WorldWideScience

Sample records for flux budget method

  1. Assessment of winter fluxes of CO2 and CH4 in boreal forest soils of central Alaska estimated by the profile method and the chamber method: a diagnosis of methane emission and implications for the regional carbon budget

    Kim, Yongwon; Ueyama, Masahito; Harazono, Yoshinobu; Tanaka, Noriyuki; Nakagawa, Fumiko; Tsunogai, Urumu

    2007-01-01

    This research was carried out to estimate the winter fluxes of CO 2 and CH 4 using the concentration profile method and the chamber method in black spruce forest soils in central Alaska during the winter of 2004/5. The average winter fluxes of CO 2 and CH 4 by chamber and profile methods were 0.24 ± 0.06 (SE; standard error) and 0.21 ± 0.06 gCO 2 -C/m2/d, and 21.4 ± 5.6 and 21.4 ± 14 μgCH 4 -C/m2/hr. This suggests that the fluxes estimated by the two methods are not significantly different based on a one-way ANOVA with a 95% confidence level. The hypothesis on the processes of CH 4 transport/production/emission in underlying snow-covered boreal forest soils is proven by the pressure differences between air and in soil at 30 cm depth. The winter CO 2 emission corresponds to 23% of the annual CO 2 emitted from Alaska black spruce forest soils, which resulted in the sum of mainly root respiration and microbial respiration during the winter based on the (delta) 13 CO 2 of -2.25%. The average wintertime emissions of CO 2 and CH 4 were 49 ± 13 gCO 2 -C/m 2 /season and 0.11 ± 0.07 gCH 4 -C/m 2 /season, respectively. This implies that winter emissions of CO 2 and CH 4 are an important part of the annual carbon budget in seasonally snow-covered terrain of typical boreal forest soils

  2. Surface energy budget and turbulent fluxes at Arctic terrestrial sites

    Grachev, Andrey; Persson, Ola; Uttal, Taneil; Konopleva-Akish, Elena; Crepinsek, Sara; Cox, Christopher; Fairall, Christopher; Makshtas, Alexander; Repina, Irina

    2017-04-01

    Determination of the surface energy budget (SEB) and all SEB components at the air-surface interface are required in a wide variety of applications including atmosphere-land/snow simulations and validation of the surface fluxes predicted by numerical models over different spatial and temporal scales. Here, comparisons of net surface energy budgets at two Arctic sites are made using long-term near-continuous measurements of hourly averaged surface fluxes (turbulent, radiation, and soil conduction). One site, Eureka (80.0 N; Nunavut, Canada), is located in complex topography near a fjord about 200 km from the Arctic Ocean. The other site, Tiksi (71.6 N; Russian East Siberia), is located on a relatively flat coastal plain less than 1 km from the shore of Tiksi Bay, a branch of the Arctic Ocean. We first analyzed diurnal and annual cycles of basic meteorological parameters and key SEB components at these locations. Although Eureka and Tiksi are located on different continents and at different latitudes, the annual course of the surface meteorology and SEB components are qualitatively similar. Surface energy balance closure is a formulation of the conservation of energy principle. Our direct measurements of energy balance for both Arctic sites show that the sum of the turbulent sensible and latent heat fluxes and the ground (conductive) heat flux systematically underestimate the net radiation by about 25-30%. This lack of energy balance closure is a fundamental and pervasive problem in micrometeorology. We discuss a variety of factors which may be responsible for the lack of SEB closure. In particular, various storage terms (e.g., air column energy storage due to radiative and/or sensible heat flux divergence, ground heat storage above the soil flux plate, energy used in photosynthesis, canopy biomass heat storage). For example, our observations show that the photosynthesis storage term is relatively small (about 1-2% of the net radiation), but about 8-12% of the

  3. Energy and variance budgets of a diffusive staircase with implications for heat flux scaling

    Hieronymus, M.; Carpenter, J. R.

    2016-02-01

    Diffusive convection, the mode of double-diffusive convection that occur when both temperature and salinity increase with increasing depth, is commonplace throughout the high latitude oceans and diffusive staircases constitute an important heat transport process in the Arctic Ocean. Heat and buoyancy fluxes through these staircases are often estimated using flux laws deduced either from laboratory experiments, or from simplified energy or variance budgets. We have done direct numerical simulations of double-diffusive convection at a range of Rayleigh numbers and quantified the energy and variance budgets in detail. This allows us to compare the fluxes in our simulations to those derived using known flux laws and to quantify how well the simplified energy and variance budgets approximate the full budgets. The fluxes are found to agree well with earlier estimates at high Rayleigh numbers, but we find large deviations at low Rayleigh numbers. The close ties between the heat and buoyancy fluxes and the budgets of thermal variance and energy have been utilized to derive heat flux scaling laws in the field of thermal convection. The result is the so called GL-theory, which has been found to give accurate heat flux scaling laws in a very wide parameter range. Diffusive convection has many similarities to thermal convection and an extension of the GL-theory to diffusive convection is also presented and its predictions are compared to the results from our numerical simulations.

  4. Cost reduction by using budgeting via the Kaizen method

    Dorina Budugan; Iuliana Georgescu

    2009-01-01

    In the current conditions, continuous improvement is one of the main issues faced by the manag-ers of organizations. The Japanese use the term kaizen to designate continuous improvement. Budgeting via the kaizen method explicitly integrates improvement throughout the period budgeted in the budget data. Budget explanation via the kaizen method refers, on the one hand, to budgeting for the purposes of continuously improving the number of work hours per product unit, and, on the other hand, to t...

  5. Accounting for urban biogenic fluxes in regional carbon budgets.

    Hardiman, Brady S; Wang, Jonathan A; Hutyra, Lucy R; Gately, Conor K; Getson, Jackie M; Friedl, Mark A

    2017-08-15

    Many ecosystem models incorrectly treat urban areas as devoid of vegetation and biogenic carbon (C) fluxes. We sought to improve estimates of urban biomass and biogenic C fluxes using existing, nationally available data products. We characterized biogenic influence on urban C cycling throughout Massachusetts, USA using an ecosystem model that integrates improved representation of urban vegetation, growing conditions associated with urban heat island (UHI), and altered urban phenology. Boston's biomass density is 1/4 that of rural forests, however 87% of Massachusetts' urban landscape is vegetated. Model results suggest that, kilogram-for-kilogram, urban vegetation cycles C twice as fast as rural forests. Urban vegetation releases (R E ) and absorbs (GEE) the equivalent of 11 and 14%, respectively, of anthropogenic emissions in the most urban portions of the state. While urban vegetation in Massachusetts fully sequesters anthropogenic emissions from smaller cities in the region, Boston's UHI reduces annual C storage by >20% such that vegetation offsets only 2% of anthropogenic emissions. Asynchrony between temporal patterns of biogenic and anthropogenic C fluxes further constrains the emissions mitigation potential of urban vegetation. However, neglecting to account for biogenic C fluxes in cities can impair efforts to accurately monitor, report, verify, and reduce anthropogenic emissions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Towards closure of regional heat budgets in the North Atlantic using Argo floats and surface flux datasets

    N. C. Wells

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The upper ocean heat budget (0–300 m of the North Atlantic from 20°–60° N is investigated using data from Argo profiling floats for 1999–2005 and the NCEP/NCAR and NOC surface flux datasets. Estimates of the different terms in the budget (heat storage, advection, diffusion and surface exchange are obtained using the methodology developed by Hadfield et al. (2007a, b. The method includes optimal interpolation of the individual profiles to produce gridded fields with error estimates at a 10°×10° grid box resolution. Closure of the heat budget is obtained within the error estimates for some regions – particularly the eastern subtropical Atlantic – but not for those boxes that include the Gulf Stream. Over the whole range considered, closure is obtained for 13 (9 out of 20 boxes with the NOC (NCEP/NCAR surface fluxes. The seasonal heat budget at 20–30° N, 35–25° W is considered in detail. Here, the NCEP based budget has an annual mean residual of −55±35 Wm−2 compared with a NOC based value of −4±35 Wm−2. For this box, the net heat divergence of 36 Wm−2 (Ekman=−4 Wm−2, geostrophic=11 Wm−2, diffusion=29 Wm−2 offsets the net heating of 32 Wm−2 from the NOC surface heat fluxes. The results in this box are consistent with an earlier evaluation of the fluxes using measurements from research buoys in the subduction array which revealed biases in NCEP but good agreement of the buoy values with the NOC fields.

  7. Radiation budget, soil heat flux and latent heat flux at the forest floor in warm, temperate mixed forest

    Tamai, K.; Abe, T.; Araki, M.; Ito, H.

    1998-01-01

    Seasonal changes in the radiation budget and soil heat flux of a forest floor were measured in a mixed forest located in Kyoto, Japan. The basal area at breast height in the survey forest was about 15·82 m 2 ha −1 , for evergreen trees, and 12·46 m 2 ha −1 , for deciduous trees. The sky view factor was 16 and 22% at the survey site in the foliate and defoliate seasons, respectively. The small difference between the sky view factor in the two seasons was reflected in the seasonal change in the radiation budget of the forest floor. Namely, the net long-wave radiation changed rapidly in leafing and falling days, and the rate of net short-wave radiation was highest in April. The distinctive characteristic of the radiation budget was that the rates of available radiation in the daytime and at night were almost equal in September and October. Latent heat flux at the forest floor was estimated to be around 94 MJ m −2 annually, from our measurement with the simulation model. (author)

  8. Budgeting suspended sediment fluxes in tropical monsoonal watersheds with limited data: the Lake Tana basin

    Zimale Fasikaw A.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion decreases soil fertility of the uplands and causes siltation of lakes and reservoirs; the lakes and reservoirs in tropical monsoonal African highlands are especially affected by sedimentation. Efforts in reducing loads by designing management practices are hampered by lack of quantitative data on the relationship of erosion in the watersheds and sediment accumulation on flood plains, lakes and reservoirs. The objective of this study is to develop a prototype quantitative method for estimating sediment budget for tropical monsoon lakes with limited observational data. Four watersheds in the Lake Tana basin were selected for this study. The Parameter Efficient Distributed (PED model that has shown to perform well in the Ethiopian highlands is used to overcome the data limitations and recreate the missing sediment fluxes. PED model parameters are calibrated using daily discharge data and the occasionally collected sediment concentration when establishing the sediment rating curves for the major rivers. The calibrated model parameters are then used to predict the sediment budget for the 1994-2009 period. Sediment retained in the lake is determined from two bathymetric surveys taken 20 years apart whereas the sediment leaving the lake is calculated based on measured discharge and observed sediment concentrations. Results show that annually on average 34 t/ha/year of sediment is removed from the gauged part of the Lake Tana watersheds. Depending on the up-scaling method from the gauged to the ungauged part, 21 to 32 t/ha/year (equivalent to 24-38 Mt/year is transported from the upland watersheds of which 46% to 65% is retained in the flood plains and 93% to 96% is trapped on the flood plains and in the lake. Thus, only 4-7% of all sediment produced in the watersheds leaves the Lake Tana Basin.

  9. Causes of Potential Urban Heat Island Space Using Heat flux Budget Under Urban Canopy

    Kwon, Y. J.; Lee, D. K.

    2017-12-01

    Raised concerns about possible contribution from urban heat island to global warming is about 30 percent. Therefore, mitigating urban heat island became one of major issues to solve among urban planners, urban designers, landscape architects, urban affair decision makers and etc. Urban heat island effect on a micro-scale is influenced by factors such as wind, water vapor and solar radiation. Urban heat island effect on a microscale is influenced by factors like wind, water vapor and solar radiation. These microscopic climates are also altered by factors affecting the heat content in space, like SVF and aspect ratio depending on the structural characteristics of various urban canyon components. Indicators of heat mitigation in urban design stage allows us to create a spatial structure considering the heat balance budget. The spatial characteristics affect thermal change by varying heat storage, emitting or absorbing the heat. The research defines characteristics of the space composed of the factors affecting the heat flux change as the potential urban heat island space. Potential urban heat island spaces are that having higher heat flux than periphery space. The study is to know the spatial characteristics that affects the subsequent temperature rise by the heat flux. As a research method, four types of potential heat island space regions were analyzed. I categorized the spatial types by comparing parameters' value of energy balance in day and night: 1) day severe areas, 2) day comfort areas, 3) night severe areas, 4) night comfort areas. I have looked at these four types of potential urban heat island areas from a microscopic perspective and investigated how various forms of heat influences on higher heat flux areas. This research was designed to investigate the heat indicators to be reflected in the design of urban canyon for heat mitigation. As a result, severe areas in daytime have high SVF rate, sensible heat is generated. Day comfort areas have shadow effect

  10. Quantitative comparison of in situ soil CO2 flux measurement methods

    Jennifer D. Knoepp; James M. Vose

    2002-01-01

    Development of reliable regional or global carbon budgets requires accurate measurement of soil CO2 flux. We conducted laboratory and field studies to determine the accuracy and comparability of methods commonly used to measure in situ soil CO2 fluxes. Methods compared included CO2...

  11. Operating cost budgeting methods: quantitative methods to improve the process

    José Olegário Rodrigues da Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Operating cost forecasts are used in economic feasibility studies of projects and in budgeting process. Studies have pointed out that some companies are not satisfied with the budgeting process and chief executive officers want updates more frequently. In these cases, the main problem lies in the costs versus benefits. Companies seek simple and cheap forecasting methods without, at the same time, conceding in terms of quality of the resulting information. This study aims to compare operating cost forecasting models to identify the ones that are relatively easy to implement and turn out less deviation. For this purpose, we applied ARIMA (autoregressive integrated moving average and distributed dynamic lag models to data from a Brazilian petroleum company. The results suggest that the models have potential application, and that multivariate models fitted better and showed itself a better way to forecast costs than univariate models.

  12. The radiation budget of stratocumulus clouds measured by tethered balloon instrumentation: Variability of flux measurements

    Duda, David P.; Stephens, Graeme L.; Cox, Stephen K.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of longwave and shortwave radiation were made using an instrument package on the NASA tethered balloon during the FIRE Marine Stratocumulus experiment. Radiation data from two pairs of pyranometers were used to obtain vertical profiles of the near-infrared and total solar fluxes through the boundary layer, while a pair of pyrgeometers supplied measurements of the longwave fluxes in the cloud layer. The radiation observations were analyzed to determine heating rates and to measure the radiative energy budget inside the stratocumulus clouds during several tethered balloon flights. The radiation fields in the cloud layer were also simulated by a two-stream radiative transfer model, which used cloud optical properties derived from microphysical measurements and Mie scattering theory.

  13. Crystal growth of emerald by flux method

    Inoue, Mikio; Narita, Eiichi; Okabe, Taijiro; Morishita, Toshihiko.

    1979-01-01

    Emerald crystals have been formed in two binary fluxes of Li 2 O-MoO 2 and Li 2 O-V 2 O 5 using the slow cooling method and the temperature gradient method under various conditions. In the flux of Li 2 O-MoO 3 carried out in the range of 2 -- 5 of molar ratios (MoO 3 /Li 2 O), emerald was crystallized in the temperature range from 750 to 950 0 C, and the suitable crystallization conditions were found to be the molar ratio of 3 -- 4 and the temperature about 900 0 C. In the flux of Li 2 O-V 2 O 5 carried out in the range of 1.7 -- 5 of molar ratios (V 2 O 5 /Li 2 O), emerald was crystallized in the temperature range from 900 to 1150 0 . The suitable crystals were obtained at the molar ratio of 3 and the temperature range of 1000 -- 1100 0 C. The crystallization temperature rised with an increase in the molar ratio of the both fluxes. The emeralds grown in two binary fluxes were transparent green, having the density of 2.68, the refractive index of 1.56, and the two distinct bands in the visible spectrum at 430 and 600nm. The emerald grown in Li 2 O-V 2 O 5 flux was more bluish green than that grown in Li 2 O-MoO 3 flux. The size of the spontaneously nucleated emerald grown in the former flux was larger than the latter, when crystallized by the slow cooling method. As for the solubility of beryl in the two fluxes, Li 2 O-V 2 O 5 flux was superior to Li 2 O-MoO 3 flux whose small solubility of SiO 2 caused an experimental problem to the temperature gradient method. The suitability of the two fluxes for the crystal growth of emerald by the flux method was discussed from the view point of various properties of above-mentioned two fluxes. (author)

  14. Soil surface CO2 fluxes and the carbon budget of a grassland

    Norman, J. M.; Garcia, R.; Verma, S. B.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of soil surface CO2 fluxes are reported for three sites within the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment (FIFE) area, and simple empirical equations are fit to the data to provide predictions of soil fluxes from environmental observations. A prototype soil chamber, used to make the flux measurements, is described and tested by comparing CO2 flux measurements to a 40-L chamber, a 1-m/cu chamber, and eddy correlation. Results suggest that flux measurements with the prototype chamber are consistent with measurements by other methods to within about 20 percent. A simple empirical equation based on 10-cm soil temperature, 0- to 10-cm soil volumetric water content, and leaf area index predicts the soil surface CO2 flux with a rms error of 1.2 micro-mol sq m/s for all three sites. Further evidence supports using this equation to evaluate soil surface CO2 during the 1987 FIFE experiment. The soil surface CO2 fluxes when averaged over 24 hours are comparable to daily gross canopy photosynthetic rates. For 6 days of data the net daily accumulation of carbon is about 0.6 g CO2 sq m/d; this is only a few percent of the daily gross accumulation of carbon by photosynthesis. As the soil became drier in 1989, the net accumulation of carbon by the prairie increased, suggesting that the soil flux is more sensitive to temperature and drought than the photosynthetic fluxes.

  15. How to choose methods for lake greenhouse gas flux measurements?

    Bastviken, David

    2017-04-01

    Lake greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes are increasingly recognized as important for lake ecosystems as well as for large scale carbon and GHG budgets. However, many of our flux estimates are uncertain and it can be discussed if the presently available data is representative for the systems studied or not. Data are also very limited for some important flux pathways. Hence, many ongoing efforts try to better constrain fluxes and understand flux regulation. A fundamental challenge towards improved knowledge and when starting new studies is what methods to choose. A variety of approaches to measure aquatic GHG exchange is used and data from different methods and methodological approaches have often been treated as equally valid to create large datasets for extrapolations and syntheses. However, data from different approaches may cover different flux pathways or spatio-temporal domains and are thus not always comparable. Method inter-comparisons and critical method evaluations addressing these issues are rare. Emerging efforts to organize systematic multi-lake monitoring networks for GHG fluxes leads to method choices that may set the foundation for decades of data generation and therefore require fundamental evaluation of different approaches. The method choices do not only regard the equipment but also for example consideration of overall measurement design and field approaches, relevant spatial and temporal resolution for different flux components, and accessory variables to measure. In addition, consideration of how to design monitoring approaches being affordable, suitable for widespread (global) use, and comparable across regions is needed. Inspired by discussions with Prof. Dr. Cristian Blodau during the EGU General Assembly 2016, this presentation aims to (1) illustrate fundamental pros and cons for a number of common methods, (2) show how common methodological approaches originally adapted for other environments can be improved for lake flux measurements, (3) suggest

  16. Pollutant transport over complex terrain: Flux and budget calculations for the pollumet field campaign

    Lehning, Michael; Richner, Hans; Kok, Gregory L.

    Especially over complex terrain, transport processes dominate the local pollutant concentrations observed. The data gathered during the POLLUMET measuring campaign in 1993 allow a quantitative analysis of the pollutant fluxes and the pollutant budgets. The data include airborne measurements by NCAR's King Air, radio soundings, radar wind profiles, and data from meteorological ground stations. The regions of interest were the rather densely populated Swiss Plateau, which is embedded between the Alps and the Jura Mountains, and a box south of the Alps covering the south Ticino region and parts of northern Italy. An interpolation scheme was developed to reconstruct the wind field from all available measurements. From the wind field and the reconstruction of the concentration field the fluxes into and out of a box with fixed boundaries are calculated. The pollutant budgets are obtained from the sum of the fluxes and considering a mean vertical velocity. To assess the uncertainties introduced through the interpolation of the measurements, an extensive sensitivity analysis is included. The Swiss Plateau exports ozone and nitrogen oxides. The export rates can be interpreted as an ozone accumulation or fraction of 'homemade pollution' between 3 and 10% and require a net production rate of 1-2 ppb h -1. Accumulation of nitrogen oxides amounts to 20-60%. The box south of the Alps imports polluted air from northern Italy. Thus, oxidized nitrogen is not exported but a net production of ozone still occurs at a rate of 1-2 ppb h -1. The interpolated flow and concentration fields are decomposed into the mean over a box-boundary and the deviation from that mean. This allows isolation of the contribution of local circulations and large-scale turbulence to the total flux. It is shown how the local thermotopographic circulations increasingly dominate the transport as typical Alpine topography is approached. Even over the Swiss Plateau, approximately 20 km away from Alpine topography

  17. Estimating regional-scale methane flux and budgets using CARVE aircraft measurements over Alaska

    S. Hartery

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Methane (CH4 is the second most important greenhouse gas but its emissions from northern regions are still poorly constrained. In this study, we analyze a subset of in situ CH4 aircraft observations made over Alaska during the growing seasons of 2012–2014 as part of the Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE. Net surface CH4 fluxes are estimated using a Lagrangian particle dispersion model which quantitatively links surface emissions from Alaska and the western Yukon with observations of enhanced CH4 in the mixed layer. We estimate that between May and September, net CH4 emissions from the region of interest were 2.2 ± 0.5 Tg, 1.9 ± 0.4 Tg, and 2.3 ± 0.6 Tg of CH4 for 2012, 2013, and 2014, respectively. If emissions are only attributed to two biogenic eco-regions within our domain, then tundra regions were the predominant source, accounting for over half of the overall budget despite only representing 18 % of the total surface area. Boreal regions, which cover a large part of the study region, accounted for the remainder of the emissions. Simple multiple linear regression analysis revealed that, overall, CH4 fluxes were largely driven by soil temperature and elevation. In regions specifically dominated by wetlands, soil temperature and moisture at 10 cm depth were important explanatory variables while in regions that were not wetlands, soil temperature and moisture at 40 cm depth were more important, suggesting deeper methanogenesis in drier soils. Although similar environmental drivers have been found in the past to control CH4 emissions at local scales, this study shows that they can be used to generate a statistical model to estimate the regional-scale net CH4 budget.

  18. Estimating regional-scale methane flux and budgets using CARVE aircraft measurements over Alaska

    Hartery, Sean; Commane, Róisín; Lindaas, Jakob; Sweeney, Colm; Henderson, John; Mountain, Marikate; Steiner, Nicholas; McDonald, Kyle; Dinardo, Steven J.; Miller, Charles E.; Wofsy, Steven C.; Chang, Rachel Y.-W.

    2018-01-01

    Methane (CH4) is the second most important greenhouse gas but its emissions from northern regions are still poorly constrained. In this study, we analyze a subset of in situ CH4 aircraft observations made over Alaska during the growing seasons of 2012-2014 as part of the Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE). Net surface CH4 fluxes are estimated using a Lagrangian particle dispersion model which quantitatively links surface emissions from Alaska and the western Yukon with observations of enhanced CH4 in the mixed layer. We estimate that between May and September, net CH4 emissions from the region of interest were 2.2 ± 0.5 Tg, 1.9 ± 0.4 Tg, and 2.3 ± 0.6 Tg of CH4 for 2012, 2013, and 2014, respectively. If emissions are only attributed to two biogenic eco-regions within our domain, then tundra regions were the predominant source, accounting for over half of the overall budget despite only representing 18 % of the total surface area. Boreal regions, which cover a large part of the study region, accounted for the remainder of the emissions. Simple multiple linear regression analysis revealed that, overall, CH4 fluxes were largely driven by soil temperature and elevation. In regions specifically dominated by wetlands, soil temperature and moisture at 10 cm depth were important explanatory variables while in regions that were not wetlands, soil temperature and moisture at 40 cm depth were more important, suggesting deeper methanogenesis in drier soils. Although similar environmental drivers have been found in the past to control CH4 emissions at local scales, this study shows that they can be used to generate a statistical model to estimate the regional-scale net CH4 budget.

  19. Fluxes and budget of organic matter in the benthic boundary layer over the northwestern Mediterranean margin

    Buscail, R.; Pocklington, R.; Daumas, R.; Guidi, L.

    1990-09-01

    Sediment traps were deployed at depths of 26 and 645 m at two stations on the continental margin of the Gulf of Lions (northwestern Mediterranean). During the same period, surficial sediments were sampled by box corer. The material collected by bottom sediment traps and in corresponding surface sediments was analysed for total organic carbon, hydrolysable organic carbon, nitrogen, sugars, amino acids and lignin-derived compounds. Seasonal variations in organic inputs and the difference between particles from bottom layers and sediment were compared. For the continental shelf station, the annual averages of organic compound fluxes were found to be: 552 mg m -2 d -1 (orgC), 183 mg m -2 d -1 (N), 283 mg m -2 d -1 (hydrolysable orgC), 181 mg m -2 d -1 (Ceq. glucose) and 478 mg m -2 d -1 (amino acids). These values would have to be reduced by half if the large fluxes of autumn, due to resuspension during storm events, were excluded. For the slope, the average annual fluxes were evaluated as: 92.7 mg m -2 d -1 (orgC); 9.4 mg m -2 d -1 (N); 74.1 mg m -2 d -1 (hydrolysable orgC); 11.8 mg m -2 d -1 (Ceq.glucose); and 68.2 mg m -2 d -1 (amino acids). The values obtained for material trapped over the shelf are 4-7 times (orgC and amino acids) and 15-19 times (sugars and nitrogen) higher than for the slope. In contrast, the content in organic compounds of surficial sediments on the slope is 2-3 times higher than that of the shelf deposits. Budgets of orgC transformation at the sediment-water interface were based on calculations which include bottom orgC fluxes, sedimentation rates and orgC content for the first centimetre of deposits. For the continental shelf area, 5.3 g m -2 y -1 have accumulated and 16.7 g m -2 y -1 are mineralized. For the canyon and adjacent slope, the figures are 0.4 and 0.6 g m -2 y -1, respectively. Over the upper adjacent slope, the major part of organic matter is transported by advective processes, which contribute to the sediment interface

  20. Magnetic flux reconstruction methods for shaped tokamaks

    Tsui, Chi-Wa.

    1993-12-01

    The use of a variational method permits the Grad-Shafranov (GS) equation to be solved by reducing the problem of solving the 2D non-linear partial differential equation to the problem of minimizing a function of several variables. This high speed algorithm approximately solves the GS equation given a parameterization of the plasma boundary and the current profile (p' and FF' functions). The author treats the current profile parameters as unknowns. The goal is to reconstruct the internal magnetic flux surfaces of a tokamak plasma and the toroidal current density profile from the external magnetic measurements. This is a classic problem of inverse equilibrium determination. The current profile parameters can be evaluated by several different matching procedures. Matching of magnetic flux and field at the probe locations using the Biot-Savart law and magnetic Green's function provides a robust method of magnetic reconstruction. The matching of poloidal magnetic field on the plasma surface provides a unique method of identifying the plasma current profile. However, the power of this method is greatly compromised by the experimental errors of the magnetic signals. The Casing Principle provides a very fast way to evaluate the plasma contribution to the magnetic signals. It has the potential of being a fast matching method. The performance of this method is hindered by the accuracy of the poloidal magnetic field computed from the equilibrium solver. A flux reconstruction package has been implemented which integrates a vacuum field solver using a filament model for the plasma, a multi-layer perception neural network as an interface, and the volume integration of plasma current density using Green's functions as a matching method for the current profile parameters. The flux reconstruction package is applied to compare with the ASEQ and EFIT data. The results are promising

  1. Methods for Determining the Advertising Budget and its Distribution in Different Media

    Serban Comanescu Adrian

    2014-01-01

    The process of determining and establishing the necessary advertising budget is approached based on the situations that precede it. There will be virtually no easy task for marketers, with the risk overvaluation or undervaluation of the budget. To avoid broader range of situations, the company uses specific tools and methods for determining the advertising budget. An advertising budget is established for each product.

  2. Comparison between Evapotranspiration Fluxes Assessment Methods

    Casola, A.; Longobardi, A.; Villani, P.

    2009-11-01

    Knowledge of hydrological processes acting in the water balance is determinant for a rational water resources management plan. Among these, the water losses as vapour, in the form of evapotranspiration, play an important role in the water balance and the heat transfers between the land surface and the atmosphere. Mass and energy interactions between soil, atmosphere and vegetation, in fact, influence all hydrological processes modificating rainfall interception, infiltration, evapotraspiration, surface runoff and groundwater recharge.A numbers of methods have been developed in scientific literature for modelling evapotranspiration. They can be divided in three main groups: i) traditional meteorological models, ii) energy fluxes balance models, considering interaction between vegetation and the atmosphere, and iii) remote sensing based models. The present analysis preliminary performs a study of fluxes directions and an evaluation of energy balance closure in a typical Mediterranean short vegetation area, using data series recorded from an eddy covariance station, located in the Campania region, Southern Italy. The analysis was performed on different seasons of the year with the aim to assess climatic forcing features impact on fluxes balance, to evaluate the smaller imbalance and to highlight influencing factors and sampling errors on balance closure. The present study also concerns evapotranspiration fluxes assessment at the point scale. Evapotranspiration is evaluated both from empirical relationships (Penmann-Montheit, Penmann F AO, Prestley&Taylor) calibrated with measured energy fluxes at mentioned experimental site, and from measured latent heat data scaled by the latent heat of vaporization. These results are compared with traditional and reliable well known models at the plot scale (Coutagne, Turc, Thorthwaite).

  3. The European forest sector: past and future carbon budget and fluxes under different management scenarios

    Pilli, Roberto; Grassi, Giacomo; Kurz, Werner A.; Fiorese, Giulia; Cescatti, Alessandro

    2017-05-01

    The comprehensive analysis of carbon stocks and fluxes of managed European forests is a prerequisite to quantify their role in biomass production and climate change mitigation. We applied the Carbon Budget Model (CBM) to 26 European countries, parameterized with country information on the historical forest age structure, management practices, harvest regimes and the main natural disturbances. We modeled the C stocks for the five forest pools plus harvested wood products (HWPs) and the fluxes among these pools from 2000 to 2030. The aim is to quantify, using a consistent modeling framework for all 26 countries, the main C fluxes as affected by land-use changes, natural disturbances and forest management and to assess the impact of specific harvest and afforestation scenarios after 2012 on the mitigation potential of the EU forest sector. Substitution effects and the possible impacts of climate are not included in this analysis. Results show that for the historical period from 2000 to 2012 the net primary productivity (NPP) of the forest pools at the EU level is on average equal to 639 Tg C yr-1. The losses are dominated by heterotrophic respiration (409 Tg C yr-1) and removals (110 Tg C yr-1), with direct fire emissions being only 1 Tg C yr-1, leading to a net carbon stock change (i.e., sink) of 110 Tg C yr-1. Fellings also transferred 28 Tg C yr-1 of harvest residues from biomass to dead organic matter pools. The average annual net sector exchange (NSE) of the forest system, i.e., the carbon stock changes in the forest pools including HWP, equals a sink of 122 Tg C yr-1 (i.e., about 19 % of the NPP) for the historical period, and in 2030 it reaches 126, 101 and 151 Tg C yr-1, assuming constant, increasing (+20 %) and decreasing (-20 %) scenarios, respectively, of both harvest and afforestation rates compared to the historical period. Under the constant harvest rate scenario, our findings show an incipient aging process of the forests existing in 1990: although NPP

  4. Use of flux and morphologic sediment budgets for sandbar monitoring on the Colorado River in Marble Canyon, Arizona

    Grams, Paul E.; Buscombe, Daniel D.; Topping, David J.; Hazel, Joseph E.; Kaplinski, Matt

    2015-01-01

    ., 2000) and depends entirely on infrequent tributary floods, monitoring of both sandbars and gross sand storage (the sand budget) is required to evaluate whether the high-flow protocol is having the intended effect of increasing sandbar size without progressively depleting sand from the system.There are many challenges associated with monitoring sand storage and active sand deposits in a river system as large and complex as the 450-km segment of the Colorado River between Glen Canyon Dam and Lake Mead. Previous studies have demonstrated the temporal variation in sand storage associated with sand-supply limitation (Topping et al., 2000) and the spatial variability in the amount of sand stored in eddies and the channel associated with channel hydraulics (Grams et al., 2013). In this study, we report on companion measurements of sand flux and morphologic change to quantify, for the first time, the relation between changes in sand mass balance, changes in within-channel sand storage, and changes in sandbars comprehensively for a 50-km river segment of the Colorado River in lower Marble Canyon within Grand Canyon National Park.We show that, when measured over the scale of a 50-km river segment, these complementary measurements of the sand budget agree within measurement uncertainty and provide a rare opportunity to integrate the temporally rich sand-flux record with the spatially rich morphologic measurements. Both methods show that sediment was evacuated from lower Marble Canyon over the 3-year study period. The flux-based budget shows the timing of changes in storage relative to dam-release patterns, while the morphologic measurements depict the spatial distribution of erosion and deposition among different depositional settings.

  5. Advances on geometric flux optical design method

    García-Botella, Ángel; Fernández-Balbuena, Antonio Álvarez; Vázquez, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    Nonimaging optics is focused on the study of methods to design concentrators or illuminators systems. It can be included in the area of photometry and radiometry and it is governed by the laws of geometrical optics. The field vector method, which starts with the definition of the irradiance vector E, is one of the techniques used in nonimaging optics. Called "Geometrical flux vector" it has provide ideal designs. The main property of this model is, its ability to estimate how radiant energy is transferred by the optical system, from the concepts of field line, flux tube and pseudopotential surface, overcoming traditional raytrace methods. Nevertheless this model has been developed only at an academic level, where characteristic optical parameters are ideal not real and the studied geometries are simple. The main objective of the present paper is the application of the vector field method to the analysis and design of real concentration and illumination systems. We propose the development of a calculation tool for optical simulations by vector field, using algorithms based on Fermat`s principle, as an alternative to traditional tools for optical simulations by raytrace, based on reflection and refraction law. This new tool provides, first, traditional simulations results: efficiency, illuminance/irradiance calculations, angular distribution of light- with lower computation time, photometrical information needs about a few tens of field lines, in comparison with million rays needed nowadays. On the other hand the tool will provides new information as vector field maps produced by the system, composed by field lines and quasipotential surfaces. We show our first results with the vector field simulation tool.

  6. Using budget-friendly methods to analyze sport specific movements

    Jackson, Lindsay; Williams, Sarah; Ferrara, Davon

    2015-03-01

    When breaking down the physics behind sport specific movements, athletes, usually professional, are often assessed in multimillion-dollar laboratories and facilities. Budget-friendly methods, such as video analysis using low-cost cameras, iPhone sensors, or inexpensive force sensors can make this process more accessible to amateur athletes, which in-turn can give insight into injury mechanisms. Here we present a comparison of two methods of determining the forces experienced by a cheerleader during co-education stunting and soccer goalies while side-diving. For the cheerleader, accelerometer measurements were taken by an iPhone 5 and compared to video analysis. The measurements done on the soccer players were taken using FlexiForce force sensors and again compared to video analysis. While these budget-friendly methods could use some refining, they show promise for producing usable measurements for possibly increasing our understanding of injury in amateur players. Furthermore, low-cost physics experiments with sports can foster an active learning environment for students with minimum physics and mathematical background.

  7. The Budget Scoring Alternatives Financing Methods for Defense Requirements

    Leos, Leonard; Rouleau, Paul; Wadsworth, Mark

    2007-01-01

    ...), the Office of Management and Budget (0MB), and the congressional Budget Committees. The current scoring policy that has been applied to many initiatives essentially negates the financial advantage for using alternative forms of financing...

  8. Budget Scoring of Alternative Financing Methods for Defense Requirements

    Leos, Leonard; Rouleau, Paul; Wadsworth, Mark

    2007-01-01

    ...), the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and the congressional Budget Committees. The current scoring policy that has been applied to many initiatives essentially negates the financial advantage for using alternative forms of financing...

  9. A multiscale mortar multipoint flux mixed finite element method

    Wheeler, Mary Fanett; Xue, Guangri; Yotov, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a multiscale mortar multipoint flux mixed finite element method for second order elliptic problems. The equations in the coarse elements (or subdomains) are discretized on a fine grid scale by a multipoint flux mixed finite

  10. Preliminary estimation of Vulcano of CO2 budget and continuous monitoring of summit soil CO2 flux

    Inguaggiato, S.; Mazot, A.; Diliberto, I. S.; Rouwet, D.; Vita, F.; Capasso, G.; Bobrowski, N.; Inguaggiato, C.; Grassa, F.

    2008-01-01

    Total CO2 output from fumaroles, soil gases, bubbling and water dissolved gases were estimated at Vulcano Island, Italy. The fumaroles output has been estimated from SO2 plume flux, while soil flux emission has been carried out through 730 CO2 fluxes measured on the island surface, performed by means of accumulation chamber method. Vulcano Island, located in the Aeolian Archipelago, is an active volcano that has been in state of solphataric activity, since the last eru...

  11. An alternative method for the measurement of neutron flux

    A simple and easy method for measuring the neutron flux is presented. This paper deals with the experimental verification of neutron dose rate–flux relationship for a non-dissipative medium. Though the neutron flux cannot be obtained from the dose rate in a dissipative medium, experimental result shows that for ...

  12. The Budget Scoring Alternatives Financing Methods for Defense Requirements

    Leos, Leonard; Rouleau, Paul; Wadsworth, Mark

    2007-01-01

    .... One of the major impediments to using alternative forms of procurement financing for acquiring defense capabilities is in the budgetary treatment, or "scoring," of these initiatives by the Congressional Budget Office (CBO...

  13. Budget Scoring of Alternative Financing Methods for Defense Requirements

    Leos, Leonard; Rouleau, Paul; Wadsworth, Mark

    2007-01-01

    .... One of the major impediments to using alternative forms of procurement financing for acquiring defense capabilities is in the budgetary treatment, or scoring, of these initiatives by the Congressional Budget Office (CBO...

  14. Overestimation of soil CO2 fluxes from closed chamber measurements at low atmospheric turbulence biases the diurnal pattern and the annual soil respiration budget

    Brændholt, Andreas; Larsen, Klaus Steenberg; Ibrom, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Precise quantification of the diurnal and seasonal variation of soil respiration (Rs) is crucial to correctly estimate annual soil carbon fluxes as well as to correctly interpret the response of Rs to biotic and abiotic factors on different time scale. In this study we found a systematic...... day time, i.e. following the course of soil temperatures. This effect on the diurnal pattern was due to low turbulence primarily occurring during night time. We calculated different annual Rs budgets by filtering out fluxes for different levels of u⋆. The highest annual Rs budget was found when...

  15. Constraining Marsh Carbon Budgets Using Long-Term C Burial and Contemporary Atmospheric CO2 Fluxes

    Forbrich, I.; Giblin, A. E.; Hopkinson, C. S.

    2018-03-01

    Salt marshes are sinks for atmospheric carbon dioxide that respond to environmental changes related to sea level rise and climate. Here we assess how climatic variations affect marsh-atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide in the short term and compare it to long-term burial rates based on radiometric dating. The 5 years of atmospheric measurements show a strong interannual variation in atmospheric carbon exchange, varying from -104 to -233 g C m-2 a-1 with a mean of -179 ± 32 g C m-2 a-1. Variation in these annual sums was best explained by differences in rainfall early in the growing season. In the two years with below average rainfall in June, both net uptake and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index were less than in the other three years. Measurements in 2016 and 2017 suggest that the mechanism behind this variability may be rainfall decreasing soil salinity which has been shown to strongly control productivity. The net ecosystem carbon balance was determined as burial rate from four sediment cores using radiometric dating and was lower than the net uptake measured by eddy covariance (mean: 110 ± 13 g C m-2 a-1). The difference between these estimates was significant and may be because the atmospheric measurements do not capture lateral carbon fluxes due to tidal exchange. Overall, it was smaller than values reported in the literature for lateral fluxes and highlights the importance of investigating lateral C fluxes in future studies.

  16. Estimation of emission fluxes from a horizontal flux budget method, exemplified with determination of pesticide volatilization

    Jensen, Niels Otto; Andersen, Helle Vibeke

    2008-01-01

    The paper describes an experimental set-up designed to measure the volatilization of different pesticides after application under full-scale field conditions. The pesticides were sprayed around the circumference of a circle and measurements of meteorology and air concentrations of pesticides were...

  17. Hafnium at subduction zones: isotopic budget of input and output fluxes

    Marini, J.Ch.

    2004-05-01

    Subduction zones are the primary regions of mass exchanges between continental crust and mantle of Earth through sediment subduction toward the earth's mantle and by supply of mantellic magmas to volcanic arcs. We analyze these mass exchanges using Hafnium and Neodymium isotopes. At the Izu-Mariana subduction zone, subducting sediments have Hf and Nd isotopes equivalent to Pacific seawater. Altered oceanic crust has Hf and Nd isotopic compositions equivalent to the isotopic budget of unaltered Pacific oceanic crust. At Luzon and Java subduction zones, arc lavas present Hf isotopic ratios highly radiogenic in comparison to their Nd isotopic ratios. Such compositions of the Luzon and Java arc lavas are controlled by a contamination of their sources by the subducted oceanic sediments. (author)

  18. The higher order flux mapping method in large size PHWRs

    Kulkarni, A.K.; Balaraman, V.; Purandare, H.D.

    1997-01-01

    A new higher order method is proposed for obtaining flux map using single set of expansion mode. In this procedure, one can make use of the difference between predicted value of detector reading and their actual values for determining the strength of local fluxes around detector site. The local fluxes are arising due to constant perturbation changes (both extrinsic and intrinsic) taking place in the reactor. (author)

  19. Estimation of surface heat and moisture fluxes over a prairie grassland. I - In situ energy budget measurements incorporating a cooled mirror dew point hygrometer

    Smith, Eric A.; Crosson, William L.; Tanner, Bertrand D.

    1992-01-01

    Attention is focused on in situ measurements taken during FIFE required to support the development and validation of a biosphere model. Seasonal time series of surface flux measurements obtained from two surface radiation and energy budget stations utilized to support the FIFE surface flux measurement subprogram are examined. Data collection and processing procedures are discussed along with the measurement analysis for the complete 1987 test period.

  20. Flux, Budget and Sources of Black Carbon (BC) in the Continental Shelf of the Bohai and Yellow Seas, China

    Fang, Y.; Chen, Y.; Tian, C.

    2015-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) derived from incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and biomass has received increasing attention due to their potential importance in a wide range of biogeochemical processes. China has been generally considered as the world's largest BC emitter. Due to a combination of the prevailing East Asia monsoon and large amounts of riverine outflow, BC released from China can be transported to the adjacent continental shelf seas, the Bohai Sea (BS) and Yellow Sea (YS). Based on measurements of BC in 191 surface sediments, 36 riverine water, and 2 seawater samples, as well as the reported BC data set of the aerosol samples in the Bohai Rim, the concentration, flux, and budget of BC in the BS and YS were investigated. The spatial distribution of the BC concentration in surface sediments was largely influenced by the regional hydrodynamic conditions, with high values mainly occurring in the central mud areas. The BC burial flux in the BS and YS ranged from 4 to 1100 μg/cm2/yr, and averaged 166 ± 200 μg/cm2/yr. The area-integrated sedimentary BC sink flux in the entire BS and YS was ~325 Gg/yr. The BC budget calculated in the BS showed that atmospheric deposition and riverine discharge played comparable importance in delivering BC to the BS, and sequestration to bottom sediments was the major BC output pattern, accounting for ~88% of the total input BC. Besides, we attempted to apportion the BC sources in the BS and YS surface sediments using PAHs (organic molecular proxies cogenerated with BC) and BC as an input data to the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) receptor model. Results showed that ~83% of the sediment BC was attributed to the combustion of fossil fuels, and the remaining ~17% was from biomass burning. Due to the differences in their production mechanisms and therefore physicochemical properties, the above distinction and quantification would help us better understand their different environmental behaviors in the complex continental shelf

  1. Morphology-dependent water budgets and nutrient fluxes in arctic thaw ponds

    Koch, Joshua C.; Gurney, Kirsty; Wipfli, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Thaw ponds on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska are productive ecosystems, providing habitat and food resources for many fish and bird species. Permafrost in this region creates unique pond morphologies: deep troughs, shallow low-centred polygons (LCPs) and larger coalescent ponds. By monitoring seasonal trends in pond volume and chemistry, we evaluated whether pond morphology and size affect water temperature and desiccation, and nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fluxes. Evaporation was the largest early-summer water flux in all pond types. LCPs dried quickly and displayed high early-summer nutrient concentrations and losses. Troughs consistently received solute-rich subsurface inflows, which accounted for 12 to 42 per cent of their volume and may explain higher P in the troughs. N to P ratios increased and ammonium concentrations decreased with pond volume, suggesting that P and inorganic N availability may limit ecosystem productivity in older, larger ponds. Arctic summer temperatures will likely increase in the future, which may accelerate mid-summer desiccation. Given their morphology, troughs may remain wet, become warmer and derive greater nutrient loads from their thawing banks. Overall, seasonal- to decadal-scale warming may increase ecosystem productivity in troughs relative to other Arctic Coastal Plain ponds. 

  2. Particle fluxes above forests: Observations, methodological considerations and method comparisons

    Pryor, S.C.; Larsen, S.E.; Sorensen, L.L.; Barthelmie, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports a study designed to test, evaluate and compare micro-meteorological methods for determining the particle number flux above forest canopies. Half-hour average particle number fluxes above a representative broad-leaved forest in Denmark derived using eddy covariance range from -7 x 10 7 m -2 s -1 (1st percentile) to 5 x 10 7 m -2 s -1 (99th percentile), and have a median value of -1.6 x 10 6 m -2 s -1 . The statistical uncertainties associated with the particle number flux estimates are larger than those for momentum fluxes and imply that in this data set approximately half of the particle number fluxes are not statistically different to zero. Particle number fluxes from relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) and eddy covariance are highly correlated and of almost identical magnitude. Flux estimates from the co-spectral and dissipation methods are also correlated with those from eddy covariance but exhibit higher absolute magnitude of fluxes. - Number fluxes of ultra-fine particles over a forest computed using four micro-meteorological techniques are highly correlated but vary in magnitude

  3. Suspended Sediment Dynamics in the Macrotidal Seine Estuary (France): 2. Numerical Modeling of Sediment Fluxes and Budgets Under Typical Hydrological and Meteorological Conditions

    Schulz, E.; Grasso, F.; Le Hir, P.; Verney, R.; Thouvenin, B.

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the sediment dynamics in an estuary is important for its morphodynamic and ecological assessment as well as, in case of an anthropogenically controlled system, for its maintenance. However, the quantification of sediment fluxes and budgets is extremely difficult from in-situ data and requires thoroughly validated numerical models. In the study presented here, sediment fluxes and budgets in the lower Seine Estuary were quantified and investigated from seasonal to annual time scales with respect to realistic hydro- and meteorological conditions. A realistic three-dimensional process-based hydro- and sediment-dynamic model was used to quantify mud and sand fluxes through characteristic estuarine cross-sections. In addition to a reference experiment with typical forcing, three experiments were carried out and analyzed, each differing from the reference experiment in either river discharge or wind and waves so that the effects of these forcings could be separated. Hydro- and meteorological conditions affect the sediment fluxes and budgets in different ways and at different locations. Single storm events induce strong erosion in the lower estuary and can have a significant effect on the sediment fluxes offshore of the Seine Estuary mouth, with the flux direction depending on the wind direction. Spring tides cause significant up-estuary fluxes at the mouth. A high river discharge drives barotropic down-estuary fluxes at the upper cross-sections, but baroclinic up-estuary fluxes at the mouth and offshore so that the lower estuary gains sediment during wet years. This behavior is likely to be observed worldwide in estuaries affected by density gradients and turbidity maximum dynamics.

  4. Nimbus-7 Earth radiation budget calibration history. Part 2: The Earth flux channels

    Kyle, H. Lee; Hucek, Douglas Richard R.; Ardanuy, Philip E.; Hickey, John R.; Maschhoff, Robert H.; Penn, Lanning M.; Groveman, Brian S.; Vallette, Brenda J.

    1994-01-01

    Nine years (November 1978 to October 1987) of Nimbus-7 Earth radiation budget (ERB) products have shown that the global annual mean emitted longwave, absorbed shortwave, and net radiation were constant to within about + 0.5 W/sq m. Further, most of the small annual variations in the emitted longwave have been shown to be real. To obtain this measurement accuracy, the wide-field-of-view (WFOV) Earth-viewing channels 12 (0.2 to over 50 micrometers), 13 (0.2 to 3.8 micrometers), and 14 (0.7 to 2.8 micrometers) have been characterized in their satellite environment to account for signal variations not considered in the prelaunch calibration equations. Calibration adjustments have been derived for (1) extraterrestrial radiation incident on the detectors, (2) long-term degradation of the sensors, and (3) thermal perturbations within the ERB instrument. The first item is important in all the channels; the second, mainly in channels 13 and 14, and the third, only in channels 13 and 14. The Sun is used as a stable calibration source to monitor the long-term degradation of the various channels. Channel 12, which is reasonably stable to both thermal perturbations and sensor degradation, is used as a reference and calibration transfer agent for the drifting sensitivities of the filtered channels 13 and 14. Redundant calibration procedures were utilized. Laboratory studies complemented analyses of the satellite data. Two nearly independent models were derived to account for the thermal perturbations in channels 13 and 14. The global annual mean terrestrial shortwave and longwave signals proved stable enough to act as secondary calibration sources. Instantaneous measurements may still, at times, be in error by as much as a few Wm(exp -2), but the long-term averages are stable to within a fraction of a Wm(exp -2).

  5. N2 Fluxes From Amazon Cropland Are a Significant Component of Watershed N Budgets.

    Fox, R. J.; Neill, C.; Macedo, M.; Davidson, E. A.; Lefebvre, P.; Jankowski, K.; Maracahipes-Santos, L.

    2017-12-01

    Amazon tropical rainforests have experienced significant deforestation and conversion to cropland. Recently, cropping has intensified to include higher application rates of N fertilizer, typically in a soybean-corn rotation. Our previous work in Mato Grosso, Brazil, suggests that the addition of N fertilizer (80 Kg N ha-1 yr-1) has not increased N2O fluxes from soils or elevated dissolved N concentrations in streams or groundwater. Here, we investigate whether N fertilizer is converted to N2 in groundwater. We collected samples during January and October 2016 from streams and well transects across riparian forest buffers bordering cropland or within intact riparian forests. Samples were collected using a positive pressure pump and analyzed using Membrane Inlet Mass Spectrometry (MIMS) for N2, Ar, and O2 and gas chromatography for N2O and CH4. N2 concentrations in excess of solubility (based on Ar) were measured at nearly all locations in January and ranged from -15 to 220 in cropland and -2 to 93 µmol N2-N L-1 in intact forest. N2 concentrations were generally lower in October and ranged from -0.9 to 95 in cropland and -0.6 to 52 µmol N2-N L-1 in intact forest. Higher N2 concentrations accumulated at lower dissolved oxygen concentrations and at the borders between cropland and riparian forest. N2O concentrations were significantly lower than N2 concentrations on both dates and ranged between 0.01 and 0.33 µmol N2O-N L-1. Preliminary estimates suggest that N2 losses from cropland ranged from 10 to 20 kg N ha-1 y-1 and losses from forests ranged from 2 to 12 kg N ha-1 y-1. High concentrations of N2 in groundwater have been found in and around agricultural fields in temperate regions, but direct N2 measurements in tropical agricultural regions have not been previously documented. These results suggest that N2 fluxes from tropical cropland receiving modest amounts of N fertilizer could be substantial.

  6. Long-term measurement of terpenoid flux above a Larix kaempferi forest using a relaxed eddy accumulation method

    Mochizuki, Tomoki; Tani, Akira; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Saigusa, Nobuko; Ueyama, Masahito

    2014-02-01

    Terpenoids emitted from forests contribute to the formation of secondary organic aerosols and affect the carbon budgets of forest ecosystems. To investigate seasonal variation in terpenoid flux involved in the aerosol formation and carbon budget, we measured the terpenoid flux of a Larix kaempferi forest between May 2011 and May 2012 by using a relaxed eddy accumulation method. Isoprene was emitted from a fern plant species Dryopteris crassirhizoma on the forest floor and monoterpenes from the L. kaempferi. α-Pinene was the dominant compound, but seasonal variation of the monoterpene composition was observed. High isoprene and monoterpene fluxes were observed in July and August. The total monoterpene flux was dependent on temperature, but several unusual high positive fluxes were observed after rain fall events. We found a good correlation between total monoterpene flux and volumetric soil water content (r = 0.88), and used this correlation to estimate monoterpene flux after rain events and calculate annual terpenoid emissions. Annual carbon emission in the form of total monoterpenes plus isoprene was determined to be 0.93% of the net ecosystem exchange. If we do not consider the effect of rain fall, carbon emissions may be underestimated by about 50%. Our results suggest that moisture conditions in the forest soil is a key factor controlling the monoterpene emissions from the forest ecosystem.

  7. The annual ammonia budget of fertilised cut grassland – Part 1: Micrometeorological flux measurements and emissions after slurry application

    C. Spirig

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Two commercial ammonia (NH3 analysers were customised to allow continuous measurements of vertical concentration gradients. The gradients were used to derive ammonia exchange fluxes above a managed grassland site at Oensingen (Switzerland by application of the aerodynamic gradient method. The measurements from July 2006 to October 2007 covered five complete growth-cut cycles and included six applications of liquid cattle slurry. The average accuracy of the flux measurements during unstable and near-neutral conditions was 20% and the detection limit was 10 ng NH3 m−2 s−1. Hence the flux measurements are considered sufficiently accurate for studying typical NH3 deposition rates over growing vegetation. Quantifying the overall emissions after slurry applications required the application of elaborate interpolations because of difficulties capturing the initial emissions during broadspreading of liquid manure. The emissions were also calculated with a mass balance method yielding similar fluxes. NH3 losses after slurry application expressed as percentage of emitted nitrogen versus applied total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN varied between 4 and 19%, which is roughly a factor of three lower than the values for broadspreading of liquid manure in emission inventories. The comparatively low emission factors appear to be a consequence of the low dry matter content of the applied slurry and soil properties favouring ammonium adsorption.

  8. Water-carbon Links in a Tropical Forest: How Interbasin Groundwater Flow Affects Carbon Fluxes and Ecosystem Carbon Budgets

    Genereux, David [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Osburn, Christopher [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Oberbauer, Steven [Florida Intl Univ., Miami, FL (United States); Oviedo Vargas, Diana [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Dierick, Diego [Florida Intl Univ., Miami, FL (United States)

    2017-03-27

    This report covers the outcomes from a quantitative, interdisciplinary field investigation of how carbon fluxes and budgets in a lowland tropical rainforest are affected by the discharge of old regional groundwater into streams, springs, and wetlands in the forest. The work was carried out in a lowland rainforest of Costa Rica, at La Selva Biological Station. The research shows that discharge of regional groundwater high in dissolved carbon dioxide represents a significant input of carbon to the rainforest "from below", an input that is on average larger than the carbon input "from above" from the atmosphere. A stream receiving discharge of regional groundwater had greatly elevated emissions of carbon dioxide (but not methane) to the overlying air, and elevated downstream export of carbon from its watershed with stream flow. The emission of deep geological carbon dioxide from stream water elevates the carbon dioxide concentrations in air above the streams. Carbon-14 tracing revealed the presence of geological carbon in the leaves and stems of some riparian plants near streams that receive inputs of regional groundwater. Also, discharge of regional groundwater is responsible for input of dissolved organic matter with distinctive chemistry to rainforest streams and wetlands. The discharge of regional groundwater in lowland surface waters has a major impact on the carbon cycle in this and likely other tropical and non-tropical forests.

  9. Advances in the Surface Renewal Flux Measurement Method

    Shapland, T. M.; McElrone, A.; Paw U, K. T.; Snyder, R. L.

    2011-12-01

    The measurement of ecosystem-scale energy and mass fluxes between the planetary surface and the atmosphere is crucial for understanding geophysical processes. Surface renewal is a flux measurement technique based on analyzing the turbulent coherent structures that interact with the surface. It is a less expensive technique because it does not require fast-response velocity measurements, but only a fast-response scalar measurement. It is therefore also a useful tool for the study of the global cycling of trace gases. Currently, surface renewal requires calibration against another flux measurement technique, such as eddy covariance, to account for the linear bias of its measurements. We present two advances in the surface renewal theory and methodology that bring the technique closer to becoming a fully independent flux measurement method. The first advance develops the theory of turbulent coherent structure transport associated with the different scales of coherent structures. A novel method was developed for identifying the scalar change rate within structures at different scales. Our results suggest that for canopies less than one meter in height, the second smallest coherent structure scale dominates the energy and mass flux process. Using the method for resolving the scalar exchange rate of the second smallest coherent structure scale, calibration is unnecessary for surface renewal measurements over short canopies. This study forms the foundation for analysis over more complex surfaces. The second advance is a sensor frequency response correction for measuring the sensible heat flux via surface renewal. Inexpensive fine-wire thermocouples are frequently used to record high frequency temperature data in the surface renewal technique. The sensible heat flux is used in conjunction with net radiation and ground heat flux measurements to determine the latent heat flux as the energy balance residual. The robust thermocouples commonly used in field experiments

  10. Methane and carbon dioxide fluxes over a lake: comparison between eddy covariance, floating chambers and boundary layer method

    K.-M. Erkkilä

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Freshwaters bring a notable contribution to the global carbon budget by emitting both carbon dioxide (CO2 and methane (CH4 to the atmosphere. Global estimates of freshwater emissions traditionally use a wind-speed-based gas transfer velocity, kCC (introduced by Cole and Caraco, 1998, for calculating diffusive flux with the boundary layer method (BLM. We compared CH4 and CO2 fluxes from BLM with kCC and two other gas transfer velocities (kTE and kHE, which include the effects of water-side cooling to the gas transfer besides shear-induced turbulence, with simultaneous eddy covariance (EC and floating chamber (FC fluxes during a 16-day measurement campaign in September 2014 at Lake Kuivajärvi in Finland. The measurements included both lake stratification and water column mixing periods. Results show that BLM fluxes were mainly lower than EC, with the more recent model kTE giving the best fit with EC fluxes, whereas FC measurements resulted in higher fluxes than simultaneous EC measurements. We highly recommend using up-to-date gas transfer models, instead of kCC, for better flux estimates. BLM CO2 flux measurements had clear differences between daytime and night-time fluxes with all gas transfer models during both stratified and mixing periods, whereas EC measurements did not show a diurnal behaviour in CO2 flux. CH4 flux had higher values in daytime than night-time during lake mixing period according to EC measurements, with highest fluxes detected just before sunset. In addition, we found clear differences in daytime and night-time concentration difference between the air and surface water for both CH4 and CO2. This might lead to biased flux estimates, if only daytime values are used in BLM upscaling and flux measurements in general. FC measurements did not detect spatial variation in either CH4 or CO2 flux over Lake Kuivajärvi. EC measurements, on the other hand, did not show any spatial variation in CH4 fluxes but did show a clear difference

  11. Magnetic flux concentration methods for magnetic energy harvesting module

    Wakiwaka Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents magnetic flux concentration methods for magnetic energy harvesting module. The purpose of this study is to harvest 1 mW energy with a Brooks coil 2 cm in diameter from environmental magnetic field at 60 Hz. Because the harvesting power is proportional to the square of the magnetic flux density, we consider the use of a magnetic flux concentration coil and a magnetic core. The magnetic flux concentration coil consists of an air­core Brooks coil and a resonant capacitor. When a uniform magnetic field crossed the coil, the magnetic flux distribution around the coil was changed. It is found that the magnetic field in an area is concentrated larger than 20 times compared with the uniform magnetic field. Compared with the air­core coil, our designed magnetic core makes the harvested energy ten­fold. According to ICNIRP2010 guideline, the acceptable level of magnetic field is 0.2 mT in the frequency range between 25 Hz and 400 Hz. Without the two magnetic flux concentration methods, the corresponding energy is limited to 1 µW. In contrast, our experimental results successfully demonstrate energy harvesting of 1 mW from a magnetic field of 0.03 mT at 60 Hz.

  12. The Preparation and Selection of Budget Methods for Promotion in Kosovo

    MSc. Halit Karaxha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Selecting the adequate method for promotion has a huge importance in increasing business’s performance. Selecting the method of the budget depends from a number of factors. The formulation of budget is known as the most critical period which requires special analysis from marketing’s managers. The expenses for promotion are usually high, and every investment made in the field of promotion directly influences in the business situation. Thus, the selection and adequate formulation of budget methods for promotion influences the growth of profit. The allocated amount for promotion depends from a number of factors, such as: the size of the firm, the sector in which it operates, competition etc. After planning the budget, we have to do the budget allocation to select the promotional form which is considered to be successful by the firms in promoting the products and services and that will help the company to connect with its clients. In this paper, I have elaborated the role and importance of the preparation and selection of budget methods for promotion in the theoretical aspect and the practical one as well.

  13. Review of unfolding methods for neutron flux dosimetry

    Stallmann, F.W.; Kam, F.B.K.

    1975-01-01

    The primary method in reactor dosimetry is the foil activation technique. To translate the activation measurements into neutron fluxes, a special data processing technique called unfolding is needed. Some general observations about the problems and the reliability of this approach to reactor dosimetry are presented. Current unfolding methods are reviewed. 12 references. (auth)

  14. Volcanic volatile budgets and fluxes inferred from melt inclusions from post-shield volcanoes in Hawaii and the Canary Islands

    Moore, L.; Gazel, E.; Bodnar, R. J.; Carracedo, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    Pre-eruptive volatile contents of volcanic melts recorded by melt inclusions are useful for estimating rates of deep earth ingassing and outgassing on geologic timescales. Ocean island volcanoes may erupt melts derived from recycled material and thus have implications regarding the degree to which volatile-bearing phases like magnesite can survive subduction and be recycled by intraplate magmatism. However, melt inclusions affected by degassing will not reflect the original volatile content of the primary melt. Post-shield ocean island volcanoes are thought to erupt volatile-rich melts that ascend quickly, crystallizing in deep reservoirs and are more likely to reflect the composition of the primary melt. In this study, we compare melt inclusions from post-shield volcanoes, Haleakala (East Maui, Hawaii) and Tenerife (Canary Islands), to estimate the volatile budgets of two presumably plume-related ocean-island settings. Melt inclusions from Haleakala contain up to 1.5 wt% CO2, up to 1.3 wt% H2O, and about 2000 ppm of S. The CO2 concentration is similar to estimates for primary CO2 concentrations for Hawaii, suggesting that the melt inclusions in this study trapped a melt that underwent minimal degassing. Assuming a melt production rate of 2 km3/ka for postshield Hawaiian volcanism, the average fluxes of CO2 and S are about 80 t/year and 10 t/year respectively. Melt inclusions from Tenerife contain up to 1 wt% CO2, up to 2 wt% H2O, and about 4000 ppm of S. Assuming a melt production rate of 0.8 km3/ka for the northeast rift zone of Tenerife, the average fluxes of CO2 and S are about 20 t/year and 8 t/year respectively. The concentration of CO2 is lower than estimates of the primary melt CO2 content based on CO2/Nb from El Hierro. This may indicate that the inclusions trapped a melt that had degassed significantly, or that some of the CO2 in the inclusions has been sequestered in carbonate daughter crystals, which were observed in abundance.

  15. Second workshop of I.A.G./A.I.G. SEDIBUD - Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments: Sediment fluxes and sediment budgets in changing high-latitude and high-altitude cold environments

    Beylich, Achim A; Lamoureux, Scott F; Decaulne, Armelle

    2007-07-01

    This Second Workshop of the I.A.G./A.I.G. Working Group SEDIBUD (Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments) builds on four previous ESF SEDIFLUX Science Meetings held in Saudarkrokur (Iceland) in June 2004, Clermont-Ferrand (France) in January 2005, Durham (UK) in December 2005 and Trondheim (Norway) in the end of October/beginning of November 2006. A first kick-off Meeting of the new I.A.G./A.I.G. SEDIBUD Workshop. The theme of this Second I.A.G./A.I.G. SEDIBUD Workshop is Sediment FLuxes and Sediment Budgets in Changing High-Latitude Cold Environments. The Workshop is split between scientific paper and poster presentations, presentation and discussion of SEDIBUD key test sites, discussions within defined work groups and guided field trip to Kaerkevagge. This workshop will address the key aim of SEDIBUD to discuss Source-to-Sink-Fluxes and Sediment Budgets in Changing Cold Environments. Major emphasis will be given to consequences of climate change, scaling issues and source-to-sink correlations. Central issues will be presentation and discussion of the SEDIFLUX Manual (First Edition), the selection of SEDIBUD key test sites, the discussion and development of further ideas to extend the scientific activities within SEDIBUD in a global framework.(auth)

  16. Extension of the heat flux method to subatmospheric pressures

    Bosschaart, K.J.; Goey, de L.P.H.

    2004-01-01

    The heat flux method for measuring laminar burning velocities has been extended to subatmospheric pressures, down to 80mbar. The new setup is described and adaptations necessary for the new conditions are analyzed. This includes a new burner plate to compensate for the decrease of sensitivity of the

  17. A multiscale mortar multipoint flux mixed finite element method

    Wheeler, Mary Fanett

    2012-02-03

    In this paper, we develop a multiscale mortar multipoint flux mixed finite element method for second order elliptic problems. The equations in the coarse elements (or subdomains) are discretized on a fine grid scale by a multipoint flux mixed finite element method that reduces to cell-centered finite differences on irregular grids. The subdomain grids do not have to match across the interfaces. Continuity of flux between coarse elements is imposed via a mortar finite element space on a coarse grid scale. With an appropriate choice of polynomial degree of the mortar space, we derive optimal order convergence on the fine scale for both the multiscale pressure and velocity, as well as the coarse scale mortar pressure. Some superconvergence results are also derived. The algebraic system is reduced via a non-overlapping domain decomposition to a coarse scale mortar interface problem that is solved using a multiscale flux basis. Numerical experiments are presented to confirm the theory and illustrate the efficiency and flexibility of the method. © EDP Sciences, SMAI, 2012.

  18. Flux form Semi-Lagrangian methods for parabolic problems

    Bonaventura Luca

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A semi-Lagrangian method for parabolic problems is proposed, that extends previous work by the authors to achieve a fully conservative, flux-form discretization of linear and nonlinear diffusion equations. A basic consistency and stability analysis is proposed. Numerical examples validate the proposed method and display its potential for consistent semi-Lagrangian discretization of advection diffusion and nonlinear parabolic problems.

  19. Flux-weakening control methods for hybrid excitation synchronous motor

    Mingming Huang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid excitation synchronous motor (HESM, which aim at combining the advantages of permanent magnet motor and wound excitation motor, have the characteristics of low-speed high-torque hill climbing and wide speed range. Firstly, a new kind of HESM is presented in the paper, and its structure and mathematical model are illustrated. Then, based on a space voltage vector control, a novel flux-weakening method for speed adjustment in the high speed region is presented. The unique feature of the proposed control method is that the HESM driving system keeps the q-axis back-EMF components invariable during the flux-weakening operation process. Moreover, a copper loss minimization algorithm is adopted to reduce the copper loss of the HESM in the high speed region. Lastly, the proposed method is validated by the simulation and the experimental results.

  20. Variationally derived coarse mesh methods using an alternative flux representation

    Wojtowicz, G.; Holloway, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    Investigation of a previously reported variational technique for the solution of the 1-D, 1-group neutron transport equation in reactor lattices has inspired the development of a finite element formulation of the method. Compared to conventional homogenization methods in which node homogenized cross sections are used, the coefficients describing this system take on greater spatial dependence. However, the methods employ an alternative flux representation which allows the transport equation to be cast into a form whose solution has only a slow spatial variation and, hence, requires relatively few variables to describe. This alternative flux representation and the stationary property of a variational principle define a class of coarse mesh discretizations of transport theory capable of achieving order of magnitude reductions of eigenvalue and pointwise scalar flux errors as compared with diffusion theory while retaining diffusion theory's relatively low cost. Initial results of a 1-D spectral element approach are reviewed and used to motivate the finite element implementation which is more efficient and almost as accurate; one and two group results of this method are described

  1. Quantification of Strategic Plans Through the Business Budget: A Practical Application Using Stochastic Methods

    Marino Luiz Eyerkaufer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the process of estimating the quantitative predictions of the strategic plan through the budget happens as from the deterministic data, together with analysis of factors of internal and external environments. As from the budget data decisions are made, often before the fact, which creates uncertainty as to the assertiveness of forecasts. Combined with the traditional preparation methods of corporate budget forecasts, this study presents an application of stochastic methods where the probabilism is presented as an alternative for the minimization of uncertainties related to the assertiveness of the estimates. It also demonstrates itself, as from a practical application, the use of the Monte Carlo method in the sales forecasting; at the same time it is tested the probability of these sales forecasting be materialized within certain intervals that meet the investors’ expectations, by using the limit central theorem and, finally, by using the absorbing Markov chain, it is demonstrated the overall performance of the system as from the funds input and output. The study was limited to a basic application of stochastic methods as from a hypothetical case which, however, allowed to  conclude that both methods, together or separately, can minimize the effects of uncertainty in budget forecasts.

  2. A method for neutron dosimetry in ultrahigh flux environments

    Ougouag, A.M.; Wemple, C.A.; Rogers, J.W.

    1996-01-01

    A method for neutron dosimetry in ultrahigh flux environments is developed, and devices embodying it are proposed and simulated using a Monte Carlo code. The new approach no longer assumes a linear relationship between the fluence and the activity of the nuclides formed by irradiation. It accounts for depletion of the original ''foil'' material and for decay and depletion of the formed nuclides. In facilities where very high fluences are possible, the fluences inferred by activity measurements may be ambiguous. A method for resolving these ambiguities is also proposed and simulated. The new method and proposed devices should make possible the use of materials not traditionally considered desirable for neutron activation dosimetry

  3. Neutron flux calculation by means of Monte Carlo methods

    Barz, H.U.; Eichhorn, M.

    1988-01-01

    In this report a survey of modern neutron flux calculation procedures by means of Monte Carlo methods is given. Due to the progress in the development of variance reduction techniques and the improvements of computational techniques this method is of increasing importance. The basic ideas in application of Monte Carlo methods are briefly outlined. In more detail various possibilities of non-analog games and estimation procedures are presented, problems in the field of optimizing the variance reduction techniques are discussed. In the last part some important international Monte Carlo codes and own codes of the authors are listed and special applications are described. (author)

  4. Continuous measurements of methane flux in two Japanese temperate forests based on the micrometeorological and chamber methods

    Yoshikawa, K.; Ueyama, M.; Takagi, K.; Kominami, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Methane (CH4) budget in forest ecosystems have not been accurately quantified due to limited measurements and considerable spatiotemporal heterogeneity. In order to quantify CH4 fluxes at temperate forest at various spatiotemporal scales, we have continuously measured CH4 fluxes at two upland forests based on the micrometeorological hyperbolic relaxed eddy accumulation (HREA) and automated dynamic closed chamber methods.The measurements have been conducted at Teshio experimental forest (TSE) since September 2013 and Yamashiro forest meteorology research site (YMS) since November 2014. Three automated chambers were installed on each site. Our system can measure CH4 flux by the micrometeorological HREA, vertical concentration profile at four heights, and chamber measurements by a laser-based gas analyzer (FGGA-24r-EP, Los Gatos Research Inc., USA).Seasonal variations of canopy-scale CH4 fluxes were different in each site. CH4 was consumed during the summer, but was emitted during the fall and winter in TSE; consequently, the site acted as a net annual CH4 source. CH4 was steadily consumed during the winter, but CH4 fluxes fluctuated between absorption and emission during the spring and summer in YMS. YMS acted as a net annual CH4 sink. CH4 uptake at the canopy scale generally decreased with rising soil temperature and increased with drying condition for both sites. CH4 flux measured by most of chambers showed the consistent sensitivity examined for the canopy scale to the environmental variables. CH4 fluxes from a few chambers located at a wet condition were independent of variations in soil temperature and moisture at both sites. Magnitude of soil CH4 uptake was higher than the canopy-scale CH4 uptake. Our results showed that the canopy-scale CH4 fluxes were totally different with the plot-scale CH4 fluxes by chambers, suggesting the considerable spatial heterogeneity in CH4 flux at the temperate forests.

  5. Method and Apparatus of Implementing a Magnetic Shield Flux Sweeper

    Sadleir, John E. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method and apparatus of protecting magnetically sensitive devices with a shield, including: a non-superconducting metal or lower transition temperature (T.sub.c) material compared to a higher transition temperature material, disposed in a magnetic field; means for creating a spatially varying order parameter's |.PSI.(r,T)|.sup.2 in a non-superconducting metal or a lower transition temperature material; wherein a spatially varying order parameter is created by a proximity effect, such that the non-superconducting metal or the lower transition temperature material becomes superconductive as a temperature is lowered, creating a flux-free Meissner state at a center thereof, in order to sweep magnetic flux lines to the periphery.

  6. THE BUDGET CLASSIFICATION AS THE BASIS OF THE USAGE OF THE METHOD OF ACCRUAL IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR

    Y. Kaliuha

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Components of the budget classification of Ukraine, which are used for accounting and administration of budgets of different levels, have been investigated. The five-level hierarchy of normative documents in accordance with international practice has been proposed. The analysis of the budget classification of Ukraine and of that one, which has been developed in accordance with the IMF GFSM 2001, has been done as the basis for implementation of the method of accrual in the public sector. Proposals on the improvement of the budget classification and the method of accrual have been made.

  7. Methods and applications in high flux neutron imaging

    Ballhausen, H.

    2007-01-01

    This treatise develops new methods for high flux neutron radiography and high flux neutron tomography and describes some of their applications in actual experiments. Instead of single images, time series can be acquired with short exposure times due to the available high intensity. To best use the increased amount of information, new estimators are proposed, which extract accurate results from the recorded ensembles, even if the individual piece of data is very noisy and in addition severely affected by systematic errors such as an influence of gamma background radiation. The spatial resolution of neutron radiographies, usually limited by beam divergence and inherent resolution of the scintillator, can be significantly increased by scanning the sample with a pinhole-micro-collimator. This technique circumvents any limitations in present detector design and, due to the available high intensity, could be successfully tested. Imaging with scattered neutrons as opposed to conventional total attenuation based imaging determines separately the absorption and scattering cross sections within the sample. For the first time even coherent angle dependent scattering could be visualized space-resolved. New applications of high flux neutron imaging are presented, such as materials engineering experiments on innovative metal joints, time-resolved tomography on multilayer stacks of fuel cells under operation, and others. A new implementation of an algorithm for the algebraic reconstruction of tomography data executes even in case of missing information, such as limited angle tomography, and returns quantitative reconstructions. The setup of the world-leading high flux radiography and tomography facility at the Institut Laue-Langevin is presented. A comprehensive appendix covers the physical and technical foundations of neutron imaging. (orig.)

  8. Flux

    Ravn, Ib

    . FLUX betegner en flyden eller strømmen, dvs. dynamik. Forstår man livet som proces og udvikling i stedet for som ting og mekanik, får man et andet billede af det gode liv end det, som den velkendte vestlige mekanicisme lægger op til. Dynamisk forstået indebærer det gode liv den bedst mulige...... kanalisering af den flux eller energi, der strømmer igennem os og giver sig til kende i vore daglige aktiviteter. Skal vores tanker, handlinger, arbejde, samvær og politiske liv organiseres efter stramme og faste regelsæt, uden slinger i valsen? Eller skal de tværtimod forløbe ganske uhindret af regler og bånd...

  9. Regional nitrogen budgets and riverine N & P fluxes for the drainages to the North Atlantic Ocean: Natural and human influences

    Howarth, R.W.; Billen, G.; Swaney, D.; Townsend, A.; Jaworski, N.; Lajtha, K.; Downing, J.A.; Elmgren, Ragnar; Caraco, N.; Jordan, T.; Berendse, F.; Freney, J.; Kudeyarov, V.; Murdoch, P.; Zhu, Z.-L.

    1996-01-01

    We present estimates of total nitrogen and total phosphorus fluxes in rivers to the North Atlantic Ocean from 14 regions in North America, South America, Europe, and Africa which collectively comprise the drainage basins to the North Atlantic. The Amazon basin dominates the overall phosphorus flux and has the highest phosphorus flux per area. The total nitrogen flux from the Amazon is also large, contributing 3.3 Tg yr-1 out of a total for the entire North Atlantic region of 13.1 Tg yr-1. On a per area basis, however, the largest nitrogen fluxes are found in the highly disturbed watersheds around the North Sea, in northwestern Europe, and in the northeastern U.S., all of which have riverine nitrogen fluxes greater than 1,000 kg N km-2 yr-1. Non-point sources of nitrogen dominate riverine fluxes to the coast in all regions. River fluxes of total nitrogen from the temperate regions of the North Atlantic basin are correlated with population density, as has been observed previously for fluxes of nitrate in the world's major rivers. However, more striking is a strong linear correlation between river fluxes of total nitrogen and the sum of anthropogenically-derived nitrogen inputs to the temperate regions (fertilizer application, human-induced increases in atmospheric deposition of oxidized forms of nitrogen, fixation by leguminous crops, and the import/export of nitrogen in agricultural products). On average, regional nitrogen fluxes in rivers are only 25% of these anthropogenically derived nitrogen inputs. Denitrification in wetlands and aquatic ecosystems is probably the dominant sink, with storage in forests perhaps also of importance. Storage of nitrogen in groundwater, although of importance in some localities, is a very small sink for nitrogen inputs in all regions. Agricultural sources of nitrogen dominate inputs in many regions, particularly the Mississippi basin and the North Sea drainages. Deposition of oxidized nitrogen, primarily of industrial origin, is the

  10. Transfer matrix method for four-flux radiative transfer.

    Slovick, Brian; Flom, Zachary; Zipp, Lucas; Krishnamurthy, Srini

    2017-07-20

    We develop a transfer matrix method for four-flux radiative transfer, which is ideally suited for studying transport through multiple scattering layers. The model predicts the specular and diffuse reflection and transmission of multilayer composite films, including interface reflections, for diffuse or collimated incidence. For spherical particles in the diffusion approximation, we derive closed-form expressions for the matrix coefficients and show remarkable agreement with numerical Monte Carlo simulations for a range of absorption values and film thicknesses, and for an example multilayer slab.

  11. A Family of Multipoint Flux Mixed Finite Element Methods for Elliptic Problems on General Grids

    Wheeler, Mary F.; Xue, Guangri; Yotov, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss a family of multipoint flux mixed finite element (MFMFE) methods on simplicial, quadrilateral, hexahedral, and triangular-prismatic grids. The MFMFE methods are locally conservative with continuous normal fluxes, since

  12. Monte Carlo methods for flux expansion solutions of transport problems

    Spanier, J.

    1999-01-01

    Adaptive Monte Carlo methods, based on the use of either correlated sampling or importance sampling, to obtain global solutions to certain transport problems have recently been described. The resulting learning algorithms are capable of achieving geometric convergence when applied to the estimation of a finite number of coefficients in a flux expansion representation of the global solution. However, because of the nonphysical nature of the random walk simulations needed to perform importance sampling, conventional transport estimators and source sampling techniques require modification to be used successfully in conjunction with such flux expansion methods. It is shown how these problems can be overcome. First, the traditional path length estimators in wide use in particle transport simulations are generalized to include rather general detector functions (which, in this application, are the individual basis functions chosen for the flus expansion). Second, it is shown how to sample from the signed probabilities that arise as source density functions in these applications, without destroying the zero variance property needed to ensure geometric convergence to zero error

  13. Fraud adversely affecting the budget of the Europen Union: the forms, methods and causes

    Zlata Đurđević

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the forms, methods and causes of fraud that are perpetrated to the detriment of the budget of the European Union. The forms in which EU fraud appears are shown according to the criterion of kind of budgetary resource. Crime affecting the budgetary revenue of the EU tends to appear in the form of customs duty-evasion and false declarations concerning the customs-relevant information about goods. Crime adversely affecting the expenditure side of the EU budget appears in the form of subsidy fraud in the area of the Common Agricultural Policy, and subsidy fraud in the area of the structural policies. The methods used for the EU fraud committed and considered in the paper are document forgery, concealment of goods, corruption, violence and fictional business and evasion of the laws. In conclusion an explanation is given of the main exogenous criminogenic factors that lead to the EU frauds commonly perpetrated.

  14. Capital Budgeting: Do Private Sector Methods of Budgeting for Capital Assets Have Applicability to the Department of Defense

    2005-12-01

    asset pricing model ( CAPM ). “According to the CAPM theory, investors determine their required return by adding a risk premium to the interest rate...NUMBER OF PAGES 77 14. SUBJECT TERMS Capital Budgeting; GAO; DOD; Capital Assets ; Risk, OMB; NPV, IRR 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY...needs of the mission, as defined by the strategic plan, and limit the number of “nice to haves” (OMB, 1997). d. Alternatives to Capital Assets

  15. Hafnium at subduction zones: isotopic budget of input and output fluxes; L'hafnium dans les zones de subduction: bilan isotopique des flux entrant et sortant

    Marini, J.Ch

    2004-05-15

    Subduction zones are the primary regions of mass exchanges between continental crust and mantle of Earth through sediment subduction toward the earth's mantle and by supply of mantellic magmas to volcanic arcs. We analyze these mass exchanges using Hafnium and Neodymium isotopes. At the Izu-Mariana subduction zone, subducting sediments have Hf and Nd isotopes equivalent to Pacific seawater. Altered oceanic crust has Hf and Nd isotopic compositions equivalent to the isotopic budget of unaltered Pacific oceanic crust. At Luzon and Java subduction zones, arc lavas present Hf isotopic ratios highly radiogenic in comparison to their Nd isotopic ratios. Such compositions of the Luzon and Java arc lavas are controlled by a contamination of their sources by the subducted oceanic sediments. (author)

  16. Plan Your Advertising Budget.

    Britt, Steuart-Henderson

    1979-01-01

    Methods for establishing an advertising budget are reviewed. They include methods based on percentage of sales or profits, unit of sales, and objective and task. Also discussed are ways to allocate a promotional budget. The most common breakdowns are: departmental budgets, total budget, calendar periods, media, and sales area. (JMD)

  17. Methods of total spectral radiant flux realization at VNIIOFI

    Ivashin, Evgeniy; Lalek, Jan; Rybczyński, Andrzej; Ogarev, Sergey; Khlevnoy, Boris; Dobroserdov, Dmitry; Sapritsky, Victor

    2018-02-01

    VNIIOFI carries out works on realization of independent methods for realization of the total spectral radiant flux (TSRF) of incoherent optical radiation sources - reference high-temperature blackbodies (BB), halogen lamps, and LED with quasi-Lambert spatial distribution of radiance. The paper describes three schemes for measuring facilities using photometers, spectroradiometers and computer-controlled high class goniometer. The paper describes different approaches for TSRF realization at the VNIIOFI National radiometric standard on the basis of high-temperature BB and LED sources, and gonio-spectroradiometer. Further, they are planned to be compared, and the use of fixed-point cells (in particular, based on the high-temperature δ(MoC)-C metal-carbon eutectic with a phase transition temperature of 2583 °C corresponding to the metrological optical “source-A”) as an option instead of the BB is considered in order to enhance calibration accuracy.

  18. Analysis of Source-to-Sink-Fluxes and Sediment Budgets in Changing High-Latitude and High-Altitude Cold Environments: SEDIFLUX Manual

    Beylich, Achim A; Warburton, Jeff

    2007-07-01

    This First Edition of the SEDIFLUX Manual is an outcome of the European Science Foundation (ESF) Network SEDIFLUX - Sedimentary Source-to-Sink-Fluxes in Cold Environments (2004 - 2006) (http://www.ngu.no/sediflux, http://www.esf.org/sediflux). The development of this publication has been based on four ESF SEDIFLUX Science Meetings, which were held in Saudarkrokur (Iceland), June 18. - 21., 2004, Clermont-Ferrand (France), January 20. - 22., 2005, Durham (UK), December 16. - 19., 2005 and Trondheim (Norway), October 29. - November 2., 2006. The aim of this Manual is to provide guidance on developing quantitative frameworks for characterising catchment (field-based) sediment budget studies, so that: (1) baseline measurements at SEDIFLUX/SEDIBUD key test catchments are standardised thus enabling intersite comparisons, and (2) long-term changes in catchment geosystems as related to climate change are well documented. The main focus is on non-glacial processes, although within the context of glacierised catchments glacial sediment transfer processes are assumed as inputs/outputs of the periglacial / paraglacial system. This First Edition of the SEDIFLUX Manual will be further developed within the I.A.G./A.I.G. Working Group SEDIBUD - Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments (http://www.geomorph.org/wg/wgsb.html).(auth)

  19. Digital module for neutron flux measurement by Campbell method

    Baratte, G.

    1987-02-01

    The study reported here concerns a wide range measurement channel for reactor control instrumentation but it may also be useful for specific measurements requiring the Campbell method. A wide range measurement channel allows the processing of the signal issued from a single fission chamber so it's possible to insure control of nuclear reactors in three different running modes: pulse processing, fluctuations and current. The study described in this note includes three parts: - the analogical wide range neutron measurement channel is presented in the first chapter; the fluctuation mode is thoroughly studied; the results of tests and proper limitations of analogical processing are summarized. A theoretical study of the neutron flux measurement by numerical calculation of the fluctuation signal variance is given in the second chapter. The digital module is described in the third chapter; the results of experiments are analysed. The validity of the digital method is proved by means of a practical realisation. The performances obtained with the digital fluctuation test model may be compared with those given by the analogical fluctuation channel which can be used for the control of lower fission rates. The digital module may also be used for any fluctuation measurement where very short response time and broad spectral band of analysis are not strictly necessary [fr

  20. Effect of chamber enclosure time on soil respiration flux: A comparison of linear and non-linear flux calculation methods

    Kandel, Tanka P; Lærke, Poul Erik; Elsgaard, Lars

    2016-01-01

    One of the shortcomings of closed chamber methods for soil respiration (SR) measurements is the decreased CO2 diffusion rate from soil to chamber headspace that may occur due to increased chamber CO2 concentrations. This feedback on diffusion rate may lead to underestimation of pre-deployment flu......One of the shortcomings of closed chamber methods for soil respiration (SR) measurements is the decreased CO2 diffusion rate from soil to chamber headspace that may occur due to increased chamber CO2 concentrations. This feedback on diffusion rate may lead to underestimation of pre...... was placed on fixed collars, and CO2 concentration in the chamber headspace were recorded at 1-s intervals for 45 min. Fluxes were measured in different soil types (sandy, sandy loam and organic soils), and for various manipulations (tillage, rain and drought) and soil conditions (temperature and moisture......) to obtain a range of fluxes with different shapes of flux curves. The linear method provided more stable flux results during short enclosure times (few min) but underestimated initial fluxes by 15–300% after 45 min deployment time. Non-linear models reduced the underestimation as average underestimation...

  1. Use of the Tax Prism Method When Forming Tax Part of the Budget

    Verovska Ludmila

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The tax prism method is developed for the assessment of tax part of the budget as well as for forecasting the influence of tax optimisation on it. There are certain trends in global practice. Developing and transition economies are characterised by low tax burden. Economically developed countries with a high level of social security of population are characterised by high tax burden. The analytical and graphic-analytical research for the purpose of determination of optimum size of the taxation using the tax prism has been conducted. In addition to the concept of ‘tax prism’, concepts such as static and dynamic tax prisms have been introduced, allowing to consider changes in the part of the budget of interest in connection with a possibility of taxation subjects to reduce the size of a tax burden by various methods of tax optimisation, and also to consider the influence of other factors on it. The use of this approach helps effectively to enhance the tax legislation by modelling high-quality and quantitative consequences of one or another changes and innovations.

  2. Beyond annual budgets: carbon flux at different temporal scales in fire-prone Siberian Scots pine forests

    Wirth, C.; Czimczik, C.I.; Schulze, E.D.

    2002-01-01

    Along four chronosequences of fire-prone Siberian Scots pine forests we compared net primary production (NPP) and two different mass-based estimates of net ecosystem productivity (NEP C and NEP S ). NEP C quantifies changes in carbon pools along the chronosequences, whereas NEP S estimates the short-term stand-level carbon balance in intervals between fires. The chronosequences differed in the mean return interval of surface fires (unburned or moderately burned, 40 yr; heavily burned, 25 yr) and site quality (lichen versus Vaccinium type). Of the Vaccinium type (higher site quality) only a moderately burned chronosequence was studied. NEP C was derived from the rate of changes of two major carbon pools along the chronosequence time axes: (1) decomposition of old coarse woody debris (CWD) left from the previous generation after stand-replacing fire, and (2) accumulation of new carbon in biomass, CWD and soil organic layer by the regenerating stand. Young stands of all chronosequences were losing carbon at rates of -4 to -19 mol C/m 2 /yr (-48 to -228 g C/m 2 /yr). Depending on initial CWD pools and site-specific accumulation rates the stands became net carbon sinks after 12 yr (Vaccinium type) to 24 yr (lichen type) following the stand-replacing fire and offset initial carbon losses after 27 and 70 yr, respectively. Highest NEP C was reached in the unburned chronosequence (10.8 mol C/m 2 /yr or 130 g C/m 2 /yr). Maximum NEP C in the burned chronosequences ranged from 1.8 to 5.1 mol C/m 2 /yr (22 to 61 g C/m 2 /yr) depending on site quality and fire regime. Around a stand age of 200 yr NEP C was 1.6 ± 0.6 mol C/m 2 /yr (19 ± 7 g C/m 2 /yr) across all chronosequences. NEP S represents the current stand-level carbon accumulation in intervals between recurring surface fires and can be viewed as a mass-based analogue of net ecosystem exchange measured with flux towers. It was estimated based on measurements of current woody NPP, modelled decomposition of measured CWD

  3. Comparison of sap flux, moisture flux tower and MODIS enhanced vegetation index methods for estimating riparian evapotranspiration

    Nagler, Pamela L.; Glenn, Edward P.; Morino, Kiyomi; Neale, Christopher M.U; Cosh, Michael H.

    2010-01-01

    Riparian evapotranspiration (ET) was measured on a salt cedar (Tamarix spp.) dominated river terrace on the Lower Colorado River from 2007 to 2009 using tissue-heat-balance sap flux sensors at six sites representing very dense, medium dense, and sparse stands of plants. Salt cedar ET varied markedly across sites, and sap flux sensors showed that plants were subject to various degrees of stress, detected as mid-day depression of transpiration and stomatal conductance. Sap flux results were scaled from the leaf level of measurement to the stand level by measuring plant-specific leaf area index and fractional ground cover at each site. Results were compared to Bowen ratio moisture tower data available for three of the sites. Sap flux sensors and flux tower results ranked the sites the same and had similar estimates of ET. A regression equation, relating measured ET of salt cedar and other riparian plants and crops on the Lower Colorado River to the Enhanced Vegetation Index from the MODIS sensor on the Terra satellite and reference crop ET measured at meteorological stations, was able to predict actual ET with an accuracy or uncertainty of about 20%, despite between-site differences for salt cedar. Peak summer salt cedar ET averaged about 6 mm d-1 across sites and methods of measurement.

  4. Evaluation of risk prioritization and budget allocation methods for pollution prevention activities

    Daniels, J.; Jones, E.; Lmont, A.; Ladmn, T.; Watz, J.

    1997-01-01

    This study reviews the structure of two main risk prioritization budget allocation methods developed by the DOE Risk-Based Priority Mode (RPM) and Management Evaluation Matrix (MEM). It identifies potential augmentations to the process that will address both risk reduction and cost-effective investments of finite resources for future Environmental Management activities. The evaluation was performed in accordance with the EM ten-year vision and principles for site cleanup. The evaluation and recommendations in this report strive to reflect four key principles, namely to eliminate the most urgent risks, reduce mortgage and support costs to make funds available for further risk reduction, protect worker health and safety, and reduce the generation of wastes

  5. Theoretical analysis of integral neutron transport equation using collision probability method with quadratic flux approach

    Shafii, Mohammad Ali; Meidianti, Rahma; Wildian,; Fitriyani, Dian; Tongkukut, Seni H. J.; Arkundato, Artoto

    2014-01-01

    Theoretical analysis of integral neutron transport equation using collision probability (CP) method with quadratic flux approach has been carried out. In general, the solution of the neutron transport using the CP method is performed with the flat flux approach. In this research, the CP method is implemented in the cylindrical nuclear fuel cell with the spatial of mesh being conducted into non flat flux approach. It means that the neutron flux at any point in the nuclear fuel cell are considered different each other followed the distribution pattern of quadratic flux. The result is presented here in the form of quadratic flux that is better understanding of the real condition in the cell calculation and as a starting point to be applied in computational calculation

  6. Analysis of the neutron flux in an annular pulsed reactor by using finite volume method

    Silva, Mário A.B. da; Narain, Rajendra; Bezerra, Jair de L., E-mail: mabs500@gmail.com, E-mail: narain@ufpe.br, E-mail: jairbezerra@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia e Geociências. Departamento de Energia Nuclear

    2017-07-01

    Production of very intense neutron sources is important for basic nuclear physics and for material testing and isotope production. Nuclear reactors have been used as sources of intense neutron fluxes, although the achievement of such levels is limited by the inability to remove fission heat. Periodic pulsed reactors provide very intense fluxes by a rotating modulator near a subcritical core. A concept for the production of very intense neutron fluxes that combines features of periodic pulsed reactors and steady state reactors was proposed by Narain (1997). Such a concept is known as Very Intense Continuous High Flux Pulsed Reactor (VICHFPR) and was analyzed by using diffusion equation with moving boundary conditions and Finite Difference Method with Crank-Nicolson formalism. This research aims to analyze the flux distribution in the Very Intense Continuous Flux High Pulsed Reactor (VICHFPR) by using the Finite Volume Method and compares its results with those obtained by the previous computational method. (author)

  7. Theoretical analysis of integral neutron transport equation using collision probability method with quadratic flux approach

    Shafii, Mohammad Ali, E-mail: mashafii@fmipa.unand.ac.id; Meidianti, Rahma, E-mail: mashafii@fmipa.unand.ac.id; Wildian,, E-mail: mashafii@fmipa.unand.ac.id; Fitriyani, Dian, E-mail: mashafii@fmipa.unand.ac.id [Department of Physics, Andalas University Padang West Sumatera Indonesia (Indonesia); Tongkukut, Seni H. J. [Department of Physics, Sam Ratulangi University Manado North Sulawesi Indonesia (Indonesia); Arkundato, Artoto [Department of Physics, Jember University Jember East Java Indonesia (Indonesia)

    2014-09-30

    Theoretical analysis of integral neutron transport equation using collision probability (CP) method with quadratic flux approach has been carried out. In general, the solution of the neutron transport using the CP method is performed with the flat flux approach. In this research, the CP method is implemented in the cylindrical nuclear fuel cell with the spatial of mesh being conducted into non flat flux approach. It means that the neutron flux at any point in the nuclear fuel cell are considered different each other followed the distribution pattern of quadratic flux. The result is presented here in the form of quadratic flux that is better understanding of the real condition in the cell calculation and as a starting point to be applied in computational calculation.

  8. Analysis of the neutron flux in an annular pulsed reactor by using finite volume method

    Silva, Mário A.B. da; Narain, Rajendra; Bezerra, Jair de L.

    2017-01-01

    Production of very intense neutron sources is important for basic nuclear physics and for material testing and isotope production. Nuclear reactors have been used as sources of intense neutron fluxes, although the achievement of such levels is limited by the inability to remove fission heat. Periodic pulsed reactors provide very intense fluxes by a rotating modulator near a subcritical core. A concept for the production of very intense neutron fluxes that combines features of periodic pulsed reactors and steady state reactors was proposed by Narain (1997). Such a concept is known as Very Intense Continuous High Flux Pulsed Reactor (VICHFPR) and was analyzed by using diffusion equation with moving boundary conditions and Finite Difference Method with Crank-Nicolson formalism. This research aims to analyze the flux distribution in the Very Intense Continuous Flux High Pulsed Reactor (VICHFPR) by using the Finite Volume Method and compares its results with those obtained by the previous computational method. (author)

  9. A Spatial-Temporal Comparison of Lake Mendota CO2 Fluxes and Collection Methods

    Baldocchi, A. K.; Reed, D. E.; Desai, A. R.; Loken, L. C.; Schramm, P.; Stanley, E. H.

    2017-12-01

    Monitoring of carbon fluxes at the lake/atmosphere interface can help us determine baselines from which to understand responses in both space and time that may result from our warming climate or increasing nutrient inputs. Since recent research has shown lakes to be hotspots of global carbon cycling, it is important to quantify carbon sink and source dynamics as well as to verify observations between multiple methods in the context of long-term data collection efforts. Here we evaluate a new method for measuring space and time variation in CO2 fluxes based on novel speedboat-based collection method of aquatic greenhouse gas concentrations and a flux computation and interpolation algorithm. Two-hundred and forty-nine consecutive days of spatial flux maps over the 2016 open ice period were compared to ongoing eddy covariance tower flux measurements on the shore of Lake Mendota, Wisconsin US using a flux footprint analysis. Spatial and temporal alignments of the fluxes from these two observational datasets revealed both similar trends from daily to seasonal timescales as well as biases between methods. For example, throughout the Spring carbon fluxes showed strong correlation although off by an order of magnitude. Isolating physical patterns of agreement between the two methods of the lake/atmosphere CO2 fluxes allows us to pinpoint where biology and physical drivers contribute to the global carbon cycle and help improve modelling of lakes and utilize lakes as leading indicators of climate change.

  10. A method for accounting for maintenance costs in flux balance analysis improves the prediction of plant cell metabolic phenotypes under stress conditions.

    Cheung, C Y Maurice; Williams, Thomas C R; Poolman, Mark G; Fell, David A; Ratcliffe, R George; Sweetlove, Lee J

    2013-09-01

    Flux balance models of metabolism generally utilize synthesis of biomass as the main determinant of intracellular fluxes. However, the biomass constraint alone is not sufficient to predict realistic fluxes in central heterotrophic metabolism of plant cells because of the major demand on the energy budget due to transport costs and cell maintenance. This major limitation can be addressed by incorporating transport steps into the metabolic model and by implementing a procedure that uses Pareto optimality analysis to explore the trade-off between ATP and NADPH production for maintenance. This leads to a method for predicting cell maintenance costs on the basis of the measured flux ratio between the oxidative steps of the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway and glycolysis. We show that accounting for transport and maintenance costs substantially improves the accuracy of fluxes predicted from a flux balance model of heterotrophic Arabidopsis cells in culture, irrespective of the objective function used in the analysis. Moreover, when the new method was applied to cells under control, elevated temperature and hyper-osmotic conditions, only elevated temperature led to a substantial increase in cell maintenance costs. It is concluded that the hyper-osmotic conditions tested did not impose a metabolic stress, in as much as the metabolic network is not forced to devote more resources to cell maintenance. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. An analytical transport theory method for calculating flux distribution in slab cells

    Abdel Krim, M.S.

    2001-01-01

    A transport theory method for calculating flux distributions in slab fuel cell is described. Two coupled integral equations for flux in fuel and moderator are obtained; assuming partial reflection at moderator external boundaries. Galerkin technique is used to solve these equations. Numerical results for average fluxes in fuel and moderator and the disadvantage factor are given. Comparison with exact numerical methods, that is for total reflection moderator outer boundaries, show that the Galerkin technique gives accurate results for the disadvantage factor and average fluxes. (orig.)

  12. Description of heat flux measurement methods used in hydrocarbon and propellant fuel fires at Sandia.

    Nakos, James Thomas

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the methods commonly used to measure heat flux in fire applications at Sandia National Laboratories in both hydrocarbon (JP-8 jet fuel, diesel fuel, etc.) and propellant fires. Because these environments are very severe, many commercially available heat flux gauges do not survive the test, so alternative methods had to be developed. Specially built sensors include 'calorimeters' that use a temperature measurement to infer heat flux by use of a model (heat balance on the sensing surface) or by using an inverse heat conduction method. These specialty-built sensors are made rugged so they will survive the environment, so are not optimally designed for ease of use or accuracy. Other methods include radiometers, co-axial thermocouples, directional flame thermometers (DFTs), Sandia 'heat flux gauges', transpiration radiometers, and transverse Seebeck coefficient heat flux gauges. Typical applications are described and pros and cons of each method are listed.

  13. Integration of Flux-Based Methods and Triad Principles for DNAPL Site Management, Part II: Review of Flux Measurement Methods

    Managing dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) contaminated sites continues to be among the most pressing environmental problems currently faced. One approach that has recently been investigated for use in DNAPL site characterization and remediation is mass flux (mass per unit ar...

  14. Comparison between different methods of measurement of momentum and sensible heat fluxes over canopies

    Marc Aubinet

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Différent methods of measurement of momentum and sensible heat flux densifies are presented and compared above a gras covered fallow. The aerodynamic (AD and eddy covariance (EC methods are presented and compared for both momentum and sensible heat measurements. In addition, the temperature fluctuation (TF method is compared to the HEC method for the sensible heat flux measurement. The AD and EC methods are in good agreement for the momentum flux measurements. For the sensible heat flux, the AD method is very sensible to temperature errors. So it is unusable during night and gives biased estimations during the day. The TF method gives only estimations of the sensible heat flux. It is in good agreement with the EC method during the day but diverges completely during night, being unable to disceming positive from négative fluxes. From the three methods, the EC method is the sole that allows to measure continuously both momentum and sensible heat flux but it requires a loud data treatment. We présent in this paper the algorithm used for this treatment.

  15. A scalar flux - oriented method for the transport equation in slab geometry

    Budd, C.

    1981-01-01

    A new method for solving the neutron transport equation is described. An unusual feature of this method is that it deals principally with scalar fluxes rather than angular fluxes. An alternative approach in slab geometry promises to be cheaper to run and does not suffer from many of the problems of the discrete ordinates method. It also appears possible to extend the method to several dimensions and this is discussed. (U.K.)

  16. Carbon fluxes and the carbon budget in agroecosystems on agro-gray soils of the forest-steppe in the Baikal region

    Pomazkina, L. V.; Sokolova, L. G.; Zvyagintseva, E. N.

    2013-06-01

    Field studies devoted to the transformation of the carbon cycle in agroecosystems on agro-gray soils (including soils contaminated with fluorides from aluminum smelters) in dependence on the changes in the hydrothermic conditions were performed for the first time within the framework of the long-term (1996-2010) soil monitoring in the forest-steppe zone of the Baikal region. The major attention was paid to the impact of the environmental factors on the synthesis and microbial destruction of organic carbon compounds. Certain differences in the fluxes and budget of carbon were found for the plots with cereal and row crops and for the permanent and annual fallow plots. The adverse effect of fluorides manifested itself in the enhanced C-CO2 emission under unfavorable water and temperature conditions. The long-term average C-CO2 emission from the soils contaminated with fluorides in agroecosystems with wheat after fallow was higher than that from the uncontaminated soil (179 and 198 g of C/m2, respectively) and higher than that in the agroecosystems with a potato monoculture (129 and 141 g of C/m2, respectively). At the same time, no significant variations in the content of the carbon of the microbial biomass (Cmicr) in dependence on the environmental factors were found. The utilization of carbon for respiration and for growth of the soil microorganisms on the contaminated soil were unbalanced in particular years and for the entire period of the observations. The ratio between the fluxes of the net mineralized and re-immobilized carbon was used for the integral assessment of the functioning regime of the agroecosystems and the loads on them. Independently from the soil contamination with fluorides, the loads on the agroecosystems with wheat were close to the maximum permissible value, and the loads on the agroecosystems with potatoes were permissible. It was shown that the carbon deficit in the uncontaminated soils was similar under the wheat and potatoes (-30 and -28 g

  17. Quantifying and reducing the differences in forest CO2-fluxes estimated by eddy covariance, biometric and chamber methods: A global synthesis

    Wang, Xingchang; Wang, Chuankuan; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin

    2017-12-15

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere are primarily measured with eddy covariance (EC), biometric, and chamber methods. However, it is unclear why the estimates of CO2-fluxes, when measured using these different methods, converge at some sites but diverge at others. We synthesized a novel global dataset of forest CO2-fluxes to evaluate the consistency between EC and biometric or chamber methods for quantifying CO2 budget in forests. The EC approach, comparing with the other two methods, tended to produce 25% higher estimate of net ecosystem production (NEP, 0.52Mg C ha-1 yr-1), mainly resulting from lower EC-estimated Re; 10% lower ecosystem respiration (Re, 1.39Mg C ha-1 yr-1); and 3% lower gross primary production (0.48 Mg C ha-1 yr-1) The discrepancies between EC and the other methods were higher at sites with complex topography and dense canopies versus those with flat topography and open canopies. Forest age also influenced the discrepancy through the change of leaf area index. The open-path EC system induced >50% of the discrepancy in NEP, presumably due to its surface heating effect. These results provided strong evidence that EC produces biased estimates of NEP and Re in forest ecosystems. A global extrapolation suggested that the discrepancies in CO2 fluxes between methods were consistent with a global underestimation of Re, and overestimation of NEP, by the EC method. Accounting for these discrepancies would substantially improve the our estimates of the terrestrial carbon budget .

  18. Online In-Core Thermal Neutron Flux Measurement for the Validation of Computational Methods

    Mohamad Hairie Rabir; Muhammad Rawi Mohamed Zin; Yahya Ismail

    2016-01-01

    In order to verify and validate the computational methods for neutron flux calculation in RTP calculations, a series of thermal neutron flux measurement has been performed. The Self Powered Neutron Detector (SPND) was used to measure thermal neutron flux to verify the calculated neutron flux distribution in the TRIGA reactor. Measurements results obtained online for different power level of the reactor. The experimental results were compared to the calculations performed with Monte Carlo code MCNP using detailed geometrical model of the reactor. The calculated and measured thermal neutron flux in the core are in very good agreement indicating that the material and geometrical properties of the reactor core are modelled well. In conclusion one can state that our computational model describes very well the neutron flux distribution in the reactor core. Since the computational model properly describes the reactor core it can be used for calculations of reactor core parameters and for optimization of RTP utilization. (author)

  19. Measurement of absolute neutron flux in LWSCR based on the nuclear track method

    Sadeghzadeh, J.; Nassiri Mofakham, N.; Khajehmiri, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Up to now the spectral parameters of thermal neutrons are measured with activation foils that are not always reliable in low flux systems. ► We applied a solid state nuclear track detector to measure the absolute neutron flux in the light water sub-critical reactor (LWSCR). ► Experiments concerning fission track detecting were performed and were investigated using the Monte Carlo code MCNP. ► The neutron fluxes obtained in experiment are in fairly good agreement with the results obtained by MCNP. - Abstract: In the present paper, a solid state nuclear track detector is applied to measure the absolute neutron flux in the light water sub-critical reactor (LWSCR) in Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI). Up to now, the spectral parameters of thermal neutrons have been measured with activation foils that are not always reliable in low flux systems. The method investigated here is the irradiation method. Experiments concerning fission track detecting were performed. The experiment including neutron flux calculation method has also been investigated using the Monte Carlo code MCNP. The analysis shows that the values of neutron flux obtained by experiment are in fairly good agreement with the results obtained by MCNP. Thus, this method may be able to predict the absolute value of neutron flux at LWSCR and other similar reactors.

  20. Flux schemes based finite volume method for internal transonic flow with condensation

    Halama, Jan; Benkhaldoun, F.; Fořt, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 8 (2011), s. 953-968 ISSN 0271-2091 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : VFFC flux * SRNH flux * two-phase homogeneous flow * fractional step method * condensation Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.176, year: 2011

  1. Methods to assess high-resolution subsurface gas concentrations and gas fluxes in wetland ecosystems

    Elberling, Bo; Kühl, Michael; Glud, Ronnie Nøhr

    2013-01-01

    The need for measurements of soil gas concentrations and surface fluxes of greenhouse gases at high temporal and spatial resolution in wetland ecosystem has lead to the introduction of several new analytical techniques and methods. In addition to the automated flux chamber methodology for high-re...

  2. Evaluating the convergence between eddy-covariance and biometric methods for assessing carbon budgets of forests

    Campioli, M.; Malhi, Y.; Vicca, S.; Luyssaert, S.; Papale, D.; Peñuelas, J.; Reichstein, M.; Migliavacca, M.; Arain, M. A.; Janssens, I. A.

    2016-01-01

    The eddy-covariance (EC) micro-meteorological technique and the ecology-based biometric methods (BM) are the primary methodologies to quantify CO2 exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere (net ecosystem production, NEP) and its two components, ecosystem respiration and gross primary production. Here we show that EC and BM provide different estimates of NEP, but comparable ecosystem respiration and gross primary production for forest ecosystems globally. Discrepancies between methods are not related to environmental or stand variables, but are consistently more pronounced for boreal forests where carbon fluxes are smaller. BM estimates are prone to underestimation of net primary production and overestimation of leaf respiration. EC biases are not apparent across sites, suggesting the effectiveness of standard post-processing procedures. Our results increase confidence in EC, show in which conditions EC and BM estimates can be integrated, and which methodological aspects can improve the convergence between EC and BM. PMID:27966534

  3. Evaluating the convergence between eddy-covariance and biometric methods for assessing carbon budgets of forests

    Campioli, M.; Malhi, Y.; Vicca, S.; Luyssaert, S.; Papale, D.; Peñuelas, J.; Reichstein, M.; Migliavacca, M.; Arain, M. A.; Janssens, I. A.

    2016-12-01

    The eddy-covariance (EC) micro-meteorological technique and the ecology-based biometric methods (BM) are the primary methodologies to quantify CO2 exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere (net ecosystem production, NEP) and its two components, ecosystem respiration and gross primary production. Here we show that EC and BM provide different estimates of NEP, but comparable ecosystem respiration and gross primary production for forest ecosystems globally. Discrepancies between methods are not related to environmental or stand variables, but are consistently more pronounced for boreal forests where carbon fluxes are smaller. BM estimates are prone to underestimation of net primary production and overestimation of leaf respiration. EC biases are not apparent across sites, suggesting the effectiveness of standard post-processing procedures. Our results increase confidence in EC, show in which conditions EC and BM estimates can be integrated, and which methodological aspects can improve the convergence between EC and BM.

  4. The calculation of neutron flux using Monte Carlo method

    Günay, Mehtap; Bardakçı, Hilal

    2017-09-01

    In this study, a hybrid reactor system was designed by using 99-95% Li20Sn80 + 1-5% RG-Pu, 99-95% Li20Sn80 + 1-5% RG-PuF4, and 99-95% Li20Sn80 + 1-5% RG-PuO2 fluids, ENDF/B-VII.0 evaluated nuclear data library and 9Cr2WVTa structural material. The fluids were used in the liquid first wall, liquid second wall (blanket) and shield zones of a fusion-fission hybrid reactor system. The neutron flux was calculated according to the mixture components, radial, energy spectrum in the designed hybrid reactor system for the selected fluids, library and structural material. Three-dimensional nucleonic calculations were performed using the most recent version MCNPX-2.7.0 the Monte Carlo code.

  5. Comparison of ecosystem water flux measured with the Eddy covariance- and the direct xylem sap flux method in a mountainous forest

    Stefanicki, G; Geissbuehler, P; Siegwolf, R [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    The Eddy covariance technique allows to measure different components of turbulent air fluxes, including the flow of water vapour. Sap flux measurements determine directly the water flow in tree stems. We compared the water flux just above the crowns of trees in a forest by the technique of Eddy covariance and the water flux by the xylem sap flux method. These two completely different approaches showed a good qualitative correspondence. The correlation coefficient is 0.8. With an estimation of the crown diameter of the measured tree we also find a very good quantitative agreement. (author) 3 figs., 5 refs.

  6. Tabular method of critical heat flux description in square packing rod bundles

    Bobkov, V.P.; Smogalev, I.P.

    2003-01-01

    Elaborations of harnessing tabular method for the description and calculation of critical heat fluxes in square packing rod bundles are presented. The tabular method for fuel rod triangular assemblies derived from using basic table for critical heat fluxes in triangular fuel assemblies demonstrates good results. For the harnessing tabular method in square packing rod bundles correction functions reflecting specific geometry were found. Comparative evaluations of calculated values for the critical heat fluxes with experimental ones are presented. Good agreement of calculations with experiments is noted in all range of parameters [ru

  7. Measurement of Critical Heat Flux Using the Transient Inverse Heat Conduction Method in Spray cooling

    Kim, Yeung Chan

    2016-01-01

    A study on the measurement of critical heat flux using the transient inverse heat conduction method in spray cooling was performed. The inverse heat conduction method estimates the surface heat flux or temperature using a measured interior temperature history. The effects of the measuring time interval and location of temperature measurement on the measurement of critical heat flux were primarily investigated. The following results were obtained. The estimated critical heat flux decreased as the time interval of temperature measurement increased. Meanwhile, the effect of measurement location on critical heat flux was not significant. It was also found, from the experimental results, that the critical superheat increased as the measurement location of thermocouple neared the heat transfer surface.

  8. Measurement of Critical Heat Flux Using the Transient Inverse Heat Conduction Method in Spray cooling

    Kim, Yeung Chan [Andong Nat’l Univ., Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    A study on the measurement of critical heat flux using the transient inverse heat conduction method in spray cooling was performed. The inverse heat conduction method estimates the surface heat flux or temperature using a measured interior temperature history. The effects of the measuring time interval and location of temperature measurement on the measurement of critical heat flux were primarily investigated. The following results were obtained. The estimated critical heat flux decreased as the time interval of temperature measurement increased. Meanwhile, the effect of measurement location on critical heat flux was not significant. It was also found, from the experimental results, that the critical superheat increased as the measurement location of thermocouple neared the heat transfer surface.

  9. Quantitative method for measuring heat flux emitted from a cryogenic object

    Duncan, R.V.

    1993-03-16

    The present invention is a quantitative method for measuring the total heat flux, and of deriving the total power dissipation, of a heat-fluxing object which includes the steps of placing an electrical noise-emitting heat-fluxing object in a liquid helium bath and measuring the superfluid transition temperature of the bath. The temperature of the liquid helium bath is thereafter reduced until some measurable parameter, such as the electrical noise, exhibited by the heat-fluxing object or a temperature-dependent resistive thin film in intimate contact with the heat-fluxing object, becomes greatly reduced. The temperature of the liquid helum bath is measured at this point. The difference between the superfluid transition temperature of the liquid helium bath surrounding the heat-fluxing object, and the temperature of the liquid helium bath when the electrical noise emitted by the heat-fluxing object becomes greatly reduced, is determined. The total heat flux from the heat-fluxing object is determined as a function of this difference between these temperatures. In certain applications, the technique can be used to optimize thermal design parameters of cryogenic electronics, for example, Josephson junction and infrared sensing devices.

  10. Quantitative method for measuring heat flux emitted from a cryogenic object

    Duncan, R.V.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is a quantitative method for measuring the total heat flux, and of deriving the total power dissipation, of a heat-fluxing object which includes the steps of placing an electrical noise-emitting heat-fluxing object in a liquid helium bath and measuring the superfluid transition temperature of the bath. The temperature of the liquid helium bath is thereafter reduced until some measurable parameter, such as the electrical noise, exhibited by the heat-fluxing object or a temperature-dependent resistive thin film in intimate contact with the heat-fluxing object, becomes greatly reduced. The temperature of the liquid helum bath is measured at this point. The difference between the superfluid transition temperature of the liquid helium bath surrounding the heat-fluxing object, and the temperature of the liquid helium bath when the electrical noise emitted by the heat-fluxing object becomes greatly reduced, is determined. The total heat flux from the heat-fluxing object is determined as a function of this difference between these temperatures. In certain applications, the technique can be used to optimize thermal design parameters of cryogenic electronics, for example, Josephson junction and infrared sensing devices

  11. TORT/MCNP coupling method for the calculation of neutron flux around a core of BWR

    Kurosawa, M.

    2005-01-01

    For the analysis of BWR neutronics performance, accurate data are required for neutron flux distribution over the In-Reactor Pressure Vessel equipments taking into account the detailed geometrical arrangement. The TORT code can calculate neutron flux around a core of BWR in a three-dimensional geometry model, but has difficulties in fine geometrical modelling and lacks huge computer resource. On the other hand, the MCNP code enables the calculation of the neutron flux with a detailed geometry model, but requires very long sampling time to give enough number of particles. Therefore, a TORT/MCNP coupling method has been developed to eliminate the two problems mentioned above in each code. In this method, the TORT code calculates angular flux distribution on the core surface and the MCNP code calculates neutron spectrum at the points of interest using the flux distribution. The coupling method will be used as the DOT-DOMINO-MORSE code system. This TORT/MCNP coupling method was applied to calculate the neutron flux at points where induced radioactivity data were measured for 54 Mn and 60 Co and the radioactivity calculations based on the neutron flux obtained from the above method were compared with the measured data. (authors)

  12. TORT/MCNP coupling method for the calculation of neutron flux around a core of BWR.

    Kurosawa, Masahiko

    2005-01-01

    For the analysis of BWR neutronics performance, accurate data are required for neutron flux distribution over the In-Reactor Pressure Vessel equipments taking into account the detailed geometrical arrangement. The TORT code can calculate neutron flux around a core of BWR in a three-dimensional geometry model, but has difficulties in fine geometrical modelling and lacks huge computer resource. On the other hand, the MCNP code enables the calculation of the neutron flux with a detailed geometry model, but requires very long sampling time to give enough number of particles. Therefore, a TORT/MCNP coupling method has been developed to eliminate the two problems mentioned above in each code. In this method, the TORT code calculates angular flux distribution on the core surface and the MCNP code calculates neutron spectrum at the points of interest using the flux distribution. The coupling method will be used as the DOT-DOMINO-MORSE code system. This TORT/MCNP coupling method was applied to calculate the neutron flux at points where induced radioactivity data were measured for 54Mn and 60Co and the radioactivity calculations based on the neutron flux obtained from the above method were compared with the measured data.

  13. Theoretical simulation of the dual-heat-flux method in deep body temperature measurements.

    Huang, Ming; Chen, Wenxi

    2010-01-01

    Deep body temperature reveals individual physiological states, and is important in patient monitoring and chronobiological studies. An innovative dual-heat-flux method has been shown experimentally to be competitive with the conventional zero-heat-flow method in its performance, in terms of measurement accuracy and step response to changes in the deep temperature. We have utilized a finite element method to model and simulate the dynamic process of a dual-heat-flux probe in deep body temperature measurements to validate the fundamental principles of the dual-heat-flux method theoretically, and to acquire a detailed quantitative description of the thermal profile of the dual-heat-flux probe. The simulation results show that the estimated deep body temperature is influenced by the ambient temperature (linearly, at a maximum rate of 0.03 °C/°C) and the blood perfusion rate. The corresponding depth of the estimated temperature in the skin and subcutaneous tissue layer is consistent when using the dual-heat-flux probe. Insights in improving the performance of the dual-heat-flux method were discussed for further studies of dual-heat-flux probes, taking into account structural and geometric considerations.

  14. Budget Options

    2000-01-01

    This volume-part of the Congressional Budget Office's (CBO's) annual report to the House and Senate Committees on the Budget-is intended to help inform policymakers about options for the federal budget...

  15. Coupling multipoint flux mixed finite element methodswith continuous Galerkin methods for poroelasticity

    Wheeler, Mary; Xue, Guangri; Yotov, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    We study the numerical approximation on irregular domains with general grids of the system of poroelasticity, which describes fluid flow in deformable porous media. The flow equation is discretized by a multipoint flux mixed finite element method

  16. Proposal for a new method of reactor neutron flux distribution determination

    Popic, V R [Institute of nuclear sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1964-01-15

    A method, based on the measurements of the activity produced in a medium flowing with variable velocity through a reactor, for the determination of the neutron flux distribution inside a reactor is considered theoretically (author)

  17. Heat flux estimation in an infrared experimental furnace using an inverse method

    Le Bideau, P.; Ploteau, J.P.; Glouannec, P.

    2009-01-01

    Infrared emitters are widely used in industrial furnaces for thermal treatment. In these processes, the knowledge of the incident heat flux on the surface of the product is a primary step to optimise the command emitters and for maintenance shift. For these reasons, it is necessary to develop autonomous flux meters that could provide an answer to these requirements. These sensors must give an in-line distribution of infrared irradiation in the tunnel furnace and must be able to measure high heat flux in severe thermal environments. In this paper we present a method for in-line assessments solving an inverse heat conduction problem. A metallic mass is instrumented by thermocouples and an inverse method allows the incident heat flux to be estimated. In the first part, attention is focused on a new design tool, which is a numerical code, for the evaluation of potential options during captor conception. In the second part we present the realization and the test of this 'indirect' flux meter and its associated inverse problem. 'Direct' detectors based on thermoelectric devices are compared with this new flux meter in the same conditions in the same furnace. Results prove that this technique is a reliable method, appropriate for high temperature ambiances. This technique can be applied to furnaces where the heat flux is inaccessible to 'direct' measurements.

  18. A method to derive fixed budget results from expected optimisation times

    Doerr, Benjamin; Jansen, Thomas; Witt, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    At last year's GECCO a novel perspective for theoretical performance analysis of evolutionary algorithms and other randomised search heuristics was introduced that concentrates on the expected function value after a pre-defined number of steps, called budget. This is significantly different from...... the common perspective where the expected optimisation time is analysed. While there is a huge body of work and a large collection of tools for the analysis of the expected optimisation time the new fixed budget perspective introduces new analytical challenges. Here it is shown how results on the expected...... optimisation time that are strengthened by deviation bounds can be systematically turned into fixed budget results. We demonstrate our approach by considering the (1+1) EA on LeadingOnes and significantly improving previous results. We prove that deviating from the expected time by an additive term of ω(n3...

  19. Turbulent heat fluxes by profile and inertial dissipation methods: analysis of the atmospheric surface layer from shipboard measurements during the SOFIA/ASTEX and SEMAPHORE experiments

    H. Dupuis

    Full Text Available Heat flux estimates obtained using the inertial dissipation method, and the profile method applied to radiosonde soundings, are assessed with emphasis on the parameterization of the roughness lengths for temperature and specific humidity. Results from the inertial dissipation method show a decrease of the temperature and humidity roughness lengths for increasing neutral wind speed, in agreement with previous studies. The sensible heat flux estimates were obtained using the temperature estimated from the speed of sound determined by a sonic anemometer. This method seems very attractive for estimating heat fluxes over the ocean. However allowance must be made in the inertial dissipation method for non-neutral stratification. The SOFIA/ASTEX and SEMAPHORE results show that, in unstable stratification, a term due to the transport terms in the turbulent kinetic energy budget, has to be included in order to determine the friction velocity with better accuracy. Using the profile method with radiosonde data, the roughness length values showed large scatter. A reliable estimate of the temperature roughness length could not be obtained. The humidity roughness length values were compatible with those found using the inertial dissipation method.

  20. Turbulent heat fluxes by profile and inertial dissipation methods: analysis of the atmospheric surface layer from shipboard measurements during the SOFIA/ASTEX and SEMAPHORE experiments

    H. Dupuis

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available Heat flux estimates obtained using the inertial dissipation method, and the profile method applied to radiosonde soundings, are assessed with emphasis on the parameterization of the roughness lengths for temperature and specific humidity. Results from the inertial dissipation method show a decrease of the temperature and humidity roughness lengths for increasing neutral wind speed, in agreement with previous studies. The sensible heat flux estimates were obtained using the temperature estimated from the speed of sound determined by a sonic anemometer. This method seems very attractive for estimating heat fluxes over the ocean. However allowance must be made in the inertial dissipation method for non-neutral stratification. The SOFIA/ASTEX and SEMAPHORE results show that, in unstable stratification, a term due to the transport terms in the turbulent kinetic energy budget, has to be included in order to determine the friction velocity with better accuracy. Using the profile method with radiosonde data, the roughness length values showed large scatter. A reliable estimate of the temperature roughness length could not be obtained. The humidity roughness length values were compatible with those found using the inertial dissipation method.

  1. Turbulent heat fluxes by profile and inertial dissipation methods: analysis of the atmospheric surface layer from shipboard measurements during the SOFIA/ASTEX and SEMAPHORE experiments

    Dupuis, Hélène; Weill, Alain; Katsaros, Kristina; Taylor, Peter K.

    1995-10-01

    Heat flux estimates obtained using the inertial dissipation method, and the profile method applied to radiosonde soundings, are assessed with emphasis on the parameterization of the roughness lengths for temperature and specific humidity. Results from the inertial dissipation method show a decrease of the temperature and humidity roughness lengths for increasing neutral wind speed, in agreement with previous studies. The sensible heat flux estimates were obtained using the temperature estimated from the speed of sound determined by a sonic anemometer. This method seems very attractive for estimating heat fluxes over the ocean. However allowance must be made in the inertial dissipation method for non-neutral stratification. The SOFIA/ASTEX and SEMAPHORE results show that, in unstable stratification, a term due to the transport terms in the turbulent kinetic energy budget, has to be included in order to determine the friction velocity with better accuracy. Using the profile method with radiosonde data, the roughness length values showed large scatter. A reliable estimate of the temperature roughness length could not be obtained. The humidity roughness length values were compatible with those found using the inertial dissipation method.

  2. A prediction method of the effect of radial heat flux distribution on critical heat flux in CANDU fuel bundles

    Yuan, Lan Qin; Yang, Jun; Harrison, Noel

    2014-01-01

    Fuel irradiation experiments to study fuel behaviors have been performed in the experimental loops of the National Research Universal (NRU) Reactor at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) in support of the development of new fuel technologies. Before initiating a fuel irradiation experiment, the experimental proposal must be approved to ensure that the test fuel strings put into the NRU loops meet safety margin requirements in critical heat flux (CHF). The fuel strings in irradiation experiments can have varying degrees of fuel enrichment and burnup, resulting in large variations in radial heat flux distribution (RFD). CHF experiments performed in Freon flow at CRL for full-scale bundle strings with a number of RFDs showed a strong effect of RFD on CHF. A prediction method was derived based on experimental CHF data to account for the RFD effect on CHF. It provides good CHF predictions for various RFDs as compared to the data. However, the range of the tested RFDs in the CHF experiments is not as wide as that required in the fuel irradiation experiments. The applicability of the prediction method needs to be examined for the RFDs beyond the range tested by the CHF experiments. The Canadian subchannel code ASSERT-PV was employed to simulate the CHF behavior for RFDs that would be encountered in fuel irradiation experiments. The CHF predictions using the derived method were compared with the ASSERT simulations. It was observed that the CHF predictions agree well with the ASSERT simulations in terms of CHF, confirming the applicability of the prediction method in fuel irradiation experiments. (author)

  3. A new method for simultaneous measurement of convective and radiative heat flux in car underhood applications

    Khaled, M; Garnier, B; Peerhossaini, H; Harambat, F

    2010-01-01

    A new experimental technique is presented that allows simultaneous measurement of convective and radiative heat flux in the underhood. The goal is to devise an easily implemented and accurate experimental method for application in the vehicle underhood compartment. The new method is based on a technique for heat-flux measurement developed by the authors (Heat flow (flux) sensors for measurement of convection, conduction and radiation heat flow 27036-2, © Rhopoint Components Ltd, Hurst Green, Oxted, RH8 9AX, UK) that uses several thermocouples in the thickness of a thermal resistive layer (foil heat-flux sensor). The method proposed here uses a pair of these thermocouples with different radiative properties. Measurements validating this novel technique are carried out on a flat plate with a prescribed constant temperature in both natural- and forced-convection flow regimes. The test flat plate is instrumented by this new technique, and also with a different technique that is intrusive but very accurate, used as reference here (Bardon J P and Jarny Y 1994 Procédé et dispositif de mesure transitoire de température et flux surfacique Brevet n°94.011996, 22 February). Discrepancies between the measurements by the two techniques are less than 10% for both convective and radiative heat flux. Error identification and sensitivity analysis of the new method are also presented

  4. Development of High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) subcriticality monitoring methods

    Rothrock, R.B.

    1991-01-01

    Use of subcritical source multiplication measurements during refueling has been investigated as a possible replacement for out-of-reactor subcriticality measurements formerly made on fresh HFIR fuel elements at the ORNL Critical Experiment Facility. These measurements have been used in the past for preparation of estimated critical rod positions, and as a partial verification, prior to reactor startup, that the requirements for operational shutdown margin would be met. Results of subcritical count rate data collection during recent HFIR refuelings and supporting calculations are described illustrating the intended measurement method and its expected uncertainty. These results are compared to historical uses of the out-of-reactor core measurements and their accuracy requirements, and a planned in-reactor test is described which will establish the sensitivity of the method and calibrate it for future routine use during HFIR refueling. 2 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  5. The Vertical Flux Method (VFM) for regional estimates of temporally and spatially varying nitrate fluxes in unsaturated zone and groundwater

    Green, C. T.; Liao, L.; Nolan, B. T.; Juckem, P. F.; Ransom, K.; Harter, T.

    2017-12-01

    Process-based modeling of regional NO3- fluxes to groundwater is critical for understanding and managing water quality. Measurements of atmospheric tracers of groundwater age and dissolved-gas indicators of denitrification progress have potential to improve estimates of NO3- reactive transport processes. This presentation introduces a regionalized version of a vertical flux method (VFM) that uses simple mathematical estimates of advective-dispersive reactive transport with regularization procedures to calibrate estimated tracer concentrations to observed equivalents. The calibrated VFM provides estimates of chemical, hydrologic and reaction parameters (source concentration time series, recharge, effective porosity, dispersivity, reaction rate coefficients) and derived values (e.g. mean unsaturated zone travel time, eventual depth of the NO3- front) for individual wells. Statistical learning methods are used to extrapolate parameters and predictions from wells to continuous areas. The regional VFM was applied to 473 well samples in central-eastern Wisconsin. Chemical measurements included O2, NO3-, N2 from denitrification, and atmospheric tracers of groundwater age including carbon-14, chlorofluorocarbons, tritium, and triogiogenic helium. VFM results were consistent with observed chemistry, and calibrated parameters were in-line with independent estimates. Results indicated that (1) unsaturated zone travel times were a substantial portion of the transit time to wells and streams (2) fractions of N leached to groundwater have changed over time, with increasing fractions from manure and decreasing fractions from fertilizer, and (3) under current practices and conditions, 60% of the shallow aquifer will eventually be affected by NO3- contamination. Based on GIS coverages of variables related to soils, land use and hydrology, the VFM results at individual wells were extrapolated regionally using boosted regression trees, a statistical learning approach, that related

  6. A Family of Multipoint Flux Mixed Finite Element Methods for Elliptic Problems on General Grids

    Wheeler, Mary F.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss a family of multipoint flux mixed finite element (MFMFE) methods on simplicial, quadrilateral, hexahedral, and triangular-prismatic grids. The MFMFE methods are locally conservative with continuous normal fluxes, since they are developed within a variational framework as mixed finite element methods with special approximating spaces and quadrature rules. The latter allows for local flux elimination giving a cell-centered system for the scalar variable. We study two versions of the method: with a symmetric quadrature rule on smooth grids and a non-symmetric quadrature rule on rough grids. Theoretical and numerical results demonstrate first order convergence for problems with full-tensor coefficients. Second order superconvergence is observed on smooth grids. © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Improved vertical streambed flux estimation using multiple diurnal temperature methods in series

    Irvine, Dylan J.; Briggs, Martin A.; Cartwright, Ian; Scruggs, Courtney; Lautz, Laura K.

    2017-01-01

    Analytical solutions that use diurnal temperature signals to estimate vertical fluxes between groundwater and surface water based on either amplitude ratios (Ar) or phase shifts (Δϕ) produce results that rarely agree. Analytical solutions that simultaneously utilize Ar and Δϕ within a single solution have more recently been derived, decreasing uncertainty in flux estimates in some applications. Benefits of combined (ArΔϕ) methods also include that thermal diffusivity and sensor spacing can be calculated. However, poor identification of either Ar or Δϕ from raw temperature signals can lead to erratic parameter estimates from ArΔϕ methods. An add-on program for VFLUX 2 is presented to address this issue. Using thermal diffusivity selected from an ArΔϕ method during a reliable time period, fluxes are recalculated using an Ar method. This approach maximizes the benefits of the Ar and ArΔϕ methods. Additionally, sensor spacing calculations can be used to identify periods with unreliable flux estimates, or to assess streambed scour. Using synthetic and field examples, the use of these solutions in series was particularly useful for gaining conditions where fluxes exceeded 1 m/d.

  8. Neutron flux measurement with 6Li and 7Li dual glass scintillators by γ compensation method

    Ji Changsong; Zhang Shulan; Zhang Shuheng

    1996-01-01

    Based on the characteristics of 6 Li glass scintillator which is sensitive to both neutron and gamma rays, and 7 Li glass scintillator which is sensitive to gamma rays only, a new method of detecting weak neutron flux under interference of strong gamma radiation has been investigated by means of 6 Li- 7 Li pair glass scintillator gamma compensation method. The result of neutron flux measurement by above-mentioned method with an error of about 1% when the gamma ray interference is up to 18.7% has been obtained

  9. Neutron flux measurement with 6Li and 7Li dual glass scintillators by γ compensation method

    Ji Changsong; Zhang Shulan; Zhang Shuheng

    1998-01-01

    Based on the characteristics of 6 Li glass scintillator which is sensitive to both neutron and gamma rays, and 7 Li glass scintillator which is sensitive to gamma rays only, a new method of detecting weak neutron flux under interference of strong gamma radiation has been investigated by mans of 6 Li- 7 Li dual glass scintillator gamma compensation method. The result of neutron flux measurement by above-mentioned method with an error of about 1% when the gamma ray interference is up to 18.7% has been obtained

  10. The assessment of water vapour and carbon dioxide fluxes above arable crops - a comparison of methods

    Schaaf, S.; Daemmgen, U.; Burkart, S. [Federal Agricultural Research Centre, Inst. of Agroecology, Braunschweig (Germany); Gruenhage, L. [Justus-Liebig-Univ., Inst. for Plant Ecology, Giessen (Germany)

    2005-04-01

    Vertical fluxes of water vapour and carbon dioxide obtained from gradient, eddy covariance (closed and open path systems) and chamber measurements above arable crops were compared with the directly measured energy balance and the harvested net biomass carbon. The gradient and chamber measurements were in the correct order of magnitude, whereas the closed path eddy covariance system showed unacceptably small fluxes. Correction methods based on power spectra analysis yielded increased fluxes. However, the energy balance could not be closed satisfactorily. The application of the open path system proved to be successful. The SVAT model PLATIN which had been adapted to various arable crops was able to depict the components of the energy balance adequately. Net carbon fluxes determined with the corrected closed path data sets, chamber, and SVAT model equal those of the harvested carbon. (orig.)

  11. Gas-Kinetic Theory Based Flux Splitting Method for Ideal Magnetohydrodynamics

    Xu, Kun

    1998-01-01

    A gas-kinetic solver is developed for the ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations. The new scheme is based on the direct splitting of the flux function of the MHD equations with the inclusion of "particle" collisions in the transport process. Consequently, the artificial dissipation in the new scheme is much reduced in comparison with the MHD Flux Vector Splitting Scheme. At the same time, the new scheme is compared with the well-developed Roe-type MHD solver. It is concluded that the kinetic MHD scheme is more robust and efficient than the Roe- type method, and the accuracy is competitive. In this paper the general principle of splitting the macroscopic flux function based on the gas-kinetic theory is presented. The flux construction strategy may shed some light on the possible modification of AUSM- and CUSP-type schemes for the compressible Euler equations, as well as to the development of new schemes for a non-strictly hyperbolic system.

  12. An inverse hyperbolic heat conduction problem in estimating surface heat flux by the conjugate gradient method

    Huang, C.-H.; Wu, H.-H.

    2006-01-01

    In the present study an inverse hyperbolic heat conduction problem is solved by the conjugate gradient method (CGM) in estimating the unknown boundary heat flux based on the boundary temperature measurements. Results obtained in this inverse problem will be justified based on the numerical experiments where three different heat flux distributions are to be determined. Results show that the inverse solutions can always be obtained with any arbitrary initial guesses of the boundary heat flux. Moreover, the drawbacks of the previous study for this similar inverse problem, such as (1) the inverse solution has phase error and (2) the inverse solution is sensitive to measurement error, can be avoided in the present algorithm. Finally, it is concluded that accurate boundary heat flux can be estimated in this study

  13. Effect of flux discontinuity on spatial approximations for discrete ordinates methods

    Duo, J.I.; Azmy, Y.Y.

    2005-01-01

    This work presents advances on error analysis of the spatial approximation of the discrete ordinates method for solving the neutron transport equation. Error norms for different non-collided flux problems over a two dimensional pure absorber medium are evaluated using three numerical methods. The problems are characterized by the incoming flux boundary conditions to obtain solutions with different level of differentiability. The three methods considered are the Diamond Difference (DD) method, the Arbitrarily High Order Transport method of the Nodal type (AHOT-N), and of the Characteristic type (AHOT-C). The last two methods are employed in constant, linear and quadratic orders of spatial approximation. The cell-wise error is computed as the difference between the cell-averaged flux computed by each method and the exact value, then the L 1 , L 2 , and L ∞ error norms are calculated. The results of this study demonstrate that the level of differentiability of the exact solution profoundly affects the rate of convergence of the numerical methods' solutions. Furthermore, in the case of discontinuous exact flux the methods fail to converge in the maximum error norm, or in the pointwise sense, in accordance with previous local error analysis. (authors)

  14. Testing an inversion method for estimating electron energy fluxes from all-sky camera images

    N. Partamies

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available An inversion method for reconstructing the precipitating electron energy flux from a set of multi-wavelength digital all-sky camera (ASC images has recently been developed by tomografia. Preliminary tests suggested that the inversion is able to reconstruct the position and energy characteristics of the aurora with reasonable accuracy. This study carries out a thorough testing of the method and a few improvements for its emission physics equations. We compared the precipitating electron energy fluxes as estimated by the inversion method to the energy flux data recorded by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP satellites during four passes over auroral structures. When the aurorae appear very close to the local zenith, the fluxes inverted from the blue (427.8nm filtered ASC images or blue and green line (557.7nm images together give the best agreement with the measured flux values. The fluxes inverted from green line images alone are clearly larger than the measured ones. Closer to the horizon the quality of the inversion results from blue images deteriorate to the level of the ones from green images. In addition to the satellite data, the precipitating electron energy fluxes were estimated from the electron density measurements by the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR. These energy flux values were compared to the ones of the inversion method applied to over 100 ASC images recorded at the nearby ASC station in Longyearbyen. The energy fluxes deduced from these two types of data are in general of the same order of magnitude. In 35% of all of the blue and green image inversions the relative errors were less than 50% and in 90% of the blue and green image inversions less than 100%. This kind of systematic testing of the inversion method is the first step toward using all-sky camera images in the way in which global UV images have recently been used to estimate the energy fluxes. The advantages of ASCs, compared to the space-born imagers, are

  15. Isotope Methods in Determining The Water Budget Elements; Su Buetcesi Elemanlarinin Bulunmasinda Izotop Yoentemi

    Oezaydin, V [DSI, Technical Research and Quality Control Department, Ankara (Turkey)

    2002-07-01

    One of the main aims of the water engineers is the determination of the inflows to and outflows from a natural or artificial lake. According to the classical water balance equation inflows (precipitation on the lake surface, surface and subsurface inflows) mines the outflows (evaporation from lake surface, surface and subsurface outflows) should be equal to the volume change in a specified time interval. With the classical water budget equation it is possible to determine the total absolute subsurface inflow mines outflow but it is not possible to determine them separately. The two unknowns could be determined with one more equation. The isotopes, oxygen-18, deuterium or tritium, which are naturally present in water, could provide the extra equation by writing the isotopic mass balance equation. In this study, the theoretical background of isotope technique and application to Mogan Lake, will be presented which is used in determining the water budget of lakes.

  16. A transmission probability method for calculation of neutron flux distributions in hexagonal geometry

    Wasastjerna, F.; Lux, I.

    1980-03-01

    A transmission probability method implemented in the program TPHEX is described. This program was developed for the calculation of neutron flux distributions in hexagonal light water reactor fuel assemblies. The accuracy appears to be superior to diffusion theory, and the computation time is shorter than that of the collision probability method. (author)

  17. Multiobjective flux balancing using the NISE method for metabolic network analysis.

    Oh, Young-Gyun; Lee, Dong-Yup; Lee, Sang Yup; Park, Sunwon

    2009-01-01

    Flux balance analysis (FBA) is well acknowledged as an analysis tool of metabolic networks in the framework of metabolic engineering. However, FBA has a limitation for solving a multiobjective optimization problem which considers multiple conflicting objectives. In this study, we propose a novel multiobjective flux balance analysis method, which adapts the noninferior set estimation (NISE) method (Solanki et al., 1993) for multiobjective linear programming (MOLP) problems. NISE method can generate an approximation of the Pareto curve for conflicting objectives without redundant iterations of single objective optimization. Furthermore, the flux distributions at each Pareto optimal solution can be obtained for understanding the internal flux changes in the metabolic network. The functionality of this approach is shown by applying it to a genome-scale in silico model of E. coli. Multiple objectives for the poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)] production are considered simultaneously, and relationships among them are identified. The Pareto curve for maximizing succinic acid production vs. maximizing biomass production is used for the in silico analysis of various combinatorial knockout strains. This proposed method accelerates the strain improvement in the metabolic engineering by reducing computation time of obtaining the Pareto curve and analysis time of flux distribution at each Pareto optimal solution. (c) 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2009.

  18. A method to calculate flux distribution in reactor systems containing materials with grain structure

    Stepanek, J.

    1980-01-01

    A method is proposed to compute the neutron flux spatial distribution in slab, spherical or cylindrical systems containing zones with close grain structure of material. Several different types of equally distributed particles embedded in the matrix material are allowed in one or more zones. The multi-energy group structure of the flux is considered. The collision probability method is used to compute the fluxes in the grains and in an ''effective'' part of the matrix material. Then the overall structure of the flux distribution in the zones with homogenized materials is determined using the DPN ''surface flux'' method. Both computations are connected using the balance equation during the outer iterations. The proposed method is written in the code SURCU-DH. Two testcases are computed and discussed. One testcase is the computation of the eigenvalue in simplified slab geometry of an LWR container of one zone with boral grains equally distributed in an aluminium matrix. The second is the computation of the eigenvalue in spherical geometry of the HTR pebble-bed cell with spherical particles embedded in a graphite matrix. The results are compared to those obtained by repeated use of the WIMS Code. (author)

  19. Two-wavelength Method Estimates Heat fluxes over Heterogeneous Surface in North-China

    Zhang, G.; Zheng, N.; Zhang, J.

    2017-12-01

    Heat fluxes is a key process of hydrological and heat transfer of soil-plant-atmosphere continuum (SPAC), and now it is becoming an important topic in meteorology, hydrology, ecology and other related research areas. Because the temporal and spatial variation of fluxes at regional scale is very complicated, it is still difficult to measure fluxes at the kilometer scale over a heterogeneous surface. A technique called "two-wavelength method" which combines optical scintillometer with microwave scintillometer is able to measure both sensible and latent heat fluxes over large spatial scales at the same time. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the fluxes over non-uniform terrain in North-China. Estimation of heat fluxes was carried out with the optical-microwave scintillometer and an eddy covariance (EC) system over heterogeneous surface in Tai Hang Mountains, China. EC method was set as a benchmark in the study. Structure parameters obtained from scintillometer showed that the typical measurement values of Cn2 are around 10-13 m-2/3 for microwave scintillometer, and values of Cn2 were around 10-15 m-2/3 for optical scintillometer. The correlation of heat fluxes (H) derived from scintillometer and EC system showed as a ratio of 1.05,and with R2=0.75, while the correlation of latent heat fluxes (LE) showed as 1.29 with R2=0.67. It was also found that heat fluxes derived from the two system showed good agreement (R2=0.9 for LE, R2=0.97 for H) when the Bowen ratio (β) was 1.03, while discrepancies showed significantly when β=0.75, and RMSD in H was 139.22 W/m2, 230.85 W/m2 in LE respectively.Experiment results in our research shows that, the two-wavelength method gives a larger heat fluxes over the study area, and a deeper study should be conduct. We expect that our investigate and analysis can be promoted the application of scintillometry method in regional evapotranspiration measurements and relevant disciplines.

  20. The analysis of RPV fast neutron flux calculation for PWR with three-dimensional SN method

    Yang Shouhai; Chen Yixue; Wang Weijin; Shi Shengchun; Lu Daogang

    2011-01-01

    Discrete ordinates (S N ) method is one of the most widely used method for reactor pressure vessel (RPV) design. As the fast development of computer CPU speed and memory capacity and consummation of three-dimensional discrete-ordinates method, it is mature for 3-D S N method to be used to engineering design for nuclear facilities. This work was done specifically for PWR model, with the results of 3-D core neutron transport calculation by 3-D core calculation, 3-D RPV fast neutron flux distribution obtain by 3-D S N method were compared with gained by 1-D and 2-D S N method and the 3-D Monte Carlo (MC) method. In this paper, the application of three-dimensional S N method in calculating RPV fast neutron flux distribution for pressurized water reactor (PWR) is presented and discussed. (authors)

  1. A path flux analysis method for the reduction of detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms

    Sun, Wenting; Ju, Yiguang [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Chen, Zheng [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex Systems, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Gou, Xiaolong [School of Power Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2010-07-15

    A direct path flux analysis (PFA) method for kinetic mechanism reduction is proposed and validated by using high temperature ignition, perfect stirred reactors, and steady and unsteady flame propagations of n-heptane and n-decane/air mixtures. The formation and consumption fluxes of each species at multiple reaction path generations are analyzed and used to identify the important reaction pathways and the associated species. The formation and consumption path fluxes used in this method retain flux conservation information and are used to define the path indexes for the first and the second generation reaction paths related to a targeted species. Based on the indexes of each reaction path for the first and second generations, different sized reduced chemical mechanisms which contain different number of species are generated. The reduced mechanisms of n-heptane and n-decane obtained by using the present method are compared to those generated by the direct relation graph (DRG) method. The reaction path analysis for n-decane is conducted to demonstrate the validity of the present method. The comparisons of the ignition delay times, flame propagation speeds, flame structures, and unsteady spherical flame propagation processes showed that with either the same or significantly less number of species, the reduced mechanisms generated by the present PFA are more accurate than that of DRG in a broad range of initial pressures and temperatures. The method is also integrated with the dynamic multi-timescale method and a further increase of computation efficiency is achieved. (author)

  2. A diffusion-theoretical method to calculate the neutron flux distribution in multisphere configurations

    Schuerrer, F.

    1980-01-01

    For characterizing heterogene configurations of pebble-bed reactors the fine structure of the flux distribution as well as the determination of the macroscopic neutronphysical quantities are of interest. When calculating system parameters of Wigner-Seitz-cells the usual codes for neutron spectra calculation always neglect the modulation of the neutron flux by the influence of neighbouring spheres. To judge the error arising from that procedure it is necessary to determinate the flux distribution in the surrounding of a spherical fuel element. In the present paper an approximation method to calculate the flux distribution in the two-sphere model is developed. This method is based on the exactly solvable problem of the flux determination of a point source of neutrons in an infinite medium, which contains a spherical perturbation zone eccentric to the point source. An iteration method allows by superposing secondary fields and alternately satisfying the conditions of continuity on the surface of each of the two fuel elements to advance to continually improving approximations. (orig.) 891 RW/orig. 892 CKA [de

  3. Comparison of eddy covariance and modified Bowen ratio methods for measuring gas fluxes and implications for measuring fluxes of persistent organic pollutants

    D. J. Bolinius

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Semi-volatile persistent organic pollutants (POPs cycle between the atmosphere and terrestrial surfaces; however measuring fluxes of POPs between the atmosphere and other media is challenging. Sampling times of hours to days are required to accurately measure trace concentrations of POPs in the atmosphere, which rules out the use of eddy covariance techniques that are used to measure gas fluxes of major air pollutants. An alternative, the modified Bowen ratio (MBR method, has been used instead. In this study we used data from FLUXNET for CO2 and water vapor (H2O to compare fluxes measured by eddy covariance to fluxes measured with the MBR method using vertical concentration gradients in air derived from averaged data that simulate the long sampling times typically required to measure POPs. When concentration gradients are strong and fluxes are unidirectional, the MBR method and the eddy covariance method agree within a factor of 3 for CO2, and within a factor of 10 for H2O. To remain within the range of applicability of the MBR method, field studies should be carried out under conditions such that the direction of net flux does not change during the sampling period. If that condition is met, then the performance of the MBR method is neither strongly affected by the length of sample duration nor the use of a fixed value for the transfer coefficient.

  4. Inter-comparison of different direct and indirect methods to determine radon flux from soil

    Grossi, C.; Vargas, A.; Camacho, A.; Lopez-Coto, I.; Bolivar, J.P.; Xia Yu; Conen, F.

    2011-01-01

    The physical and chemical characteristics of radon gas make it a good tracer for use in the application of atmospheric transport models. For this purpose the radon source needs to be known on a global scale and this is difficult to achieve by only direct experimental methods. However, indirect methods can provide radon flux maps on larger scales, but their reliability has to be carefully checked. It is the aim of this work to compare radon flux values obtained by direct and indirect methods in a measurement campaign performed in the summer of 2008. Different systems to directly measure radon flux from the soil surface and to measure the related parameters terrestrial γ dose and 226 Ra activity in soil, for indirect estimation of radon flux, were tested. Four eastern Spanish sites with different geological and soil characteristics were selected: Teruel, Los Pedrones, Quintanar de la Orden and Madrid. The study shows the usefulness of both direct and indirect methods for obtaining radon flux data. Direct radon flux measurements by continuous and integrated monitors showed a coefficient of variation between 10% and 23%. At the same time, indirect methods based on correlations between 222 Rn and terrestrial γ dose rate, or 226 Ra activity in soil, provided results similar to the direct measurements, when these proxies were directly measured at the site. Larger discrepancies were found when proxy values were extracted from existing data bases. The participating members involved in the campaign study were the Institute of Energy Technology (INTE) of the Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), Huelva University (UHU), and Basel University (BASEL).

  5. Late Budgets

    Andersen, Asger Lau; Lassen, David Dreyer; Nielsen, Lasse Holbøll Westh

    are negative rather than positive; and when there is divided government. We test the hypotheses of the model using a unique data set of late budgets for US state governments, based on dates of budget approval collected from news reports and a survey of state budget o¢ cers for the period 1988...

  6. Digital signal processing control of induction machine`s torque and stator flux utilizing the direct stator flux field orientation method

    Seiz, Julie Burger [Union College, Schenectady, NY (United States)

    1997-04-01

    This paper presents a review of the Direct Stator Flux Field Orientation control method. This method can be used to control an induction motor`s torque and flux directly and is the application of interest for this thesis. This control method is implemented without the traditional feedback loops and associated hardware. Predictions are made, by mathematical calculations, of the stator voltage vector. The voltage vector is determined twice a switching period. The switching period is fixed throughout the analysis. The three phase inverter duty cycle necessary to control the torque and flux of the induction machine is determined by the voltage space vector Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) technique. Transient performance of either the flux or torque requires an alternate modulation scheme which is also addressed in this thesis. A block diagram of this closed loop system is provided. 22 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. Downwelling Longwave Fluxes at Continental Surfaces-A Comparison of Observations with GCM Simulations and Implications for the Global Land-Surface Radiation Budget.

    Garratt, J. R.; Prata, A. J.

    1996-03-01

    Previous work suggests that general circulation (global climate) models have excess net radiation at land surfaces, apparently due to overestimates in downwelling shortwave flux and underestimates in upwelling long-wave flux. Part of this excess, however, may be compensated for by an underestimate in downwelling longwave flux. Long term observations of the downwelling longwave component at several land stations in Europe, the United States, Australia, and Antarctica suggest that climate models (four are used, as in previous studies) underestimate this flux component on an annual basis by up to 10 W m2, yet with low statistical significance. It is probable that the known underestimate in boundary-layer air temperature contributes to this, as would low model cloudiness and neglect of minor gases such as methane, nitrogen oxide, and the freons. The bias in downwelling longwave flux, together with those found earlier for downwelling shortwave and upwlling long-wave fluxes, are consistent with the model bias found previously for net radiation. All annually averaged fluxes and biases are deduced for global land as a whole.

  8. Pellet by pellet neutron flux calculations coupled with nodal expansion method

    Aldo, Dall'Osso

    2003-01-01

    We present a technique whose aim is to replace 2-dimensional pin by pin de-homogenization, currently done in core reactor calculations with the nodal expansion method (NEM), by a 3-dimensional finite difference diffusion calculation. This fine calculation is performed as a zoom in each node taking as boundary conditions the results of the NEM calculations. The size of fine mesh is of the order of a fuel pellet. The coupling between fine and NEM calculations is realised by an albedo like boundary condition. Some examples are presented showing fine neutron flux shape near control rods or assembly grids. Other fine flux behaviour as the thermal flux rise in the fuel near the reflector is emphasised. In general the results show the interest of the method in conditions where the separability of radial and axial directions is not granted. (author)

  9. Operational budgeting using fuzzy goal programming

    Saeed Mohammadi; Kamran Feizi; Ali Khatami Firouz Abadi

    2013-01-01

    Having an efficient budget normally has different advantages such as measuring the performance of various organizations, setting appropriate targets and promoting managers based on their achievements. However, any budgeting planning requires prediction of different cost components. There are various methods for budgeting planning such as incremental budgeting, program budgeting, zero based budgeting and performance budgeting. In this paper, we present a fuzzy goal programming to estimate oper...

  10. Method to eliminate flux linkage DC component in load transformer for static transfer switch.

    He, Yu; Mao, Chengxiong; Lu, Jiming; Wang, Dan; Tian, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Many industrial and commercial sensitive loads are subject to the voltage sags and interruptions. The static transfer switch (STS) based on the thyristors is applied to improve the power quality and reliability. However, the transfer will result in severe inrush current in the load transformer, because of the DC component in the magnetic flux generated in the transfer process. The inrush current which is always 2 ~ 30 p.u. can cause the disoperation of relay protective devices and bring potential damage to the transformer. The way to eliminate the DC component is to transfer the related phases when the residual flux linkage of the load transformer and the prospective flux linkage of the alternate source are equal. This paper analyzes how the flux linkage of each winding in the load transformer changes in the transfer process. Based on the residual flux linkage when the preferred source is completely disconnected, the method to calculate the proper time point to close each phase of the alternate source is developed. Simulation and laboratory experiments results are presented to show the effectiveness of the transfer method.

  11. The carbon budget of the North Sea

    Thomas, H.; Bozec, Y.; Baar, H.J.W. de; Elkalay, K.; Frankignoulle, M.; Schiettecatte, L.-S.; Kattner, G.; Borges, A.V.; Gattuso, J.-P.

    2005-01-01

    A carbon budget has been established for the North Sea, a shelf sea on the NW European continental shelf. The carbon exchange fluxes with the North Atlantic Ocean dominate the gross carbon budget. The net carbon budget – more relevant to the issue of the contribution of the coastal ocean to the

  12. A multigrid Newton-Krylov method for flux-limited radiation diffusion

    Rider, W.J.; Knoll, D.A.; Olson, G.L.

    1998-01-01

    The authors focus on the integration of radiation diffusion including flux-limited diffusion coefficients. The nonlinear integration is accomplished with a Newton-Krylov method preconditioned with a multigrid Picard linearization of the governing equations. They investigate the efficiency of the linear and nonlinear iterative techniques

  13. A Method for the neutron flux determination during the activation process

    Maayouf, R.M.A.; Khalil, M.I.

    2000-01-01

    The present work deals with an accurate method for determining the neutron flux coming out from a neutron source during the experimental measurements. Accordingly, a suitable detector, followed by preamplifier and amplifier, is connected to a data acquisition system designed specially for this purpose; and the number of neutrons detected during every sampling period is stored in the PC. The historical file can be used to compute the average or the integral flux during any time period; considering the detector efficiency, geometrical arrangement and the amplification gain

  14. Comparison of regional and ecosystem CO2 fluxes

    Gryning, Sven-Erik; Søgaard, Henrik; Batchvarova, Ekaterina

    2009-01-01

    A budget method to derive the regional surface flux of CO2 from the evolution of the boundary layer is presented and applied. The necessary input for the method can be deduced from a combination of vertical profile measurements of CO2 concentrations by i.e. an airplane, successive radio-soundings......A budget method to derive the regional surface flux of CO2 from the evolution of the boundary layer is presented and applied. The necessary input for the method can be deduced from a combination of vertical profile measurements of CO2 concentrations by i.e. an airplane, successive radio...

  15. A Method to Assess Flux Hazards at CSP Plants to Reduce Avian Mortality

    Ho, Clifford K.; Wendelin, Timothy; Horstman, Luke; Yellowhair, Julius

    2017-06-27

    A method to evaluate avian flux hazards at concentrating solar power plants (CSP) has been developed. A heat-transfer model has been coupled to simulations of the irradiance in the airspace above a CSP plant to determine the feather temperature along prescribed bird flight paths. Probabilistic modeling results show that the irradiance and assumed feather properties (thickness, absorptance, heat capacity) have the most significant impact on the simulated feather temperature, which can increase rapidly (hundreds of degrees Celsius in seconds) depending on the parameter values. The avian flux hazard model is being combined with a plant performance model to identify alternative heliostat standby aiming strategies that minimize both avian flux hazards and negative impacts on plant performance.

  16. HNO3 fluxes to a deciduous forest derived using gradient and REA methods

    Pryor, S.C.; Barthelmie, R.J.; Jensen, B.

    2002-01-01

    Summertime nitric acid concentrations over a deciduous forest in the midwestern United States are reported, which range between 0.36 and 3.3 mug m(-3). Fluxes to the forest are computed using the relaxed eddy accumulation technique and gradient methods. In accord with previous studies, the results...... indicate substantial uncertainties in the gradient-based calculations. The relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) derived fluxes are physically reasonable and are shown to be of similar magnitude to dry deposition estimates from gradient sampling. The REA derived mean deposition velocity is approximately 3 cm s......(-1), which is also comparable to growing season estimates derived by Meyers et al. for a similar deciduous forest. Occasional inverted concentration gradients and fluxes are observed but most are not statistically significant. Data are also presented that indicate substantial through canopy...

  17. Standard Test Method for Measuring Heat Flux Using Flush-Mounted Insert Temperature-Gradient Gages

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes the measurement of the net heat flux normal to a surface using gages inserted flush with the surface. The geometry is the same as heat-flux gages covered by Test Method E 511, but the measurement principle is different. The gages covered by this standard all use a measurement of the temperature gradient normal to the surface to determine the heat that is exchanged to or from the surface. Although in a majority of cases the net heat flux is to the surface, the gages operate by the same principles for heat transfer in either direction. 1.2 This general test method is quite broad in its field of application, size and construction. Two different gage types that are commercially available are described in detail in later sections as examples. A summary of common heat-flux gages is given by Diller (1). Applications include both radiation and convection heat transfer. The gages used for aerospace applications are generally small (0.155 to 1.27 cm diameter), have a fast time response ...

  18. [CO2 flux characteristics and their influence on the carbon budget of a larch plantation in Maoershan region of Northeast China].

    Qiu, Ling; Zu, Yuan-Gang; Wang, Wen-Jie; Sun, Wei; Su, Dong-Xue; Zheng, Guang-Yu

    2011-01-01

    From January to December 2008, the CO2 flux in a larch plantation (Larix gmeilinii) in Maoershan region of Shangzhi County, Heilongliang Province was measured by eddy covanance method, and the diurnal changes of leaf photosynthetic rate were measured in growth season (from May to October). There existed differences in the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of the plantation in different time periods under the effects of environmental factors. In the afternoon (12:00-24:00), the NEE changed more slowly with the variation of vapor pressure deficit (VPD) than in the morning (0:00-12:00); and in the morning, tbe light use efficiency was 0.6284 mol x mol(-1), 14% more than that in afternoon. The NEE increased with increasing temperature, and the increment in the morning was 50% higher than that in the afternoon (air temperature > 15 degrees C). These differences in responding to environmental changes led to 88% NEE implemented in the morning, and only 12% NEE implemented in the afternoon. The annual gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) in the morning took a percentage of 60%, and that in afternoon took 40%. These findings were supported by the observation at leaf level, i.e., on average of whole growth season, the leaf photosynthetic capacity in the morning was over 2-fold higher than that in afternoon. Generally, the annual NEE, ecosystem respiration (Re), and GEP of the plantation in 2008 were 263-264 g C x m(-2), 718-725 g C x m(-2), and 981-989 g C x m(-2), respectively.

  19. An analog computer method for solving flux distribution problems in multi region nuclear reactors

    Radanovic, L; Bingulac, S; Lazarevic, B; Matausek, M [Boris Kidric Institute of Nuclear Sciences Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1963-04-15

    The paper describes a method developed for determining criticality conditions and plotting flux distribution curves in multi region nuclear reactors on a standard analog computer. The method, which is based on the one-dimensional two group treatment, avoids iterative procedures normally used for boundary value problems and is practically insensitive to errors in initial conditions. The amount of analog equipment required is reduced to a minimum and is independent of the number of core regions and reflectors. (author)

  20. Operational budgeting using fuzzy goal programming

    Saeed Mohammadi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Having an efficient budget normally has different advantages such as measuring the performance of various organizations, setting appropriate targets and promoting managers based on their achievements. However, any budgeting planning requires prediction of different cost components. There are various methods for budgeting planning such as incremental budgeting, program budgeting, zero based budgeting and performance budgeting. In this paper, we present a fuzzy goal programming to estimate operational budget. The proposed model uses fuzzy triangular as well as interval number to estimate budgeting expenses. The proposed study of this paper is implemented for a real-world case study in province of Qom, Iran and the results are analyzed.

  1. Determining Accuracy of Thermal Dissipation Methods-based Sap Flux in Japanese Cedar Trees

    Su, Man-Ping; Shinohara, Yoshinori; Laplace, Sophie; Lin, Song-Jin; Kume, Tomonori

    2017-04-01

    Thermal dissipation method, one kind of sap flux measurement method that can estimate individual tree transpiration, have been widely used because of its low cost and uncomplicated operation. Although thermal dissipation method is widespread, the accuracy of this method is doubted recently because some tree species materials in previous studies were not suitable for its empirical formula from Granier due to difference of wood characteristics. In Taiwan, Cryptomeria japonica (Japanese cedar) is one of the dominant species in mountainous area, quantifying the transpiration of Japanese cedar trees is indispensable to understand water cycling there. However, no one have tested the accuracy of thermal dissipation methods-based sap flux for Japanese cedar trees in Taiwan. Thus, in this study we conducted calibration experiment using twelve Japanese cedar stem segments from six trees to investigate the accuracy of thermal dissipation methods-based sap flux in Japanese cedar trees in Taiwan. By pumping water from segment bottom to top and inserting probes into segments to collect data simultaneously, we compared sap flux densities calculated from real water uptakes (Fd_actual) and empirical formula (Fd_Granier). Exact sapwood area and sapwood depth of each sample were obtained from dying segment with safranin stain solution. Our results showed that Fd_Granier underestimated 39 % of Fd_actual across sap flux densities ranging from 10 to 150 (cm3m-2s-1); while applying sapwood depth corrected formula from Clearwater, Fd_Granier became accurately that only underestimated 0.01 % of Fd_actual. However, when sap flux densities ranging from 10 to 50 (cm3m-2s-1)which is similar with the field data of Japanese cedar trees in a mountainous area of Taiwan, Fd_Granier underestimated 51 % of Fd_actual, and underestimated 26 % with applying Clearwater sapwood depth corrected formula. These results suggested sapwood depth significantly impacted on the accuracy of thermal dissipation

  2. Systematic assembly homogenization and local flux reconstruction for nodal method calculations of fast reactor power distributions

    Dorning, J.J.

    1991-01-01

    A simultaneous pin lattice cell and fuel bundle homogenization theory has been developed for use with nodal diffusion calculations of practical reactors. The theoretical development of the homogenization theory, which is based on multiple-scales asymptotic expansion methods carried out through fourth order in a small parameter, starts from the transport equation and systematically yields: a cell-homogenized bundled diffusion equation with self-consistent expressions for the cell-homogenized cross sections and diffusion tensor elements; and a bundle-homogenized global reactor diffusion equation with self-consistent expressions for the bundle-homogenized cross sections and diffusion tensor elements. The continuity of the angular flux at cell and bundle interfaces also systematically yields jump conditions for the scaler flux or so-called flux discontinuity factors on the cell and bundle interfaces in terms of the two adjacent cell or bundle eigenfunctions. The expressions required for the reconstruction of the angular flux or the 'de-homogenization' theory were obtained as an integral part of the development; hence the leading order transport theory angular flux is easily reconstructed throughout the reactor including the regions in the interior of the fuel bundles or computational nodes and in the interiors of the pin lattice cells. The theoretical development shows that the exact transport theory angular flux is obtained to first order from the whole-reactor nodal diffusion calculations, done using the homogenized nuclear data and discontinuity factors, is a product of three computed quantities: a ''cell shape function''; a ''bundle shape function''; and a ''global shape function''. 10 refs

  3. Budget- and Priority-Setting Criteria at State Health Agencies in Times of Austerity: A Mixed-Methods Study

    Resnick, Beth; Kass, Nancy; Sellers, Katie; Young, Jessica; Bernet, Patrick; Jarris, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined critical budget and priority criteria for state health agencies to identify likely decision-making factors, pressures, and opportunities in times of austerity. Methods. We have presented findings from a 2-stage, mixed-methods study with state public health leaders regarding public health budget- and priority-setting processes. In stage 1, we conducted hour-long interviews in 2011 with 45 health agency executive and division or bureau leaders from 6 states. Stage 2 was an online survey of 207 executive and division or bureau leaders from all state health agencies (66% response rate). Results. Respondents identified 5 key criteria: whether a program was viewed as “mission critical,” the seriousness of the consequences of not funding the program, financing considerations, external directives and mandates, and the magnitude of the problem the program addressed. Conclusions. We have presented empirical findings on criteria used in state health agency budgetary decision-making. These criteria suggested a focus and interest on core public health and the largest public health problems with the most serious ramifications. PMID:24825212

  4. Measurement of the epithermal neutron flux of the Argonauta reactor by the Sandwich method

    Nascimento, H.M.

    1973-01-01

    A common method of obtaining information about the neutron spectrum in the energy range of 1 eV to a few keV is by using resonance sandwich detectors. A sandwich detector is usually made up of three foils placed one on top of the other, each having the same thickness and being made of the same material which has a pronounced absorption resonance. To make an adequate evaluation, the sandwich method was compared with one using an isolated detector. The results obtained from approximate theoretical calculations were checked experimentally, using In, Au and Mn foils, in an isotropic 1/E flux in the Argonaut Reactor at I.E.N. As practical application of this method, the deviation from a 1/E spectrum of the epithermal neutron flux in the core and external graphite reflector of the Argonaut Reactor has been measured with the sandwich foils previously calibrated in a 1/E spectrum. (author)

  5. A method for measuring element fluxes in an undisturbed soil: nitrogen and carbon from earthworms

    Bouche, M.B.

    1984-01-01

    Data on chemical cycles, as nitrogen or carbon cycles, are extrapolated to the fields or ecosystems without the possibility for checking conclusions; i.e. from scientific knowledge (para-ecology). A new method, by natural introduction of an earthworm compartment into an undisturbed soil, with earthworms labelled both by isotopes ( 15 N, 14 C) and by staining is described. This method allows us to measure fluxes of chemicals. The first results, gathered during the improvement of the method in partly artificial conditions, are cross-checked with other data given by direct observation in the field. Measured flux (2.2 mg N/g fresh mass empty gut/day/15 0 C) is far more important than para-ecological estimations; animal metabolism plays directly an important role in nitrogen and carbon cycles. (author)

  6. Improved collision probability method for thermal-neutron-flux calculation in a cylindrical reactor cell

    Bosevski, T.

    1986-01-01

    An improved collision probability method for thermal-neutron-flux calculation in a cylindrical reactor cell has been developed. Expanding the neutron flux and source into a series of even powers of the radius, one' gets a convenient method for integration of the one-energy group integral transport equation. It is shown that it is possible to perform an analytical integration in the x-y plane in one variable and to use the effective Gaussian integration over another one. Choosing a convenient distribution of space points in fuel and moderator the transport matrix calculation and cell reaction rate integration were condensed. On the basis of the proposed method, the computer program DISKRET for the ZUSE-Z 23 K computer has been written. The suitability of the proposed method for the calculation of the thermal-neutron-flux distribution in a reactor cell can be seen from the test results obtained. Compared with the other collision probability methods, the proposed treatment excels with a mathematical simplicity and a faster convergence. (author)

  7. Uncertainty analysis of scintillometers methods in measuring sensible heat fluxes of forest ecosystem

    Zheng, N.

    2017-12-01

    degree of uncertainty with quantitative analysis. The study can provide theoretical basis and technical support for accurately measuring sensible heat fluxes of forest ecosystem with scintillometer method, and can also provide work foundation for further study on role of forest ecosystem in energy balance and climate change.

  8. Numerical studies of the flux-to-current ratio method in the KIPT neutron source facility

    Cao, Y.; Gohar, Y.; Zhong, Z.

    2013-01-01

    The reactivity of a subcritical assembly has to be monitored continuously in order to assure its safe operation. In this paper, the flux-to-current ratio method has been studied as an approach to provide the on-line reactivity measurement of the subcritical system. Monte Carlo numerical simulations have been performed using the KIPT neutron source facility model. It is found that the reactivity obtained from the flux-to-current ratio method is sensitive to the detector position in the subcritical assembly. However, if multiple detectors are located about 12 cm above the graphite reflector and 54 cm radially, the technique is shown to be very accurate in determining the k eff this facility in the range of 0.75 to 0.975. (authors)

  9. Preparing the operating budget.

    Williams, R B

    1983-12-01

    The process of preparing a hospital pharmacy budget is presented. The desired characteristics of a budget and the process by which it is developed and approved are described. Fixed, flexible, and zero-based budget types are explained, as are the major components of a well-developed budget: expense, workload, productivity, revenue, and capital equipment and other expenditures. Specific methods for projecting expenses and revenues, based on historical data, are presented along with a discussion of variables that must be considered in order to achieve an accurate and useful budget. The current shift in emphasis away from revenue capture toward critical analysis of pharmacy costs underscores the importance of budgetary analysis for hospital pharmacy managers.

  10. System Budgets

    Jeppesen, Palle

    1996-01-01

    The lecture note is aimed at introducing system budgets for optical communication systems. It treats optical fiber communication systems (six generations), system design, bandwidth effects, other system impairments and optical amplifiers.......The lecture note is aimed at introducing system budgets for optical communication systems. It treats optical fiber communication systems (six generations), system design, bandwidth effects, other system impairments and optical amplifiers....

  11. THE APPLICATION OF QRQC METHOD TO SOLVE PROBLEMS AND TO IMPROVE THE PRODUCTION FLUX (2

    Ancuta BALTEANU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The subject proposed was developed over two parts. In the first written work it was presented the initial situation within a production flow that is sensed in the appearance of defects and nonconformities in obtain the final products. In this second paper - respectively this - we will show the use of this method in a situation that requires elimination of a technological problem appeared in the production flux and in relieving its positive consequence.

  12. Critical heat flux detection in rods simulating fuel elements by using dilation method

    Mesquita, A.Z.

    1993-01-01

    In out-reactor heat transfer experiments, fuel elements are often simulated by electrically heated rods. In order to prevent the heating rod from being damaged by burnout, when the critical heat flux occurs a safety system is provided which checks the axial thermal expansion of the rod. In case of sudden temperature increase, the corresponding elongation causes a fast interruption of the electrical power supply. The experiments presented here show that this method is more effective than one that uses thermocouples. (author)

  13. Variability and budget of CO2 in Europe: analysis of the CAATER airborne campaigns – Part 2: Comparison of CO2 vertical variability and fluxes between observations and a modeling framework

    P. Ciais

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Our ability to predict future climate change relies on our understanding of current and future CO2 fluxes, particularly on a regional scale (100–1000 km. CO2 regional sources and sinks are still poorly understood. Inverse transport modeling, a method often used to quantify these fluxes, relies on atmospheric CO2 measurements. One of the main challenges for the transport models used in the inversions is to properly reproduce CO2 vertical gradients between the boundary layer and the free troposphere, as these gradients impact on the partitioning of the calculated fluxes between the different model regions. Vertical CO2 profiles are very well suited to assess the performances of the models. In this paper, we conduct a comparison between observed and modeled CO2 profiles recorded during two CAATER campaigns that occurred in May 2001 and October 2002 over Western Europe, as described in a companion paper. We test different combinations between a global transport model (LMDZt, a mesoscale transport model (CHIMERE, and different sets of biospheric fluxes, all chosen with a diurnal cycle (CASA, SiB2 and ORCHIDEE. The vertical profile comparison shows that: 1 in most cases the influence of the biospheric flux is small but sometimes not negligible, ORCHIDEE giving the best results in the present study; 2 LMDZt is most of the time too diffuse, as it simulates a too high boundary layer height; 3 CHIMERE better reproduces the observed gradients between the boundary layer and the free troposphere, but is sometimes too variable and gives rise to incoherent structures. We conclude there is a need for more vertical profiles to conduct further studies to improve the parameterization of vertical transport in the models used for CO2 flux inversions. Furthermore, we use a modeling method to quantify CO2 fluxes at the regional scale from a chosen observing point, coupling influence functions from the transport model LMDZt (that works quite well at the synoptic

  14. Variability and budget of CO2 in Europe: analysis of the CAATER airborne campaigns - Part 2: Comparison of CO2 vertical variability and fluxes between observations and a modeling framework

    Xueref-Remy, I.; Bousquet, P.; Rivier, L.; Ciais, P.; Carouge, C.

    2011-01-01

    Our ability to predict future climate change relies on our understanding of current and future CO 2 fluxes, particularly on a regional scale (100-1000 km). CO 2 regional sources and sinks are still poorly understood. Inverse transport modeling, a method often used to quantify these fluxes, relies on atmospheric CO 2 measurements. One of the main challenges for the transport models used in the inversions is to properly reproduce CO 2 vertical gradients between the boundary layer and the free troposphere, as these gradients impact on the partitioning of the calculated fluxes between the different model regions. Vertical CO 2 profiles are very well suited to assess the performances of the models. In this paper, we conduct a comparison between observed and modeled CO 2 profiles recorded during two CAATER campaigns that occurred in May 2001 and October 2002 over Western Europe, as described in a companion paper. We test different combinations between a global transport model (LMDZt), a mesoscale transport model (CHIMERE), and different sets of biospheric fluxes, all chosen with a diurnal cycle (CASA, SiB2 and ORCHIDEE). The vertical profile comparison shows that: 1) in most cases the influence of the biospheric flux is small but sometimes not negligible, ORCHIDEE giving the best results in the present study; 2) LMDZt is most of the time too diffuse, as it simulates a too high boundary layer height; 3) CHIMERE better reproduces the observed gradients between the boundary layer and the free troposphere, but is sometimes too variable and gives rise to incoherent structures. We conclude there is a need for more vertical profiles to conduct further studies to improve the parameterization of vertical transport in the models used for CO 2 flux inversions. Furthermore, we use a modeling method to quantify CO 2 fluxes at the regional scale from a chosen observing point, coupling influence functions from the transport model LMDZt (that works quite well at the synoptic scale) with

  15. Coupling multipoint flux mixed finite element methodswith continuous Galerkin methods for poroelasticity

    Wheeler, Mary

    2013-11-16

    We study the numerical approximation on irregular domains with general grids of the system of poroelasticity, which describes fluid flow in deformable porous media. The flow equation is discretized by a multipoint flux mixed finite element method and the displacements are approximated by a continuous Galerkin finite element method. First-order convergence in space and time is established in appropriate norms for the pressure, velocity, and displacement. Numerical results are presented that illustrate the behavior of the method. © Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013.

  16. Metal contamination budget at the river basin scale: an original Flux-Flow Analysis (F2A for the Seine River

    L. Lestel

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Material flow analysis and environmental contamination analysis are merged into a Flux-Flow analysis (F2A as illustrated for the metal circulation in the Seine River catchment. F2A combines about 30 metal flows in the anthroposphere (14 million people and/or metal fluxes in the environment (atmosphere, soils, and aquatic system originating from two dozens of sources. The nature and quality of data is very heterogeneous going from downscaled national economic statistics to upscaled daily environmental surveys.

    A triple integration is performed: space integration over the catchment (65 000 km2, time integration for the 1950–2000 trend analysed at 5 year resolution, and a conceptual integration resulting in two F2A indicators.

    Despite the various data sources an average metal circulation is established for the 1994–2003 period and illustrated for zinc: (i metal circulation in the anthroposphere is now two orders of magnitude higher than river outputs, (ii long term metal storage, and their potential leaks, in soils, wastedumps and structures is also orders of magnitude higher than present river fluxes. Trend analysis is made through two F2A indicators, the per capita excess load at the river outlet and the leakage ratio (excess fluxes/metal demand. From 1950 to 2000, they both show a ten fold improvement of metal recycling while the metal demand has increased by 2.5 to 5 for Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb and Zn, and the population by 50%.

  17. The structure of an earthward propagating magnetic flux rope early in its evolution: comparison of methods

    C. Möstl

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available We analyze a magnetic signature associated with the leading edge of a bursty bulk flow observed by Cluster at −19 RE downtail on 22 August 2001. A distinct rotation of the magnetic field was seen by all four spacecraft. This event was previously examined by Slavin et al. (2003b using both linear force-free modeling as well as a curlometer technique. Extending this work, we apply here single- and multi-spacecraft Grad-Shafranov (GS reconstruction techniques to the Cluster observations and find good evidence that the structure encountered is indeed a magnetic flux rope and contains helical magnetic field lines. We find that the flux rope has a diameter of approximately 1 RE, an axial field of 26.4 nT, a velocity of ≈650 km/s, a total axial current of 0.16 MA and magnetic fluxes of order 105 Wb. The field line twist is estimated as half a turn per RE. The invariant axis is inclined at 40° to the ecliptic plane and 10° to the GSM equatorial plane. The flux rope has a force-free core and non-force-free boundaries. When we compare and contrast our results with those obtained from minimum variance, single-spacecraft force-free fitting and curlometer techniques, we find in general fair agreement, but also clear differences such as a higher inclination of the axis to the ecliptic. We further conclude that single-spacecraft methods have limitations which should be kept in mind when applied to THEMIS observations, and that non-force-free GS and curlometer techniques are to be preferred in their analysis. Some properties we derived for this earthward– moving structure are similar to those inferred by Lui et al. (2007, using a different approach, for a tailward-moving flux rope observed during the expansion phase of the same substorm.

  18. a Borehole-Dilution Method for Quantifying Vertical Darcy Fluxes in the Hyporheic Zone

    Augustine, S. D.; Annable, M. D.; Cho, J.

    2017-12-01

    The borehole dilution method has consistently and successfully been used for estimating local water fluxes, however, this method can be relatively labor intensive and expensive. The focus of this research is aimed at developing a low-cost, borehole dilution method for quantifying vertical water fluxes in the hyporheic zone at the surface-groundwater interface. This would allow for the deployment of multiple units within a targeted surface water body and thus produce high-resolution, spatially distributed data on the infiltration rates over a short period of time with minimal set-up requirements. The device consists of a 2-inch, inner diameter PVC pipe containing short, screened sections in its upper and lower segments. The working unit is driven into the sediment and acts as a continuous flow reactor creating a pathway between the subsurface pore-water and the overlying surface water where the presence of a hydraulic gradient facilitates vertical movement. We developed a simple electrode and tracer-injection system housed within the unit to inject and measure salt tracer concentrations at the desired intervals while monitoring and storing those measurements using open-source Arduino technology. Preliminary lab and field scale trials provided data that was fit to both zero and first order reaction rate functions for analysis. The field test was conducted over approximately one day within a wet retention basin. The initial results estimated a vertical Darcy flux of 113.5 cm/d. Additional testing over a range of expected Darcy fluxes will be presented along with an evaluation considering enhanced water flow due to the high hydraulic conductivity of the device.

  19. DCS Budget Tracking System

    Social Security Administration — DCS Budget Tracking System database contains budget information for the Information Technology budget and the 'Other Objects' budget. This data allows for monitoring...

  20. A method for prompt calculation of neutron flux from measured SPND [self-powered neutron detectors] currents

    Kulacsy, K.; Lux, I.

    1997-01-01

    A new, approximate method is given to calculate the in-core flux from the current of SPNDs, with a delay of only a few seconds. The stability of this stepwise algorithm is proven to be satisfactory, and the results of tests performed both on synthetic and on real data are presented. The reconstructed flux is found to follow both steady state and transient fluxes well. (author)

  1. An accelerated test method of luminous flux depreciation for LED luminaires and lamps

    Qian, C.; Fan, X.J.; Fan, J.J.; Yuan, C.A.; Zhang, G.Q.

    2016-01-01

    Light Emitting Diode (LED) luminaires and lamps are energy-saving and environmental friendly alternatives to traditional lighting products. However, current luminous flux depreciation test at luminaire and lamp level requires a minimum of 6000 h testing, which is even longer than the product development cycle time. This paper develops an accelerated test method for luminous flux depreciation to reduce the test time within 2000 h at an elevated temperature. The method is based on lumen maintenance boundary curve, obtained from a collection of LED source lumen depreciation data, known as LM-80 data. The exponential decay model and Arrhenius acceleration relationship are used to determine the new threshold of lumen maintenance and acceleration factor. The proposed method has been verified by a number of simulation studies and experimental data for a wide range of LED luminaire and lamp types from both internal and external experiments. The qualification results obtained by the accelerated test method agree well with traditional 6000 h tests. - Highlights: • We develop an accelerated test method for LED luminaires and lamps. • The method is proposed based on a “Boundary Curve” concept. • The parameters of the boundary curve are extracted from LM-80 test reports. • Qualification results from the proposed method agree with ES requirements.

  2. Neutron Flux Interpolation with Finite Element Method in the Nuclear Fuel Cell Calculation using Collision Probability Method

    Shafii, M. Ali; Su'ud, Zaki; Waris, Abdul; Kurniasih, Neny; Ariani, Menik; Yulianti, Yanti

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear reactor design and analysis of next-generation reactors require a comprehensive computing which is better to be executed in a high performance computing. Flat flux (FF) approach is a common approach in solving an integral transport equation with collision probability (CP) method. In fact, the neutron flux distribution is not flat, even though the neutron cross section is assumed to be equal in all regions and the neutron source is uniform throughout the nuclear fuel cell. In non-flat flux (NFF) approach, the distribution of neutrons in each region will be different depending on the desired interpolation model selection. In this study, the linear interpolation using Finite Element Method (FEM) has been carried out to be treated the neutron distribution. The CP method is compatible to solve the neutron transport equation for cylindrical geometry, because the angle integration can be done analytically. Distribution of neutrons in each region of can be explained by the NFF approach with FEM and the calculation results are in a good agreement with the result from the SRAC code. In this study, the effects of the mesh on the k eff and other parameters are investigated.

  3. Development of Coincidence Method for Determination Thermal Neutron Flux on RSG-GAS

    Bakhri, Syaiful; Hamzah, Amir

    2004-01-01

    The research to develop detection radiation system using coincidence method has been done to determine thermal neutron flux in RS1 and RS2 irradiation facilities RSG-GAS. At this research has arranged beta-gamma coincidence equipment system and parameter of measurement according to Au-198 beta-gamma spectrum. Gold foils that have irradiated for period of time, counted, and the activities of radiation is analyzed to get neutron flux. Result of research indicate that systems measurement of absolute activity with gamma beta coincidence method functioning well and can be applied at activity measurement of gold foil for irradiation facility characterization. The results show that thermal neutron flux in RS1 and RS2, respectively is 2.007E+12 n/cm 2 s and 2.147E+12 n/cm 2 s. To examine the system performance, the result was compared to measure activity using high resolution of Hp Ge detector and achieved discrepancy is about 1.26% and 6.70%. (author)

  4. Accuracy of the tritium water dilution method for determining water flux in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus)

    Cameron, R D; White, R G; Luick, J R

    1976-06-01

    The accuracy of the tritium water dilution method in estimating water flux was evaluated in reindeer under various conditions of temperature and diet. Two non-pregnant female reindeer were restrained in metabolism stalls, within controlled-environment chambers, at temperatures of +10, -5, and -20/sup 0/C; varying amounts of a commercial pelleted ration (crude protein, 13 percent) or mixed lichens (crude protein, 3 percent) were offered, and water was provided ad libitum either as snow or in liquid form. Total body water volume and water turnover were estimated using tritiated water, and the daily outputs of feces and urine were measured for each of 12 different combinations of diet and temperature. Statistical analysis of the data showed that the tritium water dilution technique gives accurate determinations of total body water flux over a wide range of environmental and nutritional conditions.

  5. Flux weighted method for solution of stiff neutron dynamic equations and its application

    Li Huiyun; Jiao Huixian

    1987-12-01

    To analyze reactivity event for nuclear power plants, it is necessary to solve the neutron dynamic equations, which is a group of typical stiff constant differential equations. Very small time steps could only be adopted when the group of equations is solved by common methods. However, a large time steps might be selected if the Flux Weighted Medthod introduced in this paper is used. Generally, weighted factor θ i1 is set as a constant. Naturally, this treatment method can decrease the accuracy of calculation for the increase of the steadiness of solving the equations. An accurate theoretical formula of 4 x 4 matrix of θ i1 is rigorously derived so that the accuracy of calculation is ensured, as well as the steadiness of solved equations is increased. This method have the advantage over classical Runge-kutta Method and other methods. The time steps could be increased by a factor of 1 ∼ 3 orders of magnitude so as to save a lot of computating time. The programe solving neutron dynamic equation, which is prepared by using Flux Weighted Method, could be sued for real time analog of training simulator, as well as for analysis and computation of reactivity event (including rod jumping out event)

  6. A New Energy-Based Method for 3-D Finite-Element Nonlinear Flux Linkage computation of Electrical Machines

    Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand; Ritchie, Ewen

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for computation of the nonlinear flux linkage in 3-D finite-element models (FEMs) of electrical machines. Accurate computation of the nonlinear flux linkage in 3-D FEM is not an easy task. Compared to the existing energy-perturbation method, the new technique......-perturbation method. The new method proposed is validated using experimental results on two different permanent magnet machines....

  7. A multipoint flux mixed finite element method on distorted quadrilaterals and hexahedra

    Wheeler, Mary

    2011-11-06

    In this paper, we develop a new mixed finite element method for elliptic problems on general quadrilateral and hexahedral grids that reduces to a cell-centered finite difference scheme. A special non-symmetric quadrature rule is employed that yields a positive definite cell-centered system for the pressure by eliminating local velocities. The method is shown to be accurate on highly distorted rough quadrilateral and hexahedral grids, including hexahedra with non-planar faces. Theoretical and numerical results indicate first-order convergence for the pressure and face fluxes. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  8. A Lift-Off-Tolerant Magnetic Flux Leakage Testing Method for Drill Pipes at Wellhead

    Wu, Jianbo; Fang, Hui; Li, Long; Wang, Jie; Huang, Xiaoming; Kang, Yihua; Sun, Yanhua; Tang, Chaoqing

    2017-01-01

    To meet the great needs for MFL (magnetic flux leakage) inspection of drill pipes at wellheads, a lift-off-tolerant MFL testing method is proposed and investigated in this paper. Firstly, a Helmholtz coil magnetization method and the whole MFL testing scheme are proposed. Then, based on the magnetic field focusing effect of ferrite cores, a lift-off-tolerant MFL sensor is developed and tested. It shows high sensitivity at a lift-off distance of 5.0 mm. Further, the follow-up high repeatabilit...

  9. 3-D numerical investigation of subsurface flow in anisotropic porous media using multipoint flux approximation method

    Negara, Ardiansyah

    2013-01-01

    Anisotropy of hydraulic properties of subsurface geologic formations is an essential feature that has been established as a consequence of the different geologic processes that they undergo during the longer geologic time scale. With respect to petroleum reservoirs, in many cases, anisotropy plays significant role in dictating the direction of flow that becomes no longer dependent only on the pressure gradient direction but also on the principal directions of anisotropy. Furthermore, in complex systems involving the flow of multiphase fluids in which the gravity and the capillarity play an important role, anisotropy can also have important influences. Therefore, there has been great deal of motivation to consider anisotropy when solving the governing conservation laws numerically. Unfortunately, the two-point flux approximation of finite difference approach is not capable of handling full tensor permeability fields. Lately, however, it has been possible to adapt the multipoint flux approximation that can handle anisotropy to the framework of finite difference schemes. In multipoint flux approximation method, the stencil of approximation is more involved, i.e., it requires the involvement of 9-point stencil for the 2-D model and 27-point stencil for the 3-D model. This is apparently challenging and cumbersome when making the global system of equations. In this work, we apply the equation-type approach, which is the experimenting pressure field approach that enables the solution of the global problem breaks into the solution of multitude of local problems that significantly reduce the complexity without affecting the accuracy of numerical solution. This approach also leads in reducing the computational cost during the simulation. We have applied this technique to a variety of anisotropy scenarios of 3-D subsurface flow problems and the numerical results demonstrate that the experimenting pressure field technique fits very well with the multipoint flux approximation

  10. Measurement of thermal, epithermal and fast neutron flux in the IEA-R1 reactor by the foil activation method

    Koskinas, M.F.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical details of the foil activation method applied to neutrons flux measurements at the IEA-R1 reactor are presented. The thermal - and epithermal - neutron flux were determined form activation measurements of gold, cobalt and manganese foils; and for the fast neutron flux determination, aluminum, iron and nickel foils were used. The measurements of the activity induced in the metal foils were performed using a Ge-Li gamma spectrometry system. In each energy range of the reactor neutron spectrum, the agreement among the experimental flux values obtained using the three kind of materials, indicates the consistency of the theoretical approach and of the nuclear parameters selected. (Author) [pt

  11. Inter-comparison of Flux-Gradient and Relaxed Eddy Accumulation Methods for Measuring Ammonia Flux Above a Corn Canopy in Central Illinois, USA

    Nelson, A. J.; Koloutsou-Vakakis, S.; Rood, M. J.; Lichiheb, N.; Heuer, M.; Myles, L.

    2017-12-01

    Ammonia (NH3) is a precursor to fine particulate matter (PM) in the ambient atmosphere. Agricultural activities represent over 80% of anthropogenic emissions of NH3 in the United States. The use of nitrogen-based fertilizers contribute > 50% of total NH3 emissions in central Illinois. The U.S. EPA Science Advisory Board has called for improved methods to measure, model, and report atmospheric NH3 concentrations and emissions from agriculture. High uncertainties in the temporal and spatial distribution of NH3 emissions contribute to poor performance of air quality models in predicting ambient PM concentrations. This study reports and compares NH­3 flux measurements of differing temporal resolution obtained with two methods: relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) and flux-gradient (FG). REA and FG systems were operated concurrently above a corn canopy at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) Energy Biosciences Institute (EBI) Energy Farm during the 2014 corn-growing season. The REA system operated during daytime, providing average fluxes over four-hour sampling intervals, where time resolution was limited by detection limit of denuders. The FG system employed a cavity ring-down spectrometer, and was operated continuously, reporting 30 min flux averages. A flux-footprint evaluation was used for quality control, resulting in 1,178 qualified FG measurements, 82 of which were coincident with REA measurements. Similar emission trends were observed with both systems, with peak NH3 emission observed one week after fertilization. For all coincident samples, mean NH3 flux was 205 ± 300 ng-N-m2s-1 and 110 ± 256 ng-N-m2s-1 as measured with REA and FG, respectively, where positive flux indicates emission. This is the first reported inter-comparison of REA and FG methods as used for quantifying NH3 fluxes from cropland. Preliminary analysis indicates the improved temporal resolution and continuous sampling enabled by FG allow for the identification of emission pulses

  12. Comparison of methods for measuring flux gradients in type II superconductors

    Kroeger, D.M.; Koch, C.C.; Charlesworth, J.P.

    1975-01-01

    A comparison has been made of four methods of measuring the critical current density J/sub c/ in hysteretic type II superconductors, having a wide range of K and J/sub c/ values, in magnetic fields up to 70 kOe. Two of the methods, (a) resistive measurements and (b) magnetization measurements, were carried out in static magnetic fields. The other two methods involved analysis of the response of the sample to a small alternating field superimposed on the static field. The response was analyzed either (c) by measuring the third-harmonic content or (d) by integration of the waveform to obtain measure of flux penetration. The results are discussed with reference to the agreement between the different techniques and the consistency of the critical state hypothesis on which all these techniques are based. It is concluded that flux-penetration measurements by method (d) provide the most detailed information about J/sub c/ but that one must be wary of minor failures of the critical state hypothesis. Best results are likely to be obtained by using more than one method. (U.S.)

  13. Calculations of Neutron Flux Distributions by Means of Integral Transport Methods

    Carlvik, I

    1967-05-15

    Flux distributions have been calculated mainly in one energy group, for a number of systems representing geometries interesting for reactor calculations. Integral transport methods of two kinds were utilised, collision probabilities (CP) and the discrete method (DIT). The geometries considered comprise the three one-dimensional geometries, planes, sphericals and annular, and further a square cell with a circular fuel rod and a rod cluster cell with a circular outer boundary. For the annular cells both methods (CP and DIT) were used and the results were compared. The purpose of the work is twofold, firstly to demonstrate the versatility and efficacy of integral transport methods and secondly to serve as a guide for anybody who wants to use the methods.

  14. Budget Options

    2001-01-01

    ... (including the off-budget Social Security trust funds) to $281 billion. That surplus would be the largest in history in nominal dollars and the largest since 1948 as a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP...

  15. NCTN Budget

    Learn about the budget for the National Clinical Trials Network (NCTN), a National Cancer Institute program that gives funds and other support to cancer research organizations to conduct cancer clinical trials.

  16. WATSFAR: numerical simulation of soil WATer and Solute fluxes using a FAst and Robust method

    Crevoisier, David; Voltz, Marc

    2013-04-01

    To simulate the evolution of hydro- and agro-systems, numerous spatialised models are based on a multi-local approach and improvement of simulation accuracy by data-assimilation techniques are now used in many application field. The latest acquisition techniques provide a large amount of experimental data, which increase the efficiency of parameters estimation and inverse modelling approaches. In turn simulations are often run on large temporal and spatial domains which requires a large number of model runs. Eventually, despite the regular increase in computing capacities, the development of fast and robust methods describing the evolution of saturated-unsaturated soil water and solute fluxes is still a challenge. Ross (2003, Agron J; 95:1352-1361) proposed a method, solving 1D Richards' and convection-diffusion equation, that fulfil these characteristics. The method is based on a non iterative approach which reduces the numerical divergence risks and allows the use of coarser spatial and temporal discretisations, while assuring a satisfying accuracy of the results. Crevoisier et al. (2009, Adv Wat Res; 32:936-947) proposed some technical improvements and validated this method on a wider range of agro- pedo- climatic situations. In this poster, we present the simulation code WATSFAR which generalises the Ross method to other mathematical representations of soil water retention curve (i.e. standard and modified van Genuchten model) and includes a dual permeability context (preferential fluxes) for both water and solute transfers. The situations tested are those known to be the less favourable when using standard numerical methods: fine textured and extremely dry soils, intense rainfall and solute fluxes, soils near saturation, ... The results of WATSFAR have been compared with the standard finite element model Hydrus. The analysis of these comparisons highlights two main advantages for WATSFAR, i) robustness: even on fine textured soil or high water and solute

  17. Improvement of the neutron flux calculations in thick shield by conditional Monte Carlo and deterministic methods

    Ghassoun, Jillali; Jehoauni, Abdellatif

    2000-01-01

    In practice, the estimation of the flux obtained by Fredholm integral equation needs a truncation of the Neuman series. The order N of the truncation must be large in order to get a good estimation. But a large N induces a very large computation time. So the conditional Monte Carlo method is used to reduce time without affecting the estimation quality. In a previous works, in order to have rapid convergence of calculations it was considered only weakly diffusing media so that has permitted to truncate the Neuman series after an order of 20 terms. But in the most practical shields, such as water, graphite and beryllium the scattering probability is high and if we truncate the series at 20 terms we get bad estimation of flux, so it becomes useful to use high orders in order to have good estimation. We suggest two simple techniques based on the conditional Monte Carlo. We have proposed a simple density of sampling the steps for the random walk. Also a modified stretching factor density depending on a biasing parameter which affects the sample vector by stretching or shrinking the original random walk in order to have a chain that ends at a given point of interest. Also we obtained a simple empirical formula which gives the neutron flux for a medium characterized by only their scattering probabilities. The results are compared to the exact analytic solution, we have got a good agreement of results with a good acceleration of convergence calculations. (author)

  18. TREEDE, Point Fluxes and Currents Based on Track Rotation Estimator by Monte-Carlo Method

    Dubi, A.

    1985-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: TREEDE is a Monte Carlo transport code based on the Track Rotation estimator, used, in general, to calculate fluxes and currents at a point. This code served as a test code in the development of the concept of the Track Rotation estimator, and therefore analogue Monte Carlo is used (i.e. no importance biasing). 2 - Method of solution: The basic idea is to follow the particle's track in the medium and then to rotate it such that it passes through the detector point. That is, rotational symmetry considerations (even in non-spherically symmetric configurations) are applied to every history, so that a very large fraction of the track histories can be rotated and made to pass through the point of interest; in this manner the 1/r 2 singularity in the un-collided flux estimator (next event estimator) is avoided. TREEDE, being a test code, is used to estimate leakage or in-medium fluxes at given points in a 3-dimensional finite box, where the source is an isotropic point source at the centre of the z = 0 surface. However, many of the constraints of geometry and source can be easily removed. The medium is assumed homogeneous with isotropic scattering, and one energy group only is considered. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: One energy group, a homogeneous medium, isotropic scattering

  19. An Optimal Estimation Method to Obtain Surface Layer Turbulent Fluxes from Profile Measurements

    Kang, D.

    2015-12-01

    In the absence of direct turbulence measurements, the turbulence characteristics of the atmospheric surface layer are often derived from measurements of the surface layer mean properties based on Monin-Obukhov Similarity Theory (MOST). This approach requires two levels of the ensemble mean wind, temperature, and water vapor, from which the fluxes of momentum, sensible heat, and water vapor can be obtained. When only one measurement level is available, the roughness heights and the assumed properties of the corresponding variables at the respective roughness heights are used. In practice, the temporal mean with large number of samples are used in place of the ensemble mean. However, in many situations the samples of data are taken from multiple levels. It is thus desirable to derive the boundary layer flux properties using all measurements. In this study, we used an optimal estimation approach to derive surface layer properties based on all available measurements. This approach assumes that the samples are taken from a population whose ensemble mean profile follows the MOST. An optimized estimate is obtained when the results yield a minimum cost function defined as a weighted summation of all error variance at each sample altitude. The weights are based one sample data variance and the altitude of the measurements. This method was applied to measurements in the marine atmospheric surface layer from a small boat using radiosonde on a tethered balloon where temperature and relative humidity profiles in the lowest 50 m were made repeatedly in about 30 minutes. We will present the resultant fluxes and the derived MOST mean profiles using different sets of measurements. The advantage of this method over the 'traditional' methods will be illustrated. Some limitations of this optimization method will also be discussed. Its application to quantify the effects of marine surface layer environment on radar and communication signal propagation will be shown as well.

  20. Methods for the reconstruction of large scale anisotropies of the cosmic ray flux

    Over, Sven

    2010-01-15

    In cosmic ray experiments the arrival directions, among other properties, of cosmic ray particles from detected air shower events are reconstructed. The question of uniformity in the distribution of arrival directions is of large importance for models that try to explain cosmic radiation. In this thesis, methods for the reconstruction of parameters of a dipole-like flux distribution of cosmic rays from a set of recorded air shower events are studied. Different methods are presented and examined by means of detailed Monte Carlo simulations. Particular focus is put on the implications of spurious experimental effects. Modifications of existing methods and new methods are proposed. The main goal of this thesis is the development of the horizontal Rayleigh analysis method. Unlike other methods, this method is based on the analysis of local viewing directions instead of global sidereal directions. As a result, the symmetries of the experimental setup can be better utilised. The calculation of the sky coverage (exposure function) is not necessary in this analysis. The performance of the method is tested by means of further Monte Carlo simulations. The new method performs similarly good or only marginally worse than established methods in case of ideal measurement conditions. However, the simulation of certain experimental effects can cause substantial misestimations of the dipole parameters by the established methods, whereas the new method produces no systematic deviations. The invulnerability to certain effects offers additional advantages, as certain data selection cuts become dispensable. (orig.)

  1. A Guide for Using Geochemical Methods in Dredged Material, Sediment Tracking, and Sediment Budget Studies

    2017-06-26

    geochemical markers such as radioisotopes and stable isotopes, organic matter, and mineralogy/elemental composition are recognized and established methods ...further elucidate the original erosion source of accumulating sediment (Hoefs 2009). 2.3 Radioisotopes Radioisotopic dating is based on measuring the...ER D C TR -1 7- 3 Dredging Operations and Environmental Research Program A Guide for Using Geochemical Methods in Dredged Material

  2. Window Material Daylighting Performance Assessment Algorithm: Comparing Radiosity and Split-Flux Methods

    Yeo Beom Yoon

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Windows are the primary aperture to introduce solar radiation to the interior space of a building. This experiment explores the use of EnergyPlus software for analyzing the illuminance level on the floor of a room with reference to its distance from the window. For this experiment, a double clear glass window has been used. The preliminary modelling in EnergyPlus showed a consistent result with the experimentally monitored data in real time. EnergyPlus has two mainly used daylighting algorithms: DElight method employing radiosity technique and Detailed method employing split-flux technique. Further analysis for illuminance using DElight and Detailed methods showed significant difference in the results. Finally, we compared the algorithms of the two analysis methods in EnergyPlus.

  3. An estimate of the terrestrial carbon budget of Russia using inventory-based, eddy covariance and inversion methods

    A. J. Dolman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We determine the net land to atmosphere flux of carbon in Russia, including Ukraine, Belarus and Kazakhstan, using inventory-based, eddy covariance, and inversion methods. Our high boundary estimate is −342 Tg C yr−1 from the eddy covariance method, and this is close to the upper bounds of the inventory-based Land Ecosystem Assessment and inverse models estimates. A lower boundary estimate is provided at −1350 Tg C yr−1 from the inversion models. The average of the three methods is −613.5 Tg C yr−1. The methane emission is estimated separately at 41.4 Tg C yr−1.

    These three methods agree well within their respective error bounds. There is thus good consistency between bottom-up and top-down methods. The forests of Russia primarily cause the net atmosphere to land flux (−692 Tg C yr−1 from the LEA. It remains however remarkable that the three methods provide such close estimates (−615, −662, −554 Tg C yr–1 for net biome production (NBP, given the inherent uncertainties in all of the approaches. The lack of recent forest inventories, the few eddy covariance sites and associated uncertainty with upscaling and undersampling of concentrations for the inversions are among the prime causes of the uncertainty. The dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs suggest a much lower uptake at −91 Tg C yr−1, and we argue that this is caused by a high estimate of heterotrophic respiration compared to other methods.

  4. Residual-based a posteriori error estimation for multipoint flux mixed finite element methods

    Du, Shaohong; Sun, Shuyu; Xie, Xiaoping

    2015-01-01

    A novel residual-type a posteriori error analysis technique is developed for multipoint flux mixed finite element methods for flow in porous media in two or three space dimensions. The derived a posteriori error estimator for the velocity and pressure error in L-norm consists of discretization and quadrature indicators, and is shown to be reliable and efficient. The main tools of analysis are a locally postprocessed approximation to the pressure solution of an auxiliary problem and a quadrature error estimate. Numerical experiments are presented to illustrate the competitive behavior of the estimator.

  5. THE APPLICATION OF QRQC METHOD TO SOLVE PROBLEMS AND TO IMPROVE THE PRODUCTION FLUX (1

    Ancuţa BĂLTEANU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ORQC is a quality management system which aims customer satisfaction through immediate action. The subject proposed will be developed over two parts. The first written work – respectively this - will presented initial situation within a production flow that is sensed in the appearance of defects and nonconformities in obtain the final products. In this second paper we will show the use of this method in a situation that requires elimination of a technological problem appeared in the production flux and in relieving its positive consequence.

  6. Residual-based a posteriori error estimation for multipoint flux mixed finite element methods

    Du, Shaohong

    2015-10-26

    A novel residual-type a posteriori error analysis technique is developed for multipoint flux mixed finite element methods for flow in porous media in two or three space dimensions. The derived a posteriori error estimator for the velocity and pressure error in L-norm consists of discretization and quadrature indicators, and is shown to be reliable and efficient. The main tools of analysis are a locally postprocessed approximation to the pressure solution of an auxiliary problem and a quadrature error estimate. Numerical experiments are presented to illustrate the competitive behavior of the estimator.

  7. Standard Test Method for Measuring Heat Flux Using a Water-Cooled Calorimeter

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the measurement of a steady heat flux to a given water-cooled surface by means of a system energy balance. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  8. Seasonal analyses of carbon dioxide and energy fluxes above an oil palm plantation using the eddy covariance method

    Ibrahim, Anis; Haniff Harun, Mohd; Yusup, Yusri

    2017-04-01

    A study presents the measurements of carbon dioxide and latent and sensible heat fluxes above a mature oil palm plantation on mineral soil in Keratong, Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia. The sampling campaign was conducted over an 25-month period, from September 2013 to February 2015 and May 2016 to November 2016, using the eddy covariance method. The main aim of this work is to assess carbon dioxide and energy fluxes over this plantation at different time scales, seasonal and diurnal, and determine the effects of season and relevant meteorological parameters on the latter fluxes. Energy balance closure analyses gave a slope between latent and sensible heat fluxes and total incoming energy to be 0.69 with an R2 value of 0.86 and energy balance ratio of 0.80. The averaged net radiation was 108 W m-2. The results show that at the diurnal scale, carbon dioxide, latent and sensible heat fluxes exhibited a clear diurnal trend where carbon dioxide flux was at its minimum - 3.59 μmol m-2 s-1 in the mid-afternoon and maximum in the morning while latent and sensible behaved conversely to the carbon dioxide flux. The average carbon dioxide flux was - 0.37 μmol m-2 s-1. At the seasonal timescale, carbon dioxide fluxes did not show any apparent trend except during the Northeast Monsoon where the highest variability of the monthly means of carbon dioxide occurred.

  9. An incident flux expansion transport theory method suitable for coupling to diffusion theory methods in hexagonal geometry

    Hayward, Robert M.; Rahnema, Farzad; Zhang, Dingkang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new hybrid stochastic–deterministic transport theory method to couple with diffusion theory. ► The method is implemented in 2D hexagonal geometry. ► The new method produces excellent results when compared with Monte Carlo reference solutions. ► The method is fast, solving all test cases in less than 12 s. - Abstract: A new hybrid stochastic–deterministic transport theory method, which is designed to couple with diffusion theory, is presented. The new method is an extension of the incident flux response expansion method, and it combines the speed of diffusion theory with the accuracy of transport theory. With ease of use in mind, the new method is derived in such a way that it can be implemented with only minimal modifications to an existing diffusion theory method. A new angular expansion, which is necessary for the diffusion theory coupling, is developed in 2D and 3D. The method is implemented in 2D hexagonal geometry, and an HTTR benchmark problem is used to test its accuracy in a standalone configuration. It is found that the new method produces excellent results (with average relative error in partial current less than 0.033%) when compared with Monte Carlo reference solutions. Furthermore, the method is fast, solving all test cases in less than 12 s

  10. A successive over-relaxation for slab geometry Simplified SN method with interface flux iteration

    Yavuz, M.

    1995-01-01

    A Successive Over-Relaxation scheme is proposed for speeding up the solution of one-group slab geometry transport problems using a Simplified S N method. The solution of the Simplified S N method that is completely free from all spatial truncation errors is based on the expansion of the angular flux in spherical-harmonics solutions. One way to obtain the (numerical) solution of the Simplified S N method is to use Interface Flux Iteration, which can be considered as the Gauss-Seidel relaxation scheme; the new information is immediately used in the calculations. To accelerate the convergence, an over relaxation parameter is employed in the solution algorithm. The over relaxation parameters for a number of cases depending on scattering ratios and mesh sizes are determined by Fourier analyzing infinite-medium Simplified S 2 equations. Using such over relaxation parameters in the iterative scheme, a significant increase in the convergence of transport problems can be achieved for coarse spatial cells whose spatial widths are greater than one mean-free-path

  11. BEYOND BUDGETING

    Edo Cvrkalj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional budgeting principles, with strictly defined business goals, have been, since 1998, slowly growing into more sophisticated and organization-adjusted alternative budgeting concepts. One of those alternative concepts is the “Beyond budgeting” model with an implemented performance effects measuring process. In order for the model to be practicable, budget planning and control has to be reoriented to the “bottom up” planning and control approach. In today’s modern business surroundings one has to take both present and future opportunities and threats into consideration, by valorizing them in a budget which would allow a company to realize a whole pallet of advantages over the traditional budgeting principles which are presented later in the article. It is essential to emphasize the importance of successfully implementing the new budgeting principles within an organization. If the implementation has been lacking and done without a higher goal in mind, it is easily possible that the process has been implemented without coordination, planning and control framework within the organization itself. Further in the article we present an overview of managerial techniques and instruments within the “Beyond budgeting” model such as balanced scorecard, rolling forecast, dashboard, KPI and other supporting instruments. Lastly we define seven steps for implementing the “Beyond budgeting” model and offer a comparison of “Beyond budgeting” model against traditional budgeting principles which lists twelve reasons why “Beyond budgeting” is better suited to modern and market-oriented organizations. Each company faces those challenges in their own characteristic way but implementing new dynamic planning models will soon become essential for surviving in the market.

  12. Tundish Cover Flux Thickness Measurement Method and Instrumentation Based on Computer Vision in Continuous Casting Tundish

    Meng Lu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thickness of tundish cover flux (TCF plays an important role in continuous casting (CC steelmaking process. Traditional measurement method of TCF thickness is single/double wire methods, which have several problems such as personal security, easily affected by operators, and poor repeatability. To solve all these problems, in this paper, we specifically designed and built an instrumentation and presented a novel method to measure the TCF thickness. The instrumentation was composed of a measurement bar, a mechanical device, a high-definition industrial camera, a Siemens S7-200 programmable logic controller (PLC, and a computer. Our measurement method was based on the computer vision algorithms, including image denoising method, monocular range measurement method, scale invariant feature transform (SIFT, and image gray gradient detection method. Using the present instrumentation and method, images in the CC tundish can be collected by camera and transferred to computer to do imaging processing. Experiments showed that our instrumentation and method worked well at scene of steel plants, can accurately measure the thickness of TCF, and overcome the disadvantages of traditional measurement methods, or even replace the traditional ones.

  13. Estimation of aerosol plutonium transport by the dust-flux method: a perspective on application of detailed data

    Shinn, J.H.

    1976-01-01

    Two methods of dust-flux measurements are discussed which have been utilized to estimate aerosol plutonium deposition and resuspension. In previous studies the methods were found to be sufficiently detailed to permit parameterization of dust-flux to the erodibility of the soil, and a seventh-power dependency of dust-flux (or plutonium flux) to wind speed was observed in worst case conditions. The eddy-correlation method is technically more difficult, requires high-speed data acquisition, and requires an instrument response time better than one second, but the eddy-correlation method has been shown feasible with new fast-response sensors, and it is more useful in limited areas because it can be used as a probe. The flux-gradient method is limited by critical assumptions and is more bulky, but the method is more commonly used and accepted. The best approach is to use both methods simultaneously. It is suggested that several questions should be investigated by the methods, such as saltation stimulation of dust-flux, simultaneous suspension and deposition, foliar deposition and trapping, erodibility of crusted surfaces, and horizontally heterogeneous erodibility

  14. A Lift-Off-Tolerant Magnetic Flux Leakage Testing Method for Drill Pipes at Wellhead.

    Wu, Jianbo; Fang, Hui; Li, Long; Wang, Jie; Huang, Xiaoming; Kang, Yihua; Sun, Yanhua; Tang, Chaoqing

    2017-01-21

    To meet the great needs for MFL (magnetic flux leakage) inspection of drill pipes at wellheads, a lift-off-tolerant MFL testing method is proposed and investigated in this paper. Firstly, a Helmholtz coil magnetization method and the whole MFL testing scheme are proposed. Then, based on the magnetic field focusing effect of ferrite cores, a lift-off-tolerant MFL sensor is developed and tested. It shows high sensitivity at a lift-off distance of 5.0 mm. Further, the follow-up high repeatability MFL probing system is designed and manufactured, which was embedded with the developed sensors. It can track the swing movement of drill pipes and allow the pipe ends to pass smoothly. Finally, the developed system is employed in a drilling field for drill pipe inspection. Test results show that the proposed method can fulfill the requirements for drill pipe inspection at wellheads, which is of great importance in drill pipe safety.

  15. A Lift-Off-Tolerant Magnetic Flux Leakage Testing Method for Drill Pipes at Wellhead

    Jianbo Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To meet the great needs for MFL (magnetic flux leakage inspection of drill pipes at wellheads, a lift-off-tolerant MFL testing method is proposed and investigated in this paper. Firstly, a Helmholtz coil magnetization method and the whole MFL testing scheme are proposed. Then, based on the magnetic field focusing effect of ferrite cores, a lift-off-tolerant MFL sensor is developed and tested. It shows high sensitivity at a lift-off distance of 5.0 mm. Further, the follow-up high repeatability MFL probing system is designed and manufactured, which was embedded with the developed sensors. It can track the swing movement of drill pipes and allow the pipe ends to pass smoothly. Finally, the developed system is employed in a drilling field for drill pipe inspection. Test results show that the proposed method can fulfill the requirements for drill pipe inspection at wellheads, which is of great importance in drill pipe safety.

  16. Systems and methods for controlling energy use in a building management system using energy budgets

    Wenzel, Michael J.

    2012-06-17

    Systems and methods for limiting power consumption by a heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) subsystem of a building are shown and described. A mathematical linear operator is found that transforms the unused or deferred cooling power usage of the HVAC system based on pre-determined temperature settings to a target cooling power usage. The mathematical operator is applied to the temperature settings to create a temperature setpoint trajectory expected to provide the target cooling power usage.

  17. Fission track dating method: I. Study of neutron flux uniformity in some irradiation positions of IEA-R1 reactor

    Osorio, A.M.; Hadler, J.C.; Iunes, P.J.; Paulo, S.R. de

    1993-06-01

    In order to use the fission track dating method the flux gradient was verified within the sample holder, in some irradiation positions of the IEA-R1 reactor at IPEN/CNEN, Sao Paulo. The fission track dating method considers only the thermal neutron fission tracks, to subtract the other contributions sample irradiations with a cadmium cover was performed. The neutron flux cadmium influence was studied. (author)

  18. Pulsed magnetic flux leakage method for hairline crack detection and characterization

    Okolo, Chukwunonso K.; Meydan, Turgut

    2018-04-01

    The Magnetic Flux leakage (MFL) method is a well-established branch of electromagnetic Non-Destructive Testing (NDT), extensively used for evaluating defects both on the surface and far-surface of pipeline structures. However the conventional techniques are not capable of estimating their approximate size, location and orientation, hence an additional transducer is required to provide the extra information needed. This research is aimed at solving the inevitable problem of granular bond separation which occurs during manufacturing, leaving pipeline structures with miniature cracks. It reports on a quantitative approach based on the Pulsed Magnetic Flux Leakage (PMFL) method, for the detection and characterization of the signals produced by tangentially oriented rectangular surface and far-surface hairline cracks. This was achieved through visualization and 3D imaging of the leakage field. The investigation compared finite element numerical simulation with experimental data. Experiments were carried out using a 10mm thick low carbon steel plate containing artificial hairline cracks with various depth sizes, and different features were extracted from the transient signal. The influence of sensor lift-off and pulse width variation on the magnetic field distribution which affects the detection capability of various hairline cracks located at different depths in the specimen is explored. The findings show that the proposed technique can be used to classify both surface and far-surface hairline cracks and can form the basis for an enhanced hairline crack detection and characterization for pipeline health monitoring.

  19. Extension of the heat flux method to liquid (bio-)fuels

    Meuwissen, R.

    2009-01-15

    The adiabatic burning velocity S{sub L} of a fuel/oxidizer mixture is a key parameter governing many properties of combustion, such as the shape and stabilization of the flame. It can be applied as an input parameter for many combustion models. Furthermore, kinetic schemes can be validated by the use of this parameter. A great extend of research has been performed on determining the adiabatic burning velocities of gaseous fuels. Liquid fuels however, have been examined far less extensive. Literature available shows eminent scatter amongst the data of independent groups and distinctive techniques. The methods used for measuring burning velocities need certain corrections for flame properties which cause additional uncertainties and make the scattering of data not completely unexpected. The heat flux burner used in this work, previously developed at the TU/e, creates a flat flame coherently no corrections for stretch are necessary. Instead, the heat exchange with the burner is considered; by measuring the temperature distribution over the burner plate, the net heat flux of the flame to the burner can be determined. By tuning the unburnt gas velocity until there is no net heat flux, the adiabatic burning velocity is found by interpolation. An extension to the original design, using a vaporized fluid in a carrier gas flow, enables to measure burning velocities of liquid fuels. In the present research, burning velocity measurements have been performed on vaporized ethanol/air flames in order to validate the setup. Similarities with the latest experimental research have been evaluated and good agreement has been found. Furthermore, temperature dependencies have been elucidated and compared to power law correlations stated by this external research. Again, good resemblance can be claimed, although the expanding of certain input parameters on mixture composition could give more solid confirmation. Subsequently, comparison with numerically performed calculations has been

  20. Prediction of critical heat flux in fuel assemblies using a CHF table method

    Chun, Tae Hyun; Hwang, Dae Hyun; Bang, Je Geon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Won Pil; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advance Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    A CHF table method has been assessed in this study for rod bundle CHF predictions. At the conceptual design stage for a new reactor, a general critical heat flux (CHF) prediction method with a wide applicable range and reasonable accuracy is essential to the thermal-hydraulic design and safety analysis. In many aspects, a CHF table method (i.e., the use of a round tube CHF table with appropriate bundle correction factors) can be a promising way to fulfill this need. So the assessment of the CHF table method has been performed with the bundle CHF data relevant to pressurized water reactors (PWRs). For comparison purposes, W-3R and EPRI-1 were also applied to the same data base. Data analysis has been conducted with the subchannel code COBRA-IV-I. The CHF table method shows the best predictions based on the direct substitution method. Improvements of the bundle correction factors, especially for the spacer grid and cold wall effects, are desirable for better predictions. Though the present assessment is somewhat limited in both fuel geometries and operating conditions, the CHF table method clearly shows potential to be a general CHF predictor. 8 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs. (Author)

  1. Prediction of critical heat flux in fuel assemblies using a CHF table method

    Chun, Tae Hyun; Hwang, Dae Hyun; Bang, Je Geon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Won Pil; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advance Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    A CHF table method has been assessed in this study for rod bundle CHF predictions. At the conceptual design stage for a new reactor, a general critical heat flux (CHF) prediction method with a wide applicable range and reasonable accuracy is essential to the thermal-hydraulic design and safety analysis. In many aspects, a CHF table method (i.e., the use of a round tube CHF table with appropriate bundle correction factors) can be a promising way to fulfill this need. So the assessment of the CHF table method has been performed with the bundle CHF data relevant to pressurized water reactors (PWRs). For comparison purposes, W-3R and EPRI-1 were also applied to the same data base. Data analysis has been conducted with the subchannel code COBRA-IV-I. The CHF table method shows the best predictions based on the direct substitution method. Improvements of the bundle correction factors, especially for the spacer grid and cold wall effects, are desirable for better predictions. Though the present assessment is somewhat limited in both fuel geometries and operating conditions, the CHF table method clearly shows potential to be a general CHF predictor. 8 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs. (Author)

  2. Central Russia agroecosystem monitoring with CO2 fluxes analysis by eddy covariance method

    Joulia Meshalkina

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The eddy covariance (EC technique as a powerful statistics-based method of measurement and calculation the vertical turbulent fluxes of greenhouses gases within atmospheric boundary layers provides the continuous, long-term flux information integrated at the ecosystem scale. An attractive way to compare the agricultural practices influences on GHG fluxes is to divide a crop area into subplots managed in different ways. The research has been carried out in the Precision Farming Experimental Field of the Russian Timiryazev State Agricultural University (RTSAU, Moscow in 2013 under the support of RF Government grant # 11.G34.31.0079, EU grant # 603542 LUС4С (7FP and RF Ministry of education and science grant # 14-120-14-4266-ScSh. Arable Umbric Albeluvisols have around 1% of SOC, 5.4 pH (KCl and NPK medium-enhanced contents in sandy loam topsoil. The CO2 flux seasonal monitoring has been done by two eddy covariance stations located at the distance of 108 m. The LI-COR instrumental equipment was the same for the both stations. The stations differ only by current crop version: barley or vetch and oats. At both sites, diurnal patterns of NEE among different months were very similar in shape but varied slightly in amplitude. NEE values were about zero during spring time. CO2 fluxes have been intensified after crop emerging from values of 3 to 7 µmol/s∙m2 for emission, and from 5 to 20 µmol/s∙m2 for sink. Stabilization of the fluxes has come at achieving plants height of 10-12 cm. Average NEE was negative only in June and July. Maximum uptake was observed in June with average values about 8 µmol CO2 m−2 s−1. Although different kind of crops were planted on the fields A and B, GPP dynamics was quite similar for both sites: after reaching the peak values at the mid of June, GPP decreased from 4 to 0.5 g C CO2 m-2 d-1 at the end of July. The difference in crops harvesting time that was equal two weeks did not significantly influence the daily

  3. New casemix classification as an alternative method for budget allocation in thai oral healthcare service: a pilot study.

    Wisaijohn, Thunthita; Pimkhaokham, Atiphan; Lapying, Phenkhae; Itthichaisri, Chumpot; Pannarunothai, Supasit; Igarashi, Isao; Kawabuchi, Koichi

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a new casemix classification system as an alternative method for the budget allocation of oral healthcare service (OHCS). Initially, the International Statistical of Diseases and Related Health Problem, 10th revision, Thai Modification (ICD-10-TM) related to OHCS was used for developing the software "Grouper". This model was designed to allow the translation of dental procedures into eight-digit codes. Multiple regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between the factors used for developing the model and the resource consumption. Furthermore, the coefficient of variance, reduction in variance, and relative weight (RW) were applied to test the validity. The results demonstrated that 1,624 OHCS classifications, according to the diagnoses and the procedures performed, showed high homogeneity within groups and heterogeneity between groups. Moreover, the RW of the OHCS could be used to predict and control the production costs. In conclusion, this new OHCS casemix classification has a potential use in a global decision making.

  4. New Casemix Classification as an Alternative Method for Budget Allocation in Thai Oral Healthcare Service: A Pilot Study

    Thunthita Wisaijohn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop a new casemix classification system as an alternative method for the budget allocation of oral healthcare service (OHCS. Initially, the International Statistical of Diseases and Related Health Problem, 10th revision, Thai Modification (ICD-10-TM related to OHCS was used for developing the software “Grouper”. This model was designed to allow the translation of dental procedures into eight-digit codes. Multiple regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between the factors used for developing the model and the resource consumption. Furthermore, the coefficient of variance, reduction in variance, and relative weight (RW were applied to test the validity. The results demonstrated that 1,624 OHCS classifications, according to the diagnoses and the procedures performed, showed high homogeneity within groups and heterogeneity between groups. Moreover, the RW of the OHCS could be used to predict and control the production costs. In conclusion, this new OHCS casemix classification has a potential use in a global decision making.

  5. Mixed convection in inclined lid driven cavity by Lattice Boltzmann Method and heat flux boundary condition

    D'Orazio, A; Karimipour, A; Nezhad, A H; Shirani, E

    2014-01-01

    Laminar mixed convective heat transfer in two-dimensional rectangular inclined driven cavity is studied numerically by means of a double population thermal Lattice Boltzmann method. Through the top moving lid the heat flux enters the cavity whereas it leaves the system through the bottom wall; side walls are adiabatic. The counter-slip internal energy density boundary condition, able to simulate an imposed non zero heat flux at the wall, is applied, in order to demonstrate that it can be effectively used to simulate heat transfer phenomena also in case of moving walls. Results are analyzed over a range of the Richardson numbers and tilting angles of the enclosure, encompassing the dominating forced convection, mixed convection, and dominating natural convection flow regimes. As expected, heat transfer rate increases as increases the inclination angle, but this effect is significant for higher Richardson numbers, when buoyancy forces dominate the problem; for horizontal cavity, average Nusselt number decreases with the increase of Richardson number because of the stratified field configuration

  6. A comparison of recent methods for modelling mercury fluxes at the air-water interface

    Fantozzi L.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The atmospheric pathway of the global mercury flux is known to be the primary source of mercury contamination to most threatened aquatic ecosystems. Notwithstanding, the emission of mercury from surface water to the atmosphere is as much as 50% of total annual emissions of this metal into the atmosphere. In recent years, much effort has been made in theoretical and experimental researches to quantify the total mass flux of mercury to the atmosphere. In this study the most recent atmospheric modelling methods and the information obtained from them are presented and compared using experimental data collected during the Oceanographic Campaign Fenice 2011 (25 October – 8 November 2011, performed on board the Research Vessel (RV Urania of the CNR in the framework of the MEDOCEANOR ongoing program. A strategy for future numerical model development is proposed which is intended to gain a better knowledge of the long-term effects of meteo-climatic drivers on mercury evasional processes, and would provide key information on gaseous Hg exchange rates at the air-water interface.

  7. Gradient heat flux measurement as monitoring method for the diesel engine

    Sapozhnikov, S. Z.; Mityakov, V. Yu; Mityakov, A. V.; Vintsarevich, A. V.; Pavlov, A. V.; Nalyotov, I. D.

    2017-11-01

    The usage of gradient heat flux measurement for monitoring of heat flux on combustion chamber surface and optimization of diesel work process is proposed. Heterogeneous gradient heat flux sensors can be used at various regimes for an appreciable length of time. Fuel injection timing is set by the position of the maximum point on the angular heat flux diagram however, the value itself of the heat flux may not be considered. The development of such an approach can be productive for remote monitoring of work process in the cylinders of high-power marine engines.

  8. Method of Relative Magnitudes for Calculating Magnetic Fluxes in Electrical Machine

    Oleg A.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The article presents the study results of the model of an asynchronous electric motor carried out by the author within the framework of the Priorities Research Program “Research and development in the priority areas of development of Russia’s scientific and technical complex for 2014–2020”. Materials and Methods: A model of an idealized asynchronous machine (with sinusoidal distribution of magnetic induction in air gap is used in vector control systems. It is impossible to create windings for this machine. The basis of the new calculation approach was the Conductivity of Teeth Contours Method, developed at the Electrical Machines Chair of the Moscow Power Engineering Institute (MPEI. Unlike this method, the author used not absolute values, but relative magnitudes of magnetic fluxes. This solution fundamentally improved the method’s capabilities. The relative magnitudes of the magnetic fluxes of the teeth contours do not required the additional consideration for exact structure of magnetic field of tooth and adjacent slots. These structures are identical for all the teeth of the machine and differ only in magnitude. The purpose of the calculations was not traditional harmonic analysis of magnetic induction distribution in air gap of machine, but a refinement of the equations of electric machine model. The vector control researchers used only the cos(θ function as a value of mutual magnetic coupling coefficient between the windings. Results: The author has developed a way to take into account the design of the windings of a real machine by using imaginary measuring winding with the same winding design as a real phase winding. The imaginary winding can be placed in the position of any machine windings. The calculation of the relative magnetic fluxes of this winding helped to estimate the real values of the magnetic coupling coefficients between the windings, and find the correction functions for the model of an idealized

  9. CDO budgeting

    Nesladek, Pavel; Wiswesser, Andreas; Sass, Björn; Mauermann, Sebastian

    2008-04-01

    The Critical dimension off-target (CDO) is a key parameter for mask house customer, affecting directly the performance of the mask. The CDO is the difference between the feature size target and the measured feature size. The change of CD during the process is either compensated within the process or by data correction. These compensation methods are commonly called process bias and data bias, respectively. The difference between data bias and process bias in manufacturing results in systematic CDO error, however, this systematic error does not take into account the instability of the process bias. This instability is a result of minor variations - instabilities of manufacturing processes and changes in materials and/or logistics. Using several masks the CDO of the manufacturing line can be estimated. For systematic investigation of the unit process contribution to CDO and analysis of the factors influencing the CDO contributors, a solid understanding of each unit process and huge number of masks is necessary. Rough identification of contributing processes and splitting of the final CDO variation between processes can be done with approx. 50 masks with identical design, material and process. Such amount of data allows us to identify the main contributors and estimate the effect of them by means of Analysis of variance (ANOVA) combined with multivariate analysis. The analysis does not provide information about the root cause of the variation within the particular unit process, however, it provides a good estimate of the impact of the process on the stability of the manufacturing line. Additionally this analysis can be used to identify possible interaction between processes, which cannot be investigated if only single processes are considered. Goal of this work is to evaluate limits for CDO budgeting models given by the precision and the number of measurements as well as partitioning the variation within the manufacturing process. The CDO variation splits according to

  10. Thermal Analysis on Radial Flux Permanent Magnet Generator (PMG using Finite Element Method

    Hilman Syaeful A Syaeful A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The main source of heat in the permanent magnet generator (PMG is the total losses which f come from winding losses, core losses and rotational losses. Total heat arising from such these losses must be properly distributed and maintained so as not to exceed the maximum allowable temperature to prevent damage to insulation on the winding and demagnetization on the permanent magnet machines. In this research, we consider thermal analysis which is occurred on the radial flux PMG by using finite element method to determine the extent to which the heat generated can be properly distributed. The simulation results show that there are no points of heat concentration or hot spot. The simulation maximum temperatures of the permanent magnet and the winding are 39.1oC and 72.5oC respectively while the experimental maximum temperature of the winding is 62oC.

  11. The Neutron-Gamma Pulse Shape Discrimination Method for Neutron Flux Detection in the ITER

    Xu Xiufeng; Li Shiping; Cao Hongrui; Yin Zejie; Yuan Guoliang; Yang Qingwei

    2013-01-01

    The neutron flux monitor (NFM), as a significant diagnostic system in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), will play an important role in the readings of a series of key parameters in the fusion reaction process. As the core of the main electronic system of the NFM, the neutron-gamma pulse shape discrimination (n-γ PSD) can distinguish the neutron pulse from the gamma pulse and other disturbing pulses according to the thresholds of the rising time and the amplitude pre-installed on the board, the double timing point CFD method is used to get the rising time of the pulse. The n-γ PSD can provide an accurate neutron count. (magnetically confined plasma)

  12. BUDGET PLANNING IN FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT

    Nataliya Melnichuk

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to determine the nature, targets, functions, principles and methods of budget planning and development of classifications due to its types. The essence of budget planning presented by various authors, is own interpretation (the process of developing a plan of formation, distribution and redistribution of financial funds according to budget system units during the reporting period based on budgetary purposes and targets defined by socio-economic development strategy...

  13. Four-year measurement of methane flux over a temperate forest with a relaxed eddy accumulation method

    Sakabe, A.; Kosugi, Y.; Ueyama, M.; Hamotani, K.; Takahashi, K.; Iwata, H.; Itoh, M.

    2013-12-01

    Forests are generally assumed to be an atmospheric methane (CH4) sink (Le Mer and Roger, 2001). However, under Asian monsoon climate, forests are subject to wide spatiotemporal range in soil water status, where forest soils often became water-saturated condition heterogeneously. In such warm and humid conditions, forests may act as a CH4 source and/or sink with considerable spatiotemporal variations. Micrometeorological methods such as eddy covariance (EC) method continuously measure spatially-representative flux at a canopy scale without artificial disturbance. In this study, we measured CH4 fluxes over a temperate forest during four-year period using a CH4 analyzer based on tunable diode laser spectroscopy detection with a relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) method (Hamotani et al., 1996, 2001). We revealed the amplitude and seasonal variations of canopy-scale CH4 fluxes. The REA method is the attractive alternative to the EC method to measure trace-gas flux because it allows the use of analyzers with an optimal integration time. We also conducted continuous chamber measurements on forest floor to reveal spatial variations in soil CH4 fluxes and its controlling processes. The observations were made in an evergreen coniferous forest in central Japan. The site has a warm temperate monsoon climate with wet summer. Some wetlands were located in riparian zones along streams within the flux footprint area. For the REA method, the sonic anemometer (SAT-550, Kaijo) was mounted on top of the 29-m-tall tower and air was sampled from just below the sonic anemometer to reservoirs according to the direction of vertical wind velocity (w). After accumulating air for 30 minutes, the air in the reservoirs was pulled into a CO2/H2O gas analyzer (LI-840, Li-Cor) and a CH4 analyzer (FMA-200, Los Gatos Research). Before entering the analyzers, the sampled air was dried using a gas dryer (PD-50 T-48; Perma Pure Inc.). The REA flux is obtained from the difference in the mean concentrations

  14. Synthesis of budgeting and accounting standard method for «responsibility centers» as information engineering base of operating activities of enterprise

    I.A. Herasymovych

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Market conditions have caused the necessity of introduction at Ukrainian enterprises such a new economic mechanism as financial engineering based on the new approach of synthesis budgeting, «responsibility centers» and managerial accounting by the statutory method in the option of «Direct-costing» (direct costs. The new register «Report of the responsibility center about the work of the pair» which is created in direct costs, is offered for controlling of indexes of the proven budgets about their actual implementation. The main results of the research are: the clear definition of «centers of responsibility» and liability of managers for each item of estimates (budget; the creation of the accounting data signal system about the deviations from standards and changing of the budget norms; the development of operational, accounting records for daily cost accounting; the development of the graphs of document flow on each «responsibility center», which will provide the drafting of internal reporting for implementation of informational indicators, which give an opportunity to evaluate and to control, to predict and to plan the «responsibility centers» activity of an enterprise and also of some of its managers. Scientific novelty and practical value lie in the capacity of «Direct-costing» in terms of financial engineering: 1 it provides rapid determination of budget implementation and the actual cost of production; 2 it allows to determine the «break-even point» which enables to regulate it by options for varying the direct costs or volume and price for selling; 3 according to this method there is no necessity to allocate managerial fixed costs for types of products, as we cannot include them into the results of an enterprise activity.

  15. Method for calculating the critical heat flux in mixed rod assemblies based on the tables of crisis in bundles

    Bobkov, V.P.

    2000-01-01

    The method for calculating the critical heat flux in the mixed rod assemblies, for example RBMK, containing three-four angle and peripheral macrocells, is presented. The method is based on generalization of experimental data in form of tables for the rods beams. It is recommended for the areas of parameters both provided for by experimental data and for others, where the data are absent. The advantages of the table method as follows: it is acceptable within a wide range of parameters and provides for smooth description of dependence of critical heat fluxes on these parameters; it is characterized by clearness, high reliability and accuracy and is easy in application [ru

  16. Investigation of Flux-Linkage Profile Measurement Methods for Switched-Reluctance Motors and Permanent-Magnet Motors

    Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand; Ritchie, Ewen

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of actual flux linkage versus current profiles plays an important role in design verification and performance prediction for switched reluctance motors (SRM's) and permanent magnet motors (PMM's). Various measurement methods have been proposed and discussed so far but each method has its...

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  18. Global Carbon Budget 2016

    Quéré, Corinne Le; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Sitch, Stephen; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Peters, Glen P.; Manning, Andrew C.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Houghton, Richard A.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere the global carbon budget is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates and consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models. We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as +/- 1(sigma), reflecting the current capacity to characterize the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2006-2015), EFF was 9

  19. Global Carbon Budget 2016

    Le Quéré, Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Sitch, Stephen; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Peters, Glen P.; Manning, Andrew C.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Houghton, Richard A.; Keeling, Ralph F.; Alin, Simone; Andrews, Oliver D.; Anthoni, Peter; Barbero, Leticia; Bopp, Laurent; Chevallier, Frédéric; Chini, Louise P.; Ciais, Philippe; Currie, Kim; Delire, Christine; Doney, Scott C.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gkritzalis, Thanos; Harris, Ian; Hauck, Judith; Haverd, Vanessa; Hoppema, Mario; Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Jain, Atul K.; Kato, Etsushi; Körtzinger, Arne; Landschützer, Peter; Lefèvre, Nathalie; Lenton, Andrew; Lienert, Sebastian; Lombardozzi, Danica; Melton, Joe R.; Metzl, Nicolas; Millero, Frank; Monteiro, Pedro M. S.; Munro, David R.; Nabel, Julia E. M. S.; Nakaoka, Shin-ichiro; O'Brien, Kevin; Olsen, Are; Omar, Abdirahman M.; Ono, Tsuneo; Pierrot, Denis; Poulter, Benjamin; Rödenbeck, Christian; Salisbury, Joe; Schuster, Ute; Schwinger, Jörg; Séférian, Roland; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Sutton, Adrienne J.; Takahashi, Taro; Tian, Hanqin; Tilbrook, Bronte; van der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T.; van der Werf, Guido R.; Viovy, Nicolas; Walker, Anthony P.; Wiltshire, Andrew J.; Zaehle, Sönke

    2016-11-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere - the "global carbon budget" - is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates and consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models. We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2006-2015), EFF was 9

  20. Measurement of Intestinal and Peripheral Cholesterol Fluxes by a Dual-Tracer Balance Method

    Ronda, Onne A. H. O.; van Dijk, Theo H.; Verkade, H. J.; Groen, Albert K.

    2016-01-01

    Long-term elevated plasma cholesterol levels put individuals at risk for developing atherosclerosis. Plasma cholesterol levels are determined by the balance between cholesterol input and output fluxes. Here we describe in detail the methodology to determine the different cholesterol fluxes in mice.

  1. SUMOFLUX: A Generalized Method for Targeted 13C Metabolic Flux Ratio Analysis

    Kogadeeva, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic fluxes are a cornerstone of cellular physiology that emerge from a complex interplay of enzymes, carriers, and nutrients. The experimental assessment of in vivo intracellular fluxes using stable isotopic tracers is essential if we are to understand metabolic function and regulation. Flux estimation based on 13C or 2H labeling relies on complex simulation and iterative fitting; processes that necessitate a level of expertise that ordinarily preclude the non-expert user. To overcome this, we have developed SUMOFLUX, a methodology that is broadly applicable to the targeted analysis of 13C-metabolic fluxes. By combining surrogate modeling and machine learning, we trained a predictor to specialize in estimating flux ratios from measurable 13C-data. SUMOFLUX targets specific flux features individually, which makes it fast, user-friendly, applicable to experimental design and robust in terms of experimental noise and exchange flux magnitude. Collectively, we predict that SUMOFLUX's properties realistically pave the way to high-throughput flux analyses. PMID:27626798

  2. Comprehensive Method for Culturing Embryonic Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons for Seahorse Extracellular Flux XF24 Analysis.

    Lange, Miranda; Zeng, Yan; Knight, Andrew; Windebank, Anthony; Trushina, Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    Changes in mitochondrial dynamics and function contribute to progression of multiple neurodegenerative diseases including peripheral neuropathies. The Seahorse Extracellular Flux XF24 analyzer provides a comprehensive assessment of the relative state of glycolytic and aerobic metabolism in live cells making this method instrumental in assessing mitochondrial function. One of the most important steps in the analysis of mitochondrial respiration using the Seahorse XF24 analyzer is plating a uniform monolayer of firmly attached cells. However, culturing of primary dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons is associated with multiple challenges, including their propensity to form clumps and detach from the culture plate. This could significantly interfere with proper analysis and interpretation of data. We have tested multiple cell culture parameters including coating substrates, culture medium, XF24 microplate plastics, and plating techniques in order to optimize plating conditions. Here we describe a highly reproducible method to obtain neuron-enriched monolayers of securely attached dissociated primary embryonic (E15) rat DRG neurons suitable for analysis with the Seahorse XF24 platform.

  3. Comprehensive method for culturing embryonic dorsal root ganglion neurons for Seahorse Extracellular Flux XF24 Analysis

    Miranda L. Lange

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in mitochondrial dynamics and function contribute to progression of multiple neurodegenerative diseases including peripheral neuropathies. The Seahorse Extracellular Flux XF24 analyzer provides a comprehensive assessment of the relative state of glycolytic and aerobic metabolism in live cells making this method instrumental in assessing mitochondrial function. One of the most important steps in the analysis of mitochondrial respiration using the Seahorse XF24 analyzer is plating a uniform monolayer of firmly attached cells. However, culturing of primary dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons is associated with multiple challenges, including their propensity to form clumps and detach from the culture plate. This could significantly interfere with proper analysis and interpretation of data. We have tested multiple cell culture parameters including coating substrates, culture medium, XF24 microplate plastics, and plating techniques in order to optimize plating conditions. Here we describe a highly reproducible method to obtain neuron-enriched monolayers of securely attached dissociated primary embryonic (E15 rat DRG neurons suitable for analysis with the Seahorse XF24 platform.

  4. Studies on spheromak plasma production by external-flux-core method, (2)

    Arata, Masanori; Katsurai, Makoto

    1984-01-01

    The spheromak technique, one of magnetic plasma containment techniques, has such arrangement of magnetic fields that the toroidal magnetic field is produced by the poloidal current flowing in plasma, and the poloidal magnetic field is produced by the toroidal current in plasma and the current in external coils. The authors proposed external flux core method as the technique of plasma formation by this spheromak method, in which the toroidal magnetic field is injected by the discharge using electrodes, whereas the poloidal magnetic field is injected by induction discharge without electrode. Its fundamental action was analyzed by computer simulation and confirmed by experiment. In this study, the behavior of the spheromak plasma produced was investigated in detail and summarized. The contents were the measurement of the spheromak configuration produced and the estimation of plasma parameters. The experimental setup, the principle of action, and the experimental results of magnetic field distribution obtained by a magnetic probe, ion current measured by an electrostatic probe, electron temperature by spectroscopic measurement and the behavior of spheromak plasma observed with an image converter camera are reported. (Kako, I.)

  5. Solvent Flux Method (SFM): A Case Study of Water Access to Candida antarctica Lipase B.

    Benson, Sven P; Pleiss, Jürgen

    2014-11-11

    The solvent flux method (SFM) was developed to comprehensively characterize the influx of solvent molecules from the solvent environment into the active site of a protein in the framework of molecular dynamics simulations. This was achieved by introducing a solvent concentration gradient as well as partially reorienting and rescaling the velocity vector of all solvent molecules contained within a spherical volume enclosing the protein, thus inducing an accelerated solvent influx toward the active site. In addition to the detection of solvent access pathway within the protein structure, it is hereby possible to identify potential amino acid positions relevant to solvent-related enzyme engineering with high statistical significance. The method is particularly aimed at improving the reverse hydrolysis reaction rates in nonaqueous media. Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) binds to a triglyceride-water interface with its substrate entrance channel oriented toward the hydrophobic substrate interface. The lipase-triglyceride-water system served as a model system for SFM to evaluate the influx of water molecules to the active site. As a proof of principle for SFM, a previously known water access pathway in CALB was identified as the primary water channel. In addition, a secondary water channel and two pathways for water access which contribute to water leakage between the protein and the triglyceride-water interface were identified.

  6. The "covariation method" for estimating the parameters of the standard Dynamic Energy Budget model II: Properties and preliminary patterns

    Lika, Konstadia; Kearney, Michael R.; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A. L. M.

    2011-11-01

    The covariation method for estimating the parameters of the standard Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model provides a single-step method of accessing all the core DEB parameters from commonly available empirical data. In this study, we assess the robustness of this parameter estimation procedure and analyse the role of pseudo-data using elasticity coefficients. In particular, we compare the performance of Maximum Likelihood (ML) vs. Weighted Least Squares (WLS) approaches and find that the two approaches tend to converge in performance as the number of uni-variate data sets increases, but that WLS is more robust when data sets comprise single points (zero-variate data). The efficiency of the approach is shown to be high, and the prior parameter estimates (pseudo-data) have very little influence if the real data contain information about the parameter values. For instance, the effects of the pseudo-value for the allocation fraction κ is reduced when there is information for both growth and reproduction, that for the energy conductance is reduced when information on age at birth and puberty is given, and the effects of the pseudo-value for the maturity maintenance rate coefficient are insignificant. The estimation of some parameters (e.g., the zoom factor and the shape coefficient) requires little information, while that of others (e.g., maturity maintenance rate, puberty threshold and reproduction efficiency) require data at several food levels. The generality of the standard DEB model, in combination with the estimation of all of its parameters, allows comparison of species on the basis of parameter values. We discuss a number of preliminary patterns emerging from the present collection of parameter estimates across a wide variety of taxa. We make the observation that the estimated value of the fraction κ of mobilised reserve that is allocated to soma is far away from the value that maximises reproduction. We recognise this as the reason why two very different

  7. Arm retraction dynamics of entangled star polymers: A forward flux sampling method study

    Zhu, Jian; Likhtman, Alexei E.; Wang, Zuowei

    2017-07-01

    The study of dynamics and rheology of well-entangled branched polymers remains a challenge for computer simulations due to the exponentially growing terminal relaxation times of these polymers with increasing molecular weights. We present an efficient simulation algorithm for studying the arm retraction dynamics of entangled star polymers by combining the coarse-grained slip-spring (SS) model with the forward flux sampling (FFS) method. This algorithm is first applied to simulate symmetric star polymers in the absence of constraint release (CR). The reaction coordinate for the FFS method is determined by finding good agreement of the simulation results on the terminal relaxation times of mildly entangled stars with those obtained from direct shooting SS model simulations with the relative difference between them less than 5%. The FFS simulations are then carried out for strongly entangled stars with arm lengths up to 16 entanglements that are far beyond the accessibility of brute force simulations in the non-CR condition. Apart from the terminal relaxation times, the same method can also be applied to generate the relaxation spectra of all entanglements along the arms which are desired for the development of quantitative theories of entangled branched polymers. Furthermore, we propose a numerical route to construct the experimentally measurable relaxation correlation functions by effectively linking the data stored at each interface during the FFS runs. The obtained star arm end-to-end vector relaxation functions Φ (t ) and the stress relaxation function G(t) are found to be in reasonably good agreement with standard SS simulation results in the terminal regime. Finally, we demonstrate that this simulation method can be conveniently extended to study the arm-retraction problem in entangled star polymer melts with CR by modifying the definition of the reaction coordinate, while the computational efficiency will depend on the particular slip-spring or slip

  8. The method of life extension for the High Flux Isotope Reactor vessel

    Chang, Shib-Jung.

    1995-01-01

    The state of the vessel steel embrittlement as a result of neutron irradiation can be measured by its increase in the nil ductility temperature (NDT). This temperature is sometimes referred to as the brittle-ductile transition temperature (DBT) for fracture. The life extension of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) vessel is calculated by using the method of fracture mechanics. A hydrostatic pressure test (hydrotest) is performed in order to determine a safe vessel static pressure. It is then followed by using fracture mechanics to project the reactor life from the safe hydrostatic pressure. The life extension calculation provides the following information on the remaining life of the reactor as a function of the nil ductility temperature increase: the probability of vessel fracture due to hydrotest vs vessel life at several hydrotest pressures; the hydrotest time interval vs the uncertainty of the nil ductility temperature increase rate; and the hydrotest pressure vs the uncertainty of the nil ductility temperature increase rate. It is understood that the use of a complete range of uncertainties of the nil ductility temperature increase is equivalent to the entire range of radiation damage that can be experienced by the vessel steel. From the numerical values for the probabilities of the vessel fracture as a result of hydrotest, it is estimated that the reactor vessel life can be extended up to 50 EFPY (100 MW) with the minimum vessel operating temperature equal to 85 degree F

  9. BUDGET PLANNING IN FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT

    Nataliya Melnichuk

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to determine the nature, targets, functions, principles and methods of budget planning and development of classifications due to its types. The essence of budget planning presented by various authors, is own interpretation (the process of developing a plan of formation, distribution and redistribution of financial funds according to budget system units during the reporting period based on budgetary purposes and targets defined by socio-economic development strategy is proposed. Methodology. The following methods such as cognition, induction, deduction, analysis and synthesis have been used in the process of survey. Results of the survey proves that budget planning plays an essential role in the financial management. On condition business environment changing even the best management system can become obsolete. The immediate reaction to the new trends in the financial system as a whole, in the industry is possible with budget planning as well. It also allows to make appropriate adjustments to the plans. Adjustment of long-term, medium-term and short-term plans makes it possible, without changing goals, to change ways of their achievement and thus to raise the level of efficiency of budget funds formation and use. It is necessary to revise the whole system plans, including their mission and goals in the case of global changes in the external and internal environment. Practical implications. The proposed approach to the classification of budget planning types allows to cope with the shortcomings of modern planning in the public sector (the development of the targets according to the state budget expenditures in Ukraine remains a formality and it rarely complies with realities. Value/originality is specified in the proposed interpretation which differs from existing ones that provides clarification of budget planning purpose in financial management; classification of budget planning principles, which differs from previous

  10. INAA analysis of rocks: A routine method using Fe as an internal flux monitor

    Kay, R.W.; Kay, S. Mahlburg

    1992-01-01

    Over the past decade at Cornell, trace elements in over 2500 rocks have been analyzed by INAA. The samples, mainly volcanic rocks, have known concentrations of major elements (e.g. Si, Ti, Al, Mg, Ca, K, Fe, Na) and the last two of these (Fe and Na) are also determined by activation, using rock standards (e.g. USGS standards BCRl, BHVO, etc.). Differences between Fe determined by INAA and that determined as a part of the major element analysis are mainly attributed to volatile (H 2 O, CO 2 ) loss (especially when major element analyses were done by electron microprobe on fused powders, whereas the INAA analyses were done on the powders), and to flux variability during irradiation. Instead of reporting two values for Fe we use Fe as an internal flux monitor, with Na and the trace elements being reported relative to the given Fe value. The ratio Na/Fe is used as a sensitive check on the identity of the sample and as a monitor of alkali loss affecting the major element analysis. Other than this modification (Kay et aL 1987, also reported in Chappell and Hergt, 1989) we use an INAA method similar to mat practiced by many labs. Powdered samples (about 0.5 g) are sealed in high-purity silica tubes and irradiated in the Cornell Triga reactor. Samples are counted for a minimum of 2 hours (up to 10 hours) 7 and 40 days after irradiation. Data are reduced using a program written at Cornell, with peak and background regions that have been checked for interferences. Corrections are routinely applied for Ce (Fe), Nd (Br), Tb (Th), Eu (Ba), Lu (U), and Yb (Th) (interference is from element in parentheses). A U fission yield correction is applied to La, Ce, Nd, and Ba. A correction for Ta introduced by grinding in WC containers can be made using known Ta/W ratios in the grinding containers. The correction amounted to 10-20% of the Ta gross peak. Recently, samples have been prepared in a ceramic grinding containers; for these, no Ta correction is needed. Trace elements determined

  11. A closed-chamber method to measure greenhouse gas fluxes from dry aquatic sediments

    Lesmeister, Lukas; Koschorreck, Matthias

    2017-06-01

    Recent research indicates that greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from dry aquatic sediments are a relevant process in the freshwater carbon cycle. However, fluxes are difficult to measure because of the often rocky substrate and the dynamic nature of the habitat. Here we tested the performance of different materials to seal a closed chamber to stony ground both in laboratory and field experiments. Using on-site material consistently resulted in elevated fluxes. The artefact was caused both by outgassing of the material and production of gas. The magnitude of the artefact was site dependent - the measured CO2 flux increased between 10 and 208 %. Errors due to incomplete sealing proved to be more severe than errors due to non-inert sealing material.Pottery clay as sealing material provided a tight seal between the chamber and the ground and no production of gases was detected. With this approach it is possible to get reliable gas fluxes from hard-substrate sites without using a permanent collar. Our test experiments confirmed that CO2 fluxes from dry aquatic sediments are similar to CO2 fluxes from terrestrial soils.

  12. A closed-chamber method to measure greenhouse gas fluxes from dry aquatic sediments

    L. Lesmeister

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent research indicates that greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from dry aquatic sediments are a relevant process in the freshwater carbon cycle. However, fluxes are difficult to measure because of the often rocky substrate and the dynamic nature of the habitat. Here we tested the performance of different materials to seal a closed chamber to stony ground both in laboratory and field experiments. Using on-site material consistently resulted in elevated fluxes. The artefact was caused both by outgassing of the material and production of gas. The magnitude of the artefact was site dependent – the measured CO2 flux increased between 10 and 208 %. Errors due to incomplete sealing proved to be more severe than errors due to non-inert sealing material.Pottery clay as sealing material provided a tight seal between the chamber and the ground and no production of gases was detected. With this approach it is possible to get reliable gas fluxes from hard-substrate sites without using a permanent collar. Our test experiments confirmed that CO2 fluxes from dry aquatic sediments are similar to CO2 fluxes from terrestrial soils.

  13. Critical flux determination by flux-stepping

    Beier, Søren; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    2010-01-01

    In membrane filtration related scientific literature, often step-by-step determined critical fluxes are reported. Using a dynamic microfiltration device, it is shown that critical fluxes determined from two different flux-stepping methods are dependent upon operational parameters such as step...... length, step height, and.flux start level. Filtrating 8 kg/m(3) yeast cell suspensions by a vibrating 0.45 x 10(-6) m pore size microfiltration hollow fiber module, critical fluxes from 5.6 x 10(-6) to 1.2 x 10(-5) m/s have been measured using various step lengths from 300 to 1200 seconds. Thus......, such values are more or less useless in itself as critical flux predictors, and constant flux verification experiments have to be conducted to check if the determined critical fluxes call predict sustainable flux regimes. However, it is shown that using the step-by-step predicted critical fluxes as start...

  14. Temperature effect correction for muon flux at the Earth surface: estimation of the accuracy of different methods

    Dmitrieva, A N; Astapov, I I; Kovylyaeva, A A; Pankova, D V

    2013-01-01

    Correction of the muon flux at the Earth surface for temperature effect with the help of two simple methods is considered. In the first method, it is assumed that major part of muons are generated at some effective generation level, which altitude depends on the temperature profile of the atmosphere. In the second method, dependence of muon flux on the mass-averaged atmosphere temperature is considered. The methods were tested with the data of muon hodoscope URAGAN (Moscow, Russia). Difference between data corrected with the help of differential in altitude temperature coefficients and simplified methods does not exceed 1-1.5%, so the latter ones may be used for introduction of a fast preliminary correction.

  15. Ignition and flame spread properties of wood, elaborated during a new test method based on convective heat flux

    Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt

    Ignition and flame spread properties on selected types of wood and wall papers are elaborated. Tests are established in a new test setup in which the test specimen can be fixed in different angles due to a horizontal level. The heat exposing the test objects is arranged as a convective flux......, established from a Bunsen burners pilot flame. This principal is somewhat in contrast to the more typical radiation established fluxes. For instance, the ISO 9239 (DS 2000) test method is based on a gas fired radiant panel. And in the ISO 5657 standard, the ignition properties are investigated on test...

  16. A new lattice hydrodynamic model based on control method considering the flux change rate and delay feedback signal

    Qin, Shunda; Ge, Hongxia; Cheng, Rongjun

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, a new lattice hydrodynamic model is proposed by taking delay feedback and flux change rate effect into account in a single lane. The linear stability condition of the new model is derived by control theory. By using the nonlinear analysis method, the mKDV equation near the critical point is deduced to describe the traffic congestion. Numerical simulations are carried out to demonstrate the advantage of the new model in suppressing traffic jam with the consideration of flux change rate effect in delay feedback model.

  17. Global Carbon Budget 2015

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Canadell, J. G.; Sitch, S.; Korsbakken, J. I.; Friedlingstein, P.; Peters, G. P.; Andres, R. J.; Boden, T. A.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Keeling, R. F.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Bakker, D. C. E.; Barbero, L.; Bopp, L.; Chang, J.; Chevallier, F.; Chini, L. P.; Ciais, P.; Fader, M.; Feely, R. A.; Gkritzalis, T.; Harris, I.; Hauck, J.; Ilyina, T.; Jain, A. K.; Kato, E.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Koven, C.; Landschützer, P.; Lauvset, S. K.; Lefèvre, N.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Metzl, N.; Millero, F.; Munro, D. R.; Murata, A.; Nabel, J. E. M. S.; Nakaoka, S.; Nojiri, Y.; O'Brien, K.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Pérez, F. F.; Pfeil, B.; Pierrot, D.; Poulter, B.; Rehder, G.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Laan-Luijkx, I. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; van Heuven, S.; Vandemark, D.; Viovy, N.; Wiltshire, A.; Zaehle, S.; Zeng, N.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates as well as consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover change (some including nitrogen-carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global

  18. Neutron flux parameters for k{sub 0}-NAA method at the Malaysian nuclear agency research reactor after core reconfiguration

    Yavar, A.R. [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, University Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bangi, Selangor 43600 (Malaysia); Sarmani, S. [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, University Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bangi, Selangor 43600 (Malaysia); Wood, A.K. [Analytical Chemistry Application Group, Industrial Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (MNA), Bangi, Kajang, Selangor 43000 (Malaysia); Fadzil, S.M. [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, University Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bangi, Selangor 43600 (Malaysia); Masood, Z. [Analytical Chemistry Application Group, Industrial Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (MNA), Bangi, Kajang, Selangor 43000 (Malaysia); Khoo, K.S., E-mail: khoo@ukm.m [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, University Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bangi, Selangor 43600 (Malaysia)

    2011-02-15

    The Malaysian Nuclear Agency (MNA) research reactor, commissioned in 1982, is a TRIGA Mark II swimming pool type reactor. When the core configuration changed in June 2009, it became essential to re-determine such neutron flux parameters as thermal to epithermal neutron flux ratio (f), epithermal neutron flux shape factor ({alpha}), thermal neutron flux ({phi}{sub th}) and epithermal neutron flux ({phi}{sub epi}) in the irradiation positions of MNA research reactor in order to guarantee accuracy in the application of k{sub 0}-neutron activation analysis (k{sub 0}-NAA).The f and {alpha} were determined using the bare bi-isotopic monitor and bare triple monitor methods, respectively; Au and Zr monitors were utilized in present study. The results for four irradiation positions are presented and discussed in the present work. The calculated values of f and {alpha} ranged from 33.49 to 47.33 and -0.07 to -0.14, respectively. The {phi}{sub th} and the {phi}{sub epi} were measured as 2.03 x 10{sup 12} (cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}) and 6.05 x 10{sup 10} (cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}) respectively. These results were compared to those of previous studies at this reactor as well as to those of reactors in other countries. The results indicate a good conformity with other findings.

  19. Should Corrupt Countries receive Budget Support?

    Kolstad, Ivar

    2005-01-01

    Corruption makes budget support ineffective, and sometimes counter-productive. Budget support is particularly unsuitable in partner countries where political corruption is rampant. As donors increase budget support, it is a paradox that corruption is not more of an issue in evaluations and public financial management assessment methods.

  20. Program Budgeting for a Graduate School Library.

    Westerman, Mel

    Program budgeting, a method founded in the systems approach, allows control, management, and planning in the library system, and avoids the more comprehensive analysis required by zero-based budgeting. By evaluation of the impacts of the work accomplished by the library staff, the budgeted amounts can be justified or adjusted in subsequent years.…

  1. Water flux in animals: analysis of potential errors in the tritiated water method

    Nagy, K.A.; Costa, D.

    1979-03-01

    Laboratory studies indicate that tritiated water measurements of water flux are accurate to within -7 to +4% in mammals, but errors are larger in some reptiles. However, under conditions that can occur in field studies, errors may be much greater. Influx of environmental water vapor via lungs and skin can cause errors exceeding +-50% in some circumstances. If water flux rates in an animal vary through time, errors approach +-15% in extreme situations, but are near +-3% in more typical circumstances. Errors due to fractional evaporation of tritiated water may approach -9%. This error probably varies between species. Use of an inappropriate equation for calculating water flux from isotope data can cause errors exceeding +-100%. The following sources of error are either negligible or avoidable: use of isotope dilution space as a measure of body water volume, loss of nonaqueous tritium bound to excreta, binding of tritium with nonaqueous substances in the body, radiation toxicity effects, and small analytical errors in isotope measurements. Water flux rates measured with tritiated water should be within +-10% of actual flux rates in most situations.

  2. Water flux in animals: analysis of potential errors in the tritiated water method

    Nagy, K.A.; Costa, D.

    1979-03-01

    Laboratory studies indicate that tritiated water measurements of water flux are accurate to within -7 to +4% in mammals, but errors are larger in some reptiles. However, under conditions that can occur in field studies, errors may be much greater. Influx of environmental water vapor via lungs and skin can cause errors exceeding +-50% in some circumstances. If water flux rates in an animal vary through time, errors approach +-15% in extreme situations, but are near +-3% in more typical circumstances. Errors due to fractional evaporation of tritiated water may approach -9%. This error probably varies between species. Use of an inappropriate equation for calculating water flux from isotope data can cause errors exceeding +-100%. The following sources of error are either negligible or avoidable: use of isotope dilution space as a measure of body water volume, loss of nonaqueous tritium bound to excreta, binding of tritium with nonaqueous substances in the body, radiation toxicity effects, and small analytical errors in isotope measurements. Water flux rates measured with tritiated water should be within +-10% of actual flux rates in most situations

  3. Bark beetle-induced tree mortality alters stand energy budgets due to water budget changes

    Reed, David E.; Ewers, Brent E.; Pendall, Elise; Frank, John; Kelly, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Insect outbreaks are major disturbances that affect a land area similar to that of forest fires across North America. The recent mountain pine bark beetle ( D endroctonus ponderosae) outbreak and its associated blue stain fungi ( Grosmannia clavigera) are impacting water partitioning processes of forests in the Rocky Mountain region as the spatially heterogeneous disturbance spreads across the landscape. Water cycling may dramatically change due to increasing spatial heterogeneity from uneven mortality. Water and energy storage within trees and soils may also decrease, due to hydraulic failure and mortality caused by blue stain fungi followed by shifts in the water budget. This forest disturbance was unique in comparison to fire or timber harvesting because water fluxes were altered before significant structural change occurred to the canopy. We investigated the impacts of bark beetles on lodgepole pine ( Pinus contorta) stand and ecosystem level hydrologic processes and the resulting vertical and horizontal spatial variability in energy storage. Bark beetle-impacted stands had on average 57 % higher soil moisture, 1.5 °C higher soil temperature, and 0.8 °C higher tree bole temperature over four growing seasons compared to unimpacted stands. Seasonal latent heat flux was highly correlated with soil moisture. Thus, high mortality levels led to an increase in ecosystem level Bowen ratio as sensible heat fluxes increased yearly and latent heat fluxes varied with soil moisture levels. Decline in canopy biomass (leaf, stem, and branch) was not seen, but ground-to-atmosphere longwave radiation flux increased, as the ground surface was a larger component of the longwave radiation. Variability in soil, latent, and sensible heat flux and radiation measurements increased during the disturbance. Accounting for stand level variability in water and energy fluxes will provide a method to quantify potential drivers of ecosystem processes and services as well as lead to greater

  4. Measurement of thermal, epithermal and fast neutrons fluxes by the activation foil method at IEA-R1 reactor

    Dias, M.S.; Koskinas, M.F.; Berretta, J.R.; Fratin, L.; Botelho, S.

    1990-01-01

    The thermal, epithermal and fast neutron fluxes have been determined experimentally by the activation foil method at position GI, located near the IEA-R1 reactor core. The reactions used were 197 Au (n,gamma) 198 Au, for thermal and epithermal neutrons and 27 Na (n,alpha) 24 Na, for fast neutrons. The activities were measured by the 4π(PC)β-γ coincidence method. (author)

  5. Albedo analytical method for multi-scattered neutron flux calculation in cavity

    Shin, Kazuo; Selvi, S.; Hyodo, Tomonori

    1986-01-01

    A simple formula which describes multi-scattered neutron flux in a spherical cavity was derived based on the albedo concept. The formura treats a neutron source which has an arbitrary energy-angle distribution and is placed at any point in the cavity. The derived formula was applied to the estimation of neutron fluxes in two cavities, i.e. a spherical concrete cell with a 14-MeV neutron source at the center and the ''YAYOI'' reactor cavity with a pencil beam of reactor neutrons. The results of the analytical formula agreed very well with the reference data in the both problems. It was concluded that the formula is applicable to estimate the neutron fluxes in a spherical cell except for special cases that tangential source neutrons are incident to the cavity wall. (author)

  6. Inertial-dissipation methods and turbulent fluxes at the air-ocean interface

    Fairall, C. W.; Larsen, Søren Ejling

    1986-01-01

    The use of high frequency atmospheric turbulence properties (inertial subrange spectra, structure function parameters or dissipation rates) to infer surface fluxes of momentum, sensible heat and latent heat is more practical for most ocean going platforms than direct covariance measurement....... The relationships required to deduce the fluxes from such data are examined in detail in this paper and several ambiguities and uncertainties are identified. It is noted that, over water, data on water vapor properties (the dimensionless functions for the mean profile, the structure function parameter...... and the variance transport term) are extremely sparse and the influence of sea spray is largely unknown. Special attention is given to flux estimation on the basis of the structure function formalism. Existing knowledge about the relevant similarity functions is summarized and discussed in light of the ambiguities...

  7. Budgeting for School Media Centers.

    Drott, M. Carl

    1978-01-01

    Describes various forms of budgets and discusses concepts in budgeting useful to supervisors of school media centers: line item budgets, capital budgets, creating budgets, the budget calendar, innovations, PPBS (Planning, Programing, Budgeting System), zero-based budgeting, cost-benefit analysis, benefits, benefit guidelines, and budgeting for the…

  8. Radiation budget measurement/model interface research

    Vonderhaar, T. H.

    1981-01-01

    The NIMBUS 6 data were analyzed to form an up to date climatology of the Earth radiation budget as a basis for numerical model definition studies. Global maps depicting infrared emitted flux, net flux and albedo from processed NIMBUS 6 data for July, 1977, are presented. Zonal averages of net radiation flux for April, May, and June and zonal mean emitted flux and net flux for the December to January period are also presented. The development of two models is reported. The first is a statistical dynamical model with vertical and horizontal resolution. The second model is a two level global linear balance model. The results of time integration of the model up to 120 days, to simulate the January circulation, are discussed. Average zonal wind, meridonal wind component, vertical velocity, and moisture budget are among the parameters addressed.

  9. Surface renewal: an advanced micrometeorological method for measuring and processing field-scale energy flux density data.

    McElrone, Andrew J; Shapland, Thomas M; Calderon, Arturo; Fitzmaurice, Li; Paw U, Kyaw Tha; Snyder, Richard L

    2013-12-12

    Advanced micrometeorological methods have become increasingly important in soil, crop, and environmental sciences. For many scientists without formal training in atmospheric science, these techniques are relatively inaccessible. Surface renewal and other flux measurement methods require an understanding of boundary layer meteorology and extensive training in instrumentation and multiple data management programs. To improve accessibility of these techniques, we describe the underlying theory of surface renewal measurements, demonstrate how to set up a field station for surface renewal with eddy covariance calibration, and utilize our open-source turnkey data logger program to perform flux data acquisition and processing. The new turnkey program returns to the user a simple data table with the corrected fluxes and quality control parameters, and eliminates the need for researchers to shuttle between multiple processing programs to obtain the final flux data. An example of data generated from these measurements demonstrates how crop water use is measured with this technique. The output information is useful to growers for making irrigation decisions in a variety of agricultural ecosystems. These stations are currently deployed in numerous field experiments by researchers in our group and the California Department of Water Resources in the following crops: rice, wine and raisin grape vineyards, alfalfa, almond, walnut, peach, lemon, avocado, and corn.

  10. Radon flux measurement methodologies

    Nielson, K.K.; Rogers, V.C.

    1984-01-01

    Five methods for measuring radon fluxes are evaluated: the accumulator can, a small charcoal sampler, a large-area charcoal sampler, the ''Big Louie'' charcoal sampler, and the charcoal tent sampler. An experimental comparison of the five flux measurement techniques was also conducted. Excellent agreement was obtained between the measured radon fluxes and fluxes predicted from radium and emanation measurements

  11. An analysis of pavement heat flux to optimize the water efficiency of a pavement-watering method

    Hendel, Martin; Colombert, Morgane; Diab, Youssef; Royon, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Pavement-watering as a technique of cooling dense urban areas and reducing the urban heat island effect has been studied since the 1990's. The method is currently considered as a potential tool for and climate change adaptation against increasing heat wave intensity and frequency. However, although water consumption necessary to implement this technique is an important aspect for decision makers, optimization of possible watering methods has only rarely been conducted. An analysis of pavement heat flux at a depth of 5 cm and solar irradiance measurements is proposed to attempt to optimize the watering period, cycle frequency and water consumption rate of a pavement-watering method applied in Paris over the summer of 2013. While fine-tuning of the frequency can be conducted on the basis of pavement heat flux observations, the watering rate requires a heat transfer analysis based on a relation established between pavement heat flux and solar irradiance during pavement insolation. From this, it was found that watering conducted during pavement insolation could be optimized to 30-min cycles and water consumption could be reduced by more than 80% while reducing the cooling effect by less than 13%. - Highlights: • The thermal effects of pavement-watering were investigated in Paris, France. • Pavement-watering was found to significantly affect pavement heat flux 5 cm deep. • When insolated, a linear relation was found between heat flux and solar radiation. • Pavement-watering did not alter its slope, but introduced a negative intercept. • Subsequent improvements of the watering period, frequency and rate are proposed

  12. Innovative Concepts of Budgeting in the Enterprises

    Adam Bąk

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the current concepts of budgeting with the special focus on innovative budgets. It includes the evolution of the budgeting concept starting from the traditional one which was applied in the second half of the 20th Century and assumed the budget as the main tool for the achievement of company’s goals. The next presented method is Better Budgeting. It arouse at the nineties as the resposne for the critics of the traditional method which was accused for the fixed assumptions which were no longer matching with the fast changing competitive environment. This method assumed the high level of budget preparation as he opposite to the detailed level as well as shorter planning period. The Beyond Budgeting was the most radical method and eliminated budget as the tool supporting the management; the concept has been used from the nineties until today, by more than seventy multinational companies from beyond budgeting round table. However, Beyond Budgeting was also criticised for not being applied in the industrial sector and too theoretical approach. Therefore, Ronald Gleicha from European Business School, established a working group, which icludes the scientists and managers, in order to create by mid of 2009, the new and opitimal method, which is called Modern Budgeting.

  13. Nitrogen emission and deposition budget in West and Central Africa

    Galy-Lacaux, C; Delon, C

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen depends on land surface exchanges of nitrogen compounds. In Sub Saharan Africa, deposition and emission fluxes of nitrogen compounds are poorly quantified, and are likely to increase in the near future due to land use change and anthropogenic pressure. This work proposes an estimate of atmospheric N compounds budget in West and Central Africa, along an ecosystem transect, from dry savanna to wet savanna and forest, for years 2000−2007. The budget may be considered as a one point in time budget, to be included in long term studies as one of the first reference point for Sub Saharan Africa. Gaseous dry deposition fluxes are estimated by considering N compounds concentrations measured in the frame of the IDAF network (IGAC/DEBITS/AFrica) at the monthly scale and modeling of deposition velocities at the IDAF sites, taking into account the bi directional exchange of ammonia. Particulate dry deposition fluxes are calculated using the same inferential method. Wet deposition fluxes are calculated from measurements of ammonium and nitrate chemical content in precipitations at the IDAF sites combined with the annual rainfall amount. In terms of emission, biogenic NO emissions are simulated at each IDAF site with a surface model coupled to an emission module elaborated from an artificial neural network equation. Ammonia emissions from volatilization are calculated from literature data on livestock quantity in each country and N content in manure. NO x and NH 3 emission from biomass burning and domestic fires are estimated from satellite data and emission factors. The total budget shows that emission sources of nitrogen compounds are in equilibrium with deposition fluxes in dry and wet savannas, with respectively 7.40 (±1.90) deposited and 9.01 (±3.44) kgN ha −1 yr −1 emitted in dry savanna, 8.38 (±2.04) kgN ha −1 yr −1 deposited and 9.60 (±0.69) kgN ha −1 yr −1 emitted in wet savanna. In forested ecosystems, the total budget is dominated

  14. Automated Budget System -

    Department of Transportation — The Automated Budget System (ABS) automates management and planning of the Mike Monroney Aeronautical Center (MMAC) budget by providing enhanced capability to plan,...

  15. A carbon budget for overfishing off Peru

    Walsh, J.J.

    1981-03-26

    The anchovy harvest off the coast of Peru has decreased from a maximum of about 12 million tons in 1970 to about 1 million tons/year between 1977 and 1979. This rise and collapse of the Peruvian anchovy fishery between the 1950s and the 1970s was accompanied by marked changes in the fluxes of a carbon budget for the upwelling ecosystem. These carbon budget changes are discussed in relation to anchovy production. (JMT)

  16. Transport methods: general. 6. A Flux-Limited Diffusion Theory Derived from the Maximum Entropy Eddington Factor

    Yin, Chukai; Su, Bingjing

    2001-01-01

    The Minerbo's maximum entropy Eddington factor (MEEF) method was proposed as a low-order approximation to transport theory, in which the first two moment equations are closed for the scalar flux f and the current F through a statistically derived nonlinear Eddington factor f. This closure has the ability to handle various degrees of anisotropy of angular flux and is well justified both numerically and theoretically. Thus, a lot of efforts have been made to use this approximation in transport computations, especially in the radiative transfer and astrophysics communities. However, the method suffers numerical instability and may lead to anomalous solutions if the equations are solved by certain commonly used (implicit) mesh schemes. Studies on numerical stability in one-dimensional cases show that the MEEF equations can be solved satisfactorily by an implicit scheme (of treating δΦ/δx) if the angular flux is not too anisotropic so that f 32 , the classic diffusion solution P 1 , the MEEF solution f M obtained by Riemann solvers, and the NFLD solution D M for the two problems, respectively. In Fig. 1, NFLD and MEEF quantitatively predict very close results. However, the NFLD solution is qualitatively better because it is continuous while MEEF predicts unphysical jumps near the middle of the slab. In Fig. 2, the NFLD and MEEF solutions are almost identical, except near the material interface. In summary, the flux-limited diffusion theory derived from the MEEF description is quantitatively as accurate as the MEEF method. However, it is more qualitatively correct and user-friendly than the MEEF method and can be applied efficiently to various steady-state problems. Numerical tests show that this method is widely valid and overall predicts better results than other low-order approximations for various kinds of problems, including eigenvalue problems. Thus, it is an appealing approximate solution technique that is fast computationally and yet is accurate enough for a

  17. A punctual flux estimator and reactions rates optimization in neutral particles transport calculus by the Monte Carlo method

    Authier, N.

    1998-12-01

    One of the questions asked in radiation shielding problems is the estimation of the radiation level in particular to determine accessibility of working persons in controlled area (nuclear power plants, nuclear fuel reprocessing plants) or to study the dose gradients encountered in material (iron nuclear vessel, medical therapy, electronics in satellite). The flux and reaction rate estimators used in Monte Carlo codes give average values in volumes or on surfaces of the geometrical description of the system. But in certain configurations, the knowledge of punctual deposited energy and dose estimates are necessary. The Monte Carlo estimate of the flux at a point of interest is a calculus which presents an unbounded variance. The central limit theorem cannot be applied thus no easy confidence level may be calculated. The convergence rate is then very poor. We propose in this study a new solution for the photon flux at a point estimator. The method is based on the 'once more collided flux estimator' developed earlier for neutron calculations. It solves the problem of the unbounded variance and do not add any bias to the estimation. We show however that our new sampling schemes specially developed to treat the anisotropy of the photon coherent scattering is necessary for a good and regular behavior of the estimator. This developments integrated in the TRIPOLI-4 Monte Carlo code add the possibility of an unbiased punctual estimate on media interfaces. (author)

  18. An easy-to-use method for measuring the flux of free atoms in a cluster beam

    Cuvellier, J.; Binet, A.

    1988-01-01

    A method is proposed to measure the flux of free atoms remaining in a beam of clusters. The time-of-flight (TOF) of an Ar beam containing clusters was analysed for this purpose using an electron impact + quadrupole mass spectrometer as detector. When considering TOF's with mass settings at Ar + , a double mode structure was observed. The slow component was interpreted as coming from Ar clusters that fragment as Ar + in the ionization chamber of the detector. The rapid mode in the TOF's was linked to the free atoms remaining in the Ar beam. Evaluating the area of this mode allowed one to measure the flux of free atoms in the Ar beam. The method is not restricted to measurements on Ar beams

  19. WFIRST: Coronagraph Systems Engineering and Performance Budgets

    Poberezhskiy, Ilya; cady, eric; Frerking, Margaret A.; Kern, Brian; Nemati, Bijan; Noecker, Martin; Seo, Byoung-Joon; Zhao, Feng; Zhou, Hanying

    2018-01-01

    The WFIRST coronagraph instrument (CGI) will be the first in-space coronagraph using active wavefront control to directly image and characterize mature exoplanets and zodiacal disks in reflected starlight. For CGI systems engineering, including requirements development, CGI performance is predicted using a hierarchy of performance budgets to estimate various noise components — spatial and temporal flux variations — that obscure exoplanet signals in direct imaging and spectroscopy configurations. These performance budgets are validated through a robust integrated modeling and testbed model validation efforts.We present the performance budgeting framework used by WFIRST for the flow-down of coronagraph science requirements, mission constraints, and observatory interfaces to measurable instrument engineering parameters.

  20. [Simulation of water and carbon fluxes in harvard forest area based on data assimilation method].

    Zhang, Ting-Long; Sun, Rui; Zhang, Rong-Hua; Zhang, Lei

    2013-10-01

    Model simulation and in situ observation are the two most important means in studying the water and carbon cycles of terrestrial ecosystems, but have their own advantages and shortcomings. To combine these two means would help to reflect the dynamic changes of ecosystem water and carbon fluxes more accurately. Data assimilation provides an effective way to integrate the model simulation and in situ observation. Based on the observation data from the Harvard Forest Environmental Monitoring Site (EMS), and by using ensemble Kalman Filter algorithm, this paper assimilated the field measured LAI and remote sensing LAI into the Biome-BGC model to simulate the water and carbon fluxes in Harvard forest area. As compared with the original model simulated without data assimilation, the improved Biome-BGC model with the assimilation of the field measured LAI in 1998, 1999, and 2006 increased the coefficient of determination R2 between model simulation and flux observation for the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and evapotranspiration by 8.4% and 10.6%, decreased the sum of absolute error (SAE) and root mean square error (RMSE) of NEE by 17.7% and 21.2%, and decreased the SAE and RMSE of the evapotranspiration by 26. 8% and 28.3%, respectively. After assimilated the MODIS LAI products of 2000-2004 into the improved Biome-BGC model, the R2 between simulated and observed results of NEE and evapotranspiration was increased by 7.8% and 4.7%, the SAE and RMSE of NEE were decreased by 21.9% and 26.3%, and the SAE and RMSE of evapotranspiration were decreased by 24.5% and 25.5%, respectively. It was suggested that the simulation accuracy of ecosystem water and carbon fluxes could be effectively improved if the field measured LAI or remote sensing LAI was integrated into the model.

  1. Measuring denitrification after grassland renewal and grassland conversion to cropland by using the 15N gas-flux method

    Buchen, Caroline; Eschenbach, Wolfram; Flessa, Heinz; Giesemann, Anette; Lewicka-Szczebak, Dominika; Well, Reinhard

    2015-04-01

    Denitrification, the reduction of oxidized forms of inorganic N to N2O and N2 is an important pathway of gaseous nitrogen losses. Measuring denitrification, especially the reduction of N2O to N2, expressed in the product ratio (N2O/(N2O + N2)), is rather difficult and hence rarely performed under field conditions. But using the 15N gas-flux method allows determining N transformation processes in their natural environment. In order to develop effective climate mitigation strategies understanding the N2O source is essential. We used the 15N gas-flux method to determine N2O and N2 emissions following grassland renewal and conversion techniques. Therefore we selected three different treatments: control (C), mechanical grassland renovation (GR) (autumn 2013) and grassland conversion to maize (GM) (spring 2014) from field plot trials on two different sites (Histic Gleysoil and Plaggic Anthrosol) near Oldenburg, Lower Saxony, Germany. We applied 15N labeled KNO3- (60 atom. % 15N) at a rate equivalent to common farming practices (150 kg N*ha-1) using needle injection of fertilizer solution in three different depths (10 cm, 15 cm, 20 cm) for homogeneous soil labeling up to 30 cm in microplots. During the first 10 days after application (May 2014) gas flux measurements from closed chambers were performed every second day and then weekly following a period of 8 weeks. Gas samples were analyzed for δ15N of N2 and N2O by IRMS according to Lewicka-Szczebak et al. (2013). Concentration and 15N enrichment of NO3- in soil water was determined on weekly samples using the SPIN-MAS technique (Stange et al. 2007). Fluxes of N2 and N2O evolved from the 15N labeled soil nitrogen pool were calculated using the equations of Spott et al. (2006). Peak events of N2 and N2O emissions occurred during the first 10 days of measurement, showing differences in soil types, as well as treatment variations. N2 fluxes up to 178 g*ha-1*day-1 and N2O fluxes up to 280 g*ha-1*day-1 were measured on the

  2. Methods, fluxes and sources of gas phase alkyl nitrates in the coastal air.

    Dirtu, Alin C; Buczyńska, Anna J; Godoi, Ana F L; Favoreto, Rodrigo; Bencs, László; Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja S; Godoi, Ricardo H M; Van Grieken, René; Van Vaeck, Luc

    2014-10-01

    The daily and seasonal atmospheric concentrations, deposition fluxes and emission sources of a few C3-C9 gaseous alkyl nitrates (ANs) at the Belgian coast (De Haan) on the Southern North Sea were determined. An adapted sampler design for low- and high-volume air-sampling, optimized sample extraction and clean-up, as well as identification and quantification of ANs in air samples by means of gas chromatography mass spectrometry, are reported. The total concentrations of ANs ranged from 0.03 to 85 pptv and consisted primarily of the nitro-butane and nitro-pentane isomers. Air mass backward trajectories were calculated by the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model to determine the influence of main air masses on AN levels in the air. The shorter chain ANs have been the most abundant in the Atlantic/Channel/UK air masses, while longer chain ANs prevailed in continental air. The overall mean N fluxes of the ANs were slightly higher for summer than those for winter-spring, although their contributions to the total nitrogen flux were low. High correlations between AN and HNO₂ levels were observed during winter/spring. During summer, the shorter chain ANs correlated well with precipitation. Source apportionment by means of principal component analysis indicated that most of the gas phase ANs could be attributed to traffic/combustion, secondary photochemical formation and biomass burning, although marine sources may also have been present and a contributing factor.

  3. A new method for mapping variability in vertical seepage flux in streambeds

    Chen, Xunhong; Song, Jinxi; Cheng, Cheng; Wang, Deming; Lackey, Susan O.

    2009-05-01

    A two-step approach was used to measure the flux across the water-sediment interface in river channels. A hollow tube was pressed into the streambed and an in situ sediment column of the streambed was created inside the tube. The hydraulic gradient between the two ends of the sediment column was measured. The vertical hydraulic conductivity of the sediment column was determined using a falling-head permeameter test in the river. Given the availability of the hydraulic gradient and vertical hydraulic conductivity of the streambed, Darcy’s law was used to calculate the specific discharge. This approach was applied to the Elkhorn River and one tributary in northeastern Nebraska, USA. The results suggest that the magnitude of the vertical flux varied greatly within a short distance. Furthermore, the flux can change direction from downward to upward between two locations only several meters apart. This spatial pattern of variation probably represents the inflow and outflow within the hyporheic zone, not the regional ambient flow systems. In this study, a thermal infrared camera was also used to detect the discharge locations of groundwater in the streambed. After the hydraulic gradient and the vertical hydraulic conductivity were estimated from the groundwater spring, the discharge rate was calculated.

  4. A new detector for the measurement of neutron flux in nuclear reactors; Nouvelle methode de mesure des flux de neutrons dans les reacteurs atomiques

    Koch, L; Labeyrie, J; Tarassenko, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The detector described is designed for the instantaneous measurement of thermal neutron fluxes, in the presence of high {gamma} ray activity; this detector can withstand temperatures as high as 500 deg. C. It is based on the following principle: radioactive atoms resulting from heavy-nucleus fission are carried by a gas flow to a detector recording their {beta} and {gamma} disintegration. Thermal neutron fluxes as low as few neutrons per cm{sup 2} per second can be measured. This detector may be used to control a nuclear reactor, to plot the thermal flux distribution with an excellent definition (1 mm{sup 2}) for fluxes higher than 10{sup 8} n/cm{sup 2}/s. The time response of the system to a sharp variation of flux is limited, in case of large fluxes, to the transit time of the gas flow between the fission product emitter and the detector; of the order of one tenth of a sec per meter of piping. The detector may also be applied for spectroscopy of fission products eider than 0,1 s. (author)Fren. [French] On decrit un appareil permettant la mesure instantanee des flux de neutrons thermiques accompagnes de flux intenses de rayons {gamma} et situes dans des enceintes pouvant etre portees a des temperatures superieures a 500 deg. C. On utilise la radioactivite des atomes resultant de la fission des noyaux lourds; ces atomes sont entraines par un courant gazeux vers un detecteur de radioactivite qui enregistre leurs desintegrations {beta} et {gamma}. On peut mesurer des flux partir de quelques neutrons thermiques par cm{sup 2} et par seconde. L'appareil permet de suivre la puissance d'un reacteur atomique, de tracer des cartes de densite de neutrons avec une tres bonne definition (1 mm{sup 2}) dans le cas de flux superieurs a 10{sup 8} cm{sup 2}/s. Le temps de reponse du systeme a une variation du flux de neutrons est limite, poes flux importants, par le temps de transit du gaz entre l'emetteur de produits de fission et le detecteur: soit quelques dizaines de

  5. California Budget Simulation

    Mallinson, Daniel J.

    2018-01-01

    The California Budget Challenge produced by Next10 provides a useful and intuitive tool for instructors to introduce students to public budgeting. Students will reason through a series of budgeting decisions using information provided on the fiscal and practical implications of their choices. The Challenge is updated with each budget cycle, so it…

  6. Achievements and opportunities from ESF Research Networking Programme: Natural molecular structures as drivers and tracers of terrestrial C fluxes, and COST Action 639: Greenhouse gas budget of soils under changing climate and land use

    Boeckx, P.; Rasse, D.; Jandl, R.

    2009-04-01

    One of the activities of the European Science Foundation (ESF, www.esf.org) is developing European scale Research Networking Programmes (RNPs). RNPs lay the foundation for nationally funded research groups to address major scientific and research infrastructure issues, in order to advance the frontiers of existing science. MOLTER (www.esf.org/molter or www.molter.no) is such an RNP. MOLTER stands for "Natural molecular structures as drivers and tracers of terrestrial C fluxes" aims at stimulating the use of isotopic and organic chemistry to study carbon stabilization and biogeochemistry in terrestrial ecosystems and soils in particular. The understanding of the formation, stabilization and decomposition of complex organic compounds in the environment is currently being revolutionized by advanced techniques in identification, quantification, and origin tracing of functional groups and individual molecules. MOLTER focuses on five major research themes: - Molecular composition and turnover time of soil organic matter; - Plant molecular structures as drivers of C stabilisation in soils; - Fire transformations of plant and soil molecular structures - Molecular markers in soils; - Dissolved organic molecules in soils: origin, functionality and transport. These research themes are covered via the following activities: - Organisation of international conferences; - Organisation of specific topical workshops; - Organisation of summer schools for PhD students; - Short- and long-term exchange grants for scientists. MOLTER is supported by research funding or performing agencies from Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, Romania, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. The ESF is also the implementing agency of COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology, www.cost.esf.org), one of the longest-running European instruments supporting cooperation among scientists and researchers across Europe. COST Action 639 "Greenhouse gas budget of

  7. A one-dimensional, one-group absorption-production nodal method for neutron flux and power distributions calculations

    Ferreira, C.R.

    1984-01-01

    It is presented the absorption-production nodal method for steady and dynamical calculations in one-dimension and one group energy. It was elaborated the NOD1D computer code (in FORTRAN-IV language). Calculations of neutron flux and power distributions, burnup, effective multiplication factors and critical boron concentration were made with the NOD1D code and compared with results obtained through the CITATION code, which uses the finite difference method. The nuclear constants were produced by the LEOPARD code. (M.C.K.) [pt

  8. FY 1996 Congressional budget request: Budget highlights

    1995-02-01

    The FY 1996 budget presentation is organized by the Department`s major business lines. An accompanying chart displays the request for new budget authority. The report compares the budget request for FY 1996 with the appropriated FY 1995 funding levels displayed on a comparable basis. The FY 1996 budget represents the first year of a five year plan in which the Department will reduce its spending by $15.8 billion in budget authority and by $14.1 billion in outlays. FY 1996 is a transition year as the Department embarks on its multiyear effort to do more with less. The Budget Highlights are presented by business line; however, the fifth business line, Economic Productivity, which is described in the Policy Overview section, cuts across multiple organizational missions, funding levels and activities and is therefore included in the discussion of the other four business lines.

  9. Flux-focusing eddy current probe and rotating probe method for flaw detection

    Wincheski, Buzz A.; Fulton, James P.; Nath, Shridhar C.; Simpson, John W.; Namkung, Min

    1994-11-01

    A flux-focusing electromagnetic sensor which uses a ferromagnetic flux-focusing lens simplifies inspections and increases detectability of fatigue cracks about circular fasteners and other circular inhomogeneities in high conductivity material. The unique feature of the device is the ferrous shield isolating a high-turn pick-up coil from an excitation coil. The use of the magnetic shield is shown to produce a null voltage output across the receiving coil in the presence of an unflawed sample. A redistribution of the current flow in the sample caused by the presence of flaws, however, eliminates the shielding condition and a large output voltage is produced, yielding a clear unambiguous flaw signal. By rotating the probe in a path around a circular fastener such as a rivet while maintaining a constant distance between the probe and the center of a rivet, the signal due to current flow about the rivet can be held constant. Any further changes in the current distribution, such as due to a fatigue crack at the rivet joint, can be detected as an increase in the output voltage above that due to the flow about the rivet head.

  10. Critical heat flux acoustic detection: Methods and application to ITER divertor vertical target monitoring

    Courtois, X., E-mail: xavier.courtois@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Escourbiac, F. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, F-13115 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Richou, M.; Cantone, V. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Constans, S. [AREVA-NP, Le Creusot (France)

    2013-10-15

    Actively cooled plasma facing components (PFCs) have to exhaust high heat fluxes from plasma radiation and plasma–wall interaction. Critical heat flux (CHF) event may occur in the cooling channel due to unexpected heat loading or operational conditions, and has to be detected as soon as possible. Therefore it is essential to develop means of monitoring based on precursory signals providing an early detection of this destructive phenomenon, in order to be able to stop operation before irremediable damages appear. Capabilities of CHF early detection based on acoustic techniques on PFC mock-ups cooled by pressurised water were already demonstrated. This paper addresses the problem of the detection in case of flow rate reduction and of flow dilution resulting from multiple plasma facing units (PFU) which are hydraulically connected in parallel, which is the case of ITER divertor. An experimental study is launched on a dedicated mock-up submitted to heat loads up to the CHF. It shows that the measurement of the acoustic waves, generated by the cooling phenomena, allows the CHF detection in conditions similar to that of the ITER divertor, with a reasonable number of sensors. The paper describes the mock-ups and the tests sequences, and comments the results.

  11. Comparison of soil CO2 fluxes by eddy-covariance and chamber methods in fallow periods of a corn-soybean rotation

    Soil carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes are typically measured by eddy-covariance (EC) or chamber (Ch) methods, but a long-term comparison has not been undertaken. This study was conducted to assess the agreement between EC and Ch techniques when measuring CO2 flux during fallow periods of a corn-soybean r...

  12. Mixed analytical-stochastic simulation method for the recovery of a Brownian gradient source from probability fluxes to small windows.

    Dobramysl, U; Holcman, D

    2018-02-15

    Is it possible to recover the position of a source from the steady-state fluxes of Brownian particles to small absorbing windows located on the boundary of a domain? To address this question, we develop a numerical procedure to avoid tracking Brownian trajectories in the entire infinite space. Instead, we generate particles near the absorbing windows, computed from the analytical expression of the exit probability. When the Brownian particles are generated by a steady-state gradient at a single point, we compute asymptotically the fluxes to small absorbing holes distributed on the boundary of half-space and on a disk in two dimensions, which agree with stochastic simulations. We also derive an expression for the splitting probability between small windows using the matched asymptotic method. Finally, when there are more than two small absorbing windows, we show how to reconstruct the position of the source from the diffusion fluxes. The present approach provides a computational first principle for the mechanism of sensing a gradient of diffusing particles, a ubiquitous problem in cell biology.

  13. Methods and applications in high flux neutron imaging; Methoden und Anwendungen fuer bildgebende Verfahren mit hohen Neutronenfluessen

    Ballhausen, H.

    2007-02-07

    This treatise develops new methods for high flux neutron radiography and high flux neutron tomography and describes some of their applications in actual experiments. Instead of single images, time series can be acquired with short exposure times due to the available high intensity. To best use the increased amount of information, new estimators are proposed, which extract accurate results from the recorded ensembles, even if the individual piece of data is very noisy and in addition severely affected by systematic errors such as an influence of gamma background radiation. The spatial resolution of neutron radiographies, usually limited by beam divergence and inherent resolution of the scintillator, can be significantly increased by scanning the sample with a pinhole-micro-collimator. This technique circumvents any limitations in present detector design and, due to the available high intensity, could be successfully tested. Imaging with scattered neutrons as opposed to conventional total attenuation based imaging determines separately the absorption and scattering cross sections within the sample. For the first time even coherent angle dependent scattering could be visualized space-resolved. New applications of high flux neutron imaging are presented, such as materials engineering experiments on innovative metal joints, time-resolved tomography on multilayer stacks of fuel cells under operation, and others. A new implementation of an algorithm for the algebraic reconstruction of tomography data executes even in case of missing information, such as limited angle tomography, and returns quantitative reconstructions. The setup of the world-leading high flux radiography and tomography facility at the Institut Laue-Langevin is presented. A comprehensive appendix covers the physical and technical foundations of neutron imaging. (orig.)

  14. New method for determining central axial orientation of flux rope embedded within current sheet using multipoint measurements

    Li, ZhaoYu; Chen, Tao; Yan, GuangQing

    2016-10-01

    A new method for determining the central axial orientation of a two-dimensional coherent magnetic flux rope (MFR) via multipoint analysis of the magnetic-field structure is developed. The method is devised under the following geometrical assumptions: (1) on its cross section, the structure is left-right symmetric; (2) the projected structure velocity is vertical to the line of symmetry. The two conditions can be naturally satisfied for cylindrical MFRs and are expected to be satisfied for MFRs that are flattened within current sheets. The model test demonstrates that, for determining the axial orientation of such structures, the new method is more efficient and reliable than traditional techniques such as minimum-variance analysis of the magnetic field, Grad-Shafranov (GS) reconstruction, and the more recent method based on the cylindrically symmetric assumption. A total of five flux transfer events observed by Cluster are studied using the proposed approach, and the application results indicate that the observed structures, regardless of their actual physical properties, fit the assumed geometrical model well. For these events, the inferred axial orientations are all in excellent agreement with those obtained using the multi-GS reconstruction technique.

  15. New method for introducing nanometer flux pinning centers into single domain YBCO bulk superconductors

    Yang, W.M.; Wang, Miao

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Single domain YBCO bulks with Bi 2 O 3 additions fabricated by TSIG process. • Nanoscale Y 2 Ba 4 CuBiOx(YBi2411) particles introduced by Bi 2 O 3 additions. • The YBi2411 particles are about 150 nm, can act as effective flux pinning centers. • The optimal addition of Bi 2 O 3 is 0.7wt% to achieve higher levitation force. • The result is helpful to improve the quality of REBCO bulk superconductors. -- Abstract: Single domain YBCO superconductors with different additions of Bi 2 O 3 have been fabricated by top seeded infiltration and growth process (TSIG). The effect of Bi 2 O 3 additions on the growth morphology, microstructure and levitation force of the YBCO bulk superconductor has been investigated. The results indicate that single domain YBCO superconductors can be fabricated with the additions of Bi 2 O 3 less than 2 wt%; Bi 2 O 3 can be reacted with Y 2 BaCuO 5 and liquid phase and finally form Y 2 Ba 4 CuBiO x (YBi2411) nanoscale particles; the size of the YBi2411 particles is about 100 nm, which can act as effective flux pinning centers. It is also found that the levitation force of single domain YBCO bulks is increasing from 13 N to 34 N and decreasing to 11 N with the increasing of Bi 2 O 3 addition from 0.1 wt% to 0.7 wt% and 2 wt%. This result is helpful for us to improve the physical properties of REBCO bulk superconductors

  16. A novel method of evaluating the lift force on the bluff body based on Noca’s flux equation

    Sui Xiang-Kun; Jiang Nan

    2015-01-01

    The influence of experimental error on lift force evaluated by Noca’s flux equation is studied based on adding errors into the direct numerical simulation data for flow past cylinder at Re = 100. As Noca suggested using the low-pass filter to get rid of the high-frequency noise in the evaluated lift force, we verify that his method is inapplicable for dealing with the dataset of 1% experimental error, although the precision is acceptable in practice. To overcome this defect, a novel method is proposed in this paper. The average of the lift forces calculated by using multiple control volume is taken as the evaluation before applying the low-pass filter. The method is applied to an experimental data for flow past a cylinder at approximately Re = 900 to verify its validation. The results show that it improves much better on evaluating the lift forces. (paper)

  17. The Grad-Shafranov Reconstruction of Toroidal Magnetic Flux Ropes: Method Development and Benchmark Studies

    Hu, Qiang

    2017-09-01

    We develop an approach of the Grad-Shafranov (GS) reconstruction for toroidal structures in space plasmas, based on in situ spacecraft measurements. The underlying theory is the GS equation that describes two-dimensional magnetohydrostatic equilibrium, as widely applied in fusion plasmas. The geometry is such that the arbitrary cross-section of the torus has rotational symmetry about the rotation axis, Z, with a major radius, r0. The magnetic field configuration is thus determined by a scalar flux function, Ψ, and a functional F that is a single-variable function of Ψ. The algorithm is implemented through a two-step approach: i) a trial-and-error process by minimizing the residue of the functional F(Ψ) to determine an optimal Z-axis orientation, and ii) for the chosen Z, a χ2 minimization process resulting in a range of r0. Benchmark studies of known analytic solutions to the toroidal GS equation with noise additions are presented to illustrate the two-step procedure and to demonstrate the performance of the numerical GS solver, separately. For the cases presented, the errors in Z and r0 are 9° and 22%, respectively, and the relative percent error in the numerical GS solutions is smaller than 10%. We also make public the computer codes for these implementations and benchmark studies.

  18. Method and apparatus for controlling the neutron flux in nuclear reactors

    Minnick, L.E.

    1979-01-01

    A control rod assembly in a nuclear reactor that automatically scrams the reactor when a loss of coolant flow occurs and that can also control the level of neutron flux in the reactor is described. The control rod assembly includes a separator plate having an orifice through which the reactor coolant flows and a sealing surface around the orifice. The control rod in the assembly has a complementary sealing surface. When the control rod and separator plate are brought into contact, the differential pressure across the separator plate caused by the flow of the primary coolant through the reactor core retains the two sealing surfaces together. If the flow of coolant stops or the differential pressure across the separator plate decreases for any reason, the control rod drops by gravity and the reactor is scrammed. The control rod is also automatically dropped as a result of the lateral vibration of an earthquake or by the downward motion of the rod drive shaft, either of which will open the sealing surfaces and reduce the sealing pressure

  19. Beyond Zero Based Budgeting.

    Ogden, Daniel M., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Suggests that the most practical budgeting system for most managers is a formalized combination of incremental and zero-based analysis because little can be learned about most programs from an annual zero-based budget. (Author/IRT)

  20. Fiscal Year 2015 Budget

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset includes the Fiscal Year 2015 Council-approved operating budget for Montgomery County. The dataset does not include revenues and detailed agency budget...

  1. Measurement of a neutral particle flux by a thermal method using the junction temperature effect; Mesure d'un flux de particules neutres par une methode thermique mettant a contribution l'effet de temperature des jonctions

    Caron, Anthime [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires. Services Scientifiques

    1966-07-01

    Among all the methods suitable for measuring neutral particle fluxes obtained by proton charge exchange in an organic gas, the thermal method has been chosen. The energy imparted by the neutral particles to the target in the form of heat leads to the latter temperature increasing; this temperature is usually followed with a thermocouple. In order to increase the sensitivity and the elegance of the apparatus the thermocouple has been replaced by a junction whose characteristics are known to vary with temperature. A calibration is carried out using a beam of charged particles. The response obtained is linear. Measurements have been made with a power of up to 1 mW; the accuracy increases with the energy provided; for 4 joules an accuracy of 10 per cent is obtained. The apparatus may be improved in particular by extending the measurement range towards low power values, and by increasing the accuracy. (author) [French] Parmi toutes les methodes utilisees pour la mesure d'un flux de particules neutres, obtenues par echange de charge de protons dans un gaz organique, nous avons choisi la methode thermique. L'energie cedee par les particules neutres a la cible sous forme de chaleur provoque une elevation de temperature de celle-ci; cette temperature est habituellement reperee par thermocouple. Pour accroitre la sensibilite et la finesse de l'appareillage, nous avons substitue au thermocouple une jonction dont on sait que les caracteristiques varient avec la temperature. Un etalonnage est realise par un faisceau de particules chargees. La reponse obtenue est lineaire. Des puissances de l'ordre du mW ont ete mesurees; la precision croit avec l'energie apportee; elle est de 10 pour cent quand celle-ci est de 4 joules. L'appareillage peut etre notablement perfectionne, pour reculer la gamme des mesures vers les basses puissances et accroitre la precision. (auteur)

  2. Comparison of regional and ecosystem CO{sub 2} fluxes

    Gryning, S. E. (Wind Energy Department, Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical Univ. of Denmark, Roskilde (Denmark)); Soegaard, H. (Institute of Geography and Geology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Batchvarova, E. (National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria))

    2009-07-01

    A budget method to derive the regional surface flux of CO{sub 2} from the evolution of the boundary layer is presented and applied. The necessary input for the method can be deduced from a combination of vertical profile measurements of CO{sub 2} concentrations by i.e. an airplane, successive radio-soundings and standard measurements of the CO{sub 2} concentration near the ground. The method was used to derive the regional flux of CO{sub 2} over an agricultural site at Zealand in Denmark during an experiment on 12-13 June 2006. The regional fluxes of CO{sub 2} represent a combination of agricultural and forest surface conditions. It was found that the regional flux of CO{sub 2} in broad terms follows the behavior of the flux of CO{sub 2} at the agricultural (grassland) and the deciduous forest station. The regional flux is comparable not only in size but also in the diurnal (daytime) cycle of CO{sub 2} fluxes at the two stations. (orig.)

  3. A simple method to extract information on anisotropy of particle fluxes from spin-modulated counting rates of cosmic ray telescopes

    Hsieh, K.C.; Lin, Y.C.; Sullivan, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    A simple method to extract information on anisotropy of particle fluxes from data collected by cosmic ray telescopes on spinning spacecraft but without sectored accumulators is presented. Application of this method to specific satellite data demonstrates that it requires no prior assumption on the form of angular distribution of the fluxes; furthermore, self-consistency ensures the validity of the results thus obtained. The examples show perfect agreement with the corresponding magnetic field directions

  4. Inspection method of cable-stayed bridge using magnetic flux leakage detection: principle, sensor design, and signal processing

    Xu, Fengyu; Wang, Xingsong; Wu, Hongtao

    2012-01-01

    A nondestructive testing technique based on magnetic flux leakage is presented to inspect automatically the stay cables with large diameters of a cable-stayed bridge. Using the proposed inspection method, an online nondestructive testing (NDT) modular sensor is developed. The wreath-like sensor is composed of several sensor units that embrace the cable at equal angles. Each sensor unit consists of two permanent magnets and a hall sensor to detect the magnetic flux density. The modular sensor can be installed conveniently on cables with various diameters by increasing the number of sensor units and adjusting the relative distances between adjacent sensor units. Results of the experiments performed on a man-made cable with faults prove that the proposed sensor can inspect the status signals of the inner wires of the cables. To filter the interfering signals, three processing algorithms are discussed, including the moving average method, improved detrending algorithm, and signal processing based on a digital filter. Results show that the developed NDT sensor carried by a cable inspection robot can move along the cable and monitor the state of the stay cables

  5. Budgeting and Beyond

    Rohde, Carsten

    Budgets and budget control has been known since the early 19th century1. However the use of budget control was until the beginning of the 1920ies in US primarily related to governmental units and states and to a minor extent to business units in practice. At that time James McKinsey describes...

  6. Between Bedside and Budget

    J.L.T. Blank; E. Eggink

    1998-01-01

    Original title: Tussen bed en budget. The report Between bedside and budget (Tussen bed en budget) describes an extensive empirical study of the efficiency of general and university hospitals in the Netherlands. A policy summary recaps the main findings of the study. Those findings

  7. Library Budget Primer.

    Warner, Alice Sizer

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of six types of budgets commonly used by many different kinds of libraries. The budget types covered are lump-sum; formula; line or line-item; program; performance or function; and zero-based. Accompanying figures demonstrate the differences between four of the budget types. (three references) (KRN)

  8. Zircons reveal magma fluxes in the Earth's crust.

    Caricchi, Luca; Simpson, Guy; Schaltegger, Urs

    2014-07-24

    Magma fluxes regulate the planetary thermal budget, the growth of continents and the frequency and magnitude of volcanic eruptions, and play a part in the genesis and size of magmatic ore deposits. However, because a large fraction of the magma produced on the Earth does not erupt at the surface, determinations of magma fluxes are rare and this compromises our ability to establish a link between global heat transfer and large-scale geological processes. Here we show that age distributions of zircons, a mineral often present in crustal magmatic rocks, in combination with thermal modelling, provide an accurate means of retrieving magma fluxes. The characteristics of zircon age populations vary significantly and systematically as a function of the flux and total volume of magma accumulated in the Earth's crust. Our approach produces results that are consistent with independent determinations of magma fluxes and volumes of magmatic systems. Analysis of existing age population data sets using our method suggests that porphyry-type deposits, plutons and large eruptions each require magma input over different timescales at different characteristic average fluxes. We anticipate that more extensive and complete magma flux data sets will serve to clarify the control that the global heat flux exerts on the frequency of geological events such as volcanic eruptions, and to determine the main factors controlling the distribution of resources on our planet.

  9. Effects of soil tillage on the energy budget of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.)

    Casa, R.; Cascio, B. lo

    1997-01-01

    The different terms of the energy budget were measured by the Bowen ratio method on soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) grown on a conventional tillage and a direct drilling system. The differences found in the energy budgets varied according to the degree of fractional ground cover and of soil water availability. Soil heat flux was greater for the direct drilling treatment, although soil heating was slower as compared to the conventional tillage. Comparisons for well watered and dry conditions revealed that the conventional tillage system used as latent heat a fraction of net radiation greater than the direct drilling treatment only in well watered conditions. In dry conditions the differences in latent heat fluxes and canopy resistances between the two tillage systems were smaller [it

  10. Permanent Magnet Flux Online Estimation Based on Zero-Voltage Vector Injection Method

    Xie, Ge; Lu, Kaiyuan; Kumar, Dwivedi Sanjeet

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a simple signal injection method is proposed for sensorless control of PMSM at low speed, which ideally requires one voltage vector only for position estimation. The proposed method is easy to implement resulting in low computation burden. No filters are needed for extracting...

  11. Influences of various calculation options on heat, water and carbon fluxes determined by open- and closed-path eddy covariance methods

    Masahito Ueyama

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis studies using multiple-site datasets for eddy covariance potentially contain uncertainties originating from the use of different flux calculation options, because the choice of the process for calculating half-hourly fluxes from raw time series data is left to individual researchers. In this study, we quantified the uncertainties associated with different flux calculation methods at seven sites. The differences in the half-hourly fluxes were small, generally of the order less than a few percentiles, but they were substantial for the annual fluxes. After the standardisation under current recommendations in the FLUXNET communities, we estimated the uncertainties in the annual fluxes associated with the flux calculations to be 2.6±2.7 W m−2 (the mean 90% ± confidence interval for the sensible heat flux, 72±37 g C m−2 yr−1 for net ecosystem exchange (NEE, 12±6% for evapotranspiration, 12±6% for gross primary productivity and 16±10% for ecosystem respiration. The self-heating correction strongly influenced the annual carbon balance (143±93 g C m−2 yr−1, not only for cold sites but also for warm sites, but did not fully account for differences between the open- and closed-path systems (413±189 g C m−2 yr−1.

  12. 7 CFR 3402.14 - Budget and budget narrative.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget and budget narrative. 3402.14 Section 3402.14... GRADUATE AND POSTGRADUATE FELLOWSHIP GRANTS PROGRAM Preparation of an Application § 3402.14 Budget and budget narrative. Applicants must prepare the Budget, Form CSREES-2004, and a budget narrative...

  13. Growth of ZrSiO4 single crystal by flux method

    Ushio, Masumi; Nishitani, Yoshinari

    1982-01-01

    ZrSiO 4 single crystals were grown from the Na 2 O.3 V 2 O 5 fluxed melt at constant soaking temperatures of 900 0 C and 1000 0 C for periods up to 1710h, using the natural zircon seeds. Temperature difference between the seed and nutrient was 0.5 -- 5 0 C. A solubility curve of the natural zircon in Na 2 O.3 V 2 O 5 was determined. It was found that about 5.7g of the natural crystal dissolved in Na 2 O.3 V 2 O 5 in 48h at 1000 0 C and about 7.5g at 1200 0 C. .the maximum growth weight was about 0.35 2 g under conditions of the temperature difference of 2 0 C and the soaking for 1205h at 1000 0 C. The grown crystal was initially bounded with the c-, m-, p-, a-planes and very small planes consisting of the u- and x-, and finally bounded with the m- and p-planes. The observed linear growth rates of planes of ZrSiO 4 single crystals were in the following order:a(100) > c(001) > p(111) > m(110). The growth rates of a- and m-planes were about 5 -- 7 x 10 -4 mm/h and 0.9 -- 1.0 x 10 -4 mm/h, respectively. The growth hillocks of rounded triangular shape and elliptic shape extended to the direction of c-axis, were observed on the p- and m-planes, respectively. The observed step distence of the spiral and the step height were about 0.97 5 μm and 0.17 2 μm, respectively. The observed linear rate of advance of the step on the m-plane was about 0.4 0 -- 1.2 x 10 -8 cm/s. A linear growth rate of the m-plane was then calculated to be 0.2 5 -- 0.7 1 x 10 -4 mm/h by the BCF theory, which agreed in order of magnitude with the observes growth rate of the m-plabe. (author)

  14. Global carbon budget 2013

    Le Quere, C.; Moriarty, R.; Jones, S.D.; Boden, T.A.; Peters, G.P.; Andrew, R.M.; Andres, R.J.; Ciais, P.; Bopp, L.; Maignan, F.; Viovy, N.

    2014-01-01

    .1 GtC yr -1 , SOCEAN 2.5±0.5 GtC yr -1 , and SLAND 2.8±0.8 GtC yr -1 . For year 2012 alone, EFF grew to 9.7±0.5 GtC yr -1 , 2.2% above 2011, reflecting a continued growing trend in these emissions, GATM was 5.1±0.2 GtC yr -1 , SOCEAN was 2.9±0.5 GtC yr -1 , and assuming an ELUC of 1.0±0.5 GtC yr -1 (based on the 2001-2010 average), SLAND was 2.7±0.9 GtC yr -1 . GATM was high in 2012 compared to the 2003-2012 average, almost entirely reflecting the high EFF. The global atmospheric CO 2 concentration reached 392.520.10 ppm averaged over 2012. We estimate that EFF will increase by 2.1% (1.1- 3.1 %) to ±9.9±0.5 GtC in 2013, 61% above emissions in 1990, based on projections of world gross domestic product and recent changes in the carbon intensity of the economy. With this projection, cumulative emissions of CO 2 will reach about 535±55 GtC for 1870-2013, about 70% from EFF (390±20 GtC) and 30% from ELUC (145±50 GtC). This paper also documents any changes in the methods and data sets used in this new carbon budget from previous budgets (Le Quere et al., 2013). All observations presented here can be downloaded from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (doi:10.3334/CDIAC/GCP 2 013 V 2.3). (authors)

  15. Evaluation of different methods to model near-surface turbulent fluxes for a mountain glacier in the Cariboo Mountains, BC, Canada

    Radić, Valentina; Menounos, Brian; Shea, Joseph; Fitzpatrick, Noel; Tessema, Mekdes A.; Déry, Stephen J.

    2017-12-01

    As part of surface energy balance models used to simulate glacier melting, choosing parameterizations to adequately estimate turbulent heat fluxes is extremely challenging. This study aims to evaluate a set of four aerodynamic bulk methods (labeled as C methods), commonly used to estimate turbulent heat fluxes for a sloped glacier surface, and two less commonly used bulk methods developed from katabatic flow models. The C methods differ in their parameterizations of the bulk exchange coefficient that relates the fluxes to the near-surface measurements of mean wind speed, air temperature, and humidity. The methods' performance in simulating 30 min sensible- and latent-heat fluxes is evaluated against the measured fluxes from an open-path eddy-covariance (OPEC) method. The evaluation is performed at a point scale of a mountain glacier, using one-level meteorological and OPEC observations from multi-day periods in the 2010 and 2012 summer seasons. The analysis of the two independent seasons yielded the same key findings, which include the following: first, the bulk method, with or without the commonly used Monin-Obukhov (M-O) stability functions, overestimates the turbulent heat fluxes over the observational period, mainly due to a substantial overestimation of the friction velocity. This overestimation is most pronounced during the katabatic flow conditions, corroborating the previous findings that the M-O theory works poorly in the presence of a low wind speed maximum. Second, the method based on a katabatic flow model (labeled as the KInt method) outperforms any C method in simulating the friction velocity; however, the C methods outperform the KInt method in simulating the sensible-heat fluxes. Third, the best overall performance is given by a hybrid method, which combines the KInt approach with the C method; i.e., it parameterizes eddy viscosity differently than eddy diffusivity. An error analysis reveals that the uncertainties in the measured meteorological

  16. Evaluation of different methods to model near-surface turbulent fluxes for a mountain glacier in the Cariboo Mountains, BC, Canada

    V. Radić

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As part of surface energy balance models used to simulate glacier melting, choosing parameterizations to adequately estimate turbulent heat fluxes is extremely challenging. This study aims to evaluate a set of four aerodynamic bulk methods (labeled as C methods, commonly used to estimate turbulent heat fluxes for a sloped glacier surface, and two less commonly used bulk methods developed from katabatic flow models. The C methods differ in their parameterizations of the bulk exchange coefficient that relates the fluxes to the near-surface measurements of mean wind speed, air temperature, and humidity. The methods' performance in simulating 30 min sensible- and latent-heat fluxes is evaluated against the measured fluxes from an open-path eddy-covariance (OPEC method. The evaluation is performed at a point scale of a mountain glacier, using one-level meteorological and OPEC observations from multi-day periods in the 2010 and 2012 summer seasons. The analysis of the two independent seasons yielded the same key findings, which include the following: first, the bulk method, with or without the commonly used Monin–Obukhov (M–O stability functions, overestimates the turbulent heat fluxes over the observational period, mainly due to a substantial overestimation of the friction velocity. This overestimation is most pronounced during the katabatic flow conditions, corroborating the previous findings that the M–O theory works poorly in the presence of a low wind speed maximum. Second, the method based on a katabatic flow model (labeled as the KInt method outperforms any C method in simulating the friction velocity; however, the C methods outperform the KInt method in simulating the sensible-heat fluxes. Third, the best overall performance is given by a hybrid method, which combines the KInt approach with the C method; i.e., it parameterizes eddy viscosity differently than eddy diffusivity. An error analysis reveals that the uncertainties in

  17. Simulation of transients with space-dependent feedback by coarse mesh flux expansion method

    Langenbuch, S.; Maurer, W.; Werner, W.

    1975-01-01

    For the simulation of the time-dependent behaviour of large LWR-cores, even the most efficient Finite-Difference (FD) methods require a prohibitive amount of computing time in order to achieve results of acceptable accuracy. Static CM-solutions computed with a mesh-size corresponding to the fuel element structure (about 20 cm) are at least as accurate as FD-solutions computed with about 5 cm mesh-size. For 3d-calculations this results in a reduction of storage requirements by a factor 60 and of computing costs by a factor 40, relative to FD-methods. These results have been obtained for pure neutronic calculations, where feedback is not taken into account. In this paper it is demonstrated that the method retains its accuracy also in kinetic calculations, even in the presence of strong space dependent feedback. (orig./RW) [de

  18. Studying temporal and spatial variations of groundwater-surface water exchange flux for the Slootbeek (Belgium) using the LPML method

    Anibas, Christian; Schneideweind, Uwe; Vandersteen, Gerd; Huysmans, Marijke; Batelaan, Okke

    2015-04-01

    Knowledge of groundwater-surface water interaction is important for the assessment of water resources and for the investigation of fate and transport of contaminants and nutrients. In streams and rivers exchange fluxes of water are sensitive to local and regional factors such as riverbed hydraulic conductivity and hydraulic gradients. Field monitoring in time and space is therefore indispensible for assessing the variability of groundwater-surface water interaction. Not only the complexity of the examined processes demand novel data processing and characterization tools, the amount of acquired data also urges for new modeling tools. These tools should be easily applicable, allow for a fast computation, and utilize the maximum amount of available data for detailed analysis, including uncertainties. Such analytical tools should be combined with modern field equipment, data processing tools, geographical information systems and geostatistics for best results. A simple and cost effective methodology to estimate groundwater-surface water interaction is the use of temperature as an environmental tracer (ANDERSON, 2005). LPML (VANDERSTEEN et al., 2014) is one of the most advanced analytical 1D coupled water flow and heat transport models, combining a local polynomial method with a maximum likelihood estimator. It is flexible, fast and able to create time series of exchange fluxes, as well as model quality and parameter uncertainty. LPML determines frequency response functions from measured temperature time series and an analytical model, and applies a non-linear optimization technique. With this tool the variability of groundwater-surface water interaction of the Belgian stream Slootbeek was assessed. Multilevel temperature sensors were placed in seven locations to obtain temperature-time series. Located at the streambed top and at six depths below, several months worth of data was collected and analyzed. Results identified a high spatial and temporal variability of

  19. A multipoint flux mixed finite element method on distorted quadrilaterals and hexahedra

    Wheeler, Mary; Xue, Guangri; Yotov, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a new mixed finite element method for elliptic problems on general quadrilateral and hexahedral grids that reduces to a cell-centered finite difference scheme. A special non-symmetric quadrature rule is employed that yields

  20. Estimation of mesophyll conductance to CO2 flux by three different methods

    Loreto, F.; Harley, P.C.; Di Marco, G.; Sharkey, T.D.

    1992-01-01

    The resistance to diffusion of CO2 from the intercellular airspaces within the leaf through the mesophyll to the sites of carboxylation during photosynthesis was measured using three different techniques, The three techniques include a method based on discrimination against the heavy stable isotope of carbon, 13C, and two modeling methods. The methods rely upon different assumptions, but the estimates of mesophyll conductance were similar with all three methods. The mesophyll conductance of leaves from a number of species was about 1.4 times the stomatal conductance for CO2 diffusion determined in unstressed plants at high light. The relatively low CO2 partial pressure inside chloroplasts of plants with a low mesophyll conductance did not lead to enhanced O2 sensitivity of photosynthesis because the low conductance caused a significant drop in the chloroplast CO2 Partial pressure upon switching to low O2. We found no correlation between mesophyll conductance and the ratio of internal leaf area to leaf surface area and only a weak correlation between mesophyll conductance and the proportion of leaf volume occupied by air. Mesophyll conductance was independent of CO2 and O2 partial pressure during the measurement, indicating that a true physical parameter, independent of biochemical effects, was being measured. No evidence for accumulating mechanisms was found. Some plants, notably Citrus aurantium and Simmondsia chinensis, had very low conductances that limit the rate of photosynthesis these plants can attain at atmospheric CO2 level

  1. Validation of the DLW method in Japanese quail at different water fluxes using laser and IRMS

    van Trigt, R; Kerstel, E.R.T.; Neubert, R.E.M.; Meijer, H.A.J.; Mclean, M.; Visser, G.H.

    2002-01-01

    In Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica; n = 9), the doubly labeled water (DLW) method (H-2, O-18) for estimation Of CO2 production (1/day) was validated. To evaluate its sensitivity to water efflux levels (r(H2Oe); g/day) and to assumptions of fractional evaporative water loss (x; dimensionless),

  2. Quick screening for new flux pinning materials in YBCO films with the combinatorial-PLD method

    Yoshimura, T.; Ichino, Y.; Yoshida, Y.; Takai, Y.; Kita, R.; Suzuki, K.; Takeuchi, T.

    2011-01-01

    An effective way to improve the superconducting properties in REBa 2 Cu 3 O y (REBCO) films under a magnetic field is to dope artificial pinning centers (APC). The pinning performance depends on the content of the APC materials. Usually, the optimal APC content is explored by preparing films one at a time from the REBCO target using different APC material content, which is an extremely time-consuming process. The combinatorial-PLD (C-PLD) method allowed us to prepare films that continuously changed in composition across a single substrate. In this study, we used the C-PLD method to prepare BaSnO 3 (BSO)-doped YBCO films. The films were deposited on SrTiO 3 substrate using a fourth-harmonic Nd:YAG laser. From the results of the J c -B curves at 77 K and B//c, the film that contained 3.2 vol.% of BSO exhibited the best pinning performance in this study. We showed that the C-PLD method was efficient for quick screening of the optimal APC content with only one deposition. We also used the C-PLD method to explore new APC materials, and proved that it can quickly evaluate the new APC materials Ba 3 Cu 3 In 4 O 12 and BaTbO 3 .

  3. Salt balance, fresh water residence time and budget for non ...

    Water and salt budgets suggest that in order to balance the inflow and outflow of water at Makoba bay, there is net flux of water from the bay to the open ocean during wet season. Residual salt fluxes between the bay and the open ocean indicate advective salt export. Exchange of water between the bay with the open ocean ...

  4. SOME ASPECTS OF STATE BUDGET

    VEZURE OANA SABINA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the modern economy, the market, the public purse money materialized in fact all relations that are contained in the sphere of public finances. The state budget is an economic category that is expressed in the form of values, which mobilizes economic relations, is distributed and used the funds of the state. The state budget is a fundamental category of financial sciences. We can address the legal and economic terms. In terms of its legal budget is an act that are set and approved annual revenue and expenditure of the state. Economic activity takes place in each country according to its own mechanism, called the economic mechanism. This is a system of economic management methods for determining management objectives and organizational structures (institutional, superstructure, legal means for driving

  5. Uncertainty Propagation in an Ecosystem Nutrient Budget.

    New aspects and advancements in classical uncertainty propagation methods were used to develop a nutrient budget with associated error for a northern Gulf of Mexico coastal embayment. Uncertainty was calculated for budget terms by propagating the standard error and degrees of fr...

  6. Improved flux calculations for viscous incompressible flow by the variable penalty method

    Kheshgi, H.; Luskin, M.

    1985-01-01

    The Navier-Stokes system for viscous, incompressible flow is considered, taking into account a replacement of the continuity equation by the perturbed continuity equation. The introduction of the approximation allows the pressure variable to be eliminated to obtain the system of equations for the approximate velocity. The penalty approximation is often applied to numerical discretizations since it provides a reduction in the size and band-width of the system of equations. Attention is given to error estimates, and to two numerical experiments which illustrate the error estimates considered. It is found that the variable penalty method provides an accurate solution for a much wider range of epsilon than the classical penalty method. 8 references

  7. An experimental magnetic moment determination method based on spatial harmonic analysis of magnetic flux density signatures

    A.V. Getman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical aspects of an experimental determination method for residual and inductive magnetic moments of a technical object are considered. As input data, the technical object magnetic induction signatures obtained under its linear movement near a pair of three-component sensors are used. A magnetic signature integration technique based on spatial harmonic analysis of the magnetic field represented by twenty-four multipole coefficients is introduced.

  8. A new method for estimating UV fluxes at ground level in cloud-free conditions

    Wandji Nyamsi, William; Pitkänen, Mikko R. A.; Aoun, Youva; Blanc, Philippe; Heikkilä, Anu; Lakkala, Kaisa; Bernhard, Germar; Koskela, Tapani; Lindfors, Anders V.; Arola, Antti; Wald, Lucien

    2017-12-01

    A new method has been developed to estimate the global and direct solar irradiance in the UV-A and UV-B at ground level in cloud-free conditions. It is based on a resampling technique applied to the results of the k-distribution method and the correlated-k approximation of Kato et al. (1999) over the UV band. Its inputs are the aerosol properties and total column ozone that are produced by the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS). The estimates from this new method have been compared to instantaneous measurements of global UV irradiances made in cloud-free conditions at five stations at high latitudes in various climates. For the UV-A irradiance, the bias ranges between -0.8 W m-2 (-3 % of the mean of all data) and -0.2 W m-2 (-1 %). The root mean square error (RMSE) ranges from 1.1 W m-2 (6 %) to 1.9 W m-2 (9 %). The coefficient of determination R2 is greater than 0.98. The bias for UV-B is between -0.04 W m-2 (-4 %) and 0.08 W m-2 (+13 %) and the RMSE is 0.1 W m-2 (between 12 and 18 %). R2 ranges between 0.97 and 0.99. This work demonstrates the quality of the proposed method combined with the CAMS products. Improvements, especially in the modeling of the reflectivity of the Earth's surface in the UV region, are necessary prior to its inclusion into an operational tool.

  9. Growth of GaN single crystals by a Ca- and Ba-added Na flux method

    Ukegawa, H.; Konishi, Y.; Fujimori, T.; Miyoshi, N.; Imade, M.; Yoshimura, M.; Kitaoka, Y.; Sasaki, T.; Mori, Y.

    2011-02-01

    GaN substrates are desirable for fabricating ultra-violet LEDs and LDs, and high-power and high-frequency transistors. High-quality GaN single crystals can be obtained by using Na flux method, but the growth habit of bulk crystals must be controlled. In this study, we investigated the effects of additives (Ca, Ba) on the growth habit and impurity concentration in the crystals. The aspect ratio (c/a) of the crystals was increased by increasing the amount of additives, showing that the growth habit could be changed from the pyramidal shape to the prism shape. Ba concentration was below the detection limit (1x1015 atoms/cm3).

  10. The Study of Radio Flux Density Variations of the Quasar OJ 287 by the Wavelet and the Singular Spectrum Methods

    Donskykh Ganna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Flux density variations of the extragalactic radio source OJ 287 are studied by applying the wavelet and the singular spectrum methods to the long-term monitoring data at 14.5, 8.0 and 4.8 GHz acquired at the University of Michigan Radio Astronomy Observatory during 40 years. This monitoring significantly supplements the episodic VLBI data. The wavelet analysis at all three frequencies revealed the presence of quasiperiods within the intervals 6.0–7.4 and 1.2–1.8 years. The singular spectrum analysis revealed the presence of quasiperiods within the intervals 6–10 and 1.6–4.0 years. For each quasiperiod the time interval of its existence was determined.

  11. Understanding the Budget Process

    Mesut Yalvaç

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Many different budgeting techniques can be used in libraries, and some combination of these will be appropriate for almost any individual situation. Li-ne-item, program, performance, formula, variable, and zero-base budgets all have features that may prove beneficial in the preparation of a budget. Budgets also serve a variety of functions, providing for short-term and long-term financial planning as well as for cash management over a period of time. Short-term plans are reflected in the operating budget, while long-term plans are reflected in the capital budget. Since the time when cash is available to an organization does not usually coincide with the time that disbursements must be made, it is also important to carefully plan for the inflow and outflow of funds by means of a cash budget.      During the budget process an organization selects its programs and activities by providing the necessary funding; the library, along with others in the organization, must justify its requests. Because of the cyclical nature of the budget process, it is possible continually to gather information and evaluate alternatives for the next budget period so that the library may achieve its maximum potential for service to its patrons.

  12. Flux decay during thermonuclear X-ray bursts analysed with the dynamic power-law index method

    Kuuttila, J.; Kajava, J. J. E.; Nättilä, J.; Motta, S. E.; Sánchez-Fernández, C.; Kuulkers, E.; Cumming, A.; Poutanen, J.

    2017-08-01

    The cooling of type-I X-ray bursts can be used to probe the nuclear burning conditions in neutron star envelopes. The flux decay of the bursts has been traditionally modelled with an exponential, even if theoretical considerations predict power-law-like decays. We have analysed a total of 540 type-I X-ray bursts from five low-mass X-ray binaries observed with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. We grouped the bursts according to the source spectral state during which they were observed (hard or soft), flagging those bursts that showed signs of photospheric radius expansion (PRE). The decay phase of all the bursts were then fitted with a dynamic power-law index method. This method provides a new way of probing the chemical composition of the accreted material. Our results show that in the hydrogen-rich sources the power-law decay index is variable during the burst tails and that simple cooling models qualitatively describe the cooling of presumably helium-rich sources 4U 1728-34 and 3A 1820-303. The cooling in the hydrogen-rich sources 4U 1608-52, 4U 1636-536, and GS 1826-24, instead, is clearly different and depends on the spectral states and whether PRE occurred or not. Especially the hard state bursts behave differently than the models predict, exhibiting a peculiar rise in the cooling index at low burst fluxes, which suggests that the cooling in the tail is much faster than expected. Our results indicate that the drivers of the bursting behaviour are not only the accretion rate and chemical composition of the accreted material, but also the cooling that is somehow linked to the spectral states. The latter suggests that the properties of the burning layers deep in the neutron star envelope might be impacted differently depending on the spectral state.

  13. STATE BUDGET APPROPRIATION MANAGERS AS THE SUBJECTS OF BUDGET PLANNING IN THE REPUBLIC OF LITHUANIA

    Bronius Sudavicius

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject. The article deals with the problem of legal status of the state budget appropriation managers in the process of budget planning in the Republic of Lithuania.The purpose of the article is evaluation of state budget appropriation managers’ role in the process of budget planning in the Republic of Lithuania.The methodology of research is the analysis of the budgetary legislation of the Republic of Lithuania and the scientific literature, using the methods of logical and systematic analysis and other methods of scientific researchMain results, and scope of it’s application. The legal definition and the system of state budget appropriation managers is analyzed in the article. Particular attention is given to the question of role of state budget appropriation managers in the process of budget framework. The role of the Government and Parliament, as well as a special body of management of public finances (in the Republic of Lithuania, the Ministry of Finance – legislative and executive authorities – is emphasized in the scientific literature. But it is often not mentioned what an important place in this process other participants of budgetary relations – state budget appropriation managers – takes. The main participation of state budget appropriation managers in the budget planning process related to the planning of the budget expenditures.Preparation of strategic plans and programmes of budgetary funds by state budget appropriation managers can be considered part of governance activities in general. For budget planning drawn up draft budgets of the programs by state budget appropriation managers is particularly important.Conclusions. The efficiency of the use of state funds depends on the spending of funds, the quality and validity of the developed programmes of activities led by their agencies. State budget appropriation managers are involved, along with other entities, on each stage of the budget planning. They provide the

  14. A Climate Data Record (CDR) for the global terrestrial water budget: 1984-2010

    Zhang, Yu; Pan, Ming; Sheffield, Justin; Siemann, Amanda L.; Fisher, Colby K.; Liang, Miaoling; Beck, Hylke E.; Wanders, Niko; MacCracken, Rosalyn F.; Houser, Paul R.; Zhou, Tian; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.; Pinker, Rachel T.; Bytheway, Janice; Kummerow, Christian D.; Wood, Eric F.

    2018-01-01

    Closing the terrestrial water budget is necessary to provide consistent estimates of budget components for understanding water resources and changes over time. Given the lack of in situ observations of budget components at anything but local scale, merging information from multiple data sources (e.g., in situ observation, satellite remote sensing, land surface model, and reanalysis) through data assimilation techniques that optimize the estimation of fluxes is a promising approach. Conditioned on the current limited data availability, a systematic method is developed to optimally combine multiple available data sources for precipitation (P), evapotranspiration (ET), runoff (R), and the total water storage change (TWSC) at 0.5° spatial resolution globally and to obtain water budget closure (i.e., to enforce P - ET - R - TWSC = 0) through a constrained Kalman filter (CKF) data assimilation technique under the assumption that the deviation from the ensemble mean of all data sources for the same budget variable is used as a proxy of the uncertainty in individual water budget variables. The resulting long-term (1984-2010), monthly 0.5° resolution global terrestrial water cycle Climate Data Record (CDR) data set is developed under the auspices of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth System Data Records (ESDRs) program. This data set serves to bridge the gap between sparsely gauged regions and the regions with sufficient in situ observations in investigating the temporal and spatial variability in the terrestrial hydrology at multiple scales. The CDR created in this study is validated against in situ measurements like river discharge from the Global Runoff Data Centre (GRDC) and the United States Geological Survey (USGS), and ET from FLUXNET. The data set is shown to be reliable and can serve the scientific community in understanding historical climate variability in water cycle fluxes and stores, benchmarking the current climate, and

  15. Chambers versus Relaxed Eddy Accumulation: an intercomparison study of two methods for short-term measurements of biogenic CO2 fluxes

    Jasek, Alina; Zimnoch, Miroslaw; Gorczyca, Zbigniew; Chmura, Lukasz; Necki, Jaroslaw

    2014-05-01

    The presented work is a part of comprehensive study aimed at thorough characterization of carbon cycle in the urban environment of Krakow, southern Poland. In the framework of this study two independent methods were employed to quantify biogenic CO2 flux in the city: (i) closed chambers, and (ii) Relaxed Eddy Accumulation (REA). The results of a three-day intensive intercomparison campaign performed in July 2013 and utilizing both measurement methods are reported here. The chamber method is a widely used approach for measurements of gas exchange between the soil and the atmosphere. The system implemented in this study consisted of a single chamber operating in a closed-dynamic mode, combined with Vaisala CarboCAP infrared CO2 sensor in a mobile setup. An alternative flux measurement method, covering larger area is represented by REA, which is a modification of the eddy covariance method. It consists of a 3D anemometer (Gill Windmaster Pro) and the system collecting updraft and downdraft samples to 5-litre Tedlar bags. The CO2 mixing ratios in the collected samples are measured by Picarro G2101i analyzer. The setup consists of two sets of bags so that the sampling can be performed continuously with 15-min temporal resolution. A 48-hectares open meadow located close the city center was chosen as a test site for comparison of the two methods of CO2 flux measurements outlined above. In the middle of the meadow a 3-metre high tripod was installed with the anemometer and REA inlet system. For a period of 46 hours the system was measuring net CO2 flux from the surrounding area. A meteorological conditions and intensity of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) were also recorded. In the same time, CO2 flux from several points around the REA inlet was measured with the chamber system, resulting in 93 values for both respiration and net CO2 flux. Chamber results show rather homogenous distribution of the soil CO2 flux (the mean value equal to 40.9 ± 2.2 mmol/m2h), with

  16. Uncertainty of long-term CO2 flux estimates due to the choice of the spectral correction method

    Ibrom, Andreas; Geißler, Simon; Pilegaard, Kim

    2010-05-01

    The eddy covariance system at the Danish beech forest long-term flux observation site at Sorø has been intensively examined. Here we investigate which systematic and non-systematic effects the choice of the spectral correction method has on long-term net CO2 flux estimates and their components. Ibrom et al. (2007) gave an overview over different ways to correct for low-pass filtering of the atmospheric turbulent signal by a closed path eddy covariance system. They used degraded temperature time series for spectral correction of low-pass filtered signals. In this new study, correction for high-pass filtering was also included, which made it anyway necessary to use model co-spectra. We compared different ways of adapting different kinds of model co-spectra to the wealth of 14 years high frequency raw data. As the trees grew, the distance between the sonic anemometer and the displacement height decreased over time. The study enabled us to compare the two approaches and different variants of them to give recommendations on their use. The analysis showed that model spectra should not be derived from co-spectra between the vertical wind speed (w) and the scalars measured with the closed path system, i.e. CO2 and H20 concentrations, but instead with sonic temperature (T) w cospectra, to avoid low-pass filtering effects on the estimation of the co-spectral peak frequency (fx). This concern was already expressed earlier in the above mentioned study, but here we show the quantitative effects. The wT co-spectra did not show any height effect on fx as it was suggested in generally used parameterizations. A possible reason for this difference is that measurements, like in all forest flux sites, took place in the roughness sub-layer and not in the inertial sub-layer. At the same time the shape of the relationship between fx and the stability parameter ? differed much from that of often used parameterizations (e.g. from Horst, 1997). The shift of fx towards higher frequencies at

  17. Parallel Jacobian-free Newton Krylov solution of the discrete ordinates method with flux limiters for 3D radiative transfer

    Godoy, William F.; Liu Xu

    2012-01-01

    The present study introduces a parallel Jacobian-free Newton Krylov (JFNK) general minimal residual (GMRES) solution for the discretized radiative transfer equation (RTE) in 3D, absorbing, emitting and scattering media. For the angular and spatial discretization of the RTE, the discrete ordinates method (DOM) and the finite volume method (FVM) including flux limiters are employed, respectively. Instead of forming and storing a large Jacobian matrix, JFNK methods allow for large memory savings as the required Jacobian-vector products are rather approximated by semiexact and numerical formulations, for which convergence and computational times are presented. Parallelization of the GMRES solution is introduced in a combined memory-shared/memory-distributed formulation that takes advantage of the fact that only large vector arrays remain in the JFNK process. Results are presented for 3D test cases including a simple homogeneous, isotropic medium and a more complex non-homogeneous, non-isothermal, absorbing–emitting and anisotropic scattering medium with collimated intensities. Additionally, convergence and stability of Gram–Schmidt and Householder orthogonalizations for the Arnoldi process in the parallel GMRES algorithms are discussed and analyzed. Overall, the introduction of JFNK methods results in a parallel, yet scalable to the tested 2048 processors, and memory affordable solution to 3D radiative transfer problems without compromising the accuracy and convergence of a Newton-like solution.

  18. Anthropogenic heat flux estimation from space

    Chrysoulakis, Nektarios; Marconcini, Mattia; Gastellu-Etchegorry, Jean Philippe; Grimmond, C.S.B.; Feigenwinter, Christian; Lindberg, Fredrik; Frate, Del Fabio; Klostermann, Judith; Mitraka, Zina; Esch, Thomas; Landier, Lucas; Gabey, Andy; Parlow, Eberhard; Olofson, Frans

    2016-01-01

    H2020-Space project URBANFLUXES (URBan ANthrpogenic heat FLUX from Earth observation Satellites) investigates the potential of Copernicus Sentinels to retrieve anthropogenic heat flux, as a key component of the Urban Energy Budget (UEB). URBANFLUXES advances the current knowledge of the impacts

  19. ANthropogenic heat FLUX estimation from Space

    Chrysoulakis, Nektarios; Marconcini, Mattia; Gastellu-Etchegorry, Jean Philippe; Grimmong, C.S.B.; Feigenwinter, Christian; Lindberg, Fredrik; Frate, Del Fabio; Klostermann, Judith; Mi, Zina; Esch, Thomas; Landier, Lucas; Gabey, Andy; Parlow, Eberhard; Olofson, Frans

    2017-01-01

    The H2020-Space project URBANFLUXES (URBan ANthrpogenic heat FLUX from Earth observation Satellites) investigates the potential of Copernicus Sentinels to retrieve anthropogenic heat flux, as a key component of the Urban Energy Budget (UEB). URBANFLUXES advances the current knowledge of the

  20. Strong Flux Pinning of Nano-Sized Ysz Particles in Ybco Films Prepared by Mod Method

    Ye, S.; Suo, H. L.; Liu, M.; Tang, X.; Wu, Z. P.; Zhao, Y.; Zhou, M. L.

    The YBCO films with doped YSZ nanoparticles have been prepared successfully by metal organic doepositon method using trifluoroacetates (TFA-MOD) through dissolving Zr organic salt into the YBCO precursor solution. The doped films have well in-plane and out-plane textures detected by both XRD Φ-scan and ω-scan. The YSZ nanoparticles with the size of about 5 ~ 15 nm were observed on the surface of the YBCO films using both FE-SEM and TEM. By comparing the superconducting properties, it was found that the doped YBCO films had lower Tc than that of undoped YBCO films. However, as increasing the applied magnetic field, Jc of the doped YBCO films were much better than that of undoped one. The Jc was as higher as 2.5 times than that of undoped YBCO film at 77 K and 1 T applied field.

  1. Global Carbon Budget 2017

    Le Quéré, Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Sitch, Stephen; Pongratz, Julia; Manning, Andrew C.; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Peters, Glen P.; Canadell, Josep G.; Jackson, Robert B.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Andrews, Oliver D.; Arora, Vivek K.; Bakker, Dorothee C. E.; Barbero, Leticia; Becker, Meike; Betts, Richard A.; Bopp, Laurent; Chevallier, Frédéric; Chini, Louise P.; Ciais, Philippe; Cosca, Catherine E.; Cross, Jessica; Currie, Kim; Gasser, Thomas; Harris, Ian; Hauck, Judith; Haverd, Vanessa; Houghton, Richard A.; Hunt, Christopher W.; Hurtt, George; Ilyina, Tatiana; Jain, Atul K.; Kato, Etsushi; Kautz, Markus; Keeling, Ralph F.; Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Körtzinger, Arne; Landschützer, Peter; Lefèvre, Nathalie; Lenton, Andrew; Lienert, Sebastian; Lima, Ivan; Lombardozzi, Danica; Metzl, Nicolas; Millero, Frank; Monteiro, Pedro M. S.; Munro, David R.; Nabel, Julia E. M. S.; Nakaoka, Shin-ichiro; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Padin, X. Antonio; Peregon, Anna; Pfeil, Benjamin; Pierrot, Denis; Poulter, Benjamin; Rehder, Gregor; Reimer, Janet; Rödenbeck, Christian; Schwinger, Jörg; Séférian, Roland; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Tian, Hanqin; Tilbrook, Bronte; Tubiello, Francesco N.; van der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T.; van der Werf, Guido R.; van Heuven, Steven; Viovy, Nicolas; Vuichard, Nicolas; Walker, Anthony P.; Watson, Andrew J.; Wiltshire, Andrew J.; Zaehle, Sönke; Zhu, Dan

    2018-03-01

    consistent with El Niño conditions. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration reached 402.8 ± 0.1 ppm averaged over 2016. For 2017, preliminary data for the first 6-9 months indicate a renewed growth in EFF of +2.0 % (range of 0.8 to 3.0 %) based on national emissions projections for China, USA, and India, and projections of gross domestic product (GDP) corrected for recent changes in the carbon intensity of the economy for the rest of the world. This living data update documents changes in the methods and data sets used in this new global carbon budget compared with previous publications of this data set (Le Quéré et al., 2016, 2015b, a, 2014, 2013). All results presented here can be downloaded from https://doi.org/10.18160/GCP-2017 (GCP, 2017).

  2. Global Carbon Budget 2017

    C. Le Quéré

    2018-03-01

    higher in 2016 compared to the past decade (2007–2016, reflecting in part the high fossil emissions and the small SLAND consistent with El Niño conditions. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration reached 402.8 ± 0.1 ppm averaged over 2016. For 2017, preliminary data for the first 6–9 months indicate a renewed growth in EFF of +2.0 % (range of 0.8 to 3.0 % based on national emissions projections for China, USA, and India, and projections of gross domestic product (GDP corrected for recent changes in the carbon intensity of the economy for the rest of the world. This living data update documents changes in the methods and data sets used in this new global carbon budget compared with previous publications of this data set (Le Quéré et al., 2016, 2015b, a, 2014, 2013. All results presented here can be downloaded from https://doi.org/10.18160/GCP-2017 (GCP, 2017.

  3. The nursing human resource budget: design for success.

    Winkler, J B; Cameron, M L; Flarey, D L

    1995-06-01

    As vital as the nursing human resource budget is to the successful achievement of institutional goals, it is very important to present a well-developed budget. Using current automated spreadsheet technology, the nursing human resource budget can be laid out in a format that is easy to understand and easy to present. Using the methods discussed in this article, the nurse executive will be able to perform infinite iterations of the proposed budget with a few simple key strokes, thus allowing for things like zero-based budgeting or addition of programs during the budgeting process or at a later date. Implications for nurse executives are discussed.

  4. The carbon budget of California

    Potter, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The carbon budget of a region can be defined as the sum of annual fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and methane (CH 4 ) greenhouse gases (GHGs) into and out of the regional surface coverage area. According to the state government's recent inventory, California's carbon budget is presently dominated by 115 MMTCE per year in fossil fuel emissions of CO 2 (>85% of total annual GHG emissions) to meet energy and transportation requirements. Other notable (non-ecosystem) sources of carbon GHG emissions in 2004 were from cement- and lime-making industries (7%), livestock-based agriculture (5%), and waste treatment activities (2%). The NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation cover (including those from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, MODIS) was used to estimate net ecosystem fluxes and vegetation biomass production over the period 1990-2004. California's annual NPP for all ecosystems in the early 2000s (estimated by CASA at 120 MMTCE per year) was roughly equivalent to its annual fossil fuel emission rates for carbon. However, since natural ecosystems can accumulate only a small fraction of this annual NPP total in long-term storage pools, the net ecosystem sink flux for atmospheric carbon across the state was estimated at a maximum rate of about 24 MMTCE per year under favorable precipitation conditions. Under less favorable precipitation conditions, such as those experienced during the early 1990s, ecosystems statewide were estimated to have lost nearly 15 MMTCE per year to the atmosphere. Considering the large amounts of carbon estimated by CASA to be stored in forests, shrublands, and rangelands across the state, the importance of protection of the natural NPP capacity of California ecosystems cannot be overemphasized.

  5. Flux pinning properties of impurity doped MgB2 bulks synthesized by diffusion method

    Ueda, Shinya; Shimoyama, Jun-ichi; Yamamoto, Akiyasu; Katsura, Yukari; Iwayama, Isao; Horii, Shigeru; Kishio, Kohji

    2005-01-01

    Doping effects of carbon-containing impurities on the critical current properties and microstructure were systematically studied for highly dense MgB 2 bulks prepared by the diffusion method starting from magnesium and boron which are separately packed in sealed stainless tubes. Obtained samples exhibited improved critical current density, J c , simply by an increase of effective current pass. A non-doped MgB 2 recorded almost double high J c at 20 K compared with those of the conventional porous MgB 2 bulks having ∼50% of the theoretical density, while irreversibility field, H irr , did not largely change. J c under high magnetic fields were enhanced by doping of carbon-containing impurities, such as SiC and B 4 C. Optimal doping levels of SiC and B 4 C for high critical current properties at 20 K are found to be ∼2% and 5%, respectively, as nominal carbon concentration at boron site. Difference in the optimal doping levels is originated from the difference in their reactivity

  6. Modeling the Distributions of Brightness Temperatures of a Cropland Study Area Using a Model that Combines Fast Radiosity and Energy Budget Methods

    Zunjian Bian

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Land surface temperatures (LSTs obtained from remote sensing data are crucial in monitoring the conditions of crops and urban heat islands. However, since retrieved LSTs represent only the average temperature states of pixels, the distributions of temperatures within individual pixels remain unknown. Such data cannot satisfy the requirements of applications such as precision agriculture. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a model that combines a fast radiosity model, the Radiosity Applicable to Porous IndiviDual Objects (RAPID model, and energy budget methods to dynamically simulate brightness temperatures (BTs over complex surfaces. This model represents a model-based tool that can be used to estimate temperature distributions using fine-scale visible as well as near-infrared (VNIR data and temporal variations in meteorological conditions. The proposed model is tested over a study area in an artificial oasis in Northwestern China. The simulated BTs agree well with those measured with the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER. The results reflect root mean squared errors (RMSEs less than 1.6 °C and coefficients of determination (R2 greater than 0.7. In addition, compared to the leaf area index (LAI, this model displays high sensitivity to wind speed during validation. Although simplifications may be adopted for use in specific simulations, this proposed model can be used to support in situ measurements and to provide reference data over heterogeneous vegetation surfaces.

  7. On the use of flux limiters in the discrete ordinates method for 3D radiation calculations in absorbing and scattering media

    Godoy, William F.; DesJardin, Paul E.

    2010-01-01

    The application of flux limiters to the discrete ordinates method (DOM), S N , for radiative transfer calculations is discussed and analyzed for 3D enclosures for cases in which the intensities are strongly coupled to each other such as: radiative equilibrium and scattering media. A Newton-Krylov iterative method (GMRES) solves the final systems of linear equations along with a domain decomposition strategy for parallel computation using message passing libraries in a distributed memory system. Ray effects due to angular discretization and errors due to domain decomposition are minimized until small variations are introduced by these effects in order to focus on the influence of flux limiters on errors due to spatial discretization, known as numerical diffusion, smearing or false scattering. Results are presented for the DOM-integrated quantities such as heat flux, irradiation and emission. A variety of flux limiters are compared to 'exact' solutions available in the literature, such as the integral solution of the RTE for pure absorbing-emitting media and isotropic scattering cases and a Monte Carlo solution for a forward scattering case. Additionally, a non-homogeneous 3D enclosure is included to extend the use of flux limiters to more practical cases. The overall balance of convergence, accuracy, speed and stability using flux limiters is shown to be superior compared to step schemes for any test case.

  8. A Novel Method to Magnetic Flux Linkage Optimization of Direct-Driven Surface-Mounted Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator Based on Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis

    Qian Xie

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper pays attention to magnetic flux linkage optimization of a direct-driven surface-mounted permanent magnet synchronous generator (D-SPMSG. A new compact representation of the D-SPMSG nonlinear dynamic differential equations to reduce system parameters is established. Furthermore, the nonlinear dynamic characteristics of new D-SPMSG equations in the process of varying magnetic flux linkage are considered, which are illustrated by Lyapunov exponent spectrums, phase orbits, Poincaré maps, time waveforms and bifurcation diagrams, and the magnetic flux linkage stable region of D-SPMSG is acquired concurrently. Based on the above modeling and analyses, a novel method of magnetic flux linkage optimization is presented. In addition, a 2 MW D-SPMSG 2D/3D model is designed by ANSYS software according to the practical design requirements. Finally, five cases of D-SPMSG models with different magnetic flux linkages are simulated by using the finite element analysis (FEA method. The nephograms of magnetic flux density are agreement with theoretical analysis, which both confirm the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  9. Flux measurement of methanol, acetaldehyde and other oxygenated VOCs from crop harvesting using proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry and surface layer gradient method

    Lindinger, C.; Jordan, A.; Karl, T.; Guenther, A.; Tschiersch, J.; Ruckerbauer, F.; Paretzke, H.

    2002-01-01

    PTR-MS technique was used to measure fluxes of various VOC's including oxygenates using surface layer gradient method. The VOC concentrations and temperature were measured at heights of about 0.5 m and 3.9 m above ground at field site in St. Johann in Tirol during and after grass cutting (24th and 25th of May 2000) in order to calculate fluxes. The sensible heat flux was obtained by a sonic anemometer with turbulence data analyzer. The major crop in this part of Austria are perennial grasses used for livestock farming. We observed VOC emission fluxes including methanol and acetaldehyde as the major volatile, C 5 and C 6 leaf wound compounds with lesser amounts and traces of acetone and butanone. This composition of VOC's is very similar to that released from slashed pasture grass. At the same time, VOC fluxes were measured with PTR-MS and eddy covariance method. Comparing the flux data of methanol and acetaldehyde of both days have shown very similar results. (author)

  10. Understanding the Budget Process

    Mesut Yalvaç

    2000-01-01

    Many different budgeting techniques can be used in libraries, and some combination of these will be appropriate for almost any individual situation. Li-ne-item, program, performance, formula, variable, and zero-base budgets all have features that may prove beneficial in the preparation of a budget. Budgets also serve a variety of functions, providing for short-term and long-term financial planning as well as for cash management over a period of time. Short-term plans are reflected in the oper...

  11. Development of classification and prediction methods of critical heat flux using fuzzy theory and artificial neural networks

    Moon, Sang Ki

    1995-02-01

    This thesis applies new information techniques, artificial neural networks, (ANNs) and fuzzy theory, to the investigation of the critical heat flux (CHF) phenomenon for water flow in vertical round tubes. The work performed are (a) classification and prediction of CHF based on fuzzy clustering and ANN, (b) prediction and parametric trends analysis of CHF using ANN with the introduction of dimensionless parameters, and (c) detection of CHF occurrence using fuzzy rule and spatiotemporal neural network (STN). Fuzzy clustering and ANN are used for classification and prediction of the CHF using primary system parameters. The fuzzy clustering classifies the experimental CHF data into a few data clusters (data groups) according to the data characteristics. After classification of the experimental data, the characteristics of the resulted clusters are discussed with emphasis on the distribution of the experimental conditions and physical mechanisms. The CHF data in each group are trained in an artificial neural network to predict the CHF. The artificial neural network adjusts the weight so as to minimize the prediction error within the corresponding cluster. Application of the proposed method to the KAIST CHF data bank shows good prediction capability of the CHF, better than other existing methods. Parametric trends of the CHF are analyzed by applying artificial neural networks to a CHF data base for water flow in uniformly heated vertical round tubes. The analyses are performed from three viewpoints, i.e., for fixed inlet conditions, for fixed exit conditions, and based on local conditions hypothesis. In order to remove the necessity of data classification, Katto and Groeneveld et al.'s dimensionless parameters are introduced in training the ANNs with the experimental CHF data. The trained ANNs predict the CHF better than any other conventional correlations, showing RMS error of 8.9%, 13.1%, and 19.3% for fixed inlet conditions, for fixed exit conditions, and for local

  12. An efficient method to generate a perturbed parameter ensemble of a fully coupled AOGCM without flux-adjustment

    P. J. Irvine

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a simple method to generate a perturbed parameter ensemble (PPE of a fully-coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (AOGCM, HadCM3, without requiring flux-adjustment. The aim was to produce an ensemble that samples parametric uncertainty in some key variables and gives a plausible representation of the climate. Six atmospheric parameters, a sea-ice parameter and an ocean parameter were jointly perturbed within a reasonable range to generate an initial group of 200 members. To screen out implausible ensemble members, 20 yr pre-industrial control simulations were run and members whose temperature responses to the parameter perturbations were projected to be outside the range of 13.6 ± 2 °C, i.e. near to the observed pre-industrial global mean, were discarded. Twenty-one members, including the standard unperturbed model, were accepted, covering almost the entire span of the eight parameters, challenging the argument that without flux-adjustment parameter ranges would be unduly restricted. This ensemble was used in 2 experiments; an 800 yr pre-industrial and a 150 yr quadrupled CO2 simulation. The behaviour of the PPE for the pre-industrial control compared well to ERA-40 reanalysis data and the CMIP3 ensemble for a number of surface and atmospheric column variables with the exception of a few members in the Tropics. However, we find that members of the PPE with low values of the entrainment rate coefficient show very large increases in upper tropospheric and stratospheric water vapour concentrations in response to elevated CO2 and one member showed an implausible nonlinear climate response, and as such will be excluded from future experiments with this ensemble. The outcome of this study is a PPE of a fully-coupled AOGCM which samples parametric uncertainty and a simple methodology which would be applicable to other GCMs.

  13. Comparison and analysis of empirical equations for soil heat flux for different cropping systems and irrigation methods

    Irmak, A.; Singh, Ramesh K.; Walter-Shea, Elizabeth; Verma, S.B.; Suyker, A.E.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of four models for estimating soil heat flux density (G) in maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) fields under different irrigation methods (center-pivot irrigated fields at Mead, Nebraska, and subsurface drip irrigated field at Clay Center, Nebraska) and rainfed conditions at Mead. The model estimates were compared against measurements made during growing seasons of 2003, 2004, and 2005 at Mead and during 2005, 2006, and 2007 at Clay Center. We observed a strong relationship between the G and net radiation (Rn) ratio (G/Rn) and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). When a significant portion of the ground was bare soil, G/Rn ranged from 0.15 to 0.30 and decreased with increasing NDVI. In contrast to the NDVI progression, the G/Rn ratio decreased with crop growth and development. The G/Rn ratio for subsurface drip irrigated crops was smaller than for the center-pivot irrigated crops. The seasonal average G was 13.1%, 15.2%, 10.9%, and 12.8% of Rn for irrigated maize, rainfed maize, irrigated soybean, and rainfed soybean, respectively. Statistical analyses of the performance of the four models showed a wide range of variation in G estimation. The root mean square error (RMSE) of predictions ranged from 15 to 81.3 W m-2. Based on the wide range of RMSE, it is recommended that local calibration of the models should be carried out for remote estimation of soil heat flux.

  14. A budget impact analysis comparing use of a modern fecal management system to traditional fecal management methods in two canadian hospitals.

    Langill, Mike; Yan, Songkai; Kommala, Dheerendra; Michenko, Michael

    2012-12-01

    Research suggests that fecal management systems (FMS) offer advantages, including potential cost savings, over traditional methods of caring for patients with little or no bowel control and liquid or semi-liquid stool. A budget impact model accounting for material costs of managing fecal incontinence was developed, and 1 year of experiential data from two hospitals' ICUs were applied to it. Material costs were estimated for traditional methods (ie, use of absorbent briefs/pads, skin cleansers, moisturizers) and compared with material costs of using a modern FMS for both average (normal-range weight) and complex (bariatric with wounds) ICU patients at hospital 1 and any ICU patient at hospital 2. Reductions in daily material costs per ICU patient using FMS versus traditional methods were reported by hospital 1 ($93.74 versus $143.89, average patient; $150.55 versus $476.41, complex patient) and by hospital 2 ($61.15 versus $104.85 per patient). When extrapolated to the total number of patients expected to use FMS at each institution, substantial annual cost savings were projected (hospital 1: $57,216; hospital 2: $627,095). In addition, total nursing time per day for managing fecal incontinence (ie, changing, cleaning, repositioning patients, changing pads, linens, and the like) was estimated at hospital 1, showing substantial reductions with FMS (120 minutes versus 348 minutes for average patients; 240 minutes versus 760 minutes for complex). Nursing time was not included in cost calculations to keep the analysis conservative. Results of this study suggest the materials cost of using the FMS in ICU patients was substantially lower than the cost of traditional fecal incontinence management protocols of care in both hospitals. Comparative studies using patient level data, materials, and nursing time costs, as well as complication rates, are warranted.

  15. Inertial dissipation method applied to derive turbulent fluxes over the ocean during the Surface of the Ocean, Fluxes and Interactions with the Atmosphere/Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (SOFIA/ASTEX) and Structure des Echanges Mer-Atmosphere, Proprietes des Heterogeneites Oceaniques: Recherche Experimentale (SEMAPHORE) experiments with low to moderate wind speeds

    Dupuis, HéLèNe; Taylor, Peter K.; Weill, Alain; Katsaros, K.

    1997-09-01

    The transfer coefficients for momentum and heat have been determined for 10 m neutral wind speeds (U10n) between 0 and 12 m/s using data from the Surface of the Ocean, Fluxes and Interactions with the Atmosphere (SOFIA) and Structure des Echanges Mer-Atmosphere, Proprietes des Heterogeneites Oceaniques: Recherche Experimentale (SEMAPHORE) experiments. The inertial dissipation method was applied to wind and pseudo virtual temperature spectra from a sonic anemometer, mounted on a platform (ship) which was moving through the turbulence field. Under unstable conditions the assumptions concerning the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) budget appeared incorrect. Using a bulk estimate for the stability parameter, Z/L (where Z is the height and L is the Obukhov length), this resulted in anomalously low drag coefficients compared to neutral conditions. Determining Z/L iteratively, a low rate of convergence was achieved. It was concluded that the divergence of the turbulent transport of TKE was not negligible under unstable conditions. By minimizing the dependence of the calculated neutral drag coefficient on stability, this term was estimated at about -0.65Z/L. The resulting turbulent fluxes were then in close agreement with other studies at moderate wind speed. The drag and exchange coefficients for low wind speeds were found to be Cen × 103 = 2.79U10n-1 + 0.66 (U10n < 5.2 m/s), Cen × 103 = Chn × 103 = 1.2 (U10n ≥ 5.2 m/s), and Cdn × 103 = 11.710n-2 + 0.668 (U10n < 5.5 m/s), which imply a rapid increase of the coefficient values as the wind decreased within the smooth flow regime. The frozen turbulence hypothesis and the assumptions of isotropy and an inertial subrange were found to remain valid at these low wind speeds for these shipboard measurements. Incorporation of a free convection parameterization had little effect.

  16. Development of a computer code for neutronic calculations of a hexagonal lattice of nuclear reactor using the flux expansion nodal method

    Mohammadnia Meysam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The flux expansion nodal method is a suitable method for considering nodalization effects in node corners. In this paper we used this method to solve the intra-nodal flux analytically. Then, a computer code, named MA.CODE, was developed using the C# programming language. The code is capable of reactor core calculations for hexagonal geometries in two energy groups and three dimensions. The MA.CODE imports two group constants from the WIMS code and calculates the effective multiplication factor, thermal and fast neutron flux in three dimensions, power density, reactivity, and the power peaking factor of each fuel assembly. Some of the code's merits are low calculation time and a user friendly interface. MA.CODE results showed good agreement with IAEA benchmarks, i. e. AER-FCM-101 and AER-FCM-001.

  17. Energy budgets and resistances to energy transport in sparsely vegetated rangeland

    Nichols, W.D.

    1992-01-01

    Partitioning available energy between plants and bare soil in sparsely vegetated rangelands will allow hydrologists and others to gain a greater understanding of water use by native vegetation, especially phreatophytes. Standard methods of conducting energy budget studies result in measurements of latent and sensible heat fluxes above the plant canopy which therefore include the energy fluxes from both the canopy and the soil. One-dimensional theoretical numerical models have been proposed recently for the partitioning of energy in sparse crops. Bowen ratio and other micrometeorological data collected over phreatophytes growing in areas of shallow ground water in central Nevada were used to evaluate the feasibility of using these models, which are based on surface and within-canopy aerodynamic resistances, to determine heat and water vapor transport in sparsely vegetated rangelands. The models appear to provide reasonably good estimates of sensible heat flux from the soil and latent heat flux from the canopy. Estimates of latent heat flux from the soil were less satisfactory. Sensible heat flux from the canopy was not well predicted by the present resistance formulations. Also, estimates of total above-canopy fluxes were not satisfactory when using a single value for above-canopy bulk aerodynamic resistance. ?? 1992.

  18. Magnetic properties of co-precipitated hexaferrite powders with Sm-Co substitutions optimized with the molten flux method

    Serletis, C.; Litsardakis, G.; Pavlidou, E.; Efthimiadis, K. G.

    2017-11-01

    In this work, using the chemical coprecipitation method, Sr1-xSmxFe12-xCoxO19 (x = 0, 0.1, 0.2) hexaferrite powders were prepared. Major magnetization loops were recorded at room temperature in order to determine the correct calcination temperature for optimum hard magnetic properties. It is found that a small degree of substitution increases substantially the coercive field. Also, the use of the molten flux calcination method increases the remanent magnetization. SEM/EDXS and XRD measurements were performed at the calcined powders: the results show that a single hexaferrite phase is formed and that the substituted powders consist of an assembly of grains with a mean diameter of 40 nm. Measurements of minor magnetization loops and of the temperature and time dependence of the magnetization confirm that the powders consist of a non-oriented single domain magnetic particles assembly. The results indicate that Sm could be a viable replacement for La in the manufacturing of hexaferrites with a high-energy product.

  19. The Australian terrestrial carbon budget

    V. Haverd

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a study of the full carbon (C-CO2 budget of the Australian continent, focussing on 1990–2011 in the context of estimates over two centuries. The work is a contribution to the RECCAP (REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes project, as one of numerous regional studies. In constructing the budget, we estimate the following component carbon fluxes: net primary production (NPP; net ecosystem production (NEP; fire; land use change (LUC; riverine export; dust export; harvest (wood, crop and livestock and fossil fuel emissions (both territorial and non-territorial. Major biospheric fluxes were derived using BIOS2 (Haverd et al., 2012, a fine-spatial-resolution (0.05° offline modelling environment in which predictions of CABLE (Wang et al., 2011, a sophisticated land surface model with carbon cycle, are constrained by multiple observation types. The mean NEP reveals that climate variability and rising CO2 contributed 12 ± 24 (1σ error on mean and 68 ± 15 TgC yr−1, respectively. However these gains were partially offset by fire and LUC (along with other minor fluxes, which caused net losses of 26 ± 4 TgC yr−1 and 18 ± 7 TgC yr−1, respectively. The resultant net biome production (NBP is 36 ± 29 TgC yr−1, in which the largest contributions to uncertainty are NEP, fire and LUC. This NBP offset fossil fuel emissions (95 ± 6 TgC yr−1 by 38 ± 30%. The interannual variability (IAV in the Australian carbon budget exceeds Australia's total carbon emissions by fossil fuel combustion and is dominated by IAV in NEP. Territorial fossil fuel emissions are significantly smaller than the rapidly growing fossil fuel exports: in 2009–2010, Australia exported 2.5 times more carbon in fossil fuels than it emitted by burning fossil fuels.

  20. Subsurface Flow Modeling in Single and Dual Continuum Anisotropic Porous Media using the Multipoint Flux Approximation Method

    Negara, Ardiansyah

    2015-05-01

    Anisotropy of hydraulic properties of the subsurface geologic formations is an essential feature that has been established as a consequence of the different geologic processes that undergo during the longer geologic time scale. With respect to subsurface reservoirs, in many cases, anisotropy plays significant role in dictating the direction of flow that becomes no longer dependent only on driving forces like the pressure gradient and gravity but also on the principal directions of anisotropy. Therefore, there has been a great deal of motivation to consider anisotropy into the subsurface flow and transport models. In this dissertation, we present subsurface flow modeling in single and dual continuum anisotropic porous media, which include the single-phase groundwater flow coupled with the solute transport in anisotropic porous media, the two-phase flow with gravity effect in anisotropic porous media, and the natural gas flow in anisotropic shale reservoirs. We have employed the multipoint flux approximation (MPFA) method to handle anisotropy in the flow model. The MPFA method is designed to provide correct discretization of the flow equations for general orientation of the principal directions of the permeability tensor. The implementation of MPFA method is combined with the experimenting pressure field approach, a newly developed technique that enables the solution of the global problem breaks down into the solution of multitude of local problems. The numerical results of the study demonstrate the significant effects of anisotropy of the subsurface formations. For the single-phase groundwater flow coupled with the solute transport modeling in anisotropic porous media, the results shows the strong impact of anisotropy on the pressure field and the migration of the solute concentration. For the two-phase flow modeling with gravity effect in anisotropic porous media, it is observed that the buoyancy-driven flow, which emerges due to the density differences between the

  1. Continuous-energy adjoint flux and perturbation calculation using the iterated fission probability method in Monte-Carlo code TRIPOLI-4 and underlying applications

    Truchet, G.; Leconte, P.; Peneliau, Y.; Santamarina, A.

    2013-01-01

    The first goal of this paper is to present an exact method able to precisely evaluate very small reactivity effects with a Monte Carlo code (<10 pcm). it has been decided to implement the exact perturbation theory in TRIPOLI-4 and, consequently, to calculate a continuous-energy adjoint flux. The Iterated Fission Probability (IFP) method was chosen because it has shown great results in some other Monte Carlo codes. The IFP method uses a forward calculation to compute the adjoint flux, and consequently, it does not rely on complex code modifications but on the physical definition of the adjoint flux as a phase-space neutron importance. In the first part of this paper, the IFP method implemented in TRIPOLI-4 is described. To illustrate the efficiency of the method, several adjoint fluxes are calculated and compared with their equivalent obtained by the deterministic code APOLLO-2. The new implementation can calculate angular adjoint flux. In the second part, a procedure to carry out an exact perturbation calculation is described. A single cell benchmark has been used to test the accuracy of the method, compared with the 'direct' estimation of the perturbation. Once again the method based on the IFP shows good agreement for a calculation time far more inferior to the 'direct' method. The main advantage of the method is that the relative accuracy of the reactivity variation does not depend on the magnitude of the variation itself, which allows us to calculate very small reactivity perturbations with high precision. It offers the possibility to split reactivity contributions on both isotopes and reactions. Other applications of this perturbation method are presented and tested like the calculation of exact kinetic parameters (βeff, Λeff) or sensitivity parameters

  2. Size, Stability and Incremental Budgeting Outcomes in Public Universities.

    Schick, Allen G.; Hills, Frederick S.

    1982-01-01

    Examined the influence of relative size in the analysis of total dollar and workforce budgets, and changes in total dollar and workforce budgets when correlational/regression methods are used. Data suggested that size dominates the analysis of total budgets, and is not a factor when discretionary dollar increments are analyzed. (JAC)

  3. Budget impact of vildagliptin

    Orietta Zaniolo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: to evaluate the impact on the Italian National Health Service (NHS budget of the recent introduction of the DPP-4 inhibitor vildagliptin in combination treatment for NIDDM patients. Methods: NIDDM patients eligible to vildagliptin treatment were identified and quantified based on approved indications and prevalence data review; adequate alternative strategies were identified; direct medical costs associated with competing strategies were calculated according to national practice and prices (drug acquisition, therapeutic monitoring, cost for managing severe adverse events – severe hypoglycemia events, fractures, new heart failure cases and the NHS budgetary impact was estimated according to market penetration assumptions (base-case: 5% and 10% for the first and second year, respectively. Results: patients estimated eligible for vildagliptin in Italy are about 237,500: pts inadequately controlled with metformin monotherapy (166,500, pts inadequately controlled with sulfonylurea monotherapy and intolerant/contraindicated to metformin (70,200, and those inadequately controlled with thiazolidinedione monotherapy (800. Costing and comparing of the vildagliptin-based and competing strategies revealed differences in both directions, depending on patient subgroup. Assuming uniform penetration among identified patient subgroups, vildagliptin introduction is expected to raise NHS costs by 2,750,000 Euro in the first and by 5,500,000 Euro in the second year, respectively representing 1,6% and 3,2% of the estimated total management cost of this patient population. Conclusions: the introduction of vildagliptin in the treatment of Italian NIDDM patients offers a new therapeutic option for three inadequately controlled NIDDM subpopulations; the financial impact on Italian NHS expenditures depends on patient selection and can be expected not to exceed 2-3% of the currently dedicated budget in the first two years.

  4. Budgeting Approaches in Community Colleges

    Palmer, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Several budgeting approaches have been initiated as alternatives to the traditional, incremental process. These include formula budgeting; zero-base budgeting; planning, programming, and budgeting systems; and responsibility center budgeting. Each is premised on assumptions about how organizations might best make resource allocation decisions.…

  5. CEA budget in 1982

    1981-12-01

    In 1982, the amount of the CEA budget will be 13.4 billions French Francs. The main characteristics are the priority for employment and investments. In this budget programs are adapted to fit R and D to the government policy: innovation, industrial valorization and fundamental research especially thermonuclear fusion and in the electronuclear field to safety, reprocessing and radioactive waste management.

  6. Budgeting in Nonprofit Organizations.

    Kelly, Lauren

    1985-01-01

    This description of the role of budgets in nonprofit organizations uses libraries as an example. Four types of budgets--legislative, management, cash, and capital--are critiqued in terms of cost effectiveness, implementation, and facilitation of organizational control and objectives. (CLB)

  7. Colorado Children's Budget 2010

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The "Children's Budget 2010" is intended to be a resource guide for policymakers and advocates who are interested in better understanding how Colorado funds children's programs and services. It attempts to clarify often confusing budget information and describe where the state's investment trends are and where those trends will lead the…

  8. Colorado Children's Budget 2013

    Buck, Beverly; Baker, Robin

    2013-01-01

    The "Colorado Children's Budget" presents and analyzes investments and spending trends during the past five state fiscal years on services that benefit children. The "Children's Budget" focuses mainly on state investment and spending, with some analysis of federal investments and spending to provide broader context of state…

  9. The Agency's budget

    1964-01-01

    A total Agency Budget of $10 406 000 for 1965 was approved by the General Conference at its session of September 1964; the Budget for the year 1964 amounted to $9 812 000. The consolidated Budget figures are shown in the table at the end of this article. The Budget falls into two parts - the Regular Budget and the Operational Budget. The Regular Budget provides for the ordinary administrative expenses of the Agency, and for expert panels, special missions, symposia and conferences, distribution of information, and scientific and technical services. In conformity with the Agency's Statute, these expenses are met by contributions made according to Voluntary contributions are paid initially into a General Fund established for this purpose, and money for operations is transferred to the respective Operating Funds as appropriate, and as approved by the Board of Governors. The scale of assessments for 1965 is based on the United Nations scale for 1964. The assessments are estimated to yield $7 713 000 - an increase of 6.8 per cent; however, more than three quarters of this increase will be offset by credits which Member States will receive as a result of a cash surplus brought forward. The Operational Budget is financed by voluntary contributions and is divided into two parts - Operating Fund I, devoted to certain laboratory and research projects, and Operating Fund II, for technical assistance, training and research contracts.

  10. Comparative Assessment of Two Vegetation Fractional Cover Estimating Methods and Their Impacts on Modeling Urban Latent Heat Flux Using Landsat Imagery

    Kai Liu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying vegetation fractional cover (VFC and assessing its role in heat fluxes modeling using medium resolution remotely sensed data has received less attention than it deserves in heterogeneous urban regions. This study examined two approaches (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI-derived and Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA-derived methods that are commonly used to map VFC based on Landsat imagery, in modeling surface heat fluxes in urban landscape. For this purpose, two different heat flux models, Two-source energy balance (TSEB model and Pixel Component Arranging and Comparing Algorithm (PCACA model, were adopted for model evaluation and analysis. A comparative analysis of the NDVI-derived and MESMA-derived VFCs showed that the latter achieved more accurate estimates in complex urban regions. When the two sources of VFCs were used as inputs to both TSEB and PCACA models, MESMA-derived urban VFC produced more accurate urban heat fluxes (Bowen ratio and latent heat flux relative to NDVI-derived urban VFC. Moreover, our study demonstrated that Landsat imagery-retrieved VFC exhibited greater uncertainty in obtaining urban heat fluxes for the TSEB model than for the PCACA model.

  11. Optimization and characterization of bulk hexagonal boron nitride single crystals grown by the nickel-chromium flux method

    Hoffman, Tim

    Hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) is a wide bandgap III-V semiconductor that has seen new interest due to the development of other III-V LED devices and the advent of graphene and other 2-D materials. For device applications, high quality, low defect density materials are needed. Several applications for hBN crystals are being investigated, including as a neutron detector and interference-less infrared-absorbing material. Isotopically enriched crystals were utilized for enhanced propagation of phonon modes. These applications exploit the unique physical, electronic and nanophotonics applications for bulk hBN crystals. In this study, bulk hBN crystals were grown by the flux method using a molten Ni-Cr solvent at high temperatures (1500°C) and atmospheric pressures. The effects of growth parameters, source materials, and gas environment on the crystals size, morphology and purity were established and controlled, and the reliability of the process was greatly improved. Single-crystal domains exceeding 1mm in width and 200microm in thickness were produced and transferred to handle substrates for analysis. Grain size dependence with respect to dwell temperature, cooling rate and cooling temperature were analyzed and modeled using response surface morphology. Most significantly, crystal grain width was predicted to increase linearly with dwell temperature, with single-crystal domains exceeding 2mm in at 1700°C. Isotopically enriched 10B and 11B hBN crystal were produced using a Ni-Cr-B flux method, and their properties investigated. 10B concentration was evaluated using SIMS and correlated to the shift in the Raman peak of the E2g mode. Crystals with enrichment of 99% 10B and >99% 11B were achieved, with corresponding Raman shift peaks at 1392.0 cm-1 and 1356.6 cm-1, respectively. Peak FWHM also decreased as isotopic enrichment approached 100%, with widths as low as 3.5 cm-1 achieved, compared to 8.0 cm-1 for natural abundance samples. Defect selective etching was

  12. The uncertainty budget in pharmaceutical industry

    Heydorn, Kaj

    of their uncertainty, exactly as described in GUM [2]. Pharmaceutical industry has therefore over the last 5 years shown increasing interest in accreditation according to ISO 17025 [3], and today uncertainty budgets are being developed for all so-called critical measurements. The uncertainty of results obtained...... that the uncertainty of a particular result is independent of the method used for its estimation. Several examples of uncertainty budgets for critical parameters based on the bottom-up procedure will be discussed, and it will be shown how the top-down method is used as a means of verifying uncertainty budgets, based...

  13. Budget institutions and taxation

    Aaskoven, Lasse

    2018-01-01

    While a number of different studies have explored the effects of budgetary procedures and the centralization of the budget process on government debt, deficits and spending, few of them have explored whether such fiscal institutions matter for public revenue. This article argues that centralizing...... the budget process raises the levels of taxation by limiting the ability of individual government officials to veto tax increases in line with common-pool-problem arguments regarding public finances. Using detailed data on budgetary procedures from 15 EU countries, the empirical analysis shows that greater...... centralization of the budget process increases taxation as a share of GDP and that both the type of budget centralization and level of government fractionalization matter for the size of this effect. The results suggest that further centralizing the budget process limits government debt and deficits...

  14. Mass, nutrient and oxygen budgets for the northeastern Atlantic Ocean

    G. Maze

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The northeast Atlantic is a key horizontal and vertical crossroads region for the meridional overturning circulation, but basic nutrient and oxygen fluxes are still poorly constrained by observations in the region. A surface to bottom northeast Atlantic Ocean budget for mass, nutrients (nitrate and phosphate and oxygen is determined using an optimization method based on three surveys of the OVIDE transect (from Greenland to Portugal completed with the World Ocean Atlas 2009. Budgets are derived for two communicating boxes representing the northeastern European basin (NEEB and the Irminger Sea.

    For the NEEB (Irminger box, it is found that 30% of the mass import (export across the OVIDE section reach (originate from the Nordic Seas, while 70% are redistributed between both boxes through the Reykjanes Ridge (9.3 ± 0.7 × 109 kg s−1.

    Net biological source/sink terms of nitrate point to both the Irminger and NEEB boxes as net organic matter production sites (consuming nitrate at a rate of –7.8 ± 6.5 kmol s−1 and –8.4 ± 6.6 kmol s−1, respectively. Using a standard Redfield ratio of C : N = 106 : 16, nitrate consumption rates indicate that about 40 TgC yr−1 of carbon is fixed by organic matter production between the OVIDE transect and the Greenland–Scotland Ridge. Nutrient fluxes also induce a net biological production of oxygen of 73 ± 60 kmol s−1 and 79 ± 62 kmol s−1 in the Irminger and NEEB boxes, which points to the region as being autotrophic.

    The abiotic air–sea oxygen flux leads to an oceanic oxygen uptake in the two regions (264 ± 66 kmol s−1 in the north and 443 ± 70 kmol s−1 in the south. The abiotic flux is partitioned into a mixing and a thermal component. It is found that the Irminger Sea oceanic oxygen uptake is driven by an air–sea heat flux cooling increasing the ocean surface

  15. Urban surface energy fluxes based on remotely-sensed data and micrometeorological measurements over the Kansai area, Japan

    Sukeyasu, T.; Ueyama, M.; Ando, T.; Kosugi, Y.; Kominami, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The urban heat island is associated with land cover changes and increases in anthropogenic heat fluxes. Clear understanding of the surface energy budget at urban area is the most important for evaluating the urban heat island. In this study, we develop a model based on remotely-sensed data for the Kansai area in Japan and clarify temporal transitions and spatial distributions of the surface energy flux from 2000 to 2016. The model calculated the surface energy fluxes based on various satellite and GIS products. The model used land surface temperature, surface emissivity, air temperature, albedo, downward shortwave radiation and land cover/use type from the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) under cloud free skies from 2000 to 2016 over the Kansai area in Japan (34 to 35 ° N, 135 to 136 ° E). Net radiation was estimated by a radiation budget of upward/downward shortwave and longwave radiation. Sensible heat flux was estimated by a bulk aerodynamic method. Anthropogenic heat flux was estimated by the inventory data. Latent heat flux was examined with residues of the energy budget and parameterization of bulk transfer coefficients. We validated the model using observed fluxes from five eddy-covariance measurement sites: three urban sites and two forested sites. The estimated net radiation roughly agreed with the observations, but the sensible heat flux were underestimated. Based on the modeled spatial distributions of the fluxes, the daytime net radiation in the forested area was larger than those in the urban area, owing to higher albedo and land surface temperatures in the urban area than the forested area. The estimated anthropogenic heat flux was high in the summer and winter periods due to increases in energy-requirements.

  16. Assessment of 12 CHF prediction methods, for an axially non-uniform heat flux distribution, with the RELAP5 computer code

    Ferrouk, M. [Laboratoire du Genie Physique des Hydrocarbures, University of Boumerdes, Boumerdes 35000 (Algeria)], E-mail: m_ferrouk@yahoo.fr; Aissani, S. [Laboratoire du Genie Physique des Hydrocarbures, University of Boumerdes, Boumerdes 35000 (Algeria); D' Auria, F.; DelNevo, A.; Salah, A. Bousbia [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Nucleare e della Produzione, Universita di Pisa (Italy)

    2008-10-15

    The present article covers the evaluation of the performance of twelve critical heat flux methods/correlations published in the open literature. The study concerns the simulation of an axially non-uniform heat flux distribution with the RELAP5 computer code in a single boiling water reactor channel benchmark problem. The nodalization scheme employed for the considered particular geometry, as modelled in RELAP5 code, is described. For this purpose a review of critical heat flux models/correlations applicable to non-uniform axial heat profile is provided. Simulation results using the RELAP5 code and those obtained from our computer program, based on three type predictions methods such as local conditions, F-factor and boiling length average approaches were compared.

  17. Toward an Improved Understanding of the Global Fresh Water Budget

    Hildebrand, Peter H.

    2005-01-01

    The major components of the global fresh water cycle include the evaporation from the land and ocean surfaces, precipitation onto the Ocean and land surfaces, the net atmospheric transport of water from oceanic areas over land, and the return flow of water from the land back into the ocean. The additional components of oceanic water transport are few, principally, the mixing of fresh water through the oceanic boundary layer, transport by ocean currents, and sea ice processes. On land the situation is considerably more complex, and includes the deposition of rain and snow on land; water flow in runoff; infiltration of water into the soil and groundwater; storage of water in soil, lakes and streams, and groundwater; polar and glacial ice; and use of water in vegetation and human activities. Knowledge of the key terms in the fresh water flux budget is poor. Some components of the budget, e.g. precipitation, runoff, storage, are measured with variable accuracy across the globe. We are just now obtaining precise measurements of the major components of global fresh water storage in global ice and ground water. The easily accessible fresh water sources in rivers, lakes and snow runoff are only adequately measured in the more affluent portions of the world. presents proposals are suggesting methods of making global measurements of these quantities from space. At the same time, knowledge of the global fresh water resources under the effects of climate change is of increasing importance and the human population grows. This paper provides an overview of the state of knowledge of the global fresh water budget, evaluating the accuracy of various global water budget measuring and modeling techniques. We review the measurement capabilities of satellite instruments as compared with field validation studies and modeling approaches. Based on these analyses, and on the goal of improved knowledge of the global fresh water budget under the effects of climate change, we suggest

  18. Automated gas bubble imaging at sea floor – a new method of in situ gas flux quantification

    G. Bohrmann

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Photo-optical systems are common in marine sciences and have been extensively used in coastal and deep-sea research. However, due to technical limitations in the past photo images had to be processed manually or semi-automatically. Recent advances in technology have rapidly improved image recording, storage and processing capabilities which are used in a new concept of automated in situ gas quantification by photo-optical detection. The design for an in situ high-speed image acquisition and automated data processing system is reported ("Bubblemeter". New strategies have been followed with regards to back-light illumination, bubble extraction, automated image processing and data management. This paper presents the design of the novel method, its validation procedures and calibration experiments. The system will be positioned and recovered from the sea floor using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV. It is able to measure bubble flux rates up to 10 L/min with a maximum error of 33% for worst case conditions. The Bubblemeter has been successfully deployed at a water depth of 1023 m at the Makran accretionary prism offshore Pakistan during a research expedition with R/V Meteor in November 2007.

  19. A straightforward method for Vacuum-Ultraviolet flux measurements: The case of the hydrogen discharge lamp and implications for solid-phase actinometry

    Fulvio, D.; Brieva, A. C.; Jäger, C.; Cuylle, S. H.; Linnartz, H.; Henning, T.

    2014-01-01

    Vacuum-Ultraviolet (VUV) radiation is responsible for the photo-processing of simple and complex molecules in several terrestrial and extraterrestrial environments. In the laboratory such radiation is commonly simulated by inexpensive and easy-to-use microwave-powered hydrogen discharge lamps. However, VUV flux measurements are not trivial and the methods/devices typically used for this purpose, mainly actinometry and calibrated VUV silicon photodiodes, are not very accurate or expensive and lack of general suitability to experimental setups. Here, we present a straightforward method for measuring the VUV photon flux based on the photoelectric effect and using a gold photodetector. This method is easily applicable to most experimental setups, bypasses the major problems of the other methods, and provides reliable flux measurements. As a case study, the method is applied to a microwave-powered hydrogen discharge lamp. In addition, the comparison of these flux measurements to those obtained by O 2 actinometry experiments allow us to estimate the quantum yield (QY) values QY 122  = 0.44 ± 0.16 and QY 160  = 0.87 ± 0.30 for solid-phase O 2 actinometry.

  20. A straightforward method for Vacuum-Ultraviolet flux measurements: The case of the hydrogen discharge lamp and implications for solid-phase actinometry

    Fulvio, D., E-mail: daniele.fulvio@uni-jena.de, E-mail: dfu@oact.inaf.it; Brieva, A. C.; Jäger, C. [Laboratory Astrophysics Group of the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy at the Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Institute of Solid State Physics, Helmholtzweg 3, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Cuylle, S. H.; Linnartz, H. [Raymond and Beverly Sackler Laboratory for Astrophysics, Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Henning, T. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-07-07

    Vacuum-Ultraviolet (VUV) radiation is responsible for the photo-processing of simple and complex molecules in several terrestrial and extraterrestrial environments. In the laboratory such radiation is commonly simulated by inexpensive and easy-to-use microwave-powered hydrogen discharge lamps. However, VUV flux measurements are not trivial and the methods/devices typically used for this purpose, mainly actinometry and calibrated VUV silicon photodiodes, are not very accurate or expensive and lack of general suitability to experimental setups. Here, we present a straightforward method for measuring the VUV photon flux based on the photoelectric effect and using a gold photodetector. This method is easily applicable to most experimental setups, bypasses the major problems of the other methods, and provides reliable flux measurements. As a case study, the method is applied to a microwave-powered hydrogen discharge lamp. In addition, the comparison of these flux measurements to those obtained by O{sub 2} actinometry experiments allow us to estimate the quantum yield (QY) values QY{sub 122} = 0.44 ± 0.16 and QY{sub 160} = 0.87 ± 0.30 for solid-phase O{sub 2} actinometry.

  1. Stress Analysis in Managing the Region’s Budget Risks

    Natalya Pavlovna Pazdnikova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the implementation of budget risk management methods into the practices of governmental authorities. Drawing on the example of a particular region the article aims to demonstrate the possible methods of budget risk management. The authors refine the existing approaches to the notion of risk in its relation to budget system by introducing the notion of “budget risk.” Here the focus is the risk of default of budget spending in full which causes underfunding of territories and decrease in quality of life in the region. The authors have particularized the classification of budget risks and grouped together the criteria and factors which significantly influence the assessment and choice of method to manage budget risks. They hypothesize that budget risk is a financial risk. Therefore, the methods of financial risks management can be applied to budget risks management. The authors suggest a methodological approach to risk assessment based on correlation and regression analysis of program financing. The application of Kendall rank correlation coefficient allowed to assess the efficiency of budget spending on the implementation of state programs in Perm Krai. Two clusters — “Nature management and infrastructure” and “Public security” — turned out to be in the zone of high budget risk. The method of stress analysis, which consists in calculating Value at Risk (VaR, was applied to budget risks that in terms of probability are classified as critical. In order to assess risk as probability rate, the amount of Perm Krai deficit budget was calculated as induced variable from budget revenues and spending. The results demonstrate that contemporary management of public resources in the regions calls for the implementation of new management tools of higher quality and budget risk management is one of them.

  2. Flashed-feed VMD configuration as a novel method for eliminating temperature polarization effect and enhancing water vapor flux

    Alsaadi, Ahmad Salem; Alpatova, Alla; Lee, Jung Gil; Francis, Lijo; Ghaffour, NorEddine

    2018-01-01

    The coupling of heat and mass transfer in membrane distillation (MD) process makes enhancing water vapor flux and determining MD membrane mass transfer coefficient (MTC) fairly challenging due to the development of temperature gradient near

  3. A multi-method and multi-scale approach for estimating city-wide anthropogenic heat fluxes

    Chow, Winston T. L.; Salamanca, Francisco; Georgescu, Matei; Mahalov, Alex; Milne, Jeffrey M.; Ruddell, Benjamin L.

    2014-12-01

    A multi-method approach estimating summer waste heat emissions from anthropogenic activities (QF) was applied for a major subtropical city (Phoenix, AZ). These included detailed, quality-controlled inventories of city-wide population density and traffic counts to estimate waste heat emissions from population and vehicular sources respectively, and also included waste heat simulations derived from urban electrical consumption generated by a coupled building energy - regional climate model (WRF-BEM + BEP). These component QF data were subsequently summed and mapped through Geographic Information Systems techniques to enable analysis over local (i.e. census-tract) and regional (i.e. metropolitan area) scales. Through this approach, local mean daily QF estimates compared reasonably versus (1.) observed daily surface energy balance residuals from an eddy covariance tower sited within a residential area and (2.) estimates from inventory methods employed in a prior study, with improved sensitivity to temperature and precipitation variations. Regional analysis indicates substantial variations in both mean and maximum daily QF, which varied with urban land use type. Average regional daily QF was ∼13 W m-2 for the summer period. Temporal analyses also indicated notable differences using this approach with previous estimates of QF in Phoenix over different land uses, with much larger peak fluxes averaging ∼50 W m-2 occurring in commercial or industrial areas during late summer afternoons. The spatio-temporal analysis of QF also suggests that it may influence the form and intensity of the Phoenix urban heat island, specifically through additional early evening heat input, and by modifying the urban boundary layer structure through increased turbulence.

  4. Direct determination of highly size-resolved turbulent particle fluxes with the disjunct eddy covariance method and a 12 – stage electrical low pressure impactor

    A. Schmidt

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available During summer 2007, turbulent vertical particle mass and number fluxes were measured for a period of 98 days near the city centre of Münster in north-west Germany. For this purpose, a valve controlled disjunct eddy covariance system was mounted at 65 m a.g.l. on a military radio tower. The concentration values for 11 size bins with aerodynamic diameters (D50 from 0.03 to 10 μm were measured with an electrical low pressure impactor. After comparison with other fluxes obtained from 10 Hz measurements with the classical eddy covariance method, the loss of information concerning high frequent parts of the flux could be stated as negligible. The results offer an extended insight in the turbulent atmospheric exchange of aerosol particles by highly size-resolved particle fluxes covering 11 size bins and show that the city of Münster acts as a relevant source for aerosol particles.

    Significant differences occur between the fluxes of the various particle size classes. While the total particle number flux shows a pattern which is strictly correlated to the diurnal course of the turbulence regime and the traffic intensity, the total mass flux exhibits a single minimum in the evening hours when coarse particles start to deposit.

    As a result, a mean mass deposition of about 10 mg m−2 per day was found above the urban test site, covering the aerosol size range from 40 nm to 2.0 μm. By contrast, the half-hourly total number fluxes accumulated over the lower ELPI stages range from −4.29×107 to +1.44×108 particles m−2 s−1 and are clearly dominated by the sub-micron particle fraction of the impactor stages with diameters between 40 nm and 320 nm. The averaged number fluxes of particles with diameters between 2.0 and 6.4 μm show lower turbulent dynamics during daytime and partially remarkably high negative fluxes with mean deposition velocities of 2×10−3 m

  5. Verification of uncertainty budgets

    Heydorn, Kaj; Madsen, B.S.

    2005-01-01

    , and therefore it is essential that the applicability of the overall uncertainty budget to actual measurement results be verified on the basis of current experimental data. This should be carried out by replicate analysis of samples taken in accordance with the definition of the measurand, but representing...... the full range of matrices and concentrations for which the budget is assumed to be valid. In this way the assumptions made in the uncertainty budget can be experimentally verified, both as regards sources of variability that are assumed negligible, and dominant uncertainty components. Agreement between...

  6. Testing the applicability of neural networks as a gap-filling method using CH4 flux data from high latitude wetlands

    Dengel, S.; Zona, D.; Sachs, T.

    2013-01-01

    included representing the seasonal change and time of day. High Pearson correlation coefficients (r) of up to 0.97 achieved in the final analysis are indicative for the high performance of neural networks and their applicability as a gap-filling method for CH4 flux data time series. This novel approach...

  7. In situ measurements of tritium evapotranspiration (³H-ET) flux over grass and soil using the gradient and eddy covariance experimental methods and the FAO-56 model.

    Connan, O; Maro, D; Hébert, D; Solier, L; Caldeira Ideas, P; Laguionie, P; St-Amant, N

    2015-10-01

    The behaviour of tritium in the environment is linked to the water cycle. We compare three methods of calculating the tritium evapotranspiration flux from grassland cover. The gradient and eddy covariance methods, together with a method based on the theoretical Penmann-Monteith model were tested in a study carried out in 2013 in an environment characterised by high levels of tritium activity. The results show that each of the three methods gave similar results. The various constraints applying to each method are discussed. The results show a tritium evapotranspiration flux of around 15 mBq m(-2) s(-1) in this environment. These results will be used to improve the entry parameters for the general models of tritium transfers in the environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. FY 1997 congressional budget request: Budget highlights

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This is an overview of the 1997 budget request for the US DOE. The topics of the overview include a policy overview, the budget by business line, business lines by organization, crosswalk from business line to appropriation, summary by appropriation, energy supply research and development, uranium supply and enrichment activities, uranium enrichment decontamination and decommissioning fund, general science and research, weapons activities, defense environmental restoration and waste management, defense nuclear waste disposal, departmental administration, Office of the Inspector General, power marketing administrations, Federal Energy Regulatory commission, nuclear waste disposal fund, fossil energy research and development, naval petroleum and oil shale reserves, energy conservation, economic regulation, strategic petroleum reserve, energy information administration, clean coal technology and a Department of Energy Field Facilities map.

  9. A modified likelihood-method to search for point-sources in the diffuse astrophysical neutrino-flux in IceCube

    Reimann, Rene; Haack, Christian; Leuermann, Martin; Raedel, Leif; Schoenen, Sebastian; Schimp, Michael; Wiebusch, Christopher [III. Physikalisches Institut, RWTH Aachen (Germany); Collaboration: IceCube-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    IceCube, a cubic-kilometer sized neutrino detector at the geographical South Pole, has recently measured a flux of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos. Although this flux has now been observed in multiple analyses, no point sources or source classes could be identified yet. Standard point source searches test many points in the sky for a point source of astrophysical neutrinos individually and therefore produce many trials. Our approach is to additionally use the measured diffuse spectrum to constrain the number of possible point sources and their properties. Initial studies of the method performance are shown.

  10. Budget Automation System

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — BAS is the central Agency system used to integrate strategic planning, annual planning, budgeting and financial management. BAS contains resource (dollars and FTE),...

  11. Water Budget Tool

    If you're designing a new landscape or rethinking your current one, the WaterSense Water Budget Tool will tell you if you have designed a landscape that will use an appropriate amount of water for your climate.

  12. Global Carbon Budget 2017

    Le Quere, Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Sitch, Stephen; Pongratz, Julia; Manning, Andrew C.; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Peters, Glen P.; Canadell, Josep G.; Jackson, Robert B.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Andrews, Oliver D.; Arora, Vivek K.; Bakker, Dorothee C. E.; Barbero, Leticia; Becker, Meike; Betts, Richard A.; Bopp, Laurent; Chevallier, Frederic; Chini, Louise P.; Ciais, Philippe; Cosca, Catherine E.; Cross, Jessica; Currie, Kim; Gasser, Thomas; Harris, Ian; Hauck, Judith; Haverd, Vanessa; Houghton, Richard A.; Hunt, Christopher W.; Hurtt, George; Ilyina, Tatiana; Jain, Atul K.; Kato, Etsushi; Kautz, Markus; Keeling, Ralph F.; Goldewijk, Kees Klein; Koertzinger, Arne; Landschuetzer, Peter; Lefevre, Nathalie; Lenton, Andrew; Lienert, Sebastian; Lima, Ivan; Lombardozzi, Danica; Metzl, Nicolas; Millero, Frank; Monteiro, Pedro M. S.; Munro, David R.; Nabel, Julia E. M. S.; Nakaoka, Shin-ichiro; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Padin, X. Antonio; Peregon, Anna; Pfeil, Benjamin; Pierrot, Denis; Poulter, Benjamin; Rehder, Gregor; Reimer, Janet; Roedenbeck, Christian; Schwinger, Jorg; Seferian, Roland; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Tian, Hanqin; Tilbrook, Bronte; Tubiello, Francesco N.; van der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T.; van der Werf, Guido R.; van Heuven, Steven; Viovy, Nicolas; Vuichard, Nicolas; Walker, Anthony P.; Watson, Andrew J.; Wiltshire, Andrew J.; Zaehle, Soenke; Zhu, Dan

    2018-01-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere - the "global carbon budget" - is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project

  13. Jackson Revenue Budget

    City of Jackson, Mississippi — This dataset shows the City of Jackson's FY2017 revenue budget, revenue collected to date, and the balance remaining to be collected. The data can be broken down by...

  14. Budget and Actuals

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — This dataset contains the Town's Year-to-Date Budget and Actuals for Fiscal Years 2016, 2017, and 2018. Fiscal years run from July 1 to June 30. The data comes from...

  15. Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller) > Budget Materials > Budget1998

    functionalStatements OUSD(C) History FMR Budget Materials Budget Execution Financial Management Improving Financial Performance Reports Regulations banner DoD Budget Request 2019 | 2018 | 2017 |2016 | 2015 | 2014 | 2013 | 2012 President's Budget request for the Department of Defense sustains the President's commitment to invest in

  16. A New Approach in Public Budgeting: Citizens' Budget

    Bilge, Semih

    2015-01-01

    Change and transformation in the understanding and definition of citizenship has led to the emergence of citizen-oriented public service approach. This approach also raised a new term and concept in the field of public budgeting because of the transformation in the processes of public budgeting: citizens' budget. The citizens' budget which seeks…

  17. The Budget as a Management Tool: Zero Base Budgeting, Panacea ...

    Nigeria has been experiencing difficulties in Budget implementation. The objective of this article is to present alternative forms of budgeting and after exposition on them, to recommend one that could mitigate budget implementation problem for Nigeria. Two types of budgeting addressed are incremental and zero-base.

  18. European Union Budget Politics

    Citi, Manuele

    2015-01-01

    The marginal involvement of the European Union (EU) in redistributive policies and its limited fiscal resources have led to a notable lack of attention by EU scholars towards the EU budget and its dynamics. Yet the nature of the budgetary data and their high usability for statistical analysis make...... to form winning coalitions in the Council, the ideological positioning of the co-legislators and the inclusion of the cohesion countries have played a significant role in driving budget change....

  19. Application of Relaxed Eddy Accumulation (REA) method to estimate CO2 and CH4 surface fluxes in the city of Krakow, southern Poland.

    Zimnoch, Miroslaw; Gorczyca, Zbigniew; Pieniazek, Katarzyna; Jasek, Alina; Chmura, Lukasz; Rozanski, Kazimierz

    2013-04-01

    There is a growing interest in the recent years in studies aimed at quantifying carbon cycling in urban centres. Worldwide migration of human population from rural to urban areas and corresponding growth of extensive urban agglomerations and megacities leads to intensification of anthropogenic emissions of carbon and strong disruption of natural carbon cycle on these areas. Therefore, a deeper understanding of the carbon "metabolism" of such regions is required. Apart of better quantification of surface carbon fluxes, also a thorough understanding of the functioning of biosphere under strong anthropogenic influence is needed. Nowadays, covariance methods are widely applied for studying gas exchange between the atmosphere and the Earth's surface. Relaxed Eddy Accumulation method (REA), combined with the CO2 and CH4 CRDS analyser allows simultaneous measurements of surface fluxes of carbon dioxide and methane within the chosen footprint of the detection system, thus making possible thorough characterisation of the overall exchange of those gases between the atmosphere and the urban surface across diverse spatial and temporal scales. Here we present preliminary results of the study aimed at quantifying surface fluxes of CO2 and CH4 in Krakow, southern Poland. The REA system for CO2 and CH4 flux measurements has been installed on top of a 20m high tower mounted on the roof of the faculty building, close to the city centre of Krakow. The sensors were installed ca 42 m above the local ground. Gill Windmaster-Pro sonic anemometer was coupled with self-made system, designed by the Poznan University of Life Sciences, Poland, for collecting air samples in two pairs of 10-liter Tedlar bags, and with Picarro G2101-i CRDS analyser. The air was collected in 30-min intervals. The CO2 and CH4 mixing ratios in these cumulative downdraft and updraft air samples were determined by the CRDS analyser after each sampling interval. Based on the measured mixing ratios difference and the

  20. Study on the method of determining the sub-criticality of a reactor via the measurement of core neutron flux spatial distribution

    Ma Aifeng; Jiang Xiaofeng; Zhang Shaohong

    2007-01-01

    A new methodology based on rigorous reactor physics theory astead of the point reactor assumption was proposed to determine or monitor the sub-criticality ora reactor, especially the sub-critical reactor of ADS, via the measurement of in-core flux spatial distribution. Preliminary numerical studies on the 1st ADS sub-critical experimental facilities-Venus No.1 in China have demonstrated the feasibility of this new method. Related discussions pointed out the potential applications of the method. (authors)

  1. BUDGET AND PUBLIC DEBT

    Morar Ioan Dan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of public budgeting is an important issue for public policy of the state, for the simple reason that no money from the state budget can not promote public policy. Budgetary policy is official government Doctrine vision mirror and also represents a starting point for other public policies, which in turn are financed by the public budget. Fiscal policy instruments at its disposal handles the public sector in its structure, and the private sector. Tools such as grant, budgetary allocation, tax, welfare under various forms, direct investments and not least the state aid is used by the state through their budgetary policies to directly and indirectly infuence sector, and the private. Fiscal policies can be grouped according to the structure of the public sector in these components, namely fiscal policy, budgeting and resource allocation policies for financing the budget deficit. An important issue is the financing of the budget deficit budgetary policies. There are two funding possibilities, namely, the higher taxes or more axles site and enter the second call to public loans. Both options involve extra effort from taxpayers in the current fiscal year when they pay higher taxes or a future period when public loans will be repaid. We know that by virtue of "fiscal pact" structural deficits of the member countries of the EU are limited by the European Commission, according to the macro structural stability and budget of each Member State. This problem tempers to some extent the governments of the Member States budgetary appetite, but does not solve the problem of chronic budget deficits. Another issue addressed in this paper is related to the public debt, the absolute amount of its relative level of public datoriri, about the size of GDP, public debt financing and its repayment sources. Sources of public debt issuance and monetary impact on the budget and monetary stability are variables that must underpin the justification of budgetary

  2. Influence of Mean Rooftop-Level Estimation Method on Sensible Heat Flux Retrieved from a Large-Aperture Scintillometer Over a City Centre

    Zieliński, Mariusz; Fortuniak, Krzysztof; Pawlak, Włodzimierz; Siedlecki, Mariusz

    2017-08-01

    The sensible heat flux ( H) is determined using large-aperture scintillometer (LAS) measurements over a city centre for eight different computation scenarios. The scenarios are based on different approaches of the mean rooftop-level (zH) estimation for the LAS path. Here, zH is determined separately for wind directions perpendicular (two zones) and parallel (one zone) to the optical beam to reflect the variation in topography and building height on both sides of the LAS path. Two methods of zH estimation are analyzed: (1) average building profiles; (2) weighted-average building height within a 250 m radius from points located every 50 m along the optical beam, or the centre of a certain zone (in the case of a wind direction perpendicular to the path). The sensible heat flux is computed separately using the friction velocity determined with the eddy-covariance method and the iterative procedure. The sensitivity of the sensible heat flux and the extent of the scintillometer source area to different computation scenarios are analyzed. Differences reaching up to 7% between heat fluxes computed with different scenarios were found. The mean rooftop-level estimation method has a smaller influence on the sensible heat flux (-4 to 5%) than the area used for the zH computation (-5 to 7%). For the source-area extent, the discrepancies between respective scenarios reached a similar magnitude. The results demonstrate the value of the approach in which zH is estimated separately for wind directions parallel and perpendicular to the LAS optical beam.

  3. Comparing laser-based open- and closed-path gas analyzers to measure methane fluxes using the eddy covariance method

    Detto, Matteo; Verfaillie, Joseph; Anderson, Frank; Xu, Liukang; Baldocchi, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Closed- and open-path methane gas analyzers are used in eddy covariance systems to compare three potential methane emitting ecosystems in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (CA, USA): a rice field, a peatland pasture and a restored wetland. The study points out similarities and differences of the systems in field experiments and data processing. The closed-path system, despite a less intrusive placement with the sonic anemometer, required more care and power. In contrast, the open-path system appears more versatile for a remote and unattended experimental site. Overall, the two systems have comparable minimum detectable limits, but synchronization between wind speed and methane data, air density corrections and spectral losses have different impacts on the computed flux covariances. For the closed-path analyzer, air density effects are less important, but the synchronization and spectral losses may represent a problem when fluxes are small or when an undersized pump is used. For the open-path analyzer air density corrections are greater, due to spectroscopy effects and the classic Webb–Pearman–Leuning correction. Comparison between the 30-min fluxes reveals good agreement in terms of magnitudes between open-path and closed-path flux systems. However, the scatter is large, as consequence of the intensive data processing which both systems require.

  4. Ignition and flame spread properties of wood, elaborated during a new test method based on convective heat flux

    Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt; Poulsen, Annemarie

    2007-01-01

    Ignition and flame spread properties on selected types of wood are elaborated. The tests are established in a new test setup in which the test specimen can be fixed in different angles due to a horizontal level. The heat exposing the test objects is arranged as a convective flux. This principle...

  5. An upwind, kinetic flux-vector splitting method for flows in chemical and thermal non-equilibrium

    Eppard, W. M.; Grossman, B.

    1993-01-01

    We have developed new upwind kinetic difference schemes for flows with non-equilibrium thermodynamics and chemistry. These schemes are derived from the Boltzmann equation with the resulting Euler schemes developed as moments of the discretized Boltzmann scheme with a locally Maxwellian velocity distribution. Splitting the velocity distribution at the Boltzmann level is seen to result in a flux-split Euler scheme and is called Kinetic Flux Vector Splitting (KFVS). Extensions to flows with finite-rate chemistry and vibrational relaxation is accomplished utilizing nonequilibrium kinetic theory. Computational examples are presented comparing KFVS with the schemes of Van Leer and Roe for a quasi-one-dimensional flow through a supersonic diffuser, inviscid flow through two-dimensional inlet, and viscous flow over a cone at zero angle-of-attack. Calculations are also shown for the transonic flow over a bump in a channel and the transonic flow over an NACA 0012 airfoil. The results show that even though the KFVS scheme is a Riemann solver at the kinetic level, its behavior at the Euler level is more similar to the existing flux-vector splitting algorithms than to the flux-difference splitting scheme of Roe.

  6. THE POSITION BUDGETS OF ADMINISTRATIVE AND TERRITORIAL UNITS IN GENERAL CONSOLIDATED BUDGET

    CHIRCULESCU MARIA FELICIA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The budget is a tool of territorial administrative units of financial and budgetary policy in which the state intervenes in the economy at the local level, having a major impact on general government.Through the decentralization processes that are increasingly debated and applied, the paper aims to highlight the importance of the territorial administrative unit budgets in the consolidated budget in Romania.Thus, the work comprises both theoretical notions concerning the presentation of the consolidated state budget and the budget of the territorial administrative units. The relevance of the work lies in the importance of general government in the regulation of macroeconomic balances by sizing or macroeconomic imbalances, with modern methods that analyze the possibilities and effects of new types of deficits or surpluses in the public sector.

  7. Two new methods used to simulate the circumferential solar flux density concentrated on the absorber of a parabolic trough solar collector

    Guo, Minghuan; Wang, Zhifeng; Sun, Feihu

    2016-05-01

    The optical efficiencies of a solar trough concentrator are important to the whole thermal performance of the solar collector, and the outer surface of the tube absorber is a key interface of energy flux. So it is necessary to simulate and analyze the concentrated solar flux density distributions on the tube absorber of a parabolic trough solar collector for various sun beam incident angles, with main optical errors considered. Since the solar trough concentrators are linear focusing, it is much of interest to investigate the solar flux density distribution on the cross-section profile of the tube absorber, rather than the flux density distribution along the focal line direction. Although a few integral approaches based on the "solar cone" concept were developed to compute the concentrated flux density for some simple trough concentrator geometries, all those integral approaches needed special integration routines, meanwhile, the optical parameters and geometrical properties of collectors also couldn't be changed conveniently. Flexible Monte Carlo ray trace (MCRT) methods are widely used to simulate the more accurate concentrated flux density distribution for compound parabolic solar trough concentrators, while generally they are quite time consuming. In this paper, we first mainly introduce a new backward ray tracing (BRT) method combined with the lumped effective solar cone, to simulate the cross-section flux density on the region of interest of the tube absorber. For BRT, bundles of rays are launched at absorber-surface points of interest, directly go through the glass cover of the absorber, strike on the uniformly sampled mirror segment centers in the close-related surface region of the parabolic reflector, and then direct to the effective solar cone around the incident sun beam direction after the virtual backward reflection. All the optical errors are convoluted into the effective solar cone. The brightness distribution of the effective solar cone is supposed

  8. Flux agreement above a Scots pine plantation

    Gay, L. W.; Vogt, R.; Bernhofer, Ch.; Blanford, J. H.

    1996-03-01

    The surface energy exchange of 12m high Scots pine plantation at Hartheim, Germany, was measured with a variety of methods during a 11-day period of fine weather in mid-May 1992. Net radiation and rate of thermal storage were measured with conventional net radiometers, soil heat flux discs and temperature-based storage models. The turbulent fluxes discussed in this report were obtained with an interchanging Bowen ratio energy budget system (BREB, at 14 m), two one-propeller eddy correlation systems (OPEC systems 1 and 2 at 17m), a 1-dimensional sonic eddy correlation system (SEC system 3) at 15 m, all on one “low” tower, and a 3-dimensional sonic eddy correlation system (SEC system 22) at 22 m on the “high” tower that was about 46 m distant. All systems measured sensible and latent heat (H and LE) directly, except for OPEC systems 1 and 2 which estimated LE as a residual term in the surface energy balance. Closure of turbulent fluxes from the two SEC systems was around 80% for daytime and 30% for night, with closure of 1-dimensional SEC system 3 exceeding that of 3-dimensional SEC system 22. The night measurements of turbulent fluxes contained considerable uncertainty, especially with the BREB system where measured gradients often yielded erroneous fluxes due to problems inherent in the method (i.e., computational instability as Bowen's ratio approaches -1). Also, both eddy correlation system designs (OPEC and SEC) appeared to underestimate |H| during stable conditions at night. In addition, both sonic systems (1- and 3-dimensional) underestimated |LE| during stable conditions. The underestimate of |H| at night generated residual estimates of OPEC LE containing a “phantom dew” error that erroneously decreased daily LE totals by about 10 percent. These special night problems are circumvented here by comparing results for daytime periods only, rather than for full days. To summarize, turbulent fluxes on the low tower from OPEC system 2 and the adjacent

  9. Reform of Budgeting for Acquisition: Lessons from Private Sector Capital Budgeting for the Department of Defense

    McCaffery, Jerry L; Jones, Lawrence R

    2006-01-01

    .... The governments of New Zealand, Australia, and the United Kingdom, as well as most of the states in the United States have adopted some private budgeting methods with varying degrees of success...

  10. Evaluation of neutron flux in Al-Au alloy of different dimensions in the TRIGA IPR-R1 reactor using Monte Carlos Method

    Salome, Jean Anderson Dias

    2012-01-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis technique is applied in several procedures determining chemical elements - range of trace to percentage - in many materials; in radiochemical processes; archaeological and geological studies, in nuclear medicine and biochemical analysis and in forensic cases. It consists in submit a sample to a neutron flux and measure the induced activity by gamma spectrometry. Although it is a very useful method, the technique presents a limitation related to sample dimensions. The technique is applied in samples with micrograms to milligrams, or a few microliters to milliliters, when the density is negligible. In this work, using the Monte Carlo MCNP5 code, the effects of irradiated samples of different dimensions were simulated in the reactor TRIGA IPR-R1 of CDTN/CNEN, evaluating the total and thermal neutron fluxes. The values were compared to experimental values of thermal neutron flux determined for 11 most representative irradiation channels in the rotary rack. Statistical tests were used to evaluate the MCNP models. The results pointed out that a sample with 0.43 cm high, 0.48 cm radius and 1100 g.L -1 density, can be analyzed as it were a punctual sample, like soil sample, without disturbance of thermal neutron in the sample. For the total neutron flux, it can be concluded the same. Besides, 97% of the results are inside 95% confidence interval related to experimental values, as well as, 97% of the results are satisfactory for z-score. It points out the good performance of the modeling. (author)

  11. Political Budget Cycles

    Aaskoven, Lasse; Lassen, David Dreyer

    2017-01-01

    The political budget cycle—how elections affect government fiscal policy—is one of the most studied subjects in political economy and political science. The key theoretical question is whether incumbent governments can time or structure public finances in ways that improve their chances of reelec......The political budget cycle—how elections affect government fiscal policy—is one of the most studied subjects in political economy and political science. The key theoretical question is whether incumbent governments can time or structure public finances in ways that improve their chances...... on political budget cycles have recently focused on conditions under which such cycles are likely to obtain. Much recent research focuses on subnational settings, allowing comparisons of governments in similar institutional environments, and a consensus on the presences of cycles in public finances...

  12. Intercomparison of the finite difference and nodal discrete ordinates and surface flux transport methods for a LWR pool-reactor benchmark problem in X-Y geometry

    O'Dell, R.D.; Stepanek, J.; Wagner, M.R.

    1983-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to compare and discuss the three of the most advanced two dimensional transport methods, the finite difference and nodal discrete ordinates and surface flux method, incorporated into the transport codes TWODANT, TWOTRAN-NODAL, MULTIMEDIUM and SURCU. For intercomparison the eigenvalue and the neutron flux distribution are calculated using these codes in the LWR pool reactor benchmark problem. Additionally the results are compared with some results obtained by French collision probability transport codes MARSYAS and TRIDENT. Because the transport solution of this benchmark problem is close to its diffusion solution some results obtained by the finite element diffusion code FINELM and the finite difference diffusion code DIFF-2D are included

  13. Determination of nitrogen in UO2 pellets by hot extraction-TCD method without using flux material and evaluation of associated measurement uncertainties

    Begum, Zahida; Balaji Rao, Y.; Subba Rao, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Presence of non metallic impurity elements like nitrogen above the specified limit of 75 ppm (max.) in fuel pellets affects the sintered density of fuel and also effect the Zircaloy fuel clad by forming brittle nitride phase. Hence, estimation of nitrogen plays an important role in qualifying the fuel material. Conventionally, Kjeldahl steam distillation followed by UV-Visible Spectro-photometric method has been widely employed for the estimation of nitrogen in UO 2 pellets. However, inherent chemical treatment processes causes the blank variations and provides the scope for uncertainty in measurements apart from being time consuming method. This makes Kjeldahl method as an un-attractive choice for any industrial lab where high analytical loads usually exist to meet the production targets and also where urgency for quick analytical feedback is an issue. In view of this, a simple, rapid and reliable method using A LECO Model TN- 600 Nitrogen analyzer based on Hot Extraction (HT) without adding any flux material followed by Thermal Conductivity Detection (TCD) has been developed for routine analysis. Several flux materials like Pt or Ni are used to bring down the temperature of extraction due to formation of stable uranium nitrides and temperatures of 2500°C is maintained for quantitative extraction. However usage of flux materials leads to several practical problems in analysis like deposition of uranium carbide dust onto the upper electrode requiring tedious cleaning and even sometimes causing the breakage of crucibles during the analysis. Thus an attempt has been made to increase the temperatures closer to 3000°C without using flux. Working temperature of 2900°C was arrived by plotting quantity of nitrogen extracted with temperature of extraction and flattening of plot took place at 2900°C

  14. Contribution to the qualification of calculation methods of reactivity and of flux and power distributions in nuclear pressurized water reactor cores

    Abit, K.

    1984-01-01

    The last stage of the creation computer methods and calculations consists of verifying the running and qualifying the results obtained. The work of the present thesis consisted of improving a coupling method between radial and axial phenomena in a PWR core, refering to three-dimensional calculations, while ensuring a perfect coherence between the programmed physical models. The calculation results have been compared to measurements of reactivity and of flux distributions realized during start-up tests. Thus, the methods have been applied to the calculation of the evolution of a burnable poison (gadolinium) in view of operation in long campaign. 13 refs [fr

  15. Flashed-feed VMD configuration as a novel method for eliminating temperature polarization effect and enhancing water vapor flux

    Alsaadi, Ahmad Salem

    2018-05-28

    The coupling of heat and mass transfer in membrane distillation (MD) process makes enhancing water vapor flux and determining MD membrane mass transfer coefficient (MTC) fairly challenging due to the development of temperature gradient near the membrane surface, referred to as temperature polarization (TP). As a result, the change in feed temperature at the membrane surface will be difficult to measure accurately. In this paper, the effect of TP was decoupled from the membrane MTC by preventing the liquid feed stream from contacting the membrane surface through the use of a novel custom-made vacuum MD (VMD) module design. Results showed that a temperature difference of 10°C between the feed bulk and feed temperatures at the membrane surface/interface is estimated to take place in the typical VMD configuration, while the proposed flashed-feed VMD configuration eliminates TP effect and gives a flux 3.5-fold higher (200kg/m2.hr) under similar operating conditions. Therefore, it can be concluded that heat transfer coefficient is considered to be the main factor controlling resistance of water vapor flux in the typical VMD configuration. The measured MTC of the tested commercial membrane was found to be more accurate and the highest among all reported MTCs in the MD literature (2.44×10−6kg/m2.s.Pa). Additionally, a transmembrane temperature difference of 5°C and 10°C in the novel configuration can produce water vapor fluxes of about 9kg/m2.hr and 40kg/m2.hr, respectively, at a feed temperature of 70°C, which is very attractive for scaling-up the process.

  16. A method of exploration of the atmosphere of Titan. [hot air balloon heated by solar radiation or planetary thermal flux

    Blamont, J.

    1978-01-01

    A hot-air balloon, with the air heated by natural sources, is described. Buoyancy is accomplished by either solar heating or by utilizing the IR thermal flux of the planet to heat the gas in the balloon. Altitude control is provided by a valve which is opened and closed by a barometer. The balloon is made of an organic material which has to absorb radiant energy and to emit as little as possible.

  17. Entropy budget of the earth,atmosphere and ocean system

    GAN Zijun; YAN Youfangand; QI Yiquan

    2004-01-01

    The energy budget in the system of the earth, atmosphere and ocean conforms to the first law of thermodynamics, namely the law of conservation of energy, and it is balanced when the system is in a steady-state condition. However, the entropy budget following the second law of thermodynamics is unbalanced. In this paper, we deduce the expressions of entropy flux and re-estimate the earth, atmosphere and ocean annual mean entropy budget with the updated climatologically global mean energy budget and the climatologically air-sea flux data. The calculated results show that the earth system obtains a net influx of negative entropy (-1179.3 mWm-2K-1) from its surroundings, and the atmosphere and the ocean systems obtain a net input of negative entropy at about -537.4 mWm-2K-1 and -555.6 mWm-2K-1, respectively. Calculations of the entropy budget can provide some guidance for further understanding the spatial-temporal change of the local entropy flux, and the entropy production resulting from all kinds of irreversible processes inside these systems.

  18. A method for sensible heat flux model parameterization based on radiometric surface temperature and environmental factors without involving the parameter KB-1

    Zhuang, Qifeng; Wu, Bingfang; Yan, Nana; Zhu, Weiwei; Xing, Qiang

    2016-05-01

    Sensible heat flux is a key component of land-atmosphere interaction. In most parameterizations it is calculated with surface-air temperature differences and total aerodynamic resistance to heat transfer (Rae) that is related to the KB-1 parameter. Suitable values are hard to obtain since KB-1 is related both to canopy characteristics and environmental conditions. In this paper, a parameterize method for sensible heat flux over vegetated surfaces (maize field and grass land in the Heihe river basin of northwest China) was proposed based on the radiometric surface temperature, surface resistance (Rs) and vapor pressures (saturated and actual) at the surface and the atmosphere above the canopy. A biophysics-based surface resistance model was revised to compute surface resistance with several environmental factors. The total aerodynamic resistance to heat transfer is directly calculated by combining the biophysics-based surface resistance and vapor pressures. One merit of this method is that the calculation of KB-1 can be avoided. The method provides a new way to estimate sensible heat flux over vegetated surfaces and its performance compares well to the LAS measured sensible heat and other empirical or semi-empirical KB-1 based estimations.

  19. Evaluation of magnetic flux distribution from magnetic domains in [Co/Pd] nanowires by magnetic domain scope method using contact-scanning of tunneling magnetoresistive sensor

    Okuda, Mitsunobu, E-mail: okuda.m-ky@nhk.or.jp; Miyamoto, Yasuyoshi; Miyashita, Eiichi; Hayashi, Naoto [NHK Science and Technology Research Laboratories, 1-10-11 Kinuta Setagaya, Tokyo 157-8510 (Japan)

    2014-05-07

    Current-driven magnetic domain wall motions in magnetic nanowires have attracted great interests for physical studies and engineering applications. The magnetic force microscope (MFM) is widely used for indirect verification of domain locations in nanowires, where relative magnetic force between the local domains and the MFM probe is used for detection. However, there is an occasional problem that the magnetic moments of MFM probe influenced and/or rotated the magnetic states in the low-moment nanowires. To solve this issue, the “magnetic domain scope for wide area with nano-order resolution (nano-MDS)” method has been proposed recently that could detect the magnetic flux distribution from the specimen directly by scanning of tunneling magnetoresistive field sensor. In this study, magnetic domain structure in nanowires was investigated by both MFM and nano-MDS, and the leakage magnetic flux density from the nanowires was measured quantitatively by nano-MDS. Specimen nanowires consisted from [Co (0.3)/Pd (1.2)]{sub 21}/Ru(3) films (units in nm) with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy were fabricated onto Si substrates by dual ion beam sputtering and e-beam lithography. The length and the width of the fabricated nanowires are 20 μm and 150 nm. We have succeeded to obtain not only the remanent domain images with the detection of up and down magnetizations as similar as those by MFM but also magnetic flux density distribution from nanowires directly by nano-MDS. The obtained value of maximum leakage magnetic flux by nano-MDS is in good agreement with that of coercivity by magneto-optical Kerr effect microscopy. By changing the protective diamond-like-carbon film thickness on tunneling magnetoresistive sensor, the three-dimensional spatial distribution of leakage magnetic flux could be evaluated.

  20. OPTIMIZING LOCAL BUDGET BALANCING IN ROMANIA

    Gyorgy Adina Crsitina

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the local public finance is growing in accordance with the increasing proportion of the decentralization process. The mechanism of resource allocation, and especially the allocation criteria used, constitutes subjects of debate. Our objective pursued is to assess whether the avoidance of the first step for balancing the allocation of funds can provide enhanced fairness in balancing the local budgets across the country. Local budgets in Romania receive significant resources from the state budget in the form of amounts and quotas distributed from certain taxes, which are revenues for the state budget. Some of these amounts are designed to balance the local budgets. The distribution of funds from the state budget to the local budgets requires two steps. Firstly, the amounts are divided by county, secondly, these amounts are directed within the county especially towards localities which have a lower financial standing. Given the significant disparities between counties, we believe that this mechanism does not ensure fairness in the allocation because the funds distributed according to the first step may not use fair criteria to meet the requirements for balanced local budgets. Therefore, we intend to simulate a balanced allocation of national funds for eliminating the first step that produces the most significant inequities. Direct application of the second step of allocation, with its two phases, will provide more funds serving those local administrative units for the income tax per capita is lower than the national average. Comparing the values allocated for the year 2011 with those obtained in the simulation we will examine changes that occur after the application of this method which seems to be more equitable and appropriate. This work was supported by CNCSISUEFISCSU, project number PNII-IDEI 1780/2008

  1. Annual sediment flux estimates in a tidal strait using surrogate measurements

    Ganju, N.K.; Schoellhamer, D.H.

    2006-01-01

    Annual suspended-sediment flux estimates through Carquinez Strait (the seaward boundary of Suisun Bay, California) are provided based on surrogate measurements for advective, dispersive, and Stokes drift flux. The surrogates are landward watershed discharge, suspended-sediment concentration at one location in the Strait, and the longitudinal salinity gradient. The first two surrogates substitute for tidally averaged discharge and velocity-weighted suspended-sediment concentration in the Strait, thereby providing advective flux estimates, while Stokes drift is estimated with suspended-sediment concentration alone. Dispersive flux is estimated using the product of longitudinal salinity gradient and the root-mean-square value of velocity-weighted suspended-sediment concentration as an added surrogate variable. Cross-sectional measurements validated the use of surrogates during the monitoring period. During high freshwater flow advective and dispersive flux were in the seaward direction, while landward dispersive flux dominated and advective flux approached zero during low freshwater flow. Stokes drift flux was consistently in the landward direction. Wetter than average years led to net export from Suisun Bay, while dry years led to net sediment import. Relatively low watershed sediment fluxes to Suisun Bay contribute to net export during the wet season, while gravitational circulation in Carquinez Strait and higher suspended-sediment concentrations in San Pablo Bay (seaward end of Carquinez Strait) are responsible for the net import of sediment during the dry season. Annual predictions of suspended-sediment fluxes, using these methods, will allow for a sediment budget for Suisun Bay, which has implications for marsh restoration and nutrient/contaminant transport. These methods also provide a general framework for estimating sediment fluxes in estuarine environments, where temporal and spatial variability of transport are large. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  2. Public Budget Database - Budget Authority and offsetting receipts 1976-Current

    Executive Office of the President — This file contains historical budget authority and offsetting receipts for 1976 through the current budget year, as well as four years of projections. It can be used...

  3. AGF program budget 1991

    1991-01-01

    The present program budget of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Grossforschungseinrichtungen (AGF) (Cooperative of Major Research Establishments) describes its research and development objectives and the progress of work in the major research establishments involved and states the medium-term annual financial and personnel effort. (orig.) [de

  4. Budget Pressures Churn Workforce

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2011-01-01

    When the budget-cutting ended this year in one rural North Texas school district, the people-moving began. Forced to chop its total staff to 55 employees from 64, the Perrin-Whitt Consolidated Independent school system went the route of many districts across the country: It made the majority of its reductions by encouraging early retirements and…

  5. AGF program budget 1992

    1992-01-01

    The program budget of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Grossforschungseinrichtungen (AGF) (Cooperative of Major Research Establishments) describes its research and development objectives and the progress of work in the major research establishments involved and states the medium-term annual financial and personnel effort. (orig.)

  6. Implementing Responsibility Centre Budgeting

    Vonasek, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Recently, institutes of higher education (universities) have shown a renewed interest in organisational structures and operating methodologies that generate productivity and innovation; responsibility centre budgeting (RCB) is one such process. This paper describes the underlying principles constituting RCB, its origin and structural elements, and…

  7. Budgeting Academic Space

    Harris, Watson

    2011-01-01

    There are many articles about space management, including those that discuss space calculations, metrics, and categories. Fewer articles discuss the space budgeting processes used by administrators to allocate space. The author attempts to fill this void by discussing her administrative experiences with Middle Tennessee State University's (MTSU)…

  8. Integrated Budget Office Toolbox

    Rushing, Douglas A.; Blakeley, Chris; Chapman, Gerry; Robertson, Bill; Horton, Allison; Besser, Thomas; McCarthy, Debbie

    2010-01-01

    The Integrated Budget Office Toolbox (IBOT) combines budgeting, resource allocation, organizational funding, and reporting features in an automated, integrated tool that provides data from a single source for Johnson Space Center (JSC) personnel. Using a common interface, concurrent users can utilize the data without compromising its integrity. IBOT tracks planning changes and updates throughout the year using both phasing and POP-related (program-operating-plan-related) budget information for the current year, and up to six years out. Separating lump-sum funds received from HQ (Headquarters) into separate labor, travel, procurement, Center G&A (general & administrative), and servicepool categories, IBOT creates a script that significantly reduces manual input time. IBOT also manages the movement of travel and procurement funds down to the organizational level and, using its integrated funds management feature, helps better track funding at lower levels. Third-party software is used to create integrated reports in IBOT that can be generated for plans, actuals, funds received, and other combinations of data that are currently maintained in the centralized format. Based on Microsoft SQL, IBOT incorporates generic budget processes, is transportable, and is economical to deploy and support.

  9. Reforming the EU Budget

    Citi, Manuele

    The marginal involvement of the EU in redistributive policies and its limited fiscal resources have led to a lack of attention to the EU budget and its determinants. In this paper I analyse an original dataset containing yearly data on the main macrocategories of expenditure and how they have...

  10. Zero-Based Budgeting.

    Wichowski, Chester

    1979-01-01

    The zero-based budgeting approach is designed to achieve the greatest benefit with the fewest undesirable consequences. Seven basic steps make up the zero-based decision-making process: (1) identifying program goals, (2) classifying goals, (3) identifying resources, (4) reviewing consequences, (5) developing decision packages, (6) implementing a…

  11. Budgeting and Finance

    F.K.M. van Nispen tot Pannerden (Frans)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe Call for a Budgetary Theory: The appeal of Valdimer Key for a budgetary theory marks the interest in public budgeting in modern history. He clearly referred to a normative theory, raising the question: ‘on what basis shall it be decided to allocate X dollars to activity A instead of

  12. Kinetic energy budget details

    Abstract. This paper presents the detailed turbulent kinetic energy budget and higher order statistics of flow behind a surface-mounted rib with and without superimposed acoustic excitation. Pattern recognition technique is used to determine the large-scale structure magnitude. It is observed that most of the turbulence ...

  13. A Better Budget Rule

    Dothan, Michael; Thompson, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Debt limits, interest coverage ratios, one-off balanced budget requirements, pay-as-you-go rules, and tax and expenditure limits are among the most important fiscal rules for constraining intertemporal transfers. There is considerable evidence that the least costly and most effective of such rules are those that focus directly on the rate of…

  14. Global Carbon Budget 2016

    Le Quéré, Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Sitch, Stephen; Ivar Korsbakken, Jan; Peters, Glen P.; Manning, Andrew C.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Houghton, Richard A.; Keeling, Ralph F.; Alin, Simone; Andrews, Oliver D.; Anthoni, Peter; Barbero, Leticia; Bopp, Laurent; Chevallier, Frédéric; Chini, Louise P.; Ciais, Philippe; Currie, Kim; Delire, Christine; Doney, Scott C.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gkritzalis, Thanos; Harris, Ian A; Hauck, Judith; Haverd, Vanessa; Hoppema, Mario; Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Jain, Atul K.; Kato, Etsushi; Körtzinger, Arne; Landschützer, Peter; Lefèvre, Nathalie; Lenton, Andrew; Lienert, Sebastian; Lombardozzi, Danica; Melton, Joe R.; Metzl, Nicolas; Millero, Frank; Monteiro, Pedro M S; Munro, David R.; Nabel, Julia E M S; Nakaoka, Shin Ichiro; O'Brien, Kevin; Olsen, Are; Omar, Abdirahman M.; Ono, Tsuneo; Pierrot, Denis; Poulter, Benjamin; Rödenbeck, Christian; Salisbury, Joe; Schuster, Ute; Schwinger, Jörg; Séférian, Roland; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Sutton, Adrienne J.; Takahashi, Taro; Tian, Hanqin; Tilbrook, Bronte; Van Der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T.; Van Der Werf, Guido R.; Viovy, Nicolas; Walker, Anthony P.; Wiltshire, Andrew J.; Zaehle, Sönke

    2016-01-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere-the "global carbon budget"-is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future

  15. Sabotage in Capital Budgeting

    Brunner, Markus; Ostermaier, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    for honesty inhibits sabotage. Moreover, honesty suppresses negative reciprocity and thus reduces sabotage not only directly but also indirectly. Our findings warn firms to consider the sabotage of investments as a hidden cost of control in budgeting. They show that honesty has a spill-over effect...

  16. The budgeting and reporting process of a multinational organisation across regions and trade centres

    Robusti, Fiorenza

    2012-01-01

    In the contemporary international business environment, a multinational organisation faces great challenges when it comes to budgeting and reporting. The complexity of budgeting and reporting is even greater when it implies the coordination of budgets and reports of trade centres located in other countries than the country of origin. A multinational organisation often adopts the participative budgeting method. The purpose of participative budgeting is to involve managers at lower manage...

  17. MID Max: LC–MS/MS Method for Measuring the Precursor and Product Mass Isotopomer Distributions of Metabolic Intermediates and Cofactors for Metabolic Flux Analysis Applications

    McCloskey, Douglas; Young, Jamey D.; Xu, Sibei

    2016-01-01

    The analytical challenges to acquire accurate isotopic data of intracellular metabolic intermediates for stationary, nonstationary, and dynamic metabolic flux analysis (MFA) are numerous. This work presents MID Max, a novel LC–MS/MS workflow, acquisition, and isotopomer deconvolution method for MFA...... that takes advantage of additional scan types that maximizes the number of mass isotopomer distributions (MIDs) that can be acquired in a given experiment. The analytical method was found to measure the MIDs of 97 metabolites, corresponding to 74 unique metabolite-fragment pairs (32 precursor spectra and 42...

  18. Seeing the sink beneath the source: an improved stable isotope tracer method for measuring highly variable gross fluxes of methyl halides

    Rhew, R. C.

    2011-12-01

    Measuring methyl bromide (CH3Br) and methyl chloride (CH3Cl) fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems is complicated by the presence of simultaneous production (typically associated with plants and/or fungi) and consumption (typically associated with soils). Thus, specific sites within an ecosystem can act as either a net source or net sink, depending on season, soil conditions, or vegetative cover. To interpret the highly variable net fluxes found in many of these ecosystems, a stable isotope tracer technique has been developed to measure gross fluxes of CH3Br and CH3Cl. This method entails adding small amounts of 13CH3Br and 13CH3Cl to an incubation chamber, monitoring the headspace concentration changes of both 13C and 13C isotopologues, and applying a box model to simultaneously solve for gross production and consumption. Over the last decade, this technique has been successfully applied to laboratory soil incubations and field studies from a variety of ecosystems, including boreal forest, annual grasslands, shortgrass steppe, oak-savanna woodland, and Arctic tundra. These studies demonstrate that gross uptake rates are strongly affected by soil moisture within ecosystems but are on average much lower than previously estimated, and that gross production rates are highly dependent on plant species enclosed, with minor production within the soils as well. Measuring gross uptake rates is more challenging in ecosystems with large net emissions of methyl halides, such as coastal salt marshes, rice fields and certain grassland sites. Using the tallgrass prairie of Kansas as a case study, four slightly different models to calculate gross fluxes are compared. These models are largely in agreement except at sites with large emissions (i.e., sites with Amorpha shrubs), where one of the models most robustly quantifies gross consumption. This improved stable isotope tracer method is used to track the separate responses of gross production and gross consumption of methyl halides

  19. The Budgeting Mechanism in Development Companies

    Kovaleva, Tatiana M.; Khvostenko, Oleg A.; Glukhova, Alla G.; Nikeryasova, Veronica V.; Gavrilov, Denis E.

    2016-01-01

    Relevance of the researched problem is caused by the fact that today there is a requirement for a unique, generalized, theoretically and methodically elaborated budgeting mechanism disaggregating the aims of strategic level to the level of structural units of the company. The aim of article is to develop methodical provisions and practical…

  20. Regional nitrous oxide flux in Amazon basin

    Felippe, Monica Tais Siqueira D'Amelio

    2010-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N 2 O) is the third most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas. Globally, the main sources of N 2 O are nitrification and denitrification in soils. About two thirds of the soil emissions occur in the tropics and approximately 20% originate in wet rain forest ecosystems, like the Amazon forest. The work presented here involves aircraft vertical profiles of N 2 O from the surface to 4 km over two sites in the Eastern and Central Amazon: Tapajos National Forest (2000-2009) and Cuieiras Biologic Reserve (2004-2007), and the estimation of N 2 O fluxes for regions upwind of these sites using two methods: Column Integration Technique and Inversion Model - FLEXPART. To our knowledge, these regional scale N 2 O measurements in Amazonia are unique and represent a new approach to looking regional scale emissions. For the both methods, the fluxes upwind of Cuieiras Biologic Reserve exhibited little seasonality, and the annual mean was 1.9 ±1.6 mgN 2 Om -2 day -1 for the Column Integration Technique and 2.3±0.9 mgN 2 Om -2 day -1 for Inversion Model - FLEXPART. For fluxes upwind of Tapajos Nacional Forest, the Inversion Model - FLEXPART presented about half (0.9±1.7 mgN 2 Om -2 day -1 ) of the Column Integration Technique (2.0±1.1 mgN 2 Om -2 day -1 ) for the same period (2004-2008). One reason could be because the inversion model does not consider anthropic activities, once it had a good representation for less impacted area. Both regions presented similar emission during wet season. By Column Integration Technique, fluxes upwind Tapajos Nacional Forest were similar for dry and wet seasons. The dry season N 2 O fluxes exhibit significant correlations with CO fluxes, indicating a larger than expected source of N 2 O from biomass burning. The average CO:N 2 O ratio for all 38 profiles sampled during the dry season was 82±69 mol CO:molN 2 O and suggests a larger biomass burning contribution to the global N 2 O budget than previously reported. (author)

  1. Numerical effects in the neutron flux calculations into WWER-type reactor vessels by Monte Carlo method

    Alvarez Cardona, C.M.; Rodriguez Gual, M.; Hernandez Valle, S.

    2001-01-01

    The calculation of neutron fluxes and fluence into reactor pressure vessel is a regulatory requirement in the stages of the design, operation and plan lifetime extension. The reactor vessel is considered a unique and non-substitutable part of the NPP that undergoes degradation. The main source of the aging comes from the fast neutron damage induced in the steel crystalline lattice. Due to the proximity of the core edge to the vessel inner surface; the vessel steel is exposed to high fast neutron fluence. The effect of this irradiation on the mechanical properties becomes more acute because of the impurities measured in the Russian steel alloys. In the present paper, a PC version of the Monte Carlo 3-D HEXANN-EVALU system is used for the estimation of the WWER reactor pressure vessel irradiation. It was selected on the basis of its flexible options that on the other hand need to be quantified in connection with the desired magnitudes. The parameters that control the random walk of neutrons as well as the efficiency increasing options included in the code are studied in order to identify their impact in the final results for fluxes and fluence in the reactor pressure vessel. As a result an optimal set of parameters is suggested. (authors)

  2. Neutron flux monitoring device

    Goto, Yasushi; Mitsubori, Minehisa; Ohashi, Kazunori.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a neutron flux monitoring device for preventing occurrence of erroneous reactor scram caused by the elevation of the indication of a start region monitor (SRM) due to a factor different from actual increase of neutron fluxes. Namely, judgement based on measured values obtained by a pulse counting method and a judgment based on measured values obtained by a Cambel method are combined. A logic of switching neutron flux measuring method to be used for monitoring, namely, switching to an intermediate region when both of the judgements are valid is adopted. Then, even if the indication value is elevated based on the Cambel method with no increase of the counter rate in a neutron source region, the switching to the intermediate region is not conducted. As a result, erroneous reactor scram such as 'shorter reactor period' can be avoided. (I.S.)

  3. Continuous magnetic flux pump

    Hildebrandt, A. F.; Elleman, D. D.; Whitmore, F. C. (Inventor)

    1966-01-01

    A method and means for altering the intensity of a magnetic field by transposing flux from one location to the location desired fro the magnetic field are examined. The device described includes a pair of communicating cavities formed in a block of superconducting material, is dimensioned to be insertable into one of the cavities and to substantially fill the cavity. Magnetic flux is first trapped in the cavities by establishing a magnetic field while the superconducting material is above the critical temperature at which it goes superconducting. Thereafter, the temperature of the material is reduced below the critical value, and then the exciting magnetic field may be removed. By varying the ratios of the areas of the two cavities, it is possible to produce a field having much greater flux density in the second, smaller cavity, into which the flux transposed.

  4. Graphical method for determination of critical dimensions and neutron flux distribution in multi zone nuclear reactors; Graficka metoda za odredjivanje kriticnih dimenzija i raspodele fluksa kod multiregionalnih nuklearnih reaktora

    Radanovic, Lj; Bingulac, S; Lazarevic, B; Matausek, M [The Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1964-07-01

    This paper describes the graphical method for calculating the neutron flux distribution by using normalized Riccati equations. It was shown that the solutions of adequately normalized Riccati equations could be used as standard curves for determining the critical dimensions and radial flux distribution in multi zone nuclear reactors. the methos is applicable irrelevant of the number and position of the region in the core.

  5. A carbon isotope budget for an anoxic marine sediment

    Boehme, S.E.; Blair, N.E.

    1991-01-01

    A carbon isotope budget has been determined for the coastal marine site, Cape Lookout Bight, NC. Isotope measurements of methane and σCO 2 fluxing out and buried in these sediments were applied to previously measured flux data (Martens et al., in press) to predict the isotopic composition of the incoming metabolizable organic matter. Methane leaves the sediment predominantly via ebullition with an isotopic composition of -60 per mil. Less than 2% of the methane produced is buried with an average diffusional flux value of -17 per mil and a burial value of +11 per mil. The isotope budget predicts a metabolizable organic carbon isotope signature of -19.3 per mil which is in excellent agreement with the measured total organic carbon value of -19.2 ± 0.3 per mil implying that the dominant remineralization processes have been identified

  6. A synthesis of the impact of Russian forests on the global carbon budget for 1961-1998

    Shvidenko, Anatoly; Nilsson, Sten

    2003-01-01

    An attempt is made to synthesize the current understanding of the impact of Russian forests on the global carbon (C) budget for the period 1961-1998 (37 years), based on a detailed inventory of pools and fluxes in 1988-1992, and a historical reconstruction of a full forest carbon budget for 1961-1998. All major intermediate indicators of the budget (phytomass, net primary production, impact of disturbances, soil respiration, etc.) were independently estimated and compared with earlier reported results. During the entire period, the C pools of Russian forest land (FL, 882.0 106 ha in 1998) increased by 433 Tg C/yr, of which 153 Tg C/yr are accumulated in live biomass, 57 Tg C/yr in above- and below-ground dead wood, and 223 Tg C/yr are sequestered in soil. A significant part of this increase deals with land-cover changes. The annual average C uptake by the FL from the atmosphere, defined by a flux-based method, is estimated to be 322 Tg C/yr for 1961-1998. The lateral transport to the lithosphere and hydrosphere comprised 47 Tg C/yr (including charcoal), which is considered part of the 'missing C sink.' The uncertainties (excluding unrecognized biases) of averages for the entire period are estimated to be in the range of ±5-8% and ±24% for major fluxes out/into the atmosphere and for net ecosystem exchange, respectively (a priori confidential probability of 0.9). If the impact of land-cover change is excluded, the average annual sink in 1961-1998, estimated by both pool- and flux-based methods, was 268 ± 94 and 272 ± 68 Tg C/yr, respectively. The reported results are in line with recent estimates for Northern Eurasia made by inverse modeling at the continental scale, if land classes other than forests contribute to the total sink of terrestrial vegetation

  7. Determine Daytime Earth's Radiation Budget from DSCOVR

    Su, W.; Thieman, M. M.; Duda, D. P.; Khlopenkov, K. V.; Liang, L.; Sun-Mack, S.; Minnis, P.; SUN, M.

    2017-12-01

    The Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) platform provides a unique perspective for remote sensing of the Earth. With the National Institute of Standards and Technology Advanced Radiometer (NISTAR) and the Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) onboard, it provides full-disk measurements of the broadband shortwave and total radiances reaching the L1 position. Because the satellite orbits around the L1 spot, it continuously observes a nearly full Earth, providing the potential to determine the daytime radiation budget of the globe at the top of the atmosphere. The NISTAR is a single-pixel instrument that measures the broadband radiance from the entire globe, while EPIC is a spectral imager with channels in the UV and visible ranges. The Level 1 NISTAR shortwave radiances are filtered radiances. To determine the daytime TOA shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes, the NISTAR measured shortwave radiances must be unfiltered first. We will describe the algorithm used to un-filter the shortwave radiances. These unfiltered NISTAR radiances are then converted to the full disk shortwave and daytime longwave fluxes, by accounting for the anisotropic characteristics of the Earth-reflected and emitted radiances. These anisotropy factors are determined by using the scene identifications determined from multiple low Earth orbit and geostationary satellites matched into the EPIC field of view. Time series of daytime radiation budget determined from NISTAR will be presented, and methodology of estimating the fluxes from the small unlit crescent of the Earth that comprises part of the field of view will also be described. The daytime shortwave and longwave fluxes from NISTAR will be compared with CERES dataset.

  8. Bounded Rationality and Budgeting

    Ibrahim, Mukdad

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the theory of bounded rationality which had been introduced by Herbert Simon in the 1950s. Simon introduced the notion of bounded rationality stating that while decision-makers strive for rationality, they are limited by the effect of the environment, their information process capacity and by the constraints on their information storage and retrieval capabilities. Moreover, this article tries to specifically blend this notion into budgeting, using the foundations of inc...

  9. Programme budget 1981

    1980-01-01

    There are 11 main fields of KfK R + D activities which are connected with one or more of the research goals of a) assurance of nuclear fuel supply, b) nuclear waste management, c) safety of nuclear facilities, d) basic research and research on new technologies. The scientific and technical tasks connected with these goals in 1981 and on a medium-term basis as well as the financial requirements are presented in the programme budget. (orig.) [de

  10. The Incredible Shrinking Budget

    T.H.E. Journal, 2013

    2013-01-01

    If district technology leaders had a nickel for every time they heard the phrase "the new normal," they'd have all the money they need to run their IT departments. In an effort to help readers think about their budgets in creative and practical ways, "T.H.E. Journal" and the Consortium for School Networking (CoSN) recently convened a panel of CTOs…

  11. A simplified method for power-law modelling of metabolic pathways from time-course data and steady-state flux profiles.

    Kitayama, Tomoya; Kinoshita, Ayako; Sugimoto, Masahiro; Nakayama, Yoichi; Tomita, Masaru

    2006-07-17

    In order to improve understanding of metabolic systems there have been attempts to construct S-system models from time courses. Conventionally, non-linear curve-fitting algorithms have been used for modelling, because of the non-linear properties of parameter estimation from time series. However, the huge iterative calculations required have hindered the development of large-scale metabolic pathway models. To solve this problem we propose a novel method involving power-law modelling of metabolic pathways from the Jacobian of the targeted system and the steady-state flux profiles by linearization of S-systems. The results of two case studies modelling a straight and a branched pathway, respectively, showed that our method reduced the number of unknown parameters needing to be estimated. The time-courses simulated by conventional kinetic models and those described by our method behaved similarly under a wide range of perturbations of metabolite concentrations. The proposed method reduces calculation complexity and facilitates the construction of large-scale S-system models of metabolic pathways, realizing a practical application of reverse engineering of dynamic simulation models from the Jacobian of the targeted system and steady-state flux profiles.

  12. A simplified method for power-law modelling of metabolic pathways from time-course data and steady-state flux profiles

    Sugimoto Masahiro

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to improve understanding of metabolic systems there have been attempts to construct S-system models from time courses. Conventionally, non-linear curve-fitting algorithms have been used for modelling, because of the non-linear properties of parameter estimation from time series. However, the huge iterative calculations required have hindered the development of large-scale metabolic pathway models. To solve this problem we propose a novel method involving power-law modelling of metabolic pathways from the Jacobian of the targeted system and the steady-state flux profiles by linearization of S-systems. Results The results of two case studies modelling a straight and a branched pathway, respectively, showed that our method reduced the number of unknown parameters needing to be estimated. The time-courses simulated by conventional kinetic models and those described by our method behaved similarly under a wide range of perturbations of metabolite concentrations. Conclusion The proposed method reduces calculation complexity and facilitates the construction of large-scale S-system models of metabolic pathways, realizing a practical application of reverse engineering of dynamic simulation models from the Jacobian of the targeted system and steady-state flux profiles.

  13. Determining the Budget of Marketing Communication in Big Advertisers

    Fabiano Palhares Galão

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the criteria and procedures adopted by companies for determining the budget communication. Specifically, we intend to identify how companies organize the system of deciding the budget and deal with the budget cuts throughout the process of implementation of promotional activities. The data collection involved in-depth interviews conducted with communications professionals from ten companies belonging to the ranking of the 300 largest advertisers in Brazil. As data analysis technique, we have chosen content analysis. The main results showed little or no participation by the communication manager's final decision on the budget area, the lack of criteria to justify budget cuts during the promotional period and the adoption by firms of judgment methods and percentage of sales to determine the budget amount of communication

  14. Modern Estimates of Global Water Cycle Fluxes

    Rodell, M.; Beaudoing, H. K.; L'Ecuyer, T. S.; Olson, W. S.

    2014-12-01

    The goal of the first phase of the NASA Energy and Water Cycle Study (NEWS) Water and Energy Cycle Climatology project was to develop "state of the global water cycle" and "state of the global energy cycle" assessments based on data from modern ground and space based observing systems and data integrating models. Here we describe results of the water cycle assessment, including mean annual and monthly fluxes over continents and ocean basins during the first decade of the millennium. To the extent possible, the water flux estimates are based on (1) satellite measurements and (2) data-integrating models. A careful accounting of uncertainty in each flux was applied within a routine that enforced multiple water and energy budget constraints simultaneously in a variational framework, in order to produce objectively-determined, optimized estimates. Simultaneous closure of the water and energy budgets caused the ocean evaporation and precipitation terms to increase by about 10% and 5% relative to the original estimates, mainly because the energy budget required turbulent heat fluxes to be substantially larger in order to balance net radiation. In the majority of cases, the observed annual, surface and atmospheric water budgets over the continents and oceans close with much less than 10% residual. Observed residuals and optimized uncertainty estimates are considerably larger for monthly surface and atmospheric water budget closure, often nearing or exceeding 20% in North America, Eurasia, Australia and neighboring islands, and the Arctic and South Atlantic Oceans. The residuals in South America and Africa tend to be smaller, possibly because cold land processes are a non-issue. Fluxes are poorly observed over the Arctic Ocean, certain seas, Antarctica, and the Australasian and Indonesian Islands, leading to reliance on atmospheric analysis estimates. Other details of the study and future directions will be discussed.

  15. New optical method for heat flux measurements in stagnation point laminar methane/air flames and hydrogen/methane/air flames using thermographic phosphors

    Elmnefi, Mohamed Salem

    2010-11-24

    In the present study, a new optical method was implemented to study the heat transfer from flat stagnation point flames which can be regarded as one-dimensional in the central part. Premixed methane-air flames and hydrogen-methane-air flames were investigated. The effects of burner-to-plate distance and the fresh gas mixture velocity on heat transfer were examined. Experiments were performed using light induced phosphorescence from thermographic phosphors to study the wall temperatures and heat fluxes of nearly one-dimensional flat premixed flames impinging upward normally on a horizontal water cooled circular flat plate. The investigated flames were stoichiometric, lean and rich laminar methane/air flames with different equivalence ratios of {phi} =1, {phi} = 0.75 and {phi} = 1.25 and stoichiometric laminar hydrogen/methane/air flames. Mixtures of air with 10, 25, 50 and 75 % hydrogen in methane (CH{sub 4}) as well as a pure hydrogen flames at ambient pressure were investigated. The central part of this plate was an alumina ceramic plate coated from both sides with chromium doped alumina (ruby) and excited with a Nd:YAG laser or a green light emitting diode (LED) array to measure the wall temperature from both sides and thus the heat flux rate from the flame. The outlet velocity of the gases was varied from 0.1 m/s to 1.2 m/s. The burner to plate distance ranged from 0.5 to 2 times the burner exit diameter (d = 30 mm).The accuracy of the method was evaluated. The measured heat flux indicate the change of the flame stabilization mechanism from a burner stabilized to a stagnation plate stabilized flame. The results were compared to modeling results of a one dimensional stagnation point flow, with a detailed reaction mechanism. In order to prove the model, also measured gas phase temperatures by OH LIF for a stoichiometric stagnation point flame were discussed. It turns out that the flame stabilization mechanism and with it the heat fluxes change from low to high

  16. Urban Evapotranspiration and Carbon Dioxide Flux in Miami - Dade, Florida

    Bernier, T.; Hopper, W.

    2010-12-01

    Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide (CO2) concentrations are leading indicators of secular climate change. With increasing awareness of the consequences of climate change, methods for monitoring this change are becoming more important daily. Of particular interest is the carbon dioxide exchange between natural and urban landscapes and the correlation of atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Monitoring Evapotranspiration (ET) is important for assessments of water availability for growing populations. ET is surprisingly understudied in the hydrologic cycle considering ET removes as much as 80 to over 100% of precipitation back into the atmosphere as water vapor. Lack of understanding in spatial and temporal ET estimates can limit the credibility of hydrologic water budgets designed to promote sustainable water use and resolve water-use conflicts. Eddy covariance (EC) methods are commonly used to estimate ET and CO2 fluxes. The EC platform consist of a (CSAT) 3-D Sonic Anemometer and a Li-Cor Open Path CO2/ H2O Analyzer. Measurements collected at 10 Hz create a very large data sets. A EC flux tower located in the Snapper Creek Well Field as part of a study to estimate ET for the Miami Dade County Water and Sewer project. Data has been collected from December 17, 2009 to August 30, 2010. QA/QC is performed with the EdiRe data processing software according to Ameri-flux protocols. ET estimates along with other data--latent-heat flux, sensible-heat flux, rainfall, air temperature, wind speed and direction, solar irradiance, net radiation, soil-heat flux and relative humidity--can be used to aid in the development of water management policies and regulations. Currently, many financial institutions have adopted an understanding about baseline environmental monitoring. The “Equator Principle” is an example of a voluntary standard for managing social and environmental risk in project financing and has changed the way in which projects are financed.

  17. Detection of Static Eccentricity Fault in Saturated Induction Motors by Air-Gap Magnetic Flux Signature Analysis Using Finite Element Method

    N. Halem

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Unfortunately, motor current signature analysis (MCSA cannot detect the small degrees of the purely static eccentricity (SE defects, while the air-gap magnetic flux signature analysis (FSA is applied successfully. The simulation results are obtained by using time stepping finite elements (TSFE method. In order to show the impact of magnetic saturation upon the diagnosis of SE fault, the analysis is carried out for saturated induction motors. The index signatures of static eccentricity fault around fundamental and PSHs are detected successfully for saturated motor.

  18. DETECTION OF STATIC ECCENTRICITY FAULT IN SATURATED INDUCTION MOTORS BY AIR-GAP MAGNETIC FLUX SIGNATURE ANALYSIS USING FINITE ELEMENT METHOD

    N. Halem

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Unfortunately, motor current signature analysis (MCSA cannot detect the small degrees of the purely static eccentricity (SE defects, while the air-gap magnetic flux signature analysis (FSA is applied successfully. The simulation results are obtained by using time stepping finite elements (TSFE method. In order to show the impact of magnetic saturation upon the diagnosis of SE fault, the analysis is carried out for saturated induction motors. The index signatures of static eccentricity fault around fundamental and PSHs are detected successfully for saturated motor.

  19. DETECTION OF STATIC ECCENTRICITY FAULT IN SATURATED INDUCTION MOTORS BY AIR-GAP MAGNETIC FLUX SIGNATURE ANALYSIS USING FINITE ELEMENT METHOD

    N. Halem

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Unfortunately, motor current signature analysis (MCSA cannot detect the small degrees of the purely static eccentricity (SE defects, while the air-gap magnetic flux signature analysis (FSA is applied successfully. The simulation results are obtained by using time stepping finite elements (TSFE method. In order to show the impact of magnetic saturation upon the diagnosis of SE fault, the analysis is carried out for saturated induction motors. The index signatures of static eccentricity fault around fundamental and PSHs are detected successfully for saturated motor.

  20. Homotopy Perturbation Method for Thin Film Flow and Heat Transfer over an Unsteady Stretching Sheet with Internal Heating and Variable Heat Flux

    I-Chung Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We have analyzed the effects of variable heat flux and internal heat generation on the flow and heat transfer in a thin film on a horizontal sheet in the presence of thermal radiation. Similarity transformations are used to transform the governing equations to a set of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The obtained differential equations are solved approximately by the homotopy perturbation method (HPM. The effects of various parameters governing the flow and heat transfer in this study are discussed and presented graphically. Comparison of numerical results is made with the earlier published results under limiting cases.

  1. Estimation of Surface Temperature and Heat Flux by Inverse Heat Transfer Methods Using Internal Temperatures Measured While Radiantly Heating a Carbon/Carbon Specimen up to 1920 F

    Pizzo, Michelle; Daryabeigi, Kamran; Glass, David

    2015-01-01

    The ability to solve the heat conduction equation is needed when designing materials to be used on vehicles exposed to extremely high temperatures; e.g. vehicles used for atmospheric entry or hypersonic flight. When using test and flight data, computational methods such as finite difference schemes may be used to solve for both the direct heat conduction problem, i.e., solving between internal temperature measurements, and the inverse heat conduction problem, i.e., using the direct solution to march forward in space to the surface of the material to estimate both surface temperature and heat flux. The completed research first discusses the methods used in developing a computational code to solve both the direct and inverse heat transfer problems using one dimensional, centered, implicit finite volume schemes and one dimensional, centered, explicit space marching techniques. The developed code assumed the boundary conditions to be specified time varying temperatures and also considered temperature dependent thermal properties. The completed research then discusses the results of analyzing temperature data measured while radiantly heating a carbon/carbon specimen up to 1920 F. The temperature was measured using thermocouple (TC) plugs (small carbon/carbon material specimens) with four embedded TC plugs inserted into the larger carbon/carbon specimen. The purpose of analyzing the test data was to estimate the surface heat flux and temperature values from the internal temperature measurements using direct and inverse heat transfer methods, thus aiding in the thermal and structural design and analysis of high temperature vehicles.

  2. The effect of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} flux on growth NLBCO superconductor by solid state reaction and wet-mixing methods

    Suharta, W. G., E-mail: wgsuharta@gmail.com; Wendri, N.; Ratini, N.; Suarbawa, K. N. [Departement of Physics Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science Udayana University Bali Indonesia (Indonesia)

    2016-03-11

    The synthesis of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} flux substituted NLBCO superconductor NdBa{sub 1.75}La{sub 0.25}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-∂} has been done using solid state reaction and wet-mixing methods in order to obtain homogeneous crystals and single phase. From DTA/TGA characteritations showed the synthesis process by wet-mixing requires a lower temperature than the solid state reaction in growing the superconductor NdBa{sub 1.75}La{sub 0.25}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-∂}. Therefore, in this research NdBa{sub 1.75}La{sub 0.25}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-∂} sample calcinated at 650°C for wet-mixing method and 820°C for solid state reaction methods. The all samples was sintered at 950°C for ten hours. Crystallinity of the sample was confirmed using X-ray techniques and generally obtained sharp peaks that indicates the sample already well crystallized. Search match analyses for diffraction data gave weight fractions of impurity phase of the solid state reaction method higher than wet-mixing method. In this research showed decreasing the price of the lattice parameter about 1% with the addition of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} flux for the both synthesis process and 2% of wet mixing process for all samples. Characterization using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed the distribution of crystal zise for wet-mixing method more homogeneous than solid state reaction method, with he grain size of samples is around 150–250 nm. The results of vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) showed the paramagnetic properties for all samples.

  3. The effect of B_2O_3 flux on growth NLBCO superconductor by solid state reaction and wet-mixing methods

    Suharta, W. G.; Wendri, N.; Ratini, N.; Suarbawa, K. N.

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis of B_2O_3 flux substituted NLBCO superconductor NdBa_1_._7_5La_0_._2_5Cu_3O_7_-_∂ has been done using solid state reaction and wet-mixing methods in order to obtain homogeneous crystals and single phase. From DTA/TGA characteritations showed the synthesis process by wet-mixing requires a lower temperature than the solid state reaction in growing the superconductor NdBa_1_._7_5La_0_._2_5Cu_3O_7_-_∂. Therefore, in this research NdBa_1_._7_5La_0_._2_5Cu_3O_7_-_∂ sample calcinated at 650°C for wet-mixing method and 820°C for solid state reaction methods. The all samples was sintered at 950°C for ten hours. Crystallinity of the sample was confirmed using X-ray techniques and generally obtained sharp peaks that indicates the sample already well crystallized. Search match analyses for diffraction data gave weight fractions of impurity phase of the solid state reaction method higher than wet-mixing method. In this research showed decreasing the price of the lattice parameter about 1% with the addition of B_2O_3 flux for the both synthesis process and 2% of wet mixing process for all samples. Characterization using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed the distribution of crystal zise for wet-mixing method more homogeneous than solid state reaction method, with he grain size of samples is around 150–250 nm. The results of vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) showed the paramagnetic properties for all samples.

  4. How to Reform the EU Budget? A Multidisciplinary Approach

    Figueira, F.

    The European Commission is currently drafting a proposal for a review of the EU budget, which could lead to its most significant reform to date. This paper proposes a method for restructuring the EU budget, based on a multidisciplinary approach. The insights of public sector economics, fiscal

  5. Pengaruh Participation Budgeting, Information Asimetry dan Job Relevant Information terhadap Budget Slack pada Institusi Pendidikan (Studi pada Institusi Pendidikan Universitas Kristen Maranatha)

    K. S., Christine Dwi; Agustina, Lidya

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to analyze and examine the hyphothesis effect of participation budgeting on job relevant information and  information asimetry as a moderating variable , and effect of participation budgeting and information asimetry on budget slack and job relevant information as mediating varible. The respondent of this research are 30 structural staf of program and ministry in Maranatha Christian University who have participated to make  budgeting. This method that...

  6. A semi-experimental nodal synthesis method for the on-line reconstruction of three-dimensional neutron flux-shapes and reactivity

    Jacqmin, R.P.

    1991-01-01

    The safety and optimal performance of large, commercial, light-water reactors require the knowledge at all time of the neutron-flux distribution in the core. In principle, this information can be obtained by solving the time-dependent neutron diffusion equations. However, this approach is complicated and very expensive. Sufficiently accurate, real-time calculations (time scale of approximately one second) are not yet possible on desktop computers, even with fast-running, nodal kinetics codes. A semi-experimental, nodal synthesis method which avoids the solution of the time-dependent, neutron diffusion equations is described. The essential idea of this method is to approximate instantaneous nodal group-fluxes by a linear combination of K, precomputed, three-dimensional, static expansion-functions. The time-dependent coefficients of the combination are found from the requirement that the reconstructed flux-distribution agree in a least-squares sense with the readings of J (≥K) fixed, prompt-responding neutron-detectors. Possible numerical difficulties with the least-squares solution of the ill-conditioned, J-by-K system of equations are brought under complete control by the use of a singular-value-decomposition technique. This procedure amounts to the rearrangement of the original, linear combination of K expansion functions into an equivalent more convenient, linear combination of R (≤K) orthogonalized ''modes'' of decreasing magnitude. Exceedingly small modes are zeroed to eliminate any risk of roundoff-error amplification, and to assure consistency with the limited accuracy of the data. Additional modes are zeroed when it is desirable to limit the sensitivity of the results to measurement noise

  7. A semi-experimental nodal synthesis method for the on-line reconstruction of three-dimensional neutron flux-shapes and reactivity. Final report

    Jacqmin, Robert P. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1991-12-10

    The safety and optimal performance of large, commercial, light-water reactors require the knowledge at all time of the neutron-flux distribution in the core. In principle, this information can be obtained by solving the time-dependent neutron diffusion equations. However, this approach is complicated and very expensive. Sufficiently accurate, real-time calculations (time scale of approximately one second) are not yet possible on desktop computers, even with fast-running, nodal kinetics codes. A semi-experimental, nodal synthesis method which avoids the solution of the time-dependent, neutron diffusion equations is described. The essential idea of this method is to approximate instantaneous nodal group-fluxes by a linear combination of K, precomputed, three-dimensional, static expansion-functions. The time-dependent coefficients of the combination are found from the requirement that the reconstructed flux-distribution agree in a least-squares sense with the readings of J (≥K) fixed, prompt-responding neutron-detectors. Possible numerical difficulties with the least-squares solution of the ill-conditioned, J-by-K system of equations are brought under complete control by the use of a singular-value-decomposition technique. This procedure amounts to the rearrangement of the original, linear combination of K expansion functions into an equivalent more convenient, linear combination of R (≤K) orthogonalized ``modes`` of decreasing magnitude. Exceedingly small modes are zeroed to eliminate any risk of roundoff-error amplification, and to assure consistency with the limited accuracy of the data. Additional modes are zeroed when it is desirable to limit the sensitivity of the results to measurement noise.

  8. A semi-experimental nodal synthesis method for the on-line reconstruction of three-dimensional neutron flux-shapes and reactivity

    Jacqmin, R.P.

    1991-12-10

    The safety and optimal performance of large, commercial, light-water reactors require the knowledge at all time of the neutron-flux distribution in the core. In principle, this information can be obtained by solving the time-dependent neutron diffusion equations. However, this approach is complicated and very expensive. Sufficiently accurate, real-time calculations (time scale of approximately one second) are not yet possible on desktop computers, even with fast-running, nodal kinetics codes. A semi-experimental, nodal synthesis method which avoids the solution of the time-dependent, neutron diffusion equations is described. The essential idea of this method is to approximate instantaneous nodal group-fluxes by a linear combination of K, precomputed, three-dimensional, static expansion-functions. The time-dependent coefficients of the combination are found from the requirement that the reconstructed flux-distribution agree in a least-squares sense with the readings of J ({ge}K) fixed, prompt-responding neutron-detectors. Possible numerical difficulties with the least-squares solution of the ill-conditioned, J-by-K system of equations are brought under complete control by the use of a singular-value-decomposition technique. This procedure amounts to the rearrangement of the original, linear combination of K expansion functions into an equivalent more convenient, linear combination of R ({le}K) orthogonalized modes'' of decreasing magnitude. Exceedingly small modes are zeroed to eliminate any risk of roundoff-error amplification, and to assure consistency with the limited accuracy of the data. Additional modes are zeroed when it is desirable to limit the sensitivity of the results to measurement noise.

  9. PARTICULARITIES OF BUDGETING OF INVESTMENTS YIELD

    ANCA JARMILA GUŢĂ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some particularities of the budget process of all the investments as a main aspect in taking the best decision according to the main use of all the firms’ resources. As a measure method of the investments yield the main one is that which describes the relationship between the profit and the investment which improves the deccisional process.

  10. Budgeting-Based Organization of Internal Control

    Rogulenko, Tatiana; Ponomareva, Svetlana; Bodiaco, Anna; Mironenko, Valentina; Zelenov, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    The article suggests methodical approaches to the budgeting-based organization of internal control, determines the tasks and subtasks of control that consist in the construction of an efficient system for the making, implementation, control, and analysis of managerial decisions. The organization of responsibility centers by means of implementing…

  11. How to determine the GHG budget of a pasture field with grazing animals

    Ammann, Christof; Neftel, Albrecht; Felber, Raphael

    2016-04-01

    Up to now the scientific investigation and description of the agriculture related greenhouse gas (GHG) exchange has been largely separated into (i) direct animal related and (ii) ecosystem area related processes and measurement methods. An overlap of the two usually separated topics occurs for grazed pastures, where direct animal and pasture area emissions are relevant. In the present study eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements on the field scale were combined with a source location attribution (footprint) model and with GPS position measurements of the individual animals. The experiment was performed on a pasture field in Switzerland under a rotational full grazing regime with dairy cows. The exchange fluxes of CH4, CO2, and N2O were measured simultaneously over the entire year. The observed CH4 emission fluxes correlated well with the presence of cows in the flux footprint. When converted to average emission per cow, the results agreed with published values from respiration chamber experiments with similar cows. For CO2 a sophisticated partitioning algorithm was applied to separate the pasture and animal contributions, because both were in the same order of magnitude. The N2O exchange fully attributable to the pasture soil showed considerable and continuous emissions through the entire seasonal course mainly modulated by soil moisture and temperature. The resulting GHG budget shows that the largest GHG effect of the pasture system was due to enteric CH4 emissions followed by soil N2O emissions, but that the carbon storage change was affected by a much larger uncertainty. The results demonstrate that the EC technique in combination with animal position information allows to consistently quantify the exchange of all three GHG on the pasture and to adequately distinguish between direct animal and diffuse area sources (and sinks). Yet questions concerning a standardized attribution of animal related emissions to the pasture GHG budget still need to be resolved.

  12. Calculation of the fine neutron flux distribution in the multi-zone reactor cell by spherical harmonics method; Odredjivanje fine raspodele fluksa u viseregionalnoj celiji reaktora primenom metode sfernih harmonika

    Jockovic, M; Stefanovic, D; Barucija, M [The Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1965-07-01

    This presentation contains development and application of method for calculating the neutron flux distribution by P{sub 3} approximation. A computer codes was developed for the ZUSE-Z-23 computer. Some typical results are included.

  13. NATURE AND CLASSIFICATION ASPECTS OF LOCAL BUDGET REVENUES

    Oksana Vinnytska

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to determine the essential characteristics of local budgets and justify their classification aspects. Methodology. In the course of writing used general scientific and special methods of knowledge: dialectical and systemic-functional – to summarize the theoretical concepts of income of local budgets; analysis and synthesis – to detail the subject of research and study its components; logic synthesis – to justify approaches and proposals for the formulation of local budgets. Results. Proved that today there is no single view on the interpretation of economic categories “revenues of local budgets.” A refined concept of “local budget revenues” from the standpoint of material content, form, organizational structure and nature of local budgets. Local budget revenues determined as part of the financial resources of society, which is accumulated by local authorities to enforce their tasks and functions to implement current and future challenges of social infrastructure in the regions. Proved that the revenues of local budgets are derived from their own, and assigned to the established order of state taxes, fees and other mandatory payments. The main feature of their own revenues is the direct subordination of local government. The main feature is the fixed income long-term nature of their attachment to the appropriate budget. Value/originality. Proved that the presence in the economic literature of different classification criteria of local budget on various grounds provides multi classification that reflects all the features of the formation, use and functional differences revenues of local budgets. This approach provides the basis for improving the functioning of the theoretical foundations of the budget process in Ukraine at the level of local authorities.

  14. Marketing with limited budget

    Smirnova, Daria

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research-based thesis was to get an idea how managers of two small resembling hotels of a specific region deal with marketing process with a limited budget. In addition, the aim of the thesis was to examine if hotel managers who were interviewed perceive marketing only in the way of ‘promotion’ rather than marketing research, marketing mix and marketing environment theories. It was also found out if hotel managers of those hotels consider marketing as a key to successful h...

  15. A punctual flux estimator and reactions rates optimization in neutral particles transport calculus by the Monte Carlo method; Mise au point d'un estimateur ponctuel du flux et des taux de reactions dans les calculs de transport de particules neutres par la methode de monte carlo

    Authier, N

    1998-12-01

    One of the questions asked in radiation shielding problems is the estimation of the radiation level in particular to determine accessibility of working persons in controlled area (nuclear power plants, nuclear fuel reprocessing plants) or to study the dose gradients encountered in material (iron nuclear vessel, medical therapy, electronics in satellite). The flux and reaction rate estimators used in Monte Carlo codes give average values in volumes or on surfaces of the geometrical description of the system. But in certain configurations, the knowledge of punctual deposited energy and dose estimates are necessary. The Monte Carlo estimate of the flux at a point of interest is a calculus which presents an unbounded variance. The central limit theorem cannot be applied thus no easy confidencelevel may be calculated. The convergence rate is then very poor. We propose in this study a new solution for the photon flux at a point estimator. The method is based on the 'once more collided flux estimator' developed earlier for neutron calculations. It solves the problem of the unbounded variance and do not add any bias to the estimation. We show however that our new sampling schemes specially developed to treat the anisotropy of the photon coherent scattering is necessary for a good and regular behavior of the estimator. This developments integrated in the TRIPOLI-4 Monte Carlo code add the possibility of an unbiased punctual estimate on media interfaces. (author)

  16. A punctual flux estimator and reactions rates optimization in neutral particles transport calculus by the Monte Carlo method; Mise au point d'un estimateur ponctuel du flux et des taux de reactions dans les calculs de transport de particules neutres par la methode de monte carlo

    Authier, N

    1998-12-01

    One of the questions asked in radiation shielding problems is the estimation of the radiation level in particular to determine accessibility of working persons in controlled area (nuclear power plants, nuclear fuel reprocessing plants) or to study the dose gradients encountered in material (iron nuclear vessel, medical therapy, electronics in satellite). The flux and reaction rate estimators used in Monte Carlo codes give average values in volumes or on surfaces of the geometrical description of the system. But in certain configurations, the knowledge of punctual deposited energy and dose estimates are necessary. The Monte Carlo estimate of the flux at a point of interest is a calculus which presents an unbounded variance. The central limit theorem cannot be applied thus no easy confidencelevel may be calculated. The convergence rate is then very poor. We propose in this study a new solution for the photon flux at a point estimator. The method is based on the 'once more collided flux estimator' developed earlier for neutron calculations. It solves the problem of the unbounded variance and do not add any bias to the estimation. We show however that our new sampling schemes specially developed to treat the anisotropy of the photon coherent scattering is necessary for a good and regular behavior of the estimator. This developments integrated in the TRIPOLI-4 Monte Carlo code add the possibility of an unbiased punctual estimate on media interfaces. (author)

  17. Monitoring the Efficiency of Budget Management of Trade Enterprises in Ukraine

    Frolova Larysa V

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article justifies the actuality of carrying out the monitoring of budget management efficiency at trade enterprises in Ukraine. It has been found that the efficiency of each trade enterprise management system, in particular the efficiency of budget management system, is determined by several factors, among which there considered the enterprise business profile, the competitive situation in the market and the standard of living of the population. The efficiency of budget management and, as a result, the efficiency of trade enterprises’ activity is reflected in the results of the effectiveness of the main indicators of the financial budgets of enterprises. Therefore, using the method of fuzzy sets, there carried out an integral evaluation of the efficiency of budget management based on the efficiency of financial budgets: the budget revenues and expenditures, cash flow budget and budgeted balance sheet. The study is carried out for Ukraine as a whole, and its most developed regions.

  18. Analysis of the impact of climate change on groundwater related hydrological fluxes: a multi-model approach including different downscaling methods

    S. Stoll

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change related modifications in the spatio-temporal distribution of precipitation and evapotranspiration will have an impact on groundwater resources. This study presents a modelling approach exploiting the advantages of integrated hydrological modelling and a broad climate model basis. We applied the integrated MIKE SHE model on a perialpine, small catchment in northern Switzerland near Zurich. To examine the impact of climate change we forced the hydrological model with data from eight GCM-RCM combinations showing systematic biases which are corrected by three different statistical downscaling methods, not only for precipitation but also for the variables that govern potential evapotranspiration. The downscaling methods are evaluated in a split sample test and the sensitivity of the downscaling procedure on the hydrological fluxes is analyzed. The RCMs resulted in very different projections of potential evapotranspiration and, especially, precipitation. All three downscaling methods reduced the differences between the predictions of the RCMs and all corrected predictions showed no future groundwater stress which can be related to an expected increase in precipitation during winter. It turned out that especially the timing of the precipitation and thus recharge is very important for the future development of the groundwater levels. However, the simulation experiments revealed the weaknesses of the downscaling methods which directly influence the predicted hydrological fluxes, and thus also the predicted groundwater levels. The downscaling process is identified as an important source of uncertainty in hydrological impact studies, which has to be accounted for. Therefore it is strongly recommended to test different downscaling methods by using verification data before applying them to climate model data.

  19. Environmental budget and policy goal

    Noh, Sang Hwan [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    The assigned budget for environmental sector is quite insufficient to meet enormous environmental demand. Under this circumstance, there is only one way to solve environmental problems efficiently, i.e. to use a given budget efficiently. Therefore, the study on efficient utilization of a given environmental invested finance is needed by customizing a diagnosis of present condition on the operation of environmental budget and environmental investment analysis. In this respect, an entire national budget of 1999 and environmental budget were analyzed in this study. By analyzing economic efficiency of sewage disposal program, integrated septic tank system, VOC regulation, incinerator construction program, food waste disposal program, and recycling program, an efficient budget policy was presented. 19 refs., 18 figs., 169 tabs.

  20. Baseline budgeting for continuous improvement.

    Kilty, G L

    1999-05-01

    This article is designed to introduce the techniques used to convert traditionally maintained department budgets to baseline budgets. This entails identifying key activities, evaluating for value-added, and implementing continuous improvement opportunities. Baseline Budgeting for Continuous Improvement was created as a result of a newly named company president's request to implement zero-based budgeting. The president was frustrated with the mind-set of the organization, namely, "Next year's budget should be 10 to 15 percent more than this year's spending." Zero-based budgeting was not the answer, but combining the principles of activity-based costing and the Just-in-Time philosophy of eliminating waste and continuous improvement did provide a solution to the problem.

  1. Anthropogenic Heat Flux Estimation from Space: Results of the second phase of the URBANFLUXES Project

    Chrysoulakis, Nektarios; Marconcini, Mattia; Gastellu-Etchegorry, Jean-Philippe; Grimmond, Sue; Feigenwinter, Christian; Lindberg, Fredrik; Del Frate, Fabio; Klostermann, Judith; Mitraka, Zina; Esch, Thomas; Landier, Lucas; Gabey, Andy; Parlow, Eberhard; Olofson, Frans

    2017-04-01

    The H2020-Space project URBANFLUXES (URBan ANthrpogenic heat FLUX from Earth observation Satellites) investigates the potential of Copernicus Sentinels to retrieve anthropogenic heat flux, as a key component of the Urban Energy Budget (UEB). URBANFLUXES advances the current knowledge of the impacts of UEB fluxes on urban heat island and consequently on energy consumption in cities. In URBANFLUXES, the anthropogenic heat flux is estimated as a residual of UEB. Therefore, the rest UEB components, namely, the net all-wave radiation, the net change in heat storage and the turbulent sensible and latent heat fluxes are independently estimated from Earth Observation (EO), whereas the advection term is included in the error of the anthropogenic heat flux estimation from the UEB closure. The Discrete Anisotropic Radiative Transfer (DART) model is employed to improve the estimation of the net all-wave radiation balance, whereas the Element Surface Temperature Method (ESTM), adjusted to satellite observations is used to improve the estimation the estimation of the net change in heat storage. Furthermore the estimation of the turbulent sensible and latent heat fluxes is based on the Aerodynamic Resistance Method (ARM). Based on these outcomes, QF is estimated by regressing the sum of the turbulent heat fluxes versus the available energy. In-situ flux measurements are used to evaluate URBANFLUXES outcomes, whereas uncertainties are specified and analyzed. URBANFLUXES is expected to prepare the ground for further innovative exploitation of EO in scientific activities (climate variability studies at local and regional scales) and future and emerging applications (sustainable urban planning, mitigation technologies) to benefit climate change mitigation/adaptation. This study presents the results of the second phase of the project and detailed information on URBANFLUXES is available at: http://urbanfluxes.eu

  2. Capital budgeting practices used by selected listed South African firms

    John Hall

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the application of capital budgeting techniques and the incorporation of risk into the capital budgeting process among a sample of South African industrial firms listed on the JSE Securities Exchange for at least ten years. Previous international and local research on this topic indicated a preference for the internal rate of return (IRR as a capital budgeting method over the net present value (NPV, and that risk incorporation was relatively rarely incorporated into the capital budgeting process. The results of this study indicate that the NPV is just as popular as, and sometimes more so than, the IRR. Furthermore, compared to previous studies, risk is incorporated into evaluating capital budgeting projects more often. Sensitivity analysis is the most popular method, but adjustments to the cash flows and discount rate are becoming more popular. During the last decade the use of non-financial criteria to accept or reject a project has also increased in South Africa.

  3. Measurement method for determining the magnetic hysteresis effects of reluctance actuators by evaluation of the force and flux variation

    Vrijsen, N.H.; Jansen, J.W.; Compter, J.C.; Lomonova, E.

    2013-01-01

    A measurement method is presented which identifies the magnetic hysteresis effects present in the force of linear reluctance actuators. The measurement method is applied to determine the magnetic hysteresis in the force of an E-core reluctance actuator, with and without pre-biasing permanent magnet.

  4. Atmospheric neutrino fluxes

    Perkins, D.H.

    1984-01-01

    The atmospheric neutrino fluxes, which are responsible for the main background in proton decay experiments, have been calculated by two independent methods. There are discrepancies between the two sets of results regarding latitude effects and up-down asymmetries, especially for neutrino energies Esub(ν) < 1 GeV. (author)

  5. Investigation of the properties of the flux and interaction of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays by the method of local-muon-density spectra

    Bogdanov, A. G.; Gromushkin, D. M.; Kokoulin, R. P.; Mannocchi, G.; Petrukhin, A. A.; Saavedra, O.; Trinchero, G.; Chernov, D. V.; Shutenko, V. V.; Yashin, I. I.

    2010-01-01

    A new method for studying extensive air showers is considered. The method is based on the phenomenology of the localmuon density. It is shown that measurement ofmuon-density spectra at various zenith angles makes it possible to obtain information about the energy spectrum, mass composition, and interaction of cosmic rays over a broad range of energies (10 15 -10 18 eV) by using a single array of comparatively small size. The results obtained from a comparison of experimental data on muon bundles from the DECOR coordinate detector with the results of simulation performed under various assumptions on the properties of the primary flux and for various hadron-interaction models are presented, and possible versions of the interpretation of these results are discussed.

  6. Characterization of injection instabilities in electrohydrodynamics by numerical modelling: comparison of particle in cell and flux corrected transport methods for electroconvection between two plates

    Vazquez, P A; Georghiou, G E; Castellanos, A

    2006-01-01

    Numerical simulations are carried out for the characterization of injection instabilities in electrohydrodynamics and, in particular, the development of electroconvection between two parallel plates. The particle-in-cell and the finite element-flux corrected transport methods are used for the simulation of the test case, as they have proved very powerful and accurate in the solution of complex transport problems. Results are presented for unipolar injection (both strong and weak injections) between two plane electrodes immersed in a dielectric liquid, and the good agreement obtained by the two methods demonstrates not only their theoretical validity but also their practical ability to deal with transport problems in the presence of steep gradients. Some differences appear mainly in the prediction of small oscillations of the velocity and consequently of the electric current. These differences are highlighted and an explanation of their source is given

  7. Budget 2002: business taxation measures

    Blow, L.; Hawkins, M.; Klemm, A.; McCrae, J.; Simpson, H.

    2002-01-01

    Following the 2002 Budget, this Briefing Note examines some of the Chancellor's changes to business taxation. A number of Budget measures, including the research and development tax credit for large companies and the exemption of capital gains on the sale of subsidiaries, are welcome and should improve the efficiency of the UK's tax system. All of these measures were subject to extensive prior consultation. A number of other measures were not foreshadowed in the Pre-Budget Report. Three of th...

  8. Collection assessment and acquisitions budgets

    Lee, Sul H

    2013-01-01

    This invaluable new book contains timely information about the assessment of academic library collections and the relationship of collection assessment to acquisition budgets. The rising cost of information significantly influences academic libraries'abilities to acquire the necessary materials for students and faculty, and public libraries'abilities to acquire material for their clientele. Collection Assessment and Acquisitions Budgets examines different aspects of the relationship between the assessment of academic library collections and the management of library acquisition budgets. Librar

  9. The forgotten R and D budget

    Hunt, R.; Mohsberg, J.

    1992-01-01

    The research and development budget for hydropower has dwindled in recent years. Increased R and D funding could improve hydropower's effectiveness. Of the $1.5 trillion US budget for 1992, only $1 million was devoted to research and development (R and D) for hydroelectric generation. This is because hydropower has been branded a mature technology no longer in need of R and D. Nevertheless, as the source of nearly 10 percent of all US electricity, hydropower offers the nation's best opportunity for significant increased renewable energy production in the near future. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has estimated an additional 50,000 MW of hydropower capacity is potentially developable. Of the total $3 billion R and D budget for all DOE programs in 1992, the combined R and D amount for the other primary renewable energy resources was $161.3 million. Whether mature or not, all methods of producing electricity have attendant problems and development needs that must be addressed with sufficient R and D if the US is to remain energy independent, competitive and safe as a nation. In comparing R and D budget trends for electrical generating resources during the past 10 years there are several questions to be asked: Are other mature technologies, such as coal and nuclear power, receiving budget treatment similar to hydropower? What is the intended use of the R and D funds for these mature technologies? Is any technology - medical, communications, electrical generating or other - ever so mature as to be unable to benefit from R and D? What use could the hydropower industry make of additional R and D funding? What is the commitment of the administration and Congress to developing renewable energy resources when the source of 85 percent of current renewable energy receives only $1 million for R and D of the $3 billion DOE R and D budget? This article addresses these questions

  10. EFECTIVIDAD DEL MÉTODO DE FLUJO CON RECURRENCIA EN ESTUDIOS DE CIRCUITOS DE DISTRIBUCIÓN PRIMARIA; EFECTIVITY OF THE RECURRENT FLUX METHOD IN PRIMARY DISTRIBUTION STUDIES

    Raúl Nicolás Carvajal Pérez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Los estudios de circuitos de distribución comienzan con el cálculo de flujo de potencia por el circuito. Este refleja su estado actual en cuanto a pérdidas y caídas de tensión; básicos para cualquier análisis. Cuando se trabaja con técnicas genéticas, estos cálculos se realizan miles de veces. En este trabajo se sugiere un método de cálculo de flujo de potencia en circuitos de distribución radiales. Se aplica éste cuando solo se conoce la demanda total del circuito utilizando “Ardvinson” para asignar una “demanda de cálculo” a cada nodo. En esencia se realiza una primera iteración utilizando esa demanda y la tensión nominal del circuito en una dirección. La segunda iteración recurre a los valores obtenidos en la primera. Se exponen los cálculos realizados en un circuito real utilizando un sistema de cálculo específico y el Microsoft EXCEL para demostrar la rapidez del método y su nivel de exactitud. The first step in Distribution Circuits studios consist in power flux calculus. It shows the actual situation. of the circuit. When the studio is realized using genetic techniques, this step is repeated thousands times. A method to obtain power flux in distribution circuits is presented. The method is applied when only have the total circuit demand. Here is applied Ardvinson method to obtain “Calculus demand” in each node, realize the first iteration with these demand and nominal tension. Later, repeat the calculus using the values obtained before. An example of real circuit is resolved using specific software and EXCEL to demonstrate the efficiency of the method.

  11. A sediment budget for the southern reach in San Francisco Bay, CA: Implications for habitat restoration

    Shellenbarger, Gregory; Wright, Scott A.; Schoellhamer, David H.

    2013-01-01

    The South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project is overseeing the restoration of about 6000 ha of former commercial salt-evaporation ponds to tidal marsh and managed wetlands in the southern reach of San Francisco Bay (SFB). As a result of regional groundwater overdrafts prior to the 1970s, parts of the project area have subsided below sea-level and will require between 29 and 45 million m3 of sediment to raise the surface of the subsided areas to elevations appropriate for tidal marsh colonization and development. Therefore, a sufficient sediment supply to the far south SFB subembayment is a critical variable for achieving restoration goals. Although both major tributaries to far south SFB have been seasonally gaged for sediment since 2004, the sediment flux at the Dumbarton Narrows, the bayward boundary of far south SFB, has not been quantified until recently. Using daily suspended-sediment flux data from the gages on Guadalupe River and Coyote Creek, combined with continuous suspended-sediment flux data at Dumbarton Narrows, we computed a sediment budget for far south SFB during Water Years 2009–2011. A Monte Carlo approach was used to quantify the uncertainty of the flux estimates. The sediment flux past Dumbarton Narrows from the north dominates the input to the subembayment. However, environmental conditions in the spring can dramatically influence the direction of springtime flux, which appears to be a dominant influence on the net annual flux. It is estimated that up to several millennia may be required for natural tributary sediments to fill the accommodation space of the subsided former salt ponds, whereas supply from the rest of the bay could fill the space in several centuries. Uncertainty in the measurement of sediment flux is large, in part because small suspended-sediment concentration differences between flood and ebb tides can lead to large differences in total mass exchange. Using Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the random error associated with

  12. Dose budget for exposure control

    Nair, P.S.

    1999-01-01

    Dose budget is an important management tool to effectively control the collective dose incurred in a nuclear facility. The budget represents a set of yardsticks or guidelines for use in controlling the internal activities, involving radiation exposure in the organisation. The management, through budget can evaluate the radiation protection performance at every level of the organisation where a number of independent functional groups work on routine and non-routine jobs. The discrepancy between the plan and the actual performance is high lighted through the budgets. The organisation may have to change the course of its operation in a particular area or revise its plan with due focus on appropriate protective measures. (author)

  13. Developing an Earth system Inverse model for the Earth's energy and water budgets.

    Haines, K.; Thomas, C.; Liu, C.; Allan, R. P.; Carneiro, D. M.

    2017-12-01

    The CONCEPT-Heat project aims at developing a consistent energy budget for the Earth system in order to better understand and quantify global change. We advocate a variational "Earth system inverse" solution as the best methodology to bring the necessary expertise from different disciplines together. L'Ecuyer et al (2015) and Rodell et al (2015) first used a variational approach to adjust multiple satellite data products for air-sea-land vertical fluxes of heat and freshwater, achieving closed budgets on a regional and global scale. However their treatment of horizontal energy and water redistribution and its uncertainties was limited. Following the recent work of Liu et al (2015, 2017) which used atmospheric reanalysis convergences to derive a new total surface heat flux product from top of atmosphere fluxes, we have revisited the variational budget approach introducing a more extensive analysis of the role of horizontal transports of heat and freshwater, using multiple atmospheric and ocean reanalysis products. We find considerable improvements in fluxes in regions such as the North Atlantic and Arctic, for example requiring higher atmospheric heat and water convergences over the Arctic than given by ERA-Interim, thereby allowing lower and more realistic oceanic transports. We explore using the variational uncertainty analysis to produce lower resolution corrections to higher resolution flux products and test these against in situ flux data. We also explore the covariance errors implied between component fluxes that are imposed by the regional budget constraints. Finally we propose this as a valuable methodology for developing consistent observational constraints on the energy and water budgets in climate models. We take a first look at the same regional budget quantities in CMIP5 models and consider the implications of the differences for the processes and biases active in the models. Many further avenues of investigation are possible focused on better valuing

  14. Budgeting Time to Teach about the School Budget

    Weiss, Dale

    2011-01-01

    As a teacher in the Milwaukee Public Schools (MPS) for the past 16 years, the author has grown used to dismal budget cut news arriving each February. Although cuts are always frustrating and their results burdensome, the school has been able to "hang on" reasonably well. This year, however, the budget cuts were extreme. In this article,…

  15. Squeezing Flux Out of Fat

    Gonzalez-Franquesa, Alba; Patti, Mary-Elizabeth

    2018-01-01

    Merging transcriptomics or metabolomics data remains insufficient for metabolic flux estimation. Ramirez et al. integrate a genome-scale metabolic model with extracellular flux data to predict and validate metabolic differences between white and brown adipose tissue. This method allows both metab...

  16. Relevance of methodological choices for accounting of land use change carbon fluxes

    Pongratz, Julia; Hansis, Eberhard; Davis, Steven

    2015-04-01

    To understand and potentially steer how humans shape land-climate interactions it is important to accurately attribute greenhouse gas fluxes from land use and land cover change (LULCC) in space and time. However, such accounting of carbon fluxes from LULCC generally requires choosing from multiple options of how to attribute the fluxes to regions and to LULCC activities. Applying a newly-developed and spatially-explicit bookkeeping model, BLUE ("bookkeeping of land use emissions"), we quantify LULCC carbon fluxes and attribute them to land-use activities and countries by a range of different accounting methods. We present results with respect to a Kyoto Protocol-like ``commitment'' accounting period, using land use emissions of 2008-12 as example scenario. We assess the effect of accounting methods that vary (1) the temporal evolution of carbon stocks, (2) the state of the carbon stocks at the beginning of the period, (3) the temporal attribution of carbon fluxes during the period, and (4) treatment of LULCC fluxes that occurred prior to the beginning of the period. We show that the methodological choices result in grossly different estimates of carbon fluxes for the different attribution definitions. The global net flux in the accounting period varies between 4.3 Pg(C) uptake and 15.2 Pg(C) emissions, depending on the accounting method. Regional results show different modes of variation. This finding has implications for both political and scientific considerations: Not all methodological choices are currently specified under the UNFCCC treaties on land use, land-use change and forestry. Yet, a consistent accounting scheme is crucial to assure comparability of individual LULCC activities, quantify their relevance for the global annual carbon budget, and assess the effects of LULCC policies.

  17. Airflows and turbulent flux measurements in mountainous terrain: Part 1. Canopy and local effects

    Turnipseed, Andrew A.; Anderson, Dean E.; Blanken, Peter D.; Baugh, William M.; Monson, Russell K.

    2003-01-01

    We have studied the effects of local topography and canopy structure on turbulent flux measurements at a site located in mountainous terrain within a subalpine, coniferous forest. Our primary aim was to determine whether the complex terrain of the site affects the accuracy of eddy flux measurements from a practical perspective. We observed displacement heights, roughness lengths, spectral peaks, turbulent length scales, and profiles of turbulent intensities that were comparable in magnitude and pattern to those reported for forest canopies in simpler terrain. We conclude that in many of these statistical measures, the local canopy exerts considerably more influence than does topographical complexity. Lack of vertical flux divergence and modeling suggests that the flux footprints for the site are within the standards acceptable for the application of flux statistics. We investigated three different methods of coordinate rotation: double rotation (DR), triple rotation (TR), and planar-fit rotation (PF). Significant variability in rotation angles at low wind speeds was encountered with the commonly used DR and TR methods, as opposed to the PF method, causing some overestimation of the fluxes. However, these differences in fluxes were small when applied to large datasets involving sensible heat and CO2 fluxes. We observed evidence of frequent drainage flows near the ground during stable, stratified conditions at night. Concurrent with the appearance of these flows, we observed a positive bias in the mean vertical wind speed, presumably due to subtle topographic variations inducing a flow convergence below the measurement sensors. In the presence of such drainage flows, advection of scalars and non-zero bias in the mean vertical wind speed can complicate closure of the mass conservation budget at the site.

  18. Technical note: Rapid image-based field methods improve the quantification of termite mound structures and greenhouse-gas fluxes

    P. A. Nauer

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Termite mounds (TMs mediate biogeochemical processes with global relevance, such as turnover of the important greenhouse gas methane (CH4. However, the complex internal and external morphology of TMs impede an accurate quantitative description. Here we present two novel field methods, photogrammetry (PG and cross-sectional image analysis, to quantify TM external and internal mound structure of 29 TMs of three termite species. Photogrammetry was used to measure epigeal volume (VE, surface area (AE and mound basal area (AB by reconstructing 3-D models from digital photographs, and compared against a water-displacement method and the conventional approach of approximating TMs by simple geometric shapes. To describe TM internal structure, we introduce TM macro- and micro-porosity (θM and θμ, the volume fractions of macroscopic chambers, and microscopic pores in the wall material, respectively. Macro-porosity was estimated using image analysis of single TM cross sections, and compared against full X-ray computer tomography (CT scans of 17 TMs. For these TMs we present complete pore fractions to assess species-specific differences in internal structure. The PG method yielded VE nearly identical to a water-displacement method, while approximation of TMs by simple geometric shapes led to errors of 4–200 %. Likewise, using PG substantially improved the accuracy of CH4 emission estimates by 10–50 %. Comprehensive CT scanning revealed that investigated TMs have species-specific ranges of θM and θμ, but similar total porosity. Image analysis of single TM cross sections produced good estimates of θM for species with thick walls and evenly distributed chambers. The new image-based methods allow rapid and accurate quantitative characterisation of TMs to answer ecological, physiological and biogeochemical questions. The PG method should be applied when measuring greenhouse-gas emissions from TMs to avoid large errors from inadequate shape

  19. Numerical solution of one dimensional two-phase drift flux equations with a blend of partially and fully implicit methods

    Mahaffy, J.H.; Liles, D.R.

    1977-01-01

    A numerical method for treating two-phase flow in pipes is presented which incorporates the use of a partially implicit scheme in regions of relatively low flow velocity and a fully implicit treatment in regions of high velocity. This method takes advantage of the lower cost per iteration of the partially implicit scheme, without being limited by its conditional stability. Applications of this approach to water reactor blowdown calculations produce reductions in computer time by factors of 2 to 4 without a significant loss of accuracy

  20. Quantifying denitrification losses from a sub-tropical pasture in Queensland/Australia - use of the 15N gas flux method

    Friedl, Johannes; Scheer, Clemens; Warner, Daniel; Grace, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The microbial mediated production of nitrous oxide (N2O) and its reduction to dinitrogen (N2) via denitrification represents a loss of nitrogen (N) from fertilised agro ecosystems to the atmosphere. Although denitrification remains a major uncertainty in estimating N losses from soils, the magnitude of N2 losses and related N2:N2O ratios from soils are largely unknown due to difficulties measuring N2 against a high atmospheric background. In order to address this lack of data, this study investigated the influence of different soil moisture contents on N2 and N2O emissions from a sub-tropical pasture in Queensland/Australia using the 15N gas flux method. Intact soil cores were incubated over 14 days at 80% and 100% water filled pore space (WFPS). Gas samples were taken up to six times per day after application of 15N labelled nitrate, equivalent to 50 kg N ha-1 and analysed for N2 and N2O by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Fluxes were calculated assuming non-random 15N distribution in the headspace according to Mulvaney and Kurtz (1984) using the labelled pool of nitrate estimated from N2O measurements (Stevens and Laughlin 2001). The main product of denitrification in both treatments was N2. N2 emissions exceeded N2O emissions by a factor of 1.3 ± 0.3 at 80% WFPS and a factor of 3 ± 0.8 at 100% WFPS. The total amount of N-N2 lost over the incubation period was 13.5±1.0 kg N ha-1 at 80% WFPS and 21.8±1.8 kg ha-1 at 100% WFPS respectively. Over the entire incubation period, N2 emissions remained elevated at 100% WFPS, showing high variation between soil cores, while related N2O emissions decreased. At 80% WFPS, N2 emissions increased constantly over time showing significantly higher values after day five. At the same time, N2O fluxes declined. Consequently, N2:N2O ratios rose over the incubation period in both treatments. Overall denitrification rates and related N2:N2O ratios were higher at 100% WFPS compared to 80% WFPS, confirming WFPS as a major driver of