WorldWideScience

Sample records for fluoxastrobin pesticide tolerances

  1. 77 FR 64911 - Fluoxastrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... fluoxastrobin and its Z-isomer in or on poultry, liver; hog, fat; hog, meat byproducts; and rice, grain. Arysta...)methanone O- methyloxime, and its Z-isomer, (1Z)-[2-[[6-(2-chlorophenoxy)-5-fluoro- 4-pyrimydinyl]oxy]phenyl... toxicity studies in rabbits. iii. A 2-generation reproduction study in rats. 3. Conclusion. EPA has...

  2. 75 FR 60327 - Fluoxastrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... screening level estimates. Estimates are thought to be conservative, even when measures of central tendency... ``there is a reasonable certainty that no harm will result from aggregate exposure to the pesticide chemical residue, including all anticipated dietary exposures and all other exposures for which there is...

  3. 40 CFR 180.609 - Fluoxastrobin; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... subgroup 4B 4.0 Peanut 0.010 Peanut, hay 20.0 Peanut, refined oil 0.030 Soybean, forage 9.0 Soybean, hay 1... Vegetable, tuberous and corm, subgroup 1C 0.010 (2) Tolerances are established for residues of fluoxastrobin... Vegetable, foliage of legume, group 7 0.050 [74 FR 67113, Dec. 18, 2009] ...

  4. 77 FR 26467 - Fluoxastrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... petition, EPA has corrected the commodity definition for peanut oil. The reason for this change is... revised to agree with the Agency's Food and Feed Commodity Vocabulary. The petitioned for commodities were peanut and peanut oil. The correct commodity definitions are peanut and peanut, refined oil. V...

  5. 76 FR 50893 - Fluoxastrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ...,2-dioxazin-3-yl)methanone O- methyloxime, and its Z isomer, (1Z)-[2-[[6-(2-chlorophenoxy)-5-fluoro... induced. In the rat and rabbit developmental toxicity studies and the 2- generation reproduction rat study... including the subchronic, chronic toxicity/ carcinogenicity, 2-generation reproduction, and developmental...

  6. 76 FR 38036 - Propylene Oxide; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Propylene Oxide; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This regulation amends the propylene oxide tolerance on ``nut, tree, group...), announcing the Agency's proposal to amend the propylene oxide tolerance (40 CFR 180.491) on ``nut, tree...

  7. 77 FR 27130 - Ametoctradin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... material, such as copyrighted material, is not placed on the Internet and will be publicly available only... the USA, Australia, and Canada and import tolerance establishment in the European Union (EU) for... Pesticide Management Regulatory Agency of Canada (PMRA), and the EU. Although much effort was made to...

  8. 78 FR 78738 - Pendimethalin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... infants and children to the pesticide chemical residue in establishing a tolerance and to ``ensure that there is a reasonable certainty that no harm will result to infants and children from aggregate exposure... risk from residues of pendimethalin on almond hulls, which are an animal feed item. Based on that...

  9. 75 FR 5522 - Spiromesifen; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... decreased cholesterol, triglycerides), and spleen effects (atrophy, decreased spleen cell count, and... the metabolism studies to create a tolerance-equivalent value for the parent spiromesifen and the BSN... solubility of 40 to 50 [micro]g/L. The pesticide degrades primarily through aerobic soil metabolism and...

  10. Evolved pesticide tolerance in amphibians: Predicting mechanisms based on pesticide novelty and mode of action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua, Jessica; Jones, Devin K.; Mattes, Brian M.; Cothran, Rickey D.; Relyea, Rick A.; Hoverman, Jason T.

    2015-01-01

    We examined 10 wood frog populations distributed along an agricultural gradient for their tolerance to six pesticides (carbaryl, malathion, cypermethrin, permethrin, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam) that differed in date of first registration (pesticide novelty) and mode-of-action (MOA). Our goals were to assess whether: 1) tolerance was correlated with distance to agriculture for each pesticide, 2) pesticide novelty predicted the likelihood of evolved tolerance, and 3) populations display cross-tolerance between pesticides that share and differ in MOA. Wood frog populations located close to agriculture were more tolerant to carbaryl and malathion than populations far from agriculture. Moreover, the strength of the relationship between distance to agriculture and tolerance was stronger for older pesticides compared to newer pesticides. Finally, we found evidence for cross-tolerance between carbaryl and malathion (two pesticides that share MOA). This study provides one of the most comprehensive approaches for understanding patterns of evolved tolerance in non-pest species. - Highlights: • We explored patterns of tolerance to six insecticides across 10 wood frog populations. • We found evidence that wood frogs have evolved tolerance to carbaryl and malathion. • The likelihood of evolved tolerance was stronger for older compared to newer pesticides. • We found evidence for cross-tolerance between carbaryl and malathion. • This is one of the most comprehensive approaches studying evolved tolerance in a non-pest species. - Using 10 wood frog populations, we detected evidence for evolved tolerance, found that the evolved tolerance depends on insecticide novelty, and found evidence for cross-tolerance.

  11. 77 FR 18710 - Acetamiprid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ... member of the neonicotinoid class of pesticides which also includes thiamethoxam, clothianidin... preliminary evidence suggests that clothianidin operates by direct competitive inhibition, while thiamethoxam...

  12. 77 FR 60917 - Trinexapac-ethyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 RIN 2070-ZA16 Trinexapac-ethyl; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental... trinexapac-ethyl in or on multiple commodities and modifies existing tolerance levels and commodity definitions for trinexapac-ethyl, which are identified and discussed later in this document. EPA proposed...

  13. 76 FR 17611 - Propylene Oxide; Proposed Pesticide Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Propylene Oxide; Proposed Pesticide Tolerance AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This document proposes to amend the propylene oxide... this action, EPA is proposing to amend the propylene oxide tolerance ] (40 CFR 180.491) on ``nut, tree...

  14. Earthworm tolerance to residual agricultural pesticide contamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Givaudan, Nicolas; Binet, Françoise; Le Bot, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates if acclimatization to residual pesticide contamination in agricultural soils is reflected in detoxification, antioxidant enzyme activities and energy budget of earthworms. Five fields within a joint agricultural area exhibited different chemical and farming histories from...

  15. 78 FR 78740 - Isopyrazam; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... applies to them. Potentially affected entities may include: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS code 32532... weight gain in females; increased incidences of hepatocellular hypertrophy, pigment in centrilobular...

  16. 77 FR 46304 - Rimsulfuron; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... Research Project No. 4 (IR-4) requested these tolerances under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act... enforce the tolerance expression. The method may be requested from: Chief, Analytical Chemistry Branch...

  17. 77 FR 23625 - Quizalofop Ethyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... definition for several commodities. The Agency has also removed the established tolerance on canola, meal, as... 2.0 ppm, and EPA is revising the commodity definition for canola, meal to rapeseed, meal in order to... established tolerances on canola seed and canola meal, as they will be superseded by new tolerances. Finally...

  18. NAFTA Guidance on Data Requirements for Pesticide Import Tolerances: Questions & Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    These Qs&As provide details of implementation related to a guidance document describing the data requirements for establishing pesticide import tolerances in Canada and the United States: NAFTA Guidance on Data Requirements for Pesticide Import Tolerances.

  19. 77 FR 12207 - Pyroxasulfone; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... drinking water models used in pesticide exposure assessment can be found at http://www.epa.gov/oppefed1... drinking water and in residential settings, but does not include occupational exposure. Section 408(b)(2)(C... the prerequisite for subsequent hyperplasia and neoplasia. In other words, urinary bladder tumors do...

  20. 75 FR 17579 - Aminopyralid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... or on corn, field, forage; corn, field, grain; and corn, field, stover. Dow AgroSciences requested... not limited to those engaged in the following activities: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS code 32532...

  1. 75 FR 75389 - Metrafenone; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... affected by this action if you are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer.... FQPA SF = Food Quality Protection Act Safety Factor. LOC = level of concern. C. Exposure Assessment 1... the choice of a different factor. 2. Prenatal and postnatal sensitivity. There is no evidence of...

  2. 75 FR 17566 - Flutolanil; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... issues arising from pesticide application to rice paddies, EPA used the FARM rather than GENEEC or PRZM... adequate enforcement methodology, (Method AU/95R/04), a common moiety Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry... flutolanil. The commenter criticized EPA's reliance on toxicology testing on animals. The Agency has received...

  3. 77 FR 25904 - Acequinocyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... tasks associated with the use of acequinocyl including mixing and loading (if needed), and application... 870.6200) for pesticide registration. The toxicology database for acequinocyl does not show any... Morse Methods (Meth-135 and Meth-133, revision 3), two high-performance liquid chromatography methods...

  4. 76 FR 61592 - Isopyrazam; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... not limited to those engaged in the following activities: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS code 32532... and body weight gain in females; increased incidences of hepatocellular hypertrophy, pigment in...

  5. 78 FR 76987 - Mandipropamid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... determine whether this document applies to them. Potentially affected entities may include: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide... transferase, as well as periportal hypertrophy in rats; increased liver enzymes, increased pigment in...

  6. 75 FR 29441 - Novaluron; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... findings: i. The toxicity database for novaluron is complete except for immunotoxicity testing. Recent changes to 40 CFR part 158 make immunotoxicity testing (OPPTS Guideline 870.7800) required for pesticide... target the immune system and the Agency does not believe that conducting a functional immunotoxicity...

  7. 75 FR 33190 - Trifloxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... for trifloxystrobin is complete except for neurotoxicity and immunotoxicity testing. Recent changes to 40 CFR part 158 make neurotoxicity and immunotoxicity testing required for pesticide registration... immunotoxicity studies are needed to complete the database, there are no concerns for immunotoxicity or...

  8. 75 FR 29908 - Prothioconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... for prothioconazole is considered complete, with the exception of required functional immunotoxicity testing. The Agency began requiring functional immunotoxicity testing of all food and non-food use pesticides on December 26, 2007. Although an immunotoxicity study in the mouse is part of the existing...

  9. 75 FR 69005 - Flumioxazin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... complete except for immunotoxicity, acute neurotoxicity, and sub-chronic neurotoxicity testing. Recent...), and immunotoxicity testing (OPPTS Test Guideline 870.7800) required for pesticide registration... effects are not considered to be the result of potential immunotoxicity. Thus, EPA has concluded that...

  10. 78 FR 40017 - Ethalfluralin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... immunotoxicity testing and acute and subchronic neurotoxicity testing for pesticide registration. In 2012, EPA..., the immunotoxicity study remains a data requirement at this time. Although an immunotoxicity study has... immunotoxicity in the toxicology database; it does not appear that ethalfluralin directly targets the immune...

  11. 78 FR 20461 - Flumioxazin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... U.S.C. 346a(d)(3), announcing the filing of a pesticide petition (PP 2E7982) by IR-4, 500 College... derivation of reference values for risk assessment. PODs are developed based on a careful analysis of the... (MOE). For non-threshold risks, the Agency assumes that any amount of exposure will lead to some degree...

  12. 78 FR 19130 - Clothianidin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... pesticide petitions ((PP) 1E7923 and 2F8008) by IR-4, IR-4 Headquarters, 500 College Road East, Suite 201 W... toxicological POD is used as the basis for derivation of reference values for risk assessment. PODs are... amount of exposure will lead to some degree of risk. Thus, the Agency estimates risk in terms of the...

  13. 78 FR 42693 - Hexythiazox; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    ... ruminant meat byproducts from 0.05 ppm to 0.5 ppm (PP 2F8054); and by amending the regional restriction of... Agriculture's 2003-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, What We Eat in America (NHANES/WWEIA... the ruminant meat byproduct tolerances to 0.5 ppm and an increase in the current egg tolerance to 0.05...

  14. 76 FR 27268 - Glyphosate; Pesticide Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    .... Monsanto Company requested this tolerance under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA). DATES... from: Chief, Analytical Chemistry Branch, Environmental Science Center, 701 Mapes Rd., Ft. Meade, MD... Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) contemplates that tolerances greater than zero may be set when...

  15. 76 FR 34877 - Difenoconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ...; horse, liver; sheep, liver; and decreases the existing tolererance for egg and revises the tolerance... to 0.40 ppm for the livers of cattle, goat, hog, horse, and sheep; decreased the existing tolerance... based on developmental toxicity studies in rats and rabbits, and a reproduction study in rats as fetal...

  16. 76 FR 53641 - Tetraconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ..., horse and sheep based on the proposed tolerances and revisions to existing feed commodity tolerances. 4... highest dose tested. A 2-generation rat reproduction study also revealed no increased quantitative... reproduction study. 3. Conclusion. EPA has determined that reliable data show the safety of infants and...

  17. 77 FR 49732 - Cyprodinil; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-17

    ... reliable information.'' This includes exposure through drinking water and in residential settings, but does.../puree (1x) and lemon/lime juice (1x) were used to modify the tolerance values. iii. Cancer. Based on the... the date of issuance of these tolerances. 2. Dietary exposure from drinking water. The Agency used...

  18. 76 FR 34883 - Pesticide Tolerances; Technical Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ... be affected. The North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS) codes have been provided to...; tolerances for residues. * * * * * (b) Section 18 emergency exemptions. * * * * * 0 4. In Sec. 180.110, revise paragraph (b) to read as follows: Sec. 180.110 Maneb; tolerances for residues. * * * * * (b...

  19. 75 FR 22256 - Difenoconazole Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... tolerances and to establish new tolerances for new uses of metconazole (canola, corn, cotton, and sugarcane... CFR 180.475. Method AG-575B (gas chromatography/nitrogen-phosphorus detection) is available for... livestock and methods AG-544A (gas chromatography/nitrogen-phosphorus [[Page 22261

  20. 78 FR 14461 - Fenpyrazamine; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    ... Agency estimates risk in terms of the probability of an occurrence of the adverse effect expected in a...) and tolerance level residues of parent fenpyrazamine plus the maximum residue of S-2188-DC (expressed... tolerance level residues of parent fenpyrazamine plus the maximum residue of S-2188-DC (expressed as parent...

  1. 77 FR 73937 - Spirodiclofen; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ...-dichlorophenyl)-2-oxo-1- oxaspiro[4.5]dec-3-en-4-yl 2,2-dimethylbutanoate in or on apple, wet pomace and grape....regulations.gov or at the Office of Pesticide Programs Regulatory Public Docket (OPP Docket) in the...., Washington, DC 20460-0001. The Public Reading Room is open from 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., Monday through Friday...

  2. 77 FR 47296 - Flutriafol; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ... Agency Docket Center (EPA/DC), located in EPA West, Rm. 3334, 1301 Constitution Ave. NW., Washington, DC.../Nitrogen/ Phosphorus detector (GS/NPD) method for proposed tolerances and method ICIA AM00306 for ruminant...

  3. 78 FR 66651 - Imazapyr; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... tolerances under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA). DATES: This regulation is effective... requested from: Chief, Analytical Chemistry Branch, Environmental Science Center, 701 Mapes Rd., Ft. Meade...

  4. 77 FR 48907 - Fludioxonil; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... exposures for which there is reliable information.'' This includes exposure through drinking water and in..., lemon, lime, orange, pear, tomato, head lettuce, leaf lettuce, fresh parsley, brassica leafy vegetables... tolerances. [[Page 48911

  5. 77 FR 65827 - Trifloxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... Tolerances for Residues in/on Field, Sweet and Pop Corn,'' pp. 17-21 in docket ID number EPA-HQ-OPP-2009-0278... Methodology Adequate enforcement methodology (gas chromatography with nitrogen phosphorus detection (GC/NPD...

  6. 78 FR 9322 - Hexythiazox; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... of the potential increase of hexythiazox in the poultry diet, largely due to alfalfa use, and based on updated maximum reasonably balanced diet (MRBD) calculations for poultry, tolerances for eggs...

  7. 77 FR 60311 - Chlorantraniliprole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... utilize a reasonably balanced diet that considered nutritional needs of livestock. C. Response to Comments... the methods of diet calculation. The United States tolerances include more livestock feed items than...

  8. 77 FR 66721 - Metconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ... into account the makeup of the livestock diet. EPA's analysis of the impact of raising the corn stover tolerance shows that there will be no increase in the maximum reasonably balanced dietary burden for beef...

  9. 75 FR 53586 - Bifenazate; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ...-limited tolerances for tart cherry, soybean hulls, soybean meal, soybean refined oil, and soybean seed, as...%; pepper 1%; pistachio 1%; plum 5%; strawberry 30%; tomato 1%; walnut 1%; and watermelon 1%. One hundred...

  10. 76 FR 55807 - Novaluron; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... and allowed to evaporate until equilibrium is reached. ii. There were signs of neurotoxicity in the... tolerance expression. The methods may be requested from: Chief, Analytical Chemistry Branch, Environmental...

  11. 75 FR 53581 - Spiromesifen; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... phosphatase, ALT and decreased cholesterol, triglycerides), and spleen effects (atrophy, decreased spleen cell... assessment purposes only. EPA used data from the lettuce metabolism studies to create a tolerance-equivalent...

  12. 78 FR 32146 - Triforine; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... triforine residues to be imported into the United States. III. Aggregate Risk Assessment and Determination... determination on aggregate exposure for triforine including exposure resulting from the tolerances established........... day. decreased RBC, hematocrit, hemoglobin values and siderosis in the liver, spleen, and bone marrow...

  13. 78 FR 40027 - Novaluron; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... Assessment and Determination of Safety Section 408(b)(2)(A)(i) of FFDCA allows EPA to establish a tolerance... make a determination on aggregate exposure for novaluron including exposure resulting from the... hematotoxic effects such as methemoglobinemia, decreased hemoglobin, decreased hematocrit, and decreased red...

  14. 77 FR 8746 - Indoxacarb; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 [EPA-HQ-OPP-2011-0578; FRL-9336-7] Indoxacarb... regulation establishes tolerances for residues of indoxacarb in or on egg, poultry fat, poultry meat, and... under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA). DATES: This regulation is effective February 15...

  15. 75 FR 22240 - Cyprodinil; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... canola, seed. Syngenta Crop Protection, Inc. requested these tolerances under the Federal Food, Drug, and... on canola, seed, imported at 0.03 parts per million (ppm). That notice referenced a summary of the... Canola Seed'', pp. 24 through 27, in docket ID number EPA-HQ-OPP-2009-0551. B. Toxicological Points of...

  16. 76 FR 69642 - Flutriafol; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... tested in guinea pigs. Short-term, subchronic, and chronic toxicity studies in rats, mice, and dogs.... C. Revisions to Petitioned-For Tolerances Based on an analysis of residue levels from crop field... Facility is open from 8:30 a.m. to 4 p.m., Monday through Friday, excluding legal holidays. The Docket...

  17. 78 FR 69562 - Fenpropathrin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... food) only if EPA determines that the tolerance is ``safe.'' Section 408(b)(2)(A)(ii) of FFDCA defines... were observed for both adults and pups, reducing concern for quantitative or qualitative sensitivity... sensitivity in the young, specifically in the form of neurotoxicity. Examination of pharmacokinetic and...

  18. 76 FR 70890 - Fenamidone; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... definitions for which tolerances are being established. The reason for these changes is explained in Unit IV.C... feces, hunched posture and unsteady gait. In a developmental neurotoxicity study in Wistar rats, no... FQPA SF = 1x in the feces, and unsteady gait in the females. Chronic dietary (All populations).. NOAEL...

  19. 76 FR 16308 - Dichlormid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... commodities. Dow AgroSciences requested these tolerances under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA... chemistry and toxicology studies, as identified in the March 27, 2000 and September 30, 2004 final rules. In... chemistry and toxicology data (including immunotoxicity testing) have all been submitted and reviewed, so...

  20. 78 FR 36671 - Acetamiprid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... of cattle, goat, horse, and sheep, and milk. Tolerances in cattle, goat, horse, and sheep meat are proposed at 0.30 ppm; cattle, goat, horse, and sheep fat at 0.20 ppm; cattle, goat, horse, and sheep meat... observed in fetuses at doses that reduced maternal body weight and food consumption. In the reproduction...

  1. 78 FR 57280 - Chlorantraniliprole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    .../day) in rats or rabbits in the development or 2-generation reproduction studies. Moreover, there were... rats or rabbits in the prenatal developmental studies or in young rats in the 2-generation reproduction... livestock necessitates increased tolerances for cattle, sheep, horse, and goat meat byproducts from 0.2 ppm...

  2. 76 FR 28675 - Spirotetramat; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... in the 2-generation reproduction study. iv. There are no residual uncertainties identified in the... byproducts of hog and poultry, and revise the tolerances on meat byproducts of cattle, goat, horse, and sheep... byproducts 0.02 Sheep, fat 0.02 Sheep, meat 0.02 Sheep, meat byproducts 0.20 * * * * * [FR Doc. 2011-11937...

  3. 75 FR 14086 - Clopyralid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... docket ID number EPA-HQ-OPP-2009-0092, by one of the following methods: Federal eRulemaking Portal: http... serum glucose, protein, and albumin) were observed at the highest dose tested (HDT). In the rat... to residue levels in food, EPA used tolerance- level residues, Dietary Exposure Evaluation Model...

  4. 78 FR 48068 - Topramezone; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... methods: Federal eRulemaking Portal: http://www.regulations.gov . Follow the online instructions for... Evaluation Model (DEEM) 7.81 default processing factors, and tolerance-level residues. ii. Chronic exposure... from proteins in the diet). Inhibition of HPPD can result in elevated tyrosine levels in the blood, a...

  5. 76 FR 18899 - Indaziflam; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... electronic version of EPA's tolerance regulations at 40 CFR part 180 through the Government Printing Office's... commodities Australian desert lime, Australian finger lime, Australian round lime, Brown River finger lime... substantial direct effect on States or tribal governments, on the relationship between the national government...

  6. 77 FR 10962 - Flazasulfuron; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... electronic version of EPA's tolerance regulations at 40 CFR part 180 through the Government Printing Office's... group 10 included adding Australian desert lime, Australian finger lime, Australian round lime, Brown... substantial direct effect on States or tribal governments, on the relationship between the national government...

  7. 78 FR 29041 - Sulfoxaflor; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ... Citrus Fruits at 0.6 ppm (from orange at 0.6 ppm; lemon at 0.45 ppm; grapefruit at 0.25 ppm); citrus... exposure through drinking water and in residential settings, but does not include occupational exposure... of issuance of these tolerances. 2. Dietary exposure from drinking water. The Agency used screening...

  8. 78 FR 76561 - Endothall; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ... for grain 36%, corn for grain 19%, dry beans 32%, grape 95%, grape fresh market 99%, grape processing... production that is irrigated. Estimates from this method are provided for barley, corn, dry edible beans... nitrogen detection and a confirmatory HPLC/MSD method) is available to enforce the tolerance expression...

  9. 77 FR 13502 - Pyriofenone; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... uses a different additional safety factor when reliable data available to EPA support the choice of a... and grape, raisin. ISK BioSciences Corporation requested these tolerances under the Federal Food, Drug... INFORMATION: I. General Information A. Does this action apply to me? You may be potentially affected by this...

  10. 78 FR 28507 - Spirotetramat; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    ...-azaspiro[4.5]decan-2-one, calculated as spirotetramat equivalents, in or on taro, leaves at 9 parts per..., group 11-10 at 0.7 ppm; fruit, citrus, group 10-10 at 0.6 ppm; pineapple at 0.3 ppm; pineapple, process... determined that the proposed tolerances on pineapple, process residue, and coffee, roast beans, are not...

  11. 76 FR 50904 - Thiamethoxam; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... (Group 9), and Cereal Grains (Group 15, except rice).'' Specific information on the studies received and... effects were identified for thiamethoxam. In estimating acute dietary exposure, EPA used food consumption... consumption data from the USDA 1994-1996 and 1998 CSFII. As to residue levels in food, EPA assumed tolerance...

  12. 75 FR 35653 - Thiamethoxam; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ... (Group 5), Fruiting Vegetables (Group 8), Cucurbit Vegetables (Group 9), and Cereal Grains (Group 15... identified for thiamethoxam. In estimating acute dietary exposure, EPA used food consumption information from... consumption data from the USDA 1994-1996 and 1998 CSFII. As to residue levels in food, EPA assumed tolerance...

  13. 77 FR 26462 - Dimethomorph; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... regulation amends the tolerances for residues of dimethomorph, (E,Z)-4-[3-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-(3,4... either of the two developmental toxicity studies or in the 2-generation reproduction study. In either of...-generation reproduction study. iv. There are no residual uncertainties identified in the exposure databases...

  14. 78 FR 25396 - Glyphosate; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... safety standards-setting organization in trade agreements to which the United States is a party. EPA may... or on cotton seed at 40 ppm, sunflower seed at 7 ppm, and rape seed at 20 ppm. The MRL for cotton... policy concerning significant figures. V. Conclusion Therefore, tolerances are established for residues...

  15. 77 FR 38199 - Propiconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... experimental animals by the oral, dermal and inhalation routes. It is moderately irritating to the eyes, and... susceptible to its toxicity than rats. Decreased body weight gain in experimental animals was seen in... available to enforce the tolerance expression. The method may be requested from: Chief, Analytical Chemistry...

  16. 75 FR 24428 - Spirodiclofen; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... new study using identical experimental conditions as the previous study. The results of the new study... conducted using the identical doses and experimental conditions. The concern for increased susceptibility in... tolerance expression. The method may be requested from: Chief, Analytical Chemistry Branch, Environmental...

  17. 77 FR 72226 - Picoxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ....0 ppm; soybean oil at 0.05 ppm; canola seed at 0.05 ppm; meat and meat byproducts except liver of... barley at 0.04 ppm; vegetable, foliage of legume, except soybean, subgroup 7A at 40.0 ppm. Crop group 16... oil at 1.5 ppm is revised to corn, field, refined oil at 0.07 ppm. The proposed tolerance for cereal...

  18. 40 CFR 180.6 - Pesticide tolerances regarding milk, eggs, meat, and/or poultry; statement of policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pesticide tolerances regarding milk... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Definitions and Interpretative Regulations § 180.6 Pesticide tolerances regarding milk...

  19. 76 FR 54185 - Fenamiphos; Proposed Data Call-In Order for Pesticide Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... of a family of pesticides known as the organophosphates. EPA has concluded fenamiphos and other organophosphate pesticides share a common mechanism of toxicity. As with other organophosphates, the principal... completed its cumulative risk assessment for the organophosphate pesticides finding that these tolerances...

  20. 75 FR 57942 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... fungicide sulfur dioxide (from sodium metabisulfite), in or on blueberry at 10 ppm. An adequate residue... tolerance in 40 CFR part 180 for residues of the fungicide oxytetracycline, in or on cucurbits, crop group 9..., proposes to establish a tolerance in 40 CFR part 180 for residues of the fungicide fluoxastrobin, (1E)-[2...

  1. Pesticide tolerant and phosphorus solubilizing Pseudomonas sp. strain SGRAJ09 isolated from pesticides treated Achillea clavennae rhizosphere soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasankar, R; Manju Gayathry, G; Sathiavelu, A; Ramalingam, C; Saravanan, V S

    2013-05-01

    In this study, an attempt was made to identify an effective phosphate solubilizing bacteria from pesticide polluted field soil. Based on the formation of solubilization halo on Pikovskaya's agar, six isolates were selected and screened for pesticide tolerance and phosphate (P) solubilization ability through liquid assay. The results showed that only one strain (SGRAJ09) obtained from Achillea clavennae was found to tolerate maximum level of the pesticides tested and it was phylogenetically identified as Pseudomonas sp. It possessed a wide range of pesticide tolerance, ranging from 117 μg mL(-1) for alphamethrin to 2,600 μg mL(-1) for endosulfan. The available P concentrations increased with the maximum and double the maximum dose of monocrotophos and imidacloprid, respectively. On subjected to FT-IR and HPLC analysis, the presence of organic acids functional group in the culture broth and the production of gluconic acid as dominant acid aiding the P solubilization were identified. On comparison with control broth, monocrotophos and imidacloprid added culture broth showed quantitatively high organic acids production. In addition to gluconic acid production, citric and acetic acids were also observed in the pesticide amended broth. Furthermore, the Pseudomonas sp. strain SGRAJ09 possessed all the plant growth promoting traits tested. In presence of monocrotophos and imidacloprid, its plant growth promoting activities were lower than that of the pesticides unamended treatment.

  2. 40 CFR 174.508 - Pesticidal substance from sexually compatible plant; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... compatible plant; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.508 Section 174.508 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.508 Pesticidal substance from...

  3. 77 FR 72223 - Clodinafop-Propargyl; Pesticide Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... observed only in males at the highest treatment-dose (71 mg/kg/day), and were fully reversed after a 4-week..., Pesticides and pests, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements. Dated: November 27, 2012. G. Jeffrey Herndon...

  4. 77 FR 66715 - Fluridone; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ... Printing Office's e-CFR site at: http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-idx?&c=ecfr&tpl=/ecfrbrowse... http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/trac/science/trac6a05.pdf . 4. Cumulative effects from substances with a...

  5. 75 FR 5515 - Hexythiazox; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... in or on corn, sweet, plus cobs with husks removed (K+CWHR); corn, sweet, forage; and corn, sweet... Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) authorizing use of the pesticide on sweet corn... not limited to: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food...

  6. 77 FR 59561 - Sulfoxaflor; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer. Potentially affected entities may include, but are... human population (intraspecies). FQPA SF = Food Quality Protection Act Safety Factor. PAD = population... reliable data available to EPA support the choice of a different factor. 2. Prenatal and postnatal...

  7. 78 FR 13257 - Pyraflufen-ethyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer. The following list of North American Industrial Classification System... lawns (residential, industrial, and institutional), parks, cemeteries, athletic fields, golf courses...) exposures, (2) residential handlers are assumed to be wearing short-sleeved shirts, short pants, shoes, and...

  8. 76 FR 55814 - 2,4-D; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... harm'' and ``only long term studies can provide data on the health impact of exposure to these... other material, such as copyrighted material, is not placed on the Internet and will be publicly... harm will result from aggregate exposure to the pesticide chemical residue, including all anticipated...

  9. 78 FR 53047 - Halosulfuron-methyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ...), announcing the filing of a pesticide petition (PP 2E8050) by IR-4, IR-4 Project Headquarters, 500 College Rd... basis for derivation of reference values for risk assessment. PODs are developed based on a careful... (MOE). For non-threshold risks, the Agency assumes that any amount of exposure will lead to some degree...

  10. 77 FR 67282 - Dinotefuran; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This regulation establishes time-limited tolerances for... published a final rule establishing tolerances for residues of dinotefuran in 40 CFR 180.603(a) in or on berry, low growing, except strawberry, subgroup 13-07H; fruit, small, vine climbing, except fuzzy...

  11. 77 FR 4248 - Cyazofamid; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ....gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-idx?&c=ecfr&tpl=/ecfrbrowse/Title40/40tab_02.tpl . http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-idx?&c=ecfr&tpl=/ecfrbrowse/Title40/40tab_02.tpl . To access the harmonized test...: http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/trac/science/trac6a05.pdf . 4. Cumulative effects from substances with a...

  12. 77 FR 48899 - Flutriafol; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... Docket in the Environmental Protection Agency Docket Center (EPA/DC), located in EPA West, Rm. 3334, 1301... methodology (gas chromatography/Nitrogen/ Phosphorus detector (NPD) for tolerances and method ICIA AM00306 for...

  13. 77 FR 25903 - Thiamethoxam; Pesticide Tolerances; Technical Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... previously established tolerances for caneberry subgroup 13-07A; mustard, seed; onion, dry bulb; papaya... thiamethoxam in or on: Caneberry subgroup 13-07A at 0.35 parts per million (ppm); mustard, seed at 0.02 ppm.... Section 180.565 is corrected by alphabetically adding: Caneberry subgroup 13-07A; mustard, seed; onion...

  14. 77 FR 75855 - Spirotetramat; Pesticide Tolerance for Emergency Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ..., identified by docket ID number EPA-HQ-OPP-2012-0900, by one of the following methods: Federal eRulemaking... surrounding areas, and attack the apical stem tips of plants. Watercress plants respond with reduced vigor... with tandem spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS), is available to enforce the tolerance expression. The method may...

  15. 76 FR 55799 - Mandipropamid; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... Office's e-CFR site at http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-idx?&c=ecfr&tpl=/ecfrbrowse/Title40..., clinical chemistry, organ weights, and/or histopathology indicates that mandipropamid does not directly... to enforce the tolerance expression. The method may be requested from: Chief, Analytical Chemistry...

  16. 77 FR 41346 - Trinexapac-ethyl; Proposed Pesticide Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ...'' as these changes are needed to correct inadvertent typographical errors listed in the final rule... proposing to correct these errors. In March 2, 2012 rule and the risk assessment underlying the rule, EPA... mass spectrometry) is available to enforce the tolerance expression. The method may be requested from...

  17. Impact of Pesticide Resistance on Toxicity and Tolerance of Hostplant Phytochemicals in Amyelois Transitella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagchi, Vikram A; Siegel, Joel P; Demkovich, Mark R; Zehr, Luke N; Berenbaum, May R

    2016-01-01

    For some polyphagous insects, adaptation to phytochemically novel plants can enhance resistance to certain pesticides, but whether pesticide resistance expands tolerance to phytochemicals has not been examined. Amyelois transitella Walker (navel orangeworm) is an important polyphagous pest of nut and fruit tree crops in California. Bifenthrin resistance, partially attributable to enhanced cytochrome P450 (P450)-mediated detoxification, has been reported in an almond-infesting population exposed to intense pesticide selection. We compared the toxicity of bifenthrin and three phytochemicals-chlorogenic acid, and the furanocoumarins xanthotoxin and bergapten-to three strains of A. transitella: pyrethroid-resistant R347 (maintained in the laboratory for ∼10 generations), fig-derived FIG (in the laboratory for ∼25 generations), and CPQ-a laboratory strain derived from almonds ∼40 years ago). Whereas both Ficus carica (fig) and Prunus dulcis (almond) contain chlorogenic acid, furanocoumarins occur only in figs. Both R347 and FIG exhibited 2-fold greater resistance to the three phytochemicals compared with CPQ; surprisingly, bifenthrin resistance was highest in FIG. Piperonyl butoxide, a P450 synergist, increased toxicity of all three phytochemicals only in CPQ, implicating alternate tolerance mechanisms in R347 and FIG. To test the ability of the strains to utilize novel hostplants directly, we compared survival on diets containing seeds of Wisteria sinensis and Prosopis pallida, two non-host Fabaceae species; survival of FIG was highest and survival of R347 was lowest. Our results suggest that, while P450-mediated pesticide resistance enhances tolerance of certain phytochemicals in this species, it is only one of multiple biochemical adaptations associated with acquiring novel hostplants. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... few. Top of Page How do pesticides work? Pesticides are designed to interfere with some biological or chemical pathway critical to the survival of the pest to which it is targeted. When the pesticide interrupts these pathways, the target organism dies. Top ...

  19. 76 FR 49318 - Import Tolerances; Order Denying ABC's Petition to Revoke Import Tolerances for Various Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... Agriculture. Section 408 was substantially rewritten by the Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 (FQPA), which...''); Seattle Audubon Soc'y v. Evans, 781 F. Supp. 1502 (9th Cir. 1991) (finding no government liability in....S. EPA, Report of the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) Tolerance Reassessment Progress and Risk...

  20. 77 FR 32401 - 2,6-Diisopropylnaphthalene (2,6-DIPN) and Its Metabolites and Degradates; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ...-Diisopropylnaphthalene (2,6-DIPN) and Its Metabolites and Degradates; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental...,6- Diisopropylnaphthalene (2,6-DIPN) and it's metabolites and degradates in or on certain... metabolites and degradates, 2,6- DIPN and its metabolites and degradates, in or on potato, granules/flakes at...

  1. Ternary cycle treatment of high saline wastewater from pesticide production using a salt-tolerant microorganism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiang; Du, Ya-guang; Qu, Yi; Du, Dong-yun

    2013-01-01

    The material of this study is provided by biological aerobic treatment of high saline wastewater from pesticide production. The microorganism used for biodegradation has been identified by gene-sequencing as a strain of Bacillus sp. SCUN. The best growth condition for the salt-tolerant microorganism has been studied by varying the pH, immobilized microorganism dosage and temperature conditions. The feasibility of pretreating wastewater in ethyl chloride production containing 4% NaCl has been discussed. It was found that under the pH range of 6.0-8.0, immobilized microorganism dosage of 1.5 g/L, temperature of 30 °C, and NaCl concentration of 0-3%, the microorganism achieves the best growth for biodegradation. After domestication, the strain can grow under 4% NaCl. This salt-tolerant microorganism is effective in the pretreated high saline wastewater. With a newly developed ternary cycle treatment, the chemical oxygen demand removal approaches 58.3%. The theoretical basis and a new method for biological treatments in biodegradation of high saline wastewater in ethyl chloride production are discussed.

  2. 75 FR 44181 - Mevinphos; Proposed Data Call-in Order for Pesticide Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... a family of pesticides known as the organophosphates. EPA has concluded mevinphos and other organophosphate pesticides share a common mechanism of toxicity. As with other organophosphates, the principal... 2006, EPA completed its cumulative risk assessment for the organophosphate pesticides finding that...

  3. 77 FR 8755 - Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Temporary Tolerance Exemption for Residues of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... Residues of Prohydrojasmon in or on Various Commodities AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities. DATES: Comments must be received on or before... modification of a regulation in 40 CFR part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food...

  4. Integrating both interaction pathways between warming and pesticide exposure on upper thermal tolerance in high- and low-latitude populations of an aquatic insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Op de Beeck, Lin; Verheyen, Julie; Stoks, Robby

    2017-05-01

    Global warming and chemical pollution are key anthropogenic stressors with the potential to interact. While warming can change the impact of pollutants and pollutants can change the sensitivity to warming, both interaction pathways have never been integrated in a single experiment. Therefore, we tested the effects of warming and multiple pesticide pulses (allowing accumulation) of chlorpyrifos on upper thermal tolerance (CTmax) and associated physiological traits related to aerobic/anaerobic energy production in the damselfly Ischnura elegans. To also assess the role of latitude-specific thermal adaptation in shaping the impact of warming and pesticide exposure on thermal tolerance, we exposed larvae from replicated high- and low-latitude populations to the pesticide in a common garden rearing experiment at 20 and 24 °C, the mean summer water temperatures at high and low latitudes. As expected, exposure to chlorpyrifos resulted in a lower CTmax. Yet, this pesticide effect on CTmax was lower at 24 °C compared to 20 °C because of a lower accumulation of chlorpyrifos in the medium at 24 °C. The effects on CTmax could partly be explained by reduction of the aerobic scope. Given that these effects did not differ between latitudes, gradual thermal evolution is not expected to counteract the negative effect of the pesticide on thermal tolerance. By for the first time integrating both interaction pathways we were not only able to provide support for both of them, but more importantly demonstrate that they can directly affect each other. Indeed, the warming-induced reduction in pesticide impact generated a lower pesticide-induced climate change sensitivity (in terms of decreased upper thermal tolerance). Our results indicate that, assuming no increase in pesticide input, global warming might reduce the negative effect of multiple pulse exposures to pesticides on sensitivity to elevated temperatures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Competition magnifies the impact of a pesticide in a warming world by reducing heat tolerance and increasing autotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Op de Beeck, Lin; Verheyen, Julie; Stoks, Robby

    2018-02-01

    There is increasing concern that standard laboratory toxicity tests may be misleading when assessing the impact of toxicants, because they lack ecological realism. Both warming and biotic interactions have been identified to magnify the effects of toxicants. Moreover, while biotic interactions may change the impact of toxicants, toxicants may also change the impact of biotic interactions. However, studies looking at the impact of biotic interactions on the toxicity of pesticides and vice versa under warming are very scarce. Therefore, we tested how warming (+4 °C), intraspecific competition (density treatment) and exposure to the pesticide chlorpyrifos, both in isolation and in combination, affected mortality, cannibalism, growth and heat tolerance of low- and high-latitude populations of the damselfly Ischnura elegans. Moreover, we addressed whether toxicant exposure, potentially in interaction with competition and warming, increased the frequency of autotomy, a widespread antipredator mechanism. Competition increased the toxicity of chlorpyrifos and made it become lethal. Cannibalism was not affected by chlorpyrifos but increased at high density and under warming. Chlorpyrifos reduced heat tolerance but only when competition was high. This is the first demonstration that a biotic interaction can be a major determinant of 'toxicant-induced climate change sensitivity'. Competition enhanced the impact of chlorpyrifos under warming for high-latitude larvae, leading to an increase in autotomy which reduces fitness in the long term. This points to a novel pathway how transient pesticide pulses may cause delayed effects on populations in a warming world. Our results highlight that the interplay between biotic interactions and toxicants have a strong relevance for ecological risk assessment in a warming polluted world. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Enhanced Tolerance of House Mosquito to Different Insecticides due to Agricultural and Household Pesticides in Sewage System of Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Vatandoost, L Ezeddinloo, A H Mahvi, M R Abai, EB Kia, I Mobedi

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Different insecticides are being used for household and agricultural pest control in the capital city of Iran, Tehran. An investigation was carried out in order to evaluate the susceptibility level of laboratory and field collected mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatusin to different insecticides. Field strain was collected from sewage system of the city. Adult females were subjected to the diagnostic dose of different insecticides as recommended by WHO. Results showed that laboratory strains only exhibit resistant to DDT 4%, and susceptible to other insecticides. By using WHO criteria, field strain is resistant to DDT 4%, bendiocarb 0.1%, and tolerant to malathion 5%, permethrin 0.75%, deltamethrin 0.05%, lambdacyhalothrin 0.05% and etofenprox 5%. The field strain is still susceptible to cyfluthrin 0.15%.This findings indicate that routine use of pesticides in household and agricultural pest control may cause resistant in the wastewater mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus.

  7. Impact of pesticide resistance on toxicity and tolerance of hostplant phytochemicals in Amyelois transitella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    For some polyphagous insects adaptation to phytochemically novel plants confers enhanced resistance to insecticides, but whether insecticide resistance enhances tolerance to novel phytochemicals has not been assessed. We used Amyelois transitella Walker (navel orangeworm), an economically important ...

  8. 77 FR 75859 - Pyraflufen-Ethyl; Extension of Time-Limited Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA). DATES: This regulation is effective December 26... tolerance expression. The method may be requested from: Chief, Analytical Chemistry Branch, Environmental... existing legal framework provided by section 408 of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) states...

  9. 77 FR 30402 - Acibenzolar- S -methyl; Time-Limited Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... pears 0.05 parts per million (ppm) in conjunction with approval of an experimental use permit. That..., tolerance level residues for the Experimental Use Permit (EUP) uses and maximum PCT estimates were used for... may be requested from: Chief, Analytical Chemistry Branch, Environmental Science Center, 701 Mapes Rd...

  10. Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønder, Lars

    Tolerance: A Sensorial Orientation to Politics is an experiment in re-orientation. The book is based on the wager that tolerance exceeds the more prevalent images of self-restraint and repressive benevolence because neither precludes the possibility of a more “active tolerance” motivated...... by the desire to experiment and to become otherwise. The objective is to discuss what gets lost, conceptually as well as politically, when we neglect the subsistence of active tolerance within other practices of tolerance, and to develop a theory of active tolerance in which tolerance's mobilizing character...... the current models of restraint and benevolence, other ways of understanding the politics of democratic pluralism might be developed, which will enable us to conceive of tolerance's future in terms different than those currently on offer. Tolerance: A Sensorial Orientation to Politics develops...

  11. Test Guidelines for Pesticides and Toxic Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documents that specify methods EPA recommends to generate data submitted to EPA to support the registration of a pesticide, setting of a tolerance or tolerance exemption for pesticide residues, or the decision making process for an industrial chemical.

  12. 78 FR 59347 - Pesticides; Revised Fee Schedule for Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ... and associated tolerance petitions for pesticides that are termed ``conventional chemicals,'' excluding pesticides intended for antimicrobial uses. The term ``conventional chemical'' is a term of art...

  13. Contacts in the Office of Pesticide Programs, Pesticide Re-Evaluation Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contact the Pesticide Re-Evaluation Division (PRD) about registration review and reregistration follow up (including post-RED activities, product reregistration, and implementing certain tolerance reassessment decisions) for conventional pesticides.

  14. Control of Pesticides 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krongaard, T.; Petersen, K. K.; Christoffersen, C.

    , fluazinam, and kresoxim-methyl, and among insecticides containing fenazaquin. Thus, all the eighteen analysed samples of these pesticides complied with the accepted tolerances with respect to content of active ingredients set by the Danish regulation of pesticides. The only product containing buprofezin......, one of four samples containing terbuthylazine, one of eleven samples containing clopyralid, and one of four samples containing ioxynil did not comply with the accepted limits of content of active ingredient...

  15. Control of Pesticides 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krongaard, Teddy; Petersen, Kitty Kastalag; Christoffersen, Christel

    The analytical chemical authority control of pesticide products on the Danish market in 2006 is described in this report. Samples of selected groups of pesticides have been collected from the market and analysed to verify whether the actual contents of the respective active ingredients in the pro......The analytical chemical authority control of pesticide products on the Danish market in 2006 is described in this report. Samples of selected groups of pesticides have been collected from the market and analysed to verify whether the actual contents of the respective active ingredients...... in the products comply with the labelled content. The tolerance of deviation from the labelled content of active ingredient is set by the Danish Statutory Order on pesticides. In addition to the examination of the content of active ingredients, all collected samples are examined for the content of octylphenol...... chloride and ethephon. Satisfactory results were found for all examined pesticide formulations. Thus, the analysed samples of these formulations complied with the accepted tolerance limits with respect to the content of the active ingredient as specified in Danish Statutory Order on pesticides. None...

  16. Individual Pesticides in Registration Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    You can used the Chemical Search database to search pesticides by chemical name and find their registration review dockets, along with Work Plans, risk assessments, interim and final decisions, tolerance rules, and cancellation actions.

  17. Pesticide Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  18. 40 CFR 180.564 - Indoxacarb; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Indoxacarb; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.564 Indoxacarb; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of...

  19. 40 CFR 180.324 - Bromoxynil; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bromoxynil; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.324 Bromoxynil; tolerances for residues. (a) General. (1) Tolerances are established for residues...

  20. 40 CFR 180.314 - Triallate; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Triallate; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.314 Triallate; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of...

  1. 40 CFR 180.298 - Methidathion; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methidathion; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.298 Methidathion; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of...

  2. 40 CFR 180.278 - Phenmedipham; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phenmedipham; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.278 Phenmedipham; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for the...

  3. 40 CFR 180.299 - Dicrotophos; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dicrotophos; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.299 Dicrotophos; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of...

  4. 40 CFR 180.245 - Streptomycin; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Streptomycin; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.245 Streptomycin; tolerances for residues. (a) General. (1) Tolerances are established for...

  5. 40 CFR 180.128 - Pyrethrins; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pyrethrins; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.128 Pyrethrins; tolerances for residues. (a) General. (1) Tolerances for residues of the...

  6. 40 CFR 180.208 - Benfluralin; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Benfluralin; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.208 Benfluralin; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of...

  7. 40 CFR 180.178 - Ethoxyquin; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ethoxyquin; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.178 Ethoxyquin; tolerances for residues. (a) General. A tolerance is established for residues of...

  8. 40 CFR 180.241 - Bensulide; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bensulide; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.241 Bensulide; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for the residues...

  9. 40 CFR 180.263 - Phosalone; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phosalone; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.263 Phosalone; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of...

  10. 40 CFR 180.229 - Fluometuron; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fluometuron; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.229 Fluometuron; tolerances for residues. (a) General. (1) Tolerances are established for the...

  11. 40 CFR 180.315 - Methamidophos; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methamidophos; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.315 Methamidophos; tolerances for residues. (a) Tolerances are established for residues of the...

  12. 40 CFR 180.235 - Dichlorvos; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dichlorvos; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.235 Dichlorvos; tolerances for residues. (a) General. (1) Tolerances for residues of the...

  13. 40 CFR 180.242 - Thiabendazole; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Thiabendazole; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.242 Thiabendazole; tolerances for residues. (a) General. (1) Tolerances are established for the...

  14. 40 CFR 180.222 - Prometryn; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prometryn; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.222 Prometryn; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of...

  15. 40 CFR 180.144 - Cyhexatin; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cyhexatin; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.144 Cyhexatin; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for combined...

  16. 40 CFR 180.239 - Phosphamidon; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phosphamidon; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.239 Phosphamidon; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances (expressed as phosphamidon) for...

  17. 40 CFR 180.198 - Trichlorfon; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trichlorfon; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.198 Trichlorfon; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of...

  18. 40 CFR 180.122 - Parathion; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Parathion; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.122 Parathion; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of...

  19. 40 CFR 180.328 - Napropamide; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Napropamide; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.328 Napropamide; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of...

  20. 40 CFR 180.231 - Dichlobenil; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dichlobenil; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.231 Dichlobenil; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for the combined...

  1. 40 CFR 180.243 - Propazine; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Propazine; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.243 Propazine; tolerances for residues. Tolerances are established for negligible residues (N) of...

  2. 78 FR 76611 - Pesticide Experimental Use Permit; Notice of Receipt of Application; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ... treatment and meaningful involvement of any group, including minority and/or low income populations, in the... product to be used: maximum of 0.162 milligram (mg) fluoxastrobin per seed with a seed/pound (lb) average...

  3. 40 CFR 180.435 - Deltamethrin; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deltamethrin; tolerances for residues. 180.435 Section 180.435 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.435 Deltamethrin; tolerances for residues. ...

  4. 40 CFR 180.275 - Chlorothalonil; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... residues. 180.275 Section 180.275 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.275 Chlorothalonil; tolerances for residues. (a) General. (1) Tolerances are established for the...

  5. 40 CFR 180.252 - Tetrachlorvinphos; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... residues. 180.252 Section 180.252 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.252 Tetrachlorvinphos; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for the...

  6. Microbial pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael L. McManus

    1991-01-01

    Interest in the use of microbial pesticides has intensified because of public concern about the safety of chemical pesticides and their impact in the environment. Characteristics of the five groups of entomopathogens that have potential as microbial pesticides are briefly discussed and an update is provided on research and development activities underway to enhance the...

  7. Pesticide related issues in forest tree nurseries

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Taylor

    2007-01-01

    The FQPA was designed to protect infants, children, and females from pesticides, and was effective immediately on signing by the president. The act requires review of ALL tolerances, and introduced the “risk cup” concept as a method for evaluating lifetime exposures to pesticides.

  8. Pyrethroids and DDT tolerance of Anopheles gambiae s.l. from Sengerema District, an area of intensive pesticide usage in north-western Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philbert, Anitha; Lyantagaye, Sylvester Leonard; Pradel, Gabriele; Ngwa, Che Julius; Nkwengulila, Gamba

    2017-04-01

    To assess the susceptibility status of malaria vectors to pyrethroids and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), characterise the mechanisms underlying resistance and evaluate the role of agro-chemical use in resistance selection among malaria vectors in Sengerema agro-ecosystem zone, Tanzania. Mosquito larvae were collected from farms and reared to obtain adults. The susceptibility status of An. gambiae s.l. was assessed using WHO bioassay tests to permethrin, deltamethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, etofenprox, cyfluthrin and DDT. Resistant specimens were screened for knock-down resistance gene (kdr), followed by sequencing both Western and Eastern African variants. A gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometer (GC-MS) was used to determine pesticide residues in soil and sediments from mosquitoes' breeding habitats. Anopheles gambiae s.l. was resistant to all the insecticides tested. The population of Anopheles gambiae s.l was composed of Anopheles arabiensis by 91%. The East African kdr (L1014S) allele was found in 13 of 305 specimens that survived insecticide exposure, with an allele frequency from 0.9% to 50%. DDTs residues were found in soils at a concentration up to 9.90 ng/g (dry weight). The observed high resistance levels of An. gambiae s.l., the detection of kdr mutations and pesticide residues in mosquito breeding habitats demonstrate vector resistance mediated by pesticide usage. An integrated intervention through collaboration of agricultural, livestock and vector control units is vital. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Induced tolerance from a sublethal insecticide leads to cross-tolerance to other insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Jessica; Jones, Devin K; Relyea, Rick A

    2014-04-01

    As global pesticide use increases, the ability to rapidly respond to pesticides by increasing tolerance has important implications for the persistence of nontarget organisms. A recent study of larval amphibians discovered that increased tolerance can be induced by an early exposure to low concentrations of a pesticide. Since natural systems are often exposed to a variety of pesticides that vary in mode of action, we need to know whether the induction of increased tolerance to one pesticide confers increased tolerance to other pesticides. Using larval wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus), we investigated whether induction of increased tolerance to the insecticide carbaryl (AChE-inhibitor) can induce increased tolerance to other insecticides that have the same mode of action (chlorpyrifos, malathion) or a different mode of action (Na(+)channel-interfering insecticides; permethrin, cypermethrin). We found that embryonic exposure to sublethal concentrations of carbaryl induced higher tolerance to carbaryl and increased cross-tolerance to malathion and cypermethrin but not to chlorpyrifos or permethrin. In one case, the embryonic exposure to carbaryl induced tolerance in a nonlinear pattern (hormesis). These results demonstrate that that the newly discovered phenomenon of induced tolerance also provides induced cross-tolerance that is not restricted to pesticides with the same mode of action.

  10. 40 CFR 180.40 - Tolerances for crop groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tolerances for crop groups. 180.40 Section 180.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Procedural Regulations § 180.40 Tolerances...

  11. Herbicide-tolerant Transgenic Soybean over 15 Years of Cultivation: Pesticide Use, Weed Resistance, and Some Economic Issues. The Case of the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Bonny

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Genetically modified (GM herbicide-tolerant (HT crops have been largely adopted where they have been authorized. Nevertheless, they are fiercely criticized by some, notably because of the herbicide use associated with them. However, how much herbicide is applied to GMHT crops compared to conventional crops, and what impacts does the use of herbicide have? The paper first presents some factors explaining the predominance of GMHT crops. Then, trends in the use of herbicide for GM crops are studied in the case of the most widespread HT crop: HT soybean in the USA. The trends in the toxicity of herbicides applied to HT soybean are also addressed, as well as the appearance of glyphosate-resistant (GR weeds. Lastly, the paper examines the spread of GR weeds and its impact. How are farmers, weed scientists, and the industry coping with this development, and what are the prospects of glyphosate-tolerant crops given weed resistance? In conclusion, some issues of sustainability and innovation governance raised by genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops are discussed.

  12. Pesticide Reevaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the process for periodically evaluating registered pesticides to ensure they meet current science standards for risk assessment, as required by the Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act.

  13. Antimicrobial Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be harboring disease organisms. Determining human and ecological risks from exposure to antimicrobial pesticides requires different ... Open Government Regulations.gov Subscribe USA.gov White House Ask. Contact Us Hotlines FOIA Requests Frequent Questions ...

  14. Pesticide Use Site Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Pesticide Use Site Index will help a company (or other applicant) identify which data requirements are needed to register a pesticide product. It provides information on pesticide use sites and pesticide major use patterns.

  15. 40 CFR 180.176 - Mancozeb; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mancozeb; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.176 Mancozeb; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances for residues of a fungicide which is a...

  16. 40 CFR 180.210 - Bromacil; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bromacil; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.210 Bromacil; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide...

  17. 40 CFR 180.191 - Folpet; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Folpet; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.191 Folpet; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for the fungicide folpet (N...

  18. 40 CFR 180.227 - Dicamba; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dicamba; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.227 Dicamba; tolerances for residues. (a) General. (1) Tolerances are established for the combined residues of...

  19. 40 CFR 180.209 - Terbacil; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Terbacil; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.209 Terbacil; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for combined residues of the...

  20. 40 CFR 180.232 - Butylate; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Butylate; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.232 Butylate; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for the herbicide butylate in or...

  1. 40 CFR 180.249 - Alachlor; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alachlor; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.249 Alachlor; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for combined residues of...

  2. 40 CFR 180.258 - Ametryn; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ametryn; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.258 Ametryn; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the desiccant...

  3. 40 CFR 180.213 - Simazine; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Simazine; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.213 Simazine; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for the combined residues of the...

  4. 40 CFR 180.269 - Aldicarb; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aldicarb; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.269 Aldicarb; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for combined residues of the...

  5. 40 CFR 180.172 - Dodine; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dodine; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.172 Dodine; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for the fungicide dodine (n...

  6. 40 CFR 180.262 - Ethoprop; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ethoprop; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.262 Ethoprop; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the nematocide...

  7. 40 CFR 180.304 - Oryzalin; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oryzalin; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.304 Oryzalin; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide...

  8. 40 CFR 180.169 - Carbaryl; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbaryl; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.169 Carbaryl; tolerances for residues. (a) General. (1) Tolerances are established for residues of the...

  9. 40 CFR 180.220 - Atrazine; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Atrazine; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.220 Atrazine; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for the combined residues of the...

  10. 40 CFR 180.200 - Dicloran; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dicloran; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.200 Dicloran; tolerances for residues. (a) General. (1) Tolerances are established for residues of the...

  11. 40 CFR 180.133 - Lindane; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lindane; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.133 Lindane; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the insecticide...

  12. 40 CFR 180.132 - Thiram; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Thiram; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.132 Thiram; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the fungicide...

  13. 40 CFR 180.301 - Carboxin; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carboxin; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.301 Carboxin; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for the combined residues of the...

  14. Control of Pesticides 2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krongaard, T.; Petersen, K. K.; Christoffersen, C.

    containing hymexazol. 3) Insecticides and molluscicides containing imidacloprid and methiocarb. 4) Rodenticides containing coumatetralyl. All samples were examined for the content of the respective active ingredients and for the content of OPEO and NPEO. All samples but two out of three contained...... coumatetralyl and one out of four contained dicamba complied with the accepted tolerance limits with respect to the content of the active ingredient as specified in Danish Statutory Order on pesticides. None of the examined samples contained OPEO, but one of the samples contained NPEO. On three products...

  15. Control of pesticides 2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krongaard, T.; Petersen, K. K.; Christoffersen, C.

    . 3) Insecticides containing cypermethrin, deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, methoprene and cyromazine. 4) Plant growth regulators containing 1-napthylacetic acid. All products were examined for the content of the respective active ingredients and for the content of OPEO and NPEO. All samples but one...... containing methoprene complied with the accepted tolerance limits with respect to the content of the active ingredient as specified in Danish Statutory Order on pesticides. None of the 44 examined samples contained OPEO, but 5 of the samples contained NPEO. Three of these five samples were produced before...

  16. Pesticide residues in locally available cereals and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunanan, S.A.; Santos, F.L.; Bonoan, L.S.

    1976-03-01

    Vegetable samples (pechay, cabbage, lettuce, green beans and tomatoes) bought from public markets in the Metro Manila area were analyzed for pesticide residues using gas chromatography. The samples analyzed in 1968-69 contained high levels of chlorinated pesticides such as DDT, Aldrin, Endrin, and Thiodan, while in the samples analyzed in January 1976, no chlorinated and organophosphate pesticides were detected. Cereal samples (rice, corn and sorghum) were obtained from the National Grains Authority and analyzed for pesticide residues and bromine residues. Total bromine residues was determined by neutron activation analysis. In most of the samples analyzed, the concentrations of pesticide residues were below the tolerance levels set by the FAO/WHO Committee on Pesticide Residues in Foods. An exception was one rice sample from Thailand, the bromine residue content (110ppm) of which exceeds the tolerance level of 50ppm

  17. 40 CFR 180.342 - Chlorpyrifos; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... avoid atomization or splashing of the spray. (iii) Paint-on application for spot treatment shall be...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances... removed or covered during treatment. (ii) Spray concentration for spot treatment shall be limited to a...

  18. 21 CFR 570.19 - Pesticide chemicals in processed foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pesticide chemicals in processed foods. 570.19... chemicals in processed foods. When pesticide chemical residues occur in processed foods due to the use of... exemption granted or a tolerance prescribed under section 408 of the act, the processed food will not be...

  19. 21 CFR 170.19 - Pesticide chemicals in processed foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Pesticide chemicals in processed foods. 170.19... chemicals in processed foods. When pesticide chemical residues occur in processed foods due to the use of... exemption granted or a tolerance prescribed under section 408 of the Act, the processed food will not be...

  20. Endangered Species: Pesticide Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our goal is to protect threatened and endangered species and their habitats, without placing unnecessary burden on agriculture and pesticide users. Pesticide limitations are developed to ensure safe use of pesticides in order to meet this goal.

  1. 40 CFR 180.1177 - Potassium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Potassium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1177 Section 180.1177 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.117...

  2. 40 CFR 180.1244 - Ammonium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ammonium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1244 Section 180.1244 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1244...

  3. 40 CFR 180.1176 - Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1176 Section 180.1176 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1176...

  4. Cross-tolerance in amphibians: wood frog mortality when exposed to three insecticides with a common mode of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Jessica; Cothran, Rickey; Stoler, Aaron; Relyea, Rick

    2013-04-01

    Insecticide tolerance and cross-tolerance in nontarget organisms is often overlooked despite its potential to buffer natural systems from anthropogenic influence. We exposed wood frog tadpoles from 15 populations to three acetylcholine esterase-inhibiting insecticides and found widespread variation in insecticide tolerance and evidence for cross-tolerance to these insecticides. Our results demonstrate that amphibian populations with tolerance to one pesticide may be tolerant to many other pesticides. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  5. 77 FR 28276 - Penflufen; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ...; alfalfa, hay; vegetable, tuberous and corm, subgroup 1C; vegetable, legume, group 6; vegetable, foliage of... across studies and species (no data provided on thyroid hormone levels). The liver and thyroid findings... Uses on Potato (Crop Subgroup 1C), Legume Vegetables (Crop Group 6 and Crop Group 7), Cereal Grains...

  6. 78 FR 46279 - Forchlorfenuron; Temporary Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... document to refer to non-occupational, non-dietary exposure (e.g., for lawn and garden pest control, indoor pest control, termiticides, and flea and tick control on pets). Forchlorfenuron is not registered for... threshold effects to account for prenatal and postnatal toxicity and the completeness of the database on...

  7. 76 FR 61587 - Prothioconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... lawn and garden pest control, indoor pest control, termiticides, and flea and tick control on pets... threshold effects to account for prenatal and postnatal toxicity and the completeness of the database on... support the choice of a different factor. 2. Prenatal and postnatal sensitivity. There is evidence of...

  8. 75 FR 22252 - Cyromazine; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ...-dietary exposure (e.g., for lawn and garden pest control, indoor pest control, termiticides, and flea and tick control on pets). Cyromazine is not registered for any specific use patterns that would result in... prenatal and postnatal toxicity and the completeness of the database on toxicity and exposure unless EPA...

  9. 78 FR 67048 - Prothioconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ...-dietary exposure (e.g., for lawn and garden pest control, indoor pest control, termiticides, and flea and tick control on pets). Prothioconazole is not registered for any specific use patterns that would... threshold effects to account for prenatal and postnatal toxicity and the completeness of the database on...

  10. 76 FR 18895 - Hexythiazox; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... lawn and garden pest control, indoor pest control, termiticides, and flea and tick control on pets... children in the case of threshold effects to account for prenatal and postnatal toxicity and the... support the choice of a different factor. 2. Prenatal and postnatal sensitivity. The prenatal and...

  11. 78 FR 75262 - Flonicamid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... the prenatal developmental studies or in young rats in the 2-generation reproduction study. There are... exposure (e.g., for lawn and garden pest control, indoor pest control, termiticides, and flea and tick control on pets). Flonicamid is not registered for any specific use patterns that would result in...

  12. 78 FR 75257 - Flutriafol; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... pest control, indoor pest control, termiticides, and flea and tick control on pets). Flutriafol is not... children in the case of threshold effects to account for prenatal and postnatal toxicity and the... choice of a different factor. 2. Prenatal and postnatal sensitivity. The potential impact of in utero and...

  13. 77 FR 67771 - Flonicamid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-14

    ... or rabbits in the prenatal developmental studies or in young rats in the 2-generation reproduction... exposure (e.g., for lawn and garden pest control, indoor pest control, termiticides, and flea and tick control on pets). Flonicamid is currently registered for the following uses that could result in non...

  14. 77 FR 73951 - Pyriproxyfen; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... pyriproxyfen is not a neurotoxic chemical. There was no evidence of prenatal or postnatal sensitivity or... non-occupational, non-dietary exposure (e.g., for lawn and garden pest control, indoor pest control, termiticides, and flea and tick control on pets). Pyriproxyfen is currently registered for flea and tick...

  15. 76 FR 12877 - Fomesafen; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... in the prenatal developmental studies or in young rats in the 2-generation reproduction study. There... refer to non-occupational, non-dietary exposure (e.g., for lawn and garden pest control, indoor pest control, termiticides, and flea and tick control on pets). Fomesafen is not registered for any specific...

  16. 77 FR 12727 - Trifloxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ...-occupational, non-dietary exposure (e.g., for lawn and garden pest control, indoor pest control, termiticides, and flea and tick control on pets). Trifloxystrobin is currently registered for the following uses... of threshold effects to account for prenatal and postnatal toxicity and the completeness of the...

  17. 78 FR 60715 - Sedaxane; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... refer to non-occupational, non-dietary exposure (e.g., for lawn and garden pest control, indoor pest control, termiticides, and flea and tick control on pets). Sedaxane is not registered for any specific use... prenatal and postnatal toxicity and the completeness of the database on toxicity and exposure unless EPA...

  18. 78 FR 33744 - Sedaxane; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ...-occupational, non-dietary exposure (e.g., for lawn and garden pest control, indoor pest control, termiticides, and flea and tick control on pets). Sedaxane is not registered for any specific use patterns that... prenatal and postnatal toxicity and the completeness of the database on toxicity and exposure unless EPA...

  19. 78 FR 13264 - Acetochlor; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... refer to non-occupational, non-dietary exposure (e.g., for lawn and garden pest control, indoor pest control, termiticides, and flea and tick control on pets). Acetochlor is not registered for any specific... infants and children in the case of threshold effects to account for prenatal and postnatal toxicity and...

  20. 78 FR 49927 - Imazapic; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... lawn and garden pest control, indoor pest control, termiticides, and flea and tick control on pets... threshold effects to account for prenatal and postnatal toxicity and the completeness of the database on... different factor. 2. Prenatal and postnatal sensitivity. There is no evidence of increased pre- or postnatal...

  1. 77 FR 59114 - Cyazofamid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ... kidney tubules and mild increases in urinary volume, pH, and protein. However, no adverse kidney effects........... tubules of the kidneys, increased urinary volume, pH, and protein. This toxicity endpoint is also.../day or above increased incidence of basophilic tubules in the kidneys was found. Dermal, short-term (1...

  2. 77 FR 43524 - Acetamiprid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ..., N 1-[(6-chloro-3-pyridyl)methyl]- N 2- cyano- N 1-methylacetamidine, in or on asparagus at 0.8 ppm... document titled ``Acetamiprid: Human Health Risk Assessment for New Uses on Asparagus; Brassica, Leafy..., in or on asparagus at 0.80 ppm; Brassica, leafy greens, subgroup 5B at 15 ppm; turnip greens at 15...

  3. 75 FR 74634 - Spiroxamine; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ..., import at 0.7 parts per million (ppm) asparagus, import at 0.05 ppm; and vegetables, fruiting, crop group..., globe at 0.7 parts per million (ppm); asparagus at 0.05 ppm and vegetable, fruiting, group 8 at 1.2 ppm..., Asparagus and Fruiting Vegetables (Corp Group 8),'' pp. 33-36 in docket ID number EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0136...

  4. 78 FR 44444 - Mancozeb; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... the following crops: Apples: 45%; asparagus: 30%; barley: 2.5%; cantaloupes: 15%; carrots: 2.5...%; asparagus: 15%; barley: 1%; cantaloupes: 5%; carrots: 1%; celery: 1%; cherries: 1%; corn: 1%; cranberries...

  5. 75 FR 50902 - Mancozeb; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ...%; tobacco 5%; cucumber 10%; garlic 10%; sweet corn 10%; grapes 15%; squash 15%; asparagus 20%; eggplant 20.... For metiram, the Agency estimated the PCT for existing uses as follows: Apples 15%; asparagus 1...

  6. 76 FR 82146 - Tepraloxydim; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ... Risk Assessment and Determination of Safety Section 408(b)(2)(A)(i) of FFDCA allows EPA to establish a... and to make a determination on aggregate exposure for tepraloxydim including exposure resulting from... dogs, hemolytic anemia was demonstrated by depressed hematocrit, hemoglobin, and red blood cells (RBCs...

  7. 77 FR 3621 - Rimsulfuron; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... response to the notice of filing. III. Aggregate Risk Assessment and Determination of Safety Section 408(b... support of this action. EPA has sufficient data to assess the hazards of and to make a determination on... in mice, increased red blood cell (RBC) and hemoglobin, and decreased body weight gain and food...

  8. 78 FR 60709 - Methoxyfenozide; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ....C. III. Aggregate Risk Assessment and Determination of Safety Section 408(b)(2)(A)(i) of FFDCA... sufficient data to assess the hazards of and to make a determination on aggregate exposure for... to methoxyfenozide. Mild anemia (decreases in red blood cell count, hematocrit and hemoglobin) was...

  9. 78 FR 17123 - Amitraz; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... developed based on a careful analysis of the doses in each toxicological study to determine the dose at... refined acute dietary analysis using the Dietary Exposure Evaluation Model DEEM-FCID TM , Version 2.03 and assumed exposure through honey, imported cottonseed oil, meat and milk from dermal treatments of livestock...

  10. 77 FR 45498 - Pyrimethanil; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... sensitive than humans to the development of thyroid follicular cell tumors in response to thyroid hormone... validity, completeness, and reliability as well as the relationship of the results of the studies to human... activity, hind limb grip strength, and body temperature. However, there was no evidence of neurotoxicity...

  11. 77 FR 41081 - Sulfentrazone; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-12

    ..., and reliability as well as the relationship of the results of the studies to human risk. EPA has also..., an increased incidence of clinical signs (staggered gait, splayed hind limbs, and abdominal gripping... physical and reflex development are likely secondary effects reflective of the poor general state of the...

  12. 77 FR 35295 - Methyl Bromide; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... limited to those engaged in the following activities: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production...-OPP-2012-0245, by one of the following methods: Federal eRulemaking Portal: http://www.regulations.gov... contains high concentrations of protein, energy (or fat), and fiber; is highly digestible; and has proven...

  13. 78 FR 78731 - Indoxacarb; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... exposures from indoxacarb in food as follows: i. Acute exposure. Quantitative acute dietary exposure and... available reliable information on the regional consumption of food to which indoxacarb may be applied in a... chronic exposure, EPA has concluded that chronic exposure to indoxacarb from food and water will utilize...

  14. 78 FR 66649 - Spirotetramat; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... spirotetramat. The commenter expressed a general opposition to the use of ``toxic chemicals'' on food and... alter the relationships or distribution of power and responsibilities established by Congress in the... not have a substantial direct effect on States or tribal governments, on the relationship between the...

  15. 77 FR 47539 - Paraquat Dichloride; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... valid basis to show what percentage of the food derived from such crop is likely to contain the... percentage of the food treated is not likely to be an underestimation. As to Conditions b and c, regional...'' (coagulation using alum with either lime or soda ash, flocculation and sedimentation), followed by duel media...

  16. 78 FR 46274 - Pyroxasulfone; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... exposure assessment can be found at http://www.epa.gov/oppefed1/models/water/index.htm . Based on the....'' This includes exposure through drinking water and in residential settings, but does not include... urinary bladder calculi is the prerequisite for subsequent hyperplasia and neoplasia. In other words...

  17. 76 FR 71459 - Prohexadione Calcium; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... organotins, heavy metals, halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons) that would be expected to be immunotoxic... fruit commodities, as defined in SOP No. ACB-019 (9/15/08). The method may be requested from: Chief...

  18. 75 FR 4279 - Pendimethalin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ..., 26 Davis Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-3528. The petition requested that 40 CFR 180.361 be... use of pendimethalin on grass grown for seed and dormant Bermuda grass as requested by the petitioner...

  19. 77 FR 56782 - Bifenthrin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-14

    ... startle response was similar between adult and young rats. 3. Conclusion. Given different levels of...) of FFDCA defines ``safe'' to mean that ``there is a reasonable certainty that no harm will result... = 3x........ is an MOE = 100.. Occupational: Adults, LOC is an MOE = 100. Inhalation short-term (1 to...

  20. 78 FR 60707 - Glyphosate; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... Cosmetic Act (FFDCA). DATES: This regulation is effective October 2, 2013. Objections and requests for.... The method may be requested from: Chief, Analytical Chemistry Branch, Environmental Science Center...

  1. 77 FR 41284 - Azoxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ..., dried pulp 20.0 Citrus, oil 40.0 Corn, field, forage 12.0 Corn, field, grain 0.05 Corn, field, refined... Peanut, hay 15.0 Peanut, refined oil 0.6 Pepper/eggplant subgroup 8-10B 3.0 Peppermint, tops 30 Persimmon..., cucurbit, group 9 0.3 Vegetable, foliage of legume, group 7 30.0 Vegetable, leafy, except brassica, group 4...

  2. 78 FR 53039 - Pyraclostrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ... Corn, field, refined oil 0.2 Corn, field, stover 17.0 Corn, pop, grain 0.1 Corn, pop, stover 17.0 Corn..., subgroup 6C 0.5 Peanut 0.05 Peanut, refined oil 0.1 Peppermint, tops 8.0 Persimmon 3.0 Pistachio 0.7 Radish..., bulb, group 3-07 0.9 [[Page 53047

  3. 77 FR 14291 - Penthiopyrad; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ...; vegetables, leaves of root and tuber, group 2 at 55 ppm; vegetable, edible-podded legume, subgroup 6A at 2.5..., sweet, pop at 0.01 ppm; corn, refined oil at 0.03 ppm; cereal grain, millet at 0.9 ppm; cereal grain...; alfalfa, forage at 10 ppm; alfalfa, hay at 25 ppm; foliage of legume vegetables, group 7, hay at 80 ppm...

  4. 76 FR 16301 - Flubendiamide; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ..., nutmeat at 0.02 ppm; peanut, refined oil at 0.04 ppm; pistachio at 0.06 ppm; safflower, seed at 4.5 ppm... at 0.03 ppm; peanut, nutmeat at 0.02 ppm; peanut, refined oil at 0.03 ppm; pistachio at 0.06 ppm... Soybean, seed 0.25 Sugarcane, cane 0.30 Sunflower, seed 5.0 Turnip, greens 25 Vegetable, foliage of legume...

  5. 77 FR 28270 - Fluxapyroxad; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... Grains, Legume Vegetables (Succulent and Dry), Oil Seed Crops (Canola and Sunflower), Peanuts, Pome Fruit....5 Peanut 0.01 Peanut, refined oil 0.02 Plum, prune 3.0 Potato, wet peel 0.1 Rice, bran 4.5 Rice... 0.15 Vegetable, foliage of legume, group 7 30 Vegetables, fruiting, group 8 0.7 Vegetable, legume...

  6. 76 FR 22045 - Fluopicolide; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... fluopicolide metabolite, BAM on cattle, goat, horse and sheep meat at 0.02 ppm; cattle, goat, horse and sheep fat at 0.05 ppm; cattle, goat, horse and sheep meat byproducts at 0.05 ppm; and milk at 0.01 ppm... and rat developmental toxicity studies or in the 2-generation rat reproduction study. Qualitative...

  7. 78 FR 65565 - Fomesafen; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ...-generation reproduction study. Acute neurotoxicity studies indicate fomesafen may cause neurotoxicity (decreased motor activity) at the same dose level as systemic toxicity. Although suppression of anti-sheep... reproduction toxicity study in rats. The rabbit developmental study was classified as unacceptable because of...

  8. 76 FR 77703 - Hexythiazox; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... byproducts; horse, meat byproducts; and sheep, meat byproducts to 0.05 ppm; and iii. By adding a request for...-term (1 to 30 NOAEL= 30 mg/kg/day... LOC for MOE = 100..... 2-Generation Reproduction days ) and... studies or in young rats in the 2-generation reproduction study. iv. There are no residual uncertainties...

  9. 77 FR 52246 - Clothianidin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ..., by one of the following methods: Federal eRulemaking Portal: http://www.regulations.gov . Follow the... in both animals, dogs also displayed decreased white blood cells, albumin and total protein, as well... water. The Agency used screening level water exposure models in the dietary exposure analysis and risk...

  10. 77 FR 58045 - Clopyralid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... Portal: http://www.regulations.gov . Follow the online instructions for submitting comments. Do not... (females). Additionally, skin lesions and clinical chemistry changes (decreased serum glucose, protein, and... used screening level water exposure models in the dietary exposure analysis and risk assessment for...

  11. 77 FR 72975 - Zeta Cypermethrin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ... exposure through drinking water and in residential settings, but does not include occupational exposure..., 25%; celery, 60%; cherries, 5%; grapefruit, 50%; green beans, 20%; green peas, 15%; lemon, 2.5...%; green beans, 15%; green peas, 10%; lemon, 1%; lettuce, 55%; orange, 35%; peach, 2.5%; peppers, 15...

  12. 76 FR 4542 - Mefenoxam; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... exposure through drinking water and in residential settings, but does not include occupational exposure...% Apple, 1% 5% Lemon, 5% Artichoke; 5% Lettuce, 10% Asparagus, 10% Onion, 30% Avocado, 2.5% Orange, 5... area. 2. Dietary exposure from drinking water. The Agency used screening level water exposure models in...

  13. 77 FR 73945 - Fenpyroximate; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... exposures for which there is reliable information.'' This includes exposure through drinking water and in... juice; raisin; orange, grapefruit, tangerine, lemon and lime juice; tomato paste and puree; and..., tangerine, lemon and lime juice; tomato paste and puree; and peppermint and spearmint oil. Chemical-specific...

  14. 78 FR 33736 - Imidacloprid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... drinking water and in residential settings, but does not include occupational exposure. Section 408(b)(2)(C...%; grapefruit: 25%; grapes: 30%; honeydew: 30%; lemons: 5%; lettuce: 65%; onions: 1%; oranges: 20%; peaches: 5... water. The Agency used screening level water exposure models in the dietary [[Page 33741

  15. 77 FR 40806 - Methoxyfenozide; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-11

    ... fruit, citrus, group 10-10 at 1.9 parts per million (ppm); lemon, oil at 45 ppm; citrus, oil (except lemon) at 100 ppm; vegetable, root, except sugar beet, subgroup 1B at 0.8 ppm; and beet, sugar at 0.5... drinking water and in residential settings, but does not include occupational exposure. Section 408(b)(2)(C...

  16. 77 FR 63745 - Buprofezin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ... exposure through drinking water and in residential settings, but does not include occupational exposure... follows: Almond 1%; Cantaloupes 5%; Cotton 1%; Grapefruit 1%; Honeydew 2.5%: Lemons 2.5%; Lettuce (head... particular area. 2. Dietary exposure from drinking water. The Agency used screening level water exposure...

  17. 77 FR 52240 - Pendimethalin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... chemical does not directly target the immune system. There is no evidence of neurotoxicity for... manufacturer. The following list of North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS) codes is not... thyroid hormone homeostasis during development. A developmental thyroid study was submitted and...

  18. 75 FR 29901 - Boscalid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... data for boscalid show no evidence of treatment-related effects on the immune system, and the Agency... be affected. The North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS) codes have been provided to... cytochrome P450 activity, and disruption of thyroid homeostasis (by decreasing circulating T3 and T4 and...

  19. 76 FR 18906 - Mancozeb; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ...%; watermelon, 30%; wheat, grain, 2.3%. In the 2007 chronic risk assessment for mancozeb, the Agency estimated..., 1%; rye grain, 1%; squash, summer, 41%; squash, winter, 8%; tomato, 49%; watermelon, 28%; wheat...%; turnip tops, 86%; walnut, 37.5%; watermelon, 55%; wheat, grain, 3.5%. In the 2007 chronic risk assessment...

  20. 76 FR 23882 - Metiram; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ...%; tomato, processed, 25%; turnip tops, 86%; walnut, 37.5%; watermelon, 55%; and wheat, grain, 3.5%. For the..., winter, 25%; tomato, fresh, 54%; tomato, processed, 54%; walnut, 31%; watermelon, 10%; and wheat, grain...%; turnip tops, 36%; walnut, 36%; watermelon, 45%; and wheat, grain, 11%. In most cases, EPA uses available...

  1. 75 FR 22245 - Imidacloprid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ..., black, seed 0.05 Mustard, field, seed 0.05 Mustard, Indian, seed 0.05 Mustard, rapeseed, seed 0.05 Mustard, seed 0.05 Nut, tree, group 14 0.05 Okra 1.0 Onion, dry bulbs, subgroup 3-07A 0.15 Onion, green... Biriba 0.30 Blueberry 3.5 Borage, seed 0.05 Caneberry, subgroup 13-A 2.5 Canistel 1.0 Canola, seed 0.05...

  2. 75 FR 4274 - Novaluron; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ...) reverse mutation assay, an in vitro mammalian chromosomal aberration assay, an in vivo mouse bone-marrow... residues for meat, hog, and milk commodities. One-hundred percent crop treated (PCT) was assumed for all...

  3. 78 FR 68741 - Tebuconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ...%; cherries, (babyfood), 42%; cherries (all other food forms), 100%; corn, sweet, 22%; hops 64%; plum 26...%; cherries (all other food forms), 66%; corn, sweet, 14%; hops, 64%; plum, 24%; turnip, 44%). For further... A. Analytical Enforcement Methodology Adequate enforcement methodology (Gas Chromatography/Nitrogen...

  4. 76 FR 31485 - Bromoxynil; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... (Hb) and packed cell volume (PCV); statistically significant increased urea nitrogen; increased... for existing uses in the acute dietary exposure assessment as follows: Alfalfa 2.5%; barley 35%; corn... exposure assessments as follows: Alfalfa 1%; barley 20%; corn 2.5%; cotton 2.5%; flax 35%; garlic 50%; mint...

  5. 77 FR 75561 - Quinclorac; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    .... Toxicological Profile EPA has evaluated the available toxicity data and considered its validity, completeness... effects occurred at higher doses than the maternal effects of decreased food consumption and increased water consumption and decreased body weight gain. In the rat, no developmental toxicity was observed up...

  6. 78 FR 33731 - Propamocarb; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... Profile EPA has evaluated the available toxicity data and considered its validity, completeness, and... weights, body-weight gains, and food consumption were observed following subchronic and chronic durations..., body-weight gains and food consumption, and mortality. In rabbits, the only developmental effect was an...

  7. 78 FR 67042 - Boscalid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... follows. A. Toxicological Profile EPA has evaluated the available toxicity data and considered its... profile is determined, EPA identifies toxicological points of departure (POD) and levels of concern (LOC... used food consumption information from the 2003-2008 food consumption data from the U.S. Department of...

  8. 78 FR 8410 - Thiacloprid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... and risks associated with thiacloprid follows. A. Toxicological Profile EPA has evaluated the... decreased food consumption and fecal output). In the reproduction study in rats, decreased body weights were... (decreased body weight, body weight gain and food consumption, increased urination, and changes in water...

  9. 78 FR 71523 - Quinclorac; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    .... Toxicological Profile EPA has evaluated the available toxicity data and considered its validity, completeness... the maternal effects of decreased food consumption, and increased water consumption, and decreased... toxicological profile is determined, EPA identifies toxicological points of departure (POD) and levels of...

  10. 77 FR 66723 - Fluazinam; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ... fluazinam, the liver appeared to be a primary target organ in rats, dogs, and mice. Signs of liver toxicity..., diaphragmatic hernias, delayed ossification in several bone types, increases in late resorptions, as well as... dogs; however, this lesion was found to be reversible and is attributed to an impurity. Based on the...

  11. 75 FR 26662 - Fluazinam; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... to be a primary target organ in rats, dogs, and mice. Signs of liver toxicity included changes in... incidences of facial/palate clefts, diaphragmatic hernias, delayed ossification in several bone types... subchronic and chronic studies in mice and dogs; however, this lesion was found to be reversible and is...

  12. 76 FR 27256 - Saflufenacil; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    .... Protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibition in the mammalian species may result in disruption of heme synthesis which in... increased clearance of defective RBCs (i.e., defective hemoglobin synthesis) and is thus an indication of...

  13. 76 FR 76304 - Saflufenacil; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ... species may result in disruption of heme synthesis which in turn causes anemia. In these studies... RBCs (i.e., defective hemoglobin synthesis) and is thus an indication of toxicity to the hematopoietic...

  14. 78 FR 49932 - Emamectin; Pesticide Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... also considered available information concerning the variability of the sensitivities of major... mediated neurotoxicity is a solid hypothesis, data in mammalian preparations linking alterations in GABA...

  15. 78 FR 13252 - Pyroxasulfone; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... degeneration in the sciatic nerve (dog, mouse, and rat) and spinal cord sections (dog), skeletal muscle... population- adjusted dose (PAD) or a RfD--and a safe margin of exposure (MOE). For non-threshold risks, the... occupy 3.6% of the aPAD for infants less than 1 year old, the population group receiving the greatest...

  16. 76 FR 59909 - Amisulbrom; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ..., constricted spinal cord in the cervical region, cervical kyphosis, and medially thickened/ kinked ribs with... relating to potential carcinogenicity, the Agency has determined that the chronic population adjusted dose... population including UFA = 10x aPAD = 2 mg/kg/day screen study. infants and children) UFH = 10x LOAEL = 2,000...

  17. 78 FR 70864 - Metaldehyde; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ... paralysis, spinal cord necrosis, and hemorrhage in maternal rats; salivation; and twitching. Liver effects... including limb paralysis, spinal cord necrosis and hemorrhage were observed in the maternal animals. Effects... reference dose (RfD) [[Page 70866

  18. 77 FR 70902 - Fenpropathrin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ... characteristic of Type I pyrethroids were seen in most of the experimental toxicology studies including the acute... application of an additional 3X for risk assessments for infants and children less than 6 years of age. ii... methodology utilizing gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC/ECD, Residue Method Number RM-22...

  19. 75 FR 24421 - Tebuconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... are observed (the NOAEL) in the toxicology study identified as appropriate for use in risk assessment... been completed for residential handler scenarios as well as residential post-application scenarios. 4... Adequate gas chromatography/nitrogen phosphorus detector (GC/NPD) and liquid chromatography/mass...

  20. 75 FR 26673 - Clethodim; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... genotoxic. The data demonstrate no reproductive effect in rats and no developmental effects in rabbits. No... fetal weights and increased incidence of reduced ossification were seen in the fetuses at the maternal... Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995 (NTTAA), Public Law 104-113, section 12(d) (15 U.S.C. 272...

  1. 77 FR 10968 - Fluopyram; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ...) OPPTS Test Guideline 860.1000'' and ``Guidance on Constructing Maximum Reasonably Balanced Diets (MRBD... for livestock is calculated on the basis of the diets listed in Annex 6 of the 2009 JMPR Report (OECD Feedstuffs Derived from Field Crops) and the use of a reasonable worst case diet/feed approach (RWCF). The...

  2. 78 FR 3328 - Fluroxypyr; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ... the food consumption data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture's National Health and Nutrition... residential exposures: Residential turfgrass, golf courses, parks and sports fields. EPA assessed residential...

  3. 78 FR 18519 - Abamectin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... formulation will impact the PCT estimates. In most cases, EPA uses available data from USDA of Agriculture..., please submit a copy of the filing (excluding any Confidential Business Information (CBI)) for inclusion... submit electronically any information you consider to be Confidential Business Information (CBI) or other...

  4. 76 FR 5704 - Sulfentrazone; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ...- triazol-1-yl)phenyl)methanesulfonamide] and DMS [(N-2,4-dichloro-5-[4- (difluoromethyl)-4,5-dihydro-5-oxo...-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)phenyl)methanesulfonamide) and DMS (N-(2,4- dichloro-5-(4-(difluoromethyl)-4,5...,5-dihydro-3-hydroxymethyl-5-oxo-1H-1,2,4- triazol-1-yl)phenyl)methanesulfonamide) and DMS (N-(2,4...

  5. 78 FR 42736 - Spirotetramat; Proposed Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    ...[4.5]dec-3-en-4-yl-ethyl carbonate) and its metabolites in or on taro leaves; watercress; pomegranate... 10-10; pineapple; coffee, green bean; and instant coffee, based on EPA's conclusion that aggregate..., Leaves; Watercress; Pomegranate; Banana; Vegetable, Bulb, Group 3-07; Low growing Berry Subgroup 13-07H...

  6. 75 FR 69353 - Isoxaben; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ... ai/A, equivalent to 3X the maximum single rate of 1.0 lb ai/A. The higher rate was assumed to account... regulates growers, food processors, food handlers, and food retailers, not States or tribes, nor does this...

  7. 75 FR 42324 - Pyraclostrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ...% Pigeon pea (succulent) 5% Pink bean seed 5% Pinto bean seed 5% Pistachio 25% Plum 5% Pop corn 5% Potato... Effects Division's Science Advisory Council for Exposure. 4. Cumulative effects from substances with a..., Environmental Science Center, 701 Mapes Rd., Ft. Meade, MD 20755-5350; telephone number: (410) 305-2905; e-mail...

  8. 77 FR 58493 - Flumioxazin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... types of entities not listed in this unit could also be affected. The North American Industrial... assumption that homeowner handlers wear shorts, short-sleeved shirts, socks, and shoes, and that they...

  9. 76 FR 11344 - Difenoconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... be affected. The North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS) codes have been provided to.../ applicator wearing short pants and short-sleeved shirts as well as shoes plus socks using garden hose-end...

  10. 77 FR 42433 - Difenoconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-19

    ... entities not listed in this unit could also be affected. The North American Industrial Classification... shoes plus socks using garden hose-end sprayer, pump-up compressed air sprayer, and backpack sprayer...

  11. 76 FR 82157 - Difenoconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ... entities not listed in this unit could also be affected. The North American Industrial Classification... and short-sleeved shirts as well as shoes plus socks using garden hose-end sprayer, ``pump-up...

  12. 78 FR 70870 - Etofenprox; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ... College Road East, Suite 201 W, Princeton, NJ 08540. The petition requested that 40 CFR 180.620 be amended... a positive trend in renal cortical adenomas alone and in combined carcinomas and adenomas; however...

  13. 78 FR 44440 - Imazosulfuron; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... in dogs. Dramatic eye effects (retinal degeneration, lens vascularization, cataracts and corneal..., all of which were resolved by day 2. No treatment-related effects were observed in Functional...

  14. 75 FR 81878 - Imazosulfuron; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... thyroid effects were apparent only in the chronic toxicity study in dogs. Dramatic eye effects (retinal degeneration, lens vascularization, cataracts and corneal scarring) were observed in rats fed > 1,000 mg/kg/day... effects is seen throughout the toxicology database. No treatment-related changes indicative of potential...

  15. 75 FR 60321 - Spinosad; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    .... Chronic exposure. In conducting the chronic dietary exposure assessment EPA used the food consumption data..., Brassica leafy vegetables, citrus, fruiting vegetables, herbs, banana, grape, several cereal grains, and... consumption in a particular area, the exposure estimate [[Page 60324

  16. 77 FR 36919 - Sedaxane; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    .... Human Health Risk Assessment to Support New Seed Treatment Uses on Canola, Cereal Grains (Barley, Oat..., piloerection, ruffled fur and recumbency, decreased BW, decreased BWG and food consumption (males). In females... dietary exposure, EPA used food consumption information from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA...

  17. 75 FR 50914 - Flubendiamide; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... hemorrhage appearing only in infancy, were observed in rat offspring in the reproductive and DNT studies... studies and accompanied by histopathological findings of synechia, hemorrhage, keratitis, iritis, and... during post-natal days 5 to 20, neonatal rats appear to have an increased susceptibility to flubendiamide...

  18. 77 FR 26450 - Metconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... the relationship of the results of the studies to human risk. EPA has also considered available... and dog being slightly more sensitive than the mouse. Like other triazoles, a primary target organ in mammalian toxicity studies is the liver. Liver toxicity was seen in the mouse, rat and dog following oral...

  19. 78 FR 57276 - Quinoxyfen; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... toxicity data and considered their validity, completeness, and reliability as well as the relationship of the results of the studies to human risk. EPA has also considered available information concerning the... dog study. Subchronic effects observed in rats and mice at high doses included increased liver weights...

  20. 75 FR 12691 - Hexythiazox; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ..., and reliability as well as the relationship of the results of the studies to human risk. EPA has also... adrenal glands in dogs, rats and mice, with the dog being the most sensitive species. The chronic dog... the immune system. Hexythiazox is classified as ``Likely to be Carcinogenic to Humans'' based upon...

  1. 75 FR 26668 - Flutriafol; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ..., and reliability as well as the relationship of the results of the studies to human risk. EPA has also... http://www.regulations.gov in document Flutriafol. Human-Health Risk Assessment for Proposed Uses on... toxicity studies in rats, mice, and dogs identified the liver as the primary target organ of flutriafol...

  2. 76 FR 20537 - Etoxazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... reliability as well as the relationship of the results of the studies to human risk. EPA has also considered... organ in mice, rats and dogs. In a 90- day toxicity study in dogs, increased liver weights and... toxicity study in dogs at similar doses, indicating that systemic effects (mainly liver effects) occur at...

  3. 76 FR 44815 - Chlorantraniliprole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA). DATES: This regulation is effective July 27, 2011. Objections and... 13-07G at 2.5 ppm; ti palm, roots at 0.35 ppm; ti palm, leaves at 13 ppm; root and tuber vegetables.... In conducting the chronic dietary exposure assessment EPA used the food consumption data from the...

  4. 78 FR 46267 - Trifluralin; Pesticide Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    .... Potentially affected entities may include: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112..., multifocal cortical tubular cytoplasmic pigment deposition was noted in the kidneys of both sexes. In the...

  5. 76 FR 23891 - Pyrasulfotole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ...: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code... (colloid alteration, pigment deposition) and kidney (tubular dilation) toxicity were observed in adult animals of each generation. Colloid alteration and pigment deposition were also observed in rats following...

  6. 76 FR 54127 - Tebuconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... DAF = 23.1% weights, brain measurements and motor activity in offspring. Inhalation short-term... concern. DAF = dermal absorption factor. C. Exposure Assessment 1. Dietary exposure from food and feed...

  7. 75 FR 54033 - Thiabendazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ...-term (1-30 days) NOAEL= 10 mg/kg/ UFA = 3x Occupational and Subchronic oral DAF = 0.5% day UFH = 10... = 10 mg/kg/ UFA = 3x Occupational LOC Subchronic oral mos) DAF = 0.5%* day UFH = 10x......... for MOE...

  8. 78 FR 37468 - Cyproconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... regenerative proliferation as alternative modes of action. The quantification of carcinogenic potential is not..., stress responses, and altered DNA methylation. It is not clearly understood whether these biochemical...

  9. 78 FR 40020 - Fenbuconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... applied to the animal data for the quantification of human risk (Q1*). This classification was based on a... altered DNA methylation. It is not clearly understood whether these biochemical events are directly...

  10. 77 FR 75039 - Propiconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ..., unscheduled DNA synthesis studies in human fibroblasts and primary rat hepatocytes, mitotic gene conversion... carcinogen used the reference dose (RfD) approach for quantification of human risk. Propiconazole is not... cholesterol levels, stress responses, and altered DNA methylation. It is not clearly understood whether these...

  11. 78 FR 23497 - Propiconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... aberration assay, unscheduled DNA synthesis studies in human fibroblasts and primary rat hepatocytes, mitotic... reference Dose (RfD) approach be used for quantification of human risk. Propiconazole produced liver tumors... range of biochemical events including altered cholesterol levels, stress responses, and altered DNA...

  12. 76 FR 76309 - Isoxaflutole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ... not performed in the study, there were no effects on pup swimming ability, learning, memory, motor activity, or auditory startle response at any dose, nor was there any evidence of neuropathology in the...

  13. 75 FR 6576 - Acetamiprid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ... determined that changes in motor activity, auditory startle reflex, learning and memory assessments and... gains, decreased pup viability and decreased maximum auditory startle response in males. These effects... strength and foot splay at the highest dose tested (HDT). There was a decrease in the auditory startle...

  14. 75 FR 29435 - Diquat Dibromide; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... 260 for teenagers and adults. The aggregate MOEs for infants and toddlers include dietary exposures... swimming in ponds and lakes treated with diquat dibromide. The aggregate MOEs for teenagers and adult... exposures by other routes in the aggregate exposure assessment for teenagers and adults, since the effects...

  15. 76 FR 50898 - Metconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... affected. The North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS) codes have been provided to assist... hepatocellular lipid vacuolation (M) and centrilobular hypertrophy (M). Similar effects were observed in Females... wt (F) and hepatic vacuolation (M). Cancer (Oral, dermal, inhalation).... Classification: ``Not...

  16. 76 FR 55804 - Dicamba; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... Enforcement Methodology Adequate enforcement methodologies, Methods I and II--gas chromatography with electron..., Analytical Chemistry Branch, Environmental Science Center, 701 Mapes Rd., Ft. Meade, MD 20755-5350; telephone... the National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995 (NTTAA), Public Law 104-113, section 12(d...

  17. 77 FR 38204 - Cyflufenamid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... decreased lipid metabolism; cyflufenamid caused an approximately 50% inhibition of carnitine... those engaged in the following activities: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS... = chronic). RfD = reference dose. UF = uncertainty factor. UFA = extrapolation from animal to human...

  18. 77 FR 73940 - Flubendiamide; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... angle are differentiating and specializing into definite structures during postnatal days 5 to 20... petition submitted to the Agency. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has exempted these types of...

  19. 77 FR 10381 - Metaflumizone; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... as copyrighted material, is not placed on the Internet and will be publicly available only in hard... not exhibiting a strong dose dependence. vii. The FQPA safety factor for dermal exposure scenarios is...

  20. 78 FR 55635 - Prometryn; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... neurotoxicity in the subchronic study. In the immunotoxicity study, there was a decreased humoral response in... Register of December 18, 2009 (74 FR 67104) (FRL-8801-8), immunotoxicity (OCSPP Guideline 870.7800) and... endpoints selected for assessing the dietary risks of concern. In the immunotoxicity study, although there...

  1. 75 FR 40745 - Cyazofamid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... following findings: i. The toxicity database for cyazofamid is complete except for immunotoxicity and subchronic neurotoxicity testing. Recent changes to 40 CFR part 158 make immunotoxicity testing (OSCPP... immunotoxicity. Further, there is no evidence of neurotoxicity in any study in the toxicity database for...

  2. 76 FR 5691 - Cyprodinil; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... immunotoxicity study provided no evidence for immunotoxicity. There was no evidence of carcinogenic potential in... and the functional immunotoxicity study. EPA has determined that an additional uncertainty factor is... immunotoxicity study for cyprodinil is not expected to alter the RfD. A preliminary immunotoxicity study was...

  3. 75 FR 19272 - Thifensulfuron methyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    .... There were also no immunotoxicity studies submitted for review. Immunotoxicity was observed as a... remainder of the database reduce EPA's concern for immunotoxicity. Specific information on the studies... thifensulfuron methyl is complete except for immunotoxicity, acute neurotoxicity and subchronic neurotoxicity...

  4. 77 FR 42654 - Trifloxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... complete except for an immunotoxicity study and an inhalation study. Although an immunotoxicity study is... chemical directly targets the immune system. EPA does not believe that conducting an immunotoxicity study... additional database uncertainty factor (UF) for potential immunotoxicity does not need to be applied...

  5. 77 FR 56133 - Dinotefuran; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... hematopoietic system. Furthermore, the toxicology data base contains immunotoxicity studies in mice and rats and a developmental immunotoxicity study in rats. In the immunotoxicity studies there were no effect on... histopathological lesions in these organs in those studies. In the developmental immunotoxicity study, there was no...

  6. 75 FR 17573 - Nicosulfuron; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... comparable dietary levels. There was no evidence of potential immunotoxicity or neurotoxicity in the... Toxicology Data Requirements, an immunotoxicity study (870.7800), and acute and subchronic neurotoxicity studies (870.6200) are required for nicosulfuron. Despite the absence of specific immunotoxicity and...

  7. 76 FR 69648 - Trifloxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... immunotoxicity testing. Recent changes to 40 CFR part 158 make neurotoxicity and immunotoxicity testing required... and subchronic neurotoxicity and immunotoxicity studies are needed to complete the database, there are no concerns for immunotoxicity or neurotoxicity based on the results of the existing studies. The...

  8. 78 FR 24094 - Azoxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... azoxystrobin is complete except for immunotoxicity. Changes to 40 CFR part 158 make immunotoxicity testing... not believe that conducting the immunotoxicity study will result in a dose less than the point of... immunotoxicity does not need to be applied. ii. Clinical signs, including transient diarrhea and decreased body...

  9. 75 FR 5518 - Dithianon; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... retain the safety factor EPA also took into account the following considerations: i. Immunotoxicity.... Although a study has not yet been submitted, there is no evidence of immunotoxicity in any study in the toxicity database for dithianon and the Agency does not believe that conducting an immunotoxicity study...

  10. 76 FR 25240 - Clothianidin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    ... guideline immunotoxicity study showed no evidence of clothianidin-mediated immunotoxicity in adult rats and a developmental immunotoxicity study demonstrated no increased susceptibility for offspring with regard to immunotoxicity. Specific information on the studies received and the nature of the adverse...

  11. 75 FR 4284 - Triticonazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... for triticonazole is complete with the exception of a newly required immunotoxicity study. In accordance with 40 CFR Part 158 toxicity data requirements, an immunotoxicity study (Harmonized guideline 870.7800) is required for triticonazole. In the absence of specific immunotoxicity studies, EPA has...

  12. 75 FR 80346 - Flutolanil; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... and immunotoxicity studies. Recent changes to 40 CFR part 158 make acute and subchronic neurotoxicity testing (OPPTS Test Guideline 870.6200), and immunotoxicity testing (OPPTS Test Guideline 870.7800... compound produces hematological or thymus/spleen organ effects indicative of immunotoxicity. Further, there...

  13. 77 FR 3617 - Etoxazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... tested (HDT) in another carcinogenicity study in mice. There is no evidence of immunotoxicity or... neurotoxicity and immunotoxicity studies. Changes to 40 CFR 180.158 make acute and subchronic neurotoxicity testing (OPPTS Guideline 870.6200), and immunotoxicity testing (OPPTS Guideline 870.7800) required for...

  14. 75 FR 70143 - Acequinocyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... following studies needed, including: (1) A 28- day inhalation study; (2) an immunotoxicity study; and (3... this chemical does not directly target the immune system. An immunotoxicity study is required as a part... Agency does not believe that conducting a functional immunotoxicity study will result in a lower point of...

  15. 75 FR 56892 - Fenarimol; Pesticide Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... complete except for immunotoxicity testing. Changes to 40 CFR part 158 make immunotoxicity testing (OPPTS... fenarimol do not show the potential for immunotoxicity. Consequently, the EPA believes the existing data are...

  16. 78 FR 21267 - Dinotefuran; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ..., the toxicology data base contains immunotoxicity studies in mice and rats and a developmental immunotoxicity study in rats. In the immunotoxicity studies there were no effects on T-cell dependent antibody... these organs. In the developmental immunotoxicity study, there was no evidence of an effect on the...

  17. 77 FR 72232 - Dodine; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... concerns for immunotoxicity and the registrant has agreed to perform an immunotoxicity study (OCSPP... indicate neurotoxicity or immunotoxicity concerns. Thus, EPA has waived the acute and subchronic neurotoxicity studies. An immunotoxicity study is required pursuant to the recent amendment of EPA's data...

  18. 75 FR 8261 - Flumioxazin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... toxicity database for flumioxazin is complete except for immunotoxicity, acute neurotoxicity, and... testing (OPPTS Guideline 870.6200), and immunotoxicity testing (OPPTS Guideline 870.7800) required for...), and the blood effects are not considered to be the result of potential immunotoxicity in this case...

  19. 77 FR 70908 - Dinotefuran; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ... base contains immunotoxicity studies in mice and rats and a developmental immunotoxicity study in rats. In the immunotoxicity studies there were no effect on T-cell dependent antibody response when tested... the developmental immunotoxicity study, there was no evidence of an effect on the functionality of the...

  20. 76 FR 69653 - Abamectin (avermectin); Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... immunotoxicity testing. Recent changes to 40 CFR part 158 imposed new data requirements for immunotoxicity... abamectin (avermectin) provides no indication of immunotoxicity and abamectin (avermectin) does not belong... conducting an immunotoxicity study will result in a NOAEL less than the NOAELs of 0.5 mg/kg/day and 0.12 mg...

  1. 76 FR 3026 - Fluazinam; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ...- pyridinamine), in or on carrot, root at 0.8 parts per million (ppm). PP 9F7571 requested that 40 CFR 180.574 be... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 [EPA-HQ-OPP-2009-0032; FRL-8859-3] Fluazinam..., 2011, and must be filed in accordance with the instructions provided in 40 CFR part 178 (see also Unit...

  2. 78 FR 18511 - Thiamethoxam; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... of Thiamethoxam on Imported Coffee Beans and Condition-of-Registration Residue Data for Leaf Lettuce...-of-Registration Residue Data for Leaf Lettuce,'' available in the docket EPA-HQ-OPP-2012-0488..., confers the notably greater selective toxicity of this class towards insects, including aphids and...

  3. 75 FR 5526 - Chlorantraniliprole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... ppm; cacao bean, bean at 0.15 ppm; cacao, roasted beans at 1.4 ppm; canistel at 4.0 ppm; cattle, fat... of chlorantraniliprole on the following commodities: cacao bean from 0.15 ppm to 0.08 ppm; cacao bean, roasted bean from 1.4 ppm to 0.8 ppm; cacao bean, chocolate from 3.0 ppm to 1.5 ppm; cacao bean, cocoa...

  4. 76 FR 27261 - Propiconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... consumers, including infants and children. Propiconazole has low to moderate toxicity in experimental... than rats. Decreased body weight gain in experimental animals was seen in subchronic, chronic.... The method may be requested from: Chief, Analytical Chemistry Branch, Environmental Science Center...

  5. 77 FR 52236 - Thifensulfuron Methyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... (PP 1E7885) by IR-4, 500 College Rd. East, Suite 201W, Princeton, NJ 08540. The petition requested... derivation of reference values for risk assessment. PODs are developed based on a careful analysis of the... (MOE). For non-threshold risks, the Agency assumes that any amount of exposure will lead to some degree...

  6. 77 FR 59106 - Glufosinate Ammonium; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ...; (PP 9E7604) by Interregional Research Project Number 4 (IR-4), IR-4 Project Headquarters, 500 College... toxicological POD is used as the basis for derivation of reference values for risk assessment. PODs are... amount of exposure will lead to some degree of risk. Thus, the Agency estimates risk in terms of the...

  7. 78 FR 36093 - Fenpyroximate; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... Interregional Research Project Number 4 (IR-4), 500 College Road East, Suite 201W, Princeton, NJ 08540. The... levels than males. The highest dose tested in the dog resulted in first- and second-degree heart block... used as the basis for derivation of reference values for risk assessment. PODs are developed based on a...

  8. 78 FR 18504 - Emamectin Benzoate; Pesticide Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ..., and reliability as well as the relationship of the results of the studies to human risk. EPA has also... the PCT for the market leaders were exceeded. Further review of these cases identified factors... residue.* * * '' Consistent with FFDCA section 408(b)(2)(D), and the factors specified in FFDCA section...

  9. 76 FR 18915 - Ethiprole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... phosphates activity, increased cholesterol, increased triglycerides, and increased total protein... with the metabolism data that suggests that ethiprole is not accumulated in the system. A developmental...

  10. 77 FR 12731 - Thiamethoxam; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... liver metabolism, hepatotoxicity/regenerative proliferation) in the animal mode of action for cancer..., triglyceride levels, FQPA SF = 1 and alkaline phosphatase activity and inflammatory cell infiltration in the... liver metabolism, hepatotoxicity/regenerative proliferation) in the animal mode of [[Page 12735

  11. 78 FR 3333 - Spiromesifen; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ..., alanine transaminase (ALT) and decreased cholesterol, and triglycerides), and spleen effects (atrophy...-hydroxymethyl and BSN 2060-4- hydroxymethyl-glucoside, were observed in the metabolism studies of lettuce only...; concentrations from the lettuce metabolism study). Dietary Exposure Evaluation Model (DEEM) 7.81 default...

  12. Tolerating Zero Tolerance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Brian N.

    2010-01-01

    The concept of zero tolerance dates back to the mid-1990s when New Jersey was creating laws to address nuisance crimes in communities. The main goal of these neighborhood crime policies was to have zero tolerance for petty crime such as graffiti or littering so as to keep more serious crimes from occurring. Next came the war on drugs. In federal…

  13. Pesticide Environmental Stewardship Program (PESP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    PESP is an EPA partnership program that works with the nation's pesticide-user community to promote IPM practices. Pesticide users can reduce the risks from pests and pesticides. Members include organizations and companies in the pesticide-user community.

  14. Pesticides poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.

    1999-01-01

    Pesticides are chemical toxicants which are used to kill by their toxic actions, the pest organisms, known to incur significant economic losses or threaten human life, his health and that of his domesticated animals. These toxicants are seldom species-specific. The presence of these or their metabolites may scientific be vouched not only in the environment they are used, but in the entire ecosystem, in the subsoil, in the underwater reservoirs and in the food chain of all non-target species including man, his friends i.e. predator and parasite organisms which be uses against the pests, and in his cherished domesticated animals. In the present paper a survey is made of different groups of toxic chemicals generally used to manage pests, in the ecosystem, food chain and tissues and body parts of non-target species including man and the ones dear to him. Toxicology and biochemistry of these toxic materials and their important metabolites are also briefly discussed with special reference to ways and means through which these poison the above non-target species. (author)

  15. Pesticide Product Label System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) provides a collection of pesticide product labels (Adobe PDF format) that have been approved by EPA under Section 3 of the...

  16. National Pesticide Standard Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's National Pesticide Standards Repository collects and maintains an inventory of analytical “standards” of registered pesticides in the United States, as well as some that are not currently registered for food and product testing and monitoring.

  17. Nephrotoxic Effects of Pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Gönültaş, Tülin; Aytaç, Necdet; Akbaba, Muhsin

    2018-01-01

    Pesticidesare used extensively throughout the world and, in recent years, their use hasincreased considerably. Pesticides are responsible for several adverse effectson human health, and they represent a potential risk to human. Liver and kidneyare firstly most harmed tissues by pesticides, because pesticides are removedfrom the body by being metabolized in the liver and kidney main road. A broad rangeof pesticides, including organophosphates, organochlorines, carbamates,pyrethroids and triazi...

  18. Pesticide exposure - Indian scene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, P.K.

    2004-01-01

    Use of pesticides in India began in 1948 when DDT was imported for malaria control and BHC for locust control. India started pesticide production with manufacturing plant for DDT and benzene hexachloride (BHC) (HCH) in the year 1952. In 1958, India was producing over 5000 metric tonnes of pesticides. Currently, there are approximately 145 pesticides registered for use, and production has increased to approximately 85,000 metric tonnes. Rampant use of these chemicals has given rise to several short-term and long-term adverse effects of these chemicals. The first report of poisoning due to pesticides in India came from Kerala in 1958 where, over 100 people died after consuming wheat flour contaminated with parathion. Subsequently several cases of pesticide-poisoning including the Bhopal disaster have been reported. Despite the fact that the consumption of pesticides in India is still very low, about 0.5 kg/ha of pesticides against 6.60 and 12.0 kg/ha in Korea and Japan, respectively, there has been a widespread contamination of food commodities with pesticide residues, basically due to non-judicious use of pesticides. In India, 51% of food commodities are contaminated with pesticide residues and out of these, 20% have pesticides residues above the maximum residue level values on a worldwide basis. It has been observed that their long-term, low-dose exposure are increasingly linked to human health effects such as immune-suppression, hormone disruption, diminished intelligence, reproductive abnormalities, and cancer. In this light, problems of pesticide safety, regulation of pesticide use, use of biotechnology, and biopesticides, and use of pesticides obtained from natural plant sources such as neem extracts are some of the future strategies for minimizing human exposure to pesticides

  19. 40 CFR 180.215 - Naled; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Naled; tolerances for residues. 180.215 Section 180.215 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE... commodities, except those otherwise listed in this section, from use of the pesticide for area pest (mosquito...

  20. 40 CFR 180.1050 - Nitrogen; exemption from the requirements of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... insecticide nitrogen is exempted from the requirements of a tolerance when used after harvest in modified atmospheres for stored product insect control on all food commodities. [65 FR 33716, May 24, 2000] ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD...

  1. 40 CFR 180.1049 - Carbon dioxide; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... insecticide carbon dioxide is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance when used after harvest in modified atmospheres for stored insect control on food commodities. [65 FR 33716, May 24, 2000] ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD...

  2. Pesticides and children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garry, Vincent F.

    2004-01-01

    Prevention and control of damage to health, crops, and property by insects, fungi, and noxious weeds are the major goals of pesticide applications. As with use of any biologically active agent, pesticides have unwanted side-effects. In this review, we will examine the thesis that adverse pesticide effects are more likely to occur in children who are at special developmental and behavioral risk. Children's exposures to pesticides in the rural and urban settings and differences in their exposure patterns are discussed. The relative frequency of pesticide poisoning in children is examined. In this connection, most reported acute pesticide poisonings occur in children younger than age 5. The possible epidemiological relationships between parental pesticide use or exposure and the risk of adverse reproductive outcomes and childhood cancer are discussed. The level of consensus among these studies is examined. Current concerns regarding neurobehavioral toxicity and endocrine disruption in juxtaposition to the relative paucity of toxicant mechanism-based studies of children are explored

  3. Biodegradation of carbamate pesticides by natural river biofilms in different seasons and their effects on biofilm community structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tien, Chien-Jung; Lin, Mon-Chu; Chiu, Wan-Hsin; Chen, Colin S.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the ability of natural river biofilms from different seasons to degrade the carbamate pesticides methomyl, carbaryl and carbofuran in single and multiple pesticide systems, and the effects of these pesticides on algal and bacterial communities within biofilms. Spring biofilms had the lowest biomass of algae and bacteria but showed the highest methomyl degradation (>99%) and dissipation rates, suggesting that they might contain microorganisms with high methomyl degradation abilities. Degradation of carbofuran (54.1–59.5%) by biofilms in four seasons was similar, but low degradation of carbaryl (0–27.5%) was observed. The coexistence of other pesticides was found to cause certain effects on pesticide degradation and primarily resulted in lower diversity of diatoms and bacteria than when using a single pesticide. The tolerant diatoms and bacteria potentially having the ability to degrade test pesticides were identified. River biofilms could be suitable biomaterials or used to isolate degraders for bioremediating pesticide-contaminated water. -- Highlights: •Natural river biofilms showed high ability to degrade methomyl and carbofuran. •The presence of other pesticides caused certain effects on pesticide degradation. •Carbamate pesticides caused adverse effects on communities of diatoms and bacteria. •The tolerant diatoms and bacteria were found as potential pesticide-degraders. -- Biodegradation of carbamate pesticides by river biofilms

  4. Safety evaluation of chemicals in food: toxicological data profiles for pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vettorazzi, G.; Miles-Vettorazzi, P.

    1975-01-01

    The sources of the scientific information used over the past several years by the Joint FAO/WHO Meetings on Pesticide Residues in carrying out toxicological evaluations are classified systematically according to compound and subject for the first time in this paper. It is hoped that those engaged in the toxicological assessment of pesticide chemicals, for the purpose of standardizing pesticide tolerances or for developing criteria of acceptability, will profit from this classification. PMID:779805

  5. Pesticides: chemicals for survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindquist, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    Pesticides are chemicals used to control pests such as insects, weeds, plant diseases, nematodes, and rodents. The increased use of pesticides since 1945 has greatly aided the increase in crop production, protected livestock from diseases such as trypanosomiasis, protected man from diseases such as malaria and filarisis, decreased losses of stored grain, and has generally improved man's welfare. Despite the enormous benefits derived from pesticides these chemicals are not problem-free. Many pesticides are toxic to living organisms and interfere with specific biochemical systems. To measure the very small quantities of a pesticide radiolabelled chemicals are frequently essential, particularly to measure changes in the chemical structure of the pesticide, movement of the pesticide in soil, plants, or animals, amounts of pesticide going through various steps in food processing, etc. The use of radiolabelled pesticides is shortly shown for metabolism of the pesticide in crop species, metabolism in ruminant, in chickens and eggs, in soil, and possibly leaching and sorption in soil, hydrolysis, bio-concentration, microbial and photodegradation, and toxicity studies

  6. Pesticides and oncogenic modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakonaki, Elena; Androutsopoulos, Vasilis P; Liesivuori, Jyrki; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Spandidos, Demetrios A

    2013-05-10

    Pesticides constitute a diverse class of chemicals used for the protection of agricultural products. Several lines of evidence demonstrate that organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides can cause malignant transformation of cells in in vitro and in vivo models. In the current minireview a comprehensive summary of recent in vitro findings is presented along with data reported from human population studies, regarding the impact of pesticide exposure on activation or dysregulation of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Substantial mechanistic work suggests that pesticides are capable of inducing mutations in oncogenes and increase their transcriptional expression in vitro, whereas human population studies indicate associations between pesticide exposure levels and mutation occurrence in cancer-related genes. Further work is required to fully explore the exact mechanisms by which pesticide exposure affects the integrity and normal function of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in human populations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. New Labeling for Neonicotinoid Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    These documents, a graphic of the bee advisory box and letters to pesticide registrants, describe steps by EPA to change pesticide labels to better protect pollinators by being clearer and more precise in their directions for pesticide application.

  8. Pesticides: evaluation of environmental pollution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rathore, Hamir Singh; Nollet, Leo M. L

    2012-01-01

    ..., and more. It describes the degradation of pesticides in the atmosphere and in the environment. The text also covers the fate and transport of pesticides in the environment and the effects of pesticides on plants, animals, and humans...

  9. Pesticide Worker Safety Cooperative Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    The worker safety program cooperative agreements fund projects to educate pesticide applicators, handlers, and farmworkers on working safely with, and around, pesticides. Read about pesticide related grant opportunities and reports from previous grants.

  10. Understanding Pesticide Risks: Toxicity and Formulation

    OpenAIRE

    Muntz, Helen; Miller, Rhonda; Alston, Diane

    2016-01-01

    This fact sheet provides information about pesticide risks to human health, primary means of pesticide exposure, standardized measures of pesticide toxicity, pesticide signal words and type of pesticide formulations.

  11. Pesticides and childhood cancers.

    OpenAIRE

    Daniels, J L; Olshan, A F; Savitz, D A

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the possible association between pesticides and the risk of childhood cancers, epidemiologic studies published between 1970 and 1996 were critically reviewed. Thirty-one studies investigated whether occupational or residential exposure to pesticides by either parents or children was related to increased risk of childhood cancer. In general, the reported relative risk estimates were modest. Risk estimates appeared to be stronger when pesticide exposure was measured in more detail. ...

  12. Toxicology of pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Dubská, Veronika

    2008-01-01

    Toxykology of pesticides Pesticides are substances or mixtures substances as a natural so synthetic origin. By effect of pesticides is removing of pest and undesirable plants. However owing to their toxicity and unaware manipulation with these substances may go to a waste of another than target organism, plants, rivers and land. The target of this graduation theses has been draw up possibility hazards resulting of using these substances.

  13. Growth promotion of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) plants by single and mixed cultures of efficient phosphate solubilizing bacteria that are tolerant to abiotic stress and pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzuay, María Soledad; Ciancio, María Gabriela Ruiz; Ludueña, Liliana Mercedes; Angelini, Jorge Guillermo; Barros, Germán; Pastor, Nicolás; Taurian, Tania

    2017-06-01

    The aims of this study were, to analyze in vitro phosphate solubilization activity of six native peanut bacteria and to determine the effect of single and mixed inoculation of these bacteria on peanut and maize plants. Ability to produce organic acids and cofactor PQQ, to solubilize FePO 4 and AlPO 4 and phosphatase activity were analyzed. Also, the ability to solubilize phosphate under abiotic stress and in the presence of pesticides of the selected bacteria was determined. The effect of single and mixed bacterial inocula was analyzed on seed germination, maize plant growth and in a crop rotation plant assay with peanut and maize. The six strains produced gluconic acid and five released cofactor PQQ into the medium. All bacteria showed ability to solubilize phosphate from FePO 4 and AlPO 4 and phosphatase activity. The ability of the bacteria to solubilize tricalcium phosphate under abiotic stress and in presence of pesticides indicated encouraging results. Bacterial inoculation on peanut and maize increased seed germination, plant́s growth and P content. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria used in this study showed efficient phosphate mineralizing and solubilization ability and would be potential P-biofertilizers for peanut and maize. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Pesticide Product Information System (PPIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Information System contains information concerning all pesticide products registered in the United States. It includes registrant name and...

  15. Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee (PPDC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee, a permanent, broadly representative advisory committee, meets with EPA on a regular basis to discuss pesticide regulatory, policy, and program implementation issues.

  16. 40 CFR 180.319 - Interim tolerances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interim tolerances. 180.319 Section 180.319 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS... Raw agricultural commodity Coordination product of zinc ion and maneb Fungicide 1.0 (Calculated as...

  17. Pesticides in Ground Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    1996-01-01

    Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588.......Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588....

  18. Control of Pesticides 2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krongaard, T.; Petersen, K. K.; Christoffersen, C.

    The analytical chemical authority control on pesticide products on the Danish market performed in 2001 is reported. Samples of selected groups of pesticides have been collected from the market and analysed to verify whether the actual contents of the respective active ingredients in the products...

  19. Neurotoxicity of pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keifer, Matthew C; Firestone, Jordan

    2007-01-01

    Several pesticides such as organophosphates, carbamates and the organochlorine pesticides directly target nervous tissue as their mechanism of toxicity. In several others, such as the fumigants, the nervous system is affected by toxicological mechanisms that diffusely affect most or all tissues in the body. Both the central and peripheral nervous system are involved in the acute toxidromes of many pesticides resulting in acute short-term effects. There is strong human epidemiological evidence for persistent nervous system damage following acute intoxication with several important pesticide groups such as organophosphates and certain fumigants. However, whether persistent nervous system damage follows chronic low-level exposure to pesticides in adults (particularly organophosphpates), and whether in utero and/or early childhood exposure leads to persistent nervous system damage, is a subject of study at present. Parkinson's Disease, one of the most common chronic central nervous system diseases, has been linked to pesticide exposure in some studies, but other studies have failed to find an association. Several new pesticidal chemicals such as the neo-nicotinoids and fipronil have central nervous system effects, but only case reports are available to date on acute human intoxications with several of these. Little data are yet available on whether long-term effects result from these chemicals. Several ongoing or recently completed studies should add valuable insight into the effects of pesticides on the human nervous system particularly the effect of low-dose, chronic exposure both in adults and children.

  20. Agricultural pesticide residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuehr, F.

    1984-01-01

    The utilization of tracer techniques in the study of agricultural pesticide residues is reviewed under the following headings: lysimeter experiments, micro-ecosystems, translocation in soil, degradation of pesticides in soil, biological availability of soil-applied substances, bound residues in the soil, use of macro- and microautography, double and triple labelling, use of tracer labelling in animal experiments. (U.K.)

  1. Pesticider 2 i overfladevand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyeland, B.; Kvamm, B. L.

    DMU har den 29. september 1999 afholdt en metodeafprøvning: Pesticider 2 i overfladevand. Der var tilmeldt 17 danske og udenlandske laboratorier i metodeafprøvningen. Prøvningen omfattede 32 pesticider i overfladevand fra en sjællandsk sø. Koncentrationsniveauet for hver komponent var på 0,025 - 0...

  2. Food and Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA sets limits on how much of a pesticide may be used on food during growing and processing, and how much can remain on the food you buy. Learn about regulation of pesticides on food and how you can limit exposure.

  3. Economic and policy issues of U.S. agricultural pesticide use trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteen, Craig D; Fernandez-Cornejo, Jorge

    2013-09-01

    This paper discusses U.S. agricultural pesticide use trends from 1964 to 2010 based on estimates developed from USDA surveys, and the influence of economic factors, agricultural policy, and pesticide regulation on aggregate quantities and mix of pesticides used. Synthetic organic pesticide use grew dramatically from the 1960s to the early 1980s, as farmers treated more and more acreage. Use then stabilized, with herbicides applied to about 95% of corn, cotton, and soybean acres, annually. Subsequently, major factors affecting trends were: (1) changes in crop acreage and other economic factors, (2) use of new pesticides that reduced per-acre application rates and/or met more rigorous health and environmental standards, and (3) adoption of genetically engineered insect-resistant and herbicide-tolerant crops. The use of pesticides and other control practices responded to economic factors such as input and output markets and agricultural policies. Changing societal values toward pesticide risks and benefits profoundly affected pesticide policy, influencing the pesticides available for use, but only indirectly affecting aggregate quantities used. While the current pesticide regulatory process might have economic inefficiencies, it might be consistent with policy preferences held by much of the public-to reduce pesticide hazards rather than minimize regulatory costs. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  4. Pesticide Exposure in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, James R.; Karr, Catherine J.

    2018-01-01

    Pesticides are a collective term for a wide array of chemicals intended to kill unwanted insects, plants, molds, and rodents. Food, water, and treatment in the home, yard, and school are all potential sources of children’s exposure. Exposures to pesticides may be overt or subacute, and effects range from acute to chronic toxicity. In 2008, pesticides were the ninth most common substance reported to poison control centers, and approximately 45% of all reports of pesticide poisoning were for children. Organophosphate and carbamate poisoning are perhaps the most widely known acute poisoning syndromes, can be diagnosed by depressed red blood cell cholinesterase levels, and have available antidotal therapy. However, numerous other pesticides that may cause acute toxicity, such as pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, and rodenticides, also have specific toxic effects; recognition of these effects may help identify acute exposures. Evidence is increasingly emerging about chronic health implications from both acute and chronic exposure. A growing body of epidemiological evidence demonstrates associations between parental use of pesticides, particularly insecticides, with acute lymphocytic leukemia and brain tumors. Prenatal, household, and occupational exposures (maternal and paternal) appear to be the largest risks. Prospective cohort studies link early-life exposure to organophosphates and organochlorine pesticides (primarily DDT) with adverse effects on neurodevelopment and behavior. Among the findings associated with increased pesticide levels are poorer mental development by using the Bayley index and increased scores on measures assessing pervasive developmental disorder, inattention, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Related animal toxicology studies provide supportive biological plausibility for these findings. Additional data suggest that there may also be an association between parental pesticide use and adverse birth

  5. ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDE DEGRADATION UNDER DRINKING WATER TREATMENT CONDITIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996 requires that all tolerances for pesticide chemical residuals in or on food be considered for anticipated exposure. Drinking water is considered a potential pathway for dietary exposure and there is reliable monitoring data for the ...

  6. 40 CFR 180.1189 - Methyl salicylate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methyl salicylate; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1189 Methyl salicylate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The biochemical pesticide methyl salicylate is exempt from the requirement of a tolerance for residues in or on...

  7. The Danish Pesticide Tax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Branth; Nielsen, Helle Ørsted; Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2015-01-01

    This case study analyses the effects of the Danish pesticide tax (1996-2013) on agriculture which was introduced as an ad valorem tax in 1996, doubled in 1998, and redesigned in 2013 as a tax based on the toxicity of the pesticides. The Danish pesticide taxes probably represent the world’s highest...... pesticide taxes on agriculture, which makes it interesting to analyze how effective they have been. Here the effects of the ad valorem tax (1996-2013) are analyzed. The case study demonstrates the challenges of choosing an optimal tax design in a complex political setting where, additionally, not all...... individuals in the target group necessarily react to the economic incentives as predicted by economic modeling. It also demonstrates that a small first green-tax-step over time might develop into a better tax design....

  8. Types of Pesticide Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide active ingredients are described by the types of pests they control or how they work. For example, algicides kill algae, biopesticides are derived from natural materials, and insecticides kill insects.

  9. Safe Disposal of Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pesticide label. Check with your local solid waste management authority, environmental agency or health department to find out whether your community has a household hazardous waste collection program or a similar program for ...

  10. Reducing Pesticide Drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides information about pesticide spray drift, including problems associated with drift, managing risks from drift and the voluntary Drift Reduction Technology program that seeks to reduce spray drift through improved spray equipment design.

  11. What are Antimicrobial Pesticides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antimicrobial pesticides are substances or mixtures of substances used to destroy or suppress the growth of harmful microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, or fungi on inanimate objects and surfaces.

  12. Pesticide Registration Information System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — PRISM provides an integrated, web portal for all pesticide related data, communications, registrations and transactions for OPP and its stakeholders, partners and...

  13. Pesticides and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if there is more information on a specific brand that you have questions about. When calling, have a copy of the label nearby so that you can list the ingredients. Will exposure to pesticides harm my pregnancy? Most animal studies ...

  14. Pesticide Pollution in Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    İlter, Hüseyin; Kurt, Burak; Ötegen, Volkan Recai; Akbaba, Muhsin

    2018-01-01

    Pesticidepollution affects both aquatic and soil ecosystems. Factors that promotepesticide pollution include drainage patterns, properties of the pesticide,rainfall, microbial activity, treatment surface and rate of application.Pesticides are able to move from one ecosystem to another through processessuch as transfer (mobility) and transformation (degradation). Transfer mayoccur through surface runoff, vapourization to atmosphere, sorption (adsorp‐tion/desorp-tion), plant uptakeor soil water...

  15. [Neurotoxicology of pesticides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Hiroo

    2015-01-01

    Pesticides have been used for many years for preventing, destroying, repelling, or mitigating pests such as insects, rodents, and weeds. However, most pesticides are not completely specific for pests and can also induce damage to the human nervous system. In particular, insecticides often directly targets the nervous system by affecting major targets such as the neuro-transmitter metabolism, neuronal receptors, and ion channels; acetylcholine (ACh) esterase for organo-phosphates and carbamates, nicotinic ACh receptor for neonicotinoids, γ-aminobutyric acid receptors/chloride channels for organochlorides and fipronil, and voltage-gated sodium channel for pyrethroids. Additional targets include sites in the sodium channels, glutamate-gated chloride channels, and octopamine and ryanodine receptors. Several pesticides also produce adverse neurological effects indirectly by disrupting the general cellular mechanisms that support the high metabolic activity of the nervous system. Nowadays, more potent pesticides are being developed as replacements for the older, harmful ones. Pesticide neurotoxicity in humans may involve the central or peripheral nervous system or both and may induce typical neuronal damage in case of acute poisoning even by new agents. However, whether effect of exposure to pesticides at below acute-poisoning threshold level remains unclear. Moreover, neurotoxicology for behavioral and higher-brain function remains an unresolved and a challenging problem.

  16. 40 CFR 180.1196 - Peroxyacetic acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... handling establishments including, but not limited to dairies, dairy barns, restaurants, food service operations, breweries, wineries, and beverage and food processing plants. [74 FR 26535, June 3, 2009] ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD...

  17. 40 CFR 180.1225 - Decanoic acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., fillers, evaporators, pasteurizers and aseptic equipment in restaurants, food service operations, dairies, breweries, wineries, beverage and food processing plants. [68 FR 7939, Feb. 19, 2003; 68 FR 17308, Apr. 9... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD...

  18. 40 CFR 180.1159 - Pelargonic acid; exemption from the requirement of tolerances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., vats, fillers, evaporators, pasteurizers and aseptic equipment in restaurants, food service operations, dairies, breweries, wineries, beverage and food processing plants. [62 FR 28364, May 23, 1997, as amended... (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions...

  19. Human Health Benchmarks for Pesticides

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Advanced testing methods now allow pesticides to be detected in water at very low levels. These small amounts of pesticides detected in drinking water or source...

  20. Common Causes of Pesticide Incidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are many types of pesticide incidents. EPA staff analyze pesticide incident reports involving people (including children and farm workers), pets, domestic animals, wildlife including bees and other pollinators, and the environment.

  1. Pesticides and child neurodevelopment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Lisa G; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2008-04-01

    This review summarizes the recent research on pesticide exposure and child neurobehavioral development with a focus on in-utero exposure to organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides. Recent studies on in-utero exposure to the organochlorine pesticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its breakdown product, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene, indicate that exposure is associated with poorer infant (6 months and older) and child neurodevelopment. Yet, the studies differ on the domain of development that is affected. Research on organophosphate pesticide exposure and neurodevelopment is limited but suggests some negative association of exposure and neurodevelopment at certain ages. Two reports agree that increased levels of organophosphate exposure in utero result in greater numbers of abnormal reflexes in neonates and studies in older infants and young children also point to a negative association with development. In young children (2-3 years) two separate studies observed an increase in maternally reported pervasive developmental disorder with increased levels of organophosphate exposure. Given that the literature suggests a link between organochlorine and in-utero pesticide exposure and impaired child neurodevelopment, clinicians should educate parents about prevention of exposure, especially in populations living in agricultural areas or where household use is common.

  2. Crafting tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchner, Antje; Freitag, Markus; Rapp, Carolin

    2011-01-01

    Ongoing changes in social structures, orientation, and value systems confront us with the growing necessity to address and understand transforming patterns of tolerance as well as specific aspects, such as social tolerance. Based on hierarchical analyses of the latest World Values Survey (2005...... results show that specific institutional qualities, which reduce status anxiety, such as inclusiveness, universality, and fairness, prevail over traditional socio-economic, societal, cultural, and democratic explanations....

  3. In Case of Pesticide Emergency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Consumers Contact Us Share In Case of Pesticide Emergency If someone has swallowed or inhaled a pesticide or gotten it in the eye or on ... for help with first aid information. The National Pesticide Information Center (NPIC) (1-800-858-7378) also ...

  4. Bacterial Degradation of Pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Berith Elkær

    This PhD project was carried out as part of the Microbial Remediation of Contaminated Soil and Water Resources (MIRESOWA) project, funded by the Danish Council for Strategic Research (grant number 2104-08-0012). The environment is contaminated with various xenobiotic compounds e.g. pesticides......D student, to construct fungal-bacterial consortia in order to potentially stimulate pesticide degradation thereby increasing the chance of successful bioaugmentation. The results of the project are reported in three article manuscripts, included in this thesis. In manuscript I, the mineralization of 2...

  5. Pesticide reducing instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lars-Bo; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Andersen, Martin

    2005-01-01

    of a key species of farmland bird, caused to changes in production and landscape. The results from the agricultural sector model are also used in evaluation of pesticide usage and the leaching of pesticides to ground water. First we analyze the implication of three different scenarios in all of the above...... for improving bio-diversity and securing drinking water. That is, combining economic modeling with physical biological modeling and geological evaluation allows us to select unsprayed field margins as the most effective instrument. Sensitivity analysis conducted on bio-diversity suggest that this result...

  6. The estimation of existed pesticides dumps contamination with pesticides residues

    OpenAIRE

    Taurozaitė, Kristina

    2010-01-01

    Kristina Taurozaitė Buvusių pesticidų sandėlių teritorijų užterštumo pesticidų likučiais vertinimas Santrauka Didžiausia tarša pesticidais stebima dirvožemyje ir požeminiuose gruntiniuose vandenyse, pesticidų kapinynų aplinkvietėse ir buvusių pesticidų sandėlių gaisravietėse, o pagrindiniai taršos pesticidais židiniai yra pesticidų sandelio gaisrai ir pesticidų kapinynai. Pesticidų sukeltas neigiamas poveikis aplinkai yra negrįžtamas, o tai pasireiškia įvairiais išsigimimais, nukrypimais ir l...

  7. A comparative study of allowable pesticide residue levels on produce in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neff Roni A

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The U.S. imports a substantial and increasing portion of its fruits and vegetables. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration currently inspects less than one percent of import shipments. While countries exporting to the U.S. are expected to comply with U.S. tolerances, including allowable pesticide residue levels, there is a low rate of import inspections and few other incentives for compliance. Methods This analysis estimates the quantity of excess pesticide residue that could enter the U.S. if exporters followed originating country requirements but not U.S. pesticide tolerances, for the top 20 imported produce items based on quantities imported and U.S. consumption levels. Pesticide health effects data are also shown. Results The model estimates that for the identified items, 120 439 kg of pesticides in excess of U.S. tolerances could potentially be imported to the U.S., in cases where U.S. regulations are more protective than those of originating countries. This figure is in addition to residues allowed on domestic produce. In the modeling, the top produce item, market, and pesticide of concern were oranges, Chile, and Zeta-Cypermethrin. Pesticides in this review are associated with health effects on 13 body systems, and some are associated with carcinogenic effects. Conclusions There is a critical information gap regarding pesticide residues on produce imported to the U.S. Without a more thorough sampling program, it is not possible accurately to characterize risks introduced by produce importation. The scenario presented herein relies on assumptions, and should be considered illustrative. The analysis highlights the need for additional investigation and resources for monitoring, enforcement, and other interventions, to improve import food safety and reduce pesticide exposures in originating countries.

  8. Impact of chronic and acute pesticide exposures on periphyton communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tlili, Ahmed, E-mail: ahmed.tlili@cemagref.fr [CEMAGREF, UR MAEP, 3 quai Chauveau CP 69336 Lyon Cedex 09 (France); Montuelle, Bernard, E-mail: bernard.montuelle@cemagref.fr [CEMAGREF, UR MAEP, 3 quai Chauveau CP 69336 Lyon Cedex 09 (France); INRA UMR CARRTEL, Laboratoire de Microbiologie Aquatique, BP 511, 74203, Thonon Cedex (France); Berard, Annette, E-mail: annette.berard@avignon.inra.fr [INRA UMR EMMAH 1114, Domaine Saint-Paul-Site Agroparc 84914 Avignon Cedex 9 (France); Bouchez, Agnes, E-mail: agnes.bouchez@thonon.inra.fr [INRA UMR CARRTEL, Laboratoire de Microbiologie Aquatique, BP 511, 74203, Thonon Cedex (France)

    2011-05-01

    Aquatic ecosystems face variable exposure to pesticides, especially during floodings which are associated with short bursts of high contaminant concentrations that influence biological systems. A study was undertaken to highlight the impact of the herbicide diuron applied in mixture with the fungicide tebuconazole on natural periphyton during flooding events. Periphyton were grown in two series of two lotic outdoor mesocosms: one series was non-contaminated while the other was exposed to chronic contamination. After 4 weeks, one channel of each series was exposed to three successive pulses, with each pulse followed by one week of recovery. Impacts on periphyton were assessed by using Denaturing Gel Gradient Electrophoresis to characterize eukaryotic community structure. At a functional scale, photosynthetic efficiency was quantified during each pulse, and the induced tolerance to diuron was estimated by performing short-term inhibition tests based on photosynthetic efficiency. Moreover, pesticide concentrations in the water column and periphyton matrix were measured. Diuron was adsorbed in the periphyton during each pulse and desorbed 13 h after pulse end. The different pulses affected the eukaryotic community structures of the control biofilms, but not of the chronically exposed ones. During the first pulse, photosynthetic efficiency was correlated with pesticide concentration in the water phase, and there was no difference between periphyton from chronically contaminated channels and control channels. However, during the second and third pulses, the photosynthetic efficiency of periphyton chronically exposed to pesticides appeared to be less impacted by the acute pulsed exposure of pesticide. These changes were consistent with the acquisition of induced tolerance to diuron since only after the third pulse that periphyton from chronic channel became tolerant to diuron. Our experimental study indicates that the effects of pulsed acute exposures to pesticides on

  9. Impact of chronic and acute pesticide exposures on periphyton communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tlili, Ahmed; Montuelle, Bernard; Berard, Annette; Bouchez, Agnes

    2011-01-01

    Aquatic ecosystems face variable exposure to pesticides, especially during floodings which are associated with short bursts of high contaminant concentrations that influence biological systems. A study was undertaken to highlight the impact of the herbicide diuron applied in mixture with the fungicide tebuconazole on natural periphyton during flooding events. Periphyton were grown in two series of two lotic outdoor mesocosms: one series was non-contaminated while the other was exposed to chronic contamination. After 4 weeks, one channel of each series was exposed to three successive pulses, with each pulse followed by one week of recovery. Impacts on periphyton were assessed by using Denaturing Gel Gradient Electrophoresis to characterize eukaryotic community structure. At a functional scale, photosynthetic efficiency was quantified during each pulse, and the induced tolerance to diuron was estimated by performing short-term inhibition tests based on photosynthetic efficiency. Moreover, pesticide concentrations in the water column and periphyton matrix were measured. Diuron was adsorbed in the periphyton during each pulse and desorbed 13 h after pulse end. The different pulses affected the eukaryotic community structures of the control biofilms, but not of the chronically exposed ones. During the first pulse, photosynthetic efficiency was correlated with pesticide concentration in the water phase, and there was no difference between periphyton from chronically contaminated channels and control channels. However, during the second and third pulses, the photosynthetic efficiency of periphyton chronically exposed to pesticides appeared to be less impacted by the acute pulsed exposure of pesticide. These changes were consistent with the acquisition of induced tolerance to diuron since only after the third pulse that periphyton from chronic channel became tolerant to diuron. Our experimental study indicates that the effects of pulsed acute exposures to pesticides on

  10. 40 CFR 174.516 - Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.516 Section 174.516 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance...

  11. Pesticides and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... X Y Z A-Z Index Health & Environment Human Health Animal Health Safe Use Practices Food Safety Environment Air Water Soil Wildlife Plants Pest ... our environment When pesticides are used on the food we eat The risk of health problems depends not only on how toxic the ingredients are ( ...

  12. Citizen's Guide to Pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Pesticide Programs.

    This guide provides suggestions on pest control and safety rules for pesticide use at home. Pest prevention may be possible by modification of pest habitat: removal of food and water sources, removal or destruction of pest shelter and breeding sites, and good horticultural practices that reduce plant stress. Nonchemical alternatives to pesticides…

  13. Kombinationseffekter af pesticider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kudsk, Per; Andersen, Helle Raun; Cedergreen, Nina

    Resumé: Effekten af 101 tokomponentblandinger og 20 trekomponentblandinger bestående af 22 forskellige pesticider blev undersøgt i 7 forskellige testsystemer. Effekterne af blandingerne blev sammenholdt med pesticidernes virkningsmekanismer/virkemåder med henblik på at undersøge, om det med...

  14. Intolerant tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khushf, G

    1994-04-01

    The Hyde Amendment and Roman Catholic attempts to put restrictions on Title X funding have been criticized for being intolerant. However, such criticism fails to appreciate that there are two competing notions of tolerance, one focusing on the limits of state force and accepting pluralism as unavoidable, and the other focusing on the limits of knowledge and advancing pluralism as a good. These two types of tolerance, illustrated in the writings of John Locke and J.S. Mill, each involve an intolerance. In a pluralistic context where the free exercise of religion is respected, John Locke's account of tolerance is preferable. However, it (in a reconstructed form) leads to a minimal state. Positive entitlements to benefits like artificial contraception or nontherapeutic abortions can legitimately be resisted, because an intolerance has already been shown with respect to those that consider the benefit immoral, since their resources have been coopted by taxation to advance an end that is contrary to their own. There is a sliding scale from tolerance (viewed as forbearance) to the affirmation of communal integrity, and this scale maps on to the continuum from negative to positive rights.

  15. NAFTA Guidance Document on Data Requirements for Tolerances on Imported Commodities in the United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this document is to provide detailed guidance on data requirements that meet the North American Free Trade Agreement standards for the establishment of pesticide import tolerances or maximum residue levels in Canada and the United States.

  16. 78 FR 55641 - Polyurethane-Type Polymers; Tolerance Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ...-Type Polymers; Tolerance Exemption AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule... polymers produced by the reaction of either 1,6-hexanediisocyanate; 2,4,4-trimethyl-1,6-hexanediisocyanate... (also known as polyurethane-type polymers), when used as an inert ingredient in a pesticide chemical...

  17. 40 CFR 180.1278 - Quillaja saponaria extract (saponins); exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Quillaja saponaria extract (saponins... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1278 Quillaja saponaria extract (saponins); exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of the biochemical pesticide Quillaja saponaria extract...

  18. 75 FR 9527 - Trichoderma asperellum strain ICC 012; Exemption from the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ... of a tolerance for residues of the Trichoderma asperellum strain ICC 012 on all food/feed commodities... to exposure of infants and children to the pesticide chemical residue in establishing a tolerance and to ``ensure that there is a reasonable certainty that no harm will result to infants and children...

  19. 75 FR 24694 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register pesticide products containing an active ingredient not included in any previously registered pesticide product. Pursuant to the provisions...

  20. 2011 EPA Pesticide General Permit (PGP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The 2011 EPA Pesticide General Permit (PGP) covers discharges of biological pesticides, and chemical pesticides that leave a residue, in areas where EPA is the NPDES...

  1. Revised Certification Standards for Pesticide Applicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has finalized stronger standards for people who apply restricted use pesticides (RUPs). These revisions to the Certification of Pesticide Applicators rule will reduce the likelihood of harm from the misapplication of toxic pesticides.

  2. Radiation induced microbial pesticide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Yup; Lee, Young Keun; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Sang Jae

    2000-01-01

    To control plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria (K1, K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 13 kinds of fungi. Mutants of K1 and YS1 strains were induced by gamma-ray radiation and showed promising antifungal activities. These wild type and mutants showed resistant against more than 27 kinds of commercial pesticides among 30 kinds of commercial pesticides test particularly, YS1-1006 mutant strain showed resistant against hydrogen oxide. And mutants had increased antifungal activity against Botryoshaeria dothidea. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful method for the induction of functional mutants. (author)

  3. The geochemistry of pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbash, Jack E.

    2007-01-01

    The mid-1970s marked a major turning point in human history, for it was at that moment that the ability of the Earth’s ecosystems to absorb most of the biological impacts of human activities appears to have been exceeded by the magnitude of those impacts. This conclusion is based partly upon estimates of the rate of carbon dioxide emission during the combustion of fossil fuels, relative to the rate of its uptake by terrestrial ecosystems (Loh, 2002). A very different threshold, however, had already been crossed several decades earlier with the birth of the modern chemical industry, which produced novel substances for which no such natural assimilative capacity existed. Among these new chemical compounds, none has posed a greater challenge to the planet’s ecosystems than synthetic pesticides, compounds that have been intentionally released into the hydrologic system in vast quantities—several hundred million pounds of active ingredient (a.i.) per year in the United States alone (Donaldson et al., 2002)—for many decades. To gauge the extent to which we are currently able to assess the environmental implications of this new development in the Earth’s history, this chapter presents an overview of current understanding regarding the sources, transport, fate, and biological effects of pesticides, their transformation products, and selected adjuvants in the hydrologic system. (Adjuvants are the so-called inert ingredients included in commercial pesticide formulations to enhance the effectiveness of the active ingredients.)

  4. International Activities Related to Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regulating pesticides involves many international issues and working with our regulatory partners in other countries. Learn about EPA's activities, upcoming meetings and workshops, and various regulatory issues.

  5. Electronic Submissions of Pesticide Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applications for pesticide registration can be submitted electronically, including forms, studies, and draft product labeling. Applicants need not submit multiple electronic copies of any pieces of their applications.

  6. 75 FR 10259 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... contact person listed is: Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division (7511P), Office of Pesticide... A. Matthews, Acting Director, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division, Office of Pesticide...

  7. Evaluation System for Pesticides (ESPE). 1. Agricultural pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emans HJB; Beek MA; Linders JBHJ

    1992-01-01

    In this report a risk assessment or evaluation system for agricultural pesticides is presented, which estimates the hazards for man and environment resulting from the use of these pesticides. The evaluation system has also been placed within the context of the Uniform System for the Evaluation of

  8. Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee and Pesticide Regulatory Reform Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s Office of Pesticide Programs will hold a public meeting of the Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee (PPDC) on Wednesday, May 3, from 9:00 a.m. to 4:45 p.m., and on Thursday, May 4, from 8:30 a.m. to noon.

  9. 77 FR 74003 - Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on Antimicrobial Pesticide Products With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... required to register pesticides. The following list of North American Industrial Classification System... prevention, and in heating, ventilation, air conditioning and refrigeration systems. All of these recommended...

  10. Tracer work in pesticide research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, B.P.

    1989-01-01

    Innumerable studies on the large number of pesticides being used throughout the world led to some adverse findings on the properties and behavior of these chemicals and their degradation products in revelation to potential toxicity and environmental pollution. However, it is also a fact (difficult to accept as it may) that the use of pesticides as an indirect means of increasing food production cannot yet be dispensed with despite the potential dangers attributed to it. What can be done is to insure its judicious application which means minimizing its effectiveness in controlling pest infestations. To be able to do this it is necessary to know not only what pesticide is to be used against a given pest but also the fate of pesticide after application to a particular environment under prevailing conditions. Knowledge of the distribution and persistence of the parent compounds under metabolites will also help either, to confirm or to dispel the alleged dangers posed by them. Radiotracer methodology is particularly effective for this type of work because it permits highly sensitive analysis with minimum clean-up and permits one to determine even the bound residues which defies ordinary extraction procedures. Some studies made are studies on fate of pesticides in plant after foliar application to plant needs, uptake and translocation of systemic pesticides, fate of pesticides in soil, bioaccumulation of pesticide by aquatic organisms, etc. This particular study is on distribution of pesticide among the components of a rice/fish ecosystem. This project aims to generate data from experiments conducted in a model ecosystem using radiolabelled lindane and carbo-furan. In both cases, results show a decline in extractable species from the recommended dosage of pesticide application although they tend to imbibe a considerable amount of pesticide. It is hoped that depuration in additional experiments will bring useful results. (Auth.)

  11. Infectious Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Jonuleit, Helmut; Schmitt, Edgar; Kakirman, Hacer; Stassen, Michael; Knop, Jürgen; Enk, Alexander H.

    2002-01-01

    Regulatory CD4+CD25+ T cells (Treg) are mandatory for maintaining immunologic self-tolerance. We demonstrate that the cell-cell contact–mediated suppression of conventional CD4+ T cells by human CD25+ Treg cells is fixation resistant, independent from membrane-bound TGF-β but requires activation and protein synthesis of CD25+ Treg cells. Coactivation of CD25+ Treg cells with Treg cell–depleted CD4+ T cells results in anergized CD4+ T cells that in turn inhibit the activation of conventional, ...

  12. 75 FR 8256 - Nicosulfuron; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... nicosulfuron on Bermudagrass and hay to control field sandbur species, and issued crisis exemptions for this... garden pest control, indoor pest control, termiticides, and flea and tick control on pets). Nicosulfuron... prenatal and postnatal toxicity and the completeness of the database on toxicity and exposure unless EPA...

  13. 75 FR 16017 - Cloquintocet-mexyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... are listed in the docket index available at http://www.regulations.gov . Although listed in the index... 5, 2008, December 16, 2005, and June 22, 2000. A. Toxicological Profile EPA has evaluated the... Considerations A. Analytical Enforcement Methodology Adequate enforcement methodology is available to enforce the...

  14. 78 FR 30213 - 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ....C. III. Aggregate Risk Assessment and Determination of Safety Section 408(b)(2)(A)(i) of FFDCA... to assess the hazards of and to make a determination on aggregate exposure for 1-naphthaleneacetic... resulted in decreased hematocrit and hemoglobin, along with reduced red blood cell count in rats and dogs...

  15. 75 FR 19268 - Kasugamycin; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ... commodities. 2. Dietary exposure from drinking water. The Agency used screening level water exposure models in the dietary exposure analysis and risk assessment for kasugamycin in drinking water. These simulation... Screening Tool (FIRST) and Screening Concentration in Ground Water (SCI-GROW) models, the estimated drinking...

  16. 76 FR 38033 - Cloquintocet-mexyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA). DATES: This regulation is effective June 29... determination of its acid metabolite. These methods may be requested from: Chief, Analytical Chemistry Branch...

  17. 76 FR 7712 - Clothianidin; Time-Limited Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ...-OPP-2010-0217, by one of the following methods: Federal eRulemaking Portal: http://www.regulations.gov... protein, as well as some anemia. Long-term dietary administration of clothianidin did not result in a.... Dietary exposure from drinking water. The Agency used screening level water exposure models in the dietary...

  18. 76 FR 56644 - Sulfur Dioxide; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... drinking water and in residential settings, but does not include occupational exposure. Section 408(b)(2)(C... exposures for which there is reliable information.'' This includes exposure through drinking water and in... concentrations of >100 ppm may be found in dried fruits (excluding dark raisins and prunes), lemon and lime...

  19. 78 FR 7266 - Alpha-Cypermethrin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... drinking water and in residential settings, but does not include occupational exposure. Section 408(b)(2)(C... uses for alpha- cypermethrin, but also the potential dietary and drinking water contribution and...%; cauliflower, 25%; celery, 60%; cherries, 5%; grapefruit, 50%; green beans, 20%; green peas, 15%; lemon, 2.5...

  20. 75 FR 56897 - S-metolachlor; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... the parent compound, in or on carrot at 0.3 part per million (ppm); cucumber, okra, sesame seed, and.... For mustard greens the MRL in the United States will be established at a higher level than in Canada..., seed at 0.13 ppm, sorghum, sweet, stalk at 4.0 ppm, and turnip greens at 1.8 ppm. VI. Statutory and...

  1. 76 FR 5696 - Fluazifop-P-butyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... tract, and diaphragmatic hernias) were consistent findings across the five rat developmental toxicity..., lymphadenopathy and bone marrow myelogram changes in the chronic toxicity study in dogs. The significance of these.... Developmental LOAEL = 200 UFH = 10x mg/kg/day based on FQPA SF = 1x diaphragmatic hernia. Acute dietary (General...

  2. 77 FR 48902 - S-Metolachlor; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ...? You may be potentially affected by this action if you are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer... factors. ii. Chronic exposure. In conducting the chronic dietary exposure assessment EPA used the food... factor when reliable data available to EPA support the choice of a different factor. 2. Prenatal and...

  3. 78 FR 29049 - Streptomycin; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ... the molecule (e.g., minimal metabolism and large molecular size restricting interaction of the... line treatment for tuberculosis and used for several other bacterial diseases. However, based upon the...

  4. 77 FR 8741 - Spirotetramat; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... the contribution to drinking water based on the use of spirotetramat on pome fruit (0.4 lb ai/A/year... Christmas trees (0.32 lb ai/A/year). 3. Sources of non-dietary exposure. The term ``residential exposure.... This final rule directly regulates growers, food processors, food handlers, and food retailers, not...

  5. 77 FR 12740 - Trinexapac-ethyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... subchronic dog study showed decreased body weight gain and food consumption, diffuse thymic atrophy, and... food consumption observed in the parental animals (>1,200 mg/kg/day). Trinexapac-ethyl is classified as..., ``Trinexapac-ethyl: Human Health Risk Assessment for the Section 3 Registration Action on Cereal Grains...

  6. 76 FR 23898 - Mefenpyr-diethyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... in the severity (not incidence) of splenic extramedullary hematopoiesis were observed in females... treatment-related effects at dose levels up to and including the limit dose. Repeated exposure studies via... note that enlarged spleens, more severe hematopoiesis and hemosiderin deposits, and increased spleen...

  7. 76 FR 22620 - Triflusulfuron-Methyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... validity, completeness, and reliability as well as the relationship of the results of the studies to human... histopathological changes consistent with mild hemolytic anemia were observed in the rat and the dog. Following... observed in the rat, and testicular atrophy and reduced size were observed in the dog. Liver effects...

  8. 75 FR 46847 - Halosulfuron-methyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    ... the relationship of the results of the studies to human risk. EPA has also considered available.... The toxicity mode of action in mammals is undetermined. However, available data show that the dog is the most sensitive animal species. In the dog, decreased body weight was seen in the chronic oral...

  9. 76 FR 82152 - Cyhalofop-butyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ... production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311... reproduction studies. In the 90-day rat study, lipofuscin pigment deposition in proximal tubule kidney cells... deposition of kidney changes (early and increased deposition of the pigments lipofuscin and hemosiderin in...

  10. 77 FR 26456 - Carfentrazone-ethyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311... hepatic pigment deposition, hepatocytomegaly, single cell necrosis, and cell mitosis. Similarly, chronic...

  11. 76 FR 31479 - Pyraflufen-ethyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    .... Department of Agriculture (USDA) and assumptions for residue levels in food as the chronic exposure in Unit... of one in one million (1 x 10 -6 ) or less to be negligible. The precision which can be assumed for... 10 -6 . Considering the precision with which cancer hazard can be estimated, the conservativeness of...

  12. 40 CFR 180.3 - Tolerances for related pesticide chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-Chlorophenyl-2,4,5-trichlorophenyl sulfide. 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid). DDD (TDE). DDT. 1,1-Dichloro-2,2-bis(p-ethylphenyl) ethane. 2,6-Dichloro-4-nitroaniline. 2,4-Dichlorophenyl p-nitrophenyl ether...-1,5,5a, 6,9,9a-hexahydro-6,9-methano-2,4,3-benzodioxathiepin-3-oxide). Endosulfan sulfate (6,7,8,9...

  13. 77 FR 20752 - Methyl Bromide; Proposed Pesticide Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... Classification System (NAICS) codes have been provided to assist you and others in determining whether this...- efficient values than methyl bromide. And, although methyl bromide tends to be lipid soluble, the low...

  14. 78 FR 38226 - Sulfoxaflor; Pesticide Tolerances; Technical Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... Beet, sugar, dried pulp 0.07 Beet, sugar, molasses 0.25 Berry, low growing, subgroup 13-7G 0.70 Cattle, fat 0.10 Cattle, meat 0.15 Cattle, meat byproducts 0.40 Cauliflower 0.08 Citrus, dried pulp 3.6 Cotton....0 Milk 0.15 Nuts, tree, group 14 0.015 Onion, bulb, subgroup 3-07A 0.01 Onion, green, subgroup 3-07B...

  15. 77 FR 71555 - Halosulfuron-Methyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ... except for an immunotoxicity study. In accordance with 40 CFR part 158, Toxicology Data Requirements, an immunotoxicity study is required for halosulfuron-methyl. In the absence of specific immunotoxicity studies, EPA... uncertainty factor is needed to account for potential immunotoxicity. The toxicology database for halosulfuron...

  16. 77 FR 26954 - 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    ... neurotoxicity and immunotoxicity studies. An immunotoxicity study is not available. However, the toxicology data.... Consequently, the Agency does not believe that conducting a functional immunotoxicity study will result in a...

  17. 76 FR 7707 - Fludioxonil; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... an immunotoxicity study, and acute and subchronic neurotoxicity studies. The immunotoxicity and acute... immunotoxicity. The overall weight-of-evidence suggests that fludioxonil does not directly target the immune... database. Therefore, the Agency does not believe that the immunotoxicity and acute and chronic...

  18. 76 FR 5711 - Bispyribac-sodium; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ...- sodium has shown no indications of central or peripheral nervous system toxicity in any study and does... signs of potential neurotoxicity (i.e., piloerection, subnormal temperature, and decreased spontaneous... potentially indicative of neurotoxicity (e.g., piloerection, subnormal temperature, and decreased spontaneous...

  19. Behavior of pesticides in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan A. Norris

    1974-01-01

    A number of chemicals of diverse characteristics have arbitrarily been classed together on the basis of their use and given the descriptive name "pesticides." An unfortunate aura of mystery has developed about these chemicals. However, there is nothing unique or mysterious about the chemicals we refer to as "pesticides." Like other chemicals, they...

  20. Choice of pesticide fate models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balderacchi, Matteo; Trevisan, Marco; Vischetti, Costantino

    2006-01-01

    The choice of a pesticide fate model at field scale is linked to the available input data. The article describes the available pesticide fate models at a field scale and the guidelines for the choice of the suitable model as function of the data input requested [it

  1. Factors affecting pesticide safety behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhandari, Govinda; Atreya, Kishor; Yang, Xiaomei; Fan, Liangxin; Geissen, Violette

    2018-01-01

    Indiscriminate use of pesticides in vegetable farming is an emerging problem resulting in increasing health and environmental risks in developing countries including Nepal. As there are limited studies focusing on farmers’ and retailers’ knowledge related to pesticide use and associated risks as

  2. Infectious Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonuleit, Helmut; Schmitt, Edgar; Kakirman, Hacer; Stassen, Michael; Knop, Jürgen; Enk, Alexander H.

    2002-01-01

    Regulatory CD4+CD25+ T cells (Treg) are mandatory for maintaining immunologic self-tolerance. We demonstrate that the cell-cell contact–mediated suppression of conventional CD4+ T cells by human CD25+ Treg cells is fixation resistant, independent from membrane-bound TGF-β but requires activation and protein synthesis of CD25+ Treg cells. Coactivation of CD25+ Treg cells with Treg cell–depleted CD4+ T cells results in anergized CD4+ T cells that in turn inhibit the activation of conventional, freshly isolated CD4+ T helper (Th) cells. This infectious suppressive activity, transferred from CD25+ Treg cells via cell contact, is cell contact–independent and partially mediated by soluble transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. The induction of suppressive properties in conventional CD4+ Th cells represents a mechanism underlying the phenomenon of infectious tolerance. This explains previously published conflicting data on the role of TGF-β in CD25+ Treg cell–induced immunosuppression. PMID:12119350

  3. Quality control of pesticide products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-07-01

    In light of an established need for more efficient analytical procedures, this publication, which documents the findings of an IAEA coordinated research project (CRP) on “Quality Control of Pesticide Products”, simplifies the existing protocol for pesticide analysis while simultaneously upholding existing standards of quality. This publication includes both a report on the development work done in the CRP and a training manual for use by pesticide analysis laboratories. Based on peer reviewed and internationally recognized methods published by the Association of Analytical Communities (AOAC) and the Collaborative International Pesticides Analytical Council (CIPAC), this report provides laboratories with versatile tools to enhance the analysis of pesticide chemicals and to extend the scope of available analytical repertoires. Adoption of the proposed analytical methodologies promises to reduce laboratories’ use of solvents and the time spent on reconfiguration and set-up of analytical equipment

  4. Training Manual Occupational Pesticide Exposure & Health and Safe & Responsible Handling of Pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maden, van der E.C.L.J.; Koomen, I.

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides are commonly used in the horticulture sector. While emphasis is often on the correct and efficient application of pesticides, the risk associated with application of pesticides receives less attention. Those working with pesticides need to know about occupational pesticide exposure and

  5. Quantitative Structure activity relationship and risk analysis of some pesticides in the cattle milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faqir Muhammad*, Ijaz Javed, Masood Akhtar1, Zia-ur-Rahman, Mian Muhammad Awais1, Muhammad Kashif Saleemi2 and Muhammad Irfan Anwar3

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Milk of cattle was collected from various localities of Faisalabad, Pakistan. Pesticides concentration was determined by HPLC using solid phase microextraction. The residue analysis revealed that about 40% milk samples were contaminated with pesticides. The mean±SE levels (ppm of cyhalothrin, endosulfan, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin were 0.38±0.02, 0.26±0.02, 0.072±0.01 and 0.085±0.02, respectively. Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR models were used to predict the residues of unknown pesticides in the milk of cattle using their known physicochemical properties such as molecular weight (MW, melting point (MP, and log octanol to water partition coefficient (Ko/w as well as the milk characteristics such as pH, % fat, and specific gravity (SG in this species. The analysis revealed good correlation coefficients (R2 = 0.91 for cattle QSAR model. The coefficient for Ko/w for the studied pesticides was higher in cattle milk. Risk analysis was conducted based upon the determined pesticide residues and their provisional tolerable daily intakes. The daily intake levels of pesticide residues including cyhalothrin, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin in present study were 3, 11, 2.5 times higher, respectively in cattle milk. This intake of pesticide contaminated milk might pose health hazards to humans in this locality.

  6. Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus Reduces Organophosphate Pesticide Absorption and Toxicity to Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinder, Mark; McDowell, Tim W; Daisley, Brendan A; Ali, Sohrab N; Leong, Hon S; Sumarah, Mark W; Reid, Gregor

    2016-10-15

    Organophosphate pesticides used in agriculture can pose health risks to humans and wildlife. We hypothesized that dietary supplementation with Lactobacillus, a genus of commensal bacteria, would reduce absorption and toxicity of consumed organophosphate pesticides (parathion and chlorpyrifos [CP]). Several Lactobacillus species were screened for toleration of 100 ppm of CP or parathion in MRS broth based on 24-h growth curves. Certain Lactobacillus strains were unable to reach stationary-phase culture maxima and displayed an abnormal culture morphology in response to pesticide. Further characterization of commonly used, pesticide-tolerant and pesticide-susceptible, probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG (LGG) and L. rhamnosus strain GR-1 (LGR-1), respectively, revealed that both strains could significantly sequester organophosphate pesticides from solution after 24-h coincubations. This effect was independent of metabolic activity, as L. rhamnosus GG did not hydrolyze CP and no difference in organophosphate sequestration was observed between live and heat-killed strains. Furthermore, LGR-1 and LGG reduced the absorption of 100 μM parathion or CP in a Caco-2 Transwell model of the small intestine epithelium. To determine the effect of sequestration on acute toxicity, newly eclosed Drosophila melanogaster flies were exposed to food containing 10 μM CP with or without supplementation with live LGG. Supplementation with LGG simultaneously, but not with administration of CP 3 days prior (prophylactically), mitigated CP-induced mortality. In summary, the results suggest that L. rhamnosus may be useful for reducing toxic organophosphate pesticide exposure via passive binding. These findings could be transferable to clinical and livestock applications due to affordability and practical ability to supplement products with food-grade bacteria. The consequences of environmental pesticide pollution due to widespread usage in agriculture and soil leaching are becoming a

  7. 75 FR 28012 - Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on False or Misleading Pesticide Product...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... Brand Names AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The Agency is announcing the availability of and seeking public comment on a draft Pesticide Registration Notice (PR Notice) entitled ``False or Misleading Pesticide Product Brand Names.'' PR Notices are issued...

  8. 75 FR 34448 - Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on False or Misleading Pesticide Product...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... Brand Names; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice..., announcing the availability of and seeking public comment on a draft Pesticide Registration Notice (PR Notice) entitled ``False or Misleading Pesticide Product Brand Names.'' This document extends the comment period...

  9. Sprinkler irrigation-pesticide best management systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjha, A. Y.; Peralta, R. C.; Hill, R. W.; Requena, A. M.; Deer, H. M.; Ehteshami, M.

    1992-01-01

    The relative reduction in potential groundwater contamination due to pesticides at several sites in Utah was determined by comparing alternative irrigation system designs, water management practices, and pesticides. Alternative sprinkler irrigation distribution coefficients were used to estimate irrigation application depths. The movement of pesticides through soils following sprinkler irrigations was simulated with a one-dimensional model. Pesticide contamination of groundwater can be reduce...

  10. Promising pesticide results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, Paula

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Virotec Global Solutions has announced what it believes is the first successful destruction of intractable organochlorine pesticide contamination in industrial wastewater. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, otherwise known as DDT, is one of the most intractable and persistent chemical compounds known to man. In February remediation specialist Virotec reported it had been successful in reducing DDT contaminant levels. In addition to destroying DDT in wastewater, Virotec showed its ViroFlow Technology can reduce levels of two DDT metabolites (or breakdown products), DDD and DDE, along with an organo-phosphate insecticide called chlorpyrifos. Virotec was commissioned by a large pesticide and fertiliser company to find a way of using its ViroFlow suite of products to reliably reduce high levels of pesticides and heavy metals from wastewater and stormwater at an industrial site. “Along with our strategic partner Green Shadows Commercial from Tasmania, we were able to successfully reduce DDT from 108 parts per billion to under two parts per billion in industrial wastewater using a combination of ozofractionation and ElectroBind reagent,” said business development manager Gisela Barros. “In addition, we were successful in demonstrating similar reductions in Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD) from 15.2 parts per billion to under 0.5 parts per billion, and Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) from one part per billion to under accurate to around 0.5 parts per billion.” The level of detection for pesticides was 0.5 parts per billion (ppb). In addition, ViroFlow reduced chlorpyrifos from 7,972 ppb to 6.4 ppb, arsenic (a key ingredient in pesticide composition) from 0.13 parts per million (ppm) to 0.002 ppm, and zinc from 0.35 ppm to less than 0.005 ppm. “The significance of these findings cannot be overstated,” Barros said. “DDT and its metabolites are among the most persistent and toxic contaminants to be found in soil and groundwater and

  11. Better ways of using pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, M.

    1992-01-01

    The primary role of agriculture is to produce a reliable supply of wholesome food to feed the world's population, safely and without adverse effects on the environment. Pesticides have a crucial part to play in reducing the loss of food during production and after harvesting, and this article discusses how the use of pesticides can be made more efficient. Two particular examples of safer and more effective pesticide delivery systems are described, relating to tsetse fly control in Africa and to the control of weeds in a rice paddy or rice-fish mixed ecosystem. 45 refs, 6 figs

  12. Pesticide use and application: An Indian scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abhilash, P.C.; Singh, Nandita

    2009-01-01

    Agricultural development continues to remain the most important objective of Indian planning and policy. In the process of development of agriculture, pesticides have become an important tool as a plant protection agent for boosting food production. Further, pesticides play a significant role by keeping many dreadful diseases. However, exposure to pesticides both occupationally and environmentally causes a range of human health problems. It has been observed that the pesticides exposures are increasingly linked to immune suppression, hormone disruption, diminished intelligence, reproductive abnormalities and cancer. Currently, India is the largest producer of pesticides in Asia and ranks twelfth in the world for the use of pesticides. A vast majority of the population in India is engaged in agriculture and is therefore exposed to the pesticides used in agriculture. Although Indian average consumption of pesticide is far lower than many other developed economies, the problem of pesticide residue is very high in India. Pesticide residue in several crops has also affected the export of agricultural commodities in the last few years. In this context, pesticide safety, regulation of pesticide use, proper application technologies, and integrated pest management are some of the key strategies for minimizing human exposure to pesticides. There is a dearth of studies related to these issues in India. Therefore, the thrust of this paper was to review the technology of application of pesticides in India and recommend future strategies for the rational use of pesticides and minimizing the problems related to health and environment.

  13. Pesticide use and application: An Indian scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhilash, P.C., E-mail: pcabhilash@gmail.com [Eco-Auditing Group, National Botanical Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow 226001, Uttar Pradesh (India); Singh, Nandita, E-mail: nanditasingh8@yahoo.co.in [Eco-Auditing Group, National Botanical Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow 226001, Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2009-06-15

    Agricultural development continues to remain the most important objective of Indian planning and policy. In the process of development of agriculture, pesticides have become an important tool as a plant protection agent for boosting food production. Further, pesticides play a significant role by keeping many dreadful diseases. However, exposure to pesticides both occupationally and environmentally causes a range of human health problems. It has been observed that the pesticides exposures are increasingly linked to immune suppression, hormone disruption, diminished intelligence, reproductive abnormalities and cancer. Currently, India is the largest producer of pesticides in Asia and ranks twelfth in the world for the use of pesticides. A vast majority of the population in India is engaged in agriculture and is therefore exposed to the pesticides used in agriculture. Although Indian average consumption of pesticide is far lower than many other developed economies, the problem of pesticide residue is very high in India. Pesticide residue in several crops has also affected the export of agricultural commodities in the last few years. In this context, pesticide safety, regulation of pesticide use, proper application technologies, and integrated pest management are some of the key strategies for minimizing human exposure to pesticides. There is a dearth of studies related to these issues in India. Therefore, the thrust of this paper was to review the technology of application of pesticides in India and recommend future strategies for the rational use of pesticides and minimizing the problems related to health and environment.

  14. Acute pesticide poisoning and pesticide registration in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesseling, Catharina; Corriols, Marianela; Bravo, Viria

    2005-01-01

    The International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations has been for 20 years the most acknowledged international initiative for reducing negative impact from pesticide use in developing countries. We analyzed pesticide use and poisoning in Central America, particularly in Costa Rica and Nicaragua, and evaluated whether registration decisions are based on such data, in accordance with the FAO Code. Extensive use of very hazardous pesticides continues in Central America and so do poisonings with organophosphates, carbamates, endosulfan and paraquat as the main causative agents. Central American governments do not carry out or commission scientific risk assessments. Instead, guidelines from international agencies are followed for risk management through the registration process. Documentation of pesticide poisonings during several decades never induced any decision to ban or restrict a pesticide. However, based on the official surveillance systems, in 2000, the ministers of health of the seven Central American countries agreed to ban or restrict twelve of these pesticides. Now, almost 4 years later, restrictions have been implemented in El Salvador and in Nicaragua public debate is ongoing. Chemical and agricultural industries do not withdraw problematic pesticides voluntarily. In conclusion, the registration processes in Central America do not comply satisfactorily with the FAO Code. However, international regulatory guidelines are important in developing countries, and international agencies should strongly extend its scope and influence, limiting industry involvement. Profound changes in international and national agricultural policies, steering towards sustainable agriculture based on non-chemical pest management, are the only way to reduce poisonings

  15. Radiation induced pesticidal microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Yup; Lee, Y. K.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J. K.; Lee, S. J.; Lim, D. S

    2001-01-01

    To isolate pesticidal microbes against plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria(K1. K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 12 kinds of fungi. Specific proteins and the specific transcribed genes were found from the YS1 and its radiation-induced mutants. And knock-out mutants of antifungal activity were derived by transposon mutagenesis. From these knock-out mutants, the antifungal activity related genes and its modification by gamma-ray radiation are going to be studied. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful tool for the induction of functional mutants.

  16. Radiation induced pesticidal microbes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Yup; Lee, Y. K.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J. K.; Lee, S. J.; Lim, D. S.

    2001-01-01

    To isolate pesticidal microbes against plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria(K1. K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 12 kinds of fungi. Specific proteins and the specific transcribed genes were found from the YS1 and its radiation-induced mutants. And knock-out mutants of antifungal activity were derived by transposon mutagenesis. From these knock-out mutants, the antifungal activity related genes and its modification by gamma-ray radiation are going to be studied. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful tool for the induction of functional mutants

  17. 40 CFR 180.1118 - Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR... tolerance is established for the microbial pest control agent Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis virus...

  18. 40 CFR 180.1067 - Methyl eugenol and malathion combination; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methyl eugenol and malathion... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1067 Methyl eugenol and malathion combination; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The insect attractant methyl eugenol and the...

  19. Pesticide Product Information System (PPIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    PPIS includes registrant name and address, chemical ingredients, toxicity category, product names, distributor brand names, site/pest uses, pesticidal type, formulation code, and registration status for all products registered in the U.S.

  20. Data Requirements for Pesticide Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    In evaluating a pesticide registration application, we assess a wide variety of potential human health and environmental effects associated with use of the product. Learn about these data requirements.

  1. Canadian pesticide air sampling campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Y.; Harner, T.; Blanchard, P.; Li, Y.F.; Aulagnier, F. [Environment Canada, Gatineau, PQ (Canada). Meteorological Service of Canada; Tuduri, L. [Laboratoire de Physico Toxicochimie des Systemes Naturels, Talence (France). Equipe Perigourdine de Chimie Appliquee; Waite, D.; Belzer, W. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Environmental Conservation Branch; Murphy, C. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Environmental Protection Service

    2005-07-01

    Although pesticides are widely used in Canada, little is known about the presence, distribution, and fate of currently used pesticides (CUPs) in the Canadian atmosphere. This paper provided details of a campaign conducted in 2003 to provide information on air and precipitation levels of CUPs. The objective of the campaign was to create pesticide emission inventories and to identify important pesticide issues related to environmental fate, exposure, and risk assessment in order to develop effective pesticide policies. A Canadian atmospheric network for currently used pesticides was established, which was then followed by an intensive field study in the Canadian prairies. Air samples were collected weekly using high volume PS-1 samplers with polyurethane foam (PUF) XAD sandwiches and glass fibre filters. Precipitation samples were collected each month using MIC samplers equipped with XAD columns. Passive air samplers were deployed at many of the sites for periods of 1 to 3 months. Results of the study showed relatively high concentrations of endosulfan at all sites. High levels of chloropyrifos, malathion, and carbofurans were also detected from air samples. High concentrations of lindane were also observed. Alachlor, metochlor, and trifluralin concentrations were detected in most Ontario and Quebec air and rainfall samples. Eleven target pesticides were detected from air samples during the prairie study. High concentrations of triallate were observed, and good correlations between air concentration trends and dry deposition trends were seen for triallate, 2,4-D, MCPA, dicamba, and bromoxynil. Results of the campaign are now being modelled using a simplified gridded pesticide emission and residue model. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  2. Pesticides in the River Ravi and its tributaries between its stretches from Shahdara to Balloki Headworks, Punjab-Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Mobeen; Mahboob, Shahid; Sultana, Salma; Sultana, Tayyaba

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the presence and potent source of pesticides and specific pesticide bearing effluent release points on the River Ravi, between the Shahdara and Balloki Headworks. Pakistan has banned the use of organochlorine and nitrogen containing pesticides, yet no attention has been paid to the continuous monitoring and assessment of these banned pesticides to make sure that they are not being used in practice. Levels of selected organochlorine and nitrogen containing pesticide residues were assessed in water collected from 18 sampling sites on the River Ravi and its tributaries using a gas chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector (GC-ECD). All water samples were found to be contaminated with varying concentrations of pesticide residues. However, levels of pesticides were below the tolerance limits suggested in national and international standards. Pesticide concentrations in the water of river sites ranged from 0.034 to 0.045 microg/L for DDT, 0.033 to 0.046 microg/L for DDE, 0.108 to 0.123 microg/L for endosulfan and 0.028 to 0.040 microg/L for carbofuran. In tributaries, pesticide concentrations ranged from 0.0468 to 0.0685 microg/L for DDT, 0.0390 to 0.0637 microg/L for DDE, 0.111 to 0.147 microg/L for endosulfan and 0.0396 to 0.0631 microg/L for carbofuran. The results show pesticide concentrations in river water in the order: endosulfan > DDE > DDT > carbofuran. Pesticide concentrations in tributary waters decreased in the order: endosulfan > DDT> DDE > carbofuran. After Degh Fall and After Hudiara Nulla Fall river sampling sites were severely contaminated while, among the tributaries, Degh Fall and Hudiara Drain were severely contaminated with DDT, DDE, endosulfan and carbofuran. Constant monitoring programs should to be initiated to reform the present situation.

  3. Effects of pesticides on plant growth promoting traits of Mesorhizobium strain MRC4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munees Ahemad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the effect of selected pesticides [herbicides (metribuzin and glyphosate, insecticides (imidacloprid and thiamethoxam and fungicides (hexaconazole, metalaxyl and kitazin] at recommended and higher dose rates on plant growth promoting activities of the Mesorhizobium sp. isolated from chickpea-nodules. A total of 50 rhizobial strains recovered from the nodules of chickpea root systems were identified following morphological, biochemical and host-specificity tests and tested for pesticide-tolerance. Among these strains, the Mesorhizobium sp. strain MRC4 was specifically selected due to the highest tolerance levels for all selected pesticides and the maximum production of plant growth promoting substances. Strain MRC4 produced indole acetic acid (44 μg ml−1, siderophores [salicylic acid (35 μg ml−1 and 2,3-dihydroxy benzoic acid (19 μg ml−1], exo-polysaccharides (21 μg ml−1, HCN and ammonia. Under pesticide-stress, pesticide-concentration dependent progressive-decline in all plant growth promoting traits of the Mesorhizobium sp. strain MRC4 exposed was observed except for exo-polysaccharides which consistently increased with exceeding the concentration of each pesticide from recommended dose. For instance, hexaconazole at three times the recommended dose elicited the maximum stress on siderophore-biosynthesis by the Mesorhizobium sp. strain MRC4 and decreased salicylic acid and DHBA by 40% and 47%, respectively and the greatest stimulatory effect on exo-polysaccharides secretion was shown by imidacloprid which stimulated the Mesorhizobium sp. strain MRC4 to secrete EPS by 38%, compared to control. Generally, the maximum toxicity to plant growth promoting traits of Mesorhizobium was shown by glyphosate, thiamethoxam and hexaconazole, at three times the recommended rate among herbicides, insecticides and fungicides, respectively. This study revealed an additional aspect of the toxicological

  4. Storm-event-transport of urban-use pesticides to streams likely impairs invertebrate assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Kurt; Kuivila, Kathryn; Hladik, Michelle; Haluska, Tana L.; Michael B. Cole,

    2016-01-01

    Insecticide use in urban areas results in the detection of these compounds in streams following stormwater runoff at concentrations likely to cause toxicity for stream invertebrates. In this 2013 study, stormwater runoff and streambed sediments were analyzed for 91 pesticides dissolved in water and 118 pesticides on sediment. Detections included 33 pesticides, including insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, degradates, and a synergist. Patterns in pesticide occurrence reveal transport of dissolved and sediment-bound pesticides, including pyrethroids, from upland areas through stormwater outfalls to receiving streams. Nearly all streams contained at least one insecticide at levels exceeding an aquatic-life benchmark, most often for bifenthrin and (or) fipronil. Multiple U.S. EPA benchmark or criterion exceedances occurred in 40 % of urban streams sampled. Bed sediment concentrations of bifenthrin were highly correlated (p < 0.001) with benthic invertebrate assemblages. Non-insects and tolerant invertebrates such as amphipods, flatworms, nematodes, and oligochaetes dominated streams with relatively high concentrations of bifenthrin in bed sediments, whereas insects, sensitive invertebrates, and mayflies were much more abundant at sites with no or low bifenthrin concentrations. The abundance of sensitive invertebrates, % EPT, and select mayfly taxa were strongly negatively correlated with organic-carbon normalized bifenthrin concentrations in streambed sediments. Our findings from western Clackamas County, Oregon (USA), expand upon previous research demonstrating the transport of pesticides from urban landscapes and linking impaired benthic invertebrate assemblages in urban streams with exposure to pyrethroid insecticides.

  5. Pesticide Degrading Bacteria in Aquatic Environment: Bioprospecting and Evaluation of Biotechnological Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rodrigues dos Santos

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides play an important role in the increase of productivity in agro-industry and the extensive use of these substances cause environmental, economic and social damage in time. Microbial activity is an essential part in the dynamics and the destination of pesticides in the environment. This research focuses in prospecting and characterizing bacterial strains which are potentially able to degrade/tolerate Atrazine, Chlorpyrifos, Methyl parathion and Picloram. Bacteria were isolated from water samples collected according to the degree of salinity along the Pacoti River's estuary (Ceara, located in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil. A total of 49 bacterial strains were isolated, all of which tolerated/ downgraded concentrations up to 200mg/L of picloram, atrazine and methyl parathion. Tested in pesticide mixtures, the percentage and tolerance level showed that 73% grew in concentrations up to 200mg/L, 17,4% tolerated/ downgraded up to 150ml/L and the remainder only grew in concentrations under 100ml/L. The strains which had the best performance against pesticides, by points, were P1 (13Db e 14D; P2 (10E; P3 (2M, 9M, 10M, 12Mb, 14M, 17M 18Mp 19M e 20M. A high percentage of isolates (67% expressed luminescence when exposed to the pesticides atrazine and methyl parathion in concentrations between 150 and 200ml/L. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v8i4.748

  6. 40 CFR 152.175 - Pesticides classified for restricted use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pesticides classified for restricted...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Classification of Pesticides § 152.175 Pesticides classified for restricted use. The following uses of pesticide products containing the...

  7. 75 FR 76284 - Pesticide Tolerance Crop Grouping Program II; Revisions to General Tolerance Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... spp 20A Mustard seed, Brassica hirta Moench, Sinapis alba L. 20A subsp. Alba Niger seed, Guizotia... mustard; lesquerella; lunaria; meadowfoam; milkweed; mustard seed; oil radish; poppy seed; rapeseed.... Rapeseed (canola varieties only); sunflower, seed and cottonseed. (ii) Table. The following Table 1 lists...

  8. 75 FR 807 - Pesticide Tolerance Crop Grouping Program II; Revision to General Tolerance Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-06

    ...) Mustard seed, Brassica hirta Moench, Sinapis alba L. subsp. alba; (20) Niger seed, Guizotia abyssinica (L...: Borage; Crambe; Cuphea; Echium; Flax seed; Gold of pleasure; Hare's ear mustard; Lesquerella; Lunaria; Meadowfoam; Milkweed; Mustard seed; Oil radish; Poppy seed; Rapeseed; Sesame; Sweet rocket. ii. Sunflower...

  9. 77 FR 50617 - Pesticide Tolerance Crop Grouping Program III; Revisions to General Tolerance Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... Asian fruit crop mainly cultivated in temperate regions of China, Korea, Taiwan, and Japan. Chinese... conditions in low-income and minority communities. Therefore, this action does not involve special... Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations'' (59 FR 7629...

  10. 77 FR 23713 - Pesticides; Final Guidance on Material Safety Data Sheets as Pesticide Labeling; Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... AGENCY Pesticides; Final Guidance on Material Safety Data Sheets as Pesticide Labeling; Request for... ``Pesticide Registration (PR) Notice 2012-1: Material Safety Data Sheets as Pesticide Labeling.'' This PR..., and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), and the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS, also referred to as Safety Data...

  11. 75 FR 62323 - Pesticide Management and Disposal; Standards for Pesticide Containers and Containment; Change to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-08

    ... Pesticide Management and Disposal; Standards for Pesticide Containers and Containment; Change to Labeling... compliance date from December 16, 2010 to August 16, 2011. This change is being made to provide additional... titled ``Pesticide Management and Disposal; Standards for Pesticide Containers and Containment'' (71 FR...

  12. Linking pesticides and human health: a geographic information system (GIS) and Landsat remote sensing method to estimate agricultural pesticide exposure

    OpenAIRE

    VoPham, Trang; Wilson, John P.; Ruddell, Darren; Rashed, Tarek; Brooks, Maria M.; Yuan, Jian-Min; Talbott, Evelyn O.; Chang, Chung-Chou H.; Weissfeld, Joel L.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate pesticide exposure estimation is integral to epidemiologic studies elucidating the role of pesticides in human health. Humans can be exposed to pesticides via residential proximity to agricultural pesticide applications (drift). We present an improved geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing method, the Landsat method, to estimate agricultural pesticide exposure through matching pesticide applications to crops classified from temporally concurrent Landsat satellite remo...

  13. Requirements for Access to Pesticide Labeling Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employers of pesticide handlers must make sure that the handlers are given information from the pesticide labeling and have access to the labeling itself, before they do any handling task. Learn about the information employers must provide.

  14. Secondary Containers and Service Containers for Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secondary containers and service containers are used by pesticide applicators in the process of applying a pesticide. EPA does not require secondary containers or service containers to be labeled or to meet particular construction standards. Learn more.

  15. Improving Labels to Reduce Pesticide Drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    We encourage pesticide manufacturers to state on their product labels that applicators should use DRT-rated technologies in applying pesticide products. The page includes information on how to obtain approval to add these instructions.

  16. 75 FR 13282 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... action if you are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer. Potentially... (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS code 32532). This..., highbush blueberry, lowbush blueberry, buffalo currant, Chilean guava, black currant, red currant...

  17. Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings: 6th Edition manual gives healthcare providers a quick reference resource for the best toxicology and treatment information for patients with pesticide exposures.

  18. Cumulative Assessment of Risk from Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA protects human health and the environment by evaluating the risk associated with pesticides before allowing them to be used in the United States. Learn about the tools and processes used in risk assessment for pesticides.

  19. Pesticide risks around the home (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticides are substances which kill or deter unwanted pests, such as insects or rodents. These substances can ... avoid an accidental ingestion is to keep all pesticides out of the reach of children.

  20. 75 FR 4383 - Pesticide Products: Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ..., Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division (7511P), Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental Protection..., Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division, Office of Pesticide Programs. [FR Doc. 2010-1582 Filed 1-26-10...

  1. How We Engage Our Pesticide Stakeholders

    Science.gov (United States)

    The success of EPA's pesticide program is directly connected to our efforts to engage all stakeholders. In addition to meetings on pesticide-specific actions, we sponsor advisory committees that include diverse, independent stakeholders.

  2. Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship and Risk Analysis of Some Pesticides in the Goat milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faqir Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection and quantification of different pesticides in the goat milk samples collected from different localities of Faisalabad, Pakistan was performed by HPLC using solid phase microextraction. The analysis showed that about 50% milk samples were contaminated with pesticides. The mean+/-SEM levels (ppm of cyhalothrin, endosulfan, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin were 0.34+/-0.007, 0.063+/-0.002, 0.034+/-0.002 and 0.092+/-0.002, respectively; whereas, methyl parathion was not detected in any of the analyzed samples. Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR models were suggested to predict the residues of unknown pesticides in the goat milk using their known physicochemical characteristics including molecular weight (MW, melting point (MP, and log octanol to water partition coefficient (Ko/w in relation to the characteristics such as pH, % fat, specific gravity and refractive index of goat milk. The analysis revealed good correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.985 for goat QSAR model. The coefficients for Ko/w and refractive index for the studied pesticides were higher in goat milk. This suggests that these are better determinants for pesticide residue prediction in the milk of these animals. Based upon the determined pesticide residues and their provisional tolerable daily intakes, risk analysis was also conducted which showed that daily intake levels of pesticide residues including cyhalothrin, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin in present study are 2.68, 5.19 and 2.71 times higher, respectively in the goat milk. This intake of pesticide contaminated milk might pose health hazards to humans in this locality.

  3. Organochlorine Pesticides in the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.

    1968-01-01

    Each year for nearly 20 years, thousands of pounds of persistent organochlorine pesticides have been applied to outdoor areas in many countries. These compounds may last for a very long time in the environment, and be carried by wind, water, and animals to places far distant from where they are used. As a result, most living organisms now contain organochlorine residues. This paper constitutes a selective review of the literature concerning the occurrence, distribution, and effects of organochlorines in the environment. Highest concentrations generally occur in carnivorous species. Thus predatory and fish-eating birds ordinarily have higher residues than do herbivores; quantities are similar in birds of similar habits in different countries. Any segment of the ecosystem - marshland, pond, forest, or field - receives various amounts and kinds of pesticides at irregular intervals. The different animals absorb, detoxify, store, and excrete pesticides at different rates. Different degrees of magnification of pesticide residues by living organisms in an environment are the practical result of many interactions that are far more complex than implied by the statement of magnification up the food chain. These magnifications may be millions of times from water to mud or only a few times from food to first consumer. Direct mortality of wild animals as an aftermath of recommended pesticide treatments has been recorded in the literature of numerous countries. However, accidents and carelessness also accompany pesticide use on a percentage basis and are a part of the problem. More subtle effects on the size and species composition of populations are more difficult to perceive in time to effect remedies. The possibility of ecological effects being mediated through changes in physiology and behavior has received some attention and has resulted in some disquieting findings. These include discovery of the activity of organochlorines in stimulating the breakdown of hormones or in

  4. STUDY OF BACTERIAL RESISTANCE TO ORGANOPHOSPHOROUS PESTICIDES IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nazarian and M. Mousawi

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The broadness application of organophosphorus compounds has abounded the number of its polluted areas. Bioremediation has widely focused on insitu bacterial degradation of organophosphorus residues in the world. Therefore, in this research six numbers of samples from two different sources, soil and water randomly were isolated using different organophosphorus pesticides containing mineral solution without supplementation. More than 100 isolated strains were selected according to their simultaneous optimal growth on mineral medium with organophosphorus and Mac Conkey,s agar. More than 50 percent of them were lost above resistance. The resistant strains were identified by two methods, the biochemical convention and API 20E procedure with positive agreement. The identified strains belonged to Pseudomonas and Flavobacterium species. The maximum tolerant concentrations of different organophosphorus pesticides by these resistant strains were 2.5, 4 and 8 g/L of guthion, methyl parathion and Dimethoate, respectively. The resistance to these pesticides due to organ phosphorous degrading plasmids had the ability to express hydrolytic enzymes. Resistant bacteria lost these plasmids by acridin orange and could translocate to sensitive strains. Thus, certain environmental bacteria could be used as protection tools against antinerve agents.

  5. Pesticide use in Vietnamese vegetable production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoi, P.V.; Mol, A.P.J.; Oosterveer, Peter; Brink, van den P.J.; Huong, P.T.M.

    2016-01-01

    Vietnam has had varying success over the past decade with its pesticides policy. Some of the most toxic pesticides have been banned from the market. But while many countries have successfully decreased agricultural pesticide use per hectare, this has not (yet) happened in Vietnam. Due to

  6. Fact Sheets on Pesticides in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Coalition against the Misuse of Pesticides, Washington, DC.

    This document consists of a collection of fact sheets about the use of pesticides in schools and how to reduce it. The sheets are: (1) "Alternatives to Using Pesticides in Schools: What Is Integrated Pest Management?"; (2) "Health Effects of 48 Commonly Used Pesticides in Schools"; (3) "The Schooling of State Pesticide…

  7. Pest and pesticide management on southern forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    James H. Miller; Ken L. McNabb; Brad Barber; Larry M. Bishop; Michael L. Thompson; John W. Taylor

    1994-01-01

    Federal law requires certification for all commercial pesticide applicators. The law also requires private applicator certification for the purchase or application of "restricted use" pesticides. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has set minimum competency standards for certification of pesticide applicators. These standards include a practical...

  8. 75 FR 8939 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OPP-2010- 0130; FRL-8812-8] Pesticide Products... received applications to register pesticide products containing an active ingredient not included in any previously registered pesticide products. Pursuant to the provisions of section 3(c)(4) of the Federal...

  9. 75 FR 71695 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0097; FRL-8851-4] Pesticide Products... applications to register new uses for pesticide products containing previously registered active ingredients... on-line instructions for submitting comments. Mail: Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP) Regulatory...

  10. 76 FR 38160 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OPP-2011-0357, FRL-8878-5] Pesticide Products... received applications to register pesticide products containing an active ingredient not included in any previously registered pesticide products. Pursuant to the provisions of section 3(c)(4) of the Federal...

  11. 75 FR 80490 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0889; FRL-8856-8] Pesticide Products... received applications to register pesticide products containing active ingredients not included in any previously registered pesticide products. Pursuant to the provisions of section 3(c)(4) of the Federal...

  12. 77 FR 38285 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OPP-2012-0101; FRL-9348-5] Pesticide Products... announces receipt of applications to register pesticide products containing new active ingredients not... Pollution Prevention Division (7511P) or the Registration Division (7505P), Office of Pesticide Programs...

  13. Modern pesticides and bobwhite populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromborg, K.L.; Schitoskey, Frank=; Schitoskey, Elizabeth C.; Talent, Larry G.

    1982-01-01

    Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) are frequently used as test animals for wildlife tests of pesticides. The organophosphate and carbamate pesticides that have replaced the organochlorines have many desirable properties, but they span a wide range of acute toxicities and some of them affe,ct survival, reproduction, food consumption, behavior, and nervous system enzymes in laboratory tests. Applying these laboratory findings to the field requires assumptions about the severity of exposure in the field. Direct field measurements show that birds may be exposed to significant amounts of these pesticides or even more toxic degradation products under some conditions. Adverse population effects may also result from depression of insect populations during the seasons when bobwhites rely on insects for food.

  14. Teaching Tolerance? Associational Diversity and Tolerance Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapp, Carolin; Freitag, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Tolerance is a basic democratic principle that helps civil societies cope with rising levels of diversity stemming from increased immigration and individualism. During the last decade the question of how tolerance may be fostered has dominated debates in public and academic spheres. In this article...

  15. The Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbom, Annette Elisabeth; Brüsch, Walter Michael; Juhler, Rene K.

    In 1998, the Danish Parliament initiated the Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme (PLAP), an intensive monitoring programme aimed at evaluating the leaching risk of pesticides under field conditions. The objective of the PLAP is to improve the scientific foundation for decision......-making in the Danish regulation of pesticides. The specific aim is to analyse whether pesticides applied in accordance with current regulations leach to groundwater in unacceptable concentrations. The programme currently evaluates the leaching risk of 41 pesticides and 40 degradation products at five agricultural...... of the period 1999-2009 show that regarding: Yearly average concentration 1 m b.g.s. Of the 41 pesticides applied, 12 pesticides and/or their degradation product(-s) (clopyralid, chlormequat, desmedipham, fenpropimorph, florasulam, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, linuron, mancozeb, metsulfuron-methyl, phenmedipham...

  16. Lactose tolerance tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogen breath test for lactose tolerance ... Two common methods include: Lactose tolerance blood test Hydrogen breath test The hydrogen breath test is the preferred method. It measures the amount of hydrogen ...

  17. New insights into pesticide photoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivella, Aurélien; Richard, Claire

    2014-04-01

    Photolysis may be a significant route of pesticide dissipation on crops, leading to an increase of pesticide use. Spraying strong absorbing compounds (photoprotector) along with pesticide is an attractive strategy to prevent the photodegradation phenomenon. The aim of this study is to get a better understanding of the parameters governing the photoprotection efficiency. Experiments were conducted using formulated sulcotrione as a pesticide and a grape wine extract as a photoprotector. These compounds were irradiated using simulated solar light as dried deposits on carnauba wax films or on disks of tobacco leaves and analyzed by ultra performance liquid chromatography ultraviolet (UV), spectroscopy, and microscopy. It is shown that photolysis is faster on leaves than on carnauba wax and that the photoprotection effect of grape wine extract is more efficient on leaves than on wax. Images recorded by microscopy bring evidence that deposits are very different on the two supports both in the absence and in the presence of the photoprotector. The grape wine extract plays a double role; it is antioxidant and UV screen. Photoprotection by the grape wine extract is a complex mixing of UV screen and antioxidant effects. The UV screen effect can be rationalized by considering the rate of light absorption by sulcotrione. Our results demonstrate that the rates of sulcotrione phototransformation are mainly governed by the repartition of the deposit on the solid support.

  18. 40 CFR 180.1289 - Candida oleophila Strain O; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Candida oleophila Strain O; exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1289 Candida oleophila Strain O; exemption from the requirement... the microbial pesticide, Candida oleophila Strain O, on apples and pears when applied/used as a post...

  19. 40 CFR 180.1224 - Bacillus pumilus GB34; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus pumilus GB34; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1224 Bacillus pumilus GB34; exemption from the requirement of a... pesticide Bacillus pumilus GB34 when used as a seed treatment in or on all food commodities. An exemption is...

  20. 40 CFR 180.1202 - Bacillus sphaericus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus sphaericus; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1202 Bacillus sphaericus; exemption from the requirement of a... pesticides, Bacillus sphaericus when used in or on all food crops. [63 FR 48597, Sept. 11, 1998] ...