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Sample records for fluorinated xerogel-derived microelectrodes

  1. Fluorine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Timothy S.; Miller, M. Michael; Orris, Greta J.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    Fluorine compounds are essential in numerous chemical and manufacturing processes. Fluorspar is the commercial name for fluorite (isometric CaF2), which is the only fluorine mineral that is mined on a large scale. Fluorspar is used directly as a fluxing material and as an additive in different manufacturing processes. It is the source of fluorine in the production of hydrogen fluoride or hydrofluoric acid, which is used as the feedstock for numerous organic and inorganic chemical compounds.The United States was the world’s leading producer of fluorspar until the mid-1950s. In the mid-1970s, the U.S. fluorspar mining industry began to decline because of foreign competition. By 1982, there was essentially only a single U.S. producer left, and that company ceased mining in 1996. Consumption of fluorspar in the United States peaked in the early 1970s, which was also the peak period of U.S. steel production. Since then, U.S. fluorspar consumption has decreased substantially; the United States has nonetheless increased its imports of downstream fluorine compounds, such as, in order of tonnage imported, hydrofluoric acid, aluminum fluoride, and cryolite. This combination of no U.S. production (until recently) and high levels of consumption has made the United States the world’s leading fluorspar-importing country, in all its various forms.The number of fluorspar-exporting countries has decreased substantially in recent decades, and, as a result, the United States has become dependent on just a few countries to supply its needs. In 2013, the United States imported the majority of its fluorspar from three countries, which were, in descending order of the amount imported, Mexico, China, and South Africa.Geologically, in igneous systems, fluorine is one of a number of elements that are “incompatible.” These incompatible elements become concentrated in the residual magma while the common silicates crystallize upon magma ascent and cooling, leading to relatively high

  2. Fluorination reaction uranium dioxide by fluorine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, Shinji; Homma, Shunji; Koga, Jiro; Matsumoto, Shiro; Sasahira, Akira; Kawamura, Fumio

    2004-01-01

    Kinetics of the fluorination reaction of uranium dioxide is studied using un-reacted core model with shrinking particles. The model includes the film mass transfer of fluorine gas and its diffusion in the particle. The rate constants of the model are determined by fitting the experimental data for 370-450degC. The model successfully represents the fluorination in this temperature range. The rate control step is identified by examining the rate constants of the model for 300-1,800degC. For temperature range up to 900degC, the fluorination reaction is rate controlling. For over 900degC, both mechanisms of the mass transfer of fluorine and the fluorination reaction control the rate of the fluorination. With further increase of the temperature, however, the fluorination reaction becomes so fast that the mass transfer of fluorine eventually controls the rate of the fluorination. (author)

  3. Biofunctionalization of diamond microelectrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitinger, Andreas Adam; Lud, Simon Quartus; Stutzmann, Martin; Garrido, Jose Antonio [Walter Schottky Institut, TU Muenchen (Germany); Hutter, Naima Aurelia; Richter, Gerhard; Jordan, Rainer [WACKER-Chair of Macromolecular Chemistry, TU Muenchen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    In this work we present two main routes for the biofunctionalization of nanocrystalline diamond films, aiming at the application of diamond microelectrodes as amperometric biosensors. We report on direct covalent grafting of biomolecules on nanocrystalline diamond films via diazonium monophenyls and biphenyls as well as other linker molecules, forming self-assembled monolayers on the diamond surface. Monolayers with different functional head groups have been characterized. Patterning of the available functional groups using electron beam-induced chemical lithography allows the selective preparation of well-localized docking sites for the immobilization of biomolecules. Furthermore, polymer brushes are expected to enable novel paths for designing more advanced biosensing schemes, incorporating multifunctional groups and a higher loading capacity for biomolecules. Here, we focus on the preparation of polymer grafts by self-initiated photografting and photopolymerization. Further chemical modification of the grafted polymer brushes results in the introduction of additional functional molecules, paving the way for the incorporation of more complex molecular structures such as proteins. In a comparative study we investigate the advantages and disadvantages of both approaches.

  4. Soldering of Nanotubes onto Microelectrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Dorte Nørgaard; Mølhave, Kristian; Mateiu, Ramona Valentina

    2003-01-01

    Suspended bridges of individual multiwalled carbon nanotubes were fabricated inside a scanning electron microscope by soldering the nanotube onto microelectrodes with highly conducting gold-carbon material. By the decomposition of organometallic vapor with the electron beam, metal-containing sold...... bonds were consistently found to be mechanically stronger than the carbon nanotubes.......Suspended bridges of individual multiwalled carbon nanotubes were fabricated inside a scanning electron microscope by soldering the nanotube onto microelectrodes with highly conducting gold-carbon material. By the decomposition of organometallic vapor with the electron beam, metal-containing solder...... bonds were formed at the intersection of the nanotube and the electrodes. Current-voltage curves indicated metallic conduction of the nanotubes, with resistances in the range of 9-29 kOmega. Bridges made entirely of the soldering material exhibited resistances on the order of 100 Omega, and the solder...

  5. Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasso, Luigi; Vazquez, Patricia; Vedarethinam, Indumathi

    2010-01-01

    Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes have been fabricated for possible future neurological applications. A combination of micro-fabrication techniques and chemical polymerization methods has been used to create pillar electrodes in polyaniline and polypyrrole. The thin polymer films obtained...... showed uniformity and good adhesion to both horizontal and vertical surfaces. Electrodes in combination with metal/conducting polymer materials have been characterized by cyclic voltammetry and the presence of the conducting polymer film has shown to increase the electrochemical activity when compared...

  6. Fluorination of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Toit, F.J.

    1991-01-01

    Polyethylene and polypropylene were reacted with elemental fluorine under carefully controlled conditions to produce fluorocarbon polymers. Fluorination of polymer films resulted in fluorination of only the outer surfaces of the films, while the reaction of elemental fluorine with powdered hydrocarbon polymers produced perfluorocarbon polymers. Existing and newly developed techniques were used to characterize the fluorinated polymers. It was shown that the degree of fluorination was influenced by the surface area of the hydrocarbon material, the concentration, of the fluorine gas, and the time and temperature of fluorination. A fluidized-bed reactor used for the fluorination of polymer powders effectively increased the reaction rate. The surface tension and the oxygen permeability of the fluorinated polymers were studied. The surface tension of hydrocarbon polymers was not influenced by different solvents, but the surface tension of fluorinated polymers was affected by the type of solvent that was used. There were indications that the surface tension was affected by oxygen introduced into the polymer surface during fluorination. Fluorination lowered the permeability of oxygen through hydrocarbon polymers. 55 refs., 51 figs., 26 tabs

  7. Compendium of fluorine data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detamore, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    Research was conducted to locate information about fluorine. This information includes chemical and physical properties of fluorine, physiological effects produced by the material, first-aid, personnel and facility protection, and materials of construction required when handling fluorine in piping and process vessels. The results of this research have been compiled in this report

  8. Pyrolytic 3D Carbon Microelectrodes for Electrochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemanth, Suhith; Caviglia, Claudia; Amato, Letizia

    2016-01-01

    This work presents the fabrication and characterization of suspended three-dimensional (3D) pyrolytic carbon microelectrodes for electrochemical applications. For this purpose, an optimized process with multiple steps of UV photolithography with the negative tone photoresist SU-8 followed...... by pyrolysis at 900ºC for 1h was developed. With this process, microelectrode chips with a three electrode configuration were fabricated and characterized with cyclic voltammetry (CV) using a 10mM potassium ferri-ferrocyanide redox probe in a custom made batch system with magnetic clamping. The 3D pyrolytic...... carbon microelectrodes displayed twice the higher peak current compared to 2D....

  9. Conducting Polymer 3D Microelectrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Emnéus

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes have been fabricated for possible future neurological applications. A combination of micro-fabrication techniques and chemical polymerization methods has been used to create pillar electrodes in polyaniline and polypyrrole. The thin polymer films obtained showed uniformity and good adhesion to both horizontal and vertical surfaces. Electrodes in combination with metal/conducting polymer materials have been characterized by cyclic voltammetry and the presence of the conducting polymer film has shown to increase the electrochemical activity when compared with electrodes coated with only metal. An electrochemical characterization of gold/polypyrrole electrodes showed exceptional electrochemical behavior and activity. PC12 cells were finally cultured on the investigated materials as a preliminary biocompatibility assessment. These results show that the described electrodes are possibly suitable for future in-vitro neurological measurements.

  10. Study of copper fluorination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillardeau, J.

    1967-02-01

    This report deals with the action of fluorine on copper. Comprehensive descriptions are given of the particular technological methods and of the preparation of the reactants. This fluorination reaction has been studied at medium and low fluorine pressures. A nucleation and growth phenomenon is described. The influence of a pollution of the gas phase on the fluorination process is described. The solid-state reaction between cupric fluoride and cooper has also been studied. A special study has been made of the growth of copper deposits by thermal decomposition of gaseous fluorides. (author) [fr

  11. Band-type microelectrodes for amperometric immunoassays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ga-Yeon; Chang, Young Wook; Ko, Hyuk [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Min-Jung [Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Pyun, Jae-Chul, E-mail: jcpyun@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-20

    A band-type microelectrode was made using a parylene-N film as a passivation layer. A circular-type, mm-scale electrode with the same diameter as the band-type microelectrode was also made with an electrode area that was 5000 times larger than the band-type microelectrode. By comparing the amperometric signals of 3,5,3′,5′-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) samples at different optical density (OD) values, the band-type microelectrode was determined to be 9 times more sensitive than the circular-type electrode. The properties of the circular-type and the band-type electrodes (e.g., the shape of their cyclic voltammograms, the type of diffusion layer used, and the diffusion layer thickness per unit electrode area) were characterized according to their electrode area using the COMSOL Multiphysics software. From these simulations, the band-type electrode was estimated to have the conventional microelectrode properties, even when the electrode area was 100 times larger than a conventional circular-type electrode. These results show that both the geometry and the area of an electrode can influence the properties of the electrode. Finally, amperometric analysis based on a band-type electrode was applied to commercial ELISA kits to analyze human hepatitis B surface antigen (hHBsAg) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibodies. - Highlights: • A band-type microelectrode was made using a parylene-N film as a passivation layer. • The band-type microelectrode was 14-times more sensitive than circular-type electrode. • The influence of geometry on microelectrode properties was simulated using COMSOL. • The band-type electrode was applied to ELISA kits for hHBsAg and hHIV-antibodies.

  12. Failure Mechanisms of a Gold Microelectrode in Bioelectronics Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonghun Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The generation, growth, and collapse of tiny bubbles are inevitable for a microelectrode working in aqueous environment, thus resulting in physical damages on the microelectrode. The failure mechanisms of a microelectrode induced by tiny bubble collapsing are investigated by generating tiny hydrogen bubbles on a gold microelectrode through deionized water electrolysis. The surface of the microelectrode is modified with a thiol-functionalized arginine-glycine-aspartic acid peptide to generate perfectly spherical bubbles in proximity of the surface. The failure of an Au microelectrode is governed by two damage mechanisms, depending on the thickness of the microelectrode: a water-hammer pressure due to the violent collapse of a single large bubble, formed through merging of small bubbles, for ultrathin Au microelectrodes of 40–60 nm in thickness, and an energy accumulation resulting from the repetitive collapse of tiny bubbles for thick Au microelectrodes of 100–120 nm.

  13. Plants and fluorine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garber, K

    1962-01-01

    A report is given about the contents of fluorine in soil and different plants. It is stated that spinach and several spice herbages are rich in fluorine (0.98 - 21.8 ppm) while in other plants are not more than 5 ppm maximum. An exception is found in Thea sinensis with 178 ppm and more. Tea is, therefore, a source of fluorine for contamination of the human body. An increase of the fluorine contents of plants by manuring with F-salts or mineral manure is possible but of long duration. Damage to plants by uptake of fluorine from soil as well as in a gaseous condition from the atmosphere are described. The rate of damage is related to the type of soil in which the plant is grown.

  14. Fluorine in medicinal chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swallow, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Since its first use in the steroid field in the late 1950s, the use of fluorine in medicinal chemistry has become commonplace, with the small electronegative fluorine atom being a key part of the medicinal chemist's repertoire of substitutions used to modulate all aspects of molecular properties including potency, physical chemistry and pharmacokinetics. This review will highlight the special nature of fluorine, drawing from a survey of marketed fluorinated pharmaceuticals and the medicinal chemistry literature, to illustrate key concepts exploited by medicinal chemists in their attempts to optimize drug molecules. Some of the potential pitfalls in the use of fluorine will also be highlighted. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Bacterial degradation of fluorinated compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, Maria Isabel Martins

    2007-01-01

    Fluorine was produced for the first time by Henri Moissan in 1886, for which he received the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1906. The unique properties of fluorine have led to the development of fluorine chemistry and numerous synthetic fluorinated compounds have been prepared and tested for different

  16. Batch fabrication of nanotubes suspended between microelectrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mateiu, Ramona Valentina; Stöckli, T.; Knapp, H. F.

    2007-01-01

    be done with a simple lift-off process with standard photolithographic resist. An applied electric field is sustained between the microelectrodes during CVD to guide the nanotube growth. Comparison with simulations shows that the location and the orientation of the grown carbon nanotubes (CNT) correspond...... to the regions of maximum electric field, enabling accurate positioning of a nanotube by controlling the shape of the microelectrodes. The CNT bridges are deflected tens of nm when a DC voltage is applied between the nanotube and a gate microelectrode indicating that the clamping through the catalyst particles...... is not only mechanically stable but also electrical conducting. This method could be used to fabricate nanoelectromechanical systems based on suspended double clamped CNTs depending only on photolithography and standard Cleanroom processes....

  17. Improving Photoconductance of Fluorinated Donors with Fluorinated Acceptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garner, Logan E.; Larson, Bryon; Oosterhout, Stefan; Owczarczyk, Zbyslaw; Olson, Dana C.; Kopidakis, Nikos; Boltalina, Olga V.; Strauss, Steven H.; Braunecker, Wade A.

    2016-11-21

    This work investigates the influence of fluorination of both donor and acceptor materials on the generation of free charge carriers in small molecule donor/fullerene acceptor BHJ OPV active layers. A fluorinated and non-fluorinated small molecule analogue were synthesized and their optoelectronic properties characterized. The intrinsic photoconductance of blends of these small molecule donors was investigated using time-resolved microwave conductivity. Blends of the two donor molecules with a traditional non-fluorinated fullerene (PC70BM) as well as a fluorinated fullerene (C60(CF3)2-1) were investigated using 5% and 50% fullerene loading. We demonstrate for the first time that photoconductance in a 50:50 donor:acceptor BHJ blend using a fluorinated fullerene can actually be improved relative to a traditional non-fluorinated fullerene by fluorinating the donor molecule as well.

  18. Fluorination methods in drug discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Yerien, Damián Emilio; Bonesi, Sergio Mauricio; Postigo, Jose Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Fluorination reactions of medicinal and biologically-active compounds will be discussed. Late stage fluorination strategies of medicinal targets have recently attracted considerable attention on account of the influence that the fluorine atom can impart to targets of medicinal importance, such as a modulation of lipophilicity, electronegativity, basicity and bioavailability, this latter as a consequence of membrane permeability. Therefore, the recourse to late-stage fluorine substitution on c...

  19. Fluorine content of Fukien teas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, T H; Lin, C S; Wu, C; Liao, C E; Lin, H Y

    1949-01-01

    A study was made on the fluorine contents of Fukien teas and analytical results indicated the amount ranged from 5.7 to 35.5 mg. per 100 grams of dry tea. The high content of fluorine was found not to be due to contamination nor to the high fluorine content of the soil in which the tea plant was cultivated. Differences in the methods of manufacture had no effect on the fluorine content of the final products. Different varieties of tea plants have different powers to absorb fluorine from the soil. Of the two varieties of tea plants studied, Shui-Sen leaves possessed the lower fluorine content. Age of the tea leaves exerted an important influence on the fluorine content, the older leaves containing considerably more fluorine than the younger. The amount of fluorine that may be extracted in a two per cent infusion varies from 29.1 per cent for fresh leaves to 50.5 per cent for black tea. The process of roasting and rolling rendered the fluorine more soluble, hence the amount extracted increased in green tea. Fermentation further increased the extractability of the fluorine; thus the amount extracted was the highest in black tea, which was fermented, less in the semi-fermented oolong tea, and least in the unfermented green tea. The extractability of fluorine was also increased with age of the leaves.

  20. Fluorine Based Superhydrophobic Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Denis Brassard

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Superhydrophobic coatings, inspired by nature, are an emerging technology. These water repellent coatings can be used as solutions for corrosion, biofouling and even water and air drag reduction applications. In this work, synthesis of monodispersive silica nanoparticles of ~120 nm diameter has been realized via Stöber process and further functionalized using fluoroalkylsilane (FAS-17 molecules to incorporate the fluorinated groups with the silica nanoparticles in an ethanolic solution. The synthesized fluorinated silica nanoparticles have been spin coated on flat aluminum alloy, silicon and glass substrates. Functionalization of silica nanoparticles with fluorinated groups has been confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR by showing the presence of C-F and Si-O-Si bonds. The water contact angles and surface roughness increase with the number of spin-coated thin films layers. The critical size of ~119 nm renders aluminum surface superhydrophobic with three layers of coating using as-prepared nanoparticle suspended solution. On the other hand, seven layers are required for a 50 vol.% diluted solution to achieve superhydrophobicity. In both the cases, water contact angles were more than 150°, contact angle hysteresis was less than 2° having a critical roughness value of ~0.700 µm. The fluorinated silica nanoparticle coated surfaces are also transparent and can be used as paint additives to obtain transparent coatings.

  1. Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes for microelectrode arrays applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Smirnov, J R; Jover, Eric; Amade, Roger; Gabriel, Gemma; Villa, Rosa; Bertran, Enric

    2012-09-01

    In this work a methodology to fabricate carbon nanotube based electrodes using plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition has been explored and defined. The final integrated microelectrode based devices should present specific properties that make them suitable for microelectrode arrays applications. The methodology studied has been focused on the preparation of highly regular and dense vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) mat compatible with the standard lithography used for microelectrode arrays technology.

  2. Fluorine-18 labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleijn, J.P. de

    1978-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis deals with the problems involved in the adaption of reactor-produced fluorine-18 to the synthesis of 18 F-labelled organic fluorine compounds. Several 18 F-labelling reagents were prepared and successfully applied. The limitations to the synthetic possibilities of reactor-produced fluoride- 18 become manifest in the last part of the thesis. An application to the synthesis of labelled aliphatic fluoro amino acids has appeared to be unsuccessful as yet, although some other synthetic approaches can be indicated. Seven journal articles (for which see the availability note) are used to compose the four chapters and three appendices. The connecting text gives a survey of known 18 F-compounds and methods for preparing such compounds. (Auth.)

  3. Fabrication of three-dimensional carbon microelectrodes for electrochemical sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemanth, Suhith

    Carbon microelectrodes have a wide range of applications because of their unique material properties and biocompatibility. The aim of the research work carried out in this thesis was to develop three-dimensional (3D) carbon microelectrodes for electrochemical applications. Three different fabrica...

  4. Electric potential microelectrode for studies of electrobiogeophysics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Lars Riis; Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2014-01-01

    were needle-shaped, shielded Ag/AgCl half-cells that were rendered insensitive to redox-active species in the environment. Tip diameters of 40 to 100 μm and signal resolution of approximately 10 μV were achieved. A test in marine sediments with active cable bacteria showed an electric potential......Spatially separated electron donors and acceptors in sediment can be exploited by the so-called “cable bacteria.” Electric potential microelectrodes (EPMs) were constructed to measure the electric fields that should appear when cable bacteria conduct electrons over centimeter distances. The EPMs...

  5. Screening metal nanoparticles using boron-doped diamond microelectrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivandini, Tribidasari A., E-mail: ivandini.tri@sci.ui.ac.id; Rangkuti, Prasmita K. [Department of Chemistry, FMIPA, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok (Indonesia); Einaga, Yasuaki [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University (Japan); JST ACCEL, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan)

    2016-04-19

    Boron-doped diamond (BDD) microelectrodes were used to observe the correlation between electrocatalytic currents caused by individual Pt nanoparticle (Pt-np) collisions at the electrode. The BDD microelectrodes, ∼20 µm diameter and ∼2 µm particle size, were fabricated at the surface of tungsten wires. Pt-np with a size of 1 to 5 nm with agglomerations up to 20 nm was used for observation. The electrolytic currents were observed via catalytic reaction of 15 mM hydrazine in 50 mM phosphate buffer solution at Pt-np at 0.4 V when it collides with the surface of the microelectrodes. The low current noise and wider potential window in the measurements using BDD microelectrode produced a better results, which represents a better correlation to the TEM result of the Pt-np, compared to when gold microelectrodes was used.

  6. Screening metal nanoparticles using boron-doped diamond microelectrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivandini, Tribidasari A.; Rangkuti, Prasmita K.; Einaga, Yasuaki

    2016-01-01

    Boron-doped diamond (BDD) microelectrodes were used to observe the correlation between electrocatalytic currents caused by individual Pt nanoparticle (Pt-np) collisions at the electrode. The BDD microelectrodes, ∼20 µm diameter and ∼2 µm particle size, were fabricated at the surface of tungsten wires. Pt-np with a size of 1 to 5 nm with agglomerations up to 20 nm was used for observation. The electrolytic currents were observed via catalytic reaction of 15 mM hydrazine in 50 mM phosphate buffer solution at Pt-np at 0.4 V when it collides with the surface of the microelectrodes. The low current noise and wider potential window in the measurements using BDD microelectrode produced a better results, which represents a better correlation to the TEM result of the Pt-np, compared to when gold microelectrodes was used.

  7. Nanostructured gold microelectrodes for extracellular recording

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueggemann, Dorothea; Wolfrum, Bernhard; Maybeck, Vanessa; Offenhaeusser, Andreas [CNI Center of Nanoelectronic Systems for Information Technology and Institute of Bio- and Nanosystems 2, Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Electrophysiological activity of electrogenic cells is currently recorded with planar bioelectronic interfaces such as microelectrode arrays (MEAs). In this work, a novel concept of biocompatible nanostructured gold MEAs for extracellular signal recording is presented. MEAs were fabricated using clean room technologies, e.g. photolithography and metallization. Subsequently, they were modified with gold nanopillars of approximately 300 to 400 nm in height and 60 nm width. The nanostructuring process was carried out with a template-assisted approach using nanoporous aluminium oxide. Impedance spectroscopy of the resulting nanostructures showed higher capacitances compared to planar gold. This confirmed the expected increase of the surface area via nanostructuring. We used the nanostructured microelectrodes to record extracellular potentials from heart muscle cells (HL1), which were plated onto the chips. Good coupling between the HL1 cells and the nanostructured electrodes was observed. The resulting signal-to-noise ratio of nanopillar-MEAs was increased by a factor of 2 compared to planar MEAs. In future applications this nanopillar concept can be adopted for distinct interface materials and coupling to cellular and molecular sensing components.

  8. Estimation of neural energy in microelectrode signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaumond, R. P.; Clement, R.; Silva, R.; Sander, D.

    2004-09-01

    We considered the problem of determining the neural contribution to the signal recorded by an intracortical electrode. We developed a linear least-squares approach to determine the energy fraction of a signal attributable to an arbitrary number of autocorrelation-defined signals buried in noise. Application of the method requires estimation of autocorrelation functions Rap(tgr) characterizing the action potential (AP) waveforms and Rn(tgr) characterizing background noise. This method was applied to the analysis of chronically implanted microelectrode signals from motor cortex of rat. We found that neural (AP) energy consisted of a large-signal component which grows linearly with the number of threshold-detected neural events and a small-signal component unrelated to the count of threshold-detected AP signals. The addition of pseudorandom noise to electrode signals demonstrated the algorithm's effectiveness for a wide range of noise-to-signal energy ratios (0.08 to 39). We suggest, therefore, that the method could be of use in providing a measure of neural response in situations where clearly identified spike waveforms cannot be isolated, or in providing an additional 'background' measure of microelectrode neural activity to supplement the traditional AP spike count.

  9. Rapid general microdetermination of fluorine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leuven, H.C.E. van; Rotscheid, G.J.; Buis, W.J.

    1979-01-01

    A rapid micromethod for the determination of fluorine in a wide variety of materials has been developed. The method is based on the liberation of the fluorine (as HF) from the sample by means of pyrohydrolysis with steam at 1120?? C, The amount of fluoride in the condensate is subsequently measured

  10. A novel combinational pH-PCO2 microelectrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, X; Ma, Y

    1993-07-01

    A novel combinational pH-PCO2 microelectrode based on a neutral carrier hydrogen ion exchanger is described. It is easy to fabricate and allows pH and PCO2 to be measured simultaneously. The microelectrode has a 5-microns tip. The PCO2 microelectrode exhibits a linear response in the range 1.75 x 10(-5)-10(-2) mol/liter with a Nernstian slope of 57.0 mV/decade at 25 degrees C. The detection limit is 10(-5) mol/liter. The pH microelectrode exhibits a linear response in the range pH 4-12 with a Nernstian slope of 60.0 mV/decade at 25 degrees C. The 95% steady-state response time of the PCO2 microelectrode is about 2 min, while it is about 10 s for pH microelectrode. The electromotive force drift is 4.3 mV/h (PCO2) and 2.6 mV/h (pH), respectively. The lifetime is 3 to 4 days. The microelectrode can measure pH and PCO2 in body fluids simultaneously with satisfactory results. It is also a good basic electrode for enzyme microelectrolysis.

  11. Apparatus and method of inserting a microelectrode in body tissue or the like using vibration means

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldstein, C.; Crawford, D. W.; Kanabus, E. W. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    An arrangement for and method of inserting a glass microelectrode having a tip in the micron range into body tissue is presented. The arrangement includes a microelectrode. The top of the microelectrode is attached to the diaphragm center of a first speaker. The microelectrode tip is brought into contact with the tissue by controlling a micromanipulator. Thereafter, an audio signal is applied to the speaker to cause the microelectrode to vibrate and thereby pierce the tissue surface without breaking the microelectrode tip. Thereafter, the tip is inserted into the tissue to the desired depth by operating the micromanipulator with the microelectrode in a vibratory or non-vibratory state.

  12. Pyrolytic 3D Carbon Microelectrodes for Electrochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemanth, Suhith; Caviglia, Claudia; Amato, Letizia

    2016-01-01

    electrochemical activity, chemical stability, and ease in surface functionalization [1]. The most common carbon microfabrication techniques (i.e. screen printing) produce two-dimensional (2D) electrodes, which limit the detection sensitivity. Hence several 3D microfabrication techniques have been explored......This work presents the fabrication and characterization of multi-layered three-dimensional (3D) pyrolysed carbon microelectrodes for electrochemical applications. For this purpose, an optimized UV photolithography and pyrolysis process with the negative tone photoresist SU-8 has been developed...... carbon [2]. This process enables fabrication of 2D and 3D electrodes with possibility for tailoring ad-hoc designs and unique sensitivities for specific applications. Due to this, pyrolysed carbon is becoming increasingly attractive for numerous applications, such as novel sensors and scaffolds for cell...

  13. Carbon fiber on polyimide ultra-microelectrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Winthrop F.; Lissandrello, Charles A.; Shen, Jun; Pearre, Ben W.; Mertiri, Alket; Deku, Felix; Cogan, Stuart; Holinski, Bradley J.; Chew, Daniel J.; White, Alice E.; Otchy, Timothy M.; Gardner, Timothy J.

    2018-02-01

    Objective. Most preparations for making neural recordings degrade over time and eventually fail due to insertion trauma and reactive tissue response. The magnitudes of these responses are thought to be related to the electrode size (specifically, the cross-sectional area), the relative stiffness of the electrode, and the degree of tissue tolerance for the material. Flexible carbon fiber ultra-microelectrodes have a much smaller cross-section than traditional electrodes and low tissue reactivity, and thus may enable improved longevity of neural recordings in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Only two carbon fiber array designs have been described previously, each with limited channel densities due to limitations of the fabrication processes or interconnect strategies. Here, we describe a method for assembling carbon fiber electrodes on a flexible polyimide substrate that is expected to facilitate the construction of high-density recording and stimulating arrays. Approach. Individual carbon fibers were aligned using an alignment tool that was 3D-printed with sub-micron resolution using direct laser writing. Indium deposition on the carbon fibers, followed by low-temperature microsoldering, provided a robust and reliable method of electrical connection to the polyimide interconnect. Main results. Spontaneous multiunit activity and stimulation-evoked compound responses with SNR  >10 and  >120, respectively, were recorded from a small (125 µm) peripheral nerve. We also improved the typically poor charge injection capacity of small diameter carbon fibers by electrodepositing 100 nm-thick iridium oxide films, making the carbon fiber arrays usable for electrical stimulation as well as recording. Significance. Our innovations in fabrication technique pave the way for further miniaturization of carbon fiber ultra-microelectrode arrays. We believe these advances to be key steps to enable a shift from labor intensive, manual assembly to a more automated

  14. Suspended 3D pyrolytic carbon microelectrodes for electrochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemanth, Suhith; Caviglia, Claudia; Keller, Stephan Sylvest

    2017-01-01

    with cyclic voltammetry (CV) and impedance spectroscopy (EIS) using potassium ferri-ferrocyanide redox probe in a custom made batch system with magnetic clamping. Different 3D pyrolytic carbon microelectrodes were compared and the optimal design displayed twice the peak current and half the charge transfer......Carbon microelectrodes have a wide range of applications because of their unique material properties and biocompatibility. This work presents the fabrication and characterization of suspended pyrolytic carbon microstructures serving as three-dimensional (3D) carbon microelectrodes...... for electrochemical applications. A 3D polymer template in epoxy based photoresist (SU-8) was fabricated with multiple steps of UV photolithography and pyrolysed at 900 °C to obtain 3D carbon microelectrodes. The pyrolytic carbon microstructures were characterized by SEM, Raman spectroscopy and XPS to determine...

  15. Sonochemically Fabricated Microelectrode Arrays for Use as Sensing Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart D. Collyer

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The development, manufacture, modification and subsequent utilisation of sonochemically-formed microelectrode arrays is described for a range of applications. Initial fabrication of the sensing platform utilises ultrasonic ablation of electrochemically insulating polymers deposited upon conductive carbon substrates, forming an array of up to 70,000 microelectrode pores cm–2. Electrochemical and optical analyses using these arrays, their enhanced signal response and stir-independence area are all discussed. The growth of conducting polymeric “mushroom” protrusion arrays with entrapped biological entities, thereby forming biosensors is detailed. The simplicity and inexpensiveness of this approach, lending itself ideally to mass fabrication coupled with unrivalled sensitivity and stir independence makes commercial viability of this process a reality. Application of microelectrode arrays as functional components within sensors include devices for detection of chlorine, glucose, ethanol and pesticides. Immunosensors based on microelectrode arrays are described within this monograph for antigens associated with prostate cancer and transient ischemic attacks (strokes.

  16. Fluorination by fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    LECO crucibles and incinerator ash are two waste categories that cannot be discarded due to the presence of insoluble transuranics. Current chemical processing methods are not too effective, requiring a number of repeated operations in order to dissolve more than half the transuranics. An alternate dissolution approach has been developed involving the use of ammonium bifluoride. Low temperature fusion of the waste with ammonium bifluoride is followed by dissolution of the fused material in boiling nitric acid solutions. Greater than 60% of the transuranics contained in LECO crucibles and greater than 95% of the transuranics mixed with the incinerator ash are dissolved after a single fusion and dissolution step. Fluorination of the transuranics along with other impurities appears to render the waste material soluble in nitric acid

  17. Synthesis of nanocrystalline fluorinated hydroxyapatite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fluorinated hydroxyapatite; nanocrystalline; microwave synthesis; dissolution. ... HA by the presence of other ions such as carbonate, magnesium, fluoride, etc. ... Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT–IR) and laser Raman spectroscopy.

  18. Electrical Characterization of 3D Au Microelectrodes for Use in Retinal Prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangmin; Ahn, Jae Hyun; Seo, Jong-Mo; Chung, Hum; Cho, Dong-Il Dan

    2015-06-17

    In order to provide high-quality visual information to patients who have implanted retinal prosthetic devices, the number of microelectrodes should be large. As the number of microelectrodes is increased, the dimensions of each microelectrode must be decreased, which in turn results in an increased microelectrode interface impedance and decreased injection current dynamic range. In order to improve the trade-off envelope between the number of microelectrodes and the current injection characteristics, a 3D microelectrode structure can be used as an alternative. In this paper, the electrical characteristics of 2D and 3D Au microelectrodes were investigated. In order to examine the effects of the structural difference, 2D and 3D Au microelectrodes with different base areas but similar effective surface areas were fabricated and evaluated. Interface impedances were measured and similar dynamic ranges were obtained for both 2D and 3D Au microelectrodes. These results indicate that more electrodes can be implemented in the same area if 3D designs are used. Furthermore, the 3D Au microelectrodes showed substantially enhanced electrical durability characteristics against over-injected stimulation currents, withstanding electrical currents that are much larger than the limit measured for 2D microelectrodes of similar area. This enhanced electrical durability property of 3D Au microelectrodes is a new finding in microelectrode research, and makes 3D microelectrodes very desirable devices.

  19. Electrical Characterization of 3D Au Microelectrodes for Use in Retinal Prostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangmin Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to provide high-quality visual information to patients who have implanted retinal prosthetic devices, the number of microelectrodes should be large. As the number of microelectrodes is increased, the dimensions of each microelectrode must be decreased, which in turn results in an increased microelectrode interface impedance and decreased injection current dynamic range. In order to improve the trade-off envelope between the number of microelectrodes and the current injection characteristics, a 3D microelectrode structure can be used as an alternative. In this paper, the electrical characteristics of 2D and 3D Au microelectrodes were investigated. In order to examine the effects of the structural difference, 2D and 3D Au microelectrodes with different base areas but similar effective surface areas were fabricated and evaluated. Interface impedances were measured and similar dynamic ranges were obtained for both 2D and 3D Au microelectrodes. These results indicate that more electrodes can be implemented in the same area if 3D designs are used. Furthermore, the 3D Au microelectrodes showed substantially enhanced electrical durability characteristics against over-injected stimulation currents, withstanding electrical currents that are much larger than the limit measured for 2D microelectrodes of similar area. This enhanced electrical durability property of 3D Au microelectrodes is a new finding in microelectrode research, and makes 3D microelectrodes very desirable devices.

  20. Fluorinated Phosphorene: Electrochemical Synthesis, Atomistic Fluorination, and Enhanced Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xian; Liang, Weiyuan; Zhao, Jinlai; Li, Zhongjun; Qiu, Meng; Fan, Taojian; Luo, Crystal Shaojuan; Zhou, Ye; Li, Yu; Guo, Zhinan; Fan, Dianyuan; Zhang, Han

    2017-12-01

    Phosphorene has attracted great interest due to its unique electronic and optoelectronic properties owing to its tunable direct and moderate band-gap in association with high carrier mobility. However, its intrinsic instability in air seriously hinders its practical applications, and problems of technical complexity and in-process degradation exist in currently proposed stabilization strategies. A facile pathway in obtaining and stabilizing phosphorene through a one-step, ionic liquid-assisted electrochemical exfoliation and synchronous fluorination process is reported in this study. This strategy enables fluorinated phosphorene (FP) to be discovered and large-scale, highly selective few-layer FP (3-6 atomic layers) to be obtained. The synthesized FP is found to exhibit unique morphological and optical characteristics. Possible atomistic fluorination configurations of FP are revealed by core-level binding energy shift calculations in combination with spectroscopic measurements, and the results indicate that electrolyte concentration significantly modulates the fluorination configurations. Furthermore, FP is found to exhibit enhanced air stability thanks to the antioxidation and antihydration effects of the introduced fluorine adatoms, and demonstrate excellent photothermal stability during a week of air exposure. These findings pave the way toward real applications of phosphorene-based nanophotonics. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Modeling and Simulation of Microelectrode-Retina Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckerman, M

    2002-11-30

    The goal of the retinal prosthesis project is the development of an implantable microelectrode array that can be used to supply visually-driven electrical input to cells in the retina, bypassing nonfunctional rod and cone cells, thereby restoring vision to blind individuals. This goal will be achieved through the study of the fundamentals of electrical engineering, vision research, and biomedical engineering with the aim of acquiring the knowledge needed to engineer a high-density microelectrode-tissue hybrid sensor that will restore vision to millions of blind persons. The modeling and simulation task within this project is intended to address the question how best to stimulate, and communicate with, cells in the retina using implanted microelectrodes.

  2. Glass pipette-carbon fiber microelectrodes for evoked potential recordings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moraes M.F.D.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Current methods for recording field potentials with tungsten electrodes make it virtually impossible to use the same recording electrode also as a lesioning electrode, for example for histological confirmation of the recorded site, because the lesioning procedure usually wears off the tungsten tip. Therefore, the electrode would have to be replaced after each lesioning procedure, which is a very high cost solution to the problem. We present here a low cost, easy to make, high quality glass pipette-carbon fiber microelectrode that shows resistive, signal/noise and electrochemical coupling advantages over tungsten electrodes. Also, currently used carbon fiber microelectrodes often show problems with electrical continuity, especially regarding electrochemical applications using a carbon-powder/resin mixture, with consequent low performance, besides the inconvenience of handling such a mixture. We propose here a new method for manufacturing glass pipette-carbon fiber microelectrodes with several advantages when recording intracerebral field potentials

  3. Combined Reactor and Microelectrode Measurements in Laboratory Grown Biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tove; Harremoës, Poul

    1994-01-01

    A combined biofilm reactor-/microelectrode experimental set-up has been constructed, allowing for simultaneous reactor mass balances and measurements of concentration profiles within the biofilm. The system consists of an annular biofilm reactor equipped with an oxygen microelectrode. Experiments...... were carried out with aerobic glucose and starch degrading biofilms. The well described aerobic glucose degradation biofilm system was used to test the combined reactor set-up. Results predicted from known biofilm kinetics were obtained. In the starch degrading biofilm, basic assumptions were tested...... with the microelectrode measurements. It was established, that even with a high molecular weight, non-diffusible substrate, degradation took place in the depths of the biofilm. Intrinsic enzymatic hydrolysis was not limiting and the volumetric removal rate of oxygen was zero order....

  4. Fluorine-18 labeling of proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilbourn, M.R.; Dence, C.S.; Welch, M.J.; Mathias, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    Two fluorine-18-labeled reagents, methyl 3-[ 18 F]fluoro-5-nitrobenzimidate and 4-[ 18 F]fluorophenacyl bromide, have been prepared for covalent attachment of fluorine-18 to proteins. Both reagents can be prepared in moderate yields (30-50%, EOB) in synthesis times of 50-70 min. Reaction of these reagents with proteins (human serum albumin, human fibrinogen, and human immunoglobulin A) is pH independent, protein concentration dependent, and takes 5-60 min at mild pH (8.0) and temperature (25-37 degrees C), in yields up to 95% (corrected). The 18 F-labeled proteins are purified by size exclusion chromatography

  5. Chronic intestinal intoxication with fluorine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristiani, H; Gautier, R

    1925-01-01

    The accumulation of fluorine in bones of guinea pigs which died of an osteomalacia-like condition is described. The time required for the condition to develop varied from a few weeks to several months when hay with a F content of 1:1000 to 1:10000 was used as food.

  6. Microelectrodes as novel research tools for environmental biofilm studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, T.; Lu, R.; Bishop, L.

    2002-01-01

    Biofilm processes are widely utilized in environmental engineering for biodegradation of contaminated waters, gases and soils. It is important to understand the structure and functions of biofilms. Microelectrodes are novel experimental tools for environmental biofilm studies. The authors reviewed the techniques of oxygen, sulfide, redox potential and pH microelectrode. These microelectrodes have tip diameters of 3 to 20 μm, resulting a high spatial resolution. They enable us directly measure the chemical conditions as results of microbial activities in biofilms. The authors also reported the laboratory and field studies of wastewater biofilms using microelectrode techniques. The results of these studies provided experimental evidence on the stratification of microbial processes and the associated redox potential change in wastewater biofilms: (1) The oxygen penetration depth was only a fraction of the biofilm thickness. This observation, first made under laboratory conditions, has been confirmed under field conditions. (2) The biofilms with both aerobic oxidation and sulfate reduction had a clearly stratified structure. This was evidenced by a sharp decrease of redox potential near the interface between the aerobic zone and the sulfate reduction zone within the biofilm. In this type of biofilms, aerobic oxidation took place only in a shallow layer near the biofilm surface and sulfate reduction occurred in the deeper anoxic zone. (3) The redox potential changed with the shift of primary microbial process in biofilms, indicating that it is possible to use redox potential to help illustrate the structure and functions of biofilms. (author)

  7. Microelectrode measurements of the activity distribution in nitrifying bacterial aggregates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beer, de D.; Heuvel, van den J.C.; Ottengraf, S.P.P.

    1993-01-01

    Microelectrodes for ammonium, oxygen, nitrate, and pH were used to study nitrifying aggregates grown in a fluidized-bed reactor. Local reactant fluxes and distribution of microbial activity could be detd. from the microprofiles. The interfacial fluxes of the reactants closely reflected the

  8. Integration of Polymer Micro-Electrodes for Bio-Sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Argyraki, Aikaterini; Larsen, Simon Tylsgaard; Tanzi, Simone

    We present the fabrication of PEDOT and pyrolyzed micro-electrodes for the detection of neurotransmitter exocytosis from single cells. The patterns of the electrodes are defined with photolithography. The micro-electro-fluidic-chips were fabricated by bonding two injection molded TOPAS parts. Pol...

  9. Multi-microelectrode devices for intrafascicular use in peripheral nerve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, Wim

    1996-01-01

    This minisymposium paper gives an overview of experimental, modeling, design and microfabrication steps which lead towards the University of Twente three-dimensional 128-fold silicon microelectrode device. The device is meant for implantation in peripheral nerve for neuromuscular control purposes

  10. A Platform for Manufacturable Stretchable Micro-electrode Arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khoshfetrat Pakazad, S.; Savov, A.; Braam, S.R.; Dekker, R.

    2012-01-01

    A platform for the batch fabrication of pneumatically actuated Stretchable Micro-Electrode Arrays (SMEAs) by using state-of-the-art micro-fabrication techniques and materials is demonstrated. The proposed fabrication process avoids the problems normally associated with processing of thin film

  11. AFM cantilever with in situ renewable mercury microelectrode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schön, Peter Manfred; Geerlings, J.; Tas, Niels Roelof; Sarajlic, Edin

    2013-01-01

    We report here first results obtained on a novel, in situ renewable mercury microelectrode integrated into an atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilever. Our approach is based on a fountain pen probe with appropriate dimensions enabling reversible filling with(nonwetting) mercury under changing the

  12. Lability criteria for metal complexes in micro-electrode voltammetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van H.P.; Pinheiro, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Theoretical expressions are derived for the voltammetric lability criteria of metal complexes in the micro-electrode regime. The treatment includes three limiting situations: (i) the macro-electrode limit, where both the diffusion layer and the dissociation reaction layer are linear; (ii) an

  13. Quantification of Fluorine Content in AFFF Concentrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-29

    for MilSpec compliance. Fluorocarbon surfactants are the most active components in these concentrates, and analysis of the fluorine content in the... physical requirements for AFFF concentrates includes a total fluorine content determination and a requirement for subsequent evaluations of this AFFF...the standard for fluorine content as well as the reference for chemical shift. For preparation of an NMR solution, it is important that the TFE

  14. Copolymers of fluorinated polydienes and sulfonated polystyrene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Jimmy W [Knoxville, TN; Gido, Samuel P [Hadley, MA; Huang, Tianzi [Knoxville, TN; Hong, Kunlun [Knoxville, TN

    2009-11-17

    Copolymers of fluorinated polydienes and sulfonated polystyrene and their use in fuel cell membranes, batteries, breathable chemical-biological protective materials, and templates for sol-gel polymerization.

  15. Electrochemical measurements on a droplet using gold microelectrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenabi, Amin; Souri, Asma; Rastkhadiv, Ali

    2016-03-01

    Facile methods of ion recognition are important for the fabrication of electronic tongue systems. In this work, we demonstrate performing pulsed conductometry on microliter electrolyte droplets dropped on gold microelectrodes vapor deposited on soda lime glass slides. A droplet is dropped between two microelectrodes when a voltage waveform from a preprogramed power supply is applied on them. The temporal variation of the electric current passing through the droplet is recorded, digitized and stored. The obtained data are compared with the database formed out of the previous experiences for the classification of the sample electrolytes. It is shown that the shape of the voltage waveform is the important parameter of the process. We devised a method for the optimization of the voltage waveform profile for obtaining the maximum of discriminating information from the recorded current variations.

  16. Electrochemical measurements on a droplet using gold microelectrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenabi, Amin; Souri, Asma; Rastkhadiv, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Facile methods of ion recognition are important for the fabrication of electronic tongue systems. In this work, we demonstrate performing pulsed conductometry on microliter electrolyte droplets dropped on gold microelectrodes vapor deposited on soda lime glass slides. A droplet is dropped between two microelectrodes when a voltage waveform from a preprogramed power supply is applied on them. The temporal variation of the electric current passing through the droplet is recorded, digitized and stored. The obtained data are compared with the database formed out of the previous experiences for the classification of the sample electrolytes. It is shown that the shape of the voltage waveform is the important parameter of the process. We devised a method for the optimization of the voltage waveform profile for obtaining the maximum of discriminating information from the recorded current variations. (paper)

  17. Stretchable microelectrode array using room-temperature liquid alloy interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, P; Ziaie, B; Taylor, R; Chung, C; Higgs, G; Pruitt, B L; Ding, Z; Abilez, O J

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a stretchable microelectrode array for studying cell behavior under mechanical strain. The electrode array consists of gold-plated nail-head pins (250 µm tip diameter) or tungsten micro-wires (25.4 µm in diameter) inserted into a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) platform (25.4 × 25.4 mm 2 ). Stretchable interconnects to the outside were provided by fusible indium-alloy-filled microchannels. The alloy is liquid at room temperature, thus providing the necessary stretchability and electrical conductivity. The electrode platform can withstand strains of up to 40% and repeated (100 times) strains of up to 35% did not cause any failure in the electrodes or the PDMS substrate. We confirmed biocompatibility of short-term culture, and using the gold pin device, we demonstrated electric field pacing of adult murine heart cells. Further, using the tungsten microelectrode device, we successfully measured depolarizations of differentiated murine heart cells from embryoid body clusters

  18. Comparison of microelectrode sensing configurations for impedimetric cell monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caviglia, Claudia; Heiskanen, Arto; Andresen, Thomas Lars

    2012-01-01

    interdigitated microelectrodes using a versatile custom-made monitoring platform including a 24-channel miniaturized potentiostat. As expected, characterization of bare microelectrodes in buffer and tracking experiments with HeLa cells over 16 hours demonstrate that the coplanar configuration provides a higher......A theoretical and experimental comparison between vertical and coplanar interdigitated sensing configurations for impedimetric cell growth tracking is presented. For the first time, these widely-adopted approaches are quantitatively compared on the same cell populations and on the same 10μm...... sensitivity to cell adhesion and spreading (Cell Index = 1.6 vs. 0.4) albeit at a higher frequency of maximum sensitivity (100kHz vs. 24 kHz)....

  19. Chronic in vivo stability assessment of carbon fiber microelectrode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Paras R.; Zhang, Huanan; Robbins, Matthew T.; Nofar, Justin B.; Marshall, Shaun P.; Kobylarek, Michael J.; Kozai, Takashi D. Y.; Kotov, Nicholas A.; Chestek, Cynthia A.

    2016-12-01

    Objective. Individual carbon fiber microelectrodes can record unit activity in both acute and semi-chronic (∼1 month) implants. Additionally, new methods have been developed to insert a 16 channel array of carbon fiber microelectrodes. Before assessing the in vivo long-term viability of these arrays, accelerated soak tests were carried out to determine the most stable site coating material. Next, a multi-animal, multi-month, chronic implantation study was carried out with carbon fiber microelectrode arrays and silicon electrodes. Approach. Carbon fibers were first functionalized with one of two different formulations of PEDOT and subjected to accelerated aging in a heated water bath. After determining the best PEDOT formula to use, carbon fiber arrays were chronically implanted in rat motor cortex. Some rodents were also implanted with a single silicon electrode, while others received both. At the end of the study a subset of animals were perfused and the brain tissue sliced. Tissue sections were stained for astrocytes, microglia, and neurons. The local reactive responses were assessed using qualitative and quantitative methods. Main results. Electrophysiology recordings showed the carbon fibers detecting unit activity for at least 3 months with average amplitudes of ∼200 μV. Histology analysis showed the carbon fiber arrays with a minimal to non-existent glial scarring response with no adverse effects on neuronal density. Silicon electrodes showed large glial scarring that impacted neuronal counts. Significance. This study has validated the use of carbon fiber microelectrode arrays as a chronic neural recording technology. These electrodes have demonstrated the ability to detect single units with high amplitude over 3 months, and show the potential to record for even longer periods. In addition, the minimal reactive response should hold stable indefinitely, as any response by the immune system may reach a steady state after 12 weeks.

  20. Pencil lead microelectrode and the application on cell dielectrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Bo-Chuan; Cheng, Tzong-Jih; Shih, Syuan-He [Department of Bio-Industrial Mechatronics Engineering, National Taiwan University, 136 Chou-Shan Rd., Taipei City 106, Taiwan (China); Chen, Richie L.C., E-mail: rlcchen@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Bio-Industrial Mechatronics Engineering, National Taiwan University, 136 Chou-Shan Rd., Taipei City 106, Taiwan (China)

    2011-11-30

    A microelectrode was fabricated by electrochemical etching of a pencil lead (0.5 mm in diameter) in 1.0 M NaOH aqueous solution. The pencil lead was dipped into the solution and then an ac voltage (3.0 V{sub rms} for 10 min) was imposed against a stainless plate under mild stirring (450 rpm). The electrochemically sharpened pencil tip was about 10 {mu}m in diameter (12 {+-} 3 {mu}m, n = 5), and the lateral part was insulated within a polypropylene micro-pipette tip (2-200 {mu}L volume range). The cyclic voltammograms conducted in 2.0 mM ferricyanide/ferrocyanide buffer solution (pH 7.0) are with low capacitive current and a typical sigmoidal signal of micro-sized electrodes. The microelectrode was used to perform dielectrophoresis of polystyrene latex microbeads (nominal diameter of 3 {mu}m) and human red blood cells. A conducting glass (indium tin oxide coated glass, 40 mm x 40 mm x 1 mm) served as the counter electrode (0.5 mm beneath the microelectrode) to generate the asymmetrical electric field and also as the window for microscopic observation. With the sinusoidal bias voltage (30 V{sub rms}) ranged from 20 Hz to 2 MHz, positive and negative dielectrophoretic phenomena were identified.

  1. Carbon Nanotube-based microelectrodes for enhanced detection of neurotransmitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Christopher B.

    Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) is one of the common techniques used for rapid measurement of neurotransmitters in vivo. Carbon-fiber microelectrodes (CFMEs) are typically used for neurotransmitter detection because of sub-second measurement capabilities, ability to measure changes in neurotransmitter concentration during neurotransmission, and the small size electrode diameter, which limits the amount of damage caused to tissue. Cylinder CFMEs, typically 50 -- 100 microm long, are commonly used for in vivo experiments because the electrode sensitivity is directly related to the electrode surface area. However the length of the electrode can limit the spatial resolution of neurotransmitter detection, which can restrict experiments in Drosophila and other small model systems. In addition, the electrode sensitivity toward dopamine and serotonin detection drops significantly for measurements at rates faster than 10 Hz, limiting the temporal resolution of CFMEs. While the use of FSCV at carbon-fiber microelectrodes has led to substantial strides in our understanding of neurotransmission, techniques that expand the capabilities of CFMEs are crucial to fully maximize the potential uses of FSCV. This dissertation introduces new methods to integrate carbon nanotubes (CNT) into microelectrodes and discusses the electrochemical enhancements of these CNT-microelectrodes. The electrodes are specifically designed with simple fabrication procedures so that highly specialized equipment is not necessary, and they utilize commercially available materials so that the electrodes could be easily integrated into existing systems. The electrochemical properties of CNT modified CFMEs are characterized using FSCV and the effect of CNT functionalization on these properties is explored in Chapter 2. For example, CFME modification using carboxylic acid functionalized CNTs yield about a 6-fold increase in dopamine oxidation current, but modification with octadecylamine CNTs results in a

  2. Phytoindication of air pollution by fluorine emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holub, Z; Kontrisova, O

    1973-01-01

    Analytical techniques allowing quantitative chemical analysis of toxic materials in leaves are described. The method is specifically designed to examine foliage which has been exposed to fluorine. Naturally occurring plants (angiosperms) are effective as bioindicators of high levels of fluorine pollution, while lichens and/or carefully cultivated plants are more effective as indicators of low levels of F.

  3. Fluorine geochemistry in volcanic rock series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stecher, Ole

    1998-01-01

    A new analytical procedure has been established in order to determine low fluorine concentrations (30–100 ppm F) in igneous rocks, and the method has also proven successful for higher concentrations (100–4000 ppm F). Fluorine has been measured in a series of olivine tholeiites from the Reykjanes ...

  4. Do defects enhance fluorination of graphene?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    da Costa, Sara; Ek Weis, Johan; Frank, Otakar; Fridrichová, Michaela; Bastl, Zdeněk; Kalbáč, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, AUG 2016 (2016), s. 81471-81476 ISSN 2046-2069 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LL1301 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : fluorination * graphene * fluorine Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.108, year: 2016

  5. Aliphatic Nucleophilic Radio-fluorination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeda, D.; Dolle, F.

    2010-01-01

    In this review we are looking at some aspects of nucleophilic aliphatic radio-fluorination, notably the labelled fluoride source, design aspects, the leaving group and the solvent. It should be clear that there is more to this branch of radiolabelling than one would suspect from the frequently used standard tosylate replacement with kryptofix/[ 18 F]fluoride in acetonitrile or DMSO. Competitive elimination can be a serious problem that can affect both yield and purification. De-protection of sensitive groups after radiolabelling and its possible side reactions can complicate purification. The right choice of leaving group and protecting groups may be crucial. Newer developments such as the use of tertiary alcohols or ionic liquids as solvents, long-chain poly-fluorinated sulphonate leaving groups facilitating fluorous solid phase extraction, or immobilisation of the precursor on a solid phase support may help to solve these problems, for example the longstanding problems with [ 18 F]FLT, whereas older concepts such as certain cyclic reactive entities for ring opening or even an abandoned reagent as [ 18 F]DAST should not be forgotten. (authors)

  6. Nanoporous gold microelectrode prepared from potential modulated electrochemical alloying–dealloying in ionic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Junhua; Wang, Xinying; Zhang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A green chemistry method for producing nanoporous gold microelectrode was studied. • An ionic liquid plating bath was utilized for electrochemical alloying–dealloying. • Nanostructures of gold surface layers can be tuned by modulating potential. • Nanoporous gold microelectrode has high surface area and merit of a microelectrode. • Nitrite oxidation and reduction on nanoporous gold microelectrode were studied. -- Abstract: Nanoporous gold (NPG) microelectrodes with high surface area and open pore network were successfully prepared by applying modulated potential to a polycrystalline Au-disk microelectrode in ionic liquid electrolyte containing ZnCl 2 at elevated temperature. During cathodic process, Zn is electrodeposited and interacted with Au microdisk substrate to form a AuZn alloy phase. During subsequent anodic process, Zn is selectively dissolved from the alloy phase, leading to the formation of a NPG layer which can grow with repetitive potential modulation. Scanning-electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray microscope measurements show that the NPG microelectrodes possessing nanoporous structures can be tuned via potential modulation, and chemically contain a small amount of Zn whose presence has no obvious influence on electrochemical responses of the electrodes. Steady-state and cyclic voltammetric studies suggest that the NPG microelectrodes have high surface area and keep diffusional properties of a microelectrode. Electrochemical nitrite reduction and oxidation are studied as model reactions to demonstrate potential applications of the NPG microelectrodes in electrocatalysis and electroanalysis. These facts suggest that the potential-modulated electrochemical alloying/dealloying in ionic liquid electrolyte offers a convenient green-chemistry method for the preparation of nanoporous microelectrodes

  7. Macroscale tribological properties of fluorinated graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Kento; Chiashi, Shohei; Maruyama, Shigeo; Choi, Junho

    2018-02-01

    Because graphene is carbon material and has excellent mechanical characteristics, its use as ultrathin lubrication protective films for machine elements is greatly expected. The durability of graphene strongly depends on the number of layers and the load scale. For use in ultrathin lubrication protective films for machine elements, it is also necessary to maintain low friction and high durability under macroscale loads in the atmosphere. In this study, we modified the surfaces of both monolayer and multilayer graphene by fluorine plasma treatment and examined the friction properties and durability of the fluorinated graphene under macroscale load. The durability of both monolayer and multilayer graphene improved by the surface fluorination owing to the reduction of adhesion forces between the friction interfaces. This occurs because the carbon film containing fluorine is transferred to the friction-mating material, and thus friction acts between the two carbon films containing fluorine. On the other hand, the friction coefficient decreased from 0.20 to 0.15 by the fluorine plasma treatment in the multilayer graphene, whereas it increased from 0.21 to 0.27 in the monolayer graphene. It is considered that, in the monolayer graphene, the change of the surface structure had a stronger influence on the friction coefficient than in the multilayer graphene, and the friction coefficient increased mainly due to the increase in defects on the graphene surface by the fluorine plasma treatment.

  8. Synthetic biology approaches to fluorinated polyketides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuronyi, Benjamin W; Chang, Michelle C Y

    2015-03-17

    The catalytic diversity of living systems offers a broad range of opportunities for developing new methods to produce small molecule targets such as fuels, materials, and pharmaceuticals. In addition to providing cost-effective and renewable methods for large-scale commercial processes, the exploration of the unusual chemical phenotypes found in living organisms can also enable the expansion of chemical space for discovery of novel function by combining orthogonal attributes from both synthetic and biological chemistry. In this context, we have focused on the development of new fluorine chemistry using synthetic biology approaches. While fluorine has become an important feature in compounds of synthetic origin, the scope of biological fluorine chemistry in living systems is limited, with fewer than 20 organofluorine natural products identified to date. In order to expand the diversity of biosynthetically accessible organofluorines, we have begun to develop methods for the site-selective introduction of fluorine into complex natural products by engineering biosynthetic machinery to incorporate fluorinated building blocks. To gain insight into how both enzyme active sites and metabolic pathways can be evolved to manage and select for fluorinated compounds, we have studied one of the only characterized natural hosts for organofluorine biosynthesis, the soil microbe Streptomyces cattleya. This information provides a template for designing engineered organofluorine enzymes, pathways, and hosts and has allowed us to initiate construction of enzymatic and cellular pathways for the production of fluorinated polyketides.

  9. Passivation of fluorinated activated charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Cul, G.D.; Trowbridge, L.D.; Simmons, D.W.; Williams, D.F.; Toth, L.M.

    1997-10-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE), at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been shut down since 1969 when the fuel salt was drained from the core into two Hastelloy N tanks at the reactor site. In 1995, a multiyear project was launched to remediate the potentially hazardous conditions generated by the movement of fissile material and reactive gases from the storage tanks into the piping system and an auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB). The top 12 in. of the ACB is known by gamma scan and thermal analysis to contain about 2.6 kg U-233. According to the laboratory tests, a few feet of fluorinated charcoal are believed to extend beyond the uranium front. The remainder of the ACB should consist of unreacted charcoal. Fluorinated charcoal, when subjected to rapid heating, can decompose generating gaseous products. Under confined conditions, the sudden exothermic decomposition can produce high temperatures and pressures of near-explosive characteristics. Since it will be necessary to drill and tap the ACB to allow installation of piping and instrumentation for remediation and recovery activities, it is necessary to chemically convert the reactive fluorinated charcoal into a more stable material. Ammonia can be administered to the ACB as a volatile denaturing agent that results in the conversion of the C x F to carbon and ammonium fluoride, NH 4 F. The charcoal laden with NH 4 F can then be heated without risking any sudden decomposition. The only consequence of heating the treated material will be the volatilization of NH 4 F as a mixture of NH 3 and HF, which would primarily recombine as NH 4 F on surfaces below 200 C. The planned scheme for the ACB denaturing is to flow diluted ammonia gas in steps of increasing NH 3 concentration, 2% to 50%, followed by the injection of pure ammonia. This report summarizes the planned passivation treatment scheme to stabilize the ACB and remove the potential hazards. It also includes basic information, results of laboratory tests

  10. Passivation of fluorinated activated charcoal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Cul, G.D.; Trowbridge, L.D.; Simmons, D.W.; Williams, D.F.; Toth, L.M.

    1997-10-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE), at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been shut down since 1969 when the fuel salt was drained from the core into two Hastelloy N tanks at the reactor site. In 1995, a multiyear project was launched to remediate the potentially hazardous conditions generated by the movement of fissile material and reactive gases from the storage tanks into the piping system and an auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB). The top 12 in. of the ACB is known by gamma scan and thermal analysis to contain about 2.6 kg U-233. According to the laboratory tests, a few feet of fluorinated charcoal are believed to extend beyond the uranium front. The remainder of the ACB should consist of unreacted charcoal. Fluorinated charcoal, when subjected to rapid heating, can decompose generating gaseous products. Under confined conditions, the sudden exothermic decomposition can produce high temperatures and pressures of near-explosive characteristics. Since it will be necessary to drill and tap the ACB to allow installation of piping and instrumentation for remediation and recovery activities, it is necessary to chemically convert the reactive fluorinated charcoal into a more stable material. Ammonia can be administered to the ACB as a volatile denaturing agent that results in the conversion of the C{sub x}F to carbon and ammonium fluoride, NH{sub 4}F. The charcoal laden with NH{sub 4}F can then be heated without risking any sudden decomposition. The only consequence of heating the treated material will be the volatilization of NH{sub 4}F as a mixture of NH{sub 3} and HF, which would primarily recombine as NH{sub 4}F on surfaces below 200 C. The planned scheme for the ACB denaturing is to flow diluted ammonia gas in steps of increasing NH{sub 3} concentration, 2% to 50%, followed by the injection of pure ammonia. This report summarizes the planned passivation treatment scheme to stabilize the ACB and remove the potential hazards. It also includes basic information

  11. Conceptual design of a continuous fluorinator experimental facility (CFEF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindauer, R.B.; Hightower, J.R. Jr.

    1976-07-01

    A conceptual design has been made of a circulating salt system, consisting principally of a fluorinator and reduction column, to demonstrate uranium removal from the salt by fluorination. The fluorinator vessel wall will be protected from fluorine corrosion by a frozen salt film. The circulating salt in the fluorinator will be kept molten by electrical heating that simulates fission product heating in an actual MSBR system

  12. Tape casting fluorinated YBC123

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.A.T.; Luke, D.M.; Whiteley, B.A.

    1991-01-01

    Tape casting the superconducting Ba-Y-Cu oxide was accomplished by several laboratories and show promise for being a versatile forming technique. The major problem is low current density, probably due to lack of grain alignment and grain boundary related weak links. The latter problem may be due to formation of carbonates and hydroxides during binder burnout. Preliminary work done at Alfred shows that a bimodal powder size distribution displays significant alignment after tape casting and that F treated powder is resistant to attack by steam at 100C. Such corrosion resistant powder cast as form tape should survive the binder burnout without the detrimental grain boundary phases that develop from reaction of the superconducting phase, steam and carbon dioxide. This paper presents the results of an investigation of tape casting fluorinated powder with a bimodal size distribution

  13. Long-term neural recordings using MEMS based moveable microelectrodes in the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Jackson

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the critical requirements of the emerging class of neural prosthetic devices is to maintain good quality neural recordings over long time periods. We report here a novel (Micro-ElectroMechanical Systems based technology that can move microelectrodes in the event of deterioration in neural signal to sample a new set of neurons. Microscale electro-thermal actuators are used to controllably move microelectrodes post-implantation in steps of approximately 9 µm. In this study, a total of 12 moveable microelectrode chips were individually implanted in adult rats. Two of the 12 moveable microelectrode chips were not moved over a period of 3 weeks and were treated as control experiments. During the first three weeks of implantation, moving the microelectrodes led to an improvement in the average SNR from 14.61 ± 5.21 dB before movement to 18.13 ± 4.99 dB after movement across all microelectrodes and all days. However, the average RMS values of noise amplitudes were similar at 2.98 ± 1.22 µV and 3.01 ± 1.16 µV before and after microelectrode movement. Beyond three weeks, the primary observed failure mode was biological rejection of the PMMA (dental cement based skull mount resulting in the device loosening and eventually falling from the skull. Additionally, the average SNR for functioning devices beyond three weeks was 11.88 ± 2.02 dB before microelectrode movement and was significantly different (p<0.01 from the average SNR of 13.34 ± 0.919 dB after movement. The results of this study demonstrate that MEMS based technologies can move microelectrodes in rodent brains in long-term experiments resulting in improvements in signal quality. Further improvements in packaging and surgical techniques will potentially enable movable microelectrodes to record cortical neuronal activity in chronic experiments.

  14. Nanostructured gold microelectrodes for extracellular recording from electrogenic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueggemann, D; Wolfrum, B; Maybeck, V; Mourzina, Y; Jansen, M; Offenhaeusser, A, E-mail: a.offenhaeusser@fz-juelich.de [Institute of Complex Systems and Peter Gruenberg Institute: Bioelectronics (ICS8/PGI8), Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Leo-Brandt-Strasse, 52428 Juelich (Germany); Juelich-Aachen Research Alliance-Fundamental of Future Information Technology (JARA-FIT) (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    We present a new biocompatible nanostructured microelectrode array for extracellular signal recording from electrogenic cells. Microfabrication techniques were combined with a template-assisted approach using nanoporous aluminum oxide to develop gold nanopillar electrodes. The nanopillars were approximately 300-400 nm high and had a diameter of 60 nm. Thus, they yielded a higher surface area of the electrodes resulting in a decreased impedance compared to planar electrodes. The interaction between the large-scale gold nanopillar arrays and cardiac muscle cells (HL-1) was investigated via focused ion beam milling. In the resulting cross-sections we observed a tight coupling between the HL-1 cells and the gold nanostructures. However, the cell membranes did not bend into the cleft between adjacent nanopillars due to the high pillar density. We performed extracellular potential recordings from HL-1 cells with the nanostructured microelectrode arrays. The maximal amplitudes recorded with the nanopillar electrodes were up to 100% higher than those recorded with planar gold electrodes. Increasing the aspect ratio of the gold nanopillars and changing the geometrical layout can further enhance the signal quality in the future.

  15. A Single Platinum Microelectrode for Identifying Soft Drink Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Bueno

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic voltammograms recorded with a single platinum microelectrode were used along with a non-supervised pattern recognition, namely, Principal Component Analysis, to conduct a qualitative analysis of sixteen different brands of carbonated soft drinks (Kuat, Soda Antarctica, H2OH!, Sprite 2.0, Guarana Antarctica, Guarana Antarctica Zero, Coca-Cola, Coca-Cola Zero, Coca-Cola Plus, Pepsi, Pepsi Light, Pepsi Twist, Pepsi Twist Light, Pepsi Twist 3, Schin Cola, and Classic Dillar’s. In this analysis, soft drink samples were not subjected to pre-treatment. Good differentiation among all the analysed soft drinks was achieved using the voltammetric data. An analysis of the loading plots shows that the potentials of −0.65 V, −0.4 V, 0.4 V, and 0.750 V facilitated the discrimination process. The electrochemical processes related to this potential are the reduction of hydrogen ions and inhibition of the platinum oxidation by the caffeine adsorption on the electrode surface. Additionally, the single platinum microelectrode was useful for the quality control of the soft drink samples, as it helped to identify the time at which the beverage was opened.

  16. Nanostructured gold microelectrodes for extracellular recording from electrogenic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggemann, D; Wolfrum, B; Maybeck, V; Mourzina, Y; Jansen, M; Offenhäusser, A

    2011-07-01

    We present a new biocompatible nanostructured microelectrode array for extracellular signal recording from electrogenic cells. Microfabrication techniques were combined with a template-assisted approach using nanoporous aluminum oxide to develop gold nanopillar electrodes. The nanopillars were approximately 300-400 nm high and had a diameter of 60 nm. Thus, they yielded a higher surface area of the electrodes resulting in a decreased impedance compared to planar electrodes. The interaction between the large-scale gold nanopillar arrays and cardiac muscle cells (HL-1) was investigated via focused ion beam milling. In the resulting cross-sections we observed a tight coupling between the HL-1 cells and the gold nanostructures. However, the cell membranes did not bend into the cleft between adjacent nanopillars due to the high pillar density. We performed extracellular potential recordings from HL-1 cells with the nanostructured microelectrode arrays. The maximal amplitudes recorded with the nanopillar electrodes were up to 100% higher than those recorded with planar gold electrodes. Increasing the aspect ratio of the gold nanopillars and changing the geometrical layout can further enhance the signal quality in the future.

  17. Probing plasma fluorinated graphene via spectromicroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struzzi, C; Scardamaglia, M; Reckinger, N; Sezen, H; Amati, M; Gregoratti, L; Colomer, J-F; Ewels, C; Snyders, R; Bittencourt, C

    2017-11-29

    Plasma fluorination of graphene is studied using a combination of spectroscopy and microscopy techniques, giving insight into the yield and fluorination mechanism for functionalization of supported graphene with both CF 4 and SF 6 gas precursors. Ion acceleration during fluorination is used to probe the effect on grafting functionalities. Adatom clustering, which occurs with CF 4 plasma treatment, is suppressed when higher kinetic energy is supplied to the ions. During SF 6 plasma functionalization, the sulfur atoms tend to bond to bare copper areas instead of affecting the graphene chemistry, except when the kinetic energy of the ions is restricted. Using scanning photoelectron microscopy, with a 100 nm spatial resolution, the chemical bonding environment is evaluated in the fluorinated carbon network at selected regions and the functionalization homogeneity is controlled in individual graphene flakes.

  18. Fluorine disposal processes for nuclear applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Netzer, W.D.

    1977-04-08

    A study was performed to determine the best method for disposing of waste fluorine in the effluent from a uranium oxide conversion facility. After reviewing the fluorine disposal literature and upon considering the nuclear safety constraints, it was determined that the two most promising processes were the fluidized alumina bed and the caustic scrubber. To obtain more design data for the latter process, a 3-stage, 5-in. I.D. spray tower was constructed and operated. This unit used a 10% potassium hydroxide solution at flows of 1.5 to 3 gpm and achieved a 90% fluorine efficiency at fluorine flowrates as high as 4 scfm. However, two toxic by-products, oxygen difluoride and nitroxy fluoride, were detected in the effluent gases. After considering the relative merits of both disposal processes, it is concluded that the fluidized bed is superior, especially if the contaminated waste material were salable.

  19. Fluorine disposal processes for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Netzer, W.D.

    1977-01-01

    A study was performed to determine the best method for disposing of waste fluorine in the effluent from a uranium oxide conversion facility. After reviewing the fluorine disposal literature and upon considering the nuclear safety constraints, it was determined that the two most promising processes were the fluidized alumina bed and the caustic scrubber. To obtain more design data for the latter process, a 3-stage, 5-in. I.D. spray tower was constructed and operated. This unit used a 10% potassium hydroxide solution at flows of 1.5 to 3 gpm and achieved a 90% fluorine efficiency at fluorine flowrates as high as 4 scfm. However, two toxic by-products, oxygen difluoride and nitroxy fluoride, were detected in the effluent gases. After considering the relative merits of both disposal processes, it is concluded that the fluidized bed is superior, especially if the contaminated waste material were salable

  20. Macromolecular Networks Containing Fluorinated Cyclic Moieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-12

    Briefing Charts 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 17 Nov 2015 – 12 Dec 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Macromolecular Networks Containing Fluorinated Cyclic... FLUORINATED CYCLIC MOIETIES 12 December 2015 Andrew J. Guenthner,1 Scott T. Iacono,2 Cynthia A. Corley,2 Christopher M. Sahagun,3 Kevin R. Lamison,4...Reinforcements Good Flame, Smoke, & Toxicity Characteristics Low Water Uptake with Near Zero Coefficient of Hygroscopic Expansion ∆ DISTRIBUTION A

  1. Enantioselective catalytic fluorinative aza-semipinacol rearrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanov-Michailidis, Fedor; Pupier, Marion; Besnard, Céline; Bürgi, Thomas; Alexakis, Alexandre

    2014-10-03

    An efficient and highly stereoselective fluorinative aza-semipinacol rearrangement is described. The catalytic reaction requires use of Selectfluor in combination with the chiral, enantiopure phosphate anion derived from acid L3. Under optimized conditions, cyclopropylamines A were transformed into β-fluoro cyclobutylimines B in good yields and high levels of diastereo- and enantiocontrol. Furthermore, the optically active cyclobutylimines were reduced diastereoselectively with L-Selectride in the corresponding fluorinated amines C, compounds of significant interest in the pharmacological industry.

  2. Fluorination of uranium compounds by gaseous bromine trifluoride and a bromine-fluorine mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Tsutomu

    1976-03-01

    This report summarizes the studies of fluorination of uranium compounds by gaseous BrF 3 and a Br 2 -F 2 mixture, which were carried out in Fluorine Chemistry Laboratory of JAERI in connection with the reprocessing method of nuclear fuels. Although thermodynamically more stable than F 2 , BrF 3 has higher reactivity at relatively low temperatures: fluorination of uranium compounds can be carried out at 100 0 -- 200 0 C by using gaseous BrF 3 . This fluorination temperature is lower than those of F 2 , BrF 5 , ClF and SF 4 , and close to that of ClF 3 . The usage of BrF 3 has however the drawbacks that it requires additional devices to heat the corrosive liquid and to remove Br 2 produced as a byproduct. In order to eliminate the difficulties indicated, a new method of fluorination was developed - the use of a Br 2 -F 2 mixture. Addition of small amounts of Br 2 to the fluorine flow (about 6% in relation to the fluorine concentration) gives marked effects on the rate of fluorination. (auth.)

  3. Reference values for fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose and fluorine-18-sodium fluoride uptake in human arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Björn A; Thomassen, Anders; de Jong, Pim A

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Reference values of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG) and fluorine-18-sodium fluoride (F-NaF) uptake in human arteries are unknown. The aim of this study was to determine age-specific and sex-specific reference values of arterial F-FDG and F-NaF uptake. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS...

  4. Experiments on pumping of liquids using arrays of microelectrodes subjected to travelling wave potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Sanchez, P; Ramos, A [Dpto. de Electronica y Electromagnetismo, Universidad de Sevilla, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Green, Nicolas G; Morgan, H [School of Electronics and Computer Science, University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ Southampton (United Kingdom)], E-mail: pablogarcia@us.es

    2008-12-01

    Net fluid flow of electrolytes driven on an array of microelectrodes subjected to a travelling-wave potential is presented. Two sizes of platinum microelectrodes have been studied. In both arrays, at low voltages the liquid flows according to the prediction given by ac electroosmotic theory. At voltages above a threshold the fluid flow is reversed. Measurements of the electrical current when the microelectrode array is pumping the liquid are also reported. Transient behaviours in both electrical current and fluid velocity have been observed.

  5. Experiments on pumping of liquids using arrays of microelectrodes subjected to travelling wave potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Sanchez, P; Ramos, A; Green, Nicolas G; Morgan, H

    2008-01-01

    Net fluid flow of electrolytes driven on an array of microelectrodes subjected to a travelling-wave potential is presented. Two sizes of platinum microelectrodes have been studied. In both arrays, at low voltages the liquid flows according to the prediction given by ac electroosmotic theory. At voltages above a threshold the fluid flow is reversed. Measurements of the electrical current when the microelectrode array is pumping the liquid are also reported. Transient behaviours in both electrical current and fluid velocity have been observed.

  6. Micro-fabrication of three dimensional pyrolysed carbon microelectrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    ; soft baking the photoresist layer; performing a full depth exposure with UV light through a first mask; performing a partial depth exposure with UV light through a second mask; wherein the full depth exposure and the partial depth exposure are aligned to ensure that the first and second latent images...... are connected to each other; post-exposure baking the photoresist layer; and developing the microscale patterned resist template as a free-standing structure of cross-linked resist with lateral hanging structures that are supported by vertical support structures at a free height above the substrate. The method...... is characterized by a soft baking temperature below 70 °C. Repetitive coating and partial depth exposure allows for the fabrication of multiple level laterally interconnected structures. Carbonization of the resist template provides truly three-dimensional carbon microelectrode structures....

  7. Thin film microelectrodes for electrochemical detection of neurotransmitters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Simon Tylsgaard

    An important signaling process in the nervous system is the release of chemical messengers called neurotransmitters from neurons. In this thesis alternative thin film electrode materials for applications targeting electrochemical detection of neurotransmitters in chip devices were evaluated...... and conductive polymer microelectrodes made of Pedot:Pss were also fabricated and used successfully to measure transmitter release from cells. The use of different thin film electrodes for low-noise amperometric measurements of single events of transmitter release from neuronal cells was studied....... For this application a very low current noise is needed together with a large temporal resolution. It was shown, that resistive and capacitive properties of thin film electrode materials are determining their usefulness in low-noise amperometric measurements. An analytical expression for the noise was derived...

  8. A 3-D Microelectrode System for Dielectrophoretic Manipulation of Microparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, D F; Du, H; Gong, H Q; Li, W H

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a microfluidic system for manipulation and separation of micron-sized particles based on the combined use of negative dielectrophoresis (DEP) and hydrodynamic forces. A 3-D microelectrode structure (so called paired electrode array) are constructed face to face on the top and bottom sides of the microchannel and driven with highfrequency AC voltage to generate dielectrophoretic gates. Depending on the relative strengths of the two forces, particles such as polystyrene beads or cells carrying by a laminar flow can either penetrate the gate or settle there. This gives rise to certain applications including selectively concentrating particles from the flow, separating particles depending on their sizes or dielectric properties, and automatically positioning particles to selective locations. For this purpose, a microfluidic device consisting of the paired electrode array sitting on the channel has been fabricated using microfabrication techniques. Polystyrene beads were used to study the performance of the device. Experimental results including the concentration and separation of particles are presented

  9. Diagnosis of fluorine damage. II. Estimation of fluorine-containing emission by demonstration of the storage of fluorine in the cortex of trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampadius, F

    1960-01-01

    The thorium titration method was employed for estimating the fluorine content of the cortex. The question as to what fluorine content in the bark is to be regarded as natural has not yet been exactly established. Various indications in the literature lead to the assumption that the storage in the bark of cortex of the trees from an area without fluorine-containing emissions gave <0.2 mg. F/100 ml. distillate in all samples. This fluorine content was initially taken as the limit for the natural fluorine content of the cortex. The investigation of the fluorine content of the cortex extended only to the bark and was calculated in mg. of F in 5 g. of air-dry ground bark. The results show a clear relation between the quantity of fluorine stored in the bark and the distance of the point of sampling from the source of emission and its disposition to it. With high fluorine emission and unfavorable wind conditions in the affected area, fluorine was found in considerable quantities in the bark at places quite a long way from the source of emission. The qualitative estimation of the fluorine content of gassed leaves and needles by the crystal precipitation method, and the quantitative estimation of the fluorine content of gassed bark by the thorium titration method led to results that were in good agreement, so it was possible in this way to define the area in which damage may occur with reliable accuracy.

  10. Controlled Synthesis of Fluorinated Copolymers with Pendant Sulfonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Ivaylo; Jankova Atanasova, Katja; Hvilsted, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Novel fluorinated copolymers of different architectures and bearing sulfopropyl groups were synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of aromatic fluorinated monomers and two modification reactions performed on the polymer chain - demethylation followed by sulfopropylation. As a ...

  11. Fluorine in plants in the areas of Yugoslav aluminum factories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivos, J.; Ciszek, H.; Rezek, A.; Marjanovic, L.

    1970-01-01

    Distribution of fluorine in the areas around aluminum production facilities was investigated. The plants in areas around the factories did indeed show increased levels of fluorine. Distribution patterns were found to be affected by wind and precipitation patterns.

  12. Simple electrolytic cell for production of elemental fluorine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dides F, M.; Padilla S, U.

    1990-01-01

    It was constructed and tested a simple electrolytic cell for the production of elemental fluorine. The fluorine production is essential in the obtainment of uranium hexafluoride, a compound for the nuclear fuel cycle. (A.C.A.S.)

  13. Fluorine and fluorine tolerance in fodder of domestic animals. Part 2. Pathophysiology of fluorine and fodder tests on domestic animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronsch, K; Grieser, N

    1964-01-01

    Important tests with fluorine on domestic animals were critically evaluated with the aim of coming to some conclusion about fluorine tolerance in fodder for domestic animals, keeping various different factors in mind. Slightly lower concentrations were reached than those of the NRC in the USA, reckoning on a non-optimal mineral content, especially in calcium and phosphorus, since the USA obviously used a basis for feeding which was otherwise sufficient. According to these tests, fluoride is tolerated within certain limits by domestic animals without recognisable disadvantages. There are, however, important differences between different types of animals in regard to dosage.

  14. A three-dimensional microelectrode array composed of vertically aligned ultra-dense carbon nanotube networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nick, C.; Yadav, S.; Joshi, R.; Schneider, J. J.; Thielemann, C.

    2015-07-01

    Electrodes based on carbon nanotubes are a promising approach to manufacture highly sensitive sensors with a low limit of signal detection and a high signal-to-noise ratio. This is achieved by dramatically increasing the electrochemical active surface area without increasing the overall geometrical dimensions. Typically, carbon nanotube electrodes are nearly planar and composed of randomly distributed carbon nanotube networks having a limited surface gain for a specific geometrical surface area. To overcome this limitation, we have introduced vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) networks as electrodes, which are arranged in a microelectrode pattern of 60 single electrodes. Each microelectrode features a very high aspect ratio of more than 300 and thus a dramatically increased surface area. These microelectrodes composed of VACNT networks display dramatically decreased impedance over the entire frequency range compared to planar microelectrodes caused by the enormous capacity increase. This is experimentally verified by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry.

  15. Low Frequency Activity of Cortical Networks on Microelectrode Arrays is Differentially Altered by Bicuculline and Carbaryl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thousands of chemicals need to be characterized for their neurotoxicity potential. Neurons grown on microelectrode arrays (MEAs) are an in vitro model used to screen chemicals for functional effects on neuronal networks. Typically, after removal of low frequency components, effec...

  16. Conductive Polymer Microelectrodes for on-chip measurement of transmitter release from living cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Simon Tylsgaard; Matteucci, Marco; Taboryski, Rafael J.

    2012-01-01

    driven cell trapping inside closed chip devices. Conductive polymer microelectrodes were used to measure transmitter release using electrochemical methods such as cyclic voltammetry and constant potential amperometry. By measuring the oxidation current at a cyclic voltammogram, the concentration...

  17. The rare fluorinated natural products and biotechnological prospects for fluorine enzymology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, K K Jason; O'Hagan, David

    2012-01-01

    Nature has hardly evolved a biochemistry of fluorine although there is a low-level occurrence of fluoroacetate found in selected tropical and subtropical plants. This compound, which is generally produced in low concentrations, has been identified in the plants due to its high toxicity, although to date the biosynthesis of fluoroacetate in plants remains unknown. After that, fluorinated entities in nature are extremely rare, and despite increasingly sophisticated screening and analytical methods applied to natural product extraction, it has been 25 years since the last bona fide fluorinated natural product was identified from an organism. This was the reported isolation of the antibiotic 4-fluorothreonine and the toxin fluoroacetate in 1986 from Streptomyces cattleya. This bacterium has proven amenable to biochemical investigation, the fluorination enzyme (fluorinase) has been isolated and characterized, and the biosynthetic pathway to these bacterial metabolites has been elucidated. Also the fluorinase gene has been cloned into a host bacterium (Salinispora tropica), and this has enabled the de novo production of a bioactive fluorinated metabolite from fluoride ion, by genetic engineering. Biotechnological manipulation of the fluorinase offers the prospects for the assembly of novel fluorinated metabolites by fermentation technology. This is particularly attractive, given the backdrop that about 15-20% of pharmaceuticals licensed each year (new chemical entities) contain a fluorine atom. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Fluorinated Alq3 derivatives with tunable optical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yue-Wen; Shi, Min-Min; Huang, Jia-Chi; Chen, Hong-Zheng; Wang, Mang; Liu, Xiao-Dong; Ma, Yu-Guang; Xu, Hai; Yang, Bing

    2006-05-14

    This communication reports that not only the emission colour but also the photoluminescence quantum yield of Alq3 can be tuned by introducing fluorine atoms at different positions; with fluorination at C-5 the emission is red-shifted with a tremendously decreased intensity, fluorination at C-6 causes a blue-shift with a significantly increased intensity, and fluorination at C-7 has a minor effect on both the colour and intensity of Alq3's emission.

  19. β-diketones containing oxygen atom in fluorinated radical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shivanyuk, A.F.; Kudryavtseva, L.S.; Lozinskij, M.O.; Neplyuev, V.M.; Fialkov, Yu.A.; Bratolyubova, A.G.

    1981-01-01

    The synthesis of a number of new aliphatic fluorinated β- diketones containing oxygen atom in fluorinated radical of linear or cyclic structure is described. The reaction of combination with aryldiazonium salts resulting in the formation of corresponding arylhydrazones of fluorinated triketones is studied. It is shown that as a result of arylhydrazone condensation with hydroxylamine, hydrazine and its substituted derivatives the fluorine-containing derivatives of isoxazol and pyrazol are formed [ru

  20. beta. -diketones containing oxygen atom in fluorinated radical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shivanyuk, A.F.; Kudryavtseva, L.S.; Lozinskij, M.O.; Neplyuev, V.M.; Fialkov, Yu.A.; Bratolyubova, A.G. (AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Organicheskoj Khimii)

    1981-10-01

    The synthesis of a number of new aliphatic fluorinated ..beta..-diketones containing oxygen atom in fluorinated radical of linear or cyclic structure is described. The reaction of combination with aryldiazonium salts resulting in the formation of corresponding arylhydrazones of fluorinated triketones is studied. It is shown that as a result of arylhydrazone condensation with hydroxylamine, hydrazine and its substituted derivatives the fluorine-containing derivatives of isoxazol and pyrazol are formed.

  1. A microfluidic cell culture device with integrated microelectrodes for barrier studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Hsih-Yin; Dufva, Martin; Kutter, Jörg P.

    We present an eight cell culture microfluidic device fabricated using thiol-ene ‘click’ chemistry with embedded microelectrodes for evaluating barrier properties of human intestinal epithelial cells. The capability of the microelectrodes for trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER) measureme......) measurements was demonstrated by using confluent human colorectal epithelial cells (Caco-2) and rat fibroblast (CT 26) cells cultured in the microfluidic device....

  2. Fluorine 18 in tritium generator ceramic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez-Becerril, J.; Bosch, P.; Bulbulian, S.

    1992-01-01

    At present time, the ceramic materials generators of tritium are very interesting mainly by the necessity of to found an adequate product for its application as fusion reactor shielding. The important element that must contain the ceramic material is the lithium and especially the isotope with mass=6. The tritium in these materials is generated by neutron irradiation, however, when the ceramic material contains oxygen, then is generated too fluorine 18 by the action of energetic atoms of tritium in recoil on the 16 O, as it is showed in the next reactions: 1) 6 Li (n, α) 3 H ; 2) 16 O( 3 H, n) 18 F . In the present work was studied the LiAlO 2 and the Li 2 O. The first was prepared in the laboratory and the second was used such as it is commercially expended. In particular the interest of this work is to study the chemical behavior of fluorine-18, since if it would be mixed with tritium it could be contaminate the fusion reactor fuel. The ceramic materials were irradiated with neutrons and also the chemical form of fluorine-18 produced was studied. It was determined the amount of fluorine-18 liberated by the irradiated materials when they were submitted to extraction with helium currents and argon-hydrogen mixtures and also it was investigated the possibility about the fluorine-18 was volatilized then it was mixed so with the tritium. Finally it was founded that the liberated amount of fluorine-18 depends widely of the experimental conditions, such as the temperature and the hydrogen amount in the mixture of dragging gas. (Author)

  3. Carbon-Ring Microelectrode Arrays for Electrochemical Imaging of Single Cell Exocytosis: Fabrication and Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuqing; Trouillon, Raphaël; Svensson, Maria I.; Keighron, Jacqueline D.; Cans, Ann-Sofie; Ewing, Andrew G.

    2012-01-01

    Fabrication of carbon microelectrode arrays, with up to 15 electrodes in total tips as small as 10 to 50 μm, is presented. The support structures of microelectrodes were obtained by pulling multiple quartz capillaries together to form hollow capillary arrays before carbon deposition. Carbon ring microelectrodes were deposited by pyrolysis of acetylene in the lumen of these quartz capillary arrays. Each carbon deposited array tip was filled with epoxy, followed by beveling of the tip of the array to form a deposited carbon-ring microelectrode array (CRMA). Both the number of the microelectrodes in the array and the tip size are independently tunable. These CRMAs have been characterized using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and electrogenerated chemiluminescence. Additionally, the electrochemical properties were investigated with steady-state voltammetry. In order to demonstrate the utility of these fabricated microelectrodes in neurochemistry, CRMAs containing eight microring electrodes were used for electrochemical monitoring of exocytotic events from single PC12 cells. Subcellular temporal heterogeneities in exocytosis (ie. cold spots vs. hot spots) were successfully detected with the CRMAs. PMID:22339586

  4. Fluorinated Polyurethane Scaffolds for 19F Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, Twan; Mertens, Marianne E.; Schuster, Philipp; Rahimi, Khosrow; Shi, Yang; Schulz, Volkmar; Kuehne, Alexander J.C.; Jockenhoevel, Stefan; Kiessling, Fabian

    2017-01-01

    Researchers used fluorinated polyurethane scaffolds for 19F magnetic resonance imaging. They generated a novel fluorinated polymer based on thermoplastic polyurethane (19F -TPU) which possesses distinct properties rendering it suitable for fluorine-based MRI. The 19F -TPU is synthesized from a

  5. Fluorination of some highly functionalized cycloalkanes: chemoselectivity and substrate dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Márió Remete

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A study exploring the chemical behavior of some dihydroxylated β-amino ester stereo- and regioisomers, derived from unsaturated cyclic β-amino acids is described. The nucleophilic fluorinations involving hydroxy–fluorine exchange of some highly functionalized alicyclic diol derivatives have been carried out in view of selective fluorination, investigating substrate dependence, neighboring group assistance and chemodifferentiation.

  6. Fluorination of some highly functionalized cycloalkanes: chemoselectivity and substrate dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remete, Attila Márió; Nonn, Melinda; Fustero, Santos; Haukka, Matti; Fülöp, Ferenc; Kiss, Loránd

    2017-01-01

    A study exploring the chemical behavior of some dihydroxylated β-amino ester stereo- and regioisomers, derived from unsaturated cyclic β-amino acids is described. The nucleophilic fluorinations involving hydroxy-fluorine exchange of some highly functionalized alicyclic diol derivatives have been carried out in view of selective fluorination, investigating substrate dependence, neighboring group assistance and chemodifferentiation.

  7. Strontium and fluorine in tuatua shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trompetter, W.J.; Coote, G.E.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the research to date on the elemental distributions of strontium, calcium, and fluorine in a collection of 24 tuatua shells (courtesy of National Museum). Variations in elemental concentrations were measured in the shell cross-sections using a scanning proton microprobe (PIXE and PIGME). In this paper we report the findings to date, and present 2-D measurement scans as illustrative grey-scale pictures. Our results support the hypothesis that increased strontium concentrations are deposited in the shells during spawning, and that fluorine concentration is proportional to growth rate. (author). 15 refs.; 13 figs.; 1 appendix

  8. Fluorinated Amine Stereotriads via Allene Amination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Gerstner, Nels C; Oxtoby, Lucas J; Guzei, Ilia A; Schomaker, Jennifer M

    2017-06-16

    The incorporation of fluorine into organic scaffolds often improves the bioactivity of pharmaceutically relevant compounds. C-F/C-N/C-O stereotriad motifs are prevalent in antivirals, neuraminidase inhibitors, and modulators of androgen receptors, but are challenging to install. An oxidative allene amination strategy using Selectfluor rapidly delivers triply functionalized triads of the form C-F/C-N/C-O, exhibiting good scope and diastereoselectivity for all syn products. The resulting stereotriads are readily transformed into fluorinated pyrrolidines and protected α-, β-, and γ-amino acids.

  9. Depleted uranium processing and fluorine extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laflin, S.T.

    2010-01-01

    Since the beginning of the nuclear era, there has never been a commercial solution for the large quantities of depleted uranium hexafluoride generated from uranium enrichment. In the United States alone, there is already in excess of 1.6 billion pounds (730 million kilograms) of DUF_6 currently stored. INIS is constructing a commercial uranium processing and fluorine extraction facility. The INIS facility will convert depleted uranium hexafluoride and use it as feed material for the patented Fluorine Extraction Process to produce high purity fluoride gases and anhydrous hydrofluoric acid. The project will provide an environmentally friendly and commercially viable solution for DUF_6 tails management. (author)

  10. Effect of the fluorination technique on the surface-fluorination patterning of double-walled carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubov G. Bulusheva

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs are fluorinated using (1 fluorine F2 at 200 °C, (2 gaseous BrF3 at room temperature, and (3 CF4 radio-frequency plasma functionalization. These have been comparatively studied using transmission electron microscopy and infrared, Raman, X-ray photoelectron, and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS spectroscopy. A formation of covalent C–F bonds and a considerable reduction in the intensity of radial breathing modes from the outer shells of DWCNTs are observed for all samples. Differences in the electronic state of fluorine and the C–F vibrations for three kinds of the fluorinated DWCNTs are attributed to distinct local surroundings of the attached fluorine atoms. Possible fluorine patterns realized through a certain fluorination technique are revealed from comparison of experimental NEXAFS F K-edge spectra with quantum-chemical calculations of various models. It is proposed that fluorination with F2 and BrF3 produces small fully fluorinated areas and short fluorinated chains, respectively, while the treatment with CF4 plasma results in various attached species, including single or paired fluorine atoms and –CF3 groups. The results demonstrate a possibility of different patterning of carbon surfaces through choosing the fluorination method.

  11. Applying a foil queue micro-electrode in micro-EDM to fabricate a 3D micro-structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Guo, Kang; Wu, Xiao-yu; Lei, Jian-guo; Liang, Xiong; Guo, Deng-ji; Ma, Jiang; Cheng, Rong

    2018-05-01

    Applying a 3D micro-electrode in a micro electrical discharge machining (micro-EDM) can fabricate a 3D micro-structure with an up and down reciprocating method. However, this processing method has some shortcomings, such as a low success rate and a complex process for fabrication of 3D micro-electrodes. By focusing on these shortcomings, this paper proposed a novel 3D micro-EDM process based on the foil queue micro-electrode. Firstly, a 3D micro-electrode was discretized into several foil micro-electrodes and these foil micro-electrodes constituted a foil queue micro-electrode. Then, based on the planned process path, foil micro-electrodes were applied in micro-EDM sequentially and the micro-EDM results of each foil micro-electrode were able to superimpose the 3D micro-structure. However, the step effect will occur on the 3D micro-structure surface, which has an adverse effect on the 3D micro-structure. To tackle this problem, this paper proposes to reduce this adverse effect by rounded corner wear at the end of the foil micro-electrode and studies the impact of machining parameters on rounded corner wear and the step effect on the micro-structure surface. Finally, using a wire cutting voltage of 80 V, a current of 0.5 A and a pulse width modulation ratio of 1:4, the foil queue micro-electrode was fabricated by wire electrical discharge machining. Also, using a pulse width of 100 ns, a pulse interval of 200 ns, a voltage of 100 V and workpiece material of 304# stainless steel, the foil queue micro-electrode was applied in micro-EDM for processing of a 3D micro-structure with hemispherical features, which verified the feasibility of this process.

  12. Decomposition of Fluorinated Graphene under Heat Treatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plšek, Jan; Drogowska, Karolina; Valeš, Václav; Ek Weis, Johan; Kalbáč, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 26 (2016), s. 8990-8997 ISSN 1521-3765 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP208/12/1062 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : fluorination * graphene * photoelectron spectroscopy Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  13. Self-lubricating fluorine shaft seal material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk, W. R.

    1970-01-01

    Lubricating film is produced by a reaction of fluorine with a composite of aluminum oxide and nickel powder. The rate of nickel fluoride generation is proportional to the rate at which the fluoride is rubbed off the surface, allowing the seal to operate with the lowest possible heating.

  14. Polycrystalline-Diamond MEMS Biosensors Including Neural Microelectrode-Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna H. Wang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Diamond is a material of interest due to its unique combination of properties, including its chemical inertness and biocompatibility. Polycrystalline diamond (poly-C has been used in experimental biosensors that utilize electrochemical methods and antigen-antibody binding for the detection of biological molecules. Boron-doped poly-C electrodes have been found to be very advantageous for electrochemical applications due to their large potential window, low background current and noise, and low detection limits (as low as 500 fM. The biocompatibility of poly-C is found to be comparable, or superior to, other materials commonly used for implants, such as titanium and 316 stainless steel. We have developed a diamond-based, neural microelectrode-array (MEA, due to the desirability of poly-C as a biosensor. These diamond probes have been used for in vivo electrical recording and in vitro electrochemical detection. Poly-C electrodes have been used for electrical recording of neural activity. In vitro studies indicate that the diamond probe can detect norepinephrine at a 5 nM level. We propose a combination of diamond micro-machining and surface functionalization for manufacturing diamond pathogen-microsensors.

  15. Discovery of Undescribed Brain Tissue Changes Around Implanted Microelectrode Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshi Desai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain-implantable microelectrode arrays are devicesdesigned to record or electrically stimulate the activity ofneurons in the brain. These devices hold the potential tohelp treat epilepsy, paralysis, blindness, and deafness, andalso provide researchers with insights into a varietyof neural processes, such as memory formation.While these devices have a very promising future,researchers are discovering that their long-termfunctionality is greatly limited by the brain’s naturalimmune response to foreign objects. To improve thefunctional lifetime of these devices, one solution lies infully characterizing and understanding this tissue response.Roles for microglia and astrocytes in this biologicalresponse have been characterized. However, changesto oligodendrocytes, cells that myelinate axons, remainpoorly understood. These cells provide insulationto the axons, which is required for proper neuralfunctioning. Here we report on the changes that occurwith oligodendrocyte processes in tissue aroundmicroelectrode implants in the brain.Six rats were surgically implanted with microelectrodearrays and allowed to recover for 1, 2, or 4 weeks.Subjects were then sacrificed and the brain tissue wasprocessed using our recently developed method, Device-Capture Histology. Immunohistochemistry and confocalmicroscopy was employed to assess the responsearound the device. Results indicated a decrease inoligodendrocyte density and a loss in typical directionalorientation of oligodendrocyte processes in tissue near thedevice. These results suggest alterations in the underlyingneuronal networks around these devices, which maygreatly impact the current functional utility of thesepromising devices.

  16. Investigating brain functional evolution and plasticity using microelectrode array technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, Alessandro; Obeid, Iyad

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate long and short-term plasticity responsible for memory formation in dissociated neuronal networks. In order to address this issue, a set of experiments was designed and implemented in which the microelectrode array electrode grid was divided into four quadrants, two of which were chronically stimulated, every two days for one hour with a stimulation paradigm that varied over time. Overall network and quadrant responses were then analyzed to quantify what level of plasticity took place in the network and how this was due to the stimulation interruption. The results demonstrate that there were no spatial differences in the stimulus-evoked activity within quadrants. Furthermore, the implemented stimulation protocol induced depression effects in the neuronal networks as demonstrated by the consistently lower network activity following stimulation sessions. Finally, the analysis demonstrated that the inhibitory effects of the stimulation decreased over time, thus suggesting a habituation phenomenon. These findings are sufficient to conclude that electrical stimulation is an important tool to interact with dissociated neuronal cultures, but localized stimuli are not enough to drive spatial synaptic potentiation or depression. On the contrary, the ability to modulate synaptic temporal plasticity was a feasible task to achieve by chronic network stimulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Study of the Behavior of the Mercury on Diverse Microelectrodes with Cell of Continuous Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz Valldeperas, F

    2001-01-01

    A comparative study of six types of microelectrodes in two different support electrolytes was developed using a new analytic technique for analysis of mercury in liquid samples in the ambit of parts by million. For it, a new system of cell of continuous flow and platinum microelectrodes and of platinum with gold film was implemented using volt-amperemetry of anodized spoil with square wave. In a preliminary study, some parameters that characterize the analysis with this new cell were optimized, for example the sample's speed flow and the time of electrodeposition. The calibration curves were made for the different types of microelectrode that were used in an ambit of concentrations of 1-10 ppm. According to the obtained results, the microelectrode that better works is the platinum disk for possessing bigger superficial area exposed to the dissolution, which increases the analite's currents of pick. And as a support electrolyte, potassium tiocianato is recommended because of its effectiveness to solve the analytic sign of the mercury. Studies of answer of the current of mercury regarding the quantity of the placed sample and studies of interferences of the analysis with this type of microelectrode were also carried out. With regard to the study of the quantity of sample, it was obtained that the electrochemical answer of the cell is directly proportional to the concentration of the analite placed in it. In the study of interference, it was found that the copper, lead, and zinc ions affect the analysis of mercury in concentrations of 0.1 ppm and on in the case of the microelectrode of platinum disk. And in case that the same microelectrode is used recovered with gold, it only affects the copper in concentrations over 5 ppm, for what is necessary to take into account a previous treatment of the sample in the event of containing some of the interfering ions [es

  18. Physicochemical properties of peptide-coated microelectrode arrays and their in vitro effects on neuroblast cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghane-Motlagh, Bahareh, E-mail: bahar.ghane@gmail.com [Polystim Neurotechnologies Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering, Polytechnique Montreal, QC H3C 3A7 (Canada); Javanbakht, Taraneh; Shoghi, Fatemeh; Wilkinson, Kevin J.; Martel, Richard [Department of Chemistry, University of Montreal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada); Sawan, Mohamad [Polystim Neurotechnologies Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering, Polytechnique Montreal, QC H3C 3A7 (Canada)

    2016-11-01

    Silicon micromachined neural electrode arrays, which act as an interface between bioelectronic devices and neural tissues, play an important role in chronic implants, in vivo. The biological compatibility of chronic microelectrode arrays (MEA) is an essential factor that must be taken into account in their design and fabrication. In order to improve biocompatibility of the MEAs, the surface of the electrodes was coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and parylene-C, which are biocompatible polymers. An in vitro study was performed to test the capacity of poly-D-lysine (PDL) to improve neural-cell adhesion and proliferation. Increased proliferation of the neuroblast cells on the microelectrodes was observed in the presence of the PDL. The presence of the peptide on the electrode surface was confirmed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The impedance of the electrodes was not changed significantly before and after PDL deposition. Mouse neuroblast cells were seeded and cultured on the PDL coated and uncoated neural MEAs with different tip-coatings such as platinum, molybdenum, gold, sputtered iridium oxide, and carbon nanotubes. The neuroblast cells grew preferentially on and around peptide coated-microelectrode tips, as compared to the uncoated microelectrodes. - Highlights: • A novel high-density microelectrode array (MEA) for intracortical 3D recording and stimulation was designed and fabricated. • In order to improve neural-cell adhesion and proliferation, the surface of the electrodes was coated with poly-D-lysine (PDL). • An in vitro study was performed to test the capacity of PDL to improve cell adhesion and proliferation. • The neuroblast cells grew preferentially on peptide-coated microelectrode tips compared to the uncoated microelectrodes.

  19. Fluorine content in the soft tissues, blood and milk of ruminants outside and inside fluorine emission areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oelschlaeger, W; Feyler, L; Schwarz, E

    1972-01-01

    Data on the fluorine content of soft tissues, blood and milk inside and outside fluorine emission areas vary widely, probably because of analytical difficulties. Possible errors and their elimination are discussed. A large number of analyses was carried out to determine the fluorine content of heart, liver, lung, kidney, adrenal, muscle, spleen, pancreas, lymph nodes, thyroid, thymus, pituitary and cerebrum and cerebellum of cows and calves, as well as 388 milk samples and 232 blood samples. In calves born from cows kept for 3 1/2 years near a factory producing hydrofluoric acid, there was a clear relationship between the fluorine content during the suckling and drinking period, and also in a still-born calf, with the fluorine uptake of the dam during the months of pregnancy. In contrast to cattle, calves showed significantly higher fluorine levels in the adrenals compared with the kidneys. The soft tissues of cattle outside the fluorine emission areas contained more fluorine than in calves within the emission areas. Fluorine accumulation in liver, lung, kidney, cerebrum and cerebellum, thyroid and pituitary was markedly raised in animals with high fluorine uptake, whereas there was no significant change in the levels in the heart, musculature and spleen. So far as human health is concerned, the raised fluorine level in milk was significantly below the maximum level permitted in fluoridated drinking water.

  20. Chitosan coated carbon fiber microelectrode for selective in vivo detection of neurotransmitters in live zebrafish embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozel, Rifat Emrah; Wallace, Kenneth N.; Andreescu, Silvana

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Chitosan coated fiber electrodes are sensitive to serotonin detection while rejecting physiological levels of ascorbic acid interferences. - Abstract: We report the development of a chitosan modified carbon fiber microelectrode for in vivo detection of serotonin. We find that chitosan has the ability to reject physiological levels of ascorbic acid interferences and facilitate selective and sensitive detection of in vivo levels of serotonin, a common catecholamine neurotransmitter. Presence of chitosan on the microelectrode surface was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The electrode was characterized using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). A detection limit of 1.6 nM serotonin with a sensitivity of 5.12 nA/μM, a linear range from 2 to 100 nM and a reproducibility of 6.5% for n = 6 electrodes were obtained. Chitosan modified microelectrodes selectively measure serotonin in presence of physiological levels of ascorbic acid. In vivo measurements were performed to measure concentration of serotonin in the live embryonic zebrafish intestine. The sensor quantifies in vivo intestinal levels of serotonin while successfully rejecting ascorbic acid interferences. We demonstrate that chitosan can be used as an effective coating to reject ascorbic acid interferences at carbon fiber microelectrodes, as an alternative to Nafion, and that chitosan modified microelectrodes are reliable tools for in vivo monitoring of changes in neurotransmitter levels.

  1. Acute human brain responses to intracortical microelectrode arrays: Challenges and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo eFernandez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The emerging field of neuroprosthetics is focused on the development of new therapeutic interventions that will be able to restore some lost neural function by selective electrical stimulation or by harnessing activity recorded from populations of neurons. As more and more patients benefit from these approaches, the interest in neural interfaces has grown significantly and a new generation of penetrating microelectrode arrays are providing unprecedented access to the neurons of the CNS. These microelectrodes have active tip dimensions that are similar in size to neurons and because they penetrate the nervous system, they provide selective access to these cells (within a few microns. However, the very long-term viability of chronically implanted microelectrodes and the capability of recording the same spiking activity over long time periods still remain to be established and confirmed in human studies. Here we review the main responses to acute implantation of microelectrode arrays, and emphasize that it will become essential to control the neural tissue damage induced by these intracortical microelectrodes in order to achieve the high clinical potentials accompanying this technology.

  2. Brain machine interfaces combining microelectrode arrays with nanostructured optical biochemical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajj-Hassan, Mohamad; Gonzalez, Timothy; Ghafer-Zadeh, Ebrahim; Chodavarapu, Vamsy; Musallam, Sam; Andrews, Mark

    2009-02-01

    Neural microelectrodes are an important component of neural prosthetic systems which assist paralyzed patients by allowing them to operate computers or robots using their neural activity. These microelectrodes are also used in clinical settings to localize the locus of seizure initiation in epilepsy or to stimulate sub-cortical structures in patients with Parkinson's disease. In neural prosthetic systems, implanted microelectrodes record the electrical potential generated by specific thoughts and relay the signals to algorithms trained to interpret these thoughts. In this paper, we describe novel elongated multi-site neural electrodes that can record electrical signals and specific neural biomarkers and that can reach depths greater than 8mm in the sulcus of non-human primates (monkeys). We hypothesize that additional signals recorded by the multimodal probes will increase the information yield when compared to standard probes that record just electropotentials. We describe integration of optical biochemical sensors with neural microelectrodes. The sensors are made using sol-gel derived xerogel thin films that encapsulate specific biomarker responsive luminophores in their nanostructured pores. The desired neural biomarkers are O2, pH, K+, and Na+ ions. As a prototype, we demonstrate direct-write patterning to create oxygen-responsive xerogel waveguide structures on the neural microelectrodes. The recording of neural biomarkers along with electrical activity could help the development of intelligent and more userfriendly neural prosthesis/brain machine interfaces as well as aid in providing answers to complex brain diseases and disorders.

  3. Chitosan coated carbon fiber microelectrode for selective in vivo detection of neurotransmitters in live zebrafish embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozel, Rifat Emrah [Department of Chemistry and Biomolecular Science, 8 Clarkson Ave, Potsdam, NY 136995810 (United States); Wallace, Kenneth N. [Department of Biology, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 136995810 (United States); Andreescu, Silvana, E-mail: eandrees@clarkson.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biomolecular Science, 8 Clarkson Ave, Potsdam, NY 136995810 (United States)

    2011-06-10

    Graphical abstract: Chitosan coated fiber electrodes are sensitive to serotonin detection while rejecting physiological levels of ascorbic acid interferences. - Abstract: We report the development of a chitosan modified carbon fiber microelectrode for in vivo detection of serotonin. We find that chitosan has the ability to reject physiological levels of ascorbic acid interferences and facilitate selective and sensitive detection of in vivo levels of serotonin, a common catecholamine neurotransmitter. Presence of chitosan on the microelectrode surface was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The electrode was characterized using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). A detection limit of 1.6 nM serotonin with a sensitivity of 5.12 nA/{mu}M, a linear range from 2 to 100 nM and a reproducibility of 6.5% for n = 6 electrodes were obtained. Chitosan modified microelectrodes selectively measure serotonin in presence of physiological levels of ascorbic acid. In vivo measurements were performed to measure concentration of serotonin in the live embryonic zebrafish intestine. The sensor quantifies in vivo intestinal levels of serotonin while successfully rejecting ascorbic acid interferences. We demonstrate that chitosan can be used as an effective coating to reject ascorbic acid interferences at carbon fiber microelectrodes, as an alternative to Nafion, and that chitosan modified microelectrodes are reliable tools for in vivo monitoring of changes in neurotransmitter levels.

  4. Palladium-catalysed electrophilic aromatic C-H fluorination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kumiko; Li, Jiakun; Garber, Jeffrey A. O.; Rolfes, Julian D.; Boursalian, Gregory B.; Borghs, Jannik C.; Genicot, Christophe; Jacq, Jérôme; van Gastel, Maurice; Neese, Frank; Ritter, Tobias

    2018-02-01

    Aryl fluorides are widely used in the pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries, and recent advances have enabled their synthesis through the conversion of various functional groups. However, there is a lack of general methods for direct aromatic carbon-hydrogen (C-H) fluorination. Conventional methods require the use of either strong fluorinating reagents, which are often unselective and difficult to handle, such as elemental fluorine, or less reactive reagents that attack only the most activated arenes, which reduces the substrate scope. A method for the direct fluorination of aromatic C-H bonds could facilitate access to fluorinated derivatives of functional molecules that would otherwise be difficult to produce. For example, drug candidates with improved properties, such as increased metabolic stability or better blood-brain-barrier penetration, may become available. Here we describe an approach to catalysis and the resulting development of an undirected, palladium-catalysed method for aromatic C-H fluorination using mild electrophilic fluorinating reagents. The reaction involves a mode of catalysis that is unusual in aromatic C-H functionalization because no organometallic intermediate is formed; instead, a reactive transition-metal-fluoride electrophile is generated catalytically for the fluorination of arenes that do not otherwise react with mild fluorinating reagents. The scope and functional-group tolerance of this reaction could provide access to functional fluorinated molecules in pharmaceutical and agrochemical development that would otherwise not be readily accessible.

  5. Corrosion resistant materials for fluorine and hydrogen fluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauffe, K.

    1984-12-01

    Aluminum and Duralumin are resistant against fluorine and hydrogen fluoride up to 600 and 700 K, respectively. The resistance of nickel and its alloys, particularly monel, against fluorine and hydrogen fluoride is fairly good up to 900 and 800 K. During the attack of nickel-chromium alloys by fluorine between 1000 and 1300 K, it appears an inner fluorination similarly to the inner oxidation. The resistance of titanium in water-free liquid fluorine at lower temperatures with <0,3 mm.a/sup -1/ is comparable to that of nickel and monel. However, the corrosion of titanium in gaseous fluorine amounts at 377 K only 0,0082 mm.a/sup -1/. In spite of their limited resistance against fluorine and hydrogen fluoride, very pure molybdenum and tungsten are employed as construction materials in the rocket technology because of their large strength at high temperatures if fluorine-hydrogen and fluorine-hydrazine flames are used. Lanthanum and calcium borides are only little attacked by fluorine hydrazine flames between 1400 and 1800 K; they are superior to all special grade alloys. The same is true in a lower temperature region (290-400 K) with fluorcarbon resins. Organic materials substitute in increasing extent metal alloys and non-metal inorganic materials.

  6. Corrosion resistant materials for fluorine and hydrogen fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauffe, K.

    1984-01-01

    Aluminum and Duralumin are resistant against fluorine and hydrogen fluoride up to 600 and 700 K, respectively. The resistance of nickel and its alloys, particularly monel, against fluorine and hydrogen fluoride is fairly good up to 900 and 800 K. During the attack of nickel-chromium alloys by fluorine between 1000 and 1300 K, it appears an inner fluorination similarly to the inner oxidation. The resistance of titanium in water-free liquid fluorine at lower temperatures with -1 is comparable to that of nickel and monel. However, the corrosion of titanium in gaseous fluorine amounts at 377 K only 0,0082 mm.a -1 . In spite of their limited resistance against fluorine and hydrogen fluoride, very pure molybdenum and tungsten are employed as construction materials in the rocket technology because of their large strength at high temperatures if fluorine-hydrogen and fluorine-hydrazine flames are used. Lanthanum and calcium borides are only little attacked by fluorine hydrazine flames between 1400 and 1800 K; they are superior to all special grade alloys. The same is true in a lower temperature region (290-400 K) with fluorcarbon resins. Organic materials substitute in increasing extent metal alloys and non-metal inorganic materials. (orig.) [de

  7. Fluorinated cobalt for catalyzing hydrogen generation from sodium borohydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akdim, O.; Demirci, U.B.; Brioude, A.; Miele, P. [Laboratoire des Multimateriaux et Interfaces, UMR 5615 CNRS Universite Lyon 1, Universite de Lyon, 43 boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France)

    2009-07-15

    The present paper reports preliminary results relating to a search for durable cobalt-based catalyst intended to catalyze the hydrolysis of sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}). Fluorination of Co [Suda S, Sun YM, Liu BH, Zhou Y, Morimitsu S, Arai K, et al. Catalytic generation of hydrogen by applying fluorinated-metal hydrides as catalysts. Appl Phys A 2001; 72: 209-12.] has attracted our attention whereas the fluorination of Co boride has never been envisaged so far. Our first objective was to compare the reactivity of fluorinated Co with that of Co boride. We focused our attention on the formation of Co boride from fluorinated Co. Our second objective was to show the fluorination effect on the reactivity of Co. Our third objective was to find an efficient, durable Co catalyst. It was observed a limited stabilization of the Co surface by virtue of the fluorination, which made the formation of surface Co boride more difficult while the catalytic activity was unaltered. The fluorination did not affect the number of surface active sites. Nevertheless, it did not prevent the formation of Co boride. The fluorination of Co boride was inefficient. Hence, fluorination is a way to gain in stabilization of the catalytic surface but it is quite inefficient to hinder the boride formation. Accordingly, it did not permit to compare the reactivity of Co boride with that of Co. (author)

  8. Electrolytes including fluorinated solvents for use in electrochemical cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, Konstantin; Yip, Ka Ki; Lin, Tzu-Yuan

    2015-07-07

    Provided are electrochemical cells and electrolytes used to build such cells. The electrolytes include ion-supplying salts and fluorinated solvents capable of maintaining single phase solutions with the salts at between about -30.degree. C. to about 80.degree. C. The fluorinated solvents, such as fluorinated carbonates, fluorinated esters, and fluorinated esters, are less flammable than their non-fluorinated counterparts and increase safety characteristics of cells containing these solvents. The amount of fluorinated solvents in electrolytes may be between about 30% and 80% by weight not accounting weight of the salts. Fluorinated salts, such as fluoroalkyl-substituted LiPF.sub.6, fluoroalkyl-substituted LiBF.sub.4 salts, linear and cyclic imide salts as well as methide salts including fluorinated alkyl groups, may be used due to their solubility in the fluorinated solvents. In some embodiments, the electrolyte may also include a flame retardant, such as a phosphazene or, more specifically, a cyclic phosphazene and/or one or more ionic liquids.

  9. Spectrographic determination of chlorine and fluorine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contamin, G.

    1965-04-01

    Experimental conditions have been investigated in order to obtain the highest sensitivity in spectrographic determination of chlorine and fluorine using the Fassel method of excitation in an inert atmosphere. The influence of the nature of the atmosphere, of the discharge conditions and of the matrix material has been investigated. The following results have been established: 1. chlorine determination is definitely possible: a working curve has been drawn between 10 μg and 100 μg, the detection limit being around 5 μg; 2. fluorine determination is not satisfactory: the detection limit is still of the order of 80 μg. The best operating conditions have been defined for both elements. (author) [fr

  10. Effects of fluorine on the human fetus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, H.; Cheng, Z.S.; Liu, W.Q. [Huaxi Medical University, Huaxi (China)

    2008-10-15

    In an endemic fluorosis area, 16 fetuses that were delivered during their sixth to eighth month of gestation by means of artificial abortion were collected and studied. The results (compared to 10 control fetuses from a non-endemic area) show that fluorine levels in tissues are obviously high, especially in brain, calvarium, and femur. The activity of alkaline phosphatase in femur and kidney was raised. By observation of the ultrastructure of samples, the number of mitochondria, rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum, and free ribosome in neurons of cerebral cortex were reduced, and the rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum was obviously dilated. These findings indicate that the neurons of the cerebral cortex in the developing brain may be one of the targets of fluorine.

  11. Preparation of metal nanoband microelectrode on poly(dimethylsiloxane) for chip-based amperometric detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Shaopeng; Wu Jian; Yu Xiaodong [Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, Ministry of Education of China, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Xu Jingjuan, E-mail: xujj@nju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, Ministry of Education of China, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Chen Hongyuan [Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, Ministry of Education of China, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2010-04-30

    We proposed herein a novel approach for fabricating nanoband microelectrodes for electrochemical detection on an electrophoresis microchip. The metal films were first obtained via region-selective electroless deposition of gold or copper films on PDMS substrates by selective region plasma oxidation through shadow masking. Both metal films show uniform surfaces with the thickness at the level of 100 nm. By casting another PDMS layer on the metal films, the cross section of the sandwich structures can be used as nanoband microelectrodes, which can be renewed just by cutting. These nanoband microelectrodes are successfully used as electrochemical detectors in microchip electrophoresis for the detection of amino acids, proteins and neurotransmitter molecules. Moreover, integrating an Au-Cu double-metal detector with a double-channel electrophoresis system, we can easily distinguish electroactive amino acids from that of non-electroactive amino acids.

  12. A novel method for the fabrication of a high-density carbon nanotube microelectrode array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Khalifa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel method for fabricating a high-density carbon nanotube microelectrode array (MEA chip. Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs were synthesized by microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition and thermal chemical vapor deposition. The device was characterized using electrochemical experiments such as cyclic voltammetry, impedance spectroscopy and potential transient measurements. Through-silicon vias (TSVs were fabricated and partially filled with polycrystalline silicon to allow electrical connection from the high-density electrodes to a stimulator microchip. In response to the demand for higher resolution implants, we have developed a unique process to obtain a high-density electrode array by making the microelectrodes smaller in size and designing new ways of routing the electrodes to current sources. Keywords: Microelectrode array, Neural implant, Carbon nanotubes, Through-silicon via interconnects, Microfabrication

  13. Chronic microelectrode investigations of normal human brain physiology using a hybrid depth electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, M A; Volkov, I O; Noh, M D; Granner, M A; Mirsky, R; Garell, P C

    1997-01-01

    Neurosurgeons have unique access to in vivo human brain tissue, and in the course of clinical treatment important scientific advances have been made that further our understanding of normal brain physiology. In the modern era, microelectrode recordings have been used to systematically investigate the cellular properties of lateral temporal cerebral cortex. The current report describes a hybrid depth electrode (HDE) recording technique that was developed to enable neurosurgeons to simultaneously investigate normal cellular physiology during chronic intracranial EEG recordings. The HDE combines microelectrode and EEG recordings sites on a single shaft. Multiple microelectrode recordings are obtained from MRI defined brain sites and single-unit activity is discriminated from these data. To date, over 60 HDEs have been placed in 20 epilepsy surgery patients. Unique physiologic data have been gathered from neurons in numerous brain regions, including amygdala, hippocampus, frontal lobe, insula and Heschl's gyrus. Functional activation studies were carried out without risking patient safety or comfort.

  14. A rapid stereoselective synthesis of fluorinated carbohydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, M.J.; Neeser, J-R.; Hall, L.D.; Pate, B.D.

    1983-01-01

    Acetyl hypofluorite has been added to six unsaturated carbohydrates which contain the vinyl ether moiety. All reactions were rapid (less than 5 min.) at -78 degrees C and gave, with one exception, high yields of isomerically pure products. The hypofluorite was shown to add exclusively in a cis mode and with a strong preference for a particular 'face' of the double bond. As well as the syntheses, NMR data and preferred conformations for the fluorinated products are also discussed

  15. Correlations between histology and neuronal activity recorded by microelectrodes implanted chronically in the cerebral cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreery, Douglas; Cogan, Stuart; Kane, Sheryl; Pikov, Victor

    2016-06-01

    Objective. To quantify relations between the neuronal activity recorded with chronically-implanted intracortical microelectrodes and the histology of the surrounding tissue, using radial distance from the tip sites and time after array implantation as parameters. Approach. ‘Utah’-type intracortical microelectrode arrays were implanted into cats’ sensorimotor cortex for 275-364 days. The brain tissue around the implants was immuno-stained for the neuronal marker NeuN and for the astrocyte marker GFAP. Pearson’s product-moment correlations were used to quantify the relations between these markers and the amplitudes of the recorded neuronal action potentials (APs) and their signal-to-noise ratios (S/N). Main results. S/N was more stable over post-implant time than was AP amplitude, but its increased correlation with neuronal density after many months indicates ongoing loss of neurons around the microelectrodes. S/N was correlated with neuron density out to at least 140 μm from the microelectrodes, while AP amplitude was correlated with neuron density and GFAP density within ˜80 μm. Correlations between AP amplitude and histology markers (GFAP and NeuN density) were strongest immediately after implantation, while correlation between the neuron density and S/N was strongest near the time the animals were sacrificed. Unlike AP amplitude, there was no significant correlation between S/N and density of GFAP around the tip sites. Significance. Our findings indicate an evolving interaction between changes in the tissue surrounding the microelectrodes and the microelectrode’s electrical properties. Ongoing loss of neurons around recording microelectrodes, and the interactions between their delayed electrical deterioration and early tissue scarring around the tips appear to pose the greatest threats to the microelectrodes’ long-term functionality.

  16. Fluorine concentration profiles in archaeological bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coote, G.E.; Sparks, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The nuclear microprobe at the Institute of Nuclear Sciences was applied to the measurement of radial concentration profiles of fluorine, in transverse slices of archaeological bone from humans, moas, and other animals. A beam of 2.5 MeV protons was focused to a rectangular spot 250 microns by 50 microns, traversed along a radial line 3mm long, and gamma rays of 5-7 MeV from the reaction 19 F(p, α#betta#) 16 O were detected in a large sodium iodide crystal. Bombardment caused no detectable loss of fluorine from the bone. Measured profiles display a wide variety of shapes and maximum concentrations. In bones which had been exposed to ground water the fluorine concentration usually increases from the centre towards the surface, sometimes by as much as a factor of eight. The concentration at the surface is usually in the range 0.2 to 1%, though in moa bone from a limestone cave it is only 0.025%. Once a quantitative method of analysis has been developed, based on the shape of the profile rather than its magnitude, these profiles might be useful for dating bone. In the meantime, they could be used to distinguish bones of different ages from a common site

  17. [Health effects of fluorine and its compounds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, K

    1994-12-01

    Fluoride, the ionic form of fluorine, is a natural component of the biosphere and 13th most abundant element in the crust of the earth. It is, therefore, found in a wide range of concentrations in virtually all inanimate and living things. Many trace elements perform a definite function in human metabolism and the question of the value of fluoride, always found in the body, has been raised. Much evidence suggesting that the inclusion of fluoride in drinking water has beneficial as well as adverse effects on human health was obtained. Either alone or in combination with calcium and/or vitamin D, it is used in high daily doses for the treatment of osteoporosis. Although organic fluorine compounds are used in medicine and commerce, the inorganic fluorine compounds are of greater importance toxicologically because they are more readily available. The major pathway of fluoride elimination from the human body is via the kidney. When renal function deteriorates, the ability to excrete fluoride markedly decreases, possibly resulting in greater retention of fluoride in the body. At this point, more research is needed to evaluate the effects of physiological variables on the fluoride metabolism in humans.

  18. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Study of Fluorine-Graphite Intercalation Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panich, A.M.; Goren, S.D.; Nakajima, T.; Vieth, H.-M.; Privalov, A.

    1998-01-01

    To study the origin of semimetal-metal and metal-insulator transformations, localization effects and C-E bonding in fluorine-intercalated graphite C x F, 13 C and 19 F NMR investigations have been carried out for a wide range of fluorine content, 3.8 8, are attributed to mobile fluorine acceptor species which are responsible for the increase of electric conductivity in the dilute compound. When increasing the fluorine content to x ∼ 8 corresponding to the maximum electric conductivity, covalent C-P bonds start to oc- cur. The number of these bonds grows with fluorine content resulting in the decrease in conductivity which is caused by a percolation mechanism rather than by a change in bond length. A difference in 19 F chemical shift for fluorine-intercalated graphite C x F and covalent graphite fluoride (CF) n has been observed and is attributed to different C-P bonding in these compounds

  19. Strain response of stretchable micro-electrodes: Controlling sensitivity with serpentine designs and encapsulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutruf, Philipp; Walia, Sumeet; Nur Ali, Md; Sriram, Sharath; Bhaskaran, Madhu

    2014-01-01

    The functionality of flexible electronics relies on stable performance of thin film micro-electrodes. This letter investigates the behavior of gold thin films on polyimide, a prevalent combination in flexible devices. The dynamic behavior of gold micro-electrodes has been studied by subjecting them to stress while monitoring their resistance in situ. The shape of the electrodes was systematically varied to examine resistive strain sensitivity, while an additional encapsulation was applied to characterize multilayer behavior. The realized designs show remarkable tolerance to repetitive strain, demonstrating that curvature and encapsulation are excellent approaches for minimizing resistive strain sensitivity to enable durable flexible electronics

  20. Surface-modified microelectrode array with flake nanostructure for neural recording and stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ju-Hyun; Choi, Yang-Kyu [Nano-Oriented Bio-Electronics Lab, Department of Electrical Engineering, College of Information Science and Technology, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Gyumin; Nam, Yoonkey, E-mail: ynam@kaist.ac.kr, E-mail: ykchoi@ee.kaist.ac.kr [Department of Bio and Brain Engineering, KAIST, KAIST Institute for Nano-Century, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-26

    A novel microelectrode modification method is reported for neural electrode engineering with a flake nanostructure (nanoflake). The nanoflake-modified electrodes are fabricated by combining conventional lithography and electrochemical deposition to implement a microelectrode array (MEA) on a glass substrate. The unique geometrical properties of nanoflake sharp tips and valleys are studied by optical, electrochemical and electrical methods in order to verify the advantages of using nanoflakes for neural recording devices. The in vitro recording and stimulation of cultured hippocampal neurons are demonstrated on the nanoflake-modified MEA and the clear action potentials are observed due to the nanoflake impedance reduction effect.

  1. Fast prototyping of conducting polymer microelectrodes using resistance-controlled high precision drilling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafka, Jan Robert; Geschke, Oliver; Skaarup, Steen

    2011-01-01

    We present a straightforward method for fast prototyping of microelectrode arrays in the highly conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). Microelectrode arrays were produced by electrical resistance-controlled microdrilling through an insulating polymer layer (TOPAS® 5013...... approach the steady state currents predicted from modeling, but at a much slower rate than expected. This is shown to be caused by the use of electroactive PEDOT electrodes. Subtraction of the latter contribution gives approach to steady state currents within a few seconds, which is in very good agreement...

  2. Microelectrode for energy and current control of nanotip field electron emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lüneburg, S.; Müller, M.; Paarmann, A.; Ernstorfer, R.

    2013-01-01

    Emerging experiments and applications in electron microscopy, holography, and diffraction benefit from miniaturized electron guns for compact experimental setups. We present a highly compact microelectrode integrated field emitter that consists of a tungsten nanotip coated with a few micrometers thick polyimide film followed by a several nanometers thick gold film, both positioned behind the exposed emitter apex by approximately 10–30 μm. The control of the electric field strength at the nanometer scale tip apex allows suppression, extraction, and energy tuning of field-emitted electrons. The performance of the microelectrode is demonstrated experimentally and supported by numerical simulations

  3. Single and double stereoselective fluorination of (E-allylsilanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tredwell Matthew

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Acyclic allylic monofluorides were prepared by electrophilic fluorination of branched (E-allylsilanes with Selectfluor. These reactions proceeded with efficient transfer of chirality from the silylated to the fluorinated stereocentre. Upon double fluorination, an unsymmetrical ethyl syn-2,5-difluoroalk-3-enoic ester was prepared, the silyl group acting as an anti stereodirecting group for the two C-F bond forming events.

  4. Determination of carbon chlorine and fluorine in uranium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kijko, N.I.; Timofeev, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    Techniques of chlorine and fluorine determination and simultaneous determination of carbon and chlorine in electrolytic uranium dioxide are described. The method of chlorine and fluorine determination is based on their separation during oxide pyrohydrolysis with subsequent spectrophotometric analysis of condensate. Lower determination limits constitute 1 μg for chlorine, 0.5 μg for fluorine. Relative standard deviation when the content of impurities analyzed is 10 -3 % constitutes 0.05-0.07

  5. Nucleophilic Fluorination Reactions in Novel Reaction Media for 18F-Fluorine Labeling Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Wook; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Lim, Seok Tae; Sohn, Myung Hee

    2009-01-01

    Noninvasive imaging of molecular and biological processes in living subjects with positron emission tomography (PET) provides exciting opportunities to monitor metabolism and detect diseases in humans. Measuring these processes with PET requires the preparation of specific molecular imaging probes labeled with 18F-fluorine. In this review we describe recent methods and novel trends for the introduction of 18 F-fluorine into molecules which in turn are intended to serve as imaging agents for PET study. Nucleophilic 18 F-fluorination of some halo- and mesyloxyalkanes to the corresponding 18 F-fluoroalkanes with 18 F-fluoride obtained from an 18 O(p,n) 18 F reaction, using novel reaction media system such as an ionic liquidor tert-alcohol, has been studied as a new method for 18 F-fluorine labeling. Ionic liquid method is rapid and particularly convenient because 18 F-fluoride in H 2 O can be added directly to the reaction media, obviating the careful drying that is typically required for currently used radiofluorination methods. The nonpolar protic tert-alcohol enhances the nucleophilicity of the fluoride ion dramatically in the absence of any kind of catalyst, greatly increasing the rate of the nucleophilic fluorination and reducing formation of byproducts compared with conventional methods using dipolar aprotic solvents. The great efficacy of this method is a particular advantage in labeling radiopharmaceuticals with 18 F-fluorine for PET imaging, and it is illustrated by the synthesis of 18 F-fluoride radiolabeled molecular imaging probes, such as 18 F-FDG, 18 F-FLT, 18 F-FP-CIT, and 18 F-FMISO, in high yield and purity and in shorter times compared to conventional syntheses

  6. Comparison of topotactic fluorination methods for complex oxide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, E. J.; Choquette, A. K.; Huon, A.; Kulesa, S. Z.; Barbash, D.; May, S. J.

    2015-06-01

    We have investigated the synthesis of SrFeO3-αFγ (α and γ ≤ 1) perovskite films using topotactic fluorination reactions utilizing poly(vinylidene fluoride) as a fluorine source. Two different fluorination methods, a spin-coating and a vapor transport approach, were performed on as-grown SrFeO2.5 films. We highlight differences in the structural, compositional, and optical properties of the oxyfluoride films obtained via the two methods, providing insight into how fluorination reactions can be used to modify electronic and optical behavior in complex oxide heterostructures.

  7. Comparison of topotactic fluorination methods for complex oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, E. J., E-mail: em582@drexel.edu; Choquette, A. K.; Huon, A.; Kulesa, S. Z.; May, S. J., E-mail: smay@coe.drexel.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Barbash, D. [Centralized Research Facilities, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

    2015-06-01

    We have investigated the synthesis of SrFeO{sub 3−α}F{sub γ} (α and γ ≤ 1) perovskite films using topotactic fluorination reactions utilizing poly(vinylidene fluoride) as a fluorine source. Two different fluorination methods, a spin-coating and a vapor transport approach, were performed on as-grown SrFeO{sub 2.5} films. We highlight differences in the structural, compositional, and optical properties of the oxyfluoride films obtained via the two methods, providing insight into how fluorination reactions can be used to modify electronic and optical behavior in complex oxide heterostructures.

  8. Consultants' meeting on reactor production and utilization of Fluorine-18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera Ruiz, H.

    1986-08-01

    The nuclear research reactors with thermal neutron fluxes in the order of 1x10 13 cm -2 s -1 can produce sufficient quantities of fluorine-18 for biomedical applications. The recent improvements in labelling with fluorine-18 via nucleophilic reactions have made it possible to develop efficient synthesis techniques for preparing useful quantities of radiopharmaceuticals, which are of great interest for studying regional metabolic functions with positron emission tomography. Other non-medical activities in the field of pharmacology, toxicology, no-carrier-added syntheses and reaction mechanisms in fluorine chemistry can also conveniently be studied using fluorine-18 as a tracer

  9. Production of elemental fluorine at IPEN - S. Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrao, A.; Ikuta, A.; Wirkner, F.M.; Silva, F.P. da.

    1981-04-01

    The construction, installation and operation of a pilot unit for electrolytic generation of elemental fluorine are described. The 400 A monel electrolytic cell is heated by a water jacket. The electrolyte has the composition KF.1,8 - 2,0 HF that is maintained by intermittent addition of gaseous HF. Pre-electrolysis is made using nickel anodes which are then exchanged by non-graphitized carbon ones. Systems for purification of elemental fluorine by cryoscopy and absortion of HF, compression and storage for fluorine are described. Pure fluorine is used for the preparation of uranium hexafluoride. Identification of problems and difficulties and their solution are pointed out. (Author) [pt

  10. MODELLING OF KINETICS OF FLUORINE ADSORPTION ONTO MODIFIED DIATOMITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VEACESLAV ZELENTSOV

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents kinetics modelling of adsorption of fluorine onto modified diatomite, its fundamental characteristics and mathematical derivations. Three models of defluoridation kinetics were used to fit the experimental results on adsorption fluorine onto diatomite: the pseudo-first order model Lagergren, the pseudo-second order model G. McKay and H.S. Ho and intraparticle diffusion model of W.J. Weber and J.C. Morris. Kinetics studies revealed that the adsorption of fluorine followed second-order rate model, complimented by intraparticle diffusion kinetics. The adsorption mechanism of fluorine involved three stages – external surface adsorption, intraparticle diffusion and the stage of equilibrium.

  11. Comparison of topotactic fluorination methods for complex oxide films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. Moon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the synthesis of SrFeO3−αFγ (α and γ ≤ 1 perovskite films using topotactic fluorination reactions utilizing poly(vinylidene fluoride as a fluorine source. Two different fluorination methods, a spin-coating and a vapor transport approach, were performed on as-grown SrFeO2.5 films. We highlight differences in the structural, compositional, and optical properties of the oxyfluoride films obtained via the two methods, providing insight into how fluorination reactions can be used to modify electronic and optical behavior in complex oxide heterostructures.

  12. Production of uranium hexafluoride by fluorination tetra-fluoride with elemental fluorine under pressure; Proizvodnja uraovega heksafluorida s tlacnim fluoriranjem uranovega tetrafluorida z elementarnim fluorom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutar, K; Smalc, A; Zemljic, A [Institut Jozef Stefan, Ljubljana (Yugoslavia)

    1984-07-01

    In the introduction a brief description of some activities of fluorine chemistry department at the J. Stefan Institute is given - from production of elemental fluorine to the investigations in the field of uranium technology. Furthermore, a new method for the production of uranium hexafluoride is described more in detail. The method is based on the fluorination of uranium tetrafluoride with elemental fluorine. (author)

  13. [Fluorine as a factor in premature aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machoy-Mokrzyńska, Anna

    2004-01-01

    The use of fluorine compounds in various areas of medicine, particularly in dentistry, as well as in agriculture and industry became very popular in the second half of the 20th century. Fluorine owed this widespread acceptance to observations that its compounds stimulate ossification processes and reduce the prevalence of caries. Unfortunately, growing expectations overshadowed the truth regarding interactions of fluoride on the molecular level. The fact was often ignored that fluoride is toxic, even though laboratory data stood for a careful approach to the benefits of usage. Excessive exposure to fluoride may lead to acute poisoning, hyperemia, cerebral edema, and degeneration of the liver and kidneys. Acute intoxication through the airways produces coughing, choking, and chills, followed by fever and pulmonary edema. Concentrated solutions of fluorine compounds produce difficult to heal necrotic lesions. In spite of these dramatic symptoms, acute intoxications are relatively rare; the more common finding is chronic intoxication attributable to the universal presence of fluorine compounds in the environment. The first noticeable signs of excessive exposure to fluoride in contaminated water, air, and food products include discolorations of the enamel. Dental fluorosis during tooth growth and loss of dentition in adulthood are two consequences of chronic intoxication with fluorine compounds. Abnormalities in mineralization processes affect by and large the osteoarticular system and are associated with changes in the density and structure of the bone presenting as irregular mineralization of the osteoid. Fluorine compounds also act on the organic part of supporting tissues, including collagen and other proteins, and on cells of the connective tissue. These interactions reduce the content of collagen proteins, modify the structure and regularity of collagen fibers, and induce mineralization of collagen. Interactions with cells produce transient activation of

  14. Fluorinated Graphene Prepared by Direct Fluorination of N, O-Doped Graphene Aerogel at Different Temperatures for Lithium Primary Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Bi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Fluorinated graphene (FG has been a star material as a new derivative of graphene. In this paper, a series of fluorinated graphene materials are prepared by using N, O-doped graphene aerogel as precursor via a direct fluorination method, and the effect of fluorination temperature on the FG structure is investigated. The prepared FG samples are systematically characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. It is found that the structure of FG, including features such as layer size, chemical composition, chemical bond state of the component elements, etc., is significantly related to the fluorination temperature. With the change of the fluorination temperature, fluorine atoms enter the graphene framework by a substitution process of the N, O-containing groups, including residual phenol, ether, carbonyl groups, or C–N groups, and the addition to CC bonds, subsequently forming a fluoride with different fluorine contents. The fluorine content increases as the fluorination temperature increases from 200 °C to 300 °C, but decreases at a fluorination temperature of 350 °C due to the decomposition of the fluorinated graphene. The prepared FG samples are used as cathode material for lithium primary batteries. The FG sample prepared at 300 °C gives a high specific capacity of 632 mAh g−1 and a discharge plateau of 2.35 V at a current density of 10 mA g−1, corresponding to a high energy density of 1485 Wh kg−1.

  15. Selective wetting-induced micro-electrode patterning for flexible micro-supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Kon; Koo, Hyung-Jun; Lee, Aeri; Braun, Paul V

    2014-08-13

    Selective wetting-induced micro-electrode patterning is used to fabricate flexible micro-supercapacitors (mSCs). The resulting mSCs exhibit high performance, mechanical stability, stable cycle life, and hold great promise for facile integration into flexible devices requiring on-chip energy storage. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Intraneural stimulation using wire-microelectrode arrays: analysis of force steps in recruitment curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J.P.A.; Rutten, Wim; Boom, H.B.K.

    1996-01-01

    In acute experiments on six Wistar rats, a wire-microelectrode array was inserted into the common peroneal nerve. A 5-channel array and a 24-channel array were available. Each electrode in the array was used to generate a twitch contraction force recruitment curve for the extensor digitorum longus

  17. Piezoelectric translator. A simple and inexpensive device to move microelectrodes and micropipettes small distances rapidly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, W J

    1983-09-01

    A device is described that is capable of rapidly moving microelectrodes and micropipettes over distances up to 15 mu. This piezoelectric transLator uses the diaphragm from virtually any available piezoelectric buzzer in combination with simple physical support and drive electronics. All of the necessary details for the construction of this small device are presented. Each finished unit is about 2 cm long with a diameter of 2 cm and can be readily adapted to existing manipulators. The translator has been found useful in aiding the independent penetration by one or more microelectrodes of single cells or of more complicated multicellular preparations (including those that lie behind a connective tissue layer). This new device offers fine control of microelectrode motion that cannot be obtained by the other methods used to aid microelectrode and micropipette penetration of cell membranes (e.g. capacitance overcompensation--"ringing in"' or "tickling"--or tapping the manipulator base). Finally, the device described in this paper is extremely simple and inexpensive to build.

  18. Performance Improvement by Layout Designs of Conductive Polymer Microelectrode Based Impedimetric Biosensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosati, Giulio; Daprà, Johannes; Cherré, Solène

    2014-01-01

    In this work we present a theoretical, computational, and experimental evaluation of the performance of an impedimetric biosensor based on interdigitated conductive polymer (PEDOT:TsO) microelectrodes in a microfluidic system. The influence of the geometry of the electrodes and microchannels on t...

  19. All-diamond functional surface micro-electrode arrays for brain-slice neural analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vahidpour, F.; Curley, L.; Biró, I.; McDonald, M.; Croux, D.; Pobedinskas, P.; Haenen, K.; Giugliano, M.; Vlčková Živcová, Zuzana; Kavan, Ladislav; Nesládek, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 214, č. 2 (2017), č. článku 1532347. ISSN 1862-6300 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-31783S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : impedance spectroscopy * microelectrode arrays * surface termination Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry OBOR OECD: Electrochemistry (dry cells, batteries, fuel cells, corrosion metals, electrolysis) Impact factor: 1.775, year: 2016

  20. Investigation of parameters controlling the dielectrophoretic assembly of carbon nanotubes on microelectrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimaki, Maria; Bøggild, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Networks of single-walled carbon nanotubes were assembled onto microelectrodes by dielectrophoresis. The dependence of the obtained networks on several assembly parameters such as bias voltage, field application time, frequency, electrode geometry and the nanotube solvent were investigated both s...

  1. A nanoporous alumina microelectrode array for functional cell–chip coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesche, Manuel; Hüske, Martin; Yakushenko, Alexey; Brüggemann, Dorothea; Mayer, Dirk; Offenhäusser, Andreas; Wolfrum, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    The design of electrode interfaces has a strong impact on cell-based bioelectronic applications. We present a new type of microelectrode array chip featuring a nanoporous alumina interface. The chip is fabricated in a combination of top-down and bottom-up processes using state-of-the-art clean room technology and self-assembled generation of nanopores by aluminum anodization. The electrode characteristics are investigated in phosphate buffered saline as well as under cell culture conditions. We show that the modified microelectrodes exhibit decreased impedance compared to planar microelectrodes, which is caused by a nanostructuring effect of the underlying gold during anodization. The stability and biocompatibility of the device are demonstrated by measuring action potentials from cardiomyocyte-like cells growing on top of the chip. Cross sections of the cell–surface interface reveal that the cell membrane seals the nanoporous alumina layer without bending into the sub-50 nm apertures. The nanoporous microelectrode array device may be used as a platform for combining extracellular recording of cell activity with stimulating topographical cues. (paper)

  2. Characterization of Early Cortical Neural Network Development in Multiwell Microelectrode Array Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the development of neural network activity using microelectrode array (MEA) recordings made in multi-well MEA plates (mwMEAs) over the first 12 days in vitro (DIV). In primary cortical cultures made from postnatal rats, action potential spiking activity was essentiall...

  3. Impedance measurements on Au microelectrodes using controlled atmosphere high temperature scanning probe microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Yuehua; Hansen, Karin Vels; Jacobsen, Torben

    2011-01-01

    High temperature impedance measurements on Au microelectrodes deposited on polished yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) pellets were demonstrated using a newly designed controlled atmosphere high temperature scanning probe microscope (CAHT-SPM). Probes based on Pt0.8Ir0.2 were fabricated and employed...

  4. Synthesis and characterization of fluorine compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Carrillo, M.

    1991-01-01

    The ( 18 F) D-glucose, 2-deoxy fluorine ( 18 FDG) is a radio pharmaceutic that is used in nuclear medicine it is utilized mainly in the glucose metabolism. It allows recently to observe the tumors accumulation and growing. The obtention of this radio pharmaceutic can realize by a nucleophilic or electrophilic process through the use of different fluorinated agents obtained as intermediates for introducing the 18 F radionuclide in a final step of synthesis. The first methods already has been studied in the National Institute of Nuclear Research. The second one which is based this work and it was realized through the reaction of acetyl hypo fluorite (CH 3 COOF) with tri acetyl glucal (TAG) in turn they require the obtention of several fluorated compounds that they serve as intermediates for their obtention so that objective of this work was to find the adequate technique for the obtention of anhydride hydrofluoric acid (HF), KF.2 HF and elemental fluorine so as the design and construction of the systems and equipment used for carry out each one of the reactions. Moreover it was designed the system that will be used for the obtention of acetyl hypo fluoride and the synthesis of composite tetraacetilide 3,4,6 tri-D-glucopyranosil fluoride (TAG-F) for that finally by hydrolysis it was obtained the 2-deoxy fluoride-D-glucose (TAG) in inactive. In this system were realized several preliminary tests. The results are showed in the content of this work also the techniques for compounds characterization were given. (Author)

  5. Influence of fluorine on vegetation. [Sinapsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautier, A.

    1915-01-01

    Fluorine occurs in living organisms in 2 forms, always associated with P. In epidermal tissues, nails, hair, and other tissues by which it is finally eliminated, the proportion of F to P is about the same as in apatite. In cells of glands, muscles, and nerves the proportion of F to P sinks 1 to 400. In artificial media of known F content, F in most cases favored the growth, flowering and seed production of plants, especially of Sinapsis. In exceptional cases such as corn, rye and oats, its influence remains doubtful. In rare cases it was found harmful.

  6. Adsorption studies in a fluorinated atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abassin, J.J.; Barberi, P.; Guillouet, Y.; Hartmanshenn, O.; Lambard, J.; Machefer, J.; Michel, J.

    1966-03-01

    This CEA report deals with the adaptation of conventional or non-conventional apparatus to the measurement of the physical and chemical adsorption of corrosive fluorine-containing gases. Various techniques are reviewed, in particular: - thermogravimetry; - volumetry; - use of radio-active tracers; - calorimetry; - hertzian spectroscopy; - infrared spectroscopy. In each of these cases, problems of corrosion call for the use of special techniques which require the extensive use of pure nickel and aluminium or certain of their alloys. Diagrams of the apparatus and some examples of applications are given, together with some details of the performances obtained and of the main drawbacks. (authors) [fr

  7. Phosphorus and Fluorine - The Union for Bioregulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanenko, V.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The review demonstrates the very high efficiency and usefulness of the fluorine-phosphorus combination in order to synthesize organic molecules for purposes of modern life science. For biochemistry, the "P-F-union" in" biomolecules enables investigation of the enzyme structure and mechanism of action more correctly, as well as creation of new anti-body enzymes. Enhancing or regulation of inhibitor properties of these compounds, their stability or selectivity allows creation of new drugs for treatment of numerous serious diseases, especially viral infections and cancer.

  8. Mutasynthesis of fluorinated pactamycin analogues and their antimalarial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almabruk, Khaled H; Lu, Wanli; Li, Yuexin; Abugreen, Mostafa; Kelly, Jane X; Mahmud, Taifo

    2013-04-05

    A mutasynthetic strategy has been used to generate fluorinated TM-025 and TM-026, two biosynthetically engineered pactamycin analogues produced by Streptomyces pactum ATCC 27456. The fluorinated compounds maintain excellent activity and selectivity toward chloroquine-sensitive and multidrug-resistant strains of malarial parasites as the parent compounds. The results also provide insights into the biosynthesis of 3-aminobenzoic acid in S. pactum.

  9. 40 CFR 721.10146 - Partially fluorinated condensation polymer (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... polymer (generic). 721.10146 Section 721.10146 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10146 Partially fluorinated condensation polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as partially fluorinated condensation polymer (PMN P-07-87) is subject to reporting under this...

  10. Implications of chronic daily anti-oxidant administration on the inflammatory response to intracortical microelectrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter-Baker, Kelsey A.; Stewart, Wade G.; Tomaszewski, William H.; Wong, Chun T.; Meador, William D.; Ziats, Nicholas P.; Capadona, Jeffrey R.

    2015-08-01

    Objective. Oxidative stress events have been implicated to occur and facilitate multiple failure modes of intracortical microelectrodes. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the ability of a sustained concentration of an anti-oxidant and to reduce oxidative stress-mediated neurodegeneration for the application of intracortical microelectrodes. Approach. Non-functional microelectrodes were implanted into the cortex of male Sprague Dawley rats for up to sixteen weeks. Half of the animals received a daily intraperitoneal injection of the natural anti-oxidant resveratrol, at 30 mg kg-1. The study was designed to investigate the biodistribution of the resveratrol, and the effects on neuroinflammation/neuroprotection following device implantation. Main results. Daily maintenance of a sustained range of resveratrol throughout the implantation period resulted in fewer degenerating neurons in comparison to control animals at both two and sixteen weeks post implantation. Initial and chronic improvements in neuronal viability in resveratrol-dosed animals were correlated with significant reductions in local superoxide anion accumulation around the implanted device at two weeks after implantation. Controls, receiving only saline injections, were also found to have reduced amounts of accumulated superoxide anion locally and less neurodegeneration than controls at sixteen weeks post-implantation. Despite observed benefits, thread-like adhesions were found between the liver and diaphragm in resveratrol-dosed animals. Significance. Overall, our chronic daily anti-oxidant dosing scheme resulted in improvements in neuronal viability surrounding implanted microelectrodes, which could result in improved device performance. However, due to the discovery of thread-like adhesions, further work is still required to optimize a chronic anti-oxidant dosing regime for the application of intracortical microelectrodes.

  11. Method for producing fluorinated diamond-like carbon films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakovirta, Marko J.; Nastasi, Michael A.; Lee, Deok-Hyung; He, Xiao-Ming

    2003-06-03

    Fluorinated, diamond-like carbon (F-DLC) films are produced by a pulsed, glow-discharge plasma immersion ion processing procedure. The pulsed, glow-discharge plasma was generated at a pressure of 1 Pa from an acetylene (C.sub.2 H.sub.2) and hexafluoroethane (C.sub.2 F.sub.6) gas mixture, and the fluorinated, diamond-like carbon films were deposited on silicon substrates. The film hardness and wear resistance were found to be strongly dependent on the fluorine content incorporated into the coatings. The hardness of the F-DLC films was found to decrease considerably when the fluorine content in the coatings reached about 20%. The contact angle of water on the F-DLC coatings was found to increase with increasing film fluorine content and to saturate at a level characteristic of polytetrafluoroethylene.

  12. Fluorine-18 nuclide and its PET imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Mingfang

    2003-01-01

    Fluorine-18 has predominant physical features with long half-life and the enough time for preparation of radiopharmaceuticals and PET imaging. Also, the chemical nature of fluorine-18 is similar to that of hydrogen, and the fluorine-18 labelled organic molecules can not change the non-labelled molecular character. Therefore, fluorine-18 is widely applied in the labelled glucose, amino acids, fatty acids, nucleotide, receptor-ligand and neurotransmitter molecular etc., with the propose of detecting the blood flow, metabolism, synthesis of the protein and the neurotransmitter function in brain by PET imaging. It is very important in the basic science and clinical research to understand and master the preparation of the fluorine-18 and its labelled compounds

  13. Enhanced Bioactivity and Bacteriostasis of Surface Fluorinated Polyetheretherketone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meiling; Ouyang, Liping; Lu, Tao; Wang, Heying; Meng, Fanhao; Yang, Yan; Ning, Congqin; Ma, Jingzhi; Liu, Xuanyong

    2017-05-24

    Although polyetheretherketone (PEEK) has been considered as a potential orthopedic and dental application material due to its similar elastic modulus as bones, inferior osseointegration and bacteriostasis of PEEK hampers its clinical application. In this work, fluorinated PEEK was constructed via plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) followed by hydrofluoric acid treatment to ameliorate the osseointegration and antibacterial properties of PEEK. The surface microstructure, composition, and hydrophilicity of all samples were investigated. Rat bone mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs) were cultured on their surfaces to estimate bioactivity. The fluorinated PEEK can enhance the cell adhesion, cell spreading, proliferation, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity compared to pristine PEEK. Furthermore, the fluorinated PEEK surface exhibits good bacteriostatic effect against Porphyromonas gingivalis, which is one of the major periodontal pathogens. In summary, we provide an effective route to introduce fluorine and the results reveal that the fluorinated PEEK can enhance the osseointegration and bacteriostasis, which provides a potential candidate for dental implants.

  14. Enhanced nanoscale friction on fluorinated graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sangku; Ko, Jae-Hyeon; Jeon, Ki-Joon; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Park, Jeong Young

    2012-12-12

    Atomically thin graphene is an ideal model system for studying nanoscale friction due to its intrinsic two-dimensional (2D) anisotropy. Furthermore, modulating its tribological properties could be an important milestone for graphene-based micro- and nanomechanical devices. Here, we report unexpectedly enhanced nanoscale friction on chemically modified graphene and a relevant theoretical analysis associated with flexural phonons. Ultrahigh vacuum friction force microscopy measurements show that nanoscale friction on the graphene surface increases by a factor of 6 after fluorination of the surface, while the adhesion force is slightly reduced. Density functional theory calculations show that the out-of-plane bending stiffness of graphene increases up to 4-fold after fluorination. Thus, the less compliant F-graphene exhibits more friction. This indicates that the mechanics of tip-to-graphene nanoscale friction would be characteristically different from that of conventional solid-on-solid contact and would be dominated by the out-of-plane bending stiffness of the chemically modified graphene. We propose that damping via flexural phonons could be a main source for frictional energy dissipation in 2D systems such as graphene.

  15. Low-fluorine Stockwork Molybdenite Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludington, Steve; Hammarstrom, Jane; Piatak, Nadine M.

    2009-01-01

    Low-fluorine stockwork molybdenite deposits are closely related to porphyry copper deposits, being similar in their tectonic setting (continental volcanic arc) and the petrology (calc-alkaline) of associated igneous rock types. They are mainly restricted to the Cordillera of western Canada and the northwest United States, and their distribution elsewhere in the world may be limited. The deposits consist of stockwork bodies of molybdenite-bearing quartz veinlets that are present in and around the upper parts of intermediate to felsic intrusions. The deposits are relatively low grade (0.05 to 0.2 percent Mo), but relatively large, commonly >50 million tons. The source plutons for these deposits range from granodiorite to granite in composition; the deposits primarily form in continental margin subduction-related magmatic arcs, often concurrent with formation of nearby porphyry copper deposits. Oxidation of pyrite in unmined deposits or in tailings and waste rock during weathering can lead to development of acid-rock drainage and limonite-rich gossans. Waters associated with low-fluorine stockwork molybdenite deposits tend to be nearly neutral in pH; variable in concentrations of molybdenum (10,000 ug/L); below regulatory guidelines for copper, iron, lead, zinc, and mercury; and locally may exceed guidelines for arsenic, cadmium, and selenium.

  16. In Situ Identification and Stratification of Monochloramine Inhibition Effects on Nitrifying Biofilms as Determined by the Use of Microelectrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nitrifying biofilm grown in an annular biofilm reactor and the microbial deactivation achieved after monochloramine treatment were investigated using microelectrodes. The nitrifying biofilm ammonium microprofile was measured and the effect of monochloramine on nitrifying bio...

  17. Microphase separated structure and surface properties of fluorinated polyurethane resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudaryanto; Nishino, T.; Hori, Y.; Nakamae, K.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of fluorination on microphase separation and surface properties of segmented polyurethane (PU) resin were investigated. A series of fluorinated polyurethane resin (FPU) was synthesized by reacting a fluorinated diol with aromatic diisocyanate. The microphase separated structure of FPU was studied by thermal analysis, and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) as well as wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD). The surface structure and properties were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and dynamic contact angle measurement. The incorporation of fluorine into hard segment brings the FPU to have a higher hard domain cohesion and increase the phase separation, however localization of fluorine on the surface could not be observed. On the other hands, localization of fluorine on the surface could be achieved for soft segment fluorinated PU without any significant change in microphase separated structure. The result from this study give an important basic information for designing PU coating material with a low surface energy and strong adhesion as well as for development of release film on pressure sensitive adhesive tape. (author)

  18. Fluorine walk: The impact of fluorine in quinolone amides on their activity against African sleeping sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berninger, Michael; Erk, Christine; Fuß, Antje; Skaf, Joseph; Al-Momani, Ehab; Israel, Ina; Raschig, Martina; Güntzel, Paul; Samnick, Samuel; Holzgrabe, Ulrike

    2018-05-25

    Human African Trypanosomiasis, also known as African sleeping sickness, is caused by the parasitic protozoa of the genus Trypanosoma. If there is no pharmacological intervention, the parasites can cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB), inevitably leading to death of the patients. Previous investigation identified the quinolone amide GHQ168 as a promising lead compound having a nanomolar activity against T. b. brucei. Here, the role of a fluorine substitution at different positions was investigated in regard to toxicity, pharmacokinetics, and antitrypanosomal activity. This 'fluorine walk' led to new compounds with improved metabolic stability and consistent activity against T. b. brucei. The ability of the new quinolone amides to cross the BBB was confirmed using an 18 F-labelled quinolone amide derivative by means of ex vivo autoradiography of a murine brain. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Vertically aligned carbon nanotube-sheathed carbon fibers as pristine microelectrodes for selective monitoring of ascorbate in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Ling; Yu, Ping; Hao, Jie; Zhang, Meining; Zhu, Lin; Dai, Liming; Mao, Lanqun

    2014-04-15

    Using as-synthesized vertically aligned carbon nanotube-sheathed carbon fibers (VACNT-CFs) as microelectrodes without any postsynthesis functionalization, we have developed in this study a new method for in vivo monitoring of ascorbate with high selectivity and reproducibility. The VACNT-CFs are formed via pyrolysis of iron phthalocyanine (FePc) on the carbon fiber support. After electrochemical pretreatment in 1.0 M NaOH solution, the pristine VACNT-CF microelectrodes exhibit typical microelectrode behavior with fast electron transfer kinetics for electrochemical oxidation of ascorbate and are useful for selective ascorbate monitoring even with other electroactive species (e.g., dopamine, uric acid, and 5-hydroxytryptamine) coexisting in rat brain. Pristine VACNT-CFs are further demonstrated to be a reliable and stable microelectrode for in vivo recording of the dynamic increase of ascorbate evoked by intracerebral infusion of glutamate. Use of a pristine VACNT-CF microelectrode can effectively avoid any manual electrode modification and is free from person-to-person and/or electrode-to-electrode deviations intrinsically associated with conventional CF electrode fabrication, which often involves electrode surface modification with randomly distributed CNTs or other pretreatments, and hence allows easy fabrication of highly selective, reproducible, and stable microelectrodes even by nonelectrochemists. Thus, this study offers a new and reliable platform for in vivo monitoring of neurochemicals (e.g., ascorbate) to largely facilitate future studies on the neurochemical processes involved in various physiological events.

  20. Gold ultra-microelectrode arrays: application to the steady-state voltammetry of hydroxide ion in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordeig, Olga; Banks, Craig E; Davies, Trevor J; del Campo, F Javier; Muñoz, Francesc Xavier; Compton, Richard G

    2006-05-01

    Gold ultra-microelectrode arrays are used to explore the electrochemical oxidation of hydroxide ions and are shown to be analytical useful. Two types of ultra-microelectrode arrays are used; the first consist of 256 individual electrodes of 5 microm in radius, 170 of which are electrochemically active in a cubic arrangement which are separated from their nearest neighbour by a distance of 100 microm. The second array compromises 2597 electrodes of 2.5 microm in radius and of which 1550 of which are electrochemically active in a hexagonal arrangement separated by the nearest neighbour by 55 microm. Well defined voltammetric waves are found with peak currents proportional to the concentration of hydroxide ions in the range 50 microM to 1 mM. Detection limits of 20 microM using the 170 ultra-microelectrode and 10 microM with the 1550 ultra-microelectrode array are shown to be possible but with a higher sensitivity of 4 mA M(-1) observed using the 1550 ultra-microelectrode array compared to 1.2 mA M(-1) with the 170 ultra-microelectrode array.

  1. Electronic transport properties of (fluorinated) metal phthalocyanine

    KAUST Repository

    Fadlallah, M M; Eckern, U; Romero, A H; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2015-01-01

    The magnetic and transport properties of the metal phthalocyanine (MPc) and F16MPc (M = Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Ag) families of molecules in contact with S–Au wires are investigated by density functional theory within the local density approximation, including local electronic correlations on the central metal atom. The magnetic moments are found to be considerably modified under fluorination. In addition, they do not depend exclusively on the configuration of the outer electronic shell of the central metal atom (as in isolated MPc and F16MPc) but also on the interaction with the leads. Good agreement between the calculated conductance and experimental results is obtained. For M = Ag, a high spin filter efficiency and conductance is observed, giving rise to a potentially high sensitivity for chemical sensor applications.

  2. Fluorinated tropinyl esters for application with PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emran, A.M.; Cherif, A.; Yang, D.J.; Flynn, D.D.

    1993-01-01

    Regulation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (MAR) number and function occurs with various exogenous chemicals and pathological conditions. Use of positron emission tomography (PET) has potential in investigating MAR in living humans. This requires synthesis of appropriate radiolabelled tracers with high affinity and high specific activity. Several analogs of atropine and tropacocaine, including fluorinated derivatives, were synthesized and evaluated for their MAR binding affinity. Specific structural alterations correlated with changes in receptor affinity. Substitution was directed primarily on aromatic rings of the acid moieties. In vitro binding assays demonstrated that molecular substitution on some of the compounds retained significant affinity for MAR. Changing the acid moiety on these molecules resulted in a change in MAR affinity. Substitution o the aromatic ring of the acid moiety was also associated with change in receptor affinity. Preliminary radiofluorination has been successful. These compounds provide new tools to study MAR dynamics in the living human brain

  3. Electronic transport properties of (fluorinated) metal phthalocyanine

    KAUST Repository

    Fadlallah, M M

    2015-12-21

    The magnetic and transport properties of the metal phthalocyanine (MPc) and F16MPc (M = Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Ag) families of molecules in contact with S–Au wires are investigated by density functional theory within the local density approximation, including local electronic correlations on the central metal atom. The magnetic moments are found to be considerably modified under fluorination. In addition, they do not depend exclusively on the configuration of the outer electronic shell of the central metal atom (as in isolated MPc and F16MPc) but also on the interaction with the leads. Good agreement between the calculated conductance and experimental results is obtained. For M = Ag, a high spin filter efficiency and conductance is observed, giving rise to a potentially high sensitivity for chemical sensor applications.

  4. Effect of plasma fluorination variables on the deposition and growth of partially fluorinated polymer over PMMA films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana da Silva Padilha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an investigation was made of the modification of film surface of Poly(methylmethacrylate (PMMA using the plasma polymerization technique. PMMA films 10 µm thick were obtained by Spin-Coating starting from a chloroform solution (15.36% w/w. The films were exposed to the plasma of CHF3 at different gas pressures and exposure times to increase the thickness of fluorinated polymers onto PMMA films. The plasma fluorinated optical films were characterized by gravimetry, FTIR-ATR, contact angle of wetting, SEM and AFM. The surface fluorination of PMMA films can be inferred by the increase in contact angle under all experimental conditions, and confirmed with FTIR-ATR analysis. Gravimetry showed an increase of the fluorinated polymer layer over PMMA films, being 1.55 µm thick at 0.7 torr and 40 minutes of plasma exposure. The SEM analysis showed a well-defined layer of fluorinated polymer, with fluorine being detected in the EDS analysis. The film roughness for the fluorinated polymers was around of 200 Å, quite satisfactory for a 1.55 µm cladding.

  5. Monitoring Ion Activities In and Around Cells Using Ion-Selective Liquid-Membrane Microelectrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D. Parker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Determining the effective concentration (i.e., activity of ions in and around living cells is important to our understanding of the contribution of those ions to cellular function. Moreover, monitoring changes in ion activities in and around cells is informative about the actions of the transporters and/or channels operating in the cell membrane. The activity of an ion can be measured using a glass microelectrode that includes in its tip a liquid-membrane doped with an ion-selective ionophore. Because these electrodes can be fabricated with tip diameters that are less than 1 μm, they can be used to impale single cells in order to monitor the activities of intracellular ions. This review summarizes the history, theory, and practice of ion-selective microelectrode use and brings together a number of classic and recent examples of their usefulness in the realm of physiological study.

  6. Fabrication of gas sensor based on field ionization from SWCNTs with tripolar microelectrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Shengbing; Zhang, Yong; Duan, Zhemin

    2012-12-01

    We report the nanofabrication of a sulfur dioxide (SO2) sensor with a tripolar on-chip microelectrode utilizing a film of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as the field ionization cathode, where the ion flow current and the partial discharge current generated by the field ionization process of gaseous molecules can be gauged to gas species and concentration. The variation of the sensitivity is less than 4% for all of the tested devices, and the sensor has selectivity against gases such as He, NO2, CO, H2, SO2 and O2. Further, the sensor response presents well-defined and reproducible linear behavior with regard to concentration in the range investigated and a detection limitation of tripolar on-chip microelectrode with SWCNTs as a cathode exhibits an impressive performance with respect to stability and anti-oxidation behavior, which are significantly better than had been possible before in the traditional bipolar sensor under explicit circumstances at room temperature.

  7. Theoretical and experimental comparison of microelectrode sensing configurations for impedimetric cell monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carminati, M.; Caviglia, Claudia; Heiskanen, Arto

    2013-01-01

    microelectrodes using a versatile custom-made monitoring platform including a 24-channel miniaturized potentiostat. The characterization of bare microelectrodes in buffer and tracking experiments with HeLa cells over 16 hours demonstrate that the coplanar configuration provides a higher sensitivity to cell......A theoretical and experimental comparison between vertical and coplanar interdigitated sensing configurations for impedimetric cell growth tracking is presented. These widely-adopted approaches are quantitatively compared on the same cell populations and on the same 10 μm interdigitated...... adhesion and spreading (Cell Index = 1.6 vs. 0.4) albeit at a higher frequency of maximum sensitivity (100 kHz vs. 24 kHz) shifting over time. © 2014 Taylor & Francis Group....

  8. Nanowire-templated microelectrodes for high-sensitivity pH detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antohe, V.A.; Radu, Adrian; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Mária

    2009-01-01

    A highly sensitive pH capacitive sensor has been designed by confined growth of vertically aligned nanowire arrays on interdigited microelectrodes. The active surface of the device has been functionalized with an electrochemical pH transducer (polyaniline). We easily tune the device features...... by combining lithographic techniques with electrochemical synthesis. The reported electrical LC resonance measurements show considerable sensitivity enhancement compared to conventional capacitive pH sensors realized with microfabricated interdigited electrodes. The sensitivity can be easily improved...

  9. Chronic, percutaneous connector for electrical recording and stimulation with microelectrode arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Kedar G; Lee, Kye Young; Tolosa, Vanessa; Tooker, Angela; Felix, Sarah; Benett, William; Pannu, Satinderpall

    2014-01-01

    The translation of advances in neural stimulation and recording research into clinical practice hinges on the ability to perform chronic experiments in awake and behaving animal models. Advances in microelectrode array technology, most notably flexible polymer arrays, have significantly improved reliability of the neural interface. However, electrical connector technology has lagged and is prone to failure from non-biocompatibility, large size, contamination, corrosion, and difficulty of use. We present a novel chronic, percutaneous electrical connector system that is suitable for neural stimulation and recording. This system features biocompatible materials, low connect and disconnect forces, passive alignment, and a protective cap during non-use. We have successfully designed, assembled, and tested in vitro both a 16-channel system and a high density 64-channel system. Custom, polyimide, 16-channel, microelectrode arrays were electrically assembled with the connector system and tested using cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. This connector system is versatile and can be used with a variety of microelectrode array technologies for chronic studies.

  10. Microfabrication, characterization and in vivo MRI compatibility of diamond microelectrodes array for neural interfacing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hébert, Clément, E-mail: clement.hebert@cea.fr [Institut Néel, CNRS et Université Joseph Fourier, BP 166, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Warnking, Jan; Depaulis, Antoine [INSERM, U836, Grenoble Institut des Neurosciences, Grenoble (France); Garçon, Laurie Amandine [Institut Néel, CNRS et Université Joseph Fourier, BP 166, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); CEA/INAC/SPrAM/CREAB, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Mermoux, Michel [Université Grenoble Alpes, LEPMI, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, LEPMI, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Eon, David [Institut Néel, CNRS et Université Joseph Fourier, BP 166, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Mailley, Pascal [CEA-LETI-DTBS Minatec, 17 rue des Martyres, 38054 Grenoble (France); Omnès, Franck [Institut Néel, CNRS et Université Joseph Fourier, BP 166, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2015-01-01

    Neural interfacing still requires highly stable and biocompatible materials, in particular for in vivo applications. Indeed, most of the currently used materials are degraded and/or encapsulated by the proximal tissue leading to a loss of efficiency. Here, we considered boron doped diamond microelectrodes to address this issue and we evaluated the performances of a diamond microelectrode array. We described the microfabrication process of the device and discuss its functionalities. We characterized its electrochemical performances by cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy in saline buffer and observed the typical diamond electrode electrochemical properties, wide potential window and low background current, allowing efficient electrochemical detection. The charge storage capacitance and the modulus of the electrochemical impedance were found to remain in the same range as platinum electrodes used for standard commercial devices. Finally we observed a reduced Magnetic Resonance Imaging artifact when the device was implanted on a rat cortex, suggesting that boron doped-diamond is a very promising electrode material allowing functional imaging. - Highlights: • Microfabrication of all-diamond microelectrode array • Evaluation of as-grown nanocrystalline boron-doped diamond for electrical neural interfacing • MRI compatibility of nanocrystalline boron-doped diamond.

  11. Static and Dynamic Measurement of Dopamine Adsorption in Carbon Fiber Microelectrodes Using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Serrano, Nilka; Pagan, Miraida; Colón-Rodríguez, Joanisse; Fuster, Christian; Vélez, Román; Almodovar-Faria, Jose; Jiménez-Rivera, Carlos; Cunci, Lisandro

    2018-02-06

    In this study, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used for the first time to study the adsorption of dopamine in carbon fiber microelectrodes. In order to show a proof-of-concept, static and dynamic measurements were taken at potentials ranging from -0.4 to 0.8 V versus Ag|AgCl to demonstrate the versatility of this technique to study dopamine without the need of its oxidation. We used electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and single frequency electrochemical impedance to measure different concentrations of dopamine as low as 1 nM. Moreover, the capacitance of the microelectrodes surface was found to decrease due to dopamine adsorption, which is dependent on its concentration. The effect of dissolved oxygen and electrochemical oxidation of the surface in the detection of dopamine was also studied. Nonoxidized and oxidized carbon fiber microelectrodes were prepared and characterized by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Optimum working parameters of the electrodes, such as frequency and voltage, were obtained for better measurement. Electrochemical impedance of dopamine was determined at different concentration, voltages, and frequencies. Finally, dynamic experiments were conducted using a flow cell and single frequency impedance in order to study continuous and real-time measurements of dopamine.

  12. Field-programmable lab-on-a-chip based on microelectrode dot array architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gary; Teng, Daniel; Lai, Yi-Tse; Lu, Yi-Wen; Ho, Yingchieh; Lee, Chen-Yi

    2014-09-01

    The fundamentals of electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) digital microfluidics are very strong: advantageous capability in the manipulation of fluids, small test volumes, precise dynamic control and detection, and microscale systems. These advantages are very important for future biochip developments, but the development of EWOD microfluidics has been hindered by the absence of: integrated detector technology, standard commercial components, on-chip sample preparation, standard manufacturing technology and end-to-end system integration. A field-programmable lab-on-a-chip (FPLOC) system based on microelectrode dot array (MEDA) architecture is presented in this research. The MEDA architecture proposes a standard EWOD microfluidic component called 'microelectrode cell', which can be dynamically configured into microfluidic components to perform microfluidic operations of the biochip. A proof-of-concept prototype FPLOC, containing a 30 × 30 MEDA, was developed by using generic integrated circuits computer aided design tools, and it was manufactured with standard low-voltage complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology, which allows smooth on-chip integration of microfluidics and microelectronics. By integrating 900 droplet detection circuits into microelectrode cells, the FPLOC has achieved large-scale integration of microfluidics and microelectronics. Compared to the full-custom and bottom-up design methods, the FPLOC provides hierarchical top-down design approach, field-programmability and dynamic manipulations of droplets for advanced microfluidic operations.

  13. Novel microelectrode-based online system for monitoring N2O gas emissions during wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Ricardo; Oehmen, Adrian; Pijuan, Maite

    2014-11-04

    Clark-type nitrous oxide (N2O) microelectrodes are commonly used for measuring dissolved N2O levels, but have not previously been tested for gas-phase applications, where the N2O emitted from wastewater systems can be directly quantified. In this study, N2O microelectrodes were tested and validated for online gas measurements, and assessed with respect to their temperature, gas flow, composition dependence, gas pressure, and humidity. An exponential correlation between temperature and sensor signal was found, whereas gas flow, composition, pressure, and humidity did not have any influence on the signal. Two of the sensors were tested at different N2O concentration ranges (0-422.3, 0-50, 0-10, and 0-2 ppmv N2O) and exhibited a linear response over each range. The N2O emission dynamics from two laboratory scale sequencing batch reactors performing ammonia or nitrite oxidation were also monitored using one of the microsensors and results were compared with two other analytical methods. Results show that N2O emissions were accurately described with these microelectrodes and support their application for assessing gaseous N2O emissions from wastewater treatment systems. Advantages of the sensors as compared to conventional measurement techniques include a wider quantification range of N2O fluxes, and a single measurement system that can assess both liquid and gas-phase N2O dynamics.

  14. Control of the new method of determining fluorine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautier, A; Clausmann, P

    1912-06-24

    The detection of minute amounts of fluorine by etching is described. The new method has been used to detect 0.01-0.001 mg F in distilled water, natural and artificial mineral waters, minerals, bones, brain and blood.

  15. Curie temperature rising by fluorination for Sm2Fe17

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matahiro Komuro

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Fluorine atoms can be introduced to Sm2Fe17 using XeF2 below 423 K. The resulting fluorinated Sm2Fe17 powders have ferromagnetic phases containing Sm2Fe17FY1(0fluorination. The largest unit cell volume among the rhombohedral Sm2Fe17 compounds is 83.8 nm3, which is 5.8% larger than Sm2Fe17. The rhombohedral Sm2Fe17 with the largest unit cell volume is dissociated above 873 K, and fluorination increases Curie temperature from 403 K for Sm2Fe17 to 675 K. This increase can be explained by the magneto-volume effect.

  16. Fluorination of Isotopically Labeled Turbostratic and Bernal Stacked Bilayer Graphene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ek Weis, Johan; da Costa, Sara; Frank, Otakar; Bastl, Zdeněk; Kalbáč, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 3 (2015), s. 1081-1087 ISSN 1521-3765 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LL1301 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : fluorination * graphene * bilayers Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  17. Injuries caused to fruit trees by fluorine containing gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovay, E

    1958-01-01

    Determinations of chlorine and fluorine have been made on leaves of various fruit trees growing in the vicinity of two factories, the first one being an aluminium factory and the second one a soda factory. The gases released by the first factory are of the fluorine type and those of the second one of the chlorine type. While the concentrations of fluorine are generally higher than 10 mg per 100 g of leaf dry matter, they hardly reached 2.5 mg% in 1957; the aluminium factory was not in operation that year. Moreover no symptoms of burns were observed in 1957 on the leaves of the fruit trees. In contrast to fluorine, the concentrations of chlorine remained constant.

  18. Fluorine: A key enabling element in the nuclear fuel cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Crouse, P.L.

    2015-01-01

    Fluorine - in the form of hydrofluoric acid, anhydrous hydrogen fluoride, elemental gaseous fluorine, fluoropolymers, volatile inorganic fluorides, and more - has played, and still plays, a major role in the nuclear industry. In order to enrich uranium, the metal has to be in the gaseous state. While more exotic methods are known, the standard and most cost-competitive way of achieving this is by means of uranium hexafluoride (UF6). This compound sublimates at low temperatures, and the vapour...

  19. Follow-up of fluorine pollution effect on grapevine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferjani Ben Abdallah

    2004-12-01

    By another way, our results seem to show that full mature grapevine leaves may constitute an efficient tool to assess fluorine pollution impact. Berries contamination seems to be affected directly by the factory smoke, there is no endogenous supply. Likewise, by its characteristic necrosis in the leaf boundaries, grapevine may be considered as a bioindicator variety of fluorine pollution which can be used in mapping polluted areas.

  20. Fluorine Abundances in AGB Carbon Stars: New Results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abia, C.; de Laverny, P.; Recio-Blanco, A.; Domínguez, I.; Cristallo, S.; Straniero, O.

    2009-09-01

    A recent reanalysis of the fluorine abundance in three Galactic Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) carbon stars (TX Psc, AQ Sgr and R Scl) by Abia et al. (2009) results in estimates of fluorine abundances systematically lower by ~0.8 dex on average, with respect to the sole previous estimates by Jorissen, Smith & Lambert (1992). The new F abundances are in better agreement with the predictions of full-network stellar models of low-mass (<3 Msolar) AGB stars.

  1. Corrosion-Mitigating, Bondable, Fluorinated Barrier Coating for Anodized Magnesium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    ARL-TR-7669 ● MAY 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Corrosion -Mitigating, Bondable, Fluorinated Barrier Coating for Anodized...ARL-TR-7669 ● MAY 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Corrosion -Mitigating, Bondable, Fluorinated Barrier Coating for Anodized...TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) May 2016 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) January–December 2015 4. TITLE

  2. Fluorine in the solar neighborhood: Chemical evolution models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitoni, E.; Matteucci, F.; Jönsson, H.; Ryde, N.; Romano, D.

    2018-04-01

    Context. In light of new observational data related to fluorine abundances in solar neighborhood stars, we present chemical evolution models testing various fluorine nucleosynthesis prescriptions with the aim to best fit those new data. Aim. We consider chemical evolution models in the solar neighborhood testing various nucleosynthesis prescriptions for fluorine production with the aim of reproducing the observed abundance ratios [F/O] versus [O/H] and [F/Fe] versus [Fe/H]. We study in detail the effects of various stellar yields on fluorine production. Methods: We adopted two chemical evolution models: the classical two-infall model, which follows the chemical evolution of halo-thick disk and thin disk phases; and the one-infall model, which is designed only for thin disk evolution. We tested the effects on the predicted fluorine abundance ratios of various nucleosynthesis yield sources, that is, asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, Wolf-Rayet (W-R) stars, Type II and Type Ia supernovae, and novae. Results: The fluorine production is dominated by AGB stars but the W-R stars are required to reproduce the trend of the observed data in the solar neighborhood with our chemical evolution models. In particular, the best model both for the two-infall and one-infall cases requires an increase by a factor of 2 of the W-R yields. We also show that the novae, even if their yields are still uncertain, could help to better reproduce the secondary behavior of F in the [F/O] versus [O/H] relation. Conclusions: The inclusion of the fluorine production by W-R stars seems to be essential to reproduce the new observed ratio [F/O] versus [O/H] in the solar neighborhood. Moreover, the inclusion of novae helps to reproduce the observed fluorine secondary behavior substantially.

  3. Synthesis of a fluorine-18 labeled hypoxic cell sensitizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerabek, P.A.; Dischino, D.D.; Kilbourn, M.R.; Welch, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of this work was to synthesize a positron emitting radiosensitizing agent as a potential in vivo marker of hypoxic regions within tumors, and ischemic areas of the heart and brain. The method involved radiochemical synthesis of fluorine-18 labeled 1-(2-nitro-imidazolyl)-3-fluoro-2-propanol via nucleophilic ring opening of 1-(2,3-epoxypropyl)2-nitro-imidzole by fluorine-18 labeled tetrabutylammonium fluoride (TBAF). Fluroine-18 TBAF was prepared by the exchange reaction of TBAF with aqueous flourine-18 produced by proton bombardment of enriched oxygen-18 water. The aqueous solution was evaporated carefully by azeotropic distillation with acetonitrile. The fluorine-18 labeled TBAF was taken up in N,N-dimethylacetamide or dimethysulfoxide, then reacted with the episode at 60C for 30 minutes. Separation and identification of the fluorine-18 labeled products by high performance liquid chromatography showed a radioactive peak with a retention time identical to that of 1-(2-nitro-1-imidazolyl)-3-fluoro-2-propanol and a second radioactive peak with a retention time three minutes longer in addition to unreacted fluorine-18 labeled TBAF. The second radioactive peak may represent fluorine-18 labeled 1-2-nitro-1-imidazolyl)-2-fluoro-3-propanol. The average radiochemical yield from reactions run in N,N-dimethylacetamide using 20 micromoles of TBAF and 1-2 mg of the epoxide was l7% in a synthesis time of about 40 minutes. The synthesis of fluorohydrins by the reaction of fluorine-18 labeled TBAF on epoxides represents a new method for the preparation of fluorine-18 labeled fluorohydrins

  4. The metal-carbon-fluorine system for improving hydrogen storage by using metal and fluorine with different levels of electronegativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Ji Sun; Lee, Young-Seak [Department of Fine Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, BK21-E2M, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea); Park, Soo-Jin [Department of Chemistry, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea)

    2009-02-15

    In order to improve the capacity of hydrogen storage using activated carbon nanofibers, metal and fluorine were introduced into the activated carbon nanofibers by electrospinning, heat treatment, and direct fluorination. The pore structure of the samples was developed by the KOH activation process and investigated using nitrogen isotherms and micropore size distribution. The specific surface area and total pore volume approached 2800 m{sup 2}/g and 2.7 cc/g, respectively. Because of the electronegativity gap between the two elements (metal and fluorine), the electron of a hydrogen molecule can be attracted to one side. This reaction effectively guides the hydrogen molecule into the carbon nanofibers. The amount of hydrogen storage was dramatically increased in this metal-carbon-fluorine system; hydrogen content was as high as 3.2 wt%. (author)

  5. Localized electron transfer rates and microelectrode-based enrichment of microbial communities within a phototrophic microbial mat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome eBabauta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phototrophic microbial mats frequently exhibit sharp, light-dependent redox gradients that regulate microbial respiration on specific electron acceptors as a function of depth. In this work, a benthic phototrophic microbial mat from Hot Lake, a hypersaline, epsomitic lake located near Oroville in north-central Washington, was used to develop a microscale electrochemical method to study local electron transfer processes within the mat. To characterize the physicochemical variables influencing electron transfer, we initially quantified redox potential, pH and dissolved oxygen gradients by depth in the mat under photic and aphotic conditions. We further demonstrated that power output of a mat fuel cell was light-dependent. To study local electron transfer processes, we deployed a microscale electrode (microelectrode with tip size ~20 µm. To enrich a subset of microorganisms capable of interacting with the microelectrode, we anodically polarized the microelectrode in the mat. Subsequently, to characterize the microelectrode-associated community and compare it to the neighboring mat community, we performed amplicon sequencing of the V1-V3 region of the 16S gene. Differences in Bray-Curtis beta diversity, illustrated by large changes in relative abundance at the phylum level, suggested successful enrichment of specific mat community members on the microelectrode surface. The microelectrode-associated community exhibited substantially reduced alpha diversity and elevated relative abundances of Prosthecochloris, Loktanella, Catellibacterium, other unclassified members of Rhodobacteraceae, Thiomicrospira, and Limnobacter, compared with the community at an equivalent depth in the mat. Our results suggest that local electron transfer to an anodically polarized microelectrode selected for a specific microbial population, with substantially more abundance and diversity of sulfur-oxidizing phylotypes compared with the neighboring mat community.

  6. Localized electron transfer rates and microelectrode-based enrichment of microbial communities within a phototrophic microbial mat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babauta, Jerome T; Atci, Erhan; Ha, Phuc T; Lindemann, Stephen R; Ewing, Timothy; Call, Douglas R; Fredrickson, James K; Beyenal, Haluk

    2014-01-01

    Phototrophic microbial mats frequently exhibit sharp, light-dependent redox gradients that regulate microbial respiration on specific electron acceptors as a function of depth. In this work, a benthic phototrophic microbial mat from Hot Lake, a hypersaline, epsomitic lake located near Oroville in north-central Washington, was used to develop a microscale electrochemical method to study local electron transfer processes within the mat. To characterize the physicochemical variables influencing electron transfer, we initially quantified redox potential, pH, and dissolved oxygen gradients by depth in the mat under photic and aphotic conditions. We further demonstrated that power output of a mat fuel cell was light-dependent. To study local electron transfer processes, we deployed a microscale electrode (microelectrode) with tip size ~20 μm. To enrich a subset of microorganisms capable of interacting with the microelectrode, we anodically polarized the microelectrode at depth in the mat. Subsequently, to characterize the microelectrode-associated community and compare it to the neighboring mat community, we performed amplicon sequencing of the V1-V3 region of the 16S gene. Differences in Bray-Curtis beta diversity, illustrated by large changes in relative abundance at the phylum level, suggested successful enrichment of specific mat community members on the microelectrode surface. The microelectrode-associated community exhibited substantially reduced alpha diversity and elevated relative abundances of Prosthecochloris, Loktanella, Catellibacterium, other unclassified members of Rhodobacteraceae, Thiomicrospira, and Limnobacter, compared with the community at an equivalent depth in the mat. Our results suggest that local electron transfer to an anodically polarized microelectrode selected for a specific microbial population, with substantially more abundance and diversity of sulfur-oxidizing phylotypes compared with the neighboring mat community.

  7. Aromatic fluorine compounds. VI. Displacement of aryl fluorine in diazonium salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, G.C.; Oesterling, R.E.

    1956-01-01

    Several chlorofluorobenzenes have been isolated from the Schiemann synthesis of fluorobenzenes. These have been shown to be the products of two side reactions occurring during thermal decomposition of the dry benzenediazonium fluoborate salt containing coprecipitated sodium chloride, an unavoidable contaminant in large preparations involving the use of hydrochloric acid and sodium fluoborate. The major side reaction and its chloro product were unexpected; a unique displacement of fluorine ortho to the diazonium group was observed. Replacement of the diazo group with chlorine was the predicted side reaction which proved to be minor. Conditions causing the side reactions and the isolation and identification of the products are described.

  8. Plasma deposited fluorinated films on porous membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gancarz, Irena [Department of Polymer and Carbon Materials, Wrocław University of Technology, 50-370 Wrocław (Poland); Bryjak, Marek, E-mail: marek.bryjak@pwr.edu.pl [Department of Polymer and Carbon Materials, Wrocław University of Technology, 50-370 Wrocław (Poland); Kujawski, Jan; Wolska, Joanna [Department of Polymer and Carbon Materials, Wrocław University of Technology, 50-370 Wrocław (Poland); Kujawa, Joanna; Kujawski, Wojciech [Nicolaus Copernicus University, Faculty of Chemistry, 7 Gagarina St., 87-100 Torun (Poland)

    2015-02-01

    75 KHz plasma was used to modify track etched poly(ethylene terephthalate) membranes and deposit on them flouropolymers. Two fluorine bearing monomers were used: perflourohexane and hexafluorobenzene. The modified surfaces were analyzed by means of attenuated total reflection infra-red spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and wettability. It was detected that hexaflourobenxene deposited to the larger extent than perflourohaxane did. The roughness of surfaces decreased when more fluoropolymer was deposited. The hydrophobic character of surface slightly disappeared during 20-days storage of hexaflourobenzene modified membrane. Perfluorohexane modified membrane did not change its character within 120 days after modification. It was expected that this phenomenon resulted from post-reactions of oxygen with radicals in polymer deposits. The obtained membranes could be used for membrane distillation of juices. - Highlights: • Plasma deposited hydrophobic layer of flouropolymers. • Deposition degree affects the surface properties. • Hydrohilization of surface due to reaction of oxygen with entrapped radicals. • Possibility to use modified porous membrane for water distillation and apple juice concentration.

  9. Regulatory requirements for fluorine 18-labelled radiotracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prigent, A.

    2005-01-01

    Although European and French regulations define radiopharmaceuticals and their different conditions for use, there is no legal status of the radiotracer. Radiotracer is commonly known as a molecular entity administered in tracer doses, that means at very low masses (e.g., nano-mol amounts) and, consequently, without any pharmacological effect. A radiotracer can meet the specifications of either a radiochemical (usually restricted to research in animal models) or a radiopharmaceutical (human use for diagnostic imaging or research projects). Besides the 'proprietary medicinal product', different status have been defined to allow other uses in humans, referring to 'magistral formula' preparation, 'officinal formula' preparation, investigational medicinal product for clinical trials, or to a radiopharmaceutical with a 'patient named authorization'. However, because of the short half-life of fluorine 18 and expanding development of molecular imaging techniques using positron emission tomography (PET), the current regulation is sometimes considered as inappropriate with regard to the small-size production required for such on-site manufactured radiopharmaceuticals. It is often claimed that it could be very difficult to comply with the current Good Manufactured Practice (cGMP). As previously done for radiopharmaceuticals based on monoclonal antibodies, specific adjustments for PET radiopharmaceuticals are under discussion and the 'note for guidance on radiopharmaceuticals' will be soon revised by the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) of the European Medicines Agency (EMEA). In many cases, a status of 'magistral' product might be attributed to a PET radiopharmaceutical manufactured according with European Pharmacopoeia monographs. (author)

  10. Synthesis of Regiospecifically Fluorinated Conjugated Dienamides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Chowdhury

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Modular synthesis of regiospecifically fluorinated 2,4-diene Weinreb amides, with defined stereochemistry at both double bonds, was achieved via two sequential Julia-Kocienski olefinations. In the first step, a Z-a-fluorovinyl Weinreb amide unit with a benzothiazolylsulfanyl substituent at the allylic position was assembled. This was achieved via condensation of two primary building blocks, namely 2-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-ylsulfonyl-2-fluoro-N-methoxy-N-methylacetamide (a Julia-Kocienski olefination reagent and 2-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-ylthioacetaldehyde (a bifunctional building block. This condensation was highly Z-selective and proceeded in a good 76% yield. Oxidation of benzothiazolylsulfanyl moiety furnished a second-generation Julia-Kocienski olefination reagent, which was used for the introduction of the second olefinic linkage via DBU-mediated condensations with aldehydes, to give (2Z,4E/Z-dienamides in 50%–74% yield. Although olefinations were 4Z-selective, (2Z,4E/Z-2-fluoro-2,4-dienamides could be readily isomerized to the corresponding 5-substituted (2Z,4E-2-fluoro-N-methoxy-N-methylpenta-2,4-dienamides in the presence of catalytic iodine.

  11. Fluorinated Phenylalanine Precursor Resistance in Yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian S. Murdoch

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Development of a counter-selection method for phenylalanine auxotrophy could be a useful tool in the repertoire of yeast genetics. Fluorinated and sulfurated precursors of phenylalanine were tested for toxicity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. One such precursor, 4-fluorophenylpyruvate (FPP, was found to be toxic to several strains from the Saccharomyces and Candida genera. Toxicity was partially dependent on ARO8 and ARO9, and correlated with a strain’s ability to convert FPP into 4-fluorophenylalanine (FPA. Thus, strains with deletions in ARO8 and ARO9, having a mild phenylalanine auxotrophy, could be separated from a culture of wild-type strains using FPP. Tetrad analysis suggests FPP resistance in one strain is due to two genes. Strains resistant to FPA have previously been shown to exhibit increased phenylethanol production. However, FPP resistant isolates did not follow this trend. These results suggest that FPP could effectively be used for counter-selection but not for enhanced phenylethanol production.

  12. Synthesis of Regiospecifically Fluorinated Conjugated Dienamides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Mohammad; Mandal, Samir K.; Banerjee, Shaibal; Zajc, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Modular synthesis of regiospecifically fluorinated 2,4-diene Weinreb amides, with defined stereochemistry at both double bonds, was achieved via two sequential Julia-Kocienski olefinations. In the first step, a Z-α-fluorovinyl Weinreb amide unit with a benzothiazolylsulfanyl substituent at the allylic position was assembled. This was achieved via condensation of two primary building blocks, namely 2-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-ylsulfonyl)-2-fluoro-N-methoxy-N-methylacetamide (a Julia-Kocienski olefination reagent) and 2-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-ylthio)acetaldehyde (a bifunctional building block). This condensation was highly Z-selective and proceeded in a good 76% yield. Oxidation of benzothiazolylsulfanyl moiety furnished a second-generation Julia-Kocienski olefination reagent, which was used for the introduction of the second olefinic linkage via DBU-mediated condensations with aldehydes, to give (2Z,4E/Z)-dienamides in 50%–74% yield. Although olefinations were 4Z-selective, (2Z,4E/Z)-2-fluoro-2,4-dienamides could be readily isomerized to the corresponding 5-substituted (2Z,4E)-2-fluoro-N-methoxy-N-methylpenta-2,4-dienamides in the presence of catalytic iodine. PMID:24727415

  13. Inhibition of the cluster of differentiation 14 innate immunity pathway with IAXO-101 improves chronic microelectrode performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, John K.; Ravikumar, Madhumitha; Shoffstall, Andrew J.; Ereifej, Evon S.; Kovach, Kyle M.; Chang, Jeremy; Soffer, Arielle; Wong, Chun; Srivastava, Vishnupriya; Smith, Patrick; Protasiewicz, Grace; Jiang, Jingle; Selkirk, Stephen M.; Miller, Robert H.; Sidik, Steven; Ziats, Nicholas P.; Taylor, Dawn M.; Capadona, Jeffrey R.

    2018-04-01

    Objective. Neuroinflammatory mechanisms are hypothesized to contribute to intracortical microelectrode failures. The cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14) molecule is an innate immunity receptor involved in the recognition of pathogens and tissue damage to promote inflammation. The goal of the study was to investigate the effect of CD14 inhibition on intracortical microelectrode recording performance and tissue integration. Approach. Mice implanted with intracortical microelectrodes in the motor cortex underwent electrophysiological characterization for 16 weeks, followed by endpoint histology. Three conditions were examined: (1) wildtype control mice, (2) knockout mice lacking CD14, and (3) wildtype control mice administered a small molecule inhibitor to CD14 called IAXO-101. Main results. The CD14 knockout mice exhibited acute but not chronic improvements in intracortical microelectrode performance without significant differences in endpoint histology. Mice receiving IAXO-101 exhibited significant improvements in recording performance over the entire 16 week duration without significant differences in endpoint histology. Significance. Full removal of CD14 is beneficial at acute time ranges, but limited CD14 signaling is beneficial at chronic time ranges. Innate immunity receptor inhibition strategies have the potential to improve long-term intracortical microelectrode performance.

  14. The emission of fluorine gas during incineration of fluoroborate residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Yuheng, E-mail: fengyh@tongji.edu.cn [Thermal & Environmental Engineering Institute, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Jiang, Xuguang [State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Chen, Dezhen [Thermal & Environmental Engineering Institute, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2016-05-05

    Highlights: • Gaseous fluorine products were identified when combusting fluoroborate residue. • BF{sub 3} and SiF{sub 4} tend to be hydrolyzed into HF with the increase of temperature. • The emission of BF{sub 3} and SiF{sub 4} from the chamber could be negligible at 1100 °C. - Abstract: The emission behaviors of wastes from fluorine chemical industry during incineration have raised concerns because multiple fluorine products might danger human health. In this study, fluorine emission from a two-stage incineration system during the combustion of fluoroborate residue was examined. In a TG-FTIR analysis BF{sub 3}, SiF{sub 4} and HF were identified as the initial fluorine forms to be released, while fluorine gases of greenhouse effect such as CF{sub 4} and SF{sub 6} were not found. Below 700 °C, NaBF{sub 4} in the sample decomposed to generate BF{sub 3}. Then part of BF{sub 3} reacted with SiO{sub 2} in the system to form SiF{sub 4} or hydrolyzed to HF. At higher temperatures, the NaF left in the sample was gradually hydrolyzed to form HF. A lab-scale two-stage tube furnace is established to simulate the typical two-stage combustion chamber in China. Experimental tests proved that HF was the only fluorine gas in the flue gas, and emissions of BF{sub 3} and SiF{sub 4} can be negligible. Thermodynamic equilibrium model predicted that all SiF{sub 4} would be hydrolyzed at 1100 °C in the secondary-chamber, which agreed well with the experimental results.

  15. Fluorine emissions of industrial origin. Effect of fluorine on plants and animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristiani, H

    1927-05-01

    Shrinkage and drooping of cress plants and grass, and lesions in dandelion leaves, caused by a 1-hr exposure to fluorine vapors in a test chamber are described. In the vicinity of an aluminum plant, where the electrolyte bath is composed of cryolite, a sodium aluminum fluoride, vegetables and the leaves of fruit trees show signs of burning and great damage can be observed on forest trees. Animals are affected by fluoride through their fodder. Guinea pigs fed plant food exposed to hydrofluoric acid gases develop fluorosis, but with very small concentrations, death may occur only after a year or more. Cows afflicted with this disease due to fodder harvested in fluorine-infested areas show initial symptoms of lameness of one or more legs, stamping by the animal, resting on one leg and then the other, inability to rise, and spontaneous sprains and bone fractures occurring in the stable. After several months, the animal gradually grows thin with a dry, hard hide and eventually dies. Experiments with corpses of animals who died of fluorosis have shown that their bones are more brittle than those of normal healthy animals.

  16. Low-loss microelectrodes fabricated using reverse-side exposure for a tunable ferroelectric capacitor application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Yong-Kyu; Stevenson Kenney, J.; Hunt, Andrew T.; Allen, Mark G.

    2006-02-01

    Narrowly spaced thick microelectrodes are fabricated using a self-aligned multiple reverse-side exposure scheme for an improved quality-factor tunable ferroelectric capacitor. The microelectrodes are fabricated on a functional substrate—a thin film ferroelectric (barium strontium titanate, BST; BaxSr1-xTiO3) coated sapphire substrate, which has an electric-field-dependent dielectric property providing tuning functionality, as well as UV transparency permitting an additional degree of freedom in photolithography steps. The microelectrode process has been applied to interdigitated capacitor fabrication, where a critical challenge is maintaining narrow gaps between electrodes for high tunability, while simultaneously forming thick electrodes to minimize conductor loss. A single mask, self-aligned reverse-side exposure through the transparent substrate achieves both these goals. A single-finger test capacitor with an electrode gap of 1.2 µm and an electrode thickness of 2.2 µm is fabricated and characterized. Tunability (T = 100 × (C0 - Cbias)/C0) of 33% at 10 V has been achieved at 100 kHz. The 2.2 µm thick structure shows improvement of Q-factor compared to that of a 0.1 µm thick structure. To demonstrate the scalability of this process, a 102-finger interdigitated capacitor is fabricated and characterized at 100 kHz and 1 GHz. The structure is embedded in a 25 µm thick epoxy resin SU-8 for passivation. A quality factor decrease of 15-25%, tunability decrease of 2-3% and capacitance increase of 6% are observed due to the expoxy resin after passivation. High frequency performance of the capacitor has been measured to be 15.9 pF of capacitance, 28.1% tunability at 10 V and a quality factor of 16 (at a 10 V dc bias) at 1 GHz.

  17. Modeling microelectrode biosensors: free-flow calibration can substantially underestimate tissue concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Adam J H; Wall, Mark J; Richardson, Magnus J E

    2017-03-01

    Microelectrode amperometric biosensors are widely used to measure concentrations of analytes in solution and tissue including acetylcholine, adenosine, glucose, and glutamate. A great deal of experimental and modeling effort has been directed at quantifying the response of the biosensors themselves; however, the influence that the macroscopic tissue environment has on biosensor response has not been subjected to the same level of scrutiny. Here we identify an important issue in the way microelectrode biosensors are calibrated that is likely to have led to underestimations of analyte tissue concentrations. Concentration in tissue is typically determined by comparing the biosensor signal to that measured in free-flow calibration conditions. In a free-flow environment the concentration of the analyte at the outer surface of the biosensor can be considered constant. However, in tissue the analyte reaches the biosensor surface by diffusion through the extracellular space. Because the enzymes in the biosensor break down the analyte, a density gradient is set up resulting in a significantly lower concentration of analyte near the biosensor surface. This effect is compounded by the diminished volume fraction (porosity) and reduction in the diffusion coefficient due to obstructions (tortuosity) in tissue. We demonstrate this effect through modeling and experimentally verify our predictions in diffusive environments. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Microelectrode biosensors are typically calibrated in a free-flow environment where the concentrations at the biosensor surface are constant. However, when in tissue, the analyte reaches the biosensor via diffusion and so analyte breakdown by the biosensor results in a concentration gradient and consequently a lower concentration around the biosensor. This effect means that naive free-flow calibration will underestimate tissue concentration. We develop mathematical models to better quantify the discrepancy between the calibration and tissue

  18. Fluorine level in some city water supplies of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoque, A.K.M.F.; Abedin, M.J.; Rahman, M.M.; Mia, M. Y.; Tarafder, M.S.A.; Khaliquzzaman, M.; Hossain, M.D.; Khan, A.H.

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear reaction based Proton Induced Gamma Emission (PIGE) analytical method was employed for the quantitative measurement of fluorine in the city water supplies of the major cities of Bangladesh. 102 water samples collected from 14 city supplies were analyzed and these samples contain fluorine in the range of 0.03 to 1.10 mg/L with a mean of 0.33 ± 0.21 mg/L. It was also observed that except the samples of Barisal, Dinajpur and Rajshahi, all other water samples analyzed contain a much lower amount of fluorine than the maximum permissible value for Bangladesh in drinking water, which is 1 mg/L. The mean concentration of fluorine in the samples of Barisal, Dinajpur and Rajshahi are respectively 0.79±0.01, 0.71±0.13 and 0.92±0.18 mg/L. For the 55 samples of Dhaka city supply the mean fluorine concentration is 0.31±0.17 mg/L and that of 9 samples from Chittagong city supply is 0.19±0.10 mg/L, which is the lowest among the 14 city supply samples analyzed in this study

  19. Photoemission studies of fluorine functionalized porous graphitic carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganegoda, Hasitha; Jensen, David S.; Olive, Daniel; Cheng, Lidens; Segre, Carlo U.; Linford, Matthew R.; Terry, Jeff

    2012-03-01

    Porous graphitic carbon (PGC) has unique properties desirable for liquid chromatography applications when used as a stationary phase. The polar retention effect on graphite (PREG) allows efficient separation of polar and non-polar solutes. Perfluorinated hydrocarbons however lack polarizabilty and display strong lipo- and hydrophobicity, hence common lipophilic and hydrophilic analytes have low partition coefficiency in fluorinated stationary phases. Attractive interaction between fluorinated stationary phase and fluorinated analytes results in strong retention compared to non-fluorinated analytes. In order to change the selectivities of PGC, it is necessary to develop a bonded PGC stationary phase. In this study, we have synthesized perfluorinated, PGC using hepatadecafluoro-1-iodooctane, under different temperature conditions. Surface functionalization of the raw material was studied using photoelectron spectroscopy (PES). Results indicate the existence of fluorine containing functional groups, -CF, -CF2 along with an intercalated electron donor species. Multiple oxygen functional groups were also observed, likely due to the presence of oxygen in the starting material. These oxygen species may be responsible for significant modifications to planer and tetrahedral carbon ratios.

  20. Photoemission studies of fluorine functionalized porous graphitic carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganegoda, Hasitha; Olive, Daniel; Cheng, Lidens; Segre, Carlo U.; Terry, Jeff [Department of Physics, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois 60616 (United States); Jensen, David S.; Linford, Matthew R. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah 84602 (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Porous graphitic carbon (PGC) has unique properties desirable for liquid chromatography applications when used as a stationary phase. The polar retention effect on graphite (PREG) allows efficient separation of polar and non-polar solutes. Perfluorinated hydrocarbons however lack polarizabilty and display strong lipo- and hydrophobicity, hence common lipophilic and hydrophilic analytes have low partition coefficiency in fluorinated stationary phases. Attractive interaction between fluorinated stationary phase and fluorinated analytes results in strong retention compared to non-fluorinated analytes. In order to change the selectivities of PGC, it is necessary to develop a bonded PGC stationary phase. In this study, we have synthesized perfluorinated, PGC using hepatadecafluoro-1-iodooctane, under different temperature conditions. Surface functionalization of the raw material was studied using photoelectron spectroscopy (PES). Results indicate the existence of fluorine containing functional groups, -CF, -CF{sub 2} along with an intercalated electron donor species. Multiple oxygen functional groups were also observed, likely due to the presence of oxygen in the starting material. These oxygen species may be responsible for significant modifications to planer and tetrahedral carbon ratios.

  1. Quantitative monitoring of the fluorination process by neutron counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, P.A.; Appert, Q.D.; Biddle, R.S.; Kelley, T.A.; Martinez, M.M.; West, M.H.

    1993-01-01

    Plutonium metal is produced by reducing PuF 4 prepared from PuO 2 by fluorination. Both fluorination and reduction are batch processes at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility. The conversion of plutonium oxide to fluoride greatly increases the neutron yield, a result of the high cross section for alpha-neutron (α,n) reactions on fluorine targets compared to the (more than 100 times) smaller α,n yield on oxygen targets. Because of the increase, total neutron counting can be used to monitor the conversion process. This monitoring ability can lead to an improved metal product, reduced scrap for recycle, waste reduction, minimized reagent usage, and reduce personnel radiation exposures. A new stirred-bed fluorination process has been developed simultaneously with a recent evaluation of an automated neutron-counting instrument for quantitative process monitoring. Neutrons are counted with polyethylene-moderated 3 He-gas proportional counters. Results include a calibration of the real-time neutron-count-rate indicator for the extent of fluorination using reference values obtained from destructive analysis of samples from the blended fluoroinated batch

  2. Fluorine-18-labelled molecules: synthesis and application in medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolle, F.; Perrio, C.; Barre, L.; Lasne, M.C.; Le Bars, D.

    2006-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is one of the more powerful available techniques for medical imaging. It relies on the use of molecules labelled with a positron emitter (β + ). Among those emitters, fluorine-18, available from a cyclotron, is a radionuclide of choice because of its relatively long-half-life (109.8 min) and the relatively low energy of the emitted-positron. The electrophilic form of fluorine-18 ([ 18 F]F 2 or reagents derived from [ 18 F]F 2 ) is mainly used for hydrogen or metal substitutions on aromatic or vinylic carbons. The presence of the stable isotope (fluorine-19) in the radiotracers limits their use in medical imaging. The nucleophilic form of fluorine-18 (alkaline mono-fluoride, K[ 18 F]F, the most used), obtained from irradiation of enriched water, is widely used in aliphatic and (hetero)aromatic substitutions for the synthesis of radiotracers with high specific radioactivity. Some examples of radio-fluorinated tracers used in PET are presented, as well as some of their in vivo applications in human. (authors)

  3. Fluorinated Compounds in US Fast Food Packaging | Science ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are highly persistent synthetic chemicals, some of which have been associated with cancer, developmental toxicity, immunotoxicity, and other health effects. PFASs in grease-resistant food packaging can leach into food and increase dietary exposure. We collected ∼400 samples of food contact papers, paperboard containers, and beverage containers from fast food restaurants throughout the United States and measured total fluorine using particle-induced γ-ray emission (PIGE) spectroscopy. PIGE can rapidly and inexpensively measure total fluorine in solid-phase samples. We found that 46% of food contact papers and 20% of paperboard samples contained detectable fluorine (>16 nmol/cm2). Liquid chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry analysis of a subset of 20 samples found perfluorocarboxylates, perfluorosulfonates, and other known PFASs and/or unidentified polyfluorinated compounds (based on nontargeted analysis). The total peak area for PFASs was higher in 70% of samples (10 of 14) with a total fluorine level of >200 nmol/cm2 compared to six samples with a total fluorine level of food packaging demonstrates their potentially significant contribution to dietary PFAS exposure and envi

  4. DNA-barcode directed capture and electrochemical metabolic analysis of single mammalian cells on a microelectrode array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Erik S; Hsiao, Sonny C; Onoe, Hiroaki; Bertozzi, Carolyn R; Francis, Matthew B; Mathies, Richard A

    2009-07-21

    A microdevice is developed for DNA-barcode directed capture of single cells on an array of pH-sensitive microelectrodes for metabolic analysis. Cells are modified with membrane-bound single-stranded DNA, and specific single-cell capture is directed by the complementary strand bound in the sensor area of the iridium oxide pH microelectrodes within a microfluidic channel. This bifunctional microelectrode array is demonstrated for the pH monitoring and differentiation of primary T cells and Jurkat T lymphoma cells. Single Jurkat cells exhibited an extracellular acidification rate of 11 milli-pH min(-1), while primary T cells exhibited only 2 milli-pH min(-1). This system can be used to capture non-adherent cells specifically and to discriminate between visually similar healthy and cancerous cells in a heterogeneous ensemble based on their altered metabolic properties.

  5. Electrohydrodynamic actuation of co-flowing liquids by means of microelectrode arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Sanchez, Pablo; Ferney, Mathieu; Ramos, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Electric fields induce forces at the interface between liquids with different electrical properties (conductivity and/or permittivity). We explore how to use these forces for manipulating two coflowing streams of liquids in a microchannel. A microelectrode array is fabricated at the bottom of the channel and one of the two liquids is labelled with a fluorescent dye for observing the phenomenon. The diffuse interface between the two liquids is deflected depending on the ac signal and conductivity (or permittivity) ratio between the liquids. Only a few volts are needed for observing the interface destabilization, in contrast with other electrode configurations where hundreds of volts are applied.

  6. Electrohydrodynamic actuation of co-flowing liquids by means of microelectrode arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Sanchez, Pablo; Ferney, Mathieu; Ramos, Antonio, E-mail: pablogarcia@us.es [Depto. de Electronica y Electromagnetismo, University of Sevilla (Spain)

    2011-06-23

    Electric fields induce forces at the interface between liquids with different electrical properties (conductivity and/or permittivity). We explore how to use these forces for manipulating two coflowing streams of liquids in a microchannel. A microelectrode array is fabricated at the bottom of the channel and one of the two liquids is labelled with a fluorescent dye for observing the phenomenon. The diffuse interface between the two liquids is deflected depending on the ac signal and conductivity (or permittivity) ratio between the liquids. Only a few volts are needed for observing the interface destabilization, in contrast with other electrode configurations where hundreds of volts are applied.

  7. 75 FR 74773 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Additional Sources of Fluorinated GHGs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ...-mechanical systems (MEMS) manufacturing facilities. Fluorinated Gas Production....... 325120 Industrial gases... of Industrial Greenhouse Gases. Electrical Equipment Use General Stationary Fuel Combustion. Imports and Exports of Fluorinated Suppliers of Industrial Greenhouse GHGs Inside Pre-charged Equipment Gases...

  8. Partially fluorinated aarylene polyethers and their ternary blends with PBI and H3PO4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qingfeng; Jensen, Jens Oluf; Pan, Chao

    2008-01-01

    Ternary blend membranes based on sulphonated partially fluorinated arylene polyether, polybenzimidazole (PBI) and phosphoric acid were prepared and characterised as electrolyte for high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Partially fluorinated arylene polyether was first prepared from...

  9. Compilation of Requirements for Safe Handling of Fluorine and Fluorine-Containing Products of Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrada, J.J.

    2000-04-03

    Public Law (PL) 105-204 requires the U.S. Department of Energy to develop a plan for inclusion in the fiscal year 2000 budget for conversion of the Department's stockpile of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF{sub 6}) to a more stable form over an extended period. The conversion process into a more stable form will produce fluorine compounds (e.g., elemental fluorine or hydrofluoric acid) that need to be handled safely. This document compiles the requirements necessary to handle these materials within health and safety standards, which may apply in order to ensure protection of the environment and the safety and health of workers and the public. Fluorine is a pale-yellow gas with a pungent, irritating odor. It is the most reactive nonmetal and will react vigorously with most oxidizable substances at room temperature, frequently with ignition. Fluorine is a severe irritant of the eyes, mucous membranes, skin, and lungs. In humans, the inhalation of high concentrations causes laryngeal spasm and broncospasms, followed by the delayed onset of pulmonary edema. At sublethal levels, severe local irritation and laryngeal spasm will preclude voluntary exposure to high concentrations, unless the individual is trapped or incapacitated. A blast of fluorine gas on the shaved skin of a rabbit causes a second degree burn. Lower concentrations cause severe burns of insidious onset, resulting in ulceration, similar to the effects produced by hydrogen fluoride. Hydrofluoric acid is a colorless, fuming liquid or gas with a pungent odor. It is soluble in water with release of heat. Ingestion of an estimated 1.5 grams produced sudden death without gross pathological damage. Repeated ingestion of small amounts resulted in moderately advanced hardening of the bones. Contact of skin with anhydrous liquid produces severe burns. Inhalation of AHA or aqueous hydrofluoric acid mist or vapors can cause severe respiratory tract irritation that may be fatal. Based on the extreme chemical

  10. A system for the synthesis of uranium hexafluoride by high pressure fluorination of uranium oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elizalde T, J.; Saniger B, J.M.; Nava S, R.

    1986-01-01

    An equipment for the synthesis of uranium hexafluoride by a direct fluorination method is reported. The equipment is composed by a gaseous fluorine supply, a gas burette, a reactor tube inside a protective shield, a soda-lime chemical trap and a vacuum system. The fluorination is accomplished at a pressure of about 70 kg/cm 2 (1000 lb in 2 ), using gaseous fluorine. (Author). 5 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  11. Enhanced optical limiting effect in fluorine-functionalized graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang; Wang, Zhengping; Wang, Duanliang; Wang, Shenglai; Xu, Xinguang

    2017-09-01

    Nonlinear optical absorption of fluorine-functionalized graphene oxide (F-GO) solution was researched by the open-aperture Z-scan method using 1064 and 532 nm lasers as the excitation sources. The F-GO dispersion exhibited strong optical limiting property and the fitted results demonstrated that the optical limiting behavior was the result of a two-photon absorption process. For F-GO nanosheets, the two-photon absorption coefficients at 1064 nm excitation are 20% larger than the values at 532 nm excitation and four times larger than that of pure GO nanosheets. It indicates that the doping of fluorine can effectively improve the nonlinear optical property of GO especially in infrared waveband, and fluorine-functionalized graphene oxide is an excellent nonlinear absorption material in infrared waveband.

  12. Friction Properties of Surface-Fluorinated Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wal, R. L. Vander; Miyoshi, K.; Street, K. W.; Tomasek, A. J.; Peng, H.; Liu, Y.; Margrave, J. L.; Khabashesku, V. N.

    2005-01-01

    Surface modification of the tubular or sphere-shaped carbon nanoparticles through chemical treatment, e.g., fluorination, is expected to significantly affect their friction properties. In this study, a direct fluorination of the graphene-built tubular (single-walled carbon nanotubes) structures has been carried out to obtain a series of fluorinated nanotubes (fluoronanotubes) with variable C(n)F (n =2-20) stoichiometries. The friction coefficients for fluoronanotubes, as well as pristine and chemically cut nanotubes, were found to reach values as low as 0.002-0.07, according to evaluation tests run in contact with sapphire in air of about 40% relative humidity on a ball-on-disk tribometer which provided an unidirectional sliding friction motion. These preliminary results demonstrate ultra-low friction properties and show a promise in applications of surface modified nanocarbons as a solid lubricant.

  13. Fluorinated Polymers as Smart Materials for Advanced Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa F. Cardoso

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Fluorinated polymers constitute a unique class of materials that exhibit a combination of suitable properties for a wide range of applications, which mainly arise from their outstanding chemical resistance, thermal stability, low friction coefficients and electrical properties. Furthermore, those presenting stimuli-responsive properties have found widespread industrial and commercial applications, based on their ability to change in a controlled fashion one or more of their physicochemical properties, in response to single or multiple external stimuli such as light, temperature, electrical and magnetic fields, pH and/or biological signals. In particular, some fluorinated polymers have been intensively investigated and applied due to their piezoelectric, pyroelectric and ferroelectric properties in biomedical applications including controlled drug delivery systems, tissue engineering, microfluidic and artificial muscle actuators, among others. This review summarizes the main characteristics, microstructures and biomedical applications of electroactive fluorinated polymers.

  14. Determination of fluorine trace amounts in metallic uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukisheva, T N; Bolshakova, A S; Yefimova, N S

    1976-05-01

    A simple and rapid method was proposed for the determination of fluorine in metallic uranium without the removal of the latter. The method is based on the weakening of the color intensity of a complex of zirconium with xylenol orange in the presence of fluorine in a 1 N solution with respect to hydrochloric acid. For preparation for photometry, the solution to be analyzed is neutralized with ammonia to a pH of approximately 3. It is suggested that a complex of sulfosalicylic acid with uranium (VI) be used as the indicator in neutralization. The required acidity in the solution subjected to photometry is provided by the addition of a 5 N hydrochloric acid solution of zirconium. The coefficient of variation V/sub 15/ (at a fluorine content 3x10/sup -3/%) is 10%. In 7 h, 15-20 determinations can be performed.

  15. [Assessment of Soil Fluorine Pollution in Jinhua Fluorite Ore Areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Qun-feng; Zhou, Xiao-ling

    2015-07-01

    The contents of. soil total fluorine (TF) and water-soluble fluorine (WF) were measured in fluorite ore areas located in Jinhua City. The single factor index, geoaccumulation index and health risk assessment were used to evaluate fluorine pollution in soil in four fluorite ore areas and one non-ore area, respectively. The results showed that the TF contents in soils were 28. 36-56 052. 39 mg.kg-1 with an arithmetic mean value of 8 325.90 mg.kg-1, a geometric mean of 1 555. 94 mg.kg-1, and a median of 812. 98 mg.kg-1. The variation coefficient of TF was 172. 07% . The soil WF contents ranged from 0. 83 to 74. 63 mg.kg-1 with an arithmetic mean value of 16. 94 mg.kg-1, a geometric mean of 10. 59 mg.kg-1, and a median of 10. 17 mg.kg-1. The variation coefficient of WF was 100. 10%. The soil TF and WF contents were far higher than the national average level of the local fluorine epidemic occurrence area. The fluoride pollution in soil was significantly affected by human factors. Soil fluorine pollution in Yangjia, Lengshuikeng and Huajie fluorite ore areas was the most serious, followed by Daren fluorite ore area, and in non-ore area there was almost no fluorine pollution. Oral ingestion of soils was the main exposure route. Sensitivity analysis of model parameters showed that children's weight exerted the largest influence over hazard quotient. Furthermore, a significant positive correlation was found among the three kinds of evaluation methods.

  16. Fluorinated tracers for imaging cancer with positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couturier, Olivier; Chatal, Jean-Francois; Luxen, Andre; Vuillez, Jean-Philippe; Rigo, Pierre; Hustinx, Roland

    2004-01-01

    2-[ 18 F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) is currently the only fluorinated tracer used in routine clinical positron emission tomography (PET). Fluorine-18 is considered the ideal radioisotope for PET imaging owing to the low positron energy (0.64 MeV), which not only limits the dose rate to the patient but also results in a relatively short range of emission in tissue, thereby providing high-resolution images. Further, the 110-min physical half-life allows for high-yield radiosynthesis, transport from the production site to the imaging site and imaging protocols that may span hours, which permits dynamic studies and assessment of potentially fairly slow metabolic processes. The synthesis of fluorinated tracers as an alternative to FDG was initially tested using nucleophilic fluorination of the molecule, as performed when radiolabelling with iodine-124 or bromide-76. However, in addition to being long, with multiple steps, this procedure is not recommended for bioactive molecules containing reactive groups such as amine or thiol groups. Radiochemical yields are also often low. More recently, radiosynthesis from prosthetic group precursors, which allows easier radiolabelling of biomolecules, has led to the development of numerous fluorinated tracers. Given the wide availability of 18 F, such tracers may well develop into important routine tracers. This article is a review of the literature concerning fluorinated radiotracers recently developed and under investigation for possible PET imaging in cancer patients. Two groups can be distinguished. The first includes ''generalist'' tracers, i.e. tracers amenable to use in a wide variety of tumours and indications, very similar in this respect to FDG. These are tracers for non-specific cell metabolism, such as protein synthesis, amino acid transport, nucleic acid synthesis or membrane component synthesis. The second group consists of ''specific'' tracers for receptor expression (i.e. oestrogens or somatostatin), cell

  17. Thermogravimetric study of the reaction of uranium oxides with fluorine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komura, Motohiro; Sato, Nobuaki; Kirishima, Akira; Tochiyama, Osamu

    2008-01-01

    Thermogravimetric study of the reaction of uranium oxides with fluorine was conducted by TG-DTA method using anti-corrosion type differential thermobalance. When UO 2 was heated from R.T. to 500 deg. C in 5% F 2 /He atmosphere, the weight increase appeared at ca. 250 deg. C with an exothermic peak. Then the weight decreased slightly with a small exothermic peak followed by the complete volatilization with a large exothermic peak at ca. 350 deg. C. At a flow rate of 15, 30, 60 ml min -1 , there seemed to be no significant change for the fluorination of UO 2 . With the different heating rates of 1, 2, 5 and 10 deg. C min -1 , the fluorination peak shifted to higher temperature with increasing heating rates. For the comparison with thermogravimetric results, phase analysis by XRD method was conducted for the products obtained at different temperatures. At 260 deg. C, the product was UO 2 with a small amount of the intermediate compound, UO 2 F. The amount of this compound increased with increasing temperature up to 320 deg. C. Then another phase of UO 2 F 2 appeared at 340 deg. C but it was immediately fluorinated to the volatile fluoride. When U 3 O 8 was used as a starting material, it was found that the steep weight decrease peak appeared at ca. 350 deg. C and the uranium volatilized completely. This result suggests that fluorination of U 3 O 8 occurs at this temperature forming UF 6 . Uranium trioxide showed the similar fluorination behavior to that of U 3 O 8

  18. 40 CFR 721.4663 - Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4663 Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts. (a) Chemical... fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts (PMNs P-95-979/980/981) are subject to reporting under this... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali...

  19. Fluorinated epoxy resins with high glass transition temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, James R.

    1991-01-01

    Easily processed liquid resins of low dielectric constants and high glass transition temperatures are useful for the manufacture of certain composite electronic boards. That combination of properties is difficult to acquire when dielectric constants are below 2.5, glass transition temperatures are above 200 C and processability is of conventional practicality. A recently issued patent (US 4,981,941 of 1 Jan. 1991) teaches practical materials and is the culmination of 23 years of research and effort and 15 patents owned by the Navy in the field of fluorinated resins of several classes. In addition to high fluorine content, practical utility was emphasized.

  20. Diels-Alder reactions onto fluorinated and hydrogenated graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, Pablo A.

    2017-09-01

    We studied Diels-Alder (DA) reactions onto functionalized graphene. When fluorine, hydrogen or oxygen functional groups are present on one side of the sheet, the DA cycloadditions become significantly more exergonic when performed on the opposite side. Hydrogen is more effective than fluorine and oxygen to promote these cycloadditions. In contrast with the results obtained for perfect graphene, the functionalization with H, F or O turns the DA reactions exergonic, with ΔG°298 = -127.2 kcal/mol. The reaction barriers are expected to be considerably lowered with respect to perfect graphene because the functional groups significantly reduce the distortion energy.

  1. Fluorine doped vanadium dioxide thin films for smart windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiri, Pragna; Warwick, Michael E.A.; Ridley, Ian; Binions, Russell

    2011-01-01

    Thermochromic fluorine doped thin films of vanadium dioxide were deposited from the aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition reaction of vanadyl acetylacetonate, ethanol and trifluoroacetic acid on glass substrates. The films were characterised with scanning electron microscopy, variable temperature Raman spectroscopy and variable temperature UV/Vis spectroscopy. The incorporation of fluorine in the films led to an increase in the visible transmittance of the films whilst retaining the thermochromic properties. This approach shows promise for improving the aesthetic properties of vanadium dioxide thin films.

  2. Autoionizing states in highly ionized oxygen, fluorine and silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forester, J.P.; Peterson, R.S.; Griffin, P.M.; Pegg, D.J.; Haselton, H.H.; Liao, K.H.; Sellin, I.A.; Mowat, J.R.; Thoe, R.S.

    1975-01-01

    Autoionizing states in high Z 3-electron ions associated with core excited configurations of the type 1s2snl and 1s2pnl are reported. The electron decay-in-flight spectra of lithium-like oxygen, fluorine, and silicon ions are presented. Initial beam energies of 6.75-MeV oxygen and fluorine ions and 22.5-MeV silicon ions were used. Stripping and excitation were done by passing the beams through a thin carbon foil. The experimental technique is described. 4 figs, 1 table, 7 refs

  3. Fabrication of gas sensor based on field ionization from SWCNTs with tripolar microelectrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Shengbing; Zhang, Yong; Duan, Zhemin

    2012-01-01

    We report the nanofabrication of a sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) sensor with a tripolar on-chip microelectrode utilizing a film of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as the field ionization cathode, where the ion flow current and the partial discharge current generated by the field ionization process of gaseous molecules can be gauged to gas species and concentration. The variation of the sensitivity is less than 4% for all of the tested devices, and the sensor has selectivity against gases such as He, NO 2 , CO, H 2 , SO 2 and O 2 . Further, the sensor response presents well-defined and reproducible linear behavior with regard to concentration in the range investigated and a detection limitation of <∼0.5 ppm for SO 2 . More importantly, a tripolar on-chip microelectrode with SWCNTs as a cathode exhibits an impressive performance with respect to stability and anti-oxidation behavior, which are significantly better than had been possible before in the traditional bipolar sensor under explicit circumstances at room temperature. (paper)

  4. Voltammetric studies on the electrochemical determination of methylmercury in chloride medium at carbon microelectrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, F. [Centro de Electroquimica e Cinetica da Universidade de Lisboa, Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, Ed. C8, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Neto, M.M.M. [Centro de Electroquimica e Cinetica da Universidade de Lisboa, Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, Ed. C8, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal) and Departamento de Quimica Agricola e Ambiental, Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-017 Lisbon (Portugal)]. E-mail: mm.neto@netcabo.pt; Rocha, M.M. [Centro de Electroquimica e Cinetica da Universidade de Lisboa, Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, Ed. C8, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Fonseca, I.T.E. [Centro de Electroquimica e Cinetica da Universidade de Lisboa, Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, Ed. C8, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2006-10-10

    Electroanalytical techniques have been used to determine methylmercury at low levels in environmental matrices. The electrochemical behaviour of methylmercury at carbon microelectrodes in a hydrochloric acid medium using cyclic, square wave and fast-scan linear-sweep voltammetric techniques has been investigated. The analytical utility of the methylmercury reoxidation peak has been explored, but the recorded peak currents were found to be poorly reproducible. This is ascribed to two factors: the adsorption of insoluble chloromercury compounds on the electrode surface, which appears to be an important contribution to hinder the voltammetric signal of methylmercury; and the competition between the reoxidation of the methylmercury radical and its dimerization reaction, which limits the reproducibility of the methylmercury peak. These problems were successfully overcome by adopting the appropriate experimental conditions. Fast-scan rates were employed and an efficient electrochemical regeneration procedure of the electrode surface was achieved, under potentiostatic conditions in a mercury-free solution containing potassium thiocyanate-a strong complexing agent. The influence of chloride ion concentration was analysed. Interference by metals, such as lead and cadmium, was considered. Calibration plots were obtained in the micromolar and submicromolar concentration ranges, allowing the electrochemical determination of methylmercury in trace amounts. An estuarine water sample was analysed using the new method with a glassy carbon microelectrode.

  5. Development and characterization of a voltammetric carbon-fiber microelectrode pH sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makos, Monique A; Omiatek, Donna M; Ewing, Andrew G; Heien, Michael L

    2010-06-15

    This work describes the development and characterization of a modified carbon-fiber microelectrode sensor capable of measuring real-time physiological pH changes in biological microenvironments. The reagentless sensor was fabricated under ambient conditions from voltammetric reduction of the diazonium salt Fast Blue RR onto a carbon-fiber surface in aprotic media. Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry was used to probe redox activity of the p-quinone moiety of the surface-bound molecule as a function of pH. In vitro calibration of the sensor in solutions ranging from pH 6.5 to 8.0 resulted in a pH-dependent anodic peak potential response. Flow-injection analysis was used to characterize the modified microelectrode, revealing sensitivity to acidic and basic changes discernible to 0.005 pH units. Furthermore, the modified electrode was used to measure dynamic in vivo pH changes evoked during neurotransmitter release in the central nervous system of the microanalytical model organism Drosophila melanogaster.

  6. The impact of multichannel microelectrode recording (MER) in deep brain stimulation of the basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinfe, Thomas M; Vesper, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the basal ganglia (Ncl. subthalamicus, Ncl. ventralis intermedius thalami, globus pallidus internus) has become an evidence-based and well-established treatment option in otherwise refractory movement disorders. The Ncl. subthalamicus (STN) is the target of choice in Parkinson's disease.However, a considerable discussion is currently ongoing with regard to the necessity for micro-electrode recording (MER) in DBS surgery.The present review provides an overview on deep brain stimulation and (MER) of the STN in patients with Parkinson's disease. Detailed description is given concerning the multichannel MER systems nowadays available for DBS of the basal ganglia, especially of the STN, as a useful tool for target refinement. Furthermore, an overview is given of the historical aspects, spatial mapping of the STN by MER, and its impact for accuracy and precision in current functional stereotactic neurosurgery.The pros concerning target refinement by MER means on the one hand, and cons including increased bleeding risk, increased operation time, local or general anesthesia, and single versus multichannel microelectrode recording are discussed in detail. Finally, the authors favor the use of MER with intraoperative testing combined with imaging to achieve a more precise electrode placement, aiming to ameliorate clinical outcome in therapy-resistant movement disorders.

  7. Impedance Immunsensor Based on Interdigitated Array Microelectrode and its Experiment Parameter Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Ping Zhao

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article accounts for a novel impedance immunosensor based on the specificity reaction of the antigen-antibody and the sensitivity of the interdigitated array microelectrode (IDAM for the determination of chlorpyrifos residues. The basic knowledge of immunoassay was in relation to its IDAM electrode surface modification, antibody immobilization, bovine serum albumin (BSA blocking and sample detection. The SPA was dropped onto the surface of IDAM electrode, used for binding antibody Fc fragments. Next, antibody was immobilized on the SPA modified electrode. Finally, BSA was employed to block the possible remaining active sites avoiding any nonspecific adsorption. Target chlorpyrifos was then captured by the immobilized antibody, resulting in a change in the impedance of the IDAM microelectrode surface. The fabrication procedure of the immunosensor and the sample detection were characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. The influences of the experiment parameters were investigated. Under optimized conditions, an excellent biosensor was fabricated. Many of the antibodies, enzymes and other reagents integral to immunoassays were very expensive, often hundreds of dollars per milligram, therefore miniaturization reduces reagent costs drastically. In this article the volume of the reagents was micro upgrade, the antibodies, SPA and BSA were 30 mL, the chlorpyrifos sample and detection solution were 50mL. The advantages of the immunosensor were exhibited in its better specificity, stability, selectivity and regeneration. The proposed method was proven to be a feasible quantitative method for chlorpyrifos analysis in vegetables and fruits.

  8. Microfabrication, characterization and in vivo MRI compatibility of diamond microelectrodes array for neural interfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, Clément; Warnking, Jan; Depaulis, Antoine; Garçon, Laurie Amandine; Mermoux, Michel; Eon, David; Mailley, Pascal; Omnès, Franck

    2015-01-01

    Neural interfacing still requires highly stable and biocompatible materials, in particular for in vivo applications. Indeed, most of the currently used materials are degraded and/or encapsulated by the proximal tissue leading to a loss of efficiency. Here, we considered boron doped diamond microelectrodes to address this issue and we evaluated the performances of a diamond microelectrode array. We described the microfabrication process of the device and discuss its functionalities. We characterized its electrochemical performances by cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy in saline buffer and observed the typical diamond electrode electrochemical properties, wide potential window and low background current, allowing efficient electrochemical detection. The charge storage capacitance and the modulus of the electrochemical impedance were found to remain in the same range as platinum electrodes used for standard commercial devices. Finally we observed a reduced Magnetic Resonance Imaging artifact when the device was implanted on a rat cortex, suggesting that boron doped-diamond is a very promising electrode material allowing functional imaging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Dual-side and three-dimensional microelectrode arrays fabricated from ultra-thin silicon substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Jiangang; Masmanidis, Sotiris C; Roukes, Michael L

    2009-01-01

    A method for fabricating planar implantable microelectrode arrays was demonstrated using a process that relied on ultra-thin silicon substrates, which ranged in thickness from 25 to 50 µm. The challenge of handling these fragile materials was met via a temporary substrate support mechanism. In order to compensate for putative electrical shielding of extracellular neuronal fields, separately addressable electrode arrays were defined on each side of the silicon device. Deep reactive ion etching was employed to create sharp implantable shafts with lengths of up to 5 mm. The devices were flip-chip bonded onto printed circuit boards (PCBs) by means of an anisotropic conductive adhesive film. This scalable assembly technique enabled three-dimensional (3D) integration through formation of stacks of multiple silicon and PCB layers. Simulations and measurements of microelectrode noise appear to suggest that low impedance surfaces, which could be formed by electrodeposition of gold or other materials, are required to ensure an optimal signal-to-noise ratio as well a low level of interchannel crosstalk

  10. Voltammetric studies on the electrochemical determination of methylmercury in chloride medium at carbon microelectrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, F.; Neto, M.M.M.; Rocha, M.M.; Fonseca, I.T.E.

    2006-01-01

    Electroanalytical techniques have been used to determine methylmercury at low levels in environmental matrices. The electrochemical behaviour of methylmercury at carbon microelectrodes in a hydrochloric acid medium using cyclic, square wave and fast-scan linear-sweep voltammetric techniques has been investigated. The analytical utility of the methylmercury reoxidation peak has been explored, but the recorded peak currents were found to be poorly reproducible. This is ascribed to two factors: the adsorption of insoluble chloromercury compounds on the electrode surface, which appears to be an important contribution to hinder the voltammetric signal of methylmercury; and the competition between the reoxidation of the methylmercury radical and its dimerization reaction, which limits the reproducibility of the methylmercury peak. These problems were successfully overcome by adopting the appropriate experimental conditions. Fast-scan rates were employed and an efficient electrochemical regeneration procedure of the electrode surface was achieved, under potentiostatic conditions in a mercury-free solution containing potassium thiocyanate-a strong complexing agent. The influence of chloride ion concentration was analysed. Interference by metals, such as lead and cadmium, was considered. Calibration plots were obtained in the micromolar and submicromolar concentration ranges, allowing the electrochemical determination of methylmercury in trace amounts. An estuarine water sample was analysed using the new method with a glassy carbon microelectrode

  11. Compilation of Requirements for Safe Handling of Fluorine and Fluorine-Containing Products of Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrada, J.J.; Hightower, J.R.; Begovich, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    Public Law (PL) 105--204 requires the U.S. Department of Energy to develop a plan for inclusion in the fiscal year 2000 budget for conversion of the Department's stockpile of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6) to a more stable form over an extended period. The conversion process into a more stable form will produce fluorine compounds (e.g., elemental fluorine or hydrofluoric acid) that need to be handled safely. This document compiles the requirements necessary to handle these materials within health and safety standards, which may apply in order to ensure protection of the environment and the safety and health of workers and the public

  12. Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Combined Forms and Transformation of Fluorine in Tea Garden Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Yong-li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of nitrogen fertilizer on combined forms and transformation of fluorine in tea garden soil, soil pot experiment was carried out. The research object was red-yellow soil in Shizipu tea plantation in the south of Anhui Province. Five treatments were N0P0K0 (CK, N0P1K1 (N0, N1P1K1 (N1, N2P1K1 (N2, N3P1K1 (N3. Water-soluble fluorine content, exchangeable fluorine content, Fe/Mn oxide-bound fluorine content, organic matter-bound fluorine content, ammonium nitrogen content and soil pH value in 0~15 cm soil layer were analyzed in 10, 20, 30, 50, 70, 90 days after fertilization. The results showed that compared with CK, in the short term (10 or 20 days after applying NPK, the content of water-soluble fluorine in 0~15 cm soil layer was decreased and the content of exchangeable fluorine, Fe/Mn oxide-bound fluorine and organic matter-bound fluorine were increased. After 20 days, the content of soil water-soluble fluorine was increased and the content of soil exchangeable fluorine, Fe/Mn oxide-bound fluorine and organic matter-bound fluorine were reduced. The effect on water-soluble fluorine and exchangeable fluorine increased with time and the application rate of nitrogen. The content of water-soluble fluorine in tea garden soil had a moderately positive correlation with the application rate of nitrogen while the content of exchangeable fluorine had a moderately or highly negative correlation with the application rate of nitrogen. The content of water-soluble fluorine had a quite highly negative correlation with the soil pH (P<0.01, but the content of exchangeable fluorine had a moderately or highly negative correlation with the soil pH (P<0.01. Therefore, nitrogen fertilizer changed the soil pH during its form transformation and thus affected the transformation and the availability of fluorine in soil.

  13. Improved stability of highly fluorinated phospholipid-based vesicles in the presence of bile salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadras, C; Santaella, C; Vierling, P

    1999-01-04

    The stability of fluorinated phospholipid-based vesicles in terms of detergent-induced release of encapsulated carboxyfluorescein has been evaluated. The fluorinated liposomes are substantially more resistant towards the lytic action of sodium taurocholate than conventional DSPC or even DSPC/CH 1/1 liposomes. Concerning structure/permeability relationships, the larger the fluorination degree of the membrane, the higher the resistance of the fluorinated liposomes to their destruction by the detergent. These results show that fluorinated liposomes have a promising potential as drug carrier and delivery systems for oral administration.

  14. Avoidance of fluorinated greenhouse gases. Possibilities of an early exit; Fluorierte Treibhausgase vermeiden. Wege zum Ausstieg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becken, Katja; Graaf, Daniel de; Elsner, Cornelia; Hoffmann, Gabriele; Krueger, Franziska; Martens, Kerstin; Plehn, Wolfgang; Sartorius, Rolf

    2010-11-15

    In comparison to carbon dioxide, fluorinated greenhouse gases are more harmful up to a factor of 24,000. Today the amount of fluorinated greenhouse gases of the world-wide emissions of climatic harmful gases amounts 2 % and increases to 6 % in the year 2050. The authors of the contribution under consideration report on possibilities for the avoidance of the emissions of fluorinated greenhouse gases. The characteristics and ecological effects of fluorinated gases as well as the development of the emission in Germany are presented. Subsequently, the applications of fluorinated hydrocarbons are described.

  15. On-Line Monitoring the Growth of E. coli or HeLa Cells Using an Annular Microelectrode Piezoelectric Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifei Tong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Biological information is obtained from the interaction between the series detection electrode and the organism or the physical field of biological cultures in the non-mass responsive piezoelectric biosensor. Therefore, electric parameter of the electrode will affect the biosensor signal. The electric field distribution of the microelectrode used in this study was simulated using the COMSOL Multiphysics analytical tool. This process showed that the electric field spatial distribution is affected by the width of the electrode finger or the space between the electrodes. In addition, the characteristic response of the piezoelectric sensor constructed serially with an annular microelectrode was tested and applied for the continuous detection of Escherichia coli culture or HeLa cell culture. Results indicated that the piezoelectric biosensor with an annular microelectrode meets the requirements for the real-time detection of E. coli or HeLa cells in culture. Moreover, this kind of piezoelectric biosensor is more sensitive than the sensor with an interdigital microelectrode. Thus, the piezoelectric biosensor acts as an effective analysis tool for acquiring online cell or microbial culture information.

  16. Towards on-chip, in-cell recordings from cultured cardiomyocytes by arrays of gold mushroom-shaped microelectrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eFendyur

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Cardiological research greatly rely on the use of cultured primary cardiomyocytes (CM. The prime methodology to assess CM network electrophysiology is based on the use of extracellular recordings by substrate-integrated planar Micro-Electrode Arrays (MEAs. Whereas this methodology permits simultaneous, long-term monitoring of the CM electrical activity, it limits the information to extracellular field potentials (FP. The alternative method of intracellular action potentials (AP recordings by sharp- or patch-microelectrodes is limited to a single cell at a time. Here, we began to merge the advantages of planar MEA and intracellular microelectrodes. To that end we cultured rat CM on micrometer size protruding gold mushroom-shaped microelectrode (gMµE arrays. Cultured CMs engulf the gMµE permitting FPs recordings from individual cells. Local electroporation of a CM converts the extracellular recording configuration to attenuated intracellular APs with shape and duration similar to those recorded intracellularly. The procedure enables to simultaneously record APs from an unlimited number of CMs. The electroporated membrane spontaneously recovers. This allows for repeated recordings from the same CM a number of times (>8 for over 10 days. The further development of CM-gMµE configuration opens up new venues for basic and applied biomedical research.

  17. Further Evaluation of DNT Hazard Screening using Neural Networks from Rat Cortical Neurons on Multi-well Microelectrode Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thousands of chemicals have not been characterized for their DNT potential. Due to the need for DNT hazard identification, efforts to develop screening assays for DNT potential is a high priority. Multi-well microelectrode arrays (MEA) measure the spontaneous activity of electr...

  18. On-Line Monitoring the Growth of E. coli or HeLa Cells Using an Annular Microelectrode Piezoelectric Biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Feifei; Lian, Yan; Han, Junliang

    2016-12-18

    Biological information is obtained from the interaction between the series detection electrode and the organism or the physical field of biological cultures in the non-mass responsive piezoelectric biosensor. Therefore, electric parameter of the electrode will affect the biosensor signal. The electric field distribution of the microelectrode used in this study was simulated using the COMSOL Multiphysics analytical tool. This process showed that the electric field spatial distribution is affected by the width of the electrode finger or the space between the electrodes. In addition, the characteristic response of the piezoelectric sensor constructed serially with an annular microelectrode was tested and applied for the continuous detection of Escherichia coli culture or HeLa cell culture. Results indicated that the piezoelectric biosensor with an annular microelectrode meets the requirements for the real-time detection of E. coli or HeLa cells in culture. Moreover, this kind of piezoelectric biosensor is more sensitive than the sensor with an interdigital microelectrode. Thus, the piezoelectric biosensor acts as an effective analysis tool for acquiring online cell or microbial culture information.

  19. Evaluation of the Neuroactivity of ToxCast Compounds Using Multi-well Microelectrode Array Recordings in Primary Cortical Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaluation of the Neuroactivity of ToxCast Compounds Using Multi-well Microelectrode Array Recordings in Primary Cortical Neurons P Valdivia1, M Martin2, WR LeFew3, D Hall3, J Ross1, K Houck2 and TJ Shafer3 1Axion Biosystems, Atlanta GA and 2NCCT, 3ISTD, NHEERL, ORD, US EPA, RT...

  20. Heterogeneous nucleation of protein crystals on fluorinated layered silicate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keita Ino

    Full Text Available Here, we describe an improved system for protein crystallization based on heterogeneous nucleation using fluorinated layered silicate. In addition, we also investigated the mechanism of nucleation on the silicate surface. Crystallization of lysozyme using silicates with different chemical compositions indicated that fluorosilicates promoted nucleation whereas the silicates without fluorine did not. The use of synthesized saponites for lysozyme crystallization confirmed that the substitution of hydroxyl groups contained in the lamellae structure for fluorine atoms is responsible for the nucleation-inducing property of the nucleant. Crystallization of twelve proteins with a wide range of pI values revealed that the nucleation promoting effect of the saponites tended to increase with increased substitution rate. Furthermore, the saponite with the highest fluorine content promoted nucleation in all the test proteins regardless of their overall net charge. Adsorption experiments of proteins on the saponites confirmed that the density of adsorbed molecules increased according to the substitution rate, thereby explaining the heterogeneous nucleation on the silicate surface.

  1. Saturation of the hydroxyapatite mineral phase using radioactive fluorine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores de la Torre, J.A.; Badillo A, V.E.; Lopez D, F.A.

    2005-01-01

    With the purpose of knowing the Anion exchange capacity (CIA) of the hydroxyapatite mineral phase, marketed by BIO-RAD, becomes necessary to saturate the surface of the mineral with an anion specie that possesses a strong affinity by this solid as it is the case of the fluorine. Moreover it takes advantage that offers the radioactive tracer technique, using the radioactive isotope of the fluorine, 18 F, produced in the cyclotron of the UNAM. This saturation is obtained in terms of the quantity of retained fluorine (mmol/ 100 g) in the synthetic hydroxyapatite in function of the concentration of the solution of NaF that oscillates from 0.7 M up to 0.16 M to fixed values of pH of 9.2. Those results demonstrate that to this fixed pH value the saturation of the surface of the hydroxyapatite is achieved in approximately 30 mmol/ 100 g, using important concentrations of NaF that correspond to 0.14 M from now on. This result demonstrates the high capacity of the solid considered to retain considerable quantities of fluorine even to basic pH values. (Author)

  2. Design and Synthesis of Novel Fluorine-containing Acrylates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A series of novel fluorine-containing acrylates 6a-6g were synthesized via the condensation of ethyl cyanoacetate and trifluoroacetic anhydride, followed by chloridization and the coupling reaction with amines. These new compounds exhibited some biological activity as preliminary bioassay indicated. A plausible reaction mechanism was outlined and discussed.

  3. Fluorine determinations in biological materials by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demiralp, R.; Guinn, V.P.; Becker, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    Exploratory studies were carried out at the University of California, Irvine on several freeze-dried human diet materials and on two freeze-dried vegetation materials - all prospective reference materials. The University of California, Irvine equipment includes a 250-kW TRIGA Mark 1 reactor, 2.5 x 10 12 n/cm 2 ·s thermal flux, 3-s sample transfer time, and a typical 18% Ge(Li)/4,096-channel gamma-ray spectrometer with a detector resolution of 3.3 keV at 1,332 keV. In these exploratory studies, it was found that it was not feasible to measure fluorine with adequate precision or accuracy at fluorine concentrations much less than ∼100 ppm. These initial studies, however, defined the magnitudes of the various difficulties. One good outcome of these studies was the demonstration that the otherwise excellent Teflon-mill brittle-fracture method for homogenizing freeze-dried biological samples was not suitable if fluorine was to be determined. Abrasion of the Teflon increased the fluorine content of a human diet sample about sevenfold (compared with similar treatment of the same material in an all-titanium mill)

  4. Nitroimidazoles, Quinolones and Oxazolidinones as Fluorine Bearing Antitubercular Clinical Candidates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Patel, Rahul V.; Keum, Y.S.; Park, S.W.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 14 (2015), s. 1174-1186 ISSN 1389-5575 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Antitubercular drugs * delamanid * fluorine-containing drugs Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.841, year: 2015

  5. Atmospheric Gas-Phase Reactions of Fluorinated Compounds and Alkenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerstrøm, Freja From

    Experimental studies have been performed using three different smog chamber setups to investigate the atmospheric chemistry of fluorinated compounds as well as alkenes. The three instruments were at Ford Motor Company, USA, National Center for Atmospheric Research, USA, and Copenhagen Center...

  6. Fluorine profiling after application of various anti-caries gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zschau, H.E.; Plier, F.; Otto, G.; Wyrwich, C.; Treide, A.

    1990-01-01

    Two newly developed caries-preventing gels were tested together with Elmex on pre-school children over a time of 3 years. Proton-induced gamma-ray emission spectrometry (PIGE) was used to measure the fluorine profiles in milk teeth (incisors). In accordance with the clinical statement the results allow to produce a new anti-caries drug. (orig.)

  7. Effects of low level fluorine pollution in a mountain valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourbon, P; Tournut, J; Alary, J; Rouzaud, J F; Alengrin, F

    1971-02-01

    Fluoride content in the air and forage were determined, and symptoms of chronic fluoride poisoning in cattle raised in a mountain valley accommodating a phosphoric acid production plant were studied systematically over 10 years. The plant, processing phosphates with a fluoride content of 3.8%, emitted 20 kg of F daily. The atmospheric average F concentration ranged from zero to 10 micrograms/cu M, with 90% in the form of hydrofluoric acid and silicotetrafluoride, and 10% in the form of apatite. The fluorine content in forage, ranging from 20 to 50 ppm, and up to 164 ppm in one case, is responsible for pathological symptoms of fluorine poisoning in cattle. Fluorine content of about 30 ppm causes discoloration of the dental enamel in cattle fed such forage over more than 3 years, which corresponds to the fluorine residues of more than 1000 ppm in the jawbones. Periodic limping occurs in cattle fed forage with about 50 ppm of F over 5 years, corresponding to an F content of more than 4000 ppm. Such animals lose weight and yield much less milk than normal ones. Caries and loose teeth in cattle whose jawbones contain F residues of more than 3000 ppm are observed. Osteosis is, however, practically nonexistent. The urine F content, ranging from 2 to 20 ppm, was normal with less than 100 ppm in 60% of all animals. The results show an accumulation of F in bones, and suggest an F content of 20 ppm in forage as a safe limit.

  8. Theoretical lifetimes and fluorescence yields for multiply-ionized fluorine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunnell, T.W.; Can, C.; Bhalla, C.P.

    1978-01-01

    Theoretical lifetimes and multiplet partial fluorescence yields for various fluorine ions with a single K-shell vacancy were calculated. For few-electron systems, the lifetimes and line fluorescence yields were computed in the intermediate coupling scheme with the inclusion of the effects arising from configuration interactions. 6 references

  9. FLUORINE IN THE SOLAR NEIGHBORHOOD: NO EVIDENCE FOR THE NEUTRINO PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jönsson, H.; Ryde, N. [Lund Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University, Box 43, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden); Spitoni, E.; Matteucci, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sezione di Astronomia, Università di Trieste, via G.B. Tiepolo 11, I-34131, Trieste (Italy); Cunha, K. [Observatório Nacional, Rua General José Cristino, 77, 20921-400 São Cristóvão, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Smith, V.; Hinkle, K. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Schultheis, M., E-mail: henrikj@astro.lu.se [Observatoire de la Cote d’Azur, Boulevard de l’Observatoire, B.P. 4229, F-06304 NICE Cedex 4 (France)

    2017-01-20

    Asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars are known to produce “cosmic” fluorine, but it is uncertain whether these stars are the main producers of fluorine in the solar neighborhood or if any of the other proposed formation sites, Type II supernovae (SNe II) and/or Wolf-Rayet (W-R) stars, are more important. Recent articles have proposed both AGB stars and SNe II as the dominant sources of fluorine in the solar neighborhood. In this paper we set out to determine the fluorine abundance in a sample of 49 nearby, bright K giants for which we previously have determined the stellar parameters, as well as alpha abundances homogeneously from optical high-resolution spectra. The fluorine abundance is determined from a 2.3 μ m HF molecular line observed with the spectrometer Phoenix. We compare the fluorine abundances with those of alpha-elements mainly produced in SNe II and find that fluorine and the alpha-elements do not evolve in lockstep, ruling out SNe II as the dominating producers of fluorine in the solar neighborhood. Furthermore, we find a secondary behavior of fluorine with respect to oxygen, which is another evidence against the SNe II playing a large role in the production of fluorine in the solar neighborhood. This secondary behavior of fluorine will put new constraints on stellar models of the other two suggested production sites: AGB stars and W-R stars.

  10. FLUORINE IN THE SOLAR NEIGHBORHOOD: NO EVIDENCE FOR THE NEUTRINO PROCESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jönsson, H.; Ryde, N.; Spitoni, E.; Matteucci, F.; Cunha, K.; Smith, V.; Hinkle, K.; Schultheis, M.

    2017-01-01

    Asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars are known to produce “cosmic” fluorine, but it is uncertain whether these stars are the main producers of fluorine in the solar neighborhood or if any of the other proposed formation sites, Type II supernovae (SNe II) and/or Wolf-Rayet (W-R) stars, are more important. Recent articles have proposed both AGB stars and SNe II as the dominant sources of fluorine in the solar neighborhood. In this paper we set out to determine the fluorine abundance in a sample of 49 nearby, bright K giants for which we previously have determined the stellar parameters, as well as alpha abundances homogeneously from optical high-resolution spectra. The fluorine abundance is determined from a 2.3 μ m HF molecular line observed with the spectrometer Phoenix. We compare the fluorine abundances with those of alpha-elements mainly produced in SNe II and find that fluorine and the alpha-elements do not evolve in lockstep, ruling out SNe II as the dominating producers of fluorine in the solar neighborhood. Furthermore, we find a secondary behavior of fluorine with respect to oxygen, which is another evidence against the SNe II playing a large role in the production of fluorine in the solar neighborhood. This secondary behavior of fluorine will put new constraints on stellar models of the other two suggested production sites: AGB stars and W-R stars.

  11. Production of fluorine-18 from eithium carbonate in a research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasiglia, H.T.

    1978-01-01

    A method for the production of fluorine-18 in a research reactor, from irradiated lithium carbonate, is described. Fluorine-18 is separated from impurities in a alumina column, which is an appropriate procedure for its production as a carrier-free radioisotope for oral administration. Characteristics of the product, when fluorine is separated from irradiated target in an usual alumina column, are compared with those when fluorine is separated in a previously calcined(1000 0 C) alumina column: Yields of chemical separation and chemical forms of radioisotope obtained are studied. Fluorine elution is investigated for several eluant concentrations and the use of a lower concentrated eluant is emphasized. Purity degree of fluorine-18 solutions separated. A routine production procedure is determined by irradiating enriched lithium carbonate (95% 6 Li). Theoretical yields are compared with fluorine-18 production yields obtained in several irradiations [pt

  12. Quantitative Analysis of Rat Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons Cultured on Microelectrode Arrays Based on Fluorescence Microscopy Image Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mari, João Fernando; Saito, José Hiroki; Neves, Amanda Ferreira; Lotufo, Celina Monteiro da Cruz; Destro-Filho, João-Batista; Nicoletti, Maria do Carmo

    2015-12-01

    Microelectrode Arrays (MEA) are devices for long term electrophysiological recording of extracellular spontaneous or evocated activities on in vitro neuron culture. This work proposes and develops a framework for quantitative and morphological analysis of neuron cultures on MEAs, by processing their corresponding images, acquired by fluorescence microscopy. The neurons are segmented from the fluorescence channel images using a combination of segmentation by thresholding, watershed transform, and object classification. The positioning of microelectrodes is obtained from the transmitted light channel images using the circular Hough transform. The proposed method was applied to images of dissociated culture of rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuronal cells. The morphological and topological quantitative analysis carried out produced information regarding the state of culture, such as population count, neuron-to-neuron and neuron-to-microelectrode distances, soma morphologies, neuron sizes, neuron and microelectrode spatial distributions. Most of the analysis of microscopy images taken from neuronal cultures on MEA only consider simple qualitative analysis. Also, the proposed framework aims to standardize the image processing and to compute quantitative useful measures for integrated image-signal studies and further computational simulations. As results show, the implemented microelectrode identification method is robust and so are the implemented neuron segmentation and classification one (with a correct segmentation rate up to 84%). The quantitative information retrieved by the method is highly relevant to assist the integrated signal-image study of recorded electrophysiological signals as well as the physical aspects of the neuron culture on MEA. Although the experiments deal with DRG cell images, cortical and hippocampal cell images could also be processed with small adjustments in the image processing parameter estimation.

  13. Fluorine-fixing efficiency on calcium-based briquette: pilot experiment, demonstration and promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiao-lan; Chen, Dong-qing; Li, Shu-min; Yue, Yin-ling; Jin, Xin; Zhao, Bing-cheng; Ying, Bo

    2010-02-05

    The fluorosis derived from coal burning is a very serious problem in China. By using fluorine-fixing technology during coal burning we are able to reduce the release of fluorides in coal at the source in order to reduce pollution to the surrounding environment by coal burning pollutants as well as decrease the intake and accumulating amounts of fluorine in the human body. The aim of this study was to conduct a pilot experiment on calcium-based fluorine-fixing material efficiency during coal burning to demonstrate and promote the technology based on laboratory research. A proper amount of calcium-based fluorine sorbent was added into high-fluorine coal to form briquettes so that the fluorine in high-fluorine coal can be fixed in coal slag and its release into atmosphere reduced. We determined figures on various components in briquettes and fluorine in coal slag as well as the concentrations of indoor air pollutants, including fluoride, sulfur dioxide and respirable particulate matter (RPM), and evaluated the fluorine-fixing efficiency of calcium-based fluorine sorbents and the levels of indoor air pollutants. Pilot experiments on fluorine-fixing efficiency during coal burning as well as its demonstration and promotion were carried out separately in Guiding and Longli Counties of Guizhou Province, two areas with coal burning fluorosis problems. If the calcium-based fluorine sorbent mixed coal was made into honeycomb briquettes the average fluorine-fixing ratio in the pilot experiment was 71.8%. If the burning calcium-based fluorine-fixing bitumite was made into a coalball, the average of fluorine-fixing ratio was 77.3%. The concentration of fluoride, sulfur dioxide and PM10 of indoor air were decreased significantly. There was a 10% increase in the cost of briquettes due to the addition of calcium-based fluorine sorbent. The preparation process of calcium-based fluorine-fixing briquette is simple yet highly flammable and it is applicable to regions with abundant

  14. Rapid synthesis of maleimide functionalized fluorine-18 labeled prosthetic group using "radio-fluorination on the Sep-Pak" method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basuli, Falguni; Zhang, Xiang; Jagoda, Elaine M; Choyke, Peter L; Swenson, Rolf E

    2018-03-25

    Following our recently published fluorine-18 labeling method, "Radio-fluorination on the Sep-Pak", we have successfully synthesized 6-[ 18 F]fluoronicotinaldehyde by passing a solution (1:4 acetonitrile: t-butanol) of its quaternary ammonium salt precursor, 6-(N,N,N-trimethylamino)nicotinaldehyde trifluoromethanesulfonate (2), through a fluorine-18 containing anion exchange cartridge (PS-HCO 3 ). Over 80% radiochemical conversion was observed using 10 mg of precursor within 1 minute. The [ 18 F]fluoronicotinaldehyde ([ 18 F]5) was then conjugated with 1-(6-(aminooxy)hexyl)-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione to prepare the fluorine-18 labeled maleimide functionalized prosthetic group, 6-[ 18 F]fluoronicotinaldehyde O-(6-(2,5-dioxo-2,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)hexyl) oxime, 6-[ 18 F]FPyMHO ([ 18 F]6). The current Sep-Pak method not only improves the overall radiochemical yield (50 ± 9%, decay-corrected, n = 9) but also significantly reduces the synthesis time (from 60-90 minutes to 30 minutes) when compared with literature methods for the synthesis of similar prosthetic groups. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  15. Novel Synthesis of Slightly Fluorinated Graphene Quantum Dots with Luminescent and Paramagnetic Properties through Thermal Cutting of Fluorinated Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Qian; Xiao, Wenqing; Zheng, Yongping; Lin, Yuda; Li, Jiaxin; Ye, Qingying; Huang, Zhigao

    2018-01-01

    A novel approach has been developed to synthesize slightly fluorinated graphene quantum dots (GQDs-F) through thermal cutting of highly fluorinated graphene. The fluorinated graphene with substantial structure defects is fragile and is readily attacked. The direct evaporation of abundant CFn (n = 2, 3) groups near structure defects lead to the loss of adjacent skelton C atoms, and the fluorinated graphene can be thermally cut into GQDs-F with a relatively uniform nanosize in pyrolysis at 810 K. The GQDs-F with a low F/C atomic ratio of ca. 0.03 exhibit excitation wavelength-dependent properties with multicolor photoluminescence (PL) from blue to green. At the same time, F adatoms that are most likely located at the edges of GQDs-F have a high efficiency of introducing paramagnetic centres, and GQDs-F show a strong paramagnetism because of sp3-type defects and magnetic zigzag edges. The graphene quantum dots with such multimodal capabilities should have great applied value in material science. PMID:29316730

  16. Note: Microelectrode-shielding tip for scanning probe electron energy spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Li, Zhean; Xu, Chunkai; Liu, Jian; Xu, Chunye; Chen, Xiangjun

    2018-04-01

    We report a novel microelectrode-shielding tip (ME tip) for scanning probe electron energy spectroscopy (SPEES). The shielding effect of this tip is studied through comparing the detection efficiency with the normal tip by both experiment and simulation. The results show that the backscattering count rate detected by the SPEES instrument using the normal tip begins to decrease as the tip approaches to the sample surface within 21 μm, while that using the ME tip only starts to drop off within 1 μm. This indicates that the electron energy spectra can be measured with the ME tip at a much closer tip-sample distance. Furthermore, it is also demonstrated that the ME tip can be used to obtain topography of the sample surface in situ simultaneously.

  17. Microelectrode generator-collector systems for electrolytic titration: theoretical and practical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Christopher G; Seelanan, Parinya; O'Hare, Danny

    2017-10-23

    Electochemical generator-collector systems, where one electrode is used to generate a reagent, have a potentially large field of application in sensing and measurement. We present a new theoretical description for coplanar microelectrode disc-disc systems where the collector is passive (such as a potentiometric sensor) and the generator is operating at constant flux. This solution is then used to develop a leading order solution for such a system where the reagent reacts reversibly in solution, such as in acid-base titration, where a hydrogen ion flux is generated by electrolysis of water. The principal novel result of the theory is that such devices are constrained by a maximum reagent flux. The hydrogen ion concentration at the collector will only reflect the buffer capacity of the bulk solution if this constraint is met. Both mathematical solutions are evaluated with several microfabricated devices and reasonable agreement with theory is demonstrated.

  18. Characterization of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):tosylate conductive polymer microelectrodes for transmitter detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Simon T.; Vreeland, Richard F.; Heien, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    applications such as capillary electrophoresis, high-performance liquid chromatography, and constant potential amperometry at living cells. Band electrodes with widths down to 3 μm were fabricated on polymer substrates using UV lithographic methods. The electrodes are electrochemically stable in a range......In this paper we investigate the physical and electrochemical properties of micropatterned poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):tosylate (PEDOT:tosylate) microelectrodes for neurochemical detection. PEDOT:tosylate is a promising conductive polymer electrode material for chip-based bioanalytical...... between −200 mV and 700 mV vs. Ag/AgCl and show a relatively low resistance. A wide range of transmitters is shown to oxidize readily on the electrodes. Kinetic rate constants and half wave potentials are reported. The capacitance per area was found to be high (1670 ± 130 μF cm−2) compared to other thin...

  19. Microelectrode-assisted low-voltage atmospheric pressure glow discharge in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenzheng; Zhao, Shuai; Niu, Jiangqi; Chai, Maolin

    2017-09-01

    During the process of discharge, appropriately changing the paths corresponding to electric field lines and the field strength distribution along these paths, as well as increasing the number of initial electrons, can effectively enhance the uniformity of discharge and inhibit the formation of filamentary discharge. A method is proposed that uses a microelectrode to initiate the macroscopic discharge phenomenon. An asymmetric structure was designed comprising a single electrode of carbon fiber; this electrode structure is of helical-contact type. Benefitting from the special electric field distribution and the microdischarge process, a three-dimensional atmospheric pressure glow discharge was achieved in air, characterized by low discharge voltage, low energy consumption, good diffusion performance, and less ozone generation. The plasma studied is uniform and stable with good diffusion characteristics and low levels of contaminants and hence has potential applications in the field of air purification.

  20. Doped Overoxidized Polypyrrole Microelectrodes as Sensors for the Detection of Dopamine Released from Cell Populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasso, Luigi; Heiskanen, Arto; Diazzi, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    A surface modification of interdigitated gold microelectrodes (IDEs) with a doped polypyrrole (PPy) film for detection of dopamine released from populations of differentiated PC12 cells is presented. A thin PPy layer was potentiostatically electropolymerized from an 10 aqueous pyrrole solution onto...... electrode surfaces. The conducting polymer film was doped during electropolymerization by introducing counter ions in the monomer solution. Several counter ions were tested and the resulting electrode modifications were characterized electrochemically to find the optimal dopant that increases sensitivity...... to amperometrically detect dopamine released by populations of cells upon triggering cellular exocytosis with an elevated K+ concentration. A comparison between the generated current on bare gold electrodes and gold electrodes modified with overoxidized doped PPy illustrates the clear advantage of the modification...

  1. Hydrogen Peroxide Impedimetric Detection on Poly-Ortho-Phenylenediamine Modified Platinum Disk Microelectrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainiharyati Mohd Zain; Norazreen Zakaria

    2014-01-01

    This work describes the development of hydrogen peroxide detection based on Poly-ortho-phenylenediamine modified Platinum disk microelectrode (50 μm in diameter). The electrochemical performances of H 2 O 2 detection were studied using Chronoamperometry, Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) techniques in Phosphate Buffer Solution (PBS) pH 7.4. Effect of potential, electrode size, and various concentrations of H 2 O 2 , among others, were investigated by tracking the impedance changes at a specific perturbation frequency. To obtain the Charge transfer resistance (R ct ) values, a modified Randles Equivalent Circuit was modelled and fitted to Nyquist Plot. Then, this sensor was further applied in the detection of H 2 O 2 in antiseptic mouthwash with percent recovery of 97 % ± 0.14 (x10 3 kΩ). (author)

  2. A Multimodal, SU-8 - Platinum - Polyimide Microelectrode Array for Chronic In Vivo Neurophysiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergely Márton

    Full Text Available Utilization of polymers as insulator and bulk materials of microelectrode arrays (MEAs makes the realization of flexible, biocompatible sensors possible, which are suitable for various neurophysiological experiments such as in vivo detection of local field potential changes on the surface of the neocortex or unit activities within the brain tissue. In this paper the microfabrication of a novel, all-flexible, polymer-based MEA is presented. The device consists of a three dimensional sensor configuration with an implantable depth electrode array and brain surface electrodes, allowing the recording of electrocorticographic (ECoG signals with laminar ones, simultaneously. In vivo recordings were performed in anesthetized rat brain to test the functionality of the device under both acute and chronic conditions. The ECoG electrodes recorded slow-wave thalamocortical oscillations, while the implanted component provided high quality depth recordings. The implants remained viable for detecting action potentials of individual neurons for at least 15 weeks.

  3. Microelectrode Arrays and the Use of PEG-Functionalized Diblock Copolymer Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakshi Uppal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available PEG-modified diblock copolymer surfaces have been examined for their compatibility with microelectrode array based analytical methods. The use of PEG-modified polymer surfaces on the arrays was initially problematic because the redox couples used in the experiments were adsorbed by the polymer. This led the current measured by cyclic voltammetry for the redox couple to be unstable and increase with time. However, two key findings allow the experiments to be successful. First, after multiple cyclic voltammograms the current associated with the redox couple does stabilize so that a good baseline current can be established. Second, the rate at which the current stabilizes is consistent every time a particular coated array is used. Hence, multiple analytical experiments can be conducted on an array coated with a PEG-modified diblock copolymer and the data obtained is comparable as long as the data for each experiment is collected at a consistent time point.

  4. Purification of carbon nanotubes through an electric field near the arranged microelectrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Hyung Cheoul; Lee, Hyung Woo; Yeom, Sujin; Kwak, Yoon Keun; Lee, Seung S; Kim, Soo Hyun

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we attempt to purify multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) using electrophoresis induced by the application of an AC electric field to a set of microelectrodes in a microliquid channel. This purifying method is different from conventional methods based on chemical processes. It was observed that most of the MWNTs could pass along the microliquid channel without attaching to the electrode under specific conditions of 1 kHz, at 0.2 V rms μm -1 . On the other hand, the majority of the carbon impurities attached to the electrodes under identical conditions. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images and Raman spectra confirm that this condition is beneficial for removing carbon impurities. The proposed approach has potential applicability in the development of microdevices that can simultaneously perform the purification and fabrication of MWNTs

  5. Addressing of LnCaP Cell Using Magnetic Particles Assisted Impedimetric Microelectrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dung Thi Xuan; Tran, Trong Binh; Nguyen, Phuong-Diem; Min, Junhong

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we provide a facile, effective technique for a simple isolation and enrichment of low metastatic prostate tumor cell LNCaP using biocompatible, magnetic particles asissted impedimetric sensing system. Hydrophobic cell membrane anchors (BAM) were generated onto magnetic particles which diameters vary from 50 nm to 5 μm and were used to capture LNCaP cells from the suspension. Finally, magnetic particle-LNCaP complex were addressed onto the surface of the interdigitated microelectrode (IDM). Cell viability was monitored by our laboratory developed-technique Electrical Cell Substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS). The results reavealed that 50 nm-magnetic particles showed best performance in terms of cell separation and cell viability. This technique provides a simple and efficient method for the direct addressing of LNCaP cell on the surface and enhances better understanding of cell behavior for cancer management in the near future.

  6. Unsupervised neural spike sorting for high-density microelectrode arrays with convolutive independent component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibig, Christian; Wachtler, Thomas; Zeck, Günther

    2016-09-15

    Unsupervised identification of action potentials in multi-channel extracellular recordings, in particular from high-density microelectrode arrays with thousands of sensors, is an unresolved problem. While independent component analysis (ICA) achieves rapid unsupervised sorting, it ignores the convolutive structure of extracellular data, thus limiting the unmixing to a subset of neurons. Here we present a spike sorting algorithm based on convolutive ICA (cICA) to retrieve a larger number of accurately sorted neurons than with instantaneous ICA while accounting for signal overlaps. Spike sorting was applied to datasets with varying signal-to-noise ratios (SNR: 3-12) and 27% spike overlaps, sampled at either 11.5 or 23kHz on 4365 electrodes. We demonstrate how the instantaneity assumption in ICA-based algorithms has to be relaxed in order to improve the spike sorting performance for high-density microelectrode array recordings. Reformulating the convolutive mixture as an instantaneous mixture by modeling several delayed samples jointly is necessary to increase signal-to-noise ratio. Our results emphasize that different cICA algorithms are not equivalent. Spike sorting performance was assessed with ground-truth data generated from experimentally derived templates. The presented spike sorter was able to extract ≈90% of the true spike trains with an error rate below 2%. It was superior to two alternative (c)ICA methods (≈80% accurately sorted neurons) and comparable to a supervised sorting. Our new algorithm represents a fast solution to overcome the current bottleneck in spike sorting of large datasets generated by simultaneous recording with thousands of electrodes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Impedimetric microbial biosensor based on single wall carbon nanotube modified microelectrodes for trichloroethylene detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hnaien, M.; Bourigua, S.; Bessueille, F.; Bausells, J.; Errachid, A.; Lagarde, F.; Jaffrezic-Renault, N.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► We propose an impedimetric microbial biosensor for trichloroethylene detection. ► A new transducer modified with carbon nanotubes and Pseudomonas putida is evaluated. ► Functionalization steps are controlled by impedance spectroscopy and AFM. ► The biosensor offers good sensitivity, selectivity, linear range and stability. ► The biosensor is successfully applied to spiked natural water samples. - Abstract: Contamination of soils and groundwaters with persistent organic pollutants is a matter of increasing concern. The most common organic pollutants are chlorinated hydrocarbons such as perchloroethylene and trichloroethylene (TCE). In this study, we developed a bacterial impedimetric biosensor for TCE detection, based on the immobilization of Pseudomonas putida F1 strain on gold microelectrodes functionalized with single wall carbon nanotubes covalently linked to anti-Pseudomonas antibodies. The different steps of microelectrodes functionalization were characterized by electrochemical impedance and atomic force spectroscopies, and analytical performances of the developed microbial biosensor were determined. The impedimetric biosensor response was linear with TCE concentration up to 150 μg L −1 and a low limit of detection (20 μg L −1 ) was achieved. No significant loss of signal was observed after 4 weeks of storage at 4 °C in phosphate buffer saline pH 7 (three to four measurements a week). After 5 weeks, 90% of the initial value still remained. cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene and vinylchloride, the main TCE degradation products, did not significantly interfere with TCE. The microbial sensor was finally applied to the determination of TCE in natural water samples spiked at the 30, 50 and 75 μg L −1 levels. Recoveries were very good, ranging from 100 to 103%.

  8. Lower layers in the motor cortex are more effective targets for penetrating microelectrodes in cortical prostheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Hirak; Marzullo, Timothy C.; Kipke, Daryl R.

    2009-04-01

    Improving cortical prostheses requires the development of recording neural interfaces that are efficient in terms of providing maximal control information with minimal interface complexity. While the typical approaches have targeted neurons in the motor cortex with multiple penetrating shanks, an alternative approach is to determine an efficient distribution of electrode sites within the layers of the cortex with fewer penetrating shanks. The objective of this study was to compare unit activity in the upper and lower layers of the cortex with respect to movement and direction in order to inform the design of penetrating microelectrodes. Four rats were implanted bilaterally with multi-site single-shank silicon microelectrode arrays in the neck/shoulder region of the motor cortex. We simultaneously recorded unit activity across all layers of the motor cortex while the animal was engaged in a movement direction task. Localization of the electrode array within the different layers of the cortex was determined by histology. We denoted units from layers 2 and 3 and units as upper layer units, and units from layers 5 and 6 as lower layer units. Analysis of unit spiking activity demonstrated that both the upper and lower layers encode movement and direction information. Unit responses in either cortical layer of the cortex were not preferentially associated with contralateral or ipsilateral movement. Aggregate analysis (633 neurons) and best session analysis (75 neurons) indicated that units in the lower layers (layers 5, 6) are more likely to encode direction information when compared to units in the upper layers (layers 2, 3) (p< 0.05). These results suggest that electrode sites clustered in the lower layers provide access to more salient control information for cortical neuroprostheses.

  9. Oxidative desulfurization-fluorination of thioethers. Application for the synthesis of fluorinated nitrogen containing building blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugenberg, Verena; Fröhlich, Roland; Haufe, Günter

    2010-12-21

    An oxidative desulfurization-fluorination protocol has been used to synthesize (2S)-2-(difluoromethyl)-N-tosylpyrrolidine (6a) and (2S)-2-(trifluoromethyl)-N-tosylpyrrolidine (7a) from the (2S)-prolinol-derived (2S)-2-(4-chlorophenylthiomethyl)-N-tosylpyrrolidine (9) or (2S)-2-(dithian-2-yl)-N-tosylpyrrolidine (5). Efforts to prepare 3,3-difluoroalanine similarly from an N-protected S-aryl-cysteine ester 17 gave only traces of the target compound 18. Instead, an unique N-(α,α-difluorobenzyl)-N-α',α'-dibromoglycine ester 19 was formed by an unprecedented sequence of reaction steps. A plausible mechanism is suggested involving a sulfur-assisted deoxygenation-difluorination of an imino oxygen and a haloform reaction like carbon-carbon bond fission as key-steps. Efforts to prepare (2S)-2-(fluoromethyl)-N-tosylpyrrolidine (12) from (2S)-N-tosylprolinol (3) by treatment with Fluolead™ (1-tert-butyl-4-trifluorosulfanyl-3,5-dimethylbenzene) gave only 5% of the target compound, but 95% of (3R)-3-fluoro-N-tosylpiperidine (11a) by ring enlargement.

  10. Fluorine atom subsurface diffusion and reaction in photoresist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greer, Frank; Fraser, D.; Coburn, J.W.; Graves, David B.

    2003-01-01

    Kinetic studies of fluorine and deuterium atoms interacting with an OiR 897 10i i-line photoresist (PR) are reported. All experiments were conducted at room temperature. Films of this PR were coated on quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) substrates and exposed to alternating fluxes of these atoms in a high vacuum apparatus. Mass changes of the PR were observed in situ and in real time during the atom beam exposures using the QCM. A molecular-beam sampled differentially pumped quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) was used to measure the species desorbing from the PR surface during the F and D atom exposures. During the D atom exposures, hydrogen abstraction and etching of the PR was observed, but no DF formation was detected. However, during the F atom exposures, the major species observed to desorb from the surface was DF, formed from fluorine abstraction of deuterium from the photoresist. No evidence of film etching or fluorine self-abstraction was observed. The film mass increased during F atom exposure, evidently due to the replacement of D by F in the film. The rate of DF formation and mass uptake were both characterized by the same kinetics: An initially rapid step declining exponentially with time (e -t/τ ), followed by a much slower step following inverse square root of time (t -1/2 ) kinetics. The initially rapid step was interpreted as surface abstraction of D by F to form DF, which desorbs, with subsequent F impacting the surface inserted into surface C dangling bonds. The slower step was interpreted as F atoms diffusing into the fluorinated photoresist, forming DF at the boundary of the fluorinated carbon layer. The t -1/2 kinetics of this step are interpreted to indicate that F diffusion through the fluorinated carbon layer is much slower than the rate of F abstraction of D to form DF, or the rate of F insertion into the carbon dangling bonds left behind after DF formation. A diffusion-limited growth model was formulated, and the model parameters are

  11. Cationic fluorinated polymer binders for microbial fuel cell cathodes

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Guang; Wei, Bin; Logan, Bruce E.; Hickner, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Fluorinated quaternary ammonium-containing polymers were used as catalyst binders in microbial fuel cell (MFC) cathodes. The performance of the cathodes was examined and compared to NAFION ® and other sulfonated aromatic cathode catalyst binders using linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), impedance spectroscopy, and performance tests in single chamber air-cathode MFCs. The cathodes with quaternary ammonium functionalized fluorinated poly(arylene ether) (Q-FPAE) binders showed similar current density and charge transfer resistance (R ct) to cathodes with NAFION ® binders. Cathodes containing either of these fluorinated binders exhibited better electrochemical responses than cathodes with sulfonated or quaternary ammonium-functionalized RADEL ® poly(sulfone) (S-Radel or Q-Radel) binders. After 19 cycles (19 d), the power densities of all the MFCs declined compared to the initial cycles due to biofouling at the cathode. MFC cathodes with fluorinated polymer binders (1445 mW m -2, Q-FPAE-1.4-H; 1397 mW m -2, Q-FPAE-1.4-Cl; 1277 mW m -2, NAFION ®; and 1256 mW m -2, Q-FPAE-1.0-Cl) had better performance than those with non-fluorinated polymer binders (880 mW m -2, S-Radel; 670 mW m -2, Q-Radel). There was a 15% increase in the power density using the Q-FPAE binder with a 40% higher ion exchange capacity (Q-FPAE-1.4-H compared to Q-FPAE-1.0-Cl) after 19 cycles of operation, but there was no effect on the power production due to counter ions in the binder (Cl -vs. HCO 3 -). The highest-performance cathodes (NAFION ® and Q-FPAE binders) had the lowest charge transfer resistances (R ct) in fresh and in fouled cathodes despite the presence of thick biofilms on the surface of the electrodes. These results show that fluorinated binders may decrease the penetration of the biofilm and associated biopolymers into the cathode structure, which helps to combat MFC performance loss over time. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  12. Recent advances in fluorination techniques and their anticipated impact on drug metabolism and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Cormac D; Sandford, Graham

    2015-04-01

    Fluorine's unique physicochemical properties make it a key element for incorporation into pharmacologically active compounds. Its presence in a drug can alter a number of characteristics that affect ADME-Tox, which has prompted efforts at improving synthetic fluorination procedures. This review describes the influence of fluorine on attributes such as potency, lipophilicity, metabolic stability and bioavailablility and how the effects observed are related to the physicochemical characteristics of the element. Examples of more recently used larger scale synthetic methods for introduction of fluorine into drug leads are detailed and the potential for using biological systems for fluorinated drug production is discussed. The synthetic procedures for carbon-fluorine bond formation largely still rely on decades-old technology for the manufacturing scale and new reagents and methods are required to meet the demands for the preparation of structurally more complex drugs. The improvement of in vitro and computational methods should make fluorinated drug design more efficient and place less emphasis on approaches such as fluorine scanning and animal studies. The introduction of new fluorinated drugs, and in particular those that have novel fluorinated functional groups, should be accompanied by rigorous environmental assessment to determine the nature of transformation products that may cause ecological damage.

  13. In-vivo analysis of fluorine and other elements in human tooth enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baijot-Stroobants, J.; Vreven, J.

    1979-01-01

    The technique used to study fluorination of human tooth enamel is based on prompt activation by charged particles and detection of the 110- and 197-keV gamma rays emitted in the (p,p'γ) reaction on fluorine. The proton beam is provided by the Van de Graaff accelerator at the University of Namur and is used at atmospheric pressure. The technique can be used for non-destructive determination of fluorine concentrations of the same area of enamel both before and after topical application of fluorinated compounds (commercial solutions and gels) and thus for determination of fluorine fixation in the surface layer of the enamel. A very high degree of enrichment is obtained 30 min after the application of a solution of amine fluoride (AmF; 4400 ppm) and of two fluorophosphate acid (APF) gels (1774 and 3277 ppm). Monofluorophosphate (MFP) and amine fluoride (AmF) gels, however, produce insignificant degrees of enrichment (105 and 228 ppm). Measurement of fluorine retention during the hours after fluorination shows a small loss of fluorine 6 h after application of the AmF solution and the APF gels, whereas with MFP and AmF gels the degree of enrichment is nil 5 h after treatment. Determinations of sodium and of phosphorus have also been carried out with the same technique after brushing with a fluorinated tooth-paste or after topical application of a fluorinated gel. (author)

  14. Influence of fluorine substitution on the morphology and structure of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals prepared by hydrothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph Nathanael, A.; Mangalaraj, D.; Hong, S.I.; Masuda, Y.; Rhee, Y.H.; Kim, H.W.

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanocrystals with different levels of fluorine substitution (P/F = 0, 6, 4 and 2) on the OH sites were produced via hydrothermal method. The fluorine substitution was found to alter the morphology of crystals appreciably. The aspect ratio and the crystallinity of HAp crystals increased with increasing fluorine substitution. The presence of broad ring and hallow ring patterns in electron diffraction suggests the low-crystalline nature of HAp crystals. With increasing fluorine substitution, the diffraction patterns exhibited discrete rings and numerous diffraction spots, implying the increased crystallinity. Raman spectra from the HAp nanoparticles also support the less-crystalline nature of the pristine HAp and the enhanced crystallization by fluorine substitution. In HAp crystals processed with no fluorine substitution, surface energy and planar Ca 2+ density are less sensitive to the crystallographic orientation because of its low-crystalline nature, favoring equi-axed or slightly elongated particles. The addition of fluorine apparently increased the crystallinity, enhancing the orientation dependent growth and accordingly the aspect ratio. Osteoblast proliferation was observed to be enhanced by fluorine substitution in HAp. In vitro biological data support that the excellent osteoblastic cell viability and functional activity of the fluoridated apatite. -- Highlights: ► Fluorapatite nanorods were produced hydrothermally with different fluorine content. ► Fluorine substitution was found to alter the morphology of crystals appreciably. ► It enhances the crystallinity, orientation dependent growth and hence aspect ratio. ► In vitro cellular analysis shows excellent cell viability of the fluorapatite.

  15. A Novel Microdialysis Glucose Sensor System Based on Co-immobilizing on AU Micro-Electrode by SOL-GEL Technique

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yu, Ping

    2001-01-01

    .... The sensor is based on co_immobilizing glucose oxidase (COD) with the catalase by sol-gel technique on the surface of the silicon bases with two pattern of An microelectrodes. A graduated ("sandwich...

  16. Fluorine Abundances of AGB Stars in Stellar Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hren, A.; Lebzelter, T.; Aringer, B.; Hinkle, K. H.; Nowotny, W.

    2015-08-01

    We have measured the abundance of fluorine, [F/Fe], in a number of AGB stars in stellar clusters have correlated the results with their C/O ratios. This allows us to investigate the change in the fluorine abundance along the evolution on the giant branch. The target list includes primarily O-rich stars in three LMC globular clusters - NGC 1806, NGC 1846 and NGC 1978 - as well as Rup 106 and 47 Tuc in our Galaxy. The observational data were obtained with the PHOENIX spectrograph, and the COMA code was used for modelling the synthetic spectra. Within individual clusters, we find consistent [F/Fe] values at similar C/O for most of our target stars.

  17. Fabrication of superhydrophobic fluorinated silica nanoparticles for multifunctional liquid marbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Qianqian; Hu, Lihong; Hu, Yun; Liu, Chengguo; Zhou, Yonghong

    2018-01-01

    A facile one-pot method for the fabrication of superhydrophobic fluorinated silica nanoparticles is reported. Fluorinated aggregated silica (A-SiO2/FAS) nanoparticles were synthesized by controlling the nanoparticles assembly, in situ fixation and overgrowth of particle seeds with the assist of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) in ethanol/water solution and then modification with fluoroalkylsilane (FAS) molecules. Such kind of A-SiO2/FAS nanoparticles showed superhydrophobicity and was not wetted by water, thus it could be served as the encapsulating shells to manipulate liquid droplets. Liquid marbles fabricated from A-SiO2/FAS nanoparticles were used for ammonia gas sensing or emitting by taking advantage of the porosity and superhydrophobicity of the liquid marble shells. In addition, the posibility of A-SiO2/FAS-based liquid marbles as microreactor for dopamine polymerization also was explored.

  18. Grafting of cellulose by fluorine-bearing silane coupling agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ly, B.; Belgacem, M.N.; Bras, J.; Brochier Salon, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    The surface of model cellulose fibres, Avicell (AV), as well as that of Whatman paper (WP) was chemically modified with two fluorine-bearing alkoxysilane coupling agents, namely: 3,3,3-trifluoropropyl trimethoxysilane (TFPS) and 1H,1H,2H,2H,perfluorooctyl trimethoxysilane (PFOS). The occurrence of the grafting of soxhlet extracted modified cellulose was confirmed by the presence of silicon and fluorine atoms detected by elemental analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Electron Dispersion Energy/Scanning Electron Microscopy (EDS/SEM). The contact angle measurements showed that, after grafting, the surface of AV and WP samples became totally highly hydrophobic with a contact angle of 140 deg. Thus, the polar contribution to the surface energy of the modified substrates was found to be close to zero. These modified substrate could be interesting for application such as self-cleaning surface, wipes paper, grease barrier paper or for biocomposite with a polar matrix.

  19. Fluorine and sulfur simultaneously co-doped suspended graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struzzi, C.; Sezen, H.; Amati, M.; Gregoratti, L.; Reckinger, N.; Colomer, J.-F.; Snyders, R.; Bittencourt, C.; Scardamaglia, M.

    2017-11-01

    Suspended graphene flakes are exposed simultaneously to fluorine and sulfur ions produced by the μ-wave plasma discharge of the SF6 precursor gas. The microscopic and spectroscopic analyses, performed by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and photoelectron spectromicroscopy, show the homogeneity in functionalization yield over the graphene flakes with F and S atoms covalently bonded to the carbon lattice. This promising surface shows potential for several applications ranging from biomolecule immobilization to lithium battery and hydrogen storage devices. The present co-doping process is an optimal strategy to engineer the graphene surface with a concurrent hydrophobic character, thanks to the fluorine atoms, and a high affinity with metal nanoparticles due to the presence of sulfur atoms.

  20. Frequency effects and properties of plasma deposited fluorinated silicon nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.; Flamm, D.L.; Ibbotson, D.E.; Mucha, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    The properties of low-hydrogen, fluorinated plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) silicon nitride films grown using NF 3 /SiH 4 /N 2 feed mixtures in 200 kHz and 14 MHz discharges were compared. High-energy ion bombardment at 200 kHz is expected to enhance surface diffusion and chemical reconstruction. Compared to fluorinated silicon nitride deposited at 14 MHz under otherwise comparable conditions, the 200 kHz films had a lower Si--H bond concentration (approx. 21 cm -3 ), lower total hydrogen content (5--8 x 10 21 cm -3 ), better resistance to oxidation, lower compressive stress (-0.7 to -1.5 Gdyne/cm), and higher density (3.1 g/cm 3 ). The dielectric constant of better low-frequency Class I films was constant to 500 MHz, while that of high-frequency films fell up to 15% between 100 Hz and 10 MHz. The absorption edges of low-frequency PECVD fluorinated silicon nitride films were between 5.0 and 6.1 eV, which compare with 4.4 to 5.6 eV for the high-excitation frequency fluorinated material and 3 to 4 eV for conventional PECVD nitride. However high-frequency films may have fewer trap centers and a lower dielectric constant. 14 MHz p-SiN:F films grown with NH 3 as an auxiliary nitrogen source showed absorption edges similar to low-frequency material grown from NF 3 /SiH 4 /N 2 , but they have substantially more N--H bonding. The dielectric constant and absorption edge of these films were comparable to those of low-frequency p-SiN:F from NF 3 /SiH 4 /N 2

  1. Fluorinated monovacancies in graphene: Even-odd effect

    KAUST Repository

    Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.

    2012-11-01

    The electronic and structural properties of fluorinated monovacancies in graphene are studied using density functional theory. Our calculations show that an odd number of F atoms adsorbed on a monovacancy gives rise to a p-type metallic state with a local magnetic moment of 1μ B. In contrast, an even number of F atoms leads to a non-magnetic semiconducting state. We explain the behaviour in terms of local structure properties. © Copyright EPLA, 2012.

  2. Fluorinated analogs of malachite green: synthesis and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, George A; Jeon, Insik; Nilsen-Hamilton, Marit; Awad, Ahmed M; Banerjee, Jayeeta; Parvin, Bahram

    2008-04-27

    A series of fluorinated analogs of malachite green (MG) have been synthesized and their toxicity to Saccharomyces cerevisiae and a human ovarian epithelial cell line examined. The toxicity profiles were found to be different for these two species. Two analogs, one with 2,4-difluoro substitution and the other with 2-fluoro substitution seem to be the most promising analogs because they showed the lowest toxicity to the human cells.

  3. Fluorinated monovacancies in graphene: Even-odd effect

    KAUST Repository

    Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.; Cheng, Yingchun; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2012-01-01

    The electronic and structural properties of fluorinated monovacancies in graphene are studied using density functional theory. Our calculations show that an odd number of F atoms adsorbed on a monovacancy gives rise to a p-type metallic state with a local magnetic moment of 1μ B. In contrast, an even number of F atoms leads to a non-magnetic semiconducting state. We explain the behaviour in terms of local structure properties. © Copyright EPLA, 2012.

  4. A double-stage pulsed discharge fluorine atom beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Zefeng; Qiu Minghui; Che Li; Dai Dongxu; Wang Xiuyan; Yang Xueming

    2006-01-01

    Molecular-beam intensity and speed ratio are two major limiting factors in many molecular-beam experiments. This article reports a high-intensity, high-speed-ratio, pulsed supersonic fluorine atom beam source using a double-stage discharge beam source. Its performance is indicated by the high-resolution time-of-flight spectrum in the crossed beam experiment of F( 2 P)+para-H 2

  5. Bibliography about silicon non-organic fluorine compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carles, M.

    1963-01-01

    This bibliography is made from Professor I.G. Ryss' book published in Moscow in 1956, translated in English under the title 'The chemistry of fluorine and its inorganic compounds' (Translation series. AEC tr 3927, Pt 1 and 2), and completed with the data found in the 'Chemical Abstracts' of the years 1946 to 1962 [fr

  6. Fluorinated Analogs of Malachite Green: Synthesis and Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Parvin

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A series of fluorinated analogs of malachite green (MG have been synthesizedand their toxicity to Saccharomyces cerevisiae and a human ovarian epithelial cell lineexamined. The toxicity profiles were found to be different for these two species. Twoanalogs, one with 2,4-difluoro substitution and the other with 2-fluoro substitution seem tobe the most promising analogs because they showed the lowest toxicity to the human cells.

  7. Use of ASP for Removal of Fluorine and Ammonium Ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin HB, A; Las, T

    1998-01-01

    The purified zeolites from Bayah, Lampung dan Tasik have been modified into microporous alumino-silico phosphate (ASP) which could be used as anion and cation exchangers. ASP has been prepared by mixing purified zeolites and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate in weight ratios of 1 :1, 1 :5 and 5:1. The materials have been characterized by XRF, XRD and TG. The ion-exchange experiments have been performed by batch method for various concentrations of 0.01, 0.04, 0.08, 0.2 and O,4 NF and NH 4 ion. Column experiment has been performed for: 500 ppm of ion F ( 0,026 N) and 100 ppm (0.0055 N) of ion NH 4 concentrations respectively, fed into 1 cm diameter column containing 3 g pure ion exchangers. From batch experiment the fluorine sorption increases following the increase the concentration and F could be adsorbed up to about 1.09 -9.17 eq/kg for in the range of concentration 0.01 - 0.08 N. For higher fluorine concentration, the fluorine sorption tends to fluctuate. The ammonium sorption experiments obtain similar results for purified zeolites and ASP. The ion could be absorbed up to about 1.09 - 14.24 eq/kg. In column experiment, 1 g ASP could absorb fluorine up to about 278,48 - 334,19 BV ( 900-1300 ml) at 50% BT, and absorb NH 4 about 219.64 - 297.17 BV (850 -1150 ml) separately. These result shows that the ASP might be a potential material to be used for removal of ion F and NH 4 from the waste generayed in the fuel element fabrication

  8. Dynamic polarization of 19F in a fluorinated alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, D.; Kasprzyk, T.; Jarmer, J.J.; Penttilae, S.; Krumpolc, M.; Hoffmann, G.W.; Purcell, M.

    1988-01-01

    We have studied microwave dynamic cooling of 19 F and 1 H nuclei in mixtures of 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol and water, doped with Cr(V) complex. Equal spin temperatures of the two nuclei are produced, and the highest spin polarizations (/approximately/80%) are found in mixtures near the eutectic ratio. The high fluorine content and polarization make this a suitable material for polarized nuclear scattering experiments. 11 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  9. Nucleophilic tetrafluoroethylation of carbonyl compounds with fluorinated sulfones

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Václavík, Jiří; Chernykh, Yana; Jurásek, Bronislav; Beier, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 169, Jan (2015), s. 24-31 ISSN 0022-1139 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP207/11/0421 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED3.2.00/08.0144; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010005 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : fluorine * tetrafluoroethylation * sulfones * nucleophilic addition * carbonyl compounds Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.213, year: 2015

  10. Dipolar rotors orderly aligned in mesoporous fluorinated organosilica architectures

    KAUST Repository

    Bracco, Silvia; Beretta, Mario; Cattaneo, Alice Silvia; Comotti, Angiolina; Falqui, Andrea; Zhao, Ke; Rogers, Charles T.; Sozzani, Piero

    2015-01-01

    New mesoporous covalent frameworks, based on hybrid fluorinated organosilicas, were prepared to realize a periodic architecture of fast molecular rotors containing dynamic dipoles in their structure. The mobile elements, designed on the basis of fluorinated p-divinylbenzene moieties, were integrated into the robust covalent structure through siloxane bonds, and showed not only the rapid dynamics of the aromatic rings (ca. 108 Hz at 325 K), as detected by solid-state NMR spectroscopy, but also a dielectric response typical of a fast dipole reorientation under the stimuli of an applied electric field. Furthermore, the mesochannels are open and accessible to diffusing in gas molecules, and rotor mobility could be individually regulated by I2 vapors. The iodine enters the channels of the periodic structure and reacts with the pivotal double bonds of the divinyl-fluoro-phenylene rotors, affecting their motion and the dielectric properties. Oriented molecular rotors: Fluorinated molecular rotors (see picture) were engineered in mesoporous hybrid organosilica architectures with crystalline order in their walls. The rotor dynamics was established by magic angle spinning NMR and dielectric measurements, indicating a rotational correlation time as short as 10-9 s at 325 K. The dynamics was modulated by I2 vapors entering the pores.

  11. Fluorinated graphene films with graphene quantum dots for electronic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonova, I. V., E-mail: antonova@isp.nsc.ru [Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Nebogatikova, N. A.; Prinz, V. Ya. [Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-14

    This work analyzes carrier transport, the relaxation of non-equilibrium charge, and the electronic structure of fluorinated graphene (FG) films with graphene quantum dots (GQDs). The FG films with GQDs were fabricated by means of chemical functionalization in an aqueous solution of hydrofluoric acid. High fluctuations of potential relief inside the FG barriers have been detected in the range of up to 200 mV. A phenomenological expression that describes the dependence of the time of non-equilibrium charge emission from GQDs on quantum confinement levels and film thickness (potential barrier parameters between GQDs) is suggested. An increase in the degree of functionalization leads to a decrease in GQD size, the removal of the GQD effect on carrier transport, and the relaxation of non-equilibrium charge. The study of the electronic properties of FG films with GQDs has revealed a unipolar resistive switching effect in the films with a relatively high degree of fluorination and a high current modulation (up to ON/OFF ∼ 10{sup 4}–10{sup 5}) in transistor-like structures with a lower degree of fluorination. 2D films with GQDs are believed to have considerable potential for various electronic applications (nonvolatile memory, 2D connections with optical control and logic elements).

  12. Hydrogen and fluorine in the surfaces of lunar samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leich, D.A.; Goldberg, R.H.; Burnett, D.S.; Tombrello, T.A.

    1974-04-01

    The resonant nuclear reaction F-19 (p, alpha gamma)O-16 was used to perform depth sensitive analyses for both fluorine and hydrogen in lunar samples. The resonance at 0.83 MeV (center-of-mass) in this reaction was applied to the measurement of the distribution of trapped solar protons in lunar samples to depths of about 1 / 2 micrometer. These results are interpreted in terms of terrestrial H 2 O surface contamination and a redistribution of the implanted solar H which has been influenced by heavy radiation damage in the surface region. Results are also presented for an experiment to test the penetration of H 2 O into laboratory glass samples which have been irradiated with O-16 to simulate the radiation damaged surfaces of lunar glasses. Fluorine determinations were performed in a 1 pm surface layer on lunar samples using the same F-19(alpha gamma)O-16 resonance. The data are discussed from the standpoint of lunar fluorine and Teflon contamination. (U.S.)

  13. Characteristics of fluorinated nitroazoles as hypoxic cell radiosensitizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibamoto, Y.; Nishimoto, S.; Shimokawa, K.

    1989-01-01

    Types of 2-nitroimidazoles and 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazoles bearing one or two fluorine atoms on their side chains were synthesized to evaluate their physicochemical properties, radiosensitizing effects, and toxicity. The reduction potential of the compounds containing one fluorine was similar to that of misonidazole (MISO), whereas that of the difluorinated compounds was slightly higher. Both mono- and difluorinated compounds had an in vitro sensitizing activity comparable to or slightly higher than that of MISO. The fluorinated 3-nitrotriazoles were almost as efficient as the 2-nitroimidazoles with the same substituent. In vivo, some of the compounds were up to twice more efficient than MISO, whereas others were as efficient as MISO. Toxicity in terms of LD50/7 in mice was quite variable depending on the side-chain structure; the amide derivatives were less toxic than MISO, whereas the alcohol and ether derivatives were more toxic. In view of the radiosensitizing effect and toxicity in vivo, at least one compound, KU-2285 (a 2-nitroimidazole with an N1-substituent of: CH2CF2CONHCH2CH2OH) has been found to be as useful a hypoxic cell sensitizer as SR-2508

  14. Fluorine-18 heart dosimetry in myocardial perfusion imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toledo, Janine M.; Trindade, Bruno; Campos, Tarcísio P.R., E-mail: janine.toledo@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências e Técnicas Nucleares

    2017-07-01

    This paper conducts a recalling in myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) followed by a spatial dosimetric investigation of the Fluorine-18 distributed at the myocardium by self-absorption of the heart uptake. Methods and Results: Radiological data manipulation was prepared and a computational heart voxelized model was assembled. A set of images from the abdominal aorta and angiotomography of the thorax was set up providing anatomic and functional information for heart modeling in SISCODES code. A homogeneous distribution of fluorine-18 was assumed into the heart myocardial wall. MCNP – Monte Carlo Code was used to provide the photon transport into the heart model taken in consideration the interactions into the tissues. The spatial dose distribution and histogram dose versus volume are presented. An analytical alternative model was addressed to the data validation. The present developed tools can produce spatial dose distribution in MPI at heart. Specially, the dosimetry performed elucidates imparted dose in the myocardial muscle per unit of injected Fluorine-18 activity by self-absorption of the heart uptake, which can contribute to future deterministic effect investigations. (author)

  15. Fluorine-18 heart dosimetry in myocardial perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledo, Janine M.; Trindade, Bruno; Campos, Tarcísio P.R.

    2017-01-01

    This paper conducts a recalling in myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) followed by a spatial dosimetric investigation of the Fluorine-18 distributed at the myocardium by self-absorption of the heart uptake. Methods and Results: Radiological data manipulation was prepared and a computational heart voxelized model was assembled. A set of images from the abdominal aorta and angiotomography of the thorax was set up providing anatomic and functional information for heart modeling in SISCODES code. A homogeneous distribution of fluorine-18 was assumed into the heart myocardial wall. MCNP – Monte Carlo Code was used to provide the photon transport into the heart model taken in consideration the interactions into the tissues. The spatial dose distribution and histogram dose versus volume are presented. An analytical alternative model was addressed to the data validation. The present developed tools can produce spatial dose distribution in MPI at heart. Specially, the dosimetry performed elucidates imparted dose in the myocardial muscle per unit of injected Fluorine-18 activity by self-absorption of the heart uptake, which can contribute to future deterministic effect investigations. (author)

  16. (Liquid + liquid) equilibria of perfluorocarbons with fluorinated ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinho, S.; Araújo, J.M.M.; Rebelo, L.P.N.; Pereiro, A.B.; Marrucho, I.M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • (Liquid + liquid) equilibria perfluorocarbons and fluorinated ionic liquids. • Non-Random Two Liquid model was successfully applied. • Thermodynamic functions that describe the solvation process were calculated. -- Abstract: In order to evaluate the feasibility of partially replace perfluorocarbons (PFCs) with fluorinated ionic liquids (FILs) in PFCs-in-water emulsions, usually used for biomedical purposes, herein the (liquid + liquid) phase equilibria of FILs containing fluorinated chains longer than four carbons with PFCs were carried out in a wide range of temperatures. With this goal in mind, two PFCs (perfluorooctane and perfluorodecalin) were selected and the (liquid + liquid) equilibria of the binary mixtures of these PFCs and FILs were studied at atmospheric pressure in a temperature range from T (293.15 to 343.15) K. For these studies, FILs containing ammonium, pyridinium and imidazolium cations and different anions with fluorocarbon alkyl chains between 4 and 8 were included. Additionally, Non-Random Two Liquid (NRTL) thermodynamic model was successfully applied to correlate the behaviour of the PFCs + FILs binary mixtures. Moreover, thermodynamic functions that describe the solvation process were calculated from the experimental data

  17. Dipolar rotors orderly aligned in mesoporous fluorinated organosilica architectures

    KAUST Repository

    Bracco, Silvia

    2015-02-16

    New mesoporous covalent frameworks, based on hybrid fluorinated organosilicas, were prepared to realize a periodic architecture of fast molecular rotors containing dynamic dipoles in their structure. The mobile elements, designed on the basis of fluorinated p-divinylbenzene moieties, were integrated into the robust covalent structure through siloxane bonds, and showed not only the rapid dynamics of the aromatic rings (ca. 108 Hz at 325 K), as detected by solid-state NMR spectroscopy, but also a dielectric response typical of a fast dipole reorientation under the stimuli of an applied electric field. Furthermore, the mesochannels are open and accessible to diffusing in gas molecules, and rotor mobility could be individually regulated by I2 vapors. The iodine enters the channels of the periodic structure and reacts with the pivotal double bonds of the divinyl-fluoro-phenylene rotors, affecting their motion and the dielectric properties. Oriented molecular rotors: Fluorinated molecular rotors (see picture) were engineered in mesoporous hybrid organosilica architectures with crystalline order in their walls. The rotor dynamics was established by magic angle spinning NMR and dielectric measurements, indicating a rotational correlation time as short as 10-9 s at 325 K. The dynamics was modulated by I2 vapors entering the pores.

  18. Effects of fluorine on the germination of some species of seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navara, J; Holub, Z; Bedatsova, L

    1966-01-01

    The various degrees of tolerance of the seeds of some species of plants towards fluorine and their ability to accumulate fluorine under experimental conditions are presented. The effects of fluorine on the germination of seeds manifests itself in various ways. The studied species have been divided into four groups according to their natural tolerance: (1) very sensitive: pea, soya, vetch and cabbage; (2) sensitive: radish, barley, cole; (3) less sensitive: maize, cauliflower, alfalfa, mustard, oats, clover kohlrabi; and (4) tolerant: poppy, carrot, tomato. Highly tolerant species are capable of accumulating considerable amounts of fluorine when compared with the more sensitive species. A more intensive accumulation of fluorine has been noticed in the oleaginous species, viz. mustard and poppy. A correlation was found to exist between the ash contents (especially of calcium) and the ability of a greater accumulation of fluorine. 23 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

  19. Proton activation analysis for the measurement of fluorine in food stamples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shroy, R.E.; Kraner, H.W.; Jones, K.W.; Jacobson, J.S.; Heller, L.I.

    1982-01-01

    We have developed a proton activation method for the determination of 19 F in food samples based on the use of the 19 F(p,p'γ) 19 F reaction. Special techniques were used to obtain reproducible target conditions and low background values. Two calibration techniques not dependent on chemical analyses for fluorine gave values comparable to a third method which employed vegetation and cellulose containing from about 20 to 500 ppM (μg/g dry weight) of fluorine. Results are reported for FDA market basket food samples containing less than 10 ppM fluorine (dry weight) and are compared with the values obtained with two methods of chemical analysis for both vegetation and food samples. Proton activation and chemical methods gave values in excellent agreement for the fluorine content of the high fluorine vegetation samples; however, substantial disagreement remains for the low-fluorine food samples

  20. Novel Fluorinated Indanone, Tetralone and Naphthone Derivatives: Synthesis and Unique Structural Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph C. Sloop

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Several fluorinated and trifluoromethylated indanone, tetralone and naphthone derivatives have been prepared via Claisen condensations and selective fluorinations in yields ranging from 22–60%. In addition, we report the synthesis of new, selectively fluorinated bindones in yields ranging from 72–92%. Of particular interest is the fluorination and trifluoroacetylation regiochemistry observed in these fluorinated products. We also note unusual transformations including a novel one pot, dual trifluoroacetylation, trifluoroacetylnaphthone synthesis via a deacetylation as well as an acetyl-trifluoroacetyl group exchange. Solid-state structural features exhibited by these compounds were investigated using crystallographic methods. Crystallographic results, supported by spectroscopic data, show that trifluoroacetylated ketones prefer a chelated cis-enol form whereas fluorinated bindone products exist primarily as the cross-conjugated triketo form.

  1. Relationship between microhardness and fluorine contents on tooth enamel determined by PIGE analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, D.S.; Paik, D.I.; Park, D.Y.; Moon, H.S.; Chang, Y.I.; Kim, J.B.

    1997-01-01

    The remineralization effect of fluoride has been measured by surface microhardness on tooth enamel. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between microhardness and fluorine concentration on tooth enamel. Twelve sound bovine enamel specimens were prepared and immersed in 0.05% NaF solution for 1, 3, 6, 24 and 36 hours, respectively. The concentration of fluorine in specimens were measured by PIGE analysis and surface microhardness of each specimen was measured by surface microhardness tester. Fluorine concentration was increased by immersing time. There was no change in microhardness of each specimen by fluorine content. The results of this study suggest that there was no relationship between the fluorine concentration and surface microhardness in sound tooth enamel. PIGE analysis can be used effectively to assess the remineralization effect of fluorine content in tooth enamel. (author)

  2. Microelectrode voltammetry of multi-electron transfers complicated by coupled chemical equilibria: a general theory for the extended square scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborda, Eduardo; Gómez-Gil, José María; Molina, Angela

    2017-06-28

    A very general and simple theoretical solution is presented for the current-potential-time response of reversible multi-electron transfer processes complicated by homogeneous chemical equilibria (the so-called extended square scheme). The expressions presented here are applicable regardless of the number of electrons transferred and coupled chemical processes, and they are particularized for a wide variety of microelectrode geometries. The voltammetric response of very different systems presenting multi-electron transfers is considered for the most widely-used techniques (namely, cyclic voltammetry, square wave voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry and steady state voltammetry), studying the influence of the microelectrode geometry and the number and thermodynamics of the (electro)chemical steps. Most appropriate techniques and procedures for the determination of the 'interaction' between successive transfers are discussed. Special attention is paid to those situations where homogeneous chemical processes, such as protonation, complexation or ion association, affect the electrochemical behaviour of the system by different stabilization of the oxidation states.

  3. Geminal difunctionalization of α-diazo arylmethylphosphonates: synthesis of fluorinated phosphonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yujing; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Jianbo

    2016-11-08

    A general approach towards diverse fluorinated phosphonates via geminal difunctionalization reactions of α-diazo arylmethylphosphonates is described. The diazo functionality (RR'C[double bond, length as m-dash]N 2 ) is successfully converted to RR'CF 2 , RR'CHF, RR'CFBr or RR'CFNR'' 2 groups by employing different fluorination reagents. A variety of fluorinated organophosphorus compounds were readily accessed in good to excellent yields from a common type of precursor.

  4. Accumulation of fluorine in the leaves of trees and shrubs growing in industrial territories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asadov, G G; Alekperov, S A; Mamedov, G G

    1977-01-01

    Measurements were made to compare the concentration of fluorine in various plants in the vicinity of an aluminum plant, a glass plant and a chemical plant. The accumulation of fluorine was higher in the leaves of plants near the aluminum and glass industry than in the vicinity of another chemical industry. The fluorine concentration was found to be highest in spring. Pines and poplars were the most sensitive of the species tested.

  5. Direct olefination of fluorinated benzothiadiazoles: a new entry to optoelectronic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yu-Lan; Zhang, Bo; He, Chun-Yang; Zhang, Xingang

    2014-04-14

    Fluorinated olefin-containing benzothiadiazoles have important applications in optoelectronic materials. Herein, we reported the direct olefination of fluorinated benzothiadiazoles, as catalyzed by palladium. The reaction proceeds under mild reaction conditions and shows high functional-group compatibility. A preliminary study of the properties of the resulting symmetrical and unsymmetrical olefin-containing fluorinated benzothiadiazoles in red-light-emitting dyes has also been conducted. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. In vivo pH monitoring using boron doped diamond microelectrode and silver needles: Application to stomach disorder diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Fierro, St?phane; Seishima, Ryo; Nagano, Osamu; Saya, Hideyuki; Einaga, Yasuaki

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the in vivo electrochemical monitoring of pH using boron doped diamond (BDD) microelectrode and silver needles for potential application in medical diagnosis. Accurate calibration curve for pH determination were obtained through in vitro electrochemical measurements. The increase induced in stomach pH by treatment with pantoprazole was used to demonstrate that it is possible to monitor the pH in vivo using the simple and noninvasive system proposed herein. Using the result...

  7. Effect of island shape on dielectrophoretic assembly of metal nanoparticle chains in a conductive-island-based microelectrode system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Haitao; Shao, Jinyou; Ding, Yucheng; Liu, Weiyu; Li, Xiangming; Tian, Hongmiao; Zhou, Yaopei

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Conductive island shape influences the dynamic process occurring in DEP assembly of 10 nm gold nanoparticles in a conductive-island-based microelectrode system. • The DEP-assembled nanoparticle wires form a straighter conduction path with the increase in the geometric angle of conductive island tip. • The different island shapes distort the DEP force distribution and increase the local electrothermally induced fluid flow to different extents, which is important for the morphology and electrical conductance quality of the DEP-assembled metal nanoparticle chains. - Abstract: The electrical conduction quality of an electric circuit connection formed by dielectrophoretic (DEP)-assembled metal nanoparticle wires between small conductive elements plays a significant role in electronic devices. One of the major challenges for improving the electrical conductance of nanowires is optimizing their geometric morphology. So far, the electrical conduction quality has been enhanced by optimizing the AC frequency and conductivity of nanoparticle suspensions. Herein, the effect of the conductive island shapes on the dynamic process occurring in a DEP assembly of 10 nm gold nanoparticles was investigated in a conductive-island-based microelectrode system. The nanoparticle wires between the microelectrodes were assembled in situ from colloidal suspensions. The wires were grown in a much straighter route by increasing the geometric angle of the conductive-island tip. To validate the experiments, the effects of mutual DEP interactions and electrothermally induced fluid flow on the dynamic behavior of particle motion for different island geometric configurations in the conductive-island-based microelectrode system were determined by numerical simulations. The simulation results are consistent with those of experiments. This indicates that different conductive island shapes change the distribution of DEP force and increase the electrothermally induced fluid flow to

  8. Magnetron sputtered diamond-like carbon microelectrodes for on-chip measurement of quantal catecholamine release from cells

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Yuanfang; Chen, Xiaohui; Gupta, Sanju; Gillis, Kevin D.; Gangopadhyay, Shubhra

    2008-01-01

    Carbon electrodes are widely used in electrochemistry due to their low cost, wide potential window, and low and stable background noise. Carbon-fiber electrodes (CFE) are commonly used to electrochemically measure “quantal” catecholamine release via exocytosis from individual cells, but it is difficult to integrate CFEs into lab-on-a-chip devices. Here we report the development of nitrogen doped diamond-like carbon (DLC:N) microelectrodes on a chip to monitor quantal release of catecholamines...

  9. The Curious Case of Fluorination of Conjugated Polymers for Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qianqian; Kelly, Mary Allison; Bauer, Nicole; You, Wei

    2017-09-19

    Organic solar cells (OSCs) have been a rising star in the field of renewable energy since the introduction of the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) in 1992. Recent advances have pushed the efficiencies of OSCs to over 13%, an impressive accomplishment via collaborative efforts in rational materials design and synthesis, careful device engineering, and fundamental understanding of device physics. Throughout these endeavors, several design principles for the conjugated donor polymers used in such solar cells have emerged, including optimizing the conjugated backbone with judicious selection of building blocks, side-chain engineering, and substituents. Among all of the substituents, fluorine is probably the most popular one; improved device characteristics with fluorination have frequently been reported for a wide range of conjugated polymers, in particular, donor-acceptor (D-A)-type polymers. Herein we examine the effect of fluorination on the device performance of solar cells as a function of the position of fluorination (on the acceptor unit or on the donor unit), aiming to outline a clear understanding of the benefits of this curious substituent. As fluorination of the acceptor unit is the most adopted strategy for D-A polymers, we first discuss the effect of fluorination of the acceptor units, highlighting the five most widely utilized acceptor units. While improved device efficiency has been widely observed with fluorinated acceptor units, the underlying reasons vary from case to case and highly depend on the chemical structure of the polymer. Second, the effect of fluorination of the donor unit is addressed. Here we focus on four donor units that have been most studied with fluorination. While device-performance-enhancing effects by fluorination of the donor units have also been observed, it is less clear that fluorine will always benefit the efficiency of the OSC, as there are several cases where the efficiency drops, in particular with "over-fluorination", i.e., when

  10. Determination of fluorine in fodder phosphates and phosphorite flour by fast neutron activation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abashin, E.G.; Lisovskij, I.P.; Smakhtin, L.A.

    1980-01-01

    A neutron-activation method is suggested for determination of fluorine in fodder phosphates and phosphorite flour. Used as the source of fast neutrons was an NG-150M neutron generator with a maximum yield of 10 8 nxcm -2 xs -1 . Samples were irradiated in polyethylene ampoules using a pneumatic shuttle. Fluorine was determined with reference to the fluorine-18 isotope. The accuracy of determining fluorine in fodder phosphates and phosphorite flour is 1 to 4% (rel.) at a rate of not less than 10 samples per hour. The method is suitable for in-process testing of products

  11. Chemical Makeup and Hydrophilic Behavior of Graphene Oxide Nanoribbons after Low-Temperature Fluorination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero Aburto, Rebeca; Alemany, Lawrence B; Weldeghiorghis, Thomas K; Ozden, Sehmus; Peng, Zhiwei; Lherbier, Aurélien; Botello Méndez, Andrés Rafael; Tiwary, Chandra Sekhar; Taha-Tijerina, Jaime; Yan, Zheng; Tabata, Mika; Charlier, Jean-Christophe; Tour, James M; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2015-07-28

    Here we investigated the fluorination of graphene oxide nanoribbons (GONRs) using H2 and F2 gases at low temperature, below 200 °C, with the purpose of elucidating their structure and predicting a fluorination mechanism. The importance of this study is the understanding of how fluorine functional groups are incorporated in complex structures, such as GONRs, as a function of temperature. The insight provided herein can potentially help engineer application-oriented materials for several research and industrial sectors. Direct (13)C pulse magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) confirmed the presence of epoxy, hydroxyl, ester and ketone carbonyl, tertiary alkyl fluorides, as well as graphitic sp(2)-hybridized carbon. Moreover, (19)F-(13)C cross-polarization MAS NMR with (1)H and (19)F decoupling confirmed the presence of secondary alkyl fluoride (CF2) groups in the fluorinated graphene oxide nanoribbon (FGONR) structures fluorinated above 50 °C. First-principles density functional theory calculations gained insight into the atomic arrangement of the most dominant chemical groups. The fluorinated GONRs present atomic fluorine percentages in the range of 6-35. Interestingly, the FGONRs synthesized up to 100 °C, with 6-19% of atomic fluorine, exhibit colloidal similar stability in aqueous environments when compared to GONRs. This colloidal stability is important because it is not common for materials with up to 19% fluorine to have a high degree of hydrophilicity.

  12. Fluorination of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes: from CF4 plasma chemistry to surface functionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struzzi, Claudia; Scardamaglia, Mattia; Colomer, Jean-François; Verdini, Alberto; Floreano, Luca; Snyders, Rony; Bittencourt, Carla

    2017-01-01

    The surface chemistry of plasma fluorinated vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (vCNT) is correlated to the CF 4 plasma chemical composition. The results obtained via FTIR and mass spectrometry are combined with the XPS and Raman analysis of the sample surface showing the dependence on different plasma parameters (power, time and distance from the plasma region) on the resulting fluorination. Photoemission and absorption spectroscopies are used to investigate the evolution of the electronic properties as a function of the fluorine content at the vCNT surface. The samples suffer a limited ageing effect, with a small loss of fluorine functionalities after two weeks in ambient conditions.

  13. Fluorination of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes: from CF4 plasma chemistry to surface functionalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Struzzi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The surface chemistry of plasma fluorinated vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (vCNT is correlated to the CF4 plasma chemical composition. The results obtained via FTIR and mass spectrometry are combined with the XPS and Raman analysis of the sample surface showing the dependence on different plasma parameters (power, time and distance from the plasma region on the resulting fluorination. Photoemission and absorption spectroscopies are used to investigate the evolution of the electronic properties as a function of the fluorine content at the vCNT surface. The samples suffer a limited ageing effect, with a small loss of fluorine functionalities after two weeks in ambient conditions.

  14. Generation of highly N-type, defect passivated transition metal oxides using plasma fluorine insertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, L. Robert; Seo, Hyungtak; Hervier, Antoine; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2016-04-12

    A new composition of matter is disclosed wherein oxygen vacancies in a semiconducting transition metal oxide such as titanium dioxide are filled with a halogen such as Fluorine, whereby the conductivity of the composition is greatly enhanced, while at the same time the chemical stability of the composition is greatly improved. Stoichiometric titanium dioxide having less than 3 % oxygen vacancies is subject to fluorine insertion such that oxygen vacancies are filled, limited amounts of fluorine replace additional oxygen atoms and fluorine interstitially inserts into the body of the TiO.sub.2 composition.

  15. Fluorine follows water: Effect on electrical conductivity of silicate minerals by experimental constraints from phlogopite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Jiang, Haotian; Yang, Xiaozhi

    2017-11-01

    Fluorine and hydroxyl groups are minor constituents of silicate minerals, and share a lot of similarities concerning their physical and chemical properties. Hydroxyl groups significantly enhance the electrical conductivity of many silicate minerals, and it is expected that fluorine would have a comparable effect. This, however, has never been documented quantitatively. Here we present experimental approaches on this issue, by investigating the electrical conductivity of phlogopite with a wide range of fluorine content (but with broadly similar contents for other major elements). Electrical conductivities of gem-quality single crystal phlogopites, with samples prepared along the same orientation (normal to the (0 0 1) plane), were determined at 1 GPa and 200-650 °C using an end-loaded piston cylinder apparatus and a Solartron-1260 Impedance/Gain Phase Analyzer over the frequency range of 106 to 0.1 Hz. The complex spectra usually show an arc in the high frequency range and a short tail in the low frequency range, which are caused by lattice conduction and electrode effects, respectively. The electrical conductivity increases with increasing fluorine content, and the main charge carriers are fluorine. The activation enthalpies are ∼180 to 200 kJ/mol, nearly independent of fluorine content. The conductivity is linearly proportional to the content of fluorine, with an exponent factor of ∼1. The results demonstrate that conduction by fluorine leads to very high electrical conductivity at high temperatures. The influence of fluorine on electrical conductivity may be compared to that of hydrogen in nominally anhydrous minerals. This, along with the close association of fluorine and hydroxyl groups in silicate minerals and their similar crystal-chemical behaviors, suggests a more general role of fluorine in enhancing the electrical conductivity of many silicate minerals. Fluorine-rich assemblages, e.g., phlogopite and amphibole, could be locally enriched in the upper

  16. Determination of fluorine in fodder phosphates and phosphorite flour by fast neutron activation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abashin, E G; Lisovskii, I P; Smakhtin, L A

    1980-01-01

    A neutron-activation method is suggested for determination of fluorine in fodder phosphates and phosphorite flour. Used as the source of fast neutrons was an NG-150M neutron generator with a maximum yield of 10/sup 8/ nxcm/sup -2/xs/sup -1/. Samples were irradiated in polyethylene ampoules using a pneumatic shuttle. Fluorine was determined with reference to the fluorine-18 isotope. The accuracy of determining fluorine in fodder phosphates and phosphorite flour is 1 to 4% (rel.) at a rate of not less than 10 samples per hour. The method is suitable for in-process testing of products.

  17. O2 Plasma Etching and Antistatic Gun Surface Modifications for CNT Yarn Microelectrode Improve Sensitivity and Antifouling Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng; Wang, Ying; Jacobs, Christopher B; Ivanov, Ilia N; Venton, B Jill

    2017-05-16

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) based microelectrodes exhibit rapid and selective detection of neurotransmitters. While different fabrication strategies and geometries of CNT microelectrodes have been characterized, relatively little research has investigated ways to selectively enhance their electrochemical properties. In this work, we introduce two simple, reproducible, low-cost, and efficient surface modification methods for carbon nanotube yarn microelectrodes (CNTYMEs): O 2 plasma etching and antistatic gun treatment. O 2 plasma etching was performed by a microwave plasma system with oxygen gas flow and the optimized time for treatment was 1 min. The antistatic gun treatment flows ions by the electrode surface; two triggers of the antistatic gun was the optimized number on the CNTYME surface. Current for dopamine at CNTYMEs increased 3-fold after O 2 plasma etching and 4-fold after antistatic gun treatment. When the two treatments were combined, the current increased 12-fold, showing the two effects are due to independent mechanisms that tune the surface properties. O 2 plasma etching increased the sensitivity due to increased surface oxygen content but did not affect surface roughness while the antistatic gun treatment increased surface roughness but not oxygen content. The effect of tissue fouling on CNT yarns was studied for the first time, and the relatively hydrophilic surface after O 2 plasma etching provided better resistance to fouling than unmodified or antistatic gun treated CNTYMEs. Overall, O 2 plasma etching and antistatic gun treatment improve the sensitivity of CNTYMEs by different mechanisms, providing the possibility to tune the CNTYME surface and enhance sensitivity.

  18. Spatial and temporal characteristics of V1 microstimulation during chronic implantation of a microelectrode array in a behaving macaque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, T. S.; Parker, R. A.; House, P. A.; Bagley, E.; Wendelken, S.; Normann, R. A.; Greger, B.

    2012-12-01

    Objective. It has been hypothesized that a vision prosthesis capable of evoking useful visual percepts can be based upon electrically stimulating the primary visual cortex (V1) of a blind human subject via penetrating microelectrode arrays. As a continuation of earlier work, we examined several spatial and temporal characteristics of V1 microstimulation. Approach. An array of 100 penetrating microelectrodes was chronically implanted in V1 of a behaving macaque monkey. Microstimulation thresholds were measured using a two-alternative forced choice detection task. Relative locations of electrically-evoked percepts were measured using a memory saccade-to-target task. Main results. The principal finding was that two years after implantation we were able to evoke behavioural responses to electric stimulation across the spatial extent of the array using groups of contiguous electrodes. Consistent responses to stimulation were evoked at an average threshold current per electrode of 204 ± 49 µA (mean ± std) for groups of four electrodes and 91 ± 25 µA for groups of nine electrodes. Saccades to electrically-evoked percepts using groups of nine electrodes showed that the animal could discriminate spatially distinct percepts with groups having an average separation of 1.6 ± 0.3 mm (mean ± std) in cortex and 1.0° ± 0.2° in visual space. Significance. These results demonstrate chronic perceptual functionality and provide evidence for the feasibility of a cortically-based vision prosthesis for the blind using penetrating microelectrodes.

  19. Influence of droplet coverage on the electrochemical response of planar microelectrodes and potential solving strategies based on nesting concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Yu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, biosensors have been widely used for the detection of bacteria, viruses and other toxins. Electrodes, as commonly used transducers, are a vital part of electrochemical biosensors. The coverage of the droplets can change significantly based on the hydrophobicity of the microelectrode surface materials. In the present research, screen-printed interdigitated microelectrodes (SPIMs, as one type of planar microelectrode, were applied to investigate the influence of droplet coverage on electrochemical response. Furthermore, three dimensional (3D printing technology was employed to print smart devices with different diameters based on the nesting concept. Theoretical explanations were proposed to elucidate the influence of the droplet coverage on the electrochemical response. 3D-printed ring devices were used to incubate the SPIMs and the analytical performances of the SPIMs were tested. According to the results obtained, our device successfully improved the stability of the signal responses and eliminated irregular signal changes to a large extent. Our proposed method based on the nesting concept provides a promising method for the fabrication of stable electrochemical biosensors. We also introduced two types of electrode bases to improve the signal stability.

  20. Nanostructured gold microelectrodes for SERS and EIS measurements by incorporating ZnO nanorod growth with electroplating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Xianli; Zhu, Rong; Guo, Xiaoliang

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a fine gold nanostructure synthesized on selective planar microelectrodes in micro-chip is realized by using an advanced hybrid fabrication approach incorporating growth of nanorods (NRs) with gold electroplating. By this developed nanostructure, integration of in-situ surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) detection with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurement for label-free, nondestructive, real-time and rapid monitoring on a single cell has been achieved. Moreover, parameters of Au nanostructures such as size of nanoholes/nanogaps can be controllably adjusted in the fabrication. We have demonstrated a SERS enhancement factor of up to ~2.24 × 106 and double-layer impedance decrease ratio of 90% ~ 95% at low frequency range below 200 kHz by using nanostructured microelectrodes. SERS detection and in-situ EIS measurement of a trapped single cell by using planar microelectrodes are realized to demonstrate the compatibility, multi-functions, high-sensitivity and simplicity of the micro-chip system. This dual function platform integrating SERS and EIS is of great significance in biological, biochemical and biomedical applications. PMID:26558325

  1. The Polypyrrole/Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Modified Au Microelectrode for Sensitive Electrochemical Detection of Trace Levels of Pb2+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuxing Zhu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The sensitive detection of trace levels of heavy metal ions such as Pb2+ is of significant importance due to the health hazard they pose. In this paper, we present a polypyrrole (PPy/multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT-modified Au microelectrode. The PPy/MWCNT composite film was electrochemically deposited on the microelectrode by cyclic voltammetry (CV. The composite film was investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM, CV, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS, and the results show that this film presents a uniformly distributed and web-like entangled structure and good conductivity. Differential pulse stripping voltammetry (DPSV was applied to determine trace levels of Pb2+. Experimental conditions including accumulation time and deposition potential were optimized. In optimal conditions, the PPy/MWCNT-modified microelectrode performed sensitive detection of Pb2+ within a concentration range from 1 to 100 μg·L−1, and the limit of detection was 0.65 μg·L−1 at the signal-to-noise ratio of three.

  2. Signal processing methods for reducing artifacts in microelectrode brain recordings caused by functional electrical stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, D.; Willett, F.; Memberg, W. D.; Murphy, B.; Walter, B.; Sweet, J.; Miller, J.; Hochberg, L. R.; Kirsch, R. F.; Ajiboye, A. B.

    2018-04-01

    Objective. Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is a promising technology for restoring movement to paralyzed limbs. Intracortical brain-computer interfaces (iBCIs) have enabled intuitive control over virtual and robotic movements, and more recently over upper extremity FES neuroprostheses. However, electrical stimulation of muscles creates artifacts in intracortical microelectrode recordings that could degrade iBCI performance. Here, we investigate methods for reducing the cortically recorded artifacts that result from peripheral electrical stimulation. Approach. One participant in the BrainGate2 pilot clinical trial had two intracortical microelectrode arrays placed in the motor cortex, and thirty-six stimulating intramuscular electrodes placed in the muscles of the contralateral limb. We characterized intracortically recorded electrical artifacts during both intramuscular and surface stimulation. We compared the performance of three artifact reduction methods: blanking, common average reference (CAR) and linear regression reference (LRR), which creates channel-specific reference signals, composed of weighted sums of other channels. Main results. Electrical artifacts resulting from surface stimulation were 175  ×  larger than baseline neural recordings (which were 110 µV peak-to-peak), while intramuscular stimulation artifacts were only 4  ×  larger. The artifact waveforms were highly consistent across electrodes within each array. Application of LRR reduced artifact magnitudes to less than 10 µV and largely preserved the original neural feature values used for decoding. Unmitigated stimulation artifacts decreased iBCI decoding performance, but performance was almost completely recovered using LRR, which outperformed CAR and blanking and extracted useful neural information during stimulation artifact periods. Significance. The LRR method was effective at reducing electrical artifacts resulting from both intramuscular and surface FES, and

  3. Microfabrication of an Implantable silicone Microelectrode array for an epiretinal prosthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maghribi, Mariam Nader [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2003-06-10

    Millions of people suffering from diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa and macular degeneration are legally blind due to the loss of photoreceptor function. Fortunately a large percentage of the neural cells connected to the photoreceptors remain viable, and electrical stimulation of these cells has been shown to result in visual perception. These findings have generated worldwide efforts to develop a retinal prosthesis device, with the hope of restoring vision. Advances in microfabrication, integrated circuits, and wireless technologies provide the means to reach this challenging goal. This dissertation describes the development of innovative silicone-based microfabrication techniques for producing an implantable microelectrode array. The microelectrode array is a component of an epiretinal prosthesis being developed by a multi-laboratory consortium. This array will serve as the interface between an electronic imaging system and the human eye, directly stimulating retinal neurons via thin film conducting traces. Because the array is intended as a long-term implant, vital biological and physical design requirements must be met. A retinal implant poses difficult engineering challenges due to the size of the intraocular cavity and the delicate retina. Not only does it have to be biocompatible in terms of cytotoxicity and degradation, but it also has to be structurally biocompatible, with regard to smooth edges and high conformability; basically mimicking the biological tissue. This is vital to minimize stress and prevent physical damage to the retina. Also, the device must be robust to withstand the forces imposed on it during fabrication and implantation. In order to meet these biocompatibility needs, the use of non-conventional microfabrication materials such as silicone is required. This mandates the enhancement of currently available polymer-based fabrication techniques and the development of new microfabrication methods. Through an iterative process, devices

  4. Magnesium microelectrode corrosion product transport modelling in relation to chloride induced pitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrows, R.; Cook, A.; Stevens, N.P.C.

    2012-09-01

    The high magnesium alloy Magnox is used as a fuel clad for the UK gas cooled, graphite moderated reactors of the same name. The fuel is metallic uranium (typically natural enrichment), so a low neutron absorption cross-section clad is required. Following discharge from reactor, spent fuel is stored in water, which acts as an effective heat transfer medium and biological shield. The chemistry of these ponds is carefully controlled to ensure that the Magnox clad remains in a passive state. This is primarily through the maintenance of a high pH and very low anion concentration. Of particular concern is the presence of chloride ions as even very low levels may allow localised corrosion to initiate. Although extensive work has been undertaken historically considering the behaviour of Magnox clad and the acceptable storage envelopes, the challenges of ageing plant and aspirations for accelerated decommissioning give value to further understanding of the corrosion mechanisms of this material. Recently, electrochemical techniques have been employed to characterise performance in a variety of chemistries and microelectrodes have been produced which have shown characteristics of salt film corrosion at moderate chloride concentrations under polarisation. A characteristic of the electrochemical response observed during the mass transport limited (potential independent) salt film regime has been periodic transients which correspond to emission of microscopic hydrogen bubbles from the microelectrode cavity. A simple finite element multi-physics model has been employed to assist in understanding the dominant processes of corrosion product transport away from a magnesium electrode surface which is dissolving under a salt film and this shows that characteristic transients observed in electrochemical tests may be simulated with reasonable agreement by consideration of convection from laminar flow around hydrogen micro-bubbles in the pit cavity combined with aqueous diffusion in the

  5. Microelectrode array-induced neuronal alignment directs neurite outgrowth: analysis using a fast Fourier transform (FFT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radotić, Viktorija; Braeken, Dries; Kovačić, Damir

    2017-12-01

    Many studies have shown that the topography of the substrate on which neurons are cultured can promote neuronal adhesion and guide neurite outgrowth in the same direction as the underlying topography. To investigate this effect, isotropic substrate-complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) chips were used as one example of microelectrode arrays (MEAs) for directing neurite growth of spiral ganglion neurons. Neurons were isolated from 5 to 7-day-old rat pups, cultured 1 day in vitro (DIV) and 4 DIV, and then fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde. For analysis of neurite alignment and orientation, fast Fourier transformation (FFT) was used. Results revealed that on the micro-patterned surface of a CMOS chip, neurons orient their neurites along three directional axes at 30, 90, and 150° and that neurites aligned in straight lines between adjacent pillars and mostly followed a single direction while occasionally branching perpendicularly. We conclude that the CMOS substrate guides neurites towards electrodes by means of their structured pillar organization and can produce electrical stimulation of aligned neurons as well as monitoring their neural activities once neurites are in the vicinity of electrodes. These findings are of particular interest for neural tissue engineering with the ultimate goal of developing a new generation of MEA essential for improved electrical stimulation of auditory neurons.

  6. A wideband wireless neural stimulation platform for high-density microelectrode arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Frank B; Simpson, Jim A; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2006-01-01

    We describe a system that allows researchers to control an implantable neural microstimulator from a PC via a USB 2.0 interface and a novel dual-carrier wireless link, which provides separate data and power transmission. Our wireless stimulator, Interestim-2B (IS-2B), is a modular device capable of generating controlled-current stimulation pulse trains across 32 sites per module with support for a variety of stimulation schemes (biphasic/monophasic, bipolar/monopolar). We have developed software to generate multi-site stimulation commands for the IS-2B based on streaming data from artificial sensory devices such as cameras and microphones. For PC interfacing, we have developed a USB 2.0 microcontroller-based interface. Data is transmitted using frequency-shift keying (FSK) at 6/12 MHz to achieve a data rate of 3 Mb/s via a pair of rectangular coils. Power is generated using a class-E power amplifier operating at 1 MHz and transmitted via a separate pair of spiral planar coils which are oriented perpendicular to the data coils to minimize cross-coupling. We have successfully demonstrated the operation of the system by applying it as a visual prosthesis. Pulse-frequency modulated stimuli are generated in real-time based on a grayscale image from a webcam. These pulses are projected onto an 11x11 LED matrix that represents a 2D microelectrode array.

  7. Interdigitated microelectrode based impedance biosensor for detection of salmonella enteritidis in food samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, G; Morgan, M; Hahm, B K; Bhunia, A; Mun, J H; Om, A S

    2008-01-01

    Salmonella enteritidis outbreaks continue to occur, and S. enteritidis-related outbreaks from various food sources have increased public awareness of this pathogen. Conventional methods for pathogens detection and identification are labor-intensive and take days to complete. Some immunological rapid assays are developed, but these assays still require prolonged enrichment steps. Recently developed biosensors have shown great potential for the rapid detection of foodborne pathogens. To develop the biosensor, an interdigitated microelectrode (IME) was fabricated by using semiconductor fabrication process. Anti-Salmonella antibodies were immobilized based on avidin-biotin binding on the surface of the IME to form an active sensing layer. To increase the sensitivity of the sensor, three types of sensors that have different electrode gap sizes (2 μm, 5 μm, 10 μm) were fabricated and tested. The impedimetric biosensor could detect 10 3 CFU/mL of Salmonella in pork meat extract with an incubation time of 5 minutes. This method may provide a simple, rapid and sensitive method to detect foodborne pathogens

  8. Application of active electrode compensation to perform continuous voltage-clamp recordings with sharp microelectrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-González, J F; Destexhe, A; Bal, T

    2014-10-01

    Electrophysiological recordings of single neurons in brain tissues are very common in neuroscience. Glass microelectrodes filled with an electrolyte are used to impale the cell membrane in order to record the membrane potential or to inject current. Their high resistance induces a high voltage drop when passing current and it is essential to correct the voltage measurements. In particular, for voltage clamping, the traditional alternatives are two-electrode voltage-clamp technique or discontinuous single electrode voltage-clamp (dSEVC). Nevertheless, it is generally difficult to impale two electrodes in a same neuron and the switching frequency is limited to low frequencies in the case of dSEVC. We present a novel fully computer-implemented alternative to perform continuous voltage-clamp recordings with a single sharp-electrode. To reach such voltage-clamp recordings, we combine an active electrode compensation algorithm (AEC) with a digital controller (AECVC). We applied two types of control-systems: a linear controller (proportional plus integrative controller) and a model-based controller (optimal control). We compared the performance of the two methods to dSEVC using a dynamic model cell and experiments in brain slices. The AECVC method provides an entirely digital method to perform continuous recording and smooth switching between voltage-clamp, current clamp or dynamic-clamp configurations without introducing artifacts.

  9. Microelectrode Array-evaluation of Neurotoxic Effects of Magnesium as an Implantable Biomaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ting; Wang, Zhonghai; Wei, Lina; Kindy, Mark; Zheng, Yufeng; Xi, Tingfei; Gao, Bruce Z

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg)-based biomaterials have shown great potential in clinical applications. However, the cytotoxic effects of excessive Mg 2+ and the corrosion products from Mg-based biomaterials, particularly their effects on neurons, have been little studied. Although viability tests are most commonly used, a functional evaluation is critically needed. Here, both methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays were used to test the effect of Mg 2+ and Mg-extract solution on neuronal viability. Microelectrode arrays (MEAs), which provide long-term, real-time recording of extracellular electrophysiological signals of in vitro neuronal networks, were used to test for toxic effects. The minimum effective concentrations (EC min ) of Mg 2+ from the MTT and LDH assays were 3 mmol/L and 100 mmol/L, respectively, while the EC min obtained from the MEA assay was 0.1 mmol/L. MEA data revealed significant loss of neuronal network activity when the culture was exposed to 25% Mg-extract solution, a concentration that did not affect neuronal viability. For evaluating the biocompatibility of Mg-based biomaterials with neurons, MEA electrophysiological testing is a more precise method than basic cell-viability testing.

  10. An iridium oxide microelectrode for monitoring acute local pH changes of endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Shu Rui; O'Hare, Danny

    2015-06-21

    pH sensors were fabricated by anodically electrodepositing iridium oxide films (AEIROFs) onto microelectrodes on chips and coated with poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) for mechanical stability. These demonstrate super-Nernstian response to pH from pH 4.0 to 7.7 in chloride-free phosphate buffer. The surface of the chip was coated with fibronectin for the attachment of porcine aortic endothelial cells (PAECs). The working capability of the pH sensor for monitoring acute local pH changes was investigated by stimulating the PAECs with thrombin. Our results show that thrombin induced acute extracellular acidification of PAECs and dissolution of fibronectin, causing the local pH to decrease. The use of PD98059, a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor, reduced extracellular acidification and an increase in local pH was observed. This study shows that our pH sensors can facilitate the investigation of acute cellular responses to stimulation by monitoring the real-time, local pH changes of cells attached to the sensors.

  11. An implantable integrated low-power amplifier-microelectrode array for Brain-Machine Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Erin; Sankar, Viswanath; Rowe, William; Sanchez, Justin C; Nishida, Toshikazu

    2010-01-01

    One of the important challenges in designing Brain-Machine Interfaces (BMI) is to build implantable systems that have the ability to reliably process the activity of large ensembles of cortical neurons. In this paper, we report the design, fabrication, and testing of a polyimide-based microelectrode array integrated with a low-power amplifier as part of the Florida Wireless Integrated Recording Electrode (FWIRE) project at the University of Florida developing a fully implantable neural recording system for BMI applications. The electrode array was fabricated using planar micromachining MEMS processes and hybrid packaged with the amplifier die using a flip-chip bonding technique. The system was tested both on bench and in-vivo. Acute and chronic neural recordings were obtained from a rodent for a period of 42 days. The electrode-amplifier performance was analyzed over the chronic recording period with the observation of a noise floor of 4.5 microVrms, and an average signal-to-noise ratio of 3.8.

  12. Rapid Detection Technology for Pesticides Residues Based on Microelectrodes Impedance Immunosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Ping Zhao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Compared with conventional methods, electrochemical immunosensors have many advantages, such as low cost, high sensitivity, and rapid detection, and has certain prospects for realizing real-time-monitoring. In this paper, a design of portable pesticide residues detection instrument was presented based on an electrochemical impedance immunosensor. Firstly, we studied on an impedance immunosensor based on interdigitated array microelectrode (IDAM coupled with magnetic nanobeads-antibody conjugates (MNAC for the pesticide detection. Magnetic nanobeads (diameter 150 nm coated with anti-carbofuran antibodies were used for further amplification of the binding reaction between antibody and hapten (carbofuran. Secondly, in order to develop a portable pesticide residue apparatus, we designed the impedance detection electric circuit. Main work included designing and constructing of the system circuit, designing and debugging of the system software and so on. Thirdly, the apparatus was used for the standard pesticides solutions testing combined with immunosensor to test the reliability and stability. The pesticide added standard recovery was more than 70 % and the impedance test error was less than 5 %. The results showed that the proposed instrument had a good consistence compared with the traditional analytical methods. Thus, it would be a promising rapid detection instrument for pesticide residues in agricultural products.

  13. Brain Computer Interface Learning for Systems Based on Electrocorticography and Intracortical Microelectrode Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivayogi V Hiremath

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A brain-computer interface (BCI system transforms neural activity into control signals for external devices in real time. A BCI user needs to learn to generate specific cortical activity patterns to control external devices effectively. We call this process BCI learning, and it often requires significant effort and time. Therefore, it is important to study this process and develop novel and efficient approaches to accelerate BCI learning. This article reviews major approaches that have been used for BCI learning, including computer-assisted learning, co-adaptive learning, operant conditioning, and sensory feedback. We focus on BCIs based on electrocorticography and intracortical microelectrode arrays for restoring motor function. This article also explores the possibility of brain modulation techniques in promoting BCI learning, such as electrical cortical stimulation, transcranial magnetic stimulation, and optogenetics. Furthermore, as proposed by recent BCI studies, we suggest that BCI learning is in many ways analogous to motor and cognitive skill learning, and therefore skill learning should be a useful metaphor to model BCI learning.

  14. ZnO crystal growth on microelectrode by electrochemical deposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Y; Ashida, A; Nouzu, N; Fujimura, N

    2011-01-01

    Zinc Oxide crystals were grown by constant potential electrochemical deposition method on the substrate with the Pt working electrode which consists of Pt film with large area and μm-sized line and space structured area. In case of depositions with cathodic potential of -0.3V, ZnO crystal is not observed on the micro electrode, but observed on the electrode with large area (0.2 cm 2 ). By using electrolyte with higher pH, ZnO crystal grows on both areas. In case of lower pH, ZnO crystal does not grow on either. From these results, the pH range for growth of ZnO on the microelectrode seems to be higher than that on the electrode with large area. And, it is expected that the pH just on the surface of μm-sized electrode is lower than that in the bulk of electrolyte. Based on these results, it can be concluded that control of the pH in vicinity of the surface is very important to ECD method for micro- and nano-scaled devices.

  15. Brain computer interface learning for systems based on electrocorticography and intracortical microelectrode arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiremath, Shivayogi V; Chen, Weidong; Wang, Wei; Foldes, Stephen; Yang, Ying; Tyler-Kabara, Elizabeth C; Collinger, Jennifer L; Boninger, Michael L

    2015-01-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) system transforms neural activity into control signals for external devices in real time. A BCI user needs to learn to generate specific cortical activity patterns to control external devices effectively. We call this process BCI learning, and it often requires significant effort and time. Therefore, it is important to study this process and develop novel and efficient approaches to accelerate BCI learning. This article reviews major approaches that have been used for BCI learning, including computer-assisted learning, co-adaptive learning, operant conditioning, and sensory feedback. We focus on BCIs based on electrocorticography and intracortical microelectrode arrays for restoring motor function. This article also explores the possibility of brain modulation techniques in promoting BCI learning, such as electrical cortical stimulation, transcranial magnetic stimulation, and optogenetics. Furthermore, as proposed by recent BCI studies, we suggest that BCI learning is in many ways analogous to motor and cognitive skill learning, and therefore skill learning should be a useful metaphor to model BCI learning.

  16. Modulation of cultured neural networks using neurotrophin release from hydrogel-coated microelectrode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Sang Beom; Hynd, Matthew R.; Dowell-Mesfin, Natalie M.; Al-Kofahi, Yousef; Roysam, Badrinath; Shain, William; Kim, Sung June

    2008-06-01

    Polyacrylamide and poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate hydrogels were synthesized and characterized for use as drug release and substrates for neuron cell culture. Protein release kinetics was determined by incorporating bovine serum albumin (BSA) into hydrogels during polymerization. To determine if hydrogel incorporation and release affect bioactivity, alkaline phosphatase was incorporated into hydrogels and a released enzyme activity determined using the fluorescence-based ELF-97 assay. Hydrogels were then used to deliver a brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) from hydrogels polymerized over planar microelectrode arrays (MEAs). Primary hippocampal neurons were cultured on both control and neurotrophin-containing hydrogel-coated MEAs. The effect of released BDNF on neurite length and process arborization was investigated using automated image analysis. An increased spontaneous activity as a response to the released BDNF was recorded from the neurons cultured on the top of hydrogel layers. These results demonstrate that proteins of biological interest can be incorporated into hydrogels to modulate development and function of cultured neural networks. These results also set the stage for development of hydrogel-coated neural prosthetic devices for local delivery of various biologically active molecules.

  17. A microelectrode array electrodeposited with reduced graphene oxide and Pt nanoparticles for norepinephrine and electrophysiological recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Song, Yilin; Zhang, Yu; Xu, Shengwei; Xu, Huiren; Wang, Mixia; Wang, Yang; Cai, Xinxia

    2017-11-01

    Norepinephrine (NE), a common neurotransmitter released by locus coeruleus neurons, plays an essential role in the communication mechanism of the mammalian nervous system. In this work, a microelectrode array (MEA) was fabricated by micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) technology to provide a rapid, sensitive and reliable method for the direct determination in NE dynamic secretion. To improve the electrical performance, the MEA was electrodeposited with the reduced graphene oxide and Pt nanoparticles (rGOPNps). rGOPNps-MEA was investigated using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, differential pulse voltammetry exhibited remarkably electrocatalytic properties towards NE. Calibration results showed a sensitivity of 1.03 nA µM-1 to NE with a detection limit of 0.08 µM. In Particular, the MEA was successfully used for measuring dynamic extracellular NE secretion from the locus coeruleus brain slice, as well as monitoring spike firing from the hippocampal brain slice. This fabricated device has potential in studies of spatially resolved delivery of trace neurochemicals and electrophysiological activities of a variety of biological tissues in vitro.

  18. Outcomes of Interventional-MRI Versus Microelectrode Recording-Guided Subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip S. Lee

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In deep brain stimulation (DBS of the subthalamic nucleus (STN for Parkinson’s disease (PD, there is debate concerning the use of neuroimaging alone to confirm correct anatomic placement of the DBS lead into the STN, versus the use of microelectrode recording (MER to confirm functional placement. We performed a retrospective study of a contemporaneous cohort of 45 consecutive patients who underwent either interventional-MRI (iMRI or MER-guided DBS lead implantation. We compared radial lead error, motor and sensory side effect, and clinical benefit programming thresholds, and pre- and post-operative unified PD rating scale scores, and levodopa equivalent dosages. MER-guided surgery was associated with greater radial error compared to the intended target. In general, side effect thresholds during initial programming were slightly lower in the MER group, but clinical benefit thresholds were similar. No significant difference in the reduction of clinical symptoms or medication dosage was observed. In summary, iMRI lead implantation occurred with greater anatomic accuracy, in locations demonstrated to be the appropriate functional region of the STN, based on the observation of similar programming side effect and benefit thresholds obtained with MER. The production of equivalent clinical outcomes suggests that surgeon and patient preference can be used to guide the decision of whether to recommend iMRI or MER-guided DBS lead implantation to appropriate patients with PD.

  19. Amperometric Self-Referencing Ceramic Based Microelectrode Arrays for D-Serine Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Beltrán, Diana; Konradsson-Geuken, Åsa; Quintero, Jorge E; Marshall, Lisa

    2018-03-06

    D-serine is the major D-amino acid in the mammalian central nervous system. As the dominant co-agonist of the endogenous synaptic NMDA receptor, D-serine plays a role in synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory. Alterations in D-serine are linked to neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. Thus, it is of increasing interest to monitor the concentration of D-serine in vivo as a relevant player in dynamic neuron-glia network activity. Here we present a procedure for amperometric detection of D-serine with self-referencing ceramic-based microelectrode arrays (MEAs) coated with D-amino acid oxidase from the yeast Rhodotorula gracilis (RgDAAO). We demonstrate in vitro D-serine recordings with a mean sensitivity of 8.61 ± 0.83 pA/µM to D-serine, a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.17 ± 0.01 µM, and a selectivity ratio of 80:1 or greater for D-serine over ascorbic acid (mean ± SEM; n = 12) that can be used for freely moving studies.

  20. Depth-time interpolation of feature trends extracted from mobile microelectrode data with kernel functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Stephen; Hargreaves, Eric L; Baltuch, Gordon H; Jaggi, Jurg L; Danish, Shabbar F

    2012-01-01

    Microelectrode recording (MER) is necessary for precision localization of target structures such as the subthalamic nucleus during deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery. Attempts to automate this process have produced quantitative temporal trends (feature activity vs. time) extracted from mobile MER data. Our goal was to evaluate computational methods of generating spatial profiles (feature activity vs. depth) from temporal trends that would decouple automated MER localization from the clinical procedure and enhance functional localization in DBS surgery. We evaluated two methods of interpolation (standard vs. kernel) that generated spatial profiles from temporal trends. We compared interpolated spatial profiles to true spatial profiles that were calculated with depth windows, using correlation coefficient analysis. Excellent approximation of true spatial profiles is achieved by interpolation. Kernel-interpolated spatial profiles produced superior correlation coefficient values at optimal kernel widths (r = 0.932-0.940) compared to standard interpolation (r = 0.891). The choice of kernel function and kernel width resulted in trade-offs in smoothing and resolution. Interpolation of feature activity to create spatial profiles from temporal trends is accurate and can standardize and facilitate MER functional localization of subcortical structures. The methods are computationally efficient, enhancing localization without imposing additional constraints on the MER clinical procedure during DBS surgery. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond microelectrode arrays monitor cardiac action potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maybeck, Vanessa; Edgington, Robert; Bongrain, Alexandre; Welch, Joseph O; Scorsone, Emanuel; Bergonzo, Philippe; Jackman, Richard B; Offenhäusser, Andreas

    2014-02-01

    The expansion of diamond-based electronics in the area of biological interfacing has not been as thoroughly explored as applications in electrochemical sensing. However, the biocompatibility of diamond, large safe electrochemical window, stability, and tunable electronic properties provide opportunities to develop new devices for interfacing with electrogenic cells. Here, the fabrication of microelectrode arrays (MEAs) with boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (BNCD) electrodes and their interfacing with cardiomyocyte-like HL-1 cells to detect cardiac action potentials are presented. A nonreductive means of structuring doped and undoped diamond on the same substrate is shown. The resulting BNCD electrodes show high stability under mechanical stress generated by the cells. It is shown that by fabricating the entire surface of the MEA with NCD, in patterns of conductive doped, and isolating undoped regions, signal detection may be improved up to four-fold over BNCD electrodes passivated with traditional isolators. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Porous-microelectrode study on Pt/C catalysts for methanol electrooxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umeda, Minoru; Kokubo, Mitsuhiro; Mohamedi, Mohamed; Uchida, Isamu

    2003-01-01

    We have developed a porous-microelectrode (PME) to investigate the electroactivity of catalyst particles for proton exchange membrane fuel cells. The cavity at the tip of the PME was filled with Pt/C catalysts prepared by impregnation method. Cyclic voltammograms (CVs) recorded in 1 N H 2 SO 4 aqueous solution revealed that the active area of the stacked catalysts exist not only at the surface but also inside of the stack. For methanol electrooxidation, 30 wt.% Pt/C exhibited the highest electroactivity, whereas the 50 wt.% Pt/C showed extremely small current. The small current is considered as a result of a small active-surface area. Methanol oxidation peak potential shifted toward cathodic direction as Pt-loading decreased, which agrees well with the Pt-oxide formation potential. The activation energy for methanol oxidation was assessed to be 44±3 kJ mol -1 for all Pt/C catalysts and Pt-disc electrode

  3. Te/Pt nanonetwork modified carbon fiber microelectrodes for methanol oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Hsiang-Yu; Shih, Zih-Yu; Lin, Zong-Hong; Chang, Huan-Tsung

    2013-01-01

    Te/Pt nanonetwork-decorated carbon fiber microelectrodes (CFMEs) have been fabricated and employed as anodic catalysts in a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). Te nanowires were prepared from tellurite ions (TeO 3 2− ) through a seed-mediated growth process and were deposited onto CFMEs to form three-dimensional Te nanonetworks. The Te nanonetworks then acted as a framework and reducing agent to reduce PtCl 6 2− ions to form Te/Pt through a galvanic replacement reaction, leading to the formation of Te/PtCFMEs. By controlling the reaction time, the amount of Pt and morphology of Te/Pt nanonetworks were controlled, leading to various degrees of electrocatalytic activity. The Te/PtCFMEs provide a high electrochemical active surface area (129.2 m 2 g −1 ), good catalytic activity (1.2 A mg −1 ), high current density (20.0 mA cm −2 ), long durability, and tolerance toward the poisoning species for methanol oxidation in 0.5 M sulfuric acid containing 1 M methanol. We have further demonstrated an enhanced current density by separately using 3 and 5 Te/PtCFMEs. Our results show that the low-cost, stable, and effective Te/PtCFMEs have great potential in the fabrication of cost-effective fuel cells. (paper)

  4. Wearable Multi-Channel Microelectrode Membranes for Elucidating Electrophysiological Phenotypes of Injured Myocardium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hung; Yu, Fei; Zhao, Yu; Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Tai, Joyce; Lee, Juhyun; Darehzereshki, Ali; Bersohn, Malcolm; Lien, Ching-Ling; Chi, Neil C.; Tai, Yu-Chong; Hsiai, Tzung K.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the regenerative capacity of small vertebrate models has provided new insights into the plasticity of injured myocardium. Here, we demonstrated the application of flexible microelectrode arrays (MEAs) in elucidating electrophysiological phenotypes of zebrafish and neonatal mouse models of heart regeneration. The 4-electrode MEA membranes were designed to detect electrical signals in the aquatic environment. They were micro-fabricated to adhere to the non-planar body surface of zebrafish and neonatal mice. The acquired signals were processed to display electrocardiogram (ECG) with high signal-to-noise-ratios, and were validated via the use of conventional micro-needle electrodes. The 4-channel MEA provided signal stability and spatial resolution, revealing the site-specific electrical injury currents such as ST-depression in response to ventricular cryo-injury. Thus, our polymer-based and wearable MEA membranes provided electrophysiological insights in long-term conduction phenotypes for small vertebral models of heart injury and regeneration with a translational implication for monitoring cardiac patients. PMID:24945366

  5. Interdigitated microelectrode based impedance biosensor for detection of salmonella enteritidis in food samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, G [National Institute of Agricultural Engineering, 249 Seodun-dong, Suwon, Republic of Korea, 441-100 (Korea, Republic of); Morgan, M; Hahm, B K; Bhunia, A [Department of Food Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Mun, J H; Om, A S [Department of Food and Nutrient, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seoul, Republic of Korea, 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: giyoungkim@rda.go.kr

    2008-03-15

    Salmonella enteritidis outbreaks continue to occur, and S. enteritidis-related outbreaks from various food sources have increased public awareness of this pathogen. Conventional methods for pathogens detection and identification are labor-intensive and take days to complete. Some immunological rapid assays are developed, but these assays still require prolonged enrichment steps. Recently developed biosensors have shown great potential for the rapid detection of foodborne pathogens. To develop the biosensor, an interdigitated microelectrode (IME) was fabricated by using semiconductor fabrication process. Anti-Salmonella antibodies were immobilized based on avidin-biotin binding on the surface of the IME to form an active sensing layer. To increase the sensitivity of the sensor, three types of sensors that have different electrode gap sizes (2 {mu}m, 5 {mu}m, 10 {mu}m) were fabricated and tested. The impedimetric biosensor could detect 10{sup 3} CFU/mL of Salmonella in pork meat extract with an incubation time of 5 minutes. This method may provide a simple, rapid and sensitive method to detect foodborne pathogens.

  6. Highly sensitive three-dimensional interdigitated microelectrode for microparticle detection using electrical impedance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Fu-Yu; Chen, Ming-Kun; Jang, Ling-Sheng; Wang, Min-Haw

    2016-01-01

    Cell impedance analysis is widely used for monitoring biological and medical reactions. In this study, a highly sensitive three-dimensional (3D) interdigitated microelectrode (IME) with a high aspect ratio on a polyimide (PI) flexible substrate was fabricated for microparticle detection (e.g. cell quantity detection) using electroforming and lithography technology. 3D finite element simulations were performed to compare the performance of the 3D IME (in terms of sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio) to that of a planar IME for particles in the sensing area. Various quantities of particles were captured in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle medium and their impedances were measured. With the 3D IME, the particles were arranged in the gap, not on the electrode, avoiding the noise due to particle position. For the maximum particle quantities, the results show that the 3D IME has at least 5-fold higher sensitivity than that of the planar IME. The trends of impedance magnitude and phase due to particle quantity were verified using the equivalent circuit model. The impedance (1269 Ω) of 69 particles was used to estimate the particle quantity (68 particles) with 98.6% accuracy using a parabolic regression curve at 500 kHz. (paper)

  7. Bioelectronic tongue of taste buds on microelectrode array for salt sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingjun; Zhang, Fenni; Zhang, Diming; Hu, Ning; Wang, Hua; Hsia, K Jimmy; Wang, Ping

    2013-02-15

    Taste has received great attention for its potential applications. In this work, we combine the biological tissue with micro-chips to establish a novel bioelectronic tongue system for salt taste detection. Before experiment, we established a computational model of action potential in salt taste receptor cell, simulating the responsive results to natural salt stimuli of NaCl solution with various concentrations. Then 36-channel microelectrode arrays (MEA) with the diameter of 30 μm were fabricated on the glass substrate, and taste epithelium was stripped from rat and fixed on MEA. When stimulated by the salt stimuli, electrophysiological activities of taste receptor cells in taste buds were measured through a multi-channel recording system. Both simulation and experiment results showed a dose-dependent increase in NaCl-induced potentials of taste receptor cells, which indicated good applications in salt measurements. The multi-channel analysis demonstrated that different groups of MEA channels were activated during stimulations, indicating non-overlapping populations of receptor cells in taste buds involved in salt taste perception. The study provides an effective and reliable biosensor platform to help recognize and distinguish salt taste components. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Characteristics of F doped PZT ceramics using different fluorine sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guiffard, B. [Laboratory of Electrical Engineering and Ferroelectricity, LGEF INSA-Lyon, Bat. Gustave Ferrie, 8 rue de la Physique, F-69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)]. E-mail: benoit.guiffard@insa-lyon.fr; Boucher, E. [SPCTS, UMR 6638, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, Universite de Limoges, 123 Avenue Albert Thomas, 87060 Limoges Cedex (France); Lebrun, L. [Laboratory of Electrical Engineering and Ferroelectricity, LGEF INSA-Lyon, Bat. Gustave Ferrie, 8 rue de la Physique, F-69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Guyomar, D. [Laboratory of Electrical Engineering and Ferroelectricity, LGEF INSA-Lyon, Bat. Gustave Ferrie, 8 rue de la Physique, F-69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2007-02-25

    In this study, some structural and electrical properties of a PZT base composition Pb{sub 0.89}(Ba, Sr){sub 0.11}(Zr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48})O{sub 3} co-doped with 1 mol% manganese and 2 mol% fluorine have been studied. Two different fluorine sources were used: lead fluoride PbF{sub 2} and manganese fluoride MnF{sub 2}. These fluoride salts are added to the co-precipitated precursors powder. Mn dopant was added to the solution as manganese acetate (MnAc) before co-precipitation, when PbF{sub 2} was used. The structural analysis of the sintered ceramics revealed that MnF{sub 2} doping makes the volume of the cubic unit cell (V {sub c}) and the grain size decrease, whereas (MnAc, PbF{sub 2}) co-doping makes the apparent density increase and keeps the average grain size and V {sub c} unchanged. Both types of doping reagents largely enhance the piezoelectric activity (high d {sub 33} and k {sub 33} coefficients, well saturated Polarization-Electric field loops) but MnF{sub 2} induces both combinatory soft and hard characteristics compared to (MnAc, PbF{sub 2}) co-doping. Impedance spectroscopy showed that both types of doping reagents strongly reduce the electrical conductivity with the same conducting species, i.e. the same defect chemistry, confirmed by optical absorption data. Finally, this study shows that in the semi-wet process used, PbF{sub 2} is added homogeneously to the co-precipitated powder. Whatever the fluorine source, only the coexistence of Mn and F dopants is necessary to improve the piezoelectric response.

  9. Electrochemical fluorination for processing of used nuclear fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Diaz, Brenda L.; Martinez-Rodriguez, Michael J.; Gray, Joshua R.; Olson, Luke C.

    2016-07-05

    A galvanic cell and methods of using the galvanic cell is described for the recovery of uranium from used nuclear fuel according to an electrofluorination process. The galvanic cell requires no input energy and can utilize relatively benign gaseous fluorinating agents. Uranium can be recovered from used nuclear fuel in the form of gaseous uranium compound such as uranium hexafluoride, which can then be converted to metallic uranium or UO.sub.2 and processed according to known methodology to form a useful product, e.g., fuel pellets for use in a commercial energy production system.

  10. Electron energy-loss spectra in molecular fluorine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, H.; Cartwright, D. C.; Trajmar, S.

    1979-01-01

    Electron energy-loss spectra in molecular fluorine, for energy losses from 0 to 17.0 eV, have been taken at incident electron energies of 30, 50, and 90 eV and scattering angles from 5 to 140 deg. Features in the spectra above 11.5 eV energy loss agree well with the assignments recently made from optical spectroscopy. Excitations of many of the eleven repulsive valence excited electronic states are observed and their location correlates reasonably well with recent theoretical results. Several of these excitations have been observed for the first time and four features, for which there are no identifications, appear in the spectra.

  11. Oral frostbite injury from intentional abuse of a fluorinated hydrocarbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuspis, D A; Krenzelok, E P

    1999-01-01

    A serious but rarely reported complication of halogenated hydrocarbon inhalation abuse is severe mucosal frostbite. A 16-year-old male attempted to "get high" by inhaling airbrush propellant which contained 1,1-difluoroethane (CAS #75-376). The patient lost consciousness and upon awakening his lips and tongue were frozen. He suffered first- and second-degree burns of the larynx with vocal cord involvement and first-degree burns of the trachea, main stem bronchi, and esophagus. The oral cavity had second- and third-degree burns which required debridement. This case demonstrates the unusual but severe damage that can occur with the abuse of fluorinated hydrocarbons.

  12. Integrated Photonic Devices Incorporating Low-Loss Fluorinated Polymer Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Jong Lee

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Low-loss polymer materials incorporating fluorinated compounds have been utilized for the investigation of various functional optical devices useful for optical communication and optical sensor systems. Since reliability issues concerning the polymer device have been resolved, polymeric waveguide devices have been gradually adopted for commercial application systems. The two most successfully commercialized polymeric integrated optic devices, variable optical attenuators and digital optical switches, are reviewed in this paper. Utilizing unique properties of optical polymers which are not available in other optical materials, novel polymeric optical devices are proposed including widely tunable external cavity lasers and integrated optical current sensors.

  13. Reversibility of Graphene-Enhanced Raman Scattering with Fluorinated Graphene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valeš, Václav; Melníková Komínková, Zuzana; Verhagen, Timotheus; Vejpravová, Jana; Kalbáč, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 254, č. 11 (2017), č. článku 1700177. ISSN 0370-1972 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-01953S; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015073 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/16_013/0001821 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : fluorination * graphene * graphene-enhanced Raman * Raman spectroscopy * scattering Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry; BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism (FZU-D) OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry; Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) (FZU-D) Impact factor: 1.674, year: 2016

  14. Fluorine-18 NaF PET imaging of child abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drubach, Laura A. [Children' s Hospital Boston and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine/PET, Boston, MA (United States); Sapp, Mark.V. [School of Osteopathic Medicine, Child Abuse Research Education and Services (CARES) Institute University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Jersey (United States); Laffin, Stephen [Children' s Hospital Boston, Department of Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine/PET, Boston, MA (United States); Kleinman, Paul K. [Children' s Hospital Boston and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Division of Musculoskeletal Imaging, Boston, MA (United States)

    2008-07-15

    We describe the use of {sup 18}F-NaF positron emission tomography (PET) whole-body imaging for the evaluation of skeletal trauma in a case of suspected child abuse. To our knowledge, 18F NaF PET has not been used in the past for the evaluation of child abuse. In our patient, this technique detected all sites of trauma shown by initial and follow-up skeletal surveys, including bilateral metaphyseal fractures of the proximal humeri. Fluorine-18 NaF PET has potential advantage over Tc-99m-labeled methylene diphosphonate (MDP) based upon superior image contrast and spatial resolution. (orig.)

  15. Fluorine-18 NaF PET imaging of child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drubach, Laura A.; Sapp, Mark V.; Laffin, Stephen; Kleinman, Paul K.

    2008-01-01

    We describe the use of 18 F-NaF positron emission tomography (PET) whole-body imaging for the evaluation of skeletal trauma in a case of suspected child abuse. To our knowledge, 18F NaF PET has not been used in the past for the evaluation of child abuse. In our patient, this technique detected all sites of trauma shown by initial and follow-up skeletal surveys, including bilateral metaphyseal fractures of the proximal humeri. Fluorine-18 NaF PET has potential advantage over Tc-99m-labeled methylene diphosphonate (MDP) based upon superior image contrast and spatial resolution. (orig.)

  16. Study of the chemical species of fluorine 18 produced by neutron irradiation of lithium aluminate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez-Becerril, J.

    1990-01-01

    In the present work, the chemical form of fluorine-18 obtained by means of the neutron irradiated lithium aluminate was studied, in order to know its chemical behavior and to observe if it volatilizes and adheres to the walls of a tritium distillation system; for this matter paper chromatography and high voltage electrophoresis techniques were used. Lithium aluminate was synthetized, being characterized as LiAlO 2 which was irradiated with neutrons in order to produce fluorine-18. Lithium aluminate is a non-soluble solid, therefore fluorine produced may not be extracted, unless it is dissolved or extracted through the solid. So as not affect in a drastic way the chemical form, it was submitted to extraction processes, agitating the irradiated samples with different acids and basic solutions in order to analyze fluorine-18. The best extraction agent was found to be HCl, where two forms of fluorine-18 were found, one at the point of application, probably as a complex hexafluoride-aluminate and the other as a characteristic Rf of the fluorine ion. In the tritium distillation with helium as a carrier of a sample irradiated and heated up to 220-250 o C, no volatile types of fluorine-18 were found, thus it can be considered that in commercial production of tritium by means of neutron irradiation of lithium aluminate, fluorine-18 is not a damaging pollutant of the equipment pipe system. (Author)

  17. Hydrolytically stable fluorinated metal-organic frameworks for energy-efficient dehydration

    KAUST Repository

    Cadiau, Amandine; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Adil, Karim; Bhatt, Prashant; Pillai, Renjith S.; Shkurenko, Aleksander; Martineau-Corcos, Charlotte; Maurin, Guillaume; Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    fluorinated metal-organic framework, AlFFIVE-1-Ni (KAUST-8), with a periodic array of open metal coordination sites and fluorine moieties within the contracted square-shaped one-dimensional channel. This material selectively removed water vapor from gas

  18. Study on characteristics of fluorine concentration profiles in fluorosis sheep teeth and bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Shizhan; Shui Yongqing; Wang Lianbin; Yang Huazhong; Zhai Xujiu; Wang Yuwen; Lei Guilin

    1990-01-01

    The deep-ward fluorine concentration profiles in fluorosis sheep teeth and bones were determined through 19 F(p, αγ) 16 O reaction with proton energy 3.2 MeV. The profiles show a diffusion characteristic, indicating that the fluorine ion diffusion may be one of the important factors that brought forth pathological changes of livestock teeth and bones

  19. Plasma fluorination of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes: functionalization and thermal stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struzzi, Claudia; Scardamaglia, Mattia; Hemberg, Axel; Petaccia, Luca; Colomer, Jean-François; Snyders, Rony; Bittencourt, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Grafting of fluorine species on carbon nanostructures has attracted interest due to the effective modification of physical and chemical properties of the starting materials. Various techniques have been employed to achieve a controlled fluorination yield; however, the effect of contaminants is rarely discussed, although they are often present. In the present work, the fluorination of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes was performed using plasma treatment in a magnetron sputtering chamber with fluorine diluted in an argon atmosphere with an Ar/F2 ratio of 95:5. The effect of heavily diluted fluorine in the precursor gas mixture is investigated by evaluating the modifications in the nanotube structure and the electronic properties upon plasma treatment. The existence of oxygen-based grafted species is associated with background oxygen species present in the plasma chamber in addition to fluorine. The thermal stability and desorption process of the fluorine species grafted on the carbon nanotubes during the fluorine plasma treatment were evaluated by combining different spectroscopic techniques.

  20. Plasma fluorination of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes: functionalization and thermal stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Struzzi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Grafting of fluorine species on carbon nanostructures has attracted interest due to the effective modification of physical and chemical properties of the starting materials. Various techniques have been employed to achieve a controlled fluorination yield; however, the effect of contaminants is rarely discussed, although they are often present. In the present work, the fluorination of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes was performed using plasma treatment in a magnetron sputtering chamber with fluorine diluted in an argon atmosphere with an Ar/F2 ratio of 95:5. The effect of heavily diluted fluorine in the precursor gas mixture is investigated by evaluating the modifications in the nanotube structure and the electronic properties upon plasma treatment. The existence of oxygen-based grafted species is associated with background oxygen species present in the plasma chamber in addition to fluorine. The thermal stability and desorption process of the fluorine species grafted on the carbon nanotubes during the fluorine plasma treatment were evaluated by combining different spectroscopic techniques.

  1. Air pollution by fluorine in Poland and its toxic effect on humans, animals and plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paluch, J.; Schalenkowa, I.

    1970-01-01

    The accumulation and distribution of fluorine compounds in plants and animals in the vicinity of emitters of fluorine are reported. The sensitivity and the differences in the accumulating capacity of various plants and animals are discussed. The significance of the problems for the human population is pointed out.

  2. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell With Enhanced Durability Using Fluorinated Carbon As Electrocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Yasser

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the fluorination of a carbon aerogel and its effects on the durability of the resulting electrocatalyst for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC. Fluorine has been introduced before or after platinum deposition. The different electrocatalysts are physico-chemically and electrochemically characterized, and the results discussed by comparison with commercial Pt/XC72 from E-Tek. The results demonstrate that the level of fluorination of the carbon aerogel can be controlled. The fluorination modifies the texture of the carbons by increasing the pore size and decreasing the specific surface area, but the textures remain appropriate for PEMFC applications. Two fluorination sites are observed, leading to both high covalent C-F bond and weakened ones, the quantity of which depends on whether the treatment is done before or after platinum deposition. The order of the different treatments is very important. The presence of platinum contributes to the fluorination mechanism, but leads to amorphous platinum rather inactive towards the Oxygen Reduction Reaction. Finally, a better durability was demonstrated for the fluorinated then platinized catalyst compared both to the same but not fluorinated catalyst and to the reference commercial material (based on the loss of the electrochemical real surface area after accelerated stress tests.

  3. Direct fluorination? Useful tool to enhance commercial properties of polymer articles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kharitonov, A.P.; Taege, R.; Ferrier, G.; Teplyakov, V.V.; Syrtsova, D.A.; Syrtsova, D.A.; Koops, G.H.

    2005-01-01

    Fundamental features and industrial applications of the direct fluorination of polymers are reviewed. Fundamental features of the direct fluorination of a set of polymers, such as polystyrene, polyethyleneterephthalate, poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide), PMMA, LDPE (two types), HDPE (six

  4. Electrochemical stability and transformations of fluorinated poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pud, A.A.; Rogalsky, S.P.; Ghapoval, G.S.; Kharitonov, A.P.; Kemperman, Antonius J.B.

    2000-01-01

    Fluorination of poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO) leads to narrowing of its window of electrochemical stability in a cathodic range of potentials. It is found this is connected with appearance of both perfluorinated and incompletely fluorinated units in the polymer. The former units are

  5. Synthesis of Fluorinated Graphene/CoAl-Layered Double Hydroxide Composites as Electrode Materials for Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Weijun; Li, Hongqiang; Song, Shaoxian

    2017-02-15

    CoAl-layered double hydroxide/fluorinated graphene (CoAl-LDH/FGN) composites were fabricated via a two-step hydrothermal method. The synthesized CoAl-LDH/FGN composites have been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and electrochemical measurements. The results indicated that the fluorinated carbon with various configuration forms were grafted onto the framework of graphene, and the C-F bond configuration and fluorine content could be tuned by the fluorination time. Most of semi-ionic C-F bonds were formed at an appropriate fluorination time and, then, converted into fluorine rich surface groups (such as CF 2 , CF 3 , etc.) which were electrochemically inactive as the fluorination time prolonged. Moreover, the CoAl-LDH/FGN composites prepared at the optimal fluorination time exhibited the highest specific capacitance (1222 F/g at 1 A/g), the best rate capability, and the most stable capacitance retention, which offered great promise as electrode materials for supercapacitors.

  6. Tuning the tunneling magnetoresistance by using fluorinated graphene in graphene based magnetic junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Meena

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Spin polarized properties of fluorinated graphene as tunnel barrier with CrO2 as two HMF electrodes are studied using first principle methods based on density functional theory. Fluorinated graphene with different fluorine coverages is explored as tunnel barriers in magnetic tunnel junctions. Density functional computation for different fluorine coverages imply that with increase in fluorine coverages, there is increase in band gap (Eg of graphene, Eg ∼ 3.466 e V was observed when graphene sheet is fluorine adsorbed on both-side with 100% coverage (CF. The results of CF graphene are compared with C4F (fluorination on one-side of graphene sheet with 25% coverage and out-of-plane graphene based magnetic tunnel junctions. On comparison of the results it is observed that CF graphene based structure offers high TMR ∼100%, and the transport of carrier is through tunneling as there are no transmission states near Fermi level. This suggests that graphene sheet with both-side fluorination with 100% coverages acts as a perfect insulator and hence a better barrier to the carriers which is due to negligible spin down current (I↓ in both Parallel Configuration (PC and Antiparallel Configuration (APC.

  7. Catalytic stereoselective synthesis of highly substituted indanones via tandem Nazarov cyclization and electrophilic fluorination trapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jing; Zhu, Hong-Wei; Cui, Han-Feng; Hua, Ming-Qing; Ma, Jun-An

    2007-08-02

    A new catalytic stereoselective tandem transformation via Nazarov cyclization/electrophilic fluorination has been accomplished. This sequence is efficiently catalyzed by a Cu(II) complex to afford fluorine-containing 1-indanone derivatives with two new stereocenters with high diastereoselectivity (trans/cis up to 49/1). Three examples of catalytic enantioselective tandem transformation are presented.

  8. 40 CFR 721.9075 - Quaternary ammonium salt of fluorinated alkylaryl amide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... fluorinated alkylaryl amide. 721.9075 Section 721.9075 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... amide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as quaternary ammonium salt of fluorinated alkylaryl amide (PMN No. P-92-688) is...

  9. Partially fluorinated arylene polyethers and their ternary blend membranes with PBI and H3PO4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerres, J.; Schonberger, F.; Chromik, A

    2008-01-01

    A partially fluorinated polyether ionomer from polycondensation of decafluorobiphenyl with 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-hexafluoropropane, followed by sulphonation with H2SO4 (60% SO3), has been prepared and optimised in terms of molecular weight and sulphonation degree. The partially fluorinated ion...

  10. Synthesis of no-carrier-added fluorine-18 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tewson, T.J.

    1983-01-01

    A new synthetic procedure for the preparation of fluorine-18 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-glucose has been developed. This procedure offers the advantages of flexibility in the source of the fluorine-18, high yields, and short synthesis times. The procedure works at the no-carrier-added level and gives a product of very high specific activity

  11. Effects of fluorine on crops, soil exoenzyme activities, and earthworms in terrestrial ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Yooeun; Kim, Dokyung; An, Youn-Joo

    2018-04-30

    Fluorine can flow into the environment after leakage or spill accidents and these excessive amounts can cause adverse effects on terrestrial ecosystems. Using three media (filter paper, soil, and filter-paper-on-soil), we investigated the toxic effects of fluorine on the germination and growth of crops (barley, mung bean, sorghum, and wheat), on the activities of soil exoenzymes (acid phosphatase, arylsulfatase, fluorescein diacetate hydrolase, and urease) and on the survival, abnormality, and cytotoxicity of Eisenia andrei earthworms. The germination and growth of crops were affected by fluorine as exposure concentration increased. The activities of the four enzymes after 0-, 3-, 10-, and 20-day periods varied as exposure concentration increased. According to in vivo and in vitro earthworm assays, E. andrei mortality, abnormality, and cytotoxicity increased with increasing fluorine concentration. Overall, fluorine significantly affected each tested species in the concentration ranges used in this study. The activities of soil exoenzymes were also affected by soil fluorine concentration, although in an inconsistent manner. Albeit the abnormally high concentrations of fluorine in soil compared to that observed under natural conditions, its toxicity was much restrained possibly due to the adsorption of fluorine on soil particles and its combination with soil cations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Fluorine and chlorine determination in oxides and metals by ion chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evseeva, T.I.; Poletaeva, I.L.; Zemlyanukhina, N.A.; Pavlova, I.V.; Rybin, A.M.; Malykh, M.Yu.; Fedorova, L.A.

    1989-01-01

    Method for simultaneous determination of fluorine and chlorine microquantitie in tantalum, uranium and plutonium oxides, based on combined methods of pyrohydrolysis (1000-1100 deg C) and two-column ion chromatography with conductometric detection is suggested. The relative root-mean-square deviation of determination error is 0.2, the fluorine and chlorine content being 5·10 -4 mass%

  13. Nuclear energy - Determination of chlorine and fluorine in uranium dioxide powder and sintered pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This International Standard describes a method for determining the chlorine and fluorine concentrations in uranium dioxide and in sintered fuel pellets by pyrohydrolysis of samples, followed either by liquid ion-exchange chromatography or by selective electrode measurement of chlorine and fluorine ions. Many ion-exchange chromatography systems and ion-selective electrode measurement systems are available

  14. Self-formation of a nanonet of fluorinated carbon nanowires on the Si surface by combined etching in fluorine-containing plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirov, I. I.; Gorlachev, E. S.; Mazaletskiy, L. A.; Izyumov, M. O.; Alov, N. V.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, we report a technique of the self-formation of a nanonet of fluorinated carbon nanowires on the Si surface using a combined etching in fluorine-containing C4F8/Ar and SF6 plasmas. Using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we show that after the etching of Si in the C4F8/Ar plasma, a fluorinated carbon film of nanometer-scale thickness is formed on its surface and its formation accelerates at elevated temperatures. After a subsequent short-term etching in the SF6 plasma, the film is modified into a nanonet of self-formed fluorinated carbon nanowires.

  15. In vivo quantification of bone-fluorine by delayed neutron activation analysis: a pilot study of hand-bone-fluorine levels in a Canadian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Mike; Gräfe, James L; Aslam; Byun, Soo-Hyun; Chettle, David R; Egden, Lesley M; Webber, Colin E; McNeill, Fiona E

    2012-03-01

    Humans can be exposed to fluorine (F) through their diet, occupation, environment and oral dental care products. Fluorine, at proper dosages, is believed to have positive effects by reducing the incidence of dental caries, but fluorine toxicity can occur when people are exposed to excessive quantities of fluorine. In this paper we present the results of a small pilot in vivo study on 33 participants living in Southwestern Ontario, Canada. The mean age of participants was 45 ± 18 years with a range of 20-87 years. The observed calcium normalized hand-bone-fluorine concentrations in this small pilot study ranged from 1.1 to 8.8 mg F/g Ca. Every person measured in this study had levels of fluorine in bone above the detection limit of the system. The average fluorine concentration in bone was found to be 3.5 ± 0.4 mg F/g Ca. No difference was observed in average concentration for men and women. In addition, a significant correlation (r(2) = 0.55, p fluorine content and age. The amount of fluorine was found to increase at a rate of 0.084 ± 0.014 mg F/g Ca per year. There was no significant difference observed in this small group of subjects between the accumulation rates in men and women. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time data from in vivo measurement of fluorine content in humans by neutron activation analysis have been presented. The data determined by this technique were found to be consistent with results from ex vivo studies from other countries. We suggest that the data demonstrate that this low risk non-invasive diagnostic technique will permit the routine assessment of bone-fluorine content with potential application in the study of clinical bone-related diseases. This small study demonstrated that people in Southern Ontario are exposed to fluoride in measureable quantities, and that fluoride can be seen to accumulate in bone with age. However, all volunteers were found to have levels below those expected with clinical fluorosis, and only

  16. In vivo quantification of bone-fluorine by delayed neutron activation analysis: a pilot study of hand-bone-fluorine levels in a Canadian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, Mike; Gräfe, James L; Aslam; Byun, Soo-Hyun; Chettle, David R; Egden, Lesley M; Webber, Colin E; McNeill, Fiona E

    2012-01-01

    Humans can be exposed to fluorine (F) through their diet, occupation, environment and oral dental care products. Fluorine, at proper dosages, is believed to have positive effects by reducing the incidence of dental caries, but fluorine toxicity can occur when people are exposed to excessive quantities of fluorine. In this paper we present the results of a small pilot in vivo study on 33 participants living in Southwestern Ontario, Canada. The mean age of participants was 45 ± 18 years with a range of 20–87 years. The observed calcium normalized hand-bone-fluorine concentrations in this small pilot study ranged from 1.1 to 8.8 mg F/g Ca. Every person measured in this study had levels of fluorine in bone above the detection limit of the system. The average fluorine concentration in bone was found to be 3.5 ± 0.4 mg F/g Ca. No difference was observed in average concentration for men and women. In addition, a significant correlation (r 2 = 0.55, p < 0.001) was observed between hand-bone-fluorine content and age. The amount of fluorine was found to increase at a rate of 0.084 ± 0.014 mg F/g Ca per year. There was no significant difference observed in this small group of subjects between the accumulation rates in men and women. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time data from in vivo measurement of fluorine content in humans by neutron activation analysis have been presented. The data determined by this technique were found to be consistent with results from ex vivo studies from other countries. We suggest that the data demonstrate that this low risk non-invasive diagnostic technique will permit the routine assessment of bone-fluorine content with potential application in the study of clinical bone-related diseases. This small study demonstrated that people in Southern Ontario are exposed to fluoride in measureable quantities, and that fluoride can be seen to accumulate in bone with age. However, all volunteers were found to have levels below those

  17. Exploration of fluorine chemistry at the multidisciplinary interface of chemistry and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojima, Iwao

    2013-07-05

    Over the last three decades, my engagement in "fluorine chemistry" has evolved substantially because of the multidisciplinary nature of the research programs. I began my research career as a synthetic chemist in organometallic chemistry and homogeneous catalysis directed toward organic synthesis. Then, I was brought into a very unique world of "fluorine chemistry" in the end of 1970s. I started exploring the interface of fluorine chemistry and transition metal homogeneous catalysis first, which was followed by amino acids, peptides, and peptidomimetics for medicinal chemistry. Since then, I have been exploring the interfaces of fluorine chemistry and multidisciplinary fields of research involving medicinal chemistry, chemical biology, cancer biology, and molecular imaging. This perspective intends to cover my fruitful endeavor in the exploration of fluorine chemistry at the multidisciplinary interface of chemistry and biology in a chronological order to show the evolution of my research interest and strategy.

  18. Photochemistry of fluorinated 4-iodophenylnitrenes: matrix isolation and spectroscopic characterization of phenylnitrene-4-yls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, Dirk; Sander, Wolfram

    2009-10-02

    The photochemistry of a series of fluorinated p-iodophenyl azides 2 has been investigated using matrix isolation IR and EPR spectroscopy. In all cases, the corresponding phenylnitrenes 1 were formed as primary photoproducts. Further irradiation of the nitrenes 1 resulted in the formation of azirines 3, ketenimines 4, and nitreno radicals 5. The yield of 5 depends on the number of ortho fluorine substituents: with two ortho fluorine atoms the highest yield is observed, whereas without fluorine atoms the yield is too low for IR spectroscopic detection. The interconversion between the isomers 1, 3, and 4 proved to be rather complex. If the fluorine atoms are distributed unsymmetrically, two isomers of azirines 3 and ketenimines 4 can be formed. The yields of these isomers depend critically on the irradiation conditions.

  19. Emergence of Dirac and quantum spin Hall states in fluorinated monolayer As and AsSb

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Qingyun

    2016-01-21

    Using first-principles calculations, we investigate the electronic and vibrational properties of monolayer As and AsSb. While the pristine monolayers are semiconductors (direct band gap at the Γ point), fluorination results in Dirac cones at the K points. Fluorinated monolayer As shows a band gap of 0.16 eV due to spin-orbit coupling, and fluorinated monolayer AsSb a larger band gap of 0.37 eV due to inversion symmetry breaking. Spin-orbit coupling induces spin splitting similar to monolayer MoS2. Phonon calculations confirm that both materials are dynamically stable. Calculations of the edge states of nanoribbons by the tight-binding method demonstrate that fluorinated monolayer As is topologically nontrivial in contrast to fluorinated monolayer AsSb.

  20. Quasi-particle energies and optical excitations of hydrogenated and fluorinated germanene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Huabing; Li, Yunhai; Wang, Shudong; Wang, Jinlan

    2015-02-14

    Using density functional theory, the G0W0 method and Bethe-Salpeter equation calculations, we systematically explore the structural, electronic and optical properties of hydrogenated and fluorinated germanene. The hydrogenated/fluorinated germanene tends to form chair and zigzag-line configurations and its electronic and optical properties show close geometry dependence. The chair hydrogenated/fluorinated and zigzag-line fluorinated germanene are direct band-gap semiconductors, while the zigzag-line hydrogenated germanene owns an indirect band-gap. Moreover, the quasi-particle corrections are significant and strong excitonic effects with large exciton binding energies are observed. Moreover, the zigzag-line hydrogenated/fluorinated germanene shows highly anisotropic optical responses, which may be used as a good optical linear polarizer.

  1. Application of PIGE to determine fluorine concentration in human teeth. Contribution to fluorosis study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salah, H.; Arab, N.

    2007-01-01

    Fluorosis, osteoselerosis, and systemic illness may result when tolerance levels of fluorine intake are exceeded. To avoid these abnormalities, we shall be aware of the mechanisms of their development. For this, quantitative results gathered from different parts of the world are necessary. In this paper, PIGE method is used to determine fluorine concentration in human teeth, collected from different regions of the Algerian Sahara. Both enamel and dentine regions were inspected. The external and internal mappings of the analyzed teeth have shown more variation in the localized fluorine concentration in dentine than in enamel, and the lowest level of fluorine concentration was observed in the frontier crown-root zone. The obtained results reveal relatively high fluorine concentration lying within the limit of fluorosis, according to the standardised grading dental fluorosis. (author)

  2. Influence of fluorine substitution on the morphology and structure of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals prepared by hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Nathanael, A., E-mail: ajosephnc@yahoo.com [Department of Nanomaterials Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Thin Film and Nanomaterials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 046 (India); Mangalaraj, D., E-mail: dmraj800@yahoo.com [Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 046 (India); Hong, S.I., E-mail: sihong@cnu.ac.kr [Thin Film and Nanomaterials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 046 (India); Masuda, Y. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 2266-98 Anagahora, Shimoshidami, Moriyama-ku, Nagoya 463-8560 (Japan); Rhee, Y.H.; Kim, H.W. [Department of Microbiology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanocrystals with different levels of fluorine substitution (P/F = 0, 6, 4 and 2) on the OH sites were produced via hydrothermal method. The fluorine substitution was found to alter the morphology of crystals appreciably. The aspect ratio and the crystallinity of HAp crystals increased with increasing fluorine substitution. The presence of broad ring and hallow ring patterns in electron diffraction suggests the low-crystalline nature of HAp crystals. With increasing fluorine substitution, the diffraction patterns exhibited discrete rings and numerous diffraction spots, implying the increased crystallinity. Raman spectra from the HAp nanoparticles also support the less-crystalline nature of the pristine HAp and the enhanced crystallization by fluorine substitution. In HAp crystals processed with no fluorine substitution, surface energy and planar Ca{sup 2+} density are less sensitive to the crystallographic orientation because of its low-crystalline nature, favoring equi-axed or slightly elongated particles. The addition of fluorine apparently increased the crystallinity, enhancing the orientation dependent growth and accordingly the aspect ratio. Osteoblast proliferation was observed to be enhanced by fluorine substitution in HAp. In vitro biological data support that the excellent osteoblastic cell viability and functional activity of the fluoridated apatite. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fluorapatite nanorods were produced hydrothermally with different fluorine content. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fluorine substitution was found to alter the morphology of crystals appreciably. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It enhances the crystallinity, orientation dependent growth and hence aspect ratio. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In vitro cellular analysis shows excellent cell viability of the fluorapatite.

  3. WO3 and W Thermal Atomic Layer Etching Using "Conversion-Fluorination" and "Oxidation-Conversion-Fluorination" Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas R; George, Steven M

    2017-10-04

    The thermal atomic layer etching (ALE) of WO 3 and W was demonstrated with new "conversion-fluorination" and "oxidation-conversion-fluorination" etching mechanisms. Both of these mechanisms are based on sequential, self-limiting reactions. WO 3 ALE was achieved by a "conversion-fluorination" mechanism using an AB exposure sequence with boron trichloride (BCl 3 ) and hydrogen fluoride (HF). BCl 3 converts the WO 3 surface to a B 2 O 3 layer while forming volatile WO x Cl y products. Subsequently, HF spontaneously etches the B 2 O 3 layer producing volatile BF 3 and H 2 O products. In situ spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) studies determined that the BCl 3 and HF reactions were self-limiting versus exposure. The WO 3 ALE etch rates increased with temperature from 0.55 Å/cycle at 128 °C to 4.19 Å/cycle at 207 °C. W served as an etch stop because BCl 3 and HF could not etch the underlying W film. W ALE was performed using a three-step "oxidation-conversion-fluorination" mechanism. In this ABC exposure sequence, the W surface is first oxidized to a WO 3 layer using O 2 /O 3 . Subsequently, the WO 3 layer is etched with BCl 3 and HF. SE could simultaneously monitor the W and WO 3 thicknesses and conversion of W to WO 3 . SE measurements showed that the W film thickness decreased linearly with number of ABC reaction cycles. W ALE was shown to be self-limiting with respect to each reaction in the ABC process. The etch rate for W ALE was ∼2.5 Å/cycle at 207 °C. An oxide thickness of ∼20 Å remained after W ALE, but could be removed by sequential BCl 3 and HF exposures without affecting the W layer. These new etching mechanisms will enable the thermal ALE of a variety of additional metal materials including those that have volatile metal fluorides.

  4. Structures and properties of fluorinated amorphous carbon films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, K. P.; Lin, P.; Shih, H. C.

    2004-07-01

    Fluorinated amorphous carbon (a-C:F) films were deposited by radio frequency bias assisted microwave plasma electron cyclotron resonance chemical vapor deposition with tetrafluoromethane (CF4) and acetylene (C2H2) as precursors. The deposition process was performed at two flow ratios R=0.90 and R=0.97, where R=CF4/(CF4+C2H2). The samples were annealed at 300 °C for 30 min. in a N2 atmosphere. Both Fourier transform infrared and electron spectroscopy for chemical analyzer were used to characterize the a-C:F film chemical bond and fluorine concentration, respectively. A high resolution electron energy loss spectrometer was applied to detect the electronic structure. The higher CF4 flow ratio (R=0.97) produced more sp3 linear structure, and it made the a-C:F film smoother and softer. A lifetime of around 0.34 μs and an energy gap of ˜2.75 eV were observed in both the as-deposited and after annealing conditions. The short carriers lifetime in the a-C:F film made the photoluminescence peak blueshift. The annealing changed both the structure and composition of the a-C:F film. The type of fluorocarbon bond and electronic structure characterized the mechanical and physical properties of a-C:F film.

  5. Rapid determination of fluorine in the pulp process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanenko, V.V.; Kustov, V.N.; Levitskaya, O.N.

    1994-01-01

    The control of enrichment of mineral raw materials in order to increase the yield of enriched minerals is an important problem of modern industry. A possible solution is an automatic control system (ACS), which makes possible the monitoring and optimization of the enrichment. In terms of future applications, the nuclear-physical analysis, which is based on the use of a radionuclide source of neutrons, is a promising method. The advantages of this method (high rate, the possibility of performing the analysis directly in the flow, high accuracy, and high sensitivity) make themselves evident in the determination of short-lived isotopes, such as F, Ag, Si, Al, V, etc. Both an instrumental complex and a method for the rapid neutron activation determination (RNAD) of fluorine in the pulp flow of the enrichment process of raw materials were developed at the Institute of Chemistry, Far East Division, Russian Academy of Sciences. The analytical complex for RNAD comprises an activator; a densitometer; a pump; a pulp-feed system; a gamma-ray detector; a data acquisition apparatus; and a computer for processing the input/output data and controlling the analysis. The authors found that the RNAD of fluorine using radionuclide Pu-Be sources allows the determination in a 6-L pulp under recirculation conditions with an error of less than 1% in 3-5 minutes. The method allows the routine monitoring of the enrichment process of mineral raw materials

  6. Production of High Value Fluorine Gases for the Semiconductor Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulko, J. B.

    2003-10-23

    The chemistry to manufacture high purity GeF{sub 4} and WF{sub 6} for use in the semiconductor industry using Starmet's new fluorine extraction technology has been developed. Production of GeF{sub 4} was established using a tube-style reactor system where conversion yields as high as 98.1% were attained for the reaction between and GeO{sub 2}. Collection of the fluoride gas improved to 97.7% when the reactor sweep gas contained a small fraction of dry air (10-12 vol%) along with helium. The lab-synthesized product was shown to contain the least amount of infrared active and elemental impurities when compared with a reference material certified at 99.99% purity. Analysis of the ''as-produced'' gas using ICP-MS showed that uranium could not be detected at a detection limit of 0.019ppm-wt. A process to make WF{sub 6} from WO{sub 2}, and UF{sub 4}, produced a WOF{sub 4} intermediate, which proved difficult to convert to tungsten hexafluoride using titanium fluoride as a fluorinating agent.

  7. FLUORINE IN ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH CARBON STARS REVISITED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abia, C.; Dominguez, I.; Recio-Blanco, A.; De Laverny, P.; Cristallo, S.; Straniero, O.

    2009-01-01

    A re-analysis of the fluorine abundance in three Galactic asymptotic giant branch (AGB) carbon stars (TX Psc, AQ Sgr, and R Scl) has been performed from the molecular HF (1-0) R9 line at 2.3358 μm. High resolution (R ∼ 50,000) and high signal-to-noise spectra obtained with the CRIRES spectrograph and the VLT telescope or from the NOAO archive (for TX Psc) have been used. Our abundance analysis uses the latest generation of MARCS model atmospheres for cool carbon-rich stars. Using spectral synthesis in local thermodynamic equilibrium, we derive for these stars fluorine abundances that are systematically lower by ∼0.8 dex in average with respect to the sole previous estimates by Jorissen et al. The possible reasons of this discrepancy are explored. We conclude that the difference may rely on the blending with C-bearing molecules (CN and C 2 ) that were not properly taken into account in the former study. The new F abundances are in better agreement with the prediction of full network stellar models of low-mass AGB stars. These models also reproduce the s-process elements distribution in the sampled stars. This result, if confirmed in a larger sample of AGB stars, might alleviate the current difficulty to explain the largest [F/O] ratios found by Jorissen et al. In particular, it may not be necessary to search for alternative nuclear chains affecting the production of F in AGB stars.

  8. Enhanced Light Absorption in Fluorinated Ternary Small-Molecule Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eastham, Nicholas D. [Department; Dudnik, Alexander S. [Department; Harutyunyan, Boris [Department; Aldrich, Thomas J. [Department; Leonardi, Matthew J. [Department; Manley, Eric F. [Department; Chemical; Butler, Melanie R. [Department; Harschneck, Tobias [Department; Ratner, Mark A. [Department; Chen, Lin X. [Department; Chemical; Bedzyk, Michael J. [Department; Department; Melkonyan, Ferdinand S. [Department; Facchetti, Antonio [Department; Chang, Robert P. H. [Department; Marks, Tobin J. [Department; Department

    2017-06-14

    Using small-molecule donor (SMD) semiconductors in organic photovoltaics (OPVs) has historically afforded lower power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) than their polymeric counterparts. The PCE difference is attributed to shorter conjugated backbones, resulting in reduced intermolecular interactions. Here, a new pair of SMDs is synthesized based on the diketopyrrolopyrrole-benzodithiophene-diketopyrrolopyrrole (BDT-DPP2) skeleton but having fluorinated and fluorinefree aromatic side-chain substituents. Ternary OPVs having varied ratios of the two SMDs with PC61BM as the acceptor exhibit tunable open-circuit voltages (Vocs) between 0.833 and 0.944 V due to a fluorination-induced shift in energy levels and the electronic “alloy” formed from the miscibility of the two SMDs. A 15% increase in PCE is observed at the optimal ternary SMD ratio, with the short-circuit current density (Jsc) significantly increased to 9.18 mA/cm2. The origin of Jsc enhancement is analyzed via charge generation, transport, and diffuse reflectance measurements, and is attributed to increased optical absorption arising from a maximum in film crystallinity at this SMD ratio, observed by grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering.

  9. Determination of fluorine in biological materials: reaction paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ophaug, R

    1994-06-01

    Although the fluorine in human tissues may exist in both inorganic and organic (covalently bound) forms, the inorganic fraction is clearly the most relevant for assessing human exposure to, and utilization of, environmental fluoride. There is now general agreement that the inorganic fraction of total tissue fluorine can be accurately determined by a variety of analytical techniques. One of the basic questions considered at this workshop is whether the analysis of a specific tissue or body fluid can provide an estimate of how much of the fluoride to which an individual is exposed actually enters and accumulates in the body. The analysis of hair and nails has been used as an indicator of exposure and utilization for several trace elements, including fluoride. Due to methodological uncertainties regarding sampling and pre-analysis treatment, however, it is presently not possible clearly to distinguish fluoride which is incorporated into hair and nails during formation (endogenous) from that which becomes associated with the tissues following exposure to the environment (exogenous). Consequently, although the fluoride content of hair and nails is clearly increased by environmental exposure to fluoride, the conclusion that these tissues are suitable indicators of fluoride utilization and accumulation in the body is premature.

  10. Fluorine and Lithium at the Kimberley Outcrop, Gale Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forni, O.; Vaniman, D. T.; Le Deit, L.; Clegg, S. M.; Lanza, N. L.; Lasue, J.; Bish, D. L.; Mangold, N.; Wiens, R. C.; Meslin, P.-Y.; hide

    2015-01-01

    ChemCam is an active remote sensing instrument which has operated successfully on MSL since landing in August, 2012. Its laser pulses remove dust and to profile through weathering coatings of rocks up to 7 m away. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) produces emission spectra of materials ablated from the samples in electronically excited states. As the plasma cools, elements can recombine and molecular emission lines are observed. Recent experiments have shown that some of these molecular emissions can be much brighter than the associated atomic lines, especially when halo-gens and rare earth elements are present. We observed these molecular emissions in some of the ChemCam spectra and report the first detection of chlorine and fluorine with ChemCam. It is also the first time ever that fluorine has been detected on the surface of Mars. Among all the F-bearing observations, one third are observed in the Kimberley outcrop. We will dis-cuss the potential mineralogies related to these observations as well as the related elemental correlations and propose interpretations.

  11. Spontaneous and Evoked Activity from Murine Ventral Horn Cultures on Microelectrode Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan J. Black

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Motor neurons are the site of action for several neurological disorders and paralytic toxins, with cell bodies located in the ventral horn (VH of the spinal cord along with interneurons and support cells. Microelectrode arrays (MEAs have emerged as a high content assay platform for mechanistic studies and drug discovery. Here, we explored the spontaneous and evoked electrical activity of VH cultures derived from embryonic mouse spinal cord on multi-well plates of MEAs. Primary VH cultures from embryonic day 15–16 mice were characterized by expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT by immunocytochemistry. Well resolved, all-or-nothing spontaneous spikes with profiles consistent with extracellular action potentials were observed after 3 days in vitro, persisting with consistent firing rates until at least day in vitro 19. The majority of the spontaneous activity consisted of tonic firing interspersed with coordinated bursting across the network. After 5 days in vitro, spike activity was readily evoked by voltage pulses where a minimum amplitude and duration required for excitation was 300 mV and 100 μs/phase, respectively. We characterized the sensitivity of spontaneous and evoked activity to a host of pharmacological agents including AP5, CNQX, strychnine, ω-agatoxin IVA, and botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT/A. These experiments revealed sensitivity of the cultured VH to both agonist and antagonist compounds in a manner consistent with mature tissue derived from slices. In the case of BoNT/A, we also demonstrated intoxication persistence over an 18-day period, followed by partial intoxication recovery induced by N- and P/Q-type calcium channel agonist GV-58. In total, our findings suggest that VH cultures on multi-well MEA plates may represent a moderate throughput, high content assay for performing mechanistic studies and for screening potential therapeutics pertaining to paralytic toxins and neurological disorders.

  12. Multivariate regression methods for estimating velocity of ictal discharges from human microelectrode recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Jyun-you; Smith, Elliot H.; Bateman, Lisa M.; McKhann, Guy M., II; Goodman, Robert R.; Greger, Bradley; Davis, Tyler S.; Kellis, Spencer S.; House, Paul A.; Schevon, Catherine A.

    2017-08-01

    Objective. Epileptiform discharges, an electrophysiological hallmark of seizures, can propagate across cortical tissue in a manner similar to traveling waves. Recent work has focused attention on the origination and propagation patterns of these discharges, yielding important clues to their source location and mechanism of travel. However, systematic studies of methods for measuring propagation are lacking. Approach. We analyzed epileptiform discharges in microelectrode array recordings of human seizures. The array records multiunit activity and local field potentials at 400 micron spatial resolution, from a small cortical site free of obstructions. We evaluated several computationally efficient statistical methods for calculating traveling wave velocity, benchmarking them to analyses of associated neuronal burst firing. Main results. Over 90% of discharges met statistical criteria for propagation across the sampled cortical territory. Detection rate, direction and speed estimates derived from a multiunit estimator were compared to four field potential-based estimators: negative peak, maximum descent, high gamma power, and cross-correlation. Interestingly, the methods that were computationally simplest and most efficient (negative peak and maximal descent) offer non-inferior results in predicting neuronal traveling wave velocities compared to the other two, more complex methods. Moreover, the negative peak and maximal descent methods proved to be more robust against reduced spatial sampling challenges. Using least absolute deviation in place of least squares error minimized the impact of outliers, and reduced the discrepancies between local field potential-based and multiunit estimators. Significance. Our findings suggest that ictal epileptiform discharges typically take the form of exceptionally strong, rapidly traveling waves, with propagation detectable across millimeter distances. The sequential activation of neurons in space can be inferred from clinically

  13. Cell culture chamber with gas supply for prolonged recording of human neuronal cells on microelectrode array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutzer, Joose; Ylä-Outinen, Laura; Mäki, Antti-Juhana; Ristola, Mervi; Narkilahti, Susanna; Kallio, Pasi

    2017-03-15

    Typically, live cell analyses are performed outside an incubator in an ambient air, where the lack of sufficient CO 2 supply results in a fast change of pH and the high evaporation causes concentration drifts in the culture medium. That limits the experiment time for tens of minutes. In many applications, e.g. in neurotoxicity studies, a prolonged measurement of extracellular activity is, however, essential. We demonstrate a simple cell culture chamber that enables stable culture conditions during prolonged extracellular recordings on a microelectrode array (MEA) outside an incubator. The proposed chamber consists of a gas permeable silicone structure that enables gas transfer into the chamber. We show that the culture chamber supports the growth of the human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived neurons both inside and outside an incubator. The structure provides very low evaporation, stable pH and osmolarity, and maintains strong signaling of hESC-derived neuronal networks over three-day MEA experiments. Existing systems are typically complex including continuous perfusion of medium or relatively large amount of gas to supply. The proposed chamber requires only a supply of very low flow rate (1.5ml/min) of non-humidified 5% CO 2 gas. Utilizing dry gas supply makes the proposed chamber simple to use. Using the proposed culture structure on top of MEA, we can maintain hESC-derived neural networks over three days outside an incubator. Technically, the structure requires very low flow rate of dry gas supporting, however, low evaporation and maintaining the pH of the culture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Implantable liquid metal-based flexible neural microelectrode array and its application in recovering animal locomotion functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rui; Liu, Jing

    2017-10-01

    With significant advantages in rapidly restoring the nerve function, electrical stimulation of nervous tissue is a crucial treatment of peripheral nerve injuries leading to common movement disorder. However, the currently available stimulating electrodes generally based on rigid conductive materials would cause a potential mechanical mismatch with soft neural tissues which thus reduces long-term effects of electrical stimulation. Here, we proposed and fabricated a flexible neural microelectrode array system based on the liquid metal GaIn alloy (75.5% Ga and 24.5% In by weight) and via printing approach. Such an alloy with a unique low melting point (10.35 °C) owns excellent electrical conductivity and high compliance, which are beneficial to serve as implantable flexible neural electrodes. The flexible neural microelectrode array embeds four liquid metal electrodes and stretchable interconnects in a PDMS membrane (500 µm in thickness) that possess a lower elastic modulus (1.055 MPa), which is similar to neural tissues with elastic moduli in the 0.1-1.5 MPa range. The electrical experiments indicate that the liquid metal interconnects could sustain over 7000 mechanical stretch cycles with resistance approximately staying at 4 Ω. Over the conceptual experiments on animal sciatic nerve electrical stimulation, the dead bullfrog implanted with flexible neural microelectrode array could even rhythmically contract and move its lower limbs under the electrical stimulations from the implant. This demonstrates a highly efficient way for quickly recovering biological nerve functions. Further, the good biocompatibility of the liquid metal material was justified via a series of biological experiments. This liquid metal modality for neural stimulation is expected to play important roles as biologic electrodes to overcome the fundamental mismatch in mechanics between biological tissues and electronic devices in the coming time.

  15. Implantable liquid metal-based flexible neural microelectrode array and its application in recovering animal locomotion functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Rui; Liu, Jing

    2017-01-01

    With significant advantages in rapidly restoring the nerve function, electrical stimulation of nervous tissue is a crucial treatment of peripheral nerve injuries leading to common movement disorder. However, the currently available stimulating electrodes generally based on rigid conductive materials would cause a potential mechanical mismatch with soft neural tissues which thus reduces long-term effects of electrical stimulation. Here, we proposed and fabricated a flexible neural microelectrode array system based on the liquid metal GaIn alloy (75.5% Ga and 24.5% In by weight) and via printing approach. Such an alloy with a unique low melting point (10.35 °C) owns excellent electrical conductivity and high compliance, which are beneficial to serve as implantable flexible neural electrodes. The flexible neural microelectrode array embeds four liquid metal electrodes and stretchable interconnects in a PDMS membrane (500 µ m in thickness) that possess a lower elastic modulus (1.055 MPa), which is similar to neural tissues with elastic moduli in the 0.1–1.5 MPa range. The electrical experiments indicate that the liquid metal interconnects could sustain over 7000 mechanical stretch cycles with resistance approximately staying at 4 Ω. Over the conceptual experiments on animal sciatic nerve electrical stimulation, the dead bullfrog implanted with flexible neural microelectrode array could even rhythmically contract and move its lower limbs under the electrical stimulations from the implant. This demonstrates a highly efficient way for quickly recovering biological nerve functions. Further, the good biocompatibility of the liquid metal material was justified via a series of biological experiments. This liquid metal modality for neural stimulation is expected to play important roles as biologic electrodes to overcome the fundamental mismatch in mechanics between biological tissues and electronic devices in the coming time. (paper)

  16. Resistive and reactive changes to the impedance of intracortical microelectrodes can be mitigated with polyethylene glycol under acute in vitro and in vivo settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah eSommakia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The reactive response of brain tissue to implantable intracortical microelectrodes is thought to negatively affect their recordable signal quality and impedance, resulting in unreliable longitudinal performance. The relationship between the progression of the reactive tissue into a glial scar and the decline in device performance is unclear. We show that exposure to a model protein solution in vitro and acute implantation result in both resistive and capacitive changes to electrode impedance, rather than purely resistive changes. We also show that applying 4000 MW polyethylene glycol (PEG prevents impedance increases in vitro, and reduces the percent change in impedance in vivo following implantation. Our results highlight the importance of considering the contributions of non-cellular components to the decline in neural microelectrode performance, and present a proof of concept for using a simple dip-coated PEG film to modulate changes in microelectrode impedance.

  17. Barium coordination polymers based on fluorinated and fluorine-free benzene-dicarboxylates: Mechanochemical synthesis and spectroscopic characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Terkawi, Abdal-Azim; Scholz, Gudrun; Emmerling, Franziska; Kemnitz, Erhard

    2018-05-01

    A series of new Ba-based coordination polymers (CPs) were mechanochemically synthesized by milling Ba-hydroxide samples with perfluorinated and fluorine-free benzene-dicarboxylic acids, including tetrafluoroisophthalic acid (H2mBDC-F4), tetrafluorophthalic acid (H2oBDC-F4), isophthalic acid (H2mBDC) and phthalic acid (H2oBDC). The new fluorinated CPs: [Ba(mBDC-F4)·0.5H2O] (1) and [Ba(oBDC-F4)·1.5H2O] (2) are compared to their nonfluorinated counterparts: [Ba(mBDC)·2.5H2O] (3), and [Ba(oBDC)·1H2O] (4). These materials are thoroughly characterized using powder X-ray diffraction. The products obtained by milling are all hydrated but vary in their water contents. Compositions and local structures are investigated by elemental analysis, thermal analysis, MAS NMR and attenuated total reflection-infrared spectroscopy. These materials exhibit high thermal stabilities but small surface areas that remain unchanged even after thermal treatments.

  18. Defects in silicon carbide grown by fluorinated chemical vapor deposition chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenberg, Pontus; Booker, Ian D.; Karhu, Robin; Pedersen, Henrik; Janzén, Erik; Ivanov, Ivan G.

    2018-04-01

    Point defects in n- and p-type 4H-SiC grown by fluorinated chemical vapor deposition (CVD) have been characterized optically by photoluminescence (PL) and electrically by deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and minority carrier transient spectroscopy (MCTS). The results are considered in comparison with defects observed in non-fluorinated CVD growth (e.g., using SiH4 instead of SiF4 as silicon precursor), in order to investigate whether specific fluorine-related defects form during the fluorinated CVD growth, which might prohibit the use of fluorinated chemistry for device-manufacturing purposes. Several new peaks identifying new defects appear in the PL of fluorinated-grown samples, which are not commonly observed neither in other halogenated chemistries, nor in the standard CVD chemistry using silane (SiH4). However, further investigation is needed in order to determine their origin and whether they are related to incorporation of F in the SiC lattice, or not. The electric characterization does not find any new electrically-active defects that can be related to F incorporation. Thus, we find no point defects prohibiting the use of fluorinated chemistry for device-making purposes.

  19. Clinical perspectives of hybrid proton-fluorine magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, Martijn; Mohades, Seyede G; Hackeng, Tilman M; Post, Mark J; Kooi, Marianne E; Backes, Walter H

    2013-05-01

    The number of applications of fluorine 19 (19F) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and spectroscopy in biomedical and clinical research is steadily growing. The 100% natural abundance of fluorine and its relatively high sensitivity for MR (83% to that of protons) make it an interesting nucleus for a wide range of MR applications. Fluorinated contrast media have a number of advantages over the conventionally used gadolinium-based or iron-based contrast agents. The absence of an endogenous fluorine background intensity in the human body facilitates reliable quantification of fluorinated contrast medium or drugs. Anatomy can be visualized separately with proton MR imaging, creating the application of hybrid hydrogen 1 (1H)/19F MR imaging. The availability of 2 channels (ie, the 1H and 19F channels) enables dual-targeted molecular imaging. Recently, novel developments have emerged on fluorine-based contrast media in preclinical studies and imaging techniques. The developments in fluorine MR seem promising for clinical applications, with contributions in therapy monitoring, assessment of lung function, angiography, and molecular imaging. This review outlines the translation from recent advances in preclinical MR imaging and spectroscopy to future perspectives of clinical hybrid 1H/19/F MR imaging applications.

  20. Fluorine determination in human healthy and carious teeth using the PIGE technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, M.L.; Karydas, A.G.; Casaca, C.; Zarkadas, Ch.; Paradellis, Th.; Kokkoris, M.; Nsouli, B.; Cunha, A.S.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine and compare the fluorine concentration in human teeth from two different populations, living in the Portuguese quite isolated islands of Acores: S. Miguel and Terceira. Both populations have similar dietary habits, similar occupational activities, mostly rural, and the age of both populations is more or less the same, around 40 years. No chronic diseases were registered in any of the donors. The two groups are exposed to different levels of fluorine in drinking water. Terceira island has moderate fluorine concentration levels (1-2 μg g -1 ) while S. Miguel island is known for the high fluorine concentration levels in its water (>3 μg g -1 ), especially in one area known as Furnas. Thirty-three teeth, 17 healthy and 16 carious without restoration (14 incisors and canines, 7 premolars and 12 molars), were collected and analyzed for the determination of fluorine concentration in the dentine region, using the nuclear reaction 19 F(p,αγ) 16 O. The teeth were cross-sectioned along the vertical plane and polished, in order to obtain a smooth and plane surface of about 1 mm thickness. In this work an association between caries prevalence and fluorine content of drinking water is discussed and the variation of fluorine concentration among different types of teeth (canines and incisors, premolars, molars) and physical state (carious and non-carious) is examined

  1. Fluorinated Poly(p-phenylenevinylenes: Synthesis and Optical Properties of an Intriguing Class of Luminescent Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca M. Farinola

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This review is an overview of our previous work on the synthesis and properties of poly(p-phenylenevinylenes (PPVs selectively fluorinated in different positions of the conjugated backbone. Both the synthetic challenges and the effects of functionalization with fluorine atoms on the optical behavior are discussed, highlighting the peculiarities and the interest of this class of conjugated polymers. A general polymerization protocol for PPVs, that is based on the Pd-catalyzed Stille cross-coupling reaction of bis-stannylated vinylene monomers with aromatic bis-halides, has been successfully extended to the synthesis of selectively fluorinated poly(p-phenylenevinylenes. The properties of a series of these PPVs differing in the number and positions of the fluorine atoms on the conjugated backbone have been studied, even in comparison with the non-fluorinated counterparts. The intriguing optical features of the resulting materials are discussed considering not only the role of the electronic and steric effects induced by the fluorine substituents, but also the impact of the fluorination on the solid state organization and intermolecular interactions.

  2. Surface modification of titanium aluminides with fluorine to improve their application for high temperature service conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zschau, Hans-Eberhard; Schuetze, Michael; Baumann, Horst; Bethge, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    Recently the target temperature of components manufactured from gamma-TiAl alloys like turbine blades, turbocharger rotors or automotive valves has been increased to 900 deg. C. However, there is an insufficient oxidation resistance above 750 deg. C. One method used to improve the gamma-TiAl oxidation behaviour is the so-called fluorine microalloying effect. After application of fluorine to the TiAl surface by ion implantation or treatment with diluted HF and oxidation at 900 deg. C in air a dense alumina layer is formed. However, after the treatments a distinct loss of fluorine was observed during heating and within the first hours of oxidation. In this work the long time behaviour during isothermal and cyclic oxidation up to 1500 h/900 deg. C/air was investigated showing a slow fluorine decrease. The alumina layer acts as a diffusion barrier for fluorine, whereas fluorine diffuses into the metal. The diffusion coefficient was calculated. The results fit the theoretical model of the fluorine effect

  3. Surface Layer Fluorination-Modulated Space Charge Behaviors in HVDC Cable Accessory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Li

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Space charges tend to accumulate on the surface and at the interface of ethylene–propylene–diene terpolymer (EPDM, serving as high voltage direct current (HVDC cable accessory insulation, which likely induces electrical field distortion and dielectric breakdown. Direct fluorination is an effective method to modify the surface characteristics of the EPDM without altering the bulk properties too much. In this paper, the surface morphology, hydrophobic properties, relative permittivity, and DC conductivity of the EPDM before and after fluorination treatment were tested. Furthermore, the surface and interface charge behaviors in the HVDC cable accessory were investigated by the pulsed electroacoustic (PEA method, and explained from the point of view of trap distribution. The results show that fluorination helps the EPDM polymer obtain lower surface energy and relative permittivity, which is beneficial to the interface match in composite insulation systems. The lowest degree of space charge accumulation occurs in EPDM with 30 min of fluorination. After analyzing the results of the 3D potentials and the density of states (DOS behaviors in EPDM before and after fluorination, it can be found that fluorination treatment introduces shallower electron traps, and the special electrostatic potential after fluorination can significantly suppress the space charge accumulation at the interface in the HVDC cable accessory.

  4. The surface chemical properties of multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified by thermal fluorination for electric double-layer capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Min-Jung; Jeong, Euigyung; Lee, Young-Seak

    2015-08-01

    The surfaces of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were thermally fluorinated at various temperatures to enhance the electrochemical properties of the MWCNTs for use as electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC) electrodes. The fluorine functional groups were added to the surfaces of the MWCNTs via thermal fluorination. The thermal fluorination exposed the Fe catalyst on MWCNTs, and the specific surface area increased due to etching during the fluorination. The specific capacitances of the thermally fluorinated at 100 °C, MWCNT based electrode increased from 57 to 94 F/g at current densities of 0.2 A/g, respectively. This enhancement in capacitance can be attributed to increased polarization of the thermally fluorinated MWCNT surface, which increased the affinity between the electrode surface and the electrolyte ions.

  5. Multi-State Vibronic Interactions in Fluorinated Benzene Radical Cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraji, S.; Köppel, H.

    2009-06-01

    Conical intersections of potential energy surfaces have emerged as paradigms for signalling strong nonadiabatic coupling effects. An important class of systems where some of these effects have been analyzed in the literature, are the benzene and benzenoid cations, where the electronic structure, spectroscopy, and dynamics have received great attention in the literature. In the present work a brief overview is given over our theoretical treatments of multi-mode and multi-state vibronic interactions in the benzene radical cation and some of its fluorinated derivatives. The fluorobenzene derivatives are of systematic interest for at least two different reasons. (1) The reduction of symmetry by incomplete fluorination leads to a disappearance of the Jahn-Teller effect present in the parent cation. (2) A specific, more chemical effect of fluorination consists in the energetic increase of the lowest σ-type electronic states of the radical cations. The multi-mode multi-state vibronic interactions between the five lowest electronic states of the fluorobenzene radical cations are investigated theoretically, based on ab initio electronic structure data, and employing the well-established linear vibronic coupling model, augmented by quadratic coupling terms for the totally symmetric vibrational modes. Low-energy conical intersections, and strong vibronic couplings are found to prevail within the set of tilde{X}-tilde{A} and tilde{B}-tilde{C}-tilde{D} cationic states, while the interactions between these two sets of states are found to be weaker and depend on the particular isomer. This is attributed to the different location of the minima of the various conical intersections occurring in these systems. Wave-packet dynamical simulations for these coupled potential energy surfaces, utilizing the powerful multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree method are performed. Ultrafast internal conversion processes and the analysis of the MATI and photo-electron spectra shed new light

  6. Synthesis of polymeric fluorinated sol–gel precursor for fabrication of superhydrophobic coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Qianqian; Yan, Yuheng; Yu, Miao; Song, Botao; Shi, Suqing; Gong, Yongkuan

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A polymeric fluorinated sol–gel precursor PFT is designed to fabricate superhydrophobic coatings. • The superhydrophobicity could be governed by the concentration of PFT. • Bio-mimicking self-cleaning property similar to lotus leaves could also be achieved. - Abstract: A fluorinated polymeric sol–gel precursor (PFT) is synthesized by copolymerization of 2,3,4,5,5,5-hexafluoro-2,4-bis(trifluorinated methyl)pentyl methacrylate (FMA) and 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (TSMA) to replace the expensive long chain fluorinated alkylsilanes. The fluorinated silica sol is prepared by introducing PFT as co-precursor of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) in the sol–gel process with ammonium hydroxide as catalyst, which is then used to fabricate superhydrophobic coating on glass substrate through a simple dip-coating method. The effects of PFT concentrations on the chemical structure of the formed fluorinated silica, the surface chemical composition, surface morphology, wetting and self-cleaning properties of the resultant fluorinated silica coatings were studied by using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectrophotometer (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and water contact angle measurements (WCA). The results show that the fluorinated silica sols are successfully obtained. The size and size distribution of the fluorinated silica particles are found greatly dependent on the concentration of PFT, which play a crucial role in the surface morphology of the corresponding fluorinated silica coatings. The suitable PFT concentration added in the sol–gel stage, i.e. for F-sol-1 and F-sol-2, is helpful to achieve both the low surface energy and multi-scaled microstructures, leading to the formation of the superhydrophobic coatings with bio-mimicking self-cleaning property similar to lotus leaves.

  7. Homocomposites of chopped fluorinated polyethylene fiber with low-density polyethylene matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maity, J.; Jacob, C.; Das, C.K.; Alam, S.; Singh, R.P.

    2008-01-01

    Conventional composites are generally prepared by adding reinforcing agent to a matrix and the matrix wherein the reinforcing agents are different in chemical composition with the later having superior mechanical properties. This work presents the preparation and properties of homocomposites consisting of a low-density polyethylene (LDPE) matrix and an ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fiber reinforcing phase. Direct fluorination is an important surface modification process by which only a thin upper layer is modified, the bulk properties of the polymer remaining unchanged. In this work, surface fluorination of UHMWPE fiber was done and then fiber characterization was performed. It was observed that after fluorination the fiber surface became rough. Composites were then prepared using both fluorinated and non-fluorinated polyethylene fiber with a low-density polyethylene (LDPE) matrix to prepare single polymer composites. It was found that the thermal stability and mechanical properties were improved for fluorinated fiber composites. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed that the crystallinity of the composites increased and it is maximum for fluorinated fiber composites. Tensile strength (TS) and modulus also increased while elongation at break (EB) decreased for fiber composites and was a maximum for fluorinated fiber composites. Scanning electron microscopic analysis indicates that that the distribution of fiber into the matrix is homogeneous. It also indicates the better adhesion between the matrix and the reinforcing agent for modified fiber composites. We also did surface fluorination of the prepared composites and base polymer for knowing its application to different fields such as printability wettability, etc. To determine the various properties such as printability, wettability and adhesion properties, contact angle measurement was done. It was observed that the surface energies of surface modified composites and base polymer increases

  8. On the Effect of Fluorination of 2,1,3-Benzothiadiazole

    KAUST Repository

    Nielsen, Christian B.; White, Andrew J. P.; McCulloch, Iain

    2015-01-01

    The 4,7-dithieno-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (DTBT) moiety and its fluorinated counterpart are important pi-conjugated building blocks in the field of organic electronics. Here we present a combined experimental and theoretical investigation into fundamental properties relating to these two molecular entities and discuss the potential impact on extended π-conjugated materials and their electronic properties. While the fluorinated derivative, in the solid state, packs with a smaller co-facial overlap than DTBT, we report experimental evidence for stronger optical absorption as well as stronger intra- and intermolecular contacts upon fluorination.

  9. Observance to the teeth casts of fluorination after head and neck irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albarghach, N.; Righini, C.; Thariat, J.

    2009-01-01

    The application of teeth casts with fluorinated gel is omitted in practice after six months for most of patients. The reasons can be an inadequate information on the application time of casts, mucitis pain during excessive application of fluorinated gel during irradiation creating then, apprehension of fluorinated gels. A questionnaire of observance during the consultation can be an education tool. repeated for the same patients at the next follow up consultation and compared it could allow to measure the impact of awareness measures during the follow up. (N.C.)

  10. Synthesis and ATRP of novel fluorinated aromatic monomer with pendant sulfonate group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Ivaylo; Jankova Atanasova, Katja; Hvilsted, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Novel, fluorinated monomer with pendant sulfonate group was synthesized utilizing a two-step derivatization of 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorostyrene (FS). The first step was a nucleophilic substitution of the fluorine atom in para position by hydroxyl group followed by sulfopropylation. The monomer...... was polymerized under aqueous ATRP conditions to yield phenyl-fluorinated aromatic homopolymer bearing pendant sulfonates on each repeating unit. Furthermore, this polymer was used as macroinitiator for the ATRP of poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate. The polymers were characterized by 1H NMR, SEC and FTIR...

  11. Analysis of fluorine by nuclear reactions and applications to human dental enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroobants, J.; Bodart, F.; Deconninck, G.; Demortier, G.; Nicolas, G.

    Nuclear reactions induced on Fluorine by low energy protons are investigated, thick target excitation yield curves and tables for 19 F(p,p'γ) 19 F and 19 F(p,αγ) 16 O reactions are given between 0.3 and 2.5 MeV. Interferences from other nuclear reactions, detection limits and sensitivity for Fluorine detection are investigated. After a wide investigation of the repartition of Fluorine in tooth enamel it is concluded that there is an equilibrium of the concentrations between tooth and saliva which is rapidly restored after the perturbation introduced by the external treatments. (author)

  12. H18F: production and use in aromatic fluorinations via triazenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilbourn, M.R.; Saji, H.; Welch, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    Studies with the triazene method of radiofluorination are presented, including the production and use of anhydrous H 18 F, investigations into the best reaction conditions, and studies of the stability and purification of the 18 F-labeled products. Despite problems with low yields, the use of triazenes in the prepartion of fluorine-18 labeled receptor ligands remains a sound synthetic approach, and the only one available for no-carrier-added syntheses. However, it appears that the fluorine-18 fluorination yields are much higher with simpler triazenes. For this reason, synthetic efforts are now focused on the preparation of 18 F-spiroperidol by a convergent synthesis

  13. On the Effect of Fluorination of 2,1,3-Benzothiadiazole

    KAUST Repository

    Nielsen, Christian B.

    2015-04-22

    The 4,7-dithieno-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (DTBT) moiety and its fluorinated counterpart are important pi-conjugated building blocks in the field of organic electronics. Here we present a combined experimental and theoretical investigation into fundamental properties relating to these two molecular entities and discuss the potential impact on extended π-conjugated materials and their electronic properties. While the fluorinated derivative, in the solid state, packs with a smaller co-facial overlap than DTBT, we report experimental evidence for stronger optical absorption as well as stronger intra- and intermolecular contacts upon fluorination.

  14. Results of the topical in vitro and in vivo fluorination of dental enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baijot-Stroobants, J.; Deconninck, G.; Vreven, J.

    1978-01-01

    Fluorine in human enamel has been analysed by proton bombardment and detection of prompt γ-rays. Proton beam is used at atmospheric pressure; two different sets of experiments are reported: the first one consists in studying fluoridation effects on extracted teeth and the second one in making in vivo Fluorine determinations before and after topical applications. Several commercial gels and solutions have been tested with regard to their efficiency for Fluorine fixation: in vitro and in vivo results are in good agreement. (author)

  15. Defect pair formation in fluorine and nitrogen codoped TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordatos, A.; Kelaidis, N.; Chroneos, A.

    2018-04-01

    Titanium oxide is extensively investigated because of its high chemical stability and its photocatalytic properties; nevertheless, the large band gap limits its activity to a small portion of the solar spectrum. Nitrogen and fluorine codoping is an efficient defect engineering strategy to increase the photocatalytic activity of titanium oxide. In the present study, we apply density functional theory to investigate the interaction of nitrogen with fluorine and the formation of defect pairs. We show that in fluorine and nitrogen codoped titanium oxide, the FiNi, FONi, and FiNTi defects can form. Their impact on the electronic structure of titanium oxide is discussed.

  16. Fluorine determination in human and animal bones by particle-induced gamma-ray emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastri, Chaturvedula S.; Hoffmann, Peter; Ortner, Hugo M.; Iyengar, Venkatesh; Blondiaux, Gilbert; Tessier, Yves; Petri, Hermann; Aras, Namik K.; Zaichick, Vladimir

    2002-01-01

    Fluorine was determined in the iliac crest bones of patients and in ribs collected from postmortem investigations by particle-induced gamma-ray emission based on the 19 F(p,pγ) 19 F reaction, using 20/2.5 MeV protons. The results indicate that for 68% of the human samples the F concentration is in the range 500-1999 μg g -1 . For comparison purposes fluorine was also determined in some animal bones; in some animal tissues lateral profiles of fluorine were measured. (abstract)

  17. The synthesis of fluorine-18 lomefloxacin and its preliminary use in human studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tewson, T.J.; Yang, D.; Wong, G.; Macy, D.; Jesus, O.J. de; Nickles, R.J.; Perlman, S.B.; Taylor, M.; Frank, P.

    1996-01-01

    Lomefloxacin is a new fluorine-containing antibiotic that has recently been approved for general use. Fluorine-18 lomefloxacin has been prepared by fluoride exchange between fluorine-18 fluoride and lomefloxacin in DMSO. Both time and temperature of the reaction have been optimized and conditions developed for the isolation and purification of the labeled product in a form suitable for oral administration. The exchange reaction provides sufficient labeled material for human studies with pharmacologically relevant quantities of the drug. We have performed preliminary human studies with this compound using positron emission tomography to estimate the tissue distribution of the compound and show the distribution of the compound into the liver and lungs

  18. Development of F2 two-step fluorination process for non-aqueous reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-02-01

    To establish the F 2 two-step fluorination for stable and high recoveries of plutonium, the fluorination process has been studied with the simulated fuel to a FBR containing UO 2 - PuO 2 and non-radioactive fission products in the 2''phi fluid-bed. The process principle was demonstrated and the effect of FPs on fluorination of U and Pu and the possibility of reducing the Pu loss could be clarified. The feasibility of separating PuF 6 from UF 6 onto UO 2 F 2 by adsorption, was also indicated. (auth.)

  19. The influences of fluorine and process variations on polysilicon film stress and MOSFET hot carrier effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Lynn E.; Macwilliams, Kenneth P.; Isaac, Mary

    1991-01-01

    The use of fluorinated gate oxides may provide an improvement in nMOSFET reliability by enhancing hot carrier resistance. In order to clarify the mechanisms by which polysilicon processing and fluorination influence the oxide behavior, a matrix of nMOSFET structures was prepared using various processing, doping, and implantation strategies. These structures were evaluated for crystalline morphology and chemical element distribution. Mechanical stress measurements were taken on the polysilicon films from room temperature to cryogenic temperature. These examinations showed that fluorination of a structure with randomly oriented polysilicon can reduce residual mechanical stress and improve hot carrier resistance at room temperature.

  20. Structure of a putative fluorinated natural product from Streptomyces sp. TC1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldemir, Hülya; Kohlhepp, Stefanie V; Gulder, Tanja; Gulder, Tobias A M

    2014-11-26

    Fluorine-containing natural products are extremely rare. The recent report on the isolation and biological activity of the bacterial secondary metabolite 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-fluorophenyl)propionic acid was thus highly remarkable. The compound contained the first aromatic fluorine substituent known to date in any natural product. The promise to discover an enzyme capable of aromatic fluorination in the producing strain Streptomyces sp. TC1 prompted our immediate interest. A close inspection of the originally reported analytical data of the fluoro metabolite revealed inconsistencies that triggered us to validate the reported structure. The results of these efforts are presented in this communication.

  1. Two-photon-excited fluorescence spectroscopy of atomic fluorine at 170 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, G. C.; Dyer, Mark J.; Jusinski, Leonard E.; Bischel, William K.

    1988-01-01

    Two-photon-excited fluorescence spectroscopy of atomic fluorine is reported. A doubled dye laser at 286-nm is Raman shifted in H2 to 170 nm (sixth anti-Stokes order) to excite ground-state 2P(0)J fluorine atoms to the 2D(0)J level. The fluorine atoms are detected by one of two methods: observing the fluorescence decay to the 2PJ level or observing F(+) production through the absorption of an additional photon by the excited atoms. Relative two-photon absorption cross sections to and the radiative lifetimes of the 2D(0)J states are measured.

  2. Importance of Thickness in Human Cardiomyocyte Network for Effective Electrophysiological Stimulation Using On-Chip Extracellular Microelectrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Tomoyo; Nomura, Fumimasa; Kaneko, Tomoyuki; Yasuda, Kenji

    2012-06-01

    We have developed a three-dimensionally controlled in vitro human cardiomyocyte network assay for the measurements of drug-induced conductivity changes and the appearance of fatal arrhythmia such as ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation for more precise in vitro predictive cardiotoxicity. To construct an artificial conductance propagation model of a human cardiomyocyte network, first, we examined the cell concentration dependence of the cell network heights and found the existence of a height limit of cell networks, which was double-layer height, whereas the cardiomyocytes were effectively and homogeneously cultivated within the microchamber maintaining their spatial distribution constant and their electrophysiological conductance and propagation were successfully recorded using a microelectrode array set on the bottom of the microchamber. The pacing ability of a cardiomyocyte's electrophysiological response has been evaluated using microelectrode extracellular stimulation, and the stimulation for pacing also successfully regulated the beating frequencies of two-layered cardiomyocyte networks, whereas monolayered cardiomyocyte networks were hardly stimulated by the external electrodes using the two-layered cardiomyocyte stimulation condition. The stability of the lined-up shape of human cardiomyocytes within the rectangularly arranged agarose microchambers was limited for a two-layered cardiomyocyte network because their stronger force generation shrunk those cells after peeling off the substrate. The results indicate the importance of fabrication technology of thickness control of cellular networks for effective extracellular stimulation and the potential concerning thick cardiomyocyte networks for long-term cultivation.

  3. A feasibility study of multi-site,intracellular recordings from mammalian neurons by extracellular gold mushroom-shaped microelectrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojovan, Silviya M; Rabieh, Noha; Shmoel, Nava; Erez, Hadas; Maydan, Eilon; Cohen, Ariel; Spira, Micha E

    2015-09-14

    The development of multi-electrode array platforms for large scale recording of neurons is at the forefront of neuro-engineering research efforts. Recently we demonstrated, at the proof-of-concept level, a breakthrough neuron-microelectrode interface in which cultured Aplysia neurons tightly engulf gold mushroom-shaped microelectrodes (gMμEs). While maintaining their extracellular position, the gMμEs record synaptic- and action-potentials with characteristic features of intracellular recordings. Here we examined the feasibility of using gMμEs for intracellular recordings from mammalian neurons. To that end we experimentally examined the innate size limits of cultured rat hippocampal neurons to engulf gMμEs and measured the width of the "extracellular" cleft formed between the neurons and the gold surface. Using the experimental results we next analyzed the expected range of gMμEs-neuron electrical coupling coefficients. We estimated that sufficient electrical coupling levels to record attenuated synaptic- and action-potentials can be reached using the gMμE-neuron configuration. The definition of the engulfment limits of the gMμEs caps diameter at ≤2-2.5 μm and the estimated electrical coupling coefficients from the simulations pave the way for rational development and application of the gMμE based concept for in-cell recordings from mammalian neurons.

  4. In situ 2D maps of pH shifts across brass–lead galvanic joints using microelectrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Xiangmeng; Lee, Woo Hyoung; Lytle, Darren A

    2017-01-01

    Galvanic corrosion in drinking water distribution systems, such as conditions following partial lead service line replacement, can be a significant source of lead in tap water. The objective of this work was to measure the pH directly near metal surfaces using a novel experimental tool in order to understand the water chemistry at a lead-containing galvanic couple in drinking water. Specifically, pH microprofiles in the proximity of corroding metal surfaces were measured using a microelectrode to construct detailed in situ 2D spatial maps of the pH across a galvanic couple at 100 µ m above the metal’s surface under flowing and stagnation conditions. The opposite pH trend was directly observed across the galvanic couple under flow and stagnation conditions. Water stagnation resulted in a pH at the anode (leaded solder) of 1.5 pH units lower than the bulk water pH (9.0) and as much as 2.5 pH units lower than the cathode (brass). These conditions can enhance lead release at the anode, which reflects different anodic–cathodic relationships of coupled metals primarily controlled by water flow. Most importantly, this work has demonstrated the ability to make real pH measurement at the surface of corroding metals using a novel microelectrode approach. (paper)

  5. Compact microelectrode array system: tool for in situ monitoring of drug effects on neurotransmitter release from neural cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Guo, Chunxian; Lim, Layhar; Cheong, Serchoong; Zhang, Qingxin; Tang, Kumcheong; Reboud, Julien

    2008-02-15

    This paper presents a compact microelectrode array (MEA) system, to study potassium ion-induced dopamine release from PC12 neural cells, without relying on a micromanipulator and a microscope. The MEA chip was integrated with a custom-made "test jig", which provides a robust electrical interfacing tool between the microchip and the macroenvironment, together with a potentiostat and a microfluidic syringe pump. This integrated system significantly simplifies the operation procedures, enhances sensing performance, and reduces fabrication costs. The achieved detection limit for dopamine is 3.8 x 10-2 muM (signal/noise, S/N = 3) and the dopamine linear calibration range is up to 7.39 +/- 0.06 muM (mean +/- SE). The effects of the extracelluar matrix collagen coating of the microelectrodes on dopamine sensing behaviors, as well as the influences of K+ and l-3,4-digydroxyphenylalanine concentrations and incubation times on dopamine release, were extensively studied. The results show that our system is well suited for biologists to study chemical release from living cells as well as drug effects on secreting cells. The current system also shows a potential for further improvements toward a multichip array system for drug screening applications.

  6. A simple method for stem cell labeling with fluorine 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Bing; Hankenson, Kurt D.; Dennis, James E.; Caplan, Arnold I.; Goldstein, Steven A.; Kilbourn, Michael R.

    2005-01-01

    Hexadecyl-4-[ 18 F]fluorobenzoate ([ 18 F]HFB), a long chain fluorinated benzoic acid ester, was prepared in a one-step synthesis by aromatic nucleophilic substitution of [ 18 F]fluoride ion on hexadecyl-4-(N,N,N-trimethylammonio)benzoate. The radiolabeled ester was obtained in good yields (52% decay corrected) and high purity (97%). [ 18 F]HFB was used to radiolabel rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) by absorption into cell membranes. MicroPET imaging of [ 18 F]HFB-labeled MSCs following intravenous injection into the rat showed the expected high and persistent accumulation of radioactivity in the lungs. [ 18 F]HFB is thus simple to prepare and uses labeling agent for short-term distribution studies of injected stem cells

  7. New cancer cells apoptosis agents: Fluorinated aza-heterocycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prima, D. O.; Baev, D. S.; Vorontsova, E. V.; Frolova, T. S.; Bagryanskaya, I. Yu.; Slizhov, Yu. G.; Tolstikova, T. G.; Makarov, A. Yu.; Zibarev, A. V.

    2017-09-01

    Fluorinated benzo-fused 1,3-diazoles, 1,2,3-triazoles, 1,2,5-thia/selenadiazoles and 1,4-diazines were synthesized and tried for cytotoxicity towards the Hep2 (laryngeal epidermoid carcinoma) cells. The diazoles, triazoles and selenadiazoles were cytotoxic with IC50 = 2.2-26.4 µM and induced the cells apoptosis at concentrations C = 1-25 µM. At the same time, they were nontoxic towards normal cells. Due to this, these scaffolds were used in the computer-aided molecular design of new antitumor agents. Particularly, novel 1,2,3-triazole and 1,3-diazole derivatives for the binding site of the PAS domain of the transcription factor HIF were designed and some of them synthesized for further study. Overall, new anticancer agents featuring apoptotic activity are suggested.

  8. FLUORINE ABUNDANCES IN GALACTIC ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abia, C.; Cristallo, S.; DomInguez, I.; Cunha, K.; Hinkle, K.; Smith, V. V.; De Laverny, P.; Recio-Blanco, A.; Eriksson, K.; Wahlin, R.; Gialanella, L.; Imbriani, G.; Straniero, O.

    2010-01-01

    An analysis of the fluorine abundance in Galactic asymptotic giant branch (AGB) carbon stars (24 N-type, 5 SC-type, and 5 J-type) is presented. This study uses the state-of-the-art carbon-rich atmosphere models and improved atomic and molecular line lists in the 2.3 μm region. Significantly lower F abundances are obtained in comparison to previous studies in the literature. This difference is mainly due to molecular blends. In the case of carbon stars of SC-type, differences in the model atmospheres are also relevant. The new F enhancements are now in agreement with the most recent theoretical nucleosynthesis models in low-mass AGB stars, solving the long-standing problem of F in Galactic AGB stars. Nevertheless, some SC-type carbon stars still show larger F abundances than predicted by stellar models. The possibility that these stars are of larger mass is briefly discussed.

  9. 18F-fluorination by crown ether-metal fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irie, T.; Fukushi, K.; Ido, T.; Kasida, Y.; Nozaki, T.

    1982-01-01

    18 F-Fluorination by ''naked'' 18 F - anion produced by complexing anhydrous K 18 F, which was prepared from aqueous 18 F, with 18 -Crown-6 was described for preparing 18 F-21-fluoroprogesterone. In order to find out optimum conditions in this labelling method, various factors were investigated such as the solubility of KF in organic solvents containing 18 -Crown-6 and its reactivity for the nucleophilic displacement of 21-mesylate of progesterone. Chloroform was a good solvent in solubilization of KF and its reactivity. Problems in this labelling procedure were also examined, such as a supporter for transferring the labelled anhydrous K 18 F and reaction vessels. Use of a Teflon reaction vessel resulted in a good radiochemical yield based on the starting activity of $ 18 water. (author)

  10. Anisotropy of the fluorine chemical shift tensor in UF6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigny, P.

    1965-04-01

    An 19 F magnetic resonance study of polycrystalline UF 6 is presented. The low temperature complex line can be analyzed as the superposition of two distinct lines, which is attributed to a distortion of the UF 6 octahedron in the solid. The shape of the two components is studied. Their width is much larger than the theoretical dipolar width, and must be explained by large anisotropies of the fluorine chemical shift tensors. The resulting shape functions of the powder spectra are determined. The values of the parameters of the chemical shift tensors yield estimates of the characters of the U-F bonds, and this gives some information on the ground state electronic wave function of the UF 6 molecule in the solid. (author) [fr

  11. Optimization studies concerning the direct nucleophilic fluorination of butyrophenone neuroleptics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsifis, A; Hamacher, K; Schnitter, J; Stoecklin, G [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Chemie 1 - Nuklearchemie

    1993-07-01

    Based on the direct nucleophilic aromatic substitution described previously for [[sup 18]F]N-methylspiperone the butyrophenone neuroleptics benperidol, droperidol, fluanisone and haloperidol were labelled with fluorine-18. The n.c.a. aromatic nucleophilic NO[sub 2] [yields] [sup 18]F substitution takes place in the presence of the moderately basic cryptate system consisting of Kryptofix 2.2.2., potassium oxalate and potassium carbonate. The one step labeling reaction was performed in different solvents and is equally successful in dimethylsulfoxide, dimethylformamide or dimethylacetamide yielding 25-35% (EOS) within a reaction time of 5-30 min in the range of 140-160[sup o]C at analytical activity levels. (author).

  12. A simple method for stem cell labeling with fluorine 18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Bing [Department of Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Hankenson, Kurt D. [Department of Biology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Dennis, James E. [Department of Biology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Caplan, Arnold I. [Department of Biology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Goldstein, Steven A. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Kilbourn, Michael R. [Department of Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2005-10-01

    Hexadecyl-4-[{sup 18}F]fluorobenzoate ([{sup 18}F]HFB), a long chain fluorinated benzoic acid ester, was prepared in a one-step synthesis by aromatic nucleophilic substitution of [{sup 18}F]fluoride ion on hexadecyl-4-(N,N,N-trimethylammonio)benzoate. The radiolabeled ester was obtained in good yields (52% decay corrected) and high purity (97%). [{sup 18}F]HFB was used to radiolabel rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) by absorption into cell membranes. MicroPET imaging of [{sup 18}F]HFB-labeled MSCs following intravenous injection into the rat showed the expected high and persistent accumulation of radioactivity in the lungs. [{sup 18}F]HFB is thus simple to prepare and uses labeling agent for short-term distribution studies of injected stem cells.

  13. Projections of global emissions of fluorinated greenhouse gases in 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gschrey, Barbara; Schwarz, Winfried [Oeko-Recherche Buero fuer Umweltforschung und -beratung GmbH, Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    Emissions of fluorinated greenhouse gases are currently covered under the Montreal Protocol, which focuses on ozone-depleting substances such as CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) and HCFCs (hydrochlorofluorocarbons), and under the Kyoto Protocol, which controls emissions of HFCs (hydrofluorocarbons), PFCs (perfluorocarbons) and SF{sub 6} (sulfur hexafluoride). This study bridges the gap between political regimes and their reporting systems by giving an overview of banks and emissions of all fluorinated gases in 2005, and projections of banks and emissions of fluorinated gases in 2050. The Montreal Protocol and its amendments will eventually result in the full phase out of CFCs and HCFCs. Developed countries have already completed the phase out of CFCs and will reach full phase out of HCFCs by 2020. Developing countries, in contrast, will phase out CFCs by 2010 and HCFCs by 2030. Although climate-friendly technology is available for most applications, the risk occurs that substitutes for ozone-depleting substances rely on HFCs, which cause global warming. This study determines global emissions of HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6} (Kyoto F-gases) in 2050 in a ''business-as-usual'' scenario. The global population is expected to increase to ca. 8.7 billion people, and high economic growth of 3.5% per year is assumed. Emissions in 2050 are quantified for each sector of application as well as for developed and developing countries based on growth rates of each sector. In 2050, total global emissions of fluorinated greenhouse gases are projected to amount to 4 GT CO{sub 2} eq. which equals ca. 5.9% of the total greenhouse gas emissions at this time. Compared to a relatively small share of F-gas emissions ranging around 1.3% of total greenhouse gas emissions in 2004, this percentage reflects an enormous increase. Relative to projected direct CO{sub 2} emissions alone, the 2050 F-gas emissions will even account for ca. 7.9%. In case of CO{sub 2} mitigation, this share

  14. Low molecular weight salts combined with fluorinated solvents for electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, Konstantin; Yip, Ka Ki; Lin, Tzu-Yuan; Lei, Norman; Guerrero-Zavala, Guillermo; Kwong, Kristie W.

    2015-11-10

    Provided are electrochemical cells and electrolytes used to build such cells. An electrolyte includes at least one salt having a molecular weight less than about 250. Such salts allow forming electrolytes with higher salt concentrations and ensure high conductivity and ion transport in these electrolytes. The low molecular weight salt may have a concentration of at least about 0.5M and may be combined with one or more other salts, such as linear and cyclic imide salts and/or methide salts. The concentration of these additional salts may be less than that of the low molecular weight salt, in some embodiments, twice less. The additional salts may have a molecular weight greater than about 250. The electrolyte may also include one or more fluorinated solvents and may be capable of maintaining single phase solutions at between about -30.degree. C. to about 80.degree. C.

  15. Creation of defined single cell resolution neuronal circuits on microelectrode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirlo, Russell Kirk

    2009-12-01

    The way cell-cell organization of neuronal networks influences activity and facilitates function is not well understood. Microelectrode arrays (MEAs) and advancing cell patterning technologies have enabled access to and control of in vitro neuronal networks spawning much new research in neuroscience and neuroengineering. We propose that small, simple networks of neurons with defined circuitry may serve as valuable research models where every connection can be analyzed, controlled and manipulated. Towards the goal of creating such neuronal networks we have applied microfabricated elastomeric membranes, surface modification and our unique laser cell patterning system to create defined neuronal circuits with single-cell precision on MEAs. Definition of synaptic connectivity was imposed by the 3D physical constraints of polydimethylsiloxane elastomeric membranes. The membranes had 20mum clear-through holes and 2-3mum deep channels which when applied to the surface of the MEA formed microwells to confine neurons to electrodes connected via shallow tunnels to direct neurite outgrowth. Tapering and turning of channels was used to influence neurite polarity. Biocompatibility of the membranes was increased by vacuum baking, oligomer extraction, and autoclaving. Membranes were bound to the MEA by oxygen plasma treatment and heated pressure. The MEA/membrane surface was treated with oxygen plasma, poly-D-lysine and laminin to improve neuron attachment, survival and neurite outgrowth. Prior to cell patterning the outer edge of culture area was seeded with 5x10 5 cells per cm and incubated for 2 days. Single embryonic day 7 chick forebrain neurons were then patterned into the microwells and onto the electrodes using our laser cell patterning system. Patterned neurons successfully attached to and were confined to the electrodes. Neurites extended through the interconnecting channels and connected with adjacent neurons. These results demonstrate that neuronal circuits can be

  16. Neurotoxicity screening of (illicit) drugs using novel methods for analysis of microelectrode array (MEA) recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hondebrink, L; Verboven, A H A; Drega, W S; Schmeink, S; de Groot, M W G D M; van Kleef, R G D M; Wijnolts, F M J; de Groot, A; Meulenbelt, J; Westerink, R H S

    2016-07-01

    Annual prevalence of the use of common illicit drugs and new psychoactive substances (NPS) is high, despite the often limited knowledge on the health risks of these substances. Recently, cortical cultures grown on multi-well microelectrode arrays (mwMEAs) have been used for neurotoxicity screening of chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and toxins with a high sensitivity and specificity. However, the use of mwMEAs to investigate the effects of illicit drugs on neuronal activity is largely unexplored. We therefore first characterised the cortical cultures using immunocytochemistry and show the presence of astrocytes, glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons. Neuronal activity is concentration-dependently affected following exposure to six neurotransmitters (glutamate, GABA, serotonin, dopamine, acetylcholine and nicotine). Most neurotransmitters inhibit neuronal activity, although glutamate and acetylcholine transiently increase activity at specific concentrations. These transient effects are not detected when activity is determined during the entire 30min exposure window, potentially resulting in false-negative results. As expected, exposure to the GABAA-receptor antagonist bicuculline increases neuronal activity. Exposure to a positive allosteric modulator of the GABAA-receptor (diazepam) or to glutamate receptor antagonists (CNQX and MK-801) reduces neuronal activity. Further, we demonstrate that exposure to common drugs (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and amphetamine) and NPS (1-(3-chlorophenyl)piperazine (mCPP), 4-fluoroamphetamine (4-FA) and methoxetamine (MXE)) decreases neuronal activity. MXE most potently inhibits neuronal activity with an IC50 of 0.5μM, whereas 4-FA is least potent with an IC50 of 113μM. Our data demonstrate the importance of analysing neuronal activity within different time windows during exposure to prevent false-negative results. We also show that cortical cultures grown on mwMEAs can successfully be applied to investigate the effects of

  17. Scanning electron microscopy of chronically implanted intracortical microelectrode arrays in non-human primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrese, James C.; Aceros, Juan; Donoghue, John P.

    2016-04-01

    Objective. Signal attenuation is a major problem facing intracortical sensors for chronic neuroprosthetic applications. Many studies suggest that failure is due to gliosis around the electrode tips, however, mechanical and material causes of failure are often overlooked. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors contributing to progressive signal decline by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to visualize structural changes in chronically implanted arrays and histology to examine the tissue response at corresponding implant sites. Approach. We examined eight chronically implanted intracortical microelectrode arrays (MEAs) explanted from non-human primates at times ranging from 37 to 1051 days post-implant. We used SEM, in vivo neural recordings, and histology (GFAP, Iba-1, NeuN). Three MEAs that were never implanted were also imaged as controls. Main results. SEM revealed progressive corrosion of the platinum electrode tips and changes to the underlying silicon. The parylene insulation was prone to cracking and delamination, and in some instances the silicone elastomer also delaminated from the edges of the MEA. Substantial tissue encapsulation was observed and was often seen growing into defects in the platinum and parylene. These material defects became more common as the time in vivo increased. Histology at 37 and 1051 days post-implant showed gliosis, disruption of normal cortical architecture with minimal neuronal loss, and high Iba-1 reactivity, especially within the arachnoid and dura. Electrode tracts were either absent or barely visible in the cortex at 1051 days, but were seen in the fibrotic encapsulation material suggesting that the MEAs were lifted out of the brain. Neural recordings showed a progressive drop in impedance, signal amplitude, and viable channels over time. Significance. These results provide evidence that signal loss in MEAs is truly multifactorial. Gliosis occurs in the first few months after implantation but does

  18. Uranium mineralization in fluorine-enriched volcanic rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burt, D.M.; Sheridan, M.F.; Bikun, J.; Christiansen, E.; Correa, B.; Murphy, B.; Self, S.

    1980-09-01

    Several uranium and other lithophile element deposits are located within or adjacent to small middle to late Cenozoic, fluorine-rich rhyolitic dome complexes. Examples studied include Spor Mountain, Utah (Be-U-F), the Honeycomb Hills, Utah (Be-U), the Wah Wah Mountains, Utah (U-F), and the Black Range-Sierra Cuchillo, New Mexico (Sn-Be-W-F). The formation of these and similar deposits begins with the emplacement of a rhyolitic magma, enriched in lithophile metals and complexing fluorine, that rises to a shallow crustal level, where its roof zone may become further enriched in volatiles and the ore elements. During initial explosive volcanic activity, aprons of lithicrich tuffs are erupted around the vents. These early pyroclastic deposits commonly host the mineralization, due to their initial enrichment in the lithophile elements, their permeability, and the reactivity of their foreign lithic inclusions (particularly carbonate rocks). The pyroclastics are capped and preserved by thick topaz rhyolite domes and flows that can serve as a source of heat and of additional quantities of ore elements. Devitrification, vapor-phase crystallization, or fumarolic alteration may free the ore elements from the glassy matrix and place them in a form readily leached by percolating meteoric waters. Heat from the rhyolitic sheets drives such waters through the system, generally into and up the vents and out through the early tuffs. Secondary alteration zones (K-feldspar, sericite, silica, clays, fluorite, carbonate, and zeolites) and economic mineral concentrations may form in response to this low temperature (less than 200 C) circulation. After cooling, meteoric water continues to migrate through the system, modifying the distribution and concentration of the ore elements (especially uranium).

  19. Introducing the fluorine doped natural hydroxyapatite-titania nanobiocomposite ceramic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karamian, Ebrahim [Advanced Materials Research Center, Faculty of Materials Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdellahi, Majid, E-mail: M.Abdellahi@Pa.iut.ac.ir [Advanced Materials Research Center, Faculty of Materials Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khandan, Amirsalar [Young Researchers and Elite Club, Khomeinishahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdellah, Sana [Advanced Materials Research Center, Faculty of Materials Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    In the present research, natural hydroxyapatite (NHA) was synthesized from bovine bones and then fluorine was doped into the NHA matrix to produce fluorine doped NHA (FNHA; natural fluor-hydroxyapatite) in optimum conditions. At the end an FNHA-TiO{sub 2} nanobiocomposite ceramic with excellent biocompatibility and good chemical stability was synthesized through a mechanochemical route and a subsequent two step sintering (TSS) process. Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), inductive coupled plasma (ICP), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) were used as the means for gathering and analysis of the results. According to the obtained results, TiO{sub 2} can prevent early decomposition of FNHA by the formation of the CaTiO{sub 3} phases and hence strengthen the interactions between the apatite particles which results in the increase of the mechanical properties. Besides, TiO{sub 2} provides more Si−OH nucleation sites for the formation of the apatite layers and hence more bioactivity. - Highlights: • This work begins with preparing natural hydroxyapatite from bovine bones via a simple method. • With increasing the TiO{sub 2} content reinforced in FNHA matrix, the compaction increases. • TiO{sub 2} can prevent early decomposition of FNHA by the formation of CaTiO{sub 3} phase. • TiO{sub 2} can strengthen the interactions between the apatite particles and increase of compaction. • With increasing TiO{sub 2} content, the Si−OH nucleation sites increases lead to more bioactivity.

  20. Fluorinated tripodal receptors for potentiometric chloride detection in biological fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankratova, Nadezda; Cuartero, Maria; Jowett, Laura A; Howe, Ethan N W; Gale, Philip A; Bakker, Eric; Crespo, Gastón A

    2018-01-15

    Fluorinated tripodal compounds were recently reported to be efficient transmembrane transporters for a series of inorganic anions. In particular, this class of receptors has been shown to be suitable for the effective complexation of chloride, nitrate, bicarbonate and sulfate anions via hydrogen bonding. The potentiometric properties of urea and thiourea-based fluorinated tripodal receptors are explored here for the first time, in light of the need for reliable sensors for chloride monitoring in undiluted biological fluids. The ion selective electrode (ISE) membranes with tren-based tris-urea bis(CF 3 ) tripodal compound (ionophore I) were found to exhibit the best selectivity for chloride over major lipophilic anions such as salicylate ( [Formula: see text] ) and thiocyanate ( [Formula: see text] ). Ionophore I-based ISEs were successfully applied for chloride determination in undiluted human serum as well as artificial serum sample, the slope of the linear calibration at the relevant background of interfering ions being close to Nernstian (49.8±1.7mV). The results of potentiometric measurements were confirmed by argentometric titration. Moreover, the ionophore I-based ISE membrane was shown to exhibit a very good long-term stability of potentiometric performance over the period of 10 weeks. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) titrations, potentiometric sandwich membrane experiments and density functional theory (DFT) computational studies were performed to determine the binding constants and suggest 1:1 complexation stoichiometry for the ionophore I with chloride as well as salicylate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Uranium mineralization in fluorine-enriched volcanic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burt, D.M.; Sheridan, M.F.; Bikun, J.; Christiansen, E.; Correa, B.; Murphy, B.; Self, S.

    1980-09-01

    Several uranium and other lithophile element deposits are located within or adjacent to small middle to late Cenozoic, fluorine-rich rhyolitic dome complexes. Examples studied include Spor Mountain, Utah (Be-U-F), the Honeycomb Hills, Utah (Be-U), the Wah Wah Mountains, Utah (U-F), and the Black Range-Sierra Cuchillo, New Mexico (Sn-Be-W-F). The formation of these and similar deposits begins with the emplacement of a rhyolitic magma, enriched in lithophile metals and complexing fluorine, that rises to a shallow crustal level, where its roof zone may become further enriched in volatiles and the ore elements. During initial explosive volcanic activity, aprons of lithicrich tuffs are erupted around the vents. These early pyroclastic deposits commonly host the mineralization, due to their initial enrichment in the lithophile elements, their permeability, and the reactivity of their foreign lithic inclusions (particularly carbonate rocks). The pyroclastics are capped and preserved by thick topaz rhyolite domes and flows that can serve as a source of heat and of additional quantities of ore elements. Devitrification, vapor-phase crystallization, or fumarolic alteration may free the ore elements from the glassy matrix and place them in a form readily leached by percolating meteoric waters. Heat from the rhyolitic sheets drives such waters through the system, generally into and up the vents and out through the early tuffs. Secondary alteration zones (K-feldspar, sericite, silica, clays, fluorite, carbonate, and zeolites) and economic mineral concentrations may form in response to this low temperature (less than 200 C) circulation. After cooling, meteoric water continues to migrate through the system, modifying the distribution and concentration of the ore elements

  2. Adsorption and diffusion of fluorine on Cr-doped Ni(111) surface: Fluorine-induced initial corrosion of non-passivated Ni-based alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Cui-Lan, E-mail: rencuilan@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Key Laboratory of Interfacial Physics and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Han, Han [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Gong, Wen-Bin [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 215123 (China); Wang, Cheng-Bin; Zhang, Wei [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Key Laboratory of Interfacial Physics and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Cheng, Cheng [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Huai, Ping, E-mail: huaiping@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Zhu, Zhi-Yuan [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Key Laboratory of Interfacial Physics and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2016-09-15

    Adsorption and diffusion behaviors of fluorine on Cr-doped Ni(111) surface are investigated by using first-principles simulation. It shows that the Cr in the Cr-doped Ni(111) surface serve a trap site for fluorine with adsorption energy 3.52 eV, which is 1.04 eV higher than that on Ni(111) surface. Moreover, the Cr atom is pulled out the surface for 0.41 Å after the fluorine adsorption, much higher than that on Ni(111) surface. Further diffusion behaviors analysis confirms the conclusion because the fluorine diffusion from neighbored sites onto the Cr top site is an energy barrierless process. Detailed electronic structure analysis shows that a deeper hybrid state of F 2 p-Cr 3 d indicates a strong F−Cr interaction. The Ni−Cr bond is elongated and weakened due to the new formed F−Cr bonding. Our results help to understanding the basic fluorine-induced initial corrosion mechanism for Ni-based alloy in molten salt environment.

  3. Investigating the Influence of (Deoxy)fluorination on the Lipophilicity of Non-UV-Active Fluorinated Alkanols and Carbohydrates by a New log P Determination Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linclau, Bruno; Wang, Zhong; Compain, Guillaume; Paumelle, Vincent; Fontenelle, Clement Q; Wells, Neil; Weymouth-Wilson, Alex

    2016-01-11

    Property tuning by fluorination is very effective for a number of purposes, and currently increasingly investigated for aliphatic compounds. An important application is lipophilicity (log P) modulation. However, the determination of log P is cumbersome for non-UV-active compounds. A new variation of the shake-flask log P determination method is presented, enabling the measurement of log P for fluorinated compounds with or without UV activity regardless of whether they are hydrophilic or lipophilic. No calibration curves or measurements of compound masses/aliquot volumes are required. With this method, the influence of fluorination on the lipophilicity of fluorinated aliphatic alcohols was determined, and the log P values of fluorinated carbohydrates were measured. Interesting trends and changes, for example, for the dependence on relative stereochemistry, are reported. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  4. Fluorination effects on the thermodynamic, thermophysical and surface properties of ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, N.S.M.; Luís, A.; Reis, P.M.; Carvalho, P.J.; Lopes-da-Silva, J.A.; Esperança, J.M.S.S.; Araújo, J.M.M.; Rebelo, L.P.N.; Freire, M.G.; Pereiro, A.B.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Surface tension of fluorinated ionic liquids. • Thermophysical properties of fluorinated ionic liquids. • Thermal properties and thermodynamic functions. - Abstract: This paper reports the thermal, thermodynamic, thermophysical and surface properties of eight ionic liquids with fluorinated alkyl side chain lengths equal or greater than four carbon atoms. Melting and decomposition temperatures were determined together with experimental densities, surface tensions, refractive indices, dynamic viscosities and ionic conductivities in a temperature interval ranging from (293.15 to 353.15) K. The surface properties of these fluorinated ionic liquids were discussed and several thermodynamic functions, as well as critical temperatures, were estimated. Coefficients of isobaric thermal expansion, molecular volumes and free volume effects were calculated from experimental values of density and refractive index and compared with previous data. Finally, Walden plots were used to evaluate the ionicity of the investigated ionic liquids.

  5. Evaluation of fluorine-18-labeled alkylating agents as potential synthons for the labeling of oligonucleotides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, EFJ; Vroegh, J; Elsinga, PH; Vaalburg, W

    Six fluorine-18-labeled alkylating agents were selected as potentially suitable synthons for the labeling of antisense oligonucleotides. The selected synthons were evaluated in a model reaction with the monomer adenosine 5'-O-thiomonophosphate. Of these synthons,

  6. PET radiochemistry: synthesis of 2-[18 F]-fluorine-2-deoxy-D-glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez D, F.A.; Flores M, A.; Zarate M, A.; Romo, E.

    2005-01-01

    The present work describes the method for the synthesis of the 2-[ 18 F]-fluorine-2-deoxy-D-glucose, the radiopharmaceutical of more use in nuclear medicine for the diagnosis of cancer at world level. (Author)

  7. Growth and morphological changes of cucumber cotyledons as influenced by fluorine exhalations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niznansky, A; Erdelska, O

    1964-01-01

    The biological effects of particulate air pollution which was rich in fluorine compounds was studied. Cucumber cotyledons were used as experimental organisms, and the types of injuries they received were categorized.

  8. Impact of Backbone Fluorination on π-Conjugated Polymers in Organic Photovoltaic Devices: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Leclerc

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Solution-processed bulk heterojunction solar cells have experienced a remarkable acceleration in performances in the last two decades, reaching power conversion efficiencies above 10%. This impressive progress is the outcome of a simultaneous development of more advanced device architectures and of optimized semiconducting polymers. Several chemical approaches have been developed to fine-tune the optoelectronics and structural polymer parameters required to reach high efficiencies. Fluorination of the conjugated polymer backbone has appeared recently to be an especially promising approach for the development of efficient semiconducting polymers. As a matter of fact, most currently best-performing semiconducting polymers are using fluorine atoms in their conjugated backbone. In this review, we attempt to give an up-to-date overview of the latest results achieved on fluorinated polymers for solar cells and to highlight general polymer properties’ evolution trends related to the fluorination of their conjugated backbone.

  9. Laboratory-scale catalysis studies of uranium and plutonium fluorination reactions by solid metal-fluorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochel, R.C.

    1984-03-01

    Various catalysts were evaluated for their effect on the rate of fluorination of the tetrafluorides of uranium and plutonium to produce the hexafluorides. Results of this work show that CoF 3 and AgF 2 are more effective than NiF 2 for UF 4 fluorination, producing rate increases in the range of 150 to 300 compared to UF 4 and fluorine alone. The use of these three catalysts was also found effective in the fluorinations of PuO 2 /PuF 4 and pure PuF 4 . However, enhancements were less. NiF 2 produced the best increases which were 8.1 for PuO 2 /PuF 4 and 3.6 for PuF 4 . Experiments were conducted in a simple flow-loop. Even larger enhancements might be obtained with fluidized beds. Details of the apparatus, experiments, methods, and a discussion of results are presented

  10. Computational rationalization for the observed ground-state multiplicities of fluorinated acylnitrenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Matthew P; Jenks, William S

    2014-10-03

    Computational methods are used to investigate the mechanism by which fluorination of acetylnitrene reduces the stabilization of the singlet configuration. ΔEST is made more positive (favoring the triplet state) by 1.9, 1.3, and 0.7 kcal/mol by the addition of the first, second, and third fluorine, respectively, at the CR-CC(2,3)/6-311(3df,2p)//B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level of theory. Smaller effects observed with substitution of β-fluorines in propanoylnitrene derivatives and examination of molecular geometries and orbitals demonstrate that the effect is due to inductive electron withdrawal by the fluorines, rather than hyperconjugation.

  11. An alternative fluorine precursor for the synthesis of SnO2:F by spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arca, E.; Fleischer, K.; Shvets, I.V.

    2012-01-01

    An alternative, non-toxic precursor was employed for the synthesis of SnO 2 :F transparent conducting oxide. The performance of benzenesulfonyl fluoride (BSF) as F source for spray pyrolysis was investigated. Its decomposition and the actual incorporation of fluorine in the tin oxide matrix were confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy while its effect on the electrical properties was investigated by resistance and Hall measurements. Results were compared with respect to samples grown using a common fluorine source (NH 4 F), a commercial available sample and a sample grown by spray pyrolysis at an independent laboratory. We show that BSF leads to actively doped conductive SnO 2 with good carrier mobility, though the fluorine incorporation rate and hence overall conductivity of the films is lower than for fluorine precursors commonly used in spray pyrolysis.

  12. [Experimental study on fas expression of spermatogenic cell in male rats induced by fluorine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rui; Shang, Weichao; Liu, Jianmin; Cheng, Xuemin; Ba, Yue; Huang, Hui; Cui, Liuxin

    2010-05-01

    To research the effect of fluorine on the expression of Fas protein, then study the mechanism of male reproductive toxicity induced by fluoride on molecular level. Thirty Wistar male rats were divided into control group, low-dose group and high-dose group. The NaF dosage for every group were 0,2 and 4g/L. The content of NaF in testis was measured by using fluorine selective electrode. Changes of testosterone and Fas protein were observed using the methods of radioimmunoassay, in situ hybridization. In addition, we observed the quality of spermatozoa. The testis fluoride content of two fluorine treatment groups were higher than that of control group (P Fluorin could reduce the level of serum testosterone, then activated the Fas/FasL system, which caused damage to the reprodutive system.

  13. Versatile synthesis and biological evaluation of novel 3’-fluorinated purine nucleosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Ren

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A unified synthetic strategy accessing novel 3'-fluorinated purine nucleoside derivatives and their biological evaluation were achieved. Novel 3’-fluorinated analogues were constructed from a common 3’-deoxy-3’-fluororibofuranose intermediate. Employing Suzuki and Stille cross-coupling reactions, fifteen 3’-fluororibose purine nucleosides 1–15 and eight 3’-fluororibose 2-chloro/2-aminopurine nucleosides 16–23 with various substituents at position 6 of the purine ring were efficiently synthesized. Furthermore, 3’-fluorine analogs of natural products nebularine and 6-methylpurine riboside were constructed via our convergent synthetic strategy. Synthesized nucleosides were tested against HT116 (colon cancer and 143B (osteosarcoma cancer tumor cell lines. We have demonstrated 3’-fluorine purine nucleoside analogues display potent tumor cell growth inhibition activity at sub- or low micromolar concentration.

  14. Experimental research on combustion fluorine retention using calcium-based sorbents during coal combustion (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Q.; Ma, X.; Liu, J.; Wu, X.; Zhou, J.; Cen, K. [Liaoning Technical University, Fuxin (China). College of Resource and Environment Engineering

    2008-12-15

    Fluoride pollution produced by coal burning can be controlled with the calcium-based sorbent combustion fluorine technique in which calcium-based sorbents are mixed with the coal or sprayed into the combustion chamber. In a fixed bed tube furnace combustion experiment using one calcium-based natural mineral, limestone and one calcium-based building material, it was shown that the calcium-based sorbent particle grain size and pore structure have a big influence on the combustion fluorine retention effect. Reducing the calcium-based sorbent particle grain size and improving the calcium sorbent structure characteristics at very high temperature to enhance the fluorine retention effect is the important approach to the fluorine retention agent development. 8 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  15. Supercritical temperature synthesis of fluorine-doped VO2(M) nanoparticle with improved thermochromic property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riapanitra, Anung; Asakura, Yusuke; Cao, Wenbin; Noda, Yasuto; Yin, Shu

    2018-06-01

    Fluorine-doped VO2(M) nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized using the hydrothermal method at a supercritical temperature of 490 °C. The pristine VO2(M) has the critical phase transformation temperature of 64 °C. The morphology and homogeneity of the monoclinic structure VO2(M) were adopted by the fluorine-doped system. The obtained particle size of the samples is smaller at the higher concentration of anion doping. The best reduction of critical temperature was achieved by fluorine doping of 0.13% up to 48 °C. The thin films of the fluorine-doped VO2(M) showed pronounced thermochromic property and therefore are suitable for smart window applications.

  16. Continuous gas/liquid–liquid/liquid flow synthesis of 4-fluoropyrazole derivatives by selective direct fluorination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica R. Breen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available 4-Fluoropyrazole systems may be prepared by a single, sequential telescoped two-step continuous gas/liquid–liquid/liquid flow process from diketone, fluorine gas and hydrazine starting materials.

  17. Mechanical and Structural Properties of Fluorine-Ion-Implanted Boron Suboxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Machaka

    2012-01-01

    degradation of near-surface mechanical properties with increasing fluorine fluence. Implications of these observations in the creation of amorphous near-surface layers by high-dose ion implantation are discussed in this paper.

  18. Emergence of Dirac and quantum spin Hall states in fluorinated monolayer As and AsSb

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Qingyun; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2016-01-01

    Using first-principles calculations, we investigate the electronic and vibrational properties of monolayer As and AsSb. While the pristine monolayers are semiconductors (direct band gap at the Γ point), fluorination results in Dirac cones at the K

  19. Evaluation of Fluorine-Trapping Agents for Use During Storage of the MSRE Fuel Salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brynestad, J.; Williams, D.F.

    1999-05-01

    A fundamental characteristic of the room temperature Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) fuel is that the radiation from the retained fission products and actinides interacts with this fluoride salt to produce fluorine gas. The purpose of this investigation was to identify fluorine-trapping materials for the MSRE fuel salt that can meet both the requirement of interim storage in a sealed (gastight) container and the vented condition required for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Sealed containers will be needed for interim storage because of the large radon source that remains even in fuel salt stripped of its uranium content. An experimental program was undertaken to identify the most promising candidates for efficient trapping of the radiolytic fluorine generated by the MSRE fuel salt. Because of the desire to avoid pressurizing the closed storage containers, an agent that traps fluorine without the generation of gaseous products was sought.

  20. Effects of fluorine pollution and the resulting elementary analysis in the radis Raphanus sativus L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charlot, C.; Kisman, S.

    1983-01-01

    After mineral elementary analysis of plant tissue, it was observed that supply of NaF to radish Raphanus sativus L. reduced SiO/sub 2/, probably partly explaining the variation in resistance of plants to fluorine pollution.

  1. Evaluation of Fluorine-Trapping Agents for Use During Storage of the MSRE Fuel Salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brynestad, J.; Williams, D.F.

    1999-01-01

    A fundamental characteristic of the room temperature Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) fuel is that the radiation from the retained fission products and actinides interacts with this fluoride salt to produce fluorine gas. The purpose of this investigation was to identify fluorine-trapping materials for the MSRE fuel salt that can meet both the requirement of interim storage in a sealed (gastight) container and the vented condition required for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Sealed containers will be needed for interim storage because of the large radon source that remains even in fuel salt stripped of its uranium content. An experimental program was undertaken to identify the most promising candidates for efficient trapping of the radiolytic fluorine generated by the MSRE fuel salt. Because of the desire to avoid pressurizing the closed storage containers, an agent that traps fluorine without the generation of gaseous products was sought

  2. Preparation of fluorinated biaryls through direct palladium-catalyzed coupling of polyfluoroarenes with aryltrifluoroborates

    KAUST Repository

    Fang, Xin; Huang, Yuanyuan; Chen, Xiaoqing; Lin, Xiaoxi; Bai, Zhengshuai; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Yuan, Yaofeng; Weng, Zhiqiang

    2013-01-01

    The direct palladium-catalyzed coupling of polyfluoroarenes with aryltrifluoroborates gave the desired products of fluorinated biaryls in good to excellent yields. A diverse set of important functional groups including methoxy, aldehyde, ester

  3. Fluorine and chlorine determination in mixed uranium-plutonium oxide fuel and plutonium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elinson, S.V.; Zemlyanukhina, N.A.; Pavlova, I.V.; Filatkina, V.P.; Tsvetkova, V.T.

    1981-01-01

    A technique of fluorine and chlorine determination in the mixed uranium-plutonium oxide fuel and plutonium dioxide, based on their simultaneous separation by means of pyrohydrolysis, is developed. Subsequently, fluorine is determined by photometry with alizarincomplexonate of lanthanum or according to the weakening of zirconium colouring with zylenol orange. Chlorine is determined using the photonephelometric method according to the reaction of chloride-ion interaction with silver nitrate or by spectrophotometric method according to the reaction with mercury rhodanide. The lower limit of fluorine determination is -6x10 -5 %, of chlorine- 1x10 -4 % in the sample of 1g. The relative mean quadratic deviation of the determination result (Ssub(r)), depends on the character of the material analyzed and at the content of nx10 -4 - nx10 -3 mass % is equal to from 0.05 to 0.32 for fluorine and from 0.11 to 0.35 for chlorine [ru

  4. Molten Fluoride Salts as Fluorine Source in the Production of Molecular Sidebands

    CERN Document Server

    Shoaib, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    The medically important isotopes Yttrium and Zirconium were selected for fluorination. After this, 30 $\\mu$g of NaF as fluorine source was put in mass marker in the target unit. It was heated and plasma ion source was used to ionize the vapors. The ion source efficiency was 27\\%. It was observed that the yield for fluorine was not enough for various mass marker temperatures (0 A - 40 A) and ion source temperatures (2000 $^{o}$C - 2150$^{o}$C) to be reacted with other elements. The optimum temperatures of mass marker was observed here as 35 A. The project can be proceeded for further high temperatures and for different fluorine sources.

  5. Contribution to the use of gasoincubators for influencing the plants with atmospherical fluorine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navara, J; Hauskrecht, I; Matula, M

    1964-01-01

    In the work a method is described for observing the effects of atmospheric fluorine on plants. The construction of this chamber was completed by the dosing apparatus of Mavrodineanu, which has the advantage of uninterrupted operation, trouble-free service and adjustability of the attained concentrations. Fluorine-resistant plexiglas was chosen over dull polyethylene foils which diminish light conditions in the investigated space. 2 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  6. Some considerations in the handling of fluorine and the chlorine fluorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, R.L. Jr.; Barber, E.J.

    1979-01-01

    This paper reviews many considerations in the safe handling of fluorine and the chlorine fluorides. The physical, chemical, and toxicological properties of the materials are reviewed. Proper choice of materials of construction and materials in contact with the active gases are considered. The survey includes safe practices in design and operation of experiments and processes. Soda lime traps and caustic scrubbing are reviewed for fluorine disposal methods. Finally some explosive reactions and explosive situations are discussed

  7. Synthesis and biological activity of the novel indanedione anticoagulant rodenticides containing fluorine

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Feng; Liu, Liping; Bai, Zengguo; Zhang, Tianhua; Zhao, Keke

    2016-01-01

    Here, 3 fluorinated intermediates of drug were synthesized: (M1), (M2), (M3). Three new anticoagulant rodenticides were designed which were based on 4-hydroxycoumarin or 1,3-indandione, added acute toxicity groups containing fluorine. The structures of synthesized compounds were analyzed and proved by FT-IR spectroscopy and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR). The compounds were also evaluated for their anticoagulant and acute biologic activity. In addition, both the acute orally toxicity ...

  8. Recent advances in fluorination techniques and their anticipated impact on drug metabolism and toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Cormac D.; Sandford, Graham

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Fluorine’s unique physicochemical properties make it a key element for incorporation into pharmacologically active compounds. Its presence in a drug can alter a number of characteristics that affect ADME-Tox, which has prompted efforts at improving synthetic fluorination procedures. Areas covered: This review describes the influence of fluorine on attributes such as potency, lipophilicity, metabolic stability and bioavailablility and how the effects observed are related to the p...

  9. Synergistic effect of fluorination on molecular energy level modulation in highly efficient photovoltaic polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Maojie; Guo, Xia; Zhang, Shaoqing; Hou, Jianhui

    2014-02-01

    The synergistic effect of fluorination on molecular energy level modulation is realized by introducing fluorine atoms onto both the donor and the acceptor moieties in a D-A polymer, and as a result, the polymer solar cell device based on the trifluorinated polymer, PBT-3F, shows a high efficiency of 8.6%, under illumination of AM 1.5G, 100 mW cm(-) (2) . © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Description of an engineering-scale facility for uranium fluorination studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, Eiji; Saito, Shinichi; Horiuchi, Masato

    1976-03-01

    In the research program of power reactor fuel reprocessing by fluoride volatility process, the engineering facility was constructed to establish the techniques of handling kilogram quantities of fluorine and uranium hexafluoride and to obtain engineering data on the uranium fluidized-bed oxidation and fluorination. This facility is designed for a capacity of 5 kg per batch. Descriptions on the facility and equipment are given, including design philosophy, safety and its analysis. (auth.)

  11. Attempt at interpreting some optical absorption bands in X-ray irradiated fluorine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allain, Yves

    1959-01-01

    According to the results of one of our experiments, the 575 mμ absorption band of fluorine irradiated with X-Rays seams due to F - ion vacancies. Our goal has been to find a color centers model in fluorine colored in various conditions. Reprint of a paper published in Comptes rendus des seances de l'Academie des Sciences, t. 248, p. 2318-2320, sitting of Aril 20, 1959 [fr

  12. Facing the rain after the phase out: Performance evaluation of alternative fluorinated and non-fluorinated durable water repellents for outdoor fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberger, S; Gillgard, P; Stare, A; Hanning, A; Levenstam, O; Roos, S; Cousins, I T

    2018-02-01

    Fluorinated durable water repellent (DWR) agents are used to obtain water and stain repellent textiles. Due to the on-going phase-out of DWRs based on side-chain fluorinated polymers (SFP) with "long" perfluoroalkyl chains, the textile industry lacks suitable alternatives with comparable material characteristics. The constant development and optimization of SFPs for textile applications initiated more than half a century ago has resulted in a robust and very efficient DWR-technology and textiles with exceptional hydro- and oleo-phobic properties. The industry is now in the predicament that the long-chain SFPs with the best technical performance have undesirable toxicological and environmental behaviour. This study provides a comprehensive overview of the technical performance of presently available fluorinated and non-fluorinated DWRs as part of a chemical alternatives assessment (CAA). The results are based on a study with synthetic outdoor fabrics treated with alternative DWRs and tested for repellency using industrial standard and complementary methods. Using this approach, the complex structure-property relationships of DWR-polymers could be explained on a molecular level. Both short-chain SFPs and non-fluorinated DWRs showed excellent water repellency and durability in some cases while short-chain SFPs were the more robust of the alternatives to long-chain SFPs. A strong decline in oil repellency and durability with perfluoroalkyl chain length was shown for SFP DWRs. Non-fluorinated alternatives were unable to repel oil, which might limit their potential for substitution in textile application that require repellency towards non-polar liquids. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Integrated chemical sensor array platform based on a light emitting diode, xerogel-derived sensor elements, and high-speed pin printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Eun Jeong; Bright, Frank V.

    2002-01-01

    We report a new, solid-state, integrated optical array sensor platform. By using pin printing technology in concert with sol-gel-processing methods, we form discrete xerogel-based microsensor elements that are on the order of 100 μm in diameter and 1 μm thick directly on the face of a light emitting diode (LED). The LED serves as the light source to excite chemically responsive luminophores sequestered within the doped xerogel microsensors and the analyte-dependent emission from within the doped xerogel is detected with a charge coupled device (CCD). We overcome the problem of background illumination from the LED reaching the CCD and the associated biasing that results by coating the LED first with a thin layer of blue paint. The thin paint layer serves as an optical filter, knocking out the LEDs red-edge spectral tail. The problem of the spatially-dependent fluence across the LED face is solved entirely by performing ratiometric measurements. We illustrate the performance of the new sensor scheme by forming an array of 100 discrete O 2 -responsive sensing elements on the face of a single LED. The combination of pin printing with an integrated sensor and light source platform results in a rapid method of forming (∼1 s per sensor element) reusable sensor arrays. The entire sensor array can be calibrated using just one sensor element. Array-to-array reproducibly is <8%. Arrays can be formed using single or multiple pins with indistinguishable analytical performance

  14. Molecular Dynamics Pinpoint the Global Fluorine Effect in Balanoid Binding to PKCε and PKA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardianto, Ari; Liu, Fei; Ranganathan, Shoba

    2018-02-26

    (-)-Balanol is an adenosine triphosphate mimic that inhibits protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) with limited selectivity. While PKA is known as a tumor promoter, PKC isozymes can be tumor promoters or suppressors. In particular, PKCε is frequently involved in tumorigenesis and a potential target for anticancer drugs. We recently reported that stereospecific fluorination of balanol yielded a balanoid with enhanced selectivity for PKCε over other PKC isozymes and PKA, although the global fluorine effect behind the selectivity enhancement is not fully understood. Interestingly, in contrast to PKA, PKCε is more sensitive to this fluorine effect. Here we investigate the global fluorine effect on the different binding responses of PKCε and PKA to balanoids using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. For the first time to the best of our knowledge, we found that a structurally equivalent residue in each kinase, Thr184 in PKA and Ala549 in PKCε, is essential for the different binding responses. Furthermore, the study revealed that the invariant Lys, Lys73 in PKA and Lys437 in PKCε, already known to have a crucial role in the catalytic activity of kinases, serves as the main anchor for balanol binding. Overall, while Thr184 in PKA attenuates the effect of fluorination, Ala549 permits remote response of PKCε to fluorine substitution, with implications for rational design of future balanol-based PKCε inhibitors.

  15. Fluorine determination in diet samples using cyclic NAA and PIGE analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooqi, A.S.; Arshed, W.; Akanle, O.A.; Spyrou, N.M.

    1991-01-01

    Fluorine is an important trace element for life and human well-being. Food, in general, provides about 40% of the fluorine intake in the human body. In order to measure fluorine levels in human diet samples, Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Proton Induced Gamma-Ray Emission (PIGE) analysis were used. Thermal and epithermal cyclic NAA methods were applied, employing the 19 F(n,γ) 20 F and 19 F(n,p) 19 O nuclear reactions for the determination of fluorine, respectively. Corrections were made for the sodium matrix interference caused by the 23 Na(n,α) 20 F threshold reaction in the case of thermal cyclic NAA and for the oxygen interference via 18 O(n,γ) 19 O reaction when using the epithermal cyclic NAA method. The fluorine contents of diet samples were also determined by PIGE analysis making use of the resonance reaction 19 F(p,αγ) 16 O at 872 KeV. Thermal cyclic NAA was found to be most suitable for the determination of low concentrations of fluorine in the diet samples, with a detection limit of less than 10 μg/g

  16. Studies on the sensitivity of several plant species to fluorine gases in Valais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolay, A; Bovay, E

    1965-01-01

    Analysis of apricot, apple and vine leaves showed that at leaf fluorine concentrations up to 25 p.p.m. the foliage was generally free of burns, except that of apricot which showed some damage at a level of 15 p.p.m. Between 26 and 105 p.p.m. the reactions of the foliage were variable, depending on the vegetative state of the plant and on atmospheric conditions (mainly R.H. and rainfall). Above 105 p.p.m. burns were nearly always present on apricot and vine leaves; for apple foliage the toxic level was about 160 p.p.m. The 75 plant species studied were divided into 4 categories depending on their susceptibility to fluorine damage; very susceptible species were those showing typical burning of the leaves when the fluorine content of apricot and vine leaves growing in the immediate vicinity was lower than 100 p.p.m.; susceptible species were those showing necrosis when the fluorine content of apricot leaves was slightly higher than 100 p.p.m.; species of low sensitivity showed necrosis only in heavily polluted zones; and tolerant species were those able to store over 500 p.p.m. fluorine in their leaves without showing visible damage. The very susceptible species may be used as indicators of fluorine in the atmosphere.

  17. Improvement of suspension stability and electrophoresis of nanodiamond powder by fluorination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, H.; Wang, Y.H. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Material Science and Technology, College of Material Science and Engineering, Hebei Street, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Zang, J.B., E-mail: diamondzjb@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Material Science and Technology, College of Material Science and Engineering, Hebei Street, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China) and State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, 100083 (China); Bian, L.Y. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Material Science and Technology, College of Material Science and Engineering, Hebei Street, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2012-02-01

    Fluorinated nanodiamond (F-ND) was prepared by annealing ND in fluorine gas. The fluorine gas was periodically fed to ensure uniform exposure of every diamond nanoparticle in homogenous reactive ambience. The characteristics of the F-ND particles were investigated by the following methods: Fourier-transform infrared absorption spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that the fluorine atoms were chemically adsorbed on the surface of the ND particles and consequently formed C-F bonds. Fluorine of 6.4 wt.% was detected on the F-ND surface. The aggregated ND particles were disintegrated by the fluorination and the size of aggregated ND was reduced from approximately several hundred nanometers to about 40 nm. The stability of the F-ND suspension in distilled water or ethanol was higher than that of the pristine ND suspension. The anodic electrophoretic deposition of the F-ND particles was derived using ethanol suspension, indicating that the F-ND particles were negatively charged.

  18. Potential for thermal damage to the blood–brain barrier during craniotomy: implications for intracortical recording microelectrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoffstall, Andrew J.; Paiz, Jen E.; Miller, David M.; Rial, Griffin M.; Willis, Mitchell T.; Menendez, Dhariyat M.; Hostler, Stephen R.; Capadona, Jeffrey R.

    2018-06-01

    Objective. Our objective was to determine how readily disruption of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) occurred as a result of bone drilling during a craniotomy to implant microelectrodes in rat cortex. While the phenomenon of heat production during bone drilling is well known, practices to evade damage to the underlying brain tissue are inconsistently practiced and reported in the literature. Approach. We conducted a review of the intracortical microelectrode literature to summarize typical approaches to mitigate drill heating during rodent craniotomies. Post mortem skull-surface and transient brain-surface temperatures were experimentally recorded using an infrared camera and thermocouple, respectively. A number of drilling conditions were tested, including varying drill speed and continuous versus intermittent contact. In vivo BBB permeability was assayed 1 h after the craniotomy procedure using Evans blue dye. Main results. Of the reviewed papers that mentioned methods to mitigate thermal damage during craniotomy, saline irrigation was the most frequently cited (in six of seven papers). In post mortem tissues, we observed increases in skull-surface temperature ranging from  +3 °C to  +21 °C, dependent on drill speed. In vivo, pulsed-drilling (2 s-on/2 s-off) and slow-drilling speeds (1000 r.p.m.) were the most effective methods we studied to mitigate heating effects from drilling, while inconclusive results were obtained with saline irrigation. Significance. Neuroinflammation, initiated by damage to the BBB and perpetuated by the foreign body response, is thought to play a key role in premature failure of intracortical recording microelectrodes. This study demonstrates the extreme sensitivity of the BBB to overheating caused by bone drilling. To avoid damage to the BBB, the authors recommend that craniotomies be drilled with slow speeds and/or with intermittent drilling with complete removal of the drill from the skull during ‘off’ periods. While

  19. A Microelectrode Array with Reproducible Performance Shows Loss of Consistency Following Functionalization with a Self-Assembled 6-Mercapto-1-hexanol Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damion K. Corrigan

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available For analytical applications involving label-free biosensors and multiple measurements, i.e., across an electrode array, it is essential to develop complete sensor systems capable of functionalization and of producing highly consistent responses. To achieve this, a multi-microelectrode device bearing twenty-four equivalent 50 µm diameter Pt disc microelectrodes was designed in an integrated 3-electrode system configuration and then fabricated. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used for initial electrochemical characterization of the individual working electrodes. These confirmed the expected consistency of performance with a high degree of measurement reproducibility for each microelectrode across the array. With the aim of assessing the potential for production of an enhanced multi-electrode sensor for biomedical use, the working electrodes were then functionalized with 6-mercapto-1-hexanol (MCH. This is a well-known and commonly employed surface modification process, which involves the same principles of thiol attachment chemistry and self-assembled monolayer (SAM formation commonly employed in the functionalization of electrodes and the formation of biosensors. Following this SAM formation, the reproducibility of the observed electrochemical signal between electrodes was seen to decrease markedly, compromising the ability to achieve consistent analytical measurements from the sensor array following this relatively simple and well-established surface modification. To successfully and consistently functionalize the sensors, it was necessary to dilute the constituent molecules by a factor of ten thousand to support adequate SAM formation on microelectrodes. The use of this multi-electrode device therefore demonstrates in a high throughput manner irreproducibility in the SAM formation process at the higher concentration, even though these electrodes are apparently functionalized simultaneously in the same film

  20. New fluorinated rhodamines for optical microscopy and nanoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitronova, Gyuzel Yu; Belov, Vladimir N; Bossi, Mariano L; Wurm, Christian A; Meyer, Lars; Medda, Rebecca; Moneron, Gael; Bretschneider, Stefan; Eggeling, Christian; Jakobs, Stefan; Hell, Stefan W

    2010-04-19

    New photostable rhodamine dyes represented by the compounds 1 a-r and 3-5 are proposed as efficient fluorescent markers with unique combination of structural features. Unlike rhodamines with monoalkylated nitrogen atoms, N',N-bis(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) derivatives 1 e, 1 i, 1 j, 3-H and 5 were found to undergo sulfonation of the xanthene fragment at the positions 4' and 5'. Two fluorine atoms were introduced into the positions 2' and 7' of the 3',6'-diaminoxanthene fragment in compounds 1 a-d, 1 i-l and 1 m-r. The new rhodamine dyes may be excited with λ=488 or 514 nm light; most of them emit light at λ=512-554 nm (compounds 1 q and 1r at λ=576 and 589 nm in methanol, respectively) and have high fluorescence quantum yields in solution (up to 98 %), relatively long excited-state lifetimes (>3 ns) and are resistant against photobleaching, especially at high laser intensities, as is usually applied in confocal microscopy. Sulfonation of the xanthene fragment with 30 % SO3 in H2SO4 is compatible with the secondary amide bond (rhodamine-CON(Me)CH2CH2COOH) formed with MeNHCH2CH2COOCH3 to providing the sterically unhindered carboxylic group required for further (bio)conjugation reactions. After creating the amino reactive sites, the modified derivatives may be used as fluorescent markers and labels for (bio)molecules in optical microscopy and nanoscopy with very-high light intensities. Further, the new rhodamine dyes are able to pass the plasma membrane of living cells, introducing them as potential labels for recent live-cell-tag approaches. We exemplify the excellent performance of the fluorinated rhodamines in optical microscopy by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and stimulated emission depletion (STED) nanoscopy experiments. Copyright © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.