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Sample records for fluorodeoxyglucose double injection

  1. An Unusual Case of Anaphylaxis After Fluorine-18-Labeled Fluorodeoxyglucose Injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Yun; Lee, Jong Jin; Kwon, Hyouksoo; Moon, Woo Yeon; Jin, Soyoung; Lee, Sang Ju; Oh, Seung Jun; Ryu, Jin Sook [Univ. of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    [{sup 18}F]FDG (fluorine-18 fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose) positron emission tomography (PET) is used worldwide for oncologic and neurologic applications. To date, the potential harm caused by [{sup 18}F]FDG has focused on its radiation exposure effects rather than on its pharmacological effects. While an allergic response in the form of a skin manifestation has been reported after exposure to [{sup 18}F]FDG, this report describes the first case of hypotension following exposure to this tracer. Here, the development of anaphylaxis after [{sup 18}F]FDG injection is described.

  2. Double Tunneling Injection Quantum Dot Lasers for High Speed Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-23

    Double Tunneling-Injection Quantum Dot Lasers for High -Speed Operation The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of...SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 12. DISTRIBUTION AVAILIBILITY STATEMENT 6...State University Title: Double Tunneling-Injection Quantum Dot Lasers for High -Speed Operation Report Term: 0-Other Email: asryan@vt.edu Distribution

  3. Analysis and design of double-anode magnetron injection gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Tie; Niu Xinjian; Liu Yinghui

    2013-01-01

    Based on electro-optical theory and adiabatic compression theory, a double-anode magnetic injection gun for TE 34,19 , 170 GHz gyrotron was analyzed and designed with EGUN software. Concerning with the factors such as positions of anode and magnetic field distance between anodes, we obtained the result that the velocity ratio of electron beam approximated 1.3, and the velocity spread was under 3%. Furthermore, we found that electron beam was sensitive with these factors, such as that the velocity ratio decreased when the distance between anodes increased, while the velocity spread decreased first and then increased. The double-anode magnetic injection gun is employed in the experiments of gyrotron. (authors)

  4. Injection Locking of a Semiconductor Double Quantum Dot Micromaser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y-Y; Stehlik, J; Gullans, M J; Taylor, J M; Petta, J R

    2015-11-01

    Emission linewidth is an important figure of merit for masers and lasers. We recently demonstrated a semiconductor double quantum dot (DQD) micromaser where photons are generated through single electron tunneling events. Charge noise directly couples to the DQD energy levels, resulting in a maser linewidth that is more than 100 times larger than the Schawlow-Townes prediction. Here we demonstrate a linewidth narrowing of more than a factor 10 by locking the DQD emission to a coherent tone that is injected to the input port of the cavity. We measure the injection locking range as a function of cavity input power and show that it is in agreement with the Adler equation. The position and amplitude of distortion sidebands that appear outside of the injection locking range are quantitatively examined. Our results show that this unconventional maser, which is impacted by strong charge noise and electron-phonon coupling, is well described by standard laser models.

  5. Construction of Injectable Double-Network Hydrogels for Cell Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yan; Li, Mengnan; Yang, Di; Wang, Qian; Liang, Fuxin; Qu, Xiaozhong; Qiu, Dong; Yang, Zhenzhong

    2017-07-10

    Herein we present a unique method of using dynamic cross-links, which are dynamic covalent bonding and ionic interaction, for the construction of injectable double-network (DN) hydrogels, with the objective of cell delivery for cartilage repair. Glycol chitosan and dibenzaldhyde capped poly(ethylene oxide) formed the first network, while calcium alginate formed the second one, and in the resultant DN hydrogel, either of the networks could be selectively removed. The moduli of the DN hydrogel were significantly improved compared to that of the parent single-network hydrogels and were tunable by changing the chemical components. In situ 3D cell encapsulation could be easily performed by mixing cell suspension to the polymer solutions and transferred through a syringe needle before sol-gel transition. Cell proliferation and mediated differentiation of mouse chondrogenic cells were achieved in the DN hydrogel extracellular matrix.

  6. Increasing energy efficiency of a gasoline direct injection engine through optimal synchronization of single or double injection strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Michela; Sorge, Ugo; Allocca, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Advantages of split injection in a GDI engine are studied through numerical simulation. ► At high load and speed, rich conditions, split injection does not improve engine performance. ► At moderate load and speed, lean conditions, double injection improves charge stratification. ► Optimal double injection increases work, reduces HC and increases NO. - Abstract: The greatest fuel efficiency advantages of gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines are achieved under the so-called mixed mode boosting, where mixture characteristics are properly adapted to the specific working condition. In particular, in the medium range of load and speed, overall lean mixtures are suitable of being used in the so-called direct injection stratified charge operation. Present paper reports the results of numerical optimization analyses aimed at increasing the energetic efficiency of a GDI engine equipped with a high pressure multi-hole injector under both single and double injection events. In moderate-load moderate-speed lean conditions, the single or double injection synchronization in the working cycle is effected through a procedure that couples a 3D numerical model of the in-cylinder processes with an optimization tool. The choice of both the start of the injection events and the time of spark advance is realized to maximize the engine work. The optimal double injection solution is shown to increase the engine energy efficiency with respect to the case injection is realized in one shot, thus confirming that split injections improve the quality of the charge stratification under lean operation. The effect on the major pollutants is also discussed.

  7. Hot-clot artifacts in the lung parenchyma on F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose position emission tomography/CT due to faulty injection techniques: Two case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozdemir, Elif; Yildirim, Nilufer; Keskin, Mutlay; Kandemir, Zuhai; Turkolmez, Seyda [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Ataturk Training and Research Hospital, Ankara (Turkmenistan)

    2014-08-15

    F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/CT is an important whole-body imaging tool in the oncology and widely utilized to stage and restage various malignancies. The findings of significant focal accumulation of FDG in the lung parenchyma in the absence of corresponding CT abnormalities are related to the lung microembolism and known as hot-clot artifacts. Herein we present two cases with focal FDG uptake in the lung parenchyma with no structural lesions on the CT scan and discuss the possible mechanisms.

  8. Hot-clot artifacts in the lung parenchyma on F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose position emission tomography/CT due to faulty injection techniques: Two case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozdemir, Elif; Yildirim, Nilufer; Keskin, Mutlay; Kandemir, Zuhai; Turkolmez, Seyda

    2014-01-01

    F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/CT is an important whole-body imaging tool in the oncology and widely utilized to stage and restage various malignancies. The findings of significant focal accumulation of FDG in the lung parenchyma in the absence of corresponding CT abnormalities are related to the lung microembolism and known as hot-clot artifacts. Herein we present two cases with focal FDG uptake in the lung parenchyma with no structural lesions on the CT scan and discuss the possible mechanisms.

  9. Effects of turbulence enhancement on combustion process using a double injection strategy in direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) gasoline engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Taehoon; Song, Jingeun; Park, Sungwook

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Using double injection strategy, turbulent kinetic energy can be improved with slight decrease in mixture homogeneity. • Retarded first injection timing reduces vapor fuel loss to intake port. • Double injection increases tumble intensity. • High turbulent intensity caused by double injection increases flame propagation speed. - Abstract: Direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) gasoline engines have been spotlighted due to their high thermal efficiency. Increase in the compression ratio that result from the heat absorption effect of fuel vaporization induces higher thermal efficiency than found in port fuel injection (PFI) engines. Since fuel is injected at the cylinder directly, various fuel injection strategies can be used. In this study, turbulent intensity was improved by a double injection strategy while maintaining mixture homogeneity. To analyze the turbulence enhancement effects using the double injection strategy, a side fuel injected, homogeneous-charge-type DISI gasoline engine with a multi-hole-type injector was utilized. The spray model was evaluated using experimental data for various injection pressures and the combustion model was evaluated for varied ignition timing. First and second injection timing was swept by 20 degree interval. The turbulent kinetic energy and mixture inhomogeneity index were mapped. First injection at the middle of the intake stroke and second injection early in the compression stroke showed improved turbulent characteristics that did not significantly decrease with mixture homogeneity. A double injection case that showed improved turbulent intensity while maintaining an adequate level of mixture homogeneity and another double injection case that showed significantly improved turbulent intensity with a remarkable decrease in mixture homogeneity were considered for combustion simulation. We found that the improved turbulent intensity increased the flame propagation speed. Also, the mixture homogeneity

  10. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose accumulation in the heart, brain and skeletal muscle of rats; the influence of time after injection, depressed lipid metabolism and glucose-insulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasalicky, J.; Konopkova, M.; Melichar, F.

    2001-01-01

    To study the effect of lipid depressing drugs on 18 FDG myocardial concentration. The changes of 18 FDG uptake in myocardium, brain and skeletal muscle of rats were compared as influenced by acipimox, tyloxapol and glucose with insulin. 5.55 MBq of 18 FDG were administered to Wistar rats. Control rats were killed 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes following intravenous injection and the radioactivity concentration (cpm/g of tissue) in relation to injected cpm was determined in a well crystal adjusted to 511 KeV in order to check the time of maximal 18 FDG tissue uptake. The radioactivity in myocardium, skeletal muscle and brain in intact animals was compared with that of rats treated with tyloxapol (tritton WR 1339, 125 mg intravenously immediately before 18 FDG injection), acipimox (nicotinic acid derivative, 25 mg by stomach cannula 15 minutes before 18 FDG), or glucose with insulin (intravenous injection of 0.04 g and 0.04 UI immediately before 18 FDG). The animals were killed 45 minutes following 18 FDG injection. Tyloxapol and acipimox significantly elevated myocardial 18 FDG concentration (tyloxapol +37% and acipimox +48%), but the increase in 18 FDG concentration after glucose and insulin was slight and insignificant. The changes in skeletal muscle after lipid depressing agents were quite contrasting; the decrease in 18 FDG concentration was -74% after tyloxapol and -44% following acipimox administration. The accumulation of 18 FDG in brain was not influenced markedly by the drugs used or by glucose with insulin. The highest 18 FDG uptake in myocardium could be achieved by depressing the lipid metabolism and not by administration of glucose with insulin only. A marked increase in glucose accumulation in myocardium is not possible without previous shift from the utilisation of fatty acids. This finding is fully in agreement with present knowledge about energetic metabolism of myocardium. (author)

  11. Ultrasound-Guided Hyaluronic Acid Injections for Trigger Finger: A Double-Blinded, Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ding-Hao; Tsai, Mei-Wun; Lin, Shan-Hui; Chou, Chen-Liang; Chiu, Jan-Wei; Chiang, Chao-Ching; Kao, Chung-Lan

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the effects of ultrasound-guided injections of hyaluronic acid (HA) versus steroid for trigger fingers in adults. Prospective, double-blinded, randomized controlled study. Tertiary care center. Subjects with a diagnosis of trigger finger (N=36; 39 affected digits) received treatment and were evaluated. Subjects were randomly assigned to HA and steroid injection groups. Both study medications were injected separately via ultrasound guidance with 1 injection. The classification of trigger grading, pain, functional disability, and patient satisfaction were evaluated before the injection and 3 weeks and 3 months after the injection. At 3 months, 12 patients (66.7%) in the HA group and 17 patients (89.5%) in the steroid group exhibited no triggering of the affected fingers (P=.124). The treatment results at 3 weeks and 3 months showed similar changes in the Quinnell scale (P=.057 and .931, respectively). A statistically significant interaction effect between group and time was found for visual analog scale (VAS) and Michigan Hand Outcome Questionnaire (MHQ) evaluation (Pinjection (steroid 0.5±1.1 vs HA 2.7±2.4; Pinjection of HA demonstrated promising results for the treatment of trigger fingers. The optimal frequency, dosage, and molecular weight of HA injections for trigger fingers deserve further investigation for future clinical applications. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Study of the injection of plasma into a magnetic field of double curvature geometry; Etude de l'injection de plasma dans un champ magnetique a double courbure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasry, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-06-15

    An hydrogen plasma puff is injected along the lines of a magnetic field with a double curvature geometry. The plasma is produced by a coaxial gun with an annular preionization system. It is shown theoretically that the electric drift of the plasma can be cancelled if a depolarizing current flows along the field lines towards a region of good transverse conductivity. The experiment shows that in these conditions the curvature drift of the ions of the plasma may be used as a very efficient process to purify the fast component of the plasma puff. The depolarizing electron currents are measured and the mutual cancellation of the electric fields developing into the oppositely curved region is demonstrated to be possible. The current densities agree with the values deduced of the curvature drift of the ions. (author) [French] Un plasma d'hydrogene est injecte le long des lignes de force d'un champ magnetique a double courbure. Le plasma est produit par un canon coaxial a preionisation annulaire. Il est montre theoriquement que la derive electrique du plasma peut etre annulee si un courant de depolarisation circule le long des lignes de force vers une region de conductivite transversale elevee. L'experience montre que dans ces conditions, la derive de courbure des ions peut etre utilisee comme un moyen efficace de purification de la composante rapide du plasma. Les courants electroniques de depolarisation sont mesures et l'annulation mutuelle des champs electriques se developpant dans les regions de courbures opposees est demontree. Les densites de courant sont en accord avec les valeurs deduites de la derive de courbure des ions. (auteur)

  13. Acupuncture point injection treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea: a randomised, double blind, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, C; Wang, L; Zhao, W J; Cardini, F; Kronenberg, F; Gui, S Q; Ying, Z; Zhao, N Q; Chao, M T; Yu, J

    2016-01-05

    To determine if injection of vitamin K3 in an acupuncture point is optimal for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea, when compared with 2 other injection treatments. A Menstrual Disorder Centre at a public hospital in Shanghai, China. Chinese women aged 14-25 years with severe primary dysmenorrhoea for at least 6 months not relieved by any other treatment were recruited. Exclusion criteria were the use of oral contraceptives, intrauterine devices or anticoagulant drugs, pregnancy, history of abdominal surgery, participation in other therapies for pain and diagnosis of secondary dysmenorrhoea. Eighty patients with primary dysmenorrhoea, as defined on a 4-grade scale, completed the study. Two patients withdrew after randomisation. A double-blind, double-dummy, randomised controlled trial compared vitamin K3 acupuncture point injection to saline acupuncture point injection and vitamin K3 deep muscle injection. Patients in each group received 3 injections at a single treatment visit. The primary outcome was the difference in subjective perception of pain as measured by an 11 unit Numeric Rating Scale (NRS). Secondary measurements were Cox Pain Intensity and Duration scales and the consumption of analgesic tablets before and after treatment and during 6 following cycles. Patients in all 3 groups experienced pain relief from the injection treatments. Differences in NRS measured mean pain scores between the 2 active control groups were less than 1 unit (-0.71, CI -1.37 to -0.05) and not significant, but the differences in average scores between the treatment hypothesised to be optimal and both active control groups (1.11, CI 0.45 to 1.78) and (1.82, CI 1.45 to 2.49) were statistically significant in adjusted mixed-effects models. Menstrual distress and use of analgesics were diminished for 6 months post-treatment. Acupuncture point injection of vitamin K3 relieves menstrual pain rapidly and is a useful treatment in an urban outpatient clinic. NCT00104546; Results

  14. An evaluation of a new N-isopropyl-p-[123I] iodoamphetamine double injection method for acetazolamide testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Kentaro; Maeda, Minoru; Asegawa, Satoshi; Masuda, Yoko.

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the capacity of the cerebrovascular reserve, the acetazolamide test must be used to quantitatively measure the cerebral blood flow (CBF) before and after the administration of acetazolamide. Previously, the authors have explained the rationale for using 5 min SPECT images to quantify the CBF with N-isoprophyl-p-[ 123 I] iodoamphetamine ( 123 I-IMP), and in this study they describe how they devised a 123 I-IMP double injection method for use with the acetazolamide test, and report on the clinical results. First, We measured the brain and arterial 123 I concentrations 10 normal subjects after a 123 I-IMP injection, and noted that after 25 minutes the brain and arterial blood activity had plateaued and stabilized. Thus, by using the background substraction method, We found it possible to quantitatively measure the CBF twice in 30 minutes and have called this technique the double injection method. We have clinically used this double injection method for evaluating the CBF in 5 lacunar stroke patients with no major arterial occlusion and found no statistically significant difference in the CBF values between the first and second CBF measurements. They then applied this double injection method for the acetazolamide testing of 10 stroke patients with an arterial occlusion of stenosis and found that the CBF results compared favorably with the CBF results achieved with the use of the separate injection method. It also should be noted the double injection method was successfully used for clinical CBF measurements without acetazolamide testing. (author)

  15. Positron computed tomography with fluorodeoxyglucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hervouet, T.; Kraeber-Bodere, F.; Lamy, T.; Le Gouil, S.; Devillers, A.; Bodet-Milin, C.; Ansquer, C.; Cheze-le Rest, C.; Metges, J.P.; Teyton, P.; Lozach, P.; Volant, A.; Bizais, Y.; Visvikis, D.; Morel, O.; Girault, S.; Soulie, P.; Dupoiron, D.; Berthelot, C.; Lorimier, G.; Jallet, P.; Garin, E.; Prigent, F.; Lesimple, T.; Barge, M.L.; Rousseau, C.; Devillers, A.; Bernard, A.M.; Bouriel, C.; Bridji, B.; Resche, R.; Banayan, S.; Claret, M.; Ninet, J.; Janier, M.; Billotey, C.; Garin, E.; Devillers, A.; Becker, S.; Lecloirec, J.; Boucher, E.; Raoul, J.L.; Rolland, V.; Oudoux, A.; Valette, F.; Dupas, B.; Moreau, P.; Champion, L.; Anract, P.; Wartski, M.; Laurence, V.; Goldwasser, F.; Pecking, A.P.; Alberini, J.L.; Brillouet, S.; Caselles, O.; Allal, B.; Zerdoud, S.; Gansel, M.G.; Thomas, F.; Dierrickx, L.; Delord, J.P.; Marchand, C.; Resche, I.; Mahe, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Several oral communications present the interest of positron computed tomography with fluorodeoxyglucose in the detection of cancers, or for the follow up of cancers treatments in order to detect early possible relapses.PET FDG is also used to optimize the definition of target volume in order to avoid side effects and to get a better control of the illness. (N.C.)

  16. Numerical Simulation of a Double-anode Magnetron Injection Gun for 110 GHz, 1 MW Gyrotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Udaybir; Kumar, Nitin; Purohit, L. P.; Sinha, Ashok K.

    2010-07-01

    A 40 A double-anode magnetron injection gun for a 1 MW, 110 GHz gyrotron has been designed. The preliminary design has been obtained by using some trade-off equations. The electron beam analysis has been performed by using the commercially available code EGUN and the in-house developed code MIGANS. The operating mode of the gyrotron is TE22,6 and it is operated in the fundamental harmonic. The electron beam with a low transverse velocity spread ( δ {β_{ bot max }} = 2.26% ) and the transverse-to-axial velocity ratio of the electron beam (α) = 1.37 is obtained. The simulated results of the MIG obtained with the EGUN code have been validated with another trajectory code TRAK. The results on the design output parameters obtained by both the codes are in good agreement. The sensitivity analysis has been carried out by changing the different gun parameters to decide the fabrication tolerance.

  17. Design of a double-anode magnetron-injection gun for the W-band gyrotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Kwang Ho; Choi, Jin Joo; So, Joon Ho

    2015-07-01

    A double-anode magnetron-injection gun (MIG) was designed. The MIG is for a W-band 10-kW gyrotron. Analytic equations based on adiabatic theory and angular momentum conservation were used to examine the initial design parameters such as the cathode angle, and the radius of the beam emitting surface. The MIG's performances were predicted by using an electron trajectory code, the EGUN code. The beam spread of the axial velocity, Δvz/vz, obtained from the EGUN code was observed to be 1.34% at α = 1.3. The cathode edge emission and the thermal effect were modeled. The cathode edge emission was found to have a major effect on the velocity spread. The electron beam's quality was significantly improved by affixing non-emissive cylinders to the cathode.

  18. Optimization of pentacene double floating gate memories based on charge injection regulated by SAM functionalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Pentacene based double nano-floating gate memories (NFGM by using gold nanoparticles (Au NPs and reduced graphene oxide (rGO sheets as charge trapping layers are prepared and demonstrated. Particularly, the NFGM chemically treated by 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzenethiol (PFBT self-assembled monolayers (SAM exhibits excellent memory performances, including high mobility of 0.23 cm2V-1s-1, the large memory window of 51 V, and the stable retention property more than 108 s. Comparing the performances of NFGM without treating with PFBT SAM, the improving performances of the memory devices by SAM modification are explained by the increase of charge injection, which could be further investigated by XPS and UPS. In particular, the results highlight the utility of SAM modulations and controlling of charge transport in the development of organic transistor memories.

  19. Optimization of pentacene double floating gate memories based on charge injection regulated by SAM functionalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S.; Guérin, D.; Lenfant, S.; Lmimouni, K.

    2018-02-01

    Pentacene based double nano-floating gate memories (NFGM) by using gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets as charge trapping layers are prepared and demonstrated. Particularly, the NFGM chemically treated by 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzenethiol (PFBT) self-assembled monolayers (SAM) exhibits excellent memory performances, including high mobility of 0.23 cm2V-1s-1, the large memory window of 51 V, and the stable retention property more than 108 s. Comparing the performances of NFGM without treating with PFBT SAM, the improving performances of the memory devices by SAM modification are explained by the increase of charge injection, which could be further investigated by XPS and UPS. In particular, the results highlight the utility of SAM modulations and controlling of charge transport in the development of organic transistor memories.

  20. Ultrasound-Guided Single-Injection Infraclavicular Block Versus Ultrasound-Guided Double-Injection Axillary Block: A Noninferiority Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, Ariane; Nadeau, Marie-Josée; Dion, Nicolas; Lévesque, Simon; Nicole, Pierre C; Turgeon, Alexis F

    2016-01-01

    Single-injection ultrasound-guided infraclavicular block is a simple, reliable, and effective technique. A simplified double-injection ultrasound-guided axillary block technique with a high success rate recently has been described. It has the advantage of being performed in a superficial and compressible location, with a potentially improved safety profile. However, its effectiveness in comparison with single-injection infraclavicular block has not been established. We hypothesized that the double-injection ultrasound-guided axillary block would show rates of complete sensory block at 30 minutes noninferior to the single-injection ultrasound-guided infraclavicular block. After approval by our research ethics committee and written informed consent, adults undergoing distal upper arm surgery were randomized to either group I, ultrasound-guided single-injection infraclavicular block, or group A, ultrasound-guided double-injection axillary block. In group I, 30 mL of 1.5% mepivacaine was injected posterior to the axillary artery. In group A, 25 mL of 1.5% mepivacaine was injected posteromedial to the axillary artery, after which 5 mL was injected around the musculocutaneous nerve. Primary outcome was the rate of complete sensory block at 30 minutes. Secondary outcomes were the onset of sensory and motor blocks, surgical success rates, performance times, and incidence of complications. All outcomes were assessed by a blinded investigator. The noninferiority of the double-injection ultrasound-guided axillary block was considered if the limits of the 90% confidence intervals (CIs) were within a 10% margin of the rate of complete sensory block of the infraclavicular block. At 30 minutes, the rate of complete sensory block was 79% in group A (90% CI, 71%-85%) compared with 91% in group I (90% CI, 85%-95%); the upper limit of CI of group A is thus included in the established noninferiority margin of 10%. The rate of complete sensory block was lower in group A (proportion

  1. Pulse radiolysis based on a femtosecond electron beam and a femtosecond laser light with double-pulse injection technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jinfeng; Kondoh, Takafumi; Kozawa, Takahiro; Yoshida, Youichi; Tagawa, Seiichi

    2006-01-01

    A new pulse radiolysis system based on a femtosecond electron beam and a femtosecond laser light with oblique double-pulse injection was developed for studying ultrafast chemical kinetics and primary processes of radiation chemistry. The time resolution of 5.2 ps was obtained by measuring transient absorption kinetics of hydrated electrons in water. The optical density of hydrated electrons was measured as a function of the electron charge. The data indicate that the double-laser-pulse injection technique was a powerful tool for observing the transient absorptions with a good signal to noise ratio in pulse radiolysis

  2. Lumbar Intradiskal Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) Injections: A Prospective, Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuakli-Wosornu, Yetsa A; Terry, Alon; Boachie-Adjei, Kwadwo; Harrison, Julian R; Gribbin, Caitlin K; LaSalle, Elizabeth E; Nguyen, Joseph T; Solomon, Jennifer L; Lutz, Gregory E

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether single injections of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) into symptomatic degenerative intervertebral disks will improve participant-reported pain and function. Prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled study. Outpatient physiatric spine practice. Adults with chronic (≥6 months), moderate-to-severe lumbar diskogenic pain that was unresponsive to conservative treatment. Participants were randomized to receive intradiskal PRP or contrast agent after provocative diskography. Data on pain, physical function, and participant satisfaction were collected at 1 week, 4 weeks, 8 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year. Participants in the control group who did not improve at 8 weeks were offered the option to receive PRP and subsequently followed. Functional Rating Index (FRI), Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) for pain, the pain and physical function domains of the 36-item Short Form Health Survey, and the modified North American Spine Society (NASS) Outcome Questionnaire were used. Forty-seven participants (29 in the treatment group, 18 in the control group) were analyzed by an independent observer with a 92% follow-up rate. Over 8 weeks of follow-up, there were statistically significant improvements in participants who received intradiskal PRP with regards to pain (NRS Best Pain) (P = .02), function (FRI) (P = .03), and patient satisfaction (NASS Outcome Questionnaire) (P = .01) compared with controls. No adverse events of disk space infection, neurologic injury, or progressive herniation were reported following the injection of PRP. Participants who received intradiskal PRP showed significant improvements in FRI, NRS Best Pain, and NASS patient satisfaction scores over 8 weeks compared with controls. Those who received PRP maintained significant improvements in FRI scores through at least 1 year of follow-up. Although these results are promising, further studies are needed to define the subset of participants most likely to respond to biologic intradiskal

  3. Mitigation of rotational instability of high-beta field-reversed configuration by double-sided magnetized plasmoid injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itagaki, H.; Inomoto, M. [Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan); Asai, T.; Takahashi, Ts. [College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, 1-8-14 Kanda Surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan)

    2014-03-15

    Active control of destructive rotational instability in a high-beta field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasma was demonstrated by using double-sided plasmoid injection technique. The elliptical deformation of the FRC's cross section was mitigated as a result of substantial suppression of spontaneous spin-up by the plasmoid injection. It was found that the injected plasmoid provided better stability against the rotational mode, suggesting that the compensation of the FRC's decaying magnetic flux might help to suppress its spin-up.

  4. Study Protocol- Lumbar Epidural Steroid Injections for Spinal Stenosis (LESS: a double-blind randomized controlled trial of epidural steroid injections for lumbar spinal stenosis among older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedly Janna L

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lumbar spinal stenosis is one of the most common causes of low back pain among older adults and can cause significant disability. Despite its prevalence, treatment of spinal stenosis symptoms remains controversial. Epidural steroid injections are used with increasing frequency as a less invasive, potentially safer, and more cost-effective treatment than surgery. However, there is a lack of data to judge the effectiveness and safety of epidural steroid injections for spinal stenosis. We describe our prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trial that tests the hypothesis that epidural injections with steroids plus local anesthetic are more effective than epidural injections of local anesthetic alone in improving pain and function among older adults with lumbar spinal stenosis. Methods We will recruit up to 400 patients with lumbar central canal spinal stenosis from at least 9 clinical sites over 2 years. Patients with spinal instability who require surgical fusion, a history of prior lumbar surgery, or prior epidural steroid injection within the past 6 months are excluded. Participants are randomly assigned to receive either ESI with local anesthetic or the control intervention (epidural injections with local anesthetic alone. Subjects receive up to 2 injections prior to the primary endpoint at 6 weeks, at which time they may choose to crossover to the other intervention. Participants complete validated, standardized measures of pain, functional disability, and health-related quality of life at baseline and at 3 weeks, 6 weeks, and 3, 6, and 12 months after randomization. The primary outcomes are Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire and a numerical rating scale measure of pain intensity at 6 weeks. In order to better understand their safety, we also measure cortisol, HbA1c, fasting blood glucose, weight, and blood pressure at baseline, and at 3 and 6 weeks post-injection. We also obtain data on resource utilization

  5. Electron injection mechanisms of green organic light-emitting devices fabricated utilizing a double electron injection layer consisting of cesium carbonate and fullerene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, J.S.; Choo, D.C.; Kim, T.W.; Jin, Y.Y.; Seo, J.H.; Kim, Y.K.

    2010-01-01

    Electron injection mechanisms of the luminance efficiency of green organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) fabricated utilizing a cesium carbonate (Cs 2 CO 3 )/fullerene (C 60 ) heterostructure acting as an electron injection layer (EIL) were investigated. Current density-voltage and luminance-voltage measurements showed that the current densities and the luminances of the OLEDs with a Cs 2 CO 3 or Cs 2 CO 3 /C 60 EIL were higher than that of the OLEDs with a Liq EIL. The luminance efficiency of the OLEDs with a Cs 2 CO 3 EIL was almost three times higher than that of the OLEDs with a Liq EIL. Because the electron injection efficiency of the Cs 2 CO 3 layer in OLEDs was different from that of the C 60 layer, the luminance efficiency of the OLEDs with a double EIL consisting of a Cs 2 CO 3 layer and a C 60 layer was smaller than that of the OLEDs with a Cs 2 CO 3 EIL. The electron injection mechanisms of OLEDs with a Cs 2 CO 3 and C 60 double EIL are described on the basis of the experimental results.

  6. CT-guided percutaneous injection of the fibrin glue by 'double needle' technique for the treatment of sacral cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ganggang; Chen Long; Yang Chao; Ni Caifang

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the efficacy and safety of CT-guided percutaneous injection of the fibrin glue by 'double needle' technique to treat sacral cyst. Methods: Clinical data of 20 cases with 'double-needle' injection of fibrin glue technology to treat sacral cyst were retrospectively analyzed. All patients had varying degrees of sacral nerve root compression symptoms. The treatment for sacral cyst was carried out after clear diagnosis was made. On the basis of CT-guided percutaneous injection of fibrin glue, the improved CT-guided percutaneous injection of fibrin glue by 'double-needle' technique was used to treat these patients. The average dose of fibrin glue was (5.9 ± 2.4) ml. The clinical results of improvement as to pain and neurological function were evaluated after follow-up of an average of 17 months. The assessment criteria were as follows: excellent, complete resolution of signs and symptoms, with the patient returning to his or her regular employment and no recurrence of cysts during 1 year of follow-up, good, symptoms and signs in the legs and perineal region resolved but with persistent pain in the lumbosacral region, which did not interfere with the patient's regular work (the cysts did not recur for 6 months during follow-up), fair, no improvement in clinical symptoms, but a decrease in cyst size on the imaging study, poor, no improvement in clinical symptoms and no observed changes in cyst size in imaging studies or recurrence. Results: Most patients experienced some degree of pain relief and functional improvement after fibrin glue therapy, with most experiencing complete or marked resolution of clinical symptoms. Nine patients reported excellent recovery, 8 reported good recovery, 2 reported fair recovery, and 1 reported poor recovery. The overall percentage of positive outcomes (excellent and good recovery) was 85%. No serious postoperative complications were discovered. Conclusions: CT guided percutaneous injection of the fibrin glue by

  7. Novel Double-Needle System That Can Prevent Intravascular Injection of Any Filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiang Huang, MD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary:. A new type of needle system combines 2 parts, an inner needle and an outer needle. The inner needle is used for filler injection and the outer needle acts as a guiding needle that can observe blood reflow when inserting into the vessel lumen during injection process. This new needle system can be used for all kinds of filler, providing real time monitoring for physician and preventing intravascular injection of any filler.

  8. Double resonance modulation characteristics of optically injection-locked Fabry–Perot lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorogush, E S; Afonenko, A A

    2015-01-01

    The distributed resonator model is used to show the presence of several resonance responses on the modulation characteristic of optically injection-locked Fabry–Perot lasers. The positions of the resonance peaks on the modulation characteristic are determined by the resonator length and frequency detuning of optical injection. It is shown that an appropriate choice of the resonator length and injection locking conditions allows one to obtain efficient modulation in two ranges near 40 – 60 GHz or to increase the direct modulation bandwidth up to 50 GHz. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  9. Double resonance modulation characteristics of optically injection-locked Fabry–Perot lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorogush, E S; Afonenko, A A [Belarusian State University, Minsk (Belarus)

    2015-12-31

    The distributed resonator model is used to show the presence of several resonance responses on the modulation characteristic of optically injection-locked Fabry–Perot lasers. The positions of the resonance peaks on the modulation characteristic are determined by the resonator length and frequency detuning of optical injection. It is shown that an appropriate choice of the resonator length and injection locking conditions allows one to obtain efficient modulation in two ranges near 40 – 60 GHz or to increase the direct modulation bandwidth up to 50 GHz. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  10. Ultrasound guided double injection of blood into cisterna magna: a rabbit model for treatment of cerebral vasospasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yongchao; Zhu, Youzhi; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Zixuan; Lian, Juan; Luo, Fucheng; Deng, Xuefei; Wong, Kelvin K L

    2016-02-06

    Double injection of blood into cisterna magna using a rabbit model results in cerebral vasospasm. An unacceptably high mortality rate tends to limit the application of model. Ultrasound guided puncture can provide real-time imaging guidance for operation. The aim of this paper is to establish a safe and effective rabbit model of cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage with the assistance of ultrasound medical imaging. A total of 160 New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into four groups of 40 each: (1) manual control group, (2) manual model group, (3) ultrasound guided control group, and (4) ultrasound guided model group. The subarachnoid hemorrhage was intentionally caused by double injection of blood into their cisterna magna. Then, basilar artery diameters were measured using magnetic resonance angiography before modeling and 5 days after modeling. The depth of needle entering into cisterna magna was determined during the process of ultrasound guided puncture. The mortality rates in manual control group and model group were 15 and 23 %, respectively. No rabbits were sacrificed in those two ultrasound guided groups. We found that the mortality rate in ultrasound guided groups decreased significantly compared to manual groups. Compared with diameters before modeling, the basilar artery diameters after modeling were significantly lower in manual and ultrasound guided model groups. The vasospasm aggravated and the proportion of severe vasospasms was greater in ultrasound guided model group than that of manual group. In manual model group, no vasospasm was found in 8 % of rabbits. The ultrasound guided double injection of blood into cisterna magna is a safe and effective rabbit model for treatment of cerebral vasospasm.

  11. Efficacy and Safety of Levosulpiride Versus Haloperidol Injection in Patients With Acute Psychosis: A Randomized Double-Blind Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavania, Sagar; Praharaj, Samir Kumar; Bains, Hariender Singh; Sinha, Vishal; Kumar, Abhinav

    2016-01-01

    Injectable antipsychotics are frequently required for controlling agitation and aggression in acute psychosis. No study has examined the use of injectable levosulpiride for this indication. To compare the efficacy and safety of injectable levosulpiride and haloperidol in patients with acute psychosis. This was a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study in which 60 drug-naive patients having acute psychosis were randomly assigned to receive either intramuscular haloperidol (10-20 mg/d) or levosulpiride (25-50 mg/d) for 5 days. All patients were rated on Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), Overt Agitation Severity Scale (OASS), Overt Aggression Scale-Modified (OAS-M) scores, Simpson Angus Scale (SAS), and Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale (BARS). Repeated-measures ANOVA for BPRS scores showed significant effect of time (P haloperidol group as shown by group × time interaction (P = 0.076). Repeated-measures ANOVA for OASS showed significant effect of time (P haloperidol group as shown by group × time interaction (P = 0.032). Lorazepam requirement was much lower in haloperidol group as compared with those receiving levosulpiride (P = 0.022). Higher rates of akathisia and extrapyramidal symptoms were noted in the haloperidol group. Haloperidol was more effective than levosulpiride injection for psychotic symptoms, aggression, and severity of agitation in acute psychosis, but extrapyramidal adverse effects were less frequent with levosulpiride as compared with those receiving haloperidol.

  12. Effect of double air injection on performance characteristics of centrifugal compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Toshiyuki; Ogawa, Tatsuya; Yasui, Ryutaro; Tsujita, Hoshio

    2017-02-01

    In the operation of a centrifugal compressor of turbocharger, instability phenomena such as rotating stall and surge are induced at a lower flow rate close to the maximum pressure ratio. In this study, the compressed air at the exit of centrifugal compressor was re-circulated and injected to the impeller inlet by using two injection nozzles in order to suppress the surge phenomenon. The most effective circumferential position was examined to reduce the flow rate at the surge inception. Moreover, the influences of the injection on the fluctuating property of the flow field before and after the surge inception were investigated by examining the frequency of static pressure fluctuation on the wall surface and visualizing the compressor wall surface by oil-film visualization technique.

  13. Repeated tender point injections of granisetron alleviate chronic myofascial pain--a randomized, controlled, double-blinded trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christidis, Nikolaos; Omrani, Shahin; Fredriksson, Lars; Gjelset, Mattias; Louca, Sofia; Hedenberg-Magnusson, Britt; Ernberg, Malin

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) mediates pain by peripheral 5-HT3-receptors. Results from a few studies indicate that intramuscular injections of 5-HT3-antagonists may reduce musculoskeletal pain. The aim of this study was to investigate if repeated intramuscular tender-point injections of the 5-HT3-antagonist granisetron alleviate pain in patients with myofascial temporomandibular disorders (M-TMD). This prospective, randomized, controlled, double blind, parallel-arm trial (RCT) was carried out during at two centers in Stockholm, Sweden. The randomization was performed by a researcher who did not participate in data collection with an internet-based application ( www.randomization.com ). 40 patients with a diagnose of M-TMD according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) were randomized to receive repeated injections, one week apart, with either granisetron (GRA; 3 mg) or isotonic saline as control (CTR). The median weekly pain intensities decreased significantly at all follow-ups (1-, 2-, 6-months) in the GRA-group (Friedman test; P  0.075). The numbers needed to treat (NNT) were 4 at the 1- and 6-month follow-ups, and 3.3 at the 2-month follow-up in favor of granisetron. Repeated intramuscular tender-point injections with granisetron provide a new pharmacological treatment possibility for myofascial pain patients with repeated intramuscular tender-point injections with the serotonin type 3 antagonist granisetron. It showed a clinically relevant pain reducing effect in the temporomandibular region, both in a short- and long-term aspect. European Clinical Trials Database 2005-006042-41 as well as at Clinical Trials NCT02230371 .

  14. Arthroscopic double row cuff repair with suture-bridging and autologous conditioned plasma injection: Functional and structural results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werthel, Jean-David; Pelissier, Alexandre; Massin, Philippe; Boyer, Patrick; Valenti, Philippe

    2014-10-01

    The double row cuff repair with suture bridging is commonly used for arthroscopic rotator cuff repair (RCR). Despite its biomechanical qualities, the rate of iterative tears with this technique is important. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of autologous conditioned plasma (ACP) on functional results and on the rate of iterative tears after RCR by suture bridging. A consecutive series of 65 patients who underwent arthroscopic double-row suture bridge (Speed-Bridge, Arthrex) primary cuff repair of symptomatic full-thickness supraspinatus tear (retraction 4 were considered as iterative tears. Mean follow-up was 19 months (+/-42) in the 2 groups. The mean quantity of ACP injected was 6ml. (+/-1.5) and no specific complication of the injection was found. Mean preoperative Constant-Murley scores were 41,2 (±7,7) and 38 (±11)in group B. Mean normalized Constant-Murley score increased from 41 points (±7) pre-operatively to 70 points (±8) post-operatively in group A and from 38 points (±11) to 73 points (±11) in group B. There were no significative differences between the two groups (P > 0.05). In group A, 31 repairs were Sugaya 1-3 (94%), vs. 30 in group B (93%), and 1 was type 4 in group A (5%) vs. 2 in group B (8%). In both groups, RCR with suture bridging gave successful functional outcomes, with a low rate of iterative tear. In this preliminary study, the adjuvant effect of ACP injections could not be showed on both functional and structural results. Longer follow-up is needed to evaluate potential differences.

  15. Autologous Conditioned Plasma Versus Placebo Injection Therapy in Lateral Epicondylitis of the Elbow: A Double Blind, Randomized Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöffl, Volker; Willauschus, Wolfgang; Sauer, Felix; Küpper, Thomas; Schöffl, Isabelle; Lutter, Christoph; Gelse, Kolja; Dickschas, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    Introduction  There are various therapeutic approaches to the treatment of lateral epicondylitis, a highly prevalent musculoskeletal disorder. Recently, injection therapy with autologous conditioned plasma (ACP) has shown promise as a new approach. Methods  Set up as a prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled clinical trial, this study involved 50 patients with lateral epicondylitis. Following external randomization, 25 patients received one round of injection therapy with ACP (platelet rich plasma, PRP), while the remaining 25 patients received a placebo of 0.9 % NaCl. All patients were re-evaluated with respect to lateral epicondylitis of the elbow at four-weeks and six-months post-injection. Results  Out of 50 patients, 36 qualified for reevaluation, 18 patients from the ACP therapy group and 18 from the placebo group. The initial Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score for all reevaluated patients was 36.4 in the ACP group, and 41.0 in the placebo group; both groups exhibited decreased DASH scores at the four-week and six-month post-injection follow-up (6 months: ACP 30.1, placebo 25.8). The decrease of the DASH score after 4 weeks was greater and qualified as statistically significant in the placebo group (p = 0.041), compared to the DASH score decrease in the ACP treatment group, which was statistically non-significant. Additionally, the difference between the DASH scores of the treatment and placebo groups was statistically non-significant four weeks and six months after treatment. Discussion  The results of this study suggest a therapeutic effect in both the ACP and placebo groups, with no evidence for a therapeutically significant difference between ACP and placebo treatments. It is hypothesized that, in accordance with the study protocols, injection with a local anaesthetic prior to ACP therapy may have an influence on the therapeutic effect of ACP. Future studies have to confirm recent findings that demonstrated a

  16. Pump-probe spectroscopy of spin-injection dynamics in double quantum wells of diluted magnetic semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishibayashi, K.; Aoshima, I.; Souma, I.; Murayama, A.; Oka, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Dynamics of spin injection has been investigated in a double quantum well (DQW) composed of a diluted magnetic semiconductor by the pump-probe transient absorption spectroscopy in magnetic field. The DQW consists of a non-magnetic well (NMW) of CdTe and a magnetic well (MW) of Cd 0.92 Mn 0.08 Te. The MW shows a transient absorption saturation in the exciton band for more than 200 ps after the optical pumping, while the exciton photoluminescence does not arise from the MW. In the NMW, the circular polarization degree of the transient absorption saturation shows an increase with increasing time. The results are interpreted by the individual tunneling of spin-polarized electrons and holes from the MW to the NMW with different tunneling times. Depolarization processes of the carrier spins in the MW and the NMW are also discussed

  17. Design of a Double Anode Magnetron Injection Gun for Q-band Gyro-TWT Using Boundary Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiliang; Feng, Jinjun; Liu, Bentian

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents a novel design code for double anode magnetron injection guns (MIGs) in gyro-devices based on boundary element method (BEM). The physical and mathematical models were constructed, and then the code using BEM for MIG's calculation was developed. Using the code, a double anode MIG for a Q-band gyrotron traveling-wave tube (gyro-TWT) amplifier operating in the circular TE01 mode at the fundamental cyclotron harmonic was designed. In order to verify the reliability of this code, velocity spread and guiding center radius of the MIG simulated by the BEM code were compared with these from the commonly used EGUN code, showing a reasonable agreement. Then, a Q-band gyro-TWT was fabricated and tested. The testing results show that the device has achieved an average power of 5kW and peak power ≥ 150 kW at a 3% duty cycle within bandwidth of 2 GHz, and maximum output peak power of 220 kW, with a corresponding saturated gain of 50.9 dB and efficiency of 39.8%. This paper demonstrates that the BEM code can be used as an effective approach for analysis of electron optics system in gyro-devices.

  18. Density and temperature profile modifications with electron cyclotron power injection in quiescent double barrier discharges on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casper, T A; Burrell, K H; Doyle, E J; Gohil, P; Lasnier, C J; Leonard, A W; Moller, J M; Osborne, T H; Snyder, P B; Thomas, D M; Weiland, J; West, W P

    2006-01-01

    Quiescent double barrier (QDB) conditions often form when an internal transport barrier is created with high-power neutral-beam injection into a quiescent H-mode (QH) plasma. These QH-modes offer an attractive, high-performance operating scenario for burning plasma experiments due to their quasi-stationarity and lack of edge localized modes. Our initial experiments and modelling using ECH/ECCD in QDB shots were designed to control the current profile and, indeed, we have observed a strong dependence on the q-profile when EC-power is used inside the core transport barrier region. While strong electron heating is observed with EC power injection, we also observe a drop in the other core parameters, namely ion temperature and rotation, electron density and impurity concentration. At onset and termination of the EC pulse, dynamically changing conditions are induced that provide a rapid evolution of T e /T i profiles accessible with 0.3 e /T i ) axis e /T i ratio as the ion temperature and density profiles flatten with this change in transport. The change in transport is consistent with a destabilization of ITG turbulence as inferred from the reduction of the stability threshold due to the change in T e /T i

  19. Effect of cross-flow direction of coolant on film cooling effectiveness with one inlet and double outlet hole injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangchao Li

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of cross-flow directions of an internal coolant on film cooling performance, the discharge coefficients and film cooling effectiveness with one inlet and double outlet hole injections were simulated. The numerical results show that two different cross-flow directions of the coolant cause the same decrease in the discharge coefficients as that in the case of supplying coolant by a plenum. The different proportion of the mass flow out of the two outlets of the film hole results in different values of the film cooling effectiveness for three different cases of coolant supplies. The film cooling effectiveness is the highest for the case of supplying coolant by the plenum. At a lower blowing ratio of 1.0, the film cooling effectiveness with coolant injection from the right entrance of the passage is higher than that from the left entrance of the passage. At a higher blowing ratio of 2.0, the opposite result is found.

  20. Pre-treatment with intravenous granisetron to alleviate pain on propofol injection: A double-blind, randomized, controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahsan Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Propofol is one of the widely used intravenous (i.v. anaesthetics, although pain on injection still remains a considerable concern for the anaesthesiologists. A number of techniques has been tried to minimize propofol-induced pain with variable results. Recently, a 5-HT 3 antagonist, ondansetron pre-treatment, has been shown to reduce propofol-induced pain. The aim of our randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded study was to determine whether pre-treatment with intravenous granisetron, which is routinely used in our practice for prophylaxis of post-operative nausea and vomiting, would reduce propofol-induced pain. Methods: Eighty-two women, aged 18-50 years, American society of Anaesthesiologist grading (ASA I-II, scheduled for various surgeries under general anaesthesia were randomly assigned to one of the two groups. One group received 2 mL 0.9% sodium chloride while the other group received 2 mL granisetron (1 mg/mL, and were accompanied by manual venous occlusion for 1 min. Then, 2 mL propofol was injected through the same cannula. Patients were asked by a blinded investigator to score the pain on injection of propofol with a four-point scale: 0=no pain, 1=mild pain, 2=moderate pain, 3=severe pain. Results: Twenty-four patients (60% complained of pain in the group pre-treated with normal saline as compared with six (15% in the group pre-treated with granisetron. Pain was reduced significantly in the granisetron group (P<0.05. Severity of pain was also lesser in the granisetron group compared with the placebo group (2.5% vs. 37.5%. Conclusion: We conclude that pre-treatment with granisetron along with venous occlusion for 1 min for prevention of propofol-induced pain was highly successful.

  1. Effect of nitrous oxide on pain due to rocuronium injection: A randomised, double-blind, controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonal Sharma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A prospective, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was carried out to determine the effect of nitrous oxide (N 2 O on the frequency and severity of pain and withdrawal reactions after injection of rocuronium. Eighty ASA physical status I and II patients undergoing general anaesthesia for elective surgery were enrolled. The patients were randomised to receive 100% oxygen (O 2 , or 50% N 2 O in O 2 for 3 minutes followed by a subparalysing dose of rocuronium 0.06 mg/kg. After induction of anaesthesia with thiopentone 5 mg/kg, an intubating dose of rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg was given. The patients were observed after injection of rocuronium 0.06 mg/kg, and asked to rate pain in the arm on a 4-point (0-3 verbal rating scale (none, mild, moderate or severe. After the intubating dose of rocuronium, withdrawal reactions were recorded. Thirty-six patients (90% in the group N 2 O and 15 patients (37.5% in the group O 2 reported no pain (P < 0.001. The pain was mild in 1 (2.5% and 9 (22.5% patients in N 2 O and O 2 groups, respectively (P = 0.006. Moderate pain occurred in 2 (5% patients in group N 2 O and 15 (37.5% patients in group O 2 (P = 0.001. Severe pain was reported by one patient in each group (P = 0.47. Withdrawal response after an intubating dose of rocuronium was observed in 6 (15% and 18 (45% patients in the N 2 O and O 2 groups, respectively (P < 0.05. Inhalation of 50% N 2 O in O 2 reduces the incidence and severity of pain and the withdrawal reactions associated with rocuronium injection.

  2. Single, double or multiple-injection techniques for non-ultrasound guided axillary brachial plexus block in adults undergoing surgery of the lower arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Ki Jinn; Alakkad, Husni; Cubillos, Javier E

    2013-08-08

    Regional anaesthesia comprising axillary block of the brachial plexus is a common anaesthetic technique for distal upper limb surgery. This is an update of a review first published in 2006 and updated in 2011. To compare the relative effects (benefits and harms) of three injection techniques (single, double and multiple) of axillary block of the brachial plexus for distal upper extremity surgery. We considered these effects primarily in terms of anaesthetic effectiveness; the complication rate (neurological and vascular); and pain and discomfort caused by performance of the block. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE and reference lists of trials. We contacted trial authors. The date of the last search was March 2013 (updated from March 2011). We included randomized controlled trials that compared double with single-injection techniques, multiple with single-injection techniques, or multiple with double-injection techniques for axillary block in adults undergoing surgery of the distal upper limb. We excluded trials using ultrasound-guided techniques. Independent study selection, risk of bias assessment and data extraction were performed by at least two investigators. We undertook meta-analysis. The 21 included trials involved a total of 2148 participants who received regional anaesthesia for hand, wrist, forearm or elbow surgery. Risk of bias assessment indicated that trial design and conduct were generally adequate; the most common areas of weakness were in blinding and allocation concealment.Eight trials comparing double versus single injections showed a statistically significant decrease in primary anaesthesia failure (risk ratio (RR 0.51), 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.30 to 0.85). Subgroup analysis by method of nerve location showed that the effect size was greater when neurostimulation was used rather than the transarterial technique.Eight trials comparing multiple with single

  3. Efficacy and safety of single injection of cross-linked sodium hyaluronate vs. three injections of high molecular weight sodium hyaluronate for osteoarthritis of the knee: a double-blind, randomized, multi-center, non-inferiority study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Chul-Won; Park, Yong-Beom; Choi, Chong-Hyuk; Kyung, Hee-Soo; Lee, Ju-Hong; Yoo, Jae Doo; Yoo, Ju-Hyung; Choi, Choong-Hyeok; Kim, Chang-Wan; Kim, Hee-Chun; Oh, Kwang-Jun; Bin, Seong-Il; Lee, Myung Chul

    2017-05-26

    This randomized, double-blind, multi-center, non-inferiority trial was conducted to assess the efficacy and safety of a cross-linked hyaluronate (XLHA, single injection form) compared with a linear high molecular hyaluronate (HMWHA, thrice injection form) in patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. Two hundred eighty seven patients with osteoarthritis (Kellgren-Lawrence grade I to III) were randomized to each group. Three weekly injections were given in both groups but two times of saline injections preceded XLHA injection to maintain double-blindness. Primary endpoint was the change of weight-bearing pain (WBP) at 12 weeks after the last injection. Secondary endpoints included Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis index; patient's and investigator's global assessment; pain at rest, at night, or in motion; OMERACT-OARSI responder rate; proportion of patients achieving at least 20 mm or 40% decrease in WBP; and rate of rescue medicine use and its total consumption. Mean changes of WBP at 12 weeks after the last injection were -33.3 mm with XLHA and -29.2 mm with HMWHA, proving non-inferiority of XLHA to HMWHA as the lower bound of 95% CI (-1.9 mm, 10.1 mm) was well above the predefined margin (-10 mm). There were no significant between-group differences in all secondary endpoints. Injection site pain was the most common adverse event and no remarkable safety issue was identified. This study demonstrated that a single injection of XLHA was non-inferior to three weekly injections of HMWHA in terms of WBP reduction, and supports XLHA as an effective and safe treatment for knee osteoarthritis. ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT01510535 ). This trial was registered on January 6, 2012.

  4. Mechanism of Film Cooling with One Inlet and Double Outlet Hole Injection at Various Turbulence Intensities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangchao; Chen, Yukai; Kou, Zhihai; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Guochen

    2018-03-01

    The trunk-branch hole was designed as a novel film cooling concept, which aims for improving film cooling performance by producing anti-vortex. The trunk-branch hole is easily manufactured in comparison with the expanded hole since it consists of two cylindrical holes. The effect of turbulence on the film cooling effectiveness with a trunk-branch hole injection was investigated at the blowing ratios of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 by numerical simulation. The turbulence intensities from 0.4 % to 20 % were considered. The realizable graphic id="j_tjj-2016-0024_ingr_001" xlink.href="graphic/j_tjj-2016-0024_inline1.png" />k-ɛ k - ɛ turbulence model and the enhanced wall function were used. The more effective anti-vortex occurs at the low blowing ratio of 0.5 %. The high turbulence intensity causes the effectiveness evenly distributed in the spanwise direction. The increase of turbulence intensity leads to a slight decrease of the spanwise averaged effectiveness at the low blowing ratio of 0.5, but a significant increase at the high blowing ratios of 1.5 and 2.0. The optimal blowing ratio of the averaged surface effectiveness is improved from 1.0 to 1.5 when the turbulence intensity increases from 0.4 % to 20 %.

  5. Double-pass tapered amplifier diode laser with an output power of 1 W for an injection power of only 200 μW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolpasi, V; von Klitzing, W

    2010-11-01

    A 1 W tapered amplifier requiring only 200 μW of injection power at 780 nm is presented in this paper. This is achieved by injecting the seeding light into the amplifier from its tapered side and feeding the amplified light back into the small side. The amplified spontaneous emission of the tapered amplifier is suppressed by 75 dB. The double-passed tapered laser, presented here, is extremely stable and reliable. The output beam remains well coupled to the optical fiber for a timescale of months, whereas the injection of the seed light did not require realignment for over a year of daily operation.

  6. A novel injectable thermoresponsive and cytocompatible gel of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) with layered double hydroxides facilitates siRNA delivery into chondrocytes in 3D culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, H.Y.; Ee, R.J. van; Timmer, K.; Craenmehr, E.G.M.; Huang, J.H.; Öner, C.; Dhert, W.J.A.; Kragten, A.H.M.; Willems, N.; Grinwis, G.C.M.; Tryfonidou, M.A.; Papen-Botterhuis, N.E.; Creemers, L.B.

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid hydrogels composed of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAAM) and layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are presented in this study as novel injectable and thermoresponsive materials for siRNA delivery, which could specifically target several negative regulators of tissue homeostasis in

  7. A novel injectable thermoresponsive and cytocompatible gel of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) with layered double hydroxides facilitates siRNA delivery into chondrocytes in 3D culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Hsiao-yin; van Ee, Renz J; Timmer, Klaas; Craenmehr, Eric G M; Huang, Julie H; Oner, F. Cumhur; Dhert, Wouter J A; Kragten, Angela H M; Willems, Nicole; Grinwis, Guy C M; Tryfonidou, Marianna A; Papen-Botterhuis, Nicole E; Creemers, Laura B

    Hybrid hydrogels composed of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAAM) and layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are presented in this study as novel injectable and thermoresponsive materials for siRNA delivery, which could specifically target several negative regulators of tissue homeostasis in

  8. COLLISIONLESS ELECTRON–ION SHOCKS IN RELATIVISTIC UNMAGNETIZED JET–AMBIENT INTERACTIONS: NON-THERMAL ELECTRON INJECTION BY DOUBLE LAYER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardaneh, Kazem; Cai, Dongsheng; Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi

    2016-01-01

    The course of non-thermal electron ejection in relativistic unmagnetized electron–ion shocks is investigated by performing self-consistent particle-in-cell simulations. The shocks are excited through the injection of a relativistic jet into ambient plasma, leading to two distinct shocks (referred to as the trailing shock and leading shock) and a contact discontinuity. The Weibel-like instabilities heat the electrons up to approximately half of the ion kinetic energy. The double layers formed in the trailing and leading edges then accelerate the electrons up to the ion kinetic energy. The electron distribution function in the leading edge shows a clear, non-thermal power-law tail which contains ∼1% of electrons and ∼8% of the electron energy. Its power-law index is −2.6. The acceleration efficiency is ∼23% by number and ∼50% by energy, and the power-law index is −1.8 for the electron distribution function in the trailing edge. The effect of the dimensionality is examined by comparing the results of three-dimensional simulations with those of two-dimensional simulations. The comparison demonstrates that electron acceleration is more efficient in two dimensions.

  9. A novel submucosal injection solution for endoscopic resection of large colorectal lesions: a randomized, double-blind trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repici, Alessandro; Wallace, Michael; Sharma, Prateek; Bhandari, Pradeep; Lollo, Gianluca; Maselli, Roberta; Hassan, Cesare; Rex, Douglas K

    2018-05-08

    SIC-8000 (Eleview) is a new FDA-approved solution for submucosal injection developed to provide long-lasting cushion to facilitate endoscopic resection maneuvers. Our aim was to compare the efficacy and safety of SIC-8000 with those of saline solution, when performing endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) of large colorectal lesions. In a randomized double-blind trial, patients undergoing EMR for ≥20 mm colorectal non-pedunculated lesions were randomized in a 1:1 ratio between SIC-8000 and saline solution as control solution in 5 tertiary centers. Endoscopists and patients were blinded to the type of submucosal solution used. Total volume to complete EMR and per lesion size and time of resection were primary end-points, whereas the Sydney Resection Quotient (SRQ), as well as other EMR outcomes, and the rate of adverse events were secondary. A 30-day telephone follow up was performed. An alpha level <0.05 was considered as statistically significant (NCT 02654418). Of the 327 patients screened, 226 (mean age: 66±10; males: 56%) were enrolled in the study and randomized between the 2 submucosal agents. Of these, 211 patients (mean size of the lesions 33±13 mm; I-s: 36%; proximal colon: 74%) entered in the final analysis (SIC-8000: 102; saline solution: 109). EMR was complete in all cases. The total volume needed for EMR was significantly less in the SIC-8000 arm compared with saline solution (16.1±9.8 mL vs 31.6±32.0 mL; p<0.001). This corresponded to an average volume per lesion size of 0.5±0.3 mL/mm and 0.9±0.6 mL/mm with SIC-8000 and saline solution, respectively, (p<0.001). The mean time to completely resect the lesion tended to be lower with SIC-8000 as compared with saline solution (19.1±16.8 minutes vs 29.7±68.9 minutes; p=0.1). The SRQ was significantly higher with SIC-8000 as compared with saline solution (10.3±8.1 vs 8.0±5.7; p=0.04) with a trend for a lower number of resected pieces (5.7±6.0 vs 6.5±5.04; p=0.052) and a higher rate of en bloc

  10. Multiple PRP injections are more effective than single injections and hyaluronic acid in knees with early osteoarthritis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görmeli, Gökay; Görmeli, Cemile Ayşe; Ataoglu, Baybars; Çolak, Cemil; Aslantürk, Okan; Ertem, Kadir

    2017-03-01

    To compare the effectiveness of intraarticular (IA) multiple and single platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections as well as hyaluronic acid (HA) injections in different stages of osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. A total of 162 patients with different stages of knee OA were randomly divided into four groups receiving 3 IA doses of PRP, one dose of PRP, one dose of HA or a saline injection (control). Then, each group was subdivided into two groups: early OA (Kellgren-Lawrence grade 0 with cartilage degeneration or grade I-III) and advanced OA (Kellgren-Lawrence grade IV). The patients were evaluated before the injection and at the 6-month follow-ups using the EuroQol visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS) and International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective scores. Adverse events and patient satisfaction were recorded. There was a statistically significant improvement in the IKDC and EQ-VAS scores in all the treatment groups compared with the control group. The knee scores of patients treated with three PRP injections were significantly better than those patients of the other groups. There was no significant difference in the scores of patients injected with one dose of PRP or HA. In the early OA subgroups, significantly better clinical results were achieved in the patients treated with three PRP injections, but there was no significant difference in the clinical results of patients with advanced OA among the treatment groups. The clinical results of this study suggest IA PRP and HA treatment for all stages of knee OA. For patients with early OA, multiple (3) PRP injections are useful in achieving better clinical results. For patients with advanced OA, multiple injections do not significantly improve the results of patients in any group. I.

  11. F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography in colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joerg, L.; Langsteger, W.

    2002-01-01

    Whole-body positron emission tomography (PET) with the radiolabeled glucose analog F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18-FDG) is a sensitive diagnostic tool that images tumors based on increased uptake of glucose. Several recent publications have shown that F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography is more sensitive than computed-tomography (CT) in detecting colorectal cancer. In patients with increasing CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen) and no evidence of recurrent disease on CT F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography often detects recurrent cancer. In all, patient management seems to be changed in about 25 % of patients who undergo F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography in addition to standard staging procedure. Limited reports to date on both chemotherapy and radiotherapy support the role of F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography in assessing treatment response. Also regarding preoperative staging of primary colorectal cancer the literature is very limited. (author)

  12. Mid-Face Volumization With Hyaluronic Acid: Injection Technique and Safety Aspects from a Controlled, Randomized, Double-Blind Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prager, Welf; Agsten, Karla; Kravtsov, Maria; Kerscher, Prof Martina

    2017-04-01

    BACKGROUND: Injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) volumizing fillers in the malar area is intended for rejuvenation of the mid-face. The choice of products, depth, and technique of injection depends on the desired level of volume enhancement and practitioners' preferences. OBJECTIVE: To describe a volumizing injection technique in the scope of a controlled, randomized, double-blind, single-center, split-face clinical study. A total of 45 subjects with bilateral symmetrical moderate to severe volume loss in the malar area received a single 2 mL injection of CPM®-26 (Cohesive Polydensified Matrix®) on one side and VYC®-20 (VYCROSS®) on the contralateral side of the face. The same injection technique was applied for both sides of the face. Use of anesthetics, overcorrection, and touch-ups were not permitted. The investigator completed a product satisfaction questionnaire. Adverse events (AE) and injection-site reactions (ISRs) were reported during the study. RESULTS: The products were placed at the epiperiosteal depth in 88.9% (n=40), at the subdermal depth in 8.9% (n=4) and at both levels in 2.2% (n=1) of subjects. Fanning technique using cannulae was applied in most cases (97.8%, n=44). Results of the investigator satisfaction questionnaire allowed to characterize CPM-26 in comparison to other volumizing gels. Both study products were generally well tolerated. Local reactions were transient and of mild to moderate intensity, with the most frequent ones being redness, pain, and swelling. CONCLUSION: Adequate injection technique in volumizing treatments is essential to create a natural aesthetic rejuvenation while respecting the safety aspect of the procedures. A 22G blunt cannula used with CPM-26 was preferred due to an easier and a more homogeneous distribution of the product. The investigator also appreciated CPM-26 for its ease of injection, positioning, lifting, and volumizing capacity. J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(4):351-357..

  13. Intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid is not superior to saline solution injection for ankle arthritis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGroot, Henry; Uzunishvili, Sofia; Weir, Robert; Al-omari, Ali; Gomes, Bruna

    2012-01-04

    Intra-articular injections of hyaluronic acid are potentially useful to treat ankle osteoarthritis, yet their effectiveness has not been proven. Both single and multiple-dose treatments for ankle arthritis with use of various hyaluronic acid products have been recommended, but few high-quality studies have been published. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of a single intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid with a single intra-articular injection of normal saline solution (placebo) for osteoarthritis of the ankle. Sixty-four patients with ankle osteoarthritis who met all study criteria were randomly assigned to a single intra-articular injection of 2.5 mL of low-molecular-weight, non-cross-linked hyaluronic acid or a single intra-articular injection of 2.5 mL of normal saline solution. The primary outcome measure was the change from baseline in the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) clinical rating score at the six-week and twelve-week follow-up examination. Secondary outcome measures included the Ankle Osteoarthritis Scale score and patient-reported pain with use of a visual analog pain scale. Of the sixty-four patients randomized and treated, eight patients withdrew, leaving fifty-six patients who completed the entire study. There was one mild adverse event (1.6%) among the sixty-four patients. At six weeks and twelve weeks, the mean AOFAS scores in the hyaluronic acid group had improved from baseline by 4.9 and 4.9 points, respectively, whereas the mean AOFAS scores in the placebo group initially worsened by 0.4 point at six weeks and then improved by 5.4 points at twelve weeks. While the change at twelve weeks from baseline was substantial for both groups, the between-group differences were not significant. We found that a single intra-articular injection of low-molecular-weight, non-cross-linked hyaluronic acid is not demonstrably superior to a single intra-articular injection of saline solution for the treatment of

  14. Development and validation of double and single Wiebe function for multi-injection mode Diesel engine combustion modelling for hardware-in-the-loop applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maroteaux, Fadila; Saad, Charbel; Aubertin, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Modelling of Diesel engine combustion with multi-injection mode was conducted. • Double and single Wiebe correlations for pilot, main and post combustion processes were calibrated. • Ignition delay time correlations have been developed and calibrated using experimental data for each injection. • The complete in-cylinder model has been applied successfully to real time simulations on HiL test bed. - Abstract: The improvement of Diesel engine performances in terms of fuel consumption and pollutant emissions has a huge impact on management system and diagnostic procedure. Validation and testing of engine performances can benefit from the use of theoretical models, for the reduction of development time and costs. Hardware in the Loop (HiL) test bench is a suitable way to achieve these objectives. However, the increasing complexity of management systems rises challenges for the development of very reduced physical models able to run in real time applications. This paper presents an extension of a previously developed phenomenological Diesel combustion model suitable for real time applications on a HiL test bench. In the earlier study, the modelling efforts have been targeted at high engine speeds with a very short computational time window, and where the engine operates with single injection. In the present work, a modelling of in-cylinder processes at low and medium engine speeds with multi-injection is performed. In order to reach an adequate computational time, the combustion progress during the pilot and main injection periods has been treated through a double Wiebe function, while the post combustion period has required a single Wiebe function. This paper describes the basic system models and their calibration and validation against experimental data. The use of the developed correlations of Wiebe coefficients and ignition delay times for each combustion phase, included in the in-cylinder crank angle global model, is applied for the prediction

  15. The nociceptive and anti-nociceptive effects of bee venom injection and therapy: a double-edged sword.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Lariviere, William R

    2010-10-01

    Bee venom injection as a therapy, like many other complementary and alternative medicine approaches, has been used for thousands of years to attempt to alleviate a range of diseases including arthritis. More recently, additional theraupeutic goals have been added to the list of diseases making this a critical time to evaluate the evidence for the beneficial and adverse effects of bee venom injection. Although reports of pain reduction (analgesic and antinociceptive) and anti-inflammatory effects of bee venom injection are accumulating in the literature, it is common knowledge that bee venom stings are painful and produce inflammation. In addition, a significant number of studies have been performed in the past decade highlighting that injection of bee venom and components of bee venom produce significant signs of pain or nociception, inflammation and many effects at multiple levels of immediate, acute and prolonged pain processes. This report reviews the extensive new data regarding the deleterious effects of bee venom injection in people and animals, our current understanding of the responsible underlying mechanisms and critical venom components, and provides a critical evaluation of reports of the beneficial effects of bee venom injection in people and animals and the proposed underlying mechanisms. Although further studies are required to make firm conclusions, therapeutic bee venom injection may be beneficial for some patients, but may also be harmful. This report highlights key patterns of results, critical shortcomings, and essential areas requiring further study. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Numerical Simulation of Single-anode and Double-anode Magnetron Injection Guns for 127.5 GHz 1 MW Gyrotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Udaybir; Kumar, Nitin; Kumar, Anil; Purohit, Laxmi Prasad; Sinha, Ashok Kumar

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the design of two types of magnetron injection guns (MIG's) for 1 MW, 127.5 GHz gyrotron. TE24,8 mode has been chosen as the operating mode. In-house developed code MIGSYN has been used to estimate the initial gun parameters. The electron trajectory tracing program EGUN and in-house developed code MIGANS have been used to optimize the single-anode and the double-anode design for 80 kV, 40 A MIG. The parametric analysis of MIG has also been presented. The advantages and the disadvantages of each kind of configuration have been critically examined.

  17. Botulinum Toxin in Parkinson Disease Tremor: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study With a Customized Injection Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Shivam Om; Machado, Duarte; Richardson, Diana; Dubey, Divyanshu; Jabbari, Bahman

    2017-09-01

    In essential tremor and Parkinson disease (PD) tremor, administration of onabotulinumtoxinA via a fixed injection approach improves the tremor, but many patients (30%-70%) develop moderate to severe hand weakness, limiting the use of onabotulinumtoxinA in clinical practice. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of incobotulinumtoxinA (IncoA) injection for the treatment of tremor in PD. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial, 30 patients each received 7 to 12 (mean, 9) IncoA injections into hand and forearm muscles using a customized approach. The study was performed from June 1, 2012, through June 30, 2015, and participants were followed for 24 weeks. Treatment efficacy was evaluated by the tremor subsets of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale and the Patient Global Impression of Change 4 and 8 weeks after each of the 2 sets of treatments. Hand strength was assessed using an ergometer. There was a statistically significant improvement in clinical rating scores of rest tremor and tremor severity 4 and 8 weeks after the IncoA injection and of action/postural tremor at 8 weeks. There was a significant improvement in patient perception of improvement at 4 and 8 weeks in the IncoA group. There was no statistically significant difference in grip strength at 4 weeks between the 2 groups. Injection of IncoA via a customized approach improved PD tremor on a clinical scale and patient perception, with a low occurrence of significant hand weakness. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02419313. Copyright © 2017 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Effects of granisetron/lidocaine combination on propofol injection-induced pain: a double-blind randomized clinical trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yu-shan; Lin, Xue-mei; Zhou, Jun

    2009-05-01

    To investigate the alleviation effect of vein pretreatment and granisetron/lidocaine combination on propofol injection-induced pain. Two hundreds patients scheduled for gynaecological laparoscopic operations were randomly divided into four groups: control group (group I), lidocaine group (group II), granisetron group (group III) and granisetron/lidocaine combination group (group IV), with 50 patients in each group. The patients in the above four groups received placebo (saline), lidocaine 20 mg, granisetron 2 mg and granisetron 2 mg plus lidocaine intravenously respectively. The patients were injected with one-forth of scheduled propofol via a dorsal hand vein after one minute of venous occlusion. The pain during the injection of propofol was evaluated. Pain occurred in 84% of patients in the control group, 46% in the lidocaine group, 52% in the granisetron group and 24% in the granisetron/lidocaine combination group. There was a significant reduction in pain incidence in the three experimental groups compared with the control group (Pgranisetron/lidocaine combination group than in the control group (Pgranisetron/lidocaine may be effective not only in attenuating pains during i.v. injection of propofol, but also in preventing postoperative nausea, vomiting and shivering.

  19. Effectiveness of Bupivacaine Liposome Injectable Suspension for Postoperative Pain Control in Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Prospective, Randomized, Double Blind, Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeClaire, Jeffrey H; Aiello, Paige M; Warritay, Olayinka K; Freeman, Dwight C

    2017-09-01

    We compared the effectiveness of liposomal bupivacaine to ropivacaine, each as part of multimodal pain management, in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) postoperative pain control. This prospective, double blind study randomized 96 TKA patients into a control group (periarticular injection of ropivacaine, ketorolac, morphine, and epinephrine in saline; 100cc) or an experimental group (periarticular injection of bupivacaine, ketorolac, morphine, and epinephrine in saline; 80cc plus 1.3% liposomal bupivacaine 20cc; total injection 100cc). The postoperative use of narcotics, visual analog pain scores, hours to ambulate 100 feet, and length of hospital stay were recorded. There was no significant difference between the two groups (control N = 49, experiment N = 47) in mean narcotic use per hour, total narcotic use during hospital stay, time to ambulate 100 feet, length of hospital stay, or visual analog score for pain postoperatively. There is no benefit in the use of liposomal bupivacaine compared with ropivacaine for postoperative pain control in TKA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of Paracetamol Pretreatment on Rocuronium-Induced Injection Pain: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Comparison with Lidocaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnaz Ates

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the effect of intravenous paracetamol on rocuronium-induced injection pain with that of lidocaine. Material and Method: One hundred and eighty patients scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia were recruited to this prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. A 20-gauge cannula was inserted into a vein on the dorsum of the patient%u2019s left hand and lactated Ringer%u2019s solution was infused at 100 ml/h. After 5 minutes, infusion was stopped and the left arm of the patient%u2019s was elevated for 15 seconds for gravity of venous blood. While venous occlusion was applied to the left upper arm using a pneumatic tourniquet, one of the pretreatment solutions (normal saline 5 mL, lidocaine 40 mg, paracetamol 50 mg was injected over a period of 10 seconds. The intensity of the pain patients experienced was assessed using a 4-point verbal rating scale in Group C (normal saline 5 mL, n=60, Group L (lidocaine 40 mg, n=60 and Group P (paracetamol 50 mg, n=60. After 2 minutes, the venous occlusion was released and the patients received 0.06 mg/kg rocuronim bromide over 10 seconds and the rocuronim-induced pain was assessed. Results: The overall incidence of rocuronium-induced injection pain was significantly more in Group C than the other groups (p

  1. Deoxycholic Acid Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deoxycholic acid injection is used to improve the appearance and profile of moderate to severe submental fat ('double chin'; fatty tissue located under the chin). Deoxycholic acid injection is in a class of medications called ...

  2. Two-year follow-up results of fluoroscopic cervical epidural injections in chronic axial or discogenic neck pain: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Cash, Kimberly A; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Malla, Yogesh

    2014-01-01

    A randomized, double-blind, active-controlled trial. To assess the effectiveness of cervical interlaminar epidural injections of local anesthetic with or without steroids for the management of axial or discogenic pain in patients without disc herniation, radiculitis, or facet joint pain. Cervical discogenic pain without disc herniation is a common cause of suffering and disability in the adult population. Once conservative management has failed and facet joint pain has been excluded, cervical epidural injections may be considered as a management tool. Despite a paucity of evidence, cervical epidural injections are one of the most commonly performed nonsurgical interventions in the management of chronic axial or disc-related neck pain. One hundred and twenty patients without disc herniation or radiculitis and negative for facet joint pain as determined by means of controlled diagnostic medial branch blocks were randomly assigned to one of the 2 treatment groups. Group I patients received cervical interlaminar epidural injections of local anesthetic (lidocaine 0.5%, 5 mL), whereas Group II patients received 0.5% lidocaine, 4 mL, mixed with 1 mL or 6 mg of nonparticulate betamethasone. The primary outcome measure was ≥ 50% improvement in pain and function. Outcome assessments included numeric rating scale (NRS), Neck Disability Index (NDI), opioid intake, employment, and changes in weight. Significant pain relief and functional improvement (≥ 50%) was present at the end of 2 years in 73% of patients receiving local anesthetic only and 70% receiving local anesthetic with steroids. In the successful group of patients, however, defined as consistent relief with 2 initial injections of at least 3 weeks, significant improvement was illustrated in 78% in the local anesthetic group and 75% in the local anesthetic with steroid group at the end of 2 years. The results reported at the one-year follow-up were sustained at the 2-year follow-up. Cervical interlaminar epidural

  3. Dietary intake of Deepwater Horizon oil-injected live food fish by double-crested cormorants resulted in oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritsos, Karen L; Perez, Cristina R; Muthumalage, Thivanka; Dean, Karen M; Cacela, Dave; Hanson-Dorr, Katie; Cunningham, Fred; Bursian, Steven J; Link, Jane E; Shriner, Susan; Horak, Katherine; Pritsos, Chris A

    2017-12-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill released 134 million gallons of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico making it the largest oil spill in US history and exposing fish, birds, and marine mammals throughout the Gulf of Mexico to its toxicity. Fish eating waterbirds such as the double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) were exposed to the oil both by direct contact with the oil and orally through preening and the ingestion of contaminated fish. This study investigated the effects of orally ingestedMC252 oil-contaminated live fish food by double-crested cormorants on oxidative stress. Total, reduced, and oxidized glutathione levels, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities, total antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation were assessed in the liver tissues of control and treated cormorants. The results suggest that ingestion of the oil-contaminated fish resulted in significant increase in oxidative stress in the liver tissues of these birds. The oil-induced increase in oxidative stress could have detrimental impacts on the bird's life-history. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Intra-articular Autologous Conditioned Plasma Injections Provide Safe and Efficacious Treatment for Knee Osteoarthritis: An FDA-Sanctioned, Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Patrick A

    2016-04-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections have become an intriguing treatment option for osteoarthritis (OA), particularly OA of the knee. Despite the plethora of PRP-related citations, there is a paucity of high-level evidence that is comparable, cohort specific, dose controlled, injection protocol controlled, and double-blinded. To determine the safety and efficacy of leukocyte-poor PRP autologous conditioned plasma (ACP) for knee OA treatment through a feasibility trial regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. In accordance with FDA protocol, patient selection was based on strict inclusion/exclusion criteria; 114 patients were screened, and 30 were ultimately included in the study. These patients were randomized to receive either ACP (n = 15) or saline placebo (n = 15) for a series of 3 weekly injections. Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) scores served as the primary efficacy outcome measure. Patients were followed for 1 year. No adverse events were reported for ACP administration. Furthermore, the results demonstrated no statistically significant difference in baseline WOMAC scores between the 2 groups. However, in the ACP group, WOMAC scores at 1 week were significantly decreased compared with baseline scores, and the scores for this group remained significantly lower throughout the study duration. At the study conclusion (12 months), subjects in the ACP group had improved their overall WOMAC scores by 78% from their baseline score, compared with 7% for the placebo group. ACP is safe and provides quantifiable benefits for pain relief and functional improvement with regard to knee OA. No adverse events were reported for ACP administration. After 1 year, WOMAC scores for the ACP subjects had improved by 78% from their baseline score, whereas scores for the placebo control group had improved by only 7%. Other joints affected with OA may also benefit from this

  5. Assessment of cerebral hemodynamics before and after revascularization in patients with occlusive cerebrovascular disease by means of quantitative IMP-SPECT with double-injection protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, Makoto; Nishizawa, Sadahiko; Toyoda, Hiroshi; Shimono, Taro; Miyamoto, Susumu; Hashimoto, Nobuo; Konishi, Junji [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate a double-injection (DI) method with N-isopropyl-[{sup 123}I]p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) to measure regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) twice in a single session of dynamic SPECT and to elucidate a possible role of this method to identify patients with occlusive disease of major cerebral arteries, who might benefit from cerebral revascularization procedures (CR). Fourteen patients with occlusion or severe stenosis of the internal carotid or middle cerebral artery were studied before and after CR to assess hemodynamic changes after revascularization treatment. We quantitatively measured rCBF before and after acetazolamide (ACZ) challenge along with cerebrovascular reserve capacity (CVR) with two injections of IMP in a single session of dynamic SPECT scans (DI method). The reliability and reproducibility of the DI method were validated by means of a simulation study and in eight patients who were examined without ACZ challenge to measure baseline rCBF twice. The analysis of simulated noisy data with realistic noise levels showed that the errors of the estimates for the first and the second rCBF and for the increase in rCBF were 2.6%, 8.1% and 10.4%, respectively. In the 8 patients examined by the DI method to measure baseline rCBF twice, the mean and the SD of percentage differences between the two consecutive measurements in rCBF were -1.3% and 5.5%, respectively. Eight out of 14 patients with occlusive disease had at least one region with a CVR less than 10%. They showed a significant increase in resting rCBF after CR, not only in the ipsilateral hemisphere (from 26.1{+-}6.4 to 33.4{+-}4.7) but also in the contralateral one (from 28.3{+-}7.0 to 34.7{+-}4.7) with a recovery of the ipsilateral CVR from 9.3{+-}17.2 to 41.2{+-}20.1%. The remaining six patients with good-moderate CVR did not show an increase in rCBF after CR (from 28.0{+-}2.7 to 28.3{+-}3.4). The three of them with a moderate CVR (10-25%) before CR showed

  6. Intra-Articular, Single-Shot Hylan G-F 20 Hyaluronic Acid Injection Compared with Corticosteroid in Knee Osteoarthritis: A Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammachote, Nattapol; Kanitnate, Supakit; Yakumpor, Thanasak; Panichkul, Phonthakorn

    2016-06-01

    The treatment of knee osteoarthritis with hyaluronic acid or corticosteroid injection has been widely used. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of hyaluronic acid (hylan G-F 20) with triamcinolone acetonide as a single intra-articular injection for knee osteoarthritis. This study was a prospective, randomized, double-blind clinical trial. Participants with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis were recruited. They were randomized to receive a single-shot, intra-articular injection of either 6 mL of hylan G-F 20 or 6 mL of a solution comprising 1 mL of 40-mg triamcinolone acetonide and 5 mL of 1% lidocaine with epinephrine. The primary outcomes were knee pain severity, knee function, and range of motion at 6 months. Ninety-nine patients were assessed before injection and underwent a 6-month follow-up. Patients and evaluators were blinded. Multilevel regression models were used to estimate differences between the groups. At the 6-month follow-up, compared with patients who took hylan G-F 20, patients who took triamcinolone acetonide had similar improvement in knee pain, knee function, and range of motion. The difference in mean outcome scores between groups was, with regard to knee pain, a visual analog scale (VAS) score of 3 points (95% confidence interval [95% CI], -6 to 11 points); with regard to knee function, a modified Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) score of 0 points (95% CI, -8 to 6 points); and, with regard to range of motion, flexion of -1° (95% CI, -5° to 2°) and extension of 0° (95% CI, -0.5° to 0.5°). However, patients who took triamcinolone acetonide had better pain improvement from 24 hours until 1 week after injection; the mean difference between groups with regard to the VAS score was 12 points (95% CI, 5 to 20 points; p = 0.002) at 24 hours and 9 points (95% CI, 1 to 15 points; p = 0.018) at 1 week. At 2 weeks after injection, patients who took triamcinolone acetonide also had better knee

  7. Identification of Hürthle cell tumor by single-injection, double-phase scintigraphy with technetium-99m-sestamibi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vattimo, A; Bertelli, P; Cintorino, M; Burroni, L; Volterrani, D; Vella, A

    1995-05-01

    Early and late (double-phase) scintigraphy with 99mTc-MIBI was used in a comparative study of the scintigraphic aspects of Hürthle cell tumors and other thyroid tumors. Single-injection, dual-phase (15-30 min and 3-4 hr) thyroid scintigraphy with 99mTc-sestamibi (MIBI) was performed on 41 patients who displayed a cold nodule on previous 99mTc scintigraphy. Visual scoring of nodular uptake was done to compare thyroidal and background tracer uptake. In addition, the nodular-to-thyroid (N/T) uptake ratio in the early and late images and the washout rate from the nodule (WON) and thyroidal tissue (WOT) were measured. Cytologic results were obtained for all patients; histopathologic results were obtained for the 20 patients who had surgery. In eight patients (Group A), the nodule displayed intense and persistent uptake of MIBI (N/T = 1.77 +/- 0.46 and 3.20 +/- 1.37; WON = 17.2% +/- 6.3%; WOT = 24.6% +/- 7.5%); histopathology revealed Hürthle cell tumors (two carcinomas and three adenomas) in five surgical patients. In 15 patients (Group B), the nodule displayed intense uptake in the early image with fading activity in the late image (N/T = 1.45 +/- 0.54 and 0.84 +/- 0.30; WON = 30.0% +/- 7.3%; WOT = 24.5% +/- 6.8%); histopathology revealed a colloid nodule (n = 1), papillary carcinoma (n = 4) and follicular carcinoma (n = 5) in 10 surgical patients. In the remaining 18 patients (Group C), the nodule was cold and late images were not acquired. Histopathology revealed colloid nodules (n = 2) and follicular adenoma (n = 3) in five surgical patients. Single-injection, dual-phase MIBI scintigraphy of the thyroid can identify Hürthle cell tumors because these tumors have intense, persistent tracer uptake in contrast to other thyroid tumors.

  8. Randomized, double-blind, comparative-effectiveness study comparing pulsed radiofrequency to steroid injections for occipital neuralgia or migraine with occipital nerve tenderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Steven P; Peterlin, B Lee; Fulton, Larry; Neely, Edward T; Kurihara, Connie; Gupta, Anita; Mali, Jimmy; Fu, Diana C; Jacobs, Michael B; Plunkett, Anthony R; Verdun, Aubrey J; Stojanovic, Milan P; Hanling, Steven; Constantinescu, Octav; White, Ronald L; McLean, Brian C; Pasquina, Paul F; Zhao, Zirong

    2015-12-01

    Occipital neuralgia (ON) is characterized by lancinating pain and tenderness overlying the occipital nerves. Both steroid injections and pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) are used to treat ON, but few clinical trials have evaluated efficacy, and no study has compared treatments. We performed a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, comparative-effectiveness study in 81 participants with ON or migraine with occipital nerve tenderness whose aim was to determine which treatment is superior. Forty-two participants were randomized to receive local anesthetic and saline, and three 120 second cycles of PRF per targeted nerve, and 39 were randomized to receive local anesthetic mixed with deposteroid and 3 rounds of sham PRF. Patients, treating physicians, and evaluators were blinded to interventions. The PRF group experienced a greater reduction in the primary outcome measure, average occipital pain at 6 weeks (mean change from baseline -2.743 ± 2.487 vs -1.377 ± 1.970; P occipital pain through 3 months (mean change from baseline -1.925 ± 3.204 vs -0.541 ± 2.644; P = 0.043), and average overall headache pain through 6 weeks (mean change from baseline -2.738 ± 2.753 vs -1.120 ± 2.1; P = 0.037). Adverse events were similar between groups, and few significant differences were noted for nonpain outcomes. We conclude that although PRF can provide greater pain relief for ON and migraine with occipital nerve tenderness than steroid injections, the superior analgesia may not be accompanied by comparable improvement on other outcome measures.

  9. Clinical Outcomes of Knee Osteoarthritis Treated With an Autologous Protein Solution Injection: A 1-Year Pilot Double-Blinded Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kon, Elizaveta; Engebretsen, Lars; Verdonk, Peter; Nehrer, Stefan; Filardo, Giuseppe

    2018-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a debilitating disease resulting in substantial pain and functional limitations. A novel blood derivative has been developed to concentrate both growth factors and antagonists of inflammatory cytokines, with promising preliminary findings in terms of safety profile and clinical improvement. To investigate if one intra-articular injection of autologous protein solution (APS) can reduce pain and improve function in patients affected by knee OA in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, saline-controlled study. Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 2. Forty-six patients with unilateral knee OA (Kellgren-Lawrence 2 or 3) were randomized into the APS group (n = 31), which received a single ultrasound-guided injection of APS, and the saline (control) group (n = 15), which received a single saline injection. Patient-reported outcomes and adverse events were collected at 2 weeks and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months through visual analog scale (VAS), Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), Short Form-36 (SF-36), Clinical Global Impression of Severity/Change (CGI-S/C), Patient Global Impression of Severity/Change (PGI-S/C), and Outcome Measures in Rheumatology-Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OMERACT-OARSI) responder rate. Imaging evaluation was also performed with radiograph and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before and after treatment (12 months and 3 and 12 months, respectively). The safety profile was positive, with no significant differences in frequency and severity of adverse events between groups. The improvement from baseline to 2 weeks and to 1, 3, and 6 months was similar between treatments. At 12 months, improvement in WOMAC pain score was 65% in the APS group and 41% in the saline group ( P = .02). There were no significant differences in VAS pain improvement between groups. At 12 months, APS group showed improved SF-36 Bodily Pain

  10. Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography–Computed Tomography in Disseminated Cryptococcosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Sarthak; Parida, Girish Kumar; Roy, Shambo Guha; Singhal, Abhinav; Mallick, Saumya Ranjan; Tripathi, Madhavi; Shamim, Shamim Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Disseminated cryptococcosis without pulmonary involvement is a very rare phenomenon. Patterns of organ involvement in cryptococcosis resemble various other infective conditions as well as malignant conditions on fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography–computed tomography. We present a case of a 43-year-old male patient who had disseminated cryptococcosis. The rarity of the case being noninvolvement of lungs and meninges and resembling more like lymphoma due to the diffuse involvement of the lymph nodes on both sides of the diaphragm. PMID:29142368

  11. Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography in Disseminated Cryptococcosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Sarthak; Parida, Girish Kumar; Roy, Shambo Guha; Singhal, Abhinav; Mallick, Saumya Ranjan; Tripathi, Madhavi; Shamim, Shamim Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Disseminated cryptococcosis without pulmonary involvement is a very rare phenomenon. Patterns of organ involvement in cryptococcosis resemble various other infective conditions as well as malignant conditions on fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography. We present a case of a 43-year-old male patient who had disseminated cryptococcosis. The rarity of the case being noninvolvement of lungs and meninges and resembling more like lymphoma due to the diffuse involvement of the lymph nodes on both sides of the diaphragm.

  12. Periarticular Liposomal Bupivacaine Injection Versus Intra-Articular Bupivacaine Infusion Catheter for Analgesia After Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Double-Blinded, Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eric B; Kazarian, Gregory S; Maltenfort, Mitchell G; Lonner, Jess H; Sharkey, Peter F; Good, Robert P

    2017-08-16

    Intra-articular bupivacaine hydrochloride (HCl) infusion catheters and periarticular injections of liposomal bupivacaine are often used as postoperative local anesthetics. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacies of these local anesthetics following total knee arthroplasty. This study was a superiority trial with a randomized, controlled, double-blinded design. Patients were randomly assigned to either delivery of bupivacaine HCl by the ON-Q* Pain Relief System pump (n = 96) or by an injection of Exparel (liposomal bupivacaine) (n = 104). The primary outcome of this study was cumulative narcotic consumption on postoperative days 0 through 3. Narcotic consumption data were collected retrospectively from in-hospital records while patients were in the hospital. Following discharge, narcotic consumption data were gathered from patient surveys, as were secondary outcomes measures. We did not identify greater narcotic use in the ON-Q* group compared with the Exparel group (p = 0.641). The mean difference between the groups was 0.5 morphine equivalent (95% confidence interval [CI] = -1.7 to +2.8), with the ON-Q* group consuming an average 10.4 morphine equivalents (95% CI = 8.7 to 12.0) compared with 10.9 (95% CI = 9.3 to 12.5) in the Exparel group. There were no significant differences between groups with regard to any of the secondary measures of pain with the exception of pain while walking and pain with physical therapy (p = 0.019 and p = 0.010, respectively), both of which showed an approximately 1-point difference in favor of the ON-Q* group on a visual analog scale (VAS). There were also no differences in the postoperative side effects, including nausea, constipation, or vomiting, or in the rates of study-related complications, patient satisfaction, or length of hospital stay. Exparel did not have superior efficacy compared with the ON-Q* Pain Relief System as reflected by narcotic consumption, our primary outcome. There were small significant

  13. MR-angiography allows defining severity grades of cerebral vasospasm in an experimental double blood injection subarachnoid hemorrhage model in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Malinova

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance (MR imaging has been used for the detection of cerebral vasospasm (VSP related infarction in experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (eSAH in rats. Conventional angiography is generally used to visualize VSP, which is an invasive technique with a possible increase in morbidity and mortality. In this study we evaluated the validity of MR-angiography (MRA in detecting VSP and its feasibility to define VSP severity grades after eSAH in rats.SAH was induced using the double-hemorrhage model in 12 rats. In two rats, saline solution was injected instead of blood (sham group. MR was performed on day 1, 2 and on day 5. T1-, T2-, T2*-weighted and time-of-flight MR sequences were applied, which were analyzed by two blinded neuroradiologists. Vessel narrowing of 25-50% was defined as mild, 50-75% as moderate and >75% as severe VSP.We performed a total of 34 MRAs in 14 rats. In 14 rats, MRA was performed on day 2 and day 5. In six rats MRA was additionally performed on day1 before the blood injection. A good visualization of cerebral vessels was possible in all cases. No VSP was seen in the sham group neither on day 2 nor on day 5. We found vasospasm on day 2 in 7 of the 14 rats (50% whereas all 7 rats had mild and one rat had additionally moderate and severe vasospasm in one vessel, respectively. On day 5 we found vasospasm in 8 of the 14 rats (60% whereas 4 rats had severe vasospasm, 1 rat had moderate vasospasm and 3 rats demonstrated mild vasospasm. In 4 of the 14 rats (30% an ischemic lesion was detected on day 5. Three of these rats had severe vasospasm and one rat had mild vasospasm. Severe vasospasm on day 5 was statistically significant correlated with the occurrence of ischemic lesions (Fisher's Exact test, OR 19.5, p = 0.03.MRA is a noninvasive diagnostic tool, which allows a good visualization of the cerebral vasculature and provides reproducible results concerning the detection of VSP and the differentiation into three severity

  14. Glucose Metabolism Gene Expression Patterns and Tumor Uptake of 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose After Radiation Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, George D.; Thibodeau, Bryan J.; Fortier, Laura E.; Pruetz, Barbara L.; Galoforo, Sandra; Baschnagel, Andrew M.; Chunta, John; Oliver Wong, Ching Yee; Yan, Di; Marples, Brian; Huang, Jiayi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether radiation treatment influences the expression of glucose metabolism genes and compromises the potential use of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) as a tool to monitor the early response of head and neck cancer xenografts to radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Low passage head and neck squamous cancer cells (UT14) were injected to the flanks of female nu/nu mice to generate xenografts. After tumors reached a size of 500 mm 3 they were treated with either sham RT or 15 Gy in 1 fraction. At different time points, days 3, 9, and 16 for controls and days 4, 7, 12, 21, 30, and 40 after irradiation, 2 to 3 mice were assessed with dynamic FDG-PET acquisition over 2 hours. Immediately after the FDG-PET the tumors were harvested for global gene expression analysis and immunohistochemical evaluation of GLUT1 and HK2. Different analytic parameters were used to process the dynamic PET data. Results: Radiation had no effect on key genes involved in FDG uptake and metabolism but did alter other genes in the HIF1α and glucose transport–related pathways. In contrast to the lack of effect on gene expression, changes in the protein expression patterns of the key genes GLUT1/SLC2A1 and HK2 were observed after radiation treatment. The changes in GLUT1 protein expression showed some correlation with dynamic FDG-PET parameters, such as the kinetic index. Conclusion: 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography changes after RT would seem to represent an altered metabolic state and not a direct effect on the key genes regulating FDG uptake and metabolism

  15. Umbilical cord mesenchyme stem cell local intramuscular injection for treatment of uterine niche: Protocol for a prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Dazhi; Wu, Shuzhen; Ye, Shaoxin; Wang, Wen; Guo, Xiaoling; Liu, Zhengping

    2017-11-01

    Uterine niche is defined as a triangular anechoic structure at the site of the scar or a gap in the myometrium at the site of a previous caesarean section. The main clinical manifestations are postmenstrual spotting and intrauterine infection, which may seriously affect the daily life of nonpregnant women. Trials have shown an excellent safety and efficacy for the potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as a therapeutic option for scar reconstruction. Therefore, this study is designed to investigate the safety and efficacy of using MSCs in the treatment for the uterine niche. This phase II clinical trial is a single-center, prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled with 2 arms. One hundred twenty primiparous participants will be randomly (1:1 ratio) assigned to receive direct intramuscular injection of MSCs (a dose of 1*10 cells in 1 mL of 0.9% saline) (MSCs group) or an identical-appearing 1 mL of 0.9% saline (placebo-controlled group) near the uterine incision. The primary outcome of this trial is to evaluate the proportion of participants at 6 months who is found uterine niche in the uterus by transvaginal utrasonography. Adverse events will be documented in a case report form. The study will be conducted at the Department of Obstetric of Southern Medical University Affiliated Maternal & Child Health Hospital of Foshan. This trial is the first investigation of the potential for therapeutic use of MSCs for the management of uterine niche after cesarean delivery. This protocol will help to determine the efficacy and safety of MSCs treatment in uterine niche and bridge the gap with regards to the current preclinical and clinical evidence. NCT02968459 (Clinical Trials.gov: http://clinicaltrials.gov/).

  16. [¹⁸F]-fluorodeoxyglucose PET imaging of atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Björn Alexander; Høilund-Carlsen, Poul Flemming

    2015-01-01

    [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose PET ((18)FDG PET) imaging has emerged as a promising tool for assessment of atherosclerosis. By targeting atherosclerotic plaque glycolysis, a marker for plaque inflammation and hypoxia, (18)FDG PET can assess plaque vulnerability and potentially predict risk...... of atherosclerosis-related disease, such as stroke and myocardial infarction. With excellent reproducibility, (18)FDG PET can be a surrogate end point in clinical drug trials, improving trial efficiency. This article summarizes key findings in the literature, discusses limitations of (18)FDG PET imaging...

  17. Effects of fixed orthodontic treatment using conventional (two-piece) versus metal injection moulding brackets on hair nickel and chromium levels: a double-blind randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaneh Masjedi, Mashallah; Haghighat Jahromi, Nima; Niknam, Ozra; Hormozi, Elham; Rakhshan, Vahid

    2017-02-01

    Although nickel and chromium are known as allergen and cytotoxic orthodontic metals, very few and controversial studies have assessed the effect of orthodontic treatment on their systemic levels especially those reflected by their best biomarker of exposure, hair. Additionally, metal injection moulding (MIM) brackets are not studied, and there is no study on systemic ion changes following their usage. In this double-blind randomized clinical trial, scalp hair samples of 24 female and 22 male fixed orthodontic patients [as two groups of conventional (two-piece) versus MIM brackets, n = 23×2] were collected before treatment and 6 months later. Randomization was carried out using a computer-generated random number table. The patients, laboratory expert, and author responsible for analyses were blinded of the bracket allocations. Hair nickel and chromium levels were measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The effects of treatment, bracket types, gender, and age on hair ions were analysed statistically (α = 0.05, β ≤ 0.02). In both groups combined (n = 46), nickel increased from 0.1600±0.0890 µg/g dry hair mass (pre-treatment) to 0.3199±0.1706 (6th month). Chromium increased from 0.1657±0.0884 to 0.3066±0.1362 µg/g. Both of these increases were significant (paired t-test, P = 0.0000). Bracket types, age, and gender had no significant influence on ion levels (P > 0.05). ANCOVA indicated different patterns of chromium increases in different genders (P = 0.033) and ages (P = 0.056). Sample size determination should have accounted for the grouping as well. Hair nickel and chromium levels might increase about 185-200% after 6 months. They might not be affected by bracket types. Gender and age might not influence the baseline or 6th-month levels of both metals. Gender might however interact with orthodontic treatment, only in the case of chromium. The research is registered offline (thesis) and online (IR.AJUMS.REC.1394.516). The protocol was pre

  18. Safety and efficacy of repeated injections of botulinum toxin A in peripheral neuropathic pain (BOTNEP): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attal, Nadine; de Andrade, Daniel C; Adam, Frédéric; Ranoux, Danièle; Teixeira, Manoel J; Galhardoni, Ricardo; Raicher, Irina; Üçeyler, Nurcan; Sommer, Claudia; Bouhassira, Didier

    2016-05-01

    Data from previous studies suggest that botulinum toxin A has analgesic effects against peripheral neuropathic pain, but the quality of the evidence is low. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of repeated administrations of botulinum toxin A in patients with neuropathic pain. We did a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial at two outpatient clinics in France (Clinical Pain Centre, Ambroise Paré Hospital, APHP, Boulogne-Billancourt, and Neurological Centre, Hôpital Dupuytren, Limoges) and one in Brazil (Neurological Department, Hospital das Clínicas da FMUSP, São Paulo). Patients aged 18-85 years with peripheral neuropathic pain were randomly assigned (1:1) by block randomisation, according to a centralised schedule, to receive two subcutaneous administrations of botulinum toxin A (up to 300 units) or placebo, 12 weeks apart. All patients and investigators were masked to treatment assignment. The primary outcome was the efficacy of botulinum toxin A versus placebo, measured as the change from baseline in self-reported mean weekly pain intensity over the course of 24 weeks from the first administration. The primary efficacy analysis was a mixed-model repeated-measures analysis in the intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01251211. Between Oct 2, 2010, and Aug 2, 2013, 152 patients were enrolled, of whom 68 were randomly assigned (34 per group), and 66 (37 [56%] men) were included in the primary analysis (34 in the botulinum toxin A group and 32 in the placebo group). Botulinum toxin A reduced pain intensity over 24 weeks compared with placebo (adjusted effect estimate -0·77, 95% CI -0·95 to -0·59; pbotulinum toxin A group and 17 (53%) of those in the placebo group (p=1·0). Severe pain was experienced by ten (29%) participants in the botulinum toxin A group and 11 (34%) in the placebo group (p=0·8). Two administrations of botulinum toxin A, each of which comprised several injections, have a

  19. A randomized, double-blind, controlled study of ultrasound-guided corticosteroid injection into the joint of patients with inflammatory arthritis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cunnington, Joanna

    2010-07-01

    Most corticosteroid injections into the joint are guided by the clinical examination (CE), but up to 70% are inaccurately placed, which may contribute to an inadequate response. The aim of this study was to investigate whether ultrasound (US) guidance improves the accuracy and clinical outcome of joint injections as compared with CE guidance in patients with inflammatory arthritis.

  20. Does the volume of supplemental intraligamentary injections affect the anaesthetic success rate after a failed primary inferior alveolar nerve block? A randomized-double blind clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, V; Singla, M; Miglani, S; Kohli, S; Sharma, V; Bhasin, S S

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the efficacy of 0.2 mL vs. 0.6 mL of 2% lidocaine when given as a supplementary intraligamentary injection after a failed inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB). Ninety-seven adult patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpits received an IANB and root canal treatment was initiated. Pain during treatment was recorded using a visual analogue scale (Heft-Parker VAS). Patients with unsuccessful anaesthesia (n = 78) randomly received intraligamentary injection of either 0.2 mL or 0.6 mL of 2% lidocaine with 1 : 80 000 epinephrine. Root canal treatment was reinitiated. Success after primary injection or supplementary injection was defined as no or mild pain (HP VAS score ≤54 mm) during access preparation and root canal instrumentation. Heart rate was monitored using a finger pulse oximeter. The anaesthetic success rates were analysed with Pearson chi-square test at 5% significance levels. The heart rate changes were analysed using t-tests. The intraligamentary injections with 0.2 mL solution gave an anaesthetic success rate of 64%, whilst the 0.6 mL was successful in 84% of cases with failed primary IANB. (χ 2  = 4.3, P = 0.03). There was no significant effect of the volume of intraligamentary injection on the change in heart rate. Increasing the volume of intraligamentary injection improved the success rates after a failed primary anaesthetic injection. © 2017 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Glucose consumption and rate constants for sup 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose in human gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Masatsune; Kikuchi, Haruhiko; Nagata, Izumi; Yamagata, Sen; Taki, Waro; Yonekura, Yoshiharu; Nishizawa, Sadahiko; Iwasaki, Yasushi; Mukai, Takao [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1990-06-01

    To investigate the value of direct measurement of the rate constants by performing {sup 18}F-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) studies of glucose consumption in human gliomas in vivo, a kinetic method with 3- and 4-parameter rate constant models for FDG uptake was used to analyze data from dynamic scans obtained by positron emission tomography after injection of FDG into 14 patients with glioma. The results were compared with those obtained by the autoradiographic method using 3- and 4-parameter rate constant models. There were no significant differences in the glucose consumption calculated by the four different methods both in the gliomas and in the contralateral intact cortex. It was found that the rate constant k4 could be neglected in calculation of glucose consumption in gliomas as well as in the contralateral intact cortex. The rate constant k3, an index of hexokinase function, was higher in malignant gliomas than in benign gliomas and was close to that in the contralateral cortex. This study indicates that the 3-parameter autoradiographic method, which is the most common one used in clinical practice, is reliable for the calculation of glucose consumption in human gliomas. Furthermore, direct measurement of the regional rate constants for FDG by the kinetic method was found to be useful for evaluation of the biochemical and physiological characteristics of human gliomas in vivo. (author).

  2. Detecting Metastatic Bladder Cancer Using (18)F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron-Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Hakan

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to retrospectively investigate the contribution of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography ((18)F-FDG-PET/CT) to detection of metastatic bladder cancer. The present study included 79 patients (69 men and 10 women) undergoing (18)F-FDG-PET/CT upon suspicion of metastatic bladder cancer between July 2007 and April 2013. The mean age was 66.1 years with a standard deviation of 10.7 years (range, 21 to 85 years). Patients were required to fast for 6 hours prior to scanning, and whole-body PET scanning from the skull base to the upper thighs was performed approximately 1 hour after intravenous injection of 555 MBq of (18)F-FDG. Whole body CT scanning was performed in the cranio-caudal direction. FDG-PET images were reconstructed using CT data for attenuation correction. Suspicious recurrent or metastatic lesions were confirmed by histopathology or clinical follow-up. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of (18)F-FDG-PET/CT were 89%, 78%, 90%, 75%, and 86%, respectively. (18)F-FDG-PET/CT can detect metastases with high sensitivity and positive predictive values in patients with metastatic bladder carcinoma.

  3. Glucose consumption and rate constants for 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose in human gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Masatsune; Kikuchi, Haruhiko; Nagata, Izumi; Yamagata, Sen; Taki, Waro; Yonekura, Yoshiharu; Nishizawa, Sadahiko; Iwasaki, Yasushi; Mukai, Takao

    1990-01-01

    To investigate the value of direct measurement of the rate constants by performing 18 F-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) studies of glucose consumption in human gliomas in vivo, a kinetic method with 3- and 4-parameter rate constant models for FDG uptake was used to analyze data from dynamic scans obtained by positron emission tomography after injection of FDG into 14 patients with glioma. The results were compared with those obtained by the autoradiographic method using 3- and 4-parameter rate constant models. There were no significant differences in the glucose consumption calculated by the four different methods both in the gliomas and in the contralateral intact cortex. It was found that the rate constant k4 could be neglected in calculation of glucose consumption in gliomas as well as in the contralateral intact cortex. The rate constant k3, an index of hexokinase function, was higher in malignant gliomas than in benign gliomas and was close to that in the contralateral cortex. This study indicates that the 3-parameter autoradiographic method, which is the most common one used in clinical practice, is reliable for the calculation of glucose consumption in human gliomas. Furthermore, direct measurement of the regional rate constants for FDG by the kinetic method was found to be useful for evaluation of the biochemical and physiological characteristics of human gliomas in vivo. (author)

  4. Evaluation of the effects of botulinum toxin A injections when used to improve ease of care and comfort in children with cerebral palsy whom are non-ambulant: a double blind randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorley Megan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children with cerebral palsy (CP whom are non-ambulant are at risk of reduced quality of life and poor health status. Severe spasticity leads to discomfort and pain. Carer burden for families is significant. This study aims to determine whether intramuscular injections of botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A combined with a regime of standard therapy has a positive effect on care and comfort for children with CP whom are non-ambulant (GMFCS IV/V, compared with standard therapy alone (cycle I, and whether repeated injections with the same regime of adjunctive therapy results in greater benefits compared with a single injecting episode (cycle II. The regime of therapy will include serial casting, splinting and/or provision of orthoses, as indicated, combined with four sessions of goal directed occupational therapy or physiotherapy. Method/design This study is a double blind randomized controlled trial. Forty participants will be recruited. In cycle I, participants will be randomized to either a treatment group who will receive BoNT-A injections into selected upper and/or lower limb muscles, or a control group who will undergo sham injections. Both groups will receive occupational therapy and /or physiotherapy following injections. Groups will be assessed at baseline then compared at 4 and 16 weeks following injections or sham control. Parents, treating clinicians and assessors will be masked to group allocation. In cycle II, all participants will undergo intramuscular BoNT-A injections to selected upper and/or lower limb muscles, followed by therapy. The primary outcome measure will be change in parent ratings in identified areas of concern for their child’s care and comfort, using the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM. Secondary measures will include the Care and Comfort Hypertonicity Scale (ease of care, the Cerebral Palsy Quality of Life Questionnaire (CP QoL–Child (quality of life, the Caregiver Priorities and Child

  5. F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission tomography in neurology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazekas, F.; Payer, F.

    2002-01-01

    Positron emission tomography using F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18-FDG-PET) is an ideal tool for imaging regional cerebral metabolism as glucose is the most important source of energy for neurons. Under physiologic conditions the pattern of metabolism reflects the state of cerebral activation which can be modulated by various stimuli to investigate cerebral organization. Pathologic conditions usually cause a drop in metabolism because of neuronal inactivity or loss. They can, however, also be associated with an increased rate of glucose metabolism such as in case of active epileptic foci or malignant tumors. As a consequence F-18-FDG-PET has become a valuable functional imaging modality especially for the diagnostic clarification of non-contributory or negative morphologic imaging results. Dementia, pre-surgical evaluation of epilepsy and neurooncology are currently frequent indications for referral to F-18-FDG-PET in neurology. (author)

  6. Does the combination of 3% mepivacaine plain plus 2% lidocaine with epinephrine improve anesthesia and reduce the pain of anesthetic injection for the inferior alveolar nerve block? A prospective, randomized, double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, Emily; Nusstein, John; Reader, Al; Drum, Melissa; Beck, Mike; Fowler, Sara

    2014-09-01

    In theory, using 3% mepivacaine initially for an inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) block would decrease the pain of injection, provide faster onset, and increase anesthetic success. The purpose of this prospective, randomized, double-blind study was to compare the degree of pulpal anesthesia obtained with a combination of 3% mepivacaine/2% lidocaine (1:100,000 epinephrine) versus a combination of 2% lidocaine (1:100,000 epinephrine)/2% lidocaine (1:100,000 epinephrine) in IAN blocks. Injection pain was also studied. One hundred asymptomatic subjects were randomly given a combination of a 1-cartridge volume of 3% mepivacaine plus a 1-cartridge volume of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine and a combination of a 1-cartridge volume of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine plus a 1-cartridge volume of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine for the IAN block at 2 separate appointments. Subjects rated the pain of injection. The molars, premolars, and incisors were tested with an electric pulp tester in 4-minute cycles for 60 minutes. Anesthetic success was defined as the subject achieving 2 consecutive 80 readings within 15 minutes after completion of the IAN blocks and sustaining the 80 reading for 60 minutes. Success was not significantly different (P > .05) between the 2 combinations. No statistical differences in injection pain or onset times were found. The combination of 3% mepivacaine plus 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine was equivalent to the combination of 2 cartridges of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine in terms of injection pain, onset time, and pulpal anesthetic success for the IAN block. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Study protocol: a double blind randomised control trial of high volume image guided injections in Achilles and patellar tendinopathy in a young active population

    OpenAIRE

    Barker-Davies, Robert M.; Nicol, Alastair; McCurdie, I.; Watson, James; Baker, Polly; Wheeler, Patrick; Fong, Daniel; Lewis, Mark; Bennett, Alexander N.

    2017-01-01

    Background Chronic tendinopathy is a significant problem particularly in active populations limiting sporting and occupational performance. The prevalence of patellar tendinopathy in some sports is near 50% and the incidence of lower limb tendinopathy is 1.4% p.a. in the UK Military. Management includes isometric, eccentric, heavy slow resistance exercises and extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT). Often these treatments are inadequate yet there is no good evidence for injection therapies a...

  8. Study protocol: a double blind randomised control trial of high volume image guided injections in Achilles and patellar tendinopathy in a young active population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker-Davies, Robert M; Nicol, Alastair; McCurdie, I; Watson, James; Baker, Polly; Wheeler, Patrick; Fong, Daniel; Lewis, Mark; Bennett, Alexander N

    2017-05-22

    Chronic tendinopathy is a significant problem particularly in active populations limiting sporting and occupational performance. The prevalence of patellar tendinopathy in some sports is near 50% and the incidence of lower limb tendinopathy is 1.4% p.a. in the UK Military. Management includes isometric, eccentric, heavy slow resistance exercises and extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT). Often these treatments are inadequate yet there is no good evidence for injection therapies and success rates from surgery can be as low as 50%. High Volume Image Guided Injection (HVIGI) proposes to strip away the neovascularity and disrupt the nerve ingrowth seen in chronic cases and has shown promising results in case series. This study aims to investigate the efficacy of HVIGI in a randomised controlled trial (RCT). RCT comparing 40ml HVIGI, with or without corticosteroid, with a 3ml local anaesthetic sham-control injection. Ninety-six participants will be recruited. male, 18-55 years old, chronic Achilles or patellar tendinopathy of at least 6 months, failed conservative management including ESWT, and Ultrasound (US) evidence of neovascularisation, tendon thickening and echogenic changes. Outcome measures will be recorded at baseline, 6 weeks, 3, 6 and 12 months. Primary outcome measures include The Victoria Institute of Sport Assessments for Achilles and patellar tendinopathy (VISA-A and VISA-P) and VAS pain. Secondary outcome measures include Modified Ohberg score, maximum tendon diameter and assessment of hypoechoic appearance on US, and Functional Activity Assessment. Despite previous interventional trials and reviews there is still insufficient evidence to guide injectable therapy for chronic tendinopathy that has failed conservative treatment. The scant evidence available suggests HVIGI has the greatest potential however there is no level one RCT evidence to support this. Investigating the efficacy of HVIGI against control in a RCT and separating the effect of HVIGI

  9. Effect of High-Volume Injection, Platelet-Rich Plasma, and Sham Treatment in Chronic Midportion Achilles Tendinopathy: A Randomized Double-Blinded Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesen, Anders Ploug; Hansen, Rudi; Boesen, Morten Ilum; Malliaras, Peter; Langberg, Henning

    2017-07-01

    Injection therapies are often considered alongside exercise for chronic midportion Achilles tendinopathy (AT), although evidence of their efficacy is sparse. To determine whether eccentric training in combination with high-volume injection (HVI) or platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections improves outcomes in AT. Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. A total of 60 men (age, 18-59 years) with chronic (>3 months) AT were included and followed for 6 months (n = 57). All participants performed eccentric training combined with either (1) one HVI (steroid, saline, and local anesthetic), (2) four PRP injections each 14 days apart, or (3) placebo (a few drops of saline under the skin). Randomization was stratified for age, function, and symptom severity (Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment-Achilles [VISA-A]). Outcomes included function and symptoms (VISA-A), self-reported tendon pain during activity (visual analog pain scale [VAS]), tendon thickness and intratendinous vascularity (ultrasonographic imaging and Doppler signal), and muscle function (heel-rise test). Outcomes were assessed at baseline and at 6, 12, and 24 weeks of follow-up. VISA-A scores improved in all groups at all time points ( P Tendon thickness showed a significant decrease only in HVI and PRP groups during the intervention, and this was greater in the HVI versus PRP and placebo groups at 6 and 12 weeks ( P eccentric training in chronic AT seems more effective in reducing pain, improving activity level, and reducing tendon thickness and intratendinous vascularity than eccentric training alone. HVI may be more effective in improving outcomes of chronic AT than PRP in the short term. Registration: NCT02417987 ( ClinicalTrials.gov identifier).

  10. Evaluation of intralesional injection of hyaluronic acid compared with verapamil in Peyronie's disease: preliminary results from a prospective, double-blinded, randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favilla, V; Russo, G I; Zucchi, A; Siracusa, G; Privitera, S; Cimino, S; Madonia, M; Cai, T; Cavallini, G; Liguori, G; D'Achille, G; Silvani, M; Franco, G; Verze, P; Palmieri, A; Torrisi, B; Mirone, V; Morgia, G

    2017-07-01

    Several intralesional therapeutic protocols have been proposed for the treatment of Peyronie's disease. Among all, hyaluronic acid (HA) and verapamil have been differently tested. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of intralesional verapamil (ILVI) compared with intralesional HA in patients with early onset of Peyronie's disease (PD). This is a multi-centre prospective double-arm, randomized, double-blinded study comparing ILVI vs. intralesional HA after 12-weeks. Sexually active men, older than 18 years and affected by the acute phase of PD were eligible for this study. Patients have been double-blinded randomly divided into two groups (1 : 1 ratio): Group A received intralesional treatment with Verapamil (10 mg in 5 mL of normal saline water) weekly for 12 weeks, while group B received intralesional treatment with HA (0.8% highly purified sodium salt HA 16 mg/2 mL) weekly for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy outcome was the change from the baseline to the endpoint (12 weeks after therapy) for the penile curvature (degree). The secondary outcome was the change in the plaque size and in the International Index of erectile Function (IIEF-5) score. The difference between post- and pre-treatment plaque size was -1.36 mm (SD ± 1.27) for Group A and -1.80 mm (SD ± 2.47) for Group B (p-value = NS). IIEF-5 increased of 1.46 points (SD ± 2.18) in Group A and 1.78 (SD ± 2.48) in Group B (p-value ± NS). No difference in penile curvature was observed in Group A, while in Group B the penile curvature decreased of 4.60° (SD ± 5.63) from the baseline (p < 0.001) and vs. Group A. According to PGI-I results, we found significant difference as concerning patient global impression of improvement (PGI-I) (4.0 vs. 2.0; p < 0.05). This prospective, double-arm, randomized, double-blinded study comparing ILVI vs. HA as intralesional therapy showed greater efficacy of HA in terms of penile curvature and PGI-I. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and

  11. Glucose Metabolism Gene Expression Patterns and Tumor Uptake of {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose After Radiation Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, George D., E-mail: george.wilson@beaumont.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Beaumont BioBank, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Thibodeau, Bryan J.; Fortier, Laura E.; Pruetz, Barbara L. [Beaumont BioBank, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Galoforo, Sandra; Baschnagel, Andrew M.; Chunta, John [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Oliver Wong, Ching Yee [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Molecular Imaging Medicine, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Yan, Di; Marples, Brian [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Huang, Jiayi [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether radiation treatment influences the expression of glucose metabolism genes and compromises the potential use of {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) as a tool to monitor the early response of head and neck cancer xenografts to radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Low passage head and neck squamous cancer cells (UT14) were injected to the flanks of female nu/nu mice to generate xenografts. After tumors reached a size of 500 mm{sup 3} they were treated with either sham RT or 15 Gy in 1 fraction. At different time points, days 3, 9, and 16 for controls and days 4, 7, 12, 21, 30, and 40 after irradiation, 2 to 3 mice were assessed with dynamic FDG-PET acquisition over 2 hours. Immediately after the FDG-PET the tumors were harvested for global gene expression analysis and immunohistochemical evaluation of GLUT1 and HK2. Different analytic parameters were used to process the dynamic PET data. Results: Radiation had no effect on key genes involved in FDG uptake and metabolism but did alter other genes in the HIF1α and glucose transport–related pathways. In contrast to the lack of effect on gene expression, changes in the protein expression patterns of the key genes GLUT1/SLC2A1 and HK2 were observed after radiation treatment. The changes in GLUT1 protein expression showed some correlation with dynamic FDG-PET parameters, such as the kinetic index. Conclusion: {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography changes after RT would seem to represent an altered metabolic state and not a direct effect on the key genes regulating FDG uptake and metabolism.

  12. Hepatic Pseudolymphoma with Fluorodeoxyglucose Uptake on Positron Emission Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Suzumura

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A 69-year-old woman with chronic hepatitis B was admitted to our hospital with a hepatic tumor. The levels of 2 tumor markers, carcinoembryonic antigen and carbohydrate antigen 19-9, were slightly elevated; however, the α-fetoprotein and protein levels induced by vitamin K antagonist II were within the normal limits. Abdominal ultrasonography showed a well-defined peripheral hypoechoic mass that was isoechoic and homogeneous on the inside. Computed tomography showed a poorly enhanced tumor of 13 mm in diameter in the 5th segment of the liver. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography showed a slight uptake (maximum standard uptake value 3.4 by the hepatic tumor. These findings suggested cholangiocellular carcinoma, and we performed anterior segmentectomy of the liver. A histopathological examination showed a hepatic pseudolymphoma. The patient’s postoperative course was uneventful, and she remains alive without recurrence 5 months after undergoing surgery. In most cases, hepatic pseudolymphoma is preoperatively diagnosed as a malignant tumor and a definite diagnosis is made after resection. It is therefore necessary to consider hepatic pseudolymphoma as a differential diagnosis in patients with hepatic tumors.

  13. Radiopharmaceutical management in Brazil: the case of fluorodeoxyglucose production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Vitor da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the combination of fluorodeoxyglucose tracer (FDG) and PET/CT equipment is the best technological condition for medical diagnosis, allowing the generation of images that associate anatomy and metabolic functions of tissues or organs. Constitutional Amendment (CA) No 49 of 2006, relaxed the state monopoly on the production of radioactive substances, allowing private investment in radioisotope area with half-life of less than or equal to two hours, as a way to increase the supply of these materials to national health sector. In order to reflect on the Brazilian production of radiopharmaceuticals, especially FDG was performed a theoretical study with a qualitative approach, substantiated by documentary research and data collection through a questionnaire sent to the producing private companies of this radiopharmaceutical. Initially, it sought to identify in the federal level the legal and regulatory parameters for the activity; then the existing competitive environment was observed, and, finally, were prospected the business perspectives on the behavior of domestic demand of this product. The results showed the growth of production and its largest geographical distribution in the country, beyond what would be possible only considering public investment; but short of expectations surrounding the enactment of Constitutional Amendment. Private entrepreneurs believe in market growth; since, most of the population has no access to the benefits that the medical imaging diagnostic with the use of FDG may allow. It was also noted that there is a need to improve the regulatory framework in relation to licensing procedures; as well as implementation of common marketing parameters. (author)

  14. Non-double-couple mechanisms of microearthquakes induced during the 2000 injection experiment at the KTB site, Germany: A result of tensile faulting or anisotropy of a rock?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vavryčuk, Václav; Bohnhoff, M.; Jechumtálová, Zuzana; Kolář, Petr; Šílený, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 456, č. 1-2 (2008), s. 74-93 ISSN 0040-1951 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB300120504; GA AV ČR IAA3012309; GA AV ČR IAA300120502 Grant - others:EC(XE) MTKI-CT-2004-517242 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : anisotropy * fluid injection * focal mechanism * tensile faulting Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.677, year: 2008

  15. Clinical usefulness of positron emission tomography with fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose in the diagnosis of liver tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwata, Yoshinori; Shiomi, Susumu; Sasaki, Nobumitsu; Jomura, Hisato; Nishiguchi, Shuhei; Seki, Shuichi; Kawabe, Joji; Ochi, Hironobu [Osaka City Univ. (Japan). Medical School

    2000-04-01

    We studied various liver tumors by positron emission tomography with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET) to examine the diagnostic usefulness of this technique. We also examined the relation between findings on FDG-PET and the characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma. FDG-PET was performed in 78 patients with liver tumors, including 53 with primary liver cancer [48 hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) and 5 cholangiocellular carcinomas (CCC)], 20 with metastatic liver cancer, 2 with liver hemangioma, and 3 with focal nodular hyperplasia. For quantitative evaluation, a region of interest (ROI) was placed over the entire tumor region, at the level of the maximum diameter of the tumor. A background ROI was then placed over the non-tumor region of the liver. The average activity within each ROI was subsequently corrected for radioactive decay, and the standardized uptake value (SUV) was calculated by dividing the tissue activity by the injected dose of radioactivity per unit body weight. SUV ratio was expressed as the tumor-to-non-tumor ratio of the SUV. The median SUV was significantly lower in HCC than in metastatic live cancer or CCC, and the median SUV ratio was significantly lower in HCC than in metastatic liver cancer or CCC. The median SUV was not higher in multiple HCC than in single HCC, but the median SUV ratio was significantly higher in multiple HCC than in single HCC. The median SUV and the median SUV ratio were significantly higher in the presence of portal vein thrombosis than in the absence of such thrombosis. The Cancer of the Liver Italian Program score and the {alpha}-fetoprotein value correlated significantly with both the SUV and SUV ratio. These results suggest that FDG-PET is clinically useful not only for the differential diagnosis of liver tumors but also for evaluation of the clinical characteristics of HCC. (author)

  16. Coexistence of atrial myxoma and lung cancer on fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography: The impact of distinct fluorodeoxyglucose uptake pattern on differential diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koc, Kevser; Aras, Mustafa; Inanir, Sabahat

    2014-01-01

    The information regarding fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in benign and malignant cardiac tumors is limited in the literature and most of the currrently available data were derived from single case reports. Herein we reported coexistence of atrial myxoma and lung cancer on FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography with the aim of emphasizing the importance of distinct FDG uptake pattern on differential diagnosis

  17. Testosterone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... typical male characteristics. Testosterone injection works by supplying synthetic testosterone to replace the testosterone that is normally ... as a pellet to be injected under the skin.Testosterone injection may control your symptoms but will ...

  18. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in uterine carcinosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Kung-Chu; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Lai, Chyong-Huey; Wu, Tzu-I; Chang, Ting-Chang; Huang, Huei-Jean; Ng, Koon-Kwan; Lin, Gigin; Wang, Chun-Chieh; Hsueh, Swei

    2008-01-01

    Uterine carcinosarcomas clinically confined to the uterus usually harbor occult metastases. We conducted a pilot study to evaluate the value of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in uterine carcinosarcoma. Patients with histologically confirmed uterine carcinosarcoma were enrolled. Abdominal and pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/whole-body computed tomography (CT) scan, and whole-body 18 F-FDG PET or PET/CT were undertaken for primary staging, evaluating response, and restaging/post-therapy surveillance. The clinical impact of 18 F-FDG PET was determined on a scan basis. A total of 19 patients were recruited and 31 18 F-FDG PET scans (including 8 scans performed on a PET/CT scanner) were performed. Positive impacts of scans were found in 36.8% (7/19) for primary staging, 66.7% (2/3) for monitoring response, and 11.1% (1/9) for restaging/post-therapy surveillance. PET excluded falsely inoperable disease defined by MRI in two patients. Aggressive treatment applying to three patients with PET-defined resectable stage IVB disease seemed futile. Two patients died of disease shortly after salvage therapy restaged by PET. With PET monitoring, one stage IVB patient treated by targeted therapy only was alive with good performance. Using PET did not lead to improvement of overall survival of this series compared with the historical control (n = 35) (P 0.779). The preliminary results suggest that 18 F-FDG PET is beneficial in excluding falsely inoperable disease for curative therapy and in making a decision on palliation for better quality of life instead of aggressive treatment under the guidance of PET. PET seems to have limited value in post-therapy surveillance or restaging after failure. (orig.)

  19. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in pulmonary carcinoid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasparri, R.; Rezende, G. C.; Brambilla, D.; Petrella, F.; Galetta, D.; Spaggiari, L.; Fazio, N.; Maisonneuve, P.; Travaini, L. L.; Paganelli, G.

    2015-01-01

    The role of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) as an additional investigation to computer tomography for pulmonary carcinoid tumors remains controversial. The aim of this study was to assess the role of FDG-PET for the diagnosis and staging of pulmonary carcinoid tumors. It has been performed a retrospective mono-institutional analysis of data from 97 patients with pathologically confirmed pulmonary carcinoid tumor who had been operated on between July 1998 and April 2009 and had had a preoperative FDG-PET scan performed. Sixty-five (67%) of the 97 tumors were typical (TC) and 32 (33%) atypical (AC) carcinoid tumors. Overall FDG-PET sensitivity was 67% being lower for TC (60%) than for AC (81%) (P=0.04). FDG-PET negative tumors were smaller than FDG-PET positive tumors, with a respective median size of 15 and 17 mm (P=0.02). Median SUVmax for FDG-PET-positive tumors was 4.0 (2.8-5.1) with no difference between TC and AC tumors. Median Ki-67 expression was respectively 4.7% and 3.1% for FDG-PET positive and FDG-PET negative tumors (P=0.05). During a median follow-up of 49 months (interquartile range 30-63 months), 9 patients (4TC, 5AC) developed recurrent disease. Neither SUVmax nor Ki-67 expression resulted associated with disease-free survival. With an overall sensitivity of 67%, FDG-PET has shown to be useful in the preoperative work-up of patients with suspect lung carcinoid tumors. In particular it could have a role in larger tumors. These results warrant a prospective evaluation of FDG-PET in the staging of lung carcinoid tumor.

  20. Influence of TSH on uptake of [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose in human thyroid cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deichen, J.T.; Schmidt, C.; Prante, O.; Maschauer, S.; Kuwert, T.; Papadopoulos, T.

    2004-01-01

    Recent clinical evidence suggests that positron emission tomography with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET) is more accurate in detecting thyroid carcinomatous tissue at high than at low TSH levels. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of TSH on FDG uptake in human thyroid cells in vitro. Monolayers of human thyroid tissue were cultured after mechanical disintegration and enzymatic digestion of samples from patients undergoing surgery for nodular goitre. The purity of thyroid cell preparations was ascertained by immunohistochemical staining for the epithelial antigen KL-1, and their viability by measuring the synthesis of thyroglobulin in vitro. The cells were incubated with 0.8-1.5 MBq FDG/ml uptake medium for 1 h. FDG uptake in thyroid cells was quantified as percent of whole FDG activity per well (% ID) or as % ID in relation to total protein mass. This experimental protocol was subsequently varied to study the effect of incubation time, glucose dependency and TSH. Furthermore, radio-thin layer chromatography was used to identify intracellular FDG metabolites. FDG accumulated in the thyroid cells linearly with time, doubling roughly every 20 min. Uptake was competitively inhibited by unlabelled glucose and decreased to approximately 70% at 100 mg/dl glucose compared to the value measured in glucose-free medium. FDG was intracellularly trapped as FDG-6 phosphate and FDG-1,6-diphosphate. TSH significantly increased FDG uptake in vitro in a time- and concentration-dependent manner: Cells cultured at a TSH concentration of 50 μU/ ml doubled FDG uptake compared to TSH-free conditions, and uptake after 72 h of TSH pre-incubation was approximately 300% of that without TSH pre-incubation. TSH stimulates FDG uptake by benign thyroid cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. This supports the clinical evidence that in well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas, most of which are still TSH-sensitive, FDG-PET is more accurate at high levels of

  1. Comparison of cancer glucose utilization indexes by positron emission tomography using fluorine-18-fluoro-deoxyglucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Kyosan (Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1994-08-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) using fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) has been used to diagnose various kinds of malignant tumors. Various indexes are calculated for evaluation of tumor glucose metabolism from FDG PET image. Some indexes need sequential multiple-time uptake data and arterial plasma FDG concentrations (dynamic study). But some indexes use only static image data to calculate. We calculated four kinds of indexes on each patient, and analyzed the correlation of each index with others. Previously untreated 35 patients (23 non-Hodgikin's lymphoma, 4 lung cancers, 2 epipharynx cancers and other 6 malignant tumors) were studied by FDG PET. In all patients, about 4 mCi (148 MBq) of FDG was injected intravenously in a fasting state, and a series of 2-min sequential scans was acquired for 60 min following injection. After sequential scans, 6-min scan was successively added for obtaining static image. The rate constants (k[sub 1]-k[sub 4]) calculated by non-linear least squares fitting routines, the slope of Patlak-Gjedde plot, differential absorption ratio (DAR) which represents tumor activity corrected by administrated dose per body weight, and tumor-to-normal soft-tissue contrast ratios (TCR) were calculated for each patient. The correlation of these indexes was analyzed statistically. Patlak-Gjedde plot seemed to be widely accepted for measuring tumor glucose metabolism, but it needs dynamic study data. DAR is a simple index easily calculated using static data. Our results showed that the slope of Patlak-Gjedde plot and DAR were closely correlated. It was suggested that the DAR could be used in place of Patlak-Gjedde plot. They also showed relatively well correlation with each other. Correlation between rate constant k[sub 3] and other indexes were from 0.67 to 0.43. It is acceptable result because rate constant K[sub 3] related the activity of hexokinase but other indexes may represent the overall glucose metabolism of the tumor tissue. (J.N.P.).

  2. Fluorodeoxyglucose and C-Choline positron emission tomography for distinction of metastatic plexopathy and neuritis : a case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, Anna L.; Zeebregts, Clark J; Enting, Roeline; Slart, Riemer Hja

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scanning has an established role in the diagnostic work-up of many malignant diseases and also in the evaluation of cancer treatment response. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography may, however be non-specific as infectious

  3. Role and impact of [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in recurrent breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grahek, D.; Montravers, F.; Aide, N.; Kerrou, K.; Talbot, J.N.

    2004-01-01

    [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography is widely used in oncology to detect malignant tissue, assess the extent of the disease and follow up treatment. In breast cancer, recurrence detection seems to be the leading indication of [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. This review, including recent publications, aims to evaluate its role to detect the recurrent malignant. tissue when tumour marker levels are isolatedly rising and to evaluate the extent of-the disease. The first impact studies reveal its important role in the management of the patients suspected of breast cancer recurrence. (author)

  4. Effects of fixed orthodontic treatment using conventional versus metal-injection molding brackets on salivary nickel and chromium levels: a double-blind randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Fariborz; Harandi, Saghar; Mollaei, Mobina; Rakhshan, Vahid

    2015-10-01

    Despite the importance of nickel and chromium release from orthodontic brackets, there are no in vivo or in vitro studies on this issue in the case of metal-injection molding (MIM) brackets. Saliva samples were collected from 30 orthodontic patients divided randomly into two groups of conventional and MIM brackets, before treatment and 2 months later. Approved attendees with odd and even numbers were, respectively, assigned to the control and treatment groups. For blinding, the patients were not informed of their bracket types, and the saliva samples were coded. Nickel and chromium levels were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Data were analysed using repeated-measures two-way analysis of covariance, independent-samples t-test, chi-squared, Spearman and point-biserial correlation coefficients, Mann-Whitney, and Wilcoxon tests (α = 0.05). Mean nickel level increased from 7.87±8.14 (pre-treatment) to 12.57±9.96 (2nd month) in the control group, and from 8.62±9.85 (pre-treatment) to 8.86±6.42 µg/l in the MIM group. Both of these increases were significant (Wilcoxon P 0.1). The differences between both ions' levels measured in the 60th day in both bracket groups were not significant (Mann-Whitney P > 0.05). The extents of changes over time were not significantly different between the bracket types (Mann-Whitney P > 0.05). The sample size was not predetermined based on power calculations. The spectrophotometer was limited to detecting chromium concentrations above 0.25 µg/l. Ion discharge from brackets might continuously change. The current in vivo methods are unable to take such fluctuations into account. Nickel might increase in patients undergoing treatment with both bracket types, although the rate of increase might be greater in patients under treatment with conventional brackets. Using MIM brackets might reduce salivary chromium for a trivial but generalizable amount. Still, ion levels leached from conventional versus MIM brackets might

  5. Granisetron Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granisetron immediate-release injection is used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy and to ... nausea and vomiting that may occur after surgery. Granisetron extended-release (long-acting) injection is used with ...

  6. Edaravone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edaravone injection is used to treat amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, Lou Gehrig's disease; a condition in which ... die, causing the muscles to shrink and weaken). Edaravone injection is in a class of medications called ...

  7. Meropenem Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infection.Antibiotics such as meropenem injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  8. Chloramphenicol Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria..Antibiotics such as chloramphenicol injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  9. Colistimethate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as colistimethate injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  10. Defibrotide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defibrotide injection is used to treat adults and children with hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD; blocked blood ... the body and then returned to the body). Defibrotide injection is in a class of medications called ...

  11. Nalbuphine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called opioid agonist-antagonists. It works by changing the way ... suddenly stop using nalbuphine injection, you may experience withdrawal symptoms including restlessness; teary eyes; runny nose; yawning; ...

  12. Are restrictions to behaviour of patients required following fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomographic studies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronin, B.; Marsden, P.K.; O'Doherty, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    The clinical use of positron emission tomography (PET) is expanding rapidly in most European countries. It is likely therefore that patients receiving the tracer fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 FDG) will be discharged to come into contact with family members, members of the public and ward staff. There are few direct measurements on which to base any recommendations with regard to radiation protection, and so we have measured the dose rates from patients undergoing clinical PET examinations in our centre. Seventy-five patients who underwent whole-body and brain 18 FDG PET examinations were studied. Dose rates were measured at 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 m from the mid thorax on leaving the department. The median administered activity was 323 MBq with a 95th percentile value of 360 MBq. The median dose rates measured at the four distances were 90.0, 35.0, 14.0 and 5.0 μSv h -1 (the median dose rates per unit administered activity at 2 h post injection were 0.31, 0.11, 0.04 and 0.02 μSv h -1 MBq -1 ). The corresponding 95th percentile values were 174.0, 69.0, 29.0 and 7.5 μSv h -1 (0.43, 0.2, 0.08 and 0.03 μSv h -1 MBq -1 ). A number of social situations were modelled and an annual dose limit of 1 mSv was used to determine whether restrictive behavioural advice was required. In the case of nursing staff on wards a value of 6 mSv was regarded as the annual limit, which translates to a daily limit of approximately 24 μSv. There is no need for restrictive advice for patients travelling by public or private transport when they leave the department 2 h after the administration of 18 FDG. Similarly, there is no need for restrictive advice with regard to their contact with partners, work colleagues or children of any age, although it should be stressed that children should not accompany the patient to the scanning department. The only possible area of concern is in an oncology ward, where patients may be regularly referred for PET investigations and other high activity

  13. Use of dual-point fluorodeoxyglucose imaging to enhance sensitivity and specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillaci, Orazio

    2012-07-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) and positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging with fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) are widely used as a powerful evaluation modality in oncological nuclear medicine not only for detecting tumors but also for staging and for therapy monitoring. Nevertheless, there are numerous causes of FDG uptake in benign processes seen on PET images. In fact, the degree of FDG uptake is related to the cellular metabolic rate and the number of glucose transporters. FDG accumulation in tumors is due, in part, to an increased number of glucose transporters in malignant cells. However, FDG is not specific for neoplasms: a similar situation exists in inflammation; activated inflammatory cells demonstrate increased expression of glucose transporters. Therefore, there is growing interest in improving the specificity of FDG-PET in patients with cancer. Preliminary studies showed that in several neoplasms, the uptake of FDG continues to increase for hours after radiopharmaceutical injection, and this difference in the time course of FDG uptake could be useful to improve the accuracy of PET to distinguish benign lesions from malignant ones. Also in experimental cultures, dual-point acquisition (early at 40-60 minutes postinjection and delayed at 90-270 minutes) demonstrated that it is able to differentiate inflammatory from neoplastic tissue. In general, inflammatory tissue is expected to reduce FDG uptake as the time goes by, whereas the uptake in the neoplastic lesions is supposed to be increasing. There is evidence in the recent literature of the clinical usefulness of dual-time-point FDG-PET imaging in a wide variety of malignancies, including those of head and neck, lung, breast, gallbladder, cervix, liver, and in brain tumors. A lesion is likely to be malignant if the standard uptake value increases over time, whereas it is likely to be benign if the standard uptake value is stable or decreases. It is worth noting that in many of these

  14. MRI and {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in hemimegalencephaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, K.T.; Liebig, T.; Hosten, N. [Departments of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Virchow-Klinikum, Charite, Berlin (Germany); Amthauer, H.; Farahati, J.; Felix, R. [Departments of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Virchow-Klinikum, Charite, Berlin (Germany); PET-Centre Berlin, Virchow-Klinikum, Charite, Humboldt-University, Berlin (Germany); Etou, A.; Lehmann, T.N. [Department of Neurosurgery, Virchow-Klinikum, Charite, Humboldt-University, Berlin (Germany)

    2000-10-01

    We report hemimegalencephaly in a 44-year-old woman with mental retardation, epilepsy and a mild hemiparesis. In addition to typical findings on MRI, 2-deoxy-2[{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography (PET) demonstrated glucose hypometabolism of the affected hemisphere. The results of PET have been coregistered with morphological information from the MRI studies by image fusion. (orig.)

  15. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography predicts survival of patients with neuroendocrine tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binderup, Tina; Knigge, Ulrich; Loft, Annika

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) is currently not used on a routine basis for imaging of neuroendocrine (NE) tumors. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of FDG-PET in patients with NE tumors. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Ninety...

  16. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography in evaluation of residual intramuscular myxoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zade, Anand; Ahire, Archana; Shetty, Shishir; Rai, Sujith; Bokka, Rajashekharrao; Velumani, Arokiaswamy; Kabnurkar, Rasika

    2015-01-01

    Intramuscular myxoma (IM) is a rare benign neoplasm. In a patient diagnosed with IM of left thigh, we report the utility of a postoperative fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan in assessing the efficacy of surgical excision

  17. Reference values for fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose and fluorine-18-sodium fluoride uptake in human arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Björn A; Thomassen, Anders; de Jong, Pim A

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Reference values of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG) and fluorine-18-sodium fluoride (F-NaF) uptake in human arteries are unknown. The aim of this study was to determine age-specific and sex-specific reference values of arterial F-FDG and F-NaF uptake. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS...

  18. Fluorodeoxyglucose-based positron emission tomography imaging to monitor drug responses in hematological tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newbold, Andrea; Martin, Ben P.; Cullinane, Carleen; Bots, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) can be used to monitor the uptake of the labeled glucose analog fluorodeoxyglucose (¹⁸F-FDG), a process that is generally believed to reflect viable tumor cell mass. The use of ¹⁸F-FDG PET can be helpful in documenting over time the reduction in tumor mass volume

  19. Evaluation of the cases of benign disease with high accumulation on the examination of [sup 18]F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okazumi, Shinichi; Enomoto, Kazuo; Fukunaga, Toru (Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine) (and others)

    1993-12-01

    In this study 39 cases of abdominal benign disease were examined by PET using [sup 18]F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), and 11 cases of them (i.e. 4 cases of liver abscess, 1 of pelvic abscess, 1 of omental abscess, 2 of chronic pancreatitis, 1 of inflammatory pseudotumor of liver, 1 of retroperitoneal leiomyoma and 1 of solid and cystic tumor of pancreas) which showed as high accumulation of FDG as malignant lesion were investigated of their clinical and pathological feature. We used Ci/Cp ratio as index to express the accumulation of FDG in the lesion, which was calculated from radioactivities of the lesion (Ci) and the plasma (Cp) at 60 mins after injection of FDG. The Ci/Cp ratio of the 11 cases was 3.64[+-]0.77. The pathological feature of the 9 inflammatory cases was high accumulation of inflammatory cells and that of the 2 benign tumor cases was solid proliferation of tumor cells. The serum of the 9 inflammatory cases showed high CRP value. It was considered that the high accumulation of FDG in inflammatory lesions was due to piles of FDG uptake of the many inflammatory cells, while the 2 benign tumors of high accumulation were considered that the tumor cell had as high glucose metabolism as malignancies. (author).

  20. The effect of tumor size on F-18-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose and fluoroerythronitroimidazole uptake in a murine sarcoma model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, June-Key; Chang, Young Soo; Lee, Yong Jin; Kim, Young Ju; Jeong, Jae Min; Lee, Dong Soo; Jang, Ja June; Lee, Myung Chul

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of tumor size on the uptake of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and fluoroerythronitroimidazole (FETNIM) in a murine sarcoma model. ICR mice were xenografted with sarcoma 180 cell line and tumors were allowed to grow to a weight of 0.26-5.82 grams. 18 F-FDG and 18 F-FETNIM were injected intravenously in separate groups of mice, and after 1 hr, the tumors were excised and radiotracer uptake was measured. In another group of mice tumors were autoradiographically analyzed and subjected to H and E staining. In both the FDG and FETNIM group, per-gram radiotracer uptake by a tumor was inversely proportional to tumor weight. 18 F-FETNIM correlated more (r=-0.593, p 18 F-FDG (r=-0.447, p 18 F-FETNIM, a direct correlation between tumor weight and the no-uptake-area to total-tumor-area was demonstrated. We concluded that increased tumor size is associated with decreased uptake of 18 F-FDG and FETNIM, though this depends on the type of radiotracers and distribution of necrosis. (author)

  1. Regional cerebral metabolic alterations in dementia of the Alzheimer type: positron emission tomography with [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedland, R.P.; Budinger, T.F.; Ganz, E.; Yano, Y.; Mathis, C.A.; Koss, B.; Ober, B.A.; Huesman, R.H.; Derenzo, S.E.

    1983-01-01

    Alzheimer disease is the most common cause of dementia in adults. Despite recent advances in our understanding of its anatomy and chemistry, we remain largely ignorant of its pathogenesis, physiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Dynamic positron emission tomography using [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) was performed on the Donner 280-crystal ring in 10 subjects with dementia of the Alzheimer type and six healthy age-matched controls. Ratios comparing mean counts per resolution element in frontal, temporoparietal, and entire cortex regions in brain sections 10 mm thick obtained 40-70 min following FDG injection showed relatively less FDG uptake in the temporoparietal cortex bilaterally in all the Alzheimer subjects (p less than 0.01). Left-right alterations were less prominent than the anteroposterior changes. This diminished uptake was due to lowered rates of FDG use and suggests that the metabolic effects of Alzheimer disease are most concentrated in the temporoparietal cortex. Positron emission tomography is a most powerful tool for the noninvasive in vivo assessment of cerebral pathophysiology in dementia

  2. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in colorectal cancer: value in primary staging and follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joerg, L.; Heinisch, M.; Rechberger, E.; Kurz, F.; Klug, R.; Aufschnaiter, M; Hammer, J.; Langsteger, W.

    2002-01-01

    Positron emission tomography using 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET) is a encouraging imaging techniques allowing a highly sensitive whole-body search for malignant foci detected by their increased glucose metabolism compared with benign tissues. Several studies are now available that indicate its added value for diagnosis and staging of colorectal cancer. In all, patient management seems to be changed in 20-30 % of patients who undergo fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in addition to standard staging procedures. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography is also useful in monitoring radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Regarding preoperative staging of primary colorectal cancer the literature is very limited. (author)

  3. Regional glucose utilization and blood flow in experimental brain tumors studied by double tracer autoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, A.; Sako, K.; Diksic, M.; Yamamoto, Y.L.; Feindel, W.

    1985-01-01

    Coupling of regional glucose utilization (GLU) and blood flow (CBF) was examined in rats with implanted brain tumors (AA ascites tumor) by quantitative double tracer autoradiography using YF-2-fluorodeoxyglucose and 14C-iodoantipyrine. Four to 13 days after implantation, the animals were injected with the two tracers to obtain autoradiograms from the same brain section before and after the decay of YF. The autoradiograms were then analyzed by an image processor to obtain a metabolic coupling index (MCI = GLU/CBF). In the tumor, high GLU and low CBF were uncoupled to give a high MCI which implied anerobic glycolysis. In large tumors, the CBF was even lower. In the peri-tumoral region, GLU was reduced and reduction was lowest around the larger tumors. CBF in the peri-tumoral region was also reduced, but this reduction became less as the distance from the tumor margin increased. The GLU and CBF of white matter was little influenced by the presence of tumors except for some reduction in these values in relation to the larger tumors. The MCI in the tumor was higher than in the cortex of the same as well as the opposite hemisphere. These findings indicate that the metabolism and blood flow of the tumor and surrounding brain are variable and directly related to tumor size.

  4. Comparison of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile scintimammography in the detection of breast tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmedo, H.; Bender, H.; Gruenwald, F.; Zamora, P.; Biersack, H.J. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Bonn (Germany); Mallmann, P.; Krebs, D. [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University of Bonn (Germany)

    1997-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare, in breast cancer patients, the diagnostic accuracy of positron emission tomography (PET) using fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and scintimammography (SMM) using technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI). A total of 20 patients (40 breasts with 22 lesions) were evaluated serially with MIBI and, on the following day, with FDG. For SMM, planar and single-photon emission tomography imaging in the prone position was performed starting at 10 min following the injection of MIBI (740 MBq). For PET, scans were acquired 45-60 min after the injection of FDG (370 MBq) and attentuation correction was performed following transmission scans. Results from SMM and PET were subsequently compared with the histopathology results. True-positive results were obtained in 12/13 primary breast cancers (mean diameter=29 mm, range 8-53 mm) with both FDG and MIBI. False-negative results were obtained in two local recurrences (diameter <9 mm) with both FDG and MIBI. In benign disease, FDG and MIBI did not localize three fibrocystic lesions, two fibroadenomas and one inflammatory lesion (true-negative), but both localized one fibroadenoma (false-positive). Collectively, the results demonstrate a sensitivity of 92%, and a specificity of 86%, for primary breast cancer regardless of whether FDG or MIBI was used. In contrast to MIBI scintigraphy, FDG PET scored the axillae correctly as either positive (metastatic disease) or negative (no axillary disease) in all 12 patients. The tumour/non-tumour ratio for MIBI was 1.97 (range 1.43-3.1). The mean standard uptake value (SUV) for FDG uptake was 2.57 (range 0.3-6.2). The diagnostic accuracy of SMM was equivalent to that of FDG PET for the detection of primary breast cancer. For the detection of in situ lymph node metastases of the axilla, FDG seems to be more sensitive than {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI. (orig.). With 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in pancreatic cancer: an unsolved problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Takashi; Fukatsu, Hiroshi; Ito, Kengo; Tadokoro, Masanori; Ota, Toyohiro; Ikeda, Mitsuru; Isomura, Takayuki; Ito, Shigeki; Nishino, Masanari; Ishigaki, Takeo

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the significance and problems of 2-[fluorine-18]-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in diagnosing pancreatic cancer and mass-forming pancreatitis (MFP). PET, X-ray computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging were performed in 15 patients with pancreatic cancer and nine patients with MFP. The areas of the PET scan were determined according to the markers drawn on the patients at CT or MR imaging. Regions of interests (ROIs) were placed by reference to the CT or MR images corresponding to the PET images. Tissue metabolism was evaluated by the differential absorption ratio (DAR) at 50 min after intravenous injection of FDG [DAR = tissue tracer concentration/(injected dose/body weight). The DAR value differed significantly in pancreatic cancer (mean±SD, 4.64±1.94) and MFP (mean±SD, 2.84±2.22) (P<0.05). In one false-negative case (mucinous adenocarcinoma), the tumour contained a small number of malignant cells. In one false-positive case, lymphocytes accumulated densely in the mass in the pancreatic head. Further studies are necessary to investigate the histopathological characteristics (especially the cellularity) and other factors affecting the FDG DAR on PET images. (orig.)

  6. Subcutaneous Injections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Maria

    This thesis is about visualization and characterization of the tissue-device interaction during subcutaneous injection. The tissue pressure build-up during subcutaneous injections was measured in humans. The insulin pen FlexTouchr (Novo Nordisk A/S) was used for the measurements and the pressure ...

  7. Hydromorphone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... anyone else to use your medication. Store hydromorphone injection in a safe place so that no one else can use it accidentally or on purpose. Keep track of how much medication is left so ... with hydromorphone injection may increase the risk that you will develop ...

  8. Ketorolac Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an older adult, you should know that ketorolac injection is not as safe as other medications that can be used to treat your condition. Your doctor may choose to prescribe a different medication ... to ketorolac injection.Your doctor or pharmacist will give you the ...

  9. Paclitaxel Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    (pak'' li tax' el)Paclitaxel injection must be given in a hospital or medical facility under the supervision of a doctor who is experienced in giving chemotherapy medications for cancer.Paclitaxel injection may cause a large decrease in the number of white blood cells (a type of blood cell ...

  10. Safety and efficacy of intra-articular injections of a combination of hyaluronic acid and mannitol (HAnOX-M) in patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis: Results of a double-blind, controlled, multicenter, randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrozier, Thierry; Eymard, Florent; Afif, Naji; Balblanc, Jean-Charles; Legré-Boyer, Virginie; Chevalier, Xavier

    2016-10-01

    To compare both safety and efficacy of a novel intra-articular viscosupplement made of intermediate molecular weight (MW) hyaluronic acid (HA) mixed with high concentration of mannitol with a marketed high MW HA, in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Patients with symptomatic knee OA, with radiological OARSI grades 1 to 3, were enrolled in a controlled, double-blind, parallel-group, non-inferiority trial. They were randomized to receive three intra-articular injections, at weekly intervals, of either HAnOX-M made of a combination of HA (MW one to 1.5MDa, 31mg/2ml) and mannitol (70mg/2ml) or Bio-HA (MW 2.3 to 3.6MDa, 20mg/2ml). The primary outcome was six-month change in the WOMAC pain subscale (0 to 20). Sample size was calculated according to a non-inferiority margin of 1.35. Secondary endpoints included six-month change in function and walking pain, analgesic consumption and safety. The intention-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol (PP) populations consisted of 205 and 171 patients. HAnOX-M and Bio-Ha groups did not differ statistically at baseline. The primary analysis was conducted in the PP population, then in the ITT population. The average WOMAC pain score at baseline was 9.5 in both groups. Mean (SD) variations in WOMAC pain score were -4.4 (3.8) and -4.5 (4.3) mm, for HAnOX and Bio-HA respectively, satisfying the claim for non-inferiority. Similar results were obtained for all other secondary endpoints. Treatment with of HAnOX-M is effective to alleviate knee OA symptoms and to improve joint function over six months, with similar safety than conventional HA viscosupplement. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography in Tuberculosis: Spectrum of Manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Krishan Kant; Behera, Abhishek; Kumar, Rakesh; Bal, Chandrasekhar

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this article is to provide an illustrative tutorial highlighting the utility of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography ( 18 F-FDG-PET/CT) imaging to detect spectrum of manifestations in patients with tuberculosis (TB). FDG-PET/CT is a powerful tool for early diagnosis, measuring the extent of disease (staging), and consequently for evaluation of response to therapy in patients with TB.

  12. Molecular pathology in vulnerable carotid plaques: correlation with [18]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graebe, M; Pedersen, Sune Folke; Borgwardt, L

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Atherosclerosis is recognised as an inflammatory disease, and new diagnostic tools are warranted to evaluate plaque inflammatory activity and risk of cardiovascular events. We investigated [18]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in vulnerable carotid plaques visualised by positron emission...... tomography (PET). Uptake was correlated to quantitative gene expression of known markers of inflammation and plaque vulnerability. METHODS: Ten patients with recent transient ischaemic attack and carotid artery stenosis (>50%) underwent combined FDG-PET and computed tomography angiography (CTA) the day...

  13. [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose PET/computed tomography in breast cancer and gynecologic cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, Malene Grubbe; Kodahl, Annette Raskov; Teilmann-Jørgensen, Dorte

    2015-01-01

    In this literature review, an update is provided on the role of [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose PET/computed tomography in different clinical settings of the 4 most frequent female-specific cancer types: breast, endometrial, ovarian, and cervical cancer. The most recent knowledge regarding primary...... diagnosis, staging, response evaluation, prognostic and predictive values, recurrence detection, and radiotherapy planning is evaluated, including, when clinically relevant, considerations with respect to the epidemiology, treatment, and course of the diseases....

  14. Temozolomide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... balance or coordination fainting dizziness hair loss insomnia memory problems pain, itching, swelling, or redness in the place where the medication was injected changes in vision Some side effects can be serious. If you ...

  15. Buprenorphine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called opiate partial agonists. It works to prevent withdrawal symptoms ... help. If the victim has collapsed, had a seizure, has trouble breathing, or can't be awakened, ...

  16. Risperidone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... release (long-acting) injection is used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual ... may help control your symptoms but will not cure your condition. Continue to keep appointments to receive ...

  17. Haloperidol Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... haloperidol extended-release injection are used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual ... may help control your symptoms but will not cure your condition. Continue to keep appointments to receive ...

  18. Omalizumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is used to decrease the number of asthma attacks (sudden episodes of wheezing, shortness of breath, and ... about how to treat symptoms of a sudden asthma attack. If your asthma symptoms get worse or if ...

  19. Injection Tests

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, V

    2009-01-01

    The success of the start-up of the LHC on 10th of September was in part due to the preparation without beam and injection tests in 2008. The injection tests allowed debugging and improvement in appropriate portions to allow safe, efficient and state-of-the-art commissioning later on. The usefulness of such an approach for a successful start-up becomes obvious when looking at the problems we encountered before and during the injection tests and could solve during this period. The outline of the preparation and highlights of the different injection tests will be presented and the excellent performance of many tools discussed. A list of shortcomings will follow, leading to some planning for the preparation of the run in 2009.

  20. Cefotaxime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefotaxime injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  1. Cefuroxime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefuroxime injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  2. Doripenem Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as doripenem injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  3. Daptomycin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in a class of medications called cyclic lipopeptide antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as daptomycin injection will not work for treating colds, flu, or other viral infections. ...

  4. Ceftaroline Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftaroline injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  5. Aztreonam Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as aztreonam injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  6. Cefazolin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefazolin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  7. Ceftazidime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftazidime injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  8. Cefotetan Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefotetan injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  9. Cefoxitin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephamycin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefoxitin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  10. Tigecycline Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called tetracycline antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infection.Antibiotics such as tigecycline injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  11. Ertapenem Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ertapenem injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  12. Ceftriaxone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftriaxone injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections.Using ...

  13. Cefepime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefepime injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  14. Telavancin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called lipoglycopeptide antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infection.Antibiotics such as telavancin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  15. Doxycycline Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called tetracycline antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as doxycycline injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  16. Vancomycin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called glycopeptide antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as vancomycin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  17. Octreotide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... carton and protect it from light. Dispose of multi-dose vials of the immediate-release injection 14 ... and immediately place the medication in a safe location – one that is up and away and out ...

  18. Moxifloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tendon area, or inability to move or to bear weight on an affected area.Using moxifloxacin injection ... muscle weakness) and cause severe difficulty breathing or death. Tell your doctor if you have myasthenia gravis. ...

  19. Delafloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a tendon area, or inability to move or bear weight on an affected area.Using delafloxacin injection ... muscle weakness) and cause severe difficulty breathing or death. Tell your doctor if you have myasthenia gravis. ...

  20. Levofloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tendon area, or inability to move or to bear weight on an affected area.Using levofloxacin injection ... muscle weakness) and cause severe difficulty breathing or death. Tell your doctor if you have myasthenia gravis. ...

  1. Ciprofloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a tendon area, or inability to move or bear weight on an affected area.Using ciprofloxacin injection ... muscle weakness) and cause severe difficulty breathing or death. Tell your doctor if you have myasthenia gravis. ...

  2. Alirocumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 9 (PCSK9) inhibitor monoclonal antibodies. It works by blocking the production of LDL cholesterol in the body ... hives difficulty breathing or swallowing swelling of the face, throat, tongue, lips, and eyes Alirocumab injection may ...

  3. Evolocumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 9 (PCSK9) inhibitor monoclonal antibody. It works by blocking the production of LDL cholesterol in the body ... hives difficulty breathing or swallowing swelling of the face, throat, tongue, lips, and eyes Evolocumab injection may ...

  4. Acyclovir Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It is also used to treat first-time genital herpes outbreaks (a herpes virus infection that causes sores ... in the body. Acyclovir injection will not cure genital herpes and may not stop the spread of genital ...

  5. Butorphanol Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Butorphanol is in a class of medications called opioid agonist-antagonists. It works by changing the way ... suddenly stop using butorphanol injection, you may experience withdrawal symptoms such as nervousness, agitation, shakiness, diarrhea, chills, ...

  6. HPLC/MS analysis of glucose and fluorodeoxyglucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruder, P; Macasek, F; Patakyova, A; Buriova, E [Department of Nuclear Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University, 84215 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2001-05-31

    Objective of a new method of FDG analysis development is to replace existing tests by a more complex assay. In this work, a liquid chromatography/refractive index detector/ radiometric detector/mass spectrometric detector combination (HPLC/RID/RAD/MSD) was used for development of a complex routine technique. Optimization of HPLC/MS analysis was performed investigating the MSD analytical signal as a function of various eluent composition. Solutions of glucose in methanol/water and acetonitrile/water solutions of various semi-volatile electrolytes (ammonium chloride, formic acid, ammonium formate) were analyzed on the Agilent 1100 HPLC/RID/DAD/MSD system either in the flow injection (FIA) mode of analysis, and after passing the samples through Zorbax C-18 column. The most intensive signals of the ions were obtained in the acetonitrile : 0.25% ammonium formate = 80:20 solutions. This eluent would be also used for the radioactive FDG analysis on the Asahipak NH2P columns. (authors)

  7. Rabbit hindlimb glucose uptake assessed with positron-emitting fluorodeoxyglucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mossberg, K.A.; Rowe, R.W.; Tewson, T.J.; Taegtmeyer, H.

    1989-01-01

    The feasibility of estimating skeletal muscle glucose uptake in vivo was examined by using the glucose analogue 2-[ 18 F]deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (2-[ 18 F]FDG) in the rabbit hindlimb. A pair of collimated coincidence gamma photon detectors was used to monitor the accumulation of tracer in the tissue after 2-[ 18 F]FDG injection. Time-activity curves were generated on a second-by-second basis under control conditions, during increased contractile activity, or hyperinsulinemia. The arterial input of 2-[ 18 F]FDG, plasma glucose, lactate, free fatty acids, and insulin were determined. A graphical (Patlak plot) procedure was used to determine the fractional rate of tracer phosphorylation and therefore trapping in the muscle. From the graphical analysis, the estimated rate of glucose phosphorylation (R) in the unperturbed state was calculated to be 0.037 mumol.min-1.ml-1 of tissue. During perturbation by electrical stimulation, an increase in the rate of tracer phosphorylation (K) was observed. No change in the rate of tracer phosphorylation was observed during hyperinsulinemia. The results support the use of 2-[ 18 F]FDG and the graphical procedure for the noninvasive assessment of glucose uptake by skeletal muscle in vivo. The method described is sensitive to changes in the rate of tracer uptake with respect to time and physiological interventions

  8. HPLC/MS analysis of glucose and fluorodeoxyglucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruder, P.; Macasek, F.; Patakyova, A.; Buriova, E.

    2001-01-01

    Objective of a new method of FDG analysis development is to replace existing tests by a more complex assay. In this work, a liquid chromatography/refractive index detector/ radiometric detector/mass spectrometric detector combination (HPLC/RID/RAD/MSD) was used for development of a complex routine technique. Optimization of HPLC/MS analysis was performed investigating the MSD analytical signal as a function of various eluent composition. Solutions of glucose in methanol/water and acetonitrile/water solutions of various semi-volatile electrolytes (ammonium chloride, formic acid, ammonium formate) were analyzed on the Agilent 1100 HPLC/RID/DAD/MSD system either in the flow injection (FIA) mode of analysis, and after passing the samples through Zorbax C-18 column. The most intensive signals of the ions were obtained in the acetonitrile : 0.25% ammonium formate = 80:20 solutions. This eluent would be also used for the radioactive FDG analysis on the Asahipak NH2P columns. (authors)

  9. Clinical applications of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in carcinoma of unknown primary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Man; YU Jin-ming; ZHAO Wei; ZHANG Pin-liang; JU Gui-fang; FU Zheng; ZHANG Guo-li; KONG Li; YANG Yan-qin; MA Yi-dong

    2011-01-01

    Background Carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP) encompasses a heterogeneous group of tumors with varying clinical features. The management of patients of CUP remains a clinical challenge. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical applications of integrated 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) information in patients with CUP,including detecting the occult primary tumor and effecting on disease therapy.Methods One hundred and forty-nine patients with histologically-proven metastases of CUP were included. For all patients,the conventional diagnostic work-up was unsuccessful in localizing the primary site. Whole-body PET/CT images were obtained approximately 60 minutes after intravenous injection of 350-425 MBq of 18F-FDG.Results In 24.8% of patients,FDG PET/CT detected primary tumors that were not apparent after conventional workup.In this group of patients,the overall sensitivity,specificity,and accuracy rates of FDG PET/CT in detecting unknown primary tumors were 86.0%,87.7%,and 87.2%,respectively. FDG PET/CT imaging also led to the detection of previously unrecognized metastases in 29.5% of patients. Forty-seven (31.5%,47 of 149) patients underwent a change in therapeutic management.Conclusions FDG PET/CT is a valuable tool in patients with CUP,because it assisted in detecting unknown primary tumors and previously unrecognized distant metastases,and optimized the mangement of these patients.

  10. Efficacy, tolerability, and safety of aripiprazole once-monthly versus other long-acting injectable antipsychotic therapies in the maintenance treatment of schizophrenia: a mixed treatment comparison of double-blind randomized clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majer, Istvan M; Gaughran, Fiona; Sapin, Christophe; Beillat, Maud; Treur, Maarten

    2015-01-01

    Treatment with long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotic medication is an important element of relapse prevention in schizophrenia. Recently, the intramuscular once-monthly formulation of aripiprazole received marketing approval in Europe and the United States for schizophrenia. This study aimed to compare aripiprazole once-monthly with other LAI antipsychotics in terms of efficacy, tolerability, and safety. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify relevant double-blind randomized clinical trials of LAIs conducted in the maintenance treatment of schizophrenia. MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process, Embase, the Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, conference proceedings, clinical trial registries, and the reference lists of key review articles were searched. The literature search covered studies dating from January 2002 to May 2013. Studies were required to have ≥24 weeks of follow-up. Patients had to be stable at randomization. Studies were not eligible for inclusion if efficacy of acute and maintenance phase treatment was not reported separately. Six trials were identified (0.5% of initially identified studies), allowing comparisons of aripiprazole once-monthly, risperidone LAI, paliperidone palmitate, olanzapine pamoate, haloperidol depot, and placebo. Data extracted included study details, study duration, the total number of patients in each treatment arm, efficacy, tolerability, and safety outcomes. The efficacy outcome contained the number of patients that experienced a relapse, tolerability outcomes included the number of patients that discontinued treatment due to treatment-related adverse events (AEs), and that discontinued treatment due to reasons other than AEs (e.g., loss to follow-up). Safety outcomes included the incidence of clinically relevant weight gain and extrapyramidal symptoms. Data were analyzed by applying a mixed treatment comparison competing risks model (efficacy) and using binary models (safety). There was no statistically significant

  11. Teduglutide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who need additional nutrition or fluids from intravenous (IV) therapy. Teduglutide injection is in a class of medications ... of the ingredients.tell your doctor and pharmacist what other prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking ...

  12. Dexrazoxane Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are used to treat or prevent certain side effects that may be caused by chemotherapy medications. Dexrazoxane injection (Zinecard) is used to prevent or decrease heart damage caused by doxorubicin in women who are taking the medication to treat breast cancer that has spread to other parts of the ...

  13. Triptorelin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... puberty too soon, resulting in faster than normal bone growth and development of sexual characteristics) in children 2 years and older. Triptorelin injection is in a class of medications called gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists. It works by decreasing the amount ...

  14. Variation of the refractive index for the active layer of the double heterostructure GaAlAsSb/GaInAsSb/GaAlAsSb in injected mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohou, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    This work reports on the influence of the injected current on the refractive index in the active layer of GaInAsSb/GaAlAsSb laser diodes. These diodes present at threshold a full beam width at half power θ perpendicular of about 52 deg. C. The fluctuation of the refractive index caused by the injection of free carriers was studied on the basis of the evolution of θ perpendicular as a function of the injected current. It was shown that the inversion of the population which follows the rising of the gain, causes a slight decrease of the refractive index. 12 refs, 5 figs

  15. Fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography in Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mylam, Karen Juul; Nielsen, Anne Lerberg; Pedersen, Lars Møller

    2014-01-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is an aggressive and potentially curable type of lymphoma. Fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) is part of clinical routine for DLBCL in most hospitals and also recommended for staging and end-of-therapy evaluation. FDG......-PET/computed tomography (CT) is able to identify nodal and extranodal sites with greater accuracy than CT alone. Little evidence supports the use of surveillance FDG-PET imaging in the follow-up setting because of high rates of false-positive scans and because most studies are retrospective. This article discusses FDG...

  16. Quantitative gene expression underlying 18f-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelmann, Bodil E.; Binderup, Tina; Kjær, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Background: Positron emission tomography (PET) with the glucose analogue 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is widely used in oncologic imaging. This study examines the molecular mechanism underlying the detection of colon cancer (CC) by FDG-PET. Methods: Pre-operative PET/CT scans and tissue samples....... Mean gene expression levels of GLUT1, HK2, ki67, HIF1α, VEGF and CaIX, but not HK1, were significantly higher in primary tumours than in surrounding normal colonic mucosa. Linear regressions pairing tumour SUVmax with gene expression levels showed significant correlations between SUVmax and HK2, ki67...

  17. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography findings in a case of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Prathamesh; Lele, Vikram; Shah, Hardik

    2013-01-01

    Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGNP) is an uncommon condition characterized by chronic suppurative renal inflammation that leads to progressive parenchymal destruction. This condition can clinically present as recurrent urinary tract infections, flank pain, hematuria, and occasionally sepsis, and weight loss. This condition is usually associated with obstructing renal calculus. We present 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography (18-FDG PET/CT) findings in an elderly male suffering from pyrexia and weight loss and suspected urinary tract infection. PET/CT findings in this case lead to diagnosis of XGNP. This diagnosis should be kept in mind while evaluating similar symptoms and PET/CT scan findings. PMID:24019680

  18. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET and PET-CT in early detection of cancer recurrent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Yan; Zhao Jinhua

    2007-01-01

    Early detection of recurrent can improve prognosis and survival of patients with cancer. 18 F- fluorodeoxyglucose( 18 F-FDG) PET can detect metabolic changes before structural changes. The fused imaging provided by PET-CT can precisely localize the foci and demonstrate the complementary roles of functional and anatomic assessments in the diagnosis of cancer recurrence. In addition to the accurate diagnosis and definition of the whole extent of recurrent cancer, 18 F-FDG PET and PET-CT can impact patients management. (authors)

  19. Risk of malignancy in thyroid incidentalomas detected by (18)f-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soelberg, Kerstin; Bonnema, Steen Joop; Brix, Thomas Heiberg

    2012-01-01

    Background: The expanding use of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18)F-FDG PET) has led to the identification of increasing numbers of patients with an incidentaloma in the thyroid gland. We aimed to review the proportion of incidental thyroid cancers found by (18)F-FDG PET...... uptake, 7 of whom (4.4%) had thyroid malignancy. In the eight studies reporting individual maximum standardized uptake values (SUV(max)), the mean SUV(max) was 4.8 (standard deviation [SD] 3.1) and 6.9 (SD 4.7) in benign and malignant lesions, respectively (p...

  20. Work-up of thyroid incidentalomas identified by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmar, Ali; Simonsen, Lene; Bülow, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Several reports have described dramatic increase over recent decades in the incidence of thyroid cancer, even as thyroid cancer-related mortality rates have not changed substantially. Nevertheless, in several retrospective studies the incidence of malignancy in focal18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG......) thyroid uptake discovered on whole body18F-FDG PET/CT, carried out for non-thyroid cancers, is 13-64%. Our aim was to design a practical algorithm for management of an increasing number of thyroid incidentalomas, identified by18F-FDG PET/CT....

  1. Diagnostic utility of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in pyrexia of unknown origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Nidhi; Kumar, Rakesh; Malhotra, Arun; Bhalla, Ashu Seith; Kumar, Uma; Sood, Rita

    2005-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the diagnostic utility of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG PET/CT) in patients presenting as pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO). Forty-seven patients (31 males and 16 females; mean age of 42.7 ± 19.96 years) presenting as PUO to the Department of Medicine at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi over a period of 2 years underwent F-18 FDG PET/CT. PET ⁄ CT was considered supportive when its results correlated with the final definitive diagnosis. Final diagnosis was made on the basis of combined evaluation of history, clinical findings, investigations, and response to treatment. Thirty-five PET/CT studies (74.5%) were positive. However, only 18 (38.3%) were supportive of the final diagnosis. In three patients (6.4%), PET/CT was considered diagnostic as none of the other investigations including contrast-enhanced computed tomography of chest and abdomen, and directed tissue sampling could lead to the final diagnosis. All these three patients were diagnosed as aortoarteritis. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography is an important emerging modality in the workup of PUO. It supported the final diagnosis in 38% of our patients and was diagnostic in 6.4% of patients. Thus, PET/CT should only be considered as second-line investigation for the diagnostic evaluation of PUO; especially in suspected noninfectious inflammatory disorders

  2. Double Trouble

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas; Kievit, Robert; Simons, Jan

    1994-01-01

    Double Trouble highlights the career of Dutch scriptwriter and television producer Chiem van Houweninge, well-known for his long-running TV comedy series and as author of episodes for TV detective series. Double Trouble gives Van Houweninge's own views on writing and filming in television prime

  3. NOGA-guided analysis of regional myocardial perfusion abnormalities treated with intramyocardial injections of plasmid encoding vascular endothelial growth factor A-165 in patients with chronic myocardial ischemia: subanalysis of the EUROINJECT-ONE multicenter double-blind randomized study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyongyosi, Mariann; Khorsand, Aliasghar; Zamini, Sholeh

    2005-01-01

    . The ROI was projected onto the baseline and follow-up rest and stress polar maps of the 99m-Tc-sestamibi/tetrofosmin single-photon emission computed tomography scintigraphy calculating the extent and severity (expressed as the mean normalized tracer uptake) of the ROI automatically. The extents of the ROI....... CONCLUSIONS: Projection of the NOGA-guided injection area onto the single-photon emission computed tomography polar maps permits quantitative evaluation of myocardial perfusion in regions treated with angiogenic substances. Injections of phVEGF A165 plasmid improve, but do not normalize, the stress...

  4. Report of two cases of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography appearance of hibernoma: A rare benign tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, Archi; Kembhavi, Seema; Purandare, Nilendu; Shah, Sneha; Rangarajan, Venkatesh

    2014-01-01

    False-positive findings are commonly seen in positron emission tomography computed tomography imaging. One of the most common false positive finding is uptake of fluorodeoxyglucose in brown adipose tissue. Herein, we report two cases with incidentally detected hibernomas-a brown fat containing tumor with metabolic activity

  5. Unusual sites of metastatic recurrence of osteosarcoma detected on fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabnurkar, Rasika; Agrawal, Archi; Rekhi, Bharat; Purandare, Nilendu; Shah, Sneha; Rangarajan, Venkatesh

    2015-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common nonhematolymphoid primary bone malignancy characterized by osteoid or new bone formation. Lungs and bones are the most common sites of metastases. We report a case where unusual sites of the soft tissue recurrence from OS were detected on restaging fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan done post 6 years of disease free interval

  6. Dual-time-point Imaging and Delayed-time-point Fluorodeoxyglucose-PET/Computed Tomography Imaging in Various Clinical Settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houshmand, Sina; Salavati, Ali; Antonsen Segtnan, Eivind

    2016-01-01

    The techniques of dual-time-point imaging (DTPI) and delayed-time-point imaging, which are mostly being used for distinction between inflammatory and malignant diseases, has increased the specificity of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET for diagnosis and prognosis of certain diseases. A gradually incr...

  7. Fluorodeoxyglucose--positive internal mammary lymph node in breast cancer patients with silicone implants: is it always metastatic cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soudack, Michalle; Yelin, Alon; Simansky, David; Ben-Nun, Alon

    2013-07-01

    Patients with breast cancer following mastectomy and silicone implant reconstruction may have enlarged internal mammary lymph nodes with pathological uptake on positron emission tomography with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose. This lymphadenopathy is usually considered as metastatic in nature, but has also been reported to be related to other conditions, including silicon migration. The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of metastatic disease in this unique group of patients. A retrospective comparative study of 12 female patients with breast cancer with silicone implants referred for biopsy due to isolated internal mammary lymph node fluorodeoxyglucose uptake on positron emission tomography. Five patients (41.6%) had histological findings related to silicone (n = 4) or non-specific inflammation (n = 1). The remaining 7 (58.3%) had histological evidence of cancer recurrence. There was no significant difference in the fluorodeoxyglucose-standardized uptake value between the two groups. Fluorodeoxyglucose-positive mammary lymph nodes in patients with breast cancer following silicone implant reconstruction may be due to metastatic deposits, non-specific inflammation or silicone migration. Clinical and imaging characteristics are insufficient in differentiating between these conditions. Biopsy is recommended prior to initiation of further treatment.

  8. Symmetric increased skeletal muscular uptake of 18F fluoro-deoxyglucose: a clue for the diagnosis of Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santhosh, Sampath; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai; Kashyap, Raghava; Bhattacharya, Anish; Singh, Baljinder

    2011-01-01

    18 F fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in the thyroid and thymus is well reported in patients with Grave's disease. Incidental skeletal muscle uptake has also been reported in other non-musculoskeletal (benign and malignant) pathologies. We report a patient of Grave's disease showing symmetrical skeletal muscle uptake but no thyroidal or thymus uptake of FDG. (author)

  9. Positron emission tomography and fluorodeoxyglucose studies of metabolic hyperfrontality and psychopathology in the psilocybin model of psychosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollenweider, FX; Leenders, KL; Scharfetter, C; Maguire, P; Stadelmann, O; Angst, J

    The effects of the indolehallucinogen psilocybin, a mixed 5-HT2 and 5-HT1 agonist, on regional cerebral glucose metabolism were investigated in 10 healthy volunteers with PET and [F-18]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) prior to and following a 15- or 20-mg dose of psilocybin. Psychotomimetic doses of

  10. Clinical role of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET-CT in the management of head and neck cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yu'na; Zhao Jinhua

    2007-01-01

    The combined PET and CT scan provides more accurate detection of tumors by providing the functional and anatomic information simultaneously, 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET-CT has clinical value in localizing primary tumor, staging before treatment, monitoring the residual and recurrent diseases after radiotherapy and providing biological target volume to radiation treatment planning. (authors)

  11. Use of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in the detection of silent metastases from malignant melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eigtved, A; Andersson, A P; Dahlstrøm, K

    2000-01-01

    Correct staging is crucial for the management and prognosis of patients with malignant melanoma. The aim of this prospective study was to compare staging by whole-body positron emission tomography using fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) with staging by conventional methods. Thirty...

  12. Extensive tumor thrombus of hepatocellular carcinoma in the entire portal venous system detected on fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, Archi; Purandare, Nilendu; Shah, Sneha; Puranik, Ameya; Rangarajan, Venkatesh

    2013-01-01

    Detection of thrombus is usually an incidental finding on fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography studies. Nevertheless this is an important finding in terms of disease prognostication and in planning the treatment strategy. We herein report a case of a 50-years-old male, a diagnosed case of hepatocellular carcinoma with extensive hypermetabolic thrombus involving the entire portal venous system. (author)

  13. Textural features of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scanning in diagnosing aortic prosthetic graft infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saleem, Ben R.; Beukinga, Roelof J.; Boellaard, Ronald; Glaudemans, Andor W.J.M.; Reijnen, Michel M.P.J.; Zeebregts, Clark J.; Slart, Riemer H.J.A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The clinical problem in suspected aortoiliac graft infection (AGI) is to obtain proof of infection. Although 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography scanning (PET) has been suggested to play a pivotal role, an evidence-based interpretation is lacking. The objective

  14. Textural features of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scanning in diagnosing aortic prosthetic graft infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saleem, Ben R; Beukinga, Roelof J.; Boellaard, Ronald; Glaudemans, Andor W J M; Reijnen, Michel M P J; Zeebregts, Clark J; Slart, Riemer H J A

    BACKGROUND: The clinical problem in suspected aortoiliac graft infection (AGI) is to obtain proof of infection. Although (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography scanning (PET) has been suggested to play a pivotal role, an evidence-based interpretation is lacking. The

  15. Double cortex’ sign on FDG-PET/CT in diffuse band heterotopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, Madhavi; Tripathi, Manjari; Kumar, Ganesh; Malhotra, Arun; Bal, Chandra Sekhar

    2013-01-01

    F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) Positron emission tomography/Computed Tomography (PET/CT) has come to play an increasingly important role for the pre-surgical evaluation of drug resistant epilepsy and complements Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in the evaluation of grey matter heterotopias. This case illustrates the characteristic pattern of metabolic abnormality in diffuse band heterotopia (DBH) which is otherwise called double cortex syndrome. The presence of metabolic activity in the heterotopic inner cortical band and in the overlying true cortex gives rise to the ‘double cortex’ sign on FDG-PET, concurrent CT provides a good anato-metabolic coregistration

  16. Double cortex’ sign on FDG-PET/CT in diffuse band heterotopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Madhavi; Tripathi, Manjari; Kumar, Ganesh; Malhotra, Arun; Bal, Chandra Sekhar

    2013-01-01

    F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) Positron emission tomography/Computed Tomography (PET/CT) has come to play an increasingly important role for the pre-surgical evaluation of drug resistant epilepsy and complements Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in the evaluation of grey matter heterotopias. This case illustrates the characteristic pattern of metabolic abnormality in diffuse band heterotopia (DBH) which is otherwise called double cortex syndrome. The presence of metabolic activity in the heterotopic inner cortical band and in the overlying true cortex gives rise to the ‘double cortex’ sign on FDG-PET, concurrent CT provides a good anato-metabolic coregistration. PMID:24379541

  17. The effect of intra-articular injection of ultracain in the temporomandibular joint in patients with preauricular pain - A randomized prospective double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjakkes, Geerten-Has E.; TenVergert, Elisabeth M.; de Bont, Lambert G. M.; Stegenga, Boudewijn

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the distinguishing ability of intraarticular anesthesia from placebo in orofacial pain patients with pain located in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) region, aiming at a validation of intra-articular anesthesia injection as a diagnostic test of pain in the TMJ region.

  18. Effect of furosemide administration before F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography on urine radioactivity and detection of uterine cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Amico, Andrea; Gorczewska, Izabela; Gorczewski, Kamil; Turska-d'Amico, Maria; Di Pietro, Marco

    2014-01-01

    In evaluating uterine cervical cancer with ¹⁸F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT), there may be overlap between the FDG activity at tumor sites and nonspecific radioactivity in the urine. We evaluated the efficacy of furosemide premedication with routine hydration to obtain better contrast and less overlap between cervical cancer and the urinary bladder. We retrospectively evaluated 166 patients who had primary or relapsed cervical cancer and underwent FDG PET/CT scanning with (133 patients) or without (33 patients) furosemide premedication (10 mg intravenous, slowly injected 30 min before the scan). We calculated bladder and tumor maximum and median standardized uptake value (SUVmax and SUVmed), and overlap between tumor and urinary activity was detected visually. Overlap between urinary and tumor radioactivity was observed in 8 of 133 scans (6%) in patients who receive furosemide and in 3 of 33 scans (9%) in patients who did not receive furosemide. The SUVmax and SUVmed for the bladder were significantly lower in patients who were pretreated with furosemide (SUVmax, 6.3; SUVmed, 4.6) than patients who were not pretreated with furosemide (SUVmax, 8.8 [P ≤ 0.008]; SUVmed, 6.5 [P ≤ 0.002]). The tumor SUVmax and SUVmed were similar between the patient groups. Furosemide premedication before FDG PET/CT scanning may enable improved evaluation of activity and extension of cervical cancer.

  19. Effects of hypertonic dextrose injections in the rabbit carpal tunnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshii, Yuichi; Zhao, Chunfeng; Schmelzer, James D; Low, Phillip A; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C

    2011-07-01

    This study investigated the effects of different doses of hypertonic dextrose injection on the carpal tunnel subsynovial connective tissue (SSCT) and median nerve in a rabbit model. Thirty-eight New Zealand white rabbits weighing 4.0-4.5 kg were used. One forepaw carpal tunnel was randomly injected with one of five different treatments: saline-single injection; saline-two injections 1 week apart; 10% dextrose-single injection; 20% dextrose-single injection; or 10% dextrose-two injections 1 week apart. Animals were sacrificed at 12 weeks after the initial injection and were evaluated by electrophysiology (EP), SSCT mechanical testing and histology. There were significant increases in the energy absorption of the SSCT in the 10% dextrose-double injection group compared to the saline injection groups. SSCT stiffness was also significantly increased in the 10% dextrose-double injection group compared to the other groups. There was a significant increase in the thickness of the SSCT in the 10% dextrose-double injection group compared to the saline-single injection group and a significant decrease in the nerve short-long diameter ratio in the 10% dextrose-double injection group compared to the saline-single injection group. There were no changes in EP among the groups. SSCT fibrosis is present for up to 12 weeks after dextrose injection; multiple injections have bigger effects, including what appears to be a secondary change in nerve flattening. This model may be useful to study the effects of external fibrosis on nerve morphology and physiology, such as occurs clinically in carpal tunnel syndrome. Copyright © 2011 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  20. Injection and extraction for cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkinen, P.

    1994-01-01

    External ion sources for cyclotrons are needed for polarised and heavy ions. This calls for injection systems, either radial or axial. Radial injection is also needed when a cyclotron works as a booster after another cyclotron or a linear accelerator (usually tandem). Requirements for injection differ from separated sector cyclotrons where there is plenty of room to house inflectors and/or strippers, to superconducting cyclotrons where the space is limited by a small magnet gap, and high magnetic field puts other limitations to the inflectors. Several extraction schemes are used in cyclotrons. Stripping injection is used for H - and also for heavy ions where the q/m ratio is usually doubled. For other cases, electric and magnetic deflection has to be used. To increase the turn separation before the first deflector, both resonant and non-resonant schemes are used. In this lecture, external injection systems are surveyed and some rules to thumb for injection parameters are given. Extraction schemes are also reviewed. (orig.)

  1. Double-compartment wrist arthrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, S.F.; Pittman, C.; Belsole, R.; Greene, T.L.; Rayhack, J.; Clark, R.A.; King, P.S.

    1987-01-01

    Seventy patients with clinical wrist problems were studied with double-compartment wrist arthrography. Midcarpal and radiocarpal compartment arthrograms were obtained in all patients. Digital subtraction technique was used to subtract out contrast from the first compartmental injection. Digital technique also allowed a dynamic record of each injection, which helped determine sites of intercompartmental communication. Postarthrography exercises recorded on videotape were performed after each injection. There were 34 normal studies. Abnormalities in the other 36 patients included: scapholunate communication (n = 9), lunatotriquetral communication (n = 6), communication with tendon sheaths (n = 4), communication with distal radioulnar compartment (n = 14), abnormal synovium process (n = 9), and communication through the radial or ulnar collateral ligament (n = 3). Double-compartment wrist arthrography may provide additional information for complex problems of the wrist

  2. Estimation of kidneys and urinary bladder doses based on the region of interest in 18fluorine-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography examination: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Farida Aimi; Bashah, Farahnaz Ahmad Anwar; Yassin, Ihsan M; Fathinul Fikri, Ahmad Saad; Nordin, Abdul Jalil; Abdul Razak, Hairil Rashmizal

    2017-06-01

    Kidneys and urinary bladder are common physiologic uptake sites of 18fluorine-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) causing increased exposure of low energy ionizing radiation to these organs. Accurate measurement of organ dose is vital as 18 F-FDG is directly exposed to the organs. Organ dose from 18 F-FDG PET is calculated according to the injected 18 F-FDG activity with the application of dose coefficients established by International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). But this dose calculation technique is not directly measured from these organs; rather it is calculated based on total injected activity of radiotracer prior to scanning. This study estimated the 18 F-FDG dose to the kidneys and urinary bladder in whole body positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) examination by comparing dose from total injected activity of 18 F-FDG (calculated dose) and dose from organs activity based on the region of interest (ROI) (measured dose). Nine subjects were injected intravenously with the mean 18 F-FDG dose of 292.42 MBq prior to whole body PET/CT scanning. Kidneys and urinary bladder doses were estimated by using two approaches which are the total injected activity of 18 F-FDG and organs activity concentration of 18 F-FDG based on drawn ROI with the application of recommended dose coefficients for 18 F-FDG described in the ICRP 80 and ICRP 106. The mean percentage difference between calculated dose and measured dose ranged from 98.95% to 99.29% for the kidneys based on ICRP 80 and 98.96% to 99.32% based on ICRP 106. Whilst, the mean percentage difference between calculated dose and measured dose was 97.08% and 97.27% for urinary bladder based on ICRP 80 while 96.99% and 97.28% based on ICRP 106. Whereas, the range of mean percentage difference between calculated and measured organ doses derived from ICRP 106 and ICRP 80 for kidney doses were from 17.00% to 40.00% and for urinary bladder dose was 18.46% to 18.75%. There is a significant

  3. Safe injection procedures, injection practices, and needlestick ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Safe injection procedures regarding final waste disposal were sufficiently adopted, while measures regarding disposable injection equipment, waste containers, hand hygiene, as well as injection practices were inadequately carried out. Lack of job aid posters that promote safe injection and safe disposal of ...

  4. Disease progression in AIDS on PET fluorodeoxyglucose, CT and MR brain images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, R.C.; Bennett, L.; Gan, M.; Kloumehr, F.; Mathisen, G.; Jones, F.D.; Wasterlain, C.; Mandelkern, M.; Ropchan, J.; Blahd, W.; Yaghmal, I.

    1990-01-01

    This paper correlates changes in the brain demonstrated on F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomographic (PET) scans and CT or MR images with disease severity in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Data from 30 patients who tested positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who were at various stages of AIDS, and who had undergone FDG PET, CT, and/or MR imaging were reviewed retrospectively. The average CD4 lymphocyte counts, an indicator of disease severity in AIDS, in 25 symptomatic (group I) and five healthy seropositive (group II) subjects were 300 and 694 cells/mm 3 , respectively. Cortical atrophy was present on CT and/or MR imaging in 92% in group I and only 20% in group II. Of the 17 patients in group I who underwent PET scans 11 demonstrated an elevated basal ganglia to frontal cortex (BG/FC) ratio of FDG uptake; only one of the four in group II had this finding

  5. Fasciola Hepatica Mimicking Malignancy on 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sürücü, Erdem; Demir, Yusuf; Dülger, Ahmet C.; Batur, Abdüssamed; Ölmez, Şehmus; Kitapçı, Mehmet T.

    2016-01-01

    A 48-year-old female with complaints of gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain, fatigue, vomiting, nausea, and weight loss was diagnosed with neuroendocrine tumor after removal of a 2 mm lesion from the stomach with endoscopic biopsy. Her magnetic resonance imaging that was performed due to on-going symptoms showed multiple linear hypointense lesions in the liver. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scan was performed for differential diagnosis, which showed high fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in these lesions. Clinical and laboratory findings revealed the final diagnosis as Fasciola hepatica. The imaging features of this case is presented to aid in differentiating this infectious disease from malignancy and avoid misdiagnosis on FDG-PET/CT. PMID:27751978

  6. Detection of occult bone metastases of lung cancer with Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foo, S.S.; Ramdave, S.; Berlangieri, S.U.; Scott, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Accurate staging of cancer has a critical role in optimal patient management. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) is superior to CT in the detection of local and distant metastasesin patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Although Tc-99 m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) bone scanning is well established in the evaluation of bone metastases, there are conflicting reports on the use of FDG PET in the evaluation of skeletal metastases. We report on a patient with locally advanced lung carcinoma in whom FDG PET accurately identified previously unsuspected widespread asymptomatic bone metastases (bone scan and X-rays negative, confirmed on MRI). Assessment of glucose metabolism with FDG PET might represent a more powerful tool to detect bone metastases in lung cancer compared with conventional bone scans. Copyright (2004) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  7. Detection of occult bone metastases of lung cancer with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramdave, Shankar; Berlangieri, Salvatore U.

    2004-01-01

    Accurate staging of cancer has a critical role in optimal patient management. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) is superior to CT in the detection of local and distant metastases in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Although Tc-99 m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) bone scanning is well established in the evaluation of bone metastases, there are conflicting reports on the use of FDG PET in the evaluation of skeletal metastases. We report on a patient with locally advanced lung carcinoma in whom FDG PET accurately identified previously unsuspected widespread asymptomatic bone metastases (bone scan and X-rays negative, confirmed on MRI). Assessment of glucose metabolism with FDG PET might represent a more powerful tool to detect bone metastases in lung cancer compared with conventional bone scans Copyright (2004) Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

  8. Prognostic Evaluation of 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography in Endometrial Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilstrup, Mie Holm; Jochumsen, Kirsten M; Hess, Søren

    2017-01-01

    .19-8.49) and 1.93 (0.80-4.68), respectively. Whole-body cTLG of greater than or equal to 176.1 g yielded a hazard ratio of 5.70 (1.94-16.78) for OS in a multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative SUVmax and cTLG showed potential as independent prognostic markers of OS in patients with primarily high...... and a preoperative F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography before curatively intended treatment were included. The scans were evaluated using standard uptake values [maximum standard uptake value (SUVmax) and partial volume corrected (c) mean standardized uptake value (SUVmean...... proportional regression models were used for prognostic evaluation. RESULTS: Eighty-three patients (median age, 69.9 y; range, 26.8-91.1) with primarily high-risk endometrial cancer or suspected high The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage were included. Mean follow-up time was 3...

  9. Fasciola Hepatica Mimicking Malignancy on 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem Sürücü

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A 48-year-old female with complaints of gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain, fatigue, vomiting, nausea, and weight loss was diagnosed with neuroendocrine tumor after removal of a 2 mm lesion from the stomach with endoscopic biopsy. Her magnetic resonance imaging that was performed due to on-going symptoms showed multiple linear hypointense lesions in the liver. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT scan was performed for differential diagnosis, which showed high fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG uptake in these lesions. Clinical and laboratory findings revealed the final diagnosis as Fasciola hepatica. The imaging features of this case is presented to aid in differentiating this infectious disease from malignancy and avoid misdiagnosis on FDG-PET/CT.

  10. Clinical impact of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in the diagnosis of neurological diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, A.; Kamel, E.

    2002-01-01

    In this review it will be discussed in which neurological disorders positron emission tomography can yield important diagnostic information. Because positron emission tomography is an expensive method indications have to be cleary defined. One important question concerns the differentiation of tumor recurrence and scar due to radiation therapy or an operation. The grading of brain tumors is another application. In HIV patients fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography can separate lymphoma and toxoplasmosis. In the evaluation of dementia positron emission tomography can help to clarify the differential diagnosis. Another important area is the presurgical evaluation of epilepsy patients and patients with cerebrovascular disease in whom a surgical revascularization procedure is planned. In extrapyramidal disorders, positron emission tomography can often help to establish the final diagnosis. (author)

  11. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in the detection of primary pulmonary angiosarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamurthy, Arvind; Nayak, Deepika; Ramshankar, Vijayalakshmi; Majhi, Urmila

    2015-01-01

    Angiosarcoma is a malignant vascular tumor that originates from the mesenchymal cells which have undergone angioblastic differentiation. Pulmonary angiosarcomas are invariably (>90%) metastatic tumors form primaries of the skin, bone, liver, breast, or heart. Primary pulmonary angiosarcomas are exceedingly rare, with just about 20 cases being reported in the literature. We report an additional case with a brief review of the literature of a primary pulmonary angiosarcoma in a 26-year-old lady who presented with intractable hemoptysis. In addition, we highlight the potential of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography as an important diagnostic tool in the evaluation of this tumor and thus contribute to the existing sparse literature on this fascinating yet devastating disease

  12. HIV infection and arterial inflammation assessed by (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Andreas; Hag, Anne Mette Fisker; Loft, Annika

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: HIV-infected patients are at increased risk of myocardial infarction and arterial inflammation has been suggested as a pathophysiological explanation. We compared the uptake of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) by PET in four arterial regions, and factors associated with FDG uptake in well......-treated HIV-infected patients without cardiovascular disease (CVD) and healthy controls. METHODS AND RESULTS: We prospectively scanned 26 HIV-infected patients on stable antiretroviral therapy and 25 healthy volunteers with FDG PET/CT, measuring standardized uptake values (SUV) in the carotid arteries......, the ascending, descending, and abdominal aorta. We performed correlation analyses between FDG uptake and intima-media thickness (IMT), and soluble biomarkers of inflammation. We found no difference in arterial FDG uptake between the HIV-infected patients and healthy controls quantified either as mean SUVmax...

  13. Central Pontine Myelinolysis and Localized Fluorodeoxyglucose Uptake Seen on 18F-FDG PET/CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønne, Frederik; Tfelt-Hansen, Peer Carsten; Rørdam, Lene

    2017-01-01

    Case report describing the finding of central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) using combined fluorine-18 ( 18F)-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). The patient was a known alcoholic who, during admission was under treatment for hyponatremia, showed...... a significant decline in both motor and cognitive function. Combined 18F-FDG PET/CT showed localized FDG uptake in the pons, consistent with the finding of CPM observed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). CPM is a demyelinating lesion of the pons, resulting in several neurological symptoms. The exact cause...... of CPM is not clear, but a strong relations between loss of myelin and osmotic stress exists, especially during rapid correction of hyponatremia. The osmotic stress is thought to induce disruption of the blood-brain barrier, allowing access for inflammatory mediators in extravascular brain tissue, which...

  14. Predicting Outcome in Patients with Rhabdomyosarcoma: Role of [18F]Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, Dana L.; Wexler, Leonard H.; Fox, Josef J.; Dharmarajan, Kavita V.; Schoder, Heiko; Price, Alison N.; Wolden, Suzanne L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) response of the primary tumor after induction chemotherapy predicts outcomes in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS). Methods and Materials: After excluding those with initial tumor resection, 107 patients who underwent FDG-PET after induction chemotherapy at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center from 2002 to 2013 were reviewed. Local control (LC), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) were calculated according to FDG-PET response and maximum standardized uptake value (SUV) at baseline (PET1/SUV1), after induction chemotherapy (PET2/SUV2), and after local therapy (PET3/SUV3). Receiver operator characteristic curves were used to determine the optimal cutoff for dichotomization of SUV1 and SUV2 values. Results: The SUV1 (<9.5 vs ≥9.5) was predictive of PFS (P=.02) and OS (P=.02), but not LC. After 12 weeks (median) of induction chemotherapy, 45 patients had negative PET2 scans and 62 had positive scans: 3-year PFS was 72% versus 44%, respectively (P=.01). The SUV2 (<1.5 vs ≥1.5) was similarly predictive of PFS (P=.005) and was associated with LC (P=.02) and OS (P=.03). A positive PET3 scan was predictive of worse PFS (P=.0009), LC (P=.05), and OS (P=.03). Conclusions: [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography is an early indicator of outcomes in patients with RMS. Future prospective trials may incorporate FDG-PET response data for risk-adapted therapy and early assessment of new treatment regimens

  15. Safe injection procedures, injection practices, and needlestick ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nermine Mohamed Tawfik Foda

    2017-01-10

    Jan 10, 2017 ... sures regarding disposable injection equipment, waste containers, hand hygiene ... injection practices lead to high prevalence of NSSIs in operating rooms. .... guidelines, the availability of training courses to HCWs, and provi-.

  16. A randomised, double-masked phase III/IV study of the efficacy and safety of Avastin® (Bevacizumab intravitreal injections compared to standard therapy in subjects with choroidal neovascularisation secondary to age-related macular degeneration: clinical trial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunce Catey

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The management of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD has been transformed by the introduction of agents delivered by intravitreal injection which block the action of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (anti-VEGF agents. One such agent in widespread use is bevacizumab which was initially developed for use in oncology. Most of the evidence supporting the use of bevacizumab for nAMD has come from interventional case series and this clinical trial was initiated because of the increasing and widespread use of this agent in the treatment of nAMD (an off-label indication despite a lack of definitive unbiased safety and efficacy data. Methods and design The Avastin® (bevacizumab for choroidal neovascularisation (ABC trial is a double-masked randomised controlled trial comparing intravitreal bevacizumab injections to standard therapy in the treatment of nAMD. Patients are randomised to intravitreal bevacizumab or standard therapy available at the time of trial initiation (verteporfin photodynamic therapy, intravitreal pegaptanib or sham treatment. Ranibizumab treatment was not included in the control arm as it had not been licensed for use at the start of recruitment for this trial. The primary outcome is the proportion of patients gaining ≥ 15 letters of visual acuity at 1 year and secondary outcomes include the proportion of patients with stable vision and mean visual acuity change. Discussion The ABC Trial is the first double-masked randomised control trial to investigate the efficacy and safety of intravitreal bevacizumab in the treatment of nAMD. This trial fully recruited in November 2007 and results should be available in early 2009. Important design issues for this clinical trial include (a defining the control group (b use of gain in vision as primary efficacy end-point and (c use of pro re nata treatment using intravitreal bevacizumab rather than continuous therapy. Trial registration Current controlled

  17. Retroperitoneal Endometriosis: A Possible Cause of False Positive Finding at 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maffione, Anna Margherita; Panzavolta, Riccardo; Lisato, Laura Camilla; Ballotta, Maria; D'Isanto, Mariangela Zanforlini; Rubello, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    Endometriosis is a frequent and clinically relevant problem in young women. Laparoscopy is still the gold standard for the diagnosis of endometriosis, but frequently both morphologic and functional imaging techniques are involved in the diagnostic course before achieving a conclusive diagnosis. We present a case of a patient affected by infiltrating retroperitoneal endometriosis falsely interpreted as a malignant mass by contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography

  18. Utility of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in a child with chronic granulomatous disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, Gunjan; DaSilva, Raphaella; Bhalakia, Avni; Milstein, David M.

    2016-01-01

    We report the fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG - PET/CT) findings in an 11-month-old boy with suspected milk protein allergy, presented to the hospital with 2-month history of fever of unknown origin and failure to thrive. It showed FDG avid lymphadenopathy above and below the diaphragm and splenic focus, which could represent diffuse inflammatory process or lymphoma. Subsequent jejunal biopsy showed non-necrotizing granulomas

  19. The role of (18)fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in resectable pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crippa, Stefano; Salgarello, Matteo; Laiti, Silvia; Partelli, Stefano; Castelli, Paola; Spinelli, Antonello E; Tamburrino, Domenico; Zamboni, Giuseppe; Falconi, Massimo

    2014-08-01

    The role of (18)fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is debated. We retrospectively assessed the value of (18)fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in addition to conventional imaging as a staging modality in pancreatic cancer. (18)Fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography was performed in 72 patients with resectable pancreatic carcinoma after multi-detector computed tomography positron emission tomography was considered positive for a maximum standardized uptake value >3. Overall, 21% of patients had a maximum standardized uptake value ≤ 3, and 60% of those had undergone neoadjuvant treatment (P=0.0001). Furthermore, 11% of patients were spared unwarranted surgery since positron emission tomography/computed tomography detected metastatic disease. All liver metastases were subsequently identified with contrast-enhanced ultrasound. Sensitivity and specificity of positron emission tomography/computed tomography for distant metastases were 78% and 100%. The median CA19.9 concentration was 48.8 U/mL for the entire cohort and 292 U/mL for metastatic patients (P=0.112). The widespread application of (18)fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in patients with resectable pancreatic carcinoma seems not justified. It should be considered in selected patients at higher risk of metastatic disease (i.e. CA19.9>200 U/mL) after undergoing other imaging tests. Neoadjuvant treatment is significantly associated with low metabolic activity, limiting the value of positron emission tomography in this setting. Copyright © 2014 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. F-18-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Appearance of Extramedullary Hematopoesis in a Case of Primary Myelofibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Anirban; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Tripathi, Madhavi; Das, Chandan Jyoti; Shamim, Shamim Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    A 44-year-old female with known primary myelofibrosis presented with shortness of breath. High Resolution Computed Tomography thorax revealed large heterogeneously enhancing extraparenchymal soft tissue density mass involving bilateral lung fields. F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography revealed mildly FDG avid soft tissue density mass with specks of calcification involving bilateral lung fields, liver, and spleen. Subsequent histopathologic evaluation from the right lung mass was suggestive of extramedullary hematopoesis. PMID:28533647

  1. Patterns of brown fat uptake of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose in positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Dhritiman; Bhattacharya, Anish; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2015-01-01

    Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) has become the common imaging modality in oncological practice. FDG uptake is seen in brown adipose tissue in a significant number of patients. Recognizing the uptake patterns is important for optimal FDG PET interpretation. The introduction of PET/computed tomography (PET/CT) revolutionized PET imaging, bringing much-needed anatomical information. Careful review and correlation of FDG PET images with anatomical imaging should be performed to characterize accurately any lesion having high FDG uptake

  2. Lymphocytic Thyroiditis Presenting as a Focal Uptake on 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Tae Seok; Kim, Eun Kyung; Lee, Sarah; Moon, Hee Jung; Kwak, Jin Young [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Diffuse increased uptake on 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (18F FDG PET) is a well-known finding of the lymphocytic thyroiditis. Nevertheless, a pathologic confirmation is needed in cases of a focal 18F FDG uptake in the thyroid gland. This article reports a rare case of a focal 18F FDG uptake lesion by PET, which was revealed pathologically to be lymphocytic thyroiditis

  3. Trails on 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Leading to Diagnosis of Testicular Adrenal Rest Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Raghava

    2018-01-01

    Testicular adrenal rest tumors (TARTs) are secondary to hypertrophy of adrenal rest cells in the rete testis in settings of hypersecretion of androgens. We present a case of congenital adrenal hyperplasia with TART with clues to the diagnosis on 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ( 18 F-FDG PET/CT). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case on the role of 18 F-FDG PET/CT in TART.

  4. Prognostic value of quantitative fluorodeoxyglucose measurements in newly diagnosed metastatic breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulaner, Gary A; Eaton, Anne; Morris, Patrick G; Lilienstein, Joshua; Jhaveri, Komal; Patil, Sujata; Fazio, Maurizio; Larson, Steven; Hudis, Clifford A; Jochelson, Maxine S

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of quantitative fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) measurements (maximum standardized uptake value [SUV max ], metabolic tumor volume [MTV], and total lesion glycolysis [TLG]) in patients with newly diagnosed metastatic breast cancer (MBC). An IRB-approved retrospective review was performed of patients who underwent FDG positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) from 1/02 to 12/08 within 60 days of diagnosis MBC. Patients with FDG-avid lesions without receiving chemotherapy in the prior 30 days were included. Target lesions in bone, lymph node (LN), liver, and lung were analyzed for SUV max , MTV, and TLG. Medical records were reviewed for patient characteristics and overall survival (OS). Cox regression was used to test associations between quantitative FDG measurements and OS. A total of 253 patients were identified with disease in bone (n = 150), LN (n = 162), liver (n = 48), and lung (n = 66) at the time of metastatic diagnosis. Higher SUV max tertile was associated with worse OS in bone metastases (highest vs. lowest tertile hazard ratio [HR] = 3.1, P < 0.01), but not in LN, liver or lung (all P > 0.1). Higher MTV tertile was associated with worse OS in LN (HR = 2.4, P < 0.01) and liver (HR = 3.0, P = 0.02) metastases, but not in bone (P = 0.22) or lung (P = 0.14). Higher TLG tertile was associated with worse OS in bone (HR = 2.2, P = 0.02), LN (HR = 2.3, P < 0.01), and liver (HR = 4.9, P < 0.01) metastases, but not in lung (P = 0.19). We conclude measures of FDG avidity are prognostic biomarkers in newly diagnosed MBC. SUV max and TLG were both predictors of survival in breast cancer patients with bone metastases. TLG may be a more informative biomarker of OS than SUV max for patients with LN and liver metastases. Measures of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) avidity are prognostic biomarkers in newly diagnosed metastatic breast cancer. Volumetric measurements, such as total lesion glycolysis (TLG

  5. Value of 18fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission tomography in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Laere, Koen; Vanhee, Annelies; Verschueren, Jolien; De Coster, Liesbeth; Driesen, An; Dupont, Patrick; Robberecht, Wim; Van Damme, Philip

    2014-05-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder primarily affecting the motor system, with extramotor involvement to a variable extent. Biomarkers for early differential diagnosis and prognosis are needed. An autosomal dominant hexanucleotide (GGGGCC) expansion in the noncoding region of the chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9orf72) gene is the most frequent genetic cause of ALS, but its metabolic pattern has not been studied systematically. To evaluate the use of 18fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission tomography as a marker of ALS pathology and investigate whether a specific metabolic signature is present in patients with C9orf72 mutations. In total, 81 patients with a suspected diagnosis of ALS at University Hospital Leuven were prospectively investigated. All underwent detailed neurological examination and electrodiagnostic and genetic testing for the major known genetic causes of ALS (C9orf72, SOD1, TARDBP, and FUS). A diagnosis of ALS was made in 70 of 81 patients. Of these, 11 were C9orf72 positive and 59 were C9orf72 negative. In 7 patients, the diagnosis of primary lateral sclerosis was made; 4 patients had progressive muscular atrophy. A screened healthy control population was used for comparison. Positron-emission tomographic data were spatially normalized and analyzed using a predefined volume of interest and a voxel-based analysis (SPM8). Discriminant analysis was done both volume of interest based and voxel based using a support vector machine approach. Compared with control participants, 18fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission tomography showed perirolandic and variable prefrontal hypometabolism in most patients. Patients with primary lateral sclerosis showed a similar pattern. Patients with C9orf72-positive ALS had discrete relative hypometabolism in the thalamus and posterior cingulate compared with those with C9orf72-negative ALS. A posteriori-corrected discriminant analysis was able to correctly classify 95% of ALS cases and

  6. Injection Laryngoplasty Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Haldun Oðuz

    2013-01-01

    Injection laryngoplasty is one of the treatment options for voice problems. In the recent years, more safe and more biocompatible injection materials are available on the market. Long and short term injection materials are discussed in this review.

  7. Penicillin G Procaine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penicillin G procaine injection is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria. Penicillin G procaine injection should not be used to ... early in the treatment of certain serious infections. Penicillin G procaine injection is in a class of ...

  8. Combined computed tomography and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in the diagnosis of prosthetic valve endocarditis: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoletti, Michele; Tumietto, Fabio; Fasulo, Giovanni; Giannella, Maddalena; Cristini, Francesco; Bonfiglioli, Rachele; Raumer, Luigi; Nanni, Cristina; Sanfilippo, Silvia; Di Eusanio, Marco; Scotton, Pier Giorgio; Graziosi, Maddalena; Rapezzi, Claudio; Fanti, Stefano; Viale, Pierluigi

    2014-01-13

    The diagnosis of prosthetic valve endocarditis is challenging. The gold standard for prosthetic valve endocarditis diagnosis is trans-esophageal echocardiography. However, trans-esophageal echocardiography may result in negative findings or yield images difficult to differentiate from thrombus in patients with prosthetic valve endocarditis. Combined computed tomography and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography is a potentially promising diagnostic tool for several infectious conditions and it has also been employed in patients with prosthetic valve endocarditis but data are still scant. We reviewed the charts of 6 patients with prosthetic aortic valves evaluated for suspicion of prosthetic valve endocarditis, at two different hospital, over a 3-year period. We found 3 patients with early-onset PVE cases and blood cultures yielding Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus lugdunensis, respectively; and 3 late-onset cases in the remaining 3 patients with isolation in the blood of Streptococcus bovis, Candida albicans and P. aeruginosa, respectively. Initial trans-esophageal echocardiography was negative in all the patients, while fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography showed images suspicious for prosthetic valve endocarditis. In 4 out of 6 patients valve replacement was done with histology confirming the prosthetic valve endocarditis diagnosis. After an adequate course of antibiotic therapy fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography showed resolution of prosthetic valve endocarditis in all the patients. Our experience confirms the potential role of fluoroseoxyglucose positron emission tomography in the diagnosis and follow-up of prosthetic valve endocarditis.

  9. Physics of the current injection process during localized helicity injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, Edward Thomas

    An impedance model has been developed for the arc-plasma cathode electron current source used in localized helicity injection tokamak startup. According to this model, a potential double layer (DL) is established between the high-density arc plasma (narc ˜ 1021 m-3) in the electron source, and the less-dense external tokamak edge plasma (nedge ˜ 10 18 m-3) into which current is injected. The DL launches an electron beam at the applied voltage with cross-sectional area close to that of the source aperture: Ainj ≈ 2 cm 2. The injected current, Iinj, increases with applied voltage, Vinj, according to the standard DL scaling, Iinj ˜ V(3/2/ inj), until the more restrictive of two limits to beam density nb arises, producing Iinj ˜ V(1/2/inj), a scaling with beam drift velocity. For low external tokamak edge density nedge, space-charge neutralization of the intense electron beam restricts the injected beam density to nb ˜ nedge. At high Jinj and sufficient edge density, the injected current is limited by expansion of the DL sheath, which leads to nb ˜ narc. Measurements of narc, Iinj , nedge, Vinj, support these predicted scalings, and suggest narc as a viable control actuator for the source impedance. Magnetic probe signals ≈ 300 degrees toroidally from the injection location are consistent with expectations for a gyrating, coherent electron beam with a compact areal cross-section. Technological development of the source has allowed an extension of the favorable Iinj ˜ V(1/2/inj) to higher power without electrical breakdown.

  10. 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Magnetic Resonance in Lymphoma: Comparison With 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography and With the Addition of Magnetic Resonance Diffusion-Weighted Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraudo, Chiara; Raderer, Markus; Karanikas, Georgios; Weber, Michael; Kiesewetter, Barbara; Dolak, Werner; Simonitsch-Klupp, Ingrid; Mayerhoefer, Marius E

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance (MR) (with and without diffusion-weighted imaging [DWI]) to F-FDG PET/computed tomography (CT), with regard to the assessment of nodal and extranodal involvement, in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, without restriction to FDG-avid subytpes. Patients with histologically proven lymphoma were enrolled in this prospective, institutional review board-approved study. After a single F-FDG injection, patients consecutively underwent F-FDG PET[Fraction Slash]CT and F-FDG PET/MR on the same day for staging or restaging. Three sets of images were analyzed separately: F-FDG PET/CT, F-FDG PET/MR without DWI, and F-FDG PET/MR with DWI. Region-based agreement and examination-based sensitivity and specificity were calculated for F-FDG PET/CT, F-FDG PET/MR without DWI, and F-FDG PET/MR DWI. Maximum and mean standardized uptake values (SUVmax, SUVmean) on F-FDG PET/CT and F-FDG PET/MR were compared and correlated with minimum and mean apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCmin, ADCmean). Thirty-four patients with a total of 40 examinations were included. Examination-based sensitivities for F-FDG PET/CT, F-FDG PET/MR, and F-FDG PET/MR DWI were 82.1%, 85.7%, and 100%, respectively; specificities were 100% for all 3 techniques; and accuracies were 87.5%, 90%, and 100%, respectively. F-FDG PET/CT was false negative in 5 of 40 examinations (all with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma), and F-FDG PET/MR (without DWI) was false negative in 4 of 40 examinations. Region-based percentages of agreement were 99% (κ, 0.95) between F-FDG PET/MR DWI and F-FDG PET/CT, 99.2% (κ, 0.96) between F-FDG PET/MR and F-FDG PET/CT, and 99.4% (κ, 0.97) between F-FDG PET/MR DWI and F-FDG PET/MR. There was a strong correlation between F-FDG PET/CT and F-FDG PET/MR for SUVmax (r = 0.83) and SUVmean (r = 0.81) but no significant correlation between ADCmin and SUVmax

  11. Comprehensive Oncologic Imaging in Infants and Preschool Children With Substantially Reduced Radiation Exposure Using Combined Simultaneous ¹⁸F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Direct Comparison to ¹⁸F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatidis, Sergios; Schmidt, Holger; Gücke, Brigitte; Bezrukov, Ilja; Seitz, Guido; Ebinger, Martin; Reimold, Matthias; Pfannenberg, Christina A; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Schwenzer, Nina F; Schäfer, Jürgen F

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical applicability and technical feasibility of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) compared with FDG PET/computed tomography (CT) in young children focusing on lesion detection, PET quantification, and potential savings in radiation exposure. Twenty examinations (10 PET/CT and 10 PET/MRI examinations) were performed prospectively in 9 patients with solid tumors (3 female, 6 male; mean age, 4.8 [1-6] years). Fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT and FDG PET/MRI were performed sequentially after a single tracer injection. Lesion detection and analysis were performed independently in PET/CT and PET/MRI. Potential changes in diagnostic or therapeutic patient management were recorded. Positron emission tomography quantification in PET/MRI was evaluated by comparing standardized uptake values resulting from MRI-based and CT-based attenuation correction. Effective radiation doses of PET and CT were estimated. Twenty-one PET-positive lesions were found congruently in PET/CT and PET/MRI. Magnetic resonance imaging enabled significantly better detection of morphologic PET correlates compared with CT. Eight suspicious PET-negative lesions were identified by MRI, of which one was missed in CT. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for correct lesion classification were not significantly different (90%, 47%, and 62% in PET/CT; 100%, 68%, and 79% in PET/MRI, respectively). In 4 patients, the use of PET/MRI resulted in a potential change in diagnostic management compared with PET/CT, as local and whole-body staging could be performed within 1 single examination. In 1 patient, PET/MRI initiated a change in therapeutic management. Positron emission tomography quantification using MRI-based attenuation correction was accurate compared with CT-based attenuation correction. Higher standardized uptake value deviations of about 18% were observed in the lungs due to misclassification in MRI

  12. Assessment of Collagen-Induced Arthritis Using Cyanine 5.5 Conjugated with Hydrophobically Modified Glycol Chitosan Nanoparticles: Correlation with 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Ji Hyeon; Lee, Sang Hoon; Lee, Sheen Woo; Moon, Dae Huk [Asan Medical Center, Ulsan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Kyoung Soon [Biomedical Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Biswal, Sandip [Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford (United States)

    2012-07-15

    To evaluate the potential and correlation between near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging using cyanine 5.5 conjugated with hydrophobically modified glycol chitosan nanoparticles (HGC-Cy5.5) and {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG-PET) imaging of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). We used 10 CIA and 3 normal mice. Nine days after the injecting collagen twice, microPET imaging was performed 40 minutes after the intravenous injection of 9.3 MBq {sup 18}F-FDG in 200 {mu}L PBS. One day later, NIRF imaging was performed two hours after the intravenous injection of HGC-cy5.5 (5 mg/kg). We assessed the correlation between these two modalities in the knees and ankles of CIA mice. The mean standardized uptake values of {sup 18}F-FDG for knees and ankles were 1.68 {+-} 0.76 and 0.79 {+-} 0.71, respectively, for CIA mice; and 0.57 {+-} 0.17 and 0.54 {+-} 0.20 respectively for control mice. From the NIRF images, the total photon counts per 30 mm{sup 2} for knees and ankles were 2.32 {+-} 1.54 X 10{sup 5} and 2.75 {+-} 1.51 X 10{sup 5}, respectively, for CIA mice, and 1.22 {+-} 0.27 X 10{sup 5} and 0.88 {+-} 0.24 X 10{sup 5}, respectively, for control mice. These two modalities showed a moderate correlation for knees (r = 0.604, p = 0.005) and ankles (r = 0.464, p = 0.039). Moreover, both HGC-Cy5.5 (p = 0.002) and {sup 18}F-FDG-PET (p = 0.005) imaging also showed statistically significant differences between CIA and normal mice. NIRF imaging using HGC-Cy5.5 was moderately correlated with {sup 18}F-FDG-PET imaging in the CIA model. As such, HGC-Cy5.5 imaging can be used for the early detection of rheumatoid arthritis.

  13. Preliminary assessment of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in patients with bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosuda, S.; Kison, P.V.; Greenough, R.; Grossman, H.B.; Wahl, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of imaging of bladder cancer with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) scanning. We studied 12 patients with histologically proven bladder cancer who had undergone surgical procedures and/or radiotherapy. Retrograde irrigation of the urinary bladder with 1000-3710 ml saline was performed during nine of the studies. Dynamic and static PET images were obtained, and standardized uptake value images were reconstructed. FDG-PET scanning was true-positive in eight patients (66.7%), but false-negative in four (33.3%). Of 20 organs with tumor mass lesions confirmed pathologically or clinically, 16 (80%) were detected by FDG-PET scanning. FDG-PET scanning detected all of 17 distant metastatic lesions and two of three proven regional lymph node metastases. FDG-PET was also capable of differentiating viable recurrent bladder cancer from radiation-induced alterations in two patients. In conclusion, these preliminary data indicate the feasibility of FDG-PET imaging in patients with bladder cancer, although a major remaining pitfall is intense FDG accumulation in the urine. (orig.). With 3 figs., 1 tab

  14. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose splenic uptake from extramedullary hematopoiesis after granulocyte colony-stimulating factor stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Dayem, H M; Rosen, G; El-Zeftawy, H; Naddaf, S; Kumar, M; Atay, S; Cacavio, A

    1999-05-01

    Two patients with sarcoma, one with recurrent osteosarcoma of the spine and the other with metastatic synovial cell sarcoma, were treated with high-dose chemotherapy that produced severe leukopenia. The patients received granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) to stimulate the bone marrow (480 mg given subcutaneously twice daily for 5 to 7 days); their responses were seen as a marked increase in peripheral leukocyte count with no change in the erythrocyte or platelet counts. The patients had fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) imaging 24 hours after the end of G-CSF treatment. Diffusely increased uptake of F-18 FDG was seen in the bone marrow in both patients. In addition, markedly increased uptake in the spleen was noted in both, indicating that the spleen was the site of extramedullary hematopoiesis. The patients had no evidence of splenic metastases. The first patient had a history of irradiation to the dorsal spine, which was less responsive to G-CSF administration than was the nonirradiated lumbar spine.

  15. Evaluation of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose accumulation in the larynx of unilateral vocal fold paralysis cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nimura, Yoshitsugu; Hayashi, Ibuki; Higashikawa, Masahiko; Okamura, Terue; Nakai, Ken; Ichihara, Kengo

    2011-01-01

    Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) is employed to decide the treatment strategy for malignant tumors clinically. Meanwhile, glucose metabolism is enhanced in the exercise of muscles. Because vocal folds always conduct glucose metabolism by phonation and swallowing, physiological accumulation of FDG may be found in the normal larynx. In this study we examined FDG accumulation in the larynx of patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis established by endoscope. FDG-PET/CT was taken one hour after the FDG administration (early image) and again two hours later (delayed image). All patients had no chance to utter after the FDG administration. In 25 of the 28 patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis, standardized uptake value (SUV) max was higher, by visual inspection, in the normal side of the larynx than in the paralyzed side. None of the 3 patients in whom no accumulation was seen on the non-paralyzed side had malignant disease. In both images, SUV max of the normal side was significantly higher than paralyzed side (p<0.01). In the delayed images, accumulation of FDG was significantly higher than that in the early images (p<0.01). We believe that strong FDG accumulation in the normal side of the larynx of patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis may owe to high glucose metabolism of the vocal muscles from muscle hyperkinesis. We conclude that unilateral accumulation in the larynx suggests not only cancer of that same side of the larynx but also paralysis of the other side. (author)

  16. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography for predicting tumor response to radiochemotherapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Meng; Wei, Hangping; Lin, Ruifang; Zhang, Xuebang; Zou, Changlin; Zhao, Liang

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in predicting tumor response to radiochemotherapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). From July 2012 to March 2014, 46 NPC patients who had undergone PET scanning before receiving definitive intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatment in our hospital were enrolled. Factors potentially affecting tumor response to treatment were studied by multiple logistic regression analysis. After radiochemotherapy, 32 patients had a clinical complete response (CR), making the CR rate 69.6 %. Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the maximal standard uptake value (SUV max ) of the primary tumor was the only factor related to tumor response (p = 0.001), and that the logistic model had a high positive predictive value (90.6 %). The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.809, with a best cutoff threshold at 10.05. Patients with SUV max ≤ 10 had a higher CR rate than those with SUV max > 10 (p < 0.001). The SUV max of the primary tumor before treatment is an independent predictor of tumor response in NPC. (orig.) [de

  17. Glycolysis-induced discordance between glucose metabolic rates measured with radiolabeled fluorodeoxyglucose and glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, R.F.; Lear, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    We have developed an autoradiographic method for estimating the oxidative and glycolytic components of local CMRglc (LCMRglc), using sequentially administered [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and [ 14 C]-6-glucose (GLC). FDG-6-phosphate accumulation is proportional to the rate of glucose phosphorylation, which occurs before the divergence of glycolytic (GMg) and oxidative (GMo) glucose metabolism and is therefore related to total cerebral glucose metabolism GMt: GMg + GMo = GMt. With oxidative metabolism, the 14 C label of GLC is temporarily retained in Krebs cycle-related substrate pools. We hypothesize that with glycolytic metabolism, however, a significant fraction of the 14 C label is lost from the brain via lactate production and efflux from the brain. Thus, cerebral GLC metabolite concentration may be more closely related to GMo than to GMt. If true, the glycolytic metabolic rate will be related to the difference between FDG- and GLC-derived LCMRglc. Thus far, we have studied normal awake rats, rats with limbic activation induced by kainic acid (KA), and rats visually stimulated with 16-Hz flashes. In KA-treated rats, significant discordance between FDG and GLC accumulation, which we attribute to glycolysis, occurred only in activated limbic structures. In visually stimulated rats, significant discordance occurred only in the optic tectum

  18. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography might be useful for diagnosis of hepatic amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawada A

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Akinobu Tawada,1 Tatsuo Kanda,1 Takashi Oide,2 Toshio Tsuyuguchi,1 Fumio Imazeki,1,3 Yukio Nakatani,2 Osamu Yokosuka11Department of Gastroenterology, 2Department of Diagnostic Pathology, Chiba University Hospital, Chuo-ku, Chiba, Japan; 3Safety and Health Organization, Chiba University, Inage-ku, Chiba, JapanAbstract: We report on a woman with hepatic involvement of primary systemic (immunoglobulin light chain, AL amyloidosis. Her diagnosis was confirmed by liver biopsy. Clinical symptoms of hepatic amyloidosis are generally mild at its first stage, with most frequent findings being hepatomegaly and alkaline phosphatase elevation. Recent advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology of systemic amyloidosis have made several treatments available. However, its prognosis is occasionally poor. Because liver biopsy is not always safe, other modalities for the diagnosis are needed. Of interest was that fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG uptake into the liver was observed, compared with that into the spleen, in this patient, indicating that FDG positron emission tomography and computed tomography might be useful for the diagnosis of hepatic amyloidosis with mild liver dysfunction.Keywords: amyloidosis, diagnosis, hepatic involvement, FDG PET

  19. 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/CT Scanning in Diagnosing Vascular Prosthetic Graft Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Ben R.; Pol, Robert A.; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.; Reijnen, Michel M. P. J.; Zeebregts, Clark J.

    2014-01-01

    Vascular prosthetic graft infection (VPGI) is a severe complication after vascular surgery. CT-scan is considered the diagnostic tool of choice in advanced VPGI. The incidence of a false-negative result using CT is relatively high, especially in the presence of low-grade infections. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) scanning has been suggested as an alternative for the diagnosis and assessment of infectious processes. Hybrid 18F-FDG PET/CT has established the role of 18F-FDG PET for the assessment of suspected VPGI, providing accurate anatomic localization of the site of infection. However, there are no clear guidelines for the interpretation of the uptake patterns of 18F-FDG as clinical tool for VPGI. Based on the available literature it is suggested that a linear, diffuse, and homogeneous uptake should not be regarded as an infection whereas focal or heterogeneous uptake with a projection over the vessel on CT is highly suggestive of infection. Nevertheless, 18F-FDG PET and 18F-FDG PET/CT can play an important role in the detection of VPGI and monitoring response to treatment. However an accurate uptake and pattern recognition is warranted and cut-off uptake values and patterns need to be standardized before considering the technique to be the new standard. PMID:25210712

  20. Double Chooz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, Christian [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2006-05-15

    The goal of the Double Chooz reactor neutrino experiment is to search for the neutrino mixing parameter {theta}{sub 13}. Double Chooz will use two identical detectors at 150 m and 1.05 km distance from the reactor cores. The near detector is used to monitor the reactor {nu}-bar {sub e} flux while the second is dedicated to the search for a deviation from the expected (1/distance){sup 2} behavior. This two detector concept will allow a relative normalization systematic error of ca. 0.6 %. The expected sensitivity for sin{sup 2}2{theta}{sub 13} is then in the range 0.02 - 0.03 after three years of data taking. The antineutrinos will be detected in a liquid scintillator through the capture on protons followed by a gamma cascade, produced by the neutron capture on Gd.

  1. Double supergeometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cederwall, Martin [Division for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology,SE 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2016-06-27

    A geometry of superspace corresponding to double field theory is developed, with type I I supergravity in D=10 as the main example. The formalism is based on an orthosymplectic extension OSp(d,d|2s) of the continuous T-duality group. Covariance under generalised super-diffeomorphisms is manifest. Ordinary superspace is obtained as a solution of the orthosymplectic section condition. A systematic study of curved superspace Bianchi identities is performed, and a relation to a double pure spinor superfield cohomology is established. A Ramond-Ramond superfield is constructed as an infinite-dimensional orthosymplectic spinor. Such objects in minimal orbits under the OSp supergroup (“pure spinors”) define super-sections.

  2. Double ambidexterity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaulio, Matti; Thorén, Kent; Rohrbeck, René

    2017-01-01

    We leverage the business model innovation and ambidexterity literature to investigate a contradictory case, the Swedish-Finnish Telecom operator TeliaSonera. Despite being challenged by three major disruptions, the company not only still exists but also enjoys remarkably good financial performance....... Building on extant archival data and interviews, we carefully identify and map 26 organizational responses during 1992–2016. We find that the firm has overcome three critical phases by experimenting and pioneering with portfolios of business models and/or technological innovations. We describe...... this behaviour as double ambidexterity. We use an in-depth case study to conceptualize double ambidexterity and discuss its impact on the business's survival and enduring success....

  3. Forced diuresis and dual-phase 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET/CT scan for restaging of urinary bladder cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harkirat S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The results of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET imaging carried out with the current standard techniques for assessment of urinary tract cancers have been reported to be less than satisfactory because of the urinary excretion of the tracer. Aims: To investigate the role of dual-phase FDG-PET/CT in the restaging of invasive cancers of the urinary bladder, with delayed imaging after forced diuresis and oral hydration as the scanning protocol. Settings and Design: FDG-PET has been considered to be of limited value for the detection of urinary tract cancers because of interference by the FDG excreted in urine. We investigated the efficacy of delayed FDG-PET/CT in the restaging of invasive bladder cancer, with imaging performed after intravenous (IV administration of a potent diuretic and oral hydration. Materials and Methods: Twenty-nine patients with invasive cancer of the urinary bladder were included in this study. Patients were divided into two groups: Group I (22 patients included cases with invasive bladder cancer who had not undergone cystectomy and group II (seven patients included cases with invasive bladder cancer who had undergone cystectomy and urinary diversion procedure. All patients underwent FDG-PET/CT scan from the skull base to the mid-thighs 60 min after IV injection of 370 mega-Becquerel (MBq of FDG. Additional delayed images were acquired 60-90 min after IV furosemide and oral hydration. PET/CT data were analyzed as PET and CT images studied separately as well as fused PET/CT images and the findings were recorded. The imaging findings were confirmed by cystoscopy, biopsy or follow-up PET/CT. Results: The technique was successful in achieving adequate washout of urinary FDG and overcame the problems posed by the excess FDG in the urinary tract. Hypermetabolic lesions could be easily detected by PET and precisely localized to the bladder wall, perivesical region and pelvic lymph nodes. PET/CT delayed images were able to

  4. Forced diuresis and dual-phase 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET/CT scan for restaging of urinary bladder cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harkirat, S; Anand, SS; Jacob, MJ

    2010-01-01

    The results of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET imaging carried out with the current standard techniques for assessment of urinary tract cancers have been reported to be less than satisfactory because of the urinary excretion of the tracer. To investigate the role of dual-phase FDG-PET/CT in the restaging of invasive cancers of the urinary bladder, with delayed imaging after forced diuresis and oral hydration as the scanning protocol. FDG-PET has been considered to be of limited value for the detection of urinary tract cancers because of interference by the FDG excreted in urine. We investigated the efficacy of delayed FDG-PET/CT in the restaging of invasive bladder cancer, with imaging performed after intravenous (IV) administration of a potent diuretic and oral hydration. Twenty-nine patients with invasive cancer of the urinary bladder were included in this study. Patients were divided into two groups: Group I (22 patients) included cases with invasive bladder cancer who had not undergone cystectomy and group II (seven patients) included cases with invasive bladder cancer who had undergone cystectomy and urinary diversion procedure. All patients underwent FDG-PET/CT scan from the skull base to the mid-thighs 60 min after IV injection of 370 mega-Becquerel (MBq) of FDG. Additional delayed images were acquired 60-90 min after IV furosemide and oral hydration. PET/CT data were analyzed as PET and CT images studied separately as well as fused PET/CT images and the findings were recorded. The imaging findings were confirmed by cystoscopy, biopsy or follow-up PET/CT. The technique was successful in achieving adequate washout of urinary FDG and overcame the problems posed by the excess FDG in the urinary tract. Hypermetabolic lesions could be easily detected by PET and precisely localized to the bladder wall, perivesical region and pelvic lymph nodes. PET/CT delayed images were able to demonstrate 16 intravesical lesions (in 13 patients), with excellent clarity. Lymph

  5. Visual and semiquantitative analysis of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography using a partial-ring tomograph without attenuation correction to differentiate benign and malignant pulmonary nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skehan, S.J.; Coates, G.; Otero, C.; O'Donovan, N.; Pelling, M.; Nahmias, C.

    2001-01-01

    Many studies have reported the use of attenuation-corrected positron emission tomography with 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG PET) with full-ring tomographs to differentiate between benign and malignant pulmonary nodules. We sought to evaluate FDG PET using a partial-ring tomograph without attenuation correction. A retrospective review of PET images from 77 patients (range 38-84 years of age) with proven benign or malignant pulmonary nodules was undertaken. All images were obtained using a Siemens/CTI ECAT ART tomograph, without attenuation correction, after 185 MBq 18 F-FDG was injected. Images were visually graded on a 5-point scale from 'definitely malignant' to 'definitely benign,' and lesion-to-background (LB) ratios were calculated using region of interest analysis. Visual and semiquantitative analyses were compared using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Twenty lesions were benign and 57 were malignant. The mean LB ratio for benign lesions was 1.5 (range 1.0-5.7) and for malignant lesions 5.7 (range 1.2-14.1) (p < 0.001). The area under the ROC curve for LB ratio analysis was 0.95, and for visual analysis 0.91 (p = 0.39). The optimal cut-off ratio with LB ratio analysis was 1.8, giving a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 85%. For lesions thought to be 'definitely malignant' on visual analysis, the sensitivity was 93% and the specificity 85%. Three proven infective lesions were rated as malignant by both techniques (LB ratio 2.6-5.7). FDG PET without attenuation correction is accurate for differentiating between benign and malignant lung nodules. Results using simple LB ratios without attenuation correction compare favourably with the published sensitivity and specificity for standard uptake ratios. Visual analysis is equally accurate. (author)

  6. Lung Hot Spot Without Corresponding Computed Tomography Abnormality on Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography: Artifactual or Real, Iatrogenic or Pathologic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiyan

    Focal lung uptake without corresponding lesions or abnormalities on computed tomography (CT) scan poses a dilemma in the interpretation of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT). A limited number of case reports have previously suggested an artifactual or iatrogenic nature of the uptake. In the present study, 8 relevant cases were included within a retrospective search of the database. Medical records were reviewed for follow-up radiological and pathologic information. In 7 of 8 cases with focal increased FDG uptake but no corresponding lesions or abnormalities on CT scan, the lung hot spots were artifactual or iatrogenic upon follow-up diagnostic chest CT or repeated PET/CT or both the scans. Microemboli were most likely a potential cause of the pulmonary uptake, with or without partial paravenous injection. One case in the series had a real pulmonary lesion demonstrated on follow-up PET/CT scans and on surgical pathology, although the initial integrated CT and follow-up diagnostic chest CT scans revealed negative findings to demonstrate pulmonary abnormalities corresponding to the hot spot on the PET scan. In conclusion, the finding of a lung hot spot in the absence of anatomical abnormality on FDG PET/CT was most likely artifactual or iatrogenic, but it might also represent a real pulmonary lesion. Nonvisualization of anatomical abnormality could be because of its small size and position directly overlying a segmental vessel. Further image follow-up is necessary and important to clarify the nature of the uptake. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Breathing, spiking and chaos in a laser with injected signal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugiato, L A; Narducci, L M

    1983-06-01

    The behavior of a laser driven by an injected cw field detuned from the operating laser frequency is considered. The analysis covers the entire range of incident power levels from zero to the injection locking threshold. In this domain, the output intensity exhibits regular and chaotic oscillations, a period doubling cascade in reverse order, envelope breathing and spiking.

  8. The energetic ion substorm injection boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, R.E.; Sibeck, D.G.; McEntire, R.W.; Krimigis, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    The substorm injection boundary model has enjoyed considerable success in explaining plasma signatures in the near-geosynchronous region. However, the injection boundary has remained primarily a phenomenological model. In this paper the authors examine 167 dispersionless energetic ion injections which were observed by AMPTE CCE. The radial and local time distribution of the events as a function of Kp is qualitatively similar to that envisioned in the injection boundary model of Mauk and McIlwain (1974). They argue that particles observed during dispersionless injections are locally energized during the disruption of the cross-tail current sheet. Therefore they identify the injection boundary, as derived from the spatial distribution of dispersionless injections, with the earthward edge of the region of the magnetotail which undergoes current sheet disruption during the substorm expansion phase. The authors show that this qualitative model for the generation of the injection boundary can provide an explanation for the dispersionless nature, the double spiral shape, and the Kp dependence of the boundary

  9. Double profunda brachii artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavishiddappa A Hadimani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brachial artery (BA is a continuation of the axillary artery at the lower border of teres major. In the cubital fossa, BA divides into radial artery and ulnar artery as terminal branches. Large branch given from the BA in the upper part is profunda brachii artery. In the present case, we noticed double profunda brachii that arises from the BA. They are profunda brachii artery 1 and profunda brachii artery 2. Profunda brachii artery 1 arises in the proximal part of the BA and profunda brachii artery 2 arises distal to the profunda brachii artery 1. Both the arteries run inferolaterally in the spiral groove along with radial nerve. Variations of profunda brachii artery are important during harvesting of the lateral arm flaps and may lead to inadvertent injury during percutaneous arterial catheterization or injection of drugs.

  10. Use of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in the detection of thymoma: a preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Renshyan; Yeh Shinhwa; Huang Minhsiung; Wang Liangshun; Chu Leeshing; Chang Chenpei; Chu Yumkung; Wu Lingchi

    1995-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse the uptake patterns of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in thymomas of different stages. FDG positron emission tomography (PET) scan was performed in 12 patients suspected of having thymoma and in nine controls. Qualitative visual interpretation was used to detect the foci with FDG uptake higher than that of normal mediastinum. Tumour/lung ratio (TLR) was calculated from the counts of ROIs over the mass and over comparable normal lung tissue in thymoma patients. Mediastinum/lung ratio (MLR) was calculated from the counts of ROIs over the anterior mediastinum and lung in controls. The PET scan patterns of distribution of foci with FDG uptake and TLRs were correlated with the computed tomography (CT) of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, and staging of the thymomas. Thymectomy was performed in ten patients and thoracoscopy was done in two patients. The results revealed ten thymomas (two stage I tumours, two stage II, four stage III and two stage IV, according to the Masaoka classification), and two cases of thymic hyperplasia associated with myasthenia gravis. Myasthenia gravis was also noted in four thymoma patients. FDG studies showed (a) diffuse uptake in the widened anterior mediastinum in patients with thymic hyperplasia, (b) confined focal FDG uptake in the non-invasive or less invasive, stage I and II thymomas, and (c) multiple discrete foci of FDG uptake in the mediastinum and thoraci structures in stage III and IV advanced invasive thymomas. The thymomas had the highest TLRs, followed by the TLRs of thymic hyperplasia and the MLRs of control subjects. No significant difference was found between thymomas in different stages or between thymomas with and thymomas without myasthenia gravis. In comparison with CT and/or MRI, FDG/PET detected more lesions in patients with invasive thymomas and downgraded the staging of thymoma in four patients. (orig./MG)

  11. Correlation between 18F Fluorodeoxyglucose uptake and epidermal growth factor receptor mutations in advanced lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yun Jung; Cho, Byoung Chul; Jeong, Youg Hyu; Seo, Hyo Jung; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Cho, Arthur; Lee, Jae Hoon; Yun, Mi Jin; Jeon, Tae Joo; Lee, Jong Doo; Kang, Won Jun

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)gene have been identified as potential targets for the treatment and prognostic factors for non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We assessed the correlation between fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake and EGFR mutations, as well as their prognostic implications. A total of 163 patients with pathologically confirmed NSCLC were enrolled (99 males and 64 females; median age, 60 years). All patients underwent FDG positron emission tomography before treatment, and genetic studies of EGFR mutations were performed. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax)of the primary lung cancer was measured and normalized with regard to liver uptake. The SUVmax between the wild type and EGFR mutant groups was compared. Survival was evaluated according to SUVmax and EGFR mutation status. EGFR mutations were found in 57 patients (60.8%). The SUVmax tended to be higher in wild type than mutant tumors, but was not significantly different (11.1±5.7 vs. 9.8±4.4, P=0.103). The SUVmax was significantly lower in patients with an exon 19 mutation than in those with either an exon 21 mutation or wild type (P=0.003 and 0.009, respectively). The EGFR mutation showed prolonged overall survival (OS) compared to wild type tumors (P=0.004). There was no significant difference in survival according to SUVmax. Both OS and progression free survival of patients with a mutation in exon 19 were significant longer than in patients with wild type tumors. In patients with NSCLC, a mutation in exon 19 was associated with a lower SUVmax and is a reliable predictor for good survival

  12. Evaluation of myocardial glucose metabolism in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rie Aoyama

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to assess the usefulness of myocardial 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET/computed tomography (CT for evaluating myocardial metabolic status in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM and the therapeutic efficacy of alcohol septal ablation (ASA in hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM.Thirty HCM patients (64.4±10.5 years, 14 male, 12 hypertrophic non-obstructive cardiomyopathy [HNCM], 16 HOCM, and 2 dilated phase of HCM underwent 18F-FDG-PET/CT. 18F-FDG uptake was semi-quantitatively evaluated using an uptake score in each 17 segment and the entire LV or regional standardized uptake value (SUV.18F-FDG uptake was observed mostly in a hypertrophied myocardium in HNCM patients, whereas 18F-FDG was extensively accumulated beyond the hypertrophied myocardium in HOCM patients. There was a positive correlation between the summed uptake score of 18F-FDG and high-sensitive troponin T level in HNCM patients (r = 0.603, p = 0.049, whereas the score was positively correlated with brain natriuretic peptide level (r = 0.614, p = 0.011 in HOCM patients. In 10 patients who received ASA, the maximum SUV of the entire LV was significantly reduced from 5.6±2.6 to 3.2±2.1 (p = 0.040 after ASA. Reduction of that maximum SUV was particularly significant in the lateral region (from 5.5±2.6 to 2.9 ±2.2, p = 0.024 but not significant in the anteroseptal region (from 4.5±2.6 to 2.9±1.6, p = 0.12.Extensive 18F-FDG uptake beyond the hypertrophied myocardium was observed in HOCM. ASA attenuates 18F-FDG uptake in a remote lateral myocardium.

  13. Demand of radiopharmaceutical Fluoride 18-FDG (fluorodeoxyglucose) in the Sao Paulo State metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Renato C.; Zouain, Desiree M.

    2005-01-01

    This research presents partial results from the development of a Masters Dissertation for the Post-Graduation in Nuclear Technology Program - IPEN/USP, aiming to study the demand of radiopharmaceutical Fluoride 18-FDG (fluorodeoxyglucose) in the Sao Paulo State metropolitan area, as a subsidiary for the establishment of distribution strategy within the State. This study presented the results of a bibliographic review as well as the market evolution for FDG in Sao Paulo. Studies pointed to a tendency of an increase in the international and national nuclear medicine market; while the United States of America participate in 47% of the world profit, South America shares only 2.5% of the global market. This market will tend to grow in 2006 to 2020 up to 776% for diagnosis and 760% for therapy. Partial results are presented in this study from researching medical centers that use PET in the city of Sao Paulo, as well as companies that commercialize the equipment and the manufacturer center. There is an increase of sales for IPEN's Fluoride 18-FDG and its representation on the total radiopharmaceutical profit surpassed 5.3% in 2003 to 8.2% in 2004. The dissemination of this technology in Brazil is lately being discussed especially due to the acquisition price of the equipment as well as the viability of the resources (Fluoride 18- FDG; implementation strategies of regional cyclotron accelerators) and the question of remuneration of the PET produced exams for health care plans and national health care system (SUS). IPEN is developing yet another study to grasp possible demand for this product in the Southern and Southeastern regions, allowing better view of the necessity of the supplement, and in study the implementation of a new cyclotron in the institute dedicated for the production of Fluoride 18-FDG. (author)

  14. Characteristics of [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in human colon cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chae Kyun; Chung, June Key; Jeong, Jae Min; Lee, Myung Chul; Koh, Chang Soon

    1997-01-01

    Cancer tissues are characterized by increased glucose uptake. 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose(FDG), a glucose analogue is used for the diagnosis of cancer in PET studies. This study was aimed to compare the glucose uptake and glucose transporter 1(GLUT1) expression in various human colon cancer cells. We measured FDG uptake by cell retention study and expression of GLUT1 using Western blotting. Human colon cancer cells, SNU-C2A, SNU-C4 and SNU-C5, were used. The cells were incubated with 1μ Ci/ml of FDG in HEPES- buffered saline for one hour. The FDG uptake of SNU-C2A, SNU-C4 and SNU-C5 were 16.8±1.36, 12.3±5.55 and 61.0±2.17 cpm/μg of protein, respectively. Dose-response and time-course studies represent that FDG uptake of cancer cells were dose dependent and time dependent. The rate of FDG uptake of SNU-C2A, SNU-C4 and SNU-C5 were 0.29±0.03, 0.21±0.09 and 1.07±0.07 cpm/min/μg of protein, respectively. Western blot analysis showed that the GLUT1 expression of SNU-C5 was significantly higher than those of SNU-C2A and SNU-C4. These results represent that FDG uptake into human colon cancer cells are different from each other. In addition, FDG uptake and expression of GLUT1 are closely related in human colon cancer cells

  15. Fluorine-18-Fluorodeoxyglucose PET in the mediastinal nodal staging of bronchogenic carcinoma.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berlangieri, S.U.; Scott, A.M.; Knight, S.; Pointon, O.; Thomas, D.L.; O``Keefe, G.; Chan, J.G.; Egen, G.F.; Tochon-Danguy, H.J.; Clarke, C.P.; McKay, W.J. [Austin Hospital, Melbourne, VIC (Australia). Centre for Positron Emission Tomography and the Departments of Nuclear Medicine and Thoracic Surgery

    1998-03-01

    Full text: Non-invasive methods of pre-operative staging of non-small cell bronchogenic carcinoma are inaccurate. To determine the clinical role of positron emission tomography (PET) in the mediastinal staging of lung carcinoma, {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) studies were performed in 25 patients with suspected non-small cell bronchogenic carcinoma and correlated with pathology. The patients comprised 20 men and 5 women (mean age 63; range 43-78 y). All patients had proven non-small cell lung carcinoma, except two, one patient with benign inflammatory disease and the other with small cell carcinoma. The FDG PET studies were acquired on a Siemens 951131R body tomography over 2-3 bed positions to include the thorax and mediastinum. The PET images were interpreted for tumour involvement of mediastinal nodes according to the American Thoracic Society classification and scored for confidence of tumour presence on a 5 point scale. The intensity of glucose metabolism was compared to mediastinal blood pool activity and graded on a 4 point scale. FDG PET correctly excluded ipsilateral mediastinal nodal (N2) disease in 16 of 16 patients. Six of nine patients with N2 disease were correctly identified by FDG PET. Of the three patients with N2 nodal involvement not detected by PET, each had single station nodal disease, and in two patients the primary lesions abutted the involved nodal group. A total of 104 nodal stations were sampled or examined at surgery. FDG PET correctly excluded disease in 83/83 (100% specificity) negative nodal stations. FDG PET is a promising non-invasive functional imaging modality for the mediastinal staging of bronchogenic carcinoma.

  16. {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in uterine carcinosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Kung-Chu; Yen, Tzu-Chen [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Center, Taoyuan (China); Lai, Chyong-Huey; Wu, Tzu-I; Chang, Ting-Chang; Huang, Huei-Jean [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kueishan, Taoyuan (China); Ng, Koon-Kwan; Lin, Gigin [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Department of Medical Imaging and Intervention, Taoyuan (China); Wang, Chun-Chieh [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Taoyuan (China); Hsueh, Swei [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Taoyuan (China)

    2008-03-15

    Uterine carcinosarcomas clinically confined to the uterus usually harbor occult metastases. We conducted a pilot study to evaluate the value of {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in uterine carcinosarcoma. Patients with histologically confirmed uterine carcinosarcoma were enrolled. Abdominal and pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/whole-body computed tomography (CT) scan, and whole-body {sup 18}F-FDG PET or PET/CT were undertaken for primary staging, evaluating response, and restaging/post-therapy surveillance. The clinical impact of {sup 18}F-FDG PET was determined on a scan basis. A total of 19 patients were recruited and 31 {sup 18}F-FDG PET scans (including 8 scans performed on a PET/CT scanner) were performed. Positive impacts of scans were found in 36.8% (7/19) for primary staging, 66.7% (2/3) for monitoring response, and 11.1% (1/9) for restaging/post-therapy surveillance. PET excluded falsely inoperable disease defined by MRI in two patients. Aggressive treatment applying to three patients with PET-defined resectable stage IVB disease seemed futile. Two patients died of disease shortly after salvage therapy restaged by PET. With PET monitoring, one stage IVB patient treated by targeted therapy only was alive with good performance. Using PET did not lead to improvement of overall survival of this series compared with the historical control (n = 35) (P = 0.779). The preliminary results suggest that {sup 18}F-FDG PET is beneficial in excluding falsely inoperable disease for curative therapy and in making a decision on palliation for better quality of life instead of aggressive treatment under the guidance of PET. PET seems to have limited value in post-therapy surveillance or restaging after failure. (orig.)

  17. Long-term quality assurance of [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Ludovit; Reich, Michal; Kassai, Zoltan; Macasek, Fedor; Rodrigo, Luis; Kruzliak, Peter; Kovac, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Nine years of experience with 2286 commercial synthesis allowed us to deliver comprehensive information on the quality of (18)F-FDG production. Semi-automated FDG production line using Cyclone 18/9 machine (IBA Belgium), TRACERLab MXFDG synthesiser (GE Health, USA) using alkalic hydrolysis, grade "A" isolator with dispensing robotic unit (Tema Sinergie, Italy), and automatic control system under GAMP5 (minus2, Slovakia) was assessed by TQM tools as highly reliable aseptic production line, fully compliant with Good Manufacturing Practice and just-in-time delivery of FDG radiopharmaceutical. Fluoride-18 is received in steady yield and of very high radioactive purity. Synthesis yields exhibited high variance connected probably with quality of disposable cassettes and chemicals sets. Most performance non-conformities within the manufacturing cycle occur at mechanical nodes of dispensing unit. The long-term monitoring of 2286 commercial synthesis indicated high reliability of automatic synthesizers. Shewhart chart and ANOVA analysis showed that minor non-compliances occurred were mostly caused by the declinations of less experienced staff from standard operation procedures, and also by quality of automatic cassettes. Only 15 syntheses were found unfinished and in 4 cases the product was out-of-specification of European Pharmacopoeia. Most vulnerable step of manufacturing was dispensing and filling in grade "A" isolator. Its cleanliness and sterility was fully controlled under the investigated period by applying hydrogen peroxide vapours (VHP). Our experience with quality assurance in the production of [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) at production facility of BIONT based on TRACERlab MXFDG production module can be used for bench-marking of the emerging manufacturing and automated manufacturing systems.

  18. Uptake of [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose in human monocyte-macrophages in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deichen, Jan Thiess; Prante, Olaf; Gack, Michaela; Schmiedehausen, Kristin; Kuwert, Torsten

    2003-01-01

    The fact that fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose ([ 18 F]FDG) accumulates in inflammatory lesions as well as in tumours reduces the diagnostic specificity of positron emission tomography (PET) in oncology. The aim of this study was to characterise the uptake of [ 18 F]FDG in isolated human monocyte-macrophages (HMMs) in vitro in comparison with that in human glioblastoma (GLI) and pancreatic carcinoma cells (PAN). The purity of HMM preparations was determined by immunohistochemical staining and their functional integrity was assessed by long-term incubation with iodine-131 acetylated bovine serum albumin. [ 18 F]FDG uptake in HMMs was quantified as percent of whole [ 18 F]FDG activity per well (% ID) or as % ID in relation to total protein mass. [ 18 F]FDG uptake in HMMs significantly increased with culture duration, yielding 7.5%±0.9% (% ID/100 μg) at day 14. Stimulation by lipopolysaccharide further enhanced [ 18 F]FDG uptake in HMMs by a factor of 2. [ 18 F]FDG uptake significantly decreased with increasing glucose concentration in the medium. Radio-thin layer chromatography of intracellular metabolites revealed that [ 18 F]FDG was trapped by HMMs mainly as [ 18 F]FDG-6-phosphate and [ 18 F]FDG-1,6-diphosphate. [ 18 F]FDG uptake was in the range of uptake values measured in GLI and PAN. By accumulating [ 18 F]FDG in a manner analogous to uptake by tumour cells, activated HMMs may contribute to the [ 18 F]FDG uptake values measured by PET in neoplasms. (orig.)

  19. Diagnostic accuracy of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in gallbladder cancer: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annunziata, Salvatore; Pizzuto, Daniele Antonio; Caldarella, Carmelo; Galiandro, Federica; Sadeghi, Ramin; Treglia, Giorgio

    2015-10-28

    To meta-analyze published data about the diagnostic accuracy of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) and PET/computed tomography (PET/CT) in the evaluation of primary tumor in patients with gallbladder cancer (GBCa). A comprehensive literature search of studies published through 30(th) June 2014 regarding the role of (18)F-FDG PET and PET/CT in the evaluation of primary gallbladder cancer (GBCa) was performed. All retrieved studies were reviewed. Pooled sensitivity and specificity of (18)F-FDG PET or PET/CT in the evaluation of primary GBCa were calculated. The area under the summary receiving operator characteristics curve (AUC) was calculated to measure the accuracy of these methods. Sub-analyses considering the device used (PET vs PET/CT) were carried out. Twenty-one studies comprising 495 patients who underwent (18)F-FDG PET or PET/CT for suspicious GBCa were selected for the systematic review. The meta-analysis of 13 selected studies provided the following results: sensitivity 87% (95%CI: 82%-92%), specificity 78% (95%CI: 68%-86%). The AUC was 0.88. Improvement of sensitivity and specificity was observed when PET/CT was used. (18)F-FDG-PET and PET/CT demonstrated to be useful diagnostic imaging methods in the assessment of primary tumor in GBCa patients, nevertheless possible sources of false-negative and false-positive results should be kept in mind. PET/CT seems to have a better diagnostic accuracy than PET alone in this setting.

  20. Factors Affecting 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) Uptake in Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Sun Hye; Lee, Eun Hye; Park, Jung Mi; Lee, Hae Kyung; Yi, Boem Ha [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Na Mi [Konkuk University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    To evaluate factors affecting 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in breast cancer. For 3 years from 2006, 180 patients (mean age 48-years-old) with 187 breast cancers underwent positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT; biograph2, Siemens) at our institute and were enrolled in this study. We evaluated whether there was a correlation between the peak standardized uptake value (pSUV) of PET/CT and the histologic type of the breast cancers (n=187), grade of the invasive ductal cancers (n=142), and tumor size (n=153). The different histologic types of breast cancers include IDCs (n=156), in situ ductal carcinoma (n=10), papillary cancer (n=6), mucinous cancer (n=6), invasive lobular cancer (n=4), medullary cancer (n=3), metaplastic cancer (n=1), and neuroendocrine cancer (n=1). pSUV showed significant differences according to histologic type (p<0.005). For the available cases (n=142), IDCs were classified as grade 1 (n=25), grade 2 (n=66), and grade 3 (n=51) and correlated with the histologic grade of IDCs (rho=0.41, p<0.001). pSUV was correlated with tumor size regardless of histologic type (rho=0.525, p<0.001). In low grade IDCs, pSUV was correlated with tumor size (rho=0.48-0.86, p<0.001), but not in high grade IDCs (p>0.001). Regardless of histologic type, the larger the breast cancer, the higher the pSUV; in addition, the higher the grade of IDCs, the higher the pSUV. For the low grade IDCs, pSUV is correlated with tumor size; however, this is not the case in high grade IDCs

  1. Differentiation of autoimmune pancreatitis from suspected pancreatic cancer by fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, Yayoi; Hamano, Hideaki; Oguchi, Kazuhiro

    2008-01-01

    Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has been widely used for the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. Because autoimmune pancreatitis is easily misdiagnosed as pancreatic cancer and can be tested for by FDG-PET analysis based on the presence of suspected pancreatic cancer, we attempted to clarify the differences in FDG-PET findings between the two conditions. We compared FDG-PET findings between 15 patients with autoimmune pancreatitis and 26 patients with pancreatic cancer. The findings were evaluated visually or semiquantitatively using the maximum standardized uptake value and the accumulation pattern of FDG. FDG uptake was found in all 15 patients with autoimmune pancreatitis, whereas it was found in 19 of 26 patients (73.1%) with pancreatic cancer. An accumulation pattern characterized by nodular shapes was significantly more frequent in pancreatic cancer, whereas a longitudinal shape indicated autoimmune pancreatitis. Heterogeneous accumulation was found in almost all cases of autoimmune pancreatitis, whereas homogeneous accumulation was found in pancreatic cancer. Significantly more cases of pancreatic cancer showed solitary localization, whereas multiple localization in the pancreas favored the presence of autoimmune pancreatitis. FDG uptake by the hilar lymph node was significantly more frequent in autoimmune pancreatitis than in pancreatic cancer, and uptake by the lachrymal gland, salivary gland, biliary duct, retroperitoneal space, and prostate were seen only in autoimmune pancreatitis. FDG-PET is a useful tool for differentiating autoimmune pancreatitis from suspected pancreatic cancer, if the accumulation pattern and extrapancreatic involvement are considered. IgG4 measurement and other current image tests can further confirm the diagnosis. (author)

  2. Use of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in the detection of thymoma: a preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Renshyan [National PET/Cyclotron Center and Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital and National Yang-Ming Univ. School of Medicine, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China)]|[National Def. Medical Center, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China); Yeh Shinhwa [National PET/Cyclotron Center and Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital and National Yang-Ming Univ. School of Medicine, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China); Huang Minhsiung [Div. of Thoracic Surgery, Taipei Veterans General Hospital and National Yang-Ming Univ. School of Medicine, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China); Wang Liangshun [Div. of Thoracic Surgery, Taipei Veterans General Hospital and National Yang-Ming Univ. School of Medicine, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China); Chu Leeshing [National PET/Cyclotron Center and Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital and National Yang-Ming Univ. School of Medicine, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China)]|[National Def. Medical Center, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China); Chang Chenpei [National PET/Cyclotron Center and Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital and National Yang-Ming Univ. School of Medicine, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China); Chu Yumkung [National PET/Cyclotron Center and Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital and National Yang-Ming Univ. School of Medicine, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China); Wu Lingchi [National PET/Cyclotron Center and Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital and National Yang-Ming Univ. School of Medicine, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1995-12-01

    This study aimed to analyse the uptake patterns of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in thymomas of different stages. FDG positron emission tomography (PET) scan was performed in 12 patients suspected of having thymoma and in nine controls. Qualitative visual interpretation was used to detect the foci with FDG uptake higher than that of normal mediastinum. Tumour/lung ratio (TLR) was calculated from the counts of ROIs over the mass and over comparable normal lung tissue in thymoma patients. Mediastinum/lung ratio (MLR) was calculated from the counts of ROIs over the anterior mediastinum and lung in controls. The PET scan patterns of distribution of foci with FDG uptake and TLRs were correlated with the computed tomography (CT) of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, and staging of the thymomas. Thymectomy was performed in ten patients and thoracoscopy was done in two patients. The results revealed ten thymomas (two stage I tumours, two stage II, four stage III and two stage IV, according to the Masaoka classification), and two cases of thymic hyperplasia associated with myasthenia gravis. Myasthenia gravis was also noted in four thymoma patients. FDG studies showed (a) diffuse uptake in the widened anterior mediastinum in patients with thymic hyperplasia, (b) confined focal FDG uptake in the non-invasive or less invasive, stage I and II thymomas, and (c) multiple discrete foci of FDG uptake in the mediastinum and thoraci structures in stage III and IV advanced invasive thymomas. The thymomas had the highest TLRs, followed by the TLRs of thymic hyperplasia and the MLRs of control subjects. No significant difference was found between thymomas in different stages or between thymomas with and thymomas without myasthenia gravis. In comparison with CT and/or MRI, FDG/PET detected more lesions in patients with invasive thymomas and downgraded the staging of thymoma in four patients. (orig./MG)

  3. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in the follow-up of differentiated thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenwald, F [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, D-53127 Bonn (Germany); Schomburg, A [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, D-53127 Bonn (Germany); Bender, H [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, D-53127 Bonn (Germany); Klemm, E [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, D-53127 Bonn (Germany); Menzel, C [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, D-53127 Bonn (Germany); Bultmann, T [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, D-53127 Bonn (Germany); Palmedo, H [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, D-53127 Bonn (Germany); Ruhlmann, J [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, D-53127 Bonn (Germany); Kozak, B [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, D-53127 Bonn (Germany); Biersack, H J [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, D-53127 Bonn (Germany)

    1996-03-01

    Whole-body fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging was performed during the follow-up of 33 patients suffering from differentiated thyroid cancer. Among them there were 26 patients with papillary and seven with follicular tumours. Primary tumour stage (pT) was pT1 in six cases, pT2 in eight cases, pT3 in three cases and pT4 in 14 cases. FDG PET was normal in 18 patients. In three patients a slightly increased metabolism was observed in the thyroid bed, assumed to be related to remnant tissue. In one case local recurrence, in ten cases lymph node metastases (one false-positive, caused by sarcoidosis) and in three cases distant metastases were found with FDG PET. In comparison with whole-body scintigraphy using iodine-131 (WBS) there were a lot of discrepancies in imaging results. Whereas three patients had distant metastases (proven with {sup 131}I) and a negative FDG PET, in four cases {sup 131}I-negative lymph node metastases were detectable with PET. Even in the patients with concordant ``staging``, differences between {sup 131}I and FDG were observed as to the exact lesion localization. Therefore, a coexistence of {sup 131}I-positive/FDG-negative, {sup 131}I-negative/FDG-positive and {sup 131}I-positive/FDG-positive malignant tissue can be assumed in these patients. A higher correlation of FDG PET was observed with hexakis (2-methoxyisobutylisonitrile) technetium-99m (I) (MIBI) scintigraphy (performed in 20 cases) than with WBS. In highly differentiated tumours {sup 131}I scintigraphy had a high sensitivity, whereas in poorly differentiated carcinomas FDG PET was superior. The clinical use of FDG PET can be recommended in all cases of suspected or proven recurrence and/or metastases of differentiated thyroid cancer and is particularly useful in cases with elevated serum thyroglobulin levels and negative WBS. (orig.). With 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in the follow-up of differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruenwald, F.; Schomburg, A.; Bender, H.; Klemm, E.; Menzel, C.; Bultmann, T.; Palmedo, H.; Ruhlmann, J.; Kozak, B.; Biersack, H.J.

    1996-01-01

    Whole-body fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging was performed during the follow-up of 33 patients suffering from differentiated thyroid cancer. Among them there were 26 patients with papillary and seven with follicular tumours. Primary tumour stage (pT) was pT1 in six cases, pT2 in eight cases, pT3 in three cases and pT4 in 14 cases. FDG PET was normal in 18 patients. In three patients a slightly increased metabolism was observed in the thyroid bed, assumed to be related to remnant tissue. In one case local recurrence, in ten cases lymph node metastases (one false-positive, caused by sarcoidosis) and in three cases distant metastases were found with FDG PET. In comparison with whole-body scintigraphy using iodine-131 (WBS) there were a lot of discrepancies in imaging results. Whereas three patients had distant metastases (proven with 131 I) and a negative FDG PET, in four cases 131 I-negative lymph node metastases were detectable with PET. Even in the patients with concordant ''staging'', differences between 131 I and FDG were observed as to the exact lesion localization. Therefore, a coexistence of 131 I-positive/FDG-negative, 131 I-negative/FDG-positive and 131 I-positive/FDG-positive malignant tissue can be assumed in these patients. A higher correlation of FDG PET was observed with hexakis (2-methoxyisobutylisonitrile) technetium-99m (I) (MIBI) scintigraphy (performed in 20 cases) than with WBS. In highly differentiated tumours 131 I scintigraphy had a high sensitivity, whereas in poorly differentiated carcinomas FDG PET was superior. The clinical use of FDG PET can be recommended in all cases of suspected or proven recurrence and/or metastases of differentiated thyroid cancer and is particularly useful in cases with elevated serum thyroglobulin levels and negative WBS. (orig.). With 3 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Digital contrast enhancement of 18Fluorine-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography images in hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, Anil Kumar; Sharma, Sanjay Kumar; Agarwal, Krishan Kant; Sharma, Punit; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Kumar, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    The role of 18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) is limited for detection of primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) due to low contrast to the tumor, and normal hepatocytes (background). The aim of the present study was to improve the contrast between the tumor and background by standardizing the input parameters of a digital contrast enhancement technique. A transverse slice of PET image was adjusted for the best possible contrast, and saved in JPEG 2000 format. We processed this image with a contrast enhancement technique using 847 possible combinations of input parameters (threshold “m” and slope “e”). The input parameters which resulted in an image having a high value of 2 nd order entropy, and edge content, and low value of absolute mean brightness error, and saturation evaluation metrics, were considered as standardized input parameters. The same process was repeated for total nine PET-computed tomography studies, thus analyzing 7623 images. The selected digital contrast enhancement technique increased the contrast between the HCC tumor and background. In seven out of nine images, the standardized input parameters “m” had values between 150 and 160, and for other two images values were 138 and 175, respectively. The value of slope “e” was 4 in 4 images, 3 in 3 images and 1 in 2 images. It was found that it is important to optimize the input parameters for the best possible contrast for each image; a particular value was not sufficient for all the HCC images. The use of above digital contrast enhancement technique improves the tumor to background ratio in PET images of HCC and appears to be useful. Further clinical validation of this finding is warranted

  6. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in the initial staging of germ cell tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hain, S.F.; O' Doherty, M.J. [Clinical PET Centre, Guy' s and St Thomas' Hospitals, London (United Kingdom); Timothy, A.R.; Leslie, M.D.; Partridge, S.E. [Dept. of Clinical Oncology, Guy' s and St Thomas' Hospitals, London (United Kingdom); Huddart, R.A. [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Royal Marsden, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2000-05-01

    Testicular cancer is a rare tumour with the potential for cure at diagnosis. It is important, however, to identify those patients with metastases at presentation so as to ensure that the optimum treatment strategy is employed. Many criteria have been used to try to place patients into high- or low-risk groups, with variable success. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has the potential to identify active disease and thereby influence further management. Here we report on a retrospective study of the use of FDG-PET in the detection of metastatic testicular carcinoma at diagnosis. Thirty-one patients [13 with seminoma and 18 with non-seminomatous germ cell tumours (13 teratomas, 5 mixed)] were staged by FDG-PET scanning. The imaging was performed using a Siemens ECAT 951 scanner. All results were assessed on the basis of histology or clinical follow-up. FDG-PET scan identified metastatic disease in ten and was negative in 16; there were no false-positives and five false-negatives. There were six patients in whom FDG-PET was negative and computed tomography was regarded as suspicious but follow-up was inconclusive. The positive predictive value was 100%. The negative predictive value was 76% or 91%, depending on whether the aforementioned six cases were regarded as true-negatives or false-negatives. It may be concluded that FDG-PET is capable of detecting metastatic disease at diagnosis that is not identified by other imaging techniques. These preliminary results are sufficient to suggest that a large prospective study should be performed to evaluate the role of FDG-PET in primary staging of disease. (orig.)

  7. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma staging by (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, J.T.-C.; Chan, S.-C.; Yen, T.-C.; Liao, C.-T.; Lin, C.-Y.; Lin, K.-J.; Chen, I.-H.; Wang, H.-M.; Chang, Y.-C.; Chen, T.-M.; Kang, C.-J.; Ng, S.-H.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has a high rate of neck lymph node and/or distant metastasis. We evaluated the value of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in staging NPC, especially in the detection of distant metastasis. Methods and materials: A total of 95 patients, including 85 with primary and 10 with recurrent, NPC were enrolled. Dual-phase FDG-PET was used, in addition to the conventional workup. Eighty-one patients without distant metastases underwent repeat studies 3-4 months after initial radical treatment. Results: Of 14 patients with distant metastases, all had lesions detected by FDG-PET, and the conventional workup detected the metastases in only 4. Two patients had false-positive MRI findings for neck node metastasis, but the FDG-PET findings were accurate. Four patients without distant metastases on their initial workup were found to have new lesions on FDG-PET 3-4 months after initial treatment. Patients with advanced node disease had a significantly greater incidence of distant metastases on FDG-PET, especially for N3 disease. Of the 95 patients, the FDG-PET results for distant metastasis were true positive in 14 patients, false positive in 8, and true negative in 73. None of our patients had a false-negative result. For a patient base, the sensitivity and specificity of FDG-PET for distant metastasis was 100% and 90.1% (95% confidence interval 81.5-95.6%), respectively, in this study. The accuracy was 91.6% (95% confidence interval 84.1-96.3%), the positive predictive value was 63.6 (95% confidence interval 40.7-82.8%), and the negative predictive value was 100%. Conclusion: FDG-PET stages N and M disease of NPC more accurately and sensitively than does the conventional workup. Patients with advanced node disease, particularly N3 disease, would benefit the most from FDG-PET

  8. Safe injection procedures, injection practices, and needlestick ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nermine Mohamed Tawfik Foda

    2017-01-10

    Jan 10, 2017 ... Background: Of the estimated 384,000 needle-stick injuries occurring in hospitals each year, 23% occur in surgical settings. This study was conducted to assess safe injection procedures, injection practices, and circumstances contributing to needlestick and sharps injures (NSSIs) in operating rooms.

  9. Randomized, double-blind, crossover study comparing DFN-11 injection (3 mg subcutaneous sumatriptan) with 6 mg subcutaneous sumatriptan for the treatment of rapidly-escalating attacks of episodic migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, Roger K; Munjal, Sagar; Cady, Ryan J; Manley, Heather R; Brand-Schieber, Elimor

    2017-12-01

    A 6-mg dose of SC sumatriptan is the most efficacious and fast-acting acute treatment for migraine, but a 3-mg dose of SC sumatriptan may improve tolerability while maintaining efficacy. This randomized, double-blind, crossover study compared the efficacy and tolerability of 3 mg subcutaneous (SC) sumatriptan (DFN-11) with 6 mg SC sumatriptan in 20 adults with rapidly-escalating migraine attacks. Eligible subjects were randomized (1:1) to treat 1 attack with DFN-11 and matching placebo autoinjector consecutively or 2 DFN-11 autoinjectors consecutively and a second attack similarly but with the alternative dose (3 mg or 6 mg). The proportions of subjects who were pain-free at 60 min postdose, the primary endpoint, were similar following treatment with 3 mg SC sumatriptan and 6 mg SC sumatriptan (50% vs 52.6%, P  =  .87). The proportions of subjects experiencing pain relief (P  ≥  .48); reductions in migraine pain intensity (P  ≥  .78); and relief from nausea, photophobia, or phonophobia (P  ≥  .88) with 3 mg SC sumatriptan and 6 mg SC sumatriptan were similar, as were the mean scores for satisfaction with treatment (M  =  2.6 vs M  =  2.4, P  =  .81) and the mean number of rescue medications used (M  =  .11 vs M  =  .26, P  =  .32). The most common adverse events with the 3- and 6-mg doses were triptan sensations - paresthesia, neck pain, flushing, and involuntary muscle contractions of the neck - and the incidence of adverse events with both doses was similar (32 events total: 3 mg, n  =  14 [44%]; 6 mg, n  =  18 [56%], P  =  .60). Triptan sensations affected 4 subjects with the 6-mg dose only, 1 subject with the 3-mg dose only, and 7 subjects with both sumatriptan doses. Chest pain affected 2 subjects (10%) treated with the 6-mg dose and no subjects (0%) treated with the 3-mg dose of DFN-11. There were no serious adverse events. The 3-mg SC dose

  10. The Double Star mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The Double Star Programme (DSP was first proposed by China in March, 1997 at the Fragrant Hill Workshop on Space Science, Beijing, organized by the Chinese Academy of Science. It is the first mission in collaboration between China and ESA. The mission is made of two spacecraft to investigate the magnetospheric global processes and their response to the interplanetary disturbances in conjunction with the Cluster mission. The first spacecraft, TC-1 (Tan Ce means "Explorer", was launched on 29 December 2003, and the second one, TC-2, on 25 July 2004 on board two Chinese Long March 2C rockets. TC-1 was injected in an equatorial orbit of 570x79000 km altitude with a 28° inclination and TC-2 in a polar orbit of 560x38000 km altitude. The orbits have been designed to complement the Cluster mission by maximizing the time when both Cluster and Double Star are in the same scientific regions. The two missions allow simultaneous observations of the Earth magnetosphere from six points in space. To facilitate the comparison of data, half of the Double Star payload is made of spare or duplicates of the Cluster instruments; the other half is made of Chinese instruments. The science operations are coordinated by the Chinese DSP Scientific Operations Centre (DSOC in Beijing and the European Payload Operations Service (EPOS at RAL, UK. The spacecraft and ground segment operations are performed by the DSP Operations and Management Centre (DOMC and DSOC in China, using three ground station, in Beijing, Shanghai and Villafranca.

  11. Recurrent proliferating trichilemmal tumor with malignant change on the f-18 fluorodeoxyglucose position emission tomography/computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Eun Ha; Kim, Eun Ha; Kim, Young Jun; Yoo, Seol Bong; Nam, Kyung Hwa [Presbyterian Medical Center, Seonam University College of Medicine, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan has been used for the diagnosis, assessment of treatment response, and follow-up of various neoplasms. Proliferating trichilemmal cyst or tumor (PTT) is a rare neoplasm, originated from the outer root sheath of a hair follicle. Because this tumor has unpredictable biological and clinical behavior, the long-term clinical follow-up is necessary to detect metastasis or recurrence. We reported a case of recurrent malignant PTT on scalp that showed increased FDG uptake.

  12. [Use of positron-emission tomography with F18-fluorodeoxyglucose for the assessment of lung lesions suspicious of malignancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jofré, M Josefina; Massardo, Teresa; González, Patricio; Canessa, José; Sierralta, Paulina; Humeres, Pamela; Galaz, Rodrigo; Valdebenito, Robert

    2005-05-01

    Positron-emission tomography (PET) with F18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is very helpful in the evaluation and management of lung lesions. It is specially useful for the characterization of solitary nodules, for the staging, evaluation of recurrence and therapeutic response in non-small cell lung cancer, for the evaluation of small cell lung cancer and for the assessment of pulmonary metastases. This article is a literature review on PET with FDG in lung cancer. A preliminary analysis of PET results at the Military Hospital in Santiago, Chile, is also presented.

  13. Spectrum of fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings of ovarian tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajima, Kazuhiro; Ueno, Yoshiko; Maeda, Tetsuo; Murakami, Koji; Kaji, Yasushi; Kita, Masato; Suzuki, Kayo; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to review fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in a variety of benign, malignant, and borderline malignant ovarian tumors. It is advantageous to become familiar with the wide variety of FDG-PET/CT findings of this entity. Benign ovarian tumors generally have faint uptake, whereas endometriomas, fibromas, and teratomas show mild to moderate uptake. Malignant ovarian tumors generally have intense uptake, whereas tumors with a small solid component often show minimal uptake.

  14. Use of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in the detection of silent metastases from malignant melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Annika Loft; Andersson, A P; Dahlstrøm, K

    2000-01-01

    Correct staging is crucial for the management and prognosis of patients with malignant melanoma. The aim of this prospective study was to compare staging by whole-body positron emission tomography using fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) with staging by conventional methods. Thirty......-eight patients with malignant melanoma of clinical stage II (local recurrence, in-transit and regional lymph node metastases) or III (metastases to other sites than in stage II) were included in the study. The results of the PET scans were compared with those obtained by clinical examination, computed tomography...

  15. Left is right and right is wrong: fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in left hemi-diaphragm due to right phrenic nerve palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Prathamesh; Lele, Vikram

    2013-01-01

    A 36-year-old Indian man, a recently diagnosed case of the right lung carcinoma underwent fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) for staging of the malignancy. PET/CT showed increased FDG uptake in the right lung mass, consistent with the known primary tumor. Right hemidiaphragm was found to be elevated on CT, suggesting right diaphragmatic paresis. The PET scan demonstrated asymmetric, intense FDG uptake in the left hemidiaphragm and accessory muscles of respiration, which was possibly due to compensatory increased workload related to contralateral right diaphragmatic paresis. The right diaphragmatic paresis was hypothesized to be caused by phrenic nerve palsy by right lung neoplasm. (author)

  16. Left is right and right is wrong: Fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in left hemi-diaphragm due to right phrenic nerve palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Prathamesh; Lele, Vikram

    2013-01-01

    A 36-year-old Indian man, a recently diagnosed case of the right lung carcinoma underwent fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) for staging of the malignancy. PET/CT showed increased FDG uptake in the right lung mass, consistent with the known primary tumor. Right hemidiaphragm was found to be elevated on CT, suggesting right diaphragmatic paresis. The PET scan demonstrated asymmetric, intense FDG uptake in the left hemidiaphragm and accessory muscles of respiration, which was possibly due to compensatory increased workload related to contralateral right diaphragmatic paresis. The right diaphragmatic paresis was hypothesized to be caused by phrenic nerve palsy by right lung neoplasm.

  17. Contrast-enhanced 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in immunoglobulin G4-related retroperitoneal fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Punit; Chatterjee, Piyali

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease encompasses a wide variety of immune disorders previously thought be distinct. IgG4-related retroperitoneal fibrosis is one such entity. Metabolic imaging with 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) can be useful in the management of IgG4-related retroperitoneal fibrosis. We here discuss the case of 63-year-old male with IgG4-related retroperitoneal fibrosis and the role, 18 F-FDG PET/CT played in his management

  18. 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI as imaging biomarkers in malignant pleural mesothelioma

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, D. O.; Hooper, C. E.; Searle, J.; Darby, M.; White, P.; Harvey, J. E.; Braybrooke, J. P.; Maskell, N. A.; Masani, V.; Lyburn, I. D.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose\\ud \\ud The purpose of this study was to compare the use of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET with computed tomography (CT) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI to predict prognosis and monitor treatment in malignant pleural mesothelioma.\\ud \\ud Patients and methods\\ud \\ud 18F-FDG PET/CT and DCE-MRI studies carried out as part of the South West Area Mesothelioma Pemetrexed trial were used. 18F-FDG PET/CT and DCE-MRI studies were carried out before treatment, and after two...

  19. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  20. Calcitonin Salmon Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcitonin salmon injection is used to treat osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Osteoporosis is a disease that causes bones to weaken and break more easily. Calcitonin salmon injection is also used to treat Paget's disease ...

  1. Iron Dextran Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron dextran injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood cells ... treated with iron supplements taken by mouth. Iron dextran injection is in a class of medications called ...

  2. Aminocaproic Acid Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminocaproic acid injection is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid injection is also used to control bleeding in ...

  3. Cluster beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottiglioni, F.; Coutant, J.; Fois, M.

    1978-01-01

    Areas of possible applications of cluster injection are discussed. The deposition inside the plasma of molecules, issued from the dissociation of the injected clusters, has been computed. Some empirical scaling laws for the penetration are given

  4. Antigen injection (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leprosy is caused by the organism Mycobacterium leprae . The leprosy test involves injection of an antigen just under ... if your body has a current or recent leprosy infection. The injection site is labeled and examined ...

  5. 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography for preoperative lymph node staging in patients undergoing radical cystectomy for bladder cancer: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitier-Berthault, Maryam; Ansquer, Catherine; Branchereau, Julien; Renaudin, Karine; Bodere, Françoise; Bouchot, Olivier; Rigaud, Jérôme

    2013-08-01

    The objective of our study was to analyze the diagnostic performance of (18) F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography for lymph node staging in patients with bladder cancer before radical cystectomy and to compare it with that of computed tomography. A total of 52 patients operated on between 2005 and 2010 were prospectively included in this prospective, mono-institutional, open, non-randomized pilot study. Patients who had received neoadjuvant chemotherapy or radiotherapy were excluded. (18) F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography in addition to computed tomography was carried out for lymph node staging of bladder cancer before radical cystectomy. Lymph node dissection during radical cystectomy was carried out. Findings from (18) F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography and computed tomography were compared with the results of definitive histological examination of the lymph node dissection. The diagnostic performance of the two imaging modalities was assessed and compared. The mean number of lymph nodes removed during lymph node dissection was 16.5 ± 10.9. Lymph node metastasis was confirmed on histological examination in 22 cases (42.3%). This had been suspected in five cases (9.6%) on computed tomography and in 12 cases (23.1%) on (18) F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, relative risk and accuracy were 9.1%, 90%, 40%, 57.4%, 0.91 and 55.7%, respectively, for computed tomography, and 36.4%, 86.7%, 66.7%, 65%, 2.72, 65.4%, respectively, for (18) F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography. (18) F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography is more reliable than computed tomography for preoperative lymph node staging in patients with invasive bladder carcinoma undergoing radical cystectomy. © 2012 The Japanese

  6. Role of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography imaging in surgery for pancreatic cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hisao Wakabayashi; Yoshihiro Nishiyama; Tsuyoshi Otani; Takanori Sano; Shinichi Yachida; Keiichi Okano; Kunihiko Izuishi; Yasuyuki Suzuki

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the role of positron emission tomo- graphy using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET) in the surgical management of patients with pancreatic cancer,including the diagnosis, staging, and selection of patients for the subsequent surgical treatment.METHODS: This study involved 53 patients with proven primary pancreatic cancer. The sensitivity of diagnosing the primary cancer was examined for FDG-PET, CT,cytological examination of the bile or pancreatic juice,and the serum levels of carcinoembrionic antigens (CEA) and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9). Next, the accuracy of staging was compared between FDG-PET and CT. Finally, FDG-PET was analyzed semiquantitatively using the standard uptake value (SUV). The impact of the SUV on patient management was evaluated by examining the correlations between the SUV and the histological findings of cancer.RESULTS: The sensitivity of FDG-PET, CT, cytological examination of the bile or pancreatic juice, and the serum levels of CEA and CA19-9 were 92.5%, 88.7%, 46.4%, 37.7% and 69.8%, respectively. In staging, FDG-PET was superior to CT only in diagnosing distant disease (bone metastasis). For local staging, the sensitivity of CT was better than that of FDG-PET. The SUV did not correlate with the pTNM stage, grades, invasions to the vessels and nerve, or with the size of the tumor. However, there was a statistically significant difference (4.6±2.9 vs 7.8±4.5, P = 0.024) in the SUV between patients with respectable and unresectable disease. CONCLUSION: FDG-PET is thus considered to be useful in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. However, regarding the staging of the disease, FDG-PET is not considered to be a sufficiently accurate diagnostic modality. Although the SUV does not correlate with the patho-histological prognostic factors, it may be useful in selecting patients who should undergo subsequent surgical treatment.

  7. Brain fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (¹⁸FDG PET) in patients with acute thallium intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C H; Lin, K J; Wang, H M; Kuo, H C; Chuang, W L; Weng, Y H; Shih, T S; Huang, C C

    2013-03-01

    Thallium toxicity induces cellular injury through impaired Na-K-ATPase activity. The aim of this study was to investigate functional imaging and the long-term clinical-imaging correlations of thallium toxicity. We measured thallium concentrations in blood, urine, stools, and hair of a 48-year-old woman and a 52-year-old man (patients 1 and 2) in the first 3 months after exposure to thallium containing water, and studied their neuropsychological functions. Using fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18)FDG PET) scans, we examined the brain involvement and correlated the image findings with the clinical presentations. On the 1st, 30th, and 61st days after exposure, the thallium concentrations in patient 1 were 2056, 311, and 7.5 μg/L in the blood, and 11400, 4570, and 36.4 μg/L in the urine. The concentrations in patient 2 were 956, 235, and 15.6 μg/L in the blood, and 11900, 2670, and 101 μg/L in the urine. On the 40th, 50th and 89th days after exposure, the thallium concentration in the stools were 21.6, 3.6, and 0.35 μg/g in patient 1, and 22.2, 3.2, and 0.37 μg/g in patient 2. Executive function, perceptual motor speed, and learning memory were initially abnormal but recovered particularly within the first year. The first (18)FDG PET studies of both patients disclosed a decreased uptake of glucose metabolism in the cingulate gyrus, bilateral frontal, and parietal lobes 2-5 months after exposure. The follow-up (18)FDG PET scan of patient 2 revealed a partial recovery. This study indicates that damage to the central nervous system after acute thallium poisoning may be reversible after a long-term follow-up. Brain (18)FDG PET demonstrated the brain involvement and was correlated with cognitive impairment.

  8. Pitfalls of fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography-CT in tuberculosis mimicking malignancy in 60 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xinlu; Yin Jilin; Zhang Jinhe; Ou Yangxi; Zhou Zheng; Quan Jiangtao; Zhang Weibiao; Zheng Hui

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the pitfalls of "1"8F fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computer tomography (PET-CT) scan in the diagnosis of 60 patients of tuberculosis mimicking malignancy. Methods: The study included 60 patients with PET-CT diagnosis of probable malignancy. Fifty patients were proved to be tuberculosis by pathological examinations and 10 were diagnosed by clinical followup. The images of whole body were acquired at 60 min after administration of 222-555 MBq "1"8F-FDG. The PET-CT imaging characteristics and clinical data, including lesion size, distribution, standardized uptake value (SUV) were retrospectively analyzed. After the whole body scan of PET-CT, each patient had a chest spiral CT scan for detailed observation of lung lesions. Contrast enhanced CT (CECT) was performed in 8 patients. Results: (1)Thirty patients were misdiagnosed as lung cancer, 14 patients as malignant lymphoma, 6 patients as malignant mesothelioma, 3 as intestine carcinoma, 2 as bone malignancy, 1 patient as hepatocarcinoma, spleen malignancy, ovarian cancer, laryngocarcinoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma respectively. (2) 90.9% (20/22) of patients showed normal level of serum CEA and 100% (13/13) of patients showed normal level of CA199. Increasing serum CA125 was found in all patients (6/6) with active TB patients accompanied with ascites, pleural fluid and (or) pericardial effusion. (3) 93.3% (28/30) active tuberculosis showed accumulated "1"8F-FDG which was incorrectly interpreted as malignancy. The most common sites of TB lymphadenopathy were bilateral cervical tissues, which was accounted for 85.7% (12/14). CECT revealed characteristics of peripheral enhancement and central necrosis in tubercular lymphadenopathy, which was 87.5% (7/8). Conclusions: The diverse manifestations of TB on imaging and high uptake of "1"8F-FDG on PET imaging result in misdiagnosis of malignancy. It is important for radiologists and nuclear medicine physicians to identify the

  9. Estimation of radiation dose received by the radiation worker during 18F FDG injection process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, Ashish Kumar; Zade, Anand; Rangarajan, Venkatesh

    2011-01-01

    The radiation dosimetric literature concerning the medical and non-medical personnel working in nuclear medicine departments are limited, particularly radiation doses received by radiation worker in nuclear medicine department during positron emission tomography (PET) radiopharmaceutical injection process. This is of interest and concern for the personnel. To measure the radiation dose received by the staff involved in injection process of Fluorine-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). The effective whole body doses to the radiation workers involved in injections of 1511 patients over a period of 10 weeks were evaluated using pocket dosimeter. Each patient was injected with 5 MBq/kg of 18 F FDG. The 18 F-FDG injection protocol followed in our department is as follows. The technologist dispenses the dose to be injected and records the pre-injection activity. The nursing staff members then secure an intravenous catheter. The nuclear medicine physicians/residents inject the dose on a rotation basis in accordance with ALARA principle. After the injection of the tracer, the nursing staff members flush the intravenous catheter. The person who injected the tracer then measures the post-injection residual dose in the syringe. The mean effective whole body doses per injection for the staff were the following: Nurses received 1.44 ± 0.22 μSv/injection (3.71 ± 0.48 nSv/MBq), for doctors the dose values were 2.44 ± 0.25 μSv/injection (6.29 ± 0.49 nSv/MBq) and for technologists the doses were 0.61 ± 0.10 μSv/injection (1.58 ± 0.21 nSv/MBq). It was seen that the mean effective whole body dose per injection of our positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) staff who were involved in the 18 F-FDG injection process was maximum for doctors (54.34% differential doses), followed by nurses (32.02% differential doses) and technologist (13.64% differential doses). This study confirms that low levels of radiation dose are received by staff during 18 F-FDG injection and

  10. Double inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.; Turner, M.S.

    1986-04-01

    The Zel'dovich spectrum of adiabatic density perturbations is a generic prediction of inflation. There is increasing evidence that when the spectrum is normalized by observational data on small scales, there is not enough power on large scales to account for the observed large-scale structure in the Universe. Decoupling the spectrum on large and small scales could solve this problem. As a means of decoupling the large and small scales we propose double inflation (i.e., two episodes of inflation). In this scenario the spectrum on large scales is determined by the first episode of inflation and those on small scales by a second episode of inflation. We present three models for such a scenario. By nearly saturating the large angular-scale cosmic microwave anisotropy bound, we can easily account for the observed large-scale structure. We take the perturbations on small scales to be very large, deltarho/rho approx. = 0.1 to 0.01, which results in the production of primordial black holes (PBHs), early formation of structure, reionization of the Universe, and a rich array of astrophysical events. The Ω-problem is also addressed by our scenario. Allowing the density perturbations produced by the second episode of inflation to be large also lessens the fine-tuning required in the scalar potential and makes reheating much easier. We briefly speculate on the possibility that the second episode of inflation proceeds through the nucleation of bubbles, which today manifest themselves as empty bubbles whose surfaces are covered with galaxies. 37 refs., 1 fig

  11. Double Outlet Right Ventricle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Right Ventricle Menu Topics Topics FAQs Double Outlet Right Ventricle Double outlet right ventricle (DORV) is a rare form of congenital heart disease. En español Double outlet right ventricle (DORV) is a rare form of congenital ...

  12. Double-phase 18F-FDG PET-CT for determination of pulmonary tuberculoma activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In-Ju; Kim, Seong-Jang; Kim, Yong-Ki; Lee, Jung Sub; Jeong, Yeon Joo; Jun, Sungmin; Nam, Hyun Yul; Kim, Ju Sung

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential role of double phase acquisition of 18 F fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) for the differentiation of active pulmonary tuberculoma. A total of 25 consecutive patients with pulmonary tuberculoma were enrolled. PET/CT imaging was performed 60 (range 53-71) and 120 min (range 109-131) after injection of 18 F-FDG. The intensity of 18 F-FDG uptake by pulmonary lesions was assessed visually, and the intensity was scored with a four-point scale (grade 1: absent, grade 2: faint, grade 3: moderate, grade 4: intense). Active tuberculoma shows statistically significant higher values in maximal standardized uptake values SUV maxE (active = 2.3 ± 0.75, inactive 0.79 ± 0.15), SUV maxD (active = 2.48 ± 0.79, inactive = 0.75 ± 0.13), and %ΔSUV max (active = 8.07 ± 7.77%, inactive = -3.83 ± 6.59) than those of inactive tuberculoma. When greater than or equal to visual grade 2 was used as the cutoff value, the sensitivity and specificity were 100 and 81.8%. When SUV maxE 1.05 was used as the cutoff point, the sensitivity and specificity were 100 and 100%. When SUV maxD 0.97 was used as the cutoff value, the sensitivity and specificity were 92.8 and 100%. When %ΔSUV max 6.59 was used as the cutoff value, the sensitivity and specificity were 71.4 and 100%. The %ΔSUV max was the potent predictor by logistic regression analysis. The ΔSUV max is a potential predictor for activity of pulmonary tuberculoma. However, the diagnostic performances were similar between visual and quantitative analyses. The visual assessment may be sufficient for determination of pulmonary tuberculoma activity. Further studies are needed to confirm these results and improve statistical accuracy. (orig.)

  13. (18)F-Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography in Malignancies of the Thyroid and in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Jeppe Kiilerich; Rohde, Max; Thomassen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) is a valuable diagnostic tool in a spectrum of malignant and benign conditions, because of a high sensitivity to detect even very small lesions with increased metabolism. This review focuses on the use of FDG...

  14. Reduced glucose metabolism in the frontal cortex and basal ganglia of multiple sclerosis patients with fatigue : A F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelcke, U; Kappos, L; LechnerScott, J; Brunnschweiler, H; Ammann, W; Plohmann, A; Dellas, S; Maguire, RP; Missimer, J; Radu, EW; Steck, A; Leenders, KL

    To investigate the pathophysiology of fatigue in MS, we assessed cerebral glucose metabolism (CMRGlu) in 47 MS patients using PET and F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose. Applying the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), we first compared MS patients with severe fatigue (MS-FAT, n = 19, FSS > 4.9) and MS patients

  15. Double hard scattering without double counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, Markus [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Gaunt, Jonathan R. [VU Univ. Amsterdam (Netherlands). NIKHEF Theory Group; Schoenwald, Kay [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    Double parton scattering in proton-proton collisions includes kinematic regions in which two partons inside a proton originate from the perturbative splitting of a single parton. This leads to a double counting problem between single and double hard scattering. We present a solution to this problem, which allows for the definition of double parton distributions as operator matrix elements in a proton, and which can be used at higher orders in perturbation theory. We show how the evaluation of double hard scattering in this framework can provide a rough estimate for the size of the higher-order contributions to single hard scattering that are affected by double counting. In a numeric study, we identify situations in which these higher-order contributions must be explicitly calculated and included if one wants to attain an accuracy at which double hard scattering becomes relevant, and other situations where such contributions may be neglected.

  16. Double hard scattering without double counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, Markus; Gaunt, Jonathan R.

    2017-02-01

    Double parton scattering in proton-proton collisions includes kinematic regions in which two partons inside a proton originate from the perturbative splitting of a single parton. This leads to a double counting problem between single and double hard scattering. We present a solution to this problem, which allows for the definition of double parton distributions as operator matrix elements in a proton, and which can be used at higher orders in perturbation theory. We show how the evaluation of double hard scattering in this framework can provide a rough estimate for the size of the higher-order contributions to single hard scattering that are affected by double counting. In a numeric study, we identify situations in which these higher-order contributions must be explicitly calculated and included if one wants to attain an accuracy at which double hard scattering becomes relevant, and other situations where such contributions may be neglected.

  17. SQL injection detection system

    OpenAIRE

    Vargonas, Vytautas

    2017-01-01

    SQL injection detection system Programmers do not always ensure security of developed systems. That is why it is important to look for solutions outside being reliant on developers. In this work SQL injection detection system is proposed. The system analyzes HTTP request parameters and detects intrusions. It is based on unsupervised machine learning. Trained by regular request data system detects outlier user parameters. Since training is not reliant on previous knowledge of SQL injections, t...

  18. Improvement of depressive symptoms in patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis treated with ustekinumab: an open label trial validated using beck depression inventory, Hamilton depression rating scale measures and 18fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Jang; Park, Min-Young; Pak, Kyoungjune; Han, Junhee; Kim, Gun-Wook; Kim, Hoon-Soo; Ko, Hyun-Chang; Kim, Moon-Bum; Kim, Byung-Soo

    2018-05-07

    Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease associated with psychiatric co-morbidities, especially depression. Early detection of psychological vulnerability in patients with psoriasis seems to be of great clinical importance and significantly impacts the quality of life of the patients. We sought to clarify the association between psoriasis and depressive symptoms in patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis, and to determine the risk factors for depressive symptoms and analyze the effect of ustekinumab on the symptoms. We also aimed to evaluate the changes in glucose metabolism using 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). Fifteen patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis scheduled to be treated with ustekinumab were enrolled. At baseline and after achieving a 75% reduction in the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) score (PASI75), all patients underwent a psychiatric interview and FDG-PET. Fifteen healthy volunteers were enrolled for comparison. Patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis were more depressed than those in the control group were (p Inventory and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale psychiatric interviews (p < .05). However, FDG-PET of the brain showed no significant difference before and after PASI75 achievement using ustekinumab injection. Patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis are at an increased risk for depressive symptoms, and treatment with ustekinumab may be beneficial. FDG-PET does not reflect the changes in depressive symptoms in such patients.

  19. Piezoelectric Injection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, R.; Lubitz, K.

    The origin of direct injection can be doubtlessly attributed to Rudolf Diesel who used air assisted injection for fuel atomisation in his first self-ignition engine. Although it became apparent already at that time that direct injection leads to reduced specific fuel consumption compared to other methods of fuel injection, it was not used in passenger cars for the moment because of its disadvantageous noise generation as the requirements with regard to comfort were seen as more important than a reduced specific consumption.

  20. Urinary incontinence - injectable implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... repair; ISD repair; Injectable bulking agents for stress urinary incontinence ... and disorders: physiology of micturition, voiding dysfunction, urinary incontinence, urinary tract infections, and painful bladder syndrome. In: Lobo ...

  1. Lesson of the month 1: Large vessel vasculitis - a diagnostic challenge and the role of 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, Andrew; Mootoo, Ramesh

    2017-07-01

    Large vessel vasculitis can pose a significant diagnostic challenge. It may be insidious in onset with the only presenting symptoms consisting of constitutional compromise. It may mimic other pathologies and the only serological abnormalities may be abnormal inflammatory markers. Conventional imaging modalities may not be diagnostic. We present a case of large vessel vasculitis that proved a significant diagnostic challenge with diagnosis established on 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) computerised tomography (CT) imaging. This is one of five cases of large vessel vasculitis that were diagnosed in the rheumatology department at our trust over a 12-month period with diagnosis established with the use of 18F-FDG PET CT. We discuss the advantages of 18F-FDG PET CT over more conventional imaging modalities in diagnosing large vessel vasculitis. © Royal College of Physicians 2017. All rights reserved.

  2. Imaging spectrum and pitfalls of ¹⁸F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in patients with tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kimiteru; Morooka, Miyako; Minamimoto, Ryogo; Miyata, Yoko; Okasaki, Momoko; Kubota, Kazuo

    2013-08-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most prominant diseases frequently causing false positive lesions in oncologic surveys using (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT), since TB granulomas are composed of activated macrophages and lymphocytes with high affinity for glucose. These pitfalls of (18)F-FDG PET/CT are important for radiologists. Being familiar with (18)F-FDG images of TB could assist in preventing unfavorable clinical results based on misdiagnoses. In addition, (18)F-FDG PET/CT has the advantage of being able to screen the whole body, and can clearly detect harboring TB lesions as high uptake foci. This article details the spectrum and pitfalls of (18)F-FDG PET/CT imaging in TB.

  3. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings of primary intracranial histiocytic sarcoma in a dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, B.T.; Park, C.; Yoo, J.H.; Gu, S.H.; Jang, D.P.; Kim, Y.B.; Woo, E.J.; Kim, D.Y.; Cho, Z.H.; Park, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    A 10-year-old, neutered male, Maltese dog presented with a three week history of intention tremor, right hind limb rigidity, poor coordination, and occasional circling to the left. On magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain, a mass was identified in the right occipital lobe and cerebellum. Three weeks after the initial MRI scan, we performed an sup(18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) of the brain. The FDG-PET demonstrated areas of hypermetabolism in the right occipital lobe, cerebellum, pons, and medulla oblongata. When the standardized uptake value was calculated, the hypermetabolic lesion was higher than the gray matter values. The anatomical location of the hypermetabolic lesion was more precisely identified by the PET-MRI fusion images. The dog was definitively diagnosed as a primary histiocytic sarcoma of the brain. This is the first report of PET findings of an intracranial histiocytic sarcoma in a dog

  4. Acute Calculous Cholecystitis Missed on Computed Tomography and Ultrasound but Diagnosed with Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Mari Aparici

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a 69-year-old patient who underwent ascending aortic aneurysm repair with aortic valve replacement. On postsurgical day 12, he developed leukocytosis and low-grade fevers. The chest computed tomography (CT showed a periaortic hematoma which represents a postsurgical change from aortic aneurysm repair, and a small pericardial effusion. The abdominal ultrasound showed cholelithiasis without any sign of cholecystitis. Finally, a fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-positron emission tomography (PET/CT examination was ordered to find the cause of fever of unknown origin, and it showed increased FDG uptake in the gallbladder wall, with no uptake in the lumen. FDG-PET/CT can diagnose acute cholecystitis in patients with nonspecific clinical symptoms and laboratory results.

  5. Bitemporal hypometabolism in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease measured by positron emission tomography with [18F]-2-fluorodeoxyglucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedland, R.P.; Prusiner, S.B.; Jagust, W.J.; Budinger, T.F.; Davis, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    It is well established that Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is caused by a slow infectious agent similar to the scrapie prion. However, the pathogenesis of this infection is poorly understood. Positron emission tomography (PET) was performed on a 54-year-old man with autopsy confirmed CJD using [18F]-2-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and the Donner 280-crystal tomograph. Temporal lobe hypometabolism with hemispheric asymmetry was observed. These findings are similar to those previously obtained in PET-FDG studies of patients with clinically defined Alzheimer disease (AD). The similarities in the regional metabolic alterations between CJD and AD provide additional evidence for the possibility that AD may be caused by a slow infectious prion

  6. Pulmonary suture abscess with false-positive 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission scan mimicking lung cancer recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Teruo; Nakagawa, Katsuhiro; Katsura, Hiroshi; Nakane, Shigeru; Kawahara, Kunimitsu; Fukuda, Haruyuki

    2006-08-01

    We present the case of a 57-year-old woman with pulmonary suture abscess. She had undergone right S3 segmentectomy for early lung adenocarcinoma 7 years before and right breast-conserving surgery for invasive ductal carcinoma 5 months previously, followed by irradiation plus endocrine therapy. Chest radiography and computed tomography revealed an irregular mass (3.5 cm in diameter) between the residual S1 segment and the middle lobe, neighboring the staple line of the segmentectomy. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake into the mass increased, seen by positron emission scans. Therefore, we could not rule out the possibility of local recurrence of lung cancer and resected it. Pathologically and microbiologically, the mass was a suture abscess arising around the nylon suture of the previous segmentectomy. This lesion was the result of a foreign-body reaction, as confirmed by polarized microscopy. Moreover, titanium staples at the segmentectomy and breast-conserving surgery may also have contributed to this condition.

  7. Contrast-enhanced fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in solid pseudopapillary neoplasm of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santhosh, Sampath; Lakshmanan, Ramesh Kumar; Sonik, Bhavay; Padmavathy, Rajagopalan; Gunaseelan, Rajamani Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Solid pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPN) of the pancreas is a rare pancreatic tumor with low malignant potential. It occurs characteristically more often in young women. Radiological and pathological studies have revealed that the tumor is quite different from other pancreatic tumors. Limited information is available in the literature reporting their accumulation of fluorine- 18 fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) in positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). Here, we report a case of pancreatic SPN imaged with contrast-enhanced FDG PET/CT. A percutaneous fine needle aspiration from the metabolically active lesion revealed SPN, and it was confirmed with histopathological results. Recurrence or metastasis was not found after 7 months of follow-up

  8. Forced diuresis 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/contrast enhanced in detection of carcinoma of urinary bladder diverticulum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soundararajan, Ramya; Singh, Harmandeep; Arora, Saurabh; Nayak, Brusabhanu; Shamim, Shamim Ahmed; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Kumar, Rakesh

    2015-01-01

    Urinary bladder diverticular carcinomas are uncommon with a lesser incidence of 0.8–10% and its diagnosis still remains a challenge. Cystoscopy is the most reliable method, but evaluating diverticulum with narrow orifices is difficult. Before the initiation of appropriate treatment, proper detection of bladder diverticular carcinoma and its locoregional and distant sites of involvement is necessary. Here, we present a case of 48-year-old male with urinary bladder diverticular carcinoma detected by forced diuretic 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computerized tomography ( 18 F-FDG PET/CT). This case also highlights the significance of forced diuretic 18 F-FDG PET/CT in the detection, staging, and response evaluation of bladder diverticular carcinoma

  9. Emission computed tomography of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose and 13N-ammonia in stroke and epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhl, D.E.; Phelps, M.E.; Engel, J. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The ECAT Positron Tomograph was used to scan normal control subjects, stroke patients at various times during recovery, and patients with partial epilepsy during EEG monitoring. 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 FDG) and 13 N-Ammonia ( 13 NH 3 ) were used as indicators of abnormalities in local cerebral glucose utilization (LCMR/sub glc/) and relative perfusion, respectively. Hypometabolism, due to deactivation or minimal damage, was demonstrated with the 18 FDG scan in deep structures and broad zones of cerebral cortex which appeared normal on x-ray CT (XCT) and /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate scans. In patients with partial epilepsy, who had unilateral or focal electrical abnormalities, interictal 18 FDG scan patterns clearly showed localized regions of decreased (20 to 50%) LCMR/sub glc/, which correlated anatomically with the eventual EEG localization

  10. Cerebral metabolic rates for glucose in mood disorders. Studies with positron emission tomography and fluorodeoxyglucose F 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, L.R. Jr.; Phelps, M.E.; Mazziotta, J.C.; Schwartz, J.M.; Gerner, R.H.; Selin, C.E.; Sumida, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    Cerebral metabolic rates for glucose were examined in patients with unipolar depression (N = 11), bipolar depression (N = 5), mania (N = 5), bipolar mixed states (N = 3), and in normal controls (N = 9) using positron emission tomography and fluorodeoxyglucose F 18. All subjects were studied supine under ambient room conditions with eyes open. Bipolar depressed and mixed patients had supratentorial whole brain glucose metabolic rates that were significantly lower than those of the other comparison groups. The whole brain metabolic rates for patients with bipolar depression increased going from depression or a mixed state to a euthymic or manic state. Patients with unipolar depression showed a significantly lower ratio of the metabolic rate of the caudate nucleus, divided by that of the hemisphere as a whole, when compared with normal controls and patients with bipolar depression

  11. Bitemporal hypometabolism in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease measured by positron emission tomography with (/sup 18/F)-2-fluorodeoxyglucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedland, R.P.; Prusiner, S.B.; Jagust, W.J.; Budinger, T.F.; Davis, R.L.

    1984-10-01

    It is well established that Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is caused by a slow infectious agent similar to the scrapie prion. However, the pathogenesis of this infection is poorly understood. Positron emission tomography (PET) was performed on a 54-year-old man with autopsy confirmed CJD using (18F)-2-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and the Donner 280-crystal tomograph. Temporal lobe hypometabolism with hemispheric asymmetry was observed. These findings are similar to those previously obtained in PET-FDG studies of patients with clinically defined Alzheimer disease (AD). The similarities in the regional metabolic alterations between CJD and AD provide additional evidence for the possibility that AD may be caused by a slow infectious prion.

  12. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography findings in a patient with cerebellar mutism after operation in posterior fossa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonca Kara Gedik

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cerebellar mutism is a transient period of speechlessness that evolves after posterior fossa surgery in children. Although direct cerebellar and brain stem injury and supratentorial dysfunction have been implicated in the mediation of mutism, the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the evolution of this kind of mutism remain unclear. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed dentatothalamocortical tract injuries and single photon emission computed tomography showed cerebellar and cerebral hypoperfusion in patients with cerebellar mutism. However, findings with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT in this group of patients have not been documented previously. In this clinical case, we report a patient who experienced cerebellar mutism after undergoing a posterior fossa surgery. Right cerebellar and left frontal lobe hypometabolism was shown using FDG PET/CT. The FDG metabolism of both the cerebellum and the frontal lobe returned to normal levels after the resolution of the mutism symptoms.

  13. Potential clinical applications of {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose position emission tomography/magnetic resonance mammography in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Ihn Ho; Kong, Eun Jung [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Yeugnam University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    The whole-body positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance (MR) scan is a cutting edge technology providing comprehensive structural information from MR imaging and functional features from PET in a single session. Recent research findings and clinical experience have shown that 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) whole-body PET/MR imaging has a diagnostic performance comparable with or superior to that of PET/CT in the field of oncology, including for breast cancer. In particular, FDG PET/MR mammography in the prone position with the breast hanging in a pendant manner can provide more comprehensive information about the metabolism, anatomy, and functional features of a breast lesion than a whole-body PET/MR scan. This article reports on current state-of-the-art PET/MR mammography in patients with breast cancer and the prospects for potential application in the future.

  14. Electron injection in microtron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axinescu, S.

    1977-01-01

    A review of the methods of injecting electrons in the microtron is presented. A special attention is paid to efficient injection systems developed by Wernholm and Kapitza. A comparison of advantages and disadvantages of both systems is made in relation to the purpose of the microtron. (author)

  15. Glenohumeral Joint Injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Christopher; Dhawan, Aman; Harwood, Daniel; Gochanour, Eric; Romeo, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Context: Intra-articular injections into the glenohumeral joint are commonly performed by musculoskeletal providers, including orthopaedic surgeons, family medicine physicians, rheumatologists, and physician assistants. Despite their frequent use, there is little guidance for injectable treatments to the glenohumeral joint for conditions such as osteoarthritis, adhesive capsulitis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Evidence Acquisition: We performed a comprehensive review of the available literature on glenohumeral injections to help clarify the current evidence-based practice and identify deficits in our understanding. We searched MEDLINE (1948 to December 2011 [week 1]) and EMBASE (1980 to 2011 [week 49]) using various permutations of intra-articular injections AND (corticosteroid OR hyaluronic acid) and (adhesive capsulitis OR arthritis). Results: We identified 1 and 7 studies that investigated intra-articular corticosteroid injections for the treatment of osteoarthritis and adhesive capsulitis, respectively. Two and 3 studies investigated the use of hyaluronic acid in osteoarthritis and adhesive capsulitis, respectively. One study compared corticosteroids and hyaluronic acid injections in the treatment of osteoarthritis, and another discussed adhesive capsulitis. Conclusion: Based on existing studies and their level of evidence, there is only expert opinion to guide corticosteroid injection for osteoarthritis as well as hyaluronic acid injection for osteoarthritis and adhesive capsulitis. PMID:24427384

  16. Dimethyl Ether Injection Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorenson, Spencer C.; Glensvig, Michael; Abata, Duane L.

    1998-01-01

    A series of preliminary investigations has been performed in order to investigate the behavior of DME in a diesel injection environment. These studies have in-cluded visual observations of the spray penetration and angles for high pressure injection into Nitrogen using conventional jerk pump inje...

  17. Is enteral administration of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) a palatable alternative to IV injection? Pre-clinical evaluation in normal rodents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higashi, T. E-mail: higashi@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Fisher, S.J.; Nakada, K.; Romain, D.J.; Wahl, R.L

    2002-04-01

    To establish effective methods of enteral 2-[18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) administration, the efficiency of FDG absorption in the gastrointestinal tracts following enteral administrations was evaluated using the FDG biodistribution in normal rodents, in combination with various fasting conditions and FDG diluents. The blood FDG curve using hypotonic solution showed a rapid increase, while that in iso- and hypertonic groups showed slow rises. Brain FDG uptake had a close positive correlation with blood AUC (area under curve) and an inverse relationship with the stomach contents.

  18. Is enteral administration of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) a palatable alternative to IV injection? Pre-clinical evaluation in normal rodents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashi, T.; Fisher, S.J.; Nakada, K.; Romain, D.J.; Wahl, R.L.

    2002-01-01

    To establish effective methods of enteral 2-[18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) administration, the efficiency of FDG absorption in the gastrointestinal tracts following enteral administrations was evaluated using the FDG biodistribution in normal rodents, in combination with various fasting conditions and FDG diluents. The blood FDG curve using hypotonic solution showed a rapid increase, while that in iso- and hypertonic groups showed slow rises. Brain FDG uptake had a close positive correlation with blood AUC (area under curve) and an inverse relationship with the stomach contents

  19. THE RHIC INJECTION SYSTEM.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FISCHER,W.; GLENN,J.W.; MACKAY,W.W.; PTITSIN,V.; ROBINSON,T.G.; TSOUPAS,N.

    1999-03-29

    The RHIC injection system has to transport beam from the AGS-to-RHIC transfer line onto the closed orbits of the RHIC Blue and Yellow rings. This task can be divided into three problems. First, the beam has to be injected into either ring. Second, once injected the beam needs to be transported around the ring for one turn. Third, the orbit must be closed and coherent beam oscillations around the closed orbit should be minimized. We describe our solutions for these problems and report on system tests conducted during the RHIC Sextant test performed in 1997. The system will be fully commissioned in 1999.

  20. Injection moulding antireflective nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2014-01-01

    We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used in an inject......We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used...

  1. Injection moulding antireflective nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Mortensen, N. Asger

    We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used in an inject......We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used...

  2. Doses to nuclear technicians in a dedicated PET/CT centre utilising 18F fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seierstad, T.; Stranden, E.; Bjering, K.; Evensen, M.; Holt, A.; Michalsen, H. M.; Wetteland, O.

    2007-01-01

    The first dedicated PET/CT centre in Norway was established at the Norwegian Radiumhospital in Oslo in 2005. Knowing that the introductions of PET-isotopes in nuclear medicine give increased occupational radiation dose to the technicians, a study was carried out in order to map the doses to staff members during different working operations and to see if any dose reducing measures were needed. The results of the study are in good agreement with other studies, and a technician dose of 20-25 nSv per injected MBq of 18 F seems to be representative for such centres. For an average injected activity of 350 MBq per patient, the dose limit is reached after handling around 3000 patients annually. For an annual number of less than 500 patients at the centre and rotation of the staff, an annual individual dose for the technicians would realistically be less than 2-3 mSv. Even a major increase in the number of patients will not result in individual doses near the ICRP dose limit. (authors)

  3. Hip joint injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medicine into the joint. The provider uses a real-time x-ray (fluoroscopy) to see where to place ... Wakefield RJ. Arthrocentesis and injection of joints and soft tissue. In: Firestein GS, Budd RC, Gabriel SE, ...

  4. Premixed direct injection disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, William David; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin; Zuo, Baifang; Uhm, Jong Ho

    2013-04-23

    A fuel/air mixing disk for use in a fuel/air mixing combustor assembly is provided. The disk includes a first face, a second face, and at least one fuel plenum disposed therebetween. A plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes extend through the pre-mixing disk, each mixing tube including an outer tube wall extending axially along a tube axis and in fluid communication with the at least one fuel plenum. At least a portion of the plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes further includes at least one fuel injection hole have a fuel injection hole diameter extending through said outer tube wall, the fuel injection hole having an injection angle relative to the tube axis. The invention provides good fuel air mixing with low combustion generated NOx and low flow pressure loss translating to a high gas turbine efficiency, that is durable, and resistant to flame holding and flash back.

  5. Imipenem and Cilastatin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imipenem and cilastatin injection is used to treat certain serious infections that are caused by bacteria, including ... area), gynecological, blood, skin, bone, and joint infections. Imipenem is in a class of medications called carbapenem ...

  6. Quinupristin and Dalfopristin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are in a class of medications called streptogramin antibiotics. They work by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as quinupristin and dalfopristin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  7. Botulinum toxin injection - larynx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Injection laryngoplasty; Botox - larynx: spasmodic dysphonia-BTX; Essential voice tremor (EVT)-btx; Glottic insufficiency; Percutaneous electromyography - guided botulinum toxin treatment; Percutaneous indirect laryngoscopy - guided botulinum toxin treatment; ...

  8. The PEP injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.L.; Avery, R.T.; Peterson, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    A system to transport 10-to-15-GeV electron and positron beams from the Stanford Linear Accelerator and to inject them into the PEP storage ring under a wide variety of lattice configurations has been designed. Optically, the transport line consists of three 360/degree/ phase-shift sections of FODO lattice, with bending magnets interspersed in such a way as to provide achromaticity, convenience in energy and emittance definition, and independent tuning of the various optical parameters for matching into the ring. The last 360/degree/ of phase shift has 88 milliradians of bend in a vertical plane and deposits the beam at the injection septum via a Lambertson magnet. Injection is accomplished by launching the beam with several centimeters of radial betatron amplitude in a fast bump provided by a triad of pulsed kicker magnets. Radiation damping reduces the collective amplitude quickly enough to allow injection at a high repetition rate

  9. Injection and Dump Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, C; Barnes, M J; Carlier, E; Drosdal, L N; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Meddahi, M; Mertens, V; Uythoven, J

    2012-01-01

    Performance and failures of the LHC injection and ex- traction systems are presented. In particular, a comparison with the 2010 run, lessons learnt during operation with high intensity beams and foreseen upgrades are described. UFOs, vacuum and impedance problems related to the injection and extraction equipment are analysed together with possible improvements and solutions. New implemented features, diagnostics, critical issues of XPOC and IQC applications are addressed.

  10. Experiments on Li pellet injection into Heliotron E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergeev, V.Yu.; Khlopenkov, K.V.; Kuteev, B.V.; Sudo, S.; Kondo, K.; Zushi, H.; Besshou, S.; Sano, F.; Okada, H.; Mizuuchi, T.; Nagasaki, K.; Obiki, T.; Kurimoto, Y.

    1998-01-01

    Li pellets of large size were injected into electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) heated plasmas and neutral beam injection (NBI) heated plasmas of Heliotron E. The discharge behaviour, pellet ablation and wall conditioning were studied. The electron pressure is doubled after injection into the NBI plasma and remains unchanged in the case of ECR heating. This may be due to the energy exchange between the electrons and thermal ions with the fast ions from the neutral beam. The observed discrepancy between the experimental and modelled ablation rates may be caused by both the plasma cooling due to pellet ablatant and the ablation stimulated by the fast ions in the NBI-heated regime and by the fast electrons in the ECR-heated regime. In preliminary experiments on wall conditioning by Li pellet injection, no improvement of plasma performance after Li pellet injection was observed in the divertor or limiter configuration, with the limiter radii r L =24-25cm. (author)

  11. Rapid detection of human infections with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose and positron emission tomography: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugawara, Yoshifumi; Kison, P.V.; Russo, J.E.; Zasadny, K.R.; Braun, D.K.; Wahl, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of 2-[fluorine-18]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) and positron emission tomography (PET) for rapid detection of human infections. Eleven patients who were known or suspected to be harboring various infections were studied with FDG-PET. Dynamic scans over the putative infection sites were performed immediately after FDG (370 MBq) injection through 60 min, and static images including multiple projection images were then obtained. FDG uptake was assessed visually into four grades (0, normal; 1, probably normal; 2, probably abnormal; 3, definitely abnormal). For the semiquantitative index of FDG uptake in infections, the standardized uptake value of FDG normalized to the predicted lean body mass (SUV-lean, SUL) was determined from the images obtained at 50-60 min after FDG injection. PET results were compared with final clinical diagnoses. Eleven lesions in eight patients, which were interpreted as grade 2 or 3 by FDG-PET, were all concordant with active infectious foci. The SUL values of infections ranged from 0.97 to 6.69. In two patients, FDG-PET correctly showed no active infection. In one patient, it was difficult to detect infectious foci by FDG-PET due to substantial normal background uptake of FDG. In total, FDG-PET correctly diagnosed the presence or absence of active infection in 10 of 11 patients. Fusion images of PET with computed tomography showed the most intense FDG uptake to be within an abscess wall. In conclusion, FDG-PET appears to be a promising modality for rapid imaging of active human infections. More extensive clinical evaluation is warranted to determine the accuracy of this method. (orig.)

  12. International double taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Körbl, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    1 Summary This thesis deals with the issue of international double taxation of income and capital and methods for its solution. International double taxation is an issue which states began to deal with in the late 19th century. This interest intensified after the First World War when also the League of Nations (predecessor of the United Nations) began to deal with international double taxation. Most attention the phenomenon of double taxation of income and capital with an international elemen...

  13. Amplitude Noise Suppression and Orthogonal Multiplexing Using Injection-Locked Single-Mode VCSEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyubopytov, Vladimir; von Lerber, Tuomo; Lassas, Matti

    2017-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate BER reduction and orthogonal modulation using an injection locked single-mode VCSEL. It allows us suppressing an amplitude noise of optical signal and/or double the capacity of an information channel.......We experimentally demonstrate BER reduction and orthogonal modulation using an injection locked single-mode VCSEL. It allows us suppressing an amplitude noise of optical signal and/or double the capacity of an information channel....

  14. An improved apparatus for pressure-injecting fluid into trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garold F. Gregory; Thomas W. Jones

    1975-01-01

    Our original tree-injection apparatus was modified to be more convenient and efficient. The fluid reservoir consists of high-pressure plastic plumbing components. Quick couplers are used for all hose connections. Most important, the injector heads were modified for a faster and more convenient and secure attachment with double-headed nails.

  15. Comparison between 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography and Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy for Regional Lymph Nodal Staging in Patients with Melanoma: A Review of the Literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirk, Paoletta; Treglia, Giorgio; Salsano, Marco; Basile, Pietro; Giordano, Alessandro; Bonomo, Lorenzo

    2011-01-01

    Aim. to compare 18 F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) to sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) for regional lymph nodal staging in patients with melanoma. Methods. We performed a literature review discussing original articles which compared FDG-PET to SLNB for regional lymph nodal staging in patients with melanoma. Results and Conclusions. There is consensus in the literature that FDG-PET cannot replace SLNB for regional lymph nodal staging in patients with melanoma

  16. Rare case of isolated splenic metastases from gastric cancer detected with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaleshwaran, Koramadai Karuppusamy; Shibu, Deepu; Sugunan Shinto, Ajit; Sivanesan, Balasubramanian

    2013-01-01

    We report a rare case of isolated splenic metastasis from gastric cancer detected with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). A 55-year-old man with gastric cancer 1 year post surgery, evaluated with PET/CT showed focal, intense uptake in the spleen, with no other abnormal findings. On splenectomy, the lesion was confirmed as metastasis from gastric cancer pathologically. (author)

  17. Roles of computed tomography and [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography in the characterization of multiple solitary solid lung nodules

    OpenAIRE

    Travaini, LL; Trifirò, G; Vigna, PD; Veronesi, G; De Pas, TM; Spaggiari, L; Paganelli, G; Bellomi, M

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the performance of multidetector computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography/CT (PET/CT) with [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose in the diagnosis of multiple solitary lung nodules in 14 consecutive patients with suspicious lung cancer. CT and PET/CT findings were reviewed by a radiologist and nuclear medicine physician, respectively, blinded to the pathological diagnoses of lung cancer, considering nodule size, shape, and location (CT) and maximum st...

  18. Diagnostic Performance of Fluorine-18-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography in the Postchemotherapy Management of Patients with Seminoma: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Giorgio Treglia; Ramin Sadeghi; Salvatore Annunziata; Carmelo Caldarella; Francesco Bertagna; Luca Giovanella

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To meta-analyze published data about the diagnostic performance of fluorine-18-Fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) and PET/computed tomography (PET/CT) in the postchemotherapy management of patients with seminoma. Methods. A comprehensive literature search of studies published through January 2014 on this topic was performed. All retrieved studies were reviewed and qualitatively analyzed. Pooled sensitivity and specificity, positive and negative predicti...

  19. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography?computed tomography in evaluation of pelvic and para-aortic nodal involvement in early stage and operable cervical cancer: Comparison with surgicopathological findings

    OpenAIRE

    Bansal, Vandana; Damania, Kaizad; Sharma, Anshu Rajnish

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Nodal metastases in cervical cancer have prognostic implications. Imaging is used as an adjunct to clinical staging for evaluation of nodal metastases. Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) has an advantage of superior resolution of its CT component and detecting nodal disease based on increased glycolytic activity rather than node size. But there are limited studies describing its limitations in early stage cervical cancers. Objectiv...

  20. {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography Can Quantify and Predict Esophageal Injury During Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niedzielski, Joshua S., E-mail: jsniedzielski@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); University of Texas Houston Graduate School of Biomedical Science, Houston, Texas (United States); Yang, Jinzhong [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); University of Texas Houston Graduate School of Biomedical Science, Houston, Texas (United States); Liao, Zhongxing; Gomez, Daniel R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Stingo, Francesco [Department of Biostatistics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Mohan, Radhe; Martel, Mary K.; Briere, Tina M.; Court, Laurence E. [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); University of Texas Houston Graduate School of Biomedical Science, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Purpose: We sought to investigate the ability of mid-treatment {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) studies to objectively and spatially quantify esophageal injury in vivo from radiation therapy for non-small cell lung cancer. Methods and Materials: This retrospective study was approved by the local institutional review board, with written informed consent obtained before enrollment. We normalized {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET uptake to each patient's low-irradiated region (<5 Gy) of the esophagus, as a radiation response measure. Spatially localized metrics of normalized uptake (normalized standard uptake value [nSUV]) were derived for 79 patients undergoing concurrent chemoradiation therapy for non-small cell lung cancer. We used nSUV metrics to classify esophagitis grade at the time of the PET study, as well as maximum severity by treatment completion, according to National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, using multivariate least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) logistic regression and repeated 3-fold cross validation (training, validation, and test folds). This 3-fold cross-validation LASSO model procedure was used to predict toxicity progression from 43 asymptomatic patients during the PET study. Dose-volume metrics were also tested in both the multivariate classification and the symptom progression prediction analyses. Classification performance was quantified with the area under the curve (AUC) from receiver operating characteristic analysis on the test set from the 3-fold analyses. Results: Statistical analysis showed increasing nSUV is related to esophagitis severity. Axial-averaged maximum nSUV for 1 esophageal slice and esophageal length with at least 40% of axial-averaged nSUV both had AUCs of 0.85 for classifying grade 2 or higher esophagitis at the time of the PET study and AUCs of 0.91 and 0.92, respectively, for maximum grade 2 or higher by treatment completion

  1. Modelling the effect of injection pressure on heat release parameters and nitrogen oxides in direct injection diesel engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yüksek Levent

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation and modelling the effect of injection pressure on heat release parameters and engine-out nitrogen oxides are the main aim of this study. A zero-dimensional and multi-zone cylinder model was developed for estimation of the effect of injection pressure rise on performance parameters of diesel engine. Double-Wiebe rate of heat release global model was used to describe fuel combustion. extended Zeldovich mechanism and partial equilibrium approach were used for modelling the formation of nitrogen oxides. Single cylinder, high pressure direct injection, electronically controlled, research engine bench was used for model calibration. 1000 and 1200 bars of fuel injection pressure were investigated while injection advance, injected fuel quantity and engine speed kept constant. The ignition delay of injected fuel reduced 0.4 crank angle with 1200 bars of injection pressure and similar effect observed in premixed combustion phase duration which reduced 0.2 crank angle. Rate of heat release of premixed combustion phase increased 1.75 % with 1200 bar injection pressure. Multi-zone cylinder model showed good agreement with experimental in-cylinder pressure data. Also it was seen that the NOx formation model greatly predicted the engine-out NOx emissions for both of the operation modes.

  2. Experimental optimization of a direct injection homogeneous charge compression ignition gasoline engine using split injections with fully automated microgenetic algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canakci, M. [Kocaeli Univ., Izmit (Turkey); Reitz, R.D. [Wisconsin Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Madison, WI (United States)

    2003-03-01

    Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is receiving attention as a new low-emission engine concept. Little is known about the optimal operating conditions for this engine operation mode. Combustion under homogeneous, low equivalence ratio conditions results in modest temperature combustion products, containing very low concentrations of NO{sub x} and particulate matter (PM) as well as providing high thermal efficiency. However, this combustion mode can produce higher HC and CO emissions than those of conventional engines. An electronically controlled Caterpillar single-cylinder oil test engine (SCOTE), originally designed for heavy-duty diesel applications, was converted to an HCCI direct injection (DI) gasoline engine. The engine features an electronically controlled low-pressure direct injection gasoline (DI-G) injector with a 60 deg spray angle that is capable of multiple injections. The use of double injection was explored for emission control and the engine was optimized using fully automated experiments and a microgenetic algorithm optimization code. The variables changed during the optimization include the intake air temperature, start of injection timing and the split injection parameters (per cent mass of fuel in each injection, dwell between the pulses). The engine performance and emissions were determined at 700 r/min with a constant fuel flowrate at 10 MPa fuel injection pressure. The results show that significant emissions reductions are possible with the use of optimal injection strategies. (Author)

  3. Syringe injectable electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    Seamless and minimally-invasive three-dimensional (3D) interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating syringe injection and subsequent unfolding of submicrometer-thick, centimeter-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 micrometers. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with > 90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with 3D structures, including (i) monitoring of internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (ii) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (iii) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, delivery of large volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics. PMID:26053995

  4. Syringe-injectable electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Fu, Tian-Ming; Cheng, Zengguang; Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M

    2015-07-01

    Seamless and minimally invasive three-dimensional interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating the syringe injection (and subsequent unfolding) of sub-micrometre-thick, centimetre-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 μm. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with >90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe-injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with three-dimensional structures, including (1) monitoring internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (2) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (3) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables the delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, the delivery of large-volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities, and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics.

  5. Double layers in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlqvist, P.

    1982-07-01

    For more than a decade it has been realised that electrostatic double layers are likely to occur in space. We briefly discuss the theoretical background of such double layers. Most of the paper is devoted to an account of the observational evidence for double layers in the ionosphere and magnetosphere of the Earth. Several different experiments are reviewed including rocket and satellite measurements and ground based observations. It is concluded that the observational evidence for double layers in space is very strong. The experimental results indicate that double layers with widely different properties may exist in space. (Author)

  6. Double layers in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlqvist, P.

    1982-01-01

    For more than a decade it has been realised that electrostatic double layers are likely to occur in space. The author briefly discusses the theoretical background of such double layers. Most of the paper is devoted to an account of the observational evidence for double layers in the ionosphere and magnetosphere of the Earth. Several different experiments are reviewed including rocket and satellite measurements and ground based observations. It is concluded that the observational evidence for double layers in space is very strong. The experimental results indicate that double layers with widely different properties may exist in space. (Auth.)

  7. Double-double effect and coordination number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mioduski, T.

    1992-01-01

    The original method of interpretation together with its theoretical foundations is developed, making it possible to use location and direction of the double-double (tetrad) effect within the Ln and An series to determine the coordination number (CN) complexes of the f-block elements. The method is applied for potentiometric and radiometric equilibrium studies. It has been pointed and that the decisive factor for the direction of the double-double effect in the case of the Gibbs energy variations is a difference in the CN of the f-element ion between the reaction product complex and that for the reaction substrate the ''regular'' effect for a given tetrad is accompanied by decrease in the CN while the ''reverse'' effect by increase in the CN. (author). 122 refs, 5 tabs, 8 figs

  8. Double-phase {sup 18}F-FDG PET-CT for determination of pulmonary tuberculoma activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In-Ju; Kim, Seong-Jang; Kim, Yong-Ki [Pusan National University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Busan (Korea); Pusan National University Hospital, Medical Research Institute, Busan (Korea); Lee, Jung Sub [Pusan National University Hospital, Medical Research Institute, Busan (Korea); Pusan National University Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Busan (Korea); Jeong, Yeon Joo [Pusan National University Hospital, Medical Research Institute, Busan (Korea); Pusan National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Busan (Korea); Jun, Sungmin; Nam, Hyun Yul [Pusan National University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Busan (Korea); Kim, Ju Sung [College of Medical and Life Sciences, Silla University, Department of Nursing, Busan (Korea)

    2008-04-15

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential role of double phase acquisition of {sup 18}F fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) for the differentiation of active pulmonary tuberculoma. A total of 25 consecutive patients with pulmonary tuberculoma were enrolled. PET/CT imaging was performed 60 (range 53-71) and 120 min (range 109-131) after injection of {sup 18}F-FDG. The intensity of {sup 18}F-FDG uptake by pulmonary lesions was assessed visually, and the intensity was scored with a four-point scale (grade 1: absent, grade 2: faint, grade 3: moderate, grade 4: intense). Active tuberculoma shows statistically significant higher values in maximal standardized uptake values SUV{sub maxE} (active = 2.3 {+-} 0.75, inactive = 0.79 {+-} 0.15), SUV{sub maxD} (active = 2.48 {+-} 0.79, inactive = 0.75 {+-} 0.13), and %{delta}SUV{sub max} (active = 8.07 {+-} 7.77%, inactive = -3.83 {+-} 6.59) than those of inactive tuberculoma. When greater than or equal to visual grade 2 was used as the cutoff value, the sensitivity and specificity were 100 and 81.8%. When SUV{sub maxE} 1.05 was used as the cutoff point, the sensitivity and specificity were 100 and 100%. When SUV{sub maxD} 0.97 was used as the cutoff value, the sensitivity and specificity were 92.8 and 100%. When %{delta}SUV{sub max} 6.59 was used as the cutoff value, the sensitivity and specificity were 71.4 and 100%. The %{delta}SUV{sub max} was the potent predictor by logistic regression analysis. The {delta}SUV{sub max} is a potential predictor for activity of pulmonary tuberculoma. However, the diagnostic performances were similar between visual and quantitative analyses. The visual assessment may be sufficient for determination of pulmonary tuberculoma activity. Further studies are needed to confirm these results and improve statistical accuracy. (orig.)

  9. Reactor water injection facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Kazuhiro; Kinoshita, Shoichiro

    1997-05-02

    A steam turbine and an electric generator are connected by way of a speed convertor. The speed convertor is controlled so that the number of rotation of the electric generator is constant irrespective of the speed change of the steam turbine. A shaft coupler is disposed between the turbine and the electric generator or between the turbine and a water injection pump. With such a constitution, the steam turbine and the electric generator are connected by way of the speed convertor, and since the number of revolution of the electric generator is controlled to be constant, the change of the number of rotation of the turbine can be controlled irrespective of the change of the number of rotation of the electric generator. Accordingly, the flow rate of the injection water from the water injection pump to a reactor pressure vessel can be controlled freely thereby enabling to supply stable electric power. (T.M.)

  10. Spin-filtering junctions with double ferroelectric barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Ju; Ding-Yu, Xing

    2009-01-01

    An FS/FE/NS/FE/FS double tunnel junction is suggested to have the ability to inject, modulate and detect the spin-polarized current electrically in a single device, where FS is the ferromagnetic semiconductor electrode, NS is the nonmagnetic semiconductor, and FE the ferroelectric barrier. The spin polarization of the current injected into the NS region can be switched between a highly spin-polarized state and a spin unpolarized state. The high spin polarization may be detected by measuring the tunneling magnetoresistance ratio of the double tunnel junction

  11. The role of Fluorine-18-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in staging and restaging of patients with osteosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quartuccio, Natale; Treglia, Giorgio; Salsano, Marco; Mattoli, Maria Vittoria; Muoio, Barbara; Piccardo, Arnoldo; Lopci, Egesta; Cistaro, Angelina

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to systematically review the role of positron emission tomography (PET) and PET/computed tomography (PET/CT) with Fluorine-18-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in patients with osteosarcoma (OS). A comprehensive literature search of published studies through October 10 th , 2012 in PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase and Scopus databases regarding whole-body FDG-PET and FDG-PET/CT in patients with OS was performed. We identified 13 studies including 289 patients with OS. With regard to the staging and restaging of OS, the diagnostic performance of FDG-PET and PET/CT seem to be high; FDG-PET and PET/CT seem to be superior to bone scintigraphy and conventional imaging methods in detecting bone metastases; conversely, spiral CT seems to be superior to FDG-PET in detecting pulmonary metastases from OS Metabolic imaging may provide additional information in the evaluation of OS patients. The combination of FDG-PET or FDG-PET/CT with conventional imaging methods seems to be a valuable tool in the staging and restaging of OS and may have a relevant impact on the treatment planning

  12. Comparison between whole-body MRI and Fluorine-18-Fluorodeoxyglucose PET or PET/CT in oncology: a systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciliberto, Mario; Maggi, Fabio; Treglia, Giorgio; Padovano, Federico; Calandriello, Lucio; Giordano, Alessandro; Bonomo, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the article is to systematically review published data about the comparison between positron emission tomography (PET) or PET/computed tomography (PET/CT) using Fluorine-18-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) in patients with different tumours. A comprehensive literature search of studies published in PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus and Embase databases through April 2012 and regarding the comparison between FDG-PET or PET/CT and WB-MRI in patients with various tumours was carried out. Forty-four articles comprising 2287 patients were retrieved in full-text version, included and discussed in this systematic review. Several articles evaluated mixed tumours with both diagnostic methods. Concerning the specific tumour types, more evidence exists for lymphomas, bone tumours, head and neck tumours and lung tumours, whereas there is less evidence for other tumour types. Overall, based on the literature findings, WB-MRI seems to be a valid alternative method compared to PET/CT in oncology. Further larger prospective studies and in particular cost-effectiveness analysis comparing these two whole-body imaging techniques are needed to better assess the role of WB-MRI compared to FDG-PET or PET/CT in specific tumour types

  13. Additional benefit of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose integrated positron emission tomography/computed tomography in the staging of oesophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillies, R.S.; Middleton, M.R.; Maynard, N.D.; Bradley, K.M.; Gleeson, F.V.

    2011-01-01

    18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) has been shown to improve the accuracy of staging in oesophageal cancer. We assessed the benefit of PET/CT over conventional staging and determined if tumour histology had any significant impact on PET/CT findings. A retrospective cohort study, reviewing the results from 200 consecutive patients considered suitable for radical treatment, undergoing routine PET/CT staging comparing the results from CT and endoscopic ultrasound, as well as multi-disciplinary team records. Adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma were compared for maximum Standardised Uptake Value (SUV max ), involvement of local lymph nodes and distant metastases. PET/CT provided additional information in 37 patients (18.5%) and directly altered management in 34 (17%): 22 (11%) were upstaged; 15 (7.5%) were downstaged, 12 of whom (6%) received radical treatment. There were 11 false negatives (5.5%) and 1 false positive (0.5%). SUV max was significantly lower for adenocarcinoma than squamous cell carcinoma (median 9.1 versus 13.5, p = 0.003). Staging with PET/CT offers additional benefit over conventional imaging and should form part of routine staging for oesophageal cancer. Adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma display significantly different FDG-avidity. (orig.)

  14. Usefulness of Whole-Body Fluorine-18-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography in Patients with Neurofibromatosis Type 1: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Treglia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To systematically review the role of positron emission tomography (PET with fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1. Methods. A comprehensive literature search of published studies regarding FDG-PET and PET/CT in patients with NF1 was performed. No beginning date limit and language restriction were used; the search was updated until December 2011. Only those studies or subsets in studies including whole-body FDG-PET or PET/CT scans performed in patients with NF1 were included. Results. We identified 12 studies including 352 NF1 patients. Qualitative evaluation was performed in about half of the studies and semiquantitative analysis, mainly based on different values of SUV cutoff, in the others. Most of the studies evaluated the role of FDG-PET for differentiating benign from malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs. Malignant lesions were detected with a sensitivity ranging between 100% and 89%, but with lower specificity, ranging between 100% and 72%. Moreover, FDG-PET seems to be an important imaging modality for predicting the progression to MPNST and the outcome in patients with MPNST. Two studies evaluated the role of FDG-PET in pediatric patients with NF1. Conclusions. FDG-PET and PET/CT are useful methods to identify malignant change in neurogenic tumors in NF1 and to discriminate malignant from benign neurogenic lesions.

  15. Primary Nocardia Infection Causing a Fluorodeoxyglucose-Avid Right Renal Mass in a Redo Lung Transplant Recipient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreeja Biswas Roy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunosuppression after lung transplantation may increase susceptibility to opportunistic infection and is associated with early and delayed deaths in lung transplant recipients. Factors that may predispose lung transplant recipients to opportunistic bacterial and fungal infections include prolonged corticosteroid use, renal impairment, treatment of acute rejection, and post-transplant diabetes mellitus. We present a unique case of a 63-year-old woman with diabetes mellitus who underwent redo lung transplantation. Three years after her right-sided single redo lung transplant, she presented with right-sided abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. Upon examination, computed tomography showed a 4.5 × 3.3 cm heterogeneous, enhancing right renal mass with a patent renal vein. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed a T1/T2 hypointense, diffusion-restricting, right mid-renal mass that was fluorodeoxyglucose-avid on positron emission tomography. We initially suspected primary renal cell carcinoma. However, after a right nephrectomy, no evidence of neoplasia was observed; instead, a renal abscess containing filamentous bacteria was noted, raising suspicion for infection of the Nocardia species. Special stains confirmed a diagnosis of Nocardia renal abscess. Computed tomography of the chest and brain revealed no lesions consistent with infection. We initiated a long-term therapeutic regimen of anti-Nocardia therapy with imipenem and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.

  16. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-positive sarcoidosis after chemoradiotherapy for Hodgkin’s disease: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Alan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The occurrence of granulomatous disease in the setting of Hodgkin's disease is rare; however, when it occurs it can pose significant clinical and diagnostic challenges for physicians treating these patients. Case presentation We report the case of a 33-year-old Caucasian woman of Mediterranean descent with newly diagnosed 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET/computed tomography (CT scan-positive, early-stage Hodgkin's disease involving the cervical nodes who, despite having an excellent clinical response to chemotherapy, had a persistent 18F-FDG PET scan-positive study, which was suggestive of residual or progressive disease. A subsequent biopsy of her post-chemotherapy PET-positive nodes demonstrated sarcoidosis with no evidence of Hodgkin's disease. Conclusion This case highlights the fact that abnormalities observed on posttherapy PET/CT scans in patients with Hodgkin's disease are not always due to residual or progressive disease. An association between Hodgkin's disease and/or its treatment with an increased incidence of granulomatous disease appears to exist. Certain patterns of 18F-FDG uptake observed on PET/CT scans may suggest other pathologies, such as granulomatous inflammation, and because of the significant differences in prognosis and management, clinicians should maintain a low threshold of confidence for basing their diagnosis on histopathological evaluations when PET/CT results appear to be incongruent with the patient's clinical response.

  17. Bitemporal hypometabolism in Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease measured by positron emission tomography with (F-18)2-fluorodeoxyglucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedland, R.P.; Budinger, T.F.; Prusiner, S.B.; Jagust, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    It is well established that Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) is caused by a slow infectious agent similar to the scrapie prion. However, the pathogenesis of this infection is poorly understood. Positron emission tomography (PET) was performed on a 54 year old male subject with autopsy confirmed CJD using (F-18)2-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and the Donner 280-crystal tomograph. An x-ray computed tomographic study of the brain performed 4 days prior to PET was normal. In the PET study the frontal to temporal cortex difference of activity densities was 30% on the left and 12% on the right, reflecting temporal hypometabolism. The left-right temporal cortex difference of activity density was 25%, documenting marked hemispheric asymmetry. These findings are similar to those previously obtained in PET-FDG studies of patients with clinically defined Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and are distinctly different from PET-FDG finding in patients with other dementing illnesses or in healthy aged subjects. Recent work has demonstrated extensive biological similarities between CJD, scrapie and AD. The similarities in the regional metabolic alterations between CJD and AD provide additional evidence for the hypothesis that AD is caused by a slow infectious (prion-like) pathogen

  18. Orbital flourine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in patients with Graves' disease for evaluation of active inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uslu-Beşli, Lebriz; Kabasakal, Levent; Sağer, Sait; Cicik, Erdoğan; Asa, Sertaç; Sönmezoğlu, Kerim

    2017-11-01

    Prediction and early diagnosis of orbitopathy is needed in patients with Graves' disease, especially when radioiodine therapy is planned. Positron emission tomography/computerized tomography (PET/CT) using flourine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is an effective imaging modality in detection of inflammation, however, its ability to detect orbital inflammation has not been well studied. The aim of our study is to determine the ability of FDG PET/CT to detect orbital inflammation related with Graves' disease, identify active orbitopathy, predict the radioiodine-triggered orbitopathy, and find out the effects of radioiodine on orbital inflammation. Total 31 Graves' disease patients and 17 controls were included. All Graves' disease patients underwent cranial FDG PET/CT imaging prior therapy. Radioiodine therapy and post-treatment PET/CT study was applied to 21 patients. PET/CT images of all examinees were evaluated, measuring extraocular muscle maximum standard uptake value (SUVmax) and muscle thickness. FDG uptake was increased in the majority of extraocular muscles in Graves' disease patients in comparison to controls and this increase was found to be irrelevant from muscle thickness. Extraocular muscle SUVmax values did not increase in Graves' orbitopathy patients who received radioiodine under corticosteroid prophylaxis. SUVmax level of all orbital rectus muscles were increased after radioiodine therapy in nonsmokers, whereas no increase was detected in smokers. FDG PET/CT may be helpful in detection of extraocular muscle inflammation and it may show ongoing orbitopathy in early stages of inflammation before anatomical changes occur.

  19. Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging features of colloid adenocarcinoma of the lung: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, ZhenGuang; Yu, MingMing; Chen, YueHua; Kong, Yan

    2017-07-27

    Colloid adenocarcinoma of the lung is a rare subtype of variants of invasive adenocarcinomas. We report the appearance of this unusual entity on 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography. A 60-year-old man of Chinese Han nationality coughed with a little white sputum for 1 month. Chest computed tomography showed multiple bilateral subpleural nodules and plaques accompanied by air bronchograms, which were most concentrated in the lower lobe of his right lung. Positron emission tomography indicated increased radioactivity uptake with a maximum standardized uptake value of 3.5. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography showed a soft tissue density lesion in his left adrenal gland with a maximum standardized uptake value of 4.1. The positron emission tomography/computed tomography appearance suggested a primary colloid adenocarcinoma in the lower lobe of his right lung accompanied by intrapulmonary and left adrenal gland metastases. The diagnostic rate of colloid adenocarcinoma can be increased by combining the anatomic and metabolic information of lesions. The advantage of positron emission tomography/computed tomography in the diagnosis of colloid adenocarcinoma, as with other cancers, is the ability to locate extrapulmonary disease, facilitating clinical staging.

  20. Lung Cancer in Patients With Tuberculous Fibrothorax and Empyema: Computed Tomography and 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hai; Koo, Hyun Jung; Lee, Han Na; Lim, Soyeoun; Lee, Jae Wook; Choi, Chang-Min; Kim, Mi Young

    The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of lung cancers in patients with tuberculous fibrothorax or empyema. We retrospectively evaluated 138 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of lung cancer combined with fibrothorax (n = 127) or empyema (n = 11) from January 2005 to May 2015. All patients underwent computed tomography, and 105 underwent F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. Clinical, pathologic, and computed tomography characteristics and maximum standardized uptake values on positron emission tomography of 76 cancers ipsilateral to the fibrothorax or empyema (group 1) were compared with those of 62 contralateral cancers (group 2). The median age at diagnosis of patients was 70 years, with a male-to-female ratio of 8.9:1. The most common type was squamous cell carcinoma (41.3%) followed by adenocarcinoma (39.1%). Most were in the peripheral lung (70.3%), and half abutted the pleura. The median maximum standardized uptake value was 8.9. Tumors in group 1 were larger (median, 48.5 vs 42.8 mm, P = 0.036) and more advanced (T3 or T4) (P = 0.014) than those in group 2. Lung cancers ipsilateral to tuberculous fibrothorax or empyema presented larger and advanced T stages, and the diagnosis could be delayed. The most common type cancer was squamous cell carcinoma.

  1. Role of Fluorine-18-Fluorodeoxyglucose in the Work-up of Febrile AIDS Patients. Experience with Dual Head Coincidence Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Jonas F.; Jana, Suman; Gilbert, Holly M.; Salem, Shahenda; Bellman, Paul Curtis; Hsu, Ricky K.S.; Naddaf, Sleiman; Abdel-Dayem, Hussein M.

    1999-11-01

    OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: This study was undertaken to find the role of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (F18-FDG) in the diagnostic work-up of febrile Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients. Forty-seven (42 male and 5 female; mean age = 40.3 years) febrile patients with AIDS underwent imaging with F18-FDG by Dual Head Coincidence Imaging (DHCI). Findings were correlated with other imaging modalities.RESULTS: Our data show good sensitivity for scanning with F18-FDG by DHCI in determining the extent of Castleman's disease, lymphoma, Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), adenocarcinoma, and germ cell carcinoma. Various opportunistic infections also manifest with increased F18-FDG uptake.CONCLUSION: Total-body imaging can be done with F18-FDG with better resolution and a shorter procedure time compared to imaging with Gallium-67 (Ga-67). Furthermore, F18-FDG is more sensitive than Ga-67 for evaluating extent of involvement in various pathologies affecting AIDS patients. The new technology of DHCI is a good alternative for hospitals with no dedicated positron emission tomography (PET) scanner.

  2. Higher fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) uptake in tuberculous compared to bacterial spondylodiscitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassetti, Matteo; Merelli, Maria; Della Siega, Paola; Righi, Elda [Santa Maria della Misericordia University Hospital, Infectious Diseases Division, Udine (Italy); Di Gregorio, Fernando [Santa Maria della Misericordia University Hospital, Microbiology Unit, Udine (Italy); Screm, Maria; Scarparo, Claudio [Santa Maria della Misericordia University Hospital, Radiology Unit, Udine (Italy)

    2017-06-15

    Tuberculous spondylodiscitis can be difficult to diagnose because of its nonspecific symptoms and the similarities with non-tubercular forms of spinal infection. Fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography (FDG PET-CT) is increasingly used for the diagnosis and monitoring of tubercular diseases. Retrospective, case-control study comparing tuberculous spondylodiscitis with biopsy-confirmed pyogenic spondylodiscitis in the period 2010-2012. Ten cases of tuberculous spondylodiscitis and 20 controls were included. Compared to pyogenic, tuberculous spondylodiscitis was more frequent in younger patients (P = 0.01) and was more often associated with thoraco-lumbar tract lesions (P = 0.01) and multiple vertebral involvement (P = 0.01). Significantly higher maximum standardized uptake values (SUV) at FDG-PET were displayed by tuberculous spondylodiscitis compared to controls (12.4 vs. 7.3, P = 0.003). SUV levels above 8 showed the highest value of specificity (0.80). Mean SUV reduction of 48% was detected for tuberculous spondylodiscitis at 1-month follow-up. Higher SUV levels at FDG-PET were detected in tuberculous compared with pyogenic spondylodiscitis. PET-CT use appeared useful in the disease follow-up after treatment initiation. (orig.)

  3. Radiopharmaceutical management in Brazil: the case of fluorodeoxyglucose production; Gestao de radiofarmacos no Brasil: o caso da producao de fluordesoxiglicose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Vitor da Silva

    2016-07-01

    Nowadays, the combination of fluorodeoxyglucose tracer (FDG) and PET/CT equipment is the best technological condition for medical diagnosis, allowing the generation of images that associate anatomy and metabolic functions of tissues or organs. Constitutional Amendment (CA) No 49 of 2006, relaxed the state monopoly on the production of radioactive substances, allowing private investment in radioisotope area with half-life of less than or equal to two hours, as a way to increase the supply of these materials to national health sector. In order to reflect on the Brazilian production of radiopharmaceuticals, especially FDG was performed a theoretical study with a qualitative approach, substantiated by documentary research and data collection through a questionnaire sent to the producing private companies of this radiopharmaceutical. Initially, it sought to identify in the federal level the legal and regulatory parameters for the activity; then the existing competitive environment was observed, and, finally, were prospected the business perspectives on the behavior of domestic demand of this product. The results showed the growth of production and its largest geographical distribution in the country, beyond what would be possible only considering public investment; but short of expectations surrounding the enactment of Constitutional Amendment. Private entrepreneurs believe in market growth; since, most of the population has no access to the benefits that the medical imaging diagnostic with the use of FDG may allow. It was also noted that there is a need to improve the regulatory framework in relation to licensing procedures; as well as implementation of common marketing parameters. (author)

  4. Utility of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant gynaecological tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Hiroaki; Sakamoto, Jinichi; Osaka, Yasuhiro; Shibata, Takeo; Fujita, Satoko; Sasagawa, Toshiyuki

    2018-02-05

    Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) involving 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is widely used for systemic cancer and recurrence diagnosis. However, the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant gynaecological tumours according to FDG accumulation is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the intensity of FDG uptake/metabolic activity for the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant gynaecological tumours. This study included seven patients with physiological phenomena, 34 with benign tumours, 13 with borderline malignant tumours and 119 with malignant tumours who underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT. We assessed the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and determined its utility in the diagnosis of benign and malignant tumours using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Among the 63 patients with ovarian tumours, the mean SUVmax of 22 patients with benign ovarian tumours was 2.48 and the mean SUVmax of 41 patients with malignant ovarian tumours was 10.98 (P benign and malignant ovarian tumours, as well as uterine myomas and uterine sarcomas. © 2018 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  5. Estimation of absorbed doses in humans due to intravenous administration of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose in PET studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejia, A.A.; Nakamura, T.; Masatoshi, I.; Hatazawa, J.; Masaki, M.; Watanuki, S.

    1991-01-01

    Radiation absorbed doses due to intravenous administration of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose in positron emission tomography (PET) studies were estimated in normal volunteers. The time-activity curves were obtained for seven human organs (brain, heart, kidney, liver, lung, pancreas, and spleen) by using dynamic PET scans and for bladder content by using a single detector. These time-activity curves were used for the calculation of the cumulative activity in these organs. Absorbed doses were calculated by the MIRD method using the absorbed dose per unit of cumulated activity, 'S' value, transformed for the Japanese physique and the organ masses of the Japanese reference man. The bladder wall and the heart were the organs receiving higher doses of 1.2 x 10(-1) and 4.5 x 10(-2) mGy/MBq, respectively. The brain received a dose of 2.9 x 10(-2) mGy/MBq, and other organs received doses between 1.0 x 10(-2) and 3.0 x 10(-2) mGy/MBq. The effective dose equivalent was estimated to be 2.4 x 10(-2) mSv/MBq. These results were comparable to values of absorbed doses reported by other authors on the radiation dosimetry of this radiopharmaceutical

  6. Advantages of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography in detecting post cardiac surgery infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjtoutah, Djamel; Azhari, Alaa; Larabi, Youcef; Dorigo, Enrica; Merlin, Charles; Marcaggi, Xavier; Nana, Armel Simplice; Camilleri, Lionel; Azarnoush, Kasra

    2014-01-01

    The 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) offers an excellent negative predictive value. Consequently, it is a reliable tool for excluding an infectious phenomenon in case of negativity. In case of persistent fever of unknown origin after cardiac surgery and in combination with other bacteriological examinations and medical imaging, we can rely on FDG-PET/CT to confirm or eliminate deep infections and prosthetic endocarditis. For this reason, FDG-PET/CT should be considered among the examinations to be performed in case of suspected infection after cardiac surgery. We have reported the case of a 76-year-old man who presented with a fever of unknown origin and recurrent septic shocks after a biological Bentall procedure combined with left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery revascularization by the left internal thoracic artery. We performed a FDG-PET/CT which showed external iliac vein and right common femoral vein hyperfixation with infiltration of adjacent soft tissues, highly suspected to be an infectious process. The aim of this case report is to show that FDG-PET/CT, in combination with other bacteriological examinations and medical imaging, can be extremely helpful in detecting deep infectious sources, even during the early postoperative period.

  7. SU-E-I-85: Exploring the 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose PET Characteristics in Staging of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, C; Yin, Y [Shandong Cancer Hospital, Jinan, Shandong (China)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to explore the characteristics derived from 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET image and assess its capacity in staging of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Methods: 26 patients with newly diagnosed ESCC who underwent 18F-FDG PET scan were included in this study. Different image-derived indices including the standardized uptake value (SUV), gross tumor length, texture features and shape feature were considered. Taken the histopathologic examination as the gold standard, the extracted capacities of indices in staging of ESCC were assessed by Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney test. Specificity and sensitivity for each of the studied parameters were derived using receiver-operating characteristic curves. Results: 18F-FDG SUVmax and SUVmean showed statistically significant capability in AJCC and TNM stages. Texture features such as ENT and CORR were significant factors for N stages(p=0.040, p=0.029). Both FDG PET Longitudinal length and shape feature Eccentricity (EC) (p≤0.010) provided powerful stratification in the primary ESCC AJCC and TNM stages than SUV and texture features. Receiver-operating-characteristic curve analysis showed that tumor textural analysis can capability M stages with higher sensitivity than SUV measurement but lower in T and N stages. Conclusion: The 18F-FDG image-derived characteristics of SUV, textural features and shape feature allow for good stratification AJCC and TNM stage in ESCC patients.

  8. Bitemporal hypometabolism in Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease measured by positron emission tomography with (F-18)2-fluorodeoxyglucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedland, R.P.; Budinger, T.F.; Prusiner, S.B.; Jagust, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    It is well established that Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) is caused by a slow infectious agent similar to the scrapie prion. However, the pathogenesis of this infection is poorly understood. Positron emission tomography (PET) was performed on a 54 year old male subject with autopsy confirmed CJD using (F-18)2-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and the Donner 280-crystal tomograph. An x-ray computed tomographic study of the brain performed 4 days prior to PET was normal. In the PET study the frontal to temporal cortex difference of activity densities was 30% on the left and 12% on the right, reflecting temporal hypometabolism. The left-right temporal cortex difference of activity density was 25%, documenting marked hemispheric asymmetry. These findings are similar to those previously obtained in PET-FDG studies of patients with clinically defined Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and are distinctly different from PET-FDG finding in patients with other dementing illnesses or in healthy aged subjects. Recent work has demonstrated extensive biological similarities between CJD, scrapie and AD. The similarities in the regional metabolic alterations between CJD and AD provide additional evidence for the hypothesis that AD is caused by a slow infectious (prion-like) pathogen.

  9. Usefulness of Whole-Body Fluorine-18-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography in Patients with Neurofibromatosis Type 1: A Systematic Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treglia, G.; Taralli, S.; Giordano, A.; Bertagna, F.; Salsano, M.; Maggi, F.; Muoio, B.; Novellis, P.; Vita, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    To systematically review the role of positron emission tomography (PET) with fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Methods. A comprehensive literature search of published studies regarding FDG-PET and PET/CT in patients with NF1 was performed. No beginning date limit and language restriction were used; the search was updated until December 2011. Only those studies or subsets in studies including whole-body FDG-PET or PET/CT scans performed in patients with NF1 were included. Results. We identified 12 studies including 352 NF1 patients. Qualitative evaluation was performed in about half of the studies and semiquantitative analysis, mainly based on different values of SUV cutoff, in the others. Most of the studies evaluated the role of FDG-PET for differentiating benign from malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs). Malignant lesions were detected with a sensitivity ranging between 100% and 89%, but with lower specificity, ranging between 100% and 72%. Moreover, FDG-PET seems to be an important imaging modality for predicting the progression to MPNST and the outcome in patients with MPNST. Two studies evaluated the role of FDG-PET in pediatric patients with NF1. Conclusions. FDG-PET and PET/CT are useful methods to identify malignant change in neurogenic tumors in NF1 and to discriminate malignant from benign neurogenic lesions

  10. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography optimizes neoadjuvant chemotherapy for primary breast cancer to achieve pathological complete response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Shigeto; Saeki, Toshiaki; Shigekawa, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    The background of this study was to assess the usefulness of positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography using 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG positron emission tomography (PET)/CT) for optimizing chemotherapy during neoadjuvant chemotherapy for primary breast cancer. One hundred and eight patients (110 tumors) with breast cancer (≥2 cm, stages II and III) received neoadjuvant chemotherapy consisting of an anthracycline-based regimen and taxane. The maximal value of the baseline standardized uptake value (SUV) and the change in SUV after four cycles of an anthracycline-based regimen relative to baseline SUV were assessed for predicting pathological complete response (pCR) after sequential taxane. Tumors with pCR had significantly higher baseline SUV (9.3±3.7 SD) compared to those with non-pCR (7.2±3.8 SD) (p=0.02), but there was a considerable overlap between two groups. On PET scan after four cycles of chemotherapy, thirty-three patients (33.7%) with a 72.1% or greater reduction in SUV were considered as responders and the performance in predicting pCR had a sensitivity of 88.9% and specificity of 78.7%. The baseline SUV could not be a useful indicator for predicting pCR due to the wide range in sensitivity. On the other hand, a relative change in SUV after completion of an anthracycline-based regimen could be useful for predicting pCR. (author)

  11. Quantification of the activity of tritium produced during the routine synthesis of (18)F fluorodeoxyglucose for positron emission tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, C; Talboys, M A; Bukhari, S; Evans, W D

    2014-06-01

    Gamma emitting radioactive by-products generated during the cyclotron irradiation of (18)O labelled water by protons to produce (18)FDG (fluorodeoxyglucose) for positron emission tomography are well characterised. However, the production of tritium ((3)H) through the (18)O(p,t)(16)O nuclear reaction has not been investigated in detail. The aim of this study was to measure tritium activity produced during a large number of (18)FDG production runs in order to obtain a better perspective on its impact on radioactive waste management, particularly as regards storage and disposal. Tritium was assayed by liquid scintillation counting in recovered (18)O water from 24 separate production runs. The mean (SD) values of activity and activity concentration were 170 (20) kBq and 81 (8) kBq ml(-1) respectively. Both quantities were positively correlated with the activity of (18)F. Tritium was detected in much lower concentration in water used to rinse the target vessel. The activity of tritium is such that it is exempt from regulatory control and may be combined with bulk non-active waste for disposal as Very Low Level Waste. However, variations in the irradiation conditions or the procedures for the collection of recovered water might result in its classification as Low Level Waste, necessitating a more complex disposal regime.

  12. On-line grid impedance estimation based on harmonic injection for grid-connected PV inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciobotaru, Mihai; Teodorescu, Remus; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2007-01-01

    two different signal processing algorithms. The DFT technique is used for the single harmonic injection and the statistic technique is used for the double harmonic injection. The grid impedance estimation is used for compliance with the anti-islanding requirements of the German standard (VDE0126...

  13. In vivo imaging of monocyte trafficking with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose labeled monocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paik, Jin Young; Lee, Kyung Han; Han, Yu Mi; Choe, Yearn Seong; Kim, Byung Tae

    2000-01-01

    Since the ability to monitor in vivo monocyte trafficking would contribute to our understanding of the pathophysiology of various inflammatory disorders, we investigated the feasibility of labeling human monocytes with 18 F-FDG. Human monocytes were separated by Ficoll/Hypaque gradient and purity was assessed by flow cytometry. The influence of insulin and/or glucose on labeling efficiency was evaluated. Cell viability and activation was measured with trypan blue exclusion and hydrogen peroxide assays, respectively. Label stability was measured for up to 18 hr, and the effect of insulin pre-incubation on FDG washout was investigated. PET images were acquired in SD rats at various time points after injection of FDG labeled monocytes. Monocytes were >85% pure, and labeling efficiency was 35% for 1x106 cells after 40 min incubation with 2 mCi 18 F-FDG without insulin. Pre-incubation with 10∼100 nM insulin significantly increased FDG uptake which reached 400% of baseline levels, whereas presence of glucose or serum decreased FDG uptake. Labeled cells were >90% viable for up to 22 hr, and the labeling process did appear to significantly activate cells, Washout studies however, demonstrated gradual washout of the FDG from monocytes after initial uptake PET images of FDG labeled monocytes in SD rats showed consistent findings. Utilizing insulin effects on cellular glucose metabolism may be a feasible way of labeling monocytes with 18 F-FDG for PET imaging. However, gradual washout of FDG after initial uptake poses as a potential problem which needs to be addressed before practical application

  14. Oxygen injection facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ota, Masamoto; Hirose, Yuki

    1998-01-01

    A compressor introduces air as a starting material and sends it to a dust removing device, a dehumidifying device and an adsorption/separation system disposed downstream. The facility of the present invention is disposed in the vicinity of an injection point and installed in a turbine building of a BWR type reactor having a pipeline of a feedwater system to be injected. The adsorbing/separation system comprises an adsorbing vessel and an automatic valve, and the adsorbing vessel is filled with an adsorbent for selectively adsorbing nitrogen. Zeolite is used as the adsorbent. Nitrogen in the air passing through the adsorbing vessel is adsorbed and removed under a pressurized condition, and a highly concentrated oxygen gas is formed. The direction of the steam of the adsorbed nitrogen is changed by an opening/closing switching operation of an automatic valve and released to the atmosphere (the pressure is released). Generated oxygen gas is stored under pressure in a tank, and injected to the pipeline of the feedwater system by an oxygen injection conduit by way of a flow rate control valve. In the adsorbing vessel, steps of adsorption, separation and storage under pressure are repeated successively. (I.N.)

  15. Water injection dredging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.J.

    2000-01-01

    Some twenty years ago WIS-dredging has been developed in the Netherlands. By injecting water into the mud layer, the water content of the mud becomes higher, it becomes fluid mud and will start to flow. The advantages of this system are that there is no need of transporting the mud in a hopper, and

  16. Botulinum Neurotoxin Injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... botulinum neurotoxin as much art as it is science. It is in your best interest to locate the most well-trained and experienced doctor you can find. Before making an appointment to receive botulinum neuro toxin injections, ask the office personnel which doctor ...

  17. Piperacillin and Tazobactam Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called penicillin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infection. Tazobactam is ... It works by preventing bacteria from destroying piperacillin.Antibiotics ... injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  18. Meropenem and Vaborbactam Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria. Vaborbactam is in a class ... It works by preventing bacteria from destroying meropenem.Antibiotics such as meropenem and vaborbactam injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  19. Cold water injection nozzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kura, Masaaki; Maeda, Masamitsu; Endo, Takio.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To inject cold water in a reactor without applying heat cycles to a reactor container and to the inner wall of a feedwater nozzle by securing a perforated plate at the outlet of the cold water injection nozzle. Constitution: A disc-like cap is secured to the final end of a return nozzle of a control rod drive. The cap prevents the flow of a high temperature water flowing downward in the reactor from entering into the nozzle. The cap is perforated with a plurality of bore holes for injecting cold water into the reactor. The cap is made to about 100 mm in thickness so that the cold water passing through the bore holes is heated by the heat conduction in the cap. Accordingly, the flow of high temperature water flowing downwardly in the reactor is inhibited by the cap from backward flowing into the nozzle. Moreover, the flow of the cold water in the nozzle is controlled and rectified when passed through the bore holes in the cap and then injected into the reactor. (Yoshino, Y.)

  20. Pellet injection in WVIIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renner, H.; Wuersohing, E.; Weller, A.; Jaeckel, H.; Hartfuss, H.; Hacker, H.; Ringler, H.; Buechl, K.

    1986-01-01

    The results of pellet injection experiments in the Wendelstein VII A stellarator are presented. The injector was a single shot pneumatic gun using deuterium pellets. Experiments were carried out in both ECRH and NI plasmas. Data is shown for plasma density, energy confinement, penetration depth and pellet ablation. Results are compared to a neutral gas shielding model

  1. Magnetron injection gun scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, W.

    1988-01-01

    Existing analytic design equations for magnetron injection guns (MIG's) are approximated to obtain a set of scaling laws. The constraints are chosen to examine the maximum peak power capabilities of MIG's. The scaling laws are compared with exact solutions of the design equations and are supported by MIG simulations

  2. RHIC injection kicker impedance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mane, V.; Peggs, S.; Trbojevic, D.; Zhang, W.

    1995-01-01

    The longitudinal impedance of the RHIC injection kicker is measured using the wire method up to a frequency of 3 GHz. The mismatch between the 50 ohm cable and the wire and pipe system is calibrated using the TRL calibration algorithm. Various methods of reducing the impedance, such as coated ceramic pipe and copper strips are investigated

  3. SPS injection kicker magnet

    CERN Document Server

    1975-01-01

    One of the first-generation SPS injection kicker magnets. Lifting the tank-lid reveals the inner structure. For a more detailed description see 7502072X. See also 7502074X and Annual Report 1975, p.162. To the left: Roland Tröhler; to the right: Giacomo Busetta.

  4. Radiotracer injections through microfilters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, H.; Maschek, G.; Pichler, R.; Giesen, I.; Hatzl-Griesenhofer, M.; Maschek, W.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Problems with the injection of radiotracers ( 99m Tc-HAMS, 99m Tc-DPD) to infants when administered through polar-filter-protected venous pathways caused us to get a closer look of what happens to a tracer in such a system. We simulated injections of the tracers mainly used at our institution in an in-vitro array and measured full and empty tracer syringes, filters (0.2 μm micropores) and the post-filter receptacle of the radioactivity. We calculated the percentage of filter-trapped activity and of activity in the receptacle. For several tracers we repeated this process with a neutral filter of the same pore size to get a comparison between the behavior in polarized and electrically inert filters. In general injection of a soluble radiotracer through a polar filter system means a dose loss in the filter of about 10 %, up to the tracer molecule size of IgG-antibodies. Suspended tracers, which consist of comparatively large particles, like RES- or pulmonary perfusion markers, are blocked by the filter, as can be foreseen with a particle size of >> 0.2 μm. DMSA and DPD (a biphosphonate), although both being soluble and rather small molecules, were blocked by the polar filter to a high extent, and by the neutral filter to a much lower, almost neglectable degree. The conclusions are: if possible avoid any use of a filter in your tracer injection pathway. Never use a filter with bone scan or DMSA applications. When doing uptake calculations you have to add the filter counts to the empty syringe value in the formula. If you cannot avoid to inject the radiotracer through a filter you have to replace the filter afterwards and treat the used filter as radioactive waste. The polarity of the filter material might severely affect retention of radiotracer in the filter. (author)

  5. Dramatic changes in muscle contractile and structural properties after 2 botulinum toxin injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamoto, Viviane B; Suzuki, Kentaro P; Bremner, Shannon N; Lieber, Richard L; Ward, Samuel R

    2015-10-01

    Botulinum toxin is frequently administered serially to maintain therapeutic muscle paralysis, but the effect of repeated doses on muscle function are largely unknown. This study characterized the muscle response to 2 onabotulinum toxin (BoNT) injections separated by 3 months. Animal subjects received a single toxin injection (n = 8), 2 BoNT injections separated by 3 months (n = 14), or 1 BoNT and 1 saline injection separated by 3 months (n = 8). The functional effect of 2 serial injections was exponentially greater than the effect of a single injection. While both groups treated with a single BoNT injection had decreased torque in the injected leg by approximately 50% relative to contralateral legs, the double BoNT injected group had decreased torque by over 95% relative to the preinjection level. Both single and double BoNT injections produced clear signs of fiber-type grouping. These experiments demonstrate a disproportionately greater effect of repeated BoNT injections. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Observing Double Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genet, Russell M.; Fulton, B. J.; Bianco, Federica B.; Martinez, John; Baxter, John; Brewer, Mark; Carro, Joseph; Collins, Sarah; Estrada, Chris; Johnson, Jolyon; Salam, Akash; Wallen, Vera; Warren, Naomi; Smith, Thomas C.; Armstrong, James D.; McGaughey, Steve; Pye, John; Mohanan, Kakkala; Church, Rebecca

    2012-05-01

    Double stars have been systematically observed since William Herschel initiated his program in 1779. In 1803 he reported that, to his surprise, many of the systems he had been observing for a quarter century were gravitationally bound binary stars. In 1830 the first binary orbital solution was obtained, leading eventually to the determination of stellar masses. Double star observations have been a prolific field, with observations and discoveries - often made by students and amateurs - routinely published in a number of specialized journals such as the Journal of Double Star Observations. All published double star observations from Herschel's to the present have been incorporated in the Washington Double Star Catalog. In addition to reviewing the history of visual double stars, we discuss four observational technologies and illustrate these with our own observational results from both California and Hawaii on telescopes ranging from small SCTs to the 2-meter Faulkes Telescope North on Haleakala. Two of these technologies are visual observations aimed primarily at published "hands-on" student science education, and CCD observations of both bright and very faint doubles. The other two are recent technologies that have launched a double star renaissance. These are lucky imaging and speckle interferometry, both of which can use electron-multiplying CCD cameras to allow short (30 ms or less) exposures that are read out at high speed with very low noise. Analysis of thousands of high speed exposures allows normal seeing limitations to be overcome so very close doubles can be accurately measured.

  7. Formation of double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, P.; Wong, A.Y.; Quon, B.H.

    1981-01-01

    Experiments on both stationary and propagating double layers and a related analytical model are described. Stationary double layers were produced in a multiple plasma device, in which an electron drift current was present. An investigation of the plasma parameters for the stable double layer condition is described. The particle distribution in the stable double layer establishes a potential profile, which creates electron and ion beams that excite plasma instabilities. The measured characteristics of the instabilities are consistent with the existence of the double layer. Propagating double layers are formed when the initial electron drift current is large. Ths slopes of the transition region increase as they propagate. A physical model for the formation of a double layer in the experimental device is described. This model explains the formation of the low potential region on the basis of the space charge. This space charge is created by the electron drift current. The model also accounts for the role of ions in double layer formation and explains the formation of moving double layers. (Auth.)

  8. Effect of subcutaneous injection of insulin on 18F-FDG myocardial imaging in diabetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Yueqin; Shi Rongfang; Guo Feng; Wei Hongxing; Wu Qingwen; Liu Xiujie

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of subcutaneous injection of insulin on 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) myocardial imaging in patients with diabetes mellitus. Methods: Fifty-seven patients with coronary artery disease complicated with diabetes mellitus [mean age (60 +- 8) years] underwent 18 F-FDG PET and dual isotope simultaneous acquisition SPECT with 99 Tc m -MIBI/ 18 F-FDG. Thirty minutes before FDG injection, blood glucose was measured with an automatic glucose analyzer and insulin was subcutaneously used, the dose was adjusted according to the level of blood glucose. Results: Regression analysis showed that the insulin was positively associated with blood glucose. The linear regression analysis showed that the correlation between dose of insulin (y) and blood glucose (x) was good, r 0.8172; the linear regression equation was y = -5.4 + 1.2x. 52 of 57 images were of good quality with 91% success rate. Conclusion: Subcutaneous injection of insulin is an effective and simple method for obtaining cardiac FDG images of good quality in patients with diabetes mellitus

  9. Reductions of PAH and Soot by Center Air Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Yamamoto

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, to reduce the amount of pollutant PAH and soot in the flame, we examined the burner system equipped with a center air injection. For this purpose, by using PAH-LIF and soot LII, we evaluated relative PAH and soot amounts in both the triple port burner and the conventional co-axial burner (double port burner to discuss effects of center air injection on the formation of PAH and soot. The fuel was propane. In the triple port burner, two different blue flames are observed near the burner rim, followed by bright luminous flames with soot. The flame length is longer when the fuel flow velocity is increased. On the other hand, the flame length is shorter with an increase in internal air flow velocity. As for PAH and soot, these amounts of the triple port burner are much smaller than those of the double port burner. For the triple port burner, due to the center air injection, the fuel consumption occurs in both inner and outer flames. On the other hand, for the double port burner, the oxygen is supplied from one side air, and as a result, the fuel consumption rate is relatively lower. Hence, by the center air injection, the fuel consumption is largely accelerated, resulting in the reduction of PAH and soot.

  10. Injection-controlled laser resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J.J.

    1995-07-18

    A new injection-controlled laser resonator incorporates self-filtering and self-imaging characteristics with an efficient injection scheme. A low-divergence laser signal is injected into the resonator, which enables the injection signal to be converted to the desired resonator modes before the main laser pulse starts. This injection technique and resonator design enable the laser cavity to improve the quality of the injection signal through self-filtering before the main laser pulse starts. The self-imaging property of the present resonator reduces the cavity induced diffraction effects and, in turn, improves the laser beam quality. 5 figs.

  11. Ceramic injection molding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agueda, Horacio; Russo, Diego

    1988-01-01

    Interest in making complex net-shape ceramic parts with good surface finishing and sharp tolerances without machining is a driving force for studying the injection molding technique. This method consists of softhening the ceramic material by means of adding some plastic and heating in order to inject the mixture under pressure into a relatively cold mold where solidification takes place. Essentially, it is the same process used in thermoplastic industry but, in the present case, the ceramic powder load ranges between 80 to 90 wt.%. This work shows results obtained from the fabrication of pieces of different ceramic materials (alumina, barium titanate ferrites, etc.) in a small scale, using equipments developed and constructed in the laboratory. (Author) [es

  12. Gaseous poison injection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Ryuji; Sugisaki, Toshihiko; Inada, Ikuo.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To rapidly control the chain reaction due to thermal neutrons in a reactor core by using gaseous poisons as back-up means for control rod drives. Constitution: Gaseous poisons having a large neutron absorption cross section are used as back-up means for control rod drives. Upon failure of control rod insertion, the gaseous poisons are injected into the lower portion of the reactor core to control the reactor power. As the gaseous poisons, vapors at a high temperature and a higher pressure than that of the coolants in the reactor core are injected to control the reactor power due to the void effects. Since the gaseous poisons thus employed rapidly reach the reactor core and form gas bubbles therein, the deccelerating effect of the thermal neutrons is decreased to reduce the chain reaction. (Moriyama, K.)

  13. SPEAR 3 INJECTION KICKER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The design of the SPEAR 3 injection kicker system is presented. This system will include three kicker magnets and their associated pulsers. The magnet design is based on the DELTA kicker magnets, which present a low RF impedance to the beam, and are relatively straight-forward to construct. The pulsers use cascaded IGBT stages that are based on the modulator pulsers developed by a SLAC/LLNL collaboration for the NLC. Design considerations and the results of prototype tests will be discussed

  14. Gallium arsenide injection lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, G.H.B.

    1975-01-01

    The semiconductor injection laser includes a thin inner GaAs p-n junction layer between two outer GaAlAs layers which are backed by further thin outer GaAlAs layers with a heavier doping of AlAs. This reduces optical losses. Optical energy is further confined within the inner layers and the lasing threshold reduced by added outer GaAs layers of low electrical and thermal resistivity

  15. Correlation between {sup 18}F Fluorodeoxyglucose uptake and epidermal growth factor receptor mutations in advanced lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yun Jung; Cho, Byoung Chul; Jeong, Youg Hyu; Seo, Hyo Jung; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Cho, Arthur; Lee, Jae Hoon; Yun, Mi Jin; Jeon, Tae Joo; Lee, Jong Doo; Kang, Won Jun [Yonsei Univ., Health System, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    Mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)gene have been identified as potential targets for the treatment and prognostic factors for non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We assessed the correlation between fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake and EGFR mutations, as well as their prognostic implications. A total of 163 patients with pathologically confirmed NSCLC were enrolled (99 males and 64 females; median age, 60 years). All patients underwent FDG positron emission tomography before treatment, and genetic studies of EGFR mutations were performed. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax)of the primary lung cancer was measured and normalized with regard to liver uptake. The SUVmax between the wild type and EGFR mutant groups was compared. Survival was evaluated according to SUVmax and EGFR mutation status. EGFR mutations were found in 57 patients (60.8%). The SUVmax tended to be higher in wild type than mutant tumors, but was not significantly different (11.1{+-}5.7 vs. 9.8{+-}4.4, P=0.103). The SUVmax was significantly lower in patients with an exon 19 mutation than in those with either an exon 21 mutation or wild type (P=0.003 and 0.009, respectively). The EGFR mutation showed prolonged overall survival (OS) compared to wild type tumors (P=0.004). There was no significant difference in survival according to SUVmax. Both OS and progression free survival of patients with a mutation in exon 19 were significant longer than in patients with wild type tumors. In patients with NSCLC, a mutation in exon 19 was associated with a lower SUVmax and is a reliable predictor for good survival.

  16. {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography in the management of adult multisystem Langerhans cell histiocytosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obert, Julie [Universite Paris Diderot, Paris (France); Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Centre National de Reference de l' Histiocytose Langerhansienne, Service de Pneumologie, Hopital Saint-Louis, Paris (France); Vercellino, Laetitia [Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Hopital Saint-Louis, Paris (France); Van der Gucht, Axel [Universite Paris Diderot, Paris (France); Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Hopital Saint-Louis, Paris (France); De Margerie-Mellon, Constance [Universite Paris Diderot, Paris (France); Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Service de Radiologie, Hopital Saint-Louis, Paris (France); Bugnet, Emmanuelle; Lorillon, Gwenael [Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Centre National de Reference de l' Histiocytose Langerhansienne, Service de Pneumologie, Hopital Saint-Louis, Paris (France); Chevret, Sylvie [Universite Paris Diderot, Paris (France); Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Service de Biostatistique et Information Medicale, Hopital Saint-Louis, Paris (France); Biostatistics and Clinical Epidemiology Research Team, U1153 CRESS, Paris (France); Tazi, Abdellatif [Universite Paris Diderot, Paris (France); Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Centre National de Reference de l' Histiocytose Langerhansienne, Service de Pneumologie, Hopital Saint-Louis, Paris (France); Biostatistics and Clinical Epidemiology Research Team, U1153 CRESS, Paris (France)

    2017-04-15

    The standard evaluation of multisystem Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) includes a clinical evaluation, laboratory tests and a skeleton/skull X-ray survey, with chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in the case of pulmonary involvement. Preliminary reports suggest that {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG PET-CT) may be useful for evaluating patients with LCH. Fourteen consecutive adult patients with multisystem LCH were included in this retrospective study, and were evaluated using standard procedures and {sup 18}F-FDG PET-CT. The two sets of findings were compared both at baseline and during follow-up. Serial HRCT and pulmonary function tests were used to evaluate outcome in patients with lung involvement. At the baseline evaluation, PET-CT identified every LCH localization found with the standard evaluation (except a mild cecum infiltration). PET-CT showed additional lesions in seven patients, mostly involving bones, and differentiated inactive from active lesions. Thyroid {sup 18}F-FDG uptake was identified in three cases. No pituitary stalk {sup 18}F-FDG uptake was observed in patients with pituitary LCH. Only 3/12 (25 %) patients with pulmonary LCH displayed moderate pulmonary {sup 18}F-FDG uptake. During follow-up, variations (≥50 % of maximum standardized uptake) in bone {sup 18}F-FDG uptake intensity were correlated with disease state and response to treatment. The absence of lung {sup 18}F-FDG uptake did not preclude lung function improvement after treatment. Except for cases with pulmonary and pituitary involvement, {sup 18}F-FDG PET-CT could replace the standard evaluation for staging of adult patients with multisystem LCH. Serial PET-CT scans are useful for evaluating treatment responses, particularly in cases with bone LCH involvement. (orig.)

  17. Positron emission tomography with 18-fluorodeoxyglucose in the staging and follow-up of lymphoma in the chest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangerter, M.; Griesshammer, M.; Bergmann, L.; Kotzerke, J.; Reske, S.N.; Elsner, K.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the accuracy of positron emission tomography (PET) using 18-F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in predicting lymphomatous involvement in the hilar and mediastinal regions in the staging and follow-up of patients with malignant lymphoma. One hundred forty-seven thoracic PET studies in 89 consecutive lymphoma patients were reviewed. Static FDG-PET imaging was performed following application of 270 MBq FDG (mean). Results of FDG-PET were compared with the findings of computed tomography (CT) in all patients and clinical follow-up examination. Eighty-nine of 147 (60%) PET studies showed no FDG uptake in the hilar or mediastinal regions, while 58 (40%) studied did detect FDG uptake in these regions. In 52 of 58 abnormal studies (90%), lymphomatous involvement of the hilar and/or mediastinal regions seen by CT was present. In the remaining six abnormal PET studies (10%), FDG uptake was considered as false-positive because of missing lesions on corresponding CT scans. In four patients false-positive FDG uptake was observed before treatment, in two patients after completion of therapy. In these two patients FDG uptake after therapy was caused by thymus hyperplasia. The remaining four cases before treatment remained unresolved. Sensitivity of FDG-PET was 96%, specificity 94%, positive predictive value 90%, and negative predictive value 98%, respectively. The present study suggests that FDG-PET has potential value in predicting lymphomatous involvement in the hilar and mediastinal regions. FDG-PET may obviate invasive diagnostic procedures in patients with lymphoma. (orig.)

  18. PET with F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose measures of local brain activity and memory in schizophrenia and in depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riege, W.H.; Metter, E.J.; Kuhl, D.E.; Phelps, M.E.; Kling, A.

    1984-01-01

    Positron emission tomography with [F-18] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) scan has provided non-invasive measures of regional cerebral glucose utilization which are directly related with levels of functional activity in regions of the brain. The FDG technique was applied to the study of brain activity thought to be impaired in 6 chronic schizophrenics (SCH) and 6 depressed (D) patients in comparison with 6 healthy age-matched controls (C). Local cerebral metabolic rates of glucose utilization LCMRglc were determined for 8 regions in both left and right hemispheres and were expressed in reference to a person's mean CMRglc. Multivariate comparisons of the 16 measures showed no significant differences between the 3 groups; follow-up step-down analyses and t-tests failed to specify any regional or global LCMRglc reliable to separate patients from controls. They also did not differ in any of 18 multidimensional tests of memory and decision, except for lower delayed verbal recall in D patients. When both SCH and D were classified into those with CT large and those with CT small ventricles, there were no multivariate differences. Only partial LCMRglc separated large from small ventricle patients (F(1,7) = 6.12, p<0.042), but finding no multivariate significance makes this result questionable. The ventricular grouping of SCH alone may reveal a marginal difference in global CMRglc t(4) = 2.58, p<0.06, given a larger patient sample. In contrast to recent reports, indices to brain activity in schizophrenic and depressed patients do not seem to be abnormal

  19. Cerebral interregional correlations of associative language processing: a positron emission tomography activation study using fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreckenberger, M.; Sabri, O.; Arning, C.; Schulz, G.; Tuttass, T.; Wagenknecht, G.; Kaiser, H.J.; Buell, U.; Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, E.; Sass, H.

    1998-01-01

    Even though there have been numerous positron emission tomography (PET) activation studies on the perfusional and metabolic bases of language processing, little is known about the intracerebral functional network of language and cognitive processes. It was the aim of this study to investigate the cerebral interregional correlations during voluntary word association versus word repetition in healthy subjects to gain insight into the functional connectivity of associative speech processing. Due to individual variability in functional anatomy, the study protocol was designed as an averaged single-subject study. Eight healthy volunteers performed a verbal association task during fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) PET scanning. Two different tasks were performed in randomized order: (a) word repetition (after auditory presentation of nouns) as a control condition, and (b) word association (after auditory presentation of nouns) as a specific semantic activation. The regional metabolic rate of glucose (rMRGlu) was calculated after brain regionalization [112 regions of interest on individual 3D flash magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)] and PET/MRI realignment. Statistical analysis was performed for comparison of association and repetition and for calculation of interregional correlation coefficients during both tasks. Compared with word repetition, word association was associated with significant increases in rMRGlu in the left prefrontal cortex, the left frontal operculum (Broca's area) and the left insula, indicating involvement of these areas in associative language processing. Decreased rMRGlu was found in the left posterior cingulum during word association. During word repetition, highly significant negative correlations were found between the left prefrontal cortex, the contralateral cortex areas and the ipsilateral posterior cingulum. These negative correlations were almost completely eliminated during the association task, suggesting a functional decoupling

  20. Differences in fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography findings between elderly onset rheumatoid arthritis and polymyalgia rheumatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Yamashita, Hiroyuki; Kubota, Kazuo; Miyata, Yoko; Okasaki, Momoko; Morooka, Miyako; Takahashi, Yuko; Kaneko, Hiroshi; Kano, Toshikazu; Mimori, Akio

    2015-07-01

    To compare the fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) findings in patients with elderly-onset rheumatoid arthritis (EORA) with those in patients with polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR), two conditions with similar clinical presentations. We retrospectively analyzed the FDG-PET/CT findings in 10 patients with EORA and 27 patients with PMR admitted to our department between 2006 and 2012. No significant difference was observed in the median patient ages at the time of FDG-PET/CT scans in the EORA and PMR groups (73.5 vs. 78.0 years, respectively). Significant differences in both FDG uptake scores and standardized uptake values were observed between the two groups in the ischial tuberosities, spinous processes, and wrists. No significant differences were detected in the shoulders and hips. However, specific uptake patterns were observed in each group: circular and linear uptake patterns were observed around the humeral head in the EORA group, whereas focal and non-linear uptake patterns were observed in the PMR group. Moreover, focal uptake in front of the hip joint, indicating iliopectineal bursitis, tended to be limited to the PMR group. High sensitivity (92.6%) and specificity (90%) were observed for PMR diagnoses when at least three of the following five items were satisfied: characteristic findings of shoulder and iliopectineal bursitis, FDG uptake in ischial tuberosities and spinal spinous processes, and lack of FDG uptake in the wrists. The differences in the degree of uptake at each lesion and in uptake patterns at the shoulders and hips are potentially useful for obtaining a definitive diagnosis.

  1. The role of {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in gestational trophoblastic tumours: a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Ting Chang; Wu, Yen Ching; Wu, Tzu I. [University College of Medicine, Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Taoyuan (Taiwan); Yen, Tzu Chen; Chang, Yu.Cheng [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taoyuan (Taiwan); Li, Yiu Tai [Kuo General Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Tainan (Taiwan); Ng, Koon Kwan [Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Departments of Diagnostic Radiology, Taoyuan (Taiwan); Jung, Shih Ming [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Anatomic Pathology, Taoyuan (Taiwan); Lai, Chyong Huey [University College of Medicine, Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Taoyuan (Taiwan); Chang Gung Memorial Hospital Linkou Medical Center, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Taoyuan (Taiwan)

    2006-02-01

    We conducted a pilot trial to evaluate the value of {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in gestational trophoblastic tumours (GTTs). Patients with placental site trophoblastic tumour (PSTT), high-risk GTT (World Health Organisation score {>=}8, disease onset at postpartum or greater than 6 months after antecedent pregnancy), metastatic GTT, recurrent/resistant GTT after chemotherapy, or post-molar GTT with unexplained abnormal {beta}-hCG regression and patients undergoing re-evaluation after salvage treatment were enrolled. PET was undertaken within 1 week after computed tomography (CT). Clinical impacts of additional PET were determined on a scan basis. A total of 14 patients were recruited. Sixteen PET scans were performed, with one patient having three serial studies. Benefits of additional PET were seen in 7 of 16 (43.8%) scans; these benefits included disclosure of chemotherapy-resistant lesions (n=2), exclusion of false-positive CT lesions (n=1), detection of an additional lesion not found by conventional imaging (n=1) in high-risk GTT at the start of primary chemotherapy, and confirmation of complete response to treatment for PSTT or to salvage therapy for recurrent/resistant GTT (n=3). On the other hand, in two instances there were false-negative PET findings, six scans yielded no benefit, and one showed an indeterminate lesion. Our preliminary results suggest that {sup 18}F-FDG PET is potentially useful in selected patients with GTT by providing precise mapping of metastases and tumour extent upfront, by monitoring treatment response and by localising viable tumours after chemotherapy. A larger study is necessary to further define the role of {sup 18}F-FDG PET in GTT. (orig.)

  2. Whole-body positron emission tomography using fluorodeoxyglucose for staging of lymphoma: effectiveness and comparison with computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stumpe, K.D.M.; Urbinelli, M.; Steinert, H.C.; Glanzmann, C.; Buck, A.; Schulthess, G.K. von

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whole-body positron emission tomography (WB-PET) as a staging modality in Hodgkin's disease (HD) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and to compare it with computed tomography (CT) in a retrospective study. Seventy-one WB-PET studies using fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and 49 CT examinations were performed in 19 women and 31 men. Transaxial images were acquired and reformatted coronally and sagittally in PET. CT sections were obtained from the skull base to the pelvic floor. The written reports of the imaging data were compared with a reference standard constructed on the basis of all the data on the individual patients, including clinical follow-up of at least 6 months. The sensitivity and specificity of PET were, respectively, 86% and 96% for HD (n=53), and 89% and 100% for NHL (n=18). For CT sensitivity and specificity were 81% and 41% for HD (n=33) and 86% and 67% for NHL (n=16). Differences between PET and CT sensitivities were not significant, while in HD there was a significant difference in the specificity of PET and CT examinations, mainly because CT was unable to distinguish between active or recurrent disease and residual scar tissue after therapy. FDG tumour uptake was found in high- as well as low-grade NHL patients. In conclusion, PET appears to be highly sensitive and specific for staging of lymphoma. It is at least as sensitive as CT, and more specific, particularly in patients undergoing restaging, where a well-recognized diagnostic dilemma in CT is the presence of a post-therapeutic residual mass. (orig.)

  3. F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in the mediastinal nodal staging of non-small cell lung carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlangieri, S.U.; Scott, A.M.; Knight, S.; Fitt, G.J.; Hess, E.M.; Pathmaraj, K.; Hennessy, O.F.; Tochon-Danguy, H.J.; Chan, J.G.; Egan, G.F.; Sinclair, R.A.; Clarke, C.P.; McKay, W.J.; St Vincents Hospital, Fitzroy, VIC

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Positron emission tomography (PET) using F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), as a metabolic tumour marker, has been proposed for staging of oncological disease. To determine its role in the mediastinal staging of lung cancer, a prospective comparison of FDG PET with surgery was performed in patients with suspected non-small cell lung carcinoma. The analysis group consists of 70 patients, 49 men and 21 women, mean age 64 yrs (range 41-83 yrs). The PET study was acquired on a Siemens 951/31R scanner over 3 bed positions, 45 minutes following 400MBq FDG. The emission scan was attenuation corrected using measured transmission data. The FDG PET were interpreted by a nuclear physician blinded to the clinical data and the results of the patients' CT scan. On PET, nodes were graded qualitatively on a 5 point scale with scores 4 or greater, positive for tumour involvement. Surgical specimens were obtained in all patients by thoracotomy or mediastinoscopy. The PET metabolic studies and pathology were mapped according to the American Thoracic Society nodal classification resulting in a total of 277 nodal stations evaluated. The PET studies analysed N2 or N3 tumour involvement by nodal station in comparison to histology of pathological specimens or direct visual assessment of the nodal stations at surgery. All patients had proven non-small cell lung carcinoma, except two, in whom, a tissue confirmation of the suspected diagnosis was not attained. PET excluded tumour in 237 of 246 nodal stations (specificity 96%). PET correctly identified 23 of 31 nodal stations with disease (sensitivity 74%). PET correctly staged 260 of 277 nodal stations (accuracy 94%) for disease. FDG PET is an accurate non-invasive functional imaging modality for the mediastinal staging of non-small cell lung cancer and has an important clinical role in the preoperative staging of lung cancer patients

  4. [18]Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography for the textural features of cervical cancer associated with lymph node metastasis and histological type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Wei-Chih; Chen, Shang-Wen; Liang, Ji-An; Hsieh, Te-Chun; Yen, Kuo-Yang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the correlation between the lymph node (LN) status or histological types and textural features of cervical cancers on "1"8F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography. We retrospectively reviewed the imaging records of 170 patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IB-IVA cervical cancer. Four groups of textural features were studied in addition to the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV_m_a_x), metabolic tumor volume, and total lesion glycolysis (TLG). Moreover, we studied the associations between the indices and clinical parameters, including the LN status, clinical stage, and histology. Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to evaluate the optimal predictive performance among the various textural indices. Quantitative differences were determined using the Mann-Whitney U test. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the independent factors, among all the variables, for predicting LN metastasis. Among all the significant indices related to pelvic LN metastasis, homogeneity derived from the gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) was the sole independent predictor. By combining SUV_m_a_x, the risk of pelvic LN metastasis can be scored accordingly. The TLG_m_e_a_n was the independent feature of positive para-aortic LNs. Quantitative differences between squamous and nonsquamous histology can be determined using short-zone emphasis (SZE) from the gray-level size zone matrix (GLSZM). This study revealed that in patients with cervical cancer, pelvic or para-aortic LN metastases can be predicted by using textural feature of homogeneity from the GLCM and TLG_m_e_a_n_, respectively. SZE from the GLSZM is the sole feature associated with quantitative differences between squamous and nonsquamous histology. (orig.)

  5. The use of molecular sieves to simulate hot lesions in (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose--positron emission tomography imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheoud, R; Secco, C; Ridone, S; Inglese, E; Brambilla, M

    2008-04-21

    We investigated the use of a kind of zeolite, the Bowie chabazite, to produce radioactive sources of different shapes, dimensions and activity concentrations that can be used for lesion simulation in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. The (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) uptake of a group of 12 zeolites was studied as a function of their weight (120-1,520 mg) and of the activity concentration of the (18)F-FDG solution (1-37 MBq ml(-1)), using a multiple linear regression model. The reproducibility, homogeneity and stability over time of the (18)F-FDG uptake were assessed. The fit of the regression model is good (r(2) = 0.83). This relation allows the production of zeolites of a desired (18)F-FDG activity using knowledge of the concentration of the soaking solution and the weight of the zeolite. The reproducibility of the (18)F-FDG uptake after heating the zeolites is elevated (CV% = 3.68). The almost complete regeneration of the zeolites allows us to reuse them in successive experiments. The stability of the (18)F-FDG uptake on zeolites is far from ideal. When placed in a saline solution the 'activated' zeolites release the (18)F-FDG with an effective half-time of 53 min. The sealing of the zeolites in plastic film bags has been demonstrated to be effective in preventing any release of (18)F-FDG. These features, together with their variable dimensions and shapes, make them ideal (18)F-FDG sources with a fixed target-to-background ratio that can be placed anywhere in a phantom to study lesion detectability in PET imaging.

  6. [18]Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography for the Textural Features of Cervical Cancer Associated with Lymph Node Metastasis and Histological Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei-Chih; Chen, Shang-Wen; Liang, Ji-An; Hsieh, Te-Chun; Yen, Kuo-Yang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2017-09-01

    In this study, we investigated the correlation between the lymph node (LN) status or histological types and textural features of cervical cancers on 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography. We retrospectively reviewed the imaging records of 170 patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IB-IVA cervical cancer. Four groups of textural features were studied in addition to the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV max ), metabolic tumor volume, and total lesion glycolysis (TLG). Moreover, we studied the associations between the indices and clinical parameters, including the LN status, clinical stage, and histology. Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to evaluate the optimal predictive performance among the various textural indices. Quantitative differences were determined using the Mann-Whitney U test. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the independent factors, among all the variables, for predicting LN metastasis. Among all the significant indices related to pelvic LN metastasis, homogeneity derived from the gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) was the sole independent predictor. By combining SUV max , the risk of pelvic LN metastasis can be scored accordingly. The TLG mean was the independent feature of positive para-aortic LNs. Quantitative differences between squamous and nonsquamous histology can be determined using short-zone emphasis (SZE) from the gray-level size zone matrix (GLSZM). This study revealed that in patients with cervical cancer, pelvic or para-aortic LN metastases can be predicted by using textural feature of homogeneity from the GLCM and TLG mean, respectively. SZE from the GLSZM is the sole feature associated with quantitative differences between squamous and nonsquamous histology.

  7. {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake of hepatocellular carcinoma as a prognostic predictor in patients with sorafenib treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Pil Soo; Yang, Keungmo; Hwang, Seawon; Song, Myeong Jun; Jang, Jeong Won; Choi, Jong Young; Yoon, Seung Kew; Bae, Si Hyun [The Catholic University of Korea, Division of Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, The Catholic University Liver Research Center, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hye Lim; Yoo, Ie Ryung [The Catholic University of Korea, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2018-03-15

    Sorafenib, an oral multikinase inhibitor, is a recommended treatment option available for patients with Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC)-C stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study aimed to evaluate the performance of {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG PET) for predicting tumour progression during sorafenib treatment. We formed a retrospective cohort comprising patients treated with sorafenib for at least 30 days and undergoing {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT within 1 month before treatment. For statistical analyses, the tumour-to-liver standardised uptake value (SUV) ratio (TLR) of the most hypermetabolic lesion was measured. Among a total of 35 patients, two obtained partial remission, and 11 showed stable disease after the first response evaluation. Patients with a TLR ≥ 2.9 (n = 17) had a median overall survival (OS) of 3.7 months after sorafenib treatment, whereas patients with a TLR < 2.9 (n = 18) had median OS of 12.2 months (P < 0.001), although the disease control rate was not significantly different between the two groups. Pretreatment TLR ≥ 2.9 (hazard ratio [HR] = 6.318, P = 0.002) and Child-Pugh class B (HR = 4.316, P = 0.044) were poor prognostic factors for OS, and a TLR ≥ 2.9 (HR = 2.911, P = 0.024) was the only poor prognostic factor for progression-free survival in a multivariate analysis. Pretreatment tumour metabolic activity assessed by {sup 18}F-FDG PET is an independent prognostic factor for survival in patients with BCLC-C stage HCC receiving sorafenib monotherapy, although it may not predict tumour response to the treatment. (orig.)

  8. Influence of [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography on salvage treatment decision making for locally persistent nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Xiaojang; Chen Longhua; Wang Quanshi; Wu Fubing

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of [ 18 F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in influencing salvage treatment decision making for locally persistent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods and Materials: A total of 33 NPC patients with histologic persistence at nasopharynx 1 to 6 weeks after a full course of radiotherapy underwent both computed tomography (CT) and FDG-PET/CT simulation at the same treatment position. The salvage treatment decisions, with regard to the decision to offer salvage treatment and the definition of gross tumor volume (GTV), were made before knowledge of the FDG-PET findings. Subsequently the salvage treatment decisions were made again based on the FDG-PET findings and compared with the pre-FDG-PET decisions. Results: All 33 patients were referred for salvage treatment in the pre-FDG-PET decision. After knowledge of the FDG-PET results, the decision to offer salvage treatment was withdrawn in 4 of 33 patients (12.1%), as no abnormal uptake of FDG was found at nasopharynx. Spontaneous remission was observed in repeat biopsies and no local recurrence was found in these 4 cases. For the remaining 29 patients, GTV based on FDG-PET was smaller than GTV based on CT in 24 (82.8%) cases and was greater in 5 (17.2%) cases, respectively. The target volume had to be significantly modified in 9 of 29 patients (31%), as GTV based on FDG-PET images failed to be enclosed by the treated volume in the salvage treatment plan performed based on GTV based on CT simulation images. Conclusion: Use of FDG-PET was found to influence the salvage treatment decision making for locally persistent NPC by identifying patients who were not likely to benefit from additional treatment and by improving accuracy of GTV definition in salvage treatment planning

  9. [18]Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography for the textural features of cervical cancer associated with lymph node metastasis and histological type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Wei-Chih [Asia University, Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, Taichung (China); Chen, Shang-Wen [China Medical University Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Taichung (China); China Medical University, School of Medicine, Taichung (China); Taipei Medical University, School of Medicine, Taipei (China); China Medical University, Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taichung (China); Liang, Ji-An [China Medical University Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Taichung (China); China Medical University, Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taichung (China); Hsieh, Te-Chun; Yen, Kuo-Yang [China Medical University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET Center, Taichung (China); China Medical University, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Science, Taichung (China); Kao, Chia-Hung [China Medical University, Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taichung (China); China Medical University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET Center, Taichung (China); Asia University, Department of Bioinformatics and Medical Engineering, Taichung (China)

    2017-09-15

    In this study, we investigated the correlation between the lymph node (LN) status or histological types and textural features of cervical cancers on {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography. We retrospectively reviewed the imaging records of 170 patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IB-IVA cervical cancer. Four groups of textural features were studied in addition to the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}), metabolic tumor volume, and total lesion glycolysis (TLG). Moreover, we studied the associations between the indices and clinical parameters, including the LN status, clinical stage, and histology. Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to evaluate the optimal predictive performance among the various textural indices. Quantitative differences were determined using the Mann-Whitney U test. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the independent factors, among all the variables, for predicting LN metastasis. Among all the significant indices related to pelvic LN metastasis, homogeneity derived from the gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) was the sole independent predictor. By combining SUV{sub max}, the risk of pelvic LN metastasis can be scored accordingly. The TLG{sub mean} was the independent feature of positive para-aortic LNs. Quantitative differences between squamous and nonsquamous histology can be determined using short-zone emphasis (SZE) from the gray-level size zone matrix (GLSZM). This study revealed that in patients with cervical cancer, pelvic or para-aortic LN metastases can be predicted by using textural feature of homogeneity from the GLCM and TLG{sub mean,} respectively. SZE from the GLSZM is the sole feature associated with quantitative differences between squamous and nonsquamous histology. (orig.)

  10. A computed tomography-based spatial normalization for the analysis of [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hanna; Kim, Jin Su; Choi, Jae Yong; Ryu, Young Hoon; Lyoo, Chul Hyoung

    2014-01-01

    We developed a new computed tomography (CT)-based spatial normalization method and CT template to demonstrate its usefulness in spatial normalization of positron emission tomography (PET) images with [(18)F] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET studies in healthy controls. Seventy healthy controls underwent brain CT scan (120 KeV, 180 mAs, and 3 mm of thickness) and [(18)F] FDG PET scans using a PET/CT scanner. T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images were acquired for all subjects. By averaging skull-stripped and spatially-normalized MR and CT images, we created skull-stripped MR and CT templates for spatial normalization. The skull-stripped MR and CT images were spatially normalized to each structural template. PET images were spatially normalized by applying spatial transformation parameters to normalize skull-stripped MR and CT images. A conventional perfusion PET template was used for PET-based spatial normalization. Regional standardized uptake values (SUV) measured by overlaying the template volume of interest (VOI) were compared to those measured with FreeSurfer-generated VOI (FSVOI). All three spatial normalization methods underestimated regional SUV values by 0.3-20% compared to those measured with FSVOI. The CT-based method showed slightly greater underestimation bias. Regional SUV values derived from all three spatial normalization methods were correlated significantly (p normalization may be an alternative method for structure-based spatial normalization of [(18)F] FDG PET when MR imaging is unavailable. Therefore, it is useful for PET/CT studies with various radiotracers whose uptake is expected to be limited to specific brain regions or highly variable within study population.

  11. Regional 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Hypometabolism is Associated with Higher Apathy Scores Over Time in Early Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatchel, Jennifer R; Donovan, Nancy J; Locascio, Joseph J; Becker, J Alex; Rentz, Dorene M; Sperling, Reisa A; Johnson, Keith A; Marshall, Gad A

    2017-07-01

    Apathy is among the earliest and most pervasive neuropsychiatric symptoms in prodromal and mild Alzheimer disease (AD) dementia that correlates with functional impairment and disease progression. We investigated the association of apathy with regional 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) metabolism in cognitively normal, mild cognitive impairment, and AD dementia subjects from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. 57 North American research sites. 402 community dwelling elders. Apathy was assessed using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire. Baseline FDG metabolism in five regions implicated in the neurobiology of apathy and AD was investigated in relationship to apathy at baseline (cross-sectional general linear model) and longitudinally (mixed random/fixed effect model). Covariates included age, sex, diagnosis, apolipoprotein E genotype, premorbid intelligence, cognition, and antidepressant use. Cross-sectional analysis revealed that posterior cingulate hypometabolism, diagnosis, male sex, and antidepressant use were associated with higher apathy scores. Longitudinal analysis revealed that the interaction of supramarginal hypometabolism and time, posterior cingulate hypometabolism, and antidepressant use were associated with higher apathy scores across time; only supramarginal hypometabolism was positively related to rate of increase of apathy. Results support an association of apathy with hypometabolism in parietal regions commonly affected in early stages of AD, rather than medial frontal regions implicated in the neurobiology of apathy in later stages. Further work is needed to substantiate whether this localization is specific to apathy rather than to disease stage, and to investigate the potential role of AD proteinopathies in the pathogenesis of apathy. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The role of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in gestational trophoblastic tumours: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Ting Chang; Wu, Yen Ching; Wu, Tzu I.; Yen, Tzu Chen; Chang, Yu.Cheng; Li, Yiu Tai; Ng, Koon Kwan; Jung, Shih Ming; Lai, Chyong Huey

    2006-01-01

    We conducted a pilot trial to evaluate the value of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in gestational trophoblastic tumours (GTTs). Patients with placental site trophoblastic tumour (PSTT), high-risk GTT (World Health Organisation score ≥8, disease onset at postpartum or greater than 6 months after antecedent pregnancy), metastatic GTT, recurrent/resistant GTT after chemotherapy, or post-molar GTT with unexplained abnormal β-hCG regression and patients undergoing re-evaluation after salvage treatment were enrolled. PET was undertaken within 1 week after computed tomography (CT). Clinical impacts of additional PET were determined on a scan basis. A total of 14 patients were recruited. Sixteen PET scans were performed, with one patient having three serial studies. Benefits of additional PET were seen in 7 of 16 (43.8%) scans; these benefits included disclosure of chemotherapy-resistant lesions (n=2), exclusion of false-positive CT lesions (n=1), detection of an additional lesion not found by conventional imaging (n=1) in high-risk GTT at the start of primary chemotherapy, and confirmation of complete response to treatment for PSTT or to salvage therapy for recurrent/resistant GTT (n=3). On the other hand, in two instances there were false-negative PET findings, six scans yielded no benefit, and one showed an indeterminate lesion. Our preliminary results suggest that 18 F-FDG PET is potentially useful in selected patients with GTT by providing precise mapping of metastases and tumour extent upfront, by monitoring treatment response and by localising viable tumours after chemotherapy. A larger study is necessary to further define the role of 18 F-FDG PET in GTT. (orig.)

  13. Detection of thoracic aortic prosthetic graft infection with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuda, Yoshiyuki; Oshima, Hideki; Araki, Yoshimori; Narita, Yuji; Mutsuga, Masato; Kato, Katsuhiko; Usui, Akihiko

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the diagnostic value of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) in detecting thoracic aortic prosthetic graft infection. Nine patients with clinically suspected thoracic aortic graft infection underwent FDG-PET/CT scanning. In these patients, the diagnoses could not be confirmed using conventional modalities. The patients' clinical courses were retrospectively reviewed. On the basis of surgical, microbiological and clinical follow-up findings, the aortic grafts were considered infected in 4 patients and not infected in 5. All 4 patients with graft infection (root: 2 cases, arch: 1 case and descending: 1 case) eventually underwent in situ re-replacement. Two of the 4 patients also had abdominal grafts; however, only the thoracic grafts were replaced because uptake was low around the abdominal grafts. The maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax) in the perigraft area was higher in the infected group than in the non-infected group (11.4 ± 4.5 vs 6.9 ± 6.4), although the difference was not statistically significant. According to the receiver operating characteristic analysis, SUVmax >8 appeared to be the cut-off value in distinguishing the two groups (sensitivity: 1.0 and specificity: 0.8). FDG-PET/CT is useful for confirming the presence of graft infection by detecting high uptake around grafts and excluding other causes of inflammation. An SUVmax value greater than 8 around a graft suggests the presence of graft infection. In addition, FDG-PET/CT can be used to clarify the precise extent of infection. This is especially useful if multiple separated prosthetic grafts have been implanted.

  14. Evaluation of the limits of visual detection of image misregistration in a brain fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose PET-MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, J.C.H.; Studholme, C.; Hawkes, D.J.; Maisey, M.N.

    1997-01-01

    In routine clinical work, registration accuracy is assessed by visual inspection. However, the accuracy of visual assessment of registration has not been evaluated. This study establishes the limits of visual detection of misregistration in a registered brain fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography to magnetic resonance image volume. The ''best'' registered image volume was obtained by automatic registration using mutual information optimization. Translational movements by 1 mm, 2 mm, 3 mm and 4 mm, and rotational movements by 1 , 2 , 3 and 4 in the positive and negative directions in the x- (lateral), y- (anterior-posterior) and z- (axial) axes were introduced to this standard. These 48 images plus six ''best'' registered images were presented in random sequence to five observers for visual categorization of registration accuracy. No observer detected a definite misregistration in the ''best'' registered image. Evaluation for inter-observer variation using observer pairings showed a high percentage of agreement in assigned categories for both translational and rotational misregistrations. Assessment of the limits of detection of misregistration showed that a 2-mm translational misregistration was detectable by all observers in the x- and y-axes and 3-mm translational misregistration in the z-axis. With rotational misregistrations, rotation around the z-axis was detectable by all at 2 rotation whereas rotation around the y-axis was detected at 3-4 . Rotation around the x-axis was not symmetric with a positive rotation being identified at 2 whereas negative rotation was detected by all only at 4 . Therefore, visual analysis appears to be a sensitive and practical means to assess image misregistration accuracy. The awareness of the limits of visual detection of misregistration will lead to increase care when evaluating registration quality in both research and clinical settings. (orig.). With 6 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Prognostic Value of SUVmax Measured by Fluorine-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography with Computed Tomography in Patients with Gallbladder Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Jae Pil; Lim, Ilhan; Na, Im II; Cho, Eung Ho; Kim, Byung II; Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, Sang Moo [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    The aim of this study is to investigate the prognostic value of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) in gallbladder cancer patients. From June 2004 to June 2010, a total of 50 patients with gallbladder cancer who underwent diagnostic staging with F-18 FDG PET/CT following curative or palliative treatments were retrospectively evaluated. For the analysis, all patients were classified by age, sex, maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), lymph node (LN) or distant metastasis, serum level of CA19-9 and CEA, type of treatment and American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage. The median survival for the 50 patients was 245 days and the median SUVmax in PET/CT was 8.3 (range, 0-19.7). Patients with SUVmax<6 survived significantly longer than patients with SUVmax≥6 (median 405 days vs 203 days, p = 0.0400). On Kaplan-Meier analysis, SUVmax (p =0.0400), stage (p =0.0001), CA19-9 (p =0.013), CEA (p =0.006), LN metastasis (p =0.0001), distant metastasis (p =0.0020), type of treatment (p =0.0001) were significantly associated with overall survival. Multivariate analysis study revealed that the patients with lower SUVmax measured from initial staging PET/CT (p =0.0380), no LN metastasis (p =0.0260), a lower stage (p =0.026) and curative treatment (p =0.0005) had longer survivals. The present study shows that SUVmax on F-18 FDG PET/CT can provide prognostic information in patients with gallbladder cancer.

  16. 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI as imaging biomarkers in malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David O; Hooper, Clare E; Searle, Julie; Darby, Michael; White, Paul; Harvey, John E; Braybrooke, Jeremy P; Maskell, Nick A; Masani, Vidan; Lyburn, Iain D

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the use of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG) PET with computed tomography (CT) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI to predict prognosis and monitor treatment in malignant pleural mesothelioma. F-FDG PET/CT and DCE-MRI studies carried out as part of the South West Area Mesothelioma Pemetrexed trial were used. F-FDG PET/CT and DCE-MRI studies were carried out before treatment, and after two cycles of chemotherapy, on patients treated with pemetrexed and cisplatin. A total of 73 patients were recruited, of whom 65 had PET/CT and DCE-MRI scans. Baseline measurements from F-FDG PET/CT (maximum standardized uptake value, metabolic tumour volume and total lesion glycolysis) and DCE-MRI (integrated area under the first 90s of the curve and washout slope) were compared with overall survival (OS) using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses, and changes in imaging measurements were compared with disease progression. PET/CT and DCE-MRI measurements were not correlated with each other. Maximum standardized uptake value, metabolic tumour volume and total lesion glycolysis were significantly related to OS with Cox regression analysis and Kaplan-Meir analysis, and DCE-MRI washout curve shape was significantly related to OS. DCE-MRI curve shape can be combined with F-FDG PET/CT to give additional prognostic information. Changes in measurements were not related to progression-free survival. F-FDG PET/CT and DCE-MRI give prognostic information in malignant pleural mesothelioma. Neither PET/CT nor DCE-MRI is useful for monitoring disease progression.

  17. The use of molecular sieves to simulate hot lesions in 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matheoud, R; Secco, C; Brambilla, M; Ridone, S; Inglese, E

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the use of a kind of zeolite, the Bowie chabazite, to produce radioactive sources of different shapes, dimensions and activity concentrations that can be used for lesion simulation in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. The 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) uptake of a group of 12 zeolites was studied as a function of their weight (120-1520 mg) and of the activity concentration of the 18 F-FDG solution (1-37 MBq ml -1 ), using a multiple linear regression model. The reproducibility, homogeneity and stability over time of the 18 F-FDG uptake were assessed. The fit of the regression model is good (r 2 = 0.83). This relation allows the production of zeolites of a desired 18 F-FDG activity using knowledge of the concentration of the soaking solution and the weight of the zeolite. The reproducibility of the 18 F-FDG uptake after heating the zeolites is elevated (CV% = 3.68). The almost complete regeneration of the zeolites allows us to reuse them in successive experiments. The stability of the 18 F-FDG uptake on zeolites is far from ideal. When placed in a saline solution the 'activated' zeolites release the 18 F-FDG with an effective half-time of 53 min. The sealing of the zeolites in plastic film bags has been demonstrated to be effective in preventing any release of 18 F-FDG. These features, together with their variable dimensions and shapes, make them ideal 18 F-FDG sources with a fixed target-to-background ratio that can be placed anywhere in a phantom to study lesion detectability in PET imaging. (note)

  18. Clinical significance of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT whole body imaging in detecting thyroid incidentaloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai Ge; Li Biao; Zhang Miao; Xu Haoping; Jiang Xufeng; Wang Chao; Ge Guizhi; Shun Chengwei; Zhu Chengmo

    2009-01-01

    Objective: 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT is a noninvasive whole-body imaging technique used to evaluate various types of malignancies. Recent advances have rapidly developed it into a diagnostic imaging modality in ontology. The aims of this study were two. One was to estimate the detection rate of thyroid indoleacetamide and the risk of thyroid malignancy by 18 F-FDG PET/CT scan and the other Was to further understand whether the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV max ) would be helpful in differentiating benign from malignant thyroid tumor. Methods: From June 2007 to January 2008, a total of 1190 subjects who had no previous history of thyroid cancer and had 18 F-FDG PET/CT scan were included. All had visual interpretation and semiquantitative analyses by SUV max at thyroid incidentalomas detected by FDG PET/CT. Kruskal-Wallis test and Spearman relation analysis were used. Results: The prevalence of thyroid incidentaloma on 18 F-FDG PET/CT wag 2.1% (25/1190). Of these 25 tumors, 20 had histologically proven. Of these 20 tumors, 9 were benign and 11 were malignant (papillary carcinoma of thyroid gland in 9, follicular carcinoma of thyroid gland in 1, metastatic squamous cell carcinoma from lung cancer in 1). Therefore,the cancer risk of thyroid incidentaloma was 55% (11/20). Significantly higher SUV max in malignant than in benign nodules were observed (Kruskal-Wallis test,χ 2 =8.8, P max (3.0-46.0) and maximal diameter (1.0-4.2 cm) of nodule findings was insignificant (r=0.25, P>0.01). Conclusion: Thyroid incidentaloma detected by 18 F-FDG PET/CT has higher risk rate for thyroid malignancy.(authors)

  19. Hydrogen pellet injection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Masahiro.

    1992-01-01

    In a hydrogen pellet injection device, a nozzle block having a hydrogen gas supply channel is disposed at the inner side of a main cryogenic housing, and an electric resistor is attached to the block. Further, a nozzle block and a hydrogen gas introduction pipe are attached by way of a thermal insulating spacer. Electric current is supplied to the resistor to positively heat the nozzle block and melt remaining solid hydrogen in the hydrogen gas supply channel. Further, the effect of temperature elevation due to the resistor is prevented from reaching the side of the hydrogen gas introduction pipe by the thermal insulation spacer. That is, the temperature of the nozzle block is directly and positively elevated, to melt the solid hydrogen rapidly. Preparation operation from the injection of the hydrogen pellet to the next injection can be completed in a shorter period of time compared with a conventional case thereby enabling to make the test more efficient. Further, only the temperature of the nozzle block is elevated with no effect of temperature elevation due to the resistor to other components by the thermal insulation flange. (N.H.)

  20. Double deflation and aggregation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzenbacher, Erik; Hoen, A.R.

    Published input-output tables in constant prices are relatively scarce. Therefore, input-output tables often have to be deflated by the practitioners themselves. The method of double deflation is used predominantly for this purpose. The present paper shows that the double-deflation method is subject

  1. Hydrogen pellet injection into Alcator C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwald, M.

    1983-09-01

    A four-shot pneumatic pellet injector, based on an ORNL design, has been built and operated on the Alcator C tokamak at MIT. The injector fires four independently-timed frozen hydrogen pellets with velocities in the range 8 x 10 4 - 1 x 10 5 cm/sec. Each contains 6 x 10 19 particles which corresponds to = 2 x 10 14 /cm 3 . The objectives of this experiment are to study pellet fueling and penetration, particle confinement, dependence of energy confinement on density profile and fueling mode, and edge physics and recycling as a function of fueling mode. Typical pre-injection plasmas have had anti n/sub e/ = 2 - 3 x 10 14 , Bt = 80 - 100 kG, Ip = 400 - 500 kA, T/sub e/(0) = 1200 - 1500 ev. A single pellet injected into this plasma will roughly double the electron density. Record plasma densities have been obtained by multiple injections. Line average densities in excess of 8 x 10 14 have been achieved, with highly peaked profiles. Central densities of 1.5 - 2 x 10 15 have been measured

  2. A randomized clinical trial on comparison of corticosteroid injection with or without splinting versus saline injection with or without splinting in patients with lateral epicondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Tahririan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lateral epicondylitis is a common problem affecting 1-3% of the population. There has been much debate about the best treatment modality for this condition. There is, however, no conclusive evidence in support of any of the proposed treatment modalities. In this trial, we have studied the effect of corticosteroid injection (with or without splinting with normal saline injection (with or without splinting. Materials and Methods: In this double-blind, randomized clinical trial, individuals were randomly assigned to either of four treatment groups and received either 40 mg depomedrol injection alone, 40 mg depomedrol injection with splinting, normal saline injection alone, or normal saline injection with splinting. They were evaluated using the visual analog scale (VAS at weeks 2, 4 and 24 and with the Oxford elbow scale (OES at 24 weeks. Results: A total of 79 patients were participated in the study. The corticosteroid injection groups had better pain relief as measured by VAS at 2 and 4 weeks compared with the two saline injection groups. Mean VAS difference at week 0 versus week 2 was 4.5 ± 0.9 and 2.8 ± 0.6 in corticosteroid injection groups and saline injection groups respectively (P < 0.01 but at 24 weeks, there was only moderate benefit reported for the group which received steroid injection and splinting (P < 0.01 compared to the saline injection groups. The saline injection groups reported better improvement in OES scores (20.1 ± 3.7 at the end of the trial compared corticosteroid injection groups (16.1 ± 2.9 (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Our results indicate that despite the clear pain reduction benefit associated with steroid injection in short term, this benefit in comparison with normal saline injection fades by the 24 th week of follow-up.

  3. Penicillin G (Potassium, Sodium) Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penicillin G injection is used to treat and prevent certain infections caused by bacteria. Penicillin G injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections. ...

  4. Amphotericin B Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amphotericin B lipid complex injection is used to treat serious, possibly life-threatening fungal infections in people who did ... respond or are unable to tolerate conventional amphotericin B therapy. Amphotericin B lipid complex injection is in ...

  5. Command injection attacks, continuations, and the Lambek calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayo Thielecke

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows connections between command injection attacks, continuations, and the Lambek calculus: certain command injections, such as the tautology attack on SQL, are shown to be a form of control effect that can be typed using the Lambek calculus, generalizing the double-negation typing of continuations. Lambek's syntactic calculus is a logic with two implicational connectives taking their arguments from the left and right, respectively. These connectives describe how strings interact with their left and right contexts when building up syntactic structures. The calculus is a form of propositional logic without structural rules, and so a forerunner of substructural logics like Linear Logic and Separation Logic.

  6. 99m-Tc-ubiquicidin scintigraphy in diagnosis of knee prosthesis infection and comparison with F-18 fluorodeoxy-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaleshwaran, Koramadai Karuppusamy; Rajkumar, N; Mohanan, Vyshak; Kalarikal, Radhakrishnan; Shinto, Ajit Sugunan

    2005-01-01

    Total knee arthroplasty has witnessed a significant increase in recent years. Despite the advantages of this surgical procedure, it has some complications, the most serious of which is prosthetic infection. The discrimination of bacterial infections from sterile inflammatory processes is of great importance in the management of periprosthetic infection (PPI). Ubiquicidin (UBI) is a synthetic antimicrobial peptide fragment reported to be highly infection-specific. Tc99m-UBI has recently been reported to be a promising radiotracer for infection imaging. We report a case of left knee PPI diagnosed using 99mTc-UBI scintigraphy and compared with F-18 fluorodeoxy-glucose positron emission tomography

  7. [18F]Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-Positron Emission Tomography (PET)/Computed Tomography (CT) in Suspected Recurrent Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, Malene Grubbe; Gerke, Oke; Baun, Christina

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To prospectively investigate the diagnostic accuracy of [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) with dual-time-point imaging, contrast-enhanced CT (ceCT), and bone scintigraphy (BS) in patients with suspected breast cancer recurrence....... PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred women with suspected recurrence of breast cancer underwent 1-hour and 3-hour FDG-PET/CT, ceCT, and BS within approximately 10 days. The study was powered to estimate the precision of the individual imaging tests. Images were visually interpreted using a four...

  8. Computed tomography and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography findings in adrenal candidiasis and histoplasmosis: two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinmakas, Emre; Guo, Ming; Kundu, Uma R; Habra, Mouhammed Amir; Ng, Chaan

    2015-01-01

    We report the contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography findings in adrenal histoplasmosis and candidiasis. Both demonstrated bilateral hypermetabolic heterogeneous adrenal masses with limited wash-out on delayed CT. Adrenal candidiasis has not been previously reported, nor have the CT wash-out findings in either infection. The adrenal imaging findings are indistinguishable from malignancy, which is more common; but in this setting, physicians should be alert to the differential diagnosis of fungal infections, since it can be equally deadly. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. A Unique Case of Diffuse Metastatic Neuroendocrine Cancer with Subcutaneous Nodules on 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computer Assisted Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, Mickaila J.; Sachedina, Archana; McDonald, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) account for 8–10% of cases of carcinomas of unknown primary. Most of these cases are poorly differentiated with metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis. However, cutaneous metastatic presentation is rare. We present an interesting case of a 74-year-old woman presenting with cutaneous metastatic involvement from high grade poorly differentiated NET of unknown origin. She was referred to us with a diagnosis of lymphoma. 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computer assisted tomography imaging at our institution offered a differential diagnosis, including neuroendocrine cancer. Repeat skin lesion biopsy demonstrated “non-Merkel cell” carcinoma, favoring metastatic high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma

  10. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scan may be helpful in the case of ductal variant prostate cancer when prostate specific membrane antigen ligand positron emission tomography scan is negative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEwan, Louise M.; Wong, David; Yaxley, John

    2017-01-01

    Gallium-68 prostate specific membrane antigen ligand (Ga-68 PSMA) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scanning is emerging as a useful imaging modality for the staging of suspected and known recurrent or metastatic prostate cancer and in staging of newly diagnosed higher grade prostate cancer. However, we have observed at our institution that in some cases of the more aggressive ductal variant, Ga-68 PSMA uptake has sometimes been poor compared with prominent 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) avidity seen in F-18 FDG PET/CT, which would suggest that FDG PET/CT scans are important in staging of ductal pattern prostate cancer.

  11. A rare case of extensive skeletal muscle metastases in adenocarcinoma cervix identified by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishnoi, Madan Gopal; Jain, Anurag; John, Arun Ravi; Paliwal, Dharmesh

    2016-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma cervix is an uncommon histological subtype of carcinoma cervix; further incidence of skeletal muscle metastases is even rarer. We report the identification of extensive fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) avid metastatic skeletal muscle deposits in a known case of adenocarcinoma cervix. The largest lesion representative of muscle deposit in the right deltoid was histopathologically confirmed to be metastatic poorly differentiated carcinoma. This report also serves to highlight the importance of 18 F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (CT) as compared to conventional imaging modalities such as CT and ultrasonography and comments better over the description of invasiveness as well as the extent of disease in carcinoma cervix

  12. Post transplant urinary tract infection in Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease a perpetual diagnostic dilema - 18-fluorodeoxyglucose - Positron emission computerized tomography - A valuable tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sainaresh, VV; Jain, SH; Patel, HV; Shah, PR; Vanikar, AV; Trivedi, HL

    2011-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common infection contracted by renal allograft recipients. In patients of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), cyst infection presents a complex diagnostic and therapeutic challenge especially in the post transplant period. Accurate diagnosis forms the cornerstone in salvaging the graft from potentially catastrophic outcome. We describe a case of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XPN) in the native kidney in a patient of post transplant ADPKD which presented as frequently relapsing UTI with graft dysfunction where in accurate diagnosis was made possible with the aid of 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) - Positron emission computerized tomography (PET/CT)

  13. Acupuncture Injection Combined with Electrokinetic Injection for Polydimethylsiloxane Microfluidic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Won Ha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We recently reported acupuncture sample injection that leads to reproducible injection of nL-scale sample segments into a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS microchannel for microchip capillary electrophoresis. The advantages of the acupuncture injection in microchip capillary electrophoresis include capability of minimizing sample loss and voltage control hardware and capability of introducing sample plugs into any desired position of a microchannel. However, the challenge in the previous study was to achieve reproducible, pL-scale sample injections into PDMS microchannels. In the present study, we introduce an acupuncture injection technique combined with electrokinetic injection (AICEI technique to inject pL-scale sample segments for microchip capillary electrophoresis. We carried out the capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE separation of FITC and fluorescein, and the mixture of 10 μM FITC and 10 μM fluorescein was separated completely by using the AICEI method.

  14. Water injection profiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    A method of neutron-gamma logging is described, in which water, injected in a cased well borehole with peforations, is irradiated with neutrons of 10 MeV or greater, and subsequent gamma radiation is detected by a pair of detectors along the borehole. Counting rates of detectors are analyzed in terms of two gamma ray energy windows. Linear flow velocity of fluid moving downward within the casing is used in conjunction with count rate data to determine volume flow rates of water moving in other directions. Apparatus includes a sonde with a neutron source and appropriate gamma sensors

  15. MKI UFOs at Injection

    CERN Document Server

    Baer, T; Bartmann, W; Bracco, C; Carlier, E; Chanavat, C; Drosdal, L; Garrel, N; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Mertens, V; Uythoven, J; Wenninger, J; Zerlauth, M

    2011-01-01

    During the MD, the production mechanism of UFOs at the injection kicker magnets (MKIs) was studied. This was done by pulsing the MKIs on a gap in the circulating beam, which led to an increased number of UFOs. In total 43 UFO type beam loss patterns at the MKIs were observed during the MD. The MD showed that pulsing the MKIs directly induces UFO type beam loss patterns. From the temporal characteristics of the loss profile, estimations about the dynamics of the UFOs are made.

  16. SQL Injection Defenses

    CERN Document Server

    Nystrom, Martin

    2007-01-01

    This Short Cut introduces you to how SQL injection vulnerabilities work, what makes applications vulnerable, and how to protect them. It helps you find your vulnerabilities with analysis and testing tools and describes simple approaches for fixing them in the most popular web-programming languages. This Short Cut also helps you protect your live applications by describing how to monitor for and block attacks before your data is stolen. Hacking is an increasingly criminal enterprise, and web applications are an attractive path to identity theft. If the applications you build, manage, or guar

  17. Congenital maxillary double lip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Singh Chauhan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Double lip, also referred to as "macrocheilia," is a rare anomaly which affects the upper lip more commonly than the lower lip. It consists of a fold of excess or redundant hypertrophic tissue on the mucosal side of the lip. The congenital double lip is believed to be present at birth and becomes more prominent after eruption of teeth. It affects esthetics and also interferes with speech and mastication. Simple surgical excision produces good functional and cosmetic results. We report a case of a non-syndromic congenital maxillary double lip in a 21-year-old male patient.

  18. Double-sided microtron at Nihon University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, T.; Hayakawa, K.; Yatoh, H.; Yoshida, K.; Takeda, O.; Sato, K.; Torizuka, Y.

    1990-01-01

    Construction of a 35 MeV cw double-sided microtron (DSM) at Nihon University was started in 1984 and completed in the spring of 1989. This machine was constructed as a proto-type of an 1 GeV cw double sided microtron for a medical pion facility and test accelerator for FEL and other applications. The 4.55 MeV electron beam from 5 MeV injector linac is injected to the DSM. The energy gain is 6 MeV at each turn acceleration. After recirculated 5 times, the electron beam with 34.5 MeV is extracted at the final short straight section. The DAW structure is used for all the accelerating tubes including the injector linac. Total rf power of 200 kW is provided by four 50 kW klystrons of 2450 MHz. (author)

  19. Efficient Spin Injection into Semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahid, M.A.I.

    2010-06-01

    Spintronic research has made tremendous progress nowadays for making future devices obtain extra advantages of low power, and faster and higher scalability compared to present electronic devices. A spintronic device is based on the transport of an electron's spin instead of charge. Efficient spin injection is one of the very important requirements for future spintronic devices. However, the effective spin injection is an exceedingly difficult task. In this paper, the importance of spin injection, basics of spin current and the essential requirements of spin injection are illustrated. The experimental technique of electrical spin injection into semiconductor is also discussed based on the experimental experience. The electrical spin injection can easily be implemented for spin injection into any semiconductor. (author)

  20. Preliminary study on the evaluation of Langerhans cell histiocytosis using F-18-fluoro-deoxy-glucose PET/CT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Wenlan; Wu Hubing; Han Yanjiang; Wang Shaobo; Dong Ye; Wang Quanshi

    2014-01-01

    Background Limited number of studies have been reported regarding the utilization of F-18-fluoro-deoxy-glucose (F-18-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18-FDG PET/CT) in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH).The aim of this study was to assess the role of F-18-FDG PET/CT in the diagnosis and treatment of LCH.Methods Eight newly diagnosed and seven recurrent patients with LCH received F-18-FDG PET/CT scans.The diagnosis of LCH was established by pathology,multi-modality imaging,and clinical follow-up.Results F-18-FDG PET/CT was positive in 14 patients with 13 true positives and one false positive.All 45 LCH lesions were F-18-FDG avid including six small bone lesions <1.0 cm in diameter.The mean maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax) was 7.13±4.91.F-18-FDG uptake showed no significant difference between newly diagnosed lesions vs recurrent lesions (SUVmax:6.50±2.97 vs.7.93±6.60,t=-0.901,P=0.376).Among 45 LCH lesions,68.9% (31/45) were found in bones and 31.1% (14/45) in soft tissue.The most commonly involved bones were the pelvis and vertebrae.There was no significant difference in F-18-FDG uptake between bone lesions vs.non-bone lesions (SUVmax:6.30±2.87 vs.8.97±7.58,t=1.277,P=0.221).In two patients,changes in F-18-FDG uptake on serial PET/CT scans reflected response of lesions to treatment.Conclusions The present study suggests that F-18-FDG PET/CT may be useful for diagnosis and assessing the treatment response of LCH.Because of the small sample size,further research is warranted to confirm our findings.

  1. Textural features of {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scanning in diagnosing aortic prosthetic graft infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleem, Ben R.; Zeebregts, Clark J. [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Surgery, Division of Vascular Surgery, P.O. Box 30 001, Groningen (Netherlands); Beukinga, Roelof J.; Slart, Riemer H.J.A. [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands); University of Twente, Department of Biomedical Photonic Imaging (BMPI), Enschede (Netherlands); Boellaard, Ronald; Glaudemans, Andor W.J.M. [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands); Reijnen, Michel M.P.J. [Rijnstate Hospital, Department of Surgery, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2017-05-15

    The clinical problem in suspected aortoiliac graft infection (AGI) is to obtain proof of infection. Although {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) positron emission tomography scanning (PET) has been suggested to play a pivotal role, an evidence-based interpretation is lacking. The objective of this retrospective study was to examine the feasibility and utility of {sup 18}F-FDG uptake heterogeneity characterized by textural features to diagnose AGI. Thirty patients with a history of aortic graft reconstruction who underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT scanning were included. Sixteen patients were suspected to have an AGI (group I). AGI was considered proven only in the case of a positive bacterial culture. Positive cultures were found in 10 of the 16 patients (group Ia), and in the other six patients, cultures remained negative (group Ib). A control group was formed of 14 patients undergoing {sup 18}F-FDG PET for other reasons (group II). PET images were assessed using conventional maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax), tissue-to-background ratio (TBR), and visual grading scale (VGS). Additionally, 64 different {sup 18}F-FDG PET based textural features were applied to characterize {sup 18}F-FDG uptake heterogeneity. To select candidate predictors, univariable logistic regression analysis was performed (α = 0.16). The accuracy was satisfactory in case of an AUC > 0.8. The feature selection process yielded the textural features named variance (AUC = 0.88), high grey level zone emphasis (AUC = 0.87), small zone low grey level emphasis (AUC = 0.80), and small zone high grey level emphasis (AUC = 0.81) most optimal for distinguishing between groups I and II. SUVmax, TBR, and VGS were also able to distinguish between these groups with AUCs of 0.87, 0.78, and 0.90, respectively. The textural feature named short run high grey level emphasis was able to distinguish group Ia from Ib (AUC = 0.83), while for the same task the TBR and VGS were not found to be predictive

  2. Multimodality imaging using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography in local prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla-Dave, Amita; Wassberg, Cecilia; Pucar, Darko; Schöder, Heiko; Goldman, Debra A; Mazaheri, Yousef; Reuter, Victor E; Eastham, James; Scardino, Peter T; Hricak, Hedvig

    2017-01-01

    AIM To assess the relationship using multimodality imaging between intermediary citrate/choline metabolism as seen on proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (1H-MRSI) and glycolysis as observed on 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG-PET/CT) in prostate cancer (PCa) patients. METHODS The study included 22 patients with local PCa who were referred for endorectal magnetic resonance imaging/1H-MRSI (April 2002 to July 2007) and 18F-FDG-PET/CT and then underwent prostatectomy as primary or salvage treatment. Whole-mount step-section pathology was used as the standard of reference. We assessed the relationships between PET parameters [standardized uptake value (SUVmax and SUVmean)] and MRSI parameters [choline + creatine/citrate (CC/Cmax and CC/Cmean) and total number of suspicious voxels] using spearman’s rank correlation, and the relationships of PET and 1H-MRSI index lesion parameters to surgical Gleason score. RESULTS Abnormal intermediary metabolism on 1H-MRSI was present in 21/22 patients, while abnormal glycolysis on 18F-FDG-PET/CT was detected in only 3/22 patients. Specifically, index tumor localization rates were 0.95 (95%CI: 0.77-1.00) for 1H-MRSI and 0.14 (95%CI: 0.03-0.35) for 18F-FDG-PET/CT. Spearman rank correlations indicated little relationship (ρ = -0.36-0.28) between 1H-MRSI parameters and 18F-FDG-PET/CT parameters. Both the total number of suspicious voxels (ρ = 0.55, P = 0.0099) and the SUVmax (ρ = 0.46, P = 0.0366) correlated weakly with the Gleason score. No significant relationship was found between the CC/Cmax, CC/Cmean or SUVmean and the Gleason score (P = 0.15-0.79). CONCLUSION The concentration of intermediary metabolites detected by 1H MRSI and glycolytic flux measured 18F-FDG PET show little correlation. Furthermore, only few tumors were FDG avid on PET, possibly because increased glycolysis represents a late and rather ominous event in the progression of PCa. PMID:28396727

  3. Textural features of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scanning in diagnosing aortic prosthetic graft infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Ben R; Beukinga, Roelof J; Boellaard, Ronald; Glaudemans, Andor W J M; Reijnen, Michel M P J; Zeebregts, Clark J; Slart, Riemer H J A

    2017-05-01

    The clinical problem in suspected aortoiliac graft infection (AGI) is to obtain proof of infection. Although 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography scanning (PET) has been suggested to play a pivotal role, an evidence-based interpretation is lacking. The objective of this retrospective study was to examine the feasibility and utility of 18 F-FDG uptake heterogeneity characterized by textural features to diagnose AGI. Thirty patients with a history of aortic graft reconstruction who underwent 18 F-FDG PET/CT scanning were included. Sixteen patients were suspected to have an AGI (group I). AGI was considered proven only in the case of a positive bacterial culture. Positive cultures were found in 10 of the 16 patients (group Ia), and in the other six patients, cultures remained negative (group Ib). A control group was formed of 14 patients undergoing 18 F-FDG PET for other reasons (group II). PET images were assessed using conventional maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax), tissue-to-background ratio (TBR), and visual grading scale (VGS). Additionally, 64 different 18 F-FDG PET based textural features were applied to characterize 18 F-FDG uptake heterogeneity. To select candidate predictors, univariable logistic regression analysis was performed (α = 0.16). The accuracy was satisfactory in case of an AUC > 0.8. The feature selection process yielded the textural features named variance (AUC = 0.88), high grey level zone emphasis (AUC = 0.87), small zone low grey level emphasis (AUC = 0.80), and small zone high grey level emphasis (AUC = 0.81) most optimal for distinguishing between groups I and II. SUVmax, TBR, and VGS were also able to distinguish between these groups with AUCs of 0.87, 0.78, and 0.90, respectively. The textural feature named short run high grey level emphasis was able to distinguish group Ia from Ib (AUC = 0.83), while for the same task the TBR and VGS were not found to be predictive. SUVmax

  4. Ultrasound, elastography, and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging in Riedel's thyroiditis: report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slman, Rouba; Monpeyssen, Hervé; Desarnaud, Serge; Haroche, Julien; Fediaevsky, Laurence Du Pasquier; Fabrice, Menegaux; Seret-Begue, Dominique; Amoura, Zahir; Aurengo, André; Leenhardt, Laurence

    2011-07-01

    Riedel's thyroiditis (RT) is a rare disease characterized by a chronic inflammatory lesion of the thyroid gland with invasion by a dense fibrosis. Publications of the imaging features of RT are scarce. To our knowledge, ultrasound elastography (USE) findings have not been previously reported. Therefore, we describe two patients with RT who were imaged with ultrasonography (US), USE, and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT). Two women were referred for a large, hard goiter with compressive symptoms (dyspnea and dysphagia); in one patient, the goiter was associated with retroperitoneal fibrosis. In both cases, RT was confirmed by surgical biopsy with pathological examination. Thyroid US imaging was performed with a US scan and a 10-13 MHz linear transducer. The hardness of the tissues was analyzed using transient USE (ShearWave, Aixplorer-SuperSonic Imagine). PET/CT scanning was performed with a Philips Gemini GXL camera (GE Medical Systems). In the first patient, US examination revealed a compressive multinodular goiter with large solid hypoechoic and poorly vascularized areas adjacent to the nodules. The predominant right nodule was hypoechoic with irregular margins. The second patient had a hypoechoic goiter with large bilateral hypoechoic areas. In both cases, an unusual feature was observed: the presence of tissue surrounding the primitive carotid artery, associated with thrombi of the internal jugular vein. Further, USE showed heterogeneity in the stiffness values of the thyroid parenchyma varying between 21 kPa and 281 kPa. FDG-PET/CT imaging showed uptake foci in the thyroid gland. In both cases, US showed a decrease in the thyroid gland volume and the disappearance of encasement of the neck vasculature in response to corticosteroid treatment. In contrast, the FDG-PET/CT features remained unchanged. US features, such as vascular encasement and improvement under corticosteroid treatment, seem to be specific to this

  5. Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography scan-positive recurrent papillary thyroid cancer and the prognosis and implications for surgical management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schreinemakers Jennifer MJ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To compare outcomes for patients with recurrent or persistent papillary thyroid cancer (PTC who had metastatic tumors that were fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET positive or negative, and to determine whether the FDG-PET scan findings changed the outcome of medical and surgical management. Methods From a prospective thyroid cancer database, we retrospectively identified patients with recurrent or persistent PTC and reviewed data on demographics, initial stage, location and extent of persistent or recurrent disease, clinical management, disease-free survival and outcome. We further identified subsets of patients who had an FDG-PET scan or an FDG-PET/CT scan and whole-body radioactive iodine scans and categorized them by whether they had one or more FDG-PET-avid (PET-positive lesions or PET-negative lesions. The medical and surgical treatments and outcome of these patients were compared. Results Between 1984 and 2008, 41 of 141 patients who had recurrent or persistent PTC underwent FDG-PET (n = 11 or FDG-PET/CT scans (n = 30; 22 patients (54% had one or more PET-positive lesion(s, 17 (41% had PET-negative lesions, and two had indeterminate lesions. Most PET-positive lesions were located in the neck (55%. Patients who had a PET-positive lesion had a significantly higher TNM stage (P = 0.01, higher age (P = 0.03, and higher thyroglobulin (P = 0.024. Only patients who had PET-positive lesions died (5/22 vs. 0/17 for PET-negative lesions; P = 0.04. In two of the seven patients who underwent surgical resection of their PET-positive lesions, loco-regional control was obtained without evidence of residual disease. Conclusion Patients with recurrent or persistent PTC and FDG-PET-positive lesions have a worse prognosis. In some patients loco-regional control can be obtained without evidence of residual disease by reoperation if the lesion is localized in the neck or mediastinum.

  6. Textural features of "1"8F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scanning in diagnosing aortic prosthetic graft infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, Ben R.; Zeebregts, Clark J.; Beukinga, Roelof J.; Slart, Riemer H.J.A.; Boellaard, Ronald; Glaudemans, Andor W.J.M.; Reijnen, Michel M.P.J.

    2017-01-01

    The clinical problem in suspected aortoiliac graft infection (AGI) is to obtain proof of infection. Although "1"8F-fluorodeoxyglucose ("1"8F-FDG) positron emission tomography scanning (PET) has been suggested to play a pivotal role, an evidence-based interpretation is lacking. The objective of this retrospective study was to examine the feasibility and utility of "1"8F-FDG uptake heterogeneity characterized by textural features to diagnose AGI. Thirty patients with a history of aortic graft reconstruction who underwent "1"8F-FDG PET/CT scanning were included. Sixteen patients were suspected to have an AGI (group I). AGI was considered proven only in the case of a positive bacterial culture. Positive cultures were found in 10 of the 16 patients (group Ia), and in the other six patients, cultures remained negative (group Ib). A control group was formed of 14 patients undergoing "1"8F-FDG PET for other reasons (group II). PET images were assessed using conventional maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax), tissue-to-background ratio (TBR), and visual grading scale (VGS). Additionally, 64 different "1"8F-FDG PET based textural features were applied to characterize "1"8F-FDG uptake heterogeneity. To select candidate predictors, univariable logistic regression analysis was performed (α = 0.16). The accuracy was satisfactory in case of an AUC > 0.8. The feature selection process yielded the textural features named variance (AUC = 0.88), high grey level zone emphasis (AUC = 0.87), small zone low grey level emphasis (AUC = 0.80), and small zone high grey level emphasis (AUC = 0.81) most optimal for distinguishing between groups I and II. SUVmax, TBR, and VGS were also able to distinguish between these groups with AUCs of 0.87, 0.78, and 0.90, respectively. The textural feature named short run high grey level emphasis was able to distinguish group Ia from Ib (AUC = 0.83), while for the same task the TBR and VGS were not found to be predictive. SUVmax was found predictive

  7. Pion double charge exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.D.

    1978-01-01

    The pion double charge exchange data on the oxygen isotopes is reviewed and new data on 9 Be, 12 C, 24 Mg, and 28 Si are presented. Where theoretical calculations exist, they are compared to the data. 9 references

  8. Neutrinoless double beta decay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-06

    Oct 6, 2012 ... Anyhow, the 'multi-isotope' ansatz is needed to compensate for matrix element ... The neccessary half-life requirement to touch this ... site energy depositions (like double beta decay) and multiple site interactions (most of.

  9. Project Half Double

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejvig, Per; Ehlers, Michael; Adland, Karoline Thorp

    activities carried out within the framework of the projects. The formal part of Project Half Double was initiated in June 2015. We started out by developing, refining and testing the Half Double methodology on seven pilot projects in the first phase of the project, which will end June 2016. The current......Project Half Double has a clear mission to succeed in finding a project methodology that can increase the success rate of our projects while increasing the speed at which we generate new ideas and develop new products and services. Chaos and complexity should be seen as a basic condition...... and as an opportunity rather than a threat and a risk. We are convinced that by doing so, we can strengthen Denmark’s competitiveness and play an important role in the battle for jobs and future welfare. The overall goal is to deliver “projects in half the time with double the impact”, where projects in half the time...

  10. Project Half Double

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejvig, Per; Gerstrøm, Anna; Frederiksen, Signe Hedeboe

    The Half Double mission: Project Half Double has a clear mission. We want to succeed in finding a project methodology that can increase the success rate of our projects while increasing the development speed of new products and services. We are convinced that by doing so we can strengthen...... the competitiveness of Denmark and play an important role in the battle for jobs and future welfare. The overall goal is to deliver “Projects in half the time with double the impact” where projects in half the time should be understood as half the time to impact (benefit realization, effect is achieved......) and not as half the time for project execution. The Half Double project journey: It all began in May 2013 when we asked ourselves: How do we create a new and radical project paradigm that can create successful projects? Today we are a movement of hundreds of passionate project people, and it grows larger...

  11. Double beta decay: experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorini, Ettore

    2006-01-01

    The results obtained so far and those of the running experiments on neutrinoless double beta decay are reviewed. The plans for second generation experiments, the techniques to be adopted and the expected sensitivities are compared and discussed

  12. A double layer review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, L.P.

    1977-06-01

    A review of the main results on electrostatic double layers (sometimes called space charge layers or sheaths) obtained from theory, and laboratory and space experiments up to the spring of 1977 is given. By means of barium jets and satellite probes, double layers have now been found at the altitudes, earlier predicted theoretically. The general potential distribution above the auroral zone, suggested by inverted V-events and electric field reversals, is corroborated. (author)

  13. Induction and repair of DNA double-strand breaks in blood lymphocytes of patients undergoing {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Matthias S. [University Hospital Erlangen, Department of Radiology, Erlangen (Germany); Brand, Michael; Wuest, Wolfgang; Anders, Katharina; Uder, Michael; Kuefner, Michael A. [University Hospital Erlangen, Department of Radiology, Erlangen (Germany); Kuwert, Torsten; Prante, Olaf; Schmidt, Daniela; Maschauer, Simone [University Hospital Erlangen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Erlangen (Germany); Semelka, Richard C. [University of North Carolina, Department of Radiology, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2012-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in blood lymphocytes of patients undergoing positron emission tomography (PET)/CT using {gamma}-H2AX immunofluorescence microscopy and to differentiate between {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and CT-induced DNA lesions. This study was approved by the local Ethics Committee and complies with Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) requirements. After written informed consent was obtained, 33 patients underwent whole-body {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT (3 MBq/kg body weight, 170/100 reference mAs at 120 kV). The FDG PET and CT portions were performed as an initial CT immediately followed by the PET. Blood samples were obtained before, at various time points following {sup 18}F-FDG application and up to 24 h after the CT scan. Distinct foci representing DSBs were quantified in isolated lymphocytes using fluorescence microscopy after staining against the phosphorylated histone variant {gamma}-H2AX. The DSB values at the various time points were significantly different (p < 0.001). The median baseline level was 0.08/cell (range 0.06-0.12/cell). Peaks of radiation-induced DSBs were found 30 min after {sup 18}F-FDG administration (median excess foci 0.11/cell, range 0.06-0.27/cell) and 5 min after CT (median excess foci 0.17/cell, range 0.05-0.54/cell). A significant correlation between CT-induced DSBs and dose length product was obtained ({rho} = 0.898, p < 0.001). After 24 h DSB values were still slightly but significantly elevated (median foci 0.11/cell, range 0.10-0.14/cell, p = 0.003) compared to pre-exposure levels. PET/CT-induced DSBs can be monitored using {gamma}-H2AX immunofluorescence microscopy. Peak values may be obtained 30 min after {sup 18}F-FDG injection and 5 min after CT. The radionuclide contributes considerably to the total DSB induction in this setting. (orig.)

  14. Drug injecting and HIV risk among injecting drug users in Hai Phong, Vietnam: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Tanvir; Long, Thanh Nguyen; Huong, Phan Thi; Stewart, Donald Edwin

    2015-01-29

    Hai Phong, located in northern Vietnam, has become a high HIV prevalence province among Injecting Drug Users (IDUs) since the infection shifted from the southern to the northern region of the country. Previous research indicates high levels of drug and sex related risk behaviour especially among younger IDUs. Our recent qualitative research provides a deeper understanding of HIV risk behaviour and highlights views and experiences of IDUs relating to drug injecting and sharing practices. Fifteen IDUs participated in semi-structured interviews conducted in September-October, 2012. Eligible participants were selected from those recruited in a larger scale behavioural research project and identified through screening questions. Interviews were conducted by two local interviewers in Vietnamese and were audiotaped. Ethical procedures, including informed consent and participants' understanding of their right to skip and withdraw, were applied. Transcripts were translated and double checked. The data were categorised and coded according to themes. Thematic analysis was conducted and a qualitative data analysis thematic framework was used. Qualitative analysis highlighted situational circumstances associated with HIV risks among IDUs in Hai Phong and revealed three primary themes: (i) places for injecting, (ii) injecting drugs in small groups, and (iii) sharing practices. Our results showed that shared use of jointly purchased drugs and group injecting were widespread among IDUs without adequate recognition of these as HIV risk behaviours. Frequent police raids generated a constant fear of arrest. As a consequence, the majority preferred either rail lines or isolated public places for injection, while some injected in their own or a friend's home. Price, a heroin crisis, and strong group norms encouraged collective preparation and group injecting. Risk practices were enhanced by a number of factors: the difficulty in getting new syringes, quick withdrawal management

  15. Effect of Donepezil on Wernicke Aphasia After Bilateral Middle Cerebral Artery Infarction: Subtraction Analysis of Brain F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomographic Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seo Yeon; Kim, Je-Kyung; An, Young-Sil; Kim, Yong Wook

    2015-01-01

    Aphasia is one of the most common neurologic deficits occurring after stroke. Although the speech-language therapy is a mainstream option for poststroke aphasia, pharmacotherapy is recently being tried to modulate different neurotransmitter systems. However, the efficacy of those treatments is still controversial. We present a case of a 53-year-old female patient with Wernicke aphasia, after the old infarction in the territory of left middle cerebral artery for 8 years and the recent infarction in the right middle cerebral artery for 4 months. On the initial evaluation, the Aphasia Quotient in Korean version of the Western Aphasia Battery was 25.6 of 100. Baseline brain F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomographic images demonstrated a decreased cerebral metabolism in the left temporoparietal area and right temporal lobe. Donepezil hydrochloride, a reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, was orally administered 5 mg/d for 6 weeks after the initial evaluation and was increased to 10 mg/d for the following 6 weeks. After the donepezil treatment, the patient showed improvement in language function, scoring 51.0 of 100 on Aphasia Quotient. A subtraction analysis of the brain F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomographic images after donepezil medication demonstrated increased uptake in both middle temporal gyri, extended to the occipital area and the left cerebellum. Thus, we suggest that donepezil can be an effective therapeutic choice for the treatment of Wernicke aphasia.

  16. Premixed direct injection nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Baifang [Simpsonville, SC; Johnson, Thomas Edward [Greer, SC; Lacy, Benjamin Paul [Greer, SC; Ziminsky, Willy Steve [Simpsonville, SC

    2011-02-15

    An injection nozzle having a main body portion with an outer peripheral wall is disclosed. The nozzle includes a plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes disposed within the main body portion and a fuel flow passage fluidly connected to the plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes. Fuel and air are partially premixed inside the plurality of the tubes. A second body portion, having an outer peripheral wall extending between a first end and an opposite second end, is connected to the main body portion. The partially premixed fuel and air mixture from the first body portion gets further mixed inside the second body portion. The second body portion converges from the first end toward said second end. The second body portion also includes cooling passages that extend along all the walls around the second body to provide thermal damage resistance for occasional flame flash back into the second body.

  17. Hyperosmolar dextrose injection for recalcitrant Osgood-Schlatter disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topol, Gastón Andrés; Podesta, Leandro Ariel; Reeves, Kenneth Dean; Raya, Marcelo Francisco; Fullerton, Bradley Dean; Yeh, Hung-wen

    2011-11-01

    To examine the potential of dextrose injection versus lidocaine injection versus supervised usual care to reduce sport alteration and sport-related symptoms in adolescent athletes with Osgood-Schlatter disease. Girls aged 9 to 15 and boys aged 10 to 17 were randomly assigned to either therapist-supervised usual care or double-blind injection of 1% lidocaine solution with or without 12.5% dextrose. Injections were administered monthly for 3 months. All subjects were then offered dextrose injections monthly as needed. Unaltered sport (Nirschl Pain Phase Scale dextrose-treated (21 of 21 vs 13 of 22; P = .001) and lidocaine-treated (20 of 22 vs 13 of 22; P = .034) knees, and asymptomatic sport was more frequent in dextrose-treated knees than either lidocaine-treated (14 of 21 vs 5 of 22; P = .006) or usual-care-treated (14 of 21 vs 3 of 22; P dextrose-treated knees than knees treated with only lidocaine (32 of 38 vs 6 of 13; P = .024) or only usual care (32 of 38 vs 2 of 14; P dextrose component of a dextrose/lidocaine solution. Dextrose injection over the apophysis and patellar tendon origin was safe and well tolerated and resulted in more rapid and frequent achievement of unaltered sport and asymptomatic sport than usual care.

  18. A primary study on meridian-stretching of injected FDG using PET MPItool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Yijie; Tian Jiahe; Chen Yingmao; Yin Dayi; Zhang Jinming; Zhang Shuwen; Shao Mingzhe; Yao Shulin; Ding Weimin; Liu Zilai

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To show the images of tracer-stretching along the acupuncture meridian by use of PET with multipurpose imaging tool (MPItool's) fusion function. Methods: On 5 healthy volunteers, the authors measured the classical acupuncture points accurately with the biophysical measuring method. 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) was injected into the selected points, the others points along the same meridian were labelled with 18 F-FDG applied on the correspondent skin area of 2 . With the same body position, the transmission image and emission image was acquired respectively and fused with MPItool and its 3D display system. Results: The authors clearly showed not only the meridian-stretching images of the tracer, but also figured out the depth of the study points. The depth at SHANGJUXU point was about 3.8 cm and at ZUSANLI point was about 5,0 cm. The depths basically fit the classically documented ones of the correspondent acupuncture points. Conclusions: Using PET MPItool the authors preliminarily demonstrated that the tracer injected at the acupuncture point stretches along the correspondent meridian, and the depths of the meridian and the points (SHANGJUXU, ZUSANLI) detected are almost accordant with the classically documented ones

  19. Accidental intrathecal injection of magnesium sulfate for cesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehryar Taghavi Gilani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium sulfate is used frequently in the operation room and risks of wrong injection should be considered. A woman with history of pseudocholinesterase enzyme deficiency in the previous surgery was referred for cesarean operation. Magnesium sulfate of 700 mg (3.5 ml of 20% solution was accidentally administered in the subarachnoid space. First, the patient had warm sensation and cutaneous anesthesia, but due to deep tissue pain, general anesthesia was induced by thiopental and atracurium. After the surgery, muscle relaxation and lethargy remained. At 8-10 h later, muscle strength improved and train of four (TOF reached over 0.85, and then the endotracheal tube was removed. The patient was evaluated during the hospital stay and on the anesthesia clinic. No neurological symptoms, headache or backache were reported. Due to availability of magnesium sulfate, we should be careful for inadvertent intravenous, spinal and epidural injection; therefore before injection must be double checked.

  20. Accidental intrathecal injection of magnesium sulfate for cesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, Mehryar Taghavi; Zirak, Nahid; Razavi, Majid

    2014-10-01

    Magnesium sulfate is used frequently in the operation room and risks of wrong injection should be considered. A woman with history of pseudocholinesterase enzyme deficiency in the previous surgery was referred for cesarean operation. Magnesium sulfate of 700 mg (3.5 ml of 20% solution) was accidentally administered in the subarachnoid space. First, the patient had warm sensation and cutaneous anesthesia, but due to deep tissue pain, general anesthesia was induced by thiopental and atracurium. After the surgery, muscle relaxation and lethargy remained. At 8-10 h later, muscle strength improved and train of four (TOF) reached over 0.85, and then the endotracheal tube was removed. The patient was evaluated during the hospital stay and on the anesthesia clinic. No neurological symptoms, headache or backache were reported. Due to availability of magnesium sulfate, we should be careful for inadvertent intravenous, spinal and epidural injection; therefore before injection must be double checked.

  1. Simultaneous whole body 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of pediatric cancer: Preliminary experience and comparison with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography computed tomogra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brian S Pugmire; Alexander R Guimaraes; Ruth Lim; Alison M Friedmann; Mary Huang; David Ebb; Howard Weinstein; Onofrio A Catalano; Umar Mahmood; Ciprian Catana; Michael S Gee

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To describe our preliminary experience with simultaneous whole body 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose(18F-FDG)positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging(PET-MRI) in the evaluation of pediatric oncology patients.METHODS: This prospective, observational, singlecenter study was Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant, and institutional review board approved. To be eligible, a patient was required to:(1) have a known or suspected cancer diagnosis;(2) be under the care of a pediatric hematologist/oncologist; and(3) be scheduled for clinically indicated 18F-FDG PETCT examination at our institution. Patients underwent PET-CT followed by PET-MRI on the same day. PET-CT examinations were performed using standard department protocols. PET-MRI studies were acquired with an integrated 3 Tesla PET-MRI scanner using whole body T1 Dixon, T2 HASTE, EPI diffusion-weighted imaging(DWI) and STIR sequences. No additional radiotracer was given for the PET-MRI examination. Both PET-CT and PETMRI examinations were reviewed by consensus by two study personnel. Test performance characteristics of PETMRI, for the detection of malignant lesions, including FDG maximum standardized uptake value(SUVmax) and minimum apparent diffusion coefficient(ADCmin), were calculated on a per lesion basis using PET-CT as a reference standard.RESULTS: A total of 10 whole body PET-MRI exams were performed in 7 pediatric oncology patients. The mean patient age was 16.1 years(range 12-19 years) including 6 males and 1 female. A total of 20 malignant and 21 benign lesions were identified on PET-CT. PET-MRI SUVmax had excellent correlation with PET-CT SUVmax for both benign and malignant lesions(R = 0.93). PETMRI SUVmax > 2.5 had 100% accuracy for discriminating benign from malignant lesions using PET-computed tomography(CT) reference. Whole body DWI was also evaluated: the mean ADCmin of malignant lesions(780.2 + 326.6) was significantly

  2. Simultaneous whole body (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of pediatric cancer: Preliminary experience and comparison with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugmire, Brian S; Guimaraes, Alexander R; Lim, Ruth; Friedmann, Alison M; Huang, Mary; Ebb, David; Weinstein, Howard; Catalano, Onofrio A; Mahmood, Umar; Catana, Ciprian; Gee, Michael S

    2016-03-28

    To describe our preliminary experience with simultaneous whole body (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (PET-MRI) in the evaluation of pediatric oncology patients. This prospective, observational, single-center study was Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant, and institutional review board approved. To be eligible, a patient was required to: (1) have a known or suspected cancer diagnosis; (2) be under the care of a pediatric hematologist/oncologist; and (3) be scheduled for clinically indicated (18)F-FDG positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) examination at our institution. Patients underwent PET-CT followed by PET-MRI on the same day. PET-CT examinations were performed using standard department protocols. PET-MRI studies were acquired with an integrated 3 Tesla PET-MRI scanner using whole body T1 Dixon, T2 HASTE, EPI diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and STIR sequences. No additional radiotracer was given for the PET-MRI examination. Both PET-CT and PET-MRI examinations were reviewed by consensus by two study personnel. Test performance characteristics of PET-MRI, for the detection of malignant lesions, including FDG maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and minimum apparent diffusion coefficient (ADCmin), were calculated on a per lesion basis using PET-CT as a reference standard. A total of 10 whole body PET-MRI exams were performed in 7 pediatric oncology patients. The mean patient age was 16.1 years (range 12-19 years) including 6 males and 1 female. A total of 20 malignant and 21 benign lesions were identified on PET-CT. PET-MRI SUVmax had excellent correlation with PET-CT SUVmax for both benign and malignant lesions (R = 0.93). PET-MRI SUVmax > 2.5 had 100% accuracy for discriminating benign from malignant lesions using PET-CT reference. Whole body DWI was also evaluated: the mean ADCmin of malignant lesions (780.2 + 326.6) was significantly lower than

  3. Simultaneous whole body 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of pediatric cancer: Preliminary experience and comparison with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugmire, Brian S; Guimaraes, Alexander R; Lim, Ruth; Friedmann, Alison M; Huang, Mary; Ebb, David; Weinstein, Howard; Catalano, Onofrio A; Mahmood, Umar; Catana, Ciprian; Gee, Michael S

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To describe our preliminary experience with simultaneous whole body 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (PET-MRI) in the evaluation of pediatric oncology patients. METHODS: This prospective, observational, single-center study was Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant, and institutional review board approved. To be eligible, a patient was required to: (1) have a known or suspected cancer diagnosis; (2) be under the care of a pediatric hematologist/oncologist; and (3) be scheduled for clinically indicated 18F-FDG positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) examination at our institution. Patients underwent PET-CT followed by PET-MRI on the same day. PET-CT examinations were performed using standard department protocols. PET-MRI studies were acquired with an integrated 3 Tesla PET-MRI scanner using whole body T1 Dixon, T2 HASTE, EPI diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and STIR sequences. No additional radiotracer was given for the PET-MRI examination. Both PET-CT and PET-MRI examinations were reviewed by consensus by two study personnel. Test performance characteristics of PET-MRI, for the detection of malignant lesions, including FDG maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and minimum apparent diffusion coefficient (ADCmin), were calculated on a per lesion basis using PET-CT as a reference standard. RESULTS: A total of 10 whole body PET-MRI exams were performed in 7 pediatric oncology patients. The mean patient age was 16.1 years (range 12-19 years) including 6 males and 1 female. A total of 20 malignant and 21 benign lesions were identified on PET-CT. PET-MRI SUVmax had excellent correlation with PET-CT SUVmax for both benign and malignant lesions (R = 0.93). PET-MRI SUVmax > 2.5 had 100% accuracy for discriminating benign from malignant lesions using PET-CT reference. Whole body DWI was also evaluated: the mean ADCmin of malignant lesions (780.2 + 326.6) was

  4. Double insemination and gonadotropin-releasing hormone treatment of repeat-breeding dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, J S; Call, E P; Scoby, R K; Phatak, A P

    1990-07-01

    Our objective was to determine if double inseminations during the same estrous period of dairy cattle eligible for their third or fourth service (repeat breeders) would improve pregnancy rates equivalent to injections of GnRH given at the time of AI. Repeat-breeding, lactating cows from six herds (five herds in the San Joaquin Valley of central California and one herd in northeast Kansas) were assigned randomly to four treatment groups when detected in estrus: 1) single AI plus no injection, 2) single AI plus 100 micrograms GnRH at AI, 3) double AI plus no injection, or 4) double AI plus 100 micrograms of GnRH at AI. Inseminations were performed according to the a.m.-p.m. rule. The second AI for the double AI treatment was given 12 to 16 h after the first AI. Injections of GnRH were given intramuscularly immediately following the single AI or the first AI of the double AI. Pregnancy rates of cows given a single AI and hormone injection were numerically higher in all six herds than those of their herdmates given only a single AI. In five of six herds, the pregnancy rates of cows given a double AI and hormone injection were numerically higher than pregnancy rates of their herdmates given only a double AI. Overall pregnancy rates for the four treatments were 1) 112/353 (32.1%), 2) 165/406 (41.6%), 3) 119/364 (33.5%), and 4) 135/359 (37.5%). Gonadotropin-releasing hormone increased pregnancy rates of repeat breeders compared with controls given only a single AI. No further benefit beyond the single AI was accrued from the double AI treatment, with or without concurrent hormone administration.

  5. SQL Injection Attacks and Defense

    CERN Document Server

    Clarke, Justin

    2012-01-01

    SQL Injection Attacks and Defense, First Edition: Winner of the Best Book Bejtlich Read Award "SQL injection is probably the number one problem for any server-side application, and this book unequaled in its coverage." -Richard Bejtlich, Tao Security blog SQL injection represents one of the most dangerous and well-known, yet misunderstood, security vulnerabilities on the Internet, largely because there is no central repository of information available for penetration testers, IT security consultants and practitioners, and web/software developers to turn to for help. SQL Injection Att

  6. Injectable barriers for waste isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persoff, P.; Finsterle, S.; Moridis, G.J.; Apps, J.; Pruess, K.; Muller, S.J.

    1995-03-01

    In this paper the authors report laboratory work and numerical simulation done in support of development and demonstration of injectable barriers formed from either of two fluids: colloidal silica or polysiloxane. Two principal problems addressed here are control of gel time and control of plume emplacement in the vadose zone. Gel time must be controlled so that the viscosity of the barrier fluid remains low long enough to inject the barrier, but increases soon enough to gel the barrier in place. During injection, the viscosity must be low enough to avoid high injection pressures which could uplift or fracture the formation. To test the grout gel time in the soil, the injection pressure was monitored as grouts were injected into sandpacks. When grout is injected into the vadose zone, it slumps under the influence of gravity, and redistributes due to capillary forces as it gels. The authors have developed a new module for the reservoir simulator TOUGH2 to model grout injection into the vadose zone, taking into account the increase of liquid viscosity as a function of gel concentration and time. They have also developed a model to calculate soil properties after complete solidification of the grout. The numerical model has been used to design and analyze laboratory experiments and field pilot tests. The authors present the results of computer simulations of grout injection, redistribution, and solidification

  7. Usefulness of CA125 and their kinetic parameters and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F] FDG) in the detection of recurrent ovarian cancer levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomar Muñoz, Azahara; Cordero García, José Manuel; Talavera Rubio, Prado; García Vicente, Ana M; González García, Beatriz; Bellón Guardia, María Emiliana; Soriano Castrejón, Ángel; Aranda Aguilar, Enrique

    2017-12-21

    To assess the usefulness of cancer antigen 125 (CA125) serum levels and kinetic values, velocity (CA125vel) and doubling time (CA125dt), as well as fluorodeoxyglucose ([ 18 F]FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT), in the detection of ovarian cancer recurrence. To assess the optimal cut-off for CA125, CA125vel and CA125dt to detect relapse with [ 18 F]FDG-PET/CT. A retrospective analysis was performed of 59 [ 18 F]FDG-PET/CT (48 patients) for suspected recurrence of ovarian cancer. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were plotted and area-under-the curve (AUC) statistics were computed for CA125, CA125vel and CA125dt. The results obtained in the group with normal and high (>35U/ml) CA125 levels were compared. Forty-four cases of recurrence were diagnosed (7 had CA125 ≤35U/ml), whereas 15 showed no disease. All of them were correctly catalogued by PET/CT. In ROC analysis, the discriminatory power of CA125 was relatively high (AUC 0.835) and the optimal cut-off point to reflect active disease was 23.9U/ml. The ROC analyses for the CA125vel and CA125dt showed an AUC of 0.849 and 0.728, respectively, with an optimal cut-off point of 1.96U/ml/month and 0.76 months, respectively. In patients with normal CA125 and recurrence of ovarian cancer, the CA125vel was significantly higher than in patients without recurrence (p=0.029). [ 18 F]FDG-PET/CT is more accurate than CA125 parameters in the detection of ovarian cancer recurrence. CA125 serum levels are essential; nevertheless, CA125 kinetic values must be considered to detect relapse. Particularly in patients with CA125 within normal values, in which a higher CA125vel is indicative of recurrence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Aristotle and Double Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2014-01-01

    There are some interesting similarities between Aristotle’s ‘mixed actions’ in Book III of the Nicomachean Ethics and the actions often thought to be justifiable with the Doctrine of Double Effect. Here I analyse these similarities by comparing Aristotle’s examples of mixed actions with standard...... cases from the literature on double effect such as, amongst others, strategic bombing, the trolley problem, and craniotomy. I find that, despite some common features such as the dilemmatic structure and the inevitability of a bad effect, Aristotle’s mixed actions do not count as cases justifiable...... through application of the Doctrine of Double Effect because they fail to meet the crucial necessary condition of the Doctrine according to which the bad effect can only be a merely foreseen side- effect and not an intended means....

  9. Coulomb double helical structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Tetsuo; Ishihara, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    Structures of Coulomb clusters formed by dust particles in a plasma are studied by numerical simulation. Our study reveals the presence of various types of self-organized structures of a cluster confined in a prolate spheroidal electrostatic potential. The stable configurations depend on a prolateness parameter for the confining potential as well as on the number of dust particles in a cluster. One-dimensional string, two-dimensional zigzag structure and three-dimensional double helical structure are found as a result of the transition controlled by the prolateness parameter. The formation of stable double helical structures resulted from the transition associated with the instability of angular perturbations on double strings. Analytical perturbation study supports the findings of numerical simulations.

  10. A comparison of molding procedures - Contact, injection and vacuum injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathiard, G.

    1980-06-01

    The technical and economic aspects of the contact, injection and vacuum injection molding of reinforced plastic components are compared for the example of a tractor roof with a gel-coated surface. Consideration is given to the possibility of reinforcement, number of smooth faces, condition of the gel-coated surface, reliability, and labor and workplace requirements of the three processes, and advantages of molding between the mold and a countermold in smooth faces, reliability, labor requirements, working surface and industrial hygiene are pointed out. The times and labor requirements of each step in the molding cycles are examined, and material requirements and yields, investment costs, amortization and product cost prices of the processes are compared. It is concluded that, for the specific component examined, the processes of vacuum injection and injection molding appear very interesting, with injection molding processes resulting in lower cost prices than contact molding for any production volume.

  11. Initial Assessment of β3-Adrenoceptor-Activated Brown Adipose Tissue in Streptozotocin-Induced Type 1 Diabetes Rodent Model Using [18F]Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Baranwal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic activity of brown adipose tissue (BAT is activated by β3-adrenoceptor agonists and norepinephrine transporter (NET blockers and is measurable using [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT in rats. Using the streptozotocin (STZ-treated rat model of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM, we investigated BAT activity in this rat model under fasting and nonfasting conditions using [18F]FDG PET/CT. Drugs that enhance BAT activity may have a potential for therapeutic development in lowering blood sugar in insulin-resistant diabetes. Rats were rendered diabetic by administration of STZand confirmed by glucose measures. [18F]FDG was injected in the rats (fasted or nonfasted pretreated with either saline or β3-adrenoceptor agonist CL316,243 or the NET blocker atomoxetine for PET/CT scans. [18F]FDG metabolic activity was computed as standard uptake values (SUVs in interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT and compared across the different drug treatment conditions. Blood glucose levels > 500 mg/dL were established for the STZ-treated diabetic rats. Under fasting conditions, average uptake of [18F]FDG in the IBAT of STZ-treated diabetic rats was approximately 70% lower compared to that of normal rats. Both CL316,243 and atomoxetine activated IBAT in normal rats had an SUV > 5, whereas activation in STZ-treated rats was significantly lower. The agonist CL316,243 activated IBAT up to threefold compared to saline in the fasted STZ-treated rat. In the nonfasted rat, the IBAT activation was up by twofold by CL316243. Atomoxetine had a greater effect on lowering blood sugar levels compared to CL316,243 in the nonfasted rats. A significant reduction in metabolic activity was observed in the STZ-treated diabetic rodent model. Increased IBAT activity in the STZ-treated diabetic rat under nonfasted conditions using the β3-adrenoceptor agonist CL316,243 suggests a potential role of BAT in modulating blood sugar

  12. Intravenous dexketoprofen induces less injection pain than racemic ketoprofen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjövall, S; Kokki, M; Nokela, A; Halinen, L; Turunen, M; Kokki, H

    2015-08-01

    Ketoprofen has high analgesic efficacy against inflammatory and nociceptive pain. Additionally, when ketoprofen is administered in conjunction with an opioid during pain management, it prevents the development of opioid-induced hyperalgesia. The main limitation for racemic ketoprofen IV administration is venous irritation. Dexketoprofen is the active enantiomer of racemic ketoprofen and has a similar analgesic efficacy in a dose proportion of 1 : 2, but it causes fewer adverse effects than racemic ketoprofen. It has been claimed that dexketoprofen may cause less frequent and less severe injection pain than racemic ketoprofen. In this study, we compared the injection pain of IV administered racemic ketoprofen and dexketoprofen in elective surgical patients. The ethics committee of our institution approved this randomized, double-blinded, two-treatment, two-period, crossover clinical comparison of ketoprofen and dexketoprofen. A total of 221 ASA I-III adult patients, aged 20-75 years, were initially IV administered either 0·5 mg/kg racemic ketoprofen followed 2 h later with 0·25 mg/kg dexketoprofen (group 1) or vice versa (group 2). Both compounds were diluted in 20 mL of normal saline and were injected over 6 min. Patients reported injection pain on an 11-point numerical rating scale (NRS) (0 = no pain, 10 = most pain). Significantly less injection pain was reported after dexketoprofen administration. A total of 201 of 209 patients reported pain during racemic ketoprofen injection, and 157 of 210 patients reported pain during dexketoprofen injection, respectively. Moderate or severe pain was reported by 90 (41%) patients during racemic ketoprofen administration and by 43 (20%) during dexketoprofen injection (P = 0·001). The mean of injection pain during racemic ketoprofen injection was 4·2 (SD 2·5) and was 2·5 (2·4) during dexketoprofen injection (P = 0·001). No serious or unexpected adverse events were reported. Dexketoprofen causes

  13. Primary pulmonary lymphoma-role of fluoro-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography in the initial staging and evaluating response to treatment - case reports and review of literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Krishan Kant; Dhanapathi, Halanaik; Nazar, Aftab Hasan; Kumar, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    Primary pulmonary lymphoma (PPL) is an uncommon entity of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, which accounts for <1% of all cases of lymphoma. We present two rare cases of PPL of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, which underwent 18 fluorine fluoro-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography for initial staging and response evaluation after chemotherapy

  14. Impact of 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography on computed tomography defined target volumes in radiation treatment planning of esophageal cancer : reduction in geographic misses with equal inter-observer variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, Liesbeth; Busz, D. M.; Paardekooper, G. M. R. M.; Beukema, J. C.; Jager, P. L.; Van der Jagt, E. J.; van Dam, G. M.; Groen, H.; Plukker, J. Th. M.; Langendijk, J. A.

    P>Target volume definition in modern radiotherapy is based on planning computed tomography (CT). So far, 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has not been included in planning modality in volume definition of esophageal cancer. This study evaluates fusion of FDG-PET and CT in

  15. Comparison of Tc-99m-sestamibi-F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose dual isotope simultaneous acquisition and rest-stress Tc-99m-sestamibi single photon emission computed tomography for the assessment of myocardial viability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Boer, J; Slart, RHJA; Blanksma, Paulus; Willemsen, ATM; Jager, PL; Paans, AMJ; Vaalburg, W; Piers, DA

    Dual isotope simultaneous acquisition single photon emission computed tomography (DISA SPECT) offers the advantage of obtaining information on myocardial perfusion using Tc-99m-sestamibi (Tc-99m-MIBI) and metabolism using F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18-FDG) in a single study. The prerequisite is that

  16. Comparison of 99mTc-sestamibi-18F-fluorodeoxyglucose dual isotope simultaneous acquisition and rest-stress 99mTc-sestamibi single photon emission computed tomography for the assessment of myocardial viability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Boer, Johan; Slart, R H J A; Blanksma, P K; Willemsen, Antonius; Jager, P L; Paans, A M J; Vaalburg, W; Piers, D A

    Dual isotope simultaneous acquisition single photon emission computed tomography (DISA SPECT) offers the advantage of obtaining information on myocardial perfusion using Tc-sestamibi ( Tc-MIBI) and metabolism using F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( F-FDG) in a single study. The prerequisite is that the Tc-MIBI

  17. Staging and Functional Characterization of Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma by 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) Positron Emission Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmers, Henri J. L. M.; Chen, Clara C.; Carrasquillo, Jorge A.; Whatley, Millie; Ling, Alexander; Eisenhofer, Graeme; King, Kathryn S.; Rao, Jyotsna U.; Wesley, Robert A.; Adams, Karen T.

    2012-01-01

    Background Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) are rare tumors of the adrenal medulla and extra-adrenal sympathetic chromaffin tissues; their anatomical and functional imaging are critical to guiding treatment decisions. This study aimed to compare the sensitivity and specificity of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography with computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) for tumor localization and staging of PPGLs with that of conventional imaging by [123I]-metaiodobenzylguanidine single photon emission CT (123I-MIBG SPECT), CT, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods A total of 216 patients (106 men, 110 women, aged 45.2 ± 14.9 years) with suspected PPGL underwent CT or MRI, 18F-FDG PET/CT, and 123I-MIBG SPECT/CT. Sensitivity and specificity were measured as endpoints and compared by the McNemar test, using two-sided P values only. Results Sixty (28%) of patients had nonmetastatic PPGL, 95 (44%) had metastatic PPGL, and 61 (28%) were PPGL negative. For nonmetastatic tumors, the sensitivity of 18F-FDG was similar to that of 123I-MIBG but less than that of CT/MRI (sensitivity of 18F-FDG = 76.8%; of 123I-MIBG = 75.0%; of CT/MRI = 95.7%; 18F-FDG vs 123I-MIBG: difference = 1.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = −14.8% to 14.8%, P = .210; 18F-FDG vs CT/MRI: difference = 18.9%, 95% CI = 9.4% to 28.3%, P < .001). The specificity was 90.2% for 18F-FDG, 91.8% for 123I-MIBG, and 90.2% for CT/MRI. 18F-FDG uptake was higher in succinate dehydrogenase complex– and von Hippel–Lindau syndrome–related tumors than in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) related tumors. For metastases, sensitivity was greater for 18F-FDG and CT/MRI than for 123I-MIBG (sensitivity of 18F-FDG = 82.5%; of 123I-MIBG = 50.0%; of CT/MRI = 74.4%; 18F-FDG vs 123I-MIBG: difference = 32.5%, 95% CI = 22.3% to 42.5%, P < .001; CT/MRI vs 123I-MIBG: difference = 24.4%, 95% CI = 11.3% to 31.6%, P < .001). For bone metastases, 18F-FDG was more sensitive than CT/MRI (sensitivity of 18

  18. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and chemotherapy-related tumor marker expression in non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, Xiao-Yi; Wang, Wen; Wang, Jian-Sheng; Shang, Jin; Gao, Jun-Gang; Guo, You-Min

    2013-01-01

    The chemotherapy resistance of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains a clinic challenge and is closely associated with several biomarkers including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) (Drugs 72(Suppl 1):28–36, 012.), p53 (Med Sci Monit 11(6):HY11–HY20, 2005.) and excision repair cross complementing gene 1 (ERCC1) (J Thorac Oncol 8(5):582–586, 2013.). Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG–PET) is the best non-invasive surrogate for tumor biology with the maximal standardized uptake values (SUV max ) being the most important paradigm. However, there are limited data correlating FDG-PET with the chemotherapy resistant tumor markers. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation of chemotherapy related tumor marker expression with FDG–PET SUV max in NSCLC. FDG–PET SUV max was calculated in chemotherapy naïve patients with NSCLC (n = 62) and immunohistochemical analysis was performed for EGFR, p53 or ERCC1 on the intraoperative NSCLC tissues. Each tumor marker was assessed independently by two pathologists using common grading criteria. The SUV max difference based on the histologic characteristics, gender, differentiation, grading and age as well as correlation analysis among these parameters were performed. Multiple stepwise regression analysis was further performed to determine the primary predictor for SUV max and the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was performed to detect the optimized sensitivity and specificity for SUV max in suggesting chemotherapy resistant tumor markers. The significant tumor type (P = 0.045), differentiation (P = 0.021), p53 (P = 0.000) or ERCC1 (P = 0.033) positivity dependent differences of SUV max values were observed. The tumor differentiation is significantly correlated with SUV max (R = -0.327), tumor size (R = -0.286), grading (R = -0.499), gender (R = 0.286) as well as the expression levels for p53 (R = -0.605) and ERCC1 (R = -0.644). The expression level of p53

  19. Cooling water injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inai, Nobuhiko.

    1989-01-01

    In a BWR type reactor, ECCS system is constituted as a so-called stand-by system which is not used during usual operation and there is a significant discontinuity in relation with the usual system. It is extremely important that ECCS operates upon occurrence of accidents just as specified. In view of the above in the present invention, the stand-by system is disposed along the same line with the usual system. That is, a driving water supply pump for supplying driving water to a jet pump is driven by a driving mechanism. The driving mechanism drives continuously the driving water supply pump in a case if an expected accident such as loss of the function of the water supply pump, as well as during normal operation. That is, all of the water supply pump, jet pump, driving water supply pump and driving mechanism therefor are caused to operate also during normal operation. The operation of them are not initiated upon accident. Thus, the cooling water injection system can perform at high reliability to remarkably improve the plant safety. (K.M.)

  20. John Deakin: Double Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Rousseau

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this series of short films made by Jonathan Law, the art historian James Boaden, and the curator of The John Deakin Archive, Paul Rousseau, discuss the double-exposure images made by the photographer John Deakin (1912-1972 in the 1950s and 1960s. The films ask you, firstly, to look closely at the images being discussed. Each one begins with a sustained and intense shot of a single image before opening up to a wide-ranging discussion about Deakin, double exposures, and photography.

  1. Double Photoionization Near Threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehlitz, Ralf

    2007-01-01

    The threshold region of the double-photoionization cross section is of particular interest because both ejected electrons move slowly in the Coulomb field of the residual ion. Near threshold both electrons have time to interact with each other and with the residual ion. Also, different theoretical models compete to describe the double-photoionization cross section in the threshold region. We have investigated that cross section for lithium and beryllium and have analyzed our data with respect to the latest results in the Coulomb-dipole theory. We find that our data support the idea of a Coulomb-dipole interaction.

  2. Double Chooz experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palomares, C.

    2009-01-01

    Double Chooz will use two identical detectors at different distances from the Chooz nuclear power station to search for a non-vanishing value of θ 13 , and, hopefully, to open the way to experiments aspiring to discover CP violation in the leptonic sector. The far detector is expected to be operative by the end of 2009. Installation of the near detector will occur in 2010. Double Chooz has the capacity to exclude sin 2 (2θ 13 ) 31 2 = 2.5 x 10 -3 eV 2 with three years of data running both near and far detectors. (author)

  3. Double-helix stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moroz, P.E.

    1997-09-01

    A new stellarator configuration, the Double-Helix Stellarator (DHS), is introduced. This novel configuration features a double-helix center post as the only helical element of the stellarator coil system. The DHS configuration has many unique characteristics. One of them is the extreme low plasma aspect ratio, A ∼ 1--1.2. Other advantages include a high enclosed volume, appreciable rotational transform, and a possibility of extreme-high-β MHD equilibria. Moreover, the DHS features improved transport characteristics caused by the absence of the magnetic field ripple on the outboard of the torus. Compactness, simplicity and modularity of the coil system add to the DHS advantages for fusion applications

  4. Epinephrine inhanced double contrast knee arthrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Mun; Choi, Byung Ihn

    1981-01-01

    It is well known that double contrast knee arthrography is useful in diagnosis of meniscal lesions and other knee pathology. But intra-articular structures become less well delineated shortly after injection into the knee joint with water soluble contrast media because of rapid absorption and dilution of the injected media. This limits the time when sharply detailed arthrograms are obtainable and precludes repeat delayed arthrogram without reinjection of contrast media. In order to overcome this major disadvantage, the authors used epinephrine which has vasoconstrictive effect and is expected to reduce fluid movement across the synovial membrane temporarily. The authors attempted to compare epinephrine inhanced double contrast arthrographic group, epinephrine(+) group, to the double contrast arthrographic group without epinephrine, epinephrine(-) group, by statistical evaluation. Each group consisted of 35 cases and 7 lateral films of knee joint were taken sequentially 2, 6, 10, 15, 20, 30, and 60 minutes after injection of contrast media, and were assessed by 5 certified radiologists. The results were as follows: 1. The difference of mean score of quality between epinephrine(+) group and epinephrine(-) group was statistically significant at every time interval (ρ value < 0.01 at 2 minutes, ρ < 0.001 at all other time intervals). Epinephrine(+) group was superior to the epinephrine(-) group in quality of film. 2. Numbers of cases above score of 2 which was considered to be of diagnostic quality in evaluating meniscal lesions were larger in epinephrine(+) group than epinephrine(-) group at every time interval. And the difference between two groups was highly significant statistically (ρ < 0.001). 3. Only 43% of cases was above score of 2 at 10 minutes in epinephrine(-) group, but 97% at 10 minutes and 80% at 20 minutes respectively in epinephrine(+) group. Therefore duration for adequate study of arthrogram is prolonged more than two times in epinephrine(+) group

  5. Intramuscular versus ultrasound-guided intratenosynovial glucocorticoid injection for tenosynovitis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammitzbøll-Danielsen, Mads; Østergaard, Mikkel; Fana, Viktoria

    2017-01-01

    and tenosynovitis were randomised into two double-blind groups: (A) 'intramuscular group', receiving intramuscular injection of betamethasone and US-guided intratenosynovial isotonic saline injection and (B) 'intratenosynovial group' receiving saline intramuscularly and US-guided intratenosynovial betamethasone......% (2/24) versus 44% (11/25), that is, difference of ?36pp (?58pp to ?13pp), p=0.003. Most US, clinical and patient-reported scores improved more in the 'intratenosynovial group' at all follow-up visits. Conclusions In this randomised double-blind clinical trial, patients with RA and tenosynovitis...

  6. H- charge exchange injection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ankenbrandt, C.; Curtis, C.; Hojvat, C.; Johnson, R.P.; Owen, C.; Schmidt, C.; Teng, L.; Webber, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    The techniques and components required for injection of protons into cyclic accelerators by means of H - charge exchange processes are reviewed, with emphasis on the experience at Fermilab. The advantages of the technique are described. The design and performance of the system of injection of H - ions into the Fermilab Booster are detailed. (Auth.)

  7. Injection and lessons for 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracco, C.; Barnes, M.J.; Bartmann, W.; Cornelis, K.; Drosdal, L.N.; Goddard, B.; Kain, V.; Meddahi, M.; Mertens, V.; Uythoven, J.

    2012-01-01

    Injection of 144 bunches into the LHC became fully operational during the 2011 run and one nominal injection of 288 bunches was accomplished. Several mitigation solutions were put in place to minimise losses from the Transfer Line (TL) collimators and losses from kicking de-bunched beam during injection. Nevertheless, shot-by- shot and bunch-by-bunch trajectory variations, as well as long terms drifts, were observed and required a regular re-steering of the TL implying a non negligible amount of time spent for injection setup. Likely sources of instability have been identified (i.e. MKE and MSE ripples) and possible cures to optimise 2012 operation are presented. Well defined references for TL steering will be defined in a more rigorous way in order to allow a more straightforward and faster injection setup. Encountered and potential issues of the injection system, in particular the injection kickers MKI, are discussed also in view of injections with a higher number of bunches. (authors)

  8. Injection and lessons for 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, C; Bartmann, W; Cornelis, K; Drosdal, L N; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Meddahi, M; Mertens, V; Uythoven, J

    2012-01-01

    Injection of 144 bunches into the LHC became fully operational during the 2011 run and a nominal injection of 288 bunches was accomplished during MD time. Several mitigation solutions were put in place to minimise losses from the transfer line (TL) collimators and losses from kicking debunched beam during injection. Nevertheless, shot-by-shot and bunch-by-bunch trajectory variations, as well as long terms drifts, were observed and required a regular resteering of the TL implying a non negligible amount of time spent for injection setup. Likely sources of instability have been identified (i.e. MKE and MSE ripples) and possible cures to optimise 2012 operation are presented. Well defined references for TL steering will be defined in a more rigorous way in order to allow a more straightforward and faster injection setup. Encountered and potential issues of the injection system, in particular the injection kickers MKI, are discussed also in view of injections with a higher number of bunches.

  9. Towards spin injection into silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dash, S.P.

    2007-08-15

    Si has been studied for the purpose of spin injection extensively in this thesis. Three different concepts for spin injection into Si have been addressed: (1) spin injection through a ferromagnet-Si Schottky contact, (2) spin injection using MgO tunnel barriers in between the ferromagnet and Si, and (3) spin injection from Mn-doped Si (DMS) as spin aligner. (1) FM-Si Schottky contact for spin injection: To be able to improve the interface qualities one needs to understand the atomic processes involved in the formation of silicide phases. In order to obtain more detailed insight into the formation of such phases the initial stages of growth of Co and Fe were studied in situ by HRBS with monolayer depth resolution.(2) MgO tunnel barrier for spin injection into Si: The fabrication and characterization of ultra-thin crystalline MgO tunnel barriers on Si (100) was presented. (3) Mn doped Si for spin injection: Si-based diluted magnetic semiconductor samples were prepared by doping Si with Mn by two different methods i) by Mn ion implantation and ii) by in-diffusion of Mn atoms (solid state growth). (orig.)

  10. CT guided diagnostic foot injections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saifuddin, A.; Abdus-Samee, M.; Mann, C.; Singh, D.; Angel, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To describe a CT technique for guiding diagnostic and therapeutic injections in the hind- and mid-foot. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Over a period of 50 months, 28 individuals were referred for diagnostic and therapeutic hind- and mid-foot injections before possible arthrodesis. A CT technique was developed that allowed entry into the various joints using a vertical approach. Numbers of joints injected were as follows: posterior subtalar, 21; talonavicular, 4; calcaneonavicular, calcaneocuboid, navicular-cuneiform and 5th metatarsocuboid joints, 1 each. RESULTS: All injections but one were technically successful. Significant relief of symptoms was noted by 16 participants, whereas for 9 there was no improvement and for 3 a partial response was achieved. CONCLUSION: CT is a simple and safe alternative to fluoroscopy for guiding diagnostic and therapeutic foot injections, and may be the technique of choice in cases of disordered anatomy

  11. Double aortic arch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surgery can be done to fix double aortic arch. The surgeon ties off the smaller branch and separates it from the larger branch. Then the surgeon closes the ends of the aorta with stitches. This relieves pressure on the esophagus and windpipe.

  12. Singapore's double festival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, Gordon

    1990-09-15

    Coinciding with celebrations for the nation's 25th anniversary, the 25th International Conference on High Energy Physics, held in Singapore from 2-8 August, was itself a double festival, with the Standard Model of contemporary physics and CERN's new LEP electron-positron collider providing the twin themes.

  13. Layered double hydroxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López Rayo, Sandra; Imran, Ahmad; Hansen, Hans Chr. Bruun

    2017-01-01

    A novel zinc (Zn) fertilizer concept based on Zn doped layered double hydroxides (Zn-doped Mg-Fe-LDHs) has been investigated. Zn-doped Mg-Fe-LDHs were synthetized, their chemical composition was analyzed and their nutrient release was studied in buffered solutions with different pH values. Uptake...

  14. Double Beta Decay Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piepke, A.

    2005-01-01

    The experimental observation of neutrino oscillations and thus neutrino mass and mixing gives a first hint at new particle physics. The absolute values of the neutrino mass and the properties of neutrinos under CP-conjugation remain unknown. The experimental investigation of the nuclear double beta decay is one of the key techniques for solving these open problems

  15. Compressed air injection technique to standardize block injection pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Ban C H; Li, Lisa X Y; Pillay, Jennifer J

    2006-11-01

    Presently, no standardized technique exists to monitor injection pressures during peripheral nerve blocks. Our objective was to determine if a compressed air injection technique, using an in vitro model based on Boyle's law and typical regional anesthesia equipment, could consistently maintain injection pressures below a 1293 mmHg level associated with clinically significant nerve injury. Injection pressures for 20 and 30 mL syringes with various needle sizes (18G, 20G, 21G, 22G, and 24G) were measured in a closed system. A set volume of air was aspirated into a saline-filled syringe and then compressed and maintained at various percentages while pressure was measured. The needle was inserted into the injection port of a pressure sensor, which had attached extension tubing with an injection plug clamped "off". Using linear regression with all data points, the pressure value and 99% confidence interval (CI) at 50% air compression was estimated. The linearity of Boyle's law was demonstrated with a high correlation, r = 0.99, and a slope of 0.984 (99% CI: 0.967-1.001). The net pressure generated at 50% compression was estimated as 744.8 mmHg, with the 99% CI between 729.6 and 760.0 mmHg. The various syringe/needle combinations had similar results. By creating and maintaining syringe air compression at 50% or less, injection pressures will be substantially below the 1293 mmHg threshold considered to be an associated risk factor for clinically significant nerve injury. This technique may allow simple, real-time and objective monitoring during local anesthetic injections while inherently reducing injection speed.

  16. Double-Difference Tomography for Sequestration MVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westman, Erik

    2008-12-31

    Analysis of synthetic data was performed to determine the most cost-effective tomographic monitoring system for a geologic carbon sequestration injection site. Double-difference tomographic inversion was performed on 125 synthetic data sets: five stages of CO2 plume growth, five seismic event regions, and five geophone arrays. Each resulting velocity model was compared quantitatively to its respective synthetic velocity model to determine an accuracy value. The results were examined to determine a relationship between cost and accuracy in monitoring, verification, and accounting applications using double-difference tomography. The geophone arrays with widely-varying geophone locations, both laterally and vertically, performed best. Additionally, double difference seismic tomography was performed using travel time data from a carbon sequestration site at the Aneth oil field in southeast Utah as part of a Department of Energy initiative on monitoring, verification, and accounting (MVA) of sequestered CO2. A total of 1,211 seismic events were recorded from a borehole array consisting of 22 geophones. Artificial velocity models were created to determine the ease with which different CO2 plume locations and sizes can be detected. Most likely because of the poor geophone arrangement, a low velocity zone in the Desert Creek reservoir can only be detected when regions of test site containing the highest ray path coverage are considered. MVA accuracy and precision may be improved through the use of a receiver array that provides more comprehensive ray path coverage.

  17. Optimization of injection law for direct injection diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feola, M.; Bella, G.; Pelloni, P.; Casoli, P.; Toderi, G.; Cantore, G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes how different timing and shape of the injection law can influence pollutant emission of a direct injection diesel engine. The study was carried out making use of a multizone thermodynamic model as regards the closed valve phase, and a filling-emptying one as regards the open valve phase. After being calibrated by comparison with experimental data, the abovementioned model was used for injection law optimization as regards minimum pollutant concentration (NO x and soot) in the exhaust gases with the smallest engine performance reduction possible

  18. Preoperative lymph-node staging of invasive urothelial bladder cancer with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed axial tomography and magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thor Knak; Holt, Per; Gerke, Oke

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The treatment and prognosis of bladder cancer are based on the depth of primary tumour invasion and the presence of metastases. A highly accurate preoperative tumour, node, metastasis (TNM) staging is critical to proper patient management and treatment. This study retrospectively...... investigated the value of ¹⁸F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed axial tomography (¹⁸F-FDG PET/CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for preoperative N staging of bladder cancer. Material and methods. From June 2006 to January 2008, 48 consecutive patients diagnosed with bladder......) for MRI and ¹⁸F-FDG PET/CT, respectively. The differences in specificity and negative predictive values were not statistically significant. Conclusions. No significant statistical difference between ¹⁸F-FDG PET/CT and MRI for preoperative N staging of urothelial bladder cancer was found in the study...

  19. Late prosthetic graft infection after frozen elephant trunk presenting by haemoptysis and positive ¹⁸F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morjan, Mohammed; Ali, Khaldoun; Harringer, Wolfgang; El-Essawi, Aschraf

    2014-11-01

    In cardiothoracic surgery, prosthetic graft infection represents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Although clinical assessment, imaging techniques and microbiological investigations are helpful, late graft infection can be difficult to identify using classical diagnostic tools. An aggressive surgical approach involving removal and replacement of all prosthetic materials is technically demanding but remains the best strategy to eradicate infection. Herein, we report a case of a late aortic graft infection, after frozen elephant trunk implantation with atypical presentation, diagnosed with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography and treated successfully through a radical surgical strategy. This case emphasizes the emerging diagnostic role of positron emission tomography and encourages the adoption of an aggressive surgical approach. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  20. Isolated thymic Langerhans cell histiocytosis discovered on F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG PET/CT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpin, Sophie; Carret, Anne-Sophie; Dubois, Josée; Buteau, Chantal; Patey, Natalie

    2015-11-01

    The thymic infiltration in young patients with multisystemic Langerhans cell histiocytosis and its radiologic features are well known. However, isolated thymic disease has seldom been reported in the literature. We report the case of a 10-month-old child admitted for fever of unknown origin. Whole-body F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG PET/CT) was performed to identify a focus of infection. It demonstrated an unusual aspect of the thymus, which led to further investigation and revealed isolated infiltration of the thymus by Langerhans cell histiocytosis. The patient was treated accordingly and is now disease free. As evaluation of Langerhans cell histiocytosis patients with F-18 FDG PET/CT is becoming more frequent, it is important to be aware of the scintigraphical characteristics of thymic Langerhans cell histiocytosis.