, K.C.
2004-01-01
Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) is one of the most popular and oversubscribed techniques at every user facility for neutron scattering studies of condensed matter that offers it. The limiting features in SANS experiment design are the length of time required to make a measurement and the minimum momentum transfer Q that can be measured, and the resolution. In the traditional pinhole-camera geometry, these two constraints are inextricably linked, forcing tradeoffs. However, a number of methods have been developed for reducing this linkage, thus allowing higher throughput while retaining high resolution and a low minimum Q. These methods include using multiple confocal pinhole apertures, lenses, and focusing mirrors. We compare and contrast these options and discuss their suitability for use on instruments at pulsed neutron sources
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liang Tang
2017-05-01
Full Text Available Waveform sets with good correlation and/or stopband properties have received extensive attention and been widely used in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO radar. In this paper, we aim at designing unimodular waveform sets with good correlation and stopband properties. To formulate the problem, we construct two criteria to measure the correlation and stopband properties and then establish an unconstrained problem in the frequency domain. After deducing the phase gradient and the step size, an efficient gradient-based algorithm with monotonicity is proposed to minimize the objective function directly. For the design problem without considering the correlation weights, we develop a simplified algorithm, which only requires a few fast Fourier transform (FFT operations and is more efficient. Because both of the algorithms can be implemented via the FFT operations and the Hadamard product, they are computationally efficient and can be used to design waveform sets with a large waveform number and waveform length. Numerical experiments show that the proposed algorithms can provide better performance than the state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of the computational complexity.
Tang, Liang; Zhu, Yongfeng; Fu, Qiang
2017-05-01
Waveform sets with good correlation and/or stopband properties have received extensive attention and been widely used in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar. In this paper, we aim at designing unimodular waveform sets with good correlation and stopband properties. To formulate the problem, we construct two criteria to measure the correlation and stopband properties and then establish an unconstrained problem in the frequency domain. After deducing the phase gradient and the step size, an efficient gradient-based algorithm with monotonicity is proposed to minimize the objective function directly. For the design problem without considering the correlation weights, we develop a simplified algorithm, which only requires a few fast Fourier transform (FFT) operations and is more efficient. Because both of the algorithms can be implemented via the FFT operations and the Hadamard product, they are computationally efficient and can be used to design waveform sets with a large waveform number and waveform length. Numerical experiments show that the proposed algorithms can provide better performance than the state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of the computational complexity.
A new method for estimating UV fluxes at ground level in cloud-free conditions
Wandji Nyamsi, William; Pitkänen, Mikko R. A.; Aoun, Youva; Blanc, Philippe; Heikkilä, Anu; Lakkala, Kaisa; Bernhard, Germar; Koskela, Tapani; Lindfors, Anders V.; Arola, Antti; Wald, Lucien
2017-12-01
A new method has been developed to estimate the global and direct solar irradiance in the UV-A and UV-B at ground level in cloud-free conditions. It is based on a resampling technique applied to the results of the k-distribution method and the correlated-k approximation of Kato et al. (1999) over the UV band. Its inputs are the aerosol properties and total column ozone that are produced by the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS). The estimates from this new method have been compared to instantaneous measurements of global UV irradiances made in cloud-free conditions at five stations at high latitudes in various climates. For the UV-A irradiance, the bias ranges between -0.8 W m-2 (-3 % of the mean of all data) and -0.2 W m-2 (-1 %). The root mean square error (RMSE) ranges from 1.1 W m-2 (6 %) to 1.9 W m-2 (9 %). The coefficient of determination R2 is greater than 0.98. The bias for UV-B is between -0.04 W m-2 (-4 %) and 0.08 W m-2 (+13 %) and the RMSE is 0.1 W m-2 (between 12 and 18 %). R2 ranges between 0.97 and 0.99. This work demonstrates the quality of the proposed method combined with the CAMS products. Improvements, especially in the modeling of the reflectivity of the Earth's surface in the UV region, are necessary prior to its inclusion into an operational tool.
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A.V. Getman
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Theoretical aspects of an experimental determination method for residual and inductive magnetic moments of a technical object are considered. As input data, the technical object magnetic induction signatures obtained under its linear movement near a pair of three-component sensors are used. A magnetic signature integration technique based on spatial harmonic analysis of the magnetic field represented by twenty-four multipole coefficients is introduced.
Flux decay during thermonuclear X-ray bursts analysed with the dynamic power-law index method
Kuuttila, J.; Kajava, J. J. E.; Nättilä, J.; Motta, S. E.; Sánchez-Fernández, C.; Kuulkers, E.; Cumming, A.; Poutanen, J.
2017-08-01
The cooling of type-I X-ray bursts can be used to probe the nuclear burning conditions in neutron star envelopes. The flux decay of the bursts has been traditionally modelled with an exponential, even if theoretical considerations predict power-law-like decays. We have analysed a total of 540 type-I X-ray bursts from five low-mass X-ray binaries observed with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. We grouped the bursts according to the source spectral state during which they were observed (hard or soft), flagging those bursts that showed signs of photospheric radius expansion (PRE). The decay phase of all the bursts were then fitted with a dynamic power-law index method. This method provides a new way of probing the chemical composition of the accreted material. Our results show that in the hydrogen-rich sources the power-law decay index is variable during the burst tails and that simple cooling models qualitatively describe the cooling of presumably helium-rich sources 4U 1728-34 and 3A 1820-303. The cooling in the hydrogen-rich sources 4U 1608-52, 4U 1636-536, and GS 1826-24, instead, is clearly different and depends on the spectral states and whether PRE occurred or not. Especially the hard state bursts behave differently than the models predict, exhibiting a peculiar rise in the cooling index at low burst fluxes, which suggests that the cooling in the tail is much faster than expected. Our results indicate that the drivers of the bursting behaviour are not only the accretion rate and chemical composition of the accreted material, but also the cooling that is somehow linked to the spectral states. The latter suggests that the properties of the burning layers deep in the neutron star envelope might be impacted differently depending on the spectral state.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Godoy, William F.; Liu Xu
2012-01-01
The present study introduces a parallel Jacobian-free Newton Krylov (JFNK) general minimal residual (GMRES) solution for the discretized radiative transfer equation (RTE) in 3D, absorbing, emitting and scattering media. For the angular and spatial discretization of the RTE, the discrete ordinates method (DOM) and the finite volume method (FVM) including flux limiters are employed, respectively. Instead of forming and storing a large Jacobian matrix, JFNK methods allow for large memory savings as the required Jacobian-vector products are rather approximated by semiexact and numerical formulations, for which convergence and computational times are presented. Parallelization of the GMRES solution is introduced in a combined memory-shared/memory-distributed formulation that takes advantage of the fact that only large vector arrays remain in the JFNK process. Results are presented for 3D test cases including a simple homogeneous, isotropic medium and a more complex non-homogeneous, non-isothermal, absorbing–emitting and anisotropic scattering medium with collimated intensities. Additionally, convergence and stability of Gram–Schmidt and Householder orthogonalizations for the Arnoldi process in the parallel GMRES algorithms are discussed and analyzed. Overall, the introduction of JFNK methods results in a parallel, yet scalable to the tested 2048 processors, and memory affordable solution to 3D radiative transfer problems without compromising the accuracy and convergence of a Newton-like solution.
Parwani, Ajit K.; Talukdar, Prabal; Subbarao, P. M. V.
2015-03-01
Heat flux at the boundary of a duct is estimated using the inverse technique based on conjugate gradient method (CGM) with an adjoint equation. A two-dimensional inverse forced convection hydrodynamically fully developed turbulent flow is considered. The simulations are performed with temperature data measured in the experimental test performed on a wind tunnel. The results show that the present numerical model with CGM is robust and accurate enough to estimate the strength and position of boundary heat flux.
Wiczling, Paweł; Nasal, Antoni; Kubik, Łukasz; Kaliszan, Roman
2012-08-30
Convenient drug candidates testing methods for lipophilicity and acidity are highly requested in modern pharmaceutical research and development strategy. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP HPLC) might be particularly useful for the determination of both pK(a) and the apparent (pH-dependent) octanol-water partition coefficient, applicable in high-throughput analysis of multi-component mixtures. In this report the pH/organic modifier gradient RP HPLC is presented as a means of simultaneous determination of acidity and lipophilicity of a series of 26 imidazoline-like drugs. The previously theoretically elaborated approach has been applied consisting in retention measurements in a series of methanol gradient runs differing in pH range and duration of the gradient. The simultaneously determined lipophilicity and dissociation constants have been demonstrated to correlate to the respective parameters form calculation chemistry. The proposed approach can be applied to compound mixtures, it requires only minute amounts of substances, and pK(a) values can be determined in the range 3-10 units and lipophilicity log P parameter in the range 0-7 units. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Methane flux estimation in the Barnett Shale: model-based method inter-comparison
Karion, A.; Lauvaux, T.; Sweeney, C.; Angevine, W. M.; Mueller, K. L.; Gourdji, S.; Lopez-Coto, I.; Barkley, Z.; Whetstone, J. R.
2017-12-01
Many recent studies have used atmospheric measurements of methane over oil and gas production basins to quantify methane emissions from those regions. In almost all cases, the resulting emissions estimate is higher than the corresponding inventory compiled from activity data on the ground. However, most studies to date that have used atmospheric observations have employed only a single analysis method or model to estimate the emissions. Here we present a method inter-comparison, focusing on estimating methane emissions from the Barnett shale oil and gas production basin in Texas, U.S.A using atmospheric observations. In this work, we use a rich data set of atmospheric methane observations acquired by aircraft during a 2013 campaign in the Barnett shale to evaluate and compare different atmospheric models' abilities to estimate total methane emissions in this highly productive oil and gas basin. We compare methane enhancements from different atmospheric transport models coupled with a published inventory that was based on ground-based measurements and statistical data analysis. The models are based on high-resolution Weather Research Forecast (WRF) model meteorology either run forward with the inventory methane tracer (WRF-Chem) or coupled with various Lagrangian models (HYSPLIT, STILT, FlexPart). We apply these models to a simple scaling analysis as well as a Bayesian inversion, and compare the modeled results with earlier published estimates that relied on a simpler mass-balance model as well as with the original inventory (or prior). We find that the transport and dispersion models employed in the study often under-predict the observed methane enhancements and therefore over-estimate emissions from the basin when used in either an inverse modeling framework or simpler scaling analysis compared to the mass balance results. We examine possible causes for this result as well as the possibility for larger model uncertainties on different flight days due to specific
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qian Xie
2016-07-01
Full Text Available This paper pays attention to magnetic flux linkage optimization of a direct-driven surface-mounted permanent magnet synchronous generator (D-SPMSG. A new compact representation of the D-SPMSG nonlinear dynamic differential equations to reduce system parameters is established. Furthermore, the nonlinear dynamic characteristics of new D-SPMSG equations in the process of varying magnetic flux linkage are considered, which are illustrated by Lyapunov exponent spectrums, phase orbits, Poincaré maps, time waveforms and bifurcation diagrams, and the magnetic flux linkage stable region of D-SPMSG is acquired concurrently. Based on the above modeling and analyses, a novel method of magnetic flux linkage optimization is presented. In addition, a 2 MW D-SPMSG 2D/3D model is designed by ANSYS software according to the practical design requirements. Finally, five cases of D-SPMSG models with different magnetic flux linkages are simulated by using the finite element analysis (FEA method. The nephograms of magnetic flux density are agreement with theoretical analysis, which both confirm the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Liu, Hongxia; Deng, Shuping; Shen, Lanxian; Wang, Jinsong; Feng, Cheng; Deng, Shukang
2017-03-01
β-Zn4Sb3 is a promising p-type thermoelectric material for utilization in moderate temperatures. This study prepares a group of single-crystalline β-Zn4Sb3 samples using the Zn-Sn mixed-flux method based on the stoichiometric ratios of Zn4+ x Sb3Sn y . The effect of Zn-to-Sn proportion in the flux on the structure and electrical transport properties is investigated. All samples are strip-shaped single crystals of different sizes. The actual Zn content of the present samples is improved (>3.9) compared with that of the samples prepared through the Sn flux method. Larger lattice parameters are also obtained. The carrier concentration of all the samples is in the order of over 1019 cm-3. With increasing Sn rate in the flux, this carrier concentration decreases, whereas mobility is significantly enhanced. The electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficients of all the samples exhibit a behavior that of a degenerate semiconductor transport. Electrical conductivity initially increases and then decreases as the Sn ratio in the flux increases. The electrical conductivity of the x: y = 5:1 sample reaches 6.45 × 104 S m-1 at 300 K. Benefitting from the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient, the flux proportion of the x: y = 7:1 sample finally achieves the highest power factor value of 1.4 × 10-3 W m-1 K-2 at 598 K.
Ma, Xiaohong; Feng, Qi; Su, Yonghong; Yu, Tengfei; Jin, Hua
2017-01-01
In this study, the characteristics of energy flux partitioning and evapotranspiration of P. euphratica forests were examined in the extreme arid region of Northwest China. Energy balance closure of the ecosystem was approximately 72% (H + LE = 0.72 ∗ (Rn-G)+7.72, r2=0.79, n=12095), where Rn is the net radiation, G is the soil heat flux, H is the sensible heat flux, and LE is the latent heat flux. LE was the main term of energy consumption at annual time scale because of higher value in the gr...
Klett, James W [Knoxville, TN; Cameron, Christopher Stan [Sanford, NC
2010-03-02
A carbon based foam article is made by heating the surface of a carbon foam block to a temperature above its graphitizing temperature, which is the temperature sufficient to graphitize the carbon foam. In one embodiment, the surface is heated with infrared pulses until heat is transferred from the surface into the core of the foam article such that the graphitizing temperature penetrates into the core to a desired depth below the surface. The graphitizing temperature is maintained for a time sufficient to substantially entirely graphitize the portion of the foam article from the surface to the desired depth below the surface. Thus, the foam article is an integral monolithic material that has a desired conductivity gradient with a relatively high thermal conductivity in the portion of the core that was graphitized and a relatively low thermal conductivity in the remaining portion of the foam article.
Gradient Boosting Machines, A Tutorial
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexey eNatekin
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Gradient boosting machines are a family of powerful machine-learning techniques that have shown considerable success in a wide range of practical applications. They are highly customizable to the particular needs of the application, like being learned with respect to different loss functions. This article gives a tutorial introduction into the methodology of gradient boosting methods. A theoretical information is complemented with many descriptive examples and illustrations which cover all the stages of the gradient boosting model design. Considerations on handling the model complexity are discussed. A set of practical examples of gradient boosting applications are presented and comprehensively analyzed.
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D. A. J. Sproson
2013-02-01
Full Text Available The eddy covariance technique is the most direct of the methods that have been used to measure the flux of sea-spray aerosol between the ocean and atmosphere, but has been applied in only a handful of studies. However, unless the aerosol is dried before the eddy covariance measurements are made, the hygroscopic nature of sea-spray may combine with a relative humidity flux to result in a bias in the calculated aerosol flux. "Bulk" methods have been presented to account for this bias, however, they rely on assumptions of the shape of the aerosol spectra which may not be valid for near-surface measurements of sea-spray.
Here we describe a method of correcting aerosol spectra for relative humidity induced size variations at the high frequency (10 Hz measurement timescale, where counting statistics are poor and the spectral shape cannot be well represented by a simple power law. Such a correction allows the effects of hygroscopicity and relative humidity flux on the aerosol flux to be explicitly evaluated and compared to the bulk corrections, both in their original form and once reformulated to better represent the measured mean aerosol spectra. In general, the bulk corrections – particularly when reformulated for the measured mean aerosol spectra – perform relatively well, producing flux corrections of the right sign and approximate magnitude. However, there are times when the bulk methods either significantly over- or underestimate the required flux correction. We conclude that, where possible, relative humidity corrections should be made at the measurement frequency.
Chattopadhyay, Sudip; Chaudhuri, Rajat K; Freed, Karl F
2011-04-28
The improved virtual orbital (IVO) complete active space (CAS) configuration interaction (IVO-CASCI) method is a simplified CAS self-consistent field (SCF), CASSCF, method. Unlike the CASSCF approach, the IVO-CASCI method does not require iterations beyond an initial SCF calculation, rendering the IVO-CASCI scheme computationally more tractable than the CASSCF method and devoid of the convergence problems that sometimes plague CASSCF calculations as the CAS size increases, while retaining all the essential positive benefits of the CASSCF method. Earlier applications demonstrate that the IVO-CASCI energies are at least as accurate as those from the CASSCF and provide the impetus for our recent development of the analytical derivative procedures that are necessary for a wide applicability of the IVO-CASCI approach. Here we test the ability of the analytic energy gradient IVO-CASCI approach (which can treat both closed- and open-shell molecules of arbitrary spin multiplicity) to compute the equilibrium geometries of four organic radicaloid species, namely, (i) the diradicals trimethylenemethane (TMM), 2,6-pyridyne, and the 2,6-pyridynium cation and (ii) a triradical 1,2,3-tridehydrobenzene (TDB), using various basis sets and different choices for the active space. Although these systems and related molecules have fascinated theoretical chemists for many years, their strong multireference character makes their description quite difficult with most standard many-body approaches. Thus, they provide ideal tests to assess the performance of the IVO-CASCI method. The present work demonstrates consistent agreement with far more expensive benchmark state-of-the-art ab initio calculations and thereby indicates that this new gradient method is able to describe the geometries of various radicaloids very accurately, even when small, but qualitatively correct, reference spaces are used. For example, the IVO-CASCI method leads to a monocyclic structure for the 2,6-isomers of the
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Mohammadnia Meysam
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The flux expansion nodal method is a suitable method for considering nodalization effects in node corners. In this paper we used this method to solve the intra-nodal flux analytically. Then, a computer code, named MA.CODE, was developed using the C# programming language. The code is capable of reactor core calculations for hexagonal geometries in two energy groups and three dimensions. The MA.CODE imports two group constants from the WIMS code and calculates the effective multiplication factor, thermal and fast neutron flux in three dimensions, power density, reactivity, and the power peaking factor of each fuel assembly. Some of the code's merits are low calculation time and a user friendly interface. MA.CODE results showed good agreement with IAEA benchmarks, i. e. AER-FCM-101 and AER-FCM-001.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jamet, Didier; Torres, David; Brackbill, J.U.
2002-01-01
Errors in the computation of fluid flows with surface tension are examined. These errors cause large parasitic flows when the capillary number is large and have often been attributed to truncation error in underresolved interfacial regions. A study using the second-gradient method reveals that when truncation error is eliminated in the computation of energy exchanges between surface and kinetic energies so that energy is strictly conserved, the parasitic currents are reduced to round-off. The results are based on general thermodynamic arguments and can be used to guide improvements in other methods, such as the continuum-surface-force (CSF) method, which is commonly used with the volume-of-fluid (VOF) method
Sgouridis, Fotis; Stott, Andrew; Ullah, Sami
2016-03-01
Soil denitrification is considered the most un-constrained process in the global N cycle due to uncertain in situ N2 flux measurements, particularly in natural and semi-natural terrestrial ecosystems. 15N tracer approaches can provide in situ measurements of both N2 and N2O simultaneously, but their use has been limited to fertilized agro-ecosystems due to the need for large 15N additions in order to detect 15N2 production against the high atmospheric N2. For 15N-N2 analyses, we have used an "in-house" laboratory designed and manufactured N2 preparation instrument which can be interfaced to any commercial continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometer (CF-IRMS). The N2 prep unit has gas purification steps and a copper-based reduction furnace, and allows the analysis of small gas injection volumes (4 µL) for 15N-N2 analysis. For the analysis of N2O, an automated Tracegas Preconcentrator (Isoprime Ltd) coupled to an IRMS was used to measure the 15N-N2O (4 mL gas injection volume). Consequently, the coefficient of variation for the determination of isotope ratios for N2 in air and in standard N2O (0.5 ppm) was better than 0.5 %. The 15N gas-flux method was adapted for application in natural and semi-natural land use types (peatlands, forests, and grasslands) by lowering the 15N tracer application rate to 0.04-0.5 kg 15N ha-1. The minimum detectable flux rates were 4 µg N m-2 h-1 and 0.2 ng N m-2 h-1 for the N2 and N2O fluxes respectively. Total denitrification rates measured by the acetylene inhibition technique in the same land use types correlated (r = 0.58) with the denitrification rates measured under the 15N gas-flux method, but were underestimated by a factor of 4, and this was partially attributed to the incomplete inhibition of N2O reduction to N2, under a relatively high soil moisture content, and/or the catalytic NO decomposition in the presence of acetylene. Even though relatively robust for in situ denitrification measurements, methodological
Serletis, C.; Litsardakis, G.; Pavlidou, E.; Efthimiadis, K. G.
2017-11-01
In this work, using the chemical coprecipitation method, Sr1-xSmxFe12-xCoxO19 (x = 0, 0.1, 0.2) hexaferrite powders were prepared. Major magnetization loops were recorded at room temperature in order to determine the correct calcination temperature for optimum hard magnetic properties. It is found that a small degree of substitution increases substantially the coercive field. Also, the use of the molten flux calcination method increases the remanent magnetization. SEM/EDXS and XRD measurements were performed at the calcined powders: the results show that a single hexaferrite phase is formed and that the substituted powders consist of an assembly of grains with a mean diameter of 40 nm. Measurements of minor magnetization loops and of the temperature and time dependence of the magnetization confirm that the powders consist of a non-oriented single domain magnetic particles assembly. The results indicate that Sm could be a viable replacement for La in the manufacturing of hexaferrites with a high-energy product.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Truchet, G.; Leconte, P.; Peneliau, Y.; Santamarina, A.
2013-01-01
The first goal of this paper is to present an exact method able to precisely evaluate very small reactivity effects with a Monte Carlo code (<10 pcm). it has been decided to implement the exact perturbation theory in TRIPOLI-4 and, consequently, to calculate a continuous-energy adjoint flux. The Iterated Fission Probability (IFP) method was chosen because it has shown great results in some other Monte Carlo codes. The IFP method uses a forward calculation to compute the adjoint flux, and consequently, it does not rely on complex code modifications but on the physical definition of the adjoint flux as a phase-space neutron importance. In the first part of this paper, the IFP method implemented in TRIPOLI-4 is described. To illustrate the efficiency of the method, several adjoint fluxes are calculated and compared with their equivalent obtained by the deterministic code APOLLO-2. The new implementation can calculate angular adjoint flux. In the second part, a procedure to carry out an exact perturbation calculation is described. A single cell benchmark has been used to test the accuracy of the method, compared with the 'direct' estimation of the perturbation. Once again the method based on the IFP shows good agreement for a calculation time far more inferior to the 'direct' method. The main advantage of the method is that the relative accuracy of the reactivity variation does not depend on the magnitude of the variation itself, which allows us to calculate very small reactivity perturbations with high precision. It offers the possibility to split reactivity contributions on both isotopes and reactions. Other applications of this perturbation method are presented and tested like the calculation of exact kinetic parameters (βeff, Λeff) or sensitivity parameters
Zhang, Xia; Hu, Changqin
2017-09-08
Penicillins are typical of complex ionic samples which likely contain large number of degradation-related impurities (DRIs) with different polarities and charge properties. It is often a challenge to develop selective and robust high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods for the efficient separation of all DRIs. In this study, an analytical quality by design (AQbD) approach was proposed for stability-indicating method development of cloxacillin. The structures, retention and UV characteristics rules of penicillins and their impurities were summarized and served as useful prior knowledge. Through quality risk assessment and screen design, 3 critical process parameters (CPPs) were defined, including 2 mixture variables (MVs) and 1 process variable (PV). A combined mixture-process variable (MPV) design was conducted to evaluate the 3 CPPs simultaneously and a response surface methodology (RSM) was used to achieve the optimal experiment parameters. A dual gradient elution was performed to change buffer pH, mobile-phase type and strength simultaneously. The design spaces (DSs) was evaluated using Monte Carlo simulation to give their possibility of meeting the specifications of CQAs. A Plackett-Burman design was performed to test the robustness around the working points and to decide the normal operating ranges (NORs). Finally, validation was performed following International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) guidelines. To our knowledge, this is the first study of using MPV design and dual gradient elution to develop HPLC methods and improve separations for complex ionic samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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Kai Liu
2017-05-01
Full Text Available Quantifying vegetation fractional cover (VFC and assessing its role in heat fluxes modeling using medium resolution remotely sensed data has received less attention than it deserves in heterogeneous urban regions. This study examined two approaches (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI-derived and Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA-derived methods that are commonly used to map VFC based on Landsat imagery, in modeling surface heat fluxes in urban landscape. For this purpose, two different heat flux models, Two-source energy balance (TSEB model and Pixel Component Arranging and Comparing Algorithm (PCACA model, were adopted for model evaluation and analysis. A comparative analysis of the NDVI-derived and MESMA-derived VFCs showed that the latter achieved more accurate estimates in complex urban regions. When the two sources of VFCs were used as inputs to both TSEB and PCACA models, MESMA-derived urban VFC produced more accurate urban heat fluxes (Bowen ratio and latent heat flux relative to NDVI-derived urban VFC. Moreover, our study demonstrated that Landsat imagery-retrieved VFC exhibited greater uncertainty in obtaining urban heat fluxes for the TSEB model than for the PCACA model.
Sgouridis, F.; Ullah, S.; Stott, A.
2015-08-01
Soil denitrification is considered the most un-constrained process in the global N cycle due to uncertain in situ N2 flux measurements, particularly in natural and semi-natural terrestrial ecosystems. 15N tracer approaches can provide in situ measurements of both N2 and N2O simultaneously, but their use has been limited to fertilised agro-ecosystems due to the need for large 15N additions in order to detect 15N2 production against the high atmospheric N2. For 15N-N2 analyses, we have used an "in house" laboratory designed and manufactured N2 preparation instrument which can be interfaced to any commercial continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometer (CF-IRMS). The N2 prep unit has gas purification steps, a copper based reduction furnace, and allows the analysis of small gas injection volumes (4 μL) for 15N-N2 analysis. For the analysis of N2O, an automated Tracegas Pre-concentrator (Isoprime Ltd) coupled to an IRMS was used to measure the 15N-N2O (4 mL gas injection volume). Consequently, the coefficient of variation for the determination of isotope ratios for N2 in air and in standard N2O (0.5 ppm) was better than 0.5 %. The 15N Gas-Flux method was adapted for application in natural and semi-natural land use types (peatlands, forests and grasslands) by lowering the 15N tracer application rate to 0.04-0.5 kg 15N ha-1. For our chamber design (volume / surface = 8:1) and a 20 h incubation period, the minimum detectable flux rates were 4 μg N m-2 h-1 and 0.2 ng N m-2 h-1 for the N2 and N2O fluxes respectively. The N2 flux ranged between 2.4 and 416.6 μg N m-2 h-1, and the grassland soils showed on average 3 and 14 times higher denitrification rates than the woodland and organic soils respectively. The N2O flux was on average 20 to 200 times lower than the N2 flux, while the denitrification product ratio (N2O/N2 + N2O) was low, ranging between 0.03 and 13 %. Total denitrification rates measured by the acetylene inhibition technique under the same field conditions
Chan, Allison M; Bowling, David R
2017-07-01
Productivity of conifers in seasonally snow-covered forests is high before and during snowmelt when environmental conditions are optimal for photosynthesis. Climate change is altering the timing of spring in many locations, and changes in the date of transition from winter dormancy can have large impacts on annual productivity. Sap flow methods provide a promising approach to monitor tree activity during the cold season and the winter-spring and fall-winter transitions. Although sap flow techniques have been widely used, cold season results are generally not reported. Here we examine the feasibility of using the Granier thermal dissipation (TD) sap flux density method to monitor transpiration and dormancy of evergreen conifers during the cold season. We conducted a laboratory experiment which demonstrated that the TD method reliably detects xylem water transport (when it occurs) both at near freezing temperature and at low flow rate, and that the sensors can withstand repeated freeze-thaw events. However, the dependence between sensor output and water transport rate in these experiments differed from the established TD relation. In field experiments, sensors installed in two Abies forests lasted through two winters and a summer with low failure. The baseline (no-flow) sensor output varied considerably with temperature during the cold season, and a new baseline algorithm was developed to accommodate this variation. The Abies forests differed in elevation (2070 and 2620 m), and there was a clear difference in timing of initiation and cessation of transpiration between them. We conclude that the TD method can be reliably used to examine water transport during cold periods with associated low flow conditions. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Arcisauskaite, V.; Knecht, S.; Sauer, Stephan P. A.
2012-01-01
We examine the performance of Density Functional Theory (DFT) approaches based on the Zeroth-Order Regular Approximation (ZORA) Hamiltonian (with and without inclusion of spin-orbit coupling) for predictions of electric field gradients (EFGs) at the heavy atom Hg nucleus. This is achieved...... by comparing with benchmark DFT and CCSD-T data (Arcisauskaite et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2012, 14, 2651-2657) obtained from 4-component Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian calculations. The investigated set of molecules comprises linear HgL2 (L = Cl, Br, I, CH3) and bent HgCl2 mercury compounds as well...... as the trigonal planar [HgCl3](-) system. In 4-component calculations we used the dyall. cv3z basis set for Hg, Br, I and the cc-pCVTZ basis set for H, C, Cl, whereas in ZORA calculations we used the QZ4P basis set for all the atoms. ZORA-4 reproduces the fully relativistic 4-component DFT reference values within...
Hoffman, Tim
Hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) is a wide bandgap III-V semiconductor that has seen new interest due to the development of other III-V LED devices and the advent of graphene and other 2-D materials. For device applications, high quality, low defect density materials are needed. Several applications for hBN crystals are being investigated, including as a neutron detector and interference-less infrared-absorbing material. Isotopically enriched crystals were utilized for enhanced propagation of phonon modes. These applications exploit the unique physical, electronic and nanophotonics applications for bulk hBN crystals. In this study, bulk hBN crystals were grown by the flux method using a molten Ni-Cr solvent at high temperatures (1500°C) and atmospheric pressures. The effects of growth parameters, source materials, and gas environment on the crystals size, morphology and purity were established and controlled, and the reliability of the process was greatly improved. Single-crystal domains exceeding 1mm in width and 200microm in thickness were produced and transferred to handle substrates for analysis. Grain size dependence with respect to dwell temperature, cooling rate and cooling temperature were analyzed and modeled using response surface morphology. Most significantly, crystal grain width was predicted to increase linearly with dwell temperature, with single-crystal domains exceeding 2mm in at 1700°C. Isotopically enriched 10B and 11B hBN crystal were produced using a Ni-Cr-B flux method, and their properties investigated. 10B concentration was evaluated using SIMS and correlated to the shift in the Raman peak of the E2g mode. Crystals with enrichment of 99% 10B and >99% 11B were achieved, with corresponding Raman shift peaks at 1392.0 cm-1 and 1356.6 cm-1, respectively. Peak FWHM also decreased as isotopic enrichment approached 100%, with widths as low as 3.5 cm-1 achieved, compared to 8.0 cm-1 for natural abundance samples. Defect selective etching was
Benchmarking gyrokinetic simulations in a toroidal flux-tube
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Y.; Parker, S. E.; Wan, W. [University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Bravenec, R. [Fourth-State Research, Austin, Texas 78704 (United States)
2013-09-15
A flux-tube model is implemented in the global turbulence code GEM [Y. Chen and S. E. Parker, J. Comput. Phys. 220, 839 (2007)] in order to facilitate benchmarking with Eulerian codes. The global GEM assumes the magnetic equilibrium to be completely given. The initial flux-tube implementation simply selects a radial location as the center of the flux-tube and a radial size of the flux-tube, sets all equilibrium quantities (B, ∇B, etc.) to be equal to the values at the center of the flux-tube, and retains only a linear radial profile of the safety factor needed for boundary conditions. This implementation shows disagreement with Eulerian codes in linear simulations. An alternative flux-tube model based on a complete local equilibrium solution of the Grad-Shafranov equation [J. Candy, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 51, 105009 (2009)] is then implemented. This results in better agreement between Eulerian codes and the particle-in-cell (PIC) method. The PIC algorithm based on the v{sub ||}-formalism [J. Reynders, Ph.D. dissertation, Princeton University, 1992] and the gyrokinetic ion/fluid electron hybrid model with kinetic electron closure [Y. Chan and S. E. Parker, Phys. Plasmas 18, 055703 (2011)] are also implemented in the flux-tube geometry and compared with the direct method for both the ion temperature gradient driven modes and the kinetic ballooning modes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Biffle, J.H.; Blanford, M.L.
1994-05-01
JAC2D is a two-dimensional finite element program designed to solve quasi-static nonlinear mechanics problems. A set of continuum equations describes the nonlinear mechanics involving large rotation and strain. A nonlinear conjugate gradient method is used to solve the equations. The method is implemented in a two-dimensional setting with various methods for accelerating convergence. Sliding interface logic is also implemented. A four-node Lagrangian uniform strain element is used with hourglass stiffness to control the zero-energy modes. This report documents the elastic and isothermal elastic/plastic material model. Other material models, documented elsewhere, are also available. The program is vectorized for efficient performance on Cray computers. Sample problems described are the bending of a thin beam, the rotation of a unit cube, and the pressurization and thermal loading of a hollow sphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Biffle, J.H.
1993-02-01
JAC3D is a three-dimensional finite element program designed to solve quasi-static nonlinear mechanics problems. A set of continuum equations describes the nonlinear mechanics involving large rotation and strain. A nonlinear conjugate gradient method is used to solve the equation. The method is implemented in a three-dimensional setting with various methods for accelerating convergence. Sliding interface logic is also implemented. An eight-node Lagrangian uniform strain element is used with hourglass stiffness to control the zero-energy modes. This report documents the elastic and isothermal elastic-plastic material model. Other material models, documented elsewhere, are also available. The program is vectorized for efficient performance on Cray computers. Sample problems described are the bending of a thin beam, the rotation of a unit cube, and the pressurization and thermal loading of a hollow sphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferrouk, M.; Aissani, S.; D'Auria, F.; DelNevo, A.; Salah, A. Bousbia
2008-01-01
The present article covers the evaluation of the performance of twelve critical heat flux methods/correlations published in the open literature. The study concerns the simulation of an axially non-uniform heat flux distribution with the RELAP5 computer code in a single boiling water reactor channel benchmark problem. The nodalization scheme employed for the considered particular geometry, as modelled in RELAP5 code, is described. For this purpose a review of critical heat flux models/correlations applicable to non-uniform axial heat profile is provided. Simulation results using the RELAP5 code and those obtained from our computer program, based on three type predictions methods such as local conditions, F-factor and boiling length average approaches were compared
Growth Temperature Dependence of Morphology of GaN Single Crystals in the Na-Li-Ca Flux Method
Wu, Xi; Hao, Hangfei; Li, Zhenrong; Fan, Shiji; Xu, Zhuo
2018-02-01
In this paper, the effect of growth temperature on the morphology and transparency of the GaN crystals obtained by the Li-Ca-added Na Flux method was studied. Addition of Li-Ca was attempted to control the growth habit and further improve transparency of GaN crystals. The samples with wurtzite structure of GaN were confirmed by the x-ray powder diffraction analysis. GaN single crystal with maximum size of about 6 mm was grown at 750°C. As the growth temperature was increased from 700°C to 850°C, the morphology of the crystals changed from pyramid to prism, and their surfaces became smooth. It was found that high growth temperature was beneficial to obtain a transparent crystal, but the evaporation of sodium would suppress its further growth. The E 2 (high) mode in the Raman spectra was at 568 cm-1, and the full-width at half-maximum values of this peak for the crystals obtained at 700°C, 750°C, 800°C, and 850°C were 7.5 cm-1, 10.3 cm-1, 4.4 cm-1, and 4.0 cm-1, respectively. It indicates that all the crystals are stress free and the transparent crystal grown at high temperature has high structural quality or low impurity concentrations.
Automated gas bubble imaging at sea floor – a new method of in situ gas flux quantification
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Bohrmann
2010-06-01
Full Text Available Photo-optical systems are common in marine sciences and have been extensively used in coastal and deep-sea research. However, due to technical limitations in the past photo images had to be processed manually or semi-automatically. Recent advances in technology have rapidly improved image recording, storage and processing capabilities which are used in a new concept of automated in situ gas quantification by photo-optical detection. The design for an in situ high-speed image acquisition and automated data processing system is reported ("Bubblemeter". New strategies have been followed with regards to back-light illumination, bubble extraction, automated image processing and data management. This paper presents the design of the novel method, its validation procedures and calibration experiments. The system will be positioned and recovered from the sea floor using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV. It is able to measure bubble flux rates up to 10 L/min with a maximum error of 33% for worst case conditions. The Bubblemeter has been successfully deployed at a water depth of 1023 m at the Makran accretionary prism offshore Pakistan during a research expedition with R/V Meteor in November 2007.
Kanuru, Sreenadha Rao; Baskar, K.; Dhanasekaran, R.; Kumar, Binay
2016-05-01
In this paper, one of the important, eco-friendly polycrystalline material, (1-x)(Na0.5Bi0.5)TiO3 (NBT) - xBaTiO3 (BT) of different compositions (x=0.07, 0.06 and 0.05 wt%) around the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) were synthesized by solid state reaction technique. And the single crystals with 13×7×7 mm3, 12×12×7 mm3 and 10×7×4 mm3 dimensions were grown by self flux method. The morphology, crystal structure and unit-cell parameters have been studied and the monoclinic phase has been identified for 0.07 wt% of BT. Higher BT concentration changes the crystal habit and the mechanism has been studied clearly. Raman spectroscopy at room-temperature confirms the presence of functional groups. The quality of the as grown single crystals was examined by high resolution x-ray diffraction analysis. The dielectric properties of the as grown crystals were investigated in the frequency range of 20 Hz-2 MHz from room temperature to 450 °C. The broad dielectric peak and frequency dispersion demonstrates the relaxor behavior of grown crystals. The dielectric constant (εr), transition temperature (Tm), and depolarization temperature (Td) of the grown crystals are found to be comparatively good. The diffusive factor (γ) from Curie-Weiss law confirms the as grown NBT-BT single crystals are relaxor in nature.
Sobolev gradients and differential equations
Neuberger, J W
2010-01-01
A Sobolev gradient of a real-valued functional on a Hilbert space is a gradient of that functional taken relative to an underlying Sobolev norm. This book shows how descent methods using such gradients allow a unified treatment of a wide variety of problems in differential equations. For discrete versions of partial differential equations, corresponding Sobolev gradients are seen to be vastly more efficient than ordinary gradients. In fact, descent methods with these gradients generally scale linearly with the number of grid points, in sharp contrast with the use of ordinary gradients. Aside from the first edition of this work, this is the only known account of Sobolev gradients in book form. Most of the applications in this book have emerged since the first edition was published some twelve years ago. What remains of the first edition has been extensively revised. There are a number of plots of results from calculations and a sample MatLab code is included for a simple problem. Those working through a fair p...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoon, Jong Seon; Choi, Hyoung Gwon; Jeon, Byoung Jin; Jung, Hye Dong
2016-01-01
A parallel algorithm of bi-conjugate gradient method was developed based on CUDA for parallel computation of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The governing equations were discretized using splitting P2P1 finite element method. Asymmetric stenotic flow problem was solved to validate the proposed algorithm, and then the parallel performance of the GPU was examined by measuring the elapsed times. Further, the GPU performance for sparse matrix-vector multiplication was also investigated with a matrix of fluid-structure interaction problem. A kernel was generated to simultaneously compute the inner product of each row of sparse matrix and a vector. In addition, the kernel was optimized to improve the performance by using both parallel reduction and memory coalescing. In the kernel construction, the effect of warp on the parallel performance of the present CUDA was also examined. The present GPU computation was more than 7 times faster than the single CPU by double precision.
Denton, M Bonner [Tucson, AZ; Sperline, Roger , Koppenaal, David W. , Barinaga, Charles J. , Hieftje, Gary , Barnes, IV, James H.; Atlas, Eugene [Irvine, CA
2009-03-03
A charged particle detector and method are disclosed providing for simultaneous detection and measurement of charged particles at one or more levels of particle flux in a measurement cycle. The detector provides multiple and independently selectable levels of integration and/or gain in a fully addressable readout manner.
A multi-method and multi-scale approach for estimating city-wide anthropogenic heat fluxes
Chow, Winston T. L.; Salamanca, Francisco; Georgescu, Matei; Mahalov, Alex; Milne, Jeffrey M.; Ruddell, Benjamin L.
2014-12-01
A multi-method approach estimating summer waste heat emissions from anthropogenic activities (QF) was applied for a major subtropical city (Phoenix, AZ). These included detailed, quality-controlled inventories of city-wide population density and traffic counts to estimate waste heat emissions from population and vehicular sources respectively, and also included waste heat simulations derived from urban electrical consumption generated by a coupled building energy - regional climate model (WRF-BEM + BEP). These component QF data were subsequently summed and mapped through Geographic Information Systems techniques to enable analysis over local (i.e. census-tract) and regional (i.e. metropolitan area) scales. Through this approach, local mean daily QF estimates compared reasonably versus (1.) observed daily surface energy balance residuals from an eddy covariance tower sited within a residential area and (2.) estimates from inventory methods employed in a prior study, with improved sensitivity to temperature and precipitation variations. Regional analysis indicates substantial variations in both mean and maximum daily QF, which varied with urban land use type. Average regional daily QF was ∼13 W m-2 for the summer period. Temporal analyses also indicated notable differences using this approach with previous estimates of QF in Phoenix over different land uses, with much larger peak fluxes averaging ∼50 W m-2 occurring in commercial or industrial areas during late summer afternoons. The spatio-temporal analysis of QF also suggests that it may influence the form and intensity of the Phoenix urban heat island, specifically through additional early evening heat input, and by modifying the urban boundary layer structure through increased turbulence.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sakama, Minoru; Tanii, Takashi; Maezawa, Hiroshi; Saze, Takuya; Maeda, Kouji; Sato, Kazuo; Honda, Eiichi; Nishitani, Hiromu
2008-01-01
Up till now, from a radiation safety management point of view, it has been discussed to construct guidelines on estimation of neutron fluxes produced via operating various medical small accelerators and to establish uniformly the clearance system related to having neutron activation effects into each accelerator facility. That is, it was the aim of this investigation to accumulate the data on estimation basis of neutron flux measurements at those medical small accelerators by an activation foil method. In this work, the neutron fluxes at the self-shielded PET cyclotron and the electron liniac apparatus of Tokushima University Hospital have been measured as the medical small accelerator. As a result, for the self-shielded PET cyclotron, it was found that the thermal neutron flux is (1.04±0.05) x10 7 cm -2 s -1 and the fast neutron fluxes are distributed over the range 1x10 4 (the neutron energy E n =9 MeV) to 1x10 7 (E n =1.5 MeV) cm -2 s -1 into the radiation shelter, and while the thermal neutron fluxes would be distributed over the range 5.0x10 1 to 9.9x10 1 cm -2 s -1 and then the fast neutron dose leakages were not detected outside there. For the 6/10 MV electron liniac apparatus, it was also found that nearly the same thermal neutron fluxes would be distributed all around the liniac room and those measured values are over the range (1.01±0.18)x10 3 to (1.32±0.10)x10 3 cm -2 s -1 . (author)
Valko, Klara; Nunhuck, Shenaz; Bevan, Chris; Abraham, Michael H; Reynolds, Derek P
2003-11-01
A fast gradient HPLC method (cycle time 15 min) has been developed to determine Human Serum Albumin (HSA) binding of discovery compounds using chemically bonded protein stationary phases. The HSA binding values were derived from the gradient retention times that were converted to the logarithm of the equilibrium constants (logK HSA) using data from a calibration set of molecules. The method has been validated using literature plasma protein binding data of 68 known drug molecules. The method is fully automated, and has been used for lead optimization in more than 20 company projects. The HSA binding data obtained for more than 4000 compounds were suitable to set up global and project specific quantitative structure binding relationships that helped compound design in early drug discovery. The obtained HSA binding of known drug molecules were compared to the Immobilized Artificial Membrane binding data (CHI IAM) obtained by our previously described HPLC-based method. The solvation equation approach has been used to characterize the normal binding ability of HSA, and this relationship shows that compound lipophilicity is a significant factor. It was found that the selectivity of the "baseline" lipophilicity governing HSA binding, membrane interaction, and octanol/water partition are very similar. However, the effect of the presence of positive or negative charges have very different effects. It was found that negatively charged compounds bind more strongly to HSA than it would be expected from the lipophilicity of the ionized species at pH 7.4. Several compounds showed stronger HSA binding than can be expected from their lipophilicity alone, and comparison between predicted and experimental binding affinity allows the identification of compounds that have good complementarities with any of the known binding sites. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 92:2236-2248, 2003
Sakai, K.; Watabe, D.; Minamidani, T.; Zhang, G. S.
2012-10-01
According to Godunov theorem for numerical calculations of advection equations, there exist no higher-order schemes with constant positive difference coefficients in a family of polynomial schemes with an accuracy exceeding the first-order. We propose a third-order computational scheme for numerical fluxes to guarantee the non-negative difference coefficients of resulting finite difference equations for advection-diffusion equations in a semi-conservative form, in which there exist two kinds of numerical fluxes at a cell surface and these two fluxes are not always coincident in non-uniform velocity fields. The present scheme is optimized so as to minimize truncation errors for the numerical fluxes while fulfilling the positivity condition of the difference coefficients which are variable depending on the local Courant number and diffusion number. The feature of the present optimized scheme consists in keeping the third-order accuracy anywhere without any numerical flux limiter. We extend the present method into multi-dimensional equations. Numerical experiments for advection-diffusion equations showed nonoscillatory solutions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Serai, Suraj D.; Fleck, Robert J. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, MLC 5031, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Quinn, Charles T. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Hematology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Zhang, Bin [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Podberesky, Daniel J. [Nemours Children' s Health System Nemours Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Orlando, FL (United States)
2015-10-15
Serial surveillance of liver iron concentration (LIC) provides guidance for chelation therapy in patients with iron overload. The diagnosis of iron overload traditionally relies on core liver biopsy, which is limited by invasiveness, sampling error, cost and general poor acceptance by pediatric patients and parents. Thus noninvasive diagnostic methods such as MRI are highly attractive for quantification of liver iron concentration. To compare two MRI-based methods for liver iron quantification in children. 64 studies on 48 children and young adults (age range 4-21 years) were examined by gradient recalled echo (GRE) R2* and spin-echo R2 MRI at 1.5T to evaluate liver iron concentration. Scatter plots and Bland-Altman difference plots were generated to display and assess the relationship between the methods. With the protocols used in this investigation, Bland-Altman agreement between the methods is best when LIC is <20 mg/g dry tissue. Scatter plots show that all values with LIC <20 mg/g dry tissue fall within the 95% prediction limits. Liver iron concentration as determined by the R2* and R2 MR methods is statistically comparable, with no statistical difference between these methods for LIC <20 mg/g. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bora Lee
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Accurate estimate of the seasonal leaf area index (LAI in croplands is required for understanding not only intra- and inter-annual crop development, but also crop management. Lack of consideration in different growth phases in the relationship between LAI and vegetation indices (VI often results in unsatisfactory estimation in the seasonal course of LAI. In this study, we partitioned the growing season into two phases separated by maximum VI ( VI max and applied the general regression model to the data gained from two phases. As an alternative method to capture the influence of seasonal phenological development on the LAI-VI relationship, we developed a consistent development curve method and compared its performance with the general regression approaches. We used the Normalized Difference VI (NDVI and the Enhanced VI (EVI from the rice paddy sites in Asia (South Korea and Japan and Europe (Spain to examine its applicability across different climate conditions and management cycles. When the general regression method was used, separating the season into two phases resulted in no better estimation than the estimation obtained with the entire season observation due to an abrupt change in seasonal LAI occurring during the transition between the before and after VI max . The consistent development curve method reproduced the seasonal patterns of LAI from both NDVI and EVI across all sites better than the general regression method. Despite less than satisfactory estimation of a local LAI max , the consistent development curve method demonstrates improvement in estimating the seasonal course of LAI. The method can aid in providing accurate seasonal LAI as an input into ecological process-based models.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Dupuis
Full Text Available Heat flux estimates obtained using the inertial dissipation method, and the profile method applied to radiosonde soundings, are assessed with emphasis on the parameterization of the roughness lengths for temperature and specific humidity. Results from the inertial dissipation method show a decrease of the temperature and humidity roughness lengths for increasing neutral wind speed, in agreement with previous studies. The sensible heat flux estimates were obtained using the temperature estimated from the speed of sound determined by a sonic anemometer. This method seems very attractive for estimating heat fluxes over the ocean. However allowance must be made in the inertial dissipation method for non-neutral stratification. The SOFIA/ASTEX and SEMAPHORE results show that, in unstable stratification, a term due to the transport terms in the turbulent kinetic energy budget, has to be included in order to determine the friction velocity with better accuracy. Using the profile method with radiosonde data, the roughness length values showed large scatter. A reliable estimate of the temperature roughness length could not be obtained. The humidity roughness length values were compatible with those found using the inertial dissipation method.
Savage, M. J.
2017-04-01
An iterative method was applied to daily crop reference evaporation ETo. The method correctly evaluated the slope of the saturation water vapour pressure vs temperature relationship between surface temperature and air temperature. Using daily meterological data spanning several decades from four selected locations in Australia, South Africa and USA, differences in ETo estimates were noted with and without the iteration method applied. The largest difference, which occurred under high water vapour pressure deficit conditions, ranged from 1.65 mm/day for Griffith, Australia to 0.51 mm/day for Pretoria, South Africa. The aerodynamic component of the ETo equation was more affected by not applying the spreadsheet iterative procedure compared to the radiative component. Other spreadsheet examples of the iterative method employed included obtaining the roots of a depressed cubic polynomial in the air temperature surface renewal (SR) ramp. This value was used for the measurement of sensible heat flux using surface renewal. An iterative method, together with Monin-Obukhov similarity theory (MOST) and surface-layer scintillometer (SLS) measurements in a mesic grassland, was also used to calculate the sensible heat flux. The simple iterative method is quick, accurate and convenient, easy to repeat following changes to equations or data, allows easy manipulation and allows convenient visual inspection of data and graphics. Sub-hourly measurements of sensible heat flux for the mesic grassland using SR and SLS MOST iterative methods compared favourably with Bowen ratio and eddy covariance measurements.
`Surface-Layer' momentum fluxes in nocturnal slope flows over steep terrain
Oldroyd, H. J.; Pardyjak, E.; Higgins, C. W.; Parlange, M. B.
2017-12-01
A common working definition for the `surface layer' is the lowest 10% of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) where the turbulent fluxes are essentially constant. The latter part of this definition is a critical assumption that must hold for accurate flux estimations from land-surface models, wall models, similarity theory, flux-gradient relations and bulk transfer methods. We present cases from observed momentum fluxes in nocturnal slope flows over steep (35.5 degree), alpine terrain in Val Ferret, Switzerland that satisfy the classical definitions of the surface layer and other cases where no traditional surface layer is observed. These cases broadly fall into two distinct flow regimes occurring under clear-sky conditions: (1) buoyancy-driven, `katabatic flow', characterized by an elevated velocity maximum (katabatic jet peak) and (2) `downslope winds', for which larger-scale forcing prevents formation of a katabatic jet. Velocity profiles in downslope wind cases are quite similar to logarithmic profiles typically observed over horizontal and homogeneous terrain, and the corresponding momentum fluxes roughly resemble a constant-flux surface-layer. Contrastingly, velocity profiles in the katabatic regime exhibit a jet-like shape. This jet strongly modulates the corresponding momentum fluxes, which exhibit strong gradients over the shallow katabatic layer and usually change sign near the jet peak, where the velocity gradients also change sign. However, a counter-gradient momentum flux is frequently observed near the jet peak (and sometimes at higher levels), suggesting strong non-local turbulent transport within the katabatic jet layer. We compare our observations with katabatic flow theories and observational studies over shallow-angle slopes and use co-spectral analyses to better identify and understand the non-local transport dynamics. Finally, we show that because of the counter-gradient momentum fluxes, surface layer stability and even local stability can be
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaohong Ma
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In this study, the characteristics of energy flux partitioning and evapotranspiration of P. euphratica forests were examined in the extreme arid region of Northwest China. Energy balance closure of the ecosystem was approximately 72% (H + LE = 0.72 ∗ (Rn-G+7.72, r2=0.79, n=12095, where Rn is the net radiation, G is the soil heat flux, H is the sensible heat flux, and LE is the latent heat flux. LE was the main term of energy consumption at annual time scale because of higher value in the growing season. The ratios of the latent (LE and sensible (H heat fluxes to net radiation were 0.47 and 0.28 throughout the year, respectively. Moreover, the yearly evapotranspiration of P. euphratica forests was 744 mm year−1. And the mean daily ET was 5.09 mm·d−1 in the vibrant growing season. In particular, a small spike in the actual evapotranspiration distribution occurred during the soil ablation period due to the higher temperature and sufficient soil moisture associated with soil thawing. This period is accompanied by a series of physical processes, such as moisture transfer and heat exchange.
Gradient zone boundary control in salt gradient solar ponds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hull, John R. (Downers Grove, IL)
1984-01-01
A method and apparatus for suppressing zone boundary migration in a salt gradient solar pond includes extending perforated membranes across the pond at the boundaries, between the convective and non-convective zones, the perforations being small enough in size to prevent individual turbulence disturbances from penetrating the hole, but being large enough to allow easy molecular diffusion of salt thereby preventing the formation of convective zones in the gradient layer. The total area of the perforations is a sizable fraction of the membrane area to allow sufficient salt diffusion while preventing turbulent entrainment into the gradient zone.
Turbulent fluxes by "Conditional Eddy Sampling"
Siebicke, Lukas
2015-04-01
Turbulent flux measurements are key to understanding ecosystem scale energy and matter exchange, including atmospheric trace gases. While the eddy covariance approach has evolved as an invaluable tool to quantify fluxes of e.g. CO2 and H2O continuously, it is limited to very few atmospheric constituents for which sufficiently fast analyzers exist. High instrument cost, lack of field-readiness or high power consumption (e.g. many recent laser-based systems requiring strong vacuum) further impair application to other tracers. Alternative micrometeorological approaches such as conditional sampling might overcome major limitations. Although the idea of eddy accumulation has already been proposed by Desjardin in 1972 (Desjardin, 1977), at the time it could not be realized for trace gases. Major simplifications by Businger and Oncley (1990) lead to it's widespread application as 'Relaxed Eddy Accumulation' (REA). However, those simplifications (flux gradient similarity with constant flow rate sampling irrespective of vertical wind velocity and introduction of a deadband around zero vertical wind velocity) have degraded eddy accumulation to an indirect method, introducing issues of scalar similarity and often lack of suitable scalar flux proxies. Here we present a real implementation of a true eddy accumulation system according to the original concept. Key to our approach, which we call 'Conditional Eddy Sampling' (CES), is the mathematical formulation of conditional sampling in it's true form of a direct eddy flux measurement paired with a performant real implementation. Dedicated hardware controlled by near-real-time software allows full signal recovery at 10 or 20 Hz, very fast valve switching, instant vertical wind velocity proportional flow rate control, virtually no deadband and adaptive power management. Demonstrated system performance often exceeds requirements for flux measurements by orders of magnitude. The system's exceptionally low power consumption is ideal
Nakajima, Yuya; Seino, Junji; Nakai, Hiromi
2016-05-10
An analytical energy gradient for the spin-dependent general Hartree-Fock method based on the infinite-order Douglas-Kroll-Hess (IODKH) method was developed. To treat realistic systems, the local unitary transformation (LUT) scheme was employed both in energy and energy gradient calculations. The present energy gradient method was numerically assessed to investigate the accuracy in several diatomic molecules containing fifth- and sixth-period elements and to examine the efficiency in one-, two-, and three-dimensional silver clusters. To arrive at a practical calculation, we also determined the geometrical parameters of fac-tris(2-phenylpyridine)iridium and investigated the efficiency. The numerical results confirmed that the present method describes a highly accurate relativistic effect with high efficiency. The present method can be a powerful scheme for determining geometries of large molecules, including heavy-element atoms.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Xingchang; Wang, Chuankuan; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin
2017-12-15
Carbon dioxide (CO_{2}) fluxes between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere are primarily measured with eddy covariance (EC), biometric, and chamber methods. However, it is unclear why the estimates of CO_{2}-fluxes, when measured using these different methods, converge at some sites but diverge at others. We synthesized a novel global dataset of forest CO_{2}-fluxes to evaluate the consistency between EC and biometric or chamber methods for quantifying CO_{2} budget in forests. The EC approach, comparing with the other two methods, tended to produce 25% higher estimate of net ecosystem production (NEP, 0.52Mg C ha-1 yr-1), mainly resulting from lower EC-estimated Re; 10% lower ecosystem respiration (Re, 1.39Mg C ha-1 yr-1); and 3% lower gross primary production (0.48 Mg C ha-1 yr-1) The discrepancies between EC and the other methods were higher at sites with complex topography and dense canopies versus those with flat topography and open canopies. Forest age also influenced the discrepancy through the change of leaf area index. The open-path EC system induced >50% of the discrepancy in NEP, presumably due to its surface heating effect. These results provided strong evidence that EC produces biased estimates of NEP and Re in forest ecosystems. A global extrapolation suggested that the discrepancies in CO_{2} fluxes between methods were consistent with a global underestimation of Re, and overestimation of NEP, by the EC method. Accounting for these discrepancies would substantially improve the our estimates of the terrestrial carbon budget .
Najar, Mehdi; Rodrigues, Robim M; Buyl, Karolien; Branson, Steven; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Lagneaux, Laurence; Rogiers, Vera; De Kock, Joery
2014-09-01
Adult human subcutaneous adipose tissue harbors a multipotent stem cell population, the so-called human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (AT-MSCs). These cells are able to differentiate in vitro into various cell types and possess immunomodulatory features. Yet procedures to obtain AT-MSCs can vary significantly. The two most extensively used AT-MSC purification techniques are (i) density gradient centrifugation using Ficoll and (ii) red blood cell (RBC) lysis buffer treatment of the stromal vascular fraction. In the context of potential clinical cell therapy, the stem cell yield after purification and upon consecutive passages, as well as the purity of the obtained cell population, are of utmost importance. We investigated the expansion capacity and purity of AT-MSCs purified by both procedures immediately after isolation and upon consecutive passages. We also investigated possible purification-dependent differences in their expression of immune-inhibitory factors and cell adhesion molecules. We found that RBC lysis buffer treatment is a more robust and easier method to purify AT-MSCs than density gradient fractionation. However, the resulting AT-MSC-RBC population contains a significantly higher number of CD34(+) cells, particularly during the first passages after plating. From passage 4 onward, no significant differences could be observed between both populations with respect to the immunophenotype, expansion capacity and expression of immune inhibitory factors and cell adhesion molecules. Our data show that RBC lysis buffer treatment may be a good alternative to density fractionation, providing a faster, more robust and easier method to purify AT-MSCs with biologically preserved characteristics. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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Wei-hui Liu
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Because few definitive markers are available for hepatic cancer stem cells (HCSCs, based on physical rather than immunochemical properties, we applied a novel method to enrich HCSCs. METHODOLOGY: After hepatic tumor cells (HTCs were first isolated from diethylinitrosamine-induced F344 rat HCC model using percoll discontinuous gradient centrifugation (PDGC and purified via differential trypsinization and differential attachment (DTDA, they were separated into four fractions using percoll continuous gradient centrifugation (PCGC and sequentially designated as fractions I-IV (FI-IV. Morphological characteristics, mRNA and protein levels of stem cell markers, proliferative abilities, induced differentiation, in vitro migratory capacities, in vitro chemo-resistant capacities, and in vivo malignant capacities were determined for the cells of each fraction. FINDINGS: As the density of cells increased, 22.18%, 11.62%, 4.73% and 61.47% of primary cultured HTCs were segregated in FI-FIV, respectively. The cells from FIII (density between 1.041 and 1.062 g/ml displayed a higher nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio and fewer organelles and expressed higher levels of stem cell markers (AFP, EpCAM and CD133 than cells from other fractions (P<0.01. Additionally, in vitro, the cells from FIII showed a greater capacity to self-renew, differentiate into mature HTCs, transit across membranes, close scratches, and carry resistance to chemotherapy than did cells from any other fraction; in vivo, injection of only 1×10(4 cells from FIII could generate tumors not only in subcutaneous tissue but also in the livers of nude mice. CONCLUSIONS: Through our novel method, HCSC-like cells were successfully enriched in FIII. This study will greatly contribute to two important areas of biological interest: CSC isolation and HCC therapy.
Hales, Kristin; Parker, David B.; Cole, N. Andy
2015-01-01
Odor emissions from livestock production have become increasingly important in the past decade. Odors derived from animal feeding operations are caused by odorous VOC emitted from the mixture of feces and urine, as well as feed and silage which may be experiencing microbial fermentation. Distillers grains are a by-product of corn grain fermentation used to produce fuel ethanol, and this industry has grown rapidly throughout the U.S. in past years. Therefore, the use of wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) in feedlot cattle diets has also increased. The objective of this research was to determine specific VOC emissions from feces and urine or a mixture of both, from cattle fed steam flaked or dry-rolled corn (DRC)-based diets containing either 0% or 30% WDGS. Flux of dimethyl trisulfide was greater from feces of cattle fed DRC than steam-flaked corn (SFC) diets. No other differences in flux from feces were detected across dietary treatments for phenol, 4-methylphenol, indole, skatole, dimethyl disulfide, and flux of volatile fatty acids (VFA) such as acetic, propionic, isobutyric, butyric, isovaleric, and valeric acids (P > 0.15). Flux of skatole, acetic acid, and valeric acid from urine was greater for cattle fed SFC than DRC diets (P < 0.05). Moreover, dimethyl disulfide flux was greater for cattle fed DRC vs. SFC diets (P = 0.05). When evaluating WDGS inclusion in the diet, flux of acetic acid and heptanoic acid from urine was greater when cattle were fed diets containing 0% WDGS than 30% WDGS (P < 0.05). When combining urine and feces in the ratio in which they were excreted from the animal, flux of propionic acid was greater when cattle were fed DRC vs. SFC diets (P = 0.05). Based on these results, the majority of the VOC, VFA, and odor flux from cattle feeding operations is from the urine. Therefore, dietary strategies to reduce odor from cattle feeding facilities should primarily focus on reducing excretion of odorous compounds in the urine.
Zieliński, Mariusz; Fortuniak, Krzysztof; Pawlak, Włodzimierz; Siedlecki, Mariusz
2017-08-01
The sensible heat flux ( H) is determined using large-aperture scintillometer (LAS) measurements over a city centre for eight different computation scenarios. The scenarios are based on different approaches of the mean rooftop-level (zH) estimation for the LAS path. Here, zH is determined separately for wind directions perpendicular (two zones) and parallel (one zone) to the optical beam to reflect the variation in topography and building height on both sides of the LAS path. Two methods of zH estimation are analyzed: (1) average building profiles; (2) weighted-average building height within a 250 m radius from points located every 50 m along the optical beam, or the centre of a certain zone (in the case of a wind direction perpendicular to the path). The sensible heat flux is computed separately using the friction velocity determined with the eddy-covariance method and the iterative procedure. The sensitivity of the sensible heat flux and the extent of the scintillometer source area to different computation scenarios are analyzed. Differences reaching up to 7% between heat fluxes computed with different scenarios were found. The mean rooftop-level estimation method has a smaller influence on the sensible heat flux (-4 to 5%) than the area used for the zH computation (-5 to 7%). For the source-area extent, the discrepancies between respective scenarios reached a similar magnitude. The results demonstrate the value of the approach in which zH is estimated separately for wind directions parallel and perpendicular to the LAS optical beam.
Flux driven turbulence in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garbet, X.; Ghendrih, P.; Ottaviani, M.; Sarazin, Y.; Beyer, P.; Benkadda, S.; Waltz, R.E.
1999-01-01
This work deals with tokamak plasma turbulence in the case where fluxes are fixed and profiles are allowed to fluctuate. These systems are intermittent. In particular, radially propagating fronts, are usually observed over a broad range of time and spatial scales. The existence of these fronts provide a way to understand the fast transport events sometimes observed in tokamaks. It is also shown that the confinement scaling law can still be of the gyroBohm type in spite of these large scale transport events. Some departure from the gyroBohm prediction is observed at low flux, i.e. when the gradients are close to the instability threshold. Finally, it is found that the diffusivity is not the same for a turbulence calculated at fixed flux than at fixed temperature gradient, with the same time averaged profile. (author)
An upwind, kinetic flux-vector splitting method for flows in chemical and thermal non-equilibrium
Eppard, W. M.; Grossman, B.
1993-01-01
We have developed new upwind kinetic difference schemes for flows with non-equilibrium thermodynamics and chemistry. These schemes are derived from the Boltzmann equation with the resulting Euler schemes developed as moments of the discretized Boltzmann scheme with a locally Maxwellian velocity distribution. Splitting the velocity distribution at the Boltzmann level is seen to result in a flux-split Euler scheme and is called Kinetic Flux Vector Splitting (KFVS). Extensions to flows with finite-rate chemistry and vibrational relaxation is accomplished utilizing nonequilibrium kinetic theory. Computational examples are presented comparing KFVS with the schemes of Van Leer and Roe for a quasi-one-dimensional flow through a supersonic diffuser, inviscid flow through two-dimensional inlet, and viscous flow over a cone at zero angle-of-attack. Calculations are also shown for the transonic flow over a bump in a channel and the transonic flow over an NACA 0012 airfoil. The results show that even though the KFVS scheme is a Riemann solver at the kinetic level, its behavior at the Euler level is more similar to the existing flux-vector splitting algorithms than to the flux-difference splitting scheme of Roe.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt; Poulsen, Annemarie
2007-01-01
Ignition and flame spread properties on selected types of wood are elaborated. The tests are established in a new test setup in which the test specimen can be fixed in different angles due to a horizontal level. The heat exposing the test objects is arranged as a convective flux. This principle...
Acosta, Eva; Vazquez, Daniel; Garner, Leon; Smith, George
2005-03-01
We present an iterative tomographic algorithm to reconstruct refractive-index profiles for meridional planes of the lens of the spherical fish eye from measurements of deflection angles of refracted rays. Numerical simulations show that the algorithm allows accuracy up to the fourth decimal place, provided that the refractive index can be regarded as an analytical function of the radial coordinate and the experimental errors are neglected. An experimental demonstration is given by applying the algorithm to retrieve the refractive-index profile of a spherical fish lens. The method is conceptually simple and does not require matching of the index of the surrounding medium to that of the surface of the lens, and the related iterative algorithm rapidly converges.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. P. Yermakova
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The dependence between minute calcium and sodium excretion from 1 L glomerular filtrate (CaE/GFR; NaE/GFR with NaE/GFR from 0,1 to 9,71 mmol/l GFR was studied in 103 health volunteers. There was received asymptotique curve with r2 = 0,54; Y = 0,06 [1 – exp (–x/2,34]. The nomogramm with confidence intervals of 95% was built. On the basis of renal physiology it was offered differentiate gradual (to electrochemical gradiate created by sodium reabsorbtion and active calcium reabsorbtion. It was assumed that gradual calcium reabsorbtion is equel to sodium reabsorbtion and may be estimate by NaE/GFR, CNa/GFR. We considered that active calcium reabsorbtion is normal if the correlation between CaE/GFR and NaE/GFR is inside being decreased if the correlation is higher and increased if the correlation is lower probable intervals. We proposed T-score CaE/GFR as the quantative parameter of active calcium reabsorbtion. It varied in health volunteers from –1,74 to +2,15. The method was applied in 236 recipients of allotransplanted kidney.
Ly, Uy-Loi; Schoemig, Ewald
1993-01-01
In the past few years, the mixed H(sub 2)/H-infinity control problem has been the object of much research interest since it allows the incorporation of robust stability into the LQG framework. The general mixed H(sub 2)/H-infinity design problem has yet to be solved analytically. Numerous schemes have considered upper bounds for the H(sub 2)-performance criterion and/or imposed restrictive constraints on the class of systems under investigation. Furthermore, many modern control applications rely on dynamic models obtained from finite-element analysis and thus involve high-order plant models. Hence the capability to design low-order (fixed-order) controllers is of great importance. In this research a new design method was developed that optimizes the exact H(sub 2)-norm of a certain subsystem subject to robust stability in terms of H-infinity constraints and a minimal number of system assumptions. The derived algorithm is based on a differentiable scalar time-domain penalty function to represent the H-infinity constraints in the overall optimization. The scheme is capable of handling multiple plant conditions and hence multiple performance criteria and H-infinity constraints and incorporates additional constraints such as fixed-order and/or fixed structure controllers. The defined penalty function is applicable to any constraint that is expressible in form of a real symmetric matrix-inequity.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salome, Jean Anderson Dias
2012-01-01
Neutron Activation Analysis technique is applied in several procedures determining chemical elements - range of trace to percentage - in many materials; in radiochemical processes; archaeological and geological studies, in nuclear medicine and biochemical analysis and in forensic cases. It consists in submit a sample to a neutron flux and measure the induced activity by gamma spectrometry. Although it is a very useful method, the technique presents a limitation related to sample dimensions. The technique is applied in samples with micrograms to milligrams, or a few microliters to milliliters, when the density is negligible. In this work, using the Monte Carlo MCNP5 code, the effects of irradiated samples of different dimensions were simulated in the reactor TRIGA IPR-R1 of CDTN/CNEN, evaluating the total and thermal neutron fluxes. The values were compared to experimental values of thermal neutron flux determined for 11 most representative irradiation channels in the rotary rack. Statistical tests were used to evaluate the MCNP models. The results pointed out that a sample with 0.43 cm high, 0.48 cm radius and 1100 g.L -1 density, can be analyzed as it were a punctual sample, like soil sample, without disturbance of thermal neutron in the sample. For the total neutron flux, it can be concluded the same. Besides, 97% of the results are inside 95% confidence interval related to experimental values, as well as, 97% of the results are satisfactory for z-score. It points out the good performance of the modeling. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
O'Dell, R.D.; Stepanek, J.; Wagner, M.R.
1983-01-01
The aim of the present work is to compare and discuss the three of the most advanced two dimensional transport methods, the finite difference and nodal discrete ordinates and surface flux method, incorporated into the transport codes TWODANT, TWOTRAN-NODAL, MULTIMEDIUM and SURCU. For intercomparison the eigenvalue and the neutron flux distribution are calculated using these codes in the LWR pool reactor benchmark problem. Additionally the results are compared with some results obtained by French collision probability transport codes MARSYAS and TRIDENT. Because the transport solution of this benchmark problem is close to its diffusion solution some results obtained by the finite element diffusion code FINELM and the finite difference diffusion code DIFF-2D are included
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Seshi Beerelli
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The vast difference in the abundance of different proteins in biological samples limits the determination of the complete proteome of a cell type, requiring fractionation of proteins and peptides before MS analysis. Methods We present a method consisting of electrophoresis of complex mixtures of peptides using a strip of filter paper cut into 20 sections laid end to end over a 24-cm-long IPG strip, the pH gradient of which would drive the electrophoresis. Peptides absorbed onto individual paper pads after electrophoresis are subsequently recovered into a buffer solution, thus dividing a complex peptide mixture according to pI into 20 liquid fractions. This paper-based IEF method (PIEF was compared side-by-side with a similar but liquid-based Offgel electrophoresis (OGE by analyzing iTRAQ-labeled peptide mixtures of membrane proteins from four different cell types. Results PIEF outperformed OGE in resolving acidic peptides, whereas OGE did a better job in recovering relatively basic peptides. OGE and PIEF were quite comparable in their coverage, identifying almost equal number of distinct proteins (PIEF =1174; OGE = 1080. Interestingly, however, only 675 were identified by both of them, each method identifying many unique proteins (PIEF = 499; OGE = 415. Thus, the two methods uncovered almost 40% more proteins compared to what is obtained by only one method. Conclusion: This initial investigation demonstrates the technical feasibility of PIEF for complementing OGE. PIEF uses standard IPG IEF equipment, requires no specialized apparatus (e.g., OGE fractionator and may be integrated into peptide mapping strategies for clinical samples.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aranda Amado Furieri, R.C. de.
1977-12-01
An analysis of the correction factors required for the β-γ coincidence method is presented together with a listing of the various formulae involved in the determination of radioactive sources. The detection system including the activation detectores are described and the results are shown for the absolute measurements of thermal neutron flux carried out in the core of the Argonaut Reactor, at Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Brazil. (Author) [pt
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abit, K.
1984-01-01
The last stage of the creation computer methods and calculations consists of verifying the running and qualifying the results obtained. The work of the present thesis consisted of improving a coupling method between radial and axial phenomena in a PWR core, refering to three-dimensional calculations, while ensuring a perfect coherence between the programmed physical models. The calculation results have been compared to measurements of reactivity and of flux distributions realized during start-up tests. Thus, the methods have been applied to the calculation of the evolution of a burnable poison (gadolinium) in view of operation in long campaign. 13 refs [fr
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bob Scholes
2011-08-01
Full Text Available This paper reviews the currently available optical sensors, their limitations and opportunities for deployment at Eddy Covariance (EC sites in Europe. This review is based on the results obtained from an online survey designed and disseminated by the Co-cooperation in Science and Technology (COST Action ESO903—“Spectral Sampling Tools for Vegetation Biophysical Parameters and Flux Measurements in Europe” that provided a complete view on spectral sampling activities carried out within the different research teams in European countries. The results have highlighted that a wide variety of optical sensors are in use at flux sites across Europe, and responses further demonstrated that users were not always fully aware of the key issues underpinning repeatability and the reproducibility of their spectral measurements. The key findings of this survey point towards the need for greater awareness of the need for standardisation and development of a common protocol of optical sampling at the European EC sites.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Okuda, Mitsunobu, E-mail: okuda.m-ky@nhk.or.jp; Miyamoto, Yasuyoshi; Miyashita, Eiichi; Hayashi, Naoto [NHK Science and Technology Research Laboratories, 1-10-11 Kinuta Setagaya, Tokyo 157-8510 (Japan)
2014-05-07
Current-driven magnetic domain wall motions in magnetic nanowires have attracted great interests for physical studies and engineering applications. The magnetic force microscope (MFM) is widely used for indirect verification of domain locations in nanowires, where relative magnetic force between the local domains and the MFM probe is used for detection. However, there is an occasional problem that the magnetic moments of MFM probe influenced and/or rotated the magnetic states in the low-moment nanowires. To solve this issue, the “magnetic domain scope for wide area with nano-order resolution (nano-MDS)” method has been proposed recently that could detect the magnetic flux distribution from the specimen directly by scanning of tunneling magnetoresistive field sensor. In this study, magnetic domain structure in nanowires was investigated by both MFM and nano-MDS, and the leakage magnetic flux density from the nanowires was measured quantitatively by nano-MDS. Specimen nanowires consisted from [Co (0.3)/Pd (1.2)]{sub 21}/Ru(3) films (units in nm) with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy were fabricated onto Si substrates by dual ion beam sputtering and e-beam lithography. The length and the width of the fabricated nanowires are 20 μm and 150 nm. We have succeeded to obtain not only the remanent domain images with the detection of up and down magnetizations as similar as those by MFM but also magnetic flux density distribution from nanowires directly by nano-MDS. The obtained value of maximum leakage magnetic flux by nano-MDS is in good agreement with that of coercivity by magneto-optical Kerr effect microscopy. By changing the protective diamond-like-carbon film thickness on tunneling magnetoresistive sensor, the three-dimensional spatial distribution of leakage magnetic flux could be evaluated.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pawel Petkow Dimitrow
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Dynamic (latent or/and labile obstruction of left ventricular outflow (LVOT was recognized from the earliest clinical descriptions of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM and has proved to be a complex phenomenon, as well as arguably the most audible (“visible” pathophysiological hallmark of this heterogeneous disease. The aim of the current review is focused on two novel issues in a subgroup of obstructive HCM. Firstly, the important methodological problem in HCM is the examination of a subgroup of patients with nonobstructive hypertrophy in resting conditions and hard, but possible provoking obstruction. Recently, investigators have proposed physiological stress test (with double combined stimuli to disclose such type of patients. The upright exercise is described in the ESC guideline on hypertrophic cardiomyopathy from 2014 and may appear as a candidate for gold standard provocation test. The second novel area of interest is associated with elevated level of signaling biomarkers: hypercoagulation, hemolysis, acquired von Willebrand 2A disease, and enhanced oxidative stress. The accelerated and turbulent flow within narrow LVOT may be responsible for these biochemical disturbances. The most recent advances in the treatment of obstructive HCM are related to nonpharmacological methods of LVOT gradient reduction. This report extensively discusses novel methods.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sahbi Marrouchi
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Due to the continuous increase of the population and the perpetual progress of industry, the energy management presents nowadays a relevant topic that concerns researchers in electrical engineering. Indeed, in order to establish a good exploitation of the electrical grid, it is necessary to solve technical and economic problems. This can only be done through the resolution of the Unit Commitment Problem. Unit Commitment Problem allows optimizing the combination of the production units’ states and determining their production planning, in order to satisfy the expected consumption with minimal cost during a specified period which varies usually from 24 hours to one week. However, each production unit has some constraints that make this problem complex, combinatorial, and nonlinear. This paper presents a comparative study between a strategy based on hybrid gradient-genetic algorithm method and two strategies based on metaheuristic methods, fuzzy logic, and genetic algorithm, in order to predict the combinations and the unit commitment scheduling of each production unit in one side and to minimize the total production cost in the other side. To test the performance of the optimization proposed strategies, strategies have been applied to the IEEE electrical network 14 busses and the obtained results are very promising.
Diviš, Pavel; Kadlecová, Milada; Ouddane, Baghdad
2016-05-01
The distribution of mercury in surface water and in sediment from Deûle River in Northern France was studied by application of conventional sampling methods and by diffusive gradients in thin films technique (DGT). Concentration of total dissolved mercury in surface water was 20.8 ± 0.8 ng l(-1). The particulate mercury concentration was 6.2 ± 0.6 µg g(-1). The particulate mercury was accumulated in sediment (9.9 ± 2.3 mg kg(-1)), and it was transformed by methylating bacteria to methylmercury, mainly in the first 2-cm layer of the sediment. Total dissolved concentration of mercury in sediment pore water obtained by application of centrifugation extraction was 17.6 ± 4.1 ng l(-1), and it was comparable with total dissolved pore water mercury concentration measured by DGT probe containing Duolite GT-73 resin gel (18.2 ± 4.3 ng l(-1)), taking the sediment heterogeneity and different principles of the applied methods into account. By application of two DGT probes with different resin gels specific for mercury, it was found that approximately 30% of total dissolved mercury in sediment pore water was present in labile forms easy available for biota. The resolution of mercury DGT depth profiles was 0.5 cm, which allows, unlike conventional techniques, to study the connection of the geochemical cycle of mercury with geochemical cycles of iron and manganese.
Lambert, M.; Lesselier, D.; Kooij, B. J.
1998-10-01
The retrieval of an unknown, possibly inhomogeneous, penetrable cylindrical obstacle buried entirely in a known homogeneous half-space - the constitutive material parameters of the obstacle and of its embedding obey a Maxwell model - is considered from single- or multiple-frequency aspect-limited data collected by ideal sensors located in air above the embedding half-space, when a small number of time-harmonic transverse electric (TE)-polarized line sources - the magnetic field H is directed along the axis of the cylinder - is also placed in air. The wavefield is modelled from a rigorous H-field domain integral-differential formulation which involves the dot product of the gradients of the single component of H and of the Green function of the stratified environment times a scalar-valued contrast function which contains the obstacle parameters (the frequency-independent, position-dependent relative permittivity and conductivity). A modified gradient method is developed in order to reconstruct the maps of such parameters within a prescribed search domain from the iterative minimization of a cost functional which incorporates both the error in reproducing the data and the error on the field built inside this domain. Non-physical values are excluded and convergence reached by incorporating in the solution algorithm, from a proper choice of unknowns, the condition that the relative permittivity be larger than or equal to 1, and the conductivity be non-negative. The efficiency of the constrained method is illustrated from noiseless and noisy synthetic data acquired independently. The importance of the choice of the initial values of the sought quantities, the need for a periodic refreshment of the constitutive parameters to avoid the algorithm providing inconsistent results, and the interest of a frequency-hopping strategy to obtain finer and finer features of the obstacle when the frequency is raised, are underlined. It is also shown that though either the permittivity
Cox, Christopher; Liang, Chunlei; Plesniak, Michael
2015-11-01
This paper reports development of a high-order compact method for solving unsteady incompressible flow on unstructured grids with implicit time stepping. The method falls under the class of methods now referred to as flux reconstruction/correction procedure via reconstruction. The governing equations employ the classical artificial compressibility treatment, where dual time stepping is needed to solve unsteady flow problems. An implicit non-linear lower-upper symmetric Gauss-Seidel scheme with backward Euler discretization is used to efficiently march the solution in pseudo time, while a second-order backward Euler discretization is used to march in physical time. We verify and validate implementation of the high-order method coupled with our implicit time-stepping scheme. Three-dimensional results computed on many processing elements will be presented. The high-order method is very suitable for parallel computing and can easily be extended to moving and deforming grids. The current implicit time stepping scheme is proven effective in satisfying the divergence-free constraint on the velocity field in the artificial compressibility formulation within the context of the high-order flux reconstruction method. Financial support provided under the GW Presidential Merit Fellowship.
Meissinger, H. F. (Inventor)
1973-01-01
A micrometeorite impact sensing method of and device for determining the characteristics and flux distribution of micrometeorites are discussed. The method consists of exposing to the micrometeorite environment, a panel of sheet material of a thickness to be punctured by impacting micrometeorites and then scanning the panel with a scanner which produces an output representing the number and size of the puncture holes in the panel. After, exposure, the panel is scanned for puncture holes by illuminating one side of the panel and retracting the panel into its stowage container past a photoelectric scanner which produces an output representing the incident light.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rosa Sayoko Kawasaki-Oyama
2008-03-01
Ficoll-Paque gradient density method (d=1.077g/ml. METHODS: Ten samples of the umbilical cord blood obtained from full-term deliveries were submitted to two different procedures of mesenchymal stem cell culture: a Method without the Ficoll-Paque density gradient, which concentrates all nucleated cells; b Method with the Ficoll-Paque density gradient, which selects only low-density mononuclear cells. Cells were initially plated into 25 cm² cultures flasks at a density of 1x10(7 nucleated cells/cm² and 1x10(6 mononuclear cells/cm². RESULTS: It was obtained 2-13x10(7 (median = 2.35x10(7 nucleated cells/cm² by the method without the Ficoll-Paque gradient density, and 3.7-15.7x10(6 (median = 7.2x10(6 mononuclear cells/cm² by the method with the Ficoll-Paque gradient density. In all cultures adherent cells were observed 24 hours after being cultured. Cells presented fibroblastoid and epithelioid morphology. In most of the cultures, cell proliferation occurred in the first week, but after the second week only some cultures - derived from the method without the Ficoll-Paque gradient density - maintained the growth rate reaching confluence. Those cultures were submitted to trypsinization with 0.25% trypsin/EDTA solution and cultured for two to three months. CONCLUSION: In the samples analyzed, cell separation and mesenchymal stem cell culture techniques from human umbilical cord blood by the method without the Ficoll-Paque density gradient was more efficient than the method with the Ficoll-Paque density gradient.
Marko Gómez-Hernández; Guadalupe Williams-Linera; Roger Guevara; D. Jean Lodge
2012-01-01
Gradient analysis is rarely used in studies of fungal communities. Data on macromycetes from eight sites along an elevation gradient in central Veracruz, Mexico, were used to demonstrate methods for gradient analysis that can be applied to studies of communities of fungi. Selected sites from 100 to 3,500 m altitude represent tropical dry forest, tropical montane cloud...
Lestari, Silvia W.; Larasati, Manggiasih D.; Asmarinah, Mansur, Indra G.
2018-02-01
As one of the treatment for infertility, the success rate of Intrauterine Insemination (IUI) is still relatively low. Several sperm preparation methods, swim-up (SU) and the density-gradient centrifugation (DGC) are frequently used to select for better sperm quality which also contribute to IUI failure. Sperm selection methods mainly separate the motile from the immotile sperm, eliminating the seminal plasma. The sperm motility involves the structure and function of sperm membrane in maintaining the balance of ion transport system which is regulated by the Na+, K+-ATPase, and Ca2+-ATPase enzymes. This study aims to re-evaluate the efficiency of these methods in selecting for sperm before being used for IUI and based the evaluation on sperm Na+,K+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase activities. Fourteen infertile men from couples who underwent IUI were involved in this study. The SU and DGC methods were used for the sperm preparation. Semen analysis was performed based on the reference value of World Health Organization (WHO) 2010. After isolating the membrane fraction of sperms, the Na+, K+-ATPase activity was defined as the difference in the released inorganic phosphate (Pi) with and without the existence of 10 mM ouabain in the reaction, while the Ca2+-ATPase was determined as the difference in Pi contents with and without the existence of 55 µm CaCl2. The prepared sperm demonstrated a higher percentage of motile sperm compared to sperm from the whole semen. Additionally, the percentage of motile sperm of post-DGC showed higher result than the sperm from post-SU. The velocity of sperm showed similar pattern with the percentage of motile sperm, in which the velocity of prepared sperm was higher than the sperm from whole semen. Furthermore, the sperm velocity of post-DGC was higher compared to the sperm from post-SU. The Na+, K+-ATPase activity of prepared sperm was higher compared to whole semen, whereas Na+, K+-ATPase activity in the post DGC was higher than post SU. The Ca2
Liu, Youshan; Teng, Jiwen; Xu, Tao; Badal, José; Liu, Qinya; Zhou, Bing
2017-05-01
We carry out full waveform inversion (FWI) in time domain based on an alternative frequency-band selection strategy that allows us to implement the method with success. This strategy aims at decomposing the seismic data within partially overlapped frequency intervals by carrying out a concatenated treatment of the wavelet to largely avoid redundant frequency information to adapt to wavelength or wavenumber coverage. A pertinent numerical test proves the effectiveness of this strategy. Based on this strategy, we comparatively analyze the effects of update parameters for the nonlinear conjugate gradient (CG) method and step-length formulas on the multiscale FWI through several numerical tests. The investigations of up to eight versions of the nonlinear CG method with and without Gaussian white noise make clear that the HS (Hestenes and Stiefel in J Res Natl Bur Stand Sect 5:409-436, 1952), CD (Fletcher in Practical methods of optimization vol. 1: unconstrained optimization, Wiley, New York, 1987), and PRP (Polak and Ribière in Revue Francaise Informat Recherche Opertionelle, 3e Année 16:35-43, 1969; Polyak in USSR Comput Math Math Phys 9:94-112, 1969) versions are more efficient among the eight versions, while the DY (Dai and Yuan in SIAM J Optim 10:177-182, 1999) version always yields inaccurate result, because it overestimates the deeper parts of the model. The application of FWI algorithms using distinct step-length formulas, such as the direct method ( Direct), the parabolic search method ( Search), and the two-point quadratic interpolation method ( Interp), proves that the Interp is more efficient for noise-free data, while the Direct is more efficient for Gaussian white noise data. In contrast, the Search is less efficient because of its slow convergence. In general, the three step-length formulas are robust or partly insensitive to Gaussian white noise and the complexity of the model. When the initial velocity model deviates far from the real model or the
Generalized conjugate gradient squared
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fokkema, D.R.; Sleijpen, G.L.G. [Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands)
1994-12-31
In order to solve non-symmetric linear systems of equations, the Conjugate Gradient Squared (CGS) is a well-known and widely used iterative method. In practice the method converges fast, often twice as fast as the Bi-Conjugate Gradient method. This is what you may expect, since CGS uses the square of the BiCG polynomial. However, CGS may suffer from its erratic convergence behavior. The method may diverge or the approximate solution may be inaccurate. BiCGSTAB uses the BiCG polynomial and a product of linear factors in an attempt to smoothen the convergence. In many cases, this has proven to be very effective. Unfortunately, the convergence of BiCGSTAB may stall when a linear factor (nearly) degenerates. BiCGstab({ell}) is designed to overcome this degeneration of linear factors. It generalizes BiCGSTAB and uses both the BiCG polynomial and a product of higher order factors. Still, CGS may converge faster than BiCGSTAB or BiCGstab({ell}). So instead of using a product of linear or higher order factors, it may be worthwhile to look for other polynomials. Since the BiCG polynomial is based on a three term recursion, a natural choice would be a polynomial based on another three term recursion. Possibly, a suitable choice of recursion coefficients would result in method that converges faster or as fast as CGS, but less erratic. It turns out that an algorithm for such a method can easily be formulated. One particular choice for the recursion coefficients leads to CGS. Therefore one could call this algorithm generalized CGS. Another choice for the recursion coefficients leads to BiCGSTAB. It is therefore possible to mix linear factors and some polynomial based on a three term recursion. This way one may get the best of both worlds. The authors will report on their findings.
Ko, Hyoung Shin; Kim, Jea Han; Wang, Juan; Lee, Jong Dae
2017-12-01
The design of Li-ion batteries with high energy storage capacities and efficiencies is a subject of increased research interest, being of key importance for their large-scale applications and further commercialization. However, conventional Li-ion batteries are expensive and have stability-related concerns, which limit their practical applications. In our search for cheaper and safer Li-ion batteries, we use a concentration gradient method to prepare LiNi0.9Co0.1-xTixO2 (0.02 ≤ x ≤ 0.05) cathode materials surface-enriched with Co and Ti that exhibit decreased oxygen loss and improved structural stability. The corresponding crystal structures and morphologies are analyzed by X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy, with the Ni, Co, and Ti concentration distributions determined by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The material with the best performance (x = 0.04) exhibits a discharge capacity of 214 mAh g-1 in a charge/discharge voltage range of 3.0-4.3 V (vs. Li/Li+), and possesses an excellent 50-cycle capacity retention of 98.7%. Thermogravimetric analysis shows that partial substitution of Ni with the strongly oxophilic Ti solves the problem of oxygen loss observed in Ni-rich cathode materials such as LiNiO2.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, Xiaoli; Hofmann, Ralf; Dapp, Robin; Van de Kamp, Thomas; Rolo, Tomy dos Santos; Xiao, Xianghui; Moosmann, Julian; Kashef, Jubin; Stotzka, Rainer
2015-01-01
High-resolution, three-dimensional (3D) imaging of soft tissues requires the solution of two inverse problems: phase retrieval and the reconstruction of the 3D image from a tomographic stack of two-dimensional (2D) projections. The number of projections per stack should be small to accommodate fast tomography of rapid processes and to constrain X-ray radiation dose to optimal levels to either increase the duration o fin vivo time-lapse series at a given goal for spatial resolution and/or the conservation of structure under X-ray irradiation. In pursuing the 3D reconstruction problem in the sense of compressive sampling theory, we propose to reduce the number of projections by applying an advanced algebraic technique subject to the minimisation of the total variation (TV) in the reconstructed slice. This problem is formulated in a Lagrangian multiplier fashion with the parameter value determined by appealing to a discrete L-curve in conjunction with a conjugate gradient method. The usefulness of this reconstruction modality is demonstrated for simulated and in vivo data, the latter acquired in parallel-beam imaging experiments using synchrotron radiation
Adolphson, Debbie L.; Arnold, Terri L.; Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Harris, Mitchell A.; Richards, Kevin D.; Scudder, Barbara C.; Stewart, Jana S.
2001-01-01
Physical, chemical, and biological data were collected at 46 sites in the Fox and Des Plaines River Basins as part of the upper Illinois River Basin study of the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The data, collected from 1999 to 2001, will be used to determine the effects of urbanization on streams in the Chicago, Illinois, metropolitan area. To examine the possible effects of urbanization on stream-water quality, the sampling sites were selected to represent a gradient of land use changing from agriculture into urban. Urban land use for the selected sites ranged from less than 1 percent urban to 92 percent urban. Data-collection methods are presented in the text portion of this report. Physical characteristics of the stream that were collected include descriptive and qualitative habitat and geomorphic measures. Water samples were analyzed for nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), 11 major ions, 46 wastewater indicators, pH, and specific conductance. Aquatic communities were sampled to identify and quantify populations of selected algae, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish. There were 72 unique fish species collected at all of the sites. The number of benthic macroinvertebrate taxa collected at all the sites ranged from 15 to 48. The data and the associated data documentation are presented on a CD-ROM included with this report.
Strain gradient effects on cyclic plasticity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Legarth, Brian Nyvang
2010-01-01
Size effects on the cyclic shear response are studied numerically using a recent higher order strain gradient visco-plasticity theory accounting for both dissipative and energetic gradient hardening. Numerical investigations of the response under cyclic pure shear and shear of a finite slab between...... rigid platens have been carried out, using the finite element method. It is shown for elastic–perfectly plastic solids how dissipative gradient effects lead to increased yield strength, whereas energetic gradient contributions lead to increased hardening as well as a Bauschinger effect. For linearly...... hardening materials it is quantified how dissipative and energetic gradient effects promote hardening above that of conventional predictions. Usually, increased hardening is attributed to energetic gradient effects, but here it is found that also dissipative gradient effects lead to additional hardening...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alvarez Cardona, C.M.; Rodriguez Gual, M.; Hernandez Valle, S.
2001-01-01
The calculation of neutron fluxes and fluence into reactor pressure vessel is a regulatory requirement in the stages of the design, operation and plan lifetime extension. The reactor vessel is considered a unique and non-substitutable part of the NPP that undergoes degradation. The main source of the aging comes from the fast neutron damage induced in the steel crystalline lattice. Due to the proximity of the core edge to the vessel inner surface; the vessel steel is exposed to high fast neutron fluence. The effect of this irradiation on the mechanical properties becomes more acute because of the impurities measured in the Russian steel alloys. In the present paper, a PC version of the Monte Carlo 3-D HEXANN-EVALU system is used for the estimation of the WWER reactor pressure vessel irradiation. It was selected on the basis of its flexible options that on the other hand need to be quantified in connection with the desired magnitudes. The parameters that control the random walk of neutrons as well as the efficiency increasing options included in the code are studied in order to identify their impact in the final results for fluxes and fluence in the reactor pressure vessel. As a result an optimal set of parameters is suggested. (authors)
Frequency Analysis of Gradient Estimators in Volume Rendering
Bentum, Marinus Jan; Lichtenbelt, Barthold B.A.; Malzbender, Tom
1996-01-01
Gradient information is used in volume rendering to classify and color samples along a ray. In this paper, we present an analysis of the theoretically ideal gradient estimator and compare it to some commonly used gradient estimators. A new method is presented to calculate the gradient at arbitrary
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sugimoto Masahiro
2006-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to improve understanding of metabolic systems there have been attempts to construct S-system models from time courses. Conventionally, non-linear curve-fitting algorithms have been used for modelling, because of the non-linear properties of parameter estimation from time series. However, the huge iterative calculations required have hindered the development of large-scale metabolic pathway models. To solve this problem we propose a novel method involving power-law modelling of metabolic pathways from the Jacobian of the targeted system and the steady-state flux profiles by linearization of S-systems. Results The results of two case studies modelling a straight and a branched pathway, respectively, showed that our method reduced the number of unknown parameters needing to be estimated. The time-courses simulated by conventional kinetic models and those described by our method behaved similarly under a wide range of perturbations of metabolite concentrations. Conclusion The proposed method reduces calculation complexity and facilitates the construction of large-scale S-system models of metabolic pathways, realizing a practical application of reverse engineering of dynamic simulation models from the Jacobian of the targeted system and steady-state flux profiles.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Elmnefi, Mohamed Salem
2010-11-24
In the present study, a new optical method was implemented to study the heat transfer from flat stagnation point flames which can be regarded as one-dimensional in the central part. Premixed methane-air flames and hydrogen-methane-air flames were investigated. The effects of burner-to-plate distance and the fresh gas mixture velocity on heat transfer were examined. Experiments were performed using light induced phosphorescence from thermographic phosphors to study the wall temperatures and heat fluxes of nearly one-dimensional flat premixed flames impinging upward normally on a horizontal water cooled circular flat plate. The investigated flames were stoichiometric, lean and rich laminar methane/air flames with different equivalence ratios of {phi} =1, {phi} = 0.75 and {phi} = 1.25 and stoichiometric laminar hydrogen/methane/air flames. Mixtures of air with 10, 25, 50 and 75 % hydrogen in methane (CH{sub 4}) as well as a pure hydrogen flames at ambient pressure were investigated. The central part of this plate was an alumina ceramic plate coated from both sides with chromium doped alumina (ruby) and excited with a Nd:YAG laser or a green light emitting diode (LED) array to measure the wall temperature from both sides and thus the heat flux rate from the flame. The outlet velocity of the gases was varied from 0.1 m/s to 1.2 m/s. The burner to plate distance ranged from 0.5 to 2 times the burner exit diameter (d = 30 mm).The accuracy of the method was evaluated. The measured heat flux indicate the change of the flame stabilization mechanism from a burner stabilized to a stagnation plate stabilized flame. The results were compared to modeling results of a one dimensional stagnation point flow, with a detailed reaction mechanism. In order to prove the model, also measured gas phase temperatures by OH LIF for a stoichiometric stagnation point flame were discussed. It turns out that the flame stabilization mechanism and with it the heat fluxes change from low to high
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Braye, F.
1994-07-01
Substitution of tissue or human organ by biomaterials represents a problem, really hard, but which importance and interest justify all the efforts devoted which must also require a range of skills. In this work, we studied two produces of osseous substitution. One, the Coral, is a natural produce which interest, for such use, has been demonstrated in previous work executed in the bosom of our team. The other, the Hydroxyapatite, is a synthetic produce. Its presence in the form of micro crystal in human skeleton justifies its use for such purpose. Just after sterilization, natural Coral and synthetic Hydroxyapatite have been implanted in the femurs of sheep. Regularly, we used to extract the implants from the femurs to study the kinetics of elementary mineral transformation of both the osseous substitutes. For the first time and thanks to the PIXE Method (Particles Induced X-ray Emission), we had measured after implantation at different intervals all alone a cross section, the concentrations of mineral produces. The breakdown according to mineral elements (Ca, P, Sr, Zn, Fe) in the implant, in the receiver site and also at the interface, permitted to show that Kinetics of Coral resorption was faster than the one of Hydroxylapatite; in the same way, the osseous attack was not global but, on the contrary, centripetal. Concurrently, in accordance with time of implantation by spectrometry with atomic emission and inductive coupling, measurements of total concentrations proved the results of analyse through PIXE Method about kinetics of implant's resorption. Moreover, measurements by diffraction of X-rays and by neutronic radioactivation with thermal neutrons permitted respectively to make a satisfactory crystallographic verification of the specimens before and after sterilization. Finally, thanks to those measurements, it was possible to check if no potential contamination, caused by treatment or even by making of implants, was detected. (author). 49 refs., 35 tabs., 85
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Halem
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Unfortunately, motor current signature analysis (MCSA cannot detect the small degrees of the purely static eccentricity (SE defects, while the air-gap magnetic flux signature analysis (FSA is applied successfully. The simulation results are obtained by using time stepping finite elements (TSFE method. In order to show the impact of magnetic saturation upon the diagnosis of SE fault, the analysis is carried out for saturated induction motors. The index signatures of static eccentricity fault around fundamental and PSHs are detected successfully for saturated motor.
Pizzo, Michelle; Daryabeigi, Kamran; Glass, David
2015-01-01
The ability to solve the heat conduction equation is needed when designing materials to be used on vehicles exposed to extremely high temperatures; e.g. vehicles used for atmospheric entry or hypersonic flight. When using test and flight data, computational methods such as finite difference schemes may be used to solve for both the direct heat conduction problem, i.e., solving between internal temperature measurements, and the inverse heat conduction problem, i.e., using the direct solution to march forward in space to the surface of the material to estimate both surface temperature and heat flux. The completed research first discusses the methods used in developing a computational code to solve both the direct and inverse heat transfer problems using one dimensional, centered, implicit finite volume schemes and one dimensional, centered, explicit space marching techniques. The developed code assumed the boundary conditions to be specified time varying temperatures and also considered temperature dependent thermal properties. The completed research then discusses the results of analyzing temperature data measured while radiantly heating a carbon/carbon specimen up to 1920 F. The temperature was measured using thermocouple (TC) plugs (small carbon/carbon material specimens) with four embedded TC plugs inserted into the larger carbon/carbon specimen. The purpose of analyzing the test data was to estimate the surface heat flux and temperature values from the internal temperature measurements using direct and inverse heat transfer methods, thus aiding in the thermal and structural design and analysis of high temperature vehicles.
Realizable planar gradient-index solar lenses.
Kotsidas, Panagiotis; Modi, Vijay; Gordon, Jeffrey M
2012-04-01
The design of single element planar hemispherical gradient-index solar lenses that can accommodate the constraints of realistic materials and fabrication techniques are presented, and simulated with an extended and polychromatic solar source for concentrator photovoltaics at flux concentration values exceeding 1000 suns. The planar hemispherical far-field lens is created from a near-field unit magnification spherical gradient-index design, and illustrated with an f/1.40 square solar lens that allows lossless packing within a concentrator module.
Zhang, Yulin; Mason, Sean; McNeill, Ann; McLaughlin, Michael J
2013-09-15
Potassium (K) and phosphorus (P) are two important macronutrients for crops, and are usually applied to soils as granular fertilizer before seeding. Therefore, accurate soil tests prior to planting to predict crop response to fertilizers are impo