WorldWideScience

Sample records for flux density models

  1. Uncertainty and Sensitivity of Alternative Rn-222 Flux Density Models Used in Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg J. Shott, Vefa Yucel, Lloyd Desotell

    2007-06-01

    Performance assessments for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site on the Nevada Test Site have used three different mathematical models to estimate Rn-222 flux density. This study describes the performance, uncertainty, and sensitivity of the three models which include the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide 3.64 analytical method and two numerical methods. The uncertainty of each model was determined by Monte Carlo simulation using Latin hypercube sampling. The global sensitivity was investigated using Morris one-at-time screening method, sample-based correlation and regression methods, the variance-based extended Fourier amplitude sensitivity test, and Sobol's sensitivity indices. The models were found to produce similar estimates of the mean and median flux density, but to have different uncertainties and sensitivities. When the Rn-222 effective diffusion coefficient was estimated using five different published predictive models, the radon flux density models were found to be most sensitive to the effective diffusion coefficient model selected, the emanation coefficient, and the radionuclide inventory. Using a site-specific measured effective diffusion coefficient significantly reduced the output uncertainty. When a site-specific effective-diffusion coefficient was used, the models were most sensitive to the emanation coefficient and the radionuclide inventory.

  2. Optimal cytoplasmatic density and flux balance model under macromolecular crowding effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Alexei

    2010-05-21

    Macromolecules occupy between 34% and 44% of the cell cytoplasm, about half the maximum packing density of spheres in three dimension. Yet, there is no clear understanding of what is special about this value. To address this fundamental question we investigate the effect of macromolecular crowding on cell metabolism. We develop a cell scale flux balance model capturing the main features of cell metabolism at different nutrient uptakes and macromolecular densities. Using this model we show there are two metabolic regimes at low and high nutrient uptakes. The latter regime is characterized by an optimal cytoplasmatic density where the increase of reaction rates by confinement and the decrease by diffusion slow-down balance. More important, the predicted optimal density is in the range of the experimentally determined density of Escherichia coli.

  3. Vertical variation of particle speed and flux density in aeolian saltation: Measurement and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Keld R.; SøRensen, Michael

    2008-06-01

    Particle dynamics in aeolian saltation has been studied in a boundary layer wind tunnel above beds composed of quartz grains having diameters of either 242 μm or 320 μm. The cross section of the tunnel is 600 mm × 900 mm, and its thick boundary layer allows precise estimation of the fluid friction speed. Saltation is modeled using a numerical saltation model, and predicted grain speeds agree fairly well with experimental results obtained from laser-Doppler anemometry. The use of laser-Doppler anemometry to study aeolian saltation is thoroughly discussed and some pitfalls are identified. At 80 mm height the ratio between air speed and grain speed is about 1.1 and from there it increases toward the bed so that at 5 mm it is about 2.0. All grain speed profiles converge toward a common value of about 1 m/s at 2-3 mm height. Moreover, the estimated launch velocity distributions depend only very weakly on the friction speed in contrast to what has often been assumed in the literature. Flux density profiles measured with a laser-Doppler appear to be similar to most other density profiles measured with vertical array compartment traps; that is, two exponential segments will fit data between heights from a few millimeters to 100-200 mm. The experimental flux density profiles are found to agree well with model predictions. Generally, validation rates are low from 30 to 50% except at the highest level of 80 mm, where they approach 80%. When flux density profiles based on the validated data are used to estimate the total mass transport rate results are in fair agreement with measured transport rates except for conditions near threshold where as much as 50% difference is observed.

  4. The 30 cm radio flux as a solar proxy for thermosphere density modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudok de Wit Thierry

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The 10.7 cm radio flux (F10.7 is widely used as a proxy for solar UV forcing of the upper atmosphere. However, radio emissions at other centimetric wavelengths have been routinely monitored since the 1950 s, thereby offering prospects for building proxies that may be better tailored to space weather needs. Here we advocate the 30 cm flux (F30 as a proxy that is more sensitive than F10.7 to longer wavelengths in the UV and show that it improves the response of the thermospheric density to solar forcing, as modelled with DTM (Drag Temperature Model. In particular, the model bias drops on average by 0–20% when replacing F10.7 by F30; it is also more stable (the standard deviation of the bias is 15–40% smaller and the density variation at the the solar rotation period is reproduced with a 35–50% smaller error. We compare F30 to other solar proxies and discuss its assets and limitations.

  5. A model of heat transfer in sapwood and implications for sap flux density measurements using thermal dissipation probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wullschleger, Stan D; Childs, Kenneth W; King, Anthony W; Hanson, Paul J

    2011-06-01

    A variety of thermal approaches are used to estimate sap flux density in stems of woody plants. Models have proved valuable tools for interpreting the behavior of heat pulse, heat balance and heat field deformation techniques, but have seldom been used to describe heat transfer dynamics for the heat dissipation method. Therefore, to better understand the behavior of heat dissipation probes, a model was developed that takes into account the thermal properties of wood, the physical dimensions and thermal characteristics of the probes, and the conductive and convective heat transfer that occurs due to water flow in the sapwood. Probes were simulated as aluminum tubes 20 mm in length and 2 mm in diameter, whereas sapwood, heartwood and bark each had a density and water fraction that determined their thermal properties. Base simulations assumed a constant sap flux density with sapwood depth and no wounding or physical disruption of xylem beyond the 2 mm diameter hole drilled for probe installation. Simulations across a range of sap flux densities showed that the dimensionless quantity k [defined as (ΔT(m) -ΔT)/ΔT, where ΔT(m) is the temperature differential (ΔT) between the heated and unheated probe under zero-flow conditions] was dependent on the thermal conductivity of the sapwood. The relationship between sap flux density and k was also sensitive to radial gradients in sap flux density and to xylem disruption near the probe. Monte Carlo analysis in which 1000 simulations were conducted while simultaneously varying thermal conductivity and wound diameter revealed that sap flux density and k showed considerable departure from the original calibration equation used with this technique. The departure was greatest for variation in sap flux density typical of ring-porous species. Depending on the specific combination of thermal conductivity and wound diameter, use of the original calibration equation resulted in an 81% under- to 48% overestimation of sap flux density

  6. Nuclear flux densities during a model pericyclic reaction with energies well above and below the potential barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredtmann, Timm; Kono, Hirohiko; Manz, Jörn; Nakamura, Kosuke; Stemmle, Christian

    2013-05-10

    Pericyclic reactions with energies E well above the potential energy barrier B (case E>B) proceed with quantum nuclear flux densities 〈j〉 which are essentially proportional to the nuclear densities ρ in the femtosecond time domain. This corresponds to the definition of classical (cl) mechanics, j(cl)=υ(cl) ρ(cl), with almost constant velocity v(cl). For the other case Evalue close to the barrier where ρ is a minimum (in fact where ρ is close to zero). The general conclusion is that quantum mechanical nuclear flux densities may be at variance from traditional expectations based on classical trajectories. This prediction calls for experimental demonstration. The counter-intuitive proof-of-principle is demonstrated for a simple, one-dimensional model of the Cope rearrangement of semibullvalene. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. A state-space modeling approach to estimating canopy conductance and associated uncertainties from sap flux density data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David M; Ward, Eric J; Oishi, A Christopher; Oren, Ram; Flikkema, Paul G; Clark, James S

    2015-07-01

    Uncertainties in ecophysiological responses to environment, such as the impact of atmospheric and soil moisture conditions on plant water regulation, limit our ability to estimate key inputs for ecosystem models. Advanced statistical frameworks provide coherent methodologies for relating observed data, such as stem sap flux density, to unobserved processes, such as canopy conductance and transpiration. To address this need, we developed a hierarchical Bayesian State-Space Canopy Conductance (StaCC) model linking canopy conductance and transpiration to tree sap flux density from a 4-year experiment in the North Carolina Piedmont, USA. Our model builds on existing ecophysiological knowledge, but explicitly incorporates uncertainty in canopy conductance, internal tree hydraulics and observation error to improve estimation of canopy conductance responses to atmospheric drought (i.e., vapor pressure deficit), soil drought (i.e., soil moisture) and above canopy light. Our statistical framework not only predicted sap flux observations well, but it also allowed us to simultaneously gap-fill missing data as we made inference on canopy processes, marking a substantial advance over traditional methods. The predicted and observed sap flux data were highly correlated (mean sensor-level Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.88). Variations in canopy conductance and transpiration associated with environmental variation across days to years were many times greater than the variation associated with model uncertainties. Because some variables, such as vapor pressure deficit and soil moisture, were correlated at the scale of days to weeks, canopy conductance responses to individual environmental variables were difficult to interpret in isolation. Still, our results highlight the importance of accounting for uncertainty in models of ecophysiological and ecosystem function where the process of interest, canopy conductance in this case, is not observed directly. The StaCC modeling

  8. Electronic Flux Density beyond the Born-Oppenheimer Approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schild, Axel; Agostini, Federica; Gross, E K U

    2016-05-19

    In the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, the electronic wave function is typically real-valued and hence the electronic flux density (current density) seems to vanish. This is unfortunate for chemistry, because it precludes the possibility to monitor the electronic motion associated with the nuclear motion during chemical rearrangements from a Born-Oppenheimer simulation of the process. We study an electronic flux density obtained from a correction to the electronic wave function. This correction is derived via nuclear velocity perturbation theory applied in the framework of the exact factorization of electrons and nuclei. To compute the correction, only the ground state potential energy surface and the electronic wave function are needed. For a model system, we demonstrate that this electronic flux density approximates the true one very well, for coherent tunneling dynamics as well as for over-the-barrier scattering, and already for mass ratios between electrons and nuclei that are much larger than the true mass ratios.

  9. Method for determining transport critical current densities and flux penetration depth in bulk superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israelsson, Ulf E. (Inventor); Strayer, Donald M. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A contact-less method for determining transport critical current density and flux penetration depth in bulk superconductor material. A compressor having a hollow interior and a plunger for selectively reducing the free space area for distribution of the magnetic flux therein are formed of superconductor material. Analytical relationships, based upon the critical state model, Maxwell's equations and geometrical relationships define transport critical current density and flux penetration depth in terms of the initial trapped magnetic flux density and the ratio between initial and final magnetic flux densities whereby data may be reliably determined by means of the simple test apparatus for evaluating the current density and flux penetration depth.

  10. 47 CFR 25.208 - Power flux density limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Region 2, the single-entry equivalent power-flux density, in the space-to-Earth direction, (EPFDdown), at... in Region 1 and 12.2-12.7 GHz in Region 2, the aggregate equivalent power-flux density, in the space... power flux density levels defined below. (1) In the region of the contiguous United States,...

  11. Neutron Flux Density Measured by Analysis of Annealing Heat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Fan; SHI; Yong-qian; ZHU; Qing-fu; LU; Jin; LI; Lai-dong

    2015-01-01

    Neutron flux density measurement by thermal analysis is a new method different from the previous.This method is first put the sample to the neutron field.Second,measure the annealingheat of the sample.Find out the suitable mixture of crystal boron and apatite to measure the neutron flux density.Then put the sample to the neutron field in

  12. Sensitivity of the Meridional Overturning Circulation to the Pattern of the Surface Density Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    a better prognosis of anthropogenic climate change . Figure 1. Classical representation of the global thermohaline circulation and oceanic...modeling efforts and long-term strategy related to climate change . 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 105 14. SUBJECT TERMS Meridional Overturning Circulation ... Thermohaline Circulation , Thermocline, Residual-Mean Theory, Air-Sea Fluxes, Surface Density Flux , Mixed-Layer Density, Water-mass Transformation

  13. Refractive Interstellar Scintillation for Flux Density Variations of Two Pulsars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周爱芝; 吴鑫基; 艾力·伊沙木丁

    2003-01-01

    The flux density structure functions of PSRs B0525+21 and B2111+46 are calculated with the refractive interstellar scintillation (RISS) theory. The theoretical curves are in good agreement with observations [Astrophys.J. 539 (2000) 300] (hereafter S2000). The spectra of the electron density fluctuations both are of Kolmogorov spectra. We suggest that the flux density variations observed for these two pulsars are attributed to refractive interstellar scintillation, not to intrinsic variability.

  14. Flux density calibration in diffuse optical tomographic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Samir Kumar; Rajan, Kanhirodan; Vasu, Ram M

    2013-02-01

    The solution of the forward equation that models the transport of light through a highly scattering tissue material in diffuse optical tomography (DOT) using the finite element method gives flux density (Φ) at the nodal points of the mesh. The experimentally measured flux (Umeasured) on the boundary over a finite surface area in a DOT system has to be corrected to account for the system transfer functions (R) of various building blocks of the measurement system. We present two methods to compensate for the perturbations caused by R and estimate true flux density (Φ) from Umeasuredcal. In the first approach, the measurement data with a homogeneous phantom (Umeasuredhomo) is used to calibrate the measurement system. The second scheme estimates the homogeneous phantom measurement using only the measurement from a heterogeneous phantom, thereby eliminating the necessity of a homogeneous phantom. This is done by statistically averaging the data (Umeasuredhetero) and redistributing it to the corresponding detector positions. The experiments carried out on tissue mimicking phantom with single and multiple inhomogeneities, human hand, and a pork tissue phantom demonstrate the robustness of the approach.

  15. Injury response of Phaseolus vulgaris to ozone flux density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiro, B. D.; Gillespie, T. J.; Thurtell, G. W.

    This study describes a quantitative relationship between mean O 3 flux density and the length of exposure needed for the occurrence of visual injury to Phaseolus vulgaris L. Similar relationships were found for 14 day old and 6 week old plants using a whole leaf gas exchange cuvette system. Cultivars Seafarer (O 3 sensitive) and Gold Crop (O 3 resistant) exhibited similar responses at flux densities > 3 mg m -2 h -1 but only Seafarer was injured below this flux density. O 3 concentration and length of exposure period alone did not contain sufficient information to describe the onset of visual foliar injury. The use of O 3 concentrations in excess of normal ambient conditions compensated for low leaf conductances so that flux densities in the cuvette were similar to those found in the field.

  16. Metastable states of hydrogen: their geometric phases and flux densities

    CERN Document Server

    Gasenzer, T; Trappe, M -I

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the geometric phases and flux densities for the metastable states of hydrogen with principal quantum number n=2 being subjected to adiabatically varying external electric and magnetic fields. Convenient representations of the flux densities as complex integrals are derived. Both, parity conserving (PC) and parity violating (PV) flux densities and phases are identified. General expressions for the flux densities following from rotational invariance are derived. Specific cases of external fields are discussed. In a pure magnetic field the phases are given by the geometry of the path in magnetic field space. But for electric fields in presence of a constant magnetic field and for electric plus magnetic fields the geometric phases carry information on the atomic parameters, in particular, on the PV atomic interaction. We show that for our metastable states also the decay rates can be influenced by the geometric phases and we give a concrete example for this effect. Finally we emphasise that the general...

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF THE CONTROL METHODOLOGY OF THE GIANT MAGNETOSTRICTIVE ACTUATOR BASED ON MAGNETIC FLUX DENSITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Zhenyuan; Yang Xing; Shi Chun; Guo Dongming

    2003-01-01

    According to the principle of the magnetostriction generating mechanism, the control model of giant magnetostriction material based on magnetic field and the control method with magnetic flux density are developed. Furthermore, this control method is used to develop a giant magnetostrictive micro-displacement actuator (GMA) and its driving system. Two control methods whose control variables are current intensity and magnetic flux density are compared with each other by experimental studies. Finally, effective methods on improving the linearity and control precision of micro-displacement actuator and reducing the hysteresis based on the controlling magnetic flux density are obtained.

  18. Probing Microarcsecond Structure in AGN using Continuous Flux Density Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senkbeil, C.; Lovell, J.; Ellingsen, S.; Jauncey, D.; Cimò, G.

    2009-08-01

    Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) exhibit radio flux density variability on a wide range of time scales from hours to years. The rapid cm-wavelength variability on timescales from hours to days has been shown to be caused by interstellar scintillation. Interstellar scintillation implies the presence of microarcsecond scale structure in the scintillating source. We have quasi-continuously monitored the 6.7 GHz flux density of six interstellar scintillating sources since 2003 using the University of Tasmania Ceduna Radio Telescope. The launch of the VSOP 2 ASTRO-G mission will allow us to compare the microarcsecond AGN structure at 22 and 43 GHz with microarcsecond structure implied by scintillation at 5 GHz using the Hobart Interferometer, which will supersede the Ceduna flux density monitoring program in 2009.

  19. Magnetic flux density in the heliosphere through several solar cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdős, G. [Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Balogh, A., E-mail: erdos.geza@wigner.mta.hu [The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-20

    We studied the magnetic flux density carried by solar wind to various locations in the heliosphere, covering a heliospheric distance range of 0.3-5.4 AU and a heliolatitudinal range from 80° south to 80° north. Distributions of the radial component of the magnetic field, B{sub R} , were determined over long intervals from the Helios, ACE, STEREO, and Ulysses missions, as well as from using the 1 AU OMNI data set. We show that at larger distances from the Sun, the fluctuations of the magnetic field around the average Parker field line distort the distribution of B{sub R} to such an extent that the determination of the unsigned, open solar magnetic flux density from the average (|B{sub R} |) is no longer justified. We analyze in detail two methods for reducing the effect of fluctuations. The two methods are tested using magnetic field and plasma velocity measurements in the OMNI database and in the Ulysses observations, normalized to 1 AU. It is shown that without such corrections for the fluctuations, the magnetic flux density measured by Ulysses around the aphelion phase of the orbit is significantly overestimated. However, the matching between the in-ecliptic magnetic flux density at 1 AU (OMNI data) and the off-ecliptic, more distant, normalized flux density by Ulysses is remarkably good if corrections are made for the fluctuations using either method. The main finding of the analysis is that the magnetic flux density in the heliosphere is fairly uniform, with no significant variations having been observed either in heliocentric distance or heliographic latitude.

  20. Population Density Modeling Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-05

    194 POPULATION DENSITY MODELING TOOL by Davy Andrew Michael Knott David Burke 26 June 2012 Distribution...MARYLAND NAWCADPAX/TR-2012/194 26 June 2012 POPULATION DENSITY MODELING TOOL by Davy Andrew Michael Knott David Burke...Density Modeling Tool 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Davy Andrew Michael Knott David Burke 5d. PROJECT NUMBER

  1. Flux Loop Measurements of the Magnetic Flux Density in the CMS Magnet Yoke

    CERN Document Server

    Klyukhin, V I; Ball, A.; Curé, B.; Gaddi, A.; Gerwig, H.; Mulders, M.; Hervé, A.; Loveless, R.

    2016-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is a general purpose detector, designed to run at the highest luminosity at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Its distinctive features include a 4 T superconducting solenoid with 6-m-diameter by 12.5-m-length free bore, enclosed inside a 10,000-ton return yoke made of construction steel. The return yoke consists of five dodecagonal three-layered barrel wheels and four end-cap disks at each end comprised of steel blocks up to 620 mm thick, which serve as the absorber plates of the muon detection system. To measure the field in and around the steel, a system of 22 flux loops and 82 3-D Hall sensors is installed on the return yoke blocks. A TOSCA 3-D model of the CMS magnet is developed to describe the magnetic field everywhere outside the tracking volume measured with the field-mapping machine. The first attempt is made to measure the magnetic flux density in the steel blocks of the CMS magnet yoke using the standard magnet discharge with the current ramp down speed of 1.5 A/...

  2. Estimating the amount and distribution of radon flux density from the soil surface in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Weihai; Guo, Qiuju; Chen, Bo; Cheng, Guan

    2008-07-01

    Based on an idealized model, both the annual and the seasonal radon ((222)Rn) flux densities from the soil surface at 1099 sites in China were estimated by linking a database of soil (226)Ra content and a global ecosystems database. Digital maps of the (222)Rn flux density in China were constructed in a spatial resolution of 25 km x 25 km by interpolation among the estimated data. An area-weighted annual average (222)Rn flux density from the soil surface across China was estimated to be 29.7+/-9.4 mBq m(-2)s(-1). Both regional and seasonal variations in the (222)Rn flux densities are significant in China. Annual average flux densities in the southeastern and northwestern China are generally higher than those in other regions of China, because of high soil (226)Ra content in the southeastern area and high soil aridity in the northwestern one. The seasonal average flux density is generally higher in summer/spring than winter, since relatively higher soil temperature and lower soil water saturation in summer/spring than other seasons are common in China.

  3. Nodal model for calculating the variations in neutron flux density due to stochastic vibrations of control elements of hexagonal cross section; Nodales Modell zur Berechnung der Neutronenflussdichteschwankungen infolge stochastischer Schwingungen von Regelelementen mit hexagonalem Querschnitt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollstein, F.

    1994-08-01

    Based on a three-dimensional modal geometry model for the WWER 440 reacotr, with nodes in the hexagonal z geometry, the equations for the interative calculation of the mean neutron flux density in a node and their variations due to stochastic control element vibration are shown. For modelling sources of noise, two different geometric and neutron-physics equations are used, according to the design of a control element as a spatial double pendulum with the absorber and fuel part. The neutron flux noise caused by vibration of the fuel parts is due to area sources. These are induced by material parameter variation due to control element displacement within the guide duct. The model of the `thermal black body` absorbing hollow cylinder is transferred to bodies of hexagonal crossection for the absorber part. Both sources of noise are described as disturbances for the partial neutron current densities averaged over the node surfaces in the two group diffusion approximation. The transfer of the noise signals is dealt with in the prompt response approximation. The `two group swelling nodes` are coupled to the `one group transmission nodes` on the basis of the modified one group diffusion approximation. The algorithms shown are the basis for development of a computer program for examining the transfer functions depending on location of neutron flux density variations with stochastic control element vibrations as the source of noise. (orig./HP) [Deutsch] Auf der Basis eines dreidimensionalen nodalen Geometriemodells fuer den WWER-440-Reaktor mit Nodes in Hexagonal-z-Geometrie werden die Beziehungen zur iterativen Berechnung der mittleren Neutronenflussdichte in einer Node sowie deren Schwankungen infolge stochastischer Regelelementschwingungen dargestellt. Fuer die Rauschquellenmodellierung werden entsprechend der Konstruktion eines Regelelements als raeumliches Doppelpendel mit Absorber- und Brennstoffteil zwei verschiedene geometrische und neutronenphysikalische Ansaetze

  4. Maximum flux density of the gyrosynchrotron spectrum in a nonuniform source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ai-Hua Zhou; Rong-Chuan Wang; Cheng-Wen Shao

    2009-01-01

    The maximum flux density of a gyrosynchrotron radiation spectrum in a mag- netic dip|oe model with self absorption and gyroresonance is calculated. Our calculations show that the maximum flux density of the gyrosynchrotron spectrum increases with in- creasing low-energy cutoff, number density, input depth of energetic electrons, magnetic field strength and viewing angle, and with decreasing energy spectral index of energetic electrons, number density and temperature of thermal electrons. It is found that there are linear correlations between the logarithms of the maximum flux density and the above eight parameters with correlation coefficients higher than 0.91 and fit accuracies better than 10%. The maximum flux density could be a good indicator of the changes of these source parameters. In addition, we find that there are very good positive linear correla- tions between the logarithms of the maximum flux density and peak frequency when the above former five parameters vary respectively. Their linear correlation coefficients are higher than 0.90 and the fit accuracies are better than 0.5%.

  5. Flux quantum tunneling effect and its influence on the experimental critical current density

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闻海虎; 赵忠贤; GriessenR.

    1995-01-01

    By using magnetic sweeping method, the temperature and magnetic field dependencies of the experimental current density and the normalized relaxation rate have been obtained. The true critical current density corresponding to the zero activation energy has been carried out based on the collective-pinning and the thermally-activated flux motion models, and therefore the influences of the quantum tunneling effect and the thermal activation effect on the experimental critical current density are distinguished. It is found that, with temperature lower than 10 K, the relaxation rate will not drop to zero when T approaches zero K because of the occurrence of the flux quantum tunneling. This additional flux motion further reduces the experimental critical current density j making it saturated with lowering temperature.

  6. Calibration system for measuring the radon flux density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishchenko, A; Zhukovsky, M; Bastrikov, V

    2015-06-01

    The measurement of radon flux from soil surface is the useful tool for the assessment of radon-prone areas and monitoring of radon releases from uranium mining and milling residues. The accumulation chambers with hollow headspace and chambers with activated charcoal are the most used devices for these purposes. Systematic errors of the measurements strongly depend on the geometry of the chamber and diffusion coefficient of the radon in soil. The calibration system for the attestation of devices for radon flux measurements was constructed. The calibration measurements of accumulation chambers and chambers with activated charcoal were conducted. The good agreement between the results of 2D modelling of radon flux and measurements results was observed. It was demonstrated that reliable measurements of radon flux can be obtained by chambers with activated charcoal (equivalent volume ~75 l) or by accumulation chambers with hollow headspace of ~7-10 l and volume/surface ratio (height) of >15 cm.

  7. Rates, Flux Densities, and Spectral Indices of Meteor Radio Afterglows

    CERN Document Server

    Obenberger, K S; Hancock, P J; Holmes, J M; Pedersen, T R; Schinzel, F K; Taylor, G B

    2016-01-01

    Using the narrowband all-sky imager mode of the LWA1 we have now detected 30 transients at 25.6 MHz, 1 at 34 MHz, and 93 at 38.0 MHz. While we have only optically confirmed that 37 of these events are radio afterglows from meteors, evidence suggests that most, if not all, are. Using the beam-forming mode of the LWA1 we have also captured the broadband spectra between 22.0 and 55.0 MHz of four events. We compare the smooth, spectral components of these four events and fit the frequency dependent flux density to a power law, and find that the spectral index is time variable, with the spectrum steepening over time for each meteor afterglow. Using these spectral indices along with the narrow band flux density measurements of the 123 events at 25.6 and 38 MHz, we predict the expected flux densities and rates for meteor afterglows potentially observable by other low frequency radio telescopes.

  8. High Torque Density Transverse Flux Machine without the Need to Use SMC Material for 3D Flux Paths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Kaiyuan; Wu, Weimin

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new transverse flux permanent magnet machine. In a normal transverse flux machine, complicated 3-D flux paths often exist. Such 3-D flux paths would require the use of soft magnetic composites material instead of laminations for construction of the machine stator. In the new...... machine topology proposed in this paper, by advantageously utilizing the magnetic flux path provided by an additional rotor, use of laminations that allow 2-D flux paths only will be sufficient to accomplish the required 3-D flux paths. The machine also has a high torque density and is therefore...

  9. Diurnal and seasonal variability in radial distribution of sap flux density: Implications for estimating stand transpiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiora, Alessandro; Cescatti, Alessandro

    2006-09-01

    Daily and seasonal patterns in radial distribution of sap flux density were monitored in six trees differing in social position in a mixed coniferous stand dominated by silver fir (Abies alba Miller) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) in the Alps of northeastern Italy. Radial distribution of sap flux was measured with arrays of 1-cm-long Granier probes. The radial profiles were either Gaussian or decreased monotonically toward the tree center, and seemed to be related to social position and crown distribution of the trees. The ratio between sap flux estimated with the most external sensor and the mean flux, weighted with the corresponding annulus areas, was used as a correction factor (CF) to express diurnal and seasonal radial variation in sap flow. During sunny days, the diurnal radial profile of sap flux changed with time and accumulated photosynthetic active radiation (PAR), with an increasing contribution of sap flux in the inner sapwood during the day. Seasonally, the contribution of sap flux in the inner xylem increased with daily cumulative PAR and the variation of CF was proportional to the tree diameter, ranging from 29% for suppressed trees up to 300% for dominant trees. Two models were developed, relating CF with PAR and tree diameter at breast height (DBH), to correct daily and seasonal estimates of whole-tree and stand sap flow obtained by assuming uniform sap flux density over the sapwood. If the variability in the radial profile of sap flux density was not accounted for, total stand transpiration would be overestimated by 32% during sunny days and 40% for the entire season.

  10. Dust Absorption and the Cosmic UV Flux Density

    CERN Document Server

    Massarotti, M; Buzzoni, A

    2001-01-01

    We study the evolution of the galaxy UV luminosity density as a function of redshift in the Hubble Deep Field North (HDF-N). We estimate the amount of energy absorbed by dust and hidden from optical observations by analyzing the HDF-N photometric data with the spectral energy distribution fitting method. According to our results, at redshifts 1 < z < 4.5, the global energy observed in the UV rest-frame at lambda=1500 A corresponds to only 7-11% of the stellar energy output, the rest of it being absorbed by dust and re-emitted in the far-IR. Our estimates of the comoving star formation rate density in the universe from the extinction-corrected UV emission are consistent with the recent results obtained with Submillimeter Common-User Bolometer Array (SCUBA) at faint sub-millimeter flux levels.

  11. Spillage and flux density on a receiver aperture lip. [of solar thermal collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1985-01-01

    In a dish-type point-focusing solar thermal collector, the spillage and the flux density on the receiver aperture lip are related in a very simple way, if the aperture is circular and centered on the optical axis. Specifically, the flux density on the lip is equal to the spillage times the peak flux density in the plane of the lip.

  12. Estimation of electrical conductivity distribution within the human head from magnetic flux density measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Nuo; Zhu, S A; He, Bin

    2005-06-01

    We have developed a new algorithm for magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT), which uses only one component of the magnetic flux density to reconstruct the electrical conductivity distribution within the body. The radial basis function (RBF) network and simplex method are used in the present approach to estimate the conductivity distribution by minimizing the errors between the 'measured' and model-predicted magnetic flux densities. Computer simulations were conducted in a realistic-geometry head model to test the feasibility of the proposed approach. Single-variable and three-variable simulations were performed to estimate the brain-skull conductivity ratio and the conductivity values of the brain, skull and scalp layers. When SNR = 15 for magnetic flux density measurements with the target skull-to-brain conductivity ratio being 1/15, the relative error (RE) between the target and estimated conductivity was 0.0737 +/- 0.0746 in the single-variable simulations. In the three-variable simulations, the RE was 0.1676 +/- 0.0317. Effects of electrode position uncertainty were also assessed by computer simulations. The present promising results suggest the feasibility of estimating important conductivity values within the head from noninvasive magnetic flux density measurements.

  13. Measurements of solar flux density distribution on a plane receiver due to a flat heliostat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsayed, M.M.; Fathalah, K.A.; Al-Rabghi, O.M. [King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    1995-06-01

    An experimental facility is designed and manufactured to measure the solar flux density distribution on a central flat receiver due to a single flat heliostat. The tracking mechanism of the heliostat is controlled by two stepping motors, one for tilt angle control and the other for azimuth angle control. A x-y traversing mechanism is also designed and mounted on a vertical central receiver plane, where the solar flux density is to be measured. A miniature solar sensor is mounted on the platform of the traversing mechanism, where it is used to measure the solar flux density distribution on the receiver surface. The sensor is connected to a data acquisition card in a host computer. The two stepping motors of the heliostat tracking mechanism and the two stepping motors of the traversing mechanism are all connected to a controller card in the same host computer. A software `TOWER` is prepared to let the heliostat track the sun, move the platform of the traversing mechanism to the points of a preselected grid, and to measure the solar flux density distribution on the receiver plane. Measurements are carried out using rectangular flat mirrors of different dimensions at several distances from the central receiver. Two types of images were identified on the receiver plane - namely, apparent (or visible) and mirror-reflected radiation images. Comparison between measurements and a mathematical model validates the mathematical model. 13 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Development of an Axial Flux MEMS BLDC Micromotor with Increased Efficiency and Power Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Ding

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a rigorous design and optimization of an axial flux microelectromechanical systems (MEMS brushless dc (BLDC micromotor with dual rotor improving both efficiency and power density with an external diameter of only around 10 mm. The stator is made of two layers of windings by MEMS technology. The rotor is developed by film permanent magnets assembled over the rotor yoke. The characteristics of the MEMS micromotor are analyzed and modeled through a 3-D magnetic equivalent circuit (MEC taking the leakage flux and fringing effect into account. Such a model yields a relatively accurate prediction of the flux in the air gap, back electromotive force (EMF and electromagnetic torque, whilst being computationally efficient. Based on 3-D MEC model the multi-objective firefly algorithm (MOFA is developed for the optimal design of this special machine. Both 3-D finite element (FE simulation and experiments are employed to validate the MEC model and MOFA optimization design.

  15. Factors influencing the density profiles of granular flux in a two-dimensional inclined channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The two-dimensional dilute granular flow on a smooth incline bounded by rough sidewalls is investigated experimentally, and the transverse density profiles of granular flux (ξ = ρ v) across the channel are measured. The results show that the transverse density profiles of granular flux are symmetric about the channel center and that the density of granular flux near the boundary is clearly lower than that of the center. There is a critical width of channel Wc for the transition of the density of granular flux. The density of granular flux near the boundary decays with the increasing of inclination (sinθ ) of the channel.

  16. Factors influencing the density profiles of granular flux in a two-dimensional inclined channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO DeSong; ZHOU Ying; ZHANG XunSheng; TANG XiaoWei

    2009-01-01

    The two-dimensional dilute granular flow on a smooth incline bounded by rough sidewalls is investigated experimentally, and the transverse density profiles of granular flux (ξ=pv) across the channel are measured. The results show that the transverse density profiles of granular flux are symmetric about the channel center and that the density of granular flux near the boundary is clearly lower than that of the center. There is a critical width of channel Wc for the transition of the density of granular flux. The density of granular flux near the boundary decays with the increasing of inclination (sinθ) of the channel.

  17. Internal wave pressure, velocity, and energy flux from density perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Allshouse, Michael R; Morrison, Philip J; Swinney, Harry L

    2016-01-01

    Determination of energy transport is crucial for understanding the energy budget and fluid circulation in density varying fluids such as the ocean and the atmosphere. However, it is rarely possible to determine the energy flux field $\\mathbf{J} = p \\mathbf{u}$, which requires simultaneous measurements of the pressure and velocity perturbation fields, $p$ and $\\mathbf{u}$. We present a method for obtaining the instantaneous $\\mathbf{J}(x,z,t)$ from density perturbations alone: a Green's function-based calculation yields $p$, and $\\mathbf{u}$ is obtained by integrating the continuity equation and the incompressibility condition. We validate our method with results from Navier-Stokes simulations: the Green's function method is applied to the density perturbation field from the simulations, and the result for $\\mathbf{J}$ is found to agree typically to within $1\\%$ with $\\mathbf{J}$ computed directly using $p$ and $ \\mathbf{u}$ from the Navier-Stokes simulation. We also apply the Green's function method to densit...

  18. Potts Flux Tube Model at Nonzero Chemical Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Condella, J; Condella, Jac; Tar, Carleton De

    2000-01-01

    We model the deconfinement phase transition in quantum chromodynamics at nonzero baryon number density and large quark mass by extending the flux tube model (three-state, three-dimensional Potts model) to nonzero chemical potential. In a direct numerical simulation we confirm mean-field-theory predictions that the deconfinement transition does not occur in a baryon-rich environment.

  19. The causal relation between turbulent particle flux and density gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligen, B. Ph. van; Martín de Aguilera, A.; Hidalgo, C. [CIEMAT - Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión, Avda. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Carreras, B. A. [BACV Solutions, 110 Mohawk Road, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 (United States); García, L.; Nicolau, J. H. [Universidad Carlos III, 28911 Leganés, Madrid (Spain)

    2016-07-15

    A technique for detecting the causal relationship between fluctuating signals is used to investigate the relation between flux and gradient in fusion plasmas. Both a resistive pressure gradient driven turbulence model and experimental Langmuir probe data from the TJ-II stellarator are studied. It is found that the maximum influence occurs at a finite time lag (non-instantaneous response) and that quasi-periodicities exist. Furthermore, the model results show very long range radial influences, extending over most of the investigated regions, possibly related to coupling effects associated with plasma self-organization. These results clearly show that transport in fusion plasmas is not local and instantaneous, as is sometimes assumed.

  20. Surface Flux Modeling for Air Quality Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limei Ran

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available For many gasses and aerosols, dry deposition is an important sink of atmospheric mass. Dry deposition fluxes are also important sources of pollutants to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The surface fluxes of some gases, such as ammonia, mercury, and certain volatile organic compounds, can be upward into the air as well as downward to the surface and therefore should be modeled as bi-directional fluxes. Model parameterizations of dry deposition in air quality models have been represented by simple electrical resistance analogs for almost 30 years. Uncertainties in surface flux modeling in global to mesoscale models are being slowly reduced as more field measurements provide constraints on parameterizations. However, at the same time, more chemical species are being added to surface flux models as air quality models are expanded to include more complex chemistry and are being applied to a wider array of environmental issues. Since surface flux measurements of many of these chemicals are still lacking, resistances are usually parameterized using simple scaling by water or lipid solubility and reactivity. Advances in recent years have included bi-directional flux algorithms that require a shift from pre-computation of deposition velocities to fully integrated surface flux calculations within air quality models. Improved modeling of the stomatal component of chemical surface fluxes has resulted from improved evapotranspiration modeling in land surface models and closer integration between meteorology and air quality models. Satellite-derived land use characterization and vegetation products and indices are improving model representation of spatial and temporal variations in surface flux processes. This review describes the current state of chemical dry deposition modeling, recent progress in bi-directional flux modeling, synergistic model development research with field measurements, and coupling with meteorological land surface models.

  1. Measuring the Magnetic Flux Density with Flux Loops and Hall Probes in the CMS Magnet Flux Return Yoke

    CERN Document Server

    Curé, B; Ball, A; Gaddi, A; Gerwig, H; Hervé, A; Klyukhin, V I; Loveless, R; Mulders, M

    2016-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is a general purpose detector, designed to run at the highest luminosity at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Its distinctive features include a 4 T superconducting solenoid with 6-m-diameter by 12.5-m-length free bore, enclosed inside a 10,000-ton return yoke made of construction steel. The flux return yoke consists of five dodecagonal three-layered barrel wheels and four end-cap disks at each end comprised of steel blocks up to 620 mm thick, which serve as the absorber plates of the muon detection system. To measure the field in and around the steel, a system of 22 flux loops and 82 3-D Hall sensors is installed on the return yoke blocks. A TOSCA 3-D model of the CMS magnet is developed to describe the magnetic field everywhere outside the tracking volume that was measured with the field-mapping machine. The voltages induced in the flux loops by the magnetic flux changing during the CMS magnet standard ramps down are measured with six 16-bit DAQ modules. The off-line inte...

  2. Electromagnetic potentials basis for energy density and power flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthoff, H. E.

    2016-09-01

    In rounding out the education of students in advanced courses in applied electromagnetics it is incumbent on us as mentors to raise issues that encourage appreciation of certain subtle aspects that are often overlooked during first exposure to the field. One of these has to do with the interplay between fields and potentials, with the latter often seen as just a convenient mathematical artifice useful in solving Maxwell’s equations. Nonetheless, to those practiced in application it is well understood that various alternatives in the use of fields and potentials are available within electromagnetic (EM) theory for the definitions of energy density, momentum transfer, EM stress-energy tensor, and so forth. Although the various options are all compatible with the basic equations of electrodynamics (e.g., Maxwell’s equations, Lorentz force law, gauge invariance), nonetheless certain alternative formulations lend themselves to being seen as preferable to others with regard to the transparency of their application to physical problems of interest. Here we argue for the transparency of an energy density/power flux option based on the EM potentials alone.

  3. One-point fitting of the flux density produced by a heliostat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collado, Francisco J. [Univ. Zaragoza, CPS-B, Dpto de Ingenieria Mecanica, Maria de Luna 3, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2010-04-15

    Accurate and simple models for the flux density reflected by an isolated heliostat should be one of the basic tools for the design and optimization of solar power tower systems. In this work, the ability and the accuracy of the Universidad de Zaragoza (UNIZAR) and the DLR (HFCAL) flux density models to fit actual energetic spots are checked against heliostat energetic images measured at Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA). Both the fully analytic models are able to acceptably fit the spot with only one-point fitting, i.e., the measured maximum flux. As a practical validation of this one-point fitting, the intercept percentage of the measured images, i.e., the percentage of the energetic spot sent by the heliostat that gets the receiver surface, is compared with the intercept calculated through the UNIZAR and HFCAL models. As main conclusions, the UNIZAR and the HFCAL models could be quite appropriate tools for the design and optimization, provided the energetic images from the heliostats to be used in the collector field were previously analyzed. Also note that the HFCAL model is much simpler and slightly more accurate than the UNIZAR model. (author)

  4. Double-cavity radiometer for high-flux density solar radiation measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parretta, A; Antonini, A; Armani, M; Nenna, G; Flaminio, G; Pellegrino, M

    2007-04-20

    A radiometric method has been developed, suitable for both total power and flux density profile measurement of concentrated solar radiation. The high-flux density radiation is collected by a first optical cavity, integrated, and driven to a second optical cavity, where, attenuated, it is measured by a conventional radiometer operating under a stationary irradiation regime. The attenuation factor is regulated by properly selecting the aperture areas in the two cavities. The radiometer has been calibrated by a pulsed solar simulator at concentration levels of hundreds of suns. An optical model and a ray-tracing study have also been developed and validated, by which the potentialities of the radiometer have been largely explored.

  5. Impact of a hollow density profile on turbulent particle fluxes: Gyrokinetic and fluid simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegnered, D.; Oberparleiter, M.; Strand, P.; Nordman, H.

    2017-07-01

    Hollow density profiles may occur in connection with pellet fuelling and L to H transitions. A positive density gradient could potentially stabilize the turbulence or change the relation between convective and diffusive fluxes, thereby reducing the turbulent transport of particles towards the center, making the pellet fuelling scheme inefficient. In the present work, the particle transport driven by Ion Temperature Gradient/Trapped Electron (ITG/TE) mode turbulence in hollow density profiles is studied by fluid as well as gyrokinetic simulations. The fluid model used, an extended version of the Weiland transport model, Extended Drift Wave Model (EDWM), incorporates an arbitrary number of ion species in a multi-fluid description and an extended wavelength spectrum. The fluid model, which is fast and hence suitable for use in predictive simulations, is compared to gyrokinetic simulations using the code GENE. Typical tokamak parameters are used based on the Cyclone Base Case. Parameter scans in key plasma parameters like plasma β, R/LT, and magnetic shear are investigated. In addition, the effects of a fast species are studied and global ITG simulations in a simplified physics description are performed in order to investigate nonlocal effects. It is found that β in particular, has a stabilizing effect in the negative R/Ln region. Both nonlinear GENE and EDWM simulations show a decrease in inward flux for negative R/Ln and a change in the direction from inward to outward for positive R/Ln. Moreover, the addition of fast particles was shown to decrease the inward main ion particle flux in the positive gradient region further. This might have serious consequences for pellet fuelling of high β plasmas. Additionally, the heat flux in global ITG turbulence simulations indicates that nonlocal effects can play a different role from usual in connection with pellet fuelling.

  6. Vertical eddy heat fluxes from model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Peter H.; Yao, Mao-Sung

    1991-01-01

    Vertical eddy fluxes of heat are calculated from simulations with a variety of climate models, ranging from three-dimensional GCMs to a one-dimensional radiative-convective model. The models' total eddy flux in the lower troposphere is found to agree well with Hantel's analysis from observations, but in the mid and upper troposphere the models' values are systematically 30 percent to 50 percent smaller than Hantel's. The models nevertheless give very good results for the global temperature profile, and the reason for the discrepancy is unclear. The model results show that the manner in which the vertical eddy flux is carried is very sensitive to the parameterization of moist convection. When a moist adiabatic adjustment scheme with a critical value for the relative humidity of 100 percent is used, the vertical transports by large-scale eddies and small-scale convection on a global basis are equal: but when a penetrative convection scheme is used, the large-scale flux on a global basis is only about one-fifth to one-fourth the small-scale flux. Comparison of the model results with observations indicates that the results with the latter scheme are more realistic. However, even in this case, in mid and high latitudes the large and small-scale vertical eddy fluxes of heat are comparable in magnitude above the planetary boundary layer.

  7. Experimental energy-density flux characterization of ultrashort laser pulse filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faccio, Daniele; Lotti, Antonio; Matijosius, Aidas; Bragheri, Francesca; Degiorgio, Vittorio; Couairon, Arnaud; Di Trapani, Paolo

    2009-05-11

    Visualization of the energy density flux gives a unique insight into the propagation properties of complex ultrashort pulses. This analysis, formerly relegated to numerical investigations, is here shown to be an invaluable experimental diagnostic tool. By retrieving the spatio-temporal amplitude and phase we experimentally obtain the energy density flux within complex ultrashort pulses generated by filamentation in a nonlinear Kerr medium.

  8. Distribution of Magnetic Flux Density in Soft-Contact EMCC Rectangular Mold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lin-tao; WANG En-gang; DENG An-yuan; HE Ji-cheng

    2006-01-01

    The distribution of the magnetic flux density in a soft-contact electromagnetic continuous casting (EMCC) rectangular mold was investigated. The experimental results show that with an increase in electric power, the magnetic flux density increases. The position where the maximum magnetic flux density appears will shift up when the coil moves to the top of the mold. At the same time, the maximum magnetic flux density will increase and the effective acting range of electromagnetic pressure will widen. As a result, in practice, the coil should be placed near the top part of the mold. The meniscus should be controlled near the top part of the coil, as this not only remarkably improves the billet surface quality but also saves energy. With the same electric power input, the higher the frequency, the lower the magnetic flux density.

  9. Correlations between the peak flux density and the position angle of inner-jet in three blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, X; Liu, B -R; Li, Q -W

    2012-01-01

    We aim to investigate the relation between the long-term flux density and the position angle (PA) evolution of inner-jet in blazars. We have carried out the elliptic Gaussian model-fit to the `core' of 50 blazars from 15 GHz VLBA data, and analyzed the variability properties of three blazars from the model-fit results. Diverse correlations between the long-term peak flux density and the PA evolution of the major axis of the `core' have been found in $\\sim$ 20% of the 50 sources. Of them, three typical blazars have been analyzed, which also show quasi-periodic flux variations of a few years (T). The correlation between the peak flux density and the PA of inner-jet is positive for S5~0716+714, and negative for S4~1807+698. The two sources cannot be explained with the ballistic jet models, the non-ballistic models have been analyzed to explain the two sub-luminal blazars. A correlation between the peak flux density and the PA (with a T/4 time lag) of inner-jet is found in [HB89]~1823+568, this correlation can be...

  10. On the Spectral Index-Flux Density Relation for Large Samples of Radio Sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi-Zhen Zhang; W. Reich; P. Reich; R. Wielebinski

    2003-01-01

    We present new statistical results on the spectral index-flux densityrelation for large samples of radio sources using archival data of the most sensitivesurveys, such as 6C, Miyun, WENSS, B3, NVSS, GB87. Instrumental selectioneffects and the completeness of the catalogs are discussed. Based on the spec-tral indices calculated for about 200 000 sources from the WENSS (327 MHz) andNVSS (1.4 GHz) catalogs, we obtained (1) The median spectral index increases fromαmed ~ -0.9 to αmed ~ -0.8 (Sν∝να), while S327 flux densities decrease from0.1 Jy down to 25 mJy. The median spectral indices nearly show no variation withinthe error bars when the flux density is larger than 0.1 Jy. (2) A dependence of thefraction of ultra-steep spectrum sources (USS, -1.5 ≤α<-1.0), steep spectrumsources (SSS, -1.0 ≤α< -0.5) and flat spectrum sources (FSS, -0.5 ≤α≤ 0.0) ispartly responsible for the spectral flattening. Another contribution to the spectralflattening comes from the variation of αmed of steep spectrum sources (α<-0.5)themselves which increases with decreasing flux densities. (3) The spectral flatteningfor faint sources (down to S327 ~ 20 mJy) with steep spectra (α<-0.5) suggeststhat αmed is correlated with luminosity rather than redshift according to the Con-don' model. (4) A strong spectral selection effect occurs when spectral indices arecalculated from samples with a large frequency separation.

  11. Flux Analysis in Process Models via Causality

    CERN Document Server

    Kahramanoğullari, Ozan

    2010-01-01

    We present an approach for flux analysis in process algebra models of biological systems. We perceive flux as the flow of resources in stochastic simulations. We resort to an established correspondence between event structures, a broadly recognised model of concurrency, and state transitions of process models, seen as Petri nets. We show that we can this way extract the causal resource dependencies in simulations between individual state transitions as partial orders of events. We propose transformations on the partial orders that provide means for further analysis, and introduce a software tool, which implements these ideas. By means of an example of a published model of the Rho GTP-binding proteins, we argue that this approach can provide the substitute for flux analysis techniques on ordinary differential equation models within the stochastic setting of process algebras.

  12. Optimization of magnetic flux density measurement using multiple RF receiver coils and multi-echo in MREIT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Woo Chul; Chauhan, Munish; Sajib, Saurav Z K; Kim, Hyung Joong; Serša, Igor; Kwon, Oh In; Woo, Eung Je

    2014-09-01

    Magnetic Resonance Electrical Impedance Tomography (MREIT) is an MRI method that enables mapping of internal conductivity and/or current density via measurements of magnetic flux density signals. The MREIT measures only the z-component of the induced magnetic flux density B = (Bx, By, Bz) by external current injection. The measured noise of Bz complicates recovery of magnetic flux density maps, resulting in lower quality conductivity and current-density maps. We present a new method for more accurate measurement of the spatial gradient of the magnetic flux density gradient (∇ Bz). The method relies on the use of multiple radio-frequency receiver coils and an interleaved multi-echo pulse sequence that acquires multiple sampling points within each repetition time. The noise level of the measured magnetic flux density Bz depends on the decay rate of the signal magnitude, the injection current duration, and the coil sensitivity map. The proposed method uses three key steps. The first step is to determine a representative magnetic flux density gradient from multiple receiver coils by using a weighted combination and by denoising the measured noisy data. The second step is to optimize the magnetic flux density gradient by using multi-echo magnetic flux densities at each pixel in order to reduce the noise level of ∇ Bz and the third step is to remove a random noise component from the recovered ∇ Bz by solving an elliptic partial differential equation in a region of interest. Numerical simulation experiments using a cylindrical phantom model with included regions of low MRI signal to noise ('defects') verified the proposed method. Experimental results using a real phantom experiment, that included three different kinds of anomalies, demonstrated that the proposed method reduced the noise level of the measured magnetic flux density. The quality of the recovered conductivity maps using denoised ∇ Bz data showed that the proposed method reduced the conductivity

  13. Models of Flux Tubes from Constrained Relaxation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Α. Mangalam; V. Krishan

    2000-09-01

    We study the relaxation of a compressible plasma to an equilibrium with flow. The constraints of conservation of mass, energy, angular momentum, cross-helicity and relative magnetic helicity are imposed. Equilibria corresponding to the energy extrema while conserving these invariants for parallel flows yield three classes of solutions and one of them with an increasing radial density profile, relevant to solar flux tubes is presented.

  14. Modeling of microscale variations in methane fluxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kettunen, A.

    2002-07-01

    The current study analyzes the different modes of variation in methane fluxes from different microsites of a boreal mire. The results emphasize the importance of microsite characteristics, water table and vegetation cover for methane fluxes. Water level affects the moisture and oxygen profiles in peat matrix which are reflected to methane production and oxidation rates and the corresponding microbial populations. Vascular plants promote methane production by providing substrates in the form of root exudates and fine root litter, enhance methane oxidation by transporting oxygen to water saturated peat layers and accelerate methane transport by liberating methane from peat to the atmosphere via the aerenchymous tissue. The model presented in this study connects the methane fluxes to the seasonal photosynthetic cycle of plants at the microsite level while the thermal and hydrological conditions in peat are used as an operational framework. Overall, the model dynamically combines the microbial processes in peat to changing environmental factors in the level of peatland ecosystem. Sensitivity analysis of the model reveals the importance of substrate supply to methane fluxes. Furthermore, the model outcome is sensitive to increased capability of the vascular plants to transport oxygen downwards. Lack of oxygen and partly methane keep methane oxidation at a very low level. Any changes in model parameters or environmental conditions that compensate for these lacks have a remarkable decreasing effect on simulated flux. Simulated methane flux decreases considerably if the duration of simulated dry period increases, threshold for a dramatic change lying between 4 and 6 weeks of drought. Increase in air temperature enhances methane flux especially if the effect of increased temperature on gross primary production is taken into account. (orig.)

  15. Estimates of current debris from flux models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavan, G.H.

    1997-01-01

    Flux models that balance accuracy and simplicity are used to predict the growth of space debris to the present. Known and projected launch rates, decay models, and numerical integrations are used to predict distributions that closely resemble the current catalog-particularly in the regions containing most of the debris.

  16. Analytical function for the flux density due to sunlight reflected from a heliostat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collado, F.J.; Gomez, A.; Turegano, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    An analytical model is presented for the flux density due to a focused heliostat over the receiver plane of a tower solar plant. The main assumptions are: spherical and continuous surface of the mirror, linear conformal transformation in the complex plane equivalent to the reflection mapping between an on-axis aligned heliostat and the objective located on the receiver at the slant range necessary to produce the minimum circle of confusion, circular Gaussian distribution of the effective sunshape and the concentration function constant on the receiver or the image plane. Under the hypotheses presented earlier an exact convolution is obtained. The result, an analytic flux density function, relatively simple and very flexible, is confronted with experimental measurements taken from four heliostat prototypes of second-generation placed at the Central Receiver Test Facility (CRTF), Albuquerque, New Mexico, and compared indirectly with the predictions of the Helios model for the same heliostats. The model is an essential tool in the problem of the determination of collector field parameters by optimization methods.

  17. Comparative assessment of surface fluxes from different sources using probability density distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulev, Sergey; Tilinina, Natalia; Belyaev, Konstantin

    2015-04-01

    Surface turbulent heat fluxes from modern era and first generation reanalyses (NCEP-DOE, ERA-Interim, MERRA NCEP-CFSR, JRA) as well as from satellite products (SEAFLUX, IFREMER, HOAPS) were intercompared using framework of probability distributions for sensible and latent heat fluxes. For approximation of probability distributions and estimation of extreme flux values Modified Fisher-Tippett (MFT) distribution has been used. Besides mean flux values, consideration is given to the comparative analysis of (i) parameters of the MFT probability density functions (scale and location), (ii) extreme flux values corresponding high order percentiles of fluxes (e.g. 99th and higher) and (iii) fractional contribution of extreme surface flux events in the total surface turbulent fluxes integrated over months and seasons. The latter was estimated using both fractional distribution derived from MFT and empirical estimates based upon occurrence histograms. The strongest differences in the parameters of probability distributions of surface fluxes and extreme surface flux values between different reanalyses are found in the western boundary current extension regions and high latitudes, while the highest differences in the fractional contributions of surface fluxes may occur in mid ocean regions being closely associated with atmospheric synoptic dynamics. Generally, satellite surface flux products demonstrate relatively stronger extreme fluxes compared to reanalyses, even in the Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes where data assimilation input in reanalyses is quite dense compared to the Southern Ocean regions.

  18. Influence of particle flux density and temperature on surface modifications of tungsten and deuterium retention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buzi, Luxherta, E-mail: l.buzi@fz-juelich.de [Ghent University, Department of Applied Physics, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); FOM Institute DIFFER-Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Edisonbaan 14, 3439 MN, PO Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Institut für Energie und Klimaforschung – Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Leo-Brandt-Straße, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Université de Lorraine, Institut Jean Lamour, CNRS UMR 7198, Bvd. des Aiguillettes, F-54506 Vandoeuvre (France); Temmerman, Greg De [FOM Institute DIFFER-Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Edisonbaan 14, 3439 MN, PO Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Unterberg, Bernhard; Reinhart, Michael; Litnovsky, Andrey; Philipps, Volker [Institut für Energie und Klimaforschung – Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Leo-Brandt-Straße, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Oost, Guido Van [Ghent University, Department of Applied Physics, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Möller, Sören [Institut für Energie und Klimaforschung – Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Leo-Brandt-Straße, 52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    Systematic study of deuterium irradiation effects on tungsten was done under ITER – relevant high particle flux density, scanning a broad surface temperature range. Polycrystalline ITER – like grade tungsten samples were exposed in linear plasma devices to two different ranges of deuterium ion flux densities (high: 3.5–7 · 10{sup 23} D{sup +}/m{sup 2} s and low: 9 · 10{sup 21} D{sup +}/m{sup 2} s). Particle fluence and ion energy, respectively 10{sup 26} D{sup +}/m{sup 2} and ∼38 eV were kept constant in all cases. The experiments were performed at three different surface temperatures 530 K, 630 K and 870 K. Experimental results concerning the deuterium retention and surface modifications of low flux exposure confirmed previous investigations. At temperatures 530 K and 630 K, deuterium retention was higher at lower flux density due to the longer exposure time (steady state plasma operation) and a consequently deeper diffusion range. At 870 K, deuterium retention was found to be higher at high flux density according to the thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) measurements. While blisters were completely absent at low flux density, small blisters of about 40–50 nm were formed at high flux density exposure. At the given conditions, a relation between deuterium retention and blister formation has been found which has to be considered in addition to deuterium trapping in defects populated by diffusion.

  19. Multispecies Density and Temperature Gradient Dependence of Quasilinear Particle and Energy Fluxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Rewoldt; R.V. Budny; W.M. Tang

    2004-08-09

    The variations of the normalized quasilinear particle and energy fluxes with artificial changes in the density and temperature gradients, as well as the variations of the linear growth rates and real frequencies, for ion temperature gradient and trapped-electron modes, are calculated. The quasilinear fluxes are normalized to the total energy flux, summed over all species. Here, realistic cases for tokamaks and spherical torii are considered which have two impurity species. For situations where there are substantial changes in the normalized fluxes, the ''diffusive approximation,'' in which the normalized fluxes are taken to be linear in the gradients, is seen to be inaccurate. Even in the case of small artificial changes in density or temperature gradients, changes in the fluxes of different species (''off-diagonal'') generally are significant, or even dominant, compared to those for the same species (''diagonal'').

  20. A Re-examination of Density Effects in Eddy Covariance Measurements of CO2 Fluxes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heping LIU

    2009-01-01

    Corrections of density effects resulting from air-parcel expansion/compression are important in interpreting eddy covariance fluxes of water vapor and CO2 when open-path systems are used. To account for these effects, mean vertical velocity and perturbation of the density of dry air are two critical parameters in treating those physical processes responsible for density variations. Based on various underlying assumptions, different studies have obtained different formulas for the mean vertical velocity and perturbation of the density of dry air, leading to a number of approaches to correct density effects. In this study, we re-examine physical processes related to different assumptions that are made to formulate the density effects. Specifically, we re-examine the assumptions of a zero dry air flux and a zero moist air flux in the surface layer, used for treating density variations, and their implications for correcting density effects. It is found that physical processes in relation to the assumption of a zero dry air flux account for the influence of dry air expansion/compression on density variations. Meanwhile, physical processes in relation to the assumption of a zero moist air flux account for the influence of moist air expansion/compression on density variations. In this study, we also re-examine mixing ratio issues. Our results indicate that the assumption of a zero dry air flux favors the use of the mixing ratio relative to dry air, while the assumption of a zero moist air flux favors the use of the mixing ratio relative to the total moist air. Additionally, we compare different formula for the mean vertical velocity, generated by air-parcel expansion/compression, and for density effect corrections using eddy covariance data measured over three boreal ecosystems.

  1. Influence of particle flux density and temperature on surface modifications of tungsten and deuterium retention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buzi, L.; De Temmerman, G.; Unterberg, B.; M. Reinhart,; Litnovsky, A.; Philipps, V.; Van Oost, G.; Möller, S.

    2014-01-01

    Systematic study of deuterium irradiation effects on tungsten was done under ITER - relevant high particle flux density, scanning a broad surface temperature range. Polycrystalline ITER - like grade tungsten samples were exposed in linear plasma devices to two different ranges of deuterium ion flux

  2. [Rapid measurements of CO2 flux density and water use efficiency of crop community].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhilin; Sun, Xiaomin; Zhang, Renhua; Su, Hongbo; Tang, Xinzai

    2004-09-01

    In this paper, Eddy Correlation (EC) method was employed to measure the latent heat and CO2 flux density and to calculate Water Use Efficiency (WUE) of winter wheat community in Yucheng district, Shandong Province in 1997. The results showed that the CO2 flux density had an obvious diurnal change, with a maximum about 1.5 mg x s(-1) x m(-2), which appeared at about 9:00-10:00 am in general. The WUE of wheat community presented a fall trend from morning to afternoon, and the CO2 flux density and WUE also had an obvious seasonal change, being lower in the early and late growth stages, and higher in the middle growth stage. The ranges of daily mean CO2 flux density and WUE were 0.2-0.9 mg x s(-1) x m(-2) and 5-20 gCO2 x kg(-1) H2O, respectively.

  3. Flux densities of meteoroids derived from optical double-station observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koschny, D.; Drolshagen, E.; Drolshagen, S.; Kretschmer, J.; Ott, T.; Drolshagen, G.; Poppe, B.

    2017-09-01

    We have developed a new method to determine flux densities of meteoroids using optical double-station meteor observations. It is based on the assumption that the velocity distribution is constant for all mass bins. By comparing the observed velocity distribution with a model distribution we determine de-biasing factors to correct for meteors too slow to emit a detectable amount of light. We use this method to correct a dataset of about 20000 double-station meteoroids detected over a period of about 3.5 years with the Canary Island Long-Baseline Observatory (CILBO). The resulting cumulative flux density has a slope comparable to the model of Grün et al. (1985). The largest uncertainty is the luminous efficiency. Depending on which values for the luminous efficiency are assumed, the mass estimate deviates by about one to 1.5 orders of magnitude. Using the luminous efficiencies derived by Weryk et al. (2013) results in an excellent agreement of our data with the Grün data.

  4. Fourier transform magnetic resonance current density imaging (FT-MRCDI) from one component of magnetic flux density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ider, Yusuf Ziya; Birgul, Ozlem; Oran, Omer Faruk; Arikan, Orhan; Hamamura, Mark J; Muftuler, L Tugan

    2010-06-01

    Fourier transform (FT)-based algorithms for magnetic resonance current density imaging (MRCDI) from one component of magnetic flux density have been developed for 2D and 3D problems. For 2D problems, where current is confined to the xy-plane and z-component of the magnetic flux density is measured also on the xy-plane inside the object, an iterative FT-MRCDI algorithm is developed by which both the current distribution inside the object and the z-component of the magnetic flux density on the xy-plane outside the object are reconstructed. The method is applied to simulated as well as actual data from phantoms. The effect of measurement error on the spatial resolution of the current density reconstruction is also investigated. For 3D objects an iterative FT-based algorithm is developed whereby the projected current is reconstructed on any slice using as data the Laplacian of the z-component of magnetic flux density measured for that slice. In an injected current MRCDI scenario, the current is not divergence free on the boundary of the object. The method developed in this study also handles this situation.

  5. Abnormal changes in the density of thermal neutron flux in biocenoses near the earth surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikova, N V; Smirnov, A N; Kolesnikov, M V; Semenov, D S; Frolov, V A; Lapshin, V B; Syroeshkin, A V

    2007-04-01

    We revealed an increase in the density of thermal neutron flux in forest biocenoses, which was not associated with astrogeophysical events. The maximum spike of this parameter in the biocenosis reached 10,000 n/(sec x m2). Diurnal pattern of the density of thermal neutron flux depended only on the type of biocenosis. The effects of biomodulation of corpuscular radiation for balneology are discussed.

  6. Measuring the Magnetic Flux Density in the CMS Steel Yoke

    CERN Document Server

    Klyukhin, V I; Ball, A; Curé, B; Gaddi, A; Gerwig, H; Hervé, A; Mulders, M; Loveless, R

    2012-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is a general purpose detector, designed to run at the highest luminosity at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Its distinctive features include a 4 T superconducting solenoid with 6-m-diameter by 12.5-m-length free bore, enclosed inside a 10000-ton return yoke made of construction steel. The return yoke consists of five dodecagonal three-layered barrel wheels and four end-cap disks at each end comprised of steel blocks up to 620 mm thick, which serve as the absorber plates of the muon detection system. Accurate characterization of the magnetic field everywhere in the CMS detector is required. To measure the field in and around the steel, a system of 22 flux-loops and 82 3-D Hall sensors is installed on the return yoke blocks. Fast discharges of the solenoid (190 s time-constant) made during the CMS magnet surface commissioning test at the solenoid central fields of 2.64, 3.16, 3.68 and 4.01 T were used to induce voltages in the flux-loops. The voltages are measured on-line a...

  7. A helically distorted MHD flux rope model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobald, Michael L.; Montgomery, David

    1990-01-01

    A flux rope model is proposed which has a variable degree of helical distortion from axisymmetry. The basis for this suggestion is a series of numerical and analytical investigations of magnetohydrodynamic states which result when an axial electric current is directed down on dc magnetic field. The helically distorted states involve a flow velocity and seem to be favored because of their lower rate of energy dissipation. Emphasis is on the magnetometer and particle energy analyzer traces that might be characteristic of such flux ropes. It is shown that even a fractionally small helical distortion may considerably alter the traces in minimum-variance coordinates. In short, what may be fairly common MHD processes can render a flux rope almost unrecognizable under standard diagnostics, even if the departures from axisymmetry are not great.

  8. Heat flux modulation in domino dynamo model

    CERN Document Server

    Reshetnyak, Maxim

    2012-01-01

    Using domino dynamo model we show how variations of the heat flux at the core-mantle boundary change frequency of geomagnetic field reversals. In fact, we are able to demonstrate effect known from the modern 3D planetary dynamo models using ensemble of the interacting spins, which obey equations of the Langevin-type with a random force. We also consider applications to the giant- planets and offer explanations of some specific episodes of the geomagnetic field in the past.

  9. 3-D density imaging with muon flux measurements from underground galleries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesparre, N.; Cabrera, J.; Marteau, J.

    2017-03-01

    Atmospheric muon flux measurements provide information on subsurface density distribution. In this study, muon flux was measured underground, in the Tournemire experimental platform (France). The objective was to image the medium between the galleries and the surface and evaluate the feasibility to detect the presence of discontinuities, for example, produced by secondary subvertical faults or by karstic networks. Measurements were performed from three different sites with a partial overlap of muon trajectories, offering the possibility to seek density variations at different depths. The conversion of the measured muon flux to average density values showed global variations further analysed through a 3-D nonlinear inversion procedure. Main results are the presence of a very low density region at the level of the upper aquifer, compatible with the presence of a karstic network hosting local cavities, and the absence of secondary faults. We discuss the validity of the present results and propose different strategies to improve the accuracy of such measurements and analysis.

  10. Analysis of recoverable current from one component of magnetic flux density in MREIT and MRCDI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chunjae; Lee, Byung Il; Kwon, Oh In

    2007-06-01

    Magnetic resonance current density imaging (MRCDI) provides a current density image by measuring the induced magnetic flux density within the subject with a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) has been focused on extracting some useful information of the current density and conductivity distribution in the subject Omega using measured B(z), one component of the magnetic flux density B. In this paper, we analyze the map Tau from current density vector field J to one component of magnetic flux density B(z) without any assumption on the conductivity. The map Tau provides an orthogonal decomposition J = J(P) + J(N) of the current J where J(N) belongs to the null space of the map Tau. We explicitly describe the projected current density J(P) from measured B(z). Based on the decomposition, we prove that B(z) data due to one injection current guarantee a unique determination of the isotropic conductivity under assumptions that the current is two-dimensional and the conductivity value on the surface is known. For a two-dimensional dominating current case, the projected current density J(P) provides a good approximation of the true current J without accumulating noise effects. Numerical simulations show that J(P) from measured B(z) is quite similar to the target J. Biological tissue phantom experiments compare J(P) with the reconstructed J via the reconstructed isotropic conductivity using the harmonic B(z) algorithm.

  11. Quasi-classical theory of electronic flux density in electronically adiabatic molecular processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diestler, D J

    2012-11-26

    The standard Born-Oppenheimer (BO) description of electronically adiabatic molecular processes predicts a vanishing electronic flux density (EFD). A previously proposed "coupled-channels" theory permits the extraction of the EFD from the BO wave function for one-electron diatomic systems, but attempts at generalization to many-electron polyatomic systems are frustrated by technical barriers. An alternative "quasi-classical" approach, which eliminates the explicit quantum dynamics of the electrons within a classical framework, yet retains the quantum character of the nuclear motion, appears capable of yielding EFDs for arbitrarily complex systems. Quasi-classical formulas for the EFD in simple systems agree with corresponding coupled-channels formulas. Results of the application of the new quasi-classical formula for the EFD to a model triatomic system indicate the potential of the quasi-classical scheme to elucidate the dynamical role of electrons in electronically adiabatic processes in more complex multiparticle systems.

  12. Pentaquark in the flux tube model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, M.; Takagi, F.

    2008-03-01

    We propose a model for pentaquarks in an excited state in the flux tube picture. The pentaquark is assumed to be composed of two diquarks and an antiquark connected by a color flux tube with a junction. If the pentaquark is rotating rapidly, it is polarized into two clusters: one is a diquark and the other is an antiquark plus another diquark. Excited energy of this quasilinear system is calculated with the use of the WKB approximation. It is predicted that there exist quasistable excited pentaquarks: 1690MeV(3/2+), 2000MeV(5/2-), 2250MeV(7/2+) etc., which decay mainly through three-body modes.

  13. More solar models and neutrino fluxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Z.; Iben, I., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    Derivation of neutrino fluxes from a sequence of solar models that differ from one another in regard to opacity, equation of state, and nuclear cross-section factors. Using current estimates of the relevant input parameters, capture rates are obtained that range between three and ten times the most recent result of the Davis Cl 37 neutrino-capture experiment. The contribution to a theoretical capture rate due to neutrinos from all reactions other than B 8 decay ranges from 0.5 to 1.5 times the latest observational result. Comparison with results of other solar model calculations indicates reasonable agreement when results are normalized to the same input parameters.

  14. Multiple-capillary measurement of RBC speed, flux, and density with optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonghwan; Wu, Weicheng; Lesage, Frederic; Boas, David A

    2013-11-01

    As capillaries exhibit heterogeneous and fluctuating dynamics even during baseline, a technique measuring red blood cell (RBC) speed and flux over many capillaries at the same time is needed. Here, we report that optical coherence tomography can capture individual RBC passage simultaneously over many capillaries located at different depths. Further, we demonstrate the ability to quantify RBC speed, flux, and linear density. This technique will provide a means to monitor microvascular flow dynamics over many capillaries at different depths at the same time.

  15. Analytical model for flux saturation in sediment transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pähtz, Thomas; Parteli, Eric J R; Kok, Jasper F; Herrmann, Hans J

    2014-05-01

    The transport of sediment by a fluid along the surface is responsible for dune formation, dust entrainment, and a rich diversity of patterns on the bottom of oceans, rivers, and planetary surfaces. Most previous models of sediment transport have focused on the equilibrium (or saturated) particle flux. However, the morphodynamics of sediment landscapes emerging due to surface transport of sediment is controlled by situations out of equilibrium. In particular, it is controlled by the saturation length characterizing the distance it takes for the particle flux to reach a new equilibrium after a change in flow conditions. The saturation of mass density of particles entrained into transport and the relaxation of particle and fluid velocities constitute the main relevant relaxation mechanisms leading to saturation of the sediment flux. Here we present a theoretical model for sediment transport which, for the first time, accounts for both these relaxation mechanisms and for the different types of sediment entrainment prevailing under different environmental conditions. Our analytical treatment allows us to derive a closed expression for the saturation length of sediment flux, which is general and thus can be applied under different physical conditions.

  16. Magnetic flux density reconstruction using interleaved partial Fourier acquisitions in MREIT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hee Myung; Nam, Hyun Soo; Kwon, Oh In

    2011-04-01

    Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) has been introduced as a non-invasive modality to visualize the internal conductivity and/or current density of an electrically conductive object by the injection of current. In order to measure a magnetic flux density signal in MREIT, the phase difference approach in an interleaved encoding scheme cancels the systematic artifacts accumulated in phase signals and also reduces the random noise effect. However, it is important to reduce scan duration maintaining spatial resolution and sufficient contrast, in order to allow for practical in vivo implementation of MREIT. The purpose of this paper is to develop a coupled partial Fourier strategy in the interleaved sampling in order to reduce the total imaging time for an MREIT acquisition, whilst maintaining an SNR of the measured magnetic flux density comparable to what is achieved with complete k-space data. The proposed method uses two key steps: one is to update the magnetic flux density by updating the complex densities using the partially interleaved k-space data and the other is to fill in the missing k-space data iteratively using the updated background field inhomogeneity and magnetic flux density data. Results from numerical simulations and animal experiments demonstrate that the proposed method reduces considerably the scanning time and provides resolution of the recovered B(z) comparable to what is obtained from complete k-space data.

  17. OpenFLUX: efficient modelling software for 13C-based metabolic flux analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nielsen Lars K

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The quantitative analysis of metabolic fluxes, i.e., in vivo activities of intracellular enzymes and pathways, provides key information on biological systems in systems biology and metabolic engineering. It is based on a comprehensive approach combining (i tracer cultivation on 13C substrates, (ii 13C labelling analysis by mass spectrometry and (iii mathematical modelling for experimental design, data processing, flux calculation and statistics. Whereas the cultivation and the analytical part is fairly advanced, a lack of appropriate modelling software solutions for all modelling aspects in flux studies is limiting the application of metabolic flux analysis. Results We have developed OpenFLUX as a user friendly, yet flexible software application for small and large scale 13C metabolic flux analysis. The application is based on the new Elementary Metabolite Unit (EMU framework, significantly enhancing computation speed for flux calculation. From simple notation of metabolic reaction networks defined in a spreadsheet, the OpenFLUX parser automatically generates MATLAB-readable metabolite and isotopomer balances, thus strongly facilitating model creation. The model can be used to perform experimental design, parameter estimation and sensitivity analysis either using the built-in gradient-based search or Monte Carlo algorithms or in user-defined algorithms. Exemplified for a microbial flux study with 71 reactions, 8 free flux parameters and mass isotopomer distribution of 10 metabolites, OpenFLUX allowed to automatically compile the EMU-based model from an Excel file containing metabolic reactions and carbon transfer mechanisms, showing it's user-friendliness. It reliably reproduced the published data and optimum flux distributions for the network under study were found quickly ( Conclusion We have developed a fast, accurate application to perform steady-state 13C metabolic flux analysis. OpenFLUX will strongly facilitate and

  18. Research and Evaluation of the Energy Flux Density of the Mobile Phone Electromagnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranas Baltrėnas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses variations in the energy flux density of the electromagnetic field of 10 mobile phones depending on distance. The studies have been conducted using three modes: sending a text message, receiving a text message and connecting a mobile phone to the Internet. When text messages are received or sent from a mobile phone, the values of the energy flux density of the mobile phone electromagnetic field exceed the safe allowable limit and make 10 μW / cm². A distance of 10, 20 and 30 cm from a mobile phone is effective protection against the energy flux density of the electromagnetic field when writing texts, receiving messages or connecting to the mobile Internet.Article in Lithuanian

  19. Effect of the Heat Flux Density on the Evaporation Rate of a Distilled Water Drop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponomarev Konstantin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the experimental dependence of the evaporation rate of a nondeaerated distilled water drop from the heat flux density on the surfaces of non-ferrous metals (copper and brass. A drop was placed on a heated substrate by electronic dosing device. To obtain drop profile we use a shadow optical system; drop symmetry was controlled by a high-speed video camera. It was found that the evaporation rate of a drop on a copper substrate is greater than on a brass. The evaporation rate increases intensively with raising volume of a drop. Calculated values of the heat flux density and the corresponding evaporation rates are presented in this work. The evaporation rate is found to increase intensively on the brass substrate with raising the heat flux density.

  20. The Infrared and Radio Flux Densities of Galactic H ii regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makai, Z.; Anderson, L. D.; Mascoop, J. L.; Johnstone, B.

    2017-09-01

    We derive infrared and radio flux densities of all ∼1000 known Galactic H ii regions in the Galactic longitude range 17\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 5population is uncertain. Compared to a sample of IR color indices from star-forming galaxies, H ii regions show higher {{log}}10({F}70μ {{m}}/{F}12μ {{m}}) ratios. We find a weak trend of decreasing infrared to ∼20 cm flux density ratios with increasing R gal, in agreement with previous extragalactic results, possibly indicating a decreased dust abundance in the outer Galaxy.

  1. An investigation into the torque density capabilities of flux-focusing magnetic gearboxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppalapati, Krishna Kiran

    Wind and many rotary based ocean energy conversion devices rely on a mechanical gearbox to increase their speed so as to match the requirements of the electromagnetic generator. However, mechanical gearboxes have a number of disadvantages such as the need for gear lubrication, no overload protection and the creation of acoustic noise. Frequently direct-drive generators are employed to overcome these issues, wherein the gearbox is removed and the shaft of the turbine is directly connected to the synchronous generator, either with an electrically excited or permanent magnet rotor. If the input speed to the generator is very low the torque must be very high in order to generate the necessary power. However, as the electrical loading of a synchronous generator is thermally limited, the size of the generator will become excessively large at high power levels. An alternative to these technologies is to consider replacing the mechanical gearbox with a magnetic gear. A magnetic gear can create speed change without any physical contact. It has inherent overload protection, and its non-contact operation offers the potential for high reliability. Despite significant progress, existing magnetic gear designs do not achieve torque densities that are competitive with mechanical gearboxes. This research has focused on designing a coaxial magnetic gear that can operate at a volumetric torque density that is comparable to a mechanical gearbox. A flux-focusing rotor topology also called spoke-type rotor magnet arrangement was adopted to improve the air-gap magnetic flux density which in turn improves the torque transferred between the rotors. Finite element analysis was utilized to conduct a parameter sweep analysis of the different geometric parameters of the magnetic gear. A sub-scale magnetic gear with a diameter of 110 mm and a scaled-up magnetic gear with a diameter of 228 mm was designed, constructed and experimentally evaluated. The torque and torque density of sub

  2. Adiabatic electronic flux density: a Born-Oppenheimer Broken Symmetry ansatz

    CERN Document Server

    Pohl, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    The Born-Oppenheimer approximation leads to the counterintuitive result of a vanishing electronic flux density upon vibrational dynamics in the electronic ground state. To circumvent this long known issue, we propose using pairwise anti-symmetrically translated vibronic densities to generate a symmetric electronic density that can be forced to satisfy the continuity equation approximately. The so-called Born-Oppenheimer broken symmetry ansatz yields all components of the flux density simultaneously while requiring only knowledge about the nuclear quantum dynamics on the electronic adiabatic ground state potential energy surface. The underlying minimization procedure is transparent and computationally inexpensive, and the solution can be computed from the standard output of any quantum chemistry program. Taylor series expansion reveals that the implicit electron dynamics originates from non-adiabatic coupling to the explicit Born-Oppenheimer nuclear dynamics. The new approach is applied to the ${\\rm H}_2^+$ mo...

  3. Behaviour of carbon dioxide and water vapour flux densities from a disturbed raised peat bog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieveen, J.P.; Jacobs, A.F.G.

    2002-01-01

    Measurements of carbon dioxide and water vapour flux densities were carried out for a disturbed raised peat bog in the north of the Netherlands during an 18 month continuous experiment. Tussock grass (sp. Molinea caerulae) mainly dominated the vegetation of the bog area. The maximum leaf area index

  4. Measurement of induced magnetic flux density using injection current nonlinear encoding (ICNE) in MREIT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chunjae; Lee, Byung Il; Kwon, Ohin; Woo, Eung Je

    2007-02-01

    Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) measures induced magnetic flux densities subject to externally injected currents in order to visualize conductivity distributions inside an electrically conducting object. Injection currents induce magnetic flux densities that appear in phase parts of acquired MR image data. In the conventional current injection method, we inject currents during the time segment between the end of the first RF pulse and the beginning of the reading gradient in order to ensure the gradient linearity. Noting that longer current injections can accumulate more phase changes, we propose a new pulse sequence called injection current nonlinear encoding (ICNE) where the duration of the injection current pulse is extended until the end of the reading gradient. Since the current injection during the reading gradient disturbs the gradient linearity, we first analyze the MR signal produced by the ICNE pulse sequence and suggest a novel algorithm to extract the induced magnetic flux density from the acquired MR signal. Numerical simulations and phantom experiments show that the new method is clearly advantageous in terms of the reduced noise level in measured magnetic flux density data. The amount of noise reduction depends on the choice of the data acquisition time and it was about 24% when we used a prolonged data acquisition time of 10.8 ms. The ICNE method will enhance the clinical applicability of the MREIT technique when it is combined with an appropriate phase artefact minimization method.

  5. Vertical foliage distribution determines the radial pattern of sap flux density in Picea abies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiora, Alessandro; Cescatti, Alessandro

    2008-09-01

    Understanding the causes determining the radial pattern of sap flux density is important both for improving knowledge of sapwood functioning and for up-scaling sap flow measurements to canopy transpiration and ecosystem water use. To investigate the anatomical connection between whorls and annual sapwood rings, pruning-induced variation in the radial pattern of sap flux density was monitored with Granier probes in a 35-year-old Picea abies (L.) Karst tree that was pruned from the crown bottom up. Modifications in the radial pattern of sap flux density were quantified by a shape index (SI), which varies with the relative contribution of the outer and inner sapwood to tree transpiration. The SI progressively diminished during bottom up pruning, indicating a significant reduction in sap flow contribution of the inner sapwood. Results suggest that the radial pattern of sap flux density depends mainly on the vertical distribution of foliage in the crown, with lower shaded branches hydraulically connected with inner sapwood and upper branches connected with the outer rings.

  6. Dynamics of photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) and estimates in coastal northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    The seasonal trends and diurnal patterns of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) were investigated in the San Francisco Bay Area of Northern California from March through August in 2007 and 2008. During these periods, the daily values of PAR flux density (PFD), energy loading with PAR (PARE), a...

  7. Unusual increase in the 325 MHz flux density of PSR B0655+64

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galama, TJ; deBruyn, AG; vanParadijs, J; Hanlon, L; Bennett, K

    1997-01-01

    We report on the detection of a large amplification of the flux density of PSR B0655+64 at 325 MHz (a factor of similar to 43) that lasted about one hour. To the best of our knowledge such a large amplification has not been reported before. The phenomenon is restricted to a very narrow bandwidth (50

  8. Mathematical modeling of isotope labeling experiments for metabolic flux analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nargund, Shilpa; Sriram, Ganesh

    2014-01-01

    Isotope labeling experiments (ILEs) offer a powerful methodology to perform metabolic flux analysis. However, the task of interpreting data from these experiments to evaluate flux values requires significant mathematical modeling skills. Toward this, this chapter provides background information and examples to enable the reader to (1) model metabolic networks, (2) simulate ILEs, and (3) understand the optimization and statistical methods commonly used for flux evaluation. A compartmentalized model of plant glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway illustrates the reconstruction of a typical metabolic network, whereas a simpler example network illustrates the underlying metabolite and isotopomer balancing techniques. We also discuss the salient features of commonly used flux estimation software 13CFLUX2, Metran, NMR2Flux+, FiatFlux, and OpenFLUX. Furthermore, we briefly discuss methods to improve flux estimates. A graphical checklist at the end of the chapter provides a reader a quick reference to the mathematical modeling concepts and resources.

  9. Interstellar Scintillation of the Polarized Flux Density in Quasar, PKS 0405-385

    CERN Document Server

    Rickett, B J; Jauncey, D L; Rickett, Barney J.; Kedziora-Chudczer, Lucyna; Jauncey, David L.

    2002-01-01

    The remarkable rapid variations in radio flux density and polarization of the quasar PKS 0405-385 observed in 1996 are subject to a correlation analysis, from which characteristic time scales and amplitudes are derived. The variations are interpreted as interstellar scintillations. The cm wavelength observations are in the weak scintillation regime for which models for the various auto- and cross-correlations of the Stokes parameters are derived and fitted to the observations. These are well modelled by interstellar scintillation (ISS) of a 30 by 22 micro-as source, with about 180 degree rotation of the polarization angle along its long dimension. This success in explaining the remarkable intra-day variations (IDV)in polarization confirms that ISS gives rise to the IDV in this quasar. However, the fit requires the scintillations to be occurring much closer to the Earth than expected according to the standard model for the ionized interstellar medium (IISM). Scattering at distances in the range 3-30 parsec are...

  10. A new measurement method of magnetic flux density using magnetorheological fluid characteristics and a variable resistor circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hwan-Choong; Han, Chulhee; Kim, Pyunghwa; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2015-08-01

    This work proposes a new approach with which to measure the magnetic flux density using the characteristics of magnetorheological fluid (MRF) that is integrated with a variable resistor. For convenience, it is called a magnetorheological fluid variable resistor (MRF-VR) system in this study. The mechanism of the MRF-VR is based on the interaction between ferromagnetic iron particles of the MRF due to an external magnetic field, which causes its electrical resistance to be field dependent. Using this salient principle, the proposed MRF-VR system is constructed with electrodes and MRF, and its performance is demonstrated by evaluating its electrical resistive characteristics such as dimensional influence, response time, hysteresis and frequency response. After evaluating the performance characteristics, a feedback control system with a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller is established, and resistance-trajectory control experiments are carried out. Based on this MRF-VR system, a magnetic field-sensing system is constructed using a Wheatstone bridge circuit, and a polynomial model for calculating the magnetic flux density is formulated from the measured voltage. Finally, the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed sensing system associated with the empirical polynomial model is successfully verified by comparing the calculated values of magnetic flux density with those measured by a commercial tesla meter.

  11. Influence of stem temperature changes on heat pulse sap flux density measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandegehuchte, Maurits W; Burgess, Stephen S O; Downey, Alec; Steppe, Kathy

    2015-04-01

    While natural spatial temperature gradients between measurement needles have been thoroughly investigated for continuous heat-based sap flow methods, little attention has been given to how natural changes in stem temperature impact heat pulse-based methods through temporal rather than spatial effects. By modelling the theoretical equation for both an ideal instantaneous pulse and a step pulse and applying a finite element model which included actual needle dimensions and wound effects, the influence of a varying stem temperature on heat pulse-based methods was investigated. It was shown that the heat ratio (HR) method was influenced, while for the compensation heat pulse and Tmax methods changes in stem temperatures of up to 0.002 °C s(-1) did not lead to significantly different results. For the HR method, rising stem temperatures during measurements led to lower heat pulse velocity values, while decreasing stem temperatures led to both higher and lower heat pulse velocities, and to imaginary results for high flows. These errors of up to 40% can easily be prevented by including a temperature correction in the data analysis procedure, calculating the slope of the natural temperature change based on the measured temperatures before application of the heat pulse. Results of a greenhouse and outdoor experiment on Pinus pinea L. show the influence of this correction on low and average sap flux densities.

  12. Ozone Flux Measurement and Modelling on Leaf/Shoot and Canopy Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Gerosa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The quantitative study of the ozone effects on agricultural and forest vegetation requires the knowledge of the pollutant dose absorbed by plants via leaf stomata, i.e. the stomatal flux. Nevertheless, the toxicologically effective dose can differ from the stomatal flux because a pool of scavenging and detoxification processes reduce the amount of pollutant responsible of the expression of the harmful effects. The measurement of the stomatal flux is not immediate and the quantification of the effective dose is still troublesome. The paper examines the conceptual aspects of ozone flux measurement and modelling in agricultural and ecological research. The ozone flux paradigm is conceptualized into a toxicological frame and faced at two different scales: leaf/shoot and canopy scales. Leaf and shoot scale flux measurements require gas-exchange enclosure techniques, while canopy scale flux measurements need a micrometeorological approach including techniques such as eddy covariance and the aerodynamical gradient. At both scales, not all the measured ozone flux is stomatal flux. In fact, a not negligible amount of ozone is destroyed on external plant surfaces, like leaf cuticles, or by gas phase reaction with biogenic volatile compounds. The stomatal portion of flux can be calculated from concurrent measurements of water vapour fluxes at both scales. Canopy level flux measurements require very fast sensors and the fulfilment of many conditions to ensure that the measurements made above the canopy really reflect the canopy fluxes (constant flux hypothesis. Again, adjustments are necessary in order to correct for air density fluctuations and sensor-surface alignment break. As far as regards flux modelling, at leaf level the stomatal flux is simply obtained by multiplying the ozone concentration on the leaf with the stomatal conductance predicted by means of physiological models fed by meteorological parameter. At canopy level the stomatal flux is

  13. Ozone Flux Measurement and Modelling on Leaf/Shoot and Canopy Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludger Grünhage

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The quantitative study of the ozone effects on agricultural and forest vegetation requires the knowledge of the pollutant dose absorbed by plants via leaf stomata, i.e. the stomatal flux. Nevertheless, the toxicologically effective dose can differ from the stomatal flux because a pool of scavenging and detoxification processes reduce the amount of pollutant responsible of the expression of the harmful effects. The measurement of the stomatal flux is not immediate and the quantification of the effective dose is still troublesome. The paper examines the conceptual aspects of ozone flux measurement and modelling in agricultural and ecological research. The ozone flux paradigm is conceptualized into a toxicological frame and faced at two different scales: leaf/shoot and canopy scales. Leaf and shoot scale flux measurements require gas-exchange enclosure techniques, while canopy scale flux measurements need a micrometeorological approach including techniques such as eddy covariance and the aerodynamical gradient. At both scales, not all the measured ozone flux is stomatal flux. In fact, a not negligible amount of ozone is destroyed on external plant surfaces, like leaf cuticles, or by gas phase reaction with biogenic volatile compounds. The stomatal portion of flux can be calculated from concurrent measurements of water vapour fluxes at both scales. Canopy level flux measurements require very fast sensors and the fulfilment of many conditions to ensure that the measurements made above the canopy really reflect the canopy fluxes (constant flux hypothesis. Again, adjustments are necessary in order to correct for air density fluctuations and sensor-surface alignment break. As far as regards flux modelling, at leaf level the stomatal flux is simply obtained by multiplying the ozone concentration on the leaf with the stomatal conductance predicted by means of physiological models fed by meteorological parameter. At canopy level the stomatal flux is

  14. Light flux density threshold at which protein denaturation is induced by synchrotron radiation circular dichroism beamlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, A J; Janes, Robert W; Brown, A; Clarke, D T; Sutherland, J C; Tao, Y; Wallace, B A; Hoffmann, S V

    2008-07-01

    New high-flux synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD) beamlines are providing important information for structural biology, but can potentially cause denaturation of the protein samples under investigation. This effect has been studied at the new CD1 dedicated SRCD beamline at ISA in Denmark, where radiation-induced thermal damage effects were observed, depending not only on the radiation flux but also on the focal spot size of the light. Comparisons with similar studies at other SRCD facilities worldwide has lead to the estimation of a flux density threshold under which SRCD beamlines should be operated when samples are to be exposed to low-wavelength vacuum ultraviolet radiation for extended periods of time.

  15. PERFORMANCE OPTIMIZATION OF LINEAR INDUCTION MOTOR BY EDDY CURRENT AND FLUX DENSITY DISTRIBUTION ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. MANNA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of electromagnetic devices as machines, transformers, heating devices confronts the engineers with several problems. For the design of an optimized geometry and the prediction of the operational behaviour an accurate knowledge of the dependencies of the field quantities inside the magnetic circuits is necessary. This paper provides the eddy current and core flux density distribution analysis in linear induction motor. Magnetic flux in the air gap of the Linear Induction Motor (LIM is reduced to various losses such as end effects, fringes, effect, skin effects etc. The finite element based software package COMSOL Multiphysics Inc. USA is used to get the reliable and accurate computational results for optimization the performance of Linear Induction Motor (LIM. The geometrical characteristics of LIM are varied to find the optimal point of thrust and minimum flux leakage during static and dynamic conditions.

  16. Model comparison for the density structure along solar prominence threads

    CERN Document Server

    Arregui, I

    2015-01-01

    Quiescent solar prominence fine structures are typically modelled as density enhancements, called threads, which occupy a fraction of a longer magnetic flux tube. The profile of the mass density along the magnetic field is however unknown and several arbitrary alternatives are employed in prominence wave studies. We present a comparison of theoretical models for the field-aligned density along prominence fine structures. We consider Lorentzian, Gaussian, and parabolic profiles. We compare their theoretical predictions for the period ratio between the fundamental transverse kink mode and the first overtone to obtain estimates for the ratio of densities between the central part of the tube and its foot-points and to assess which one would better explain observed period ratio data. Bayesian parameter inference and model comparison techniques are developed and applied. Parameter inference requires the computation of the posterior distribution for the density gradient parameter conditional on the observable period...

  17. Information for seasonal models of carbon fluxes in agroecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, A.W.; DeAngelis, D.L.

    1987-04-01

    This report is a compilation of information useful for constructing regionally differentiated models of seasonal carbon fluxes in the terrestrial biosphere. Two classes of information are presented. First, extant agroecosystem models that simulate the flux of carbon in a stand or whole field are reviewed. Second, empirical data on seasonal carbon fluxes are compiled. These reviews and compilations are extensive, but not exhaustive. No attempt is made to evaluate the usefulness of seasonal models and data.

  18. An Accurate Flux Density Scale from 50 MHz to 50 GHz

    CERN Document Server

    Perley, R A

    2016-01-01

    The flux density scale of Perley and Butler (2013) is extended downwards to ~50 MHz by utilizing recent observations with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) of 20 sources between 220 MHz and 48.1 GHz, and legacy VLA observations at 73.8 MHz. The derived spectral flux densities are placed on an absolute scale by utilizing the Baars et al. (1977) values of Cygnus A (3C405) for frequencies below 2 GHz, and the Mars-based polynomials for 3C286, 3C295, and 3C196 from Perley and Butler (2013) above 2 GHz. Polynomial expressions are presented for all 20 sources, with accuracy limited by the primary standards to 3 -- 5% over the entire frequency range. Corrections to the scales proposed by Perley and Butler (2013) and by Scaife and Heald (2012) are given.

  19. Leaf photosynthetic and solar-tracking responses of mallow, Malva parviflora, to photon flux density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Dennis H; Thorpe, Michael R

    2009-10-01

    Malva parviflora L. (mallow) is a species that occupies high-light habitats as a weedy invader in orchards and vineyards. Species of the Malvaceae are known to solar track and anecdotal evidence suggests this species may also. How M. parviflora responds physiologically to light in comparison with other species within the Malvaceae remains unknown. Tracking and photosynthetic responses to photon flux density (PFD) were evaluated on plants grown in greenhouse conditions. Tracking ability was assessed in the growth conditions and by exposing leaves to specific light intensities and measuring changes in the angle of the leaf plane. Light responses were also determined by photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence. Leaves followed a heliotropic response which was highly PFD-dependent, with tracking rates increasing in a curvilinear pattern. Maximum tracking rates were up to 20 degrees h(-1) and saturated for light above 1,300 micromol (photons) m(-2) s(-1). This high-light saturation, both for tracking (much higher than the other species), and for photosynthesis, confirmed mallow as a high-light demanding species. Further, because there was no photoinhibition, the leaves could capture the potential of an increased carbon gain in higher irradiance by resorting to solar tracking. Modelling suggested the tracking response could increase the annual carbon gain by as much as 25% compared with leaves that do not track the sun. The various leaf attributes associated with solar tracking, therefore, help to account for the success of this species as a weed in many locations worldwide.

  20. Critical state model with anisotropic critical current density

    CERN Document Server

    Bhagwat, K V; Ravikumar, G

    2003-01-01

    Analytical solutions of Bean's critical state model with critical current density J sub c being anisotropic are obtained for superconducting cylindrical samples of arbitrary cross section in a parallel geometry. We present a method for calculating the flux fronts and magnetization curves. Results are presented for cylinders with elliptical cross section with a specific form of the anisotropy. We find that over a certain range of the anisotropy parameter the flux fronts have shapes similar to those for an isotropic sample. However, in general, the presence of anisotropy significantly modifies the shape of the flux fronts. The field for full flux penetration also depends on the anisotropy parameter. The method is extended to the case of anisotropic J sub c that also depends on the local field B, and magnetization hysteresis curves are presented for typical values of the anisotropy parameter for the case of |J sub c | that decreases exponentially with |B|.

  1. Validation of transport models using additive flux minimization technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pankin, A. Y.; Kruger, S. E. [Tech-X Corporation, 5621 Arapahoe Ave., Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Groebner, R. J. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92121 (United States); Hakim, A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States); Kritz, A. H.; Rafiq, T. [Department of Physics, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    A new additive flux minimization technique is proposed for carrying out the verification and validation (V and V) of anomalous transport models. In this approach, the plasma profiles are computed in time dependent predictive simulations in which an additional effective diffusivity is varied. The goal is to obtain an optimal match between the computed and experimental profile. This new technique has several advantages over traditional V and V methods for transport models in tokamaks and takes advantage of uncertainty quantification methods developed by the applied math community. As a demonstration of its efficiency, the technique is applied to the hypothesis that the paleoclassical density transport dominates in the plasma edge region in DIII-D tokamak discharges. A simplified version of the paleoclassical model that utilizes the Spitzer resistivity for the parallel neoclassical resistivity and neglects the trapped particle effects is tested in this paper. It is shown that a contribution to density transport, in addition to the paleoclassical density transport, is needed in order to describe the experimental profiles. It is found that more additional diffusivity is needed at the top of the H-mode pedestal, and almost no additional diffusivity is needed at the pedestal bottom. The implementation of this V and V technique uses the FACETS::Core transport solver and the DAKOTA toolkit for design optimization and uncertainty quantification. The FACETS::Core solver is used for advancing the plasma density profiles. The DAKOTA toolkit is used for the optimization of plasma profiles and the computation of the additional diffusivity that is required for the predicted density profile to match the experimental profile.

  2. Correlation between the Flux Density and Polarization for Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fei-Peng Pi; Yong-Xiang Wang; Jing Pan

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, using the preliminary database of the University of Michigan Radio Astronomy Observatory (UMRAO) at the radio frequencies, we calculated the weighted polarization at 8 GHz and investigated the correlation between the polarization and the flux density for 92 flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs). We found that the two observations are closely and positively correlated for FSRQs. This is perhaps from a relativistic beaming effect.

  3. Energy Flux and Density of Nonuniform Electromagnetic Waves with Total Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, N. S.

    2014-07-01

    Analytic expressions are obtained for the energy flux and density of refracted nonuniform waves produced during total reflection at the boundary between two isotropic media for the general case of elliptically polarized incident light. The average values are determined as functions of the parameters of the adjoining media and the angle of incidence. The cases of linearly and circularly polarized incident waves are examined in detail. An explicit general expression relating the energy fl ux and density of these waves for arbitrarily polarized incident light is obtained.

  4. A LOFAR census of non-recycled pulsars: average profiles, dispersion measures, flux densities, and spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Bilous, A; Kramer, M; Keane, E; Hessels, J; Stappers, B; Malofeev, V; Sobey, C; Breton, R; Cooper, S; Falcke, H; Karastergiou, A; Michilli, D; Osłowski, S; Sanidas, S; ter Veen, S; van Leeuwen, J; Verbiest, J; Weltevrede, P; Zarka, P; Grießmeier, J -M; Serylak, M; Bell, M; Broderick, J; Eislöffel, J; Markoff, S; Rowlinson, A

    2015-01-01

    We present first results from a LOFAR census of non-recycled pulsars. The census includes almost all such pulsars known (194 sources) at declinations Dec$> 8^\\circ$ and Galactic latitudes |Gb|$> 3^\\circ$, regardless of their expected flux densities and scattering times. Each pulsar was observed contiguously in the frequency range from 110$-$188 MHz and for $\\geq 20$ minutes, recording full-Stokes data. We present the dispersion measures, flux densities, and calibrated total intensity profiles for the 158 pulsars detected in the sample. The median uncertainty in census dispersion measures ($1.5 \\times 10^{-4}$ pc cm$^{-3}$) is ten times smaller, on average, than in the ATNF pulsar catalogue. We combined census flux densities with those in the literature and fitted the resulting broadband spectra with single or broken power-law functions. For 48 census pulsars such fits are being published for the first time. Typically, the choice between single and broken power-laws, as well as the location of the spectral bre...

  5. Seasonality of Overstory and Understory Fluxes in a Semi-Arid Oak Savanna: What can be Learned from Comparing Measured and Modeled Fluxes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz-Yaseef, N.; Sonnentag, O.; Kobayashi, H.; Chen, J. M.; Verfaillie, J. G.; Ma, S.; Baldocchi, D. D.

    2011-12-01

    Semi-arid climates experience large seasonal and inter-annual variability in radiation and precipitation, creating natural conditions adequate to study how year-to-year changes affect atmosphere-biosphere fluxes. Especially, savanna ecosystems, that combine tree and below-canopy components, create a unique environment in which phenology dramatically changes between seasons. We used a 10-year flux database in order to define seasonal and interannual variability of climatic inputs and fluxes, and evaluate model capability to reproduce observed variability. This is based on the perception that model capability to construct the deviation, and not the average, is important in order to correctly predict ecosystem sensitivity to climate change. Our research site is a low density and low LAI (0.8) semi-arid savanna, located at Tonzi Ranch, Northern California. In this system, trees are active during the warm season (Mar - Oct), and grasses are active during the wet season (Dec - May). Measurements of carbon and water fluxes above and below the tree canopy using eddy covariance and supplementary measurements have been made since 2001. Fluxes were simulated using bio-meteorological process-oriented ecosystem models: BEPS and 3D-CAONAK. Models were partly capable of reproducing fluxes on daily scales (R2=0.66). We then compared model outputs for different ecosystem components and seasons, and found distinct seasons with high correlations while other seasons were purely represented. Comparison was much higher for ET than for GPP. The understory was better simulated than the overstory. CANOAK overestimated spring understory fluxes, probably due to the capability to directly calculated 3D radiative transfer. BEPS underestimated spring understory fluxes, following the pre-description of grass die-off. Both models underestimated peak spring overstory fluxes. During winter tree dormant, modeled fluxes were null, but occasional high fluxes of both ET and GPP were measured following

  6. Fast modeling of flux trapping cascaded explosively driven magnetic flux compression generators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuwei; Zhang, Jiande; Chen, Dongqun; Cao, Shengguang; Li, Da; Liu, Chebo

    2013-01-01

    To predict the performance of flux trapping cascaded flux compression generators, a calculation model based on an equivalent circuit is investigated. The system circuit is analyzed according to its operation characteristics in different steps. Flux conservation coefficients are added to the driving terms of circuit differential equations to account for intrinsic flux losses. To calculate the currents in the circuit by solving the circuit equations, a simple zero-dimensional model is used to calculate the time-varying inductance and dc resistance of the generator. Then a fast computer code is programmed based on this calculation model. As an example, a two-staged flux trapping generator is simulated by using this computer code. Good agreements are achieved by comparing the simulation results with the measurements. Furthermore, it is obvious that this fast calculation model can be easily applied to predict performances of other flux trapping cascaded flux compression generators with complex structures such as conical stator or conical armature sections and so on for design purpose.

  7. Coupled-channels quantum theory of electronic flux density in electronically adiabatic processes: fundamentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diestler, D J

    2012-03-22

    The Born-Oppenheimer (BO) description of electronically adiabatic molecular processes predicts a vanishing electronic flux density (j(e)), =1/2∫dR[Δ(b) (x;R) - Δ(a) (x;R)] even though the electrons certainly move in response to the movement of the nuclei. This article, the first of a pair, proposes a quantum-mechanical "coupled-channels" (CC) theory that allows the approximate extraction of j(e) from the electronically adiabatic BO wave function . The CC theory is detailed for H(2)(+), in which case j(e) can be resolved into components associated with two channels α (=a,b), each of which corresponds to the "collision" of an "internal" atom α (proton a or b plus electron) with the other nucleus β (proton b or a). The dynamical role of the electron, which accommodates itself instantaneously to the motion of the nuclei, is submerged in effective electronic probability (population) densities, Δ(α), associated with each channel (α). The Δ(α) densities are determined by the (time-independent) BO electronic energy eigenfunction, which depends parametrically on the configuration of the nuclei, the motion of which is governed by the usual BO nuclear Schrödinger equation. Intuitively appealing formal expressions for the electronic flux density are derived for H(2)(+).

  8. RHOCUBE: 3D density distributions modeling code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikutta, Robert; Agliozzo, Claudia

    2016-11-01

    RHOCUBE models 3D density distributions on a discrete Cartesian grid and their integrated 2D maps. It can be used for a range of applications, including modeling the electron number density in LBV shells and computing the emission measure. The RHOCUBE Python package provides several 3D density distributions, including a powerlaw shell, truncated Gaussian shell, constant-density torus, dual cones, and spiralling helical tubes, and can accept additional distributions. RHOCUBE provides convenient methods for shifts and rotations in 3D, and if necessary, an arbitrary number of density distributions can be combined into the same model cube and the integration ∫ dz performed through the joint density field.

  9. A Comparison Between Gravity Wave Momentum Fluxes in Observations and Climate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Marvin A.; Alexadner, M. Joan; Love, Peter T.; Bacmeister, Julio; Ern, Manfred; Hertzog, Albert; Manzini, Elisa; Preusse, Peter; Sato, Kaoru; Scaife, Adam A.; hide

    2013-01-01

    For the first time, a formal comparison is made between gravity wave momentum fluxes in models and those derived from observations. Although gravity waves occur over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, the focus of this paper is on scales that are being parameterized in present climate models, sub-1000-km scales. Only observational methods that permit derivation of gravity wave momentum fluxes over large geographical areas are discussed, and these are from satellite temperature measurements, constant-density long-duration balloons, and high-vertical-resolution radiosonde data. The models discussed include two high-resolution models in which gravity waves are explicitly modeled, Kanto and the Community Atmosphere Model, version 5 (CAM5), and three climate models containing gravity wave parameterizations,MAECHAM5, Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model 3 (HadGEM3), and the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) model. Measurements generally show similar flux magnitudes as in models, except that the fluxes derived from satellite measurements fall off more rapidly with height. This is likely due to limitations on the observable range of wavelengths, although other factors may contribute. When one accounts for this more rapid fall off, the geographical distribution of the fluxes from observations and models compare reasonably well, except for certain features that depend on the specification of the nonorographic gravity wave source functions in the climate models. For instance, both the observed fluxes and those in the high-resolution models are very small at summer high latitudes, but this is not the case for some of the climate models. This comparison between gravity wave fluxes from climate models, high-resolution models, and fluxes derived from observations indicates that such efforts offer a promising path toward improving specifications of gravity wave sources in climate models.

  10. Improving sap flux density measurements by correctly determining thermal diffusivity, differentiating between bound and unbound water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandegehuchte, Maurits W; Steppe, Kathy

    2012-07-01

    Several heat-based sap flow methods, such as the heat field deformation method and the heat ratio method, include the thermal diffusivity D of the sapwood as a crucial parameter. Despite its importance, little attention has been paid to determine D in a plant physiological context. Therefore, D is mostly set as a constant, calculated during zero flow conditions or from a method of mixtures, taking into account wood density and moisture content. In this latter method, however, the meaning of the moisture content is misinterpreted, making it theoretically incorrect for D calculations in sapwood. A correction to this method, which includes the correct application of the moisture content, is proposed. This correction was tested for European and American beech and Eucalyptus caliginosa Blakely & McKie. Depending on the dry wood density and moisture content, the original approach over- or underestimates D and, hence, sap flux density by 10% and more.

  11. Long-term Longitudinal Recurrences of the Open Magnetic Flux Density in the Heliosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dósa, M.; Erdős, G.

    2017-04-01

    Open magnetic flux in the heliosphere is determined from the radial component of the magnetic field vector measured onboard interplanetary space probes. Previous Ulysses research has shown remarkable independence of the flux density from heliographic latitude, explained by super-radial expansion of plasma. Here we are investigating whether any longitudinal variation exists in the 50 year long OMNI magnetic data set. The heliographic longitude of origin of the plasma package was determined by applying a correction according to the solar wind travel time. Significant recurrent enhancements of the magnetic flux density were observed throughout solar cycle 23, lasting for several years. Similar, long-lasting recurring features were observed in the solar wind velocity, temperature and the deviation angle of the solar wind velocity vector from the radial direction. Each of the recurrent features has a recurrence period slightly differing from the Carrington rotation rate, although they show a common trend in time. Examining the coronal temperature data of ACE leads to the possible explanation that these long-term structures are caused by slow–fast solar wind interaction regions. A comparison with MESSENGER data measured at 0.5 au shows that these longitudinal magnetic modulations do not exist closer to the Sun, but are the result of propagation.

  12. A high-resolution optical measurement system for rapid acquisition of radiation flux density maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Martin; Raeder, Christian; Willsch, Christian; Dibowski, Gerd

    2017-06-01

    To identify the power and flux density of concentrated solar radiation the Institute of Solar Research at the German Aerospace Center (DLR - Deutsches Zentrum für Luft-und Raumfahrt e. V.) has used the camera-based measurement system FATMES (Flux and Temperature Measurement System) since 1995. The disadvantages of low resolution, difficult handling and poor computing power required a revision of the existing measurement system. The measurement system FMAS (Flux Mapping Acquisition system) is equipped with state-of-the-art-hardware, is compatible with computers off-the-shelf and is programmed in LabView. The expenditure of time for an image evaluation is reduced by the factor 60 compared to FATMES. The new measurement system is no longer associated with the facilities Solar Furnace and High Flux Solar Simulator at the DLR in Cologne but is also applicable as a mobile system. The data and the algorithms are transparent throughout the complete process. The measurement accuracy of FMAS is determined to at most ±3 % until now. The error of measurement of FATMES is at least 2 % higher according to the conducted comparison tests.

  13. A New Hybrid Model Rotor Flux Observer and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A new hybrid model rotor flux observer, based on a new voltage model, is presented. In the first place, the voltage model of an induction machine was constructed by using the modeling method discussed in this paper and then the current model using a flux feedback was adopted in this flux observer. Secondly, the two models were combined via a filter and then the rotor flux observer was established. In the M-T synchronous coordinate, the observer was analyzed theoretically and several important functions were derived. A comparison between the observer and the traditional models was made using Matlab software. The simulation results show that the observer model had a better performance than the traditional model.

  14. OpenFLUX: efficient modelling software for 13C-based metabolic flux analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen Lars K; Wittmann Christoph; Quek Lake-Ee; Krömer Jens O

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The quantitative analysis of metabolic fluxes, i.e., in vivo activities of intracellular enzymes and pathways, provides key information on biological systems in systems biology and metabolic engineering. It is based on a comprehensive approach combining (i) tracer cultivation on 13C substrates, (ii) 13C labelling analysis by mass spectrometry and (iii) mathematical modelling for experimental design, data processing, flux calculation and statistics. Whereas the cultivation ...

  15. Solar Modulation of Inner Trapped Belt Radiation Flux as a Function of Atmospheric Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodhi, M. A. K.

    2005-01-01

    No simple algorithm seems to exist for calculating proton fluxes and lifetimes in the Earth's inner, trapped radiation belt throughout the solar cycle. Most models of the inner trapped belt in use depend upon AP8 which only describes the radiation environment at solar maximum and solar minimum in Cycle 20. One exception is NOAAPRO which incorporates flight data from the TIROS/NOAA polar orbiting spacecraft. The present study discloses yet another, simple formulation for approximating proton fluxes at any time in a given solar cycle, in particular between solar maximum and solar minimum. It is derived from AP8 using a regression algorithm technique from nuclear physics. From flux and its time integral fluence, one can then approximate dose rate and its time integral dose.

  16. Sensing magnetic flux density of artificial neurons with a MEMS device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Jesus A; Herrera-May, Agustin L; García-Ramírez, Pedro J; Martinez-Castillo, Jaime; Figueras, Eduard; Flores, Amira; Manjarrez, Elías

    2011-04-01

    We describe a simple procedure to characterize a magnetic field sensor based on microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology, which exploits the Lorentz force principle. This sensor is designed to detect, in future applications, the spiking activity of neurons or muscle cells. This procedure is based on the well-known capability that a magnetic MEMS device can be used to sense a small magnetic flux density. In this work, an electronic neuron (FitzHugh-Nagumo) is used to generate controlled spike-like magnetic fields. We show that the magnetic flux density generated by the hardware of this neuron can be detected with a new MEMS magnetic field sensor. This microdevice has a compact resonant structure (700 × 600 × 5 μm) integrated by an array of silicon beams and p-type piezoresistive sensing elements, which need an easy fabrication process. The proposed microsensor has a resolution of 80 nT, a sensitivity of 1.2 V.T(-1), a resonant frequency of 13.87 kHz, low power consumption (2.05 mW), quality factor of 93 at atmospheric pressure, and requires a simple signal processing circuit. The importance of our study is twofold. First, because the artificial neuron can generate well-controlled magnetic flux density, we suggest it could be used to analyze the resolution and performance of different magnetic field sensors intended for neurobiological applications. Second, the introduced MEMS magnetic field sensor may be used as a prototype to develop new high-resolution biomedical microdevices to sense magnetic fields from cardiac tissue, nerves, spinal cord, or the brain.

  17. Inverse modeling of the terrestrial carbon flux in China with flux covariance among inverted regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Jiang, F.; Chen, J. M.; Ju, W.; Wang, H.

    2011-12-01

    Quantitative understanding of the role of ocean and terrestrial biosphere in the global carbon cycle, their response and feedback to climate change is required for the future projection of the global climate. China has the largest amount of anthropogenic CO2 emission, diverse terrestrial ecosystems and an unprecedented rate of urbanization. Thus information on spatial and temporal distributions of the terrestrial carbon flux in China is of great importance in understanding the global carbon cycle. We developed a nested inversion with focus in China. Based on Transcom 22 regions for the globe, we divide China and its neighboring countries into 17 regions, making 39 regions in total for the globe. A Bayesian synthesis inversion is made to estimate the terrestrial carbon flux based on GlobalView CO2 data. In the inversion, GEOS-Chem is used as the transport model to develop the transport matrix. A terrestrial ecosystem model named BEPS is used to produce the prior surface flux to constrain the inversion. However, the sparseness of available observation stations in Asia poses a challenge to the inversion for the 17 small regions. To obtain additional constraint on the inversion, a prior flux covariance matrix is constructed using the BEPS model through analyzing the correlation in the net carbon flux among regions under variable climate conditions. The use of the covariance among different regions in the inversion effectively extends the information content of CO2 observations to more regions. The carbon flux over the 39 land and ocean regions are inverted for the period from 2004 to 2009. In order to investigate the impact of introducing the covariance matrix with non-zero off-diagonal values to the inversion, the inverted terrestrial carbon flux over China is evaluated against ChinaFlux eddy-covariance observations after applying an upscaling methodology.

  18. A turnkey data logger program for field-scale energy flux density measurements using eddy covariance and surface renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micrometeorological methods and ecosystem-scale energy and mass flux density measurements have become increasingly important in soil, agricultural, and environmental sciences. For many scientists without formal training in atmospheric science, these techniques are relatively inaccessible. Eddy cov...

  19. Energy flux density and angular momentum density of Pearcey-Gauss vortex beams in the far field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, K.; Lu, G.; Zhong, X.

    2017-02-01

    The longitudinal and transverse energy flux density (EFD) and angular momentum density (AMD) of a Pearcey-Gauss vortex beam in the far field are studied using the vector angular spectrum representation and stationary phase method, where the influence of topological charge, noncanonical strength and off-axis distance of the embedded optical vortex on far-field vectorial structures of the corresponding beam is emphasized. For comparison, the EFD and AMD of the Pearcey-Gauss beam with non-vortex in the far field are also discussed. The results show that the longitudinal EFDs of the Pearcey-Gauss vortex beam exhibit parabolic patterns, and the number of parabolic dark zones equals the absolute value of topological charge of the embedded optical vortex in the input plane. While for the Pearcey-Gauss beam, the dark zones are not found owing to the non-vortex in the input plane. The motion of zero-intensity spot of whole beam appears by varying the off-axis distance. Noncanonical strength and off-axis distance both can adjust the magnitudes and directions of transverse EFD and control the spatial energy distributions of longitudinal EFD, but not change the net AMD.

  20. Poynting Flux-Conserving Boundary Conditions for Global MHD Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, S.; Lotko, W.; Zhang, B.; Brambles, O.; Lyon, J.; Merkin, V. G.; Wiltberger, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    Poynting Flux-conserving boundary conditions that conserve low-frequency, magnetic field-aligned, electromagnetic energy flux across the low-altitude (or inner) boundary in global magnetospheric magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) models is presented. This method involves the mapping of both the potential from the ionosphere and the perpendicular magnetic field from the inner magnetosphere to the ghost cells of the computational domain. The single fluid Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) model is used to verify this method. The comparisons of simulations using the standard hardwall boundary conditions of the LFM model and the flux-conserving boundary conditions show that the method reported here improves the transparency of the boundary for the flow of low-frequency (essentially DC) electromagnetic energy flux along field lines. As a consequence, the field-aligned DC Poynting flux just above the boundary is very nearly equal to the ionospheric Joule heating, as it should be if electromagnetic energy is conserved.

  1. Gaussian mixture models as flux prediction method for central receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobler, Annemarie; Gauché, Paul; Smit, Willie

    2016-05-01

    Flux prediction methods are crucial to the design and operation of central receiver systems. Current methods such as the circular and elliptical (bivariate) Gaussian prediction methods are often used in field layout design and aiming strategies. For experimental or small central receiver systems, the flux profile of a single heliostat often deviates significantly from the circular and elliptical Gaussian models. Therefore a novel method of flux prediction was developed by incorporating the fitting of Gaussian mixture models onto flux profiles produced by flux measurement or ray tracing. A method was also developed to predict the Gaussian mixture model parameters of a single heliostat for a given time using image processing. Recording the predicted parameters in a database ensures that more accurate predictions are made in a shorter time frame.

  2. (Hybrid) Baryons in the Flux-Tube Model

    CERN Document Server

    Page, P R

    1999-01-01

    We construct baryons and hybrid baryons in the non-relativistic flux-tube model of Isgur and Paton. The motion of the flux-tube with the three quark positions fixed, except for centre of mass corrections, is discussed. It is shown that the problem can to an excellent approximation be reduced to the independent motion of a junction and strings.

  3. Temperature and Magnetic Field Dependence of Critical Current Density of YBCO with Varying Flux Pinning Additions (POSTPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    AFRL-RZ-WP-TP-2010-2083 TEMPERATURE AND MAGNETIC FIELD DEPENDENCE OF CRITICAL CURRENT DENSITY OF YBCO WITH VARYING FLUX PINNING ADDITIONS...MAGNETIC FIELD DEPENDENCE OF CRITICAL CURRENT DENSITY OF YBCO WITH VARYING FLUX PINNING ADDITIONS (POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house 5b...20 ‒ 77 K. Films were prepared with pulsed laser deposition by (M/ YBCO )N multilayer or ( YBCO )1-x Mx single-target methods, for different M phases

  4. Model comparison for the density structure along solar prominence threads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arregui, I.; Soler, R.

    2015-06-01

    Context. Quiescent solar prominence fine structures are typically modelled as density enhancements, called threads, which occupy a fraction of a longer magnetic flux tube. This is justified from the spatial distribution of the imaged plasma emission or absorption of prominences at small spatial scales. The profile of the mass density along the magnetic field is unknown, however, and several arbitrary alternatives are employed in prominence wave studies. The identification and measurement of period ratios from multiple harmonics in standing transverse thread oscillations offer a remote diagnostics method to probe the density variation of these structures. Aims: We present a comparison of theoretical models for the field-aligned density along prominence fine structures. They aim to imitate density distributions in which the plasma is more or less concentrated around the centre of the magnetic flux tube. We consider Lorentzian, Gaussian, and parabolic profiles. We compare theoretical predictions based on these profiles for the period ratio between the fundamental transverse kink mode and the first overtone to obtain estimates for the density ratios between the central part of the tube and its foot-points and to assess which one would better explain observed period ratio data. Methods: Bayesian parameter inference and model comparison techniques were developed and applied. To infer the parameters, we computed the posterior distribution for the density gradient parameter that depends on the observable period ratio. The model comparison involved computing the marginal likelihood as a function of the period ratio to obtain the plausibility of each density model as a function of the observable. We also computed the Bayes factors to quantify the relative evidence for each model, given a period ratio observation. Results: A Lorentzian density profile, with plasma density concentrated around the centre of the tube, seems to offer the most plausible inversion result. A

  5. Modeling Lactococcus lactis using a genome-scale flux model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nielsen Jens

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-scale flux models are useful tools to represent and analyze microbial metabolism. In this work we reconstructed the metabolic network of the lactic acid bacteria Lactococcus lactis and developed a genome-scale flux model able to simulate and analyze network capabilities and whole-cell function under aerobic and anaerobic continuous cultures. Flux balance analysis (FBA and minimization of metabolic adjustment (MOMA were used as modeling frameworks. Results The metabolic network was reconstructed using the annotated genome sequence from L. lactis ssp. lactis IL1403 together with physiological and biochemical information. The established network comprised a total of 621 reactions and 509 metabolites, representing the overall metabolism of L. lactis. Experimental data reported in the literature was used to fit the model to phenotypic observations. Regulatory constraints had to be included to simulate certain metabolic features, such as the shift from homo to heterolactic fermentation. A minimal medium for in silico growth was identified, indicating the requirement of four amino acids in addition to a sugar. Remarkably, de novo biosynthesis of four other amino acids was observed even when all amino acids were supplied, which is in good agreement with experimental observations. Additionally, enhanced metabolic engineering strategies for improved diacetyl producing strains were designed. Conclusion The L. lactis metabolic network can now be used for a better understanding of lactococcal metabolic capabilities and potential, for the design of enhanced metabolic engineering strategies and for integration with other types of 'omic' data, to assist in finding new information on cellular organization and function.

  6. Sapflow+: a four-needle heat-pulse sap flow sensor enabling nonempirical sap flux density and water content measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandegehuchte, Maurits W; Steppe, Kathy

    2012-10-01

    • To our knowledge, to date, no nonempirical method exists to measure reverse, low or high sap flux density. Moreover, existing sap flow methods require destructive wood core measurements to determine sapwood water content, necessary to convert heat velocity to sap flux density, not only damaging the tree, but also neglecting seasonal variability in sapwood water content. • Here, we present a nonempirical heat-pulse-based method and coupled sensor which measure temperature changes around a linear heater in both axial and tangential directions after application of a heat pulse. By fitting the correct heat conduction-convection equation to the measured temperature profiles, the heat velocity and water content of the sapwood can be determined. • An identifiability analysis and validation tests on artificial and real stem segments of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) confirm the applicability of the method, leading to accurate determinations of heat velocity, water content and hence sap flux density. • The proposed method enables sap flux density measurements to be made across the entire natural occurring sap flux density range of woody plants. Moreover, the water content during low flows can be determined accurately, enabling a correct conversion from heat velocity to sap flux density without destructive core measurements. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. Spin-flux phase in the Kondo lattice model with classical localized spins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agterberg, DF; Yunoki, S

    2000-01-01

    We provide numerical evidence that a spin-flux phase exists as a ground state of the Kondo lattice model with classical local spins on a square lattice. This state manifests itself as a double-e magnetic order in the classical spins with spin density at both (0, pi) and (pi ,0) and further exhibits

  8. Computation of the electronic flux density in the Born-Oppenheimer approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diestler, D J; Kenfack, A; Manz, J; Paulus, B; Pérez-Torres, J F; Pohl, V

    2013-09-12

    A molecule in the electronic ground state described in the Born–Oppenheimer approximation (BOA) by the wave function ΨBO = Φ0χ0 (where Φ0 is the time-independent electronic energy eigenfunction and χ0 is a time-dependent nuclear wave packet) exhibits a nonzero nuclear flux density, whereas it always displays zero electronic flux density (EFD), because the electrons are in a stationary state. A hierarchical approach to the computation of the EFD within the context of the BOA, which utilizes only standard techniques of quantum chemistry (to obtain Φ0) and quantum dynamics (to describe the evolution of χ0 on the ground-state potential energy surface), provides a resolution of this puzzling, nonintuitive result. The procedure is applied to H2(+) oriented parallel with the z-axis and vibrating in the ground state (2)Σg(+). First, Φ0 and χ0 are combined by the coupled-channels technique to give the normally dominant z-component of the EFD. Imposition of the constraints of electronic continuity, cylindrical symmetry of Φ0 and two boundary conditions on the EFD through a scaling procedure yields an improved z-component, which is then used to compute the complementary orthogonal ρ-component. The resulting EFD agrees with its highly accurate counterpart furnished by a non-BOA treatment of the system.

  9. Microsystem for remote sensing of high energy radiation with associated extremely low photon flux densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, A.; Jain, V. K.

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a microsystem for remote sensing of high energy radiation in extremely low flux density conditions. With wide deployment in mind, potential applications range from nuclear non-proliferation, to hospital radiation-safety. The daunting challenge is the low level of photon flux densities - emerging from a Scintillation Crystal (SC) on to a ~1 mm-square detector, which are a factor of 10000 or so lower than those acceptable to recently reported photonic chips (including `single-photon detection' chips), due to a combination of low Lux, small detector size, and short duration SC output pulses - on the order of 1 μs. These challenges are attempted to be overcome by the design of an innovative `System on a Chip' type microchip, with high detector sensitivity, and effective coupling from the SC to the photodetector. The microchip houses a tiny n+ diff p-epi photodiode (PD) as well as the associated analog amplification and other related circuitry, all fabricated in 0.5micron, 3-metal 2-poly CMOS technology. The amplification, together with pulse-shaping of the photocurrent-induced voltage signal, is achieved through a tandem of two capacitively coupled, double-cascode amplifiers. Included in the paper are theoretical estimates and experimental results.

  10. Modeling fluxes and form in landslide-prone terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roering, J. J.; Booth, A. M.; Stock, J. D.

    2011-12-01

    Landslides dramatically alter the Earth's surface over short timescales. The mass transfer associated with a limited number of slope failures can dominate the sediment budget of a region for decades or longer. The initiation, failure geometry, and runout of individual landslides depend on a range of factors and cannot be predicted from current models. Given these realities of landslide behavior over human timescales, it is challenging to reasonably represent these processes in landscape evolution models. Here, we evaluate the ability of two landslide models, both of which are formulated to apply at geomorphic timescales, to generate topographic patterns and sediment flux rates observed in natural landscapes. Episodic debris flow activity is ubiquitous in steep, low-order mountainous catchments and generates valley networks with low concavity. A physically-based model for debris flow incision (Stock and Dietrich, GSA Bull, 2006) proposes that incision rates depend on the frequency, volume, and velocity of debris flows as well as the density of trigger sites and the state of bedrock weathering in low-order valleys. Valley slope angles are predicted to decline with drainage area according to how these properties vary spatially. We calibrated the model for a well-studied small catchment in the Oregon Coast Range using cosmogenic radionuclide erosion rates and then analyzed the slope-area signature of low-order valleys across much of the Central Oregon Coast Range to explore spatial variations in baselevel lowering. This endeavor shows that baselevel lowering rates vary significantly due to patches of resistant bedrock, drainage reorganization, and tectonic forcing. In regions with weak sedimentary bedrock, earthflows can reduce hillslope gradients, promote gullying, and dominate sediment yield through their downslope translation. A one-dimensional, physically-based model for earthflow-prone hillslope evolution (Booth and Roering, JGR, in press) incorporates earthflow

  11. Density effect on critical current density and flux pinning properties of polycrystalline SmFeAsO1 - xFx superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Y.; Sun, Y.; Zhuang, J. C.; Cui, L. J.; Shi, Z. X.; Sumption, M. D.; Majoros, M.; Susner, M. A.; Kovacs, C. J.; Li, G. Z.; Collings, E. W.; Ren, Z. A.

    2011-12-01

    A series of polycrystalline SmFeAs1 - xOx bulks was prepared to systematically investigate the influence of sample density on flux pinning properties. Different sample densities were achieved by controlling the pelletizing pressure. The superconducting volume fraction, the critical current densities Jcm and the flux pinning force densities Fp were estimated from the magnetization measurements. Experimental results show that: (1) the superconducting volume fraction increases with the increasing of sample density; (2) the Jcm values have a similar trend except for the sample with very high density due to different connectivity and pinning mechanisms, moreover, the Jcm(B) curve develops a peak effect at approximately the same field at which the high density sample shows a kink; (3) the Fp(B) curve of the high density sample shows a low-field peak and a high-field peak at several temperatures, which can be explained by improved intergranular current, while only one peak can be observed in Fp(B) of the low density samples. Based on the scaling behaviour of flux pinning force densities, the main intragranular pinning is normal point pinning.

  12. Spatial heterogeneity of satellite derived land surface parameters and energy flux densities for LITFASS-area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tittebrand

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on satellite data in different temporal and spatial resolution, the current use of frequency distribution functions (PDF for surface parameters and energy fluxes is one of the most promising ways to describe subgrid heterogeneity of a landscape. Objective of this study is to find typical distribution patterns of parameters (albedo, NDVI for the determination of the actual latent heat flux (L.E determined from highly resolved satellite data within pixel on coarser scale.

    Landsat ETM+, Terra MODIS and NOAA-AVHRR surface temperature and spectral reflectance were used to infer further surface parameters and radiant- and energy flux densities for LITFASS-area, a 20×20 km2 heterogeneous area in Eastern Germany, mainly characterised by the land use types forest, crop, grass and water. Based on the Penman-Monteith-approach L.E, as key quantity of the hydrological cycle, is determined for each sensor in the accordant spatial resolution with an improved parametrisation. However, using three sensors, significant discrepancies between the inferred parameters can cause flux distinctions resultant from differences of the sensor filter response functions or atmospheric correction methods. The approximation of MODIS- and AVHRR- derived surface parameters to the reference parameters of ETM (via regression lines and histogram stretching, respectively, further the use of accurate land use classifications (CORINE and a new Landsat-classification, and a consistent parametrisation for the three sensors were realized to obtain a uniform base for investigations of the spatial variability.

    The analyses for 4 scenes in 2002 and 2003 showed that for forest clear distribution-patterns for NDVI and albedo are found. Grass and crop distributions show higher variability and differ significantly to each other in NDVI but only marginal in albedo. Regarding NDVI-distribution functions NDVI was found to be the key variable for L.E-determination.

  13. Two-dimensional model of intrinsic magnetic flux losses in helical flux compression generators

    CERN Document Server

    Haurylavets, V V

    2012-01-01

    Helical Flux Compression Generators (HFCG) are used for generation of mega-amper current and high magnetic fields. We propose the two dimensional HFCG filament model based on the new description of the stator and armature contact point. The model developed enables one to quantitatively describe the intrinsic magnetic flux losses and predict the results of experiments with various types of HFCGs. We present the effective resistance calculations based on the non-linear magnetic diffusion effect describing HFCG performance under the strong conductor heating by currents.

  14. Spatial distributions of the energy and energy flux density of partially coherent electromagnetic beams in atmospheric turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianlong; Lü, Baida; Zhu, Shifu

    2009-07-06

    The formulas of the energy and energy flux density of partially coherent electromagnetic beams in atmospheric turbulence are derived by using Maxwell's equations. Expressions expressed by elements of electric cross spectral density matrixes of the magnetic and the mutual cross spectral density matrix are obtained for the partially coherent electromagnetic beams. Taken the partially coherent Cosh-Gaussian (ChG) electromagnetic beam as a typical example, the spatial distributions of the energy and energy flux density in atmospheric turbulence are numerically calculated. It is found that the turbulence shows a broadening effect on the spatial distributions of the energy and energy flux density. Some interesting results are obtained and explained with regard to their physical nature.

  15. Effect of Flux Adjustments on Temperature Variability in Climate Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffy, P.; Bell, J.; Covey, C.; Sloan, L.

    1999-12-27

    It has been suggested that ''flux adjustments'' in climate models suppress simulated temperature variability. If true, this might invalidate the conclusion that at least some of observed temperature increases since 1860 are anthropogenic, since this conclusion is based in part on estimates of natural temperature variability derived from flux-adjusted models. We assess variability of surface air temperatures in 17 simulations of internal temperature variability submitted to the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. By comparing variability in flux-adjusted vs. non-flux adjusted simulations, we find no evidence that flux adjustments suppress temperature variability in climate models; other, largely unknown, factors are much more important in determining simulated temperature variability. Therefore the conclusion that at least some of observed temperature increases are anthropogenic cannot be questioned on the grounds that it is based in part on results of flux-adjusted models. Also, reducing or eliminating flux adjustments would probably do little to improve simulations of temperature variability.

  16. Origin of dc voltage in type II superconducting flux pumps: field, field rate of change, and current density dependence of resistivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, J.; Matsuda, K.; Fu, L.; Fagnard, J.-F.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X.; Shen, B.; Dong, Q.; Baghdadi, M.; Coombs, T. A.

    2016-03-01

    Superconducting flux pumps are the kind of devices which can generate direct current into superconducting circuit using external magnetic field. The key point is how to induce a dc voltage across the superconducting load by ac fields. Giaever (1966 IEEE Spectr. 3 117) pointed out flux motion in superconductors will induce a dc voltage, and demonstrated a rectifier model which depended on breaking superconductivity. van de Klundert et al (1981 Cryogenics 21 195, 267) in their review(s) described various configurations for flux pumps all of which relied on inducing the normal state in at least part of the superconductor. In this letter, following their work, we reveal that a variation in the resistivity of type II superconductors is sufficient to induce a dc voltage in flux pumps and it is not necessary to break superconductivity. This variation in resistivity is due to the fact that flux flow is influenced by current density, field intensity, and field rate of change. We propose a general circuit analogy for travelling wave flux pumps, and provide a mathematical analysis to explain the dc voltage. Several existing superconducting flux pumps which rely on the use of a travelling magnetic wave can be explained using the analysis enclosed. This work can also throw light on the design and optimization of flux pumps.

  17. Ionisation in turbulent magnetic molecular clouds. I. Effect on density and mass-to-flux ratio structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Nicole D.; Basu, Shantanu; Caselli, Paola

    2017-05-01

    Context. Previous studies show that the physical structures and kinematics of a region depend significantly on the ionisation fraction. These studies have only considered these effects in non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations with microturbulence. The next logical step is to explore the effects of turbulence on ionised magnetic molecular clouds and then compare model predictions with observations to assess the importance of turbulence in the dynamical evolution of molecular clouds. Aims: In this paper, we extend our previous studies of the effect of ionisation fractions on star formation to clouds that include both non-ideal magnetohydrodynamics and turbulence. We aim to quantify the importance of a treatment of the ionisation fraction in turbulent magnetised media and investigate the effect of the turbulence on shaping the clouds and filaments before star formation sets in. In particular, here we investigate how the structure, mass and width of filamentary structures depend on the amount of turbulence in ionised media and the initial mass-to-flux ratio. Methods: To determine the effects of turbulence and mass-to-flux ratio on the evolution of non-ideal magnetised clouds with varying ionisation profiles, we have run two sets of simulations. The first set assumes different initial turbulent Mach values for a fixed initial mass-to-flux ratio. The second set assumes different initial mass-to-flux ratio values for a fixed initial turbulent Mach number. Both sets explore the effect of using one of two ionisation profiles: step-like (SL) or cosmic ray only (CR-only). We compare the resulting density and mass-to-flux ratio structures both qualitatively and quantitatively via filament and core masses and filament fitting techniques (Gaussian and Plummer profiles). Results: We find that even with almost no turbulence, filamentary structure still exists although at lower density contours. Comparison of simulations shows that for turbulent Mach numbers above 2, there is

  18. Staggered Flux State in Two-Dimensional Hubbard Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Hisatoshi; Tamura, Shun; Ogata, Masao

    2016-12-01

    The stability and other properties of a staggered flux (SF) state or a correlated d-density wave state are studied for the Hubbard (t-t'-U) model on extended square lattices, as a low-lying state that competes with the dx2 - y2-wave superconductivity (d-SC) and possibly causes the pseudogap phenomena in underdoped high-Tc cuprates and organic κ-BEDT-TTF salts. In calculations, a variational Monte Carlo method is used. In the trial wave function, a configuration-dependent phase factor, which is vital to treat a current-carrying state for a large U/t, is introduced in addition to ordinary correlation factors. Varying U/t, t'/t, and the doping rate (δ) systematically, we show that the SF state becomes more stable than the normal state (projected Fermi sea) for a strongly correlated (U/t ≳ 5) and underdoped (δ ≲ 0.16) area. The decrease in energy is sizable, particularly in the area where Mott physics prevails and the circular current (order parameter) is strongly suppressed. These features are consistent with those for the t-J model. The effect of the frustration t'/t plays a crucial role in preserving charge homogeneity and appropriately describing the behavior of hole- and electron-doped cuprates and κ-BEDT-TTF salts. We argue that the SF state does not coexist with d-SC and is not a "normal state" from which d-SC arises. We also show that a spin current (flux or nematic) state is never stabilized in the same regime.

  19. Stochastic Geomorphology: Indexing Climate Change Through Shifts in Probability Densities of Erosion, Sediment Flux, Storage and Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benda, L. E.

    2009-12-01

    Stochastic geomorphology refers to the interaction of the stochastic field of sediment supply with hierarchically branching river networks where erosion, sediment flux and storage are described by their probability densities. The conceptual and numerical framework can generate a series of general principles (hypotheses) on how basin-scale erosion and sedimentation regimes, viewed through the lens of probability distributions, change with variations in climate, topography, geology, vegetation, basin scale, and network topology; for more detail on the general principles see AGU session EP02. The conceptual and numerical framework of stochastic geomorphology is well suited for forecasting and interpreting affects of climate change on geomorphological systems, including the habitats associated with them. Climate change involves shifts in probability distributions of precipitation (rain and snow), fires, and wind. Consequently, shifts in distributions of precipitation frequency and magnitude or wildfire frequency, intensity and size should lead to shifts in erosion, sediment flux and sedimentation distributions. Shifts could include either a greater or lesser skew of their attendant probability densities. For example, increasing the frequency of fires in a stochastic simulation model of erosion and sedimentation will lead to altered frequency and magnitude of hillslope erosion in the form of pulses of sediment through the river network. This will be reflected in shifts in the probability densities of erosion and sedimentation and also how sediment flux and storage distributions evolve downstream in river networks. Heightened erosion frequency and magnitude due to climate change can increase Hurst Effects in time series of sediment flux and thus an increase in depletion of hillslope stores of sediment can result in temporally lingering sedimentation affects throughout river networks, even if climate relaxed to pre-change conditions. Similarly, heightened hillslope

  20. Conditional Density Models for Asset Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Filipovic, Damir; Hughston, Lane P.; Macrina, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    We model the dynamics of asset prices and associated derivatives by consideration of the dynamics of the conditional probability density process for the value of an asset at some specified time in the future. In the case where the asset is driven by Brownian motion, an associated "master equation" for the dynamics of the conditional probability density is derived and expressed in integral form. By a "model" for the conditional density process we mean a solution to the master equation along wi...

  1. Numerical Modeling of a Magnetic Flux Compression Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhin, Volodymyr; Bauer, Bruno S.; Awe, Thomas J.; Fuelling, Stephan; Goodrich, Tasha; Lindemuth, Irvin R.; Siemon, Richard E.; Garanin, Sergei F.

    2007-06-01

    A possible plasma target for Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) is a stable diffuse z-pinch in a toroidal cavity, like that in MAGO experiments. To examine key phenomena of such MTF systems, a magnetic flux compression experiment with this geometry is under design. The experiment is modeled with 3 codes: a slug model, the 1D Lagrangian RAVEN code, and the 1D or 2D Eulerian Magneto-Hydro-Radiative-Dynamics-Research (MHRDR) MHD simulation. Even without injection of plasma, high- Z wall plasma is generated by eddy-current Ohmic heating from MG fields. A significant fraction of the available liner kinetic energy goes into Ohmic heating and compression of liner and central-core material. Despite these losses, efficiency of liner compression, expressed as compressed magnetic energy relative to liner kinetic energy, can be close to 50%. With initial fluctuations (1%) imposed on the liner and central conductor density, 2D modeling manifests liner intrusions, caused by the m = 0 Rayleigh-Taylor instability during liner deceleration, and central conductor distortions, caused by the m = 0 curvature-driven MHD instability. At many locations, these modes reduce the gap between the liner and the central core by about a factor of two, to of order 1 mm, at the time of peak magnetic field.

  2. Modeling of Drift Effects on Solar Tower Concentrated Flux Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis O. Lara-Cerecedo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel modeling tool for calculation of central receiver concentrated flux distributions is presented, which takes into account drift effects. This tool is based on a drift model that includes different geometrical error sources in a rigorous manner and on a simple analytic approximation for the individual flux distribution of a heliostat. The model is applied to a group of heliostats of a real field to obtain the resulting flux distribution and its variation along the day. The distributions differ strongly from those obtained assuming the ideal case without drift or a case with a Gaussian tracking error function. The time evolution of peak flux is also calculated to demonstrate the capabilities of the model. The evolution of this parameter also shows strong differences in comparison to the case without drift.

  3. Quantitative evaluation of magnetic flux density in a magnetic recording head and pseudo soft underlayer by electron holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Weixing; Hirata, Kei; Yanagisawa, Keiichi; Ishida, Yoichi; Kasai, Hiroto; Yanagiuchi, Katsuaki; Shindo, Daisuke; Tonomura, Akira

    2010-01-01

    The magnetic interaction between the pole tip of a single-pole head and a pseudo soft underlayer in perpendicular magnetic recording was observed by electron holography. The magnetic flux density inside the soft underlayer was quantitatively evaluated. The distribution of magnetic flux density was calculated using the finite element method, and the influences of the modulation of the reference wave and stray fields were investigated by comparison with experimental results. The flux density observed was found to be underestimated due to the modulation of the phase shift in reference wave. The magnetic flux measured experimentally was larger than that inside the specimen because of the relatively large stray fields above and below the specimen in the direction of the electron beam.

  4. The revised electromagnetic fields directive and worker exposure in environments with high magnetic flux densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stam, Rianne

    2014-06-01

    Some of the strongest electromagnetic fields (EMF) are found in the workplace. A European Directive sets limits to workers' exposure to EMF. This review summarizes its origin and contents and compares magnetic field exposure levels in high-risk workplaces with the limits set in the revised Directive. Pubmed, Scopus, grey literature databases, and websites of organizations involved in occupational exposure measurements were searched. The focus was on EMF with frequencies up to 10 MHz, which can cause stimulation of the nervous system. Selected studies had to provide individual maximum exposure levels at the workplace, either in terms of the external magnetic field strength or flux density or as induced electric field strength or current density. Indicative action levels and the corresponding exposure limit values for magnetic fields in the revised European Directive will be higher than those in the previous version. Nevertheless, magnetic flux densities in excess of the action levels for peripheral nerve stimulation are reported for workers involved in welding, induction heating, transcranial magnetic stimulation, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The corresponding health effects exposure limit values for the electric fields in the worker's body can be exceeded for welding and MRI, but calculations for induction heating and transcranial magnetic stimulation are lacking. Since the revised European Directive conditionally exempts MRI-related activities from the exposure limits, measures to reduce exposure may be necessary for welding, induction heating, and transcranial nerve stimulation. Since such measures can be complicated, there is a clear need for exposure databases for different workplace scenarios with significant EMF exposure and guidance on good practices.

  5. Influence of clouds on the spectral actinic flux density in the lower troposphere (INSPECTRO: overview of the field campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Thiel

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet radiation is the key factor driving tropospheric photochemistry. It is strongly modulated by clouds and aerosols. A quantitative understanding of the radiation field and its effect on photochemistry is thus only possible with a detailed knowledge of the interaction between clouds and radiation. The overall objective of the project INSPECTRO was the characterization of the three-dimensional actinic radiation field under cloudy conditions. This was achieved during two measurement campaigns in Norfolk (East Anglia, UK and Lower Bavaria (Germany combining space-based, aircraft and ground-based measurements as well as simulations with the one-dimensional radiation transfer model UVSPEC and the three-dimensional radiation transfer model MYSTIC.

    During both campaigns the spectral actinic flux density was measured at several locations at ground level and in the air by up to four different aircraft. This allows the comparison of measured and simulated actinic radiation profiles. In addition satellite data were used to complete the information of the three dimensional input data set for the simulation. A three-dimensional simulation of actinic flux density data under cloudy sky conditions requires a realistic simulation of the cloud field to be used as an input for the 3-D radiation transfer model calculations. Two different approaches were applied, to derive high- and low-resolution data sets, with a grid resolution of about 100 m and 1 km, respectively.

    The results of the measured and simulated radiation profiles as well as the results of the ground based measurements are presented in terms of photolysis rate profiles for ozone and nitrogen dioxide. During both campaigns all spectroradiometer systems agreed within ±10% if mandatory corrections e.g. stray light correction were applied. Stability changes of the systems were below 5% over the 4 week campaign periods and negligible over a few days. The J(O1D data of

  6. Influence of clouds on the spectral actinic flux density in the lower troposphere (INSPECTRO: overview of the field campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Topaloglou

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet radiation is the key factor driving tropospheric photochemistry. It is strongly modulated by clouds and aerosols. A quantitative understanding of the radiation field and its effect on photochemistry is thus only possible with a detailed knowledge of the interaction between clouds and radiation. The overall objective of the project INSPECTRO was the characterization of the three-dimensional actinic radiation field under cloudy conditions. This was achieved during two measurement campaigns in Norfolk (East Anglia, UK and Lower Bavaria (Germany combining space-based, aircraft and ground-based measurements as well as simulations with the one-dimensional radiation transfer model UVSPEC and the three-dimensional radiation transfer model MYSTIC.

    During both campaigns the spectral actinic flux density was measured at several locations at ground level and in the air by up to four different aircraft. This allows the comparison of measured and simulated actinic radiation profiles. In addition satellite data were used to complete the information of the three dimensional input data set for the simulation. A three-dimensional simulation of actinic flux density data under cloudy sky conditions requires a realistic simulation of the cloud field to be used as an input for the 3-D radiation transfer model calculations. Two different approaches were applied, to derive high- and low-resolution data sets, with a grid resolution of about 100 m and 1 km, respectively.

    The results of the measured and simulated radiation profiles as well as the results of the ground based measurements are presented in terms of photolysis rate profiles for ozone and nitrogen dioxide. During both campaigns all spectroradiometer systems agreed within ±10% if mandatory corrections e.g. stray light correction were applied. Stability changes of the systems were below 5% over the 4 week campaign periods and negligible over a few days. The J(O1D data of

  7. Flux measurement and modeling in a typical mediterranean vineyard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marras, Serena; Bellucco, Veronica; Pyles, David R.; Falk, Matthias; Sirca, Costantino; Duce, Pierpaolo; Snyder, Richard L.; Tha Paw U, Kyaw; Spano, Donatella

    2014-05-01

    Vineyard ecosystems are typical in the Mediterranean area, since wine is one of the most important economic sectors. Nevertheless, only a few studies have been conducted to investigate the interactions between this kind of vegetation and the atmosphere. These information are important both to understand the behaviour of such ecosystems in different environmental conditions, and are crucial to parameterize crop and flux simulation models. Combining direct measurements and modelling can obtain reliable estimates of surface fluxes and crop evapotranspiration. This study would contribute both to (1) directly measure energy fluxes and evapotranspiration in a typical Mediterranean vineyard, located in the South of Sardinia (Italy), through the application of the Eddy Covariance micrometeorological technique and to (2) evaluate the land surface model ACASA (Advanced-Canopy-Atmosphere-Soil Algorithm) in simulating energy fluxes and evapotranspiration over vineyard. Independent datasets of direct measurements were used to calibrate and validate model results during the growing period. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate model performance and accuracy in predicting surface fluxes. Results will be showed as well as the model capability to be used for future studies to predict energy fluxes and crop water requirements under actual and future climate.

  8. Estimating sap flux densities in date palm trees using the heat dissipation method and weighing lysimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, Or; Shapira, Or; Cohen, Shabtai; Tripler, Effi; Schwartz, Amnon; Lazarovitch, Naftali

    2012-09-01

    In a world of diminishing water reservoirs and a rising demand for food, the practice and development of water stress indicators and sensors are in rapid progress. The heat dissipation method, originally established by Granier, is herein applied and modified to enable sap flow measurements in date palm trees in the southern Arava desert of Israel. A long and tough sensor was constructed to withstand insertion into the date palm's hard exterior stem. This stem is wide and fibrous, surrounded by an even tougher external non-conducting layer of dead leaf bases. Furthermore, being a monocot species, water flow does not necessarily occur through the outer part of the palm's stem, as in most trees. Therefore, it is highly important to investigate the variations of the sap flux densities and determine the preferable location for sap flow sensing within the stem. Once installed into fully grown date palm trees stationed on weighing lysimeters, sap flow as measured by the modified sensors was compared with the actual transpiration. Sap flow was found to be well correlated with transpiration, especially when using a recent calibration equation rather than the original Granier equation. Furthermore, inducing the axial variability of the sap flux densities was found to be highly important for accurate assessments of transpiration by sap flow measurements. The sensors indicated no transpiration at night, a high increase of transpiration from 06:00 to 09:00, maximum transpiration at 12:00, followed by a moderate reduction until 08:00; when transpiration ceased. These results were reinforced by the lysimeters' output. Reduced sap flux densities were detected at the stem's mantle when compared with its center. These results were reinforced by mechanistic measurements of the stem's specific hydraulic conductivity. Variance on the vertical axis was also observed, indicating an accelerated flow towards the upper parts of the tree and raising a hypothesis concerning dehydrating

  9. Solar Model Parameters and Direct Measurements of Solar Neutrino Fluxes

    CERN Document Server

    Bandyopadhyay, A; Goswami, S; Petcov, S T; Bandyopadhyay, Abhijit; Choubey, Sandhya; Goswami, Srubabati

    2006-01-01

    We explore a novel possibility of determining the solar model parameters, which serve as input in the calculations of the solar neutrino fluxes, by exploiting the data from direct measurements of the fluxes. More specifically, we use the rather precise value of the $^8B$ neutrino flux, $\\phi_B$ obtained from the global analysis of the solar neutrino and KamLAND data, to derive constraints on each of the solar model parameters on which $\\phi_B$ depends. We also use more precise values of $^7Be$ and $pp$ fluxes as can be obtained from future prospective data and discuss whether such measurements can help in reducing the uncertainties of one or more input parameters of the Standard Solar Model.

  10. Empirical Modeling of Plant Gas Fluxes in Controlled Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornett, Jessie David

    1994-01-01

    As humans extend their reach beyond the earth, bioregenerative life support systems must replace the resupply and physical/chemical systems now used. The Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) will utilize plants to recycle the carbon dioxide (CO2) and excrement produced by humans and return oxygen (O2), purified water and food. CELSS design requires knowledge of gas flux levels for net photosynthesis (PS(sub n)), dark respiration (R(sub d)) and evapotranspiration (ET). Full season gas flux data regarding these processes for wheat (Triticum aestivum), soybean (Glycine max) and rice (Oryza sativa) from published sources were used to develop empirical models. Univariate models relating crop age (days after planting) and gas flux were fit by simple regression. Models are either high order (5th to 8th) or more complex polynomials whose curves describe crop development characteristics. The models provide good estimates of gas flux maxima, but are of limited utility. To broaden the applicability, data were transformed to dimensionless or correlation formats and, again, fit by regression. Polynomials, similar to those in the initial effort, were selected as the most appropriate models. These models indicate that, within a cultivar, gas flux patterns appear remarkably similar prior to maximum flux, but exhibit considerable variation beyond this point. This suggests that more broadly applicable models of plant gas flux are feasible, but univariate models defining gas flux as a function of crop age are too simplistic. Multivariate models using CO2 and crop age were fit for PS(sub n), and R(sub d) by multiple regression. In each case, the selected model is a subset of a full third order model with all possible interactions. These models are improvements over the univariate models because they incorporate more than the single factor, crop age, as the primary variable governing gas flux. They are still limited, however, by their reliance on the other environmental

  11. Bayesian mixture models for spectral density estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Cadonna, Annalisa

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a novel Bayesian modeling approach to spectral density estimation for multiple time series. Considering first the case of non-stationary timeseries, the log-periodogram of each series is modeled as a mixture of Gaussiandistributions with frequency-dependent weights and mean functions. The implied model for the log-spectral density is a mixture of linear mean functionswith frequency-dependent weights. The mixture weights are built throughsuccessive differences of a logit-normal di...

  12. Modeling flux noise in SQUIDs due to hyperfine interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiansheng; Yu, Clare C

    2012-06-15

    Recent experiments implicate spins on the surface of metals as the source of flux noise in superconducting quantum interference devices and indicate that these spins are able to relax without conserving total magnetization. We present a model of 1/f flux noise in which electron spins on the surface of metals can relax via hyperfine interactions. Our results indicate that flux noise would be significantly reduced in superconducting materials where the most abundant isotopes do not have nuclear moments, such as zinc and lead.

  13. Polarised radio sources : a study of luminosity, redshift and flux density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Julie Kristen

    2011-05-01

    Results of deep polarisation imaging at 1.4 GHz with the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory as part of the DRAO Planck Deep Fields project are presented. This deep extragalactic field covers 15.16 deg2 centred at a2000 = 16h14m and d2000 = 54560, has an angular resolution of 4200-6200 at the field centre, and reaches a sensitivity of 55 mJy beam-1 in Stokes I and 45 mJy beam-1 in Stokes Q and U. There are 958 radio sources in Stokes I of which 136 are detected in polarisation. The Euclidean-normalized polarised differential source counts are determined down to 400 mJy. These counts indicate that sources have a higher percentage polarisation at fainter Stokes I flux density levels than for brighter sources. The majority of the polarised sources are steep-spectrum objects with a mean spectral index of -0.77, and there is no correlation between fractional polarisation and spectral index. Of the polarised sources, 77% show structure at the arc-second scale whereas only 38% of the sources with no detectable polarisation show such structure. This indicates that polarised sources tend to have structure at arcsecond scales and that the polarised emission is most likely not beamed. This confirms that the polarised radio sources tend to be lobe-dominated radio galaxies. The median percentage polarisation for resolved sources is 6.8%, while it is 4.4% for compact objects. Radio sources in the DRAO deep field have been matched with the Spitzer Wide-Area Infrared Extragalactic survey of the European Large Area ISO Survey North 1 field. In the redshift range of 0.04 FRIIs, which are seen to populate the polarized source counts at fainter flux density levels. There is no correlation between redshift and percentage polarisation for this sample. However, there is a correlation between increasing percentage polarisation and decreasing luminosity for polarised radio sources.

  14. Frequency spectra from current vs. magnetic flux density measurements for mobile phones and other electrical appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straume, Aksel; Johnsson, Anders; Oftedal, Gunnhild; Wilén, Jonna

    2007-10-01

    The frequency spectra of electromagnetic fields have to be determined to evaluate human exposure in accordance to ICNIRP guidelines. In the literature, comparisons with magnetic field guidelines have been performed by using the frequency distribution of the current drawn from the battery. In the present study we compared the frequency spectrum in the range 217 Hz to 2.4 kHz of the magnetic flux density measured near the surface of a mobile phone with the frequency spectrum of the supply current. By using the multiple frequency rule, recommended in the ICNIRP guidelines, we estimated the magnetic field exposure in the two cases. Similar measurements and estimations were done for an electric drill, a hair dryer, and a fluorescent desk lamp. All the devices have a basic frequency of 50 Hz, and the frequency spectra were evaluated up to 550 Hz. We also mapped the magnetic field in 3D around three mobile phones. The frequency distributions obtained from the two measurement methods are not equal. The frequency content of the current leads to an overestimation of the magnetic field exposure by a factor up to 2.2 for the mobile phone. For the drill, the hair dryer, and the fluorescent lamp, the supply current signal underestimated the exposure by a factor up to 2.3. In conclusion, an accurate exposure evaluation requires the magnetic flux density spectrum of the device to be measured directly. There was no indication that the devices studied would exceed the reference levels at the working distances normally used.

  15. SPICE modeling of flux-controlled unipolar memristive devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Xu-Dong; Tang Yu-Hua; Wu Jun-Jie; Zhu Xuan; Zhou Jing; Huang Da

    2013-01-01

    Unipolar memristive devices are an important kind of resistive switching devices.However,few circuit models of them have been proposed.In this paper,we propose the SPICE modeling of flux-controlled unipolar memristive devices based on the memristance versus state map.Using our model,the flux thresholds,ON and OFF resistance,and compliance current can easily be set as model parameters.We simulate the model in HSPICE using model parameters abstracted from real devices,and the simulation results show that the proposed model caters to the real device data very well,thus demonstrating that the model is correct.Using the same modeling methodology,the SPICE model of charge-controlled unipolar memristive devices could also be developed.The proposed model could be used to model resistive memory cells,logical gates as well as synapses in artificial neural networks.

  16. Modeling quasi-static magnetohydrodynamic turbulence with variable energy flux

    CERN Document Server

    Verma, Mahendra K

    2014-01-01

    In quasi-static MHD, experiments and numerical simulations reveal that the energy spectrum is steeper than Kolmogorov's $k^{-5/3}$ spectrum. To explain this observation, we construct turbulence models based on variable energy flux, which is caused by the Joule dissipation. In the first model, which is applicable to small interaction parameters, the energy spectrum is a power law, but with a spectral exponent steeper than -5/3. In the other limit of large interaction parameters, the second model predicts an exponential energy spectrum and flux. The model predictions are in good agreement with the numerical results.

  17. Software applications toward quantitative metabolic flux analysis and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandekar, Thomas; Fieselmann, Astrid; Majeed, Saman; Ahmed, Zeeshan

    2014-01-01

    Metabolites and their pathways are central for adaptation and survival. Metabolic modeling elucidates in silico all the possible flux pathways (flux balance analysis, FBA) and predicts the actual fluxes under a given situation, further refinement of these models is possible by including experimental isotopologue data. In this review, we initially introduce the key theoretical concepts and different analysis steps in the modeling process before comparing flux calculation and metabolite analysis programs such as C13, BioOpt, COBRA toolbox, Metatool, efmtool, FiatFlux, ReMatch, VANTED, iMAT and YANA. Their respective strengths and limitations are discussed and compared to alternative software. While data analysis of metabolites, calculation of metabolic fluxes, pathways and their condition-specific changes are all possible, we highlight the considerations that need to be taken into account before deciding on a specific software. Current challenges in the field include the computation of large-scale networks (in elementary mode analysis), regulatory interactions and detailed kinetics, and these are discussed in the light of powerful new approaches.

  18. The elliptic model for social fluxes

    CERN Document Server

    Herrera-Yagüe, C; Smoreda, Z; Couronné, T; Zufiria, PJ; González, MC

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the anonymous communications patterns of 25 million users from 3 different countries. Grouping costumer by their location (most used phone tower or billing zip code) we build social networks at three levels: tower, city and region for each of the three countries. We propose an elliptic model, which considers the number of relationships between two locations is reversely proportional to the population in the ellipse whose focuses are in such locations. We compare the performance of this model to recent transportation models and find elliptic model overcomes their performance in all scenarios, showing human relationships are at least as influenced by geographical factors as human mobility is.

  19. Forecasting relativistic electron flux using dynamic multiple regression models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-L. Wei

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The forecast of high energy electron fluxes in the radiation belts is important because the exposure of modern spacecraft to high energy particles can result in significant damage to onboard systems. A comprehensive physical model of processes related to electron energisation that can be used for such a forecast has not yet been developed. In the present paper a systems identification approach is exploited to deduce a dynamic multiple regression model that can be used to predict the daily maximum of high energy electron fluxes at geosynchronous orbit from data. It is shown that the model developed provides reliable predictions.

  20. Development of a Scale Model for High Flux Isotope Reactor Cycle 400

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilas, Dan [ORNL

    2012-03-01

    The development of a comprehensive SCALE computational model for the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) is documented and discussed in this report. The SCALE model has equivalent features and functionality as the reference MCNP model for Cycle 400 that has been used extensively for HFIR safety analyses and for HFIR experiment design and analyses. Numerical comparisons of the SCALE and MCNP models for the multiplication constant, power density distribution in the fuel, and neutron fluxes at several locations in HFIR indicate excellent agreement between the results predicted with the two models. The SCALE HFIR model is presented in sufficient detail to provide the users of the model with a tool that can be easily customized for various safety analysis or experiment design requirements.

  1. Lattice Boltzmann model with nearly constant density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hai-ping; Wan, Rong-zheng; Lin, Zhi-fang

    2002-09-01

    An improved lattice Boltzmann model is developed to simulate fluid flow with nearly constant fluid density. The ingredient is to incorporate an extra relaxation for fluid density, which is realized by introducing a feedback equation in the equilibrium distribution functions. The pressure is dominated by the moving particles at a node, while the fluid density is kept nearly constant and explicit mass conservation is retained as well. Numerical simulation based on the present model for the (steady) plane Poiseuille flow and the (unsteady) two-dimensional Womersley flow shows a great improvement in simulation results over the previous models. In particular, the density fluctuation has been reduced effectively while achieving a relatively large pressure gradient.

  2. Combinatorial nuclear level-density model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moller, Peter [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Aberg, Sven [LUND SWEDEN; Uhrenhoit, Henrik [LUND SWEDEN; Ickhikawa, Takatoshi [RIKEN

    2008-01-01

    A microscopic nuclear level-density model is presented. The model is a completely combinatorial (micro-canonical) model based on the folded-Yukawa single-particle potential and includes explicit treatment of pairing, rotational and vibrational states. The microscopic character of all states enables extraction of level distribution functions with respect to pairing gaps, parity and angular momentum. The results of the model are compared to available experimental data: neutron separation energy level spacings, data on total level-density functions from the Oslo method and data on parity ratios.

  3. Categorization of exchange fluxes explains the four relational models

    CERN Document Server

    Favre, Maroussia

    2013-01-01

    The theory of Relational Models (RMs) posits four elementary models of relationships governing all human interactions, singly or in combination: Communal Sharing, Authority Ranking, Equality Matching, and Market Pricing. By considering two agents that can act in one out of three ways towards one another: give resource A, give resource B, or give nothing, we find four discrete categories of exchange fluxes that map unequivocally to the four RMs. This categorization shows that the RMs form an exhaustive set of all possible elementary exchanges. Hence, the fluxes categorization answers why there are just four RMs and explains their discreteness. By considering the costs associated with extracting resources, storing them and implementing each flux category, we are able to propose conditions under which each RM should evolve. We also logically deduce the singular nature of the Authority Ranking model. Our propositions are compatible with anthropological, ethnological and historical observations and can be tested a...

  4. Note on galaxy catalogues in UHECR flux modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Koers, Hylke B J

    2009-01-01

    We consider the dependence of ultra-high energy cosmic ray (UHECR) flux predictions on the choice of galaxy catalogue. We demonstrate that model predictions by Koers & Tinyakov (2009b), based on the so-called KKKST catalogue, are in good agreement with predictions based on the XSCz catalogue, a recently compiled catalogue that contains spectroscopic redshifts for a large fraction of galaxies. This agreement refutes the claim by Kashti (2009) that the KKKST catalogue is not suited for studies of UHECR anisotropy due to its dependence on photometric redshift estimates. In order to quantify the effect of galaxy catalogues on flux predictions, we develop a measure of anisotropies associated with model flux maps. This measure offers a general criterion to study the effect of model parameters and assumptions on the predicted strength of UHECR anisotropies.

  5. Angular dependence models for radiance to flux conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Richard N.; Suttles, John T.; Wielicki, Bruce A.

    1990-01-01

    Angular dependence models (ADM) used for converting the measured radiance to flux at the top of the atmosphere are reviewed, and emphasis is placed on the measure of their effectiveness and the implications of requiring the ADMs to satisfy reciprocity. The overall significance of the ADMs is figured out by analyzing the same satellite data with a single Lambertian model, single mean model, and the 12 Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) ADMs. It is shown that the Lambertian ADM is inadequate, while the mean ADM results in nearly unbiased fluxes but creates substantial differences for individual pixel fluxes. The standard ERBE ADM works well except for a 10-pct to 15-pct albedo growth across the scan; a modified ADM based on the standard ERBE ADM but forced to satisfy the principle of reciprocity increases the limb brightening and reduces the albedo growth but does not improve the scanner and nonscanner intercomparison.

  6. An empirical study of the wound effect on sap flux density measured with thermal dissipation probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, Andreas; Marañón-Jiménez, Sara; Rebmann, Corinna; Herbst, Mathias; Cuntz, Matthias

    2016-12-01

    The insertion of thermal dissipation (TD) sensors on tree stems for sap flux density (SFD) measurements can lead to SFD underestimations due to a wound formation close to the drill hole. However, the wound effect has not been assessed experimentally for this method yet. Here, we propose an empirical approach to investigate the effect of the wound healing on measured sap flux with TD probes. The approach was performed for both, diffuse-porous (Fagus sylvatica (Linnaeus)) and ring-porous (Quercus petraea (Lieblein)) species. Thermal dissipation probes were installed on different dates along the growing season to document the effects of the dynamic wound formation. The trees were cut in autumn and additional sensors were installed in the cut stems, therefore, without potential effects of wound development. A range of water pressures was applied to the stem segments and SFDs were simultaneously measured by TD sensors as well as gravimetrically in the laboratory. The formation of wounds around sensors installed in living tree stems led to underestimation of SFD by 21.4 ± 3 and 47.5 ± 3.8% in beech and oak, respectively. The differences between SFD underestimations of diffuse-porous beech and ring-porous oak were, however, not statistically significant. Sensors with 5-, 11- and 22-week-old wounds also showed no significant differences, which implies that the influence of wound formation on SFD estimates was completed within the first few weeks after perforation. These results were confirmed by time courses of SFD measurements in the field. Field SFD values decreased immediately after sensor installation and reached stable values after ~2 weeks with similar underestimations to the ones observed in the laboratory. We therefore propose a feasible approach to correct directly field observations of SFD for potential underestimations due to the wound effect.

  7. Density functional theory and multiscale materials modeling

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Swapan K Ghosh

    2003-01-01

    One of the vital ingredients in the theoretical tools useful in materials modeling at all the length scales of interest is the concept of density. In the microscopic length scale, it is the electron density that has played a major role in providing a deeper understanding of chemical binding in atoms, molecules and solids. In the intermediate mesoscopic length scale, an appropriate picture of the equilibrium and dynamical processes has been obtained through the single particle number density of the constituent atoms or molecules. A wide class of problems involving nanomaterials, interfacial science and soft condensed matter has been addressed using the density based theoretical formalism as well as atomistic simulation in this regime. In the macroscopic length scale, however, matter is usually treated as a continuous medium and a description using local mass density, energy density and other related density functions has been found to be quite appropriate. A unique single unified theoretical framework that emerges through the density concept at these diverse length scales and is applicable to both quantum and classical systems is the so called density functional theory (DFT) which essentially provides a vehicle to project the many-particle picture to a single particle one. Thus, the central equation for quantum DFT is a one-particle Schrödinger-like Kohn–Sham equation, while the same for classical DFT consists of Boltzmann type distributions, both corresponding to a system of noninteracting particles in the field of a density-dependent effective potential. Selected illustrative applications of quantum DFT to microscopic modeling of intermolecular interaction and that of classical DFT to a mesoscopic modeling of soft condensed matter systems are presented.

  8. Modeling of etch profile evolution including wafer charging effects using self consistent ion fluxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoekstra, R.J.; Kushner, M.J. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    1996-12-31

    As high density plasma reactors become more predominate in industry, the need has intensified for computer aided design tools which address both equipment issues such as ion flux uniformity onto the water and process issues such etch feature profile evolution. A hierarchy of models has been developed to address these issues with the goal of producing a comprehensive plasma processing design capability. The Hybrid Plasma Equipment Model (HPEM) produces ion and neutral densities, and electric fields in the reactor. The Plasma Chemistry Monte Carlo Model (PCMC) determines the angular and energy distributions of ion and neutral fluxes to the wafer using species source functions, time dependent bulk electric fields, and sheath potentials from the HPEM. These fluxes are then used by the Monte Carlo Feature Profile Model (MCFP) to determine the time evolution of etch feature profiles. Using this hierarchy, the effects of physical modifications of the reactor, such as changing wafer clamps or electrode structures, on etch profiles can be evaluated. The effects of wafer charging on feature evolution are examined by calculating the fields produced by the charge deposited by ions and electrons within the features. The effect of radial variations and nonuniformity in angular and energy distribution of the reactive fluxes on feature profiles and feature charging will be discussed for p-Si etching in inductively-coupled plasma (ICP) sustained in chlorine gas mixtures. The effects of over- and under-wafer topography on etch profiles will also be discussed.

  9. Bayesian flux balance analysis applied to a skeletal muscle metabolic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heino, Jenni; Tunyan, Knarik; Calvetti, Daniela; Somersalo, Erkki

    2007-09-01

    In this article, the steady state condition for the multi-compartment models for cellular metabolism is considered. The problem is to estimate the reaction and transport fluxes, as well as the concentrations in venous blood when the stoichiometry and bound constraints for the fluxes and the concentrations are given. The problem has been addressed previously by a number of authors, and optimization-based approaches as well as extreme pathway analysis have been proposed. These approaches are briefly discussed here. The main emphasis of this work is a Bayesian statistical approach to the flux balance analysis (FBA). We show how the bound constraints and optimality conditions such as maximizing the oxidative phosphorylation flux can be incorporated into the model in the Bayesian framework by proper construction of the prior densities. We propose an effective Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) scheme to explore the posterior densities, and compare the results with those obtained via the previously studied linear programming (LP) approach. The proposed methodology, which is applied here to a two-compartment model for skeletal muscle metabolism, can be extended to more complex models.

  10. Magnetic flux density measurement with balanced steady state free precession pulse sequence for MREIT: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minhas, Atul S; Woo, Eung Je; Lee, Soo Yeol

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Electrical Impedance Tomography (MREIT) utilizes the magnetic flux density B(z), generated due to current injection, to find conductivity distribution inside an object. This B(z) can be measured from MR phase images using spin echo pulse sequence. The SNR of B(z) and the sensitivity of phase produced by B(z) in MR phase image are critical in deciding the resolution of MREIT conductivity images. The conventional spin echo based data acquisition has poor phase sensitivity to current injection. Longer scan time is needed to acquire data with higher SNR. We propose a balanced steady state free precession (b-SSFP) based pulse sequence which is highly sensitive to small off-resonance phase changes. A procedure to reconstruct B(z) from MR signal obtained with b-SSFP sequence is described. Phases for b-SSFP signals for two conductivity phantoms of TX 151 and Gelatin are simulated from the mathematical models of b-SSFP signal. It was observed that the phase changes obtained from b-SSFP pulse sequence are highly sensitive to current injection and hence would produce higher magnetic flux density. However, the b-SSFP signal is dependent on magnetic field inhomogeneity and the signal deteriorated highly for small offset from resonance frequency. The simulation results show that the b-SSFP sequence can be utilized for conductivity imaging of a local region where magnetic field inhomogeneity is small. A proper shimming of magnet is recommended before using the b-SSFP sequence.

  11. Progress in Modeling Global Atmospheric CO2 Fluxes and Transport: Results from Simulations with Diurnal Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collatz, G. James; Kawa, R.

    2007-01-01

    Progress in better determining CO2 sources and sinks will almost certainly rely on utilization of more extensive and intensive CO2 and related observations including those from satellite remote sensing. Use of advanced data requires improved modeling and analysis capability. Under NASA Carbon Cycle Science support we seek to develop and integrate improved formulations for 1) atmospheric transport, 2) terrestrial uptake and release, 3) biomass and 4) fossil fuel burning, and 5) observational data analysis including inverse calculations. The transport modeling is based on meteorological data assimilation analysis from the Goddard Modeling and Assimilation Office. Use of assimilated met data enables model comparison to CO2 and other observations across a wide range of scales of variability. In this presentation we focus on the short end of the temporal variability spectrum: hourly to synoptic to seasonal. Using CO2 fluxes at varying temporal resolution from the SIB 2 and CASA biosphere models, we examine the model's ability to simulate CO2 variability in comparison to observations at different times, locations, and altitudes. We find that the model can resolve much of the variability in the observations, although there are limits imposed by vertical resolution of boundary layer processes. The influence of key process representations is inferred. The high degree of fidelity in these simulations leads us to anticipate incorporation of realtime, highly resolved observations into a multiscale carbon cycle analysis system that will begin to bridge the gap between top-down and bottom-up flux estimation, which is a primary focus of NACP.

  12. Observational & modeling analysis of surface heat and moisture fluxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, E. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    1995-09-01

    An observational and modeling study was conducted to help assess how well current GCMs are predicting surface fluxes under the highly variable cloudiness and flow conditions characteristic of the real atmosphere. The observational data base for the study was obtained from a network of surface flux stations operated during the First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE). The study included examination of a surface-driven secondary circulation in the boundary layer resulting from a persistent cross-site gradient in soil moisture, to demonstrate the sensitivity of boundary layer dynamics to heterogeneous surface fluxes, The performance of a biosphere model in reproducing the measured surface fluxes was evaluated with and without the use of satellite retrieval of three key canopy variables with RMS uncertainties commensurate with those of the measurements themselves. Four sensible heat flux closure schemes currently being used in GCMs were then evaluated against the FIFE observations. Results indicate that the methods by which closure models are calibrated lead to exceedingly large errors when the schemes are applied to variable boundary layer conditions. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Transformations for temperature flux in multiscale models of the tropics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biello, Joseph A.; Majda, Andrew J. [New York University, Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York, NY (United States)

    2006-11-15

    How much of the observed planetary-scale heating in the tropics is due to eddy flux convergence? A mathematical framework to address this important practical issue is developed here. We describe a pair of velocity transformations that remove components of the upscale temperature flux in the multiscale intraseasonal, planetary, equatorial synoptic-scale dynamics (IPESD) framework derived by Majda and Klein [J. Atmos. Sci. 60: 393-408, (2003)]. Using examples from the models of the Madden-Julian Oscillation of Biello and Majda [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 101: 4736-4741, (2004); J. Atmos. Sci. 62: 1694-1721, (2005); Dyn. Oceans Atmos., in press] we demonstrate that the transformation for the meridional temperature flux convergence is possible with any restrictions on the heating profile, we show under which conditions the transformation for the vertical temperature flux convergence exists and, further, that the meridional transformation leads to a reinterpretation of lower troposphere Ekman dissipation as active heating plus zonal momentum drag. The meridional temperature flux transformation and induced meridional circulation is a new, tropical wave example of the transformed Eulerian mean theory in the case of strong vertical stratification of potential temperature. The asymptotic ordering of the flows means that the removal of the meridional temperature flux convergence has implications for how planetary-scale heating rates are inferred from velocity convergence measurements. (orig.)

  14. Testing Geological Models with Terrestrial Antineutrino Flux Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Dye, Steve

    2009-01-01

    Uranium and thorium are the main heat producing elements in the earth. Their quantities and distributions, which specify the flux of detectable antineutrinos generated by the beta decay of their daughter isotopes, remain unmeasured. Geological models of the continental crust and the mantle predict different quantities and distributions of uranium and thorium. Many of these differences are resolvable with precision measurements of the terrestrial antineutrino flux. This precision depends on both statistical and systematic uncertainties. An unavoidable background of antineutrinos from nuclear reactors typically dominates the systematic uncertainty. This report explores in detail the capability of various operating and proposed geo-neutrino detectors for testing geological models.

  15. Nuclear level density: Shell-model approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen'kov, Roman; Zelevinsky, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge of the nuclear level density is necessary for understanding various reactions, including those in the stellar environment. Usually the combinatorics of a Fermi gas plus pairing is used for finding the level density. Recently a practical algorithm avoiding diagonalization of huge matrices was developed for calculating the density of many-body nuclear energy levels with certain quantum numbers for a full shell-model Hamiltonian. The underlying physics is that of quantum chaos and intrinsic thermalization in a closed system of interacting particles. We briefly explain this algorithm and, when possible, demonstrate the agreement of the results with those derived from exact diagonalization. The resulting level density is much smoother than that coming from conventional mean-field combinatorics. We study the role of various components of residual interactions in the process of thermalization, stressing the influence of incoherent collision-like processes. The shell-model results for the traditionally used parameters are also compared with standard phenomenological approaches.

  16. Multiple flux difference effect in the lattice hydrodynamic model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Tao; Gao Zi-You; Zhao Xiao-Mei

    2012-01-01

    Considering the effect of multiple flux difference,an extended lattice model is proposed to improve the stability of traffic flow.The stability condition of the new model is obtained by using linear stability theory.The theoretical analysis result shows that considering the flux difference effect ahead can stabilize traffic flow.The nonlinear analysis is also conducted by using a reductive perturbation method.The modified KdV (mKdV) equation near the critical point is derived and the kink-antikink solution is obtained from the mKdV equation.Numerical simulation results show that the multiple flux difference effect can suppress the traffic jam considerably,which is in line with the analytical result.

  17. Stable and flux-conserved meshfree formulation to model shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Michael J.; Chen, Jiun-Shyan; Slawson, Thomas R.; Danielson, Kent T.

    2016-05-01

    Accurate shock modeling requires that two critical issues be addressed: (1) correct representation of the essential shock physics, and (2) control of Gibbs phenomenon oscillation at the discontinuity. In this work a stable (oscillation limiting) and flux-conserved formulation under the reproducing kernel particle method is developed for shock modeling. A smoothed flux divergence is constructed under the framework of stabilized conforming nodal integration, which is locally-enriched with a Riemann solution to satisfy the entropy production constraints. This Riemann-enriched flux divergence is embedded into the reproducing kernel formulation through a velocity correction that also provides oscillation control at the shock. The correction is constrained to the shock region by an automatic shock detection algorithm that is constructed using the intrinsic spectral decomposition feature of the reproducing kernel approximation. Several numerical examples are provided to verify accuracy of the proposed formulation.

  18. Modeling density segregation in granular flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hongyi; Lueptow, Richard; Umbanhowar, Paul

    2015-11-01

    A recently developed continuum-based model accurately predicts segregation in flows of granular mixtures varying in particle size by considering the interplay of advection, diffusion and segregation. In this research, we extend the domain of the model to include density driven segregation. Discrete Element Method (DEM) simulations of density bidisperse flows of mono-sized particles in a quasi-2D bounded heap were performed to determine the dependence of the density driven segregation velocity on local shear rate, particle concentration, and a segregation length which scales with the particle size and the logarithm of the density ratio. With these inputs, the model yields theoretical predictions of density segregation patterns that quantitatively match the DEM simulations over a range of density ratios (1.11-3.33) and flow rates (19.2-113.6 cm3/s). Matching experiments with various combinations of glass, steel and ceramic particles were also performed which reproduced the segregation patterns obtained in both the simulations and the theory.

  19. Photosynthetic photon flux density and phytochrome B interact to regulate branching in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hongwen; Abernathy, Scott D; White, Richard H; Finlayson, Scott A

    2011-11-01

    Branching is regulated by environmental signals including phytochrome B (phyB)-mediated responses to the ratio of red to far red light. While the mechanisms associated with phytochrome regulation of branching are beginning to be elucidated, there is little information regarding other light signals, including photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) and how it influences phytochrome-mediated responses. This study shows that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) branching is modified by both varying PPFD and phyB status and that significant interactions occur between these variables. While phyB deficiency decreased branching when the PPFD was low, the effect was suppressed by high PPFD and some branching aspects were actually promoted. Photosynthesis measurements showed that PPFD may influence branching in phyB-deficient plants at least partially through a specific signalling pathway rather than directly through energy effects on the shoot. The expression of various genes in unelongated buds of phyB-deficient and phyB-sufficient plants grown under high and low PPFD demonstrated potential roles for several hormones, including auxin, cytokinins and ABA, and also showed imperfect correlation between expression of the branching regulators BRC1 and BRC2 and bud fate. These results may implicate additional undiscovered bud autonomous mechanisms and/or components contributing to bud outgrowth regulation by environmental signals.

  20. Excessive magnetic field flux density distribution from overhead isolated powerline conductors due to neutral line current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netzer, Moshe

    2013-06-01

    Overhead isolated powerline conductors (hereinafter: "OIPLC") are the most compact form for distributing low voltage currents. From the known physics of magnetic field emission from 3-phase power lines, it is expected that excellent symmetry of the 120° shifted phase currents and where compact configuration of the 3-phase+neutral line exist, the phase current vectorial summation of the magnetic field flux density (MFFD) is expected to be extremely low. However, despite this estimation, an unexpectedly very high MFFD was found in at least three towns in Israel. This paper explains the reasons leading to high MFFD emissions from compact OIPLC and the proper technique to fix it. Analysis and measurement results had led to the failure hypothsis of neutral line poor connection design and poor grounding design of the HV-LV utility transformers. The paper elaborates on the low MFFD exposure level setup by the Israeli Environmental Protection Office which adopted a rather conservative precaution principal exposure level (2 mG averaged over 24 h).

  1. Observations of Poynting fluxes, ion temperatures and neutral densities during the March 2015 magnetic storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y.; Su, Y. J.; Huang, C. Y.; Hairston, M. R.; Sutton, E. K.

    2015-12-01

    We will present various observations regarding the geomagnetic energy input and the response of Ionosphere-Thermosphere (IT) system during the March 17, 2015 storm, the largest one in solar cycle 24. The Poynting fluxes measured by Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites (F16, F17 and F18) show significant enhancements in the auroral oval and at high latitudes poleward of the auroral oval. Moreover, the ion temperatures observed by DMSP satellites (F16, F17 and F19) at magnetic latitudes greater than 80° are higher than those in the auroral oval, and the their averaged increases are 316K in the northern hemisphere and 248 K in the southern hemisphere, respectively. In addition, the neutral density residuals measured by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite indicate the largest values at the highest orbital latitudes. The wave-like perturbations originating at high latitudes move equatorward with decreasing amplitudes along GRACE orbits, implying a source region for Traveling Atmospheric Disturbances (TADs) at polar latitudes.

  2. Chemical sputtering of graphite by low temperature nitrogen plasmas at various substrate temperatures and ion flux densities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bystrov, K.; Morgan, T. W.; Tanyeli, I.; De Temmerman, G.; M. C. M. van de Sanden,

    2013-01-01

    We report measurements of chemical sputtering yields of graphite exposed to low temperature nitrogen plasmas. The influence of surface temperature and incoming ion energy on the sputtering yields has been investigated in two distinct ion flux density regimes. Sputtering yields grow consistently with

  3. Photosynthetic photon flux density, carbon dioxide concentration, and vapor pressure deficit effects on photosynthesis in cacao seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao) is a shade plant, native to the under-story of the evergreen rain forest of the Amazon basin and adapted to low levels of photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD). The influence of PPFD, leaf to air water vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and external carbon dioxide concentration...

  4. Density contrast indicators in cosmological dust models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Filipe C Mena; Reza Tavakol

    2000-10-01

    We discuss ways of quantifying structuration in relativistic cosmological settings, by employing a family of covariant density constrast indicators. We study the evolution of these indicators with time in the context of inhomogeneous Szekeres models. We find that different observers (having either different spatial locations or different indicators) see different evolutions for the density contrast, which may or may not be monotonically increasing with time. We also find that monotonicity seems to be related to the initial conditions of the model, which may be of potential interest in connection with debates regarding gravitational entropy and the arrow of time.

  5. The relation between radio flux density and ionizing ultra-violet flux for HII regions and supernova remnants in the Large Magellanic cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović M.D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a comparison between the Parkes radio surveys (Filipović et al 1995 and Vacuum Ultra-Violet (VUV surveys (Smith et al. 1987 of the Large Magellanic Clouds (LMC. We have found 72 sources in common in the LMC which are known HII regions (52 and supernova remnants (SNRs (19. Some of these radio sources are associated with two or more UV stellar associations. A comparison of the radio flux densities and ionizing UV flux for HII regions shows a very good correlation, as expected from theory. Many of the Magellanic Clouds (MCs SNRs are embedded in HII regions, so there is also a relation between radio and UV which we attribute to the surrounding HII regions.

  6. Effect of uncertainties in solar synoptic magnetic flux maps in modeling of solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pevtsov, Alexei A.; Bertello, Luca; MacNeice, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Recently, the NSO/SOLIS team developed variance (error) maps that represent uncertainties in magnetic flux synoptic charts. These uncertainties are determined by the spatial variances of the magnetic flux distribution from full disk magnetograms that contribute to each bin in the synoptic chart. Here we present a study of the effects of variances on solar wind parameters (wind speed, density, magnetic field, and temperature) derived using the WSA-ENLIL model and ensemble modeling approach. We compare the results of the modeling with near-Earth solar wind magnetic field and plasma data as extracted from NASA/GSFC's OMNI data set. We show that analysis of uncertainties may be useful for understanding the sensitivity of the model predictions to short-term evolution of magnetic field and noise in the synoptic magnetograms.

  7. Kim model for flux-pinning-induced stress in a long cylindrical superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jun; Wang, Xiaogui; Wu, Huaping; Xue, Feng; Zhu, Jun

    2016-07-01

    In this work, the flux-pinning-induced stress distribution in a circular cylinder of high-temperature superconductors is studied by adopting the Kim critical state model to describe the relationship between the magnetic flux density and induced current. Based on the plane strain approach, the analytic expressions of the radial and hoop stress in the cylinder are derived for the zero-field cooling and field cooling magnetization processes. It is shown that the stress distributions depend on the activation processes and the values of the dimensionless parameter p in the Kim model, and the overall maximums of the stresses appear at or near the center of the cylinder where cracking may be most likely initiated. In addition, the Kim model has wider applicability than the Bean model, and the influence of p on the stress depends on the activation process. Generally speaking, these results may be useful for understanding the magnetoelastic problem in practical application of bulk superconductors.

  8. Ozone flux modelling for risk assessment: status and research needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuovinen J-P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, some shortcomings involved in the modelling of ozone fluxes in the context of local-scale risk assessment are discussed, especially as related to the data collected within the International Co-operative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests (ICP Forests. An enhanced monitoring strategy, that would provide a sounder basis for the development, validation and application of risk assessment modelling tools, is also suggested.

  9. Topological Twisted Sigma Model with H-flux Revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuang, Wu-yen

    2006-08-18

    In this paper we revisit the topological twisted sigma model with H-flux. We explicitly expand and then twist the worldsheet Lagrangian for bi-Hermitian geometry. we show that the resulting action consists of a BRST exact term and pullback terms, which only depend on one of the two generalized complex structures and the B-field. We then discuss the topological feature of the model.

  10. High Tc Superconductor Theoretical Models and Electromagnetic Flux Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Jian-xun

    2006-01-01

    High Tc Superconductors (HTS) have special electromagnetic characteristics and phenomena. Effort has been made in order to theoretically understand the applied HTS superconductivity and HTS behaviors for practical applications, various theoretical models related to the HTS electromagnetic properties have been developed. The theoretical models and analytic methods are summarized with regard to understanding the HTS magnetic flux characteristic which is one of the most critical issues related to HTS applications such as for HTS magnetic levitation application.

  11. Propulsion Physics Using the Chameleon Density Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Glen A.

    2011-01-01

    To grow as a space faring race, future spaceflight systems will require a new theory of propulsion. Specifically one that does not require mass ejection without limiting the high thrust necessary to accelerate within or beyond our solar system and return within a normal work period or lifetime. The Chameleon Density Model (CDM) is one such model that could provide new paths in propulsion toward this end. The CDM is based on Chameleon Cosmology a dark matter theory; introduced by Khrouy and Weltman in 2004. Chameleon as it is hidden within known physics, where the Chameleon field represents a scalar field within and about an object; even in the vacuum. The CDM relates to density changes in the Chameleon field, where the density changes are related to matter accelerations within and about an object. These density changes in turn change how an object couples to its environment. Whereby, thrust is achieved by causing a differential in the environmental coupling about an object. As a demonstration to show that the CDM fits within known propulsion physics, this paper uses the model to estimate the thrust from a solid rocket motor. Under the CDM, a solid rocket constitutes a two body system, i.e., the changing density of the rocket and the changing density in the nozzle arising from the accelerated mass. Whereby, the interactions between these systems cause a differential coupling to the local gravity environment of the earth. It is shown that the resulting differential in coupling produces a calculated value for the thrust near equivalent to the conventional thrust model used in Sutton and Ross, Rocket Propulsion Elements. Even though imbedded in the equations are the Universe energy scale factor, the reduced Planck mass and the Planck length, which relates the large Universe scale to the subatomic scale.

  12. Modelling spatial density using continuous wavelet transforms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Sudheer Reddy; N Gopal Reddy; A K Anilkumar

    2013-02-01

    Due to increase in the satelite launch activities from many countries around the world the orbital debris issue has become a major concern for the space agencies to plan a collision-free orbit design. The risk of collisions is calculated using the in situ measurements and available models. Spatial density models are useful in understanding the long-term likelihood of a collision in a particular region of space and also helpful in pre-launch orbit planning. In this paper, we present a method of estimating model parameters such as number of peaks and peak locations of spatial density model using continuous wavelets. The proposed methodology was experimented with two line element data and the results are presented.

  13. Multi-scale Modeling of Energy Balance Fluxes in a Dense Tamarisk Riparian Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, C. M.; Santos, C. A.; Watts, D.; Osterberg, J.; Hipps, L. E.; Sritharan, S. I.

    2008-12-01

    Remote sensing of energy balance fluxes has become operationally more viable over the last 10 years with the development of more robust multi-layer models and the availability of quasi-real time satellite imagery from most sensors. Riparian corridors in semi-arid and arid areas present a challenge to satellite based techniques for estimating evapotranspiration due to issues of scale and pixel resolution, especially when using the thermal infrared bands. This paper will present energy balance measurement and modeling results over a Salt Cedar (Tamarix Ramosissima) forest in the Cibola National Wildlife Refuge along the Colorado River south of Blythe, CA. The research site encompasses a 600 hectare area populated by mostly Tamarisk stands of varying density. Three Bowen ratio systems are installed on tall towers within varying densities of forest cover in the upwind footprint and growing under varying depths to the water table. An additional eddy covariance tower is installed alongside a Bowen ratio system on one of the towers. Flux data has been gathered continuously since early 2007. In the summer of 2007, a Scintec large aperture scintillometer was installed between two of the towers over 1 km apart and has been working continuously along with the flux towers. Two intensive field campaigns were organized in June 2007 and May 2008 to coincide with LANDSAT TM5, MODIS and ASTER overpasses. High resolution multispectral and thermal imagery was acquired at the same time with the USU airborne system to provide information for the up- scaling of the energy balance fluxes from tower to satellite scales. The paper will present comparisons between the different energy balance measuring techniques under the highly advective conditions of the experimental site, concentrating on the scintillometer data. Preliminary results of remotely sensed modeling of the fluxes at different scales and model complexity will also be presented.

  14. Investigating radiation belt losses though numerical modelling of precipitating fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Rodger

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that whistler-induced electron precipitation (WEP may be the most significant inner radiation belt loss process for some electron energy ranges. One area of uncertainty lies in identifying a typical estimate of the precipitating fluxes from the examples given in the literature to date. Here we aim to solve this difficulty through modelling satellite and ground-based observations of onset and decay of the precipitation and its effects in the ionosphere by examining WEP-produced Trimpi perturbations in subionospheric VLF transmissions. In this study we find that typical Trimpi are well described by the effects of WEP spectra derived from the AE-5 inner radiation belt model for typical precipitating energy fluxes. This confirms the validity of the radiation belt lifetimes determined in previous studies using these flux parameters. We find that the large variation in observed Trimpi perturbation size occurring over time scales of minutes to hours is primarily due to differing precipitation flux levels rather than changing WEP spectra. Finally, we show that high-time resolution measurements during the onset of Trimpi perturbations should provide a useful signature for discriminating WEP Trimpi from non-WEP Trimpi, due to the pulsed nature of the WEP arrival.

  15. Improved biomass productivity in algal biofilms through synergistic interactions between photon flux density and carbon dioxide concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnurr, Peter J; Molenda, Olivia; Edwards, Elizabeth; Espie, George S; Allen, D Grant

    2016-11-01

    Algal biofilms were grown to investigate the interaction effects of bulk medium CO2 concentration and photon flux density (PFD) on biomass productivities. When increasing the CO2 concentration from 0.04% to 2%, while maintaining a PFD of 100μmol/m(2)/s, biomass productivities increased from ∼0.5 to 2.0g/m(2)/d; however, the productivities plateaued when CO2 concentrations were incrementally increased above 2-12%. Statistical analysis demonstrates that there is a significant interaction between PFD and CO2 concentrations on biomass productivities. By simultaneously increasing PFD and CO2 concentrations, biomass productivities were significantly increased to 4.0 and 4.1g/m(2)/d in the experimental and modeled data, respectively. The second order model predicted increases in biomass productivities as both PFD and CO2 simultaneously increased yielding an optimum at 440μmol/m(2)/s and 7.1%; however, when conditions were extended to the highest end of their respective ranges, the conditions were detrimental to growth and productivities decreased.

  16. Convective heat flow in space cryogenics plugs - Critical and moderate He II heat flux densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, S. W. K.; Frederking, T. H. K.

    1990-01-01

    Plug flow rates of entropy, heat and normal fluid in phase separators and in zero net mass flow systems are, to some extent, quite similar. A simplified analysis of critical conditions is presented in agreement with data trends. A critical temperature gradient arises on the basis of the He II two-fluid model at the stability limit constraining the thermohydrodynamics of the system. Thus, the question of critical thermodynamic fluctuations associated with nucleation versus the possibility of critical gradients in externally imposed parameters is answered in favor of the latter route toward turbulence. Furthermore, a similarity equation is presented which incorporates size dependent rates for moderate heat flow densities observed in experiments.

  17. Optimization of multiply acquired magnetic flux density B(z) using ICNE-Multiecho train in MREIT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Hyun Soo; Kwon, Oh In

    2010-05-01

    The aim of magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) is to visualize the electrical properties, conductivity or current density of an object by injection of current. Recently, the prolonged data acquisition time when using the injected current nonlinear encoding (ICNE) method has been advantageous for measurement of magnetic flux density data, Bz, for MREIT in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). However, the ICNE method results in undesirable side artifacts, such as blurring, chemical shift and phase artifacts, due to the long data acquisition under an inhomogeneous static field. In this paper, we apply the ICNE method to a gradient and spin echo (GRASE) multi-echo train pulse sequence in order to provide the multiple k-space lines during a single RF pulse period. We analyze the SNR of the measured multiple B(z) data using the proposed ICNE-Multiecho MR pulse sequence. By determining a weighting factor for B(z) data in each of the echoes, an optimized inversion formula for the magnetic flux density data is proposed for the ICNE-Multiecho MR sequence. Using the ICNE-Multiecho method, the quality of the measured magnetic flux density is considerably increased by the injection of a long current through the echo train length and by optimization of the voxel-by-voxel noise level of the B(z) value. Agarose-gel phantom experiments have demonstrated fewer artifacts and a better SNR using the ICNE-Multiecho method. Experimenting with the brain of an anesthetized dog, we collected valuable echoes by taking into account the noise level of each of the echoes and determined B(z) data by determining optimized weighting factors for the multiply acquired magnetic flux density data.

  18. Two new methods used to simulate the circumferential solar flux density concentrated on the absorber of a parabolic trough solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Minghuan; Wang, Zhifeng; Sun, Feihu

    2016-05-01

    to be circular Gaussian type. Then a parabolic trough solar collector of Euro Trough 150 is used as an example object to apply this BRT method. Euro Trough 150 is composed of RP3 mirror facets, with the focal length of 1.71m, aperture width of 5.77m, outer tube diameter of 0.07m. Also to verify the simulated flux density distributions, we establish a modified MCRT method. For this modified MCRT method, the random rays with weighted energy elements are launched in the close-related rectangle region in the aperture plane of the parabolic concentrator and the optical errors are statistically modeled in the stages of forward ray tracing process. Given the same concentrator geometric parameters and optical error values, the simulated results from these two ray tracing methods are in good consistence. The two highlights of this paper are the new optical simulation method, BRT, and figuring out the close-related mirror surface region for BRT and the close-related aperture region for MCRT in advance to effectively simulate the solar flux distribution on the absorber surface of a parabolic trough collector.

  19. Turbulent, Extreme Multi-Zone Model for Simulating Flux and Polarization Variability in Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Marscher, Alan P

    2013-01-01

    The author presents a model for variability of the flux and polarization of blazars in which turbulent plasma flowing at a relativistic speed down a jet crosses a standing conical shock. The shock compresses the plasma and accelerates electrons to energies up to gamma(max) > 1E4 times their rest-mass energy, with the value of gamma(max) determined by the direction of the magnetic field relative to the shock front. The turbulence is approximated in a computer code as many cells, each with a uniform magnetic field whose direction is selected randomly. The density of high-energy electrons in the plasma changes randomly with time in a manner consistent with the power spectral density of flux variations derived from observations of blazars. The variations in flux and polarization are therefore caused by continuous noise processes rather than by singular events such as explosive injection of energy at the base of the jet. Sample simulations illustrate the behavior of flux and linear polarization versus time that su...

  20. MATLAB-FLUX Coupling for numerical modeling in education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pleshivtseva Yulia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the structure of optimization procedure based on a multi-paradigm numerical computing environment MATLAB and FEM software for numerical analysis in Electrical Engineering Higher Education. The procedure presented is developed and used in educational process at Samara State Technical University (SamSTU for optimization of interrelated electromagnetic and temperature fields during induction heating processes. Some study cases are shown for optimization of static induction heating processes based on 2D numerical FLUX model.

  1. Sediment flux modeling: Simulating nitrogen, phosphorus, and silica cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Jeremy M.; Brady, Damian C.; Di Toro, Dominic M.; Boynton, Walter R.; Cornwell, Jeffrey C.; Kemp, W. Michael

    2013-10-01

    Sediment-water exchanges of nutrients and oxygen play an important role in the biogeochemistry of shallow coastal environments. Sediments process, store, and release particulate and dissolved forms of carbon and nutrients and sediment-water solute fluxes are significant components of nutrient, carbon, and oxygen cycles. Consequently, sediment biogeochemical models of varying complexity have been developed to understand the processes regulating porewater profiles and sediment-water exchanges. We have calibrated and validated a two-layer sediment biogeochemical model (aerobic and anaerobic) that is suitable for application as a stand-alone tool or coupled to water-column biogeochemical models. We calibrated and tested a stand-alone version of the model against observations of sediment-water flux, porewater concentrations, and process rates at 12 stations in Chesapeake Bay during a 4-17 year period. The model successfully reproduced sediment-water fluxes of ammonium (NH4+), nitrate (NO3-), phosphate (PO43-), and dissolved silica (Si(OH)4 or DSi) for diverse chemical and physical environments. A root mean square error (RMSE)-minimizing optimization routine was used to identify best-fit values for many kinetic parameters. The resulting simulations improved the performance of the model in Chesapeake Bay and revealed (1) the need for an aerobic-layer denitrification formulation to account for NO3- reduction in this zone, (2) regional variability in denitrification that depends on oxygen levels in the overlying water, (3) a regionally-dependent solid-solute PO43- partitioning that accounts for patterns in Fe availability, and (4) a simplified model formulation for DSi, including limited sorption of DSi onto iron oxyhydroxides. This new calibration balances the need for a universal set of parameters that remain true to biogeochemical processes with site-specificity that represents differences in physical conditions. This stand-alone model can be rapidly executed on a

  2. Reverse propagation and negative angular momentum density flux of an optical nondiffracting nonparaxial fractional Bessel vortex beam of progressive waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, F G

    2016-09-01

    Energy and angular momentum flux density characteristics of an optical nondiffracting nonparaxial vector Bessel vortex beam of fractional order are examined based on the dual-field method for the generation of symmetric electric and magnetic fields. Should some conditions determined by the polarization state, the half-cone angle as well as the beam-order (or topological charge) be met, the axial energy and angular momentum flux densities vanish (representing Poynting singularities), before they become negative. These negative counterintuitive properties suggest retrograde (negative) propagation as well as a rotation reversal of the angular momentum with respect to the beam handedness. These characteristics of nondiffracting nonparaxial Bessel fractional vortex beams of progressive waves open new capabilities in optical tractor beam tweezers, optical spanners, invisibility cloaks, optically engineered metamaterials, and other applications.

  3. Effects of water salinity on the correlation scale of Root density and Evapotranspiration fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajeel, Ali; Saeed, Ali; Dragonetti, Giovanna; Comegna, Alessandro; Lamaddalena, Nicola; Coppola, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Spatial pattern and the correlation of different soil and plant parameters were examined in a green bean field experiment carried out at the Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari, Italy. The experiment aimed to evaluate the role of local processes of salt accumulation and transport which mainly influences the evapotranspiration (and thus the root uptake) processes under different water salinity levels. The experiment consisted of three transects of 30m length and 4.2 m width, irrigated with three different salinity levels (1dSm-1, 3dSm-1, 6dSm-1). Soil measurements (electrical conductivity and soil water content) were monitored along transects in 24 sites, 1 m apart by using TDR probes and Diviner 2000. Water storage measured by TDR and Diviner sensor were coupled for calculating directly the evapotranspiration fluxes along the whole soil profile under the different salinity levels imposed during the experiment. In the same sites, crop monitoring involved measurements of Leaf Area Index (LAI), Osmotic Potential (OP), Leaf Water Potential (LWP), and Root length Density (RlD). Soil and plant properties were analyzed by classical statistics, geostatistics methods and spectral analysis. Results indicated moderate to large spatial variability across the field for soil and plant parameters under all salinity treatments. Furthermore, cross-semivariograms exhibited a strong positive spatial interdependence between electrical conductivity of soil solution ECw with ET and RlD in transect treated with 3dSm-1 as well as with LAI in transect treated with 6dSm-1 at all 24 monitoring sites. Spectral analysis enabled to identify the observation window to sample the soil salinity information responsible for a given plant response (ET, OP, RlD). It is also allowed a clear identification of the spatial scale at which the soil water salinity level and distribution and the crop response in terms of actual evapotranspiration ET, RlD and OP, are actually correlated. Additionally

  4. Measurement of the light flux density patterns from luminaires proposed as photon sources for photosynthesis during space travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Paul N.

    1989-01-01

    Two luminaires were evaluated to determine the light flux density pattern on a horizontal plane surface. NASA supplied both luminaires; one was made by NASA and the other is commercially available. Tests were made for three combinations of luminaire height and luminaire lens material using the NASA luminaire; only one configuration of the commercial luminaire was tested. Measurements were made using four sensors with different wavelength range capabilities. The data are presented in graphical and tabular formats.

  5. Optimizing Power Density and Efficiency of a Double-Halbach Array Permanent-Magnet Ironless Axial-Flux Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Kirsten P.

    2016-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center is investigating hybrid electric and turboelectric propulsion concepts for future aircraft to reduce fuel burn, emissions, and noise. Systems studies show that the weight and efficiency of the electric system components need to be improved for this concept to be feasible. This effort aims to identify design parameters that affect power density and efficiency for a double-Halbach array permanent-magnet ironless axial flux motor configuration. These parameters include both geometrical and higher-order parameters, including pole count, rotor speed, current density, and geometries of the magnets, windings, and air gap.

  6. Coupled-channels quantum theory of electronic flux density in electronically adiabatic processes: application to the hydrogen molecule ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diestler, D J; Kenfack, A; Manz, J; Paulus, B

    2012-03-22

    This article presents the results of the first quantum simulations of the electronic flux density (j(e)) by the "coupled-channels" (CC) theory, the fundamentals of which are presented in the previous article [Diestler, D. J. J. Phys. Chem. A 2012, DOI: 10.1021/jp207843z]. The principal advantage of the CC scheme is that it employs exclusively standard methods of quantum chemistry and quantum dynamics within the framework of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation (BOA). The CC theory goes beyond the BOA in that it yields a nonzero j(e) for electronically adiabatic processes, in contradistinction to the BOA itself, which always gives j(e) = 0. The CC is applied to oriented H(2)(+) vibrating in the electronic ground state ((2)Σ(g)(+)), for which the nuclear and electronic flux densities evolve on a common time scale of about 22 fs per vibrational period. The system is chosen as a touchstone for the CC theory, because it is the only one for which highly accurate flux densities have been calculated numerically without invoking the BOA [Barth et al, Chem. Phys. Lett. 2009, 481, 118]. Good agreement between CC and accurate results supports the CC approach, another advantage of which is that it allows a transparent interpretation of the temporal and spatial properties of j(e).

  7. Solar Flux Effect on the Reproducibility of Global/Local-Time Variations of Ion Density Structure at Low-Latitude Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shin-Yi

    Longitudinal/seasonal (l/s) variations of ion density structures at the 600-km low-latitude ionosphere observed by ROCSAT-1 between two similar solar activity years of 2000 and 2002 are examined at four different local-time (LT) regions. The gross feature of l/s density structure is almost identical to each other at the four LT regions examined. A complete reproducibility of density structure can be assumed, including the shape of equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA), for identical solar flux input that also implicitly affect other atmospheric components such as the neutral O/N2 ratio and neutral wind variation. The fact that the solar variability effect is thought as the ultimate driver to shape the global ionospheric structure can be confirmed with the reproduction of ROCSAT observations with the simulation results of the TIEGCM model runs using the observed solar flux inputs for various seasons. However, the EIA crestto-valley ratio or no-valley signature in this background density structure can not be used to infer the post-sunset irregularity occurrence rates because the l/s variation of the magnetic declination effect that determines the post-sunset ionospheric conductivity for the ionospheric electrodynamics can not be readily obtained from this ionospheric background structure.

  8. Analysis of metabolic flux using dynamic labelling and metabolic modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernie, A R; Morgan, J A

    2013-09-01

    Metabolic fluxes and the capacity to modulate them are a crucial component of the ability of the plant cell to react to environmental perturbations. Our ability to quantify them and to attain information concerning the regulatory mechanisms that control them is therefore essential to understand and influence metabolic networks. For all but the simplest of flux measurements labelling methods have proven to be the most informative. Both steady-state and dynamic labelling approaches have been adopted in the study of plant metabolism. Here the conceptual basis of these complementary approaches, as well as their historical application in microbial, mammalian and plant sciences, is reviewed, and an update on technical developments in label distribution analyses is provided. This is supported by illustrative cases studies involving the kinetic modelling of secondary metabolism. One issue that is particularly complex in the analysis of plant fluxes is the extensive compartmentation of the plant cell. This problem is discussed from both theoretical and experimental perspectives, and the current approaches used to address it are assessed. Finally, current limitations and future perspectives of kinetic modelling of plant metabolism are discussed.

  9. HTS axial flux induction motor with analytic and FEA modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, S., E-mail: alexlee.zn@gmail.com; Fan, Y.; Fang, J.; Qin, W.; Lv, G.; Li, J.H.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •A high temperature superconductor axial flux induction motor and a novel maglev scheme are presented. •Analytic method and finite element method have been adopted to model the motor and to calculate the force. •Magnetic field distribution in HTS coil is calculated by analytic method. •An effective method to improve the critical current of HTS coil is presented. •AC losses of HTS coils in the HTS axial flux induction motor are estimated and tested. -- Abstract: This paper presents a high-temperature superconductor (HTS) axial-flux induction motor, which can output levitation force and torque simultaneously. In order to analyze the character of the force, analytic method and finite element method are adopted to model the motor. To make sure the HTS can carry sufficiently large current and work well, the magnetic field distribution in HTS coil is calculated. An effective method to improve the critical current of HTS coil is presented. Then, AC losses in HTS windings in the motor are estimated and tested.

  10. Ionospheric Poynting Flux and Joule Heating Modeling Challenge: Latest Results and New Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, J. S.; Rastaetter, L.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Knipp, D. J.; Zheng, Y.; Cosgrove, R. B.; Newell, P. T.; Weimer, D. R.; Fuller-Rowell, T. J.; Wang, W.

    2014-12-01

    Poynting Flux and Joule Heating in the ionosphere - latest results from the challenge and updates at the CCMC. With the addition of satellite tracking and display features in the online analysis tool and at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC), we are now able to obtain Poynting flux and Joule heating values from a wide variety of ionospheric models. In addition to Poynting fluxes derived from electric and magnetic field measurements from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites for a recent modeling challenge, we can now use a Poynting Flux model derived from FAST satellite observations for comparison. Poynting Fluxes are also correlated using Ovation Prime maps of precipitation patterns during the same time periods to assess how "typical" the events in the challenge are.

  11. Teaching Chemistry with Electron Density Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shusterman, Gwendolyn P.; Shusterman, Alan J.

    1997-07-01

    Linus Pauling once said that a topic must satisfy two criteria before it can be taught to students. First, students must be able to assimilate the topic within a reasonable amount of time. Second, the topic must be relevant to the educational needs and interests of the students. Unfortunately, the standard general chemistry textbook presentation of "electronic structure theory", set as it is in the language of molecular orbitals, has a difficult time satisfying either criterion. Many of the quantum mechanical aspects of molecular orbitals are too difficult for most beginning students to appreciate, much less master, and the few applications that are presented in the typical textbook are too limited in scope to excite much student interest. This article describes a powerful new method for teaching students about electronic structure and its relevance to chemical phenomena. This method, which we have developed and used for several years in general chemistry (G.P.S.) and organic chemistry (A.J.S.) courses, relies on computer-generated three-dimensional models of electron density distributions, and largely satisfies Pauling's two criteria. Students find electron density models easy to understand and use, and because these models are easily applied to a broad range of topics, they successfully convey to students the importance of electronic structure. In addition, when students finally learn about orbital concepts they are better prepared because they already have a well-developed three-dimensional picture of electronic structure to fall back on. We note in this regard that the types of models we use have found widespread, rigorous application in chemical research (1, 2), so students who understand and use electron density models do not need to "unlearn" anything before progressing to more advanced theories.

  12. First observational application of a connectivity--based helicity flux density

    CERN Document Server

    Dalmasse, K; Valori, G; Démoulin, P; Green, L M

    2013-01-01

    Measuring the magnetic helicity distribution in the solar corona can help in understanding the trigger of solar eruptive events because magnetic helicity is believed to play a key role in solar activity due to its conservation property. A new method for computing the photospheric distribution of the helicity flux was recently developed. This method takes into account the magnetic field connectivity whereas previous methods were based on photospheric signatures only. This novel method maps the true injection of magnetic helicity in active regions. We applied this method for the first time to an observed active region, NOAA 11158, which was the source of intense flaring activity. We used high-resolution vector magnetograms from the SDO/HMI instrument to compute the photospheric flux transport velocities and to perform a nonlinear force-free magnetic field extrapolation. We determined and compared the magnetic helicity flux distribution using a purely photospheric as well as a connectivity-based method. While th...

  13. A Dynamic Flux Dissolution Model for Oxygen Steelmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadrolkar, Ameya; Andersson, Nils Å. I.; Dogan, Neslihan

    2017-02-01

    A modified model for prediction of flux dissolution in oxygen steelmaking process is presented in this study. The aim of this paper is to introduce a procedure for simulating the amount of dissolved lime with respect to the saturation concentration of CaO by coupling the existing thermodynamic and kinetic models simultaneously. The procedure is developed to calculate the saturation concentrations/solubility of CaO in slag using thermodynamic models namely FactSage™, Cell Model, and Thermo-Calc™. Total amount of dissolved lime is evaluated by integrating solubility values in the rate equation of lime dissolution over time taking into account the effects of physical properties and temperature of slag and particle size of flux additions and validated against industrial data available in literature. Comparison between measured and calculated undissolved lime shows a good agreement between them using any thermodynamic models even though there are some differences in the predictions of saturation concentration of CaO in slag. It has been shown that two distinct control mechanisms for lime dissolution in BOF slags exist and consideration of the free lime-controlled mechanism is essential for accurate prediction of dissolution rate of lime in slag.

  14. Antiproton Flux in Cosmic Ray Propagation Models with Anisotropic Diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Grajek, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    Recently a cosmic ray propagation model has been introduced, where anisotropic diffusion is used as a mechanism to allow for $\\mathcal{O}(100)$ km/s galactic winds. This model predicts a reduced antiproton background flux, suggesting an excess is being observed. We implement this model in GALPROP v50.1 and perform a $\\chi^2$ analysis for B/C, $^{10}$Be/$^{9}$Be, and the recent PAMELA $\\bar{p}/p$ datasets. By introducing a power-index parameter $\\alpha$ that dictates the dependence of the diffusion coefficient $D_{xx}$ on height $|z|$ away from the galactic plane, we confirm that isotropic diffusion models with $\\alpha=0$ cannot accommodate high velocity convective winds suggested by ROSAT, while models with $\\alpha=1$ ($D_{xx}\\propto |z|$) can give a very good fit. A fit to B/C and $^{10}$Be/$^{9}$Be data predicts a lower $\\bar{p}/p$ flux ratio than the PAMELA measurement at energies between approximately 2 GeV to 20 GeV. A combined fit including in addition the $\\bar{p}/p$ data is marginal, suggesting only a...

  15. A Dynamic Flux Dissolution Model for Oxygen Steelmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadrolkar, Ameya; Andersson, Nils Å. I.; Dogan, Neslihan

    2016-08-01

    A modified model for prediction of flux dissolution in oxygen steelmaking process is presented in this study. The aim of this paper is to introduce a procedure for simulating the amount of dissolved lime with respect to the saturation concentration of CaO by coupling the existing thermodynamic and kinetic models simultaneously. The procedure is developed to calculate the saturation concentrations/solubility of CaO in slag using thermodynamic models namely FactSage™, Cell Model, and Thermo-Calc™. Total amount of dissolved lime is evaluated by integrating solubility values in the rate equation of lime dissolution over time taking into account the effects of physical properties and temperature of slag and particle size of flux additions and validated against industrial data available in literature. Comparison between measured and calculated undissolved lime shows a good agreement between them using any thermodynamic models even though there are some differences in the predictions of saturation concentration of CaO in slag. It has been shown that two distinct control mechanisms for lime dissolution in BOF slags exist and consideration of the free lime-controlled mechanism is essential for accurate prediction of dissolution rate of lime in slag.

  16. Order and creep in flux lattices and charge density wave pinned by planar defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petković, Aleksandra; Nattermann, Thomas

    2008-12-31

    The influence of randomly distributed point impurities and planar defects on the order and transport in type-II superconductors and related systems is considered theoretical. For random planar defects of identical orientation, the flux line lattice exhibits a new glassy phase with diverging shear and tilt modulus, a transverse Meissner effect, large sample to sample fluctuations of the susceptibility, and an exponential decay of translational long range order. The flux creep resistivity for currents J parallel to the defects is p(J) to approximately exp-(J0/J)mu with mu = 3/2. Strong disorder enforces an array of dislocations to relax shear

  17. Impact of current speed on mass flux to a model flexible seagrass blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jiarui; Nepf, Heidi

    2016-07-01

    Seagrass and other freshwater macrophytes can acquire nutrients from surrounding water through their blades. This flux may depend on the current speed (U), which can influence both the posture of flexible blades (reconfiguration) and the thickness of the flux-limiting diffusive layer. The impact of current speed (U) on mass flux to flexible blades of model seagrass was studied through a combination of laboratory flume experiments, numerical modeling and theory. Model seagrass blades were constructed from low-density polyethylene (LDPE), and 1, 2-dichlorobenzene was used as a tracer chemical. The tracer mass accumulation in the blades was measured at different unidirectional current speeds. A numerical model was used to estimate the transfer velocity (K) by fitting the measured mass uptake to a one-dimensional diffusion model. The measured transfer velocity was compared to predictions based on laminar and turbulent boundary layers developing over a flat plate parallel to flow, for which K∝U0.5 and ∝U, respectively. The degree of blade reconfiguration depended on the dimensionless Cauchy number, Ca, which is a function of both the blade stiffness and flow velocity. For large Ca, the majority of the blade was parallel to the flow, and the measured transfer velocity agreed with laminar boundary layer theory, K∝U0.5. For small Ca, the model blades remained upright, and the flux to the blade was diminished relative to the flat-plate model. A meadow-scale analysis suggests that the mass exchange at the blade scale may control the uptake at the meadow scale.

  18. Atmospheric neutrino flux calculation using the NRLMSISE00 atmospheric model

    CERN Document Server

    Honda, M; Kajita, T; Kasahara, K; Midorikawa, S

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we extend the calculation of the atmospheric neutrino flux~\\cite{hkkm2004,hkkms2006,hkkm2011} to the sites in polar and tropical regions. In our earliest full 3D-calculation~\\cite{hkkm2004}, we used DPMJET-III~\\cite{dpm} for the hadronic interaction model above 5~GeV, and NUCRIN~\\cite{nucrin} below 5~GeV. We modified DPMJET-III as in Ref.~\\cite{hkkms2006} to reproduce the experimental muon spectra better, mainly using the data observed by BESS group~\\cite{BESSTeVpHemu}. In a recent work~\\cite{hkkm2011}, we introduced JAM interaction model for the low energy hadronic interactions. JAM is a nuclear interaction model developed with PHITS (Particle and Heavy-Ion Transport code System)~\\cite{phits}. In Ref.~\\cite{hkkm2011}, we could reproduce the observed muon flux at the low energies at balloon altitude with DPMJET-III above 32 GeV and JAM below that better than the combination of DPMJET-III above 5~GeV and NUCRIN below that. Besides the interaction model, we have also improved the calculation sche...

  19. Spontaneous synthesis of carbon nanowalls, nanotubes and nanotips using high flux density plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bystrov, K.; M. C. M. van de Sanden,; Arnas, C.; Marot, L.; Mathys, D.; Liu, F.; L.K. Xu,; X.B. Li,; A.V. Shalpegin,; De Temmerman, G.

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the formation of various carbon nanostructures using extreme plasma fluxes up to four orders of magnitude larger than in conventional plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition processing. Carbon nanowalls, multi-wall nanotubes, spherical nanoparticles and nanotips are among the

  20. The effect of a spatially heterogeneous transmural water flux on concentration polarization of low density lipoprotein in arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Peter E; Sherwin, Spencer J; Weinberg, Peter D

    2009-04-22

    Uptake of low density lipoprotein (LDL) by the arterial wall is likely to play a key role in atherogenesis. A particular process that may cause vascular scale heterogeneity in the rate of transendothelial LDL transport is the formation of a flow-dependent LDL concentration polarization layer on the luminal surface of the arterial endothelium. In this study, the effect of a spatially heterogeneous transmural water flux (that traverses the endothelium only via interendothelial cell clefts) on such concentration polarization is investigated numerically. Unlike in previous investigations, realistic intercellular cleft dimensions are used here and several values of LDL diffusivity are considered. Particular attention is paid to the spatially averaged LDL concentration adjacent to different regions of the endothelial surface, as such measures may be relevant to the rate of transendothelial LDL transport. It is demonstrated in principle that a heterogeneous transmural water flux can act to enhance such measures, and cause them to develop a shear dependence (in addition to that caused by vascular scale flow features, affecting the overall degree of LDL concentration polarization). However, it is shown that this enhancement and additional shear dependence are likely to be negligible for a physiologically realistic transmural flux velocity of 0.0439 mum s(-1) and an LDL diffusivity (in blood plasma) of 28.67 mum(2) s(-1). Hence, the results imply that vascular scale studies of LDL concentration polarization are justified in ignoring the effect of a spatially heterogeneous transmural water flux.

  1. Sap flow measurements combining sap-flux density radial profiles with punctual sap-flux density measurements in oak trees (Quercus ilex and Quercus pyrenaica) - water-use implications in a water-limited savanna-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, J. Leonardo; Lubczynski1, Maciek W.

    2010-05-01

    Sap flow measurement is a key aspect for understanding how plants use water and their impacts on the ecosystems. A variety of sensors have been developed to measure sap flow, each one with its unique characteristics. When the aim of a research is to have accurate tree water use calculations, with high temporal and spatial resolution (i.e. scaled), a sensor with high accuracy, high measurement efficiency, low signal-to-noise ratio and low price is ideal, but such has not been developed yet. Granier's thermal dissipation probes (TDP) have been widely used in many studies and various environmental conditions because of its simplicity, reliability, efficiency and low cost. However, it has two major flaws when is used in semi-arid environments and broad-stem tree species: it is often affected by high natural thermal gradients (NTG), which distorts the measurements, and it cannot measure the radial variability of sap-flux density in trees with sapwood thicker than two centimeters. The new, multi point heat field deformation sensor (HFD) is theoretically not affected by NTG, and it can measure the radial variability of the sap flow at different depths. However, its high cost is a serious limitation when simultaneous measurements are required in several trees (e.g. catchment-scale studies). The underlying challenge is to develop a monitoring schema in which HFD and TDP are combined to satisfy the needs of measurement efficiency and accuracy in water accounting. To assess the level of agreement between TDP and HFD methods in quantifying sap flow rates and temporal patterns on Quercus ilex (Q.i ) and Quercus pyrenaica trees (Q.p.), three measurement schemas: standard TDP, TDP-NTG-corrected and HFD were compared in dry season at the semi-arid Sardon area, near Salamanca in Spain in the period from June to September 2009. To correct TDP measurements with regard to radial sap flow variability, a radial sap flux density correction factor was applied and tested by adjusting TDP

  2. HTS axial flux induction motor with analytic and FEA modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S.; Fan, Y.; Fang, J.; Qin, W.; Lv, G.; Li, J. H.

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents a high-temperature superconductor (HTS) axial-flux induction motor, which can output levitation force and torque simultaneously. In order to analyze the character of the force, analytic method and finite element method are adopted to model the motor. To make sure the HTS can carry sufficiently large current and work well, the magnetic field distribution in HTS coil is calculated. An effective method to improve the critical current of HTS coil is presented. Then, AC losses in HTS windings in the motor are estimated and tested.

  3. Local models of heterotic flux vacua: spacetime and worldsheet aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Israel, D. [GRECO, Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, 98bis Bd Arago, 75014 Paris (France); Carlevaro, L. [LAREMA, Universite d' Angers, 2 Bd Lavoisier, 49045 Angers (France); Centre de Physique Theorique, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France)

    2011-07-01

    We report on some recent progress in understanding heterotic flux compactifications, from a worldsheet perspective mainly. We consider local models consisting in torus fibration over warped Eguchi-Hanson space and non-Kaehler resolved conifold geometries. We analyze the supergravity solutions and define a double-scaling limit of the resolved singularities, defined such that the geometry is smooth and weakly coupled. We show that, remarkably, the heterotic solutions admit solvable worldsheet CFT descriptions in this limit. This allows in particular to understand the important role of worldsheet non-perturbative effects. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Stratified flows with variable density: mathematical modelling and numerical challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Javier; Navas-Montilla, Adrian

    2017-04-01

    Stratified flows appear in a wide variety of fundamental problems in hydrological and geophysical sciences. They may involve from hyperconcentrated floods carrying sediment causing collapse, landslides and debris flows, to suspended material in turbidity currents where turbulence is a key process. Also, in stratified flows variable horizontal density is present. Depending on the case, density varies according to the volumetric concentration of different components or species that can represent transported or suspended materials or soluble substances. Multilayer approaches based on the shallow water equations provide suitable models but are not free from difficulties when moving to the numerical resolution of the governing equations. Considering the variety of temporal and spatial scales, transfer of mass and energy among layers may strongly differ from one case to another. As a consequence, in order to provide accurate solutions, very high order methods of proved quality are demanded. Under these complex scenarios it is necessary to observe that the numerical solution provides the expected order of accuracy but also converges to the physically based solution, which is not an easy task. To this purpose, this work will focus in the use of Energy balanced augmented solvers, in particular, the Augmented Roe Flux ADER scheme. References: J. Murillo , P. García-Navarro, Wave Riemann description of friction terms in unsteady shallow flows: Application to water and mud/debris floods. J. Comput. Phys. 231 (2012) 1963-2001. J. Murillo B. Latorre, P. García-Navarro. A Riemann solver for unsteady computation of 2D shallow flows with variable density. J. Comput. Phys.231 (2012) 4775-4807. A. Navas-Montilla, J. Murillo, Energy balanced numerical schemes with very high order. The Augmented Roe Flux ADER scheme. Application to the shallow water equations, J. Comput. Phys. 290 (2015) 188-218. A. Navas-Montilla, J. Murillo, Asymptotically and exactly energy balanced augmented flux

  5. Optimization of Magneto-Rheological Damper for Maximizing Magnetic Flux Density in the Fluid Flow Gap Through FEA and GA Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Hemanth; Kumar, Hemantha; Gangadharan, Kalluvalappil

    2016-06-01

    A magneto rheological (MR) fluid damper offers cost effective solution for semiactive vibration control in an automobile suspension. The performance of MR damper is significantly depends on the electromagnetic circuit incorporated into it. The force developed by MR fluid damper is highly influenced by the magnetic flux density induced in the fluid flow gap. In the present work, optimization of electromagnetic circuit of an MR damper is discussed in order to maximize the magnetic flux density. The optimization procedure was proposed by genetic algorithm and design of experiments techniques. The result shows that the fluid flow gap size less than 1.12 mm cause significant increase of magnetic flux density.

  6. Optimization of Magneto-Rheological Damper for Maximizing Magnetic Flux Density in the Fluid Flow Gap Through FEA and GA Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Hemanth; Kumar, Hemantha; Gangadharan, Kalluvalappil

    2017-08-01

    A magneto rheological (MR) fluid damper offers cost effective solution for semiactive vibration control in an automobile suspension. The performance of MR damper is significantly depends on the electromagnetic circuit incorporated into it. The force developed by MR fluid damper is highly influenced by the magnetic flux density induced in the fluid flow gap. In the present work, optimization of electromagnetic circuit of an MR damper is discussed in order to maximize the magnetic flux density. The optimization procedure was proposed by genetic algorithm and design of experiments techniques. The result shows that the fluid flow gap size less than 1.12 mm cause significant increase of magnetic flux density.

  7. Demonstration of the density dependence of x-ray flux in a laser-driven hohlraum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, P E; Rosen, M D; Hammer, J H; Hsing, W S; Glendinning, S G; Turner, R E; Kirkwood, R; Schein, J; Sorce, C; Satcher, J H; Hamza, A; Reibold, R A; Hibbard, R; Landen, O; Reighard, A; McAlpin, S; Stevenson, M; Thomas, B

    2008-07-18

    Experiments have been conducted using laser-driven cylindrical hohlraums whose walls are machined from Ta2O5 foams of 100 mg/cc and 4 g/cc densities. Measurements of the radiation temperature demonstrate that the lower density walls produce higher radiation temperatures than the high density walls. This is the first experimental demonstration of the prediction that this would occur [M. D. Rosen and J. H. Hammer, Phys. Rev. E 72, 056403 (2005)10.1103/PhysRevE.72.056403]. For high density walls, the radiation front propagates subsonically, and part of the absorbed energy is wasted by the flow kinetic energy. For the lower wall density, the front velocity is supersonic and can devote almost all of the absorbed energy to heating the wall.

  8. Neutrino fluxes from constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model lightest supersymmetric particle annihilations in the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; Savage, Christopher; Spanos, Vassilis C

    2010-01-01

    We evaluate the neutrino fluxes to be expected from neutralino LSP annihilations inside the Sun, within the minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model with supersymmetry-breaking scalar and gaugino masses constrained to be universal at the GUT scale (the CMSSM). We find that there are large regions of typical CMSSM $(m_{1/2}, m_0)$ planes where the LSP density inside the Sun is not in equilibrium, so that the annihilation rate may be far below the capture rate. We show that neutrino fluxes are dependent on the solar model at the 20% level, and adopt the AGSS09 model of Serenelli et al. for our detailed studies. We find that there are large regions of the CMSSM $(m_{1/2}, m_0)$ planes where the capture rate is not dominated by spin-dependent LSP-proton scattering, e.g., at large $m_{1/2}$ along the CMSSM coannihilation strip. We calculate neutrino fluxes above various threshold energies for points along the coannihilation/rapid-annihilation and focus-point strips where the CMSSM yields the correct ...

  9. Measurements and modelling of snowmelt and turbulent heat fluxes over shrub tundra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bewley

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of snowmelt and turbulent heat fluxes were made during the snowmelt periods of two years at two neighbouring tundra sites in the Yukon, one in a sheltered location with tall shrubs exposed above deep snow and the other in an exposed location with dwarf shrubs covered by shallow snow. The snow was about twice as deep in the valley as on the plateau at the end of each winter and melted out about 10 days later. The site with buried vegetation showed a transition from air-to-surface heat transfers to surface-to-air heat transfers as bare ground became exposed during snowmelt, but there were daytime transfers of heat from the surface to the air at the site with exposed vegetation even while snow remained on the ground. A model calculating separate energy balances for snow and exposed vegetation, driven with meteorological data from the sites, is found to be able to reproduce these behaviours. Averaged over 30-day periods the model gives about 8 Wm−2 more sensible heat flux to the atmosphere for the valley site than for the plateau site. Sensitivity of simulated fluxes to model parameters describing vegetation cover and density is investigated.

  10. A multiple flux-tube solar wind model

    CERN Document Server

    Pinto, Rui F

    2016-01-01

    We present a new model, MULTI-VP, that computes the three-dimensional structure of the solar wind which includes the chromosphere, the transition region, and the corona and low heliosphere. MULTI- VP calculates a large ensemble of wind profiles flowing along open magnetic field-lines which sample the whole three-dimensional atmosphere or, alternatively, on a given region of interest. The radial domain starts from the photosphere and extends, typically, to about 30 $R_{sun}$ . The elementary uni-dimensional wind solutions are based on a mature numerical scheme which was adapted in order to accept any flux-tube geometry. We discuss here the first results obtained with this model. We use Potential Field Source-Surface (PFSS) extrapolations of magnetograms from the Wilcox Solar Observatory (WSO) to determine the structure of the background magnetic field. Our results support the hypothesis that the geometry of the magnetic flux-tubes in the lower corona controls the distribution of slow and fast wind flows. The i...

  11. Modeling Evaporative Upflows Through a Flux Tube of Nonconstant Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unverferth, John E.; Longcope, Dana

    2016-05-01

    Chromospheric evaporation is a long studied part of solar flares. Spectroscopic observations of flares typically show subsonic upflows. This contrasts with simulations which consistently predict supersonic evaporation flows. One possible explanation is that the actual flows occur though flux tubes which expand from confined photospheric sources to volume-filling coronal field. Very few flare simulations to date have accounted for this geometry, and run instead with flare loops of uniform cross section. It is well known that transonic flows are dramatically affected by their geoemetry, and can exhibit shocks under certain circumstances.To investigate this we created a simple model of the canopy of magnetic field. This exhibited the expected expansion but also showed some cases of over-expansion followed by constriction. The flow through those flux tubes will encounter a kind of chamber. We then used a one-dimensional isothermal hydrodynamics to model the flow of plasma through such a chamber. According to this simulation, there exists a set of inflow parameters that will generate a standing shock inside the chamber. This solution results in a sonic outflow from a supersonic inflow.

  12. Proposal of C-core Type Transverse Flux Motor for Ship Propulsion – Increasing Torque Density by Dense Stator Configuration –

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Yamamoto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Electric ship propulsion system has been drawing attention as a solution for savings in energy and maintenance costs. The system is mainly composed of motor, converter and gearbox and required for high torque at low speed. In this situation, transverse flux motors (TFMs have been proposed to fulfill the low-speed high-torque characteristic due to suitable for short pole pitch and large number of poles to increase torque output. In this trend, we have proposed C-core type motors taking advantage of TFMs’ structure. In this manuscript, a simple design method based on the magnetic-circuit theory and simple modeling of the motor is proposed to search a design parameter for maximizing torque as a pre-process of numerical study. The method takes into consideration the effects of magnetic leakage flux, magnetic saturation and pole-core combination in accordance with the systematic theory. The simple modeling is conducted based on a dense armature structure in previous axial flux motors (AFMs applied to the new motor design. The validity of the method is verified by 3-D finite element analysis (FEA and relative error is at most 20%. The minimalist design is shown to be advantageous for effective use in 3-D FEA. As a detailed design by the FEA, high torque density and low cogging to output ratio can be achieved simultaneously in the proposed machine.

  13. A Model for the Origin of High Density in Looptop X-Ray Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longcope, D. W.; Guidoni, S. E.

    2011-10-01

    Super-hot (SH) looptop sources, detected in some large solar flares, are compact sources of HXR emission with spectra matching thermal electron populations exceeding 30 MK. High observed emission measure (EM) and inference of electron thermalization within the small source region both provide evidence of high densities at the looptop, typically more than an order of magnitude above ambient. Where some investigators have suggested such density enhancement results from a rapid enhancement in the magnetic field strength, we propose an alternative model, based on Petschek reconnection, whereby looptop plasma is heated and compressed by slow magnetosonic shocks generated self-consistently through flux retraction following reconnection. Under steady conditions such shocks can enhance density by no more than a factor of four. These steady shock relations (Rankine-Hugoniot relations) turn out to be inapplicable to Petschek's model owing to transient effects of thermal conduction. The actual density enhancement can in fact exceed a factor of 10 over the entire reconnection outflow. An ensemble of flux tubes retracting following reconnection at an ensemble of distinct sites will have a collective EM proportional to the rate of flux tube production. This rate, distinct from the local reconnection rate within a single tube, can be measured separately through flare ribbon motion. Typical flux transfer rates and loop parameters yield EMs comparable to those observed in SH sources.

  14. Calibration and evaluation of CCD spectroradiometers for ground-based and airborne measurements of spectral actinic flux densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Birger; Lohse, Insa

    2017-09-01

    The properties and performance of charge-coupled device (CCD) array spectroradiometers for the measurement of atmospheric spectral actinic flux densities (280-650 nm) and photolysis frequencies were investigated. These instruments are widely used in atmospheric research and are suitable for aircraft applications because of high time resolutions and high sensitivities in the UV range. The laboratory characterization included instrument-specific properties like the wavelength accuracy, dark signal, dark noise and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Spectral sensitivities were derived from measurements with spectral irradiance standards. The calibration procedure is described in detail, and a straightforward method to minimize the influence of stray light on spectral sensitivities is introduced. From instrument dark noise, minimum detection limits ≈ 1 × 1010 cm-2 s-1 nm-1 were derived for spectral actinic flux densities at wavelengths around 300 nm (1 s integration time). As a prerequisite for the determination of stray light under field conditions, atmospheric cutoff wavelengths were defined using radiative transfer calculations as a function of the solar zenith angle (SZA) and total ozone column (TOC). The recommended analysis of field data relies on these cutoff wavelengths and is also described in detail taking data from a research flight on HALO (High Altitude and Long Range Research Aircraft) as an example. An evaluation of field data was performed by ground-based comparisons with a double-monochromator-based, highly sensitive reference spectroradiometer. Spectral actinic flux densities were compared as well as photolysis frequencies j(NO2) and j(O1D), representing UV-A and UV-B ranges, respectively. The spectra expectedly revealed increased daytime levels of stray-light-induced signals and noise below atmospheric cutoff wavelengths. The influence of instrument noise and stray-light-induced noise was found to be insignificant for j(NO2) and rather limited for j(O1D

  15. Critical current density and flux pinning in Zr0.96V0.04B2 superconductor with AlB2 structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Soon-Gil; Vanacken, J.; Moshchalkov, V. V.; Renosto, S. T.; dos Santos, C. A. M.; Machado, A. J. S.; Fisk, Z.; Albino Aguiar, J.

    2013-10-01

    We have investigated the critical current density (Jc) and the flux pinning behavior in Zr0.96V0.04B2 superconductor with an AlB2 structure. V substitutions in Zr sites of non-superconducting ZrB2 system lead to superconductivity, and the 4% V-substituted Zr0.96V0.04B2 compounds show the highest superconducting transition temperature (Tc) of ˜8.7 K. The magnetic hysteresis (M-H) loops for the Zr0.96V0.04B2 demonstrate type-II superconducting behavior in a broad temperature range, and the Jc is estimated from the M-H loops using the Bean model. The analysis of the double-logarithmic Jc(H) plots indicates the dominance of collective pinning in Zr0.96V0.04B2, and that Jc(H) and magnetic field dependences of the flux pinning force density (Fp) are well fitted by the double exponential model which takes into account the existence of two superconducting gaps.

  16. Observed and modeled surface eddy heat fluxes in the eastern Nordic Seas

    OpenAIRE

    Isachsen, P.E. .; Koszalka, Inga Monika; LaCasce, J. H.

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale budget calculations and numerical model process studies suggest that lateral eddy heat fluxes have an important cooling effect on the Norwegian Atlantic Current (NwAC) as it flows through the Nordic Seas. But observational estimates of such fluxes have been lacking. Here, wintertime surface eddy heat fluxes in the eastern Nordic Seas are estimated from surface drifter data, satellite data and an eddy-permitting numerical model. Maps of the eddy heat flux divergence suggest advecti...

  17. Effect of chemical degradation on fluxes of reactive compounds – a study with a stochastic Lagrangian transport model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rinne

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the analyses of VOC fluxes measured above plant canopies, one usually assumes the flux above canopy to equal the exchange at the surface. Thus one assumes the chemical degradation to be much slower than the turbulent transport. We used a stochastic Lagrangian transport model in which the chemical degradation was described as first order decay in order to study the effect of the chemical degradation on above canopy fluxes of chemically reactive species. With the model we explored the sensitivity of the ratio of the above canopy flux to the surface emission on several parameters such as chemical lifetime of the compound, friction velocity, stability, and canopy density. Our results show that friction velocity and chemical lifetime affected the loss during transport the most. The canopy density had a significant effect if the chemically reactive compound was emitted from the forest floor. We used the results of the simulations together with oxidant data measured during HUMPPA-COPEC-2010 campaign at a Scots pine site to estimate the effect of the chemistry on fluxes of three typical biogenic VOCs, isoprene, α-pinene, and β-caryophyllene. Of these, the chemical degradation had a major effect on the fluxes of the most reactive species β-caryophyllene, while the fluxes of α-pinene were affected during nighttime. For these two compounds representing the mono- and sesquiterpenes groups, the effect of chemical degradation had also a significant diurnal cycle with the highest chemical loss at night. The different day and night time loss terms need to be accounted for, when measured fluxes of reactive compounds are used to reveal relations between primary emission and environmental parameters.

  18. Performance model to predict overall defect density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Venkatesh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Management by metrics is the expectation from the IT service providers to stay as a differentiator. Given a project, the associated parameters and dynamics, the behaviour and outcome need to be predicted. There is lot of focus on the end state and in minimizing defect leakage as much as possible. In most of the cases, the actions taken are re-active. It is too late in the life cycle. Root cause analysis and corrective actions can be implemented only to the benefit of the next project. The focus has to shift left, towards the execution phase than waiting for lessons to be learnt post the implementation. How do we pro-actively predict defect metrics and have a preventive action plan in place. This paper illustrates the process performance model to predict overall defect density based on data from projects in an organization.

  19. A study of the effects of flux density and frequency of pulsed electromagnetic field on neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Ding, Jun; Duan, Wei

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of pulsed electromagnetic fields with various flux densities and frequencies on neurite outgrowth in PC12 rat pheochromocytoma cells. We have studied the percentage of neurite-bearing cells, average length of neurites and directivity of neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells cultured for 96 hours in the presence of nerve growth factor (NGF). PC12 cells were exposed to 50 Hz pulsed electromagnetic fields with a flux density of 1.37 mT, 0.19 mT and 0.016 mT respectively. The field was generated through a Helmholtz coil pair housed in one incubator and the control samples were placed in another identical incubator. It was found that exposure to both a relatively high flux density (1.37 mT) and a medium flux density (0.19 mT) inhibited the percentage of neurite-bearing cells and promoted neurite length significantly. Exposure to high flux density (1.37 mT) also resulted in nearly 20% enhancement of neurite directivity along the field direction. However, exposure to low flux density field (0.016 mT) had no detectable effect on neurite outgrowth. We also studied the effect of frequency at the constant flux density of 1.37 mT. In the range from 1 approximately 100 Hz, only 50 and 70 Hz pulse frequencies had significant effects on neurite outgrowth. Our study has shown that neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells is sensitive to flux density and frequency of pulsed electromagnetic field.

  20. High Flux Isotope Reactor system RELAP5 input model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, D.G.; Wendel, M.W.

    1993-01-01

    A thermal-hydraulic computational model of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) has been developed using the RELAP5 program. The purpose of the model is to provide a state-of-the art thermal-hydraulic simulation tool for analyzing selected hypothetical accident scenarios for a revised HFIR Safety Analysis Report (SAR). The model includes (1) a detailed representation of the reactor core and other vessel components, (2) three heat exchanger/pump cells, (3) pressurizing pumps and letdown valves, and (4) secondary coolant system (with less detail than the primary system). Data from HFIR operation, component tests, tests in facility mockups and the HFIR, HFIR specific experiments, and other pertinent experiments performed independent of HFIR were used to construct the model and validate it to the extent permitted by the data. The detailed version of the model has been used to simulate loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs), while the abbreviated version has been developed for the operational transients that allow use of a less detailed nodalization. Analysis of station blackout with core long-term decay heat removal via natural convection has been performed using the core and vessel portions of the detailed model.

  1. Seeding magnetic fields for laser-driven flux compression in high-energy-density plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotchev, O V; Knauer, J P; Chang, P Y; Jang, N W; Shoup, M J; Meyerhofer, D D; Betti, R

    2009-04-01

    A compact, self-contained magnetic-seed-field generator (5 to 16 T) is the enabling technology for a novel laser-driven flux-compression scheme in laser-driven targets. A magnetized target is directly irradiated by a kilojoule or megajoule laser to compress the preseeded magnetic field to thousands of teslas. A fast (300 ns), 80 kA current pulse delivered by a portable pulsed-power system is discharged into a low-mass coil that surrounds the laser target. A >15 T target field has been demonstrated using a capacitor bank, a laser-triggered switch, and a low-impedance (<1 Omega) strip line. The device has been integrated into a series of magnetic-flux-compression experiments on the 60 beam, 30 kJ OMEGA laser [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. The initial application is a novel magneto-inertial fusion approach [O. V. Gotchev et al., J. Fusion Energy 27, 25 (2008)] to inertial confinement fusion (ICF), where the amplified magnetic field can inhibit thermal conduction losses from the hot spot of a compressed target. This can lead to the ignition of massive shells imploded with low velocity-a way of reaching higher gains than is possible with conventional ICF.

  2. Comparison between theoretical footprint models and experimental measurements of intra-field spatial variability scalar fluxes over different sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masseroni, D.; Corbari, C.; Ceppi, A.; Milleo, G.; Mancini, M.

    2012-04-01

    Not many experimental data about intra-field spatial variability of scalar flux densities are presented in literature. In this work theoretical footprint models and experimental intra-field turbulent fluxes of latent, sensible heat and CO2 were compared. The experimental data were obtained using a mobile eddy covariance station moving it from a discontinuity point, represented by the field edge, to the centre of the field where a fixed eddy covariance station was placed. The experimental fields were in Landriano (PV) in the Po Valley, Italy and Barrax (Albacete) in Spain. Simple analytical footprint models that describe the representative source area for turbulent fluxes were compared with the experimental data. Mathematical relationship between footprint models and gamma function was explained. Energy balance closure was calculated starting from fixed tower measurements. Aerodynamic roughness and gamma distribution parameters were estimated for these specific fields.

  3. Influences of environmental factors on the radial profile of sap flux density in Fagus crenata growing at different elevations in the Naeba Mountains, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Mitsumasa; Tenhunen, John; Zimmerman, Reiner; Schmidt, Markus; Adiku, Samuel; Kakubari, Yoshitaka

    2005-05-01

    Sap flux density was measured continuously during the 1999 and 2000 growing seasons by the heat dissipation method in natural Fagus crenata Blume (Japanese beech) forests growing between 550 and 1600 m on the northern slope of the Kagura Peak of the Naeba Mountains, Japan. Sap flux density decreased radially toward the inner xylem and the decrease was best expressed in relation to the number of annual rings from the cambium, or in relation to the relative depth between the cambium and the trunk center, rather than as a function of absolute depth. The relative influences of radiation, vapor pressure deficit and soil water on sap flux density during the growing season were similar for the outer and inner xylem, and at all sites. Measurements of soil water content and water potential at a depth of 0.25 m demonstrated that sap flux density responded similarly and sensitively to water potential changes in this soil layer, despite large differences in rooting depth at different elevations, localizing one important control point in the functioning of this forest ecosystem. Identification of the relative influences of radiation, vapor pressure deficit and drying of the upper soil layer on sap flux density provides a framework for in-depth analysis of the control of transpiration in Japanese beech forests. In addition, the finding that the same general controls are operating on sap flux density despite climate gradients and large differences in overall forest stand structure will enhance understanding of water use by forests along elevation gradients.

  4. A DETERMINATION OF THE FLUX DENSITY IN CORE OF DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMERS, WHAT BUILT WITH THE COMMON USING OF GRAIN AND NON GRAIN ORIENTED MAGNETIC STEELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Pentegov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The development of calculation method to determinate the flux densities in different parts of the magnetic cores of distribution transformers, what built from different types magnetic steel (mixed core. Methodology. The method is based on the scientific positions of Theoretical Electrical Engineering – the theory of the electromagnetic field in nonlinear mediums to determine the distribution of magnetic flux in mixed core of transformer, what are using different types of steel what have the different magnetic properties. Results. The developed method gives possible to make calculation of the flux density and influence of skin effect in different parts of the magnetic cores of distribution transformer, where are used mix of grain oriented (GO and non grain oriented (NGO steels. Was determinate the general basic conditions for the calculation of flux density in the laminations from grain and non grain oriented steels of the magnetic core: the strength of magnetic field for the laminations of particular part of mixed core is the same; the sum of the magnetic fluxes in GO and NGO steels in particular part of mixed core is equal with the designed magnetic flux in this part of mixed core. Discover, the magnetic flux in mixed core of the transformer has specific distribution between magnetic steels. The flux density is higher in laminations from GO steel and smaller in laminations from the NGO steel. That is happened because for magnetic flux is easier pass through laminations from GO steel, what has better magnetic conductance than laminations from NGO steel. Originality. The common using of different types of magnetic steels in cores for distribution transformers gives possibility to make design of transformer with low level of no load losses, high efficiency and with optimal cost. Practical value. The determination of the flux density in different parts of magnetic core with GO and NGO steels gives possibility make accurate calculation of

  5. Responses of Sap Flux Density to Changing Atmospheric Humidity in Three Common Street Tree Species in Bangkok, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantana Tor-ngern

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Efficient water management in urban landscape is imperative under the projected increases in drought stress under future climate. Because different tree species have different stomatal regulations to prevent water loss under water limitation, comparative study of species-specific responses of water use to changing weather conditions will benefit selective planting of urban trees for sustainable urban greening management. Here, we performed a simple and short-term investigation of water use characteristics of three common street tree species in Bangkok, a major city in Southeast Asia. Species included Pterocarpus indicus (Pi, Swietenia macrophylla (Sm and Lagerstroemia speciosa (Ls. We used self-constructed heat dissipation probes to track water uptake rates, expressed as sap flux density (JS, in stems of potted trees and examined their diurnal variations with changing atmospheric humidity, represented by vapor pressure deficit (D. The results implied that two of the three species: Pi and Sm, may be selected for planting because their Js was less sensitive to changing D compared to Ls. The sap flux density of Ls increased more rapidly with rising D, implying higher sensitivity to drought in Ls, compared to the other two species. Nevertheless, further study on large trees and under longer period of investigation, covering both dry and wet seasons, is required to confirm this finding.

  6. Comparison of CME radial velocities from a flux rope model and an ice cream cone model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T.; Moon, Y.; Na, H.

    2011-12-01

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) on the Sun are the largest energy release process in the solar system and act as the primary driver of geomagnetic storms and other space weather phenomena on the Earth. So it is very important to infer their directions, velocities and three-dimensional structures. In this study, we choose two different models to infer radial velocities of halo CMEs since 2008 : (1) an ice cream cone model by Xue et al (2005) using SOHO/LASCO data, (2) a flux rope model by Thernisien et al. (2009) using the STEREO/SECCHI data. In addition, we use another flux rope model in which the separation angle of flux rope is zero, which is morphologically similar to the ice cream cone model. The comparison shows that the CME radial velocities from among each model have very good correlations (R>0.9). We will extending this comparison to other partial CMEs observed by STEREO and SOHO.

  7. A new density model of Cryptomeria fortunei plantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Xidian; Huang Langzeng; Chen Baohui

    2006-01-01

    According to the volume increase model of an average individual tree in a plant population and the theory of invariable final output,we put forward a new density model of plant population: V-β=ANβ+B.Here N means the stand density and V stands for average individual tree volume;A,B and β are parameters that change with growth stage.Using the density variation of standard plots of Cryptromeriafortunei plantation to verify the new model,it turns out that this model can well simulate the population density effect law of C.fortunei plantation,and it is markedly better and shows higher accuracy than the commonly used reciprocal model of density effect and secondary-effect model.Let β=1,we can obtain the reciprocal model of density effect,which means the reciprocal model of density effect is only a special case of this new model.

  8. Laser-driven magnetic-flux compression in high-energy-density plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotchev, O V; Chang, P Y; Knauer, J P; Meyerhofer, D D; Polomarov, O; Frenje, J; Li, C K; Manuel, M J-E; Petrasso, R D; Rygg, J R; Séguin, F H; Betti, R

    2009-11-20

    The demonstration of magnetic field compression to many tens of megagauss in cylindrical implosions of inertial confinement fusion targets is reported for the first time. The OMEGA laser [T. R. Boehly, Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)10.1016/S0030-4018(96)00325-2] was used to implode cylindrical CH targets filled with deuterium gas and seeded with a strong external field (>50 kG) from a specially developed magnetic pulse generator. This seed field was trapped (frozen) in the shock-heated gas fill and compressed by the imploding shell at a high implosion velocity, minimizing the effect of resistive flux diffusion. The magnetic fields in the compressed core were probed via proton deflectrometry using the fusion products from an imploding D3He target. Line-averaged magnetic fields between 30 and 40 MG were observed.

  9. A Circular-cylindrical Flux-rope Analytical Model for Magnetic Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieves-Chinchilla, T.; Linton, M. G.; Hidalgo, M. A.; Vourlidas, A.; Savani, N. P.; Szabo, A.; Farrugia, C.; Yu, W.

    2016-05-01

    We present an analytical model to describe magnetic flux-rope topologies. When these structures are observed embedded in Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs) with a depressed proton temperature, they are called Magnetic Clouds (MCs). Our model extends the circular-cylindrical concept of Hidalgo et al. by introducing a general form for the radial dependence of the current density. This generalization provides information on the force distribution inside the flux rope in addition to the usual parameters of MC geometrical information and orientation. The generalized model provides flexibility for implementation in 3D MHD simulations. Here, we evaluate its performance in the reconstruction of MCs in in situ observations. Four Earth-directed ICME events, observed by the Wind spacecraft, are used to validate the technique. The events are selected from the ICME Wind list with the magnetic obstacle boundaries chosen consistently with the magnetic field and plasma in situ observations and with a new parameter (EPP, the Electron Pitch angle distribution Parameter) which quantifies the bidirectionally of the plasma electrons. The goodness of the fit is evaluated with a single correlation parameter to enable comparative analysis of the events. In general, at first glance, the model fits the selected events very well. However, a detailed analysis of events with signatures of significant compression indicates the need to explore geometries other than the circular-cylindrical. An extension of our current modeling framework to account for such non-circular CMEs will be presented in a forthcoming publication.

  10. A Self-Consistent Numerical Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Model of Helmet Streamer and Flux-Rope Interactions: Initiation and Propagation of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S. T.; Guo, W. P.

    1997-01-01

    We present results for an investigation of the interaction of a helmet streamer arcade and a helical flux-rope emerging from the sub-photosphere. These results are obtained by using a three-dimensional axisymmetric, time-dependent ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model. Because of the physical nature of the flux-rope, we investigate two types of flux-ropes; (1) high density flux-rope (i.e. flux-rope without cavity), and (2) low density flux rope (i.e. flux-rope with cavity). When the streamer is disrupted by the flux-rope, it will evolve into a configuration resembling the typical observed loop-like Coronal Mass Ejection (CMES) for both cases. The streamer-flux rope system with cavity is easier to be disrupted and the propagation speed of the CME is faster than the streamer-flux rope system without cavity. Our results demonstrate that magnetic buoyancy force plays an important role in disrupting the streamer.

  11. Quantifying Greenland freshwater flux underestimates in climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Christopher M.; Piecuch, Christopher G.; Chaudhuri, Ayan H.

    2016-05-01

    Key processes regulating the mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) are not represented in current-generation climate models. Here using output from 19 different climate models forced with a high-end business-as-usual emissions pathway, we compare modeled freshwater fluxes (FWF) to a parameterization based on midtropospheric temperature. By the mid 21st century, parameterized GIS FWF is 478 ± 215 km3 yr-1 larger than modeled—over 3 times the 1992-2011 rate of GIS mass loss. By the late 21st century, ensemble mean parameterized GIS FWF anomalies are comparable to FWF anomalies over the northern North Atlantic Ocean, equivalent to approximately 11 cm of global mean sea level rise. The magnitude and spread of these underestimates underscores the need for assessments of the coupled response of the ocean to increased FWF that recognize: (1) the widely varying freshwater budgets of each model and (2) uncertainty in the relationship between GIS FWF and atmospheric temperature.

  12. Adjoint-based Sensitivity Analysis for High-Energy Density Radiaitive Transfer using Flux-Limited Diffusion

    OpenAIRE

    Humbird, Kelli D.; McClarren, Ryan G.

    2016-01-01

    Uncertainty quantification and sensitivity analyses are a vital component for predictive modeling in the sciences and engineering. The adjoint approach to sensitivity analysis requires solving a primary system of equations and a mathematically related set of adjoint equations. The information contained in the equations can be combined to produce sensitivity information in a computationally efficient manner. In this work, sensitivity analyses are performed on systems described by flux-limited ...

  13. Improvement of density models of geological structures by fusion of gravity data and cosmic muon radiographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Jourde

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how the resolution of small-scale geological density models is improved through the fusion of information provided by gravity measurements and density muon radiographies. Muon radiography aims at determining the density of geological bodies by measuring their screening effect on the natural flux of cosmic muons. Muon radiography essentially works like medical X-ray scan and integrates density information along elongated narrow conical volumes. Gravity measurements are linked to density by a 3-D integration encompassing the whole studied domain. We establish the mathematical expressions of these integration formulas – called acquisition kernels – and derive the resolving kernels that are spatial filters relating the true unknown density structure to the density distribution actually recovered from the available data. The resolving kernels approach allows to quantitatively describe the improvement of the resolution of the density models achieved by merging gravity data and muon radiographies. The method developed in this paper may be used to optimally design the geometry of the field measurements to perform in order to obtain a given spatial resolution pattern of the density model to construct. The resolving kernels derived in the joined muon/gravimetry case indicate that gravity data are almost useless to constrain the density structure in regions sampled by more than two muon tomography acquisitions. Interestingly the resolution in deeper regions not sampled by muon tomography is significantly improved by joining the two techniques. The method is illustrated with examples for La Soufrière of Guadeloupe volcano.

  14. Emergence flux declines disproportionately to larval density along a stream metals gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Travis S; Kraus, Johanna M; Walters, David M; Wanty, Richard B

    2013-08-01

    Effects of contaminants on adult aquatic insect emergence are less well understood than effects on insect larvae. We compared responses of larval density and adult emergence along a metal contamination gradient. Nonlinear threshold responses were generally observed for larvae and emergers. Larval densities decreased significantly at low metal concentrations but precipitously at concentrations of metal mixtures above aquatic life criteria (cumulative criterion accumulation ratio (CCAR) ≥ 1). In contrast, adult emergence declined precipitously at low metal concentrations (CCAR ≤ 1), followed by a modest decline above this threshold. Adult emergence was a more sensitive indicator of the effect of low metals concentrations on aquatic insect communities compared to larvae, presumably because emergence is limited by a combination of larval survival and other factors limiting successful emergence. Thus effects of exposure to larvae are not manifest until later in life (during metamorphosis and emergence). This loss in emergence reduces prey subsidies to riparian communities at concentrations considered safe for aquatic life. Our results also challenge the widely held assumption that adult emergence is a constant proportion of larval densities in all streams.

  15. A probability density function of liftoff velocities in mixed-size wind sand flux

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    With the discrete element method(DEM) ,employing the diameter distribution of natural sands sampled from the Tengger Desert,a mixed-size sand bed was produced and the particle-bed collision was simulated in the mixed-size wind sand movement. In the simulation,the shear wind velocity,particle diameter,incident velocity and incident angle of the impact sand particle were given the same values as the experimental results. After the particle-bed collision,we collected all the initial velocities of rising sand particles,including the liftoff angular velocities,liftoff linear velocities and their horizontal and vertical components. By the statistical analysis on the velocity sample for each velocity component,its probability density functions were obtained,and they are the functions of the shear wind velocity. The liftoff velocities and their horizontal and vertical components are distributed as an exponential density function,while the angular velocities are distributed as a normal density function.

  16. Diffusivity Models and Greenhouse Gases Fluxes from a Forest, Pasture, Grassland and Corn Field in Northern Hokkaido, Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N.V.NKONGOLO; R.HATANO; V.KAKEMBO

    2010-01-01

    Information on the most influential factors determining gas flux from soils is needed in predictive models for greenhouse gases emissions.We conducted an intensive soil and air sampling along a 2 000 m transect extending from a forest,pasture,grassland and corn field in Shizunai,Hokkaido (Japan),measured CO2,CH4,N2O and NO fluxes and calculated soil bulk density (ρb),air-filled porosity (fa) and total porosity (φ).Using diffusivity models based on either fa alone or on a combination of fa and φ,we predicted two pore space indices:the relative gas diffusion coefficient (Ds/Do) and the pore tortuosity factor (τ).The relationships between pore space indices (Dg/Do and τ) and CO2,CH4,N2O and NO fluxes were also studied.Results showed that the grassland had the highest ρb while fa and φ were the highest in the forest.CO2,CH4,N2O and NO fluxes were the highest in the grassland while N2O dominated in the corn field.Few correlations existed between fa,φ,ρb and gases fluxes while all models predicted that Ds/Do and τ significantly correlated with CO2 and CH4 with correlation coefficient (τ) ranging from 0.20 to 0.80.Overall,diffusivity models based on fa alone gave higher Ds/Do,lower τ and higher R2 and better explained the relationship between pore space indices (Ds/Do and τ) and gases fluxes.Inclusion of Ds/Do and τ in predictive models will improve our understanding of the dynamics of greenhouse gas fluxes from soils.Ds/Do and τ can be easily obtained by measurements of soil air and water and existing diffusivity models.

  17. Mass transport of low density lipoprotein in reconstructed hemodynamic environments of human carotid arteries: the role of volume and solute flux through the endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungho; Giddens, Don P

    2015-04-01

    The accumulation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) in the arterial intima is a critical step in the initiation and progression of atheromatous lesions. In this study we examine subject-specific LDL transport into the intima of carotid bifurcations in three human subjects using a three-pore model for LDL mass transfer. Subject-specific carotid artery computational models were derived using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to obtain the geometry and phase-contract MRI (PC-MRI) to acquire pulsatile inflow and outflow boundary conditions for each subject. The subjects were selected to represent a wide range of anatomical configurations and different stages of atherosclerotic development from mild to moderate intimal thickening. A fluid-solid interaction (FSI) model was implemented in the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach in order to consider the effects of a compliant vessel on wall shear stress (WSS). The WSS-dependent response of the endothelium to LDL mass transfer was modeled by multiple pathways to include the contributions of leaky junctions, normal junctions, and transcytosis to LDL solute and plasma volume flux from the lumen into the intima. Time averaged WSS (TAWSS) over the cardiac cycle was computed to represent the spatial WSS distribution, and wall thickness (WTH) was determined from black blood MRI (BBMRI) so as to visualize intimal thickening patterns in the bifurcations. The regions which are exposed to low TAWSS correspond to elevated WTH and higher mass and volume flux via the leaky junctions. In all subjects, the maximum LDL solute flux was observed to be immediately downstream of the stenosis, supporting observations that existing atherosclerotic lesions tend to progress in the downstream direction of the stenosis.

  18. Exponential flux-controlled memristor model and its floating emulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Wang, Fa-Qiang; Ma, Xi-Kui

    2015-11-01

    As commercial memristors are still unavailable in the market, mathematic models and emulators which can imitate the features of the memristor are meaningful for further research. In this paper, based on the analyses of characteristics of the q-φ curve, an exponential flux-controlled model, which has the quality that its memductance (memristance) will keep monotonically increasing or decreasing unless the voltage’s polarity reverses (if not approach the boundaries), is constructed. A new approach to designing the floating emulator of the memristor is also proposed. This floating structure can flexibly meet various demands for the current through the memristor (especially the demand for a larger current). The simulations and experiments are presented to confirm the effectiveness of this model and its floating emulator. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51377124 and 51221005), the Foundation for the Author of National Excellent Doctoral Dissertation of China (Grant No. 201337), the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University of China (Grant No. NCET-13-0457), and the Natural Science Basic Research Plan in Shaanxi Province of China (Grant No. 2012JQ7026).

  19. Variability in radial sap flux density patterns and sapwood area among seven co-occurring temperate broad-leaved tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebauer, Tobias; Horna, Viviana; Leuschner, Christoph

    2008-12-01

    Forest transpiration estimates are frequently based on xylem sap flux measurements in the outer sections of the hydro-active stem sapwood. We used Granier's constant-heating technique with heating probes at various xylem depths to analyze radial patterns of sap flux density in the sapwood of seven broad-leaved tree species differing in wood density and xylem structure. Study aims were to (1) compare radial sap flux density profiles between diffuse- and ring-porous trees and (2) analyze the relationship between hydro-active sapwood area and stem diameter. In all investigated species except the diffuse-porous beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and ring-porous ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.), sap flux density peaked at a depth of 1 to 4 cm beneath the cambium, revealing a hump-shaped curve with species-specific slopes. Beech and ash reached maximum sap flux densities immediately beneath the cambium in the youngest annual growth rings. Experiments with dyes showed that the hydro-active sapwood occupied 70 to 90% of the stem cross-sectional area in mature trees of diffuse-porous species, whereas it occupied only about 21% in ring-porous ash. Dendrochronological analyses indicated that vessels in the older sapwood may remain functional for 100 years or more in diffuse-porous species and for up to 27 years in ring-porous ash. We conclude that radial sap flux density patterns are largely dependent on tree species, which may introduce serious bias in sap-flux-derived forest transpiration estimates, if non-specific sap flux profiles are assumed.

  20. Water, heat fluxes and water use efficiency measurement and modeling above a farmland in the North China Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Zhong; YU Qiang; XU Shouhua; HU Bingmin; SUN Xiaomin; LIU Enmin; WANG Jishun; YU Guirui; ZHU Zhilin

    2005-01-01

    Net radiation (Rn), water vapor flux (LE), sensible heat flux (Hs) and soil heat flux (G)were measured above a summer maize field with the eddy-covariance technique, simulation and analysis of water, heat fluxes and crop water use efficiency were made with the RZ-SHAW model at the same time in this study. The results revealed significant diurnal and seasonal variability of water vapor flux for summer maize. Most part of Rn was consumed by the evapotranspiration of the summer maize. The proportion of water vapor flux to net radiation ((LE/Rn) increased with the crop development and peaked around milk-filling stage with a value of 60%, a slightly lower than that obtained by the RZ-SHAW model. Daily evapotranspiration estimated by the model agreed with the results measured with the eddy-covariance technique, indices of agreement (IA) for hourly water vapor fluxes simulated and measured were above 0.75, root mean square errors (RMSE) were no more than 1.0. Diurnal patterns of Hs showed the shape of inverted "U" shifted to the forenoon with a maximum value around 11:30 (Beijing time), while LE exhibited an inverted "V" with a maximum value at around 13:00, about an hour later than Hs. Diurnal change of CO2showed an asymmetrical "V" curve and its maximal rates occurred at about 11:30. Variations of water use efficiency during the phonological stages of the summer maize showed a rapid increase with the photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) after sunrise, a state of equilibrium around 10:00 followed a decrease. Maximum values of water use efficiency were 24.3, and its average value ranged from 7.6 to 10.3 g kg-1.

  1. Tracer kinetic studies of the low density lipoprotein metabolism in the fetal rat: An example for estimation of flux rates in the nonsteady state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plonne, D.; Schlag, B.; Winkler, L.; Dargel, R. (Friedrich Schiller Univ., Jena (German Democratic Republic))

    1990-05-01

    To get insight into the low density lipoprotein (LDL)-apoB flux in the rat fetus near term and in the early postnatal period, homologous apoE-free 125I-labeled LDL was injected into the umbilical vein of the rat fetus immediately after Caesarean section. Since the serum LDL-apoB spontaneously declined after birth, a time-dependent two-pool model was used to calculate the flux rates in the neonate from the specific activities of LDL-apoB up to 15 h post partum. An approximate value of LDL-apoB flux in the fetus at birth was obtained by extrapolation of the kinetic data to the time of injection of the tracer. The data revealed that the turnover of LDL-apoB in the fetus (18.6 micrograms LDL-apoB/h per g body weight) exceeded that in the adult rat (0.4 microgram/h per g body weight) by at least one order of magnitude. Even 15 h after delivery, the LDL-apoB influx amounted to 2.5 micrograms/h per g body weight. The fractional catabolic rate of LDL-apoB in the fetus at term (0.39, h-1) slightly exceeded that in the adult animal (0.15, h-1) and reached the adult level within the first 3 h after birth and remained constant thereafter. In the rat fetus, LDL-apoB flux greatly exceeds that of VLDL-apoB. The data support the view of a direct synthesis and secretion of LDL, most probably by the fetal membranes.

  2. High density flux of Co nanoparticles produced by a simple gas aggregation apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, G T; Romero, S A; Santos, A D

    2010-03-01

    Gas aggregation is a well known method used to produce clusters of different materials with good size control, reduced dispersion, and precise stoichiometry. The cost of these systems is relatively high and they are generally dedicated apparatuses. Furthermore, the usual sample production speed of these systems is not as fast as physical vapor deposition devices posing a problem when thick samples are needed. In this paper we describe the development of a multipurpose gas aggregation system constructed as an adaptation to a magnetron sputtering system. The cost of this adaptation is negligible and its installation and operation are both remarkably simple. The gas flow for flux in the range of 60-130 SCCM (SCCM denotes cubic centimeter per minute at STP) is able to completely collimate all the sputtered material, producing spherical nanoparticles. Co nanoparticles were produced and characterized using electron microscopy techniques and Rutherford back-scattering analysis. The size of the particles is around 10 nm with around 75 nm/min of deposition rate at the center of a Gaussian profile nanoparticle beam.

  3. High density flux of Co nanoparticles produced by a simple gas aggregation apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landi, G. T.; Romero, S. A.; Santos, A. D. [Departamento de Fisica dos Materiais e Mecanica, Laboratorio de Materiais Magneticos, Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 66318, 05314-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-03-15

    Gas aggregation is a well known method used to produce clusters of different materials with good size control, reduced dispersion, and precise stoichiometry. The cost of these systems is relatively high and they are generally dedicated apparatuses. Furthermore, the usual sample production speed of these systems is not as fast as physical vapor deposition devices posing a problem when thick samples are needed. In this paper we describe the development of a multipurpose gas aggregation system constructed as an adaptation to a magnetron sputtering system. The cost of this adaptation is negligible and its installation and operation are both remarkably simple. The gas flow for flux in the range of 60-130 SCCM (SCCM denotes cubic centimeter per minute at STP) is able to completely collimate all the sputtered material, producing spherical nanoparticles. Co nanoparticles were produced and characterized using electron microscopy techniques and Rutherford back-scattering analysis. The size of the particles is around 10 nm with around 75 nm/min of deposition rate at the center of a Gaussian profile nanoparticle beam.

  4. Circular-cylindrical flux-rope analytical model for Magnetic Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieves-Chinchilla, Teresa; Linton, Mark; Hidalgo, Miguel A.; Vourlidas, Angelos; Savani, Neel P.; Szabo, Adam; Farrugia, Charlie; Yu, Wenyuan

    2016-05-01

    We present an analytical model to describe magnetic flux-rope topologies. When these structures are observed embedded in Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs) with a depressed proton temperature, they are called Magnetic Clouds ( MCs). The model extends the circular-cylindrical concept of Hidalgo et al. (2000) by introducing a general form for the radial dependence of the current density. This generalization provides information on the force distribution inside the flux rope in addition to the usual parameters of MC geometrical information and orientation.The generalized model provides flexibility for implementation in 3D MHD simulations. Here, we evaluate its performance in the reconstruction of MCs in in-situ observations. Four Earth directed ICME events, observed by the Wind spacecraft, are used to validate the technique. The events are selected from the ICME Wind list with the magnetic obstacle boundaries chosen consistently with the magnetic fi eld and plasma in situ observations and with a new parameter (EPP, Electron Pitch angle distribution Parameter) which quantifies the bidirectionally of theplasma electrons. The goodness of the fit is evaluated with a single correlation parameter to enable comparative analysis of the events. In general, at first glance, the model fits the selected events very well. However, a detailed analysis of events with signatures of significant compression indicates the need to explore geometries other than the circular-cylindrical.

  5. Integral emission factors for methane determined using urban flux measurements and local-scale inverse models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, Andreas; Johnson, Mark; Molodovskaya, Marina; Ketler, Rick; Nesic, Zoran; Crawford, Ben; Giometto, Marco; van der Laan, Mike

    2013-04-01

    contributes to each measurement interval (30 min), which varies with wind direction and stability. A detailed geographic information system of the urban surface combined with traffic counts and building energy models makes it possible to statistically relate fluxes to vehicle density (km driven) and buildings (gas heated volume) - and ultimately quantify the contribution of space heating, transport sector and fugitive emissions to the total emitted CH4 from an urban environment. The measured fluxes of CH4 over the selected urban environment averaged to 22.8 mg CH4 m-2 day-1 during the study period. Compared with the simultaneously measured CO2 emissions, the contribution of CH4, however, accounts for only about 3% of the total LLGHG emissions from this particular urban surface. Traffic contributed 8.8 mg CH4 m-2 day-1, equivalent to 39% of the total CH4 flux. The determined emission factor for the typical fleet composition is 0.062 g CH4 per km driven which is higher than upscaled fleet emission factors (EPA) by a factor of two. This discrepancy can be partially explained through the slower city traffic with frequent idling (traffic congestion), fleet composition and cold starts. Emissions of CH4 by domestic space heating (55% of the total CH4 flux or 12.7 mg CH4 m-2 day-1) are also higher than estimated from upscaled emission factors. There is no evidence of substantial unknown sources such as soil processes, combustion of wood, and leakages from gas distribution pipes (residual: 6% or 1.3 mg CH4 m-2 day-1). The presented study is among the first direct measurements of CH4 emissions over an urban surface and demonstrates that flux measurements of greenhouse gases can be used to determine sources and emission factors in complex urban situations.

  6. Forest floor methane flux modelled by soil water content and ground vegetation - comparison to above canopy flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halmeenmäki, Elisa; Peltola, Olli; Haikarainen, Iikka; Ryhti, Kira; Rannik, Üllar; Pihlatie, Mari

    2017-04-01

    Methane (CH4) is an important and strong greenhouse gas of which atmospheric concentration is rising. While boreal forests are considered as an important sink of CH4 due to soil CH4 oxidation, the soils have also a capacity to emit CH4. Moreover, vegetation is shown to contribute to the ecosystem-atmosphere CH4 flux, and it has been estimated to be the least well known natural sources of CH4. In addition to well-known CH4 emissions from wetland plants, even boreal trees have been discovered to emit CH4. At the SMEAR (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations) II station in Hyytiälä, southern Finland (61° 51' N, 24°17' E; 181 m asl), we have detected small CH4 emissions from above the canopy of a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) dominated forest. To assess the origin of the observed emissions, we conducted forest floor CH4 flux measurements with 54 soil chambers at the footprint area of the above canopy flux measurements during two growing seasons. In addition, we measured the soil volumetric water content (VWC) every time next to the forest floor chamber measurements, and estimated vegetation coverages inside the chambers. In order to model the forest floor CH4 flux at the whole footprint area, we combined lidar (light detection and ranging) data with the field measurements. To predict the soil water content and thus the potential CH4 flux, we used local elevation, slope, and ground return intensity (GRI), calculated from the lidar data (National Land Survey of Finland). We categorized the soil chambers into four classes based on the VWC so that the class with the highest VWC values includes all the soil chambers with a potential to emit CH4. Based on a statistically significant correlation between the VWC and the forest floor CH4 flux (r = 0.30, p < 0.001), we modelled the potential forest floor CH4 flux of the whole area. The results of the soil chamber measurements show a few areas of the forest floor with significant CH4 emissions. The modelled map

  7. Scanning micro-Hall probe mapping of magnetic flux distributions and current densities in YBa2Cu3O7 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, W.; Heinrich, B.; Zhou, HU; Fife, A. A.; Cragg, A. R.; Grant, P. D.

    1995-01-01

    Mapping of the magnetic flux density B(sub z) (perpendicular to the film plane) for a YBa2Cu3O7 thin-film sample was carried out using a scanning micro-Hall probe. The sheet magnetization and sheet current densities were calculated from the B(sub z) distributions. From the known sheet magnetization, the tangential (B(sub x,y)) and normal components of the flux density B were calculated in the vicinity of the film. It was found that the sheet current density was mostly determined by 2B(sub x,y)/d, where d is the film thickness. The evolution of flux penetration as a function of applied field will be shown.

  8. Scanning micro-Hall probe mapping of magnetic flux distributions and current densities in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, W.; Heinrich, B. [Simon Fraser Univ., British Columbia (Canada); Zhou, H. [CTF Systems, Inc., British Columbia (Canada)] [and others

    1994-12-31

    Mapping of the magnetic flux density B{sub z} (perpendicular to the film plane) for a YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} thin-film sample was carried out using a scanning micro-Hall probe. The sheet magnetization and sheet current densities were calculated from the B{sub z} distributions. From the known sheet magnetization, the tangential (B{sub x,y}) and normal components of the flux density B were calculated in the vicinity of the film. It was found that the sheet current density was mostly determined by 2B{sub x,y}/d, where d is the film thickness. The evolution of flux penetration as a function of applied field will be shown.

  9. A systematic approach for comparing modeled biospheric carbon fluxes across regional scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Huntzinger

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the large differences between biospheric model estimates of regional carbon exchange, there is a need to understand and reconcile the predicted spatial variability of fluxes across models. This paper presents a set of quantitative tools that can be applied to systematically compare flux estimates despite the inherent differences in model formulation. The presented methods include variogram analysis, variable selection, and geostatistical regression. These methods are evaluated in terms of their ability to assess and identify differences in spatial variability in flux estimates across North America among a small subset of models, as well as differences in the environmental drivers that best explain the spatial variability of predicted fluxes. The examined models are the Simple Biosphere (SiB 3.0, Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach (CASA, and CASA coupled with the Global Fire Emissions Database (CASA GFEDv2, and the analyses are performed on model-predicted net ecosystem exchange, gross primary production, and ecosystem respiration. Variogram analysis reveals consistent seasonal differences in spatial variability among modeled fluxes at a 1° × 1° spatial resolution. However, significant differences are observed in the overall magnitude of the carbon flux spatial variability across models, in both net ecosystem exchange and component fluxes. Results of the variable selection and geostatistical regression analyses suggest fundamental differences between the models in terms of the factors that explain the spatial variability of predicted flux. For example, carbon flux is more strongly correlated with percent land cover in CASA GFEDv2 than in SiB or CASA. Some of the differences in spatial patterns of estimated flux can be linked back to differences in model formulation, and would have been difficult to identify simply by comparing net fluxes between models. Overall, the systematic approach presented here provides a set of tools for comparing

  10. Models of SOL transport and their relation to scaling of the divertor heat flux width in DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makowski, M.A., E-mail: makowski1@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Lasnier, C.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Leonard, A.W.; Osborne, T.H. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Umansky, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Elder, J.D. [University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies, Toronto M3H 5T6 (Canada); Nichols, J.H. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Stangeby, P.C. [University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies, Toronto M3H 5T6 (Canada); Baver, D.A.; Myra, J.R. [Lodestar Research Corporation, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Strong support for the critical pressure gradient model for the heat flux width has been obtained, in that the measured separatrix pressure gradient lies below and scales similarly to the pressure gradient limit obtained from the ideal, infinite-n stability codes, BALOO and 2DX, in all cases that have been examined. Predictions of a heuristic drift model for the heat flux width are also in qualitative agreement with the measurements. These results have been obtained using an improved high rep-rate and higher edge spatial resolution Thomson scattering system on DIII-D to measure the upstream electron temperature and density profiles. In order to compare theory and experiment, profiles of density, temperature, and pressure for both electrons and ions are needed as well values of these quantities at the separatrix. A simple method to identify a proxy for the separatrix has been developed to do so.

  11. The role of plant phenology in stomatal ozone flux modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anav, Alessandro; Liu, Qiang; De Marco, Alessandra; Proietti, Chiara; Savi, Flavia; Paoletti, Elena; Piao, Shilong

    2017-07-19

    Plant phenology plays a pivotal role in the climate system as it regulates the gas exchange between the biosphere and the atmosphere. The uptake of ozone by forest is estimated through several meteorological variables and a specific function describing the beginning and the termination of plant growing season; actually, in many risk assessment studies, this function is based on a simple latitude and topography model. In this study, using two satellite datasets, we apply and compare six methods to estimate the start and the end dates of the growing season across a large region covering all Europe for the year 2011. Results show a large variability between the green-up and dormancy dates estimated using the six different methods, with differences greater than one month. However, interestingly, all the methods display a common spatial pattern in the uptake of ozone by forests with a marked change in the magnitude, up to 1.9 TgO3 /year, and corresponding to a difference of 25% in the amount of ozone that enters the leaves. Our results indicate that improved estimates of ozone fluxes require a better representation of plant phenology in the models used for O3 risk assessment. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Propulsion Physics Under the Changing Density Field Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Glen A.

    2011-01-01

    To grow as a space faring race, future spaceflight systems will requires new propulsion physics. Specifically a propulsion physics model that does not require mass ejection without limiting the high thrust necessary to accelerate within or beyond our solar system and return within a normal work period or lifetime. In 2004 Khoury and Weltman produced a density dependent cosmology theory they called Chameleon Cosmology, as at its nature, it is hidden within known physics. This theory represents a scalar field within and about an object, even in the vacuum. Whereby, these scalar fields can be viewed as vacuum energy fields with definable densities that permeate all matter; having implications to dark matter/energy with universe acceleration properties; implying a new force mechanism for propulsion physics. Using Chameleon Cosmology, the author has developed a new propulsion physics model, called the Changing Density Field (CDF) Model. This model relates to density changes in these density fields, where the density field density changes are related to the acceleration of matter within an object. These density changes in turn change how an object couples to the surrounding density fields. Whereby, thrust is achieved by causing a differential in the coupling to these density fields about an object. Since the model indicates that the density of the density field in an object can be changed by internal mass acceleration, even without exhausting mass, the CDF model implies a new propellant-less propulsion physics model

  13. Soil carbonyl sulfide fluxes in a Mediterranean ecosystem: insights from model-data fusion analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, W.; Seibt, U. H.; Maseyk, K. S.; Lett, C.

    2013-12-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS) is linked to biosphere components of the carbon cycle, due in large part to its hydrolysis by the enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA). Stomatal diffusion models and observations at leaf and ecosystem scales have demonstrated the potential of COS as a tracer for Gross Primary Production (GPP). Although considered small relative to canopy COS fluxes, accurate knowledge of soil COS fluxes is required for the use of net ecosystem COS fluxes in carbon flux partitioning. However, extensive field measurements of soil COS fluxes are rare and process-based modeling is limited. Here we report continuous chamber measurements of soil COS fluxes in a Mediterranean ecosystem in the Santa Monica Mountains, California during April and early May 2013. Both COS uptake and emissions were observed, but the soil acted as a net sink in most conditions and was a net source only when soil temperatures were above 22 C. COS sink fluxes were positively correlated with soil water content and CO2 fluxes. COS uptake had a maximum at a temperature around 15 C. However, no single environmental variable could be correlated to COS fluxes with an r-square > 0.6. COS fluxes from soil chambers ranged from -9 to 2.5 pmol m-2 s-1. Leaf litter appeared to increase soil COS metabolic activity. We observed huge bursts of soil COS uptake induced by a precipitation event, probably due to enhanced soil microbial activity resulting from alleviated water limitation and a decrease in soil temperature towards the optimum. We used a soil gas exchange model coupled with CA enzyme kinetics to simulate the soil COS fluxes. Micrometeorological and soil data were used to drive the soil flux model. Model simulations indicated that diurnal and synoptic variations of COS fluxes were driven by soil temperature and water content, controlling both CA activity and diffusion. We suggest that multiple parameters need to be optimized to reduce uncertainties in models of soil COS fluxes at larger scales.

  14. Phototactic number-density flux in the localized bioconvection of Euglena gracilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Erika; Suematsu, Nobuhiko; Nishimori, Hiraku; Awazu, Akinori; Izumi, Shunsuke; Iima, Makoto

    2014-11-01

    Euglena gracilis is a unicellular phototactic flagellate; it escapes from light sources if the light intensity is higher than 200 W/m2 (negative phototaxis). When the suspension of E. gracilis is illuminated from the bottom by strong light, bioconvection patterns are generated. In the case of E. gracilis, the patterns can be spatially localized. The localization mechanism has not been clarified. We report experimental results related to the localization mechanism. In particular, we experimentally measured the strength of the phototaxis in the lateral direction as well as vertical direction. We prepared a thin container in which the suspension is included, and gave the linearly-changing light intensity. We found the number density gets a peak at a particular light intensity, which never happens if the suspension has the vertical phototaxis only. Further, we succeeded in getting the function representing lateral phototaxis. The relationship between the measured functions and the localized convection cells will be also reported.

  15. Empirical Modeling of Radiative versus Magnetic Flux for the Sun-as-a-Star

    CERN Document Server

    Preminger, Dora; Chapman, Gary; Martens, Petrus C H; 10.1007/s11207-010-9560-1

    2010-01-01

    We study the relationship between full-disk solar radiative flux at different wavelengths and average solar photospheric magnetic-flux density, using daily measurements from the Kitt Peak magnetograph and other instruments extending over one or more solar cycles. We use two different statistical methods to determine the underlying nature of these flux-flux relationships. First, we use statistical correlation and regression analysis and show that the relationships are not monotonic for total solar irradiance and for continuum radiation from the photosphere, but are approximately linear for chromospheric and coronal radiation. Second, we use signal theory to examine the flux-flux relationships for a temporal component. We find that a well-defined temporal component exists and accounts for some of the variance in the data. This temporal component arises because active regions with high magnetic field strength evolve, breaking up into small-scale magnetic elements with low field strength, and radiative and magnet...

  16. 0-D Particle Balance Modeling for the Long-term Density Response and Control in KSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhn, June-Woo; Hong, S. H.; Hahn, S. H.; Hwang, Y. S.; Kstar Team; Vest Team

    2015-11-01

    Long-term density response of KSTAR plasmas has been reproduced with a 0-D particle balance equations. The long-term response of density means at least a few seconds of the density decay time during the absent of fuels as well as the full discharge length of the KSTAR within the record of 47s. The model includes reactions between deuterium ions, atoms, molecules and wall contents based on the Maddion's model which is one of the most comprehensive 0-D particle balance and validated with the MAST experiments. In order to reflect the long term response, the model is modified including outgassing-like particle emission from the first walls as the form of wall contents over residence time i.e. Nw /τw . The model result in excellent agreement with the experimental density response basically in 0.3MA Ohmic limiter plasmas yielding the global particle confinement time τi about 30ms. The model also reproduces the density behavior in the higher Ip diverted plasmas, including ELMy H-modes with the explicit ELM density drop. The model can be used for the improvement of the density feedback control system by comparing the voltage-controlled gas puffing with flux-controlled one for example.

  17. Influence of the flux density on the radiation damage of bipolar silicon transistors by protons and electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannikov, Y.; Gorin, B.; Kozhevnikov, V.; Mikhnovich, V.; Gusev, L.

    1981-11-01

    It was found experimentally that the radiation damage of bipolar n-p-n transistors increased by a factor of 8--12 when the proton flux density was reduced from 4.07 x 10/sup 10/ to 2.5 x 10/sup 7/ cm/sup -2/ sec /sup -1/. In the case of p-n-p transistors the effect was opposite: there was a reduction in the radiation damage by a factor of 2--3 when the dose rate was lowered between the same limits. A similar effect was observed for electrons but at dose rates three orders of magnitude greater. The results were attributed to the dependences of the radiation defect-forming reactions on the charge state of defects which was influenced by the formation of disordered regions in the case of proton irradiation.

  18. Calibration of a distributed hydrology and land surface model using energy flux measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Andreas Dahl; Refsgaard, Jens Christian; Jensen, Karsten H.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we develop and test a calibration approach on a spatially distributed groundwater-surface water catchment model (MIKE SHE) coupled to a land surface model component with particular focus on the water and energy fluxes. The model is calibrated against time series of eddy flux measure...

  19. Importance of 3-D radiant flux densities for outdoor human thermal comfort on clear-sky summer days in Freiburg, Southwest Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunjung Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study concerns the role of short- and long-wave radiant flux densities from different directions in complex urban settings for human thermal comfort on clear-sky summer days. The aims of the investigation are to quantify the importance of the sky view factor as an urban design-dependent variable for the 3-D radiant flux densities absorbed by the standardized human-biometeorological reference person and to analyze the varying impact of the absorbed 3-D short- and long-wave radiant flux densities on the mean radiant temperature (Tmrt$T_{\\text{mrt}}$, near-surface air temperature (Ta$T_{\\text{a}}$ and physiologically equivalent temperature (PET.The results obtained by measuring campaigns and numerical simulations point to the different importance of the absorbed 3-D radiant flux densities for human thermal comfort characterized by Ta$T_{\\text{a}}$, Tmrt$T_{\\text{mrt}}$ and PET. The magnitude of Tmrt$T_{\\text{mrt}}$ is mainly determined by the total of the absorbed 3-D long-wave radiant flux densities. However, the fluctuations of Tmrt$T_{\\text{mrt}}$ are mainly governed by the total of the absorbed 3-D short-wave radiant flux densities. Their variance can be well explained by the variance of the sky view factor related to the southern part of the upper half space. Taking account of the different impact of the 3-D radiant flux densities, Tmrt$T_{\\text{mrt}}$ can be quite well estimated by a multiple regression using the total of the absorbed 3-D short-wave radiant flux densities and the absorbed long-wave radiant flux density from the lower half space as independent variables. PET can be well estimated by a multiple regression showing Tmrt$T_{\\text{mrt}}$ and Ta$T_{\\text{a}}$ as independent variables. On a hot summer day, the increase of the albedo of vertical building walls within a simple E-W oriented street canyon leads to a decrease of the surface temperature of the S-facing wall, but to an increase of Tmrt$T_{\\text{mrt}}$ and PET

  20. Solar surface emerging flux regions: a comparative study of radiative MHD modeling and Hinode SOT observations

    CERN Document Server

    Cheung, M C M; Tarbell, T D; Title, A M

    2008-01-01

    We present results from numerical modeling of emerging flux regions on the solar surface. The modeling was carried out by means of 3D radiative MHD simulations of the rise of buoyant magnetic flux tubes through the convection zone and into the photosphere. Due to the strong stratification of the convection zone, the rise results in a lateral expansion of the tube into a magnetic sheet, which acts as a reservoir for small-scale flux emergence events at the scale of granulation. The interaction of the convective downflows and the rising magnetic flux undulates it to form serpentine field lines emerging into the photosphere. Observational characteristics including the pattern of emerging flux regions, the cancellation of surface flux and associated high speed downflows, the convective collapse of photospheric flux tubes, the appearance of anomalous darkenings, the formation of bright points and the possible existence of transient kilogauss horizontal fields are discussed in the context of new observations from t...

  1. Modeling the effect of lithium-induced pedestal profiles on scrape-off-layer turbulence and the heat flux width

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, D. A., E-mail: dave@lodestar.com; D' Ippolito, D. A.; Myra, J. R. [Lodestar Research Corporation, 2400 Central Avenue, Boulder, Colorado 80301 (United States); Canik, J. M.; Gray, T. K. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Zweben, S. J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    The effect of lithium (Li) wall coatings on scrape-off-layer (SOL) turbulence in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is modeled with the Lodestar SOLT (SOL Turbulence) code. Specifically, the implications for the SOL heat flux width of experimentally observed, Li-induced changes in the pedestal profiles are considered. The SOLT code used in the modeling has been expanded recently to include ion temperature evolution and ion diamagnetic drift effects. This work focuses on two NSTX discharges occurring pre- and with-Li deposition. The simulation density and temperature profiles are constrained, inside the last closed flux surface only, to match those measured in the two experiments, and the resulting drift-interchange-driven turbulence is explored. The effect of Li enters the simulation only through the pedestal profile constraint: Li modifies the experimental density and temperature profiles in the pedestal, and these profiles affect the simulated SOL turbulence. The power entering the SOL measured in the experiments is matched in the simulations by adjusting “free” dissipation parameters (e.g., diffusion coefficients) that are not measured directly in the experiments. With power-matching, (a) the heat flux SOL width is smaller, as observed experimentally by infrared thermography and (b) the simulated density fluctuation amplitudes are reduced with Li, as inferred for the experiments as well from reflectometry analysis. The instabilities and saturation mechanisms that underlie the SOLT model equilibria are also discussed.

  2. Predicting Solar Cycle 25 using Surface Flux Transport Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imada, Shinsuke; Iijima, Haruhisa; Hotta, Hideyuki; Shiota, Daiko; Kusano, Kanya

    2017-08-01

    It is thought that the longer-term variations of the solar activity may affect the Earth’s climate. Therefore, predicting the next solar cycle is crucial for the forecast of the “solar-terrestrial environment”. To build prediction schemes for the next solar cycle is a key for the long-term space weather study. Recently, the relationship between polar magnetic field at the solar minimum and next solar activity is intensively discussed. Because we can determine the polar magnetic field at the solar minimum roughly 3 years before the next solar maximum, we may discuss the next solar cycle 3years before. Further, the longer term (~5 years) prediction might be achieved by estimating the polar magnetic field with the Surface Flux Transport (SFT) model. Now, we are developing a prediction scheme by SFT model as a part of the PSTEP (Project for Solar-Terrestrial Environment Prediction) and adapting to the Cycle 25 prediction. The predicted polar field strength of Cycle 24/25 minimum is several tens of percent smaller than Cycle 23/24 minimum. The result suggests that the amplitude of Cycle 25 is weaker than the current cycle. We also try to obtain the meridional flow, differential rotation, and turbulent diffusivity from recent modern observations (Hinode and Solar Dynamics Observatory). These parameters will be used in the SFT models to predict the polar magnetic fields strength at the solar minimum. In this presentation, we will explain the outline of our strategy to predict the next solar cycle and discuss the initial results for Cycle 25 prediction.

  3. A Model for the Origin of High Density in Loop-top X-ray Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Longcope, D W

    2011-01-01

    Super-hot looptop sources, detected in some large solar flares, are compact sources of HXR emission with spectra matching thermal electron populations exceeding 30 megakelvins. High observed emission measure, as well as inference of electron thermalization within the small source region, both provide evidence of high densities at the looptop; typically more than an order of magnitude above ambient. Where some investigators have suggested such density enhancement results from a rapid enhancement in the magnetic field strength, we propose an alternative model, based on Petschek reconnection, whereby looptop plasma is heated and compressed by slow magnetosonic shocks generated self-consistently through flux retraction following reconnection. Under steady conditions such shocks can enhance density by no more than a factor of four. These steady shock relations (Rankine-Hugoniot relations) turn out to be inapplicable to Petschek's model owing to transient effects of thermal conduction. The actual density enhancemen...

  4. Evapotranspiration and heat fluxes over a patchy forest - studied using modelling and measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sogachev, Andrey; Dellwik, Ebba; Boegh, Eva

    Most forests in Europe are too small to fulfill strict fetch requirements associated with idealized flux observations. As a consequence of limited fetch, the flux measured above the canopy will often deviate from the source strength underlying the measurements, i.e. observations of sensible...... and latent heat flux above forest downwind of a forest edge show these fluxes to be larger than the available energy over the forest (Klaassen et al. 2002, Theor. Appl. Climatol. 72, 231-243). Because such flux measurements are very often used for calibration of forest parameters or model constants, further...... using these parameters without a proper interpretation in mesoscale or global circulation models can results in serious bias of estimates of modelled evapotranspiration or heat fluxes from given area. Since representative measurements focused on heterogeneous effects are scarce numerical modelling can...

  5. A quantitative approach for comparing modeled biospheric carbon flux estimates across regional scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Huntzinger

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Given the large differences between biospheric model estimates of regional carbon exchange, there is a need to understand and reconcile the predicted spatial variability of fluxes across models. This paper presents a set of quantitative tools that can be applied for comparing flux estimates in light of the inherent differences in model formulation. The presented methods include variogram analysis, variable selection, and geostatistical regression. These methods are evaluated in terms of their ability to assess and identify differences in spatial variability in flux estimates across North America among a small subset of models, as well as differences in the environmental drivers that appear to have the greatest control over the spatial variability of predicted fluxes. The examined models are the Simple Biosphere (SiB 3.0, Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach (CASA, and CASA coupled with the Global Fire Emissions Database (CASA GFEDv2, and the analyses are performed on model-predicted net ecosystem exchange, gross primary production, and ecosystem respiration. Variogram analysis reveals consistent seasonal differences in spatial variability among modeled fluxes at a 1°×1° spatial resolution. However, significant differences are observed in the overall magnitude of the carbon flux spatial variability across models, in both net ecosystem exchange and component fluxes. Results of the variable selection and geostatistical regression analyses suggest fundamental differences between the models in terms of the factors that control the spatial variability of predicted flux. For example, carbon flux is more strongly correlated with percent land cover in CASA GFEDv2 than in SiB or CASA. Some of these factors can be linked back to model formulation, and would have been difficult to identify simply by comparing net fluxes between models. Overall, the quantitative approach presented here provides a set of tools for comparing predicted grid-scale fluxes across

  6. Estimating radiated flux density from wildland fires using the raw output of limited bandpass detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Kremens; Matthew B. Dickinson

    2015-01-01

    We have simulated the radiant emission spectra from wildland fires such as would be observed at a scale encompassing the pre-frontal fuel bed, the flaming front and the zone of post-frontal combustion and cooling. For these simulations, we developed a 'mixed-pixel' model where the fire infrared spectrum is estimated as the linear superposition of spectra of...

  7. An electric field induced in the retina and brain at threshold magnetic flux density causing magnetophosphenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Takano, Yukinori; Fujiwara, Osamu; Dovan, Thanh; Kavet, Robert

    2011-07-01

    For magnetic field exposures at extremely low frequencies, the electrostimulatory response with the lowest threshold is the magnetophosphene, a response that corresponds to an adult exposed to a 20 Hz magnetic field of nominally 8.14 mT. In the IEEE standard C95.6 (2002), the corresponding in situ field in the retinal locus of an adult-sized ellipsoidal was calculated to be 53 mV m(-1). However, the associated dose in the retina and brain at a high level of resolution in anatomically correct human models is incompletely characterized. Furthermore, the dose maxima in tissue computed with voxel human models are prone to staircasing errors, particularly for the low-frequency dosimetry. In the analyses presented in this paper, analytical and quasi-static finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) solutions were first compared for a three-layer sphere exposed to a uniform 50 Hz magnetic field. Staircasing errors in the FDTD results were observed at the tissue interface, and were greatest at the skin-air boundary. The 99th percentile value was within 3% of the analytic maximum, depending on model resolution, and thus may be considered a close approximation of the analytic maximum. For the adult anatomical model, TARO, exposed to a uniform magnetic field, the differences in the 99th percentile value of in situ electric fields for 2 mm and 1 mm voxel models were at most several per cent. For various human models exposed at the magnetophosphene threshold at three orthogonal field orientations, the in situ electric field in the brain was between 10% and 70% greater than the analytical IEEE threshold of 53 mV m(-1), and in the retina was lower by roughly 50% for two horizontal orientations (anterior-posterior and lateral), and greater by about 15% for a vertically oriented field. Considering a reduction factor or safety factors of several folds applied to electrostimulatory thresholds, the 99th percentile dose to a tissue calculated with voxel human models may be used as an

  8. An electric field induced in the retina and brain at threshold magnetic flux density causing magnetophosphenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Takano, Yukinori; Fujiwara, Osamu [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Department of Computer Science and Engineering (Japan); Dovan, Thanh [SP AusNet, Division of Network Strategy and Development (Australia); Kavet, Robert, E-mail: ahirata@nitech.ac.jp [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2011-07-07

    For magnetic field exposures at extremely low frequencies, the electrostimulatory response with the lowest threshold is the magnetophosphene, a response that corresponds to an adult exposed to a 20 Hz magnetic field of nominally 8.14 mT. In the IEEE standard C95.6 (2002), the corresponding in situ field in the retinal locus of an adult-sized ellipsoidal was calculated to be 53 mV m{sup -1}. However, the associated dose in the retina and brain at a high level of resolution in anatomically correct human models is incompletely characterized. Furthermore, the dose maxima in tissue computed with voxel human models are prone to staircasing errors, particularly for the low-frequency dosimetry. In the analyses presented in this paper, analytical and quasi-static finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) solutions were first compared for a three-layer sphere exposed to a uniform 50 Hz magnetic field. Staircasing errors in the FDTD results were observed at the tissue interface, and were greatest at the skin-air boundary. The 99th percentile value was within 3% of the analytic maximum, depending on model resolution, and thus may be considered a close approximation of the analytic maximum. For the adult anatomical model, TARO, exposed to a uniform magnetic field, the differences in the 99th percentile value of in situ electric fields for 2 mm and 1 mm voxel models were at most several per cent. For various human models exposed at the magnetophosphene threshold at three orthogonal field orientations, the in situ electric field in the brain was between 10% and 70% greater than the analytical IEEE threshold of 53 mV m{sup -1}, and in the retina was lower by roughly 50% for two horizontal orientations (anterior-posterior and lateral), and greater by about 15% for a vertically oriented field. Considering a reduction factor or safety factors of several folds applied to electrostimulatory thresholds, the 99th percentile dose to a tissue calculated with voxel human models may be used as an

  9. An electric field induced in the retina and brain at threshold magnetic flux density causing magnetophosphenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Takano, Yukinori; Fujiwara, Osamu; Dovan, Thanh; Kavet, Robert

    2011-07-01

    For magnetic field exposures at extremely low frequencies, the electrostimulatory response with the lowest threshold is the magnetophosphene, a response that corresponds to an adult exposed to a 20 Hz magnetic field of nominally 8.14 mT. In the IEEE standard C95.6 (2002), the corresponding in situ field in the retinal locus of an adult-sized ellipsoidal was calculated to be 53 mV m-1. However, the associated dose in the retina and brain at a high level of resolution in anatomically correct human models is incompletely characterized. Furthermore, the dose maxima in tissue computed with voxel human models are prone to staircasing errors, particularly for the low-frequency dosimetry. In the analyses presented in this paper, analytical and quasi-static finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) solutions were first compared for a three-layer sphere exposed to a uniform 50 Hz magnetic field. Staircasing errors in the FDTD results were observed at the tissue interface, and were greatest at the skin-air boundary. The 99th percentile value was within 3% of the analytic maximum, depending on model resolution, and thus may be considered a close approximation of the analytic maximum. For the adult anatomical model, TARO, exposed to a uniform magnetic field, the differences in the 99th percentile value of in situ electric fields for 2 mm and 1 mm voxel models were at most several per cent. For various human models exposed at the magnetophosphene threshold at three orthogonal field orientations, the in situ electric field in the brain was between 10% and 70% greater than the analytical IEEE threshold of 53 mV m-1, and in the retina was lower by roughly 50% for two horizontal orientations (anterior-posterior and lateral), and greater by about 15% for a vertically oriented field. Considering a reduction factor or safety factors of several folds applied to electrostimulatory thresholds, the 99th percentile dose to a tissue calculated with voxel human models may be used as an estimate of

  10. Empirical models of the eddy heat flux and vertical shear on short time scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghan, S. J.

    1984-01-01

    An intimate relation exists between the vertical shear and the horizontal eddy heat flux within the atmosphere. In the present investigation empirical means are employed to provide clues concerning the relationship between the shear and eddy heat flux. In particular, linear regression models are applied to individual and joint time series of the shear and eddy heat flux. These discrete models are used as a basis to infer continuous models. A description is provided of the observed relationship between the flux and the shear, taking into account means, standard deviations, and lag correction functions.

  11. Adjoint-based Sensitivity Analysis for High-Energy Density Radiaitive Transfer using Flux-Limited Diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Humbird, Kelli D

    2016-01-01

    Uncertainty quantification and sensitivity analyses are a vital component for predictive modeling in the sciences and engineering. The adjoint approach to sensitivity analysis requires solving a primary system of equations and a mathematically related set of adjoint equations. The information contained in the equations can be combined to produce sensitivity information in a computationally efficient manner. In this work, sensitivity analyses are performed on systems described by flux-limited radiative diffusion using the adjoint approach. The sensitivities computed are shown to agree with standard perturbation theory, and can be obtained in significantly less computational time.

  12. Gamma Ray and Neutrino Flux from Annihilation of Neutralino Dark Matter at Galactic Halo Region in mAMSB Model

    CERN Document Server

    Modak, Kamakshya Prasad

    2013-01-01

    We consider the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP), neutralino in minimal anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking model (mAMSB) to be a possible candidate for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMP) or cold dark matter and investigate its direct and indirect detections. The supersymmetric parametric space for such a model is constrained by the WMAP results for relic densities. The spin independent and spin dependent scattering cross sections for dark matter off nucleon are thus constrained from the WMAP results. They are found to be within the allowed regions of different ongoing direct detection experiments. The annihilation of such dark matter candidates at the galactic centre produce different standard model particles such as gamma rays, neutrinos etc. In this work, we investigate the possible fluxes of such particles from galactic centre. The neutrino flux from the galactic centre and at different locations away from the galactic centre produced by WIMP annihilation in this model are also obtained...

  13. Development of Computational Tools for Metabolic Model Curation, Flux Elucidation and Strain Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maranas, Costas D

    2012-05-21

    An overarching goal of the Department of Energy mission is the efficient deployment and engineering of microbial and plant systems to enable biomass conversion in pursuit of high energy density liquid biofuels. This has spurred the pace at which new organisms are sequenced and annotated. This torrent of genomic information has opened the door to understanding metabolism in not just skeletal pathways and a handful of microorganisms but for truly genome-scale reconstructions derived for hundreds of microbes and plants. Understanding and redirecting metabolism is crucial because metabolic fluxes are unique descriptors of cellular physiology that directly assess the current cellular state and quantify the effect of genetic engineering interventions. At the same time, however, trying to keep pace with the rate of genomic data generation has ushered in a number of modeling and computational challenges related to (i) the automated assembly, testing and correction of genome-scale metabolic models, (ii) metabolic flux elucidation using labeled isotopes, and (iii) comprehensive identification of engineering interventions leading to the desired metabolism redirection.

  14. Compact and high-particle-flux thermal-lithium-beam probe system for measurement of two-dimensional electron density profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Y; Manabe, T; Kajita, S; Ohno, N; Takagi, M; Tsuchiya, H; Morisaki, T

    2014-09-01

    A compact and high-particle-flux thermal-lithium-beam source for two-dimensional measurement of electron density profiles has been developed. The thermal-lithium-beam oven is heated by a carbon heater. In this system, the maximum particle flux of the thermal lithium beam was ~4 × 10(19) m(-2) s(-1) when the temperature of the thermal-lithium-beam oven was 900 K. The electron density profile was evaluated in the small tokamak device HYBTOK-II. The electron density profile was reconstructed using the thermal-lithium-beam probe data and this profile was consistent with the electron density profile measured with a Langmuir electrostatic probe. We confirm that the developed thermal-lithium-beam probe can be used to measure the two-dimensional electron density profile with high time and spatial resolutions.

  15. Effects of quantum flux density of photosynthesis and chloroplast ultrastructure in tissue-cultured plantlets and seedlings of Liquidambar styraciflua L. towards improved acclimatization and field survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, N.; Wetzstein, H.Y.; Sommer, H.E.

    1985-07-01

    Liquidambar styraciflua L. seedlings and tissue-cultured plantlets were grown under high, medium, or low quantum flux densities. Net photosynthesis, chlorophyll content, and chloroplast ultrastructure of leaves differentiated from these conditions were investigated. Seedling photosynthetic rates at light saturation were positively related to light pretreatments. Cultured plantlets under all light conditions had appreciably higher photosynthetic rates than noncultured seedlings. Chlorophyll in seedlings and plantlets was significantly higher in low light-treated plants. Seedling leaves had chloroplasts with abundant starch regardless of light pretreatment. In high light, starch granules were predominant and associated with disrupted granal structure. Low light seedling chloroplasts had smaller starch grains and well-formed grana. In contrast, tissue culture-differentiated leaves were devoid of starch; grana were well organized in higher quantum flux density treatments, but disorganized at low flux densities. 29 references, 7 figures, 1 table.

  16. Incorporation of Model and Parameter Uncertainty in Predicting Radionuclide Fluxes from the Climax Granite Intrusive, Nevada Test Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, D. M.; Pohlmann, K. F.; Pohll, G. M.; Chapman, J. B.; Ye, M.

    2006-12-01

    The Yucca Flat-Climax Mine Corrective Action Unit requires the use of numerical models to predict radionuclide flux rates from three subsurface nuclear tests conducted in a fractured rock mass. Modeling flow and transport in the Climax granite intrusive (CGI) is unique; while attributes of rock fractures have been extensively characterized in subsurface tunnel and drift complexes, information on the saturated flow system, including the position of the water table within the CGI, is largely unknown. A modified version of the Death Valley Regional Flow System (DVRFS) model of Belcher et al. (2004) with refined discretization in the area of the CGI is used to provide boundary conditions and a calibration target for a local-scale stochastic continuum fracture flow and transport model. Uncertainty in the Climax DVRFS model is addressed by including five different geologic framework models, each weighted according to expert elicitation. Five ground water recharge models are then applied to each of the five geologic models, resulting in a total of 25 geologic/recharge models. The CGI fracture flow model consists of 3-D discrete fracture networks, randomly distributed according to probability distribution functions for fracture location, orientation, length and permeability. The networks are directly mapped onto a 3-D finite-difference grid and MODFLOW is used to simultaneously solve for fluid flow within the fracture network and rock matrix. Flow model calibration involved matching the geometric mean of total fluid flux through 200 Monte Carlo fracture network realizations to flux computed in the subsection of the Climax DVRFS model representing the area of the local-scale model domain. By maintaining a constant log_10 mean and variance of fracture conductivity, fracture density was altered until the geometric mean of flux from all 200 network realizations is within +/- 5% of the target flux from the regional model. Variability in flux for individual realizations

  17. Joint-inversion of gravity data and cosmic ray muon flux to detect shallow subsurface density structure beneath volcanoes: Testing the method at a well-characterized site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, M.; Lewis, M.; George, N. K.; Johnson, A.; Dichter, M.; Rowe, C. A.; Guardincerri, E.

    2016-12-01

    The joint-inversion of gravity data and cosmic ray muon flux measurements has been utilized by a number of groups to image subsurface density structure in a variety of settings, including volcanic edifices. Cosmic ray muons are variably-attenuated depending upon the density structure of the material they traverse, so measuring muon flux through a region of interest provides an independent constraint on the density structure. Previous theoretical studies have argued that the primary advantage of combining gravity and muon data is enhanced resolution in regions not sampled by crossing muon trajectories, e.g. in sensing deeper structure or structure adjacent to the region sampled by muons. We test these ideas by investigating the ability of gravity data alone and the joint-inversion of gravity and muon flux to image subsurface density structure, including voids, in a well-characterized field location. Our study area is a tunnel vault located at the Los Alamos National Laboratory within Quaternary ash-flow tuffs on the Pajarito Plateau, flanking the Jemez Volcano in New Mexico. The regional geology of the area is well-characterized (with density measurements in nearby wells) and the geometry of the tunnel and the surrounding terrain is known. Gravity measurements were made using a Lacoste and Romberg D meter and the muon detector has a conical acceptance region of 45 degrees from the vertical and track resolution of several milliradians. We obtain individual and joint resolution kernels for gravity and muon flux specific to our experimental design and plan to combine measurements of gravity and muon flux both within and above the tunnel to infer density structure. We plan to compare our inferred density structure against the expected densities from the known regional hydro-geologic framework.

  18. Modelling of density limit phenomena in toroidal helical plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, K. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Itoh, S.-I. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics; Giannone, L. [Max Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-IPP Association, Garching (Germany)

    2000-03-01

    The physics of density limit phenomena in toroidal helical plasmas based on an analytic point model of toroidal plasmas is discussed. The combined mechanism of the transport and radiation loss of energy is analyzed, and the achievable density is derived. A scaling law of the density limit is discussed. The dependence of the critical density on the heating power, magnetic field, plasma size and safety factor in the case of L-mode energy confinement is explained. The dynamic evolution of the plasma energy and radiation loss is discussed. Assuming a simple model of density evolution, of a sudden loss of density if the temperature becomes lower than critical value, then a limit cycle oscillation is shown to occur. A condition that divides the limit cycle oscillation and the complete radiation collapse is discussed. This model seems to explain the density limit oscillation that has been observed on the W7-AS stellarator. (author)

  19. Modelling of density limit phenomena in toroidal helical plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Kimitaka [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Itoh, Sanae-I. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics; Giannone, Louis [EURATOM-IPP Association, Max Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)

    2001-11-01

    The physics of density limit phenomena in toroidal helical plasmas based on an analytic point model of toroidal plasmas is discussed. The combined mechanism of the transport and radiation loss of energy is analyzed, and the achievable density is derived. A scaling law of the density limit is discussed. The dependence of the critical density on the heating power, magnetic field, plasma size and safety factor in the case of L-mode energy confinement is explained. The dynamic evolution of the plasma energy and radiation loss is discussed. Assuming a simple model of density evolution, of a sudden loss of density if the temperature becomes lower than critical value, then a limit cycle oscillation is shown to occur. A condition that divides the limit cycle oscillation and the complete radiation collapse is discussed. This model seems to explain the density limit oscillation that has been observed on the Wendelstein 7-AS (W7-AS) stellarator. (author)

  20. Multi-year Estimates of Methane Fluxes in Alaska from an Atmospheric Inverse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S. M.; Commane, R.; Chang, R. Y. W.; Miller, C. E.; Michalak, A. M.; Dinardo, S. J.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Hartery, S.; Karion, A.; Lindaas, J.; Sweeney, C.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    We estimate methane fluxes across Alaska over a multi-year period using observations from a three-year aircraft campaign, the Carbon Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE). Existing estimates of methane from Alaska and other Arctic regions disagree in both magnitude and distribution, and before the CARVE campaign, atmospheric observations in the region were sparse. We combine these observations with an atmospheric particle trajectory model and a geostatistical inversion to estimate surface fluxes at the model grid scale. We first use this framework to estimate the spatial distribution of methane fluxes across the state. We find the largest fluxes in the south-east and North Slope regions of Alaska. This distribution is consistent with several estimates of wetland extent but contrasts with the distribution in most existing flux models. These flux models concentrate methane in warmer or more southerly regions of Alaska compared to the estimate presented here. This result suggests a discrepancy in how existing bottom-up models translate wetland area into methane fluxes across the state. We next use the inversion framework to explore inter-annual variability in regional-scale methane fluxes for 2012-2014. We examine the extent to which this variability correlates with weather or other environmental conditions. These results indicate the possible sensitivity of wetland fluxes to near-term variability in climate.

  1. ACME Stellar Spectra. I. Absolutely Calibrated, Mostly Empirical Flux Densities of 55 Cancri and its Transiting Planet

    CERN Document Server

    Crossfield, Ian J M

    2012-01-01

    The ACME Spectra project provides absolutely calibrated, mostly empirical spectra of exoplanet host stars for use in analysis of the stars and their planets. Spectra are obtained from ground-based telescopes and are tied directly to calibrated ground- and space-based photometry. The spectra remain only "mostly" empirical because of telluric absorption, but interpolation of stellar models over the gaps in wavelength coverage provides continuous stellar spectra. Among other uses, the spectra are suitable for precisely converting observed secondary eclipses (occultations) into absolute flux units with minimal recourse to models. In this letter I introduce ACME's methods and present a calibrated spectrum of the nearby, super-Earth hosting star 55 Cancri that spans the range from 0.81-5.05 micron. With this spectrum I show that the brightness temperature of the transiting planet 55 Cnc e is 1950 (+260/-190) K at 4.5 micron (cooler than previously reported), which corresponds to a planetary flux of 0.44 (+0.12/-0.0...

  2. A Quasi-One-Dimensional Model for a Solar Flux Tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨志良; 张洪起; 张枚; 冯学尚

    2002-01-01

    We develop the quasi-one-dimensional flux tube model with magnetohydrodynamical equations. In order to know whether the magnetic field can maintain their similar structurefrom photosphere to chromosphere, we suppose that the flux tube is thin in radius relative to the length, and that the quantities in the cross section are averaged.The radii of the flux tube and the magnetic field are numerically simulated. One of the important results shows that the flux tube does not expand as quickly as the existing model when it is out of the photosphere with high velocity. This is consistent with observations of the magnetic field in the photosphere and chromosphere.

  3. Measurements and Phenomenological Modeling of Magnetic FluxBuildup in Spheromak Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero-Talamas, C A; Hooper, E B; Jayakumar, R; McLean, H S; Wood, R D; Moller, J M

    2007-12-14

    Internal magnetic field measurements and high-speed imaging at the Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX) [E. B. Hooper, L. D. Pearlstein, R. H. Bulmer, Nucl. Fusion 39, 863 (1999)] are used to study spheromak formation and field buildup. The measurements are analyzed in the context of a phenomenological model of magnetic helicity based on the topological constraint of minimum helicity in the open flux before reconnecting and linking closed flux. Two stages are analyzed: (1) the initial spheromak formation, i. e. when all flux surfaces are initially open and reconnect to form open and closed flux surfaces, and (2) the stepwise increase of closed flux when operating the gun on a new mode that can apply a train of high-current pulses to the plasma. In the first stage, large kinks in the open flux surfaces are observed in the high-speed images taken shortly after plasma breakdown, and coincide with large magnetic asymmetries recorded in a fixed insertable magnetic probe that spans the flux conserver radius. Closed flux (in the toroidal average sense) appears shortly after this. This stage is also investigated using resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations. In the second stage, a time lag in response between open and closed flux surfaces after each current pulse is interpreted as the time for the open flux to build helicity, before transferring it through reconnection to the closed flux. Large asymmetries are seen during these events, which then relax to a slowly decaying spheromak before the next pulse.

  4. A dry-spot model for the prediction of critical heat flux in water boiling in bubbly flow regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Sang Jun; No, Hee Cheon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents a prediction of critical heat flux (CHF) in bubbly flow regime using dry-spot model proposed recently by authors for pool and flow boiling CHF and existing correlations for forced convective heat transfer coefficient, active site density and bubble departure diameter in nucleate boiling region. Without any empirical constants always present in earlier models, comparisons of the model predictions with experimental data for upward flow of water in vertical, uniformly-heated round tubes are performed and show a good agreement. The parametric trends of CHF have been explored with respect to variations in pressure, tube diameter and length, mass flux and inlet subcooling. 16 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  5. Bioenergy Ecosystem Land-Use Modelling and Field Flux Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Niall; Bottoms, Emily; Donnison, Iain; Dondini, Marta; Farrar, Kerrie; Finch, Jon; Harris, Zoe; Ineson, Phil; Keane, Ben; Massey, Alice; McCalmont, Jon; Morison, James; Perks, Mike; Pogson, Mark; Rowe, Rebecca; Smith, Pete; Sohi, Saran; Tallis, Mat; Taylor, Gail; Yamulki, Sirwan

    2013-04-01

    loss after land use change at 100 fieldsites which encapsulate a range of UK climates and soil types. Our overall objective is to use our measured data to parameterise and validate the models that we will use to predict the implications of bioenergy crop deployment in the UK up to 2050. The resultant output will be a meta-model which will help facilitate decision making on the sustainable development of bioenergy in the UK, with potential deployment in other temperate climates around the world. Here we report on the outcome of the first of three years of work. This work is based on the Ecosystem Land Use Modelling & Soil Carbon GHG Flux Trial (ELUM) project, which was commissioned and funded by the Energy Technologies Institute (ETI). Don et al. (2012) Land-use change to bioenergy production in Europe: implications for the greenhouse gas balance and soil carbon. GCB Bioenergy 4, 372-379.

  6. Wide Dynamic Range Multiband Infrared Radiometer for In-Fire Measurements of Wildland Fire Radiant Flux Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremens, R.; Dickinson, M. B.; Hardy, C.; Skowronski, N.; Ellicott, E. A.; Schroeder, W.

    2016-12-01

    We have developed a wide dynamic range (24-bit) data acquisition system for collection of radiant flux density (FRFD) data from wildland fires. The data collection subsystem was designed as an Arduino `shield' and incorporates a 24-bit analog-to-digital converter, precision voltage reference, real time clock, microSD card interface, audible annuciator and interface for various digital communication interfaces (RS232, I2C, SPI, etc.). The complete radiometer system consists of our custom-designed `shield', a commercially available Arduino MEGA computer circuit board and a thermopile sensor -amplifier daughter board. Software design and development is greatly assisted by the availability of a library of public-domain, user-implemented software. The daughter board houses a 5-band radiometer using thermopiles designed for this experiment (Dexter Research Corp., Dexter, MI) to allow determination of the total FRFD from the fire (using a wide band thermopile with a KRS-5 window, 0.1 - 30 um), the FRFD as would be received by an orbital asset like MODIS (3.95 um center wavelength (CWL) and 10.95 CWL, corresponding to MODIS bands 21/22 and 31, respectively) and wider bandpass (0.1-5.5 um and 8-14 um) corresponding to the FRFD recorded by `MWIR' and `LWIR' imaging systems. We required a very wide dynamic range system in order to be able to record the flux density from `cold' ground before the fire, through the `hot' flaming combustion stage, to the `cool' phase after passage of the fire front. The recording dynamic range required (with reasonable resolution at the lowest temperatures) is on the order of 106, which is not currently available in commercial instrumentation at a price point, size or feature set that is suitable for wildland fire investigations. The entire unit, along with rechargeable battery power supply is housed in a fireproof aluminum chassis box, which is then mounted on a mast at a height of 5 - 7 m above the fireground floor. We will report initial

  7. A framework to utilize turbulent flux measurements for mesoscale models and remote sensing applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Babel

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Meteorologically measured fluxes of energy and matter between the surface and the atmosphere originate from a source area of certain extent, located in the upwind sector of the device. The spatial representativeness of such measurements is strongly influenced by the heterogeneity of the landscape. The footprint concept is capable of linking observed data with spatial heterogeneity. This study aims at upscaling eddy covariance derived fluxes to a grid size of 1 km edge length, which is typical for mesoscale models or low resolution remote sensing data.

    Here an upscaling strategy is presented, utilizing footprint modelling and SVAT modelling as well as observations from a target land-use area. The general idea of this scheme is to model fluxes from adjacent land-use types and combine them with the measured flux data to yield a grid representative flux according to the land-use distribution within the grid cell. The performance of the upscaling routine is evaluated with real datasets, which are considered to be land-use specific fluxes in a grid cell. The measurements above rye and maize fields stem from the LITFASS experiment 2003 in Lindenberg, Germany and the respective modelled timeseries were derived by the SVAT model SEWAB. Contributions from each land-use type to the observations are estimated using a forward lagrangian stochastic model. A representation error is defined as the error in flux estimates made when accepting the measurements unchanged as grid representative flux and ignoring flux contributions from other land-use types within the respective grid cell.

    Results show that this representation error can be reduced up to 56 % when applying the spatial integration. This shows the potential for further application of this strategy, although the absolute differences between flux observations from rye and maize were so small, that the spatial integration would be rejected in a real situation. Corresponding thresholds for

  8. Reduced entropic model for studies of multidimensional nonlocal transport in high-energy-density plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Sorbo, D.; Feugeas, J.-L.; Nicolaï, Ph.; Olazabal-Loumé, M.; Dubroca, B.; Guisset, S.; Touati, M.; Tikhonchuk, V. [Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications, Université de Bordeaux-CNRS-CEA, UMR 5107, F-33405 Talence (France)

    2015-08-15

    Hydrodynamic simulations of high-energy-density plasmas require a detailed description of energy fluxes. For low and intermediate atomic number materials, the leading mechanism is the electron transport, which may be a nonlocal phenomenon requiring a kinetic modeling. In this paper, we present and test the results of a nonlocal model based on the first angular moments of a simplified Fokker-Planck equation. This multidimensional model is closed thanks to an entropic relation (the Boltzman H-theorem). It provides a better description of the electron distribution function, thus enabling studies of small scale kinetic effects within the hydrodynamic framework. Examples of instabilities of electron plasma and ion-acoustic waves, driven by the heat flux, are presented and compared with the classical formula.

  9. Reduced entropic model for studies of multidimensional nonlocal transport in high-energy-density plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Sorbo, D.; Feugeas, J.-L.; Nicolaï, Ph.; Olazabal-Loumé, M.; Dubroca, B.; Guisset, S.; Touati, M.; Tikhonchuk, V.

    2015-08-01

    Hydrodynamic simulations of high-energy-density plasmas require a detailed description of energy fluxes. For low and intermediate atomic number materials, the leading mechanism is the electron transport, which may be a nonlocal phenomenon requiring a kinetic modeling. In this paper, we present and test the results of a nonlocal model based on the first angular moments of a simplified Fokker-Planck equation. This multidimensional model is closed thanks to an entropic relation (the Boltzman H-theorem). It provides a better description of the electron distribution function, thus enabling studies of small scale kinetic effects within the hydrodynamic framework. Examples of instabilities of electron plasma and ion-acoustic waves, driven by the heat flux, are presented and compared with the classical formula.

  10. Soil-water fluxes modelling in a green roof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamera, Carlotta; Rulli, Maria Cristina; Becciu, Gianfranco; Rosso, Renzo

    2014-05-01

    Green roofs differ from a natural environment as they are on top of a building and are not connected to the natural ground; therefore it is critical that soils can drain and retain water simultaneously and that they work even in very shallow systems. The soil or growing medium used for green roofs is specifically engineered to provide the vegetation with nutrients, discharging any excess water into the drainage layer, and releasing stored water back into the substrate. In this way, medium depth and porosity plays an important role in stormwater retention and plant growth in a green roof. Due to the lack of a good understanding about the hydraulic efficiency of each green roof's layer in rainwater management, a detailed analysis of the hydrological dynamics, connected with the green roof technical design is essential in order to obtain a full characterization of the hydrologic behavior of a green roof system and its effects on the urban water cycle components. The purpose of this research is analyzing the soil-water dynamics through the different components of a green roof and modeling these processes though a detailed but clear subsurface hydrology module, based on green roof vertical soil water movement reproduction, in relation to climate forcing, basic technology components and geometric characteristics of green roof systems (thickness of the stratigraphy, soil layers and materials, vegetation typology and density). A multi-layer bucket model has been applied to examine the hydrological response of the green roof system under a temperate maritime climate, by varying the physical and geometric parameters that characterize the different components of the vegetated cover. Following a stage of validation and calibration, results confirm the suitability of the model to describe the hydrologic response of the green roof during the observed rainfall events: the discharge hydrograph profile, volume and timing, predicted by the model, matched experimental measurements

  11. Correspondence Between Continuous and Discrete 2 Flux Models for Reflectance and Transmittance of Diffusing Layers

    OpenAIRE

    Hébert, M.; Becker, J.-M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides a theoretical connection between two different mathematical models dedicated to the reflectance and the transmittance of diffusing layers. The Kubelka–Munk model proposes a continuous description of scattering and absorption for two opposite diffuse fluxes in a homogeneous layer (continuous two-flux model). On the other hand, Kubelka's layering model describes the multiple reflections and transmissions of light taking place between various superposed diffusing layers (disc...

  12. Thermalization and hydrodynamization in the color-flux-tube model

    CERN Document Server

    Ryblewski, Radoslaw

    2016-01-01

    The study of transverse-momentum spectra of quarks and gluons produced by the color electric flux tube decaying through the Schwinger tunneling mechanism is reviewed. The hints for a fast hydrodynamization in the ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions are found.

  13. On the physical air-sea fluxes for climate modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonekamp, J.G.

    2001-01-01

    At the sea surface, the atmosphere and the ocean exchange momentum, heat and freshwater. Mechanisms for the exchange are wind stress, turbulent mixing, radiation, evaporation and precipitation. These surface fluxes are characterized by a large spatial and temporal variability and play an

  14. On the physical air-sea fluxes for climate modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonekamp, J.G.

    2001-01-01

    At the sea surface, the atmosphere and the ocean exchange momentum, heat and freshwater. Mechanisms for the exchange are wind stress, turbulent mixing, radiation, evaporation and precipitation. These surface fluxes are characterized by a large spatial and temporal variability and play an impor

  15. HyFlux - Part I: Regional Modeling of Methane Flux From Near-Seafloor Gas Hydrate Deposits on Continental Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, I. R.; Asper, V.; Garcia, O. P.; Kastner, M.; Leifer, I.; Naehr, T.; Solomon, E.; Yvon-Lewis, S.; Zimmer, B.

    2008-12-01

    HyFlux - Part I: Regional modeling of methane flux from near-seafloor gas hydrate deposits on continental margins MacDonald, I.R., Asper, V., Garcia, O., Kastner, M., Leifer, I., Naehr, T.H., Solomon, E., Yvon-Lewis, S., and Zimmer, B. The Dept. of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) has recently awarded a project entitled HyFlux: "Remote sensing and sea-truth measurements of methane flux to the atmosphere." The project will address this problem with a combined effort of satellite remote sensing and data collection at proven sites in the Gulf of Mexico where gas hydrate releases gas to the water column. Submarine gas hydrate is a large pool of greenhouse gas that may interact with the atmosphere over geologic time to affect climate cycles. In the near term, the magnitude of methane reaching the atmosphere from gas hydrate on continental margins is poorly known because 1) gas hydrate is exposed to metastable oceanic conditions in shallow, dispersed deposits that are poorly imaged by standard geophysical techniques and 2) the consumption of methane in marine sediments and in the water column is subject to uncertainty. The northern GOM is a prolific hydrocarbon province where rapid migration of oil, gases, and brines from deep subsurface petroleum reservoirs occurs through faults generated by salt tectonics. Focused expulsion of hydrocarbons is manifested at the seafloor by gas vents, gas hydrates, oil seeps, chemosynthetic biological communities, and mud volcanoes. Where hydrocarbon seeps occur in depths below the hydrate stability zone (~500m), rapid flux of gas will feed shallow deposits of gas hydrate that potentially interact with water column temperature changes; oil released from seeps forms sea-surface features that can be detected in remote-sensing images. The regional phase of the project will quantify verifiable sources of methane (and oil) the Gulf of Mexico continental margin and selected margins (e.g. Pakistan Margin, South China Sea

  16. A model for the formation of the active region corona driven by magnetic flux emergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, F.; Peter, H.; Bingert, S.; Cheung, M. C. M.

    2014-04-01

    Aims: We present the first model that couples the formation of the corona of a solar active region to a model of the emergence of a sunspot pair. This allows us to study when, where, and why active region loops form, and how they evolve. Methods: We use a 3D radiation magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulation of the emergence of an active region through the upper convection zone and the photosphere as a lower boundary for a 3D MHD coronal model. The coronal model accounts for the braiding of the magnetic fieldlines, which induces currents in the corona to heat up the plasma. We synthesize the coronal emission for a direct comparison to observations. Starting with a basically field-free atmosphere we follow the filling of the corona with magnetic field and plasma. Results: Numerous individually identifiable hot coronal loops form, and reach temperatures well above 1 MK with densities comparable to observations. The footpoints of these loops are found where small patches of magnetic flux concentrations move into the sunspots. The loop formation is triggered by an increase in upward-directed Poynting flux at their footpoints in the photosphere. In the synthesized extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission these loops develop within a few minutes. The first EUV loop appears as a thin tube, then rises and expands significantly in the horizontal direction. Later, the spatially inhomogeneous heat input leads to a fragmented system of multiple loops or strands in a growing envelope. Animation associated with Fig. 2 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  17. Numerical Simulation of Water Jet Flow Using Diffusion Flux Mixture Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Shang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A multidimensional diffusion flux mixture model was developed to simulate water jet two-phase flows. Through the modification of the gravity using the gradients of the mixture velocity, the centrifugal force on the water droplets was able to be considered. The slip velocities between the continuous phase (gas and the dispersed phase (water droplets were able to be calculated through multidimensional diffusion flux velocities based on the modified multidimensional drift flux model. Through the numerical simulations, comparing with the experiments and the simulations of traditional algebraic slip mixture model on the water mist spray, the model was validated.

  18. STUDY ON NEW PASSIVE SCALAR FLUX MODEL WITH DIFFUSIVITY OF COMPLEX NUMBER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The turbulent passive scalar fluxes were studied by separately considering the contributions of small-eddy motions and large-eddy ones.Explicit algebraic approximation was achieved for both small-eddy and large-eddy scalar fluxes.Especially, the large-eddy scalar flux was modelled with complex diffusivity.The singular difficulties in usual algebraic scalar models, do not occur any more in this model.In addition, this new model provides a new way to reasonably describe the negative transport phenomena appearing in asymmetric turbulent flows.

  19. Beyond the Born-Oppenheimer approximation: a treatment of electronic flux density in electronically adiabatic molecular processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diestler, D J

    2013-06-01

    Intuition suggests that a molecular system in the electronic ground state Φ0 should exhibit an electronic flux density (EFD) in response to the motion of its nuclei. If that state is described by the Born-Oppenheimer approximation (BOA), however, a straightforward calculation of the EFD yields zero, since the electrons are in a stationary state, regardless of the state of the nuclear motion. Here an alternative pathway to a nonzero EFD from a knowledge of only the BOA ground-state wave function is proposed. Via perturbation theory a complete set of approximate vibronic eigenfunctions of the whole Hamiltonian is generated. If the complete non-BOA wave function is expressed in the basis of these vibronic eigenfunctions, the ground-state contribution to the EFD is found to involve a summation over excited states. Evaluation of this sum through the so-called "average excitation energy approximation" produces a nonzero EFD. An explicit formula for the EFD for the prototypical system, namely, oriented H2+ vibrating in the electronic ground state, is derived.

  20. [Spatiotemporal distribution pattern of photosynthetic photon flux density in forest gaps of Korean pine broadleaved mixed forest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Duan, Wen-biao; Chen, Li-xin

    2011-04-01

    Taking the forest gaps of natural Pinus koraiensis broadleaved mixed forest in Xiao Xing'an Mountains as test object, and by the method of grids, the photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) in the gaps was continuously measured during growth season, and the spatiotemporal distribution patterns of the PPFD were analyzed by fundamental statistics and geostatistics methods. In the forest gaps, the high-value region of PPFD presented an obvious diurnal change, with the maximum PPFD appeared at 12:00 and in the northern part of the gaps. The mean monthly PPFD was the highest in June, and then decreased in the sequence of July, August, and September, with the largest coefficient of variation at different locations occurred in July and the medium variability in all the months. In different months, the intensity and the scale of PPFD spatial heterogeneity in the gaps differed, with the variation degree being the highest in June and the sill and proportion being the largest in July. The complex degree of the monthly PPFD patches also differed, with the maximum located in the northeast part of the gaps. The variation sequence of the mean monthly PPFD in understory and open ground was consistent with that in gap, and the mean monthly PPFD was the highest in open ground, medium in forest gap, and the lowest in understory.

  1. The epoxy resin variation effect on microstructure and physical properties to improve bonded NdFeB flux magnetic density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusnaeni, N.; Sarjono, Priyo; Muljadi; Noer, Nasrudin

    2016-11-01

    NdFeB magnets have been fabricated from a mixture of powder NdFeB (MPQ-B+) and epoxy resins (ER) with a variation of 0% wt, 2% wt, 4% wt and 6% wt. The pellets samples were made by pressing 4 tons of the mixture powder at room temperature before curing at 100°C for 1 hour. The SEM-EDX results showed the microstructure with ER were evenly smeared the NdFeB magnetic particles due to higher percent C and lower transition metals value. Sample with 2% wt epoxy resin was able to achieve the highest density of 5.35 g/cm3 and the highest magnetic flux of 2121 Gauss. The magnetic properties characterization using the permagraph indicates that the sample pellets with 2% wt epoxy resin has a value of remanence (Br) = 4.92 kG, coercivity (Hc) = 7.76 kOe, and energy product (Bhmax) = 4.58 MGOe. Despite low remanence value in the pellet samples, the resistance to demagnetization value was still acceptable.

  2. Enhancement of glass-forming ability of Fe-based bulk metallic glasses with high saturation magnetic flux density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxiao Zhang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of substituting Fe with Ni on thermal properties, glass-forming ability (GFA and magnetic properties of Fe76-xNixMo3.5P10C4B4Si2.5 (x = 0−30 at.% alloys were investigated in detail. The breadth of the supercooled liquid region was found to gradually increase from 42 to 55 K with increasing Ni content to 30 at.%. When x = 5 at.%, the alloy composition approached a eutectic point, resulting in an increase in GFA. As a result, FeNiMoPCBSi bulk metallic glasses with critical diameters up to 5.5 mm were successfully synthesized by copper mold casting. These glassy alloys exhibit a high saturation magnetic flux density of 0.75−1.21 T and excellent soft magnetic properties, i.e., low coercive force of 1.1−2.0 A/m, and high effective permeability of 14400−19700 at 1 kHz under a field of 1 A/m. The reasons for the high stability of the supercooled liquid, and the high GFA as well as excellent soft magnetic properties are discussed in this article.

  3. Superfluid Density and Flux-Flow Resistivity Measurements of Multiple-Band Superconductor β-PdBi2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Tatsunori; Imai, Yoshinori; Maeda, Atsutaka

    β -PdBi2 (Tcmax = 5 . 4 K) is a newcomer of the multiple-band superconductors, revealed by the specific heat and the upper critical field measurements, and the angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. In addition, authors of ref. observed the spin-polarized band dispersion and proposed that β-PdBi2 is a candidate of topological superconductor. However, there is less information on superconducting properties so far. In order to clarify the superconducting gap function, we measured the temperature (T) and magnetic field (B) dependence of microwave complex conductivity of β-PdBi2 single crystals. We found that the superfluid density exhibits the thermally activated T dependence, manifesting the absence of nodes in the superconducting gaps. We also found that the flux-flow resistivity increased with B with downward-convex shape. Based on some theories, we considered that such a behavior originated from the backflow of supercurrents around vortices reflecting rather small Ginzburg-Landau parameter (κ ~= 5). This work was supported by the JSPS KAKENHI (Grant Numbers 15K17697 and 26-9315), and the JSPS Research Fellowship for Young Scientists.

  4. Variation in photosynthetic photon flux density within a tropical seasonal rain forest of Xishuangbanna, south-western China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DOU Jun-xia; ZHANG Yi-ping; FENG Zong-wei; LIU Wen-jie

    2005-01-01

    The effects of canopy development, solar angle, and weather conditions on temporal variation in photosynthetic photon flux density(PPFD) at three heights within a tropical rain forest canopy in Xishuangbanna, China, were examined. PPFD was measured every second and stored as 10-min averages from 1 December 2002 to 30 November 2003. PPFD variability was examined at three different tempcral scales. Specific days in March, September, and December with clear and overcast sky conditions were selected to separate the effects of leaf area index(LAI) and solar angle on diumal variability. On both clear and overcast days, mean daily average PPFD was significantly different between March and September at all heights, except 10 m on clear days, suggesting that LAI directly influences PPFD. In contrast, the differences in daily average PPFD among three heights between September and December were likely due to variation in solar angle. In addition, daily average PPFD at all locations were significantly lower under overcast than clear sky conditions in March, September and December. Over the year-long study, the mean daily total PPFD at 21 m, 10 m and 4 m was 2.8, 2.7 and 0.7mean daily total PPFD occurred at the same heights among different seasons, and diurnal, day-to-day and seasonal PPFD varied at different heights within the canopy. The possible effects of light variability on physiological and morphological responses of plants are discussed.

  5. Real-time visualization of magnetic flux densities for transcranial magnetic stimulation on commodity and fully immersive VR systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalivarapu, Vijay K.; Serrate, Ciro; Hadimani, Ravi L.

    2017-05-01

    Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive procedure that uses time varying short pulses of magnetic fields to stimulate nerve cells in the brain. In this method, a magnetic field generator ("TMS coil") produces small electric fields in the region of the brain via electromagnetic induction. This technique can be used to excite or inhibit firing of neurons, which can then be used for treatment of various neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease, stroke, migraine, and depression. It is however challenging to focus the induced electric field from TMS coils to smaller regions of the brain. Since electric and magnetic fields are governed by laws of electromagnetism, it is possible to numerically simulate and visualize these fields to accurately determine the site of maximum stimulation and also to develop TMS coils that can focus the fields on the targeted regions. However, current software to compute and visualize these fields are not real-time and can work for only one position/orientation of TMS coil, severely limiting their usage. This paper describes the development of an application that computes magnetic flux densities (h-fields) and visualizes their distribution for different TMS coil position/orientations in real-time using GPU shaders. The application is developed for desktop, commodity VR (HTC Vive), and fully immersive VR CAVETM systems, for use by researchers, scientists, and medical professionals to quickly and effectively view the distribution of h-fields from MRI brain scans.

  6. Simulation of upward flux from shallow water-table using UPFLOW model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Ali

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The upward movement of water by capillary rise from shallow water-table to the root zone is an important incoming flux. For determining exact amount of irrigation requirement, estimation of capillary flux or upward flux is essential. Simulation model can provide a reliable estimate of upward flux under variable soil and climatic conditions. In this study, the performance of model UPFLOW to estimate upward flux was evaluated. Evaluation of model performance was performed with both graphical display and statistical criteria. In distribution of simulated capillary rise values against observed field data, maximum data points lie around the 1:1 line, which means that the model output is reliable and reasonable. The coefficient of determination between observed and simulated values was 0.806 (r = 0.93, which indicates a good inter-relation between observed and simulated values. The relative error, model efficiency, and index of agreement were found as 27.91%, 85.93% and 0.96, respectively. Considering the graphical display of observed and simulated upward flux and statistical indicators, it can be concluded that the overall performance of the UPFLOW model in simulating actual upward flux from a crop field under variable water-table condition is satisfactory. Thus, the model can be used to estimate capillary rise from shallow water-table for proper estimation of irrigation requirement, which would save valuable water from over-irrigation.

  7. Modeling nitrogen fluxes in Germany - where does the nitrogen go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klement, Laura; Bach, Martin; Breuer, Lutz

    2016-04-01

    According to the latest inventory of the EU Water Framework Directive, 26.3% of German groundwater bodies are in a poor chemical state regarding nitrate. Additionally, the EU initiated infringement proceedings against Germany for not meeting the quality standards of the EU Nitrate Directive. Agriculture has been determined as the main source of nitrate pollution due to over-fertilization and regionally high density of livestock farming. The nitrogen balance surplus is commonly used as an indicator characterizing the potential of nitrate leaching into groundwater bodies and thus also serves as a foundation to introduce legislative restrictions or to monitor the success of mitigation measures. Currently, there is an ongoing discussion which measures are suitable for reducing the risk of nitrate leaching and also to what extent. However, there is still uncertainty about just how much the nitrogen surplus has to be reduced to meet the groundwater quality standards nationwide. Therefore, the aims of our study were firstly to determine the level of the nitrogen surplus that would be acceptable at the utmost and secondly whether the currently discussed target value of 30 kg N per hectare agricultural land for the soil surface nitrogen balance would be sufficient. The models MONERIS (Modeling Nutrient Emissions in River System) and MoRE (Modelling of Regionalized Emissions), the latter based on the first, are commonly used for estimating nitrogen loads into the river system in Germany at the mesoscale, as well as the effect of mitigation measures in the context of the EU directive 2008/105/EC (Environmental quality standards applicable to surface water). We used MoRE to calculate nitrate concentration for 2759 analytical units in Germany. Main factors are the surplus of the soil surface nitrogen balance, the percolation rate and an exponent representing the denitrification in the vadose zone. The modeled groundwater nitrate concentrations did not correspond to the regional

  8. Adjoint-based sensitivity analysis for high-energy density radiative transfer using flux-limited diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbird, Kelli D.; McClarren, Ryan G.

    2017-03-01

    Uncertainty quantification and sensitivity analyses are a vital component for predictive modeling in the sciences and engineering. The adjoint approach to sensitivity analysis requires solving a primary system of equations and a mathematically related set of adjoint equations. The information contained in the equations can be combined to produce sensitivity information in a computationally efficient manner. In this work, sensitivity analyses are performed on systems described by flux-limited radiative diffusion using the adjoint approach. The sensitivities computed are shown to agree with standard perturbation theory and require significantly less computational time. The adjoint approach saves the computational cost of one forward solve per sensitivity, making the method attractive when multiple sensitivities are of interest.

  9. Hydrocarbon fluxes above a Scots pine forest canopy: measurements and modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rinne

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We measured the fluxes of several hydrocarbon species above a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris stand using disjunct eddy covariance technique with proton transfer reaction – mass spectrometry. The measurements were conducted during four days in July at SMEAR II research station in Hyytiälä, Finland. Compounds which showed significant emission fluxes were methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, and monoterpenes. A stochastic Lagrangian transport model with simple chemical degradation was applied to assess the sensitivity of the above canopy fluxes to chemistry. According to the model, the chemical degradation had a minor effect on the fluxes measured in this study but may have a major effect on the vertical flux profiles of more reactive compounds, such as sesquiterpenes. The monoterpene fluxes derived using M81 and M137 had a systematic difference with the latter one being higher. These fluxes followed the traditional exponential temperature dependent emission algorithm but were considerably higher than the fluxes measured before at the same site. The normalized monoterpene emission potentials at 30°C, obtained using the temperature dependence coefficient of 0.09°C−1, were 2.0 μg gdw−1 h−1 and 2.5 μg gdw−1 h−1, for fluxes derived using M81 and M137.

  10. Fluid and gyrokinetic modelling of particle transport in plasmas with hollow density profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegnered, D.; Oberparleiter, M.; Nordman, H.; Strand, P.

    2016-11-01

    Hollow density profiles occur in connection with pellet fuelling and L to H transitions. A positive density gradient could potentially stabilize the turbulence or change the relation between convective and diffusive fluxes, thereby reducing the turbulent transport of particles towards the center, making the fuelling scheme inefficient. In the present work, the particle transport driven by ITG/TE mode turbulence in regions of hollow density profiles is studied by fluid as well as gyrokinetic simulations. The fluid model used, an extended version of the Weiland transport model, Extended Drift Wave Model (EDWM), incorporates an arbitrary number of ion species in a multi-fluid description, and an extended wavelength spectrum. The fluid model, which is fast and hence suitable for use in predictive simulations, is compared to gyrokinetic simulations using the code GENE. Typical tokamak parameters are used based on the Cyclone Base Case. Parameter scans in key plasma parameters like plasma β, R/LT , and magnetic shear are investigated. It is found that β in particular has a stabilizing effect in the negative R/Ln region, both nonlinear GENE and EDWM show a decrease in inward flux for negative R/Ln and a change of direction from inward to outward for positive R/Ln . This might have serious consequences for pellet fuelling of high β plasmas.

  11. Inverse modeling of hydrologic parameters using surface flux and runoff observations in the Community Land Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Sun

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates the possibility of inverting hydrologic parameters using surface flux and runoff observations in version 4 of the Community Land Model (CLM4. Previous studies showed that surface flux and runoff calculations are sensitive to major hydrologic parameters in CLM4 over different watersheds, and illustrated the necessity and possibility of parameter calibration. Two inversion strategies, the deterministic least-square fitting and stochastic Markov-Chain Monte-Carlo (MCMC Bayesian inversion approaches, are evaluated by applying them to CLM4 at selected sites. The unknowns to be estimated include surface and subsurface runoff generation parameters and vadose zone soil water parameters. We find that using model parameters calibrated by the least-square fitting provides little improvements in the model simulations but the sampling-based stochastic inversion approaches are consistent – as more information comes in, the predictive intervals of the calibrated parameters become narrower and the misfits between the calculated and observed responses decrease. In general, parameters that are identified to be significant through sensitivity analyses and statistical tests are better calibrated than those with weak or nonlinear impacts on flux or runoff observations. Temporal resolution of observations has larger impacts on the results of inverse modeling using heat flux data than runoff data. Soil and vegetation cover have important impacts on parameter sensitivities, leading to different patterns of posterior distributions of parameters at different sites. Overall, the MCMC-Bayesian inversion approach effectively and reliably improves the simulation of CLM under different climates and environmental conditions. Bayesian model averaging of the posterior estimates with different reference acceptance probabilities can smooth the posterior distribution and provide more reliable parameter estimates, but at the expense of wider uncertainty

  12. A Creep Model for High Density Snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Director of ERDC-CRREL was Dr. Lance Hansen, and the Director was Dr. Robert E. Davis. COL Bryan S. Green was Commander of ERDC, and Dr. David W...Station, Green - land, and that will be founded on a compacted snow surface. The defor- mation of snow under a constant load (creep deformation, or...developed in this study are enough similar to the generalized creep model used in the ABAQUS finite element software that the ABAQUS creep model was used

  13. Modeling the Subsurface Evolution of Active Region Flux Tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Y

    2009-01-01

    I present results from a set of 3D spherical-shell MHD simulations of the buoyant rise of active region flux tubes in the solar interior which put new constraints on the initial twist of the subsurface tubes in order for them to emerge with tilt angles consistent with the observed Joy's law for the mean tilt of solar active regions. Due to the asymmetric stretching of the $\\Omega$-shaped tube by the Coriolis force, a field strength asymmetry develops with the leading side having a greater field strength and thus being more cohesive compared to the following side. Furthermore, the magnetic flux in the leading leg shows more coherent values of local twist $\\alpha \\equiv {\\bf J} \\cdot {\\bf B} / B^2$, whereas the values in the following leg show large fluctuations and are of mixed signs.

  14. Modelling the mechanical response of an idealized ice stream to variations in geothermal heat flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Johnsen, Silje; de Fleurian, Basile; Hestnes Nisancioglu, Kerim

    2017-04-01

    The spatial distribution of geothermal heat flux beneath the Greenland Ice Sheet is largely unknown partly due to difficulties in accessing the bed, and bore hole data providing point measurements only. Studies using tectonic, seismic and magnetic models to retrieve the geothermal heat flux show very different results indicating large uncertainties. However, modelling studies point to a geothermal heat flux anomaly that may influence the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream (NEGIS). Previous studies have investigated the impact of the uncertainty in geothermal heatflux on ice dynamics. These studies are mainly focusing on the impact on the ice rheology as the basal condition are derived from inverse modelling methods (including the geothermal heat flux variability in the variability of the friction coefficient). Another important feedback is the increase in subglacial meltwater production which may affect the sliding velocities of an ice stream, and has not been taken into account in preceding studies. In this study we investigate the impact of variations in geothermal heat flux on ice dynamics by analysing the mechanical response of a synthetic ice stream simulating NEGIS using the Ice Sheet System Model (Larour et al. 2012). We present results from model experiments using different heat flux configurations, friction laws and a hydrology model, showing the importance of geothermal heat flux on basal conditions of fast flowing ice.

  15. A simple model for the interaction between vertical eddy heat fluxes and static stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutowski, W. J., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    A numerical model for studying the interaction of vertical eddy heat fluxes and vertical temperature structure in midlatitude regions is described. The temperature profile for the model was derived from calculations of the equilibrium among heating rates in simplified representations of large-scale vertical eddy heat flux, moist convection and radiation. An eddy flux profile is calculated based on the quasi-geostrophic, liner baroclinic instability of a single wave. Model equilibrium states for summer and winter conditions are compared with observations, and the results are discussed in detail.

  16. Model of Flux Trapping in Cooling Down Process

    CERN Document Server

    Kubo, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    The flux trapping that occurs in the process of cooling down of the superconducting cavity is studied. The critical fields $B_{c2}$ and $B_{c1}$ depend on a position when a material temperature is not uniform. In a region with $T\\simeq T_c$, $B_{c2}$ and $B_{c1}$ are strongly suppressed and can be smaller than the ambient magnetic field, $B_a$. A region with $B_{c2}\\le B_a$ is normal conducting, that with $B_{c1}\\le B_a B_a$ is in the Meissner state. As a material is cooled down, these three domains including the vortex state domain sweep and pass through the material. In this process, vortices contained in the vortex state domain are trapped by pinning centers distributing in the material. A number of trapped fluxes can be evaluated by using the analogy with the beam-target collision event, where beams and a target correspond to pinning centers and the vortex state domain, respectively. We find a number of trapped fluxes and thus the residual resistance are proportional to the ambient magnetic field and the...

  17. Modeled Differential Muon Flux Measurements for Monitoring Geological Storage of Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, M. L.; Naudet, C. J.; Gluyas, J.

    2012-12-01

    Recently, we published the first, theoretical feasibility study of the use of muon tomography to monitor injection of supercritical carbon dioxide into a geological storage reservoir for carbon storage (Kudryavtsev et al., 2012). Our initial concept showed that attenuation of the total muon downward flux, which is controlled effectively by its path-length and the density of the material through which it passes, could quantify the replacement in a porous sandstone reservoir of relatively dense aqueous brine by less dense supercritical carbon dioxide (specific gravity, 0.75). Our model examined the change in the muon flux over periods of about one year. However, certainly, in the initial stages of carbon dioxide injection it would be valuable to examine its emplacement over much shorter periods of time. Over a year there are small fluctuations of about 2% in the flux of high energy cosmic ray muons, because of changes in pressure and temperature, and therefore density, of the upper atmosphere (Ambrosio, 1997). To improve precision, we developed the concept of differential muon monitoring. The muon flux at the bottom of the reservoir is compared with the incident flux at its top. In this paper we present the results of three simulations. In all of them, as in our previous modeling exercise, we assume a 1000 sq. m total area of muon detectors, but in this case both above and below a 300 m thick sandstone bed, with 35% porosity, capped by shale and filled initially with a dense brine (specific gravity, 1.112). We assume high sweep efficiency, since supercritical CO2 and water are miscible, and therefore that 80% of the water will be replaced over a period of injection spanning 10 years. In the first two cases the top of the reservoir is at 1200 m and the overburden is either continuous shale or a 100m shale horizon beneath a sandstone aquifer, respectively. In the third case, which is somewhat analogous to the FutureGen 2.0 site in Illinois (FutureGen Industrial

  18. Plant lighting system with five wavelength-band light-emitting diodes providing photon flux density and mixing ratio control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yano Akira

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant growth and development depend on the availability of light. Lighting systems therefore play crucial roles in plant studies. Recent advancements of light-emitting diode (LED technologies provide abundant opportunities to study various plant light responses. The LED merits include solidity, longevity, small element volume, radiant flux controllability, and monochromaticity. To apply these merits in plant light response studies, a lighting system must provide precisely controlled light spectra that are useful for inducing various plant responses. Results We have developed a plant lighting system that irradiated a 0.18 m2 area with a highly uniform distribution of photon flux density (PFD. The average photosynthetic PFD (PPFD in the irradiated area was 438 micro-mol m–2 s–1 (coefficient of variation 9.6%, which is appropriate for growing leafy vegetables. The irradiated light includes violet, blue, orange-red, red, and far-red wavelength bands created by LEDs of five types. The PFD and mixing ratio of the five wavelength-band lights are controllable using a computer and drive circuits. The phototropic response of oat coleoptiles was investigated to evaluate plant sensitivity to the light control quality of the lighting system. Oat coleoptiles irradiated for 23 h with a uniformly distributed spectral PFD (SPFD of 1 micro-mol m–2 s–1 nm–1 at every peak wavelength (405, 460, 630, 660, and 735 nm grew almost straight upwards. When they were irradiated with an SPFD gradient of blue light (460 nm peak wavelength, the coleoptiles showed a phototropic curvature in the direction of the greater SPFD of blue light. The greater SPFD gradient induced the greater curvature of coleoptiles. The relation between the phototropic curvature (deg and the blue-light SPFD gradient (micro-mol m–2 s–1 nm–1 m–1 was 2 deg per 1 micro-mol m–2 s–1 nm–1 m–1. Conclusions The plant lighting system, with a computer with a

  19. Modeling of branching density and branching distribution in low-density polyethylene polymerization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, D.M.; Iedema, P.D.

    2008-01-01

    Low-density polyethylene (ldPE) is a general purpose polymer with various applications. By this reason, many publications can be found on the ldPE polymerization modeling. However, scission reaction and branching distribution are only recently considered in the modeling studies due to difficulties i

  20. Magnetic Flux Rope Identification and Characterization from Observationally Driven Solar Coronal Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowder, Chris; Yeates, Anthony

    2017-09-01

    Formed through magnetic field shearing and reconnection in the solar corona, magnetic flux ropes are structures of twisted magnetic field, threaded along an axis. Their evolution and potential eruption are of great importance for space weather. Here we describe a new methodology for the automated detection of flux ropes in simulated magnetic fields, utilizing field-line helicity. Our Flux Rope Detection and Organization (FRoDO) code, which measures the magnetic flux and helicity content of pre-erupting flux ropes over time, as well as detecting eruptions, is publicly available. As a first demonstration, the code is applied to the output from a time-dependent magnetofrictional model, spanning 1996 June 15–2014 February 10. Over this period, 1561 erupting and 2099 non-erupting magnetic flux ropes are detected, tracked, and characterized. For this particular model data, erupting flux ropes have a mean net helicity magnitude of 2.66× {10}43 Mx2, while non-erupting flux ropes have a significantly lower mean of 4.04× {10}42 Mx2, although there is overlap between the two distributions. Similarly, the mean unsigned magnetic flux for erupting flux ropes is 4.04× {10}21 Mx, significantly higher than the mean value of 7.05× {10}20 Mx for non-erupting ropes. These values for erupting flux ropes are within the broad range expected from observational and theoretical estimates, although the eruption rate in this particular model is lower than that of observed coronal mass ejections. In the future, the FRoDO code will prove to be a valuable tool for assessing the performance of different non-potential coronal simulations and comparing them with observations.

  1. Quark matter at high density based on an extended confined isospin-density-dependent mass model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qauli, A. I.; Sulaksono, A.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the effect of the inclusion of relativistic Coulomb terms in a confined-isospin-density-dependent-mass (CIDDM) model of strange quark matter (SQM). We found that if we include the Coulomb term in scalar density form, the SQM equation of state (EOS) at high densities is stiffer but if we include the Coulomb term in vector density form it is softer than that of the standard CIDDM model. We also investigate systematically the role of each term of the extended CIDDM model. Compared with what was reported by Chu and Chen [Astrophys. J. 780, 135 (2014)], we found the stiffness of SQM EOS is controlled by the interplay among the oscillator harmonic, isospin asymmetry and Coulomb contributions depending on the parameter's range of these terms. We have found that the absolute stable condition of SQM and the mass of 2 M⊙ pulsars can constrain the parameter of oscillator harmonic κ1≈0.53 in the case the Coulomb term is excluded. If the Coulomb term is included, for the models with their parameters are consistent with SQM absolute stability condition, the 2.0 M⊙ constraint more prefers the maximum mass prediction of the model with the scalar Coulomb term than that of the model with the vector Coulomb term. On the contrary, the high densities EOS predicted by the model with the vector Coulomb is more compatible with the recent perturbative quantum chromodynamics result [1] than that predicted by the model with the scalar Coulomb. Furthermore, we also observed the quark composition in a very high density region depends quite sensitively on the kind of Coulomb term used.

  2. Exact Maps in Density Functional Theory for Lattice Models

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitrov, Tanja; Fuks, Johanna I; Rubio, Angel

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, we employ exact diagonalization for model systems on a real-space lattice to explicitly construct the exact density-to-potential and for the first time the exact density-to-wavefunction map that underly the Hohenberg-Kohn theorem in density functional theory. Having the explicit wavefunction-to- density map at hand, we are able to construct arbitrary observables as functionals of the ground-state density. We analyze the density-to-potential map as the distance between the fragments of a system increases and the correlation in the system grows. We observe a feature that gradually develops in the density-to-potential map as well as in the density-to-wavefunction map. This feature is inherited by arbitrary expectation values as functional of the ground-state density. We explicitly show the excited-state energies, the excited-state densities, and the correlation entropy as functionals of the ground-state density. All of them show this exact feature that sharpens as the coupling of the fragmen...

  3. Current Density and Continuity in Discretized Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boykin, Timothy B.; Luisier, Mathieu; Klimeck, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    Discrete approaches have long been used in numerical modelling of physical systems in both research and teaching. Discrete versions of the Schrodinger equation employing either one or several basis functions per mesh point are often used by senior undergraduates and beginning graduate students in computational physics projects. In studying…

  4. Modeling Method for Increased Precision and Scope of Directly Measurable Fluxes at a Genome-Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCloskey, Douglas; Young, Jamey D.; Xu, Sibei

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic flux analysis (MFA) is considered to be the gold standard for determining the intracellular flux distribution of biological systems. The majority of work using MFA has been limited to core models of metabolism due to challenges in implementing genome-scale MFA and the undesirable trade...... distributions (MIDs),(1) it was found that a total of 232 net fluxes of central and peripheral metabolism could be resolved in the E. coli network. The increase in scope was shown to cover the full biosynthetic route to an expanded set of bioproduction pathways, which should facilitate applications......-off between increased scope and decreased precision in flux estimations. This work presents a tunable workflow for expanding the scope of MFA to the genome-scale without trade-offs in flux precision. The genome-scale MFA model presented here, iDM2014, accounts for 537 net reactions, which includes the core...

  5. Assessing FPAR Source and Parameter Optimization Scheme in Application of a Diagnostic Carbon Flux Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, D P; Ritts, W D; Wharton, S; Thomas, C; Monson, R; Black, T A

    2009-02-26

    The combination of satellite remote sensing and carbon cycle models provides an opportunity for regional to global scale monitoring of terrestrial gross primary production, ecosystem respiration, and net ecosystem production. FPAR (the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by the plant canopy) is a critical input to diagnostic models, however little is known about the relative effectiveness of FPAR products from different satellite sensors nor about the sensitivity of flux estimates to different parameterization approaches. In this study, we used multiyear observations of carbon flux at four eddy covariance flux tower sites within the conifer biome to evaluate these factors. FPAR products from the MODIS and SeaWiFS sensors, and the effects of single site vs. cross-site parameter optimization were tested with the CFLUX model. The SeaWiFs FPAR product showed greater dynamic range across sites and resulted in slightly reduced flux estimation errors relative to the MODIS product when using cross-site optimization. With site-specific parameter optimization, the flux model was effective in capturing seasonal and interannual variation in the carbon fluxes at these sites. The cross-site prediction errors were lower when using parameters from a cross-site optimization compared to parameter sets from optimization at single sites. These results support the practice of multisite optimization within a biome for parameterization of diagnostic carbon flux models.

  6. Spectral density method to Anderson-Holstein model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebrolu, Narasimha Raju; Chatterjee, Ashok

    2015-06-01

    Two-parameter spectral density function of a magnetic impurity electron in a non-magnetic metal is calculated within the framework of the Anderson-Holstein model using the spectral density approximation method. The effect of electron-phonon interaction on the spectral function is investigated.

  7. Towards a Data-Optimized Coronal Magnetic Field Model (DOC-FM): Simulating Flux Ropes with the Flux Rope Insertion Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmasse, K.; DeLuca, E. E.; Savcheva, A. S.; Gibson, S. E.; Fan, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Knowledge of the 3D magnetic filed structure at the time of major solar eruptions is vital or understanding of the space weather effects of these eruptions. Multiple data-constrained techniques that reconstruct the 3D coronal field based on photospheric magnetograms have been used to achieve this goal. In particular, we have used the flux rope insertion method to obtain the coronal magnetic field of multiple regions containing flux ropes or sheared arcades based on line-of-sight magnetograms and X-ray and EUV observations of coronal loops. For the purpose of developing statistical measures of the goodness of fit of these models to the observations, here we present our modeling of flux ropes based on synthetic magnetograms obtained from Fan & Gibson emerging flux rope simulation. The goal is to reproduce the flux rope structure from a given time step of the MHD simulations based only on the photospheric magnetogram and synthetic forward modeled coronal emission obtained from the same step of the MHD simulation. For this purpose we create a large grid of models with the flux rope insertion method with different combinations of axial and poloidal flux, which give us different morphology of the flux rope. Then we compare the synthetic coronal emission with the shape of the current distribution and field lines from the models to come up with a best fit. This fit is then tested using the statistical methods developed by our team.

  8. THE INFLUENCE OF NUMERICAL RESOLUTION ON CORONAL DENSITY IN HYDRODYNAMIC MODELS OF IMPULSIVE HEATING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradshaw, S. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Cargill, P. J., E-mail: stephen.bradshaw@rice.edu, E-mail: p.cargill@imperial.ac.uk [Space and Atmospheric Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom)

    2013-06-10

    The effect of the numerical spatial resolution in models of the solar corona and corona/chromosphere interface is examined for impulsive heating over a range of magnitudes using one-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations. It is demonstrated that the principal effect of inadequate resolution is on the coronal density. An underresolved loop typically has a peak density of at least a factor of two lower than a resolved loop subject to the same heating, with larger discrepancies in the decay phase. The temperature for underresolved loops is also lower indicating that lack of resolution does not 'bottle up' the heat flux in the corona. Energy is conserved in the models to under 1% in all cases, indicating that this is not responsible for the low density. Instead, we argue that in underresolved loops the heat flux 'jumps across' the transition region to the dense chromosphere from which it is radiated rather than heating and ablating transition region plasma. This emphasizes the point that the interaction between corona and chromosphere occurs only through the medium of the transition region. Implications for three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic coronal models are discussed.

  9. Density Models for Velocity Analysis of Jet Impinged CEDM Missile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Won Ho; Kang, Tae Kyo; Cho, Yeon Ho; Chang, Sang Gyoon; Lee, Dae Hee [KEPCO EnC, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    A control element drive mechanism (CEDM) can be a potential missile in the reactor head area during one of the postulated accidents. The CEDM is propelled by the high speed water jet discharged from a broken upper head nozzle. The jet expansion models to predict the missile velocity have been investigated by Kang et al. The previous work of Kang et al. showed a continuous increase in missile velocity as the CEDM missile travels. But it is not natural in that two phase flow from the nozzle break exit tends to disperse and the thrust force on the missile decreases along the distance of the travel. The jet flow also interacts with the air surrounding itself. Therefore, the density change has to be included in the estimation of the missile velocity. In this paper, two density change models of the water jet are introduced for the jet expansion models along with the distance from the nozzle break location. The first one is the direct approximation model. Two density approximation models are introduced to predict the CEDM missile velocity. For each model, the effects of the expanded jet area were included as the area ratio to the exit nozzle area. In direct approximation model, the results have showed rapid decrease in both density and missile velocity. In pressure approach model, the density change is assumed perfectly proportional to the pressure change, and the results showed relatively smooth change in both density and missile velocity comparing to the direct approximation model. Using the model developed by Kang et al.., the maximum missile velocity is about 4 times greater comparing to the pressure approach model since the density is constant as the jet density at the nozzle exit in their model. Pressure approach model has benefits in that this model adopted neither curve fitting nor extrapolation unlike the direct approximation model, and included the effects of density change which are not considered in the model developed by Kang et al. So, this model is

  10. Korean VLBI Network Calibrator Survey (KVNCS). 1. Source Catalog of KVN Single-dish Flux Density Measurement in the K and Q Bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong Ae; Sohn, Bong Won; Jung, Taehyun; Byun, Do-Young; Lee, Jee Won

    2017-02-01

    We present the catalog of the KVN Calibrator Survey (KVNCS). This first part of the KVNCS is a single-dish radio survey simultaneously conducted at 22 (K band) and 43 GHz (Q band) using the Korean VLBI Network (KVN) from 2009 to 2011. A total of 2045 sources are selected from the VLBA Calibrator Survey with an extrapolated flux density limit of 100 mJy at the K band. The KVNCS contains 1533 sources in the K band with a flux density limit of 70 mJy and 553 sources in the Q band with a flux density limit of 120 mJy; it covers the whole sky down to ‑32.°5 in decl. We detected 513 sources simultaneously in the K and Q bands; ∼76% of them are flat-spectrum sources (‑0.5 ≤ α ≤ 0.5). From the flux–flux relationship, we anticipated that most of the radiation of many of the sources comes from the compact components. The sources listed in the KVNCS therefore are strong candidates for high-frequency VLBI calibrators.

  11. Assessing the thermal dissipation sap flux density method for monitoring cold season water transport in seasonally snow-covered forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Allison M; Bowling, David R; Phillips, Nathan

    2017-07-01

    Productivity of conifers in seasonally snow-covered forests is high before and during snowmelt when environmental conditions are optimal for photosynthesis. Climate change is altering the timing of spring in many locations, and changes in the date of transition from winter dormancy can have large impacts on annual productivity. Sap flow methods provide a promising approach to monitor tree activity during the cold season and the winter-spring and fall-winter transitions. Although sap flow techniques have been widely used, cold season results are generally not reported. Here we examine the feasibility of using the Granier thermal dissipation (TD) sap flux density method to monitor transpiration and dormancy of evergreen conifers during the cold season. We conducted a laboratory experiment which demonstrated that the TD method reliably detects xylem water transport (when it occurs) both at near freezing temperature and at low flow rate, and that the sensors can withstand repeated freeze-thaw events. However, the dependence between sensor output and water transport rate in these experiments differed from the established TD relation. In field experiments, sensors installed in two Abies forests lasted through two winters and a summer with low failure. The baseline (no-flow) sensor output varied considerably with temperature during the cold season, and a new baseline algorithm was developed to accommodate this variation. The Abies forests differed in elevation (2070 and 2620 m), and there was a clear difference in timing of initiation and cessation of transpiration between them. We conclude that the TD method can be reliably used to examine water transport during cold periods with associated low flow conditions. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Analytical models for the groundwater tidal prism and associated benthic water flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jeffrey N.; Mehta, Ashish J.; Dean, Robert G.

    2010-01-01

    The groundwater tidal prism is defined as the volume of water that inundates a porous medium, forced by one tidal oscillation in surface water. The pressure gradient that generates the prism acts on the subterranean estuary. Analytical models for the groundwater tidal prism and associated benthic flux are presented. The prism and flux are shown to be directly proportional to porosity, tidal amplitude, and the length of the groundwater wave; flux is inversely proportional to tidal period. The duration of discharge flux exceeds the duration of recharge flux over one tidal period; and discharge flux continues for some time following low tide. Models compare favorably with laboratory observations and are applied to a South Atlantic Bight study area, where tide generates an 11-m3 groundwater tidal prism per m of shoreline, and drives 81 m3 s −1 to the study area, which describes 23% of an observational estimate. In a marine water body, the discharge component of any oscillatory benthic water flux is submarine groundwater discharge. Benthic flux transports constituents between groundwater and surface water, and is a process by which pollutant loading and saltwater intrusion may occur in coastal areas.

  13. The truth is out there: measured, calculated and modelled benthic fluxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhomova, Svetlana; Protsenko, Elizaveta

    2016-04-01

    In a modern Earth science there is a great importance of understanding the processes, forming the benthic fluxes as one of element sources or sinks to or from the water body, which affects the elements balance in the water system. There are several ways to assess benthic fluxes and here we try to compare the results obtained by chamber experiments, calculated from porewater distributions and simulated with model. Benthic fluxes of dissolved elements (oxygen, nitrogen species, phosphate, silicate, alkalinity, iron and manganese species) were studied in the Baltic and Black Seas from 2000 to 2005. Fluxes were measured in situ using chamber incubations (Jch) and at the same time sediment cores were collected to assess the porewater distribution at different depths to calculate diffusive fluxes (Jpw). Model study was carried out with benthic-pelagic biogeochemical model BROM (O-N-P-Si-C-S-Mn-Fe redox model). It was applied to simulate biogeochemical structure of the water column and upper sediment and to assess the vertical fluxes (Jmd). By the behaviour at the water-sediment interface all studied elements can be divided into three groups: (1) elements which benthic fluxes are determined by the concentrations gradient only (Si, Mn), (2) elements which fluxes depend on redox conditions in the bottom water (Fe, PO4, NH4), and (3) elements which fluxes are strongly connected with organic matter fate (O2, Alk, NH4). For the first group it was found that measured fluxes are always higher than calculated diffusive fluxes (1.5flux. In this case bioturbation, bioirrigation and advection should be taken into account. For the second group measured fluxes can be both much lower (practically absent) and much higher than calculated diffusive fluxes (0.01

  14. Optimizing LED lighting for space plant growth unit: Joint effects of photon flux density, red to white ratios and intermittent light pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avercheva, O. V.; Berkovich, Yu. A.; Konovalova, I. O.; Radchenko, S. G.; Lapach, S. N.; Bassarskaya, E. M.; Kochetova, G. V.; Zhigalova, T. V.; Yakovleva, O. S.; Tarakanov, I. G.

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work were to choose a quantitative optimality criterion for estimating the quality of plant LED lighting regimes inside space greenhouses and to construct regression models of crop productivity and the optimality criterion depending on the level of photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), the proportion of the red component in the light spectrum and the duration of the duty cycle (Chinese cabbage Brassica сhinensis L. as an example). The properties of the obtained models were described in the context of predicting crop dry weight and the optimality criterion behavior when varying plant lighting parameters. Results of the fractional 3-factor experiment demonstrated the share of the PPFD level participation in the crop dry weight accumulation was 84.4% at almost any combination of other lighting parameters, but when PPFD value increased up to 500 μmol m-2 s-1 the pulse light and supplemental light from red LEDs could additionally increase crop productivity. Analysis of the optimality criterion response to variation of lighting parameters showed that the maximum coordinates were the following: PPFD = 500 μmol m-2 s-1, about 70%-proportion of the red component of the light spectrum (PPFDLEDred/PPFDLEDwhite = 1.5) and the duty cycle with a period of 501 μs. Thus, LED crop lighting with these parameters was optimal for achieving high crop productivity and for efficient use of energy in the given range of lighting parameter values.

  15. A Trade Study of Thermosphere Empirical Neutral Density Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    into the ram direction, and m is the satellite mass. The velocity ?⃗? equals to the satellite velocity in the corotating Earth frame ?⃗?...drag force. In a trade study we have investigated a methodology to assess performances of neutral density models in predicting orbit against a... assess overall errors in orbit prediction expected from empirical density models. They have also been adapted in an analysis tool Satellite Orbital

  16. Variable Density Effects in Stochastic Lagrangian Models for Turbulent Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-20

    PDF methods have proven useful in modelling turbulent combustion, primarily because convection and complex reactions can be treated without the need...modelled transport equation fir the joint PDF of velocity, turbulent frequency and composition (species mass fractions and enthalpy ). The advantages of...PDF methods in dealing with chemical reaction and convection are preserved irrespective of density variation. Since the density variation in a typical

  17. Computer model simulation of null-flux magnetic suspension and guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Jianliang; Rote, D.M.

    1992-06-01

    This paper discusses the magnetic force computations in a null-flux suspension system using dynamic circuit theory. A computer simulation model that can be used to compute magnetic forces and predict the system performance is developed on the basis of dynamic circuit theory. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the application of the model. The performance of the null-flux suspension system is simulated and discussed. 8 refs.

  18. Computer model simulation of null-flux magnetic suspension and guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Jianliang; Rote, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the magnetic force computations in a null-flux suspension system using dynamic circuit theory. A computer simulation model that can be used to compute magnetic forces and predict the system performance is developed on the basis of dynamic circuit theory. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the application of the model. The performance of the null-flux suspension system is simulated and discussed. 8 refs.

  19. Prediction of MeV electron fluxes throughout the outer radiation belt using multivariate autoregressive models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Kaori; Nagatsuma, Tsutomu; Reeves, Geoffrey D.; Spence, Harlan E.

    2015-12-01

    The Van Allen radiation belts surrounding the Earth are filled with MeV-energy electrons. This region poses ionizing radiation risks for spacecraft that operate within it, including those in geostationary orbit (GEO) and medium Earth orbit. To provide alerts of electron flux enhancements, 16 prediction models of the electron log-flux variation throughout the equatorial outer radiation belt as a function of the McIlwain L parameter were developed using the multivariate autoregressive model and Kalman filter. Measurements of omnidirectional 2.3 MeV electron flux from the Van Allen Probes mission as well as >2 MeV electrons from the GOES 15 spacecraft were used as the predictors. Model explanatory parameters were selected from solar wind parameters, the electron log-flux at GEO, and geomagnetic indices. For the innermost region of the outer radiation belt, the electron flux is best predicted by using the Dst index as the sole input parameter. For the central to outermost regions, at L ≧ 4.8 and L ≧ 5.6, the electron flux is predicted most accurately by including also the solar wind velocity and then the dynamic pressure, respectively. The Dst index is the best overall single parameter for predicting at 3 ≦ L ≦ 6, while for the GEO flux prediction, the KP index is better than Dst. A test calculation demonstrates that the model successfully predicts the timing and location of the flux maximum as much as 2 days in advance and that the electron flux decreases faster with time at higher L values, both model features consistent with the actually observed behavior.

  20. Interpreting expression data with metabolic flux models: predicting Mycobacterium tuberculosis mycolic acid production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Colijn

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Metabolism is central to cell physiology, and metabolic disturbances play a role in numerous disease states. Despite its importance, the ability to study metabolism at a global scale using genomic technologies is limited. In principle, complete genome sequences describe the range of metabolic reactions that are possible for an organism, but cannot quantitatively describe the behaviour of these reactions. We present a novel method for modeling metabolic states using whole cell measurements of gene expression. Our method, which we call E-Flux (as a combination of flux and expression, extends the technique of Flux Balance Analysis by modeling maximum flux constraints as a function of measured gene expression. In contrast to previous methods for metabolically interpreting gene expression data, E-Flux utilizes a model of the underlying metabolic network to directly predict changes in metabolic flux capacity. We applied E-Flux to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the bacterium that causes tuberculosis (TB. Key components of mycobacterial cell walls are mycolic acids which are targets for several first-line TB drugs. We used E-Flux to predict the impact of 75 different drugs, drug combinations, and nutrient conditions on mycolic acid biosynthesis capacity in M. tuberculosis, using a public compendium of over 400 expression arrays. We tested our method using a model of mycolic acid biosynthesis as well as on a genome-scale model of M. tuberculosis metabolism. Our method correctly predicts seven of the eight known fatty acid inhibitors in this compendium and makes accurate predictions regarding the specificity of these compounds for fatty acid biosynthesis. Our method also predicts a number of additional potential modulators of TB mycolic acid biosynthesis. E-Flux thus provides a promising new approach for algorithmically predicting metabolic state from gene expression data.

  1. Maximum likelihood estimation for semiparametric density ratio model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Guoqing; Ning, Jing; Qin, Jing

    2012-06-27

    In the statistical literature, the conditional density model specification is commonly used to study regression effects. One attractive model is the semiparametric density ratio model, under which the conditional density function is the product of an unknown baseline density function and a known parametric function containing the covariate information. This model has a natural connection with generalized linear models and is closely related to biased sampling problems. Despite the attractive features and importance of this model, most existing methods are too restrictive since they are based on multi-sample data or conditional likelihood functions. The conditional likelihood approach can eliminate the unknown baseline density but cannot estimate it. We propose efficient estimation procedures based on the nonparametric likelihood. The nonparametric likelihood approach allows for general forms of covariates and estimates the regression parameters and the baseline density simultaneously. Therefore, the nonparametric likelihood approach is more versatile than the conditional likelihood approach especially when estimation of the conditional mean or other quantities of the outcome is of interest. We show that the nonparametric maximum likelihood estimators are consistent, asymptotically normal, and asymptotically efficient. Simulation studies demonstrate that the proposed methods perform well in practical settings. A real example is used for illustration.

  2. MicrobesFlux: a web platform for drafting metabolic models from the KEGG database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Xueyang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Concurrent with the efforts currently underway in mapping microbial genomes using high-throughput sequencing methods, systems biologists are building metabolic models to characterize and predict cell metabolisms. One of the key steps in building a metabolic model is using multiple databases to collect and assemble essential information about genome-annotations and the architecture of the metabolic network for a specific organism. To speed up metabolic model development for a large number of microorganisms, we need a user-friendly platform to construct metabolic networks and to perform constraint-based flux balance analysis based on genome databases and experimental results. Results We have developed a semi-automatic, web-based platform (MicrobesFlux for generating and reconstructing metabolic models for annotated microorganisms. MicrobesFlux is able to automatically download the metabolic network (including enzymatic reactions and metabolites of ~1,200 species from the KEGG database (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes and then convert it to a metabolic model draft. The platform also provides diverse customized tools, such as gene knockouts and the introduction of heterologous pathways, for users to reconstruct the model network. The reconstructed metabolic network can be formulated to a constraint-based flux model to predict and analyze the carbon fluxes in microbial metabolisms. The simulation results can be exported in the SBML format (The Systems Biology Markup Language. Furthermore, we also demonstrated the platform functionalities by developing an FBA model (including 229 reactions for a recent annotated bioethanol producer, Thermoanaerobacter sp. strain X514, to predict its biomass growth and ethanol production. Conclusion MicrobesFlux is an installation-free and open-source platform that enables biologists without prior programming knowledge to develop metabolic models for annotated microorganisms in the KEGG

  3. Analytical Modeling of a Novel Transverse Flux Machine for Direct Drive Wind Turbine Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan, IIftekhar; Husain, Tausif; Uddin, Md Wasi; Sozer, Yilmaz; Husain, Iqbal; Muljadi, Eduard

    2015-09-02

    This paper presents a nonlinear analytical model of a novel double sided flux concentrating Transverse Flux Machine (TFM) based on the Magnetic Equivalent Circuit (MEC) model. The analytical model uses a series-parallel combination of flux tubes to predict the flux paths through different parts of the machine including air gaps, permanent magnets (PM), stator, and rotor. The two-dimensional MEC model approximates the complex three-dimensional flux paths of the TFM and includes the effects of magnetic saturation. The model is capable of adapting to any geometry which makes it a good alternative for evaluating prospective designs of TFM as compared to finite element solvers which are numerically intensive and require more computation time. A single phase, 1 kW, 400 rpm machine is analytically modeled and its resulting flux distribution, no-load EMF and torque, verified with Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The results are found to be in agreement with less than 5% error, while reducing the computation time by 25 times.

  4. Analytical Modeling of a Novel Transverse Flux Machine for Direct Drive Wind Turbine Applications: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan, IIftekhar; Husain, Tausif; Uddin, Md Wasi; Sozer, Yilmaz; Husain; Iqbal; Muljadi, Eduard

    2015-08-24

    This paper presents a nonlinear analytical model of a novel double-sided flux concentrating Transverse Flux Machine (TFM) based on the Magnetic Equivalent Circuit (MEC) model. The analytical model uses a series-parallel combination of flux tubes to predict the flux paths through different parts of the machine including air gaps, permanent magnets, stator, and rotor. The two-dimensional MEC model approximates the complex three-dimensional flux paths of the TFM and includes the effects of magnetic saturation. The model is capable of adapting to any geometry that makes it a good alternative for evaluating prospective designs of TFM compared to finite element solvers that are numerically intensive and require more computation time. A single-phase, 1-kW, 400-rpm machine is analytically modeled, and its resulting flux distribution, no-load EMF, and torque are verified with finite element analysis. The results are found to be in agreement, with less than 5% error, while reducing the computation time by 25 times.

  5. Input Parameters for Models of Energetic Electrons Fluxes at the Geostationary Orbit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V. I. Degtyarev; G.V. Popov; B. S. Xue; S.E. Chudnenko

    2005-01-01

    The results of cross-correlation analysis between electrons fluxes (with energies of > 0.6 MeV,> 2.0MeV and > 4.0MeV), geomagnetic indices and solar wind parameters are shown in the paper. It is determined that the electron fluxes are controlled not only by the geomagnetic indices, but also by the solar wind parameters, and the solar wind velocity demonstrates the best relation with the electron fluxes.Numerical value of the relation efficiency of external parameters with the highly energetic electrons fluxes shows a periodicity. It is presented here the preliminary results of daily averaged electrons fluxes forecast for a day ahead on the basis of the model of neuron networks.

  6. An internally consistent inverse model to calculate ridge-axis hydrothermal fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coogan, L. A.; Dosso, S.

    2010-12-01

    Fluid and chemical fluxes from high-temperature, on-axis, hydrothermal systems at mid-ocean ridges have been estimated in a number of ways. These generally use simple mass balances based on either vent fluid compositions or the compositions of altered sheeted dikes. Here we combine these approaches in an internally consistent model. Seawater is assumed to enter the crust and react with the sheeted dike complex at high temperatures. Major element fluxes for both the rock and fluid are calculated from balanced stoichiometric reactions. These reactions include end-member components of the minerals plagioclase, pyroxene, amphibole, chlorite and epidote along with pure anhydrite, quartz, pyrite, pyrrhotite, titanite, magnetite, ilmenite and ulvospinel and the fluid species H2O, Mg2+, Ca2+, Fe2+, Na+, Si4+, H2S, H+ and H2. Trace element abundances (Li, B, K, Rb, Cs, Sr, Ba, U, Tl, Mn, Cu, Zn, Co, Ni, Pb and Os) and isotopic ratios (Li, B, O, Sr, Tl, Os) are calculated from simple mass balance of a fluid-rock reaction. A fraction of the Cu, Zn, Pb, Co, Ni, Os and Mn in the fluid after fluid-rock reaction is allowed to precipitate during discharge before the fluid reaches the seafloor. S-isotopes are tied to mineralogical reactions involving S-bearing phases. The free parameters in the model are the amounts of each mineralogical reaction that occurs, the amounts of the metals precipitated during discharge, and the water-to-rock ratio. These model parameters, and their uncertainties, are constrained by: (i) mineral abundances and mineral major element compositions in altered dikes from ODP Hole 504B and the Pito and Hess Deep tectonic windows (EPR crust); (ii) changes in dike bulk-rock trace element and isotopic compositions from these locations relative to fresh MORB glass compositions; and (iii) published vent fluid compositions from basalt-hosted high-temperature ridge axis hydrothermal systems. Using a numerical inversion algorithm, the probability density of different

  7. Wind farm density and harvested power in very large wind farms: A low-order model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, G.; Sharma, V.; Calaf, M.

    2017-07-01

    In this work we create new understanding of wind turbine wakes recovery process as a function of wind farm density using large-eddy simulations of an atmospheric boundary layer diurnal cycle. Simulations are forced with a constant geostrophic wind and a time varying surface temperature extracted from a selected period of the Cooperative Atmospheric Surface Exchange Study field experiment. Wind turbines are represented using the actuator disk model with rotation and yaw alignment. A control volume analysis around each turbine has been used to evaluate wind turbine wake recovery and corresponding harvested power. Results confirm the existence of two dominant recovery mechanisms, advection and flux of mean kinetic energy, which are modulated by the background thermal stratification. For the low-density arrangements advection dominates, while for the highly loaded wind farms the mean kinetic energy recovers through fluxes of mean kinetic energy. For those cases in between, a smooth balance of both mechanisms exists. From the results, a low-order model for the wind farms' harvested power as a function of thermal stratification and wind farm density has been developed, which has the potential to be used as an order-of-magnitude assessment tool.

  8. Inter-comparisons of thermodynamic sea-ice modeling results using various parameterizations of radiative flux

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Radiative fluxes are of primary importance in the energy and mass balance of the sea-ice cover. Various parameterizations of the radiative fluxes are studied in a thermodynamic sea-ice model. Model outputs of the surface radiative and heat fluxes and mass balance are compared with observations. The contribution of short-wave radiation is limited to a long part of winter. Therefore, simple schemes are often sufficient. Errors in estimations of the short-wave radiation are due mainly to cloud effects and occasionally to multi-reflection between surface and ice crystals in the air. The long-wave radiation plays an important role in the ice surface heat and mass balance during most part of a winter. The effect of clouds on the accuracy of the simple radiative schemes is critical, which needs further attention. In general, the accuracy of an ice model depends on that of the radiative fluxes.

  9. To what extent does the salinity flux influence phytoplankton blooms? - Baltic Sea modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieszyńska, Agata; Stramska, Małgorzata

    2016-04-01

    This work is focused on numerical modeling of biological-physical interactions and their influence on phytoplankton production and vertical distribution of biomass and its variability in the surface waters of the Baltic Sea. The area of interest is an inland sea with water salinity much smaller than observed in the global ocean (about one fifth of the open ocean value). Vertical distribution of the salinity has a significant influence on water column density stratification, and therefore influences intensity of mixing and the depth of mixed layer. This, in turn, defines environmental conditions for phytoplankton growth. Vertical distribution of water salinity in the basin is controlled by processes such as evaporation/precipitation, freezing/melting of sea ice and runoff of freshwater from land. There are a lot of different phytoplankton species in the area of the Baltic Sea. Every single one has its own characteristics and is sensitive to distinct complex environmental conditions. Biological-physical interactions controlling these microorganisms' life cycles are multiplicitous and because of their complexity difficult to quantify. The best and probably only way to study presented issue is the usage of numerical modeling tool. The results presented here are based on 1D numerical simulations carried out with Princeton Ocean Model (POM, http://www.ccpo.odu.edu/POMWEB/) merged with the Ecological Regional Ecosystem Model (ERGOM, http://ergom.net/) developed for the Baltic Sea research by German scientists from the Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research in Warnemünde. In model simulations surface salinity flux was determined from the difference between the precipitation and evaporation rate at the air-sea interface. Data for parameterization of atmospheric forcing were defined based on data sets from National Centers of Environmental Prediction (NCEP). We carried out systematic calculations using different values of surface fluxes encompassing the range of

  10. A Model of Foam Density Prediction for Expanded Perlite Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arifuzzaman Md

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sets of variables associated with expanded perlite particle consolidation in foam manufacturing were analyzed to develop a model for predicting perlite foam density. The consolidation of perlite particles based on the flotation method and compaction involves numerous variables leading to the final perlite foam density. The variables include binder content, compaction ratio, perlite particle size, various perlite particle densities and porosities, and various volumes of perlite at different stages of process. The developed model was found to be useful not only for prediction of foam density but also for optimization between compaction ratio and binder content to achieve a desired density. Experimental verification was conducted using a range of foam densities (0.15 – 0.5 g/cm3 produced with a range of compaction ratios (1.5 – 3.5, a range of sodium silicate contents (0.05 – 0.35 g/ml in dilution, a range of expanded perlite particle sizes (1 – 4 mm, and various perlite densities (such as skeletal, material, bulk, and envelope densities. A close agreement between predictions and experimental results was found.

  11. Model-dependent high-energy neutrino flux from gamma-ray bursts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bing; Kumar, Pawan

    2013-03-22

    The IceCube Collaboration recently reported a stringent upper limit on the high energy neutrino flux from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), which provides a meaningful constraint on the standard internal shock model. Recent broadband electromagnetic observations of GRBs also challenge the internal shock paradigm for GRBs, and some competing models for γ-ray prompt emission have been proposed. We describe a general scheme for calculating the GRB neutrino flux, and compare the predicted neutrino flux levels for different models. We point out that the current neutrino flux upper limit starts to constrain the standard internal shock model. The dissipative photosphere models are also challenged if the cosmic ray luminosity from GRBs is at least 10 times larger than the γ-ray luminosity. If the neutrino flux upper limit continues to go down in the next few years, then it would suggest the following possibilities: (i) the photon-to-proton luminosity ratio in GRBs is anomalously high for shocks, which may be achieved in some dissipative photosphere models and magnetic dissipation models; or (ii) the GRB emission site is at a larger radius than the internal shock radius, as expected in some magnetic dissipation models such as the internal collision-induced magnetic reconnection and turbulence model.

  12. Modification of SOL profiles and fluctuations with line-average density and divertor flux expansion in TCV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vianello, N.; Tsui, C.; Theiler, C.

    2017-01-01

    that this modification does not influence neither the detachment density threshold, nor the development of a flat SOL density profile which instead depends strongly on the increase of the core line average density. The modification of the SOL upstream profile, with the appearance of what is generally called a density...

  13. Quark Matter at High Density based on Extended Confined-isospin-density-dependent-mass Model

    CERN Document Server

    Qauli, A I

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the effect of the inclusion of relativistic Coulomb terms in a confined-isospin-density-dependent-mass (CIDDM) model of strange quark matter (SQM). We found that if we include Coulomb term in scalar density form, SQM equation of state (EOS) at high densities is stiffer but if we include Coulomb term in vector density form is softer than that of standard CIDDM model. We also investigate systematically the role of each term of the extended CIDDM model. Compared with what was reported in Ref.~\\cite {ref:isospin}, we found the stiffness of SQM EOS is controlled by the interplay among the the oscillator harmonic, isospin asymmetry and Coulomb contributions depending on the parameter's range of these terms. We have found that the absolute stable condition of SQM and the mass of 2 $M_\\odot$ pulsars can constrain the parameter of oscillator harmonic $\\kappa_1$ $\\approx 0.53$ in the case Coulomb term excluded. If the Coulomb term is included, for the models with their parameters are consistent with SQM ...

  14. Exact maps in density functional theory for lattice models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, Tanja; Appel, Heiko; Fuks, Johanna I.; Rubio, Angel

    2016-08-01

    In the present work, we employ exact diagonalization for model systems on a real-space lattice to explicitly construct the exact density-to-potential and graphically illustrate the complete exact density-to-wavefunction map that underly the Hohenberg-Kohn theorem in density functional theory. Having the explicit wavefunction-to-density map at hand, we are able to construct arbitrary observables as functionals of the ground-state density. We analyze the density-to-potential map as the distance between the fragments of a system increases and the correlation in the system grows. We observe a feature that gradually develops in the density-to-potential map as well as in the density-to-wavefunction map. This feature is inherited by arbitrary expectation values as functional of the ground-state density. We explicitly show the excited-state energies, the excited-state densities, and the correlation entropy as functionals of the ground-state density. All of them show this exact feature that sharpens as the coupling of the fragments decreases and the correlation grows. We denominate this feature as intra-system steepening and discuss how it relates to the well-known inter-system derivative discontinuity. The inter-system derivative discontinuity is an exact concept for coupled subsystems with degenerate ground state. However, the coupling between subsystems as in charge transfer processes can lift the degeneracy. An important conclusion is that for such systems with a near-degenerate ground state, the corresponding cut along the particle number N of the exact density functionals is differentiable with a well-defined gradient near integer particle number.

  15. Comparison of heat flux estimations from two turbulent exchange models based on thermal UAV data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Helene; Nieto, Hector; Jensen, Rasmus; Friborg, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Advantages of UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) data-collection, compared to more traditional data-collections are numerous and already well-discussed (Berni et al., 2009; Laliberte et al., 2011; Turner et al., 2012). However studies investigating the quality and applications of UAV-data are crucial if advantages are to be beneficial for scientific purposes. In this study, thermal data collected over an agricultural site in Denmark have been obtained using a fixed-wing UAV and investigated for the estimation of heat fluxes. Estimation of heat fluxes requires high precision data and careful data processing. Latent, sensible and soil heat fluxes are estimates through two models of the two source energy modelling scheme driven by remotely sensed observations of land surface temperature; the original TSEB (Norman et al., 1995) and the DTD (Norman et al., 2000) which builds on the TSEB. The DTD model accounts for errors arising when deriving radiometric temperatures and can to some extent compensate for the fact that thermal cameras rarely are accurate. The DTD model requires an additional set of remotely sensed data during morning hours of the day at which heat fluxes are to be determined. This makes the DTD model ideal to use when combined with UAV data, because acquisition of data is not limited by fixed time by-passing tracks like satellite images (Guzinski et al., 2013). Based on these data, heat fluxes are computed from the two models and compared with fluxes from an eddy covariance station situated within the same designated agricultural site. This over-all procedure potentially enables an assessment of both the collected thermal UAV-data and of the two turbulent exchange models. Results reveal that both TSEB and DTD models compute heat fluxes from thermal UAV data that is within a very reasonable range and also that estimates from the DTD model is in best agreement with the eddy covariance system.

  16. Pollutant Flux Estimation in an Estuary Comparison between Model and Field Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Chang Chen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a framework for estimating pollutant flux in an estuary. An efficient method is applied to estimate the flux of pollutants in an estuary. A gauging station network in the Danshui River estuary is established to measure the data of water quality and discharge based on the efficient method. A boat mounted with an acoustic Doppler profiler (ADP traverses the river along a preselected path that is normal to the streamflow to measure the velocities, water depths and water quality for calculating pollutant flux. To know the characteristics of the estuary and to provide the basis for the pollutant flux estimation model, data of complete tidal cycles is collected. The discharge estimation model applies the maximum velocity and water level to estimate mean velocity and cross-sectional area, respectively. Thus, the pollutant flux of the estuary can be easily computed as the product of the mean velocity, cross-sectional area and pollutant concentration. The good agreement between the observed and estimated pollutant flux of the Danshui River estuary shows that the pollutant measured by the conventional and the efficient methods are not fundamentally different. The proposed method is cost-effective and reliable. It can be used to estimate pollutant flux in an estuary accurately and efficiently.

  17. Development of a vector-tensor system to measure the absolute magnetic flux density and its gradient in magnetically shielded rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, J; Knappe-Grüneberg, S; Gutkelch, D; Haueisen, J; Neuber, S; Schnabel, A; Burghoff, M

    2015-05-01

    Several experiments in fundamental physics demand an environment of very low, homogeneous, and stable magnetic fields. For the magnetic characterization of such environments, we present a portable SQUID system that measures the absolute magnetic flux density vector and the gradient tensor. This vector-tensor system contains 13 integrated low-critical temperature (LTc) superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) inside a small cylindrical liquid helium Dewar with a height of 31 cm and 37 cm in diameter. The achievable resolution depends on the flux density of the field under investigation and its temporal drift. Inside a seven-layer mu-metal shield, an accuracy better than ±23 pT for the components of the static magnetic field vector and ±2 pT/cm for each of the nine components of the gradient tensor is reached by using the shifting method.

  18. Reconciling surface ocean productivity, export fluxes and sediment composition in a global biogeochemical ocean model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gehlen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on an improved representation of the biological soft tissue pump in the global three-dimensional biogeochemical ocean model PISCES. We compare three parameterizations of particle dynamics: (1 the model standard version including two particle size classes, aggregation-disaggregation and prescribed sinking speed; (2 an aggregation-disaggregation model with a particle size spectrum and prognostic sinking speed; (3 a mineral ballast parameterization with no size classes, but prognostic sinking speed. In addition, the model includes a description of surface sediments and organic carbon early diagenesis. Model output is compared to data or data based estimates of ocean productivity, pe-ratios, particle fluxes, surface sediment bulk composition and benthic O2 fluxes. Model results suggest that different processes control POC fluxes at different depths. In the wind mixed layer turbulent particle coagulation appears as key process in controlling pe-ratios. Parameterization (2 yields simulated pe-ratios that compare well to observations. Below the wind mixed layer, POC fluxes are most sensitive to the intensity of zooplankton flux feeding, indicating the importance of zooplankton community composition. All model parameters being kept constant, the capability of the model to reproduce yearly mean POC fluxes below 2000 m and benthic oxygen demand does at first order not dependent on the resolution of the particle size spectrum. Aggregate formation appears essential to initiate an intense biological pump. At great depth the reported close to constant particle fluxes are most likely the result of the combined effect of aggregate formation and mineral ballasting.

  19. Scaling from Flux Towers to Ecosystem Models: Regional Constraints on GPP from Atmospheric Carbonyl Sulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Naser, M.; Campbell, J.; Berry, J. A.; Seibt, U.; Maseyk, K. S.; Torn, M. S.; Biraud, S. C.; Fischer, M. L.; Billesbach, D. P.; Baker, I. T.; Collatz, G. J.; Chen, H.; Montzka, S. A.; Sweeney, C.

    2012-12-01

    Process-level information on terrestrial carbon fluxes are typically observed at small spatial scales (e.g. eddy flux towers) but critical applications exist at much larger spatial scales (e.g. global ecosystem models). New methodologies are needed to fill this spatial gap. Recent work suggests that analysis of atmospheric carbonyl sulfide (COS) could fill this gap by providing constraints on GPP fluxes at large scales. This proposal is based on evidence that COS plant uptake is quantitatively related to photosynthesis and that COS plant uptake is the dominant COS budget flux influencing atmospheric concentrations over northern extratropical continents. Previous atmospheric analysis of COS has focused on continental or larger scales and only one ecosystem model. Here we explore the spatial and temporal COS variation within North America and their relationship to a range of ecosystem models using regional and global atmospheric transport models. Airborne COS observations are examined from the NOAA-ESRL network including 13 North American airborne sites and a total of 1,447 vertical profiles from years 2004 to 2012. In addition to COS plant uptake, we examined the influence of atmospheric transport treatments, boundary conditions, soil fluxes (mechanistic and empirical), and anthropogenic emissions. The atmospheric COS simulations were consistent with the primary observed spatial and temporal variations in the US mid-continent. This consistency is supportive of ecosystem models because the dominant input for these atmospheric COS simulations is ecosystem model GPP data. However, only the COS simulations driven by a subset of the ecosystem models were able to reproduce the observed COS seasonality in a semiarid cultivated region (ARM/SGP). This subset of ecosystem models produced GPP seasonality that was similar to eddy flux estimates, suggesting a role for COS observations in extending flux tower data to regional spatial scales.

  20. Analytical model of particle and heat flux collection by dust immersed in dense magnetized plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignitchouk, L.; Ratynskaia, S.; Tolias, P.

    2017-10-01

    A comprehensive analytical description is presented for the particle and heat fluxes collected by dust in dense magnetized plasmas. Compared to the widely used orbital motion limited theory, the suppression of cross-field transport leads to a strong reduction of the electron fluxes, while ion collection is inhibited by thin-sheath effects and the formation of a potential overshoot along the field lines. As a result, the incoming heat flux loses its sensitivity to the floating potential, thereby diminishing the importance of electron emission processes in dust survivability. Numerical simulations implementing the new model for ITER-like detached divertor plasmas predict a drastic enhancement of the dust lifetime.

  1. Revisiting the global surface energy budgets with maximum-entropy-production model of surface heat fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shih-Yu; Deng, Yi; Wang, Jingfeng

    2016-10-01

    The maximum-entropy-production (MEP) model of surface heat fluxes, based on contemporary non-equilibrium thermodynamics, information theory, and atmospheric turbulence theory, is used to re-estimate the global surface heat fluxes. The MEP model predicted surface fluxes automatically balance the surface energy budgets at all time and space scales without the explicit use of near-surface temperature and moisture gradient, wind speed and surface roughness data. The new MEP-based global annual mean fluxes over the land surface, using input data of surface radiation, temperature data from National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (NASA CERES) supplemented by surface specific humidity data from the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), agree closely with previous estimates. The new estimate of ocean evaporation, not using the MERRA reanalysis data as model inputs, is lower than previous estimates, while the new estimate of ocean sensible heat flux is higher than previously reported. The MEP model also produces the first global map of ocean surface heat flux that is not available from existing global reanalysis products.

  2. Modeling Method for Increased Precision and Scope of Directly Measurable Fluxes at a Genome-Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Douglas; Young, Jamey D; Xu, Sibei; Palsson, Bernhard O; Feist, Adam M

    2016-04-05

    Metabolic flux analysis (MFA) is considered to be the gold standard for determining the intracellular flux distribution of biological systems. The majority of work using MFA has been limited to core models of metabolism due to challenges in implementing genome-scale MFA and the undesirable trade-off between increased scope and decreased precision in flux estimations. This work presents a tunable workflow for expanding the scope of MFA to the genome-scale without trade-offs in flux precision. The genome-scale MFA model presented here, iDM2014, accounts for 537 net reactions, which includes the core pathways of traditional MFA models and also covers the additional pathways of purine, pyrimidine, isoprenoid, methionine, riboflavin, coenzyme A, and folate, as well as other biosynthetic pathways. When evaluating the iDM2014 using a set of measured intracellular intermediate and cofactor mass isotopomer distributions (MIDs),1 it was found that a total of 232 net fluxes of central and peripheral metabolism could be resolved in the E. coli network. The increase in scope was shown to cover the full biosynthetic route to an expanded set of bioproduction pathways, which should facilitate applications such as the design of more complex bioprocessing strains and aid in identifying new antimicrobials. Importantly, it was found that there was no loss in precision of core fluxes when compared to a traditional core model, and additionally there was an overall increase in precision when considering all observable reactions.

  3. Revisiting the global surface energy budgets with maximum-entropy-production model of surface heat fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shih-Yu; Deng, Yi; Wang, Jingfeng

    2017-09-01

    The maximum-entropy-production (MEP) model of surface heat fluxes, based on contemporary non-equilibrium thermodynamics, information theory, and atmospheric turbulence theory, is used to re-estimate the global surface heat fluxes. The MEP model predicted surface fluxes automatically balance the surface energy budgets at all time and space scales without the explicit use of near-surface temperature and moisture gradient, wind speed and surface roughness data. The new MEP-based global annual mean fluxes over the land surface, using input data of surface radiation, temperature data from National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (NASA CERES) supplemented by surface specific humidity data from the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), agree closely with previous estimates. The new estimate of ocean evaporation, not using the MERRA reanalysis data as model inputs, is lower than previous estimates, while the new estimate of ocean sensible heat flux is higher than previously reported. The MEP model also produces the first global map of ocean surface heat flux that is not available from existing global reanalysis products.

  4. Probability density function modeling for sub-powered interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pater, Flavius; Amaricǎi, Alexandru

    2016-06-01

    This paper proposes three mathematical models for reliability probability density function modeling the interconnect supplied at sub-threshold voltages: spline curve approximations, Gaussian models,and sine interpolation. The proposed analysis aims at determining the most appropriate fitting for the switching delay - probability of correct switching for sub-powered interconnects. We compare the three mathematical models with the Monte-Carlo simulations of interconnects for 45 nm CMOS technology supplied at 0.25V.

  5. Hidden Markov Models with Factored Gaussian Mixtures Densities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hao-zheng; LIU Zhi-qiang; ZHU Xiang-hua

    2004-01-01

    We present a factorial representation of Gaussian mixture models for observation densities in Hidden Markov Models(HMMs), which uses the factorial learning in the HMM framework. We derive the reestimation formulas for estimating the factorized parameters by the Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm. We conduct several experiments to compare the performance of this model structure with Factorial Hidden Markov Models(FHMMs) and HMMs, some conclusions and promising empirical results are presented.

  6. Regional-scale geostatistical inverse modeling of North American CO2 fluxes: a synthetic data study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Michalak

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A series of synthetic data experiments is performed to investigate the ability of a regional atmospheric inversion to estimate grid-scale CO2 fluxes during the growing season over North America. The inversions are performed within a geostatistical framework without the use of any prior flux estimates or auxiliary variables, in order to focus on the atmospheric constraint provided by the nine towers collecting continuous, calibrated CO2 measurements in 2004. Using synthetic measurements and their associated concentration footprints, flux and model-data mismatch covariance parameters are first optimized, and then fluxes and their uncertainties are estimated at three different temporal resolutions. These temporal resolutions, which include a four-day average, a four-day-average diurnal cycle with 3-hourly increments, and 3-hourly fluxes, are chosen to help assess the impact of temporal aggregation errors on the estimated fluxes and covariance parameters. Estimating fluxes at a temporal resolution that can adjust the diurnal variability is found to be critical both for recovering covariance parameters directly from the atmospheric data, and for inferring accurate ecoregion-scale fluxes. Accounting for both spatial and temporal a priori covariance in the flux distribution is also found to be necessary for recovering accurate a posteriori uncertainty bounds on the estimated fluxes. Overall, the results suggest that even a fairly sparse network of 9 towers collecting continuous CO2 measurements across the continent, used with no auxiliary information or prior estimates of the flux distribution in time or space, can be used to infer relatively accurate monthly ecoregion scale CO2 surface fluxes over North America within estimated uncertainty bounds. Simulated random transport error is shown to decrease the quality of flux estimates in under-constrained areas at the ecoregion scale, although the uncertainty bounds remain realistic. While these synthetic

  7. The Z3 model with the density of states method

    CERN Document Server

    Mercado, Ydalia Delgado; Gattringer, Christof

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution we apply a new variant of the density of states method to the Z3 spin model at finite density. We use restricted expectation values evaluated with Monte Carlo simulations and study their dependence on a control parameter lambda. We show that a sequence of one-parameter fits to the Monte-Carlo data as a function of lambda is sufficient to completely determine the density of states. We expect that this method has smaller statistical errors than other approaches since all generated Monte Carlo data are used in the determination of the density. We compare results for magnetization and susceptibility to a reference simulation in the dual representation of the Z3 spin model and find good agreement for a wide range of parameters.

  8. Nuclear Level Density: Shell Model vs Mean Field

    CERN Document Server

    Sen'kov, Roman

    2015-01-01

    The knowledge of the nuclear level density is necessary for understanding various reactions including those in the stellar environment. Usually the combinatorics of Fermi-gas plus pairing is used for finding the level density. Recently a practical algorithm avoiding diagonalization of huge matrices was developed for calculating the density of many-body nuclear energy levels with certain quantum numbers for a full shell-model Hamiltonian. The underlying physics is that of quantum chaos and intrinsic thermalization in a closed system of interacting particles. We briefly explain this algorithm and, when possible, demonstrate the agreement of the results with those derived from exact diagonalization. The resulting level density is much smoother than that coming from the conventional mean-field combinatorics. We study the role of various components of residual interactions in the process of thermalization, stressing the influence of incoherent collision-like processes. The shell-model results for the traditionally...

  9. Gutzwiller study of extended Hubbard models with fixed boson densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Takashi [Department of Information Sciences, Kanagawa University, 2946 Tsuchiya, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1293 (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    We studied all possible ground states, including supersolid (SS) phases and phase separations of hard-core- and soft-core-extended Bose-Hubbard models with fixed boson densities by using the Gutzwiller variational wave function and the linear programming method. We found that the phase diagram of the soft-core model depends strongly on its transfer integral. Furthermore, for a large transfer integral, we showed that an SS phase can be the ground state even below or at half filling against the phase separation. We also found that the density difference between nearest-neighbor sites, which indicates the density order of the SS phase, depends strongly on the boson density and transfer integral.

  10. Analysis of Torque and Airgap Flux-Density Distribution in Surface Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor with q-Axis Salient Pole Core by Finite Element Method.

    OpenAIRE

    三重野, 保男; 篠原, 勝次; 実成, 義孝; 東, 義高; ミエノ, ヤスオ; シノハラ, カツジ; ミナリ, ヨシタカ; ヒガシ, ヨシタカ; MIENO, Yasuo; SHINOHARA, Katsuji; MINARI, Yoshitaka; Higashi, Yoshitaka

    1995-01-01

    The use of permanent magnet motors in variable speed drives is increasing with the development of power electronics.In the design of drive motors, an analysis of torque has always been important.In this paper, a salient-pole type rotor with a surface mounted permanent magnet is proposed, and an analysis of torque characteristics as compared to normal type surface magnet motor is made by calculationof airgap flux density distribution.

  11. Final report on P1-APMP.EM-S9: VNIIM/KRISS bilateral comparison of DC magnetic flux density by means of a transfer standard coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifrin, V. Ya; Park, P. G.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this bilateral comparison is to check the conformance of the base quantities of magnetic measurements, DC magnetic flux density and its ratio to a current, as reproduced at VNIIM and KRISS. In these institutes adequate conditions for precise measurements in low magnetic fields are provided and the appropriate equipment for attaining a high level of accuracy is available. The results in this report cover the comparisons of two units, T/A and T, reproduced by the two institutes. The experimental comparison data show good agreement within the estimated uncertainty components of the standards. The coordinated values of the unit of DC magnetic flux density and its ratios to DC current show a standard uncertainty at the level of 1 × 10-6 to 1.2 × 10-6 (k = 1) using the value of the gyromagnetic ratio of the shielded protons γp that was recommended by CODATA in 2010, the experimental determination of the ratio (γ4He/γp) of 4He atoms to protons, and the standards of the two institutes. The results give a basis for carrying out multilateral comparisons of standard quantum magnetometers of metrological institutes in the framework of APMP with participation of geomagnetic observatories, which require the establishment of a unified standard of the unit of DC magnetic flux density. They also show the possibility of decreasing the uncertainty of the determination of the unit of DC magnetic flux density from direct comparisons of standard quantum magnetometers. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by APMP, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  12. High-Density Effects in X-ray Reflection Models from Accretion Disks

    CERN Document Server

    García, Javier A; Kallman, Timothy R; Dauser, Thomas; Parker, Michael L; McClintock, Jeffrey E; Steiner, James F; Wilms, Jörn

    2016-01-01

    The current models for the X-ray reflected spectrum from accretion disks around compact objects are commonly calculated for a constant density along a few Thomson depths from in the direction normal to the irradiated surface. In this models an important simplification is adopted, that is that the ionization structure of the material is completely governed by the the ratio of the incident flux to the gas density (i.e., the ionization parameter $\\xi$. In this setup the value of the density is is typically fixed at $n=10^{15}$ cm$^{-3}$, as it is assumed that the ionization state of the gas is the same for equal values of $\\xi$. In this paper we explore the limitations of this assumption by computing the reflected spectra for various values of the gas density. We show that for large values ($n \\gtrsim 10^{17}$ cm$^{-3}$) the high-density effects become important, significantly modifying the reflected spectrum. The main observed effect is a large increase of thermal emission at soft energies (below $\\sim2$ keV), ...

  13. The density wave in a new anisotropic continuum model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ge Hong-Xia; Dai Shi-Qiang; Dong Li-Yun

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the new continuum traffic flow model proposed by Jiang et al is developed based on an improved car-following model,in which the speed gradient term replaces the density gradient term in the equation of motion.It overcomes the wrong-way travel which exists in many high-order continuum models.Based on the continuum version of car-following model,the condition for stable traffic flow is derived.Nonlinear analysis shows that the density fluctuation in traffic flow induces a variety of density waves.Near the onset of instability,a small disturbance could lead to solitons determined by the Korteweg-de-Vries (KdV) equation,and the soliton solution is derived.

  14. A Double-Ring Algorithm for Modeling Solar Active Regions: Unifying Kinematic Dynamo Models and Surface Flux-Transport Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Muñoz-Jaramillo, Andrés; Martens, Petrus C H; Yeates, Anthony R

    2010-01-01

    The emergence of tilted bipolar active regions and the dispersal of their flux, mediated via processes such as diffusion, differential rotation and meridional circulation is believed to be responsible for the reversal of the Sun's polar field. This process (commonly known as the Babcock-Leighton mechanism) is usually modeled as a near-surface, spatially distributed $\\alpha$-effect in kinematic mean-field dynamo models. However, this formulation leads to a relationship between polar field strength and meridional flow speed which is opposite to that suggested by physical insight and predicted by surface flux-transport simulations. With this in mind, we present an improved double-ring algorithm for modeling the Babcock-Leighton mechanism based on active region eruption, within the framework of an axisymmetric dynamo model. Using surface flux-transport simulations we first show that an axisymmetric formulation -- which is usually invoked in kinematic dynamo models -- can reasonably approximate the surface flux dy...

  15. Influence of oxygen pressure on critical current density and magnetic flux pinning structures in YBa2Cu3O7-x fabricated by chemical solution deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Fa-Zhu; Gu Hong-Wei; Zhang Teng; Dai Shao-Tao; Xiao Li-Ye

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of oxygen partial pressure on the fabrication of YBa2Cu3O7-x films on (00/) LaAlO3 substrates by metalorganic deposition using trifluoroacetates (TFA-MOD). As the oxygen partial pressure increases to 1500 Pa, a great increase in the superconducting properties is observed at high magnetic fields parallel to the YBCO c axis. The cross-sectional transmission electron microscope images show that a high density of stacking faults in the size range of 10-15 nm may act as flux pinning centres to enhance the critical current density of the YBCO films

  16. A Joint Density Function in the Renewal Risk Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU HUAI; TANG LING; Wang De-hui

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,we consider a general expression for (Φ)(u,x,y),the joint density function of the surplus prior to ruin and the deficit at ruin when the initial surplus is u.In the renewal risk model,this density function is expressed in terms of the corresponding density function when the initial surplus is 0.In the compound Poisson risk process with phase-type claim size,we derive an explicit expression for (Φ)(u,x,y).Finally,we give a numerical example to illustrate the application of these results.

  17. Modeling of plasma density in the earth's dayside inner magnetosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Domrachev, VV; Chugunin, DV

    2002-01-01

    The results of comparison of the model profiles of density, obtained by means of the CDPDM model, with the experimental data of the ISEE-1 satellite for the years 1977-1983 are presented. The hypothesis on the validity of the mirror mapping of the convection boundary relative to the dawn-dusk

  18. A Semi-parametric Multivariate Gap-filling Model for Eddy Covariance Latent Heat Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M.; Chen, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Quantitative descriptions of latent heat fluxes are important to study the water and energy exchanges between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. The eddy covariance approaches have been recognized as the most reliable technique for measuring surface fluxes over time scales ranging from hours to years. However, unfavorable micrometeorological conditions, instrument failures, and applicable measurement limitations may cause inevitable flux gaps in time series data. Development and application of suitable gap-filling techniques are crucial to estimate long term fluxes. In this study, a semi-parametric multivariate gap-filling model was developed to fill latent heat flux gaps for eddy covariance measurements. Our approach combines the advantages of a multivariate statistical analysis (principal component analysis, PCA) and a nonlinear interpolation technique (K-nearest-neighbors, KNN). The PCA method was first used to resolve the multicollinearity relationships among various hydrometeorological factors, such as radiation, soil moisture deficit, LAI, and wind speed. The KNN method was then applied as a nonlinear interpolation tool to estimate the flux gaps as the weighted sum latent heat fluxes with the K-nearest distances in the PCs’ domain. Two years, 2008 and 2009, of eddy covariance and hydrometeorological data from a subtropical mixed evergreen forest (the Lien-Hua-Chih Site) were collected to calibrate and validate the proposed approach with artificial gaps after standard QC/QA procedures. The optimal K values and weighting factors were determined by the maximum likelihood test. The results of gap-filled latent heat fluxes conclude that developed model successful preserving energy balances of daily, monthly, and yearly time scales. Annual amounts of evapotranspiration from this study forest were 747 mm and 708 mm for 2008 and 2009, respectively. Nocturnal evapotranspiration was estimated with filled gaps and results are comparable with other studies

  19. Modelling approach to the assessment of biogenic fluxes at a selected Ross Sea site, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vichi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Several biogeochemical data have been collected in the last 10 years of Italian activity in Antarctica (ABIOCLEAR, ROSSMIZE, BIOSESO-I/II. A comprehensive 1-D biogeochemical model was implemented as a tool to link observations with processes and to investigate the mechanisms that regulate the flux of biogenic material through the water column. The model is ideally located at station B (175° E–74° S and was set up to reproduce the seasonal cycle of phytoplankton and organic matter fluxes as forced by the dominant water column physics over the period 1990–2001. Austral spring-summer bloom conditions are assessed by comparing simulated nutrient drawdown, primary production rates, bacterial respiration and biomass with the available observations. The simulated biogenic fluxes of carbon, nitrogen and silica have been compared with the fluxes derived from sediment traps data. The model reproduces the observed magnitude of the biogenic fluxes, especially those found in the bottom sediment trap, but the peaks are markedly delayed in time. Sensitivity experiments have shown that the characterization of detritus, the choice of the sinking velocity and the degradation rates are crucial for the timing and magnitude of the vertical fluxes. An increase of velocity leads to a shift towards observation but also to an overestimation of the deposition flux which can be counteracted by higher bacterial remineralization rates. Model results suggest that the timing of the observed fluxes depends first and foremost on the timing of surface production and on a combination of size-distribution and quality of the autochtonous biogenic material. It is hypothesized that the bottom sediment trap collects material originated from the rapid sinking of freshly-produced particles and also from the previous year's production period.

  20. Flux balance analysis of plant metabolism: the effect of biomass composition and model structure on model predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huili eYuan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The biomass composition represented in constraint-based metabolic models is a key component for predicting cellular metabolism using flux balance analysis (FBA. Despite major advances in analytical technologies, it is often challenging to obtain a detailed composition of all major biomass components experimentally. Studies examining the influence of the biomass composition on the predictions of metabolic models have so far mostly been done on models of microorganisms. Little is known about the impact of varying biomass composition on flux prediction in FBA models of plants, whose metabolism is very versatile and complex because of the presence of multiple subcellular compartments. Also, the published metabolic models of plants differ in size and complexity. In this study, we examined the sensitivity of the predicted fluxes of plant metabolic models to biomass composition and model structure. These questions were addressed by evaluating the sensitivity of predictions of growth rates and central carbon metabolic fluxes to varying biomass compositions in three different genome-/large-scale metabolic models of Arabidopsis thaliana. Our results showed that fluxes through the central carbon metabolism were robust to changes in biomass composition. Nevertheless, comparisons between the predictions from three models using identical modelling constraints and objective function showed that model predictions were sensitive to the structure of the models, highlighting large discrepancies between the published models.

  1. Modelling density segregation in flowing bidisperse granular materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hongyi; Umbanhowar, Paul B.; Ottino, Julio M.; Lueptow, Richard M.

    2016-07-01

    Preventing segregation in flowing granular mixtures is an ongoing challenge for industrial processes that involve the handling of bulk solids. A recent continuum-based modelling approach accurately predicts spatial concentration fields in a variety of flow geometries for mixtures varying in particle size. This approach captures the interplay between advection, diffusion and segregation using kinematic information obtained from experiments and/or discrete element method (DEM) simulations combined with an empirically determined relation for the segregation velocity. Here, we extend the model to include density-driven segregation, thereby validating the approach for the two important cases of practical interest. DEM simulations of density bidisperse flows of mono-sized particles in a quasi-two-dimensional-bounded heap were performed to determine the dependence of the density-driven segregation velocity on local shear rate and particle concentration. The model yields theoretical predictions of segregation patterns that quantitatively match the DEM simulations over a range of density ratios and flow rates. Matching experiments reproduce the segregation patterns and quantitative segregation profiles obtained in both the simulations and the model, thereby demonstrating that the modelling approach captures the essential physics of density-driven segregation in granular heap flow.

  2. Modeling atmospheric CO2 concentration profiles and fluxes above sloping terrain at a boreal site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Aalto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available CO2 fluxes and concentrations were simulated in the planetary boundary layer above subarctic hilly terrain using a three dimensional model. The model solves the transport equations in the local scale and includes a vegetation sub-model. A WMO/GAW background concentration measurement site and an ecosystem flux measurement site are located inside the modeled region at a hilltop and above a mixed boreal forest, respectively. According to model results, the concentration measurement at the hill site was representative for continental background. However, this was not the case for the whole model domain. Concentration at few meters above active vegetation represented mainly local variation. Local variation became inseparable from the regional signal at about 60-100 m above ground. Flow over hills changed profiles of environmental variables and height of inversion layer, however CO2 profiles were more affected by upwind land use than topography. The hill site was above boundary layer during night and inside boundary layer during daytime. The CO2 input from model lateral boundaries dominated in both cases. Daily variation in the CO2 assimilation rate was clearly seen in the CO2 profiles. Concentration difference between the hill site and the forest site was about 5ppm during afternoon according to both model and measurements. The average modeled flux to the whole model region was about 40% of measured and modeled local flux at the forest site.

  3. Interpreting Flux from Broadband Photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Peter J; Roming, Peter W A; Siegel, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the transformation of observed photometry into flux for the creation of spectral energy distributions and the computation of bolometric luminosities. We do this in the context of supernova studies, particularly as observed with the Swift spacecraft, but the concepts and techniques should be applicable to many other types of sources and wavelength regimes. Traditional methods of converting observed magnitudes to flux densities are not very accurate when applied to UV photometry. Common methods for extinction and the integration of pseudo-bolometric fluxes can also lead to inaccurate results. The sources of inaccuracy, though, also apply to other wavelengths. Because of the complicated nature of translating broad-band photometry into monochromatic flux densities, comparison between observed photometry and a spectroscopic model is best done by comparing in the natural units of the observations. We recommend that integrated flux measurements be made using a spectrum or spectral energy distribution whic...

  4. Statistical modelling of variability in sediment-water nutrient and oxygen fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpetti, Natalia; Witte, Ursula; Heath, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Organic detritus entering, or produced, in the marine environment is re-mineralised to inorganic nutrient in the seafloor sediments. The flux of dissolved inorganic nutrient between the sediment and overlying water column is a key process in the marine ecosystem, which binds the biogeochemical sub-system to the living food web. These fluxes are potentially affected by a wide range of physical and biological factors and disentangling these is a significant challenge. Here we develop a set of General Additive Models (GAM) of nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, phosphate, silicate and oxygen fluxes, based on a year-long campaign of field measurements off the north-east coast of Scotland. We show that sediment grain size, turbidity due to sediment re-suspension, temperature, and biogenic matter content were the key factors affecting oxygen consumption, ammonia and silicate fluxes. However, phosphate fluxes were only related to suspended sediment concentrations, whilst nitrate fluxes showed no clear relationship to any of the expected drivers of change, probably due to the effects of denitrification. Our analyses show that the stoichiometry of nutrient regeneration in the ecosystem is not necessarily constant and may be affected by combinations of processes. We anticipate that our statistical modelling results will form the basis for testing the functionality of process-based mathematical models of whole-sediment biogeochemistry.

  5. A mechanistic particle flux model applied to the oceanic phosphorus cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. DeVries

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The sinking and decomposition of particulate organic matter are critical processes in the ocean's biological pump, but are poorly understood and crudely represented in biogeochemical models. Here we present a mechanistic model for particle fluxes in the ocean that solves the evolution of the particle size distribution with depth. The model can represent a wide range of particle flux profiles, depending on the surface particle size distribution, the relationships between particle size, mass and velocity, and the rate of particle mass loss during decomposition. Spatially variable flux profiles are embedded in a data-constrained ocean circulation model, where the most uncertain parameters governing particle dynamics are tuned to achieve an optimal fit to the global distribution of phosphate. The resolution of spatially variable particle sizes has a significant effect on modeled organic matter production rates, increasing production in oligotrophic regions and decreasing production in eutrophic regions compared to a model that assumes spatially uniform particle sizes and sinking fluxes. The mechanistic particle model can reproduce global nutrient distributions better than, and sediment trap fluxes as well as, other commonly used empirical formulas. However, these independent data constraints cannot be simultaneously matched in a closed P budget commonly assumed in ocean models. Through a systematic addition of model processes, we show that the apparent discrepancy between particle flux and nutrient data can be resolved through P burial, but only if that burial is associated with a slowly decaying component of organic matter as might be achieved through protection by ballast minerals. Moreover, the model solution that best matches both datasets requires a larger rate of P burial (and compensating inputs than have been previously estimated. Our results imply a marine PO4 inventory with a residence time of a few thousand years, similar to that of the

  6. ENERGY AND MASS FLUX SIMULATIONS IN URBAN AREA USING THE ACASA MODEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marras, S.; Spano, D.; Pyles, R. D.; Falk, M.; Sirca, C.; Miglietta, F.; Snyder, R. L.; Paw U, K.

    2009-12-01

    Urban metabolism considers a city as a system and usually distinguishes between energy and material flows as its components. Population who lives in urban areas is increasing and the exchanges of water, energy and carbon into and out of cities are key to the sustainable design of cities. In this context, it is important to provide quantitative estimate of the urban metabolism components using both observations and modeling of physical flows. Today, Eddy Covariance technique and accurate models are available to simulate the energy and mass flux exchanges in urban environment with a good spatial resolution. The Advanced Canopy-Atmosphere-Soil Algorithm (ACASA) model, developed by University of California, Davis (UCD), is one of the most sophisticated models for estimating energy and mass fluxes between surface and the atmosphere. ACASA was recently modified to simulate energy and mass fluxes in urban environment. ACASA treats the surface and associated fluxes as an interconnected system The atmosphere, the urban surface and the soil are represented as a multilayer system. ACASA incorporates higher-order closure principles for turbulent statistics to predict the effects that higher-order turbulent kinetic and thermodynamic processes have on the surface microenvironment and associated fluxes of heat, moisture, momentum, and carbon. It allows counter-gradient transport that simpler models are unable to describe. Using a set of governing equations, ACASA creates vertical profiles of temperature, humidity, mean wind, and CO2 concentration. ACASA was run for the city of Florence (Italy), which is a case study of the European project “Bridge”. The simulations were compared with in situ measurements taken continuously from 2006 using an eddy covariance system located in the city centre. Different measurement periods were used to parameterize and validate the model. From the preliminary results, good agreement was obtained between simulated and observed fluxes with small

  7. Polar-Region Distributions of Poynting Flux: Global Models Compared With Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanson, P. D.; Lotko, W.; Murr, D.; Gagne, J. R.; Wiltberger, M.; Lyon, J. G.

    2007-12-01

    Low-altitude distributions of electric potential, field-aligned current and Poynting flux derived from the Lyon- Fedder-Mobarry global simulation model of the magnetosphere are compared with distributions derived from SuperDARN, the Iridium satellite constellation, and the Weimer 2005 empirical model for a one-hour interval (1400-1500 UT) on 23 November 1999 during which the interplanetary magnetic field was steady and southward. Synthetic measurements along a pseudo-satellite track are also obtained from each distribution and compared with measurements from the DMSP F13 satellite. Previous studies of the event are supplemented here with updated simulation results for the electric potential and field-aligned currents, new simulation diagnostics for the Poynting flux incident on the ionosphere, and comparisons of observational and simulation results with the Weimer empirical model. The location and extent of the simulated Poynting fluxes that occur in the afternoon sector, between the Region-1 and 2 currents, are consistent with the observed and empirically modeled locations, but the magnitudes exhibit significant differences (locally up to ~100% both higher and lower). Elsewhere, the distribution of simulated fluxes more closely resembles the empirically modeled values than the observed ones and in general is greater in magnitude by about 100%. Additionally, the fraction of simulated Poynting flux that flow into the polar cap region (above 75 deg) is about one third of the total flowing into the ionosphere above 60 deg; a similar value is found for both the observed and the empirically modeled fluxes. The effect of including the parallel potential drop in the self-consistent mapping of electric potential between the ionosphere and inner boundary of the simulation domain is also examined. Globally the effect is small (< 5%); however, in regions where the field-aligned potential drop is appreciable, local changes of 100% or more are found in the magnitude of the

  8. Coronal mass ejection initiation: On the nature of the Flux Cancellation Model

    CERN Document Server

    Amari, Tahar; Mikic, Zoran; Linker, Jon A

    2010-01-01

    We consider a three-dimensional bipolar force-free magnetic field with non zero magnetic helicity, occupying a half-space, and study the problem of its evolution driven by an imposed photospheric flux decrease. For this specific setting of the Flux Cancellation Model describing coronal mass ejections occuring in active regions, we address the issues of the physical meaning of flux decrease, of the influence on field evolution of the size of the domain over which this decrease is imposed, and of the existence of an energetic criterion characterizing the possible onset of disruption of the configuration. We show that: (1) The imposed flux disappearance can be interpreted in terms of transport of positive and negative fluxes towards the inversion line, where they get annihilated. (2) For the particular case actually computed, in which the initial state is quite sheared, the formation of a twisted flux rope and the subsequent global disruption of the configuration are obtained when the flux has decreased by only ...

  9. An integrated model for dune morphology and sand fluxes on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runyon, K. D.; Bridges, N. T.; Ayoub, F.; Newman, C. E.; Quade, J. J.

    2017-01-01

    The transport and deposition of sand is the most prevalent agent of landscape modification on Mars today, with fluxes comparable to some sand dunes on Earth. Until now, the relationship between sand flux and dune field morphology has been poorly constrained. By tracking dune movement over ∼10 km-long dune fields in Herschel Crater and Nili Patera, representative of many dune fields on Mars, we find a downwind flux decrease that correlates with a sequence of changing morphology from barchans to barchanoids and seifs (longitudinal dunes) to isolated dome dunes and ending with sand sheets. We show empirical consistency with atmospheric Internal Boundary Layer (IBL) theory which can describe these broad flux and morphology changes in Martian dune fields. Deviations from IBL flux predictions are from wind streamline compressions up slopes, leading to a speedup effect. By establishing a dune field morphology type example and correlating it with measured and predicted flux changes, we provide an integrated morphology and flux model that can be applied to other areas of Mars and be used to infer paleo-environmental conditions from preserved sandstone.

  10. Measurements and modeling of gas fluxes in unsaturated mine waste materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabwe, L.K.

    2008-07-01

    A technique known as dynamic closed chamber (DDC) was recently developed to measure carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) fluxes from the soil surface to the atmosphere. The field application of the DCC was investigated in this thesis with a particular focus on quantifying reaction rates in 2 waste-rock piles at the Key Lake uranium mine in northern Saskatchewan. The dominant geochemical reactions in both waste-rock piles were not typical of acid rock drainage (ARD) waste-rock piles. The CO{sub 2} fluxes measured in this study occur in the organic material underlying the waste rocks. The study provided a complete suite of measurements needed to characterize spatial distribution of CO{sub 2} fluxes on larger-scale studies of waste-rock piles. In comparison to other CO{sub 2} flux measuring techniques, the DCC method accurately quantified field soil respiration and had an added advantage in terms of speed and repeatability. The DCC was also used to investigate CO{sub 2} fluxes under the climatic variables that affect soil water content in waste-rock piles. A simple model for predicting the effects of soil water content on CO{sub 2} diffusion coefficient and concentration profiles was developed and verified. It was concluded that the DCC method is suitable for field applications to quantify CO{sub 2} fluxes and to characterize the spatial and temporal dynamics of CO{sub 2} fluxes from unsaturated C-horizon soils and waste-rock piles.

  11. Regional modelling of water and CO2-fluxes with a one-dimensional SVAT model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnert, M.; Köstner, B.

    2009-04-01

    Climate change affects site conditions for vegetation and may affect changes in the distribution of plant species. Investigations of these effects are difficult, because other influences on plant performance like land use and management also need to be considered. Carbon gain can be used as a sensitive indicator for changes in the vitality of the considered vegetation types that are affected by different climate and weather patterns. The objective of the presented study is the quantification of net photosynthesis rate, respiration and transpiration of different vegetation types on the regional scale. The study regions are the Weißeritz catchment in the Ore Mountains and the region Torgau-Oschatz in the Elbe basin both located in Saxony (East Germany) but significantly differing in elevation and site conditions. The carbon and water fluxes are simulated by an ecophysiological based Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere-Transfer model for three periods (1996-2006, 2015-2025 and 2035-2045). The considered vegetation types are forest and grassland. The used model SVAT-CN is a multi-layer model, which enables the calculation of hourly carbon gain by coupling micrometerological data with ecophysiological processes. The calculations are based on the equations of Farquhar and Ball for net photosynthesis rate and stomata conductivity, respectively. It is a one-dimensional model which also considers soil water processes. The soil is coupled with the vegetation by one factor that depends on the matric potential and steers the calculation of the stomata conductivity. The equations of the soil water processes are based on a combination of bucket model and Richard's equation. Simulations are based on measured weather data (Dept. of Meteorology at Technische Universität Dresden and LfL Sachsen) with varying levels of atmospheric CO2 concentrations up to 580 ppm. Further, climate projections (ECHAM5-OM, IPCC emission scenario A1B), with downscaling to a 18x18km grid by the regional climate

  12. The model of self-sustained propagation of a magnetic reconnection along the flux tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumin, Yurii

    This work represents a further development of our earlier ideas about heating the solar corona in the transition region from the "induction" to "drift" freezing of the magnetic field in plasma [1, 2]. The new detailed study of this process in the magnetic tube filled with a weakly-ionized plasma of the lower solar atmosphere shows that ignition of the magnetic reconnection develops most efficiently at the spot of approximate equality between the gyro-and collisional frequencies of charged particles. Next, due to the heat release and its propagation along the magnetic flux tube, the spot of most efficient reconnection moves upwards, thereby producing a self-sustained propagation of the reconnection along the field lines. The temperature increases sharply with height just due to decrease in plasma density, stratified by the gravitational field. This phenomenon may be efficiently applied to model the solar microflares, which are believed now to be an important ingredient of the solar atmosphere heating. References: 1. Yu.V. Dumin. Can Heating of the Solar Corona Be Related to a Transition from the In-duction to Drift Mechanism of the Magnetic Field Freezing in Plasma? Advances in Space Research, v.30, p.565 (2002). 2. Yu.V. Dumin. On the Physical Nature of the Magnetic-Field Freezing-in Effect in Collision-less Cosmic Plasmas. Solar System Research, v.32, p.323 (1998).

  13. Universal iso-density polarizable continuum model for molecular solvents

    CERN Document Server

    Gunceler, Deniz

    2014-01-01

    Implicit electron-density solvation models based on joint density-functional theory offer a computationally efficient solution to the problem of calculating thermodynamic quantities of solvated systems from first-principles quantum mechanics. However, despite much recent interest in such models, to date the applicability of such models to non-aqueous solvents has been limited because the determination of the model parameters requires fitting to a large database of experimental solvation energies for each new solvent considered. This work presents an alternate approach which allows development of new solvation models for a large class of protic and aprotic solvents from only simple, single-molecule ab initio calculations and readily available bulk thermodynamic data. We find that this model is accurate to nearly 1.7 kcal/mol even for solvents outside our development set.

  14. Density Functional Theory and Materials Modeling at Atomistic Length Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapan K. Ghosh

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: We discuss the basic concepts of density functional theory (DFT as applied to materials modeling in the microscopic, mesoscopic and macroscopic length scales. The picture that emerges is that of a single unified framework for the study of both quantum and classical systems. While for quantum DFT, the central equation is a one-particle Schrodinger-like Kohn-Sham equation, the classical DFT consists of Boltzmann type distributions, both corresponding to a system of noninteracting particles in the field of a density-dependent effective potential, the exact functional form of which is unknown. One therefore approximates the exchange-correlation potential for quantum systems and the excess free energy density functional or the direct correlation functions for classical systems. Illustrative applications of quantum DFT to microscopic modeling of molecular interaction and that of classical DFT to a mesoscopic modeling of soft condensed matter systems are highlighted.

  15. Thermospheric density model biases at the 23rd sunspot maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardini, C.; Moe, K.; Anselmo, L.

    2012-07-01

    Uncertainties in the neutral density estimation are the major source of aerodynamic drag errors and one of the main limiting factors in the accuracy of the orbit prediction and determination process at low altitudes. Massive efforts have been made over the years to constantly improve the existing operational density models, or to create even more precise and sophisticated tools. Special attention has also been paid to research more appropriate solar and geomagnetic indices. However, the operational models still suffer from weakness. Even if a number of studies have been carried out in the last few years to define the performance improvements, further critical assessments are necessary to evaluate and compare the models at different altitudes and solar activity conditions. Taking advantage of the results of a previous study, an investigation of thermospheric density model biases during the last sunspot maximum (October 1999 - December 2002) was carried out by analyzing the semi-major axis decay of four satellites: Cosmos 2265, Cosmos 2332, SNOE and Clementine. Six thermospheric density models, widely used in spacecraft operations, were analyzed: JR-71, MSISE-90, NRLMSISE-00, GOST-2004, JB2006 and JB2008. During the time span considered, for each satellite and atmospheric density model, a fitted drag coefficient was solved for and then compared with the calculated physical drag coefficient. It was therefore possible to derive the average density biases of the thermospheric models during the maximum of the 23rd solar cycle. Below 500 km, all the models overestimated the average atmospheric density by amounts varying between +7% and +20%. This was an inevitable consequence of constructing thermospheric models from density data obtained by assuming a fixed drag coefficient, independent of altitude. Because the uncertainty affecting the drag coefficient measurements was about 3% at both 200 km and 480 km of altitude, the calculated air density biases below 500 km were

  16. Parallel labeling experiments validate Clostridium acetobutylicum metabolic network model for (13)C metabolic flux analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Jennifer; Choi, Jungik; Jones, Shawn W; Venkataramanan, Keerthi P; Antoniewicz, Maciek R

    2014-11-01

    In this work, we provide new insights into the metabolism of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 obtained using a systematic approach for quantifying fluxes based on parallel labeling experiments and (13)C-metabolic flux analysis ((13)C-MFA). Here, cells were grown in parallel cultures with [1-(13)C]glucose and [U-(13)C]glucose as tracers and (13)C-MFA was used to quantify intracellular metabolic fluxes. Several metabolic network models were compared: an initial model based on current knowledge, and extended network models that included additional reactions that improved the fits of experimental data. While the initial network model did not produce a statistically acceptable fit of (13)C-labeling data, an extended network model with five additional reactions was able to fit all data with 292 redundant measurements. The model was subsequently trimmed to produce a minimal network model of C. acetobutylicum for (13)C-MFA, which could still reproduce all of the experimental data. The flux results provided valuable new insights into the metabolism of C. acetobutylicum. First, we found that TCA cycle was effectively incomplete, as there was no measurable flux between α-ketoglutarate and succinyl-CoA, succinate and fumarate, and malate and oxaloacetate. Second, an active pathway was identified from pyruvate to fumarate via aspartate. Third, we found that isoleucine was produced exclusively through the citramalate synthase pathway in C. acetobutylicum and that CAC3174 was likely responsible for citramalate synthase activity. These model predictions were confirmed in several follow-up tracer experiments. The validated metabolic network model established in this study can be used in future investigations for unbiased (13)C-flux measurements in C. acetobutylicum. Copyright © 2014 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Supersymmetric models on magnetized orbifolds with flux-induced Fayet-Iliopoulos terms

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, Hiroyuki; Sumita, Keigo; Tatsuta, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    We study supersymmetric (SUSY) models derived from the ten-dimensional SUSY Yang- Mills theory compactified on magnetized orbifolds, with nonvanishing Fayet-Iliopoulos (FI) terms induced by magnetic fluxes in extra dimensions. Allowing the presence of FI-terms relaxes a constraint on flux configurations in SUSY model building based on magnetized backgrounds. In this case, charged fields develop their vacuum expectation values (VEVs) to cancel the FI-terms in the D-flat directions of fluxed gauge symmetries, which break the gauge symmetries and lead to a SUSY vacuum. Based on this idea, we propose a new class of SUSY magnetized orbifold models with three generations of quarks and leptons. Especially, we construct a model where the right-handed sneutrinos develop their VEVs which restore the supersymmetry but yield lepton number violating terms below the compactification scale, and show their phenomenological consequences.

  18. Supersymmetric models on magnetized orbifolds with flux-induced Fayet-Iliopoulos terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Sumita, Keigo; Tatsuta, Yoshiyuki

    2017-01-01

    We study supersymmetric (SUSY) models derived from the ten-dimensional SUSY Yang-Mills theory compactified on magnetized orbifolds, with nonvanishing Fayet-Iliopoulos (FI) terms induced by magnetic fluxes in extra dimensions. Allowing the presence of FI-terms relaxes a constraint on flux configurations in SUSY model building based on magnetized backgrounds. In this case, charged fields develop their vacuum expectation values to cancel the FI-terms in the D-flat directions of fluxed gauge symmetries, which break the gauge symmetries and lead to a SUSY vacuum. Based on this idea, we propose a new class of SUSY magnetized orbifold models with three generations of quarks and leptons. Especially, we construct a model where the right-handed sneutrinos develop their vacuum expectation values which restore the supersymmetry but yield lepton number violating terms below the compactification scale, and show their phenomenological consequences.

  19. A Computational Model of Water Migration Flux in Freezing Soil in a Closed System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裘春晗

    2005-01-01

    A computational model of water migration flux of fine porous soil in frost heave was investigated in a closed system. The model was established with the heat-mass conservation law and from some previous experimental results. Through defining an auxiliary function an empirical function in the water migration flux, which is difficult to get, was replaced. The data needed are about the water content along the soft colunm after test with enough long time. We adopt the test data of sample soil colunms in [1] to verify the model. The result shows it can reflect the real situation on the whole.

  20. User-Friendly Predictive Modeling of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Fluxes and Carbon Storage in Tidal Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishtiaq, K. S.; Abdul-Aziz, O. I.

    2015-12-01

    We developed user-friendly empirical models to predict instantaneous fluxes of CO2 and CH4 from coastal wetlands based on a small set of dominant hydro-climatic and environmental drivers (e.g., photosynthetically active radiation, soil temperature, water depth, and soil salinity). The dominant predictor variables were systematically identified by applying a robust data-analytics framework on a wide range of possible environmental variables driving wetland greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes. The method comprised of a multi-layered data-analytics framework, including Pearson correlation analysis, explanatory principal component and factor analyses, and partial least squares regression modeling. The identified dominant predictors were finally utilized to develop power-law based non-linear regression models to predict CO2 and CH4 fluxes under different climatic, land use (nitrogen gradient), tidal hydrology and salinity conditions. Four different tidal wetlands of Waquoit Bay, MA were considered as the case study sites to identify the dominant drivers and evaluate model performance. The study sites were dominated by native Spartina Alterniflora and characterized by frequent flooding and high saline conditions. The model estimated the potential net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB) both in gC/m2 and metric tonC/hectare by up-scaling the instantaneous predicted fluxes to the growing season and accounting for the lateral C flux exchanges between the wetlands and estuary. The entire model was presented in a single Excel spreadsheet as a user-friendly ecological engineering tool. The model can aid the development of appropriate GHG offset protocols for setting monitoring plans for tidal wetland restoration and maintenance projects. The model can also be used to estimate wetland GHG fluxes and potential carbon storage under various IPCC climate change and sea level rise scenarios; facilitating an appropriate management of carbon stocks in tidal wetlands and their incorporation into a

  1. Poynting flux-conserving low-altitude boundary conditions for global magnetospheric models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, S.; Lotko, W.; Zhang, B.; Brambles, O. J.; Lyon, J. G.; Merkin, V. G.; Wiltberger, M.

    2015-01-01

    A method for specifying low-altitude or inner boundary conditions that conserve low-frequency, magnetic field-aligned, electromagnetic energy flux across the boundary in global magnetospheric magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) models is presented. The single-fluid Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) model is used to verify this method, with comparisons between simulations using LFM's standard hardwall boundary conditions and the new flux-conserving boundary conditions. Identical idealized upstream solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field conditions and the same constant ionospheric conductance are used in both runs. The results show that, compared to LFM's standard hardwall boundary conditions, the flux-conserving method improves the transparency of the boundary for the flow of low-frequency (essentially DC) electromagnetic energy flux along field lines. As a consequence, the hemispheric integrated field-aligned DC Poynting flux just above the boundary is close to the hemispheric total Joule heating of the ionosphere, as it should be if electromagnetic energy is conserved. The MHD velocity and perpendicular currents are well-behaved near the inner boundary for the flux conserving boundary conditions.

  2. Data-Model Comparisons of Photoelectron Flux Intensities on the Strong Crustal Field Lines at Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liemohn, Michael; Trantham, Matthew; Mitchell, David

    2010-05-01

    This study quantifies the factors controlling photoelectron fluxes on strong crustal field lines in the Martian ionosphere. Using data from Mars Global Surveyor's Magnetometer and Electron Reflectometer instruments, dayside electron populations near the strong crustal fields in the southern hemisphere are analyzed versus various controlling parameters. These parameters include a Mars F10.7 proxy, a solar wind pressure proxy, local solar zenith angle, magnetic elevation angle, magnetic field strength. It was found that solar EUV radiation (corrected for solar zenith angle and the Mars-Sun distance) has the strongest influence on the photoelectron fluxes, and during different time periods this radiation has a stronger influence than at others times. Second, fluxes show a slight enhancement when the magnetic elevation angle is near zero degrees (horizontal field lines). Finally, other parameters, such as pressure and magnetic field strength, seem to have no major influence. These measurement-based results are then compared against numerical modeling flux intensities to quantify the physical mechanisms behind the observed relationships. The numerical code used for this study is our superthermal electron transport model, which solves for the electric distribution function along a magnetic field line. The code includes the influence of a variable magnetic field strength, pitch angle scattering and mirror trapping, and collisional energy cascading. The influence of solar EUV flux, atmospheric composition, solar wind dynamic pressure, and the local magnetic field are systematically investigated with this code to understand why some of these parameters have a strong influence on photoelectron flux intensity while others do not.

  3. Efficient Modeling of MS/MS Data for Metabolic Flux Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepper, Naama; Shlomi, Tomer

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic flux analysis (MFA) is a widely used method for quantifying intracellular metabolic fluxes. It works by feeding cells with isotopic labeled nutrients, measuring metabolite isotopic labeling, and computationally interpreting the measured labeling data to estimate flux. Tandem mass-spectrometry (MS/MS) has been shown to be useful for MFA, providing positional isotopic labeling data. Specifically, MS/MS enables the measurement of a metabolite tandem mass-isotopomer distribution, representing the abundance in which certain parent and product fragments of a metabolite have different number of labeled atoms. However, a major limitation in using MFA with MS/MS data is the lack of a computationally efficient method for simulating such isotopic labeling data. Here, we describe the tandemer approach for efficiently computing metabolite tandem mass-isotopomer distributions in a metabolic network, given an estimation of metabolic fluxes. This approach can be used by MFA to find optimal metabolic fluxes, whose induced metabolite labeling patterns match tandem mass-isotopomer distributions measured by MS/MS. The tandemer approach is applied to simulate MS/MS data in a small-scale metabolic network model of mammalian methionine metabolism and in a large-scale metabolic network model of E. coli. It is shown to significantly improve the running time by between two to three orders of magnitude compared to the state-of-the-art, cumomers approach. We expect the tandemer approach to promote broader usage of MS/MS technology in metabolic flux analysis.

  4. Influences of observation errors in eddy flux data on inverse model parameter estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lasslop

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Eddy covariance data are increasingly used to estimate parameters of ecosystem models. For proper maximum likelihood parameter estimates the error structure in the observed data has to be fully characterized. In this study we propose a method to characterize the random error of the eddy covariance flux data, and analyse error distribution, standard deviation, cross- and autocorrelation of CO2 and H2O flux errors at four different European eddy covariance flux sites. Moreover, we examine how the treatment of those errors and additional systematic errors influence statistical estimates of parameters and their associated uncertainties with three models of increasing complexity – a hyperbolic light response curve, a light response curve coupled to water fluxes and the SVAT scheme BETHY. In agreement with previous studies we find that the error standard deviation scales with the flux magnitude. The previously found strongly leptokurtic error distribution is revealed to be largely due to a superposition of almost Gaussian distributions with standard deviations varying by flux magnitude. The crosscorrelations of CO2 and H2O fluxes were in all cases negligible (R2 below 0.2, while the autocorrelation is usually below 0.6 at a lag of 0.5 h and decays rapidly at larger time lags. This implies that in these cases the weighted least squares criterion yields maximum likelihood estimates. To study the influence of the observation errors on model parameter estimates we used synthetic datasets, based on observations of two different sites. We first fitted the respective models to observations and then added the random error estimates described above and the systematic error, respectively, to the model output. This strategy enables us to compare the estimated parameters with true parameters. We illustrate that the correct implementation of the random error standard deviation scaling with flux

  5. Comparing Global Atmospheric CO2 Flux and Transport Models with Remote Sensing (and Other) Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawa, S. R.; Collatz, G. J.; Pawson, S.; Wennberg, P. O.; Wofsy, S. C.; Andrews, A. E.

    2010-01-01

    We report recent progress derived from comparison of global CO2 flux and transport models with new remote sensing and other sources of CO2 data including those from satellite. The overall objective of this activity is to improve the process models that represent our understanding of the workings of the atmospheric carbon cycle. Model estimates of CO2 surface flux and atmospheric transport processes are required for initial constraints on inverse analyses, to connect atmospheric observations to the location of surface sources and sinks, to provide the basic framework for carbon data assimilation, and ultimately for future projections of carbon-climate interactions. Models can also be used to test consistency within and between CO2 data sets under varying geophysical states. Here we focus on simulated CO2 fluxes from terrestrial vegetation and atmospheric transport mutually constrained by analyzed meteorological fields from the Goddard Modeling and Assimilation Office for the period 2000 through 2009. Use of assimilated meteorological data enables direct model comparison to observations across a wide range of scales of variability. The biospheric fluxes are produced by the CASA model at 1x1 degrees on a monthly mean basis, modulated hourly with analyzed temperature and sunlight. Both physiological and biomass burning fluxes are derived using satellite observations of vegetation, burned area (as in GFED-3), and analyzed meteorology. For the purposes of comparison to CO2 data, fossil fuel and ocean fluxes are also included in the transport simulations. In this presentation we evaluate the model's ability to simulate CO2 flux and mixing ratio variability in comparison to remote sensing observations from TCCON, GOSAT, and AIRS as well as relevant in situ observations. Examples of the influence of key process representations are shown from both forward and inverse model comparisons. We find that the model can resolve much of the synoptic, seasonal, and interannual

  6. Radiomic modeling of BI-RADS density categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jun; Chan, Heang-Ping; Helvie, Mark A.; Roubidoux, Marilyn A.; Zhou, Chuan; Hadjiiski, Lubomir

    2017-03-01

    Screening mammography is the most effective and low-cost method to date for early cancer detection. Mammographic breast density has been shown to be highly correlated with breast cancer risk. We are developing a radiomic model for BI-RADS density categorization on digital mammography (FFDM) with a supervised machine learning approach. With IRB approval, we retrospectively collected 478 FFDMs from 478 women. As a gold standard, breast density was assessed by an MQSA radiologist based on BI-RADS categories. The raw FFDMs were used for computerized density assessment. The raw FFDM first underwent log-transform to approximate the x-ray sensitometric response, followed by multiscale processing to enhance the fibroglandular densities and parenchymal patterns. Three ROIs were automatically identified based on the keypoint distribution, where the keypoints were obtained as the extrema in the image Gaussian scale-space. A total of 73 features, including intensity and texture features that describe the density and the parenchymal pattern, were extracted from each breast. Our BI-RADS density estimator was constructed by using a random forest classifier. We used a 10-fold cross validation resampling approach to estimate the errors. With the random forest classifier, computerized density categories for 412 of the 478 cases agree with radiologist's assessment (weighted kappa = 0.93). The machine learning method with radiomic features as predictors demonstrated a high accuracy in classifying FFDMs into BI-RADS density categories. Further work is underway to improve our system performance as well as to perform an independent testing using a large unseen FFDM set.

  7. Density functionals and dimensional renormalization for an exactly solvable model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kais, S.; Herschbach, D. R.; Handy, N. C.; Murray, C. W.; Laming, G. J.

    1993-07-01

    We treat an analytically solvable version of the ``Hooke's Law'' model for a two-electron atom, in which the electron-electron repulsion is Coulombic but the electron-nucleus attraction is replaced by a harmonic oscillator potential. Exact expressions are obtained for the ground-state wave function and electron density, the Hartree-Fock solution, the correlation energy, the Kohn-Sham orbital, and, by inversion, the exchange and correlation functionals. These functionals pertain to the ``intermediate'' density regime (rs≥1.4) for an electron gas. As a test of customary approximations employed in density functional theory, we compare our exact density, exchange, and correlation potentials and energies with results from two approximations. These use Becke's exchange functional and either the Lee-Yang-Parr or the Perdew correlation functional. Both approximations yield rather good results for the density and the exchange and correlation energies, but both deviate markedly from the exact exchange and correlation potentials. We also compare properties of the Hooke's Law model with those of two-electron atoms, including the large dimension limit. A renormalization procedure applied to this very simple limit yields correlation energies as good as those obtained from the approximate functionals, for both the model and actual atoms.

  8. Ionospheric topside models compared with experimental electron density profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Radicella

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently an increasing number of topside electron density profiles has been made available to the scientific community on the Internet. These data are important for ionospheric modeling purposes, since the experimental information on the electron density above the ionosphere maximum of ionization is very scarce. The present work compares NeQuick and IRI models with the topside electron density profiles available in the databases of the ISIS2, IK19 and Cosmos 1809 satellites. Experimental electron content from the F2 peak up to satellite height and electron densities at fixed heights above the peak have been compared under a wide range of different conditions. The analysis performed points out the behavior of the models and the improvements needed to be assessed to have a better reproduction of the experimental results. NeQuick topside is a modified Epstein layer, with thickness parameter determined by an empirical relation. It appears that its performance is strongly affected by this parameter, indicating the need for improvements of its formulation. IRI topside is based on Booker's approach to consider two parts with constant height gradients. It appears that this formulation leads to an overestimation of the electron density in the upper part of the profiles, and overestimation of TEC.

  9. Optimizing LED lighting for space plant growth unit: Joint effects of photon flux density, red to white ratios and intermittent light pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avercheva, O V; Berkovich, Yu A; Konovalova, I O; Radchenko, S G; Lapach, S N; Bassarskaya, E M; Kochetova, G V; Zhigalova, T V; Yakovleva, O S; Tarakanov, I G

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work were to choose a quantitative optimality criterion for estimating the quality of plant LED lighting regimes inside space greenhouses and to construct regression models of crop productivity and the optimality criterion depending on the level of photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), the proportion of the red component in the light spectrum and the duration of the duty cycle (Chinese cabbage Brassica сhinensis L. as an example). The properties of the obtained models were described in the context of predicting crop dry weight and the optimality criterion behavior when varying plant lighting parameters. Results of the fractional 3-factor experiment demonstrated the share of the PPFD level participation in the crop dry weight accumulation was 84.4% at almost any combination of other lighting parameters, but when PPFD value increased up to 500µmol m(-2)s(-1) the pulse light and supplemental light from red LEDs could additionally increase crop productivity. Analysis of the optimality criterion response to variation of lighting parameters showed that the maximum coordinates were the following: PPFD = 500µmol m(-2)s(-1), about 70%-proportion of the red component of the light spectrum (PPFDLEDred/PPFDLEDwhite = 1.5) and the duty cycle with a period of 501µs. Thus, LED crop lighting with these parameters was optimal for achieving high crop productivity and for efficient use of energy in the given range of lighting parameter values. Copyright © 2016 The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR). Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Application of a Subfilter-Scale Flux Model over the Ocean Using OHATS Field Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, Mark C.; Wyngaard, John C.; Sullivan, Peter P.

    2009-01-01

    the scalar flux model appeared to perform adequately over the ocean. Analysis of data from the Ocean Horizontal Array Turbulence Study (OHATS) reveals a need to account for the moving ocean–air interface in the subfilter stress model. The authors develop simple parameterizations for the effect of surface...

  11. Modeling methane fluxes in wetlands with gas-transporting plants. 3. Plot scale.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segers, R.; Leffelaar, P.A.

    2001-01-01

    A process model based on kinetic principles was developed for methane fluxes from wetlands with gas-transporting plants and a fluctuating water table. Water dynamics are modeled with the 1-D Richards equation. For temperature a standard diffusion equation is used. The depth-dependent dynamics of met

  12. SIMULATED MODEL OF TRACTION DIRECT DRIVE ORIENTED ON AN INDUCTOR MOTOR WITH AXIAL FLUX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Ryabov

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article a simulation model of traction direct drive on the basis of inductor motor with the axial magnetic flux realized in the visual programming environment Simulink is considered. At creation of the AIМ model a method block diagrams is used.

  13. Modeling Coronal Response in Decaying Active Regions with Magnetic Flux Transport and Steady Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugarte-Urra, Ignacio; Warren, Harry P.; Upton, Lisa A.; Young, Peter R.

    2017-09-01

    We present new measurements of the dependence of the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiance on the total magnetic flux in active regions as obtained from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. Using observations of nine active regions tracked along different stages of evolution, we extend the known radiance—magnetic flux power-law relationship (I\\propto {{{Φ }}}α ) to the AIA 335 Å passband, and the Fe xviii 93.93 Å spectral line in the 94 Å passband. We find that the total unsigned magnetic flux divided by the polarity separation ({{Φ }}/D) is a better indicator of radiance for the Fe xviii line with a slope of α =3.22+/- 0.03. We then use these results to test our current understanding of magnetic flux evolution and coronal heating. We use magnetograms from the simulated decay of these active regions produced by the Advective Flux Transport model as boundary conditions for potential extrapolations of the magnetic field in the corona. We then model the hydrodynamics of each individual field line with the Enthalpy-based Thermal Evolution of Loops model with steady heating scaled as the ratio of the average field strength and the length (\\bar{B}/L) and render the Fe xviii and 335 Å emission. We find that steady heating is able to partially reproduce the magnitudes and slopes of the EUV radiance—magnetic flux relationships and discuss how impulsive heating can help reconcile the discrepancies. This study demonstrates that combined models of magnetic flux transport, magnetic topology, and heating can yield realistic estimates for the decay of active region radiances with time.

  14. Plant functional diversity increases grassland productivity-related water vapor fluxes: an Ecotron and modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milcu, Alexandru; Eugster, Werner; Bachmann, Dörte; Guderle, Marcus; Roscher, Christiane; Gockele, Annette; Landais, Damien; Ravel, Olivier; Gessler, Arthur; Lange, Markus; Ebeling, Anne; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Roy, Jacques; Hildebrandt, Anke; Buchmann, Nina

    2016-08-01

    The impact of species richness and functional diversity of plants on ecosystem water vapor fluxes has been little investigated. To address this knowledge gap, we combined a lysimeter setup in a controlled environment facility (Ecotron) with large ecosystem samples/monoliths originating from a long-term biodiversity experiment (The Jena Experiment) and a modeling approach. Our goals were (1) quantifying the impact of plant species richness (four vs. 16 species) on day- and nighttime ecosystem water vapor fluxes; (2) partitioning ecosystem evapotranspiration into evaporation and plant transpiration using the Shuttleworth and Wallace (SW) energy partitioning model; and (3) identifying the most parsimonious predictors of water vapor fluxes using plant functional-trait-based metrics such as functional diversity and community weighted means. Daytime measured and modeled evapotranspiration were significantly higher in the higher plant diversity treatment, suggesting increased water acquisition. The SW model suggests that, at low plant species richness, a higher proportion of the available energy was diverted to evaporation (a non-productive flux), while, at higher species richness, the proportion of ecosystem transpiration (a productivity-related water flux) increased. While it is well established that LAI controls ecosystem transpiration, here we also identified that the diversity of leaf nitrogen concentration among species in a community is a consistent predictor of ecosystem water vapor fluxes during daytime. The results provide evidence that, at the peak of the growing season, higher leaf area index (LAI) and lower percentage of bare ground at high plant diversity diverts more of the available water to transpiration, a flux closely coupled with photosynthesis and productivity. Higher rates of transpiration presumably contribute to the positive effect of diversity on productivity.

  15. Artificial neural network prediction model for geosynchronous electron fluxes: Dependence on satellite position and particle energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dae-Kyu; Lee, Dae-Young; Kim, Kyung-Chan; Hwang, Junga; Kim, Jaehun

    2016-04-01

    Geosynchronous satellites are often exposed to energetic electrons, the flux of which varies often to a large extent. Since the electrons can cause irreparable damage to the satellites, efforts to develop electron flux prediction models have long been made until recently. In this study, we adopt a neural network scheme to construct a prediction model for the geosynchronous electron flux in a wide energy range (40 keV to >2 MeV) and at a high time resolution (as based on 5 min resolution data). As the model inputs, we take the solar wind variables, geomagnetic indices, and geosynchronous electron fluxes themselves. We also take into account the magnetic local time (MLT) dependence of the geosynchronous electron fluxes. We use the electron data from two geosynchronous satellites, GOES 13 and 15, and apply the same neural network scheme separately to each of the GOES satellite data. We focus on the dependence of prediction capability on satellite's magnetic latitude and MLT as well as particle energy. Our model prediction works less efficiently for magnetic latitudes more away from the equator (thus for GOES 13 than for GOES 15) and for MLTs nearer to midnight than noon. The magnetic latitude dependence is most significant for an intermediate energy range (a few hundreds of keV), and the MLT dependence is largest for the lowest energy (40 keV). We interpret this based on degree of variance in the electron fluxes, which depends on magnetic latitude and MLT at geosynchronous orbit as well as particle energy. We demonstrate how substorms affect the flux variance.

  16. Two-flux transfer matrix model for predicting the reflectance and transmittance of duplex halftone prints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazauric, Serge; Hébert, Mathieu; Simonot, Lionel; Fournel, Thierry

    2014-12-01

    We introduce a model allowing convenient calculation of the spectral reflectance and transmittance of duplex prints. It is based on flux transfer matrices and enables retrieving classical Kubelka-Munk formulas, as well as extended formulas for nonsymmetric layers. By making different assumptions on the flux transfers, we obtain two predictive models for the duplex halftone prints: the "duplex Clapper-Yule model," which is an extension of the classical Clapper-Yule model, and the "duplex primary reflectance-transmittance model." The two models can be calibrated from either reflectance or transmittance measurements; only the second model can be calibrated from both measurements, thus giving optimal accuracy for both reflectance and transmittance predictions. The conceptual differences between the two models are deeply analyzed, as well as their advantages and drawbacks in terms of calibration. According to the test carried out in this study with paper printed in inkjet, their predictive performances are good provided appropriate calibration options are selected.

  17. Surface renewal: an advanced micrometeorological method for measuring and processing field-scale energy flux density data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElrone, Andrew J; Shapland, Thomas M; Calderon, Arturo; Fitzmaurice, Li; Paw U, Kyaw Tha; Snyder, Richard L

    2013-12-12

    Advanced micrometeorological methods have become increasingly important in soil, crop, and environmental sciences. For many scientists without formal training in atmospheric science, these techniques are relatively inaccessible. Surface renewal and other flux measurement methods require an understanding of boundary layer meteorology and extensive training in instrumentation and multiple data management programs. To improve accessibility of these techniques, we describe the underlying theory of surface renewal measurements, demonstrate how to set up a field station for surface renewal with eddy covariance calibration, and utilize our open-source turnkey data logger program to perform flux data acquisition and processing. The new turnkey program returns to the user a simple data table with the corrected fluxes and quality control parameters, and eliminates the need for researchers to shuttle between multiple processing programs to obtain the final flux data. An example of data generated from these measurements demonstrates how crop water use is measured with this technique. The output information is useful to growers for making irrigation decisions in a variety of agricultural ecosystems. These stations are currently deployed in numerous field experiments by researchers in our group and the California Department of Water Resources in the following crops: rice, wine and raisin grape vineyards, alfalfa, almond, walnut, peach, lemon, avocado, and corn.

  18. Dynamical fragmentation of flux tubes in the Friedberg-Lee model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, S.; Greiner, C.; Mosel, U.; Thoma, M. H.

    1997-02-01

    We present two novel dynamical features of flux tubes in the Friedberg-Lee model. First the fusion of two (anti-)parallel flux tubes, where we extract a string-string interaction potential which has a qualitative similarity to the nucleon-nucleon potential in the Friedberg-Lee model obtained by Koepf et al. Furthermore we show the dynamical breakup of flux tubes via q overlineq- particle production and the disintegration into mesons. We find, as a shortcoming of the present realization of the model, that the full dynamical transport approach presented in a previous publication fails to provide the disintegration mechanism in the semiclassical limit. Therefore, in addition, we present here a molecular dynamical approach for the motion of the quarks and show, as a first application, the space-time development of the wuarks and their mean-fields for Lund-type string fragmentation processes.

  19. Sloppy nuclear energy density functionals: effective model reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Niksic, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Concepts from information geometry are used to analyse parameter sensitivity for a nuclear energy density functional, representative of a class of semi-empirical functionals that start from a microscopically motivated ansatz for the density dependence of the energy of a system of protons and neutrons. It is shown that such functionals are sloppy, characterized by an exponential range of sensitivity to parameter variations. Responsive to only a few stiff parameter combinations, they exhibit an exponential decrease of sensitivity to variations of the remaining soft parameters. By interpreting the space of model predictions as a manifold embedded in the data space, with the parameters of the functional as coordinates on the manifold, it is also shown that the exponential distribution of model manifold widths corresponds to the distribution of parameter sensitivity. Using the Manifold Boundary Approximation Method, we illustrate how to systematically construct effective nuclear density functionals of successively...

  20. Fluxes of biogenic volatile organic compounds measured and modelled above a Norway spruce forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juráň, Stanislav; Fares, Silvano; Pallozzi, Emanuele; Guidolotti, Gabriele; Savi, Flavia; Alivernini, Alessandro; Calfapietra, Carlo; Večeřová, Kristýna; Křůmal, Kamil; Večeřa, Zbyněk; Cudlín, Pavel; Urban, Otmar

    2016-04-01

    Fluxes of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) were investigated at Norway spruce forest at Bílý Kříž in Beskydy Mountains of the Czech Republic during the summer 2014. A proton-transfer-reaction-time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS, Ionicon Analytik, Austria) has been coupled with eddy-covariance system. Additionally, Inverse Lagrangian Transport Model has been used to derive fluxes from concentration gradient of various monoterpenes previously absorbed into n-heptane by wet effluent diffusion denuder with consequent quantification by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection. Modelled data cover each one day of three years with different climatic conditions and previous precipitation patterns. Model MEGAN was run to cover all dataset with monoterpene fluxes and measured basal emission factor. Highest fluxes measured by eddy-covariance were recorded during the noon hours, represented particularly by monoterpenes and isoprene. Inverse Lagrangian Transport Model suggests most abundant monoterpene fluxes being α- and β-pinene. Principal component analysis revealed dependencies of individual monoterpene fluxes on air temperature and particularly global radiation; however, these dependencies were monoterpene specific. Relationships of monoterpene fluxes with CO2 flux and relative air humidity were found to be negative. MEGAN model correlated to eddy-covariance PTR-TOF-MS measurement evince particular differences, which will be shown and discussed. Bi-directional fluxes of oxygenated short-chain volatiles (methanol, formaldehyde, acetone, acetaldehyde, formic acid, acetic acid, methyl vinyl ketone, methacrolein, and methyl ethyl ketone) were recorded by PTR-TOF-MS. Volatiles of anthropogenic origin as benzene and toluene were likely transported from the most benzene polluted region in Europe - Ostrava city and adjacent part of Poland around Katowice, where metallurgical and coal mining industries are located. Those were accumulated during

  1. Interpreting Flux from Broadband Photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Peter J.; Breeveld, Alice; Roming, Peter W. A.; Siegel, Michael

    2016-10-01

    We discuss the transformation of observed photometry into flux for the creation of spectral energy distributions (SED) and the computation of bolometric luminosities. We do this in the context of supernova studies, particularly as observed with the Swift spacecraft, but the concepts and techniques should be applicable to many other types of sources and wavelength regimes. Traditional methods of converting observed magnitudes to flux densities are not very accurate when applied to UV photometry. Common methods for extinction and the integration of pseudo-bolometric fluxes can also lead to inaccurate results. The sources of inaccuracy, though, also apply to other wavelengths. Because of the complicated nature of translating broadband photometry into monochromatic flux densities, comparison between observed photometry and a spectroscopic model is best done by forward modeling the spectrum into the count rates or magnitudes of the observations. We recommend that integrated flux measurements be made using a spectrum or SED which is consistent with the multi-band photometry rather than converting individual photometric measurements to flux densities, linearly interpolating between the points, and integrating. We also highlight some specific areas where the UV flux can be mischaracterized.

  2. Subgrid-scale heat flux modeling for large eddy simulation of turbulent mixed convection

    OpenAIRE

    Morar, Dejan

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, new subgrid-scale (SGS) heat flux model for large eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent mixed convection is developed. The new model explicitly includes the buoyancy production term. It is based on the algebraic equations and dynamic procedure is applied to calculate model coefficients. An experiment on turbulent mixed convection to water in a vertical duct is used for validation of the model.

  3. Short-term impacts of enhanced Greenland freshwater fluxes in an eddy-permitting ocean model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Marsh

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In a sensitivity experiment, an eddy-permitting ocean general circulation model is forced with realistic freshwater fluxes from the Greenland Ice Sheet, averaged for the period 1991–2000. The fluxes are obtained with a mass balance model for the ice sheet, forced with the ERA-40 reanalysis dataset. The freshwater flux is distributed around Greenland as an additional term in prescribed runoff, representing seasonal melting of the ice sheet and a fixed year-round iceberg calving flux, for 8.5 model years. By adding Greenland freshwater fluxes with realistic geographical distribution and seasonality, the experiment is designed to investigate the oceanic response to a sudden and spatially/temporally uniform amplification of ice sheet melting and discharge, rather than localized or gradual changes in freshwater flux. The impacts on regional hydrography and circulation are investigated by comparing the sensitivity experiment to a control experiment, without additional fluxes. By the end of the sensitivity experiment, the majority of additional fresh water has accumulated in Baffin Bay, and only a small fraction has reached the interior of the Labrador Sea, where winter mixed layer depth is sensitive to small changes in salinity. As a consequence, the impact on large-scale circulation is very slight. An indirect impact of strong freshening off the west coast of Greenland is a small anti-cyclonic component to the circulation around Greenland, which opposes the wind-driven cyclonic circulation and reduces net southward flow through the Canadian Archipelago by ~10%. Implications for the post-2000 acceleration of Greenland mass loss are discussed.

  4. The High Density Region of QCD from an Effective Model

    CERN Document Server

    De Pietri, R; Seiler, E; Stamatescu, I O

    2007-01-01

    We study the high density region of QCD within an effective model obtained in the frame of the hopping parameter expansion and choosing Polyakov-type loops as the main dynamical variables representing the fermionic matter. This model still shows the so-called sign problem, a difficulty peculiar to non-zero chemical potential, but it permits the development of algorithms which ensure a good overlap of the simulated Monte Carlo ensemble with the true one. We review the main features of the model and present results concerning the dependence of various observables on the chemical potential and on the temperature, in particular of the charge density and the Polykov loop susceptibility, which may be used to characterize the various phases expected at high baryonic density. In this way, we obtain information about the phase structure of the model and the corresponding phase transitions and cross over regions, which can be considered as hints about the behaviour of non-zero density QCD.

  5. Matter density perturbation and power spectrum in running vacuum model

    CERN Document Server

    Geng, Chao-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the matter density perturbation $\\delta_m$ and power spectrum $P(k)$ in the running vacuum model (RVM) with the cosmological constant being a function of the Hubble parameter, given by $\\Lambda = \\Lambda_0 + 6 \\sigma H H_0+ 3\

  6. Online traffic flow model applying dynamic flow-density relation

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Y

    2002-01-01

    This dissertation describes a new approach of the online traffic flow modelling based on the hydrodynamic traffic flow model and an online process to adapt the flow-density relation dynamically. The new modelling approach was tested based on the real traffic situations in various homogeneous motorway sections and a motorway section with ramps and gave encouraging simulation results. This work is composed of two parts: first the analysis of traffic flow characteristics and second the development of a new online traffic flow model applying these characteristics. For homogeneous motorway sections traffic flow is classified into six different traffic states with different characteristics. Delimitation criteria were developed to separate these states. The hysteresis phenomena were analysed during the transitions between these traffic states. The traffic states and the transitions are represented on a states diagram with the flow axis and the density axis. For motorway sections with ramps the complicated traffic fl...

  7. Neutralino Relic Density in a Supersymmetric U(1)' Model

    CERN Document Server

    Barger, V; Langacker, P; Lee, H S; Barger, Vernon; Kao, Chung; Langacker, Paul; Lee, Hye-Sung

    2004-01-01

    We study properties of the lightest neutralino (\\chi) and calculate its cosmological relic density in a supersymmetric U(1)' model with a secluded U(1)' breaking sector (the S-model). The lightest neutralino mass is smaller than in the minimal supersymmetric standard model; for instance, m_\\chi < 100 GeV in the limit that the U(1)' gaugino mass is large compared to the electroweak scale. We find that the Z-\\chi-\\chi coupling can be enhanced due to the singlino components in the extended neutralino sector. Neutralino annihilation through the Z-resonance then reproduces the measured cold dark matter density over broad regions of the model parameter space.

  8. CarbonTracker-Lagrange: A model-data assimilation system for North American carbon flux estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei; Chen, Huilin; van der Velde, Ivar; Andrews, Arlyn; Sweeney, Colm; Baker, Ian; Ju, Weimin; van der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid; Tans, Pieter; Peters, Wouter

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the regional carbon fluxes is of great importance for climate-related studies. To derive these carbon fluxes, atmospheric inverse modeling methods are often used. Different from global inverse modeling, regional studies need to deal with lateral boundary conditions (BCs) at the outer atmospheric domain studied. Also, regional inverse modeling systems typically use a higher spatial resolution and can be more computation-intensive. In this study, we implement a regional inverse modeling system for atmospheric CO₂ based on the CarbonTracker framework. We combine it with a high-resolution Lagrangian transport model, the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport model driven by the Weather Forecast and Research meteorological fields (WRF-STILT). The new system uses independent information from aircraft CO₂ profiles to optimize lateral BCs, while simultaneously optimizing biosphere fluxes with near-surface CO₂ observations from tall towers. This Lagrangian transport model with precalculated footprints is computational more efficient than using an Eulerian model. We take SiBCASA biosphere model results as prior NEE from the terrestrial biosphere. Three different lateral BCs, derived from CarbonTracker North America mole fraction fields, CarbonTracker Europe mole fraction fields and an empirical BC from NOAA aircraft profiles, are employed to investigate the influence of BCs. To estimate the uncertainties of the optimized fluxes from the system and to determine the impacts of system setup on biosphere flux covariances, BC uncertainties and model-data mismatches, we tested various prior biosphere fluxes and BCs. To estimate the transport uncertainties, we also tested an alternative Lagrangian transport model Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model driven by the North American Mesoscale Forecast System meteorological fields (HYSPLIT-NAM12). Based on the above tests, we achieved an ensemble of inverse estimates from our system

  9. Short-term impacts of enhanced Greenland freshwater fluxes in an eddy-permitting ocean model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Marsh

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In a sensitivity experiment, an eddy-permitting ocean general circulation model is forced with freshwater fluxes from the Greenland Ice Sheet, averaged for the period 1991–2000. The fluxes are obtained with a mass balance model for the ice sheet, forced with the ERA-40 reanalysis dataset. The freshwater flux is distributed around Greenland as an additional term in prescribed runoff, representing seasonal melting of the ice sheet and a fixed year-round iceberg calving flux, for 8.5 model years. The impacts on regional hydrography and circulation are investigated by comparing the sensitivity experiment to a control experiment, without Greenland fluxes. By the end of the sensitivity experiment, the majority of additional fresh water has accumulated in Baffin Bay, and only a small fraction has reached the interior of the Labrador Sea, where winter mixed layer depth is sensitive to small changes in salinity. As a consequence, the impact on large-scale circulation is very slight. An indirect impact of strong freshening off the west coast of Greenland is a small anti-cyclonic circulation around Greenland which opposes the wind-driven cyclonic circulation and reduces net southward flow through the Canadian Archipelago by ~10%. Implications for the post-2000 acceleration of Greenland mass loss are discussed.

  10. Dynamics of particulate organic carbon flux in a global ocean model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. D. Lima

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The sinking of particulate organic carbon (POC is a key component of the ocean carbon cycle and plays an important role in the global climate system. However, the processes controlling the fraction of primary production that is exported from the euphotic zone (export ratio and how much of it survives respiration in the mesopelagic to be sequestered in the deep ocean (transfer efficiency are not well understood. In this study, we use a three-dimensional, coupled physical-biogeochemical model (CCSM-BEC to investigate the processes controlling the export of particulate organic matter from the euphotic zone and its flux to depth. We also compare model results with sediment trap data and other parameterizations of POC flux to depth to evaluate model skill and gain further insight into the causes of error and uncertainty in POC flux estimates. In the model, export ratios are mainly a function of diatom relative abundance and temperature while absolute fluxes and transfer efficiency are driven by mineral ballast composition of sinking material. The temperature dependence of the POC remineralization length scale is modulated by denitrification under low O2 concentrations and lithogenic (dust fluxes. Lithogenic material is an important control of transfer efficiency in the model, but its effect is restricted to regions of strong atmospheric dust deposition. In the remaining regions, CaCO3 content of exported material is the main factor affecting transfer efficiency. The fact that mineral ballast composition is inextricably linked to plankton community structure results in correlations between export ratios and ballast minerals fluxes (opal and CaCO3, and transfer efficiency and diatom relative abundance that do not necessarily reflect ballast or direct ecosystem effects, respectively. This suggests that it might be difficult to differentiate between ecosystem and ballast effects in observations. The model's skill at reproducing sediment trap observations

  11. Study of the Relap5/mod3.2 wall heat flux partitioning model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hari, S.; Hassan, Y.A. [Texas A and M University, Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, College Station, TX (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The performance of the subcooled boiling model adapted in RELAP5/MOD3.2 computer code has been assessed in detail for low-pressure conditions and it has been found that the void fraction profile is under-predicted. In general, any subcooled boiling model is composed of individual sub-models that account for the different physical mechanism that govern the overall process, as the wall vapor generation, interfacial shear and condensation etc. The wall heat flux partitioning model is one of the important sub-models that is a constituent of any subcooled boiling model. The function of this model is to apportion the wall heat flux to the different components (as the single/two phase fluid or bubble), as the case may be, in a two-phase flow-boiling scenario adjacent to a heated wall. The ''pumping factor'' approach is generally followed by most of the wall heat flux partitioning models, for partitioning the wall heat flux. In this work, the wall heat flux partitioning model of RELAP5/MOD3.2 computer code is studied; in particular, the ''pumping factor'' formulation in the present code version is assessed for its performance under low-pressure conditions. In addition, three different ''pumping factor'' formulations available in the literature have been introduced into the RELAP5/MOD3.2 code. Simulations of two low-pressure subcooled flow boiling experiments were performed with the refined code versions to determine the appropriate pumping factor to be used under these conditions. (author)

  12. Phylogenetic mixture models can reduce node-density artifacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venditti, Chris; Meade, Andrew; Pagel, Mark

    2008-04-01

    We investigate the performance of phylogenetic mixture models in reducing a well-known and pervasive artifact of phylogenetic inference known as the node-density effect, comparing them to partitioned analyses of the same data. The node-density effect refers to the tendency for the amount of evolutionary change in longer branches of phylogenies to be underestimated compared to that in regions of the tree where there are more nodes and thus branches are typically shorter. Mixture models allow more than one model of sequence evolution to describe the sites in an alignment without prior knowledge of the evolutionary processes that characterize the data or how they correspond to different sites. If multiple evolutionary patterns are common in sequence evolution, mixture models may be capable of reducing node-density effects by characterizing the evolutionary processes more accurately. In gene-sequence alignments simulated to have heterogeneous patterns of evolution, we find that mixture models can reduce node-density effects to negligible levels or remove them altogether, performing as well as partitioned analyses based on the known simulated patterns. The mixture models achieve this without knowledge of the patterns that generated the data and even in some cases without specifying the full or true model of sequence evolution known to underlie the data. The latter result is especially important in real applications, as the true model of evolution is seldom known. We find the same patterns of results for two real data sets with evidence of complex patterns of sequence evolution: mixture models substantially reduced node-density effects and returned better likelihoods compared to partitioning models specifically fitted to these data. We suggest that the presence of more than one pattern of evolution in the data is a common source of error in phylogenetic inference and that mixture models can often detect these patterns even without prior knowledge of their presence in the

  13. Robust Modeling of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Fluxes from Coastal Wetland Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Aziz, O. I.; Ishtiaq, K. S.

    2014-12-01

    Many critical wetland biogeochemical processes are still largely unknown or poorly understood at best. Yet, available models for predicting wetland greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes (e.g., CO2, CH4, and N2O) are generally mechanistic in nature. This knowledge gap leads to inappropriate process descriptions or over-parameterizations in existing mechanistic models, which often fail to provide accurate and robust predictions across time and space. We developed a systematic data-analytics and informatics method to identify the dominant controls and quantify the relative linkages of wetland GHG fluxes in relation to various hydro-climatic, sea level, biogeochemical and ecological drivers. The method was applied to data collected from 2012-14 through an extensive field campaign from different blue carbon sites of Waquoit Bay, MA. Multivariate pattern recognition techniques of principal component and factor analyses were employed to identify the dominant controls of wetland GHG fluxes; classifying and grouping process variables based on their similarity and interrelation patterns. Power-law based partial least squares regression models were developed to quantify the relative linkages of major GHGs with different process drivers and stressors, as well as to achieve site-specific predictions of GHG fluxes. Wetland biogeochemical similitude and scaling laws were also investigated to unravel emergent patterns and organizing principles of wetland GHG fluxes. The research findings will guide the development of parsimonious empirical to appropriate mechanistic models for spatio-temporally robust predictions of GHGs fluxes and carbon sequestration from coastal wetland ecosystems. The research is part of two current projects funded by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the National Science Foundation; focusing on wetland data collections, knowledge formation, formulation of robust GHGs prediction models, and development of ecological engineering tools.

  14. Single crystal plasticity by modeling dislocation density rate behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Benjamin L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bronkhorst, Curt [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Beyerlein, Irene [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cerreta, E. K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dennis-Koller, Darcie [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-23

    The goal of this work is to formulate a constitutive model for the deformation of metals over a wide range of strain rates. Damage and failure of materials frequently occurs at a variety of deformation rates within the same sample. The present state of the art in single crystal constitutive models relies on thermally-activated models which are believed to become less reliable for problems exceeding strain rates of 10{sup 4} s{sup -1}. This talk presents work in which we extend the applicability of the single crystal model to the strain rate region where dislocation drag is believed to dominate. The elastic model includes effects from volumetric change and pressure sensitive moduli. The plastic model transitions from the low-rate thermally-activated regime to the high-rate drag dominated regime. The direct use of dislocation density as a state parameter gives a measurable physical mechanism to strain hardening. Dislocation densities are separated according to type and given a systematic set of interactions rates adaptable by type. The form of the constitutive model is motivated by previously published dislocation dynamics work which articulated important behaviors unique to high-rate response in fcc systems. The proposed material model incorporates thermal coupling. The hardening model tracks the varying dislocation population with respect to each slip plane and computes the slip resistance based on those values. Comparisons can be made between the responses of single crystals and polycrystals at a variety of strain rates. The material model is fit to copper.

  15. Modeling the Effects of Meteorological Conditions on the Neutron Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-22

    5.15) where N stands for a normal distribution. Because εi is random, Yi is random as well. It is often convenient to write equation 5.14...from the readings online so for the purpose of the model estimation the four missing values were imputed. Then all the data in MATLAB was placed into a...Naval Academy’s machine shop to be manufactured. By 21SEP17, the brackets where finished and ready to be mounted the station. But due to having

  16. Investigating the mechanics of multimedia box models: how to explain differences between models in terms of mass fluxes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheringer, Martin; Wegmann, Fabio; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2004-10-01

    The simple mathematical structure of multimedia fate models makes it possible to change the process descriptions and geometry of such models relatively easily. With different versions of a model, the effect of a process or compartment that is included in one version of the model but excluded in another version can be investigated. Here, a new method for performing such a model comparison in a quantitative way is presented. Based on the mass balances for the two model versions, it can be shown that, for a compartment contained in both model versions, the difference between a chemical's concentrations in this compartment is related directly to the difference in those mass fluxes that have different rate constants in the two models. Moreover, it is possible to identify the contributions to the concentration difference that stem from individual mass fluxes so that the concentration difference can be tracked back to specific differences in the process descriptions of the two models. This flux analysis method is illustrated with two versions of a unit-world model, one with and one without a vegetation compartment. With DDT and six polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners as example chemicals, the differences of the chemicals' concentrations in air and soil caused by the vegetation compartment are explained by using the flux analysis method. The future potential of the method for comparing not only versions of the same model but also models of different structure is discussed.

  17. Analyzing the causes and spatial pattern of the European 2003 carbon flux anomaly using seven models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vetter

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Globally, the year 2003 is associated with one of the largest atmospheric CO2 rises on record. In the same year, Europe experienced an anomalously strong flux of CO2 from the land to the atmosphere associated with an exceptionally dry and hot summer in Western and Central Europe. In this study we analyze the magnitude of this carbon flux anomaly and key driving ecosystem processes using simulations of seven terrestrial ecosystem models of different complexity and types (process-oriented and diagnostic. We address the following questions: (1 how large were deviations in the net European carbon flux in 2003 relative to a short-term baseline (1998–2002 and to longer-term variations in annual fluxes (1980 to 2005, (2 which European regions exhibited the largest changes in carbon fluxes during the growing season 2003, and (3 which ecosystem processes controlled the carbon balance anomaly .

    In most models the prominence of 2003 anomaly in carbon fluxes declined with lengthening of the reference period from one year to 16 years. The 2003 anomaly for annual net carbon fluxes ranged between 0.35 and –0.63 Pg C for a reference period of one year and between 0.17 and –0.37 Pg C for a reference period of 16 years for the whole Europe.

    In Western and Central Europe, the anomaly in simulated net ecosystem productivity (NEP over the growing season in 2003 was outside the 1σ variance bound of the carbon flux anomalies for 1980–2005 in all models. The estimated anomaly in net carbon flux ranged between –42 and –158 Tg C for Western Europe and between 24 and –129 Tg C for Central Europe depending on the model used. All models responded to a dipole pattern of the climate anomaly in 2003. In Western and Central Europe NEP was reduced due to heat and drought. In contrast, lower than normal temperatures and higher air humidity decreased NEP over Northeastern Europe. While models agree on the sign of changes in

  18. A metabolite-centric view on flux distributions in genome-scale metabolic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemer, S Alexander; Rex, René; Schomburg, Dietmar

    2013-04-12

    Genome-scale metabolic models are important tools in systems biology. They permit the in-silico prediction of cellular phenotypes via mathematical optimisation procedures, most importantly flux balance analysis. Current studies on metabolic models mostly consider reaction fluxes in isolation. Based on a recently proposed metabolite-centric approach, we here describe a set of methods that enable the analysis and interpretation of flux distributions in an integrated metabolite-centric view. We demonstrate how this framework can be used for the refinement of genome-scale metabolic models. We applied the metabolite-centric view developed here to the most recent metabolic reconstruction of Escherichia coli. By compiling the balance sheets of a small number of currency metabolites, we were able to fully characterise the energy metabolism as predicted by the model and to identify a possibility for model refinement in NADPH metabolism. Selected branch points were examined in detail in order to demonstrate how a metabolite-centric view allows identifying functional roles of metabolites. Fructose 6-phosphate aldolase and the sedoheptulose bisphosphate bypass were identified as enzymatic reactions that can carry high fluxes in the model but are unlikely to exhibit significant activity in vivo. Performing a metabolite essentiality analysis, unconstrained import and export of iron ions could be identified as potentially problematic for the quality of model predictions. The system-wide analysis of split ratios and branch points allows a much deeper insight into the metabolic network than reaction-centric analyses. Extending an earlier metabolite-centric approach, the methods introduced here establish an integrated metabolite-centric framework for the interpretation of flux distributions in genome-scale metabolic networks that can complement the classical reaction-centric framework. Analysing fluxes and their metabolic context simultaneously opens the door to systems biological

  19. Dependence of Core and Extended Flux on Core Dominance Parameter for Radio Sources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. J. Nie; J. H. Yang

    2014-09-01

    Based on two extragalactic radio source samples, the core dominance parameter is calculated, and the correlations between the core/extended flux density and core dominance parameter are investigated. When the core dominance parameter is lower than unity, it is linearly correlated with the core flux density, but it is not correlated with the extended flux density. When the core dominance parameter is higher than unity, it is not correlated with the core flux density, but it is linearly correlated with the extended flux density. Therefore, there are different results from different samples. The results can be explained using a relativistic beaming model.

  20. On the applicability of surrogate-based Markov chain Monte Carlo-Bayesian inversion to the Community Land Model: Case studies at flux tower sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Maoyi; Ray, Jaideep; Hou, Zhangshuan; Ren, Huiying; Liu, Ying; Swiler, Laura

    2016-07-01

    The Community Land Model (CLM) has been widely used in climate and Earth system modeling. Accurate estimation of model parameters is needed for reliable model simulations and predictions under current and future conditions, respectively. In our previous work, a subset of hydrological parameters has been identified to have significant impact on surface energy fluxes at selected flux tower sites based on parameter screening and sensitivity analysis, which indicate that the parameters could potentially be estimated from surface flux observations at the towers. To date, such estimates do not exist. In this paper, we assess the feasibility of applying a Bayesian model calibration technique to estimate CLM parameters at selected flux tower sites under various site conditions. The parameters are estimated as a joint probability density function (PDF) that provides estimates of uncertainty of the parameters being inverted, conditional on climatologically average latent heat fluxes derived from observations. We find that the simulated mean latent heat fluxes from CLM using the calibrated parameters are generally improved at all sites when compared to those obtained with CLM simulations using default parameter sets. Further, our calibration method also results in credibility bounds around the simulated mean fluxes which bracket the measured data. The modes (or maximum a posteriori values) and 95% credibility intervals of the site-specific posterior PDFs are tabulated as suggested parameter values for each site. Analysis of relationships between the posterior PDFs and site conditions suggests that the parameter values are likely correlated with the plant functional type, which needs to be confirmed in future studies by extending the approach to more sites.

  1. Complex spectrum of spin models for finite-density QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Nishimura, Hiromichi; Pangeni, Kamal

    2016-01-01

    We consider the spectrum of transfer matrix eigenvalues associated with Polyakov loops in lattice QCD at strong coupling. The transfer matrix at finite density is non-Hermitian, and its eigenvalues become complex as a manifestation of the sign problem. We show that the symmetry under charge conjugation and complex conjugation ensures that the eigenvalues are either real or part of a complex conjugate pair, and the complex pairs lead to damped oscillatory behavior in Polyakov loop correlation functions, which also appeared in our previous phenomenological models using complex saddle points. We argue that this effect should be observable in lattice simulations of QCD at finite density.

  2. Uncertainty analysis of the Operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop) model at multiple flux tower sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingshi; Senay, Gabriel B.; Singh, Ramesh K.; Verdin, James P.

    2016-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is an important component of the water cycle – ET from the land surface returns approximately 60% of the global precipitation back to the atmosphere. ET also plays an important role in energy transport among the biosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere. Current regional to global and daily to annual ET estimation relies mainly on surface energy balance (SEB) ET models or statistical and empirical methods driven by remote sensing data and various climatological databases. These models have uncertainties due to inevitable input errors, poorly defined parameters, and inadequate model structures. The eddy covariance measurements on water, energy, and carbon fluxes at the AmeriFlux tower sites provide an opportunity to assess the ET modeling uncertainties. In this study, we focused on uncertainty analysis of the Operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop) model for ET estimation at multiple AmeriFlux tower sites with diverse land cover characteristics and climatic conditions. The 8-day composite 1-km MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land surface temperature (LST) was used as input land surface temperature for the SSEBop algorithms. The other input data were taken from the AmeriFlux database. Results of statistical analysis indicated that the SSEBop model performed well in estimating ET with an R2 of 0.86 between estimated ET and eddy covariance measurements at 42 AmeriFlux tower sites during 2001–2007. It was encouraging to see that the best performance was observed for croplands, where R2 was 0.92 with a root mean square error of 13 mm/month. The uncertainties or random errors from input variables and parameters of the SSEBop model led to monthly ET estimates with relative errors less than 20% across multiple flux tower sites distributed across different biomes. This uncertainty of the SSEBop model lies within the error range of other SEB models, suggesting systematic error or bias of the SSEBop model is within

  3. Uncertainty analysis of the Operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop) model at multiple flux tower sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingshi; Senay, Gabriel B.; Singh, Ramesh K.; Verdin, James P.

    2016-05-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is an important component of the water cycle - ET from the land surface returns approximately 60% of the global precipitation back to the atmosphere. ET also plays an important role in energy transport among the biosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere. Current regional to global and daily to annual ET estimation relies mainly on surface energy balance (SEB) ET models or statistical and empirical methods driven by remote sensing data and various climatological databases. These models have uncertainties due to inevitable input errors, poorly defined parameters, and inadequate model structures. The eddy covariance measurements on water, energy, and carbon fluxes at the AmeriFlux tower sites provide an opportunity to assess the ET modeling uncertainties. In this study, we focused on uncertainty analysis of the Operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop) model for ET estimation at multiple AmeriFlux tower sites with diverse land cover characteristics and climatic conditions. The 8-day composite 1-km MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land surface temperature (LST) was used as input land surface temperature for the SSEBop algorithms. The other input data were taken from the AmeriFlux database. Results of statistical analysis indicated that the SSEBop model performed well in estimating ET with an R2 of 0.86 between estimated ET and eddy covariance measurements at 42 AmeriFlux tower sites during 2001-2007. It was encouraging to see that the best performance was observed for croplands, where R2 was 0.92 with a root mean square error of 13 mm/month. The uncertainties or random errors from input variables and parameters of the SSEBop model led to monthly ET estimates with relative errors less than 20% across multiple flux tower sites distributed across different biomes. This uncertainty of the SSEBop model lies within the error range of other SEB models, suggesting systematic error or bias of the SSEBop model is within the

  4. Sensitivity of a global climate model to the specification of convective updraft and downdraft mass fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Genio, Anthony D.; Yao, Mao-Sung

    1988-01-01

    The response of the GISS global climate model to different parameterizations of moist convective mass flux is studied. A control run with arbitrarily specified updraft mass flux is compared to experiments predicting cumulus mass fulx on the basis of low-level convergence, convergence plus surface evaporation, or convergence and evaporation modified by varying boundary layer height. Also, an experiment that includes a simple parameterization of saturated convective-scale downdrafts is discussed. It is found that the model correctly simulates the correlation between deep convection strength and tropical sea surface temperature in each experiment with the parameterization of cumulus mass flux having little effect. The implications of the experiments for cloud effects on climate sensitivity are examined.

  5. Partial SUSY Breaking for Asymmetric Gepner Models and Non-geometric Flux Vacua

    CERN Document Server

    Blumenhagen, Ralph; Plauschinn, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Using the method of simple current extensions, asymmetric Gepner models of Type IIB with N=1 space-time supersymmetry are constructed. The combinatorics of the massless vector fields suggests that these classical Minkowski string vacua provide fully backreacted solutions corresponding to N=1 minima of N=2 gauged supergravity. The latter contain abelian gaugings along the axionic isometries in the hypermultiplet moduli space, and can be considered as Type IIB flux compactifications on Calabi-Yau manifolds equipped with (non-)geometric fluxes. For a particular class of asymmetric Gepner models, we are able to explicitly specify the underlying CICYs and to check necessary conditions for a GSUGRA interpretation. If this conjecture is correct, there exists a large class of exactly solvable non-geometric flux compactifications on CY threefolds.

  6. Three-dimensional Oldroyd-B fluid flow with Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehzad, S. A.; Hayat, T.; Abbasi, F. M.; Javed, Tariq; Kutbi, M. A.

    2016-04-01

    The impact of Cattaneo-Christov heat flux in three-dimensional flow of an Oldroyd-B fluid over a bidirectional stretching surface is explored in this article. The boundary layer flow of an incompressible fluid is considered. Heat transfer analysis is discussed via the Cattaneo-Christov model of heat flux. Similarity transformations lead to the nonlinear ordinary differential systems. Convergent solutions of dimensionless velocities and temperature have been computed. Convergence analysis is presented graphically and numerically. The influence of physical parameters on the velocities and temperature are plotted and discussed. We observed that the values of temperature gradient are higher for the Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model when we compare it with the values obtained by the simple Fourier's law of heat conduction.

  7. Neutron activation analysis: Modelling studies to improve the neutron flux of Americium-Beryllium source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Didi, Abdessamad; Dadouch, Ahmed; Tajmouati, Jaouad; Bekkouri, Hassane [Advanced Technology and Integration System, Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Science Dhar Mehraz, University Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah, Fez (Morocco); Jai, Otman [Laboratory of Radiation and Nuclear Systems, Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Tetouan (Morocco)

    2017-06-15

    Americium–beryllium (Am-Be; n, γ) is a neutron emitting source used in various research fields such as chemistry, physics, geology, archaeology, medicine, and environmental monitoring, as well as in the forensic sciences. It is a mobile source of neutron activity (20 Ci), yielding a small thermal neutron flux that is water moderated. The aim of this study is to develop a model to increase the neutron thermal flux of a source such as Am-Be. This study achieved multiple advantageous results: primarily, it will help us perform neutron activation analysis. Next, it will give us the opportunity to produce radio-elements with short half-lives. Am-Be single and multisource (5 sources) experiments were performed within an irradiation facility with a paraffin moderator. The resulting models mainly increase the thermal neutron flux compared to the traditional method with water moderator.

  8. Numerical modeling of cold magmatic CO2 flux measurements for the exploration of hidden geothermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiffer, Loïc.; Wanner, Christoph; Pan, Lehua

    2015-10-01

    The most accepted conceptual model to explain surface degassing of cold magmatic CO2 in volcanic-geothermal systems involves the presence of a gas reservoir. In this study, numerical simulations using the TOUGH2-ECO2N V2.0 package are performed to get quantitative insights into how cold CO2 soil flux measurements are related to reservoir and fluid properties. Although the modeling is based on flux data measured at a specific geothermal site, the Acoculco caldera (Mexico), some general insights have been gained. Both the CO2 fluxes at the surface and the depth at which CO2 exsolves are highly sensitive to the dissolved CO2 content of the deep fluid. If CO2 mainly exsolves above the reservoir within a fracture zone, the surface CO2 fluxes are not sensitive to the reservoir size but depend on the CO2 dissolved content and the rock permeability. For gas exsolution below the top of the reservoir, surface CO2 fluxes also depend on the gas saturation of the deep fluid as well as the reservoir size. The absence of thermal anomalies at the surface is mainly a consequence of the low enthalpy of CO2. The heat carried by CO2 is efficiently cooled down by heat conduction and to a certain extent by isoenthalpic volume expansion depending on the temperature gradient. Thermal anomalies occur at higher CO2 fluxes (>37,000 g m-2 d-1) when the heat flux of the rising CO2 is not balanced anymore. Finally, specific results are obtained for the Acoculco area (reservoir depth, CO2 dissolved content, and gas saturation state).

  9. New charged shear-free relativistic models with heat flux

    CERN Document Server

    Nyonyi, Y; Govinder, K S

    2014-01-01

    We study shear-free spherically symmetric relativistic gravitating fluids with heat flow and electric charge. The solution to the Einstein-Maxwell system is governed by the generalised pressure isotropy condition which contains a contribution from the electric field. This condition is a highly nonlinear partial differential equation. We analyse this master equation using Lie's group theoretic approach. The Lie symmetry generators that leave the equation invariant are found. The first generator is independent of the electromagnetic field. The second generator depends critically on the form of the charge, which is determined explicitly in general. We provide exact solutions to the gravitational potentials using the symmetries admitted by the equation. Our new exact solutions contain earlier results without charge. We show that other charged solutions, related to the Lie symmetries, may be generated using the algorithm of Deng. This leads to new classes of charged Deng models which are generalisations of conform...

  10. New charged shear-free relativistic models with heat flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyonyi, Y.; Maharaj, S. D.; Govinder, K. S.

    2013-11-01

    We study shear-free spherically symmetric relativistic gravitating fluids with heat flow and electric charge. The solution to the Einstein-Maxwell system is governed by the generalised pressure isotropy condition which contains a contribution from the electric field. This condition is a highly nonlinear partial differential equation. We analyse this master equation using Lie's group theoretic approach. The Lie symmetry generators that leave the equation invariant are found. The first generator is independent of the electromagnetic field. The second generator depends critically on the form of the charge, which is determined explicitly in general. We provide exact solutions to the gravitational potentials using the symmetries admitted by the equation. Our new exact solutions contain earlier results without charge. We show that other charged solutions, related to the Lie symmetries, may be generated using the algorithm of Deng. This leads to new classes of charged Deng models which are generalisations of conformally flat metrics.

  11. Non-Uniqueness of the Geometry of Interplanetary Magnetic Flux Ropes Obtained from Model-Fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marubashi, K.; Cho, K.-S.

    2015-12-01

    Since the early recognition of the important role of interplanetary magnetic flux ropes (IPFRs) to carry the southward magnetic fields to the Earth, many attempts have been made to determine the structure of the IPFRs by model-fitting analyses to the interplanetary magnetic field variations. This paper describes the results of fitting analyses for three selected solar wind structures in the latter half of 2014. In the fitting analysis a special attention was paid to identification of all the possible models or geometries that can reproduce the observed magnetic field variation. As a result, three or four geometries have been found for each of the three cases. The non-uniqueness of the fitted results include (1) the different geometries naturally stemming from the difference in the models used for fitting, and (2) an unexpected result that either of magnetic field chirality, left-handed and right-handed, can reproduce the observation in some cases. Thus we conclude that the model-fitting cannot always give us a unique geometry of the observed magnetic flux rope. In addition, we have found that the magnetic field chirality of a flux rope cannot be uniquely inferred from the sense of field vector rotation observed in the plane normal to the Earth-Sun line; the sense of rotation changes depending on the direction of the flux rope axis. These findings exert an important impact on the studies aimed at the geometrical relationships between the flux ropes and the magnetic field structures in the solar corona where the flux ropes were produced, such studies being an important step toward predicting geomagnetic storms based on observations of solar eruption phenomena.

  12. Ultraviolet actinic flux in clear and cloudy atmospheres: model calculations and aircraft-based measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Palancar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet (UV actinic fluxes measured with two Scanning Actinic Flux Spectroradiometers (SAFS aboard the NASA DC-8 aircraft are compared with the Tropospheric Ultraviolet-Visible (TUV model. The observations from 17 days in July–August 2004 (INTEX-NA field campaign span a wide range of latitudes (27.5° N–53.0° N, longitudes (45.1° W–139.5° W, altitudes (0.1–11.9 km, ozone columns (285.4–352.7 DU, and solar zenith angles (1.7°–85°. Both cloudy and cloud-free conditions were encountered. For cloud-free conditions, the ratio of observed to clear-sky-model actinic flux (integrated from 298 to 422 nm is 1.01±0.04, i.e. in good agreement with observations. The agreement improves to 1.00±0.03 for the down-welling component under clear sky conditions. In the presence of clouds, both down-welling and up-welling components show reductions or enhancements from clear sky values, depending on the position of the airplane relative to clouds. The correlations between up-welling and down-welling deviations are well reproduced with sensitivity studies using the TUV model, and are understood qualitatively with a simple conceptual model. This analysis of actinic flux observations illustrates opportunities for future evaluations of photolysis rates in three-dimensional chemistry-transport models.

  13. An exospheric temperature model from CHAMP thermospheric density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Libin; Lei, Jiuhou; Sutton, Eric; Dou, Xiankang; Fang, Hanxian

    2017-02-01

    In this study, the effective exospheric temperature, named as T∞, derived from thermospheric densities measured by the CHAMP satellite during 2002-2010 was utilized to develop an exospheric temperature model (ETM) with the aid of the NRLMSISE-00 model. In the ETM, the temperature variations are characterized as a function of latitude, local time, season, and solar and geomagnetic activities. The ETM is validated by the independent GRACE measurements, and it is found that T∞ and thermospheric densities from the ETM are in better agreement with the GRACE data than those from the NRLMSISE-00 model. In addition, the ETM captures well the thermospheric equatorial anomaly feature, seasonal variation, and the hemispheric asymmetry in the thermosphere.

  14. Improved modeling of cloudy-sky actinic flux using satellite cloud retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Young-Hee; Hodzic, Alma; Descombes, Gael; Hall, Samuel; Minnis, Patrick; Spangenberg, Douglas; Ullmann, Kirk; Madronich, Sasha

    2017-02-01

    Clouds play a critical role in modulating tropospheric radiation and thus photochemistry. We develop a methodology for calculating the vertical distribution of tropospheric ultraviolet (300-420 nm) actinic fluxes using satellite cloud retrievals and a radiative transfer model. We demonstrate that our approach can accurately reproduce airborne-measured actinic fluxes from the 2013 Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS) campaign as a case study. The results show that the actinic flux is reduced below moderately thick clouds with increasing cloud optical depth and can be enhanced by a factor of 2 above clouds. Inside clouds, the actinic flux can be enhanced by up to 2.4 times in the upper part of clouds or reduced up to 10 times in the lower parts of clouds. Our study suggests that the use of satellite-derived actinic fluxes as input to chemistry-transport models can improve the accuracy of photochemistry calculations.

  15. Deriving metabolic engineering strategies from genome-scale modeling with flux ratio constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Jiun Y; Nazem-Bokaee, Hadi; Freedman, Benjamin G; Athamneh, Ahmad I M; Senger, Ryan S

    2013-05-01

    Optimized production of bio-based fuels and chemicals from microbial cell factories is a central goal of systems metabolic engineering. To achieve this goal, a new computational method of using flux balance analysis with flux ratios (FBrAtio) was further developed in this research and applied to five case studies to evaluate and design metabolic engineering strategies. The approach was implemented using publicly available genome-scale metabolic flux models. Synthetic pathways were added to these models along with flux ratio constraints by FBrAtio to achieve increased (i) cellulose production from Arabidopsis thaliana; (ii) isobutanol production from Saccharomyces cerevisiae; (iii) acetone production from Synechocystis sp. PCC6803; (iv) H2 production from Escherichia coli MG1655; and (v) isopropanol, butanol, and ethanol (IBE) production from engineered Clostridium acetobutylicum. The FBrAtio approach was applied to each case to simulate a metabolic engineering strategy already implemented experimentally, and flux ratios were continually adjusted to find (i) the end-limit of increased production using the existing strategy, (ii) new potential strategies to increase production, and (iii) the impact of these metabolic engineering strategies on product yield and culture growth. The FBrAtio approach has the potential to design "fine-tuned" metabolic engineering strategies in silico that can be implemented directly with available genomic tools.

  16. Effect of energetic oxygen atoms on neutral density models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbaugh, R. P.; Nisbet, J. S.

    1973-01-01

    The dissociative recombination of O2(+) and NO(+) in the F region results in the production of atomic oxygen and atomic nitrogen with substantially greater kinetic energy than the ambient atoms. In the exosphere these energetic atoms have long free paths. They can ascend to altitudes of several thousand kilometers and can travel horizontally to distances of the order of the earth's radius. The distribution of energetic oxygen atoms is derived by means of models of the ion and neutral densities for quiet and disturbed solar conditions. A distribution technique is used to study the motion of the atoms in the collision-dominated region. Ballistic trajectories are calculated in the spherical gravitational field of the earth. The present calculations show that the number densities of energetic oxygen atoms predominate over the ambient atomic oxygen densities above 1000 km under quiet solar conditions and above 1600 km under disturbed solar conditions.

  17. NASA Workmanship Hot Topics: Water Soluble Flux and ESD Charge Device Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Jeannette F.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews two topics of interest to NASA Workmanship: (1) Water Soluble Flux (WSF) and Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) safety. In the first topic, WSF, the presentation reviews voiding and the importance of cleanliness in using WSF for welding and soldering operations. The second topic reviews the NASA-HDBK-8739.21 for Human Body Model, and Machine Model safety methods, and challenges associated with the Charged Device Model (CDM)

  18. Variation in the radial patterns of sap flux density in pubescent oak (Quercus pubescens) and its implications for tree and stand transpiration measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyatos, Rafael; Cermák, Jan; Llorens, Pilar

    2007-04-01

    Radial variation in sap flux density across the sapwood was assessed by the heat field deformation method in several trees of Quercus pubescens Wild., a ring-porous species. Sapwood depths were delimited by identifying the point of zero flow in radial patterns of sap flow, yielding tree sapwood areas that were 1.5-2 times larger than assumed based on visual examinations of wood cores. The patterns of sap flow varied both among trees and diurnally. Rates of sap flow were higher close to the cambium, although there was a significant contribution from the inner sapwood, which was greater (up to 60% of total flow) during the early morning and late in the day. Accordingly, the normalized difference between outer and inner sapwood flow was stable during the middle of the day, but showed a general decline in the afternoon. The distribution of sap flux density across the sapwood allowed us to derive correction coefficients for single-point heat dissipation sap flow measurements. We used daytime-averaged coefficients that depended on the particular shape of the radial profile and ranged between 0.45 and 1.28. Stand transpiration calculated using the new method of estimating sapwood areas and the radial correction coefficients was similar to (Year 2003), or about 25% higher than (Year 2004), previous uncorrected values, and was 20-30% of reference evapotranspiration. We demonstrated how inaccuracies in determining sapwood depths and mean sap flux density across the sapwood of ring-porous species could affect tree and stand transpiration estimates.

  19. The Flux-Anomaly-Forced Model Intercomparison Project (FAFMIP) contribution to CMIP6: investigation of sea-level and ocean climate change in response to CO2 forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Jonathan M.; Bouttes, Nathaelle; Griffies, Stephen M.; Haak, Helmuth; Hurlin, William J.; Jungclaus, Johann; Kelley, Maxwell; Lee, Warren G.; Marshall, John; Romanou, Anastasia; Saenko, Oleg A.; Stammer, Detlef; Winton, Michael

    2016-11-01

    The Flux-Anomaly-Forced Model Intercomparison Project (FAFMIP) aims to investigate the spread in simulations of sea-level and ocean climate change in response to CO2 forcing by atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs). It is particularly motivated by the uncertainties in projections of ocean heat uptake, global-mean sea-level rise due to thermal expansion and the geographical patterns of sea-level change due to ocean density and circulation change. FAFMIP has three tier-1 experiments, in which prescribed surface flux perturbations of momentum, heat and freshwater respectively are applied to the ocean in separate AOGCM simulations. All other conditions are as in the pre-industrial control. The prescribed fields are typical of pattern and magnitude of changes in these fluxes projected by AOGCMs for doubled CO2 concentration. Five groups have tested the experimental design with existing AOGCMs. Their results show diversity in the pattern and magnitude of changes, with some common qualitative features. Heat and water flux perturbation cause the dipole in sea-level change in the North Atlantic, while momentum and heat flux perturbation cause the gradient across the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) declines in response to the heat flux perturbation, and there is a strong positive feedback on this effect due to the consequent cooling of sea-surface temperature in the North Atlantic, which enhances the local heat input to the ocean. The momentum and water flux perturbations do not substantially affect the AMOC. Heat is taken up largely as a passive tracer in the Southern Ocean, which is the region of greatest heat input, while the weakening of the AMOC causes redistribution of heat towards lower latitudes. Future analysis of these and other phenomena with the wider range of CMIP6 FAFMIP AOGCMs will benefit from new diagnostics of temperature and salinity tendencies, which will enable investigation of the

  20. Landscape Soil Respiration Fluxes are Related to Leaf Area Index, Stand Height and Density, and Soil Nitrogen in Rocky Mountain Subalpine Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, E.; Bradford, J. B.; Hawbaker, T. J.; Birdsey, R.; Ryan, M. G.

    2015-12-01

    There is a recent multi-agency push for accurate assessments of terrestrial carbon stocks and fluxes in the United States. Assessing the state of the carbon cycle in the US requires estimates of stocks and fluxes at large spatial scales. Such assessments are difficult, especially for soil respiration, which dominates ecosystem respiration and is notoriously highly variable over space and time. Here, we report three consecutive years of measurement of soil respiration fluxes in three 1 km2 subalpine forest landscapes: Fraser Experimental Forest (Colorado), Glacier Lakes Ecosystems Experimental Site ("GLEES", Wyoming), and Niwot Ridge (Colorado). Plots were established following the protocol of the US Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program. Clusters of plots were distributed across the landscape in a 0.25 km grid pattern. From 2004 through 2006, measurements of soil respiration were made once monthly during the growing season and twice during snowpack coverage for each year. Annual cumulative soil respiration was 6.10 (+/- 0.21) Mg ha-1y-1 for Fraser, 6.55 (+/- 0.27) Mg ha-1y-1 for GLEES, and 6.97 (+/- 0.20) Mg ha-1y-1 for Niwot. Variability in annual cumulative soil respiration varied by less than 20% among the three subalpine forests, despite differences in terrain, climate, disturbance history and anthropogenic nitrogen deposition. We quantified the relationship between respiration fluxes and commonly-measured forest properties and found that soil respiration was nonlinearly related to leaf area index, peaking around 2.5 m2m-2 then slowly declining. Annual litterfall (FA) was subtracted from soil respiration (FR) to calculate total belowground carbon flux (TBCF), which declined with increasing tree height, density and soil nitrogen. This landscape analysis of soil respiration confirmed experimentally-derived principles governing carbon fluxes in forests: as trees age and get taller, and in high-fertility areas, carbon flux to roots declines

  1. A PREDICTING MODEL OF THE LIMITING FLUX FOR THE CHARGED SOLUTE IN ULTRAFILTRATION PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Ming-liang; GUO Yan; PU Chun-sheng; LU Feng-ji

    2004-01-01

    In the process of ultrafiltration , the occur-rence of the limiting flux is elucidated with the formation of a cake(gel) layer on the membrane surface. Before cake formation, the pressure drop on the concentration polarization layer, as well as the permeate flux, increases with the applied pressure. The pressure drop on the concentration polarization layer, however, will no longer change with the applied pressure after the formation of the cake layer. The limiting flux will be obtained if the hydrodynamic conditions in the filtration channel are not affected by the cake layer. A mathematics model for predicting the limiting flux for the charged solute in ultrafiltration is developed. In this model, a repulsive electric force is taken into account in addition to convection and diffusion when the solute is carrying the same charge as the membrane material. A procedure to correlate the model with experimental ultrafiltration data is also present. The results show that a model in this paper is developed on a more realistic perception of the ultrafiltration system and the predicting data agrees well with experimental data.

  2. Assimilation of remotely sensed latent heat flux in a distributed hydrological model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurmans, J.M.; Troch, P.A.A.; Veldhuizen, A.A.; Bastiaanssen, W.G.M.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2003-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of whether remotely sensed latent heat flux estimates over a catchment can be used to improve distributed hydrological model water balance computations by the process of data assimilation. The data used is a series of satellite images for the Drentse Aa catchment in