WorldWideScience

Sample records for fluoride-containing nacl brines

  1. Measurement and modeling of CO2 solubility in NaCl brine and CO2–saturated NaCl brine density

    Yan, Wei; Huang, Shengli; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2011-01-01

    over climate change and energy security. This work is an experimental and modeling study of two fundamental properties in high pressure CO2–NaCl brine equilibrium, i.e., CO2 solubility in NaCl brine and CO2–saturated NaCl brine density. A literature review of the available data was presented first...

  2. Migration rates of brine inclusions in single crystals of NaCl

    Chou, I.M.

    1982-01-01

    Rock-salt deposits have been considered as a possible medium for the permanent storage of high-level radioactive wastes and spent fuel. Brine inclusions present in natural salt can migrate toward the waste if the temperature and the temperature gradients in the vicinity of the radioactive waste are large enough. This migration is due to the dissolution of salt at the hot side of the salt-brine interface, ion diffusion through the brine droplet, and the precipitation of salt at the cold side of the salt brine interface. In order to quantify the problem, the migration rate of these brine inclusions must be estimated under various repository conditions. This paper estimates migration rates for all-liquid brine inclusions in single crystals of NaCl by utilizing recent data for brines and the model of Anthony and Cline [T.R. Anthony and H.E. Cline, J. Appl. Phys., 42, pp. 3380-387 (1971)]. The predictions are compared with experimentally measured migration rates. 4 figures, 6 tables

  3. Effects of NaCl on Fermentative Metabolism of Mature Green Tomatoes cv. Ailsa Craig in Brine

    Sotirios Fragkostefanakis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of osmotic strength on gene expression and activity of the major enzymes of fermentative metabolism of mature green tomato fruit (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Ailsa Craig has been studied by exposing fruit to brine containing 0 (water, 5 and 10 % NaCl. The fruits were surface sterilized prior to treatment to prevent the growth of microbes naturally present on the skin of the fruit. Changes in fruit expression of fermentation genes and the activity of the respective enzymes as well as physicochemical quality characteristics (soluble solid content, titratable acidity, pH and firmness were studied in both fruit and brine for 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 7 and 14 days. Discrepancies in responses that resulted from the different salt concentrations were obtained at molecular and quality levels. The complex kinetics of solutes between the fruit and the surrounding solution due to osmotic potential has led to different responses of the tissue to fermentation. Tomato fruit showed cracking soon after storage in water; water-stored fruit had higher titratable acidity, lower soluble solid content, and higher induction of anaerobic metabolism as indicated by the expression or the activity of the fermentation enzymes compared to fruit stored in brine with 5 or 10 % NaCl. No cracking was observed in fruit stored in 5 (isotonic or 10 % NaCl (hypertonic brine, though in the latter, signs of dehydration were observed. The presence of salt in brine reduced the intensity of fermentative metabolism as indicated by the lower gene expression and enzyme activity. However, fruit stored in brine with 5 % NaCl survived longer than with 0 or 10 % NaCl. The presence of 5 % NaCl in brine caused mild changes of both the fermentative metabolism and the physicochemical characteristics and prevented fruit deterioration during storage.

  4. The Effects of NaCl Concentration and Confining Pressure on Mechanical and Acoustic Behaviors of Brine-Saturated Sandstone

    Yan-Hua Huang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available To better understand the mechanical behavior of rock with brine saturation, conventional triaxial experiments were carried out on sandstone for a range of confining pressures (0–60 MPa and NaCl concentrations (0–30%. As the confining pressure and NaCl concentration increased, the triaxial compressive strength, crack damage threshold, Young’s modulus, cohesion, and internal friction angle all increased. Real-time ultrasonic wave and acoustic emission (AE techniques were used to obtain the relationship between acoustic behavior and stress level during the whole triaxial compression process. During the whole deformation process, the evolution of P-wave velocity and accumulated AE count could be divided into four phases. The microstructural characteristics of brine-saturated sandstone, before and after loading, indicated that the strength enhancement mechanism may be attributed to an increase in inter-particle friction resulting from salt crystallisation around the points of contact. The angle of friction increased by more than 86% at maximum NaCl concentration compared to that for distilled water. The NaCl deposition in the pore space resulted in nonlinear strength increases for the brine-saturated sandstone specimens with increasing salinity. The present study is expected to improve the knowledge of the strength and failure mechanisms of sedimentary rock in deep saline aquifers.

  5. Ion association in concentrated NaCl brines from ambient to supercritical conditions: results from classical molecular dynamics simulations

    Collings Matthew D

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Highly concentrated NaCl brines are important geothermal fluids; chloride complexation of metals in such brines increases the solubility of minerals and plays a fundamental role in the genesis of hydrothermal ore deposits. There is experimental evidence that the molecular nature of the NaCl–water system changes over the pressure–temperature range of the Earth's crust. A transition of concentrated NaCl–H2O brines to a "hydrous molten salt" at high P and T has been argued to stabilize an aqueous fluid phase in the deep crust. In this work, we have done molecular dynamic simulations using classical potentials to determine the nature of concentrated (0.5–16 m NaCl–water mixtures under ambient (25°C, 1 bar, hydrothermal (325°C, 1 kbar and deep crustal (625°C, 15 kbar conditions. We used the well-established SPCE model for water together with the Smith and Dang Lennard-Jones potentials for the ions (J. Chem. Phys., 1994, 100, 3757. With increasing temperature at 1 kbar, the dielectric constant of water decreases to give extensive ion-association and the formation of polyatomic (NanClmn-m clusters in addition to simple NaCl ion pairs. Large polyatomic (NanClmn-m clusters resemble what would be expected in a hydrous NaCl melt in which water and NaCl were completely miscible. Although ion association decreases with pressure, temperatures of 625°C are not enough to overcome pressures of 15 kbar; consequently, there is still enhanced Na–Cl association in brines under deep crustal conditions.

  6. Chemistry of Frozen NaCl and MgSO4 Brines - Implications for Surface Expression of Europa's Ocean Composition

    Johnson, P. V.; Hodyss, R. P.; Choukroun, M.; Vu, T. H.

    2015-12-01

    The composition of Europa's subsurface ocean is a critical determinant of its habitability, but current analysis of the ocean composition is limited to its expression on the Europan surface. While there is observational evidence indicating that ocean materials make their way to the surface, our understanding of the chemical processes that can alter this material under Europan surface conditions is limited. We present experimental data on the chemistry of mixed solutions of NaCl and MgSO4 as they are frozen to 100 K, replicating the conditions that may occur when subsurface ocean fluids are emplaced onto Europa's surface. Confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy is used to study the formation of salts during the freezing process, and the interaction of ions in the frozen brines. Our data indicate that mixed aqueous solutions of NaCl and MgSO4 form Na2SO4 and MgCl2 preferentially when frozen, rather than making NaCl and MgSO4 precipitates. The detection of epsomite (MgSO4Ÿ•7H2O) on Europa's surface may therefore imply an ocean composition relatively low in sodium, unless radiolytic chemistry converts MgCl2 to MgSO4 as suggested by Hand and Brown 2013 (ApJ 145 110). These results have important implications for the interpretation of remote sensing data of Europa's surface.

  7. Simulation of NaCl and KCl mass transfer during salting of Prato cheese in brine with agitation: a numerical solution

    E. Bona

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The association of dietary NaCl with arterial hypertension has led to a reduction in the levels of this salt in cheeses. For salting, KCl has been used as a partial substitute for NaCl, which cannot be completely substituted without affecting product acceptability. In this study a sensorially adequate saline solution (NaCl/KCl was simultaneously diffused during salting of Prato cheese in brine with agitation. The simultaneous multicomponent diffusion during the process was modeled with Fick’s second generalized law. The system of partial differential equations formed was solved by the finite element method (FEM. In the experimental data concentration the deviation for NaCl was of 7.3% and for KCl of 5.4%, both of which were considered acceptable. The simulation of salt diffusion will allow control and modulation of salt content in Prato cheese, permitting the prediction of final content from initial conditions.

  8. Measurement and Modeling of Setschenow Constants for Selected Hydrophilic Compounds in NaCl and CaCl2 Simulated Carbon Storage Brines.

    Burant, Aniela; Lowry, Gregory V; Karamalidis, Athanasios K

    2017-06-20

    Carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS), a climate change mitigation strategy, along with unconventional oil and gas extraction, generates enormous volumes of produced water containing high salt concentrations and a litany of organic compounds. Understanding the aqueous solubility of organic compounds related to these operations is important for water treatment and reuse alternatives, as well as risk assessment purposes. The well-established Setschenow equation can be used to determine the effect of salts on aqueous solubility. However, there is a lack of reported Setschenow constants, especially for polar organic compounds. In this study, the Setschenow constants for selected hydrophilic organic compounds were experimentally determined, and linear free energy models for predicting the Setschenow constant of organic chemicals in concentrated brines were developed. Solid phase microextraction was employed to measure the salting-out behavior of six selected hydrophilic compounds up to 5 M NaCl and 2 M CaCl 2 and in Na-Ca-Cl brines. All compounds, which include phenol, p-cresol, hydroquinone, pyrrole, hexanoic acid, and 9-hydroxyfluorene, exhibited log-linear behavior up to these concentrations, meaning Setschenow constants previously measured at low salt concentrations can be extrapolated up to high salt concentrations for hydrophilic compounds. Setschenow constants measured in NaCl and CaCl 2 brines are additive for the compounds measured here; meaning Setschenow constants measured in single salt solutions can be used in multiple salt solutions. The hydrophilic compounds in this study were selected to elucidate differences in salting-out behavior based on their chemical structure. Using data from this study, as well as literature data, linear free energy relationships (LFERs) for prediction of NaCl, CaCl 2 , LiCl, and NaBr Setschenow constants were developed and validated. Two LFERs were improved. One LFER uses the Abraham solvation parameters, which include

  9. Beyond Chloride Brines: Variable Metabolomic Responses in the Anaerobic Organism Yersinia intermedia MASE-LG-1 to NaCl and MgSO4 at Identical Water Activity

    Schwendner, Petra; Bohmeier, Maria; Rettberg, Petra; Beblo-Vranesevic, Kristina; Gaboyer, Frédéric; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Perras, Alexandra K.; Vannier, Pauline; Marteinsson, Viggó T.; Garcia-Descalzo, Laura; Gómez, Felipe; Malki, Moustafa; Amils, Ricardo; Westall, Frances; Riedo, Andreas; Monaghan, Euan P.; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Cabezas, Patricia; Walter, Nicolas; Cockell, Charles

    2018-01-01

    Growth in sodium chloride (NaCl) is known to induce stress in non-halophilic microorganisms leading to effects on the microbial metabolism and cell structure. Microorganisms have evolved a number of adaptations, both structural and metabolic, to counteract osmotic stress. These strategies are well-understood for organisms in NaCl-rich brines such as the accumulation of certain organic solutes (known as either compatible solutes or osmolytes). Less well studied are responses to ionic environments such as sulfate-rich brines which are prevalent on Earth but can also be found on Mars. In this paper, we investigated the global metabolic response of the anaerobic bacterium Yersinia intermedia MASE-LG-1 to osmotic salt stress induced by either magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) or NaCl at the same water activity (0.975). Using a non-targeted mass spectrometry approach, the intensity of hundreds of metabolites was measured. The compatible solutes L-asparagine and sucrose were found to be increased in both MgSO4 and NaCl compared to the control sample, suggesting a similar osmotic response to different ionic environments. We were able to demonstrate that Yersinia intermedia MASE-LG-1 accumulated a range of other compatible solutes. However, we also found the global metabolic responses, especially with regard to amino acid metabolism and carbohydrate metabolism, to be salt-specific, thus, suggesting ion-specific regulation of specific metabolic pathways. PMID:29535699

  10. Beyond Chloride Brines: Variable Metabolomic Responses in the Anaerobic Organism Yersinia intermedia MASE-LG-1 to NaCl and MgSO4 at Identical Water Activity

    Petra Schwendner

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Growth in sodium chloride (NaCl is known to induce stress in non-halophilic microorganisms leading to effects on the microbial metabolism and cell structure. Microorganisms have evolved a number of adaptations, both structural and metabolic, to counteract osmotic stress. These strategies are well-understood for organisms in NaCl-rich brines such as the accumulation of certain organic solutes (known as either compatible solutes or osmolytes. Less well studied are responses to ionic environments such as sulfate-rich brines which are prevalent on Earth but can also be found on Mars. In this paper, we investigated the global metabolic response of the anaerobic bacterium Yersinia intermedia MASE-LG-1 to osmotic salt stress induced by either magnesium sulfate (MgSO4 or NaCl at the same water activity (0.975. Using a non-targeted mass spectrometry approach, the intensity of hundreds of metabolites was measured. The compatible solutes L-asparagine and sucrose were found to be increased in both MgSO4 and NaCl compared to the control sample, suggesting a similar osmotic response to different ionic environments. We were able to demonstrate that Yersinia intermedia MASE-LG-1 accumulated a range of other compatible solutes. However, we also found the global metabolic responses, especially with regard to amino acid metabolism and carbohydrate metabolism, to be salt-specific, thus, suggesting ion-specific regulation of specific metabolic pathways.

  11. THE USE OF FLUORIDE CONTAINING MINERAL WATER IN WORT PRODUCTION

    Gunka Yonkova

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to study the quality of wort produced using fluoride containing mineral water. The results show that the mineral water has a negative impact on the enzymatic destruction of starch, proteins, color intensity and pH of the wort. The changes of pH during mashing process using tap and mineral water was studied. The lower acidity of wort obtained using mineral water didn’t change during the brewing process. The fluoride content of beer is lower than 5 mg.L-1 when wort is produced using mineral and tap water in 1:1 ratio and citric acid for pH correction. At the same time, the final degree of fermentation, α-amine nitrogen content and the intensity of color of produced wort are close to the control sample. The changes in fluoride ion concentration are monitored using ion-selective potentiometry. The fluoride content is decreased from 5.7 to 4.75 mg.L-1, the most intense change is observed during the mashing process.

  12. Waste glass/metal interactions in brines

    Shade, J.W.; Pederson, L.R.; McVay, G.L.

    1983-05-01

    Leaching studies of MCC 76-68 glass in synthetic brines high in NaCl were performed from 50 to 150 0 C and included interactive testing with ductile iron and titanium. Hydrolysis of the glass matrix was generally slower in saturated brines than in deionized water, due to a lower solubility of silica in the brines. Inclusion of ductile iron in the tests resulted in accelerated leach rates because irion-silica reactions occurred which reduced the silica saturation fraction. At 150 0 C, iron also accelerated the rate of crystalline reaction product formation which were primarily Fe-bearing sepiolite and talc. 16 references

  13. Fluoride release and recharge abilities of contemporary fluoride-containing restorative materials and dental adhesives.

    Dionysopoulos, Dimitrios; Koliniotou-Koumpia, Eugenia; Helvatzoglou-Antoniades, Maria; Kotsanos, Nikolaos

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the fluoride release of five fluoride-releasing restorative materials and three dental adhesives, before and after NaF solution treatment. Five restorative materials (Fuji IX GP, GC Corp.; Ketac N100, 3M ESPE; Dyract Extra, Dentsply; Beautifil II, Shofu Inc.; Wave, SDI) and three dental adhesives (Stae, SDI; Fluorobond II - Shofu Inc.; Prime & Bond NT, Dentsply) were investigated before and after NaF solution treatment. A fluoride ion-selective electrode was to measure fluoride concentrations. During the 86-day period before NaF solution treatment, Fuji IX GP released the highest amount of fluoride among the restorative materials while Prime & Bond NT was the highest among the dental adhesives. After NaF solution treatment, Fuji IX GP again ranked the highest in fluoride release among the restorative materials while Fluorobond II ranked the highest among dental adhesives. It was concluded that the compositions and setting mechanisms of fluoride-containing dental materials influenced their fluoride release and recharge abilities.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of titania nanotubes by anodizing of titanium in fluoride containing electrolytes

    Ahmad, Akhlaq; Haq, Ehsan Ul; Akhtar, Waseem; Arshad, Muhammad; Ahmad, Zubair

    2017-11-01

    Titania nanotubular structure was prepared by anodizing titanium metal in the fluoride containing electrolytes and studied for hydrogen reduction using photo electrochemical cell. Potentiodynamic scan was performed before actual anodizing to optimize the anodizing conditions. The morphology of the TiO2 nanotubes was investigated by SEM and the presence of TiO2 nanotubes was confirmed. Raman spectroscopy was done to confirm the different phases present. Hydrogen generation capability was revealed by electrochemical testing in three-electrode system in dark and in visible light at 200 W power using Gamry Potentiostat. The corrosion potential of TiO2 nanotubes produced was found to be more active side in potassium hydroxide solution under visible light than in the dark condition. Cathodic polarization behavior of specimens in the presence of light showed more activity towards hydrogen generation than in dark condition. In comparison, the hydrogen generation capability of specimen anodized in 2H15 electrolyte was higher than specimens anodized in other electrolytes. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to study the charge transfer resistance of the nanotubes produced. The results showed that TiO2 nanotubular structure is a promising material for photoelectrochemical cell. Low-charge transfer resistance also depicts that it can be efficiently used to harvest solar energy.

  15. Fluorine uptake into human enamel around fluoride-containing dental materials during cariogenic pH cycling

    Komatsu, H.; Yamamoto, H.; Nomachi, M.; Yasuda, K.; Matsuda, Y.; Kinugawa, M.; Kijimura, T.; Sano, H.; Satou, T.; Oikawa, S.; Kamiya, T.

    2009-01-01

    Using PIGE (Proton Induced Gamma Emission) technique at TARRI (Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute), Japan, we measured fluorine (F) uptake into the tooth enamel around two fluoride-containing materials during caries progression using pH cycling. Class V cavities in extracted human teeth were drilled and filled with fluoride-containing materials (i.e. 'Fuji IX' (FN) and 'UniFil flow with MEGA bond' (UF)) and a non-fluoride-containing material (i.e. 'SOLARE with MEGA bond' (SO)). Three 120 μm longitudinal sections including the filling material were obtained from each tooth. In order to simulate daily acid attack occurring in the oral cavity, the pH cycling (pH 6.8-4.5) was carried out for 1, 3 and 5 weeks, separately. After pH cycling, the caries progression in all specimens was observed using transverse microradiography (TMR). The F and calcium distributions of the specimens were evaluated using PIGE and PIXE techniques. The F distribution of the specimens clearly showed the F uptake from FN into enamel adjacent to the filling material, while the F uptakes from UF and SO were not detected. For UF, the MEGA bond (non-fluoride-containing) between the tooth and UniFil flow interfered with the F absorption into the tooth. For FN, the amount of F uptake into the subsurface enamel increased during pH cycling. The amount of F uptake in 5-week pH cycling had significantly higher value compared to those in 1- and 3-week pH cycling. For UF and SO, there were no significant differences between the different durations of pH cycling. Among fluoride-containing materials, there were some differences in the F uptake with increased pH cycling, which could possibly lead to obtaining difference in clinical performance. The data obtained using PIGE and PIXE techniques were useful in understanding the benefit of fluorine by means of fluoride-containing material for preventing caries.

  16. Fluorine uptake into human enamel around fluoride-containing dental materials during cariogenic pH cycling

    Komatsu, H. [Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita-13, Nishi-7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan)], E-mail: kom@den.hokudai.ac.jp; Yamamoto, H. [Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka University, 1-8 Yamada-Oka, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Nomachi, M. [Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka 560-0043 (Japan); Yasuda, K. [The Wakasa wan Energy Research Center, 64-52-1 Hase, Tsuruga 914-0192 (Japan); Matsuda, Y.; Kinugawa, M.; Kijimura, T.; Sano, H. [Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita-13, Nishi-7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Satou, T.; Oikawa, S.; Kamiya, T. [Advanced Radiation Technology, TARRI, JAEA, 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki 370-1292 (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    Using PIGE (Proton Induced Gamma Emission) technique at TARRI (Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute), Japan, we measured fluorine (F) uptake into the tooth enamel around two fluoride-containing materials during caries progression using pH cycling. Class V cavities in extracted human teeth were drilled and filled with fluoride-containing materials (i.e. 'Fuji IX' (FN) and 'UniFil flow with MEGA bond' (UF)) and a non-fluoride-containing material (i.e. 'SOLARE with MEGA bond' (SO)). Three 120 {mu}m longitudinal sections including the filling material were obtained from each tooth. In order to simulate daily acid attack occurring in the oral cavity, the pH cycling (pH 6.8-4.5) was carried out for 1, 3 and 5 weeks, separately. After pH cycling, the caries progression in all specimens was observed using transverse microradiography (TMR). The F and calcium distributions of the specimens were evaluated using PIGE and PIXE techniques. The F distribution of the specimens clearly showed the F uptake from FN into enamel adjacent to the filling material, while the F uptakes from UF and SO were not detected. For UF, the MEGA bond (non-fluoride-containing) between the tooth and UniFil flow interfered with the F absorption into the tooth. For FN, the amount of F uptake into the subsurface enamel increased during pH cycling. The amount of F uptake in 5-week pH cycling had significantly higher value compared to those in 1- and 3-week pH cycling. For UF and SO, there were no significant differences between the different durations of pH cycling. Among fluoride-containing materials, there were some differences in the F uptake with increased pH cycling, which could possibly lead to obtaining difference in clinical performance. The data obtained using PIGE and PIXE techniques were useful in understanding the benefit of fluorine by means of fluoride-containing material for preventing caries.

  17. Corrosion resistance of titanium-containing dental orthodontic wires in fluoride-containing artificial saliva

    Lee, T.-H.; Wang, C.-C.; Huang, T.-K.; Chen, L.-K.; Chou, M.-Y.; Huang, H.-H.

    2009-01-01

    This study was to investigate the corrosion resistance of different Ti-containing dental orthodontic wires (including Ni-Ti, Ni-Ti-Cu, Ti-Mo-Zr-Sn, and Ti-Nb alloys) in acidic fluoride-containing artificial saliva using cyclic potentiodynamic polarization curve measurements. Different NaF concentrations (0%, 0.2%, and 0.5%), simulating the fluoride contents in commercial toothpastes, were added to the artificial saliva. Surface characterization was analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectrometry. Cyclic potentiodynamic polarization curves showed that the presence of fluoride ions, especially 0.5% NaF, was detrimental to the protective ability of the TiO 2 -based film on the Ti-containing wires. This might lead to a decrease in the corrosion resistance of the tested alloys, i.e. an increase in the corrosion rate and anodic current density and a decrease in the passive film breakdown potential. Among the tested Ti-containing wires, the Ni-Ti and Ni-Ti-Cu wires containing mainly TiO 2 on surface film were more susceptible to fluoride-enhanced corrosion, while the Ti-Mo-Zr-Sn and Ti-Nb wires containing MoO 3 /ZrO 2 /SnO and Nb 2 O 5 , respectively, along with TiO 2 on surface film were pitting corrosion resistant and showed a lower susceptibility to fluoride-enhanced corrosion. The difference in corrosion resistance of the tested commercial Ti-containing dental orthodontic wires was significantly dependent on the passive film characteristics on wires' surface.

  18. Corrosion resistance of titanium-containing dental orthodontic wires in fluoride-containing artificial saliva

    Lee, T.-H. [Institute of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Wang, C.-C. [Department of Dental Laboratory Technology, Min-Hwei College of Health Care Management, Tainan County 736, Taiwan (China); Huang, T.-K. [College of Dental Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Chen, L.-K. [Department of Dentistry, Taipei City Hospital, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Chou, M.-Y. [Institute of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Huang, H.-H., E-mail: hhhuang@ym.edu.t [Department of Dentistry, Taipei City Hospital, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Institute of Oral Biology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China)

    2009-11-20

    This study was to investigate the corrosion resistance of different Ti-containing dental orthodontic wires (including Ni-Ti, Ni-Ti-Cu, Ti-Mo-Zr-Sn, and Ti-Nb alloys) in acidic fluoride-containing artificial saliva using cyclic potentiodynamic polarization curve measurements. Different NaF concentrations (0%, 0.2%, and 0.5%), simulating the fluoride contents in commercial toothpastes, were added to the artificial saliva. Surface characterization was analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectrometry. Cyclic potentiodynamic polarization curves showed that the presence of fluoride ions, especially 0.5% NaF, was detrimental to the protective ability of the TiO{sub 2}-based film on the Ti-containing wires. This might lead to a decrease in the corrosion resistance of the tested alloys, i.e. an increase in the corrosion rate and anodic current density and a decrease in the passive film breakdown potential. Among the tested Ti-containing wires, the Ni-Ti and Ni-Ti-Cu wires containing mainly TiO{sub 2} on surface film were more susceptible to fluoride-enhanced corrosion, while the Ti-Mo-Zr-Sn and Ti-Nb wires containing MoO{sub 3}/ZrO{sub 2}/SnO and Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}, respectively, along with TiO{sub 2} on surface film were pitting corrosion resistant and showed a lower susceptibility to fluoride-enhanced corrosion. The difference in corrosion resistance of the tested commercial Ti-containing dental orthodontic wires was significantly dependent on the passive film characteristics on wires' surface.

  19. [The effect of fluoride-containing tooth paste on dental plaque and on fluoride level in the mouth].

    Oomori, H

    1989-01-01

    Various kinds of fluoride have been used for a long time and there are many reports concerning fluorides and their effects. Recently, the caries-inhibiting action of fluoride-containing tooth paste has been given much attention. In this study, I tried to clarify the residual time and amount of fluoride derived from the fluoride-containing tooth paste in the mouth, as well as to assess possible variation in bacterial composition in the dental plaque bacteriologically and biochemically. In the study on the fluoride clearance from the mouth, both 1.0 g and 0.5 g of paste showed the same reduction rates; and about an 80% reduction was recognized between the value at 3 minutes and that at 30 minutes, and about a 40% reduction from the 30-minute to the 60-minute interval. Next, a study on the variation in plaque bacteria was carried out. The total number of the CFU on each plate was not different between samples obtained before and after the use of the tooth paste; moreover, no difference was noted between aerobic and anaerobic culture. However, when plaque before and after brushing with fluoride-containing tooth paste were cultured in 10% sucrose solution, the differences of acid production such as lactic acid, acetic acid, and formic acid were demonstrated. Namely, these acid productions were inhibited after the use of fluoride, especially lactic acid was strongly inhibited. On the other hand, when Str. mutans from the plaque obtained after the use of fluoride-containing tooth paste was cultured in fluoride-free BHI broth, the inhibition of acid from carbohydrates was not shown clearly.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Structure-solubility relationships in fluoride-containing phosphate based bioactive glasses

    Shaharyar, Yaqoot

    The dissolution of fluoride-containing bioactive glasses critically affects their biomedical applications. Most commercial fluoride-releasing bioactive glasses have been designed in the soda-lime-silica system. However, their relatively slow chemical dissolution and the adverse effect of fluoride on their bioactivity are stimulating the study of novel biodegradable materials with higher bioactivity, such as biodegradable phosphate-based bioactive glasses, which can be a viable alternative for applications where a fast release of active ions is sought. In order to design new biomaterials with controlled degradability and high bioactivity, it is essential to understand the connection between chemical composition, molecular structure, and solubility in physiological fluids.Accordingly, in this work we have combined the strengths of various experimental techniques with Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations, to elucidate the impact of fluoride ions on the structure and chemical dissolution of bioactive phosphate glasses in the system: 10Na2O - (45-x) CaO - 45P2O5 - xCaF2, where x varies between 0 -- 10 mol.%. NMR and MD data reveal that the medium-range atomic-scale structure of thse glasses is dominated by Q2 phosphate units followed by Q1 units, and the MD simulations further show that fluoride tends to associate with network modifier cations to form alkali/alkaline-earth rich ionic aggregates. On a macroscopic scale, we find that incorporating fluoride in phosphate glasses does not affect the rate of apatite formation on the glass surface in simulated body fluid (SBF). However, fluoride has a marked favorable impact on the glass dissolution in deionized water. Similarly, fluoride incorporation in the glasses results in significant weight gain due to adsorption of water (in the form of OH ions). These macroscopic trends are discussed on the basis of the F effect on the atomistic structure of the glasses, such as the F-induced phosphate network re-polymerization, in a

  1. Fluorine uptake into the human enamel surface from fluoride-containing sealing materials during cariogenic pH cycling

    Yasuhiro, Matsuda; Katsushi, Okuyama; Hiroko, Yamamoto; Hisanori, Komatsu; Masashi, Koka; Takahiro, Sato; Naoki, Hashimoto; Saiko, Oki; Chiharu, Kawamoto; Hidehiko, Sano

    2015-04-01

    To prevent the formation of caries and reduce dentin hypersensitivity, sealing materials, either with or without fluoride, are generally applied on the tooth in clinical practice. Application of fluoride-free sealing materials results in the formation of an acid-resistant layer on the tooth surface. On the other hand, fluoride-containing sealing materials might not only form an acid-resistant layer but could possibly further provide fluoride to enhance remineralization and reduce demineralization. In this study, the demineralization prevention ability and fluorine uptake rate in human enamel of fluoride-containing sealing materials ["MS coats F" (MSF)] and fluoride-free sealing materials ("hybrid coats 2" [HI]) were evaluated using an automatic pH cycling system. Each material was applied to the original tooth surface, the cut surfaces were covered with sticky wax, and the automatic pH-cycling system simulated daily acid changes (pH 6.8-4.5) occurring in the oral cavity for 4 weeks. Caries progression was analyzed using transverse microradiography (TMR) taken pre and post the 4 weeks of pH cycling. The fluorine and calcium distributions in the carious lesion in each specimen were evaluated using the proton-induced gamma emission (PIGE) and proton-induced X-ray (PIXE) techniques, respectively. TMR analysis showed that both MSF and HI had a caries-preventing effect after 4 weeks of pH cycling. PIGE/PIXE analysis demonstrated that only MSF resulted in fluoride uptake in the enamel surface. Therefore, MSF can help to form an acid-resistant layer and provide fluoride to the enamel surface. The presence of fluoride on the enamel surface suggested that MSF could prevent demineralization, even if the acid-resistant layer was removed, in clinical settings. The data obtained using the PIGE and PIXE techniques are useful for understanding the benefits of the use of a fluoride-containing sealing material for preventing caries.

  2. Origin, distribution, and movement of brine in the Permian Basin (U.S.A.). A model for displacement of connate brine

    Bein, A.; Dutton, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    Na-Cl, halite Ca-Cl, and gypsum Ca-Cl brines with salinities from 45 to >300 g/L are identified and mapped in four hydrostratigraphic units in the Permian Basin area beneath western Texas and Oklahoma and eastern New Mexico, providing spatial and lithologic constraints on the interpretation of the origin and movement of brine. Na-Cl brine is derived from meteoric water as young as 5-10 Ma that dissolved anhydrite and halite, whereas Ca-Cl brine is interpreted to be ancient, modified-connate Permian brine that now is mixing with, and being displaced by, the Na-Cl brine. Displacement fronts appear as broad mixing zones with no significant salinity gradients. Evolution of Ca-Cl brine composition from ideal evaporated sea water is attributed to dolomitization and syndepositional recycling of halite and bittern salts by intermittent influx of fresh water and sea water. Halite Ca-Cl brine in the evaporite section in the northern part of the basin differs from gypsum Ca-Cl brine in the south-central part in salinity and Na/Cl ratio and reflects segregation between halite- and gypsum-precipitating lagoons during the Permian. Ca-Cl brine moved downward through the evaporite section into the underlying Lower Permian and Pennsylvanian marine section that is now the deep-basin brine aquifer, mixing there with pre-existing sea water. Buoyancy-driven convection of brine dominated local flow for most of basin history, with regional advection governed by topographically related forces dominant only for the past 5 to 10 Ma. 71 refs., 11 figs

  3. Fluorine uptake into the human enamel surface from fluoride-containing sealing materials during cariogenic pH cycling

    Yasuhiro, Matsuda, E-mail: matsuda@den.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Restorative Dentistry, Graduate School of Dental Medicine Hokkaido University (Japan); Katsushi, Okuyama [Department of Restorative Dentistry, Graduate School of Dental Medicine Hokkaido University (Japan); Hiroko, Yamamoto [Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka University (Japan); Hisanori, Komatsu [Department of Restorative Dentistry, Graduate School of Dental Medicine Hokkaido University (Japan); Masashi, Koka; Takahiro, Sato [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, JAEA (Japan); Naoki, Hashimoto; Saiko, Oki; Chiharu, Kawamoto; Hidehiko, Sano [Department of Restorative Dentistry, Graduate School of Dental Medicine Hokkaido University (Japan)

    2015-04-01

    To prevent the formation of caries and reduce dentin hypersensitivity, sealing materials, either with or without fluoride, are generally applied on the tooth in clinical practice. Application of fluoride-free sealing materials results in the formation of an acid-resistant layer on the tooth surface. On the other hand, fluoride-containing sealing materials might not only form an acid-resistant layer but could possibly further provide fluoride to enhance remineralization and reduce demineralization. In this study, the demineralization prevention ability and fluorine uptake rate in human enamel of fluoride-containing sealing materials [“MS coats F” (MSF)] and fluoride-free sealing materials (“hybrid coats 2” [HI]) were evaluated using an automatic pH cycling system. Each material was applied to the original tooth surface, the cut surfaces were covered with sticky wax, and the automatic pH-cycling system simulated daily acid changes (pH 6.8–4.5) occurring in the oral cavity for 4 weeks. Caries progression was analyzed using transverse microradiography (TMR) taken pre and post the 4 weeks of pH cycling. The fluorine and calcium distributions in the carious lesion in each specimen were evaluated using the proton-induced gamma emission (PIGE) and proton-induced X-ray (PIXE) techniques, respectively. TMR analysis showed that both MSF and HI had a caries-preventing effect after 4 weeks of pH cycling. PIGE/PIXE analysis demonstrated that only MSF resulted in fluoride uptake in the enamel surface. Therefore, MSF can help to form an acid-resistant layer and provide fluoride to the enamel surface. The presence of fluoride on the enamel surface suggested that MSF could prevent demineralization, even if the acid-resistant layer was removed, in clinical settings. The data obtained using the PIGE and PIXE techniques are useful for understanding the benefits of the use of a fluoride-containing sealing material for preventing caries.

  4. Fluorine uptake into the human enamel surface from fluoride-containing sealing materials during cariogenic pH cycling

    Yasuhiro, Matsuda; Katsushi, Okuyama; Hiroko, Yamamoto; Hisanori, Komatsu; Masashi, Koka; Takahiro, Sato; Naoki, Hashimoto; Saiko, Oki; Chiharu, Kawamoto; Hidehiko, Sano

    2015-01-01

    To prevent the formation of caries and reduce dentin hypersensitivity, sealing materials, either with or without fluoride, are generally applied on the tooth in clinical practice. Application of fluoride-free sealing materials results in the formation of an acid-resistant layer on the tooth surface. On the other hand, fluoride-containing sealing materials might not only form an acid-resistant layer but could possibly further provide fluoride to enhance remineralization and reduce demineralization. In this study, the demineralization prevention ability and fluorine uptake rate in human enamel of fluoride-containing sealing materials [“MS coats F” (MSF)] and fluoride-free sealing materials (“hybrid coats 2” [HI]) were evaluated using an automatic pH cycling system. Each material was applied to the original tooth surface, the cut surfaces were covered with sticky wax, and the automatic pH-cycling system simulated daily acid changes (pH 6.8–4.5) occurring in the oral cavity for 4 weeks. Caries progression was analyzed using transverse microradiography (TMR) taken pre and post the 4 weeks of pH cycling. The fluorine and calcium distributions in the carious lesion in each specimen were evaluated using the proton-induced gamma emission (PIGE) and proton-induced X-ray (PIXE) techniques, respectively. TMR analysis showed that both MSF and HI had a caries-preventing effect after 4 weeks of pH cycling. PIGE/PIXE analysis demonstrated that only MSF resulted in fluoride uptake in the enamel surface. Therefore, MSF can help to form an acid-resistant layer and provide fluoride to the enamel surface. The presence of fluoride on the enamel surface suggested that MSF could prevent demineralization, even if the acid-resistant layer was removed, in clinical settings. The data obtained using the PIGE and PIXE techniques are useful for understanding the benefits of the use of a fluoride-containing sealing material for preventing caries

  5. Forward Osmosis Brine Drying

    Flynn, Michael; Shaw, Hali; Hyde, Deirdre; Beeler, David; Parodi, Jurek

    2015-01-01

    The Forward Osmosis Brine Drying (FOBD) system is based on a technique called forward osmosis (FO). FO is a membrane-based process where the osmotic potential between brine and a salt solution is equalized by the movement of water from the brine to the salt solution. The FOBD system is composed of two main elements, the FO bag and the salt regeneration system. This paper discusses the results of testing of the FO bag to determine the maximum water recovery ratio that can be attained using this technology. Testing demonstrated that the FO bag is capable of achieving a maximum brine water recovery ratio of the brine of 95%. The equivalent system mass was calculated to be 95 kg for a feed similar to the concentrated brine generated on the International Space Station and 86 kg for an Exploration brine. The results have indicated that the FOBD can process all the brine for a one year mission for between 11% to 10% mass required to bring the water needed to make up for water lost in the brine if not recycled. The FOBD saves 685 kg and when treating the International Space Station brine and it saves 829 kg when treating the Exploration brine. It was also demonstrated that saturated salt solutions achieve a higher water recovery ratios than solids salts do and that lithium chloride achieved a higher water recovery ratio than sodium chloride.

  6. Fermentation cover brine reformulation for cucumber processing with low salt to reduce bloater defect

    Reformulation of calcium chloride cover brine for cucumber fermentation was explored as a mean to minimize the incidence of bloater defect. This study particularly focused on cover brine supplementation with calcium hydroxide, sodium chloride (NaCl), and acids to enhance buffer capacity, inhibit the...

  7. Fluorine uptake into human enamel around a fluoride-containing dental material during cariogenic pH cycling

    Komatsu, H.; Yamamoto, H.; Nomachi, M.; Yasuda, K.; Matsuda, Y.; Murata, Y.; Kijimura, T.; Sano, H.; Sakai, T.; Kamiya, T.

    2007-01-01

    Using PIGE (TIARA, JAPAN) technique, we measured fluorine (F) uptake into the tooth enamel around a fluoride-containing material during caries progression using pH cycling. Class I cavities in the buccal surfaces of 6 extracted human teeth were drilled and filled with fluoride-containing material; a glass ionomer cement (Fuji IX(GC)). Three 300 μm sections through the material were obtained from each tooth. Two of these specimens were utilized to measure the F distribution in enamel adjacent to the material. A 1.7 MeV proton beam accelerated by the TIARA single-ended accelerator was delivered to a micro-beam apparatus. The beam spot size was about 1 μm with a beam current of about 100 pA. A nuclear reaction, 19 F(p, αγ) 16 0, was used to measure the F concentration and the gamma-rays from this reaction were detected with a 4' NaI detector. X-rays induced by proton were detected with a Si(Li) detector to measure calcium concentration and the beam intensity was monitored with the X-ray yield from a copper foil for quantitative analysis. After measurement of F uptake, all specimens were polished to a thickness of 120 μm. In order to simulate daily acid challenges occurring in the oral cavity, the pH cycling (pH6.8-pH4.5) was carried out for 1, 3 and 5 weeks, separately. The duration that the solution remained below pH 5.5 was 37 min per cycle. The cycles were repeated 6 times per day with 2 h interval between cycles, and the specimens were kept in remineralizing solution for the rest of pH cycle. After pH cycling, F and calcium distribution of each specimen was evaluated using PIGE technique. The F distribution of the specimens before pH cycling clearly showed the F uptake from fluoride-containing material into enamel adjacent to the material. After pH cycling, the caries progression in all specimens was observed by the image of transverse microradiography (TMR). The depth of caries and mineral loss progressed with increasing the duration of pH cycling, although

  8. Fluorine uptake into human enamel around a fluoride-containing dental material during cariogenic pH cycling

    Komatsu, H. [Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita-13, Nishi-7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan)]. E-mail: kom@den.hokudai.ac.jp; Yamamoto, H. [Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka University, 1-8 Yamada-Oka, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Nomachi, M. [Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka 560-0043 (Japan); Yasuda, K. [Wakasa wan Energy Research Center, 64-52-1 Hase, Tsuruga 914-0192 (Japan); Matsuda, Y. [Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita-13, Nishi-7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Murata, Y. [Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita-13, Nishi-7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Kijimura, T. [Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita-13, Nishi-7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Sano, H. [Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita-13, Nishi-7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Sakai, T. [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, JAEA, 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki 370-1292 (Japan); Kamiya, T. [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, JAEA, 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki 370-1292 (Japan)

    2007-07-15

    Using PIGE (TIARA, JAPAN) technique, we measured fluorine (F) uptake into the tooth enamel around a fluoride-containing material during caries progression using pH cycling. Class I cavities in the buccal surfaces of 6 extracted human teeth were drilled and filled with fluoride-containing material; a glass ionomer cement (Fuji IX(GC)). Three 300 {mu}m sections through the material were obtained from each tooth. Two of these specimens were utilized to measure the F distribution in enamel adjacent to the material. A 1.7 MeV proton beam accelerated by the TIARA single-ended accelerator was delivered to a micro-beam apparatus. The beam spot size was about 1 {mu}m with a beam current of about 100 pA. A nuclear reaction, {sup 19}F(p, {alpha}{gamma}){sup 16}0, was used to measure the F concentration and the gamma-rays from this reaction were detected with a 4' NaI detector. X-rays induced by proton were detected with a Si(Li) detector to measure calcium concentration and the beam intensity was monitored with the X-ray yield from a copper foil for quantitative analysis. After measurement of F uptake, all specimens were polished to a thickness of 120 {mu}m. In order to simulate daily acid challenges occurring in the oral cavity, the pH cycling (pH6.8-pH4.5) was carried out for 1, 3 and 5 weeks, separately. The duration that the solution remained below pH 5.5 was 37 min per cycle. The cycles were repeated 6 times per day with 2 h interval between cycles, and the specimens were kept in remineralizing solution for the rest of pH cycle. After pH cycling, F and calcium distribution of each specimen was evaluated using PIGE technique. The F distribution of the specimens before pH cycling clearly showed the F uptake from fluoride-containing material into enamel adjacent to the material. After pH cycling, the caries progression in all specimens was observed by the image of transverse microradiography (TMR). The depth of caries and mineral loss progressed with increasing the

  9. Surface properties of anatase TiO2 nanowire films grown from a fluoride-containing solution.

    Berger, Thomas; Anta, Juan A; Morales-Flórez, Víctor

    2013-06-03

    Controlling the surface chemistry of nucleating seeds during wet-chemical synthesis allows for the preparation of morphologically well-defined nanostructures. Synthesis conditions play a key role in the surface properties, which directly affect the functional properties of the material. Therefore, it is important to establish post-synthesis treatments to facilitate the optimization of surface properties with respect to a specific application, without losing the morphological peculiarity of the nanostructure. We studied the surface properties of highly crystalline and porous anatase TiO2 nanowire (NW) electrodes, grown by chemical-bath deposition in fluoride-containing solutions, using a combined electrochemical and spectroscopic approach. As-deposited films showed low capacity for catechol adsorption and a poor photoelectrocatalytic activity for water oxidation. Mild thermal annealing at 200 °C resulted in a significant improvement of the electrode photoelectrocatalytic activity, whereas the bulk properties of the NWs (crystal structure, band-gap energy) remained unchanged. Enhancement of the functional properties of the material is discussed on the basis of adsorption capacity and electronic properties. The temperature-induced decrease of recombination centers, along with the concomitant increase of adsorption and reaction sites upon thermal annealing are called to be responsible for such improved performance. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Influence of cell culture medium composition on in vitro dissolution behavior of a fluoride-containing bioactive glass.

    Shah, Furqan A; Brauer, Delia S; Wilson, Rory M; Hill, Robert G; Hing, Karin A

    2014-03-01

    Bioactive glasses are used clinically for bone regeneration, and their bioactivity and cell compatibility are often characterized in vitro, using physiologically relevant test solutions. The aim of this study was to show the influence of varying medium characteristics (pH, composition, presence of proteins) on glass dissolution and apatite formation. The dissolution behavior of a fluoride-containing bioactive glass (BG) was investigated over a period of one week in Eagle's Minimal Essential Medium with Earle's Salts (MEM), supplemented with either, (a) acetate buffer, (b) 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid (HEPES) buffer, (c) HEPES + carbonate, or (d) HEPES + carbonate + fetal bovine serum. Results show pronounced differences in pH, ion release, and apatite formation over 1 week: Despite its acidic pH (pH 5.8 after BG immersion, as compared to pH 7.4-8.3 for HEPES-containing media), apatite formation was fastest in acetate buffered (HEPES-free) MEM. Presence of carbonate resulted in formation of calcite (calcium carbonate). Presence of serum proteins, on the other hand, delayed apatite formation significantly. These results confirm that the composition and properties of a tissue culture medium are important factors during in vitro experiments and need to be taken into consideration when interpreting results from dissolution or cell culture studies. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Results for the Brine Evaporation Bag (BEB) Brine Processing Test

    Delzeit, Lance; Flynn, Michael; Fisher, John; Shaw, Hali; Kawashima, Brian; Beeler, David; Howard, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The recent Brine Processing Test compared the NASA Forward Osmosis Brine Dewatering (FOBD), Paragon Ionomer Water Processor (IWP), UMPQUA Ultrasonic Brine Dewatering System (UBDS), and the NASA Brine Evaporation Bag (BEB). This paper reports the results of the BEB. The BEB was operated at 70 deg C and a base pressure of 12 torr. The BEB was operated in a batch mode, and processed 0.4L of brine per batch. Two different brine feeds were tested, a chromic acid-urine brine and a chromic acid-urine-hygiene mix brine. The chromic acid-urine brine, known as the ISS Alternate Pretreatment Brine, had an average processing rate of 95 mL/hr with a specific power of 5kWhr/L. The complete results of these tests will be reported within this paper.

  12. Effects of brine migration on waste storage systems. Final report

    Gaffney, E.S.; Nickell, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    Processes which can lead to mobilization of brine adjacent to spent fuel or nuclear waste canisters and some of the thermomechanical consequences have been investigated. Velocities as high as 4 x 10 -7 m s -1 (13 m y -1 ) are calculated at the salt/canister boundary. As much as 40 liters of pure NaCl brine could accumulate around each canister during a 10-year storage period. Accumulations of bittern brines would probably be less, in the range of 2 to 5 liters. With 0.5% water, NaCl brine accumulation over a 10-year storage cycle around a spent fuel canister producing 0.6 kW of heat is expected to be less than 1 liter for centimeter-size inclusions and less than 0.5 liter for millimeter-size inclusions. For bittern brines, about 25 years would be required to accumulate 0.4 liter. The most serious mechanical consequence of brine migration would be the increased mobility of the waste canister due to pressure solution. In pressure solution enhanced deformation, the existence of a thin film of fluid either between grains or between media (such as between a canister and the salt) provides a pathway by which the salt can be redistributed leading to a marked increase in strain rates in wet rock relative to dry rock. In salt, intergranular water will probably form discontinuous layers rather than films so that they would dominate pressure solution. A mathematical model of pressure solution indicates that pressure solution will not lead to appreciable canister motions except possibly in fine grained rocks (less than 10 -4 m). In fine grained salts, details of the contact surface between the canister and the salt bed may lead to large pressure solution motions. A numerical model indicates that heat transfer in the brine layer surrounding a spent fuel canister is not conduction dominated but has a significant convective component

  13. Thermal-gradient migration of brine inclusions in salt

    Yagnik, S.K.

    1982-02-01

    It has been proposed that the high level nuclear waste be buried deep underground in a suitable geologic formation. Natural salt deposits have been under active consideration as one of the geologic formations where a nuclear waste repository may be built in future. The salt deposits, however, are known to contain a small amount (about 0.5 vol.%) of water in the form of brine inclusions which are dispersed throughout the medium. The temperature gradients imposed by the heat generating nuclear waste will mobilize these brine inclusions. It is important to know the rate and the amount of brine accumulating at the waste packages to properly evaluate the performance of a nuclear waste repository. An extensive experimental investigation of the migration velocities of brine inclusions in synthetic single crystals of NaCl and in polycrystalline natural salt crystals has been conducted. The results show that in a salt repository the brine inclusions within a grain would move with the diffusion controlled velocities. The brine reaching a grain boundary may be swept across, if the thermal gradient is high enough. Grain boundaries in polycrystalline rock salt are apparently quite weak and open up due to drilling the hole for a waste canister and to the thermal stresses which accompany the thermal gradient produced by the heat generating waste. The enhanced porosity allows the water reaching the grain boundary to escape by a vapor transport process

  14. Effect of different brine concentrations and ripening period on some ...

    Cheeses made from pasteurized milk (65°C for 30 min) were ripened in 11, 14 and 17 g 100 ml-1 NaCl for 90 days at 7±1°C. Some physicochemical and biochemical analyses were carried out during storage time. The effects of brine concentrations on total solids, protein, ash, salt, pH, and WSN values were found to be ...

  15. Photocatalytic reduction of nitrate using titanium dioxide for regeneration of ion exchange brine.

    Yang, Ting; Doudrick, Kyle; Westerhoff, Paul

    2013-03-01

    Nitrate is often removed from groundwater by ion exchange (IX) before its use as drinking water. Accumulation of nitrate in IX brine reduces the efficiency of IX regeneration and the useful life of the regeneration brine. For the first time, we present a strategy to photocatalytically reduce nitrate in IX brine, thereby extending the use of the brine. Titanium dioxide (Evonik P90), acting as photocatalyst, reduced nitrate effectively in both synthetic brines and sulfate-removed IX brine when formic acid (FA) was used as the hole scavenger (i.e., electron donor) and the initial FA to nitrate molar ratio (IFNR) was 5.6. Increasing the NaCl level in the synthetic brine slowed the nitrate reduction rate without affecting by-product selectivity of ammonium and gaseous N species (e.g., N(2), N(2)O). In a non-modified IX brine, nitrate removal was greatly inhibited owing to the presence of sulfate, which competed with nitrate for active surface sites on P90 and induced aggregation of P90 nanoparticles. After removing sulfate through barium sulfate precipitation, nitrate was effectively reduced; approximately 3.6 × 10(24) photons were required to reduce each mole of nitrate to 83% N Gases and 17% NH(4)(+). To make optimum use of FA and control the residual FA level in treated brine, the IFNR was varied. High IFNRs (e.g., 4, 5.6) were found to be more efficient for nitrate reduction but left higher residual FA in brine. IX column tests were performed to investigate the impact of residual FA for brine reuse. The residual FA in the brine did not significantly affect the nitrate removal capacity of IX resins, and formate contamination of treated water could be eliminated by rinsing with one bed volume of fresh brine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fluorine analysis of human enamel around fluoride-containing materials under different pH-cycling by μ-PIGE/PIXE system

    Komatsu, H.; Yamamoto, H.; Matsuda, Y.; Kijimura, T.; Kinugawa, M.; Okuyama, K.; Nomachi, M.; Yasuda, K.; Satoh, T.; Oikawa, S.

    2011-01-01

    The caries preventive effect of fluoride-containing materials (FCMs) might depend on the caries risk of the individuals. Two pairs of demineralizing and remineralizing solutions of pH-cycling were prepared for simulating low and high caries risk. The purpose of this study was to determine fluorine (F) uptake into human enamel around FCMs under different pH-cycling using the in-air μ-PIGE/PIXE system. Fluoride-containing glass ionomer cement (Fuji IX GP FAST CAPSULE (FN)), and composite resin (BEAUTIFIL II with FLUORO BOND SHAKE ONE (BS)) were used in this study. The pH-cycling (pH 6.8-4.5) was carried out for 5 weeks. After pH-cycling, the caries progression was analyzed using transverse micro-radiography (TMR). The fluorine and calcium distributions in the carious lesion in each specimen were evaluated using the PIGE/PIXE system. From TMR analysis, there was a difference in caries risk between the two kinds of pH-cycling. Although the caries preventive effect of BS and FN was confirmed at low risk, the effect at high risk was confirmed for FN only. From the analysis of the fluorine uptake in the outer 200 μm of the lesion we concluded that there was no significant difference between the pH-cycling solutions. However, we found different fluorine concentrations in the enamel for the two FCMs. The decreased caries progression under high risk for FN indicated that an adequate amount of fluorine supplied from the material is required at higher caries risk. It was confirmed that the caries preventive effect of FCM depends on the caries risk. The fluorine analysis of teeth under various pH-cycling conditions gives information to evaluate the caries preventive effect of fluoride-containing materials according to the caries risk.

  17. Fluorine analysis of human enamel around fluoride-containing materials under different pH-cycling by {mu}-PIGE/PIXE system

    Komatsu, H., E-mail: kom@den.hokudai.ac.jp [Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita-13, Nishi-7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Yamamoto, H. [Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka University, 1-8 Yamada-Oka, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Matsuda, Y.; Kijimura, T.; Kinugawa, M.; Okuyama, K. [Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita-13, Nishi-7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Nomachi, M. [Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka 560-0043 (Japan); Yasuda, K. [Wakasa Wan Energy Research Center, 64-52-1 Hase, Tsuruga 914-0192 (Japan); Satoh, T. [Advanced Radiation Technology, TARRI, JAEA, 1233 Watanuki-Machi, Takasaki 370-1292 (Japan); Oikawa, S. [National Institute of Radiological Science, 4-9-1, Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2011-10-15

    The caries preventive effect of fluoride-containing materials (FCMs) might depend on the caries risk of the individuals. Two pairs of demineralizing and remineralizing solutions of pH-cycling were prepared for simulating low and high caries risk. The purpose of this study was to determine fluorine (F) uptake into human enamel around FCMs under different pH-cycling using the in-air {mu}-PIGE/PIXE system. Fluoride-containing glass ionomer cement (Fuji IX{sub GP} FAST CAPSULE (FN)), and composite resin (BEAUTIFIL II with FLUORO BOND SHAKE ONE (BS)) were used in this study. The pH-cycling (pH 6.8-4.5) was carried out for 5 weeks. After pH-cycling, the caries progression was analyzed using transverse micro-radiography (TMR). The fluorine and calcium distributions in the carious lesion in each specimen were evaluated using the PIGE/PIXE system. From TMR analysis, there was a difference in caries risk between the two kinds of pH-cycling. Although the caries preventive effect of BS and FN was confirmed at low risk, the effect at high risk was confirmed for FN only. From the analysis of the fluorine uptake in the outer 200 {mu}m of the lesion we concluded that there was no significant difference between the pH-cycling solutions. However, we found different fluorine concentrations in the enamel for the two FCMs. The decreased caries progression under high risk for FN indicated that an adequate amount of fluorine supplied from the material is required at higher caries risk. It was confirmed that the caries preventive effect of FCM depends on the caries risk. The fluorine analysis of teeth under various pH-cycling conditions gives information to evaluate the caries preventive effect of fluoride-containing materials according to the caries risk.

  18. Métodos instrumentales para la determinación de NaCl en las salmueras de aceitunas

    García García, P.; Brenes Balbuena, M.; Garrido Fernández, A.

    1991-01-01

    Aplicability of flame photometric and ion selective (sodium or chloride) methods to determinate NaCI concentration in olive brines in comparison with the official one (Volhard), which uses AgNO3, is studied. According to the results using standard solutions or fermentative olive brines without previous lye treatment, no proportional systematic or constant systematic errors are detected and the percentaje of NaCl is evaluated by them with the same accuracy as by the...

  19. Soil washing for brine removal

    Ayyachamy, J.S.; Atalay, A.; Zaman, M.

    1992-01-01

    During the exploration for oil and thereafter, brine transfer lines get ruptured releasing the brine which contaminates the surrounding soil. The salinity level in brine is very high, sometimes approaching or exceeding that of sea water. Soils contaminated with brine are unproductive and unsuitable for plant growth. Several investigators have documented the pollution of surface water and groundwater due to brine disposal from oil and needed to clean up such sites. The objective of this study is to develop a soil washing technique that can be used to remove brine sites were collected and used in the study. This paper reports on results which indicate that soil washing using various surface active agents is effective in removing the brine

  20. Chemistry of glass corrosion in high saline brines

    Grambow, B.; Mueller, R.

    1990-01-01

    Corrosion data obtained in laboratory tests can be used for the performance assessment of nuclear waste glasses in a repository if the data are quantitatively described in the frame of a geochemical model. Experimental data were obtained for conventional pH values corrected for liquid junction, amorphous silica solubility and glass corrosion in concentrated salt brines. The data were interpreted with a geochemical model. The brine chemistry was described with the Pitzer formalism using a data base which allows calculation of brine compositions in equilibrium with salt minerals at temperatures up to 200C. In MgCl 2 dominated brines Mg silicates form and due to the consumption of Mg the pH decreases with proceeding reaction. A constant pH (about 4) and composition of alteration products is achieved, when the alkali release from the glass balances the Mg consumption. The low pH results in high release of rare earth elements REE (rare earth elements) and U from the glass. In the NaCl dominated brine MgCl 2 becomes exhausted by Mg silicate formation. As long as there is still Mg left in solution the pH decreases. After exhaustion of Mg the pH rises with the alkali release from the glass and analcime is formed

  1. Thermal-gradient migration of brine inclusions in salt crystals

    Yagnik, S.K.

    1982-09-01

    It has been proposed that high-level nuclear waste be disposed in a geologic repository. Natural-salt deposits, which are being considered for this purpose, contain a small volume fraction of water in the form of brine inclusions distributed throughout the salt. Radioactive-decay heating of the nuclear wastes will impose a temperature gradient on the surrounding salt which mobilizes the brine inclusions. Inclusions filled completely with brine migrate up the temperature gradient and eventually accumulate brine near the buried waste forms. The brine may slowly corrode or degrade the waste forms which is undesirable. In this work, thermal gradient migration of both all-liquid and gas-liquid inclusions was experimentally studied in synthetic single crystals of NaCl and KCl using a hot-stage attachment to an optical microscope which was capable of imposing temperature gradients and axial compressive loads on the crystals. The migration velocities of the inclusions were found to be dependent on temperature, temperature gradient, and inclusion shape and size. The velocities were also dictated by the interfacial mass transfer resistance at brine/solid interface. This interfacial resistance depends on the dislocation density in the crystal, which in turn, depends on the axial compressive loading of the crystal. At low axial loads, the dependence between the velocity and temperature gradient is non-linear.At high axial loads, however, the interfacial resistance is reduced and the migration velocity depends linearly on the temperature gradient. All-liquid inclusions filled with mixed brines were also studied. For gas-liquid inclusions, three different gas phases (helium, air and argon) were compared. Migration studies were also conducted on single crystallites of natural salt as well as in polycrystalline natural salt samples. The behavior of the inclusions at large angle grain boundaries was observed. 35 figures, 3 tables

  2. Thermal gradient migration of brine inclusions in salt crystals

    Yagnik, S.K.

    1982-01-01

    Natural salt deposits, which are being considered for high-level nuclear wastes repositories, contain a small volume fraction of water in the form of brine inclusions distributed throughout the salt. Radioactive decay heating of the nuclear wastes will impose a temperature gradient on the surrounding salt which mobilizes the brine inclusions. Inclusions filled completely with brine (the all-liquid inclusions) migrate up the temperature gradient and eventually accumulate brine near the buried waste forms. The brine may slowly corrode or degrade the waste forms which is undesirable. In the present work, thermal gradient migration of both all-liquid and gas-liquid inclusions was experimentally studied in synthetic single crystals of NaCl and KCl using a hot-stage attachment to an optical microscope which was capable of imposing temperature gradients and axial compressive loads on the crystals. The migration velocities of the inclusions were found to be dependent on temperature, temperature gradient, and inclusion shape and size. The velocities were also dictated by the interfacial mass transfer resistance at brine/solid interface. This interfacial resistance depends on the dislocation density in the crystal, which in turn, depends on the axial compressive loading of the crystal. At low axial loads, the dependence between the velocity and temperature gradient is nonlinear. At high axial loads, however, the interfacial resistance is reduced and the migration velocity depends linearly on the temperature gradient. All-liquid inclusions filled with mixed brines were also studied. For gas-liquid inclusions, three different gas phases (helium, air and argon) were compared. Migration studies were also conducted on single crystallites of natural salt as well as in polycrystalline natural salt samples. The behavior of the inclusions at large angle grain boudaries was observed

  3. Evaporation Rates of Brine on Mars

    Sears, D. W. G.; Chittenden, J.; Moore, S. R.; Meier, A.; Kareev, M.; Farmer, C. B.

    2004-01-01

    While Mars is now largely a dry and barren place, recent data have indicated that water has flowed at specific locations within the last approx. 10(exp 6) y. This had led to a resurgence of interest in theoretical and experimental work aimed at understanding the behavior of water on Mars. There are several means whereby the stability of liquid water on Mars could be increased, one being the presence solutes that would depress the freezing point. Salt water on Earth is about 0.5M NaCl, but laboratory experiments suggest that martian salt water is quite different. We recently began a program of laboratory measurements of the stability of liquid water, ice and ice-dust mixtures under martian conditions and here report measurements of the evaporation rate of 0.25M brine.

  4. Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program

    Deal, D.E.; Case, J.B.; Deshler, R.M.; Drez, P.E.; Myers, J.; Tyburski, J.R.

    1987-12-01

    The Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) Phase II Report is an interim report which updates the data released in the BSEP Phase I Report. Direct measurements and observations of the brine that seeps into the WIPP repository excavations were continued through the period between August 1986 and July 1987. That data is included in Appendix A, which extends the observation period for some locations to approximately 900 days. Brine observations at 87 locations are presented in this report. Although WIPP underground workings are considered ''dry,'' small amounts of brine are present. Part of that brine migrates into the repository in response to pressure gradients at essentially isothermal conditions. The data presented in this report is a continuation of moisture content studies of the WIPP facility horizon that were initiated in 1982, as soon as underground drifts began to be excavated. Brine seepages are manifested by salt efflorescences, moist areas, and fluid accumulations in drillholes. 35 refs., 6 figs., 11 tabs

  5. Consolidation and permeability of salt in brine

    Shor, A.J.; Baes, C.F. Jr.; Canonico, C.M.

    1981-07-01

    The consolidation and loss of permeability of salt crystal aggregates, important in assessing the effects of water in salt repositories, has been studied as a function of several variables. The kinetic behavior was similar to that often observed in sintering and suggested the following expression for the time dependence of the void fraction: phi(t) = phi(0) - (A/B)ln(1 + Bt/z(0) 3 ), where A and B are rate constants and z(0) is initial average particle size. With brine present, A and phi(0) varied linearly with stress. The initial void fraction was also dependent to some extent on the particle size distribution. The rate of consolidation was most rapid in brine and least rapid in the presence of only air as the fluid. A brine containing 5 m MgCl 2 showed an intermediate rate, presumably because of the greatly reduced solubility of NaCl. A substantial wall effect was indicated by an observed increase in the void fraction of consolidated columns with distance from the top where the stress was applied and by a dependence of consolidation rate on the column height and radius. The distance through which the stress fell by a factor of phi was estimated to change inversely as the fourth power of the column diameter. With increasing temperature (to 85 0 C), consolidation proceeded somewhat more rapidly and the wall effect was reduced. The permeability of the columns dropped rapidly with consolidation, decreasing with about the sixth power of the void fraction. In general, extrapolation of the results to repository conditions confirms the self-sealing properties of bedded salt as a storage medium for radioactive waste

  6. Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study of Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Their Mixture in the Presence of Brine

    Yang, Yafan; Nair, Arun Kumar Narayanan; Sun, Shuyu

    2017-01-01

    We perform molecular dynamics simulation study of CO2, methane, and their mixture in the presence of brine over a broad range of temperature (311–473 K), pressure (up to about 100 MPa), and NaCl concentration (up to about 14 wt %). The general

  7. Efficacy of chlorine dioxide against Listeria monocytogenes in brine chilling solutions.

    Valderrama, W B; Mills, E W; Cutter, C N

    2009-11-01

    Chilled brine solutions are used by the food industry to rapidly cool ready-to-eat meat products after cooking and before packaging. Chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)) was investigated as an antimicrobial additive to eliminate Listeria monocytogenes. Several experiments were performed using brine solutions made of sodium chloride (NaCl) and calcium chloride (CaCl(2)) inoculated with L. monocytogenes and/or treated with 3 ppm of ClO(2). First, 10 and 20% CaCl(2) and NaCl solutions (pH 7.0) were inoculated with a five-strain cocktail of L. monocytogenes to obtain approximately 7 log CFU/ml and incubated 8 h at 0 degrees C. The results demonstrated that L. monocytogenes survived in 10% CaCl(2), 10 and 20% NaCl, and pure water. L. monocytogenes levels were reduced approximately 1.2 log CFU/ml in 20% CaCl(2). Second, inoculated ( approximately 7 log CFU/ml) brine solutions (10 and 20% NaCl and 10% CaCl(2)) treated with 3 ppm of ClO(2) resulted in a approximately 4-log reduction of the pathogen within 90 s. The same was not observed in a solution of 20% CaCl(2); further investigation demonstrated that high levels of divalent cations interfere with the disinfectant. Spent brine solutions from hot dog and ham chilling were treated with ClO(2) at concentrations of 3 or 30 ppm. At these concentrations, ClO(2) did not reduce L. monocytogenes. Removal of divalent cations and organic material in brine solutions prior to disinfection with ClO(2) should be investigated to improve the efficacy of the compound against L. monocytogenes. The information from this study may be useful to processing establishments and researchers who are investigating antimicrobials in chilling brine solutions.

  8. Uranium mobility in non-oxidizing brines: field and experimental evidence

    Giblin, A.M.; Appleyard, E.C.

    1987-01-01

    The present distribution of U in the Wollaston Sediments in Saskatchewan can be related to the movement of brines as revealed in Na-Ca-Mg-Cl-metasomes. Experiments were conducted at 60 and 200 0 C under stringently non-oxidizing conditions using solvents ranging from distilled water to a Ca-Na-K brine formulated to simulate the major element composition of the Salton Sea geothermal brines. The experiments were conducted on natural pitchblende (UOsub(2.67)) and synthetic uraninite (UOsub(2.01)). Natural pitchblende was more strongly dissolved than the synthetic uraninite, and the synthetic Salton Sea brine was a more potent solvent than distilled water, 1:4 diluted Salton Sea brine, or pure NaCl brine. Within analytical limits of detection the dissolved U is present in the uranous (U 4+ ) state. The evidence demonstrates empirically the mechanism of dissolution of naturally occurring U minerals in reduced brines and describes a geological case where this appears to have happened. (author)

  9. The geochemistry of groundwater resources in the Jordan Valley: The impact of the Rift Valley brines

    Farber, E.; Vengosh, A.; Gavrieli, I.; Marie, Amarisa; Bullen, T.D.; Mayer, B.; Polak, A.; Shavit, U.

    2007-01-01

    The chemical composition of groundwater in the Jordan Valley, along the section between the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea, is investigated in order to evaluate the origin of the groundwater resources and, in particular, to elucidate the role of deep brines on the chemical composition of the regional groundwater resources in the Jordan Valley. Samples were collected from shallow groundwater in research boreholes on two sites in the northern and southern parts of the Jordan Valley, adjacent to the Jordan River. Data is also compiled from previous published studies. Geochemical data (e.g., Br/Cl, Na/Cl and SO4/Cl ratios) and B, O, Sr and S isotopic compositions are used to define groundwater groups, to map their distribution in the Jordan valley, and to evaluate their origin. The combined geochemical tools enabled the delineation of three major sources of solutes that differentially affect the quality of groundwater in the Jordan Valley: (1) flow and mixing with hypersaline brines with high Br/Cl (>2 ?? 10-3) and low Na/Cl (shallow saline groundwaters influenced by brine mixing exhibit a north-south variation in their Br/Cl and Na/Cl ratios. This chemical trend was observed also in hypersaline brines in the Jordan valley, which suggests a local mixing process between the water bodies. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparing the Air Abrasion Cutting Efficacy of Dentine Using a Fluoride-Containing Bioactive Glass versus an Alumina Abrasive: An In Vitro Study

    Melissa H. X. Tan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Air abrasion as a caries removal technique is less aggressive than conventional techniques and is compatible for use with adhesive restorative materials. Alumina, while being currently the most common abrasive used for cutting, has controversial health and safety issues and no remineralisation properties. The alternative, a bioactive glass, 45S5, has the advantage of promoting hard tissue remineralisation. However, 45S5 is slow as a cutting abrasive and lacks fluoride in its formulation. The aim of this study was to compare the cutting efficacy of dentine using a customised fluoride-containing bioactive glass Na0SR (38–80 μm versus the conventional alumina abrasive (29 μm in an air abrasion set-up. Fluoride was incorporated into Na0SR to enhance its remineralisation properties while strontium was included to increase its radiopacity. Powder outflow rate was recorded prior to the cutting tests. Principal air abrasion cutting tests were carried out on pristine ivory dentine. The abrasion depths were quantified and compared using X-ray microtomography. Na0SR was found to create deeper cavities than alumina (p<0.05 despite its lower powder outflow rate and predictably reduced hardness. The sharper edges of the Na0SR glass particles might improve the cutting efficiency. In conclusion, Na0SR was more efficacious than alumina for air abrasion cutting of dentine.

  11. Evaluation of caries progression in dentin treated by fluoride-containing materials using an in-air micro-PIGE and micro-PIXE measurement system

    Yamamoto, H., E-mail: yhiroko@dent.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Restorative Dentistry and Endodontology, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, 1-8 Yamada-Oka, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Iwami, Y.; Yagi, K.; Hayashi, M. [Department of Restorative Dentistry and Endodontology, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, 1-8 Yamada-Oka, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Komatsu, H.; Okuyama, K.; Matsuda, Y. [Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita 13, Nishi 7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Yasuda, K. [The Wakasa Wan Energy Research Center, 64-52-1 Nagatani, Tsuruga 914-0192 (Japan)

    2015-04-01

    It is well-known that fluorine (F) is involved in the progression of caries. The evaluation of caries progression has conventionally been based on the change in mineral content using transverse microradiography (TMR). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the progression of dentinal caries by the change in calcium (Ca) content using Particle-Induced Gamma-ray Emission/Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIGE/PIXE) techniques at the Wakasa Wan Energy Research Center. We also assessed the relationship between caries progression rate and the concentration of F penetration into dentin from dental fluoride-containing materials (FCMs). Dentin sections of six extracted human teeth were prepared to obtain various amounts of F uptake using three types of FCMs. F and Ca distribution of specimens were obtained using PIGE/PIXE techniques. After evaluation, the specimens were immersed in 10 ml of demineralizing solution (pH 4.5) to simulate caries attack. To estimate caries progression rates, the same portions of the specimens were evaluated after caries attack treatment using PIGE/PIXE. A negative correlation between the F uptake in dentin and the rate of caries progression was observed. Therefore, caries progression in dentin was reduced by increasing the amount of F uptake from FCMs. This demonstrates that PIGE/PIXE techniques are valuable for estimating caries progression rates.

  12. Evaluation of caries progression in dentin treated by fluoride-containing materials using an in-air micro-PIGE and micro-PIXE measurement system

    Yamamoto, H.; Iwami, Y.; Yagi, K.; Hayashi, M.; Komatsu, H.; Okuyama, K.; Matsuda, Y.; Yasuda, K.

    2015-01-01

    It is well-known that fluorine (F) is involved in the progression of caries. The evaluation of caries progression has conventionally been based on the change in mineral content using transverse microradiography (TMR). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the progression of dentinal caries by the change in calcium (Ca) content using Particle-Induced Gamma-ray Emission/Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIGE/PIXE) techniques at the Wakasa Wan Energy Research Center. We also assessed the relationship between caries progression rate and the concentration of F penetration into dentin from dental fluoride-containing materials (FCMs). Dentin sections of six extracted human teeth were prepared to obtain various amounts of F uptake using three types of FCMs. F and Ca distribution of specimens were obtained using PIGE/PIXE techniques. After evaluation, the specimens were immersed in 10 ml of demineralizing solution (pH 4.5) to simulate caries attack. To estimate caries progression rates, the same portions of the specimens were evaluated after caries attack treatment using PIGE/PIXE. A negative correlation between the F uptake in dentin and the rate of caries progression was observed. Therefore, caries progression in dentin was reduced by increasing the amount of F uptake from FCMs. This demonstrates that PIGE/PIXE techniques are valuable for estimating caries progression rates

  13. Surface Complexation Modeling of Calcite Zeta Potential Measurement in Mixed Brines for Carbonate Wettability Characterization

    Song, J.; Zeng, Y.; Biswal, S. L.; Hirasaki, G. J.

    2017-12-01

    We presents zeta potential measurements and surface complexation modeling (SCM) of synthetic calcite in various conditions. The systematic zeta potential measurement and the proposed SCM provide insight into the role of four potential determining cations (Mg2+, SO42- , Ca2+ and CO32-) and CO2 partial pressure in calcite surface charge formation and facilitate the revealing of calcite wettability alteration induced by brines with designed ionic composition ("smart water"). Brines with varying potential determining ions (PDI) concentration in two different CO2 partial pressure (PCO2) are investigated in experiments. Then, a double layer SCM is developed to model the zeta potential measurements. Moreover, we propose a definition for contribution of charged surface species and quantitatively analyze the variation of charged species contribution when changing brine composition. After showing our model can accurately predict calcite zeta potential in brines containing mixed PDIs, we apply it to predict zeta potential in ultra-low and pressurized CO2 environments for potential applications in carbonate enhanced oil recovery including miscible CO2 flooding and CO2 sequestration in carbonate reservoirs. Model prediction reveals that pure calcite surface will be positively charged in all investigated brines in pressurized CO2 environment (>1atm). Moreover, the sensitivity of calcite zeta potential to CO2 partial pressure in the various brine is found to be in the sequence of Na2CO3 > Na2SO4 > NaCl > MgCl2 > CaCl2 (Ionic strength=0.1M).

  14. The effects of the combination of chlorhexidine/thymol- and fluoride-containing varnishes on the severity of root caries lesions in frail institutionalised elderly people.

    Brailsford, S R; Fiske, J; Gilbert, S; Clark, D; Beighton, D

    2002-01-01

    To compare the clinical effects of a fluoride-containing varnish (Fluor-Protector) in combination with a chlorhexidine-containing varnish (Cervitec) on existing root caries lesions in a group of frail elderly subjects. A randomised double blind longitudinal study was utilised. Subjects (n = 102) were randomly allocated to a Test or Placebo group. All leathery and soft root caries lesions in all subjects were coated with Fluor-Protector while the lesions in the Test group were also coated with Cervitec and the lesions in the Placebo group were coated with a Placebo varnish. Treatments were repeated five times in a 12-month period. Clinical parameters associated with root caries, measurements of individual lesions and salivary levels of caries associated bacteria were made at intervals. The clinical severity of the lesions in the Test group did not change significantly during the 12-month study period. In the Placebo group the mean lesion width and lesion height and length of exposed root increased significantly and the lesions were significantly closer to the gingival margin. There were no significant changes in the salivary levels of caries-associated microorganisms after 12 months although, in both groups, there was initially a significant reduction in the salivary levels of mutans streptococci. The combination of Fluor-Protector and Cervitec is a useful, simple, quick and non-invasive method for the control and management of existing root caries lesions. The procedure could be performed by a dental hygienist and may be usefully applied in other high-risk groups including persons with Parkinson's disease, debilitating neuromuscular conditions and dry mouth from whatever cause. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  15. Effect of sodium chloride concentration on elemental analysis of brines by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Goueguel, Christian; Singh, Jagdish P; McIntyre, Dustin L; Jain, Jinesh; Karamalidis, Athanasios K

    2014-01-01

    Leakage of injected carbon dioxide (CO2) or resident fluids, such as brine, is a major concern associated with the injection of large volumes of CO2 into deep saline formations. Migration of brine could contaminate drinking water resources by increasing their salinity or endanger vegetation and animal life as well as human health. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration on the detection of calcium and potassium in brine samples using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The ultimate goals were to determine the suitability of the LIBS technique for in situ measurements of metal ion concentrations in NaCl-rich solution and to develop a chemical sensor that can provide the early detection of brine intrusion into formations used for domestic or agricultural water production. Several brine samples of NaCl-CaCl2 and NaCl-KCl were prepared at NaCl concentrations between 0.0 and 3.0 M. The effect of NaCl concentration on the signal-to-background ratio (SBR) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for calcium (422.67 nm) and potassium (769.49 nm) emission lines was evaluated. Results show that, for a delay time of 300 ns and a gate width of 3 μs, the presence of and changes in NaCl concentration significantly affect the SBR and SNR for both emission lines. An increase in NaCl concentration from 0.0 to 3.0 M produced an increase in the SNR, whereas the SBR dropped continuously. The detection limits obtained for both elements were in the milligrams per liter range, suggesting that a NaCl-rich solution does not severely limit the ability of LIBS to detect trace amount of metal ions.

  16. Effect of sodium bicarbonate and varying concentrations of sodium chloride in brine on the liquid retention of fish (Pollachius virens L.) muscle.

    Åsli, Magnus; Ofstad, Ragni; Böcker, Ulrike; Jessen, Flemming; Einen, Olai; Mørkøre, Turid

    2016-03-15

    Negative health effects associated with excessive sodium (Na) intake have increased the demand for tasty low-Na products (<2% NaCl) rather than traditional heavily salted fish products (∼20% NaCl). This study investigates the causes of improved yield and liquid retention of fish muscle brined with a combination of salt (NaCl) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 ). Water characteristics and microstructure of saithe (Pollachius virens L.) muscle brined in solutions of NaCl and NaHCO3 or NaCl alone were compared using low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) T2 relaxometry, microscopy, salt content, liquid retention and colorimetric measurements. Saithe muscle was brined for 92 h in 0, 30, 60, 120 or 240 g kg(-1) NaCl or the respective solutions with added 7.5 g kg(-1) NaHCO3 . NaHCO3 inclusion improved the yield in solutions ranging from 0 to 120 g kg(-1) NaCl, with the most pronounced effect being observed at 30 g kg(-1) NaCl. The changes in yield were reflected in water mobility, with significantly shorter T2 relaxation times in all corresponding brine concentrations. Salt-dependent microstructural changes were revealed by light microscopy, where NaHCO3 supplementation resulted in greater intracellular space at 30 and 60 g kg(-1) NaCl. Sodium bicarbonate addition to low-salt solutions can improve yield and flesh quality of fish muscle owing to altered water mobility and wider space between the muscle cells. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Thermodynamics of high temperature brines

    Pitzer, K.S.; Bradley, D.J.; Rogers, P.S.Z.; Peiper, J.C.

    1979-04-01

    Osmotic and activity coefficient data and enthalpy and heat capacity data for NaCl solutions at saturation pressure of water from 0 to 300{sup 0}C and to saturation composition have been simultaneously fit to a 30 parameter equation. The data are reproduced by the equation, in most cases, to within experimental error. Calculated values of the osmotic coefficient, the activity of water, the activity of NaCl, and the heat capacity, enthalpy and entropy of the solution are given in Tables in 25{sup 0}C intervals from 0 to 300{sup 0}C and concentrations from 0.25 to 25 wt% NaCl.

  18. Gypsum and hydrohalite dynamics in sea ice brines

    Butler, Benjamin M.; Papadimitriou, Stathys; Day, Sarah J.; Kennedy, Hilary

    2017-09-01

    Mineral authigenesis from their dissolved sea salt matrix is an emergent feature of sea ice brines, fuelled by dramatic equilibrium solubility changes in the large sub-zero temperature range of this cryospheric system on the surface of high latitude oceans. The multi-electrolyte composition of seawater results in the potential for several minerals to precipitate in sea ice, each affecting the in-situ geochemical properties of the sea ice brine system, the habitat of sympagic biota. The solubility of two of these minerals, gypsum (CaSO4 ·2H2O) and hydrohalite (NaCl · 2H2O), was investigated in high ionic strength multi-electrolyte solutions at below-zero temperatures to examine their dissolution-precipitation dynamics in the sea ice brine system. The gypsum dynamics in sea ice were found to be highly dependent on the solubilities of mirabilite and hydrohalite between 0.2 and - 25.0 ° C. The hydrohalite solubility between - 14.3 and - 25.0 ° C exhibits a sharp change between undersaturated and supersaturated conditions, and, thus, distinct temperature fields of precipitation and dissolution in sea ice, with saturation occurring at - 22.9 ° C. The sharp changes in hydrohalite solubility at temperatures ⩽-22.9 °C result from the formation of an ice-hydrohalite aggregate, which alters the structural properties of brine inclusions in cold sea ice. Favourable conditions for gypsum precipitation in sea ice were determined to occur in the region of hydrohalite precipitation below - 22.9 ° C and in conditions of metastable mirabilite supersaturation above - 22.9 ° C (investigated at - 7.1 and - 8.2 ° C here) but gypsum is unlikely to persist once mirabilite forms at these warmer (>-22.9 °C) temperatures. The dynamics of hydrohalite in sea ice brines based on its experimental solubility were consistent with that derived from thermodynamic modelling (FREZCHEM code) but the gypsum dynamics derived from the code were inconsistent with that indicated by its

  19. Modelling CO2-Brine Interfacial Tension using Density Gradient Theory

    Ruslan, Mohd Fuad Anwari Che

    2018-03-01

    Knowledge regarding carbon dioxide (CO2)-brine interfacial tension (IFT) is important for petroleum industry and Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) strategies. In petroleum industry, CO2-brine IFT is especially importance for CO2 – based enhanced oil recovery strategy as it affects phase behavior and fluid transport in porous media. CCS which involves storing CO2 in geological storage sites also requires understanding regarding CO2-brine IFT as this parameter affects CO2 quantity that could be securely stored in the storage site. Several methods have been used to compute CO2-brine interfacial tension. One of the methods employed is by using Density Gradient Theory (DGT) approach. In DGT model, IFT is computed based on the component density distribution across the interface. However, current model is only applicable for modelling low to medium ionic strength solution. This limitation is due to the model only considers the increase of IFT due to the changes of bulk phases properties and does not account for ion distribution at interface. In this study, a new modelling strategy to compute CO2-brine IFT based on DGT was proposed. In the proposed model, ion distribution across interface was accounted for by separating the interface to two sections. The saddle point of tangent plane distance where ( ) was defined as the boundary separating the two sections of the interface. Electrolyte is assumed to be present only in the second section which is connected to the bulk liquid phase side. Numerical simulations were performed using the proposed approach for single and mixed salt solutions for three salts (NaCl, KCl, and CaCl2), for temperature (298 K to 443 K), pressure (2 MPa to 70 MPa), and ionic strength (0.085 mol·kg-1 to 15 mol·kg-1). The simulation result shows that the tuned model was able to predict with good accuracy CO2-brine IFT for all studied cases. Comparison with current DGT model showed that the proposed approach yields better match with the experiment data

  20. Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program, 1991 report

    Deal, D.E.; Abitz, R.J.; Myers, J.; Martin, M.L.; Milligan, D.J.; Sobocinski, R.W.; Lipponer, P.P.J. [International Technology Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Belski, D.S. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States). Waste Isolation Div.

    1993-09-01

    The data presented in this report are the result of Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) activities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan (WIPP) during 1991. These BSEP activities document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation and seepage of that brine into the excavations at the WIPP. When excavations began at the WIPP in 1982, small brine seepages (weeps) were observed on the walls. Brine studies began as part of the Site Validation Program and were formalized as a program in its own right in 1985. During nine years of observations (1982--1991), evidence has mounted that the amount of brine seeping into the WIPP excavations is limited, local, and only a small fraction of that required to produce hydrogen gas by corroding the metal in the waste drums and waste inventory. The data through 1990 is discussed in detail and summarized by Deal and others (1991). The data presented in this report describes progress made during the calendar year 1991 and focuses on four major areas: (1) quantification of the amount of brine seeping across vertical surfaces in the WIPP excavations (brine ``weeps); (2) monitoring of brine inflow, e.g., measuring brines recovered from holes drilled downward from the underground drifts (downholes), upward from the underground drifts (upholes), and from subhorizontal holes; (3) further characterization of brine geochemistry; and (4) preliminary quantification of the amount of brine that might be released by squeezing the underconsolidated clays present in the Salado Formation.

  1. Possible Mars brines - Equilibrium and kinetic considerations

    Zent, A. P.; Fanale, F. P.

    1986-01-01

    To determine the fate of postulated near surface brines on Mars, the rate of H2O mass loss from subsurface brines was calculated as a function of latitude, depth, regolith porosity, eutectic temperature, and pore size. A model for a chemically reasonable brine that could reproduce Martian radar results was developed, and the escape rate of H2O molecules from such a brine was estimated. It is suggested that the presence of a low-permeability duricrust may be required to preserve such a brine for reasonable periods, and to prevent detection of an extensive subsurface system by the Viking MAWD instrument.

  2. Radiation chemistry of salt-mine brines and hydrates

    Jenks, G.H.; Walton, J.R.; Bronstein, H.R.; Baes, C.F. Jr.

    1981-07-01

    Certain aspects of the radiation chemistry of NaCl-saturated MgCl 2 solutions and MgCl 2 hydrates at temperatures in the range of 30 to 180 0 C were investigated through experiments. A principal objective was to establish the values for the yields of H 2 [G(H 2 )] and accompanying oxidants in the gamma-ray radiolysis of concentrated brines that might occur in waste repositories in salt. We concluded that G(H 2 ) from gamma-irradiated brine solution into a simultaneously irradiated, deaerated atmosphere above the solution is between 0.48 and 0.49 over most of the range 30 to 143 0 C. The yield is probably somewhat lower at the lower end of this range, averaging 0.44 at 30 to 45 0 C. Changes in the relative amounts of MgCl 2 and NaCl in the NaCl-saturated solutions have negligible effects on the yield. The yield of O 2 into the same atmosphere averages 0.13, independent of the temperature and brine composition, showing that only about 50% of the radiolytic oxidant that was formed along with the H 2 was present as O 2 . We did not identify the species that compose the remainder of the oxidant. We concluded that the yield of H 2 from a gamma-irradiated brine solution into a simultaneously irradiated atmosphere containing 5 to 8% air in He may be greater than the yield in deaerated systems by amounts ranging from 0% for temperatures of 73 to 85 0 C, to about 30 and 40% for temperatures in the ranges 100 to 143 0 C and 30 to 45 0 C, respectively. We did not establish the mechanism whereby the air affected the yields of H 2 and O 2 . The values found in this work for G(H 2 ) in deaerated systems are in approximate agreement with the value of 0.44 for the gamma-irradiation yield of H 2 in pure H 2 O at room temperature. They are also in agreement with the values predicted by extrapolation from the findings of previous researchers for the value for G(H 2 ) in 2 M NaCl solutions at room temperature

  3. Molecular dynamics study of interfacial confinement effects of aqueous NaCl brines in nanoporous carbon

    Wander, M. C. F.; Shuford, K. L.

    2010-12-09

    In this paper, studies of aqueous electrolyte solutions in contact with a family of porous carbon geometries using classical molecular dynamics simulations are presented. These simulations provide an atomic scale depiction of ion transport dynamics in different environments to elucidate power of aqueous electrolyte supercapacitors. The electrolyte contains alkali metal and halide ions, which allow for the examination of size trends within specific geometries as well as trends in concentration. The electrode pores are modeled as planar graphite sheets and carbon nanotubes with interstices ranging from one to four nanometers. Ordered layers form parallel to the carbon surface, which facilitates focused ion motion under slightly confining conditions. As a result, the ion’s diffusivities are enhanced in the direction of the slit or pore. Further confining the system leads to decreased ion diffusivities. The ions are fully hydrated in all but the smallest slits and pores with those sizes showing increased ion pairing. There is strong evidence of charge separation perpendicular to the surface at all size scales, concentrations, and ion types, providing a useful baseline for examining differential capacitance behavior and future studies on energy storage. These systems show promise as high-power electrical energy storage devices.

  4. Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program, 1990 report

    Deal, D.E.; Abitz, R.J.; Myers, J.; Case, J.B.; Martin, M.L.; Roggenthen, W.M.; Belski, D.S.

    1991-08-01

    The data presented in this report are the result of Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) activities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) during 1990. When excavations began in 1982, small brine seepages (weeps) were observed on the walls. These brine occurrences were initially described as part of the Site Validation Program. Brine studies were formalized in 1985. The BSEP activities document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation and seepage of that brine into the excavations at the WIPP. The brine chemistry is important because it assists in understanding the origin of the brine and because it may affect possible chemical reactions in the buried waste after sealing the repository. The volume of brine and the hydrologic system that drives the brine seepage also need to be understood to assess the long-term performance of the repository. After more than eight years of observations (1982--1990), no credible evidence exists to indicate that enough naturally occurring brine will seep into the WIPP excavations to be of practical concern. The detailed observations and analyses summarized herein and in previous BSEP reports confirm the evidence apparent during casual visits to the underground workings -- that the excavations are remarkably dry

  5. Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program, 1990 report

    Deal, D.E.; Abitz, R.J.; Myers, J.; Case, J.B.; Martin, M.L.; Roggenthen, W.M. [International Technology Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Belski, D.S. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States). Waste Isolation Div.

    1991-08-01

    The data presented in this report are the result of Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) activities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) during 1990. When excavations began in 1982, small brine seepages (weeps) were observed on the walls. These brine occurrences were initially described as part of the Site Validation Program. Brine studies were formalized in 1985. The BSEP activities document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation and seepage of that brine into the excavations at the WIPP. The brine chemistry is important because it assists in understanding the origin of the brine and because it may affect possible chemical reactions in the buried waste after sealing the repository. The volume of brine and the hydrologic system that drives the brine seepage also need to be understood to assess the long-term performance of the repository. After more than eight years of observations (1982--1990), no credible evidence exists to indicate that enough naturally occurring brine will seep into the WIPP excavations to be of practical concern. The detailed observations and analyses summarized herein and in previous BSEP reports confirm the evidence apparent during casual visits to the underground workings -- that the excavations are remarkably dry.

  6. Interaction between sodium chloride and texture in semi-hard Danish cheese as affected by brining time, DL-starter culture, chymosin type and cheese ripening

    Akkerman, Marije; Søndergaard Kristensen, Lise; Jespersen, Lene

    2017-01-01

    Reduced NaCl in semi-hard cheeses greatly affects textural and sensory properties. The interaction between cheese NaCl concentration and texture was affected by brining time (0-28 h), . dl-starter cultures (C1, C2, and C3), chymosin type (bovine or camel), and ripening time (1-12 weeks). Cheese Na...... is reducible without significant textural impact using well-defined starter cultures and camel chymosin....

  7. Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program: 1988 report

    Deal, D.E.; Abitz, R.J.; Case, J.B.; Crawley, M.E.; Deshler, R.M.; Drez, P.E.; Givens, C.A.; King, R.B.; Myers, J.; Pietz, J.M.; Roggenthen, W.M.; Tyburski, J.R.; Belski, D.S.; Niou, S.; Wallace, M.G.

    1989-12-01

    The data presented in this report are the result of Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) activities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) during 1988. These activities, which are a continuation and update of studies that began in 1982 as part of the Site Validation Program, were formalized as the BSEP in 1985 to document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation, and seepage of that brine into the excavations at the WIPP. Previous BSEP reports (Deal and Case, 1987; Deal and others, 1987) described the results of ongoing activities that monitor brine inflow into boreholes in the facility, moisture content of the Salado Formation, brine geochemistry, and brine weeps and crusts. The information provided in this report updates past work and describes progress made during the calendar year 1988. During 1988, BSEP activities focused on four major areas to describe and quantify brine activity: (1) monitoring of brine inflow parameters, e.g., measuring brines recovered from holes drilled upward from the underground drifts (upholes), downward from the underground drifts (downholes), and near-horizontal holes; (2) characterizing the brine, e.g., the geochemistry of the brine and the presence of bacteria and their possible interactions with experiments and operations; (3) characterizing formation properties associated with the occurrence of brine; e.g., determining the water content of various geologic units, examining these units in boreholes using a video camera system, and measuring their resistivity (conductivity); and (4) modeling to examine the interaction of salt deformation near the workings and brine seepage through the deforming salt. 77 refs., 48 figs., 32 tabs

  8. Kinetin Reversal of NaCl Effects

    Katz, Adriana; Dehan, Klara; Itai, Chanan

    1978-01-01

    Leaf discs of Nicotiana rustica L. were floated on NaCl in the presence of kinetin or abscisic acid. On the 5th day 14CO2 fixation, [3H]leucine incorporation, stomatal conductance, and chlorophyll content were determined. Kinetin either partially or completely reversed the inhibitory effects of NaCl while ABA had no effect. PMID:16660618

  9. Origin and Evolution of Li-rich Brines at Clayton Valley, Nevada, USA

    Munk, L. A.; Bradley, D. C.; Hynek, S. A.; Chamberlain, C. P.

    2011-12-01

    Lithium is the key component in Li-ion batteries which are the primary energy storage for electric/hybrid cars and most electronics. Lithium is also an element of major importance on a global scale because of interest in increasing reliance on alternative energy sources. Lithium brines and pegmatites are the primary and secondary sources, respectively of all produced Li. The only Li-brine in the USA that is currently in production exists in Clayton Valley, NV. The groundwater brines at Clayton Valley are located in a closed basin with an average evaporation rate of 142 cm/yr. The brines are pumped from six aquifer units that are composed of varying amounts of volcanic ash, gravel, salt, tufa, and fine-grained sediments. Samples collected include spring water, fresh groundwater, groundwater brine, and meteoric water (snow). The brines are classified as Na-Cl waters and the springs and fresh groundwater have a mixed composition and are more dilute than the brines. The Li content of the waters in Clayton Valley ranges from less than 1 μg/L (snow) up to 406.9 mg/L in the lower ash aquifer system (one of six aquifers in the basin). The cold springs surrounding Clayton Valley have Li concentrations of about 1 mg/L. A hot spring located just east of Clayton Valley contains 1.6 mg/L Li. The Li concentration of the fresh groundwater is less than 1 mg/L. Hot groundwater collected in the basin contain 30-40 mg/L Li. Water collected from a geothermal drilling north of Silver Peak, NV, had water with 4.9 mg/L Li at a depth of >1000m. The δD and δ18O isotopic signatures of fresh groundwater and brine form an evaporation path that extends from the global meteoric water line toward the brine from the salt aquifer system (the most isotopically enriched brine with ave. δD = -3.5, ave. δ18O = -67.0). This suggests that mixing of inflow water with the salt aquifer brine could have played an important role in the evolution of the brines. Along with mixing, evaporation appears to

  10. Thermodynamic model for the phase equilibria of gases and brines. Example in the H{sub 2}S-H{sub 2}O-NaCl system

    Martinez Reyes, Jose; Gonzalez Partida, Eduardo; Tinoco-Michel, Jorge A [Centro de Geociencias, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico Campo de Juriquilla, Qro., Mexico, apartado postal 76230 (Mexico); Perez, Renee J; Heidemann, Robert A [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive, Calgary Alberta, T2N 1N4 (Canada)

    2008-10-01

    We present a thermodynamic model for the phase equilibria of gases and brines, which couples Henry's Law with the Soave-Redlich-Kwong equation of state to reproduce experimental data. In this communication we focus on the H{sub 2}S H{sub 2}O NaCl system.

  11. Origin of the yellow brine and the black brine in Sichuan Basin

    Wang Dongsheng

    1988-01-01

    The spring water, geothermal water and Cretaceous brine in the outer zone of the Sichuan Basin has the Craig relationship, and they are cycling waters. The brine in the inner zone is mainly metasedimentary water. A basic feature of them is poor in 2 H, but rich in 18 O. The δD-values of the yellow brine in Jurassic and Upper Triassic aquifer of continental facies varies from -62.25 to -22.4, and the δ 18 O-values are -6.72 - +6.02. The δD-values of the black brine in marine aquifer (T 2 ,T 1 ,P,C,O and so on) varies from -49 to -25.1, and the 18 O values are +3.89 - +6.14. The δD of yellow brine is similar to that of meteoric water, and the δD of the black brine is around that of crystallization water expelled from gypsum by anhydritization. Increases of salinity in Jurassic yellow brine result primarily from the evapotranspiration process. The salinity in Upper Triassic yellow brine in Aa sub-area originated from underlying rock salt which was leached by paleometeoric water. Triassic black brine derived from the mixing of the crystallization water leached from rock salt with the residual sea water after salt crystallization. In Zhigong, the composition of yellow brine has mainly been changed by the mixing of the yellow brine with the black brine. (author). 2 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  12. Carbonate dissolution rates in high salinity brines: Implications for post-Noachian chemical weathering on Mars

    Phillips-Lander, Charity M.; Parnell, S. R.; McGraw, L. E.; Elwood Madden, M. E.

    2018-06-01

    A diverse suite of carbonate minerals including calcite (CaCO3) and magnesite (MgCO3) have been observed on the martian surface and in meteorites. Terrestrial carbonates usually form via aqueous processes and often record information about the environment in which they formed, including chemical and textural biosignatures. In addition, terrestrial carbonates are often found in association with evaporite deposits on Earth. Similar high salinity environments and processes were likely active on Mars and some areas may contain active high salinity brines today. In this study, we directly compare calcite and magnesite dissolution in ultrapure water, dilute sulfate and chloride solutions, as well as near-saturated sulfate and chloride brines with known activity of water (aH2O) to determine how dissolution rates vary with mineralogy and aH2O, as well as aqueous cation and anion chemistry to better understand how high salinity fluids may have altered carbonate deposits on Mars. We measured both calcite and magnesite initial dissolution rates at 298 K and near neutral pH (6-8) in unbuffered solutions containing ultrapure water (18 MΩ cm-1 UPW; aH2O = 1), dilute (0.1 mol kg-1; aH2O = 1) and near-saturated Na2SO4 (2.5 mol kg-1, aH2O = 0.92), dilute (0.1 mol kg-1, aH2O = 1) and near-saturated NaCl (5.7 mol kg-1, aH2O = 0.75). Calcite dissolution rates were also measured in dilute and near-saturated MgSO4 (0.1 mol kg-1, aH2O = 1 and 2.7 mol kg-1, aH2O = 0.92, respectively) and MgCl2 (0.1 mol kg-1, aH2O = 1 and 3 mol kg-1, aH2O = 0.73, respectively), while magnesite dissolution rates were measured in dilute and near-saturated CaCl2 (0.1 mol kg-1, aH2O = 1 and 9 mol kg-1, aH2O = 0.35). Initial calcite dissolution rates were fastest in near-saturated MgCl2 brine, while magnesite dissolution rates were fastest in dilute (0.1 mol kg-1) NaCl and CaCl2 solutions. Calcite dissolution rates in near-saturated Na2SO4 were similar to those observed in the dilute solutions (-8.00 ± 0

  13. The effect of NaCl substitution by KCl on telemea cheese properties

    Mihai ANGHELOIU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of partial or total substitution of sodium chloride by potassium chloride on the chemical composition, texture profile and sensory properties of Telemea cheese during 28 days of ripening at 4°C was evaluated in the current study. Telemea cheese was ripened in 4 different brine solutions (20%, wt/wt made from different NaCl:KCl ratios as follows: (NaCl (A, KCl (B, 1NaCl:1KCl (C and 1NaCl:2KCl (D. The physicochemical properties of Telemea cheese (dry matter, fat, protein, ash, pH, total nitrogen (TN, water soluble nitrogen (WSN and ripening degree values were determined after 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of ripening. Dry matter, pH and ripening degree values were significantly (p < 0.05 affected during ripening. The results of this study indicated that replacing 66% NaCl with KCl influenced the texture profile and sensorial characteristics of Telemea cheese.

  14. REFUSE OF FERMENTATION BRINES IN THE CUCUMBER PICKLING INDUSTRY

    The project evaluated on a commercial scale the technological and economic feasibility of recycling spent cucumber fermentation brine. Two brine treatment procedures, heat treatment and chemical treatment, were used. The results showed that brine recycling was practical on a comm...

  15. On the physico-chemical characteristics of brines

    Shirodkar, P.V.; Rao, P.V.S.S.D.P.; Singbal, S.Y.S.

    Analyses of the natural brines form the salt lakes, salt pans and the artificial brines obtained after the solar desalination of seawater respectively, showed wide differences in their physico-chemical characteristics. The natural brines are markEd...

  16. Chemistry of brines in salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), southeastern New Mexico: a preliminary investigation

    Stein, C.L.; Krumhansl, J.L.

    1986-03-01

    We present here analyses of macro- and microscopic (intracrystalline) brines observed within the WIPP facility and in the surrounding halite, with interpretations regarding the origin and history of these fluids and their potential effect(s) on long-term waste storage. During excavation, several large fluid inclusions were recovered from an area of highly recrystallized halite in a thick salt bed at the repository horizon (2150 ft below ground level). In addition, 52 samples of brine ''weeps'' were collected from walls of recently excavated drifts at the same stratigraphic horizon from which the fluid inclusion samples are assumed to have been taken. Analyses of these fluids show that they differ substantially in composition from the inclusion fluids and cannot be explained by mixing of the fluid inclusion populations. Finally, holes in the facility floor that filled with brine were sampled but with no stratographic control; therefore it is not possible to interpret the compositions of these brines with any accuracy, except insofar as they resemble the weep compositions but with greater variation in both K/Mg and Na/Cl ratios. However, the Ca and SO 4 values for the floor holes are relatively close to the gypsum saturation curve, suggesting that brines filling floor holes have been modified by the presence of gypsum or anhydrite, possibly even originating in one or more of the laterally continuous anhydrite units referred to in the WIPP literature as marker beds. In conclusion, the wide compositional variety of fluids found in the WIPP workings suggest that (1) an interconnected hydrologic system which could effectively transport radonuclides away from the repository does not exist; (2) brine migration studies and experiments must consider the mobility of intergranular fluids as well as those in inclusions; and (3) near- and far-field radionuclide migration testing programs need to consider a wide range of brine compositions rather than a few reference brines

  17. Solubility of Nd in brine

    Khalili, F.I.; Symeopoulos, V.; Chen, J.F.; Choppin, G.R.

    1994-01-01

    The solubility of Nd(III) has been measured at 23±3 C in a synthetic brine at pcH 6.4, 8.4, 10.4 and 12.4. The brine consisted predominantly of (Na+K)Cl and MgCl 2 with an ionic strength of 7.8 M (9.4 m) a solid compound of Nd(III) at each pcH was assigned from X-ray diffraction patterns. The log values of the experimental solubilities decrease fomr -3 at pcH 6.4 to -5.8 at pcH 8.4; at pcH 10.4 and 12.4 the solubility was below the detection limit of -7.5. The experimental solubility does not follow closely the variation with pcH estimated from modeling of the species in solution in equilibrium with the Nd solid using S.I.T. (orig.)

  18. Impact of colloid formation on safety assessment of waste disposal in brine

    Nagasaki, S.

    2014-01-01

    The transport model, which had been developed at low ionic strength in an ion - colloid - solid ternary system, was applied to the transport of Np(V) (NpO 2 + ) and humic acid through a quartz-packed column at 2 M NaCl. It was found that the model was useful to simulate the transport behaviors of Np(V) and humic acid by the modification of filtration coefficient which depends on the colloid size. Using this model, the impact of colloids on the transport of actinides was evaluated. It was found that the influence of the colloids in brine is limited or negligible. (author)

  19. Impact of colloid formation on safety assessment of waste disposal in brine

    Nagasaki, S. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    The transport model, which had been developed at low ionic strength in an ion - colloid - solid ternary system, was applied to the transport of Np(V) (NpO{sub 2}{sup +} ) and humic acid through a quartz-packed column at 2 M NaCl. It was found that the model was useful to simulate the transport behaviors of Np(V) and humic acid by the modification of filtration coefficient which depends on the colloid size. Using this model, the impact of colloids on the transport of actinides was evaluated. It was found that the influence of the colloids in brine is limited or negligible. (author)

  20. Migration of brine inclusions in salt

    Pigford, T.H.

    1982-01-01

    Theories of the migration of brine inclusions in salt are interpreted as simple physical processes, and theories by Russian and U.S. workers are shown to yield the same results. The migration theory is used to predict threshold temperature gradients below which migration of brine inclusions should not occur. The predicted threshold gradients are compared with the temperature gradients expected at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. The theory of a threshold gradient helps explain the existence of brine inclusions in natural salt deposits

  1. Zooplankton at deep Red Sea brine pools

    Kaartvedt, Stein

    2016-03-02

    The deep-sea anoxic brines of the Red Sea comprise unique, complex and extreme habitats. These environments are too harsh for metazoans, while the brine–seawater interface harbors dense microbial populations. We investigated the adjacent pelagic fauna at two brine pools using net tows, video records from a remotely operated vehicle and submerged echosounders. Waters just above the brine pool of Atlantis II Deep (2000 m depth) appeared depleted of macrofauna. In contrast, the fauna appeared to be enriched at the Kebrit Deep brine–seawater interface (1466 m).

  2. Development of a Rapid, Nondestructive Method to Measure Aqueous Carbonate in High Salinity Brines Using Raman Spectroscopy

    McGraw, L.; Phillips-Lander, C. M.; Elwood Madden, A. S.; Parnell, S.; Elwood Madden, M.

    2015-12-01

    Traditional methods of quantitative analysis are often ill-suited to determining the bulk chemistry of high salinity brines due to their corrosive and clogging properties. Such methods are also often difficult to apply remotely in planetary environments. However, Raman spectroscopy can be used remotely without physical contact with the fluid and is not affected by many ionic brines. Developing methods to study aqueous carbonates is vital to future study of brines on Mars and other planetary bodies, as they can reveal important information about modern and ancient near-surface aqueous processes. Both sodium carbonate standards and unknown samples from carbonate mineral dissolution experiments in high salinity brines were analyzed using a 532 nm laser coupled to an inVia Renishaw spectrometer to collect carbonate spectra from near-saturated sodium chloride and sodium sulfate brines. A calibration curve was determined by collecting spectra from solutions of known carbonate concentrations mixed with a pH 13 buffer and a near-saturated NaCl or Na2SO4 brine matrix. The spectra were processed and curve fitted to determine the height ratio of the carbonate peak at 1066 cm-1 to the 1640 cm-1 water peak. The calibration curve determined using the standards was then applied to the experimental data after accounting for dilutions. Concentrations determined based on Raman spectra were compared against traditional acid titration measurements. We found that the two techniques vary by less than one order of magnitude. Further work is ongoing to verify the method and apply similar techniques to measure aqueous carbonate concentrations in other high salinity brines.Traditional methods of quantitative analysis are often ill-suited to determining the bulk chemistry of high salinity brines due to their corrosive and clogging properties. Such methods are also often difficult to apply remotely in planetary environments. However, Raman spectroscopy can be used remotely without physical

  3. Corrosion resistance of stainless steel, nickel-titanium, titanium molybdenum alloy, and ion-implanted titanium molybdenum alloy archwires in acidic fluoride-containing artificial saliva: An in vitro study

    Venith Jojee Pulikkottil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: (1 To evaluate the corrosion resistance of four different orthodontic archwires and to determine the effect of 0.5% NaF (simulating high fluoride-containing toothpaste of about 2250 ppm on corrosion resistance of these archwires. (2 To assess whether surface roughness (Ra is the primary factor influencing the corrosion resistance of these archwires. Materials and Methods: Four different archwires (stainless steel [SS], nickel-titanium [NiTi], titanium molybdenum alloy [TMA], and ion-implanted TMA were considered for this study. Surface characteristics were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Linear polarization test, a fast electrochemical technique, was used to evaluate the corrosion resistance, in terms of polarization resistance of four different archwires in artificial saliva with NaF concentrations of 0% and 0.5%. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way analysis of variance. Results: The potentiostatic study reveals that the corrosion resistance of low-friction TMA (L-TMA > TMA > NiTi > SS. AFM analysis showed the surface Ra of TMA > NiTi > L-TMA > SS. This indicates that the chemical composition of the wire is the primary influential factor to have high corrosion resistance and surface Ra is only secondary. The corrosion resistance of all wires had reduced significantly in 0.5% acidic fluoride-containing artificial saliva due to formation of fluoride complex compound. Conclusion: The presence of 0.5% NaF in artificial saliva was detrimental to the corrosion resistance of the orthodontic archwires. Therefore, complete removal of residual high-fluorinated toothpastes from the crevice between archwire and bracket during tooth brushing is mandatory.

  4. Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study of Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Their Mixture in the Presence of Brine

    Yang, Yafan

    2017-10-03

    We perform molecular dynamics simulation study of CO2, methane, and their mixture in the presence of brine over a broad range of temperature (311–473 K), pressure (up to about 100 MPa), and NaCl concentration (up to about 14 wt %). The general decrease in the interfacial tension (IFT) values of the CH4–brine system with pressure and temperature is similar to that obtained for the corresponding CH4–water system. The IFT of methane and brine is a linearly increasing function of salt concentration, and the resulting slopes are dependent on the pressure. A similar behavior as methane is observed for such systems containing CO2 and CO2–CH4 mixture. The IFT of CO2 and brine increases linearly with increasing salt content; however, the resulting slopes are independent of pressure. The simulations show that the presence of CO2 decreases the IFT values of the CH4–water and CH4–brine systems, but the degree of reduction depends on the amount of CO2 in each sample, which is consistent with experimental evidence. These IFT values show a linear correlation with the amount of CO2, and the resulting slopes are dependent on the temperature and pressure. Furthermore, our results for the mole fractions of the different species in the CO2–CH4–water system at 323 K and 9 MPa are in agreement with those of experiments. The mole fractions of methane and CO2 in the water-rich phase decrease with increasing salt concentration, whereas that of H2O in the methane- or CO2-rich phases remains almost unaffected in all of the studied cases. Our results could be useful because of the importance of carbon dioxide sequestration and shale gas production.

  5. Enhanced Brine Dewatering System, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of the Enhanced Brine Dewatering System (EBDS) is to provide an easily scalable means of completely recovering usable water from byproducts created by...

  6. Brine Dewatering Using Ultrasonic Nebulization, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Recovery of water from brine is critically important for manned space exploration. Resupply of water is prohibitively costly for extended missions. It is anticipated...

  7. Ice Control with Brine on Highways

    Bolet, Lars

    traffic flow the spread rate of pure sodium chloride (and thus the environmental impact) in the pre-salting operations was cut back by more than one third. Compared to neighbouring counties the use of salt is less than fifty percent per square meter. In addition, supply of brine from two mixer...... of interpreting this information. The improvements gained by the county of Funen were mainly due to the use of technologies (brine spreading with nozzles) giving a more precise spread pattern than the traditional gritting of pre-wetted salt. Major challenges in the process have been to verify the higher quality...... of the nozzles spread pattern, to ensure maximum utilization of volume of brine carried by the spreading vehicles and to control the mixing of brine without getting stratification in the mixture. Moreover, of course, to ensure political approval of abandoning a well-served technology and to organize...

  8. Brine Dewatering Using Ultrasonic Nebulization, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Recovery of water from brine is critically important for future manned space exploration. Resupply of water is prohibitively costly for such extended missions. Water...

  9. Distillation Brine Purification for Resource Recovery Applications

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Wastewater processing systems for space generate residual brine that contains water and salts that could be recovered to reduce life support consumables. The project...

  10. Enhanced Brine Dewatering System, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of the Enhanced Brine Dewatering System (EBDS) is to provide a scalable means of completely recovering usable water from byproducts created by reverse...

  11. Jarosite dissolution rates in perchlorate brine

    Legett, Carey; Pritchett, Brittany N.; Elwood Madden, Andrew S.; Phillips-Lander, Charity M.; Elwood Madden, Megan E.

    2018-02-01

    Perchlorate salts and the ferric sulfate mineral jarosite have been detected at multiple locations on Mars by both landed instruments and orbiting spectrometers. Many perchlorate brines have eutectic temperatures bearing rocks and sediments may have been altered by perchlorate brines. Here we measured jarosite dissolution rates in 2 M sodium perchlorate brine as well as dilute water at 298 K to determine the effects of perchlorate anions on jarosite dissolution rates and potential reaction products. We developed a simple method for determining aqueous iron concentrations in high salinity perchlorate solutions using ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry that eliminates the risk of rapid oxidation reactions during analyses. Jarosite dissolution rates in 2 M perchlorate brine determined by iron release rate (2.87 × 10-12 ±0.85 × 10-12 mol m-2 s-1) were slightly slower than the jarosite dissolution rate measured in ultrapure (18.2 MΩ cm-1) water (5.06 × 10-12 mol m-2 s-1) using identical methods. No additional secondary phases were observed in XRD analyses of the reaction products. The observed decrease in dissolution rate may be due to lower activity of water (ɑH2O = 0.9) in the 2 M NaClO4 brine compared with ultrapure water (ɑH2O = 1). This suggests that the perchlorate anion does not facilitate iron release, unlike chloride anions which accelerated Fe release rates in previously reported jarosite and hematite dissolution experiments. Since dissolution rates are slower in perchlorate-rich solutions, jarosite is expected to persist longer in perchlorate brines than in dilute waters or chloride-rich brines. Therefore, if perchlorate brines dominate aqueous fluids on the surface of Mars, jarosite may remain preserved over extended periods of time, despite active aqueous processes.

  12. Space and Industrial Brine Drying Technologies

    Jones, Harry W.; Wisniewski, Richard S.; Flynn, Michael; Shaw, Hali

    2014-01-01

    This survey describes brine drying technologies that have been developed for use in space and industry. NASA has long considered developing a brine drying system for the International Space Station (ISS). Possible processes include conduction drying in many forms, spray drying, distillation, freezing and freeze drying, membrane filtration, and electrical processes. Commercial processes use similar technologies. Some proposed space systems combine several approaches. The current most promising candidates for use on the ISS use either conduction drying with membrane filtration or spray drying.

  13. Evaporative crystallization of salts from Electrodialysis concentrated brine at atmospheric and subatmospheric pressures

    Wang, Dong; Du, Wei; Cheng, Penggao; Tang, Na; Wang, Xuekui

    2018-02-01

    A large amount of concentrated brine was produced as by-product during the process of the electrodialysis seawater desalination. In this study, the crystallization sequences of different salts from the brine through evaporative crystallization at both atmospheric and subatmospheric pressures were investigated in detail. The profile of the boiling temperature with density and the relationship between the boiling temperature and the pressure were recorded. The combination of Powder X-Ray Diffraction and the polarizing microscope was employed to identify the salts in the solid form. It can be inferred that NaCl crystallized out firstly and then MgSO4·6H2O and CaSO4 precipitate in order at both atmospheric and subatmospheric pressures, and it should be noticed that CaSO4 crystallized as anhydrate at 70°C and 90°C while as dihydrate at 50°C. At the end of all the experiments the precipitation rates of CaSO4 and NaCl have reached to more than 95% while MgSO4 only reached to about 60%.

  14. Kinetics of carbonate mineral dissolution in CO2-acidified brines at storage reservoir conditions.

    Peng, Cheng; Anabaraonye, Benaiah U; Crawshaw, John P; Maitland, Geoffrey C; Trusler, J P Martin

    2016-10-20

    We report experimental measurements of the dissolution rate of several carbonate minerals in CO 2 -saturated water or brine at temperatures between 323 K and 373 K and at pressures up to 15 MPa. The dissolution kinetics of pure calcite were studied in CO 2 -saturated NaCl brines with molalities of up to 5 mol kg -1 . The results of these experiments were found to depend only weakly on the brine molality and to conform reasonably well with a kinetic model involving two parallel first-order reactions: one involving reactions with protons and the other involving reaction with carbonic acid. The dissolution rates of dolomite and magnesite were studied in both aqueous HCl solution and in CO 2 -saturated water. For these minerals, the dissolution rates could be explained by a simpler kinetic model involving only direct reaction between protons and the mineral surface. Finally, the rates of dissolution of two carbonate-reservoir analogue minerals (Ketton limestone and North-Sea chalk) in CO 2 -saturated water were found to follow the same kinetics as found for pure calcite. Vertical scanning interferometry was used to study the surface morphology of unreacted and reacted samples. The results of the present study may find application in reactive-flow simulations of CO 2 -injection into carbonate-mineral saline aquifers.

  15. Interfacial tension measurement between CO2 and brines under high temperature and elevated pressure conditions

    Li, X.; Boek, E. S.; Maitland, G. C.; Trusler, J. P. M.

    2012-04-01

    We have investigated the dependence of interfacial tension of (CO2 + brine) on temperature, pressure and salinity (including both salt type and molality) over the range of conditions applicable to CO2 storage in saline aquifers. The study covered a wide range of measurements of the interfacial tensions between carbon dioxide and (NaCl + KCl)(aq), CaCl2(aq), MgCl2(aq), Na2SO4(aq), KHCO3(aq), NaHCO3(aq) and two laboratory constructed brines with molality ranging from (0.3 to 5.0) mol·kg-1. The measurements were made at temperatures between (298 and 448) K at various pressures up to 50 MPa, using the pendant drop method in a high-pressure view cell filled with water-saturated CO2. The drop to be imaged was created by injecting brine from a high-pressure syringe pump into a capillary sealed through the top of the cell. The expanded uncertainties of the experimental state variables at 95 % confidence are +0.05 K in temperature and +70 kPa in pressure. For the interfacial tension, the overall expanded relative uncertainty at 95 % confidence was +1.6%. The experimental results show that interfacial tension for all the systems increases linearly with molality, indicating that relatively few measurements and simple interpolation procedures are adequate for describing this property accurately over wide ranges of conditions.

  16. Origin of Boron and Brine Evolution in Saline Springs in the Nangqen Basin, Southern Tibetan Plateau

    Ji-long Han

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Nangqen Basin is a typical shearing-extensional basin situated in the hinterland of the Tibetan Plateau. It contains abundant saline spring resources and abnormal trace element enrichments. The hydrochemical molar ratios (Na/Cl, B/Cl, and Br/Cl, H-O isotopes, and B isotopes of the saline spring were systematically measured to describe the evolution of brines and the origin of the boron. The sodium chloride coefficient of the water samples in this area is around 1.0 or slightly greater, which is characteristic of leached brines; the highest B/Cl value is 4.25 (greater than that of seawater. The Na/Cl, B/Cl, and Br/Cl values of the springs are clear indicators of a crustal origin. The δ18O values of the spring waters range from −12.88‰ to −16.05‰, and the δD values range from −100.91‰ to −132.98‰. Meanwhile the B content and B isotopes in the saline springs are in the ranges of 1.00 to 575.56 ppm and +3.55‰ to +29.59‰, respectively. It has been proven that the saline springs in the Nangqen Basin are a type of leached brine, suggesting that the saline springs have a terrestrial origin. The δ11B-B characteristics of the springs are similar to those observed in the Tibetan geothermal area, indicating that these two places have the same B source. Moreover, they have a crustal origin (marine carbonate rocks and volcanic rocks instead of a deep mantle source.

  17. Brine flow in heated geologic salt.

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L.; Malama, Bwalya

    2013-03-01

    This report is a summary of the physical processes, primary governing equations, solution approaches, and historic testing related to brine migration in geologic salt. Although most information presented in this report is not new, we synthesize a large amount of material scattered across dozens of laboratory reports, journal papers, conference proceedings, and textbooks. We present a mathematical description of the governing brine flow mechanisms in geologic salt. We outline the general coupled thermal, multi-phase hydrologic, and mechanical processes. We derive these processes governing equations, which can be used to predict brine flow. These equations are valid under a wide variety of conditions applicable to radioactive waste disposal in rooms and boreholes excavated into geologic salt.

  18. The Synthesis of Calcium Salt from Brine Water by Partial Evaporation and Chemical Precipitation

    Lalasari, L. H.; Widowati, M. K.; Natasha, N. C.; Sulistiyono, E.; Prasetyo, A. B.

    2017-02-01

    In this study would be investigated the effects of partial evaporation and chemical precipitation in the formation of calcium salt from brine water resources. The chemical reagents used in the study was oxalate acid (C2H2O4), ammonium carbonate (NH4)2CO3) and ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) with reagent concentration of 2 N, respectively. The procedure was 10 liters brine water evaporated until 20% volume and continued with filtration process to separate brine water filtrate from residue (salt). Salt resulted from evaporation process was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) techniques. Filtrate then was reacted with C2H2O4, (NH4)2CO3 and NH4OH reagents to get salt products in atmospheric condition and variation ratio volume brine water/chemicals (v/v) [10/1; 10/5; 10/10; 10/20; 10/30; 10:50; 20/1; 20/5; 20/10; 20/20; 20/30; 20:50]. The salt product than were filtered, dried, measured weights and finally characterized by SEM/EDS and XRD techniques. The result of experiment showed the chemical composition of brine water from Tirta Sanita, Bogor was 28.87% Na, 9.17% Mg, 2.94% Ca, 22.33% O, 0.71% Sr, 30.02% Cl, 1.51% Si, 1.23% K, 0.55% S, 1.31% Al. The chemical composition of salt resulted by partial evaporation was 53.02% Ca, 28.93%O, 9.50% Na, 2.10% Mg, 1.53% Sr, 1.20% Cl, 1.10% Si, 0.63% K, 0.40% S, 0.39% Al. The salt resulted by total evaporation was indicated namely as NaCl. Whereas salt resulted by partial evaporation was CaCO3 with a purity of 90 % from High Score Plus analysis. In the experiment by chemical precipitation was reported that the reagents of ammonium carbonate were more reactive for synthesizing calcium salt from brine water compared to reagents of oxalate acid and ammonium hydroxide. The salts precipitated by NH4OH, (NH4)2CO3, and H2C2O4 reagents were indicated as NaCl, CaCO3 and CaC2O4.H2O, respectively. The techniques of partial evaporation until 20% volume sample of brine water and

  19. Consumer Acceptability of Cucumber Pickles Produced by Fermentation in Calcium Chloride Brine for Reduced Environmental Impact.

    Wilson, Emily M; Johanningsmeier, Suzanne D; Osborne, Jason A

    2015-06-01

    Fermentation of cucumbers in calcium chloride (CaCl2 ) brine has been proposed as an alternative process to reduce the environmental impact of traditional, high salt fermentations. The objective of this research was to determine whether consumer acceptability of pickle products would be impacted by fermentation and storage of cucumbers in CaCl2 brine. Cucumbers were fermented and stored with 0.1M CaCl2 or 1M sodium chloride (NaCl) in open-air, 3000 gal tanks at a commercial facility and processed into hamburger dill chips containing 0.38M NaCl. Cucumbers fermented in CaCl2 required additional desalting to reduce CaCl2 concentrations to that of current products. Consumers (n = 101) showed no significant preference for pickles from different fermentation treatments, whether stored for 2 mo (P = 0.75) or 8 mo (P = 0.68) prior to processing. In contrast, NaCl fermented pickles were preferred over CaCl2 fermented pickles stored for 10 mo and desalted only once (P consumer preference, and the 50% detection threshold of CaCl2 in dill pickle chips was found to be 61.8 ± 7.6 mM, indicating that processors could potentially use CaCl2 fermentations with a single desalting step. Consumer liking of flavor (n = 73) was not influenced by fermentation in CaCl2 or by 23 or 35 mM CaCl2 in finished products (P > 0.05), but variability in texture decreased consumer liking (P < 0.05). Although promising, individual fermentation variability and texture quality of CaCl2 fermented products should be further evaluated prior to broad implementation of this process. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program: Phase 1 report

    Deal, D.E.; Case, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    This interim report presents preliminary data obtained in the course of the WIPP Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program. The investigations focus on the brine present in the near-field environment around the WIPP underground workings. Although the WIPP underground workings are considered dry, small amounts of brine are present. This amount of brine is not unexpected in rocks of marine sedimentary origin. Part of that brine can and does migrate into the repository in response to pressure gradients, at essentially isothermal conditions. These small volumes of brine have little effect on the day-to-day operations, but are pervasive throughout the repository and may contribute enough moisture over a period of years to affect resaturation and repressurization after sealing and closure. Gas bubbles are observed in many of the brine occurrences. Gas is also known to exsolve from solution as the brine is poured from container to container. 68 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Portable brine evaporator unit, process, and system

    Hart, Paul John; Miller, Bruce G.; Wincek, Ronald T.; Decker, Glenn E.; Johnson, David K.

    2009-04-07

    The present invention discloses a comprehensive, efficient, and cost effective portable evaporator unit, method, and system for the treatment of brine. The evaporator unit, method, and system require a pretreatment process that removes heavy metals, crude oil, and other contaminates in preparation for the evaporator unit. The pretreatment and the evaporator unit, method, and system process metals and brine at the site where they are generated (the well site). Thus, saving significant money to producers who can avoid present and future increases in transportation costs.

  2. Thermodynamic modeling of phases equilibrium in aqueous systems to recover potassium chloride from natural brines

    Ruberlan Gomes da Silva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical fertilizers, such as potassium chloride, ammonium nitrate and other chemical products like sodium hydroxide and soda ash are produced from electrolyte solutions or brines with a high content of soluble salts. Some of these products are manufactured by fractional crystallization, when several salts are separated as solid phases with high purity (>90%. Due to the large global demand for potassium fertilizers, a good knowledge about the compositions of salts and brines is helpful to design an effective process. A thermodynamic model based on Pitzer and Harvie's model was used to predict the composition of crystallized salts after water removal by forced evaporation and cooling from multicomponent solutions or brines. Initially, the salts’ solubilities in binary systems (NaCl–H2O, KCl–H2O and MgCl2–H2O and ternary system (KCl–MgCl2–H2O were calculated at 20 °C and compared with literature data. Next, the model was compared to our experimental data on the quinary system NaCl–KCl–MgCl2–CaCl2–H2O system at 20 °C. The Pitzer and Harvie's model represented well both the binary and ternary systems. Besides, for the quinary system the fit was good for brine densities up to 1350 kg/m3. The models were used to estimate the chemical composition of the solutions and salts produced by fractional crystallization and in association with material balance to respond to issues related to the production rates in a solar pond containing several salts dissolved, for instance, NaCl, KCl, MgCl2 and CaCl2.

  3. Formation of magmatic brine lenses via focussed fluid-flow beneath volcanoes

    Afanasyev, Andrey; Blundy, Jon; Melnik, Oleg; Sparks, Steve

    2018-03-01

    Many active or dormant volcanoes show regions of high electrical conductivity at depths of a few kilometres beneath the edifice. We explore the possibility that these regions represent lenses of high-salinity brine separated from a single-phase magmatic fluid containing H2O and NaCl. Since chloride-bearing fluids are highly conductive and have an exceptional capacity to transport metals, these regions can be an indication of an active hydrothermal ore-formation beneath volcanoes. To investigate this possibility we have performed hydrodynamic simulations of magma degassing into permeable rock. In our models the magma source is located at 7 km depth and the fluid salinity approximates that expected for fluids released from typical arc magmas. Our model differs from previous models of a similar process because it is (a) axisymmetric and (b) includes a static high-permeability pathway that links the magma source to the surface. This pathway simulates the presence of a volcanic conduit and/or plexus of feeder dykes that are typical of most volcanic systems. The presence of the conduit leads to a number of important hydrodynamic consequences, not observed in previous models. Importantly, we show that an annular brine lens capped by crystallised halite is likely to form above an actively degassing sub-volcanic magma body and can persist for more than 250 kyr after degassing ceases. Parametric analysis shows that brine lenses are more prevalent when the fluid is released at temperatures above the wet granite solidus, when magmatic fluid salinity is high, and when the high-permeability pathway is narrow. The calculated depth, form and electrical conductivity of our modelled system shares many features with published magnetotelluric images of volcano subsurfaces. The formation and persistence of sub-volcanic brine lenses has implications for geothermal systems and hydrothermal ore formation, although these features are not explored in the presented model.

  4. Isolation and characterization of a heavy metal-resistant, thermophilic esterase from a Red Sea Brine Pool

    Mohamed, Yasmine M.; Ghazy, Mohamed A.; Sayed, Ahmed; Ouf, Amged; El-Dorry, Hamza; Siam, Rania

    2013-01-01

    The Red Sea Atlantis II brine pool is an extreme environment that displays multiple harsh conditions such as high temperature, high salinity and high concentrations of multiple, toxic heavy metals. The survival of microbes in such an environment by utilizing resistant enzymes makes them an excellent source of extremophilic enzymes. We constructed a fosmid metagenomic library using DNA isolated from the deepest and most secluded layer of this pool. We report the isolation and biochemical characterization of an unusual esterase: EstATII. EstATII is thermophilic (optimum temperature, 65 C), halotolerant (maintains its activity in up to 4.5â€...M NaCl) and maintains at least 60% of its activity in the presence of a wide spectrum of heavy metals. The combination of biochemical characteristics of the Red Sea Atlantis II brine pool esterase, i.e., halotolerance, thermophilicity and resistance to heavy metals, makes it a potentially useful biocatalyst.

  5. Isolation and characterization of a heavy metal-resistant, thermophilic esterase from a Red Sea Brine Pool

    Mohamed, Yasmine M.

    2013-11-28

    The Red Sea Atlantis II brine pool is an extreme environment that displays multiple harsh conditions such as high temperature, high salinity and high concentrations of multiple, toxic heavy metals. The survival of microbes in such an environment by utilizing resistant enzymes makes them an excellent source of extremophilic enzymes. We constructed a fosmid metagenomic library using DNA isolated from the deepest and most secluded layer of this pool. We report the isolation and biochemical characterization of an unusual esterase: EstATII. EstATII is thermophilic (optimum temperature, 65 C), halotolerant (maintains its activity in up to 4.5â€...M NaCl) and maintains at least 60% of its activity in the presence of a wide spectrum of heavy metals. The combination of biochemical characteristics of the Red Sea Atlantis II brine pool esterase, i.e., halotolerance, thermophilicity and resistance to heavy metals, makes it a potentially useful biocatalyst.

  6. Slumping of brine mounds : bounds on behaviour

    Philips, J.R.; Duijn, van C.J.

    1996-01-01

    Two modifications of the approximate analysis of interface motion during two-fluid density-driven flows of De Josselin de Jong (Proc. Euromech., 143: 75–82, 1981) are applied to the slumping of finite two-dimensional and axisymmetric brine mounds. Both lead to simple similarity solutions. One

  7. Building a Geochemical View of Microbial Salt Tolerance: Halophilic Adaptation of Marinococcus in a Natural Magnesium Sulfate Brine

    Mark G. Fox-Powell

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Current knowledge of life in hypersaline habitats is mostly limited to sodium and chloride-dominated environments. This narrow compositional window does not reflect the diversity of brine environments that exist naturally on Earth and other planetary bodies. Understanding the limits of the microbial biosphere and predicting extraterrestrial habitability demands a systematic effort to characterize ionic specificities of organisms from a representative range of saline habitats. Here, we investigated a strain of Marinococcus isolated from the magnesium and sulfate-dominated Basque Lakes (British Columbia, Canada. This organism was the sole isolate obtained after exposure to exceptionally high levels of Mg2+ and SO42- ions (2.369 and 2.840 M, respectively, and grew at extremes of ionic strength not normally encountered in Na+/Cl- brines (12.141 mol liter-1. Its association at the 16S rDNA level with bacterial halophiles suggests that ancestral halophily has allowed it to adapt to a different saline habitat. Growth was demonstrated in media dominated by NaCl, Na2SO4, MgCl2, and MgSO4, yet despite this plasticity the strain was still restricted; requiring either Na+ or Cl- to maintain short doubling times. Water activity could not explain growth rate differences between media, demonstrating the importance of ionic composition for dictating microbial growth windows. A new framework for understanding growth in brines is required, that accounts for the geochemical history of brines as well as the various stresses that ions impose on microbes. Studies such as this are required to gain a truly universal understanding of the limits of biological ion tolerance.

  8. Purification method for calcium fluoride containing uranium

    Ogami, Takeshi

    1998-01-01

    Calcium fluoride (CaF 2 ) containing uranium is heated in an electrolytic bath having a cathode and an anode to form a molten salt, and the molten salt is electrolytically reduced to form metal uranium deposited on the surface of the cathode. The calcium fluoride molten salt separated by the deposition of generated metal uranium on the surface of the cathode is solidified by cooling. The solidified calcium fluoride is recovered. When metal uranium is deposited on the surface of the cathode by the electrolytic reduction of the molten salt, impurities such as plutonium and neptunium are also deposited on the surface of the anodes entrained by the metal uranium. Impurities having high vapor pressures such as americium and strontium are evaporated and removed from the molten salts. Then, nuclides such as uranium can thus be separated and recovered, and residual CaF 2 can be recovered in a state easily storable and reutilizable. (T.M.)

  9. Expected brine movement at potential nuclear waste repository salt sites

    McCauley, V.S.; Raines, G.E.

    1987-08-01

    The BRINEMIG brine migration code predicts rates and quantities of brine migration to a waste package emplaced in a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt. The BRINEMIG code is an explicit time-marching finite-difference code that solves a mass balance equation and uses the Jenks equation to predict velocities of brine migration. Predictions were made for the seven potentially acceptable salt sites under consideration as locations for the first US high-level nuclear waste repository. Predicted total quantities of accumulated brine were on the order of 1 m 3 brine per waste package or less. Less brine accumulation is expected at domal salt sites because of the lower initial moisture contents relative to bedded salt sites. Less total accumulation of brine is predicted for spent fuel than for commercial high-level waste because of the lower temperatures generated by spent fuel. 11 refs., 36 figs., 29 tabs

  10. Approach to recover strategic metals from brines

    Raber, E.; Harrar, J.; Gregg, D.

    1981-09-16

    The objective of the proposed research is to evaluate hypersaline brines from geothermal sources and salt domes as possible sources for some strategic metals. This research is suggested because several previous analyses of brine from geothermal wells in the Imperial Valley, California, and from Gulf Coast salt domes, indicate near commercial values for platinum as well as other metals (i.e., gold, silver). Extraction of the platinum should be technically feasible. A research program should include more complete systematic sampling and analysis for resource delineation, followed by bench-scale investigation of several potential extraction processes. This could be followed by engineering feasibility and design studies, for extraction of the metals either as a by-product of other operations or in a stand-alone process.

  11. Formation of brine channels in sea ice.

    Morawetz, Klaus; Thoms, Silke; Kutschan, Bernd

    2017-03-01

    Liquid salty micro-channels (brine) between growing ice platelets in sea ice are an important habitat for CO 2 -binding microalgaea with great impact on polar ecosystems. The structure formation of ice platelets is microscopically described and a phase field model is developed. The pattern formation during solidification of the two-dimensional interstitial liquid is considered by two coupled order parameters, the tetrahedricity as structure of ice and the salinity. The coupling and time evolution of these order parameters are described by a consistent set of three model parameters. They determine the velocity of the freezing process and the structure formation, the phase diagram, the super-cooling and super-heating region, and the specific heat. The model is used to calculate the short-time frozen micro-structures. The obtained morphological structure is compared with the vertical brine pore space obtained from X-ray computed tomography.

  12. Modeling of brine migration in halite

    Cheung, H.; Fuller, M.E.; Gaffney, E.S.

    1979-01-01

    When canisters containing radwastes are emplaced in a repository the heat produced by the decaying radwaste will cause moderate thermal gradients to develop which will cause the brine present in a halite medium (salt deposits) to accumulate around the canister. Four different models of the migration process have been reviewed to determine their suitability as a working model. One model predicts that inclusions smaller than 0.1 mm dimension probably will not migrate. The other models do not consider size as a factor. Thermal diffusion (Soret effect) is considered insignificant in three models, while in the fourth model it is added to the concentration diffusion term. The following conclusions can be made: Temperature is the most significant parameter in all models and must be known as a function of time, and distance from the canister. All four models predict about the same migration velocity for it is a given set of conditions; for 100 0 C and 1 0 C/cm thermal gradient, it is 3.0, 4.8, 5.6 and 6.4 mm/y. Diffusion of ions through the brine inclusions is the rate controlling mechanism. The difference between the thermal gradients in the liquid and in the solid should always be considered and is a function of droplet shape. The model based upon work by Nernst is easiest to use, but it predicts the lowest migration rate. The maximum volume of pure brine accumulated at the canister surface would be less than 20-40 liters in 50 years, for a canister initial thermal power of 3.5 kW.Bitterns would migrate proportionately less volume. A computer code, BRINE, was developed to make these calculations by means of any of the four models

  13. Geochemical evidence for the existence of high-temperature hydrothermal brines at Vesuvio volcano, Italy

    Chiodini, Giovanni; Marini, Luigi; Russo, Massimo

    2001-07-01

    A high-temperature hydrothermal system is present underneath the crater area of Vesuvio volcano. It is suggested that NaCl brines reside in the high-temperature reservoir and influence the chemical composition of the gases discharged by the fumaroles of the crater bottom (vents FC1, FC2, and FC5). These have typical hydrothermal compositions, with H 2O and CO 2 as major components, followed by H 2, H 2S, N 2, CH 4, and CO (in order of decreasing contents) and undetectable SO 2, HCl, and HF. Fumarolic H 2O is either meteoric water enriched in 18O through high-temperature water-rock oxygen isotope exchange or a mixture of meteoric and arc-type magmatic water. Fumarolic CO 2 is mainly generated by decarbonation reactions of marine carbonates, but the addition of small amounts of magmatic CO 2 is also possible. All investigated gas species (H 2O, CO 2, CO, CH 4, H 2, H 2S, N 2, and NH 3) equilibrate, probably in a saturated vapor phase, at temperatures of 360 to 370°C for vent FC1 and 430 to 445°C for vents FC2 and FC5. These temperatures are confirmed by the H 2-Ar geoindicator. The minimum salt content of the liquid phase coexisting with the vapor phase is ˜14.9 wt.% NaCl, whereas its maximum salinity corresponds to halite saturation (49.2-52.5 wt.% NaCl). These poorly constrained salinities of NaCl brines reflect in large uncertainties in total fluid pressures, which are estimated to be 260 to 480 bar for vents FC2 and FC5 and 130 to 220 bar for vent FC1. Pressurization in some parts of the hydrothermal system, and its subsequent discharge through hydrofracturing, could explain the relatively frequent seismic crises recorded in the Vesuvio area after the last eruption. An important heat source responsible for hydrothermal circulation is represented by the hot rocks of the eruptive conduits, which have been active from 1631 to 1944. Geochemical evidence suggests that no input of fresh magma at shallow depths took place after the end of the last eruptive period.

  14. High-salt brines compromise autoinducer-mediated bacteriocinogenic Lactobacillus plantarum survival in Spanish-style green olive fermentations.

    Caballero-Guerrero, Belén; Lucena-Padrós, Helena; Maldonado-Barragán, Antonio; Ruiz-Barba, José Luis

    2013-02-01

    The effect of NaCl on plantaricin production by five Lactobacillus plantarum strains was investigated. Plantaricin production in these strains was found to be regulated by three-component regulatory systems ruled by two different autoinducer peptides (AIPs), either PLNC8IF or Plantaricin A. Bacteriocin activity exhibited by these strains came to a halt in liquid medium containing NaCl concentrations of or above 2%. In contrast, bacteriocin activity was still observed when the producing strains were growing on solid medium containing up to 4% NaCl. Bacteriocin activity in liquid medium containing up to 2% NaCl could be restored by coculturing the producing strains with a selected plantaricin-production inducing strain of Lactococcus lactis. Growth of these bacteriocinogenic L. plantarum strains was monitored in traditional Spanish-style green olive fermentations. Survival of these strains could not be enhanced when provided with a range of plantaricin-production inducing mechanisms previously described, such as constitutive AIP production or coinoculation with a specific bacteriocin-production inducing strain of L. lactis. Our results suggest that it is advisable the use of constitutive bacteriocin producers, or at least non-AIP-dependant ones, as starters for olive fermentations due to the intrinsic physical characteristics of this food fermentation, especially the high salt concentration of the brines currently used. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evolution of hydrologic systems and brine geochemistry in a deforming salt medium: Data from WIPP brine seeps

    Deal, D.E.; Roggenthen, W.M.

    1991-01-01

    The Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) is a formalized continuation of studies that began in 1982 as part of the Site Validation Program. The program was established in 1985. The mission was to document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation and the seepage of that brine into the WIPP excavations. This document focuses on the cumulative data obtained from the BSEP. The overall activities of the BSEP described and quantified the brine. It includes documentation and study of brine inflow into boreholes in the facility. The BSEP investigated the occurrence and development of brine weeps, crusts, and brine geochemistry. The presence of salt-tolerant bacteria in the workings was recorded and their possible interactions with experiments and operations, was assessed. The formation properties associated with the occurrence of brine was characterized. The determination of formation properties included the water content of various geologic units, direct examination of these units in boreholes using a video camera system, and measurement of electrical properties relatable to the brine contents. Modeling examined the interaction of salt deformation near the workings and the flow of brine through the deforming rocks. 34 refs

  16. The Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (PSEP) at WIPP

    Deal, D.E.; Roggenthen, W.M.

    1989-01-01

    The Permian salt beds of the WIPP facility are virtually dry. The amount of water present in the rocks exposed in the excavations that is free to migrate under pressure gradients was estimated by heating salt samples to 95 degrees C and measuring weight loss. Clear balite contains about 0.22 weight percent water and the more argillaceous units average about 0.75 percent. Measurements made since 1984 as part of the Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) indicate that small amounts of this brine can migrate into the excavations and does accumulate in the underground environment. Brine seepage into drillholes monitored since thy were drilled show that brine seepage decreases with time and that many have dried up entirely. Weeping of brine from the walls of the repository excavations also decreases after two or more years. Chemical analyses of brines shows that they are sodium-chloride saturated and magnesium-rich

  17. Rapid and controlled transformation of nitrate in water and brine by stabilized iron nanoparticles

    Xiong Zhong; Zhao Dongye; Pan Gang

    2009-01-01

    Highly reactive zero-valent iron (ZVI) nanoparticles stabilized with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) were tested for reduction of nitrate in fresh water and brine. Batch kinetic tests showed that the pseudo first-order rate constant (k obs ) with the stabilized nanoparticles was five times greater than that for non-stabilized counterparts. The stabilizer not only increased the specific surface area of the nanoparticles, but also increased the reactive particle surface. The allocation between the two reduction products, NH 4 + and N 2 , can be manipulated by varying the ZVI-to-nitrate molar ratio and/or applying a Cu-Pd bimetallic catalyst. Greater CMC-to-ZVI ratios lead to faster nitrate reduction. Application of a 0.05 M HEPES buffer increased the k obs value by 15 times compared to that without pH control. Although the presence of 6% NaCl decreased k obs by 30%, 100% nitrate was transformed within 2 h in the saline water. The technology provides a powerful alternative for treating water with concentrated nitrate such as ion exchange brine.

  18. OUT Success Stories: Chemical Treatments for Geothermal Brines

    Burr, R.

    2000-01-01

    DOE research helped develop the large, untapped geothermal resource beneath the Salton Sea in California's Imperial Valley. The very hot brines under high pressure make them excellent for electric power production. The brines are very corrosive and contain high concentrations of dissolved silica. DOE worked with San Diego Gas and Electric Company to find a solution to the silica-scaling problem. This innovative brine treatment eliminated scaling and made possible the development of the Salton Sea geothermal resource

  19. Diffusion of calcium in pure and doped NaCl; Diffusion du calcium dans NaCl pur et dope

    Slifkin, L; Brebec, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    We have determined, by diffusion experiments of Ca in pure and doped NaCl, the activation energy for the calcium jumps and the binding energy between calcium ion and vacancy. (authors) [French] Nous avons determine, par des mesures de diffusion du Ca dans NaCl pur et NaCl dope avec CaCl{sub 2}, l'energie d'activation relative aux sauts du calcium et l'energie de liaison lacune-calcium. (auteurs)

  20. Evaluation of Brine Processing Technologies for Spacecraft Wastewater

    Shaw, Hali L.; Flynn, Michael; Wisniewski, Richard; Lee, Jeffery; Jones, Harry; Delzeit, Lance; Shull, Sarah; Sargusingh, Miriam; Beeler, David; Howard, Jeanie; hide

    2015-01-01

    Brine drying systems may be used in spaceflight. There are several advantages to using brine processing technologies for long-duration human missions including a reduction in resupply requirements and achieving high water recovery ratios. The objective of this project was to evaluate four technologies for the drying of spacecraft water recycling system brine byproducts. The technologies tested were NASA's Forward Osmosis Brine Drying (FOBD), Paragon's Ionomer Water Processor (IWP), NASA's Brine Evaporation Bag (BEB) System, and UMPQUA's Ultrasonic Brine Dewatering System (UBDS). The purpose of this work was to evaluate the hardware using feed streams composed of brines similar to those generated on board the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration missions. The brine formulations used for testing were the ISS Alternate Pretreatment and Solution 2 (Alt Pretreat). The brines were generated using the Wiped-film Rotating-disk (WFRD) evaporator, which is a vapor compression distillation system that is used to simulate the function of the ISS Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). Each system was evaluated based on the results from testing and Equivalent System Mass (ESM) calculations. A Quality Function Deployment (QFD) matrix was also developed as a method to compare the different technologies based on customer and engineering requirements.

  1. Osmotic power generation by pressure retarded osmosis using seawater brine as the draw solution and wastewater retentate as the feed

    Wan, Chunfeng; Chung, Neal Tai-Shung

    2015-01-01

    Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) is a promising technology to produce clean and sustainable osmotic energy from salinity gradient. Fresh water is of scarcity in Singapore; however, alternative sources of feed solutions and draw solutions are well explored. For the first time, seawater brine from the TuaSpring desalination plant and wastewater retentate from the NEWater plant were used in a state-of-the-art TFC-PES hollow fiber membrane PRO process. The highest power densities obtained with 1 M NaCl solution and seawater brine were 27.0 W/m2 and 21.1 W/m2 at 20bar, respectively, when deionized (DI) water was used as the feed solution. However, the highest power density dropped to 4.6W/m2 when wastewater retentate was used as the feed solution. Fouling on the porous substrate induced by the wastewater retentate was identified as the main cause of the reduction in the power densities, while the negative effects of seawater brine on the PRO performances were negligible. Both ultrafiltration (UF) and nanofiltration (NF) pretreatment were employed to mitigate fouling from the wastewater retentate, and the power densities were boosted to 6.6W/m2 and 8.9W/m2, respectively, beyond the power density of 5W/m2 proposed by Statkraft for the PRO process to be economical.

  2. Osmotic power generation by pressure retarded osmosis using seawater brine as the draw solution and wastewater retentate as the feed

    Wan, Chunfeng

    2015-04-01

    Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) is a promising technology to produce clean and sustainable osmotic energy from salinity gradient. Fresh water is of scarcity in Singapore; however, alternative sources of feed solutions and draw solutions are well explored. For the first time, seawater brine from the TuaSpring desalination plant and wastewater retentate from the NEWater plant were used in a state-of-the-art TFC-PES hollow fiber membrane PRO process. The highest power densities obtained with 1 M NaCl solution and seawater brine were 27.0 W/m2 and 21.1 W/m2 at 20bar, respectively, when deionized (DI) water was used as the feed solution. However, the highest power density dropped to 4.6W/m2 when wastewater retentate was used as the feed solution. Fouling on the porous substrate induced by the wastewater retentate was identified as the main cause of the reduction in the power densities, while the negative effects of seawater brine on the PRO performances were negligible. Both ultrafiltration (UF) and nanofiltration (NF) pretreatment were employed to mitigate fouling from the wastewater retentate, and the power densities were boosted to 6.6W/m2 and 8.9W/m2, respectively, beyond the power density of 5W/m2 proposed by Statkraft for the PRO process to be economical.

  3. Perchlorate-Coupled Carbon Monoxide (CO Oxidation: Evidence for a Plausible Microbe-Mediated Reaction in Martian Brines

    Marisa R. Myers

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of hydrated salts on Mars indicates that some regions of its surface might be habitable if suitable metabolizable substrates are available. However, several lines of evidence have shown that Mars’ regolith contains only trace levels of the organic matter needed to support heterotrophic microbes. Due to the scarcity of organic carbon, carbon monoxide (CO at a concentration of about 700 parts per million (about 0.4 Pa might be the single most abundant readily available substrate that could support near-surface bacterial activity. Although a variety of electron acceptors can be coupled to CO oxidation, perchlorate is likely the most abundant potential oxidant in Mars’ brines. Whether perchlorate, a potent chaotrope, can support microbial CO oxidation has not been previously documented. We report here the first evidence for perchlorate-coupled CO oxidation based on assays with two distinct euryarchaeal extreme halophiles. CO oxidation occurred readily in 3.8 M NaCl brines with perchlorate concentrations from 0.01 to 1 M. Both isolates were able to couple CO with perchlorate or chlorate under anaerobic conditions with or without nitrate as an inducer for nitrate reductase, which serves as a perchlorate reductase in extreme halophiles. In the presence of perchlorate, CO concentrations were reduced to levels well below those found in Mars’ atmosphere. This indicates that CO could contribute to the survival of microbial populations in hydrated salt formations or brines if water activities are suitably permissive.

  4. Energy stored in irradiated NaCl

    Lidiard, A.B.

    1979-01-01

    Recently reported measurements of the energy stored in heavily irradiated NaCl are reviewed in the light of recent understanding of radiation-damage processes in this material. It is shown that, in the ranges of temperatures and dose rates of these experiments, the F-centres produced by the irradiation are retained principally in the form of colloids: the stored energy is thus a direct measure of the number of F-centres retained in this form. Comparison of these results with the prediction of the recently proposed theory of colloid growth shows that the predictions of the dependence of colloid growth rates upon temperature and dose rate are qualitatively correct. The dependence of stored energy dose, however, appears to require the inclusion of a thermally activated back-reaction and possible modifications to the theory are briefly discussed. However, further experiments in this range of temperatures and dose rates are necessary for more quantitative tests of the theory. This reconsideration of the data does not alter the broad conclusion as to the relative insignificance of stored energy in a natural salt formation used as a radioactive waste repository, although more extensive measurements permitting a more exact test of theory would allow better predictions to be made for such applications. (author)

  5. Selective Recovery of Metals from Geothermal Brines

    Ventura, Susanna [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Bhamidi, Srinivas [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hornbostel, Marc [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Nagar, Anoop [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Perea, Elisabeth [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2016-12-16

    The objective of this project was to determine the feasibility of developing a new generation of highly selective low-cost ion-exchange resins based on metal-ion imprinted polymers for the separation of metals from geothermal fluids. Expansion of geothermal energy production over the entire U.S. will involve exploitation of low-to-medium temperature thermal waters. Creating value streams from the recovery of critical and near-critical metals from these thermal waters will encourage geothermal expansion. Selective extraction of metals from geothermal fluids is needed to design a cost-effective process for the recovery of lithium and manganese-two near-critical metals with well-known application in the growing lithium battery industry. We have prepared new lithium- and manganese-imprinted polymers in the form of beads by crosslinking polymerization of a metal polymerizable chelate, where the metal acts as a template. Upon leaching out the metal template, the crosslinked polymer is expected to leave cavities defined by the ligand functional group with enhanced selectivity for binding the template metal. We have demonstrated that lithium- and manganese-imprinted polymer beads can be used as selective solid sorbents for the extraction of lithium and manganese from brines. The polymers were tested both in batch extractions and packed bed lab-scale columns at temperatures of 45-100°C. Lithium-imprinted polymers were found to have Li+ adsorption capacity as high as 2.8 mg Li+/g polymer at 45°C. Manganese-imprinted polymers were found to have a Mn2+ adsorption capacity of more than 23 mg Mn2+/g polymer at 75°C. The Li+ extraction efficiency of the Li-imprinted polymer was found to be more that 95% when a brine containing 390 ppm Li+, 410 ppm Na+, and 390 ppm K+ was passed through a packed bed of the polymer in a lab-scale column at 45°C. In brines containing 360 ppm Li

  6. Bioleaching combined brine leaching of heavy metals from lead-zinc mine tailings: Transformations during the leaching process.

    Ye, Maoyou; Yan, Pingfang; Sun, Shuiyu; Han, Dajian; Xiao, Xiao; Zheng, Li; Huang, Shaosong; Chen, Yun; Zhuang, Shengwei

    2017-02-01

    During the process of bioleaching, lead (Pb) recovery is low. This low recovery is caused by a problem with the bioleaching technique. This research investigated the bioleaching combination of bioleaching with brine leaching to remove heavy metals from lead-zinc mine tailings. The impact of different parameters were studied, including the effects of initial pH (1.5-3.0) and solid concentration (5-20%) for bioleaching, and the effects of sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration (10-200 g/L) and temperature (25 and 50 °C) for brine leaching. Complementary characterization experiments (Sequential extraction, X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electronic microscope (SEM)) were also conducted to explore the transformation of tailings during the leaching process. The results showed that bioleaching efficiency was significantly influenced by initial pH and solid concentration. Approximately 85.45% of iron (Fe), 4.12% of Pb, and 97.85% of zinc (Zn) were recovered through bioleaching in optimum conditions. Increasing the brine concentration and temperature promoted lead recovery. Lead was recovered from the bioleaching residues at a rate of 94.70% at 25 °C and at a rate of 99.46% at 50 °C when the NaCl concentration was 150 g/L. The study showed that bioleaching significantly changed the speciation of heavy metals and the formation and surface morphology of tailings. The metals were mainly bound in stable fractions after bioleaching. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Secretory NaCl and volume flow in renal tubules.

    Beyenbach, K W

    1986-05-01

    This review attempts to give a retrospective survey of the available evidence concerning the secretion of NaCl and fluid in renal tubules of the vertebrate kidney. In the absence of glomerular filtration, epithelial secretory mechanisms, which to this date have not been elucidated, are responsible for the renal excretion of NaCl and water in aglomerular fish. However, proximal tubules isolated from glomerular fish kidneys of the flounder, killifish, and the shark also have the capacity to secrete NaCl and fluid. In shark proximal tubules, fluid secretion appears to be driven via secondary active transport of Cl. In another marine vertebrate, the sea snake, secretion of Na (presumably NaCl) and fluid is observed in freshwater-adapted and water-loaded animals. Proximal tubules of mammals can be made to secrete NaCl in vitro together with secretion of aryl acids. An epithelial cell line derived from dog kidney exhibits secondary active secretion of Cl when stimulated with catecholamines. Tubular secretion of NaCl and fluid may serve a variety of renal functions, all of which are considered here. The occurrence of NaCl and fluid secretion in glomerular proximal tubules of teleosts, elasmobranchs, and reptiles and in mammalian renal tissue cultures suggests that the genetic potential for NaCl secretion is present in every vertebrate kidney.

  8. Explosive phenomena in heavily irradiated NaCl

    denHartog, HW; Vainshtein, DI; Matthews, GE; Williams, RT

    1997-01-01

    In heavily irradiated NaCl crystals explosive phenomena can be initiated during irradiation or afterwards when samples are heated to temperatures between 100 and 250 degrees C. During irradiation of NaCl Na and Cl-2 precipitates and void structures are produced along with the accumulation of stored

  9. Brine Transport Experiments in Granular Salt

    Jordan, Amy B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Boukhalfa, Hakim [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Caporuscio, Florie Andre [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-06

    To gain confidence in the predictive capability of numerical models, experimental validation must be performed to ensure that parameters and processes are correctly simulated. The laboratory investigations presented herein aim to address knowledge gaps for heat-generating nuclear waste (HGNW) disposal in bedded salt that remain after examination of prior field and laboratory test data. Primarily, we are interested in better constraining the thermal, hydrological, and physicochemical behavior of brine, water vapor, and salt when moist salt is heated. The target of this work is to use run-of-mine (RoM) salt; however during FY2015 progress was made using high-purity, granular sodium chloride.

  10. Pressure-driven brine migration in a salt repository

    Hwang, Y.; Chambre, P.L.; Pigford, T.H.; Lee, W.W.L.

    1989-01-01

    The traditional view is that salt is the ideal rock for isolation of nuclear waste because it is ''dry'' and probably ''impermeable.'' The existence of salt through geologic time is prima facie evidence of such properties. Experiments and experience at potential salt sites for geologic repositories have indicated that while porosity and permeability of salt are low, the salt may be saturated with brine. If this hypothesis is correct, then it is possible to have brine flow due to pressure differences within the salt. If there is pressure-driven brine migration in salt repositories then it is paramount to know the magnitude of such flow because inward brine flow would affect the corrosion rate of nuclear waste containers and outward brine flow might affect radionuclide transport rates. Brine exists in natural salt as inclusions in salt crystals and in grain boundaries. Brine inclusions in crystals move to nearby grain boundaries when subjected to a temperature gradient, because of temperature-dependent solubility of salt. Brine in grain boundaries moves under the influence of a pressure gradient. When salt is mined to create a waste repository, brine from grain boundaries will migrate into the rooms, tunnels and boreholes because these cavities are at atmospheric pressure. After a heat-emitting waste package is emplaced and backfilled, the heat will impose a temperature gradient in the surrounding salt that will cause inclusions in the nearby salt to migrate to grain boundaries within a few years, adding to the brine that was already present in the grain boundaries. The formulation of brine movement with salt as a thermoelastic porous medium, in the context of the continuum theory of mixtures, has been described. In this report we show the mathematical details and discuss the results predicted by this analysis

  11. Domal salt brine migration experiments at Avery Island, Louisiana

    Krause, W.B.; Gnirk, P.F.

    1981-01-01

    Three in-situ brine migration experiments were performed in domal salt in the Avery Island mine located in southwestern Louisiana. The primary measurements included temperature, moisture collection, and pre- and post-test permeability at the experimental sites. Experimental data are discussed and compared with calculations based on the single-crystal brine migration theory. Comparisons indicate reasonable agreement between experiment and theory

  12. Building a Geochemical View of Microbial Salt Tolerance: Halophilic Adaptation of Marinococcus in a Natural Magnesium Sulfate Brine.

    Fox-Powell, Mark G; Cockell, Charles S

    2018-01-01

    Current knowledge of life in hypersaline habitats is mostly limited to sodium and chloride-dominated environments. This narrow compositional window does not reflect the diversity of brine environments that exist naturally on Earth and other planetary bodies. Understanding the limits of the microbial biosphere and predicting extraterrestrial habitability demands a systematic effort to characterize ionic specificities of organisms from a representative range of saline habitats. Here, we investigated a strain of Marinococcus isolated from the magnesium and sulfate-dominated Basque Lakes (British Columbia, Canada). This organism was the sole isolate obtained after exposure to exceptionally high levels of Mg 2+ and SO 4 2- ions (2.369 and 2.840 M, respectively), and grew at extremes of ionic strength not normally encountered in Na + /Cl - brines (12.141 mol liter -1 ). Its association at the 16S rDNA level with bacterial halophiles suggests that ancestral halophily has allowed it to adapt to a different saline habitat. Growth was demonstrated in media dominated by NaCl, Na 2 SO 4 , MgCl 2 , and MgSO 4 , yet despite this plasticity the strain was still restricted; requiring either Na + or Cl - to maintain short doubling times. Water activity could not explain growth rate differences between media, demonstrating the importance of ionic composition for dictating microbial growth windows. A new framework for understanding growth in brines is required, that accounts for the geochemical history of brines as well as the various stresses that ions impose on microbes. Studies such as this are required to gain a truly universal understanding of the limits of biological ion tolerance.

  13. Electron scattering in graphene with adsorbed NaCl nanoparticles

    Drabińska, Aneta, E-mail: Aneta.Drabinska@fuw.edu.pl; Kaźmierczak, Piotr; Bożek, Rafał; Karpierz, Ewelina; Wysmołek, Andrzej; Kamińska, Maria [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Wołoś, Agnieszka [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Pasternak, Iwona; Strupiński, Włodek [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wólczyńska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Krajewska, Aleksandra [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wólczyńska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, Kaliskiego 2, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-01-07

    In this work, the results of contactless magnetoconductance and Raman spectroscopy measurements performed for a graphene sample after its immersion in NaCl solution were presented. The properties of the immersed sample were compared with those of a non-immersed reference sample. Atomic force microscopy and electron spin resonance experiments confirmed the deposition of NaCl nanoparticles on the graphene surface. A weak localization signal observed using contactless magnetoconductance showed the reduction of the coherence length after NaCl treatment of graphene. Temperature dependence of the coherence length indicated a change from ballistic to diffusive regime in electron transport after NaCl treatment. The main inelastic scattering process was of the electron-electron type but the major reason for the reduction of the coherence length at low temperatures was additional, temperature independent, inelastic scattering. We associate it with spin flip scattering, caused by NaCl nanoparticles present on the graphene surface. Raman spectroscopy showed an increase in the D and D′ bands intensities for graphene after its immersion in NaCl solution. An analysis of the D, D′, and G bands intensities proved that this additional scattering is related to the decoration of vacancies and grain boundaries with NaCl nanoparticles, as well as generation of new on-site defects as a result of the decoration of the graphene surface with NaCl nanoparticles. The observed energy shifts of 2D and G bands indicated that NaCl deposition on the graphene surface did not change carrier concentration, but reduced compressive biaxial strain in the graphene layer.

  14. Electron scattering in graphene with adsorbed NaCl nanoparticles

    Drabińska, Aneta; Kaźmierczak, Piotr; Bożek, Rafał; Karpierz, Ewelina; Wysmołek, Andrzej; Kamińska, Maria; Wołoś, Agnieszka; Pasternak, Iwona; Strupiński, Włodek; Krajewska, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the results of contactless magnetoconductance and Raman spectroscopy measurements performed for a graphene sample after its immersion in NaCl solution were presented. The properties of the immersed sample were compared with those of a non-immersed reference sample. Atomic force microscopy and electron spin resonance experiments confirmed the deposition of NaCl nanoparticles on the graphene surface. A weak localization signal observed using contactless magnetoconductance showed the reduction of the coherence length after NaCl treatment of graphene. Temperature dependence of the coherence length indicated a change from ballistic to diffusive regime in electron transport after NaCl treatment. The main inelastic scattering process was of the electron-electron type but the major reason for the reduction of the coherence length at low temperatures was additional, temperature independent, inelastic scattering. We associate it with spin flip scattering, caused by NaCl nanoparticles present on the graphene surface. Raman spectroscopy showed an increase in the D and D′ bands intensities for graphene after its immersion in NaCl solution. An analysis of the D, D′, and G bands intensities proved that this additional scattering is related to the decoration of vacancies and grain boundaries with NaCl nanoparticles, as well as generation of new on-site defects as a result of the decoration of the graphene surface with NaCl nanoparticles. The observed energy shifts of 2D and G bands indicated that NaCl deposition on the graphene surface did not change carrier concentration, but reduced compressive biaxial strain in the graphene layer

  15. Polishing large NaCl windows on a continuous polisher

    Williamson, R.

    1979-01-01

    The Helios and Antares CO 2 fusion laser systems incorporate numerous large sodium chloride windows. These must be refinished periodically, making necessary a consistent and predictable polishing capability. A continuous polisher (or annular lap) which might at Kirtland's Developmental Optical Facility. Large NaCl windows had not been polished on this type of machine. The machine has proven itself capable of producing lambda/16 figures at 633 nm (HeNe) with extremely smooth surfaces on glass. Since then, we have been working exclusively on NaCl optics. Due to different polishing parameters between NaCl and glass, and the slight solubility of the pitch in the slurry, this phase presents new problems. The work on glass will be reviewed. Results on NaCl to date will be reported. The potential of this type of machine relative to prisms, thin and irregularly shaped optics will be discussed

  16. Effects of different NaCl Concentrations on germination and ...

    USER

    Salinity refers to the salt content of any given system. By nature, arid .... Effect of varying concentrations of NaCl on seed germination of Amaranthus hybridus in percentages. .... Osmotic differences could explain this phenomenon where by ...

  17. Mantle helium in the Red Sea brines

    Lupton, J.E.; Weiss, R.F.; Craig, H.

    1977-01-01

    It is stated that He isotope studies of terrestrial samples have shown the existence of two He components that are clearly distinct from atmospheric He. These are termed 'crustal' He and 'mantle' He; the latter was discovered as 'excess 3 He' in deep ocean water and attributed to a flux of primordial He from the mantle. Studies of the 3 He/ 4 He ratio in deep Pacific water and in He trapped in submarine basalt glasses showed that this 'mantle' component is characterised by ratios about ten times the atmospheric ratio and 100 times the ratio in 'crustal' He. Basalt glasses from other deep sea waters also showed similar ratios, and it is indicated that 'mantle' He in areas in which new lithosphere is being formed has a unique and uniform isotopic signature. Measurements of He and Ne are here reported that reveal additional information on the origin of Red Sea brines and their relationship to the Red Sea rifts. (U.K.)

  18. Radionuclide transport in sandstones with WIPP brine

    Weed, H.C.; Bazan, F.; Fontanilla, J.; Garrison, J.; Rego, J.; Winslow, A.M.

    1981-02-01

    Retardation factors (R) have been measured for the transport of 3 H, /sup 95m/Tc, and 85 Sr in WIPP brine using St. Peter, Berea, Kayenta, and San Felipe sandstone cores. If tritium is assumed to have R=1, /sup 95m/Tc has R=1.0 to 1.3 and therefore is essentially not retarded. Strontium-85 has R = 1.0 to 1.3 on St. Peter, Berea, and Kayenta, but R=3 on San Felipe. This is attributed to sorption on the matrix material of San Felipe, which has 45 volume % matrix compared with 1 to 10 volume % for the others. Retardation factors (R/sub s/) for 85 Sr calculated from static sorption measurements are unity for all the sandstones. Therefore, the static and transport results for 85 Sr disagree in the case of San Felipe, but agree for St. Peter, Berea, and Kayenta

  19. Brine migration in hot-pressed polycrystalline sodium chloride

    Biggers, J.V.; Dayton, G.O.

    1982-12-01

    This report describes experiments designed to provide data on brine migration in polycrystalline salt. Polycrystalling samples of various grain sizes, density, and purity were prepared from several commercial-grade salts by hot-pressing. Three distinct experimental set-ups were used to place salt billets in an induced thermal gradient in contact with brine source. The test designs varied primarily in the way in which the thermal gradient was applied and monitored and the way in which brine migration was determined. All migration was in enclosed vessels which precluded visual observation of brine movement through the microstructure. Migration velocities were estimated either by the timed appearance of brine at the hot face of the sample, or by determination of the penetration distance of migration artifacts in the microstructure after tests of fixed duration. For various reasons both of these methods were subject to a large degree of error. Our results suggest, however, that the migration velocity in dense polycrystalline salt may be at least an order of magnitude greater than that suggested by single-crystal experiments. Microstructural analysis shows that brine prefers to migrate along paths of high crystalline activity such as grain and subgrain boundaries and is dispersed rather quickly in the microstructure. A series of tests were performed using various types of tracers in brine in order to flag migration paths and locate brine in the microstructure more decisively. These attempts failed and it appears that only the aqueous portion of the brine moves through the microstructure with the dissolved ions being lost and replaced rather quickly. This suggests the use of deuterium as a tracer in future work

  20. The solubility of UO22+ in dilute sodium chloride solutions and in high-ionic strength sodium sulfate and chlorine brines

    Marquez, L.N.; Kadkhodayan, B.; Wruck, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    Uranium is a major component of high-level nuclear waste. In an oxidizing environment, UO 2 2+ would be expected to be the dominant dissolved species in solution. In addition to dilute solutions, because high-level nuclear waste may be stored in repositories containing salt, it is important to characterize the aqueous chemistry of UO 2 2+ and the solubility-controlling U(VI) solids in high-ionic strength brines as a function of pH. We have studied the solubility of UO 2 2+ by precipitation of solid phase in 0.001 molal NaCl, 5.2 molal NaCl, and saturated Na 2 SO 4 at pH values ranging from 5 to 12. The solution concentrations were measured by alpha particle liquid scintillation counting. The precipitated solids were characterized by powder x-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

  1. Microhardness evaluation around composite restorations using fluoride-containing adhesive systems Avaliação da microdureza ao redor de restaurações de compósito confeccionadas com sistemas adesivos contendo fluoretos

    Cláudia Silami de Magalhães

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the microhardness of dental enamel around composite restorations bonded with fluoride-containing adhesive systems (FCAS, after thermo- and pH-cycling protocols. Standardized cylindrical cavities were prepared on enamel surfaces of 175 dental fragments, which were randomly assigned into seven experimental groups (n=25. Four groups used FCAS: Optibond Solo (OS; Prime&Bond 2.1 (PB; Syntac Sprint (SS and Tenure Quick (TC. Other groups consisted of "Sandwich" technique restoration (STR (glass ionomer liner + hydrophobic adhesive resin /restorative composite or used Single Bond with (SB or without (SBWC cycling protocols. Adhesive systems were applied according to manufacturers' instructions and cavities were restored with a microfilled composite (Durafill VS. After finishing and polishing, all groups were submitted to 1,000 thermal cycles (5 ºC and 55 ºC and to demineralization (pH 4.3 and remineralization (pH 7.0 cycling protocols, except for SBWC group. The Knoop microhardness of enamel surfaces were measured around restorations. Indentations were recorded at 150, 300 and 450-mm from the cavity wall. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Duncan's Test (a=0.05%. Means ± SD of enamel microhardness for the groups were (Kg/mm²: SBWC: 314.50 ± 55.93ª ; SB: 256.78 ± 62.66b; STR: 253.90 ± 83.6b; TQ: 243.93 ± 68.3b; OS: 227.97 ± 67.1c; PB: 213.30 ± 91.3d; SS: 208.73 ± 86.6d. Means ± SD of microhardness for the distances 150, 300, 450mm from the cavity wall were, respectively: 234.46 ± 77.81ª; 240.24 ± 85.12ª; 262.06 ± 79.46b. SBWC group, which was not submitted to thermo- and pH-cycling protocols, showed the highest enamel microhardness mean value and the FCAS resulted in lower microhardness values. At 450 mm from the cavity wall, the enamel microhardness increased significantly.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a microdureza do esmalte dental ao redor de restaurações em compósito que

  2. Modelling CO2-Brine Interfacial Tension using Density Gradient Theory

    Ruslan, Mohd Fuad Anwari Che

    2018-01-01

    In this study, a new modelling strategy to compute CO2-brine IFT based on DGT was proposed. In the proposed model, ion distribution across interface was accounted for by separating the interface to two sections

  3. Effect of different brine concentrations and ripening period on some ...

    Administrator

    2011-09-26

    25240, Erzurum, Turkey. Accepted 25 ... ripened soft cheese that is maturated in brine to develop the desired ... functions, salt exerts a number of important effects on cheese. ..... In: Fox PF (ed) Cheese: chemistry, physics and.

  4. determination of toxicity levels of some savannah plants using brine

    DR. AMINU

    DETERMINATION OF TOXICITY LEVELS OF SOME SAVANNAH PLANTS. USING BRINE ... Adoum, O. A.. Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Bayero University, P.M.B. 3011, Kano – Nigeria. ... 1000, 100, and 10 µg/ml, respectively.

  5. A network model for characterizing brine channels in sea ice

    Lieblappen, Ross M.; Kumar, Deip D.; Pauls, Scott D.; Obbard, Rachel W.

    2018-03-01

    The brine pore space in sea ice can form complex connected structures whose geometry is critical in the governance of important physical transport processes between the ocean, sea ice, and surface. Recent advances in three-dimensional imaging using X-ray micro-computed tomography have enabled the visualization and quantification of the brine network morphology and variability. Using imaging of first-year sea ice samples at in situ temperatures, we create a new mathematical network model to characterize the topology and connectivity of the brine channels. This model provides a statistical framework where we can characterize the pore networks via two parameters, depth and temperature, for use in dynamical sea ice models. Our approach advances the quantification of brine connectivity in sea ice, which can help investigations of bulk physical properties, such as fluid permeability, that are key in both global and regional sea ice models.

  6. Coiled Brine Recovery Assembly (CoBRA) Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Coiled Brine Recovery Assembly (CoBRA) project will result in a proof-of-concept demonstration for a lightweight, compact, affordable, regenerable and disposable...

  7. Brine treatment, smoking and storage techniques: their effects on the ...

    Journal of Food Technology in Africa ... Brine treatment, smoking and storage techniques: their effects on the microbial quality of smoked mackerel. ... off odour development, softening of the fish and positively affected personal preference.

  8. Monitoring of Miit glass solution interactions by brine analysis

    Sassoon, R.E.; Gong, M.; Adel-Hadadi, M.; Brandys, M.; Barkatt, A.; Macedo, P.B.

    1989-01-01

    Analyses of brine samples taken from borehole MIIT=8 at the WIPP site were carried out in order to study the leaching behavior of the brine in this system. The standard addition method was used with the analytical techniques of AA, DCP and ICP-MS to determine the concentration of the components in the brine. The changes in the concentration of the major components, Na, Mg and K can be explained by reactions of the brine with the rock salt walls of the borehole. From the data obtained for the other components no leaching of the SRL-Y glass discs in the test could be observed. It was however possible to determine an upper limit for leaching of the glass from isotope ratio studies made on Li which yielded a value for the leach rate of lithium from the glass of 0.117 g m -2 d -1

  9. Physiological characteristics of bacteria isolated from water brines within permafrost

    Shcherbakova, V.; Rivkina, E.; Laurinavichuis, K.; Pecheritsina, S.; Gilichinsky, D.

    2004-01-01

    In the Arctic there are lenses of overcooled water brines (cryopegs) sandwiched within permafrost marine sediments 100 120 thousand years old. We have investigated the physiological properties of the pure cultures of anaerobic Clostridium sp. strain 14D1 and two strains of aerobic bacteria Psychrobacter sp. isolated from these cryopegs. The structural and physiological characteristics of new bacteria from water brines have shown their ability to survive and develop under harsh conditions, such as subzero temperatures and high salinity.

  10. Calcium extraction from brine water and seawater using oxalic acid

    Natasha, Nadia Chrisayu; Lalasari, Latifa Hanum

    2017-01-01

    Calcium can be extracted not only from rocks but also from natural liquor such as seawater and brine water. In order to extract the calcium from seawater and brine water, oxalic acid was used in this research. Effect of variations of the volume of the oxalic acid at a constant concentration in seawater and brine water to produce calcium was investigated. The concentration of oxalic acid was 100 g/l and the variations of its volume were 2 ml, 4 ml, 6 ml, 8 ml, 10 ml, 20 ml, 30 ml, 40 ml, and 50 ml. The used seawater and brine water were firstly evaporated from 100 ml into 50 ml and then the oxalic acid was added into them with mixing to produce the calcium precipitates. The precipitates were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the filtrates were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The SEM analysis showed that the precipitates from brine water were consisted of only calcium compound while from seawater sodium one was also found along with calcium compound. The XRD analysis showed that the calcium was present in the form of calcium oxalate for both seawater and brine water. The ICP-OES analysis of the filtrate from seawater precipitation showed that the its calcium content was decreased from 826.20 ppm to 0.04 ppm while from brine water, it decreased from 170.06 ppm to 1.96 ppm. These results showed that both seawater and brine water have the potential to be a raw material for calcium production.

  11. Phosphate analysis of natural sausage casings preserved in brines with phosphate additives as inactivating agent - Method validation.

    Wijnker, J J; Tjeerdsma-van Bokhoven, J L M; Veldhuizen, E J A

    2009-01-01

    Certain phosphates have been identified as suitable additives for the improvement of the microbial and mechanical properties of processed natural sausage casings. When mixed with NaCl (sodium chloride) and used under specific treatment and storage conditions, these phosphates are found to prevent the spread of foot-and-mouth disease and classical swine fever via treated casings. The commercially available Quantichrom™ phosphate assay kit has been evaluated as to whether it can serve as a reliable and low-tech method for routine analysis of casings treated with phosphate. The outcome of this study indicates that this particular assay kit has sufficient sensitivity to qualitatively determine the presence of phosphate in treated casings without interference of naturally occurring phosphate in salt used for brines in which casings are preserved.

  12. Brine: a computer program to compute brine migration adjacent to a nuclear waste canister in a salt repository

    Duckworth, G.D.; Fuller, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    This report presents a mathematical model used to predict brine migration toward a nuclear waste canister in a bedded salt repository. The mathematical model is implemented in a computer program called BRINE. The program is written in FORTRAN and executes in the batch mode on a CDC 7600. A description of the program input requirements and output available is included. Samples of input and output are given

  13. Effect of Water Content, Temperature and NaCl on CO2 Corrosion of Carbon Steel (A106B in Iraqi Crude Oil

    Saad Ahmed Jafar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was carried out to determine the corrosion rate of carbon steel (A 106 GradeB as flow line in crude oil production with CO2 content employing three Iraqi crude oil (Kirkuk crude oil, Halfaya crude oil, and Rumalia crude oil with identical produced water (brine [1%NaCl,2%NaCl, and 3%NaCl]. Experiments were performed in an autoclave test apparatus, crude oilproduced water mixtures, water cuts were (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 100%, and temperature (20, 40, 60°C. For all experiments, CO2 partial pressure was maintained at 4bar and rotational speed 500 rpm. The corrosion rates were determined by the weight loss method. The results revealed that the corrosion rate of carbon steel increased by increasing water cut and temperature, but decreased with increasing salt concentration for all types of crude oil. Rumaila crude oil exhibited the highest corrosion rate and Kirkuk crude oil exhibits the lowest corrosion rate while Halfaya crude oil exhibits a moderate corrosion rate.

  14. NaCl samples for optical luminescence dosimetry

    Catli, S.

    2005-01-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) have been used broadly for luminescence dosimetry and dating. In many cases, it has been pointed out that the decay of the OSL do not generally behave according to a simple exponential function. In this study the Infra-red stimulated luminescence (IRSL) intensity from NaCl samples were experimentally measured. The decay curves for this sample were fitted to some functions and it is in good agreement with the function y = α + b exp(-cx). The IRSL decay curves from NaCl using different β-doses have been obtained and investigated their dose response

  15. Nano-sized precipitated formations in irradiated NaCl

    Sugonyako, Anton V.

    2007-01-01

    The interest in the formation of radiation damage in alkali halides and in particular, in NaCl, is stimulated by the fact that rock-salt in stable geological formations is a prominent candidate medium for storage of high-level waste (HLW) of nuclear power plants. Since the 1950s, scientists and

  16. Searching for brine on Mars using Raman spectroscopy

    Fischer, E.

    2016-07-01

    In the last few years, water ice and perchlorate salts capable of melting this ice and producing liquid solutions have been discovered at the surface and shallow subsurface of Mars. In addition to via melting of ice, perchlorate salts may also form liquid solutions by absorbing water vapor when the relative humidity is above a certain threshold in a process known as deliquescence. Formed either by melting or deliquescence, liquid solutions (brine) are the most likely way of liquid water activity on the Martian surface and in the shallow subsurface and are therefore important to understand the habitability of Mars. Using Raman spectroscopy, we provide reference spectra of various mixing states of liquid water, water ice and calcium perchlorate, all of which can occur during brine formation. We focus on the perchlorate symmetric stretching band and the O-H stretching vibrational band to distinguish brine from crystalline salt and water ice. We show that perchlorate brines can be identified by analyzing the peaks and their widths in the decomposed Raman spectra of the investigated samples. This serves as an important reference for future in-situ Raman spectrometers on Mars, such as those on the ExoMars and Mars 2020 rovers and can aid in the detection of brine formation on Mars. (Author)

  17. Stability of polyvinyl alcohol-coated biochar nanoparticles in brine

    Griffith, Christopher, E-mail: cgriffith@utexas.edu; Daigle, Hugh [University of Texas at Austin, Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering (United States)

    2017-01-15

    This paper reports on the dispersion stability of 150 nm polyvinyl alcohol coated biochar nanoparticles in brine water. Biochar is a renewable, carbon based material that is of significant interest for enhanced oil recovery operations primarily due to its wide ranging surface properties, low cost of synthesis, and low environmental toxicity. Nanoparticles used as stabilizing agents for foams (and emulsions) or in nanofluids have emerged as potential alternatives to surfactants for subsurface applications due to their improved stability at reservoir conditions. If, however, the particles are not properly designed, they are susceptible to aggregation because of the high salinity brines typical of oil and gas reservoirs. Attachment of polymers to the nanoparticle surface, through covalent bonds, provides steric stabilization, and is a necessary step. Our results show that as the graft density of polyvinyl alcohol increases, so too does the stability of nanoparticles in brine solutions. A maximum of 34 wt% of 50,000 Da polyvinyl alcohol was grafted to the particle surface, and the size of the particles was reduced from ~3500 nm (no coating) to 350 nm in brine. After 24 h, the particles had a size of ~500 nm, and after 48 h completely aggregated. 100,000 Da PVA coated at 24 wt% on the biochar particles were stable in brine for over 1 month with no change in mean particle size of ~330 nm.

  18. Brine Migration in Heated Salt: Lessons Learned from Field Experiments

    Kuhlman, K. L.; Matteo, E. N.; Mills, M.

    2017-12-01

    We summarize several interesting brine migration related phenomena hinted at in field experiments from field testing related to salt radioactive waste repositories in Germany and the US. Past heater tests in salt have shown 1) thermal-hydrological-mechanical coupling is quite strong during both heating and cooling; 2) chemical composition of brine evolves during heating, and comprises a mix of several water sources; and 3) acid gas (HCl) generation has been observed during past heater tests and may have multiple mechanisms for formation. We present a heated brine migration test design, formulated with these complexities in mind. Sandia National Laboratories is a multimission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International Inc. for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-NA0003525.

  19. Microbially mediated barite dissolution in anoxic brines

    Ouyang, Bingjie; Akob, Denise M.; Dunlap, Darren; Renock, Devon

    2017-01-01

    Fluids injected into shale formations during hydraulic fracturing of black shale return with extraordinarily high total-dissolved-solids (TDS) and high concentrations of barium (Ba) and radium (Ra). Barite, BaSO_4, has been implicated as a possible source of Ba as well as a problematic mineral scale that forms on internal well surfaces, often in close association with radiobarite, (Ba,Ra)SO_4. The dissolution of barite by abiotic processes is well quantified. However, the identification of microbial communities in flowback and produced water necessitates the need to understand barite dissolution in the presence of bacteria. Therefore, we evaluated the rates and mechanisms of abiotic and microbially-mediated barite dissolution under anoxic and hypersaline conditions in the laboratory. Barite dissolution experiments were conducted with bacterial enrichment cultures established from produced water from Marcellus Shale wells located in northcentral Pennsylvania. These cultures were dominated by anaerobic halophilic bacteria from the genus Halanaerobium. Dissolved Ba was determined by ICP-OES and barite surfaces were investigated by SEM and AFM. Our results reveal that: 1) higher amounts of barium (up to ∼5 × ) are released from barite in the presence of Halanaerobium cultures compared to brine controls after 30 days of reaction, 2) etch pits that develop on the barite (001) surface in the presence of Halanaerobium exhibit a morphology that is distinct from those that form during control experiments without bacteria, 3) etch pits that develop in the presence of Halanaerobium exhibit a morphology that is similar to the morphology of etch pits formed in the presence of strong organic chelators, EDTA and DTPA, and 4) experiments using dialysis membranes to separate barite from bacteria suggest that direct contact between the two is not required in order to promote dissolution. These results suggest that Halanaerobium increase the rate of barite dissolution in anoxic

  20. Guidelines to Facilitate the Evaluation of Brines for Winter Roadway Maintenance Operations.

    2017-09-19

    This document presents guidelines to facilitate the evaluation of brines for winter weather roadway maintenance applications in Texas. Brines are used in anti-icing applications which typically consist of placing liquid snow and ice control chemicals...

  1. A deep sea community at the Kebrit brine pool in the Red Sea

    Vestheim, Hege; Kaartvedt, Stein

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 25 deep sea brine pools occur along the mid axis of the Red Sea. These hypersaline, anoxic, and acidic environments have previously been reported to host diverse microbial communities. We visited the Kebrit brine pool in April 2013

  2. Brine/Rock Interaction in Deep Oceanic Layered Gabbros: Petrological Evidence from Cl-Rich Amphibole, High-Temperature Hydrothermal Veins, and Experiments

    Currin Sala, A. M.; Koepke, J.; Almeev, R. R.; Teagle, D. A. H.; Zihlmann, B.; Wolff, P. E.

    2017-12-01

    Evidence of high temperature brine/rock interaction is found in hydrothermal veins and dykelets that cross-cut layered olivine gabbros in the deep palaeocrust of the Sumail Ophiolite, Sultanate of Oman. Here we present petrological and geochemical data from these samples, and an experimental attempt to simulate brine/gabbro interaction using externally heated cold seal pressure vessels. The studied natural veins and dykelets contain pargasite, hornblende, actinolite, and Cl-rich pargasite with up to 5 wt% Cl, showing a range of formation conditions from magmatic to metamorphic (hydrothermal) and thus a complex history of brine/rock interaction. In addition, the isotopic study of the radiogenic 87/86Sr and stable 18O in different amphibole types provide an estimate for the extent of seawater influence as alteration agent in the veins of the studied samples. Experiments performed at 750 °C and 200 MPa with different starting materials (chlorine-free amphibole, olivine gabbro powder) and 20 wt% NaCl aqueous brine, illustrate the process by which gabbro-hosted amphibole-rich veins evolve at subsolidus temperatures in the presence of a seawater-derived fluid. Our results demonstrate a decrease in olivine, plagioclase and magnetite content in favour of hastingsite, pargasite and magnesiohornblende, a decrease of IVAl and Ti in the starting amphibole, and an increase in Cl in amphibole, up to 0.2 Cl wt%. Our experiments show the change of magmatic pargasite towards more magnesium and silica-rich end members with results comparable to mildly chlorine-rich pargasites and hornblendes found in the natural samples studied. However, the experimental setup also presents limitations in the attainment of very high-chlorine amphibole (up to 5 wt%). Our analytical and experimental results provide further evidence for the existence of a hydrothermal cooling system in the deep oceanic crust.

  3. Effect of oxygen co-injected with carbon dioxide on Gothic shale caprock–CO2brine interaction during geologic carbon sequestration

    Jung, Hun Bok; Um, Wooyong; Cantrell, Kirk J.

    2013-09-01

    Co-injection of oxygen, a significant component in CO2 streams produced by the oxyfuel combustion process, can cause a significant alteration of the redox state in deep geologic formations during geologic carbon sequestration. The potential impact of co-injected oxygen on the interaction between synthetic CO2brine (0.1 M NaCl) and shale caprock (Gothic shale from the Aneth Unit in Utah) and mobilization of trace metals was investigated at ~ 10 MPa and ~ 75 °C. A range of relative volume percentages of O2 to CO2 (0, 1, 4 and 8%) were used in these experiments to address the effect of oxygen on shale–CO2brine interaction under various conditions. Major mineral phases in Gothic shale are quartz, calcite, dolomite, montmorillonite, and pyrite. During Gothic shale–CO2brine interaction in the presence of oxygen, pyrite oxidation occurred extensively and caused enhanced dissolution of calcite and dolomite. Pyrite oxidation and calcite dissolution subsequently resulted in the precipitation of Fe(III) oxides and gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O). In the presence of oxygen, dissolved Mn and Ni were elevated because of oxidative dissolution of pyrite. The mobility of dissolved Ba was controlled by barite (BaSO4) precipitation in the presence of oxygen. Dissolved U in the experimental brines increased to ~ 8–14 μg/L, with concentrations being slightly higher in the absence of oxygen than in the presence of oxygen. Experimental and modeling results indicate the interaction between shale caprock and oxygen co-injected with CO2 during geologic carbon sequestration can exert significant impacts on brine pH, solubility of carbonate minerals, stability of sulfide minerals, and mobility of trace metals. The major impact of oxygen is most likely to occur in the zone near CO2 injection wells where impurity gases can accumulate. Finally, oxygen in CO2brine

  4. Propagating particle density fluctuations in molten NaCl

    Demmel, F.; Hosokawa, S.; Pilgrim, W.-C.; Lorenzen, M.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present the observation of acoustic modes in the spectra of molten NaCl measured over a large momentum transfer range using synchrotron radiation. A surprisingly large positive dispersion was deduced with a mode velocity exceeding the adiabatic value by nearly 70%. The large effect seems to be describable as a viscoelastic reaction of the liquid. Additionally, the derived dispersion resembles the Q-ω relation of the acoustic modes in liquid sodium. As an explanation for the large positive dispersion we propose that the density fluctuations in molten NaCl can be interpreted as a decoupled motion of the lighter and smaller cations on a nearly resting anionic background. These molten alkali halide measurements are the first experimental evidences for the so-called fast sound in a binary ionic liquid

  5. Tolerance of soil flagellates to increased NaCl levels

    Ekelund, Flemming

    2002-01-01

    The ability of heterotrophic flagellates to survive and adapt to increasing salinities was investigated in this study. Whole soil samples were subjected to salinities corresponding to marine conditions and clonal cultures were used to perform growth and adaptation experiments at a wide range...... of different salinities (0-50 ppm). More morphotypes tolerant to elevated NaCl levels were found in road verge soil that was heavily exposed to de-icing salt than in less exposed soils, though there were fewer tolerant than intolerant morphotypes in all soils examined. Heterotrophic flagellates isolated...... on a freshwater medium from a non-exposed soil were unable to thrive at salinities above 15 ppt, and showed reduced growth rates even at low salt salinities (1-5 ppt). The findings suggest that heterotrophic soil flagellates are less tolerant to NaCl than their aquatic relatives, possibly due to their long...

  6. Temperature dependence of thermal pressure for NaCl

    Singh, Chandra K.; Pande, Brijesh K.; Pandey, Anjani K.

    2018-05-01

    Engineering applications of the materials can be explored upto the desired limit of accuracy with the better knowledge of its mechanical and thermal properties such as ductility, brittleness and Thermal Pressure. For the resistance to fracture (K) and plastic deformation (G) the ratio K/G is treated as an indication of ductile or brittle character of solids. In the present work we have tested the condition of ductility and brittleness with the calculated values of K/G for the NaCl. It is concluded that the nature of NaCl can be predicted upto high temperature simply with the knowledge of its elastic stiffness constant only. Thermoelastic properties of materials at high temperature is directly related to thermal pressure and volume expansion of the materials. An expression for the temperature dependence of thermal pressure is formulated using basic thermodynamic identities. It is observed that thermal pressure ΔPth calculated for NaCl by using Kushwah formulation is in good agreement with the experimental values also the thermal pressure increases with the increase in temperature.

  7. Manipulating Single Microdroplets of NaCl Solutions

    Utoft, Anders; Kinoshita, Koji; Bitterfield, Deborah

    2018-01-01

    fraction of S = 1.9, the saturation concentration of NaCl in aqueous solution as measured with nanograms of material (5.5 ± 0.1 M), the diffusion coefficient for water in octanol, D = (1.96 ± 0.10) × 10−6 cm2/s, and the effect of the solvent’s activity on dissolution kinetics. It is further shown...... growth are affected by changing the bathing medium from octanol to decane. A much slower loss of water-solvent and concomitant slower up-concentration of the NaCl solute resulted in a lower tendency to nucleate and slower crystal growth because much less excess material was available at the onset...... of nucleation in the decane system as compared to the octanol system. Thus, the crystal structure is reported to be dendritic for NaCl solution microdroplets dissolving rapidly and nucleating violently in octanol, while they are formed as single cubic crystals in a gentler way for solution-dissolution in decane...

  8. Solar desalination, brine and fine chemicals - a preliminary report

    Shirodkar, P.V.; Nagarajan, R.

    Solar stills put into operation by taking known quantities of sea water of different salinities varying from 27.75-36.27 x 10 super(3) during April-May 1990, indicated fresh water yield of 55-68% (av. 64). The volumes of brine as well as those...

  9. Durability of concrete materials in high-magnesium brine

    Wakeley, L.D.; Poole, T.S.; Burkes, J.P.

    1994-03-01

    Cement pastes and mortars representing 11 combinations of candidate concrete materials were cast in the laboratory and monitored for susceptibility to chemical deterioration in high-magnesium brine. Mixtures were selected to include materials included in the current leading candidate concrete for seals at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Some materials were included in the experimental matrix to answer questions that had arisen during study of the concrete used for construction of the liner of the WIPP waste-handling shaft. Mixture combinations compared Class C and Class F fly ashes, presence or absence of an expansive component, and presence or absence of salt as a mixture component. Experimental conditions exposed the pastes and mortars to extreme conditions, those being very high levels of Mg ion and an effectively unlimited supply of brine. All pastes and mortars showed deterioration with brine exposure. In general, mortars deteriorated more extensively than the corresponding pastes. Two-inch cube specimens of mortar were not uniformly deteriorated, but showed obvious zoning even after a year in the brine, with a relatively unreacted zone remaining at the center of each cube. Loss of calcium from the calcium hydroxide of paste/aggregate interfaces caused measurable strength loss in the reacted zone comprising the outer portion of every mortar specimen. The current candidate mass concrete for WIPP seals includes salt as an initial component, and has a relatively closed initial microstructure. Both of these features contribute to its suitability for use in large placements within the Salado Formation

  10. Brine transport in porous media self-similar solutions

    C.J. van Duijn (Hans); L.A. Peletier (Bert); R.J. Schotting (Ruud)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we analyze a model for brine transport in porous media, which includes a mass balance for the fluid, a mass balance for salt, Darcy's law and an equation of state, which relates the fluid density to the salt mass fraction. This model incorporates the effect of local volume

  11. Brine Shrimp Toxicity Evaluation Of Some Tanzanian Plants Used ...

    Plants which are used by traditional healers in Tanzania have been evaluated to obtain preliminary data of their toxicity using the brine shrimps test. The results indicate that 9 out of 44 plant species whose extracts were tested exhibited high toxicity with LC50 values below 20μg/ml. These include Aloe lateritia Engl.

  12. Comparison of antimicrobial activities of brine salting, Chlorinated ...

    Chemical preservatives can be used to reduce the overall microbial populations in fish and fish products. This study was set to determine the antimicrobial activities of brine salting, chlorinated solution, and Moringa oleifera plant extracts treatments on enteric bacteria in Rastrineobola argentea and Oreochromis niloticus fish ...

  13. Modeling the morphogenesis of brine channels in sea ice.

    Kutschan, B; Morawetz, K; Gemming, S

    2010-03-01

    Brine channels are formed in sea ice under certain constraints and represent a habitat of different microorganisms. The complex system depends on a number of various quantities as salinity, density, pH value, or temperature. Each quantity governs the process of brine channel formation. There exists a strong link between bulk salinity and the presence of brine drainage channels in growing ice with respect to both the horizontal and vertical planes. We develop a suitable phenomenological model for the formation of brine channels both referring to the Ginzburg-Landau theory of phase transitions as well as to the chemical basis of morphogenesis according to Turing. It is possible to conclude from the critical wave number on the size of the structure and the critical parameters. The theoretically deduced transition rates have the same magnitude as the experimental values. The model creates channels of similar size as observed experimentally. An extension of the model toward channels with different sizes is possible. The microstructure of ice determines the albedo feedback and plays therefore an important role for large-scale global circulation models.

  14. Solar desalination, brine and fine chemicals - a preliminary report

    Shirodkar, P.V.; Nagarajan, R.

    from 3.65 - 4.63 ppm. The definite volumes of seawater samples (3.7 litres) taken in stills for desalination correspond to 13.08 - 31.16 mg of net boron content. Analyses on the recovery of the total content of boron in brines as well as in the bitterns...

  15. [Experimental interaction of halophilic prokaryotes and opportunistic bacteria in brine].

    Selivanova, E A; Nemtseva, N V

    2013-01-01

    Study the effect of extremely halophilic archaea and moderately halophilic bacteria on preservation of opportunistic bacteria in brine. 17 strains of moderately halophilic bacteria and 2 strains of extremely halophilic archaea were isolated from continental hypersaline lake Razval of Sol-Iletsk area of Orenburg Region. Identification of pure cultures of prokaryotes was carried out taking into account their phenotype properties and based on determination of 16S RNA gene sequence. The effect of halophilic prokaryote on elimination of Escherichia coli from brine was evaluated during co-cultivation. Antagonistic activity of cell extracts of the studied microorganisms was evaluated by photometric method. A more prolonged preservation of an E. coli strain in brine in the presence of live cells of extremely halophilic archaea Halorubrum tebenquichense and moderately halophilic bacteria Marinococcus halophilus was established. Extracts of cells of extremely halophilic archaea and moderately halophilic bacteria on the contrary displayed antagonistic activity. The protective effect of live cells of halophilic prokaryotes and antagonistic activity of their cell extracts change the period of conservation of opportunistic bacteria in brine that regulates inter-microbial interactions and changes the period of self-purification that reflects the sanitary condition of a hypersaline water body.

  16. A carbon inventory for Orca Basin brines and sediments

    Sackett, W.M.; Brooks, J.M.; Bernard, B.B.; Schwab, C.R.; Chung, H.; Parker, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    Orca Basin, an intraslope depression at a depth of about 2400 m on the continental slope of the north-central Gulf of Mexico, contains an anoxic, hypersaline brine similar to composition to those reported in the Red Sea. Concentrations and stable carbon isotope compositions of various inorganic and organic carbon species have been determined on the brine and sediments in order to gain an understanding of the origin and cycling of carbon in this unique environment. ΣCO 2 in the brine (55 mg C/l) is about twice seawater with delta 13 C sub(PDB)=-16.4per thousand and Δ 14 C=-501per thousand. CH 4 has a concentration of 12 mg C/l and delta 13 C=-73.5per thousand. Dissolved and particulate organic carbon concentrations are seven times higher and have delta 13 C values several permil different than the overlying seawater, ΣCO 2 and CH 4 in the interstitial waters are considerably higher in concentrations and isotropically light than the overlying brine. Solution of near-surface salt deposits by seawater with subsequent microbial production and consumption of methane can be used to explain most of the data. (Auth.)

  17. Permeability of salt-crystal interfaces to brine

    Gilpatrick, L.O.; Baes, C.F. Jr.; Shor, A.J.; Canonico, C.M.

    1982-06-01

    To investigate the movement of brine along grain boundaries in polycrystalline salt, measurements have been made of the radial flow of brine through the interface between cylindrical salt crystals under axial stresses to 140 bar and temperatures to 80 0 C. For constant conditions, the total flow of brine showed a linear dependence on the logarithm of time, and the reciprocal permeability increased linearly with time. Loss of salt from the interface by pressure solution effects was more than enough to account for the decrease in the apparent thickness of the interface (i.e., that which may be estimated for an interface of the same permeability formed by plane parallel surfaces). This apparent thickness, initially as large as 10 μm, decreased to as little as 0.2 μm with exposure to stress and flowing brine. It decreased quickly with sudden increases in axial stress and usually increased, though not reversibly, with decreases in stress. The rate of increase in the reciprocal permeability with time was roughly proportional to the stress and to the square of the hydraulic pressure drop. Assuming similar apparent thicknesses for the grain boundaries in polycrystalline salt, permeabilities are predicted that are quite consistent with the low values reported for stressed core specimens

  18. Stratification and space-time variability of Red Sea hot brines

    Monin, A S; Plakhin, E A

    1982-11-01

    The results of hydrophysical studies in Red Sea hot brines prefaced with historical information are presented. The CTD-recorder readings show stratification of the upper brine in the Atlantis II Deep into meter-scale layers, in agreement with laboratory findings. Repeated soundings with the AIST CTD meter of the upper brine interface in the Valdivia Deep recorded internal waves of 3 to 4-h periods. The observations show the different nature of brines in the four deeps studied and the lack of contact between the brine layers of the Chain and Discovery deeps.

  19. Brine migration in salt and its implications in the geologic disposal of nuclear waste

    Jenks, G.H.; Claiborne, H.C.

    1981-12-01

    This report respresents a comprehensive review and analysis of available information relating to brine migration in salt surrounding radioactive waste in a salt repository. The topics covered relate to (1) the characteristics of salt formations and waste packages pertinent to considerations of rates, amounts, and effects of brine migration, (2) experimental and theoretical information on brine migration, and (3) means of designing to minimize any adverse effects of brine migration. Flooding, brine pockets, and other topics were not considered, since these features will presumably be eliminated by appropriate site selection and repository design. 115 references

  20. Study of rhyolitic glasses alteration in contact with natural brines (Bolivia). Application to the study of the long-term behaviour of the R7T7 nuclear glass

    Abdelouas, A.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to complement an experimental program on the R7T7 nuclear waste glass alteration in brines at 190 deg C in Germany by the analysis of the structure and the chemical composition of the alteration layers, and to study the alteration of rhyolitic glasses in natural brines from Bolivia as analogue for nuclear waste glasses disposed in salt formations. Alteration experiments with the R7T7 and basaltic glasses and obsidian in MgCl 2 -CaCl 2 -saturated brine at 190 deg. C were also conducted in order to study the influence of the glass composition on the nature of the secondary phases. The experiments with the R7T7 glass in three salt brines, saturated respectively in MgCl 2 , MgCl 2 -CaCl 2 and NaCl, showed that the solubilities of most radionuclides are controlled by the secondary phases. Nd, La, and Pr are trapped in powellite, Ce in cerianite, U in coffinite, and Sr is partially immobilized in barite. These phases are stable for more than one year. There is a good similarity between the secondary phases formed experimentally on volcanic glasses and the R7T7 glass altered in MgCl 2 -CaCl 2 -saturated brine. The abundance of Mg in solution permits the formation of similar magnesian clays on the glass samples independently of the nature of the initial glasses. These results support the use of volcanic glasses alteration patterns in Mg-rich solutions to understand the long-term behavior of nuclear waste glasses and to evaluate the stability of the secondary phases. The study of the sediments of Uyuni (Bolivia) showed that the corrosion rate of the rhyolitic glass in brines at 10 deg. C is 12 to 30 time lower than those of rhyolitic glasses altered in high dilute conditions. The low alteration rate of rhyolitic glasses in brines and the formation of secondary phases such as smectite, barite and cerianite (also formed during the experimental alteration of the R7T7 glass), permit us to expect the low alteration of nuclear waste glasses at long

  1. Assessment of Brine Management for Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    Breunig, Hanna M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Birkholzer, Jens T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Borgia, Andrea [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Price, Phillip N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Oldenburg, Curtis M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; McKone, Thomas E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division

    2013-06-13

    Geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) is the injection of carbon dioxide (CO2), typically captured from stationary emission sources, into deep geologic formations to prevent its entry into the atmosphere. Active pilot facilities run by regional United States (US) carbon sequestration partnerships inject on the order of one million metric tonnes (mt) CO2 annually while the US electric power sector emits over 2000 million mt-CO2 annually. GCS is likely to play an increasing role in US carbon mitigation initiatives, but scaling up GCS poses several challenges. Injecting CO2 into sedimentary basins raises fluid pressure in the pore space, which is typically already occupied by naturally occurring, or native, brine. The resulting elevated pore pressures increase the likelihood of induced seismicity, of brine or CO2 escaping into potable groundwater resources, and of CO2 escaping into the atmosphere. Brine extraction is one method for pressure management, in which brine in the injection formation is brought to the surface through extraction wells. Removal of the brine makes room for the CO2 and decreases pressurization. Although the technology required for brine extraction is mature, this form of pressure management will only be applicable if there are cost-­effective and sustainable methods of disposing of the extracted brine. Brine extraction, treatment, and disposal may increase the already substantial capital, energy, and water demands of Carbon dioxide Capture and Sequestration (CCS). But, regionally specific brine management strategies may be able to treat the extracted water as a source of revenue, energy, and water to subsidize CCS costs, while minimizing environmental impacts. By this approach, value from the extracted water would be recovered before disposing of any resulting byproducts. Until a price is placed on carbon, we expect that utilities and other CO2 sources will be

  2. Métodos instrumentales para la determinación de NaCl en las salmueras de aceitunas

    García García, P.

    1991-08-01

    Full Text Available Aplicability of flame photometric and ion selective (sodium or chloride methods to determinate NaCI concentration in olive brines in comparison with the official one (Volhard, which uses AgNO3, is studied. According to the results using standard solutions or fermentative olive brines without previous lye treatment, no proportional systematic or constant systematic errors are detected and the percentaje of NaCl is evaluated by them with the same accuracy as by the reference. However, when the flame photometric or sodium ion-selective methods are used to determine this compound in Spanish olive brines, there is a deviation in comparison with the values obtained by the official one (Volhard that is correlated with the combine acidity concentration of the solution. This fact is due to the presence of sodium organic salts, called combined acidity, that are formed during the lye treatment or "cocido" that these fruits are given before fermentation. Nevertheless, is does not represent any problem as there is a good correlation between such combined acidity and the magnitude of the deviation, that permit to calculate the corresponding correction factor. In addition these problems can be solved using the chloride selective ion method.

    Se estudia la aplicación de la fotometría de llama y el empleo de electrodos selectivos de iones cloruro o sodio, para la determinación de la concentración de NaCl en las salmueras de aceitunas de mesa, comparándolos con el actualmente utilizado de valoración de nitrato de plata (Volhard. De acuerdo con los resultados, la utilización de los mismos a soluciones patrones o de aceitunas en salmuera no da lugar a errores sistemáticos porporcionales ni constantes, pudiéndose analizar dicho compuesto con la misma precisión que con el procedimiento de referencia. Sin embargo, cuando se analizan las correspondientes a las elaboradas al estilo español, los valores que se obtienen con la fotometría de

  3. NaCl salinity affects lateral root development in Plantago maritima

    Rubinigg, M; Wenisch, J; Elzenga, JTM; Stulen, [No Value

    2004-01-01

    Root growth and morphology were assessed weekly in hydroponically-grown seedlings of the halophyte Plantago maritima L. during exposure to 0, 50, 100 and 200 mM NaCl for 21 d. Relative growth rate was reduced by 25% at 200 mM NaCl. The lower NaCl treatments did not affect relative growth rates.

  4. Evaluation and analysis of underground brine resources in the southern coastal area of Laizhou Bay

    Tian, M.; Zhu, H. T.; Feng, J.; Zhao, Q. S.

    2016-08-01

    The southern coastal districts of Laizhou Bay are some of the most important areas for underground brine exploitation in Shandong Province. Recently, these areas have been gradually developed by the underground brine mining industry. Such economic interest has led to brine exploitation so that underground brine resources are running out. Based on this phenomenon, this study describes the supply, runoff and draining conditions of the area by collecting and organizing the background information of the studied area. Hydrogeological parameters are then calculated according to pumping tests, and the amount of sustainable resources in the coastal areas of the Southern Bank of Laizhou Bay are then calculated based on the uniform distribution of wells. Under the circumstances of underground brine mining, the exploitation potential of the underground brine is evaluated in accordance with the calculation results of exploitation quantum. Finally, suggestions are provided for the sustainable exploitation of underground brine in the area.

  5. Salted herring brine as a coating or additive for herring (Clupea harengus) products — A source of natural antioxidants?

    Albertos, Irene; Gringer, Nina; Rico, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterise herring brine and assess its use as natural antioxidant in herring preservation. Herring brines from different marinated products (brine from fillet-ripened spice-cured herring SC, traditional barrel-salted spice-cured herring TSp and brine from...

  6. Electrolytic coloration of O22--doped NaCl crystals

    Qin Fang; Gu Hongen; Song Cuiying; Wang Na; Guo Meili; Wang Fen; Liu Jia

    2007-01-01

    O 2 2- -doped NaCl crystals are colored electrolytically by using a pointed cathode and a flat anode at various temperatures and voltages, which mainly benefit from appropriate coloration temperatures and voltages as well as anode structure of used electrolysis apparatus. Characteristic OH - , U, V 2 m , U A , V 2 , V 3 , O 2- -V a + complex, F, R 1 , R 2 and M absorption bands are observed in absorption spectra of the colored crystals. Production and conversion of color centers in electrolytic coloration is explained. Current-time curves for electrolytic colorations and their relationships with electrolytic colorations were given

  7. Halorubrum laminariae sp. nov., isolated from the brine of salted brown alga Laminaria.

    Han, Dong; Cui, Heng-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Two halophilic archaeal strains, R60(T) and R61, were isolated from the brine of salted brown alga Laminaria. Cells of the two strains were observed to be rod-shaped, stain Gram-negative and to lyse in distilled water. Strain R60(T) was found to contain gas vacuoles and to produce pink-pigmented colonies, while strain R61 lacked gas vacuoles and produces red-pigmented colonies. Both strains were found to be able to grow at 20-50 °C (optimum 30 °C), at 1.7-4.8 M NaCl (optimum 2.6-3.1 M NaCl), at 0-1.0 M MgCl2 (optimum 0.005-0.1 M MgCl2) and at pH 6.0-9.5 (optimum pH 7.0). The major polar lipids were identified as phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester, phosphatidylglycerol sulfate and one major glycolipid chromatographically identical to a sulfated mannosyl glucosyl diether produced by Halorubrum members of the Halobacteriaceae. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of the two strains were 99.9 % identical, showing 94.6-98.0 % similarity to those of members of the genus Halorubrum. The EF-2 gene similarity between strains R60(T) and R60 was 100 % and showed 84.6-94.5 % similarity to those of members of the genus Halorubrum. The DNA G+C contents of the two strains were determined to be 63.0 mol %. The DNA-DNA hybridization value between strain R60(T) and strain R61 was 92 % and the two strains showed low DNA-DNA relatedness with the most related members of Halorubrum. The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic properties suggest that strain R60(T) (= CGMCC 1.12689(T) = JCM 30040(T)) and strain R61 (= CGMCC 1.12696) represent a novel species of the genus Halorubrum, for which the name Halorubrum laminariae sp. nov. is proposed.

  8. Thermodynamics of geothermal brines. I. Thermodynamic properties of vapor-saturated NaCl (aq) solutions from 0-300 {sup 0}C

    Silvester, L.F.; Pitzer, K.S.

    1976-01-01

    Osmotic and activity coefficient data, enthalpy data, and heat capacity data on aqueous sodium chloride solutions from various sources have been fitted to a thirteen parameter equation. The equation reproduces the osmotic coefficient data to +-0.005 over the composition range 0-6M and temperature range 0-300{sup 0}C, enthalpy data to +-5-10 cal/mole for compositions of 0-5M at temperatures from 25-100{sup 0}C, and heat capacity data to +-0.5 cal/{sup 0}K for compositions of 0-2M at temperatures from 25-200{sup 0}C. Tabulated values of the total Gibbs energy, enthalpy, and heat capacity, plus partial molal and excess thermodynamic quantities of sodium chloride solutions for compositions of 0-6M at 25{sup 0}C intervals from 0-300{sup 0}C are given along with the same quantities in graphical form for compositions of 0-6M at temperatures of 100-350{sup 0}C.

  9. Irradiation induced creep in whiskers of NaCl

    Khan, J.A.A.

    1977-09-01

    Whiskers of NaCl have been grown and irradiated under flexion by X-rays (approximately 2x10 7 R/h) at room temperature and the residual curvature measured. Complete recovery of the initial form of the whisker within an hour's annealing at 400 0 C proves clearly that the observed deformation (creep) is due to the presence of dislocation loops. The choice of NaCl extremely simplifies the experiment and its interpretation since X-rays create point defects one by one. Moreover, this mode of irradiation, at room temperature, produces a very simple situation: perfect interstitial dislocation loops and immobile point defects which are little influenced by the applied stress. The flexion leads to a stress system which hardly differs from an uniaxial stress. One can study separately the preferential nucleation of dislocation loops and their differential growth by carrying out an irradiation under stress followed by an irradiation without stress and vice versa. It is shown that the induced creep is mostly due to the preferential nucleation of dislocation loops and is little affected by the differential growth of these loops. The nucleation period of the loops is very short: a dose of approximately 10 -5 d.p.a. is largely sufficient for the quasi completion of dislocation loops in a crystal having an impurity concentration of approximately 10 -3 [fr

  10. Geochemical evolution of brines in the Salar of Uyuni, Bolivia.

    Rettig, S.L.; Jones, B.F.; Risacher, F.

    1980-01-01

    Recent analyses of brines from the Salars of Uyuni and Coipasa have been compared with published data for Lakes Titicaca and Poopo to evaluate solute compositional trends in these remnants of two large Pleistocene lakes once connected by overflow from the N to the S of the Bolivian Altiplano. From Titicaca to Poopo the water shows an increase in Cl and N somewhat greater than the total solutes. Ca and SO4 increase to a lesser extent than total dissolved solids, and carbonate species are relatively constant. Between Poopo and Coipasa proportions of Ca, SO4 and CO3 continue to decrease. At Coipasa and Uyuni, the great salars frequently evaporate to halite saturation. Halite crystallization is accompanied by an increased K, Mg and SO4 in residual brines. - from Authors

  11. An improved brine shrimp larvae lethality microwell test method.

    Zhang, Yi; Mu, Jun; Han, Jinyuan; Gu, Xiaojie

    2012-01-01

    This article described an improved brine shrimp larvae lethality microwell test method. A simply designed connecting vessel with alternative photoperiod was used to culture and collect high yield of active Artemia parthenogenetica nauplii for brine shrimp larvae lethality microwell test. Using this method, pure A. parthenogenetica nauplii suspension was easily cultured and harvested with high density about 100-150 larvae per milliliter and the natural mortality was reduced to near zero by elimination of unnecessary artificial disturbance. And its sensitivity was validated by determination of LC(50)-24 h of different reference toxicants including five antitumor agents, two pesticides, three organic pollutants, and four heavy metals salts, most of which exhibited LC(50)-24 h between 0.07 and 58.43 mg/L except for bleomycin and mitomycin C with LC(50)-24 h over 300 mg/L.

  12. Insertion sequences enrichment in extreme Red sea brine pool vent

    Elbehery, Ali H. A.

    2016-12-03

    Mobile genetic elements are major agents of genome diversification and evolution. Limited studies addressed their characteristics, including abundance, and role in extreme habitats. One of the rare natural habitats exposed to multiple-extreme conditions, including high temperature, salinity and concentration of heavy metals, are the Red Sea brine pools. We assessed the abundance and distribution of different mobile genetic elements in four Red Sea brine pools including the world’s largest known multiple-extreme deep-sea environment, the Red Sea Atlantis II Deep. We report a gradient in the abundance of mobile genetic elements, dramatically increasing in the harshest environment of the pool. Additionally, we identified a strong association between the abundance of insertion sequences and extreme conditions, being highest in the harshest and deepest layer of the Red Sea Atlantis II Deep. Our comparative analyses of mobile genetic elements in secluded, extreme and relatively non-extreme environments, suggest that insertion sequences predominantly contribute to polyextremophiles genome plasticity.

  13. Brine crude oil interactions at the oil-water interface

    Chakravarty, Krishna Hara; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Thomsen, Kaj

    2015-01-01

    The impact of brine salinity and its ionic composition on oil displacement efficiency has been investigated extensively in recent years due to the potential of enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Wettability alterations through relative interactions at the mineral surface have been the basis of proposed...... in enhancing oil emulsion formation by increasing interactions between polar acids and brine solutions. The results propose the potential use of HPO42- ions in reservoirs having inactive mineral surfaces. The relative oil affinity of different ions including K+, Na+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ (cations), and Cl-, SO42...... and thus reduces the interfacial viscoelasticity of the trapped oil. These results show significant correlation between oil emulsion formation and increased oil recovery. Copyright 2015; Society of Petroleum Engineers...

  14. The determination of vanadium in brines by atomic absorption spectroscopy

    Crump-Wiesner, Hans J.; Feltz, H.R.; Purdy, W.C.

    1971-01-01

    A standard addition method is described for the determination of vanadium in brines by atomic absorption spectroscopy with a nitrous oxide-acetylene flame. Sample pH is adjusted to 1.0 with concentrated hydrochloric acid and the vanadium is directly extracted with 5% cupferron in methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). The ketone layer is then aspirated into the flame and the recorded absorption values are plotted as a function of the concentration of the added metal. As little as 2.5 ??g l-1 of vanadium can be detected under the conditions of the procedure. Tungsten and tin interfere when present in excess of 5 and 10 ??g ml-1, respectively. The concentrations of the two interfering ions normally found in brines are well below interference levels. ?? 1971.

  15. Comparison of Freezing and Hydrate Formation Methods in Removing Chloride and Bromide Ions from Brine

    Marzieh Fattahi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing population and enhanced industrial activities coupled with limitations on freshwater availability have led to efforts to desalinate salt water from the seas. Membrane and thermal technologies are the two commonly used for this purpose. In this study, the direct freezing and hydrate formation techniques were used for salt water desalination. Materials and Methods: Distilled water, sodium chloride, and sodium bromide were used as raw materials in the experiments. The experimental setup included a stationary reactor with two coaxial cylinders, in which ice crystals were deposited outside the cool inner cylinder to increase the salt concentration in the residual brine. An electrical conductivity instrument was used to measure sal removal. Results: Salt removal was shown to decrease with increasing salt concentration in the direct freeze method. A different trend was, however, observed in the hydrate formation method; salt removal was negligible at low concentrations in this method but increased at high concentrations before a constant value was reached. Overall, the hydrate formation recorded a higher salt removal efficiency than the other method. To investigate the effect of anion size on salt removal efficiency, experiments were carried out using NaCl and NaBr, which have the same cation but different anion sizes. Result showed that removal efficiency increased with increasing anion size. Conclusion: It was found that increasing ion radius leads to the lower likelihood of ion presence in the crystal lattice, thereby reducing salt removal efficiency. On the other hand, low concentrations of salt serve as site for the generation of cores, which naturally serve as removal accelerators.

  16. Inhibition of Weld Corrosion in Flowing Brines Containing Carbon Dioxide

    Alawadhi, Khaled

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the effectiveness of a typical oilfield corrosion inhibitor, which is considered to be a green inhibitor (non toxic to the environment) in controlling internal corrosion of welded X65 pipeline steel in brines saturated with carbon dioxide at one bar pressure, under dynamic flowing conditions, over a range of temperatures. Several experimental configurations were used ranging from a simple flat plate design to a novel rotating cylinder electrode, to all...

  17. Uranium, RADON and radon isotopes in selected brines of Poland

    Kozlowska, B.; Walencik, A.; Zipper, W.; Dorda, J.; Przylibski, T.A.

    2010-01-01

    Natural radioactive isotopes were studied in nine different types of brines from four locations in Poland. Investigated brines are exploited from various geological structures composed of the rocks of different chemical and mineral composition as well as different age and depth. All investigated brines are used in balneotherapy (i.e. baths, inhalations, showers). The main goal of this study was to obtain some basic knowledge on the activity range of natural elements such as uranium, RADON and radon in different brine types in Poland and their variability depending on their location in certain geological structures. Activities of 234,238 U, 226,228 Ra and 222 Rn isotopes were measured with the use of two nuclear spectrometry techniques: liquid scintillation and alpha spectrometry. The activity concentrations of 222 Rn vary from below 1 to 76.1±3.7 Bq/l, for the 226 Ra isotope from 0.19±0.01 to 85.5±0.4 Bq/l and for 228 Ra from below 0.03 to 2.17±0.09 Bq/l. For uranium isotopes, the concentrations are in the range from below 0.5 to 5.1±0.4 mBq/l for 238 U and from 1.6±0.4 to 45.6±2.0 mBq/l for 2 34U . The obtained results indicate high RADON activity concentrations corresponding to high mineralization of waters. (authors)

  18. Design of Tomato Drying System by Utilizing Brine Geothermal

    Afuar, W.; Sibarani, B.; Abdurrahman, G.; Hendrarsakti, J.

    2016-09-01

    Cultivation of tomato plants in Indonesia has been started since 1961.Tomatoes generally will rot in three days if left on storage. Moreover, low quality tomatoes have cheaper price. After harvested, tomatoes need to be treated by drying process so it can last longer. Energy for drying tomatoes can be obtained by utilizing heat from geothermal brine. Purpose of this research is to design a tomato drying system by extracting heat of geothermal brine from separator with certain flow rate to heat up water by using a heat exchanger. Furthermore, this water will be used to heat up the surrounding air which is circulated by blower system to heat up the tomatoes chamber. Tomatoes drying process needs temperature range of 50-70°C to evaporate water content from 95.7% to 26%. After that treatment, the tomatoes are expected to have better durability. The objective of this study is to determine the quantity of hot brine which is needed for drying tomatoes and to design a drying system so that tomatoes can last longer.

  19. Reverse osmosis brine for phosphorus recovery from source separated urine.

    Tian, Xiujun; Wang, Guotian; Guan, Detian; Li, Jiuyi; Wang, Aimin; Li, Jin; Yu, Zhe; Chen, Yong; Zhang, Zhongguo

    2016-12-01

    Phosphorus (P) recovery from waste streams has recently been recognized as a key step in the sustainable supply of this indispensable and non-renewable resource. The feasibility of using brine from a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane unit treating cooling water as a precipitant for P recovery from source separated urine was evaluated in the present study. P removal efficiency, process parameters and precipitate properties were investigated in batch and continuous flow experiments. More than 90% of P removal was obtained from both undiluted fresh and hydrolyzed urines by mixing with RO brine (1:1, v/v) at a pH over 9.0. Around 2.58 and 1.24 Kg of precipitates could be recovered from 1 m 3 hydrolyzed and fresh urine, respectively, and the precipitated solids contain 8.1-19.0% of P, 10.3-15.2% of Ca, 3.7-5.0% of Mg and 0.1-3.5% of ammonium nitrogen. Satisfactory P removal performance was also achieved in a continuous flow precipitation reactor with a hydraulic retention time of 3-6 h. RO brine could be considered as urinal and toilet flush water despite of a marginally higher precipitation tendency than tap water. This study provides a widely available, low - cost and efficient precipitant for P recovery in urban areas, which will make P recovery from urine more economically attractive. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Certain questions about analysis of natural gas disolved in brine

    Tezuka, M; Nakamura, M; Omi, K

    1983-01-01

    The composition of the gaseous phase of stratum brines is determined and the analysis technique is described. Ordinary analysis is performed with the assumptions that the contents of small components (excluding C02 and N2) are ignorably small and that the gas contains no 02. The determined concentrations of 02 and the proportional share of N2 are calculated from results of analysis as bound with pollutants. The high sensitivity of modern analytical methods makes it possible to identify quite small and trace concentrations of components, but corrections for air contamination may partially depreciate these results. Data are cited from gas chromatographic identifications of the components of gases disolved in the stratum brines of a Japanese deposit. C2H6 is established in all samples and C3H8 in two thirds of the samples, where H2 and helium were not detected anywhere. The concentrations of the gas phase on the whole in the brine were low. 02 falls into the samples in a water dissolved state; this demands the use of unconventional proportion of 02 to N2 (1 to 3.55), which is characteristic for air and a proportion of 1 to 2 which is characteristic for disolved air. With the conventional ordinary technique the consideration of the air contamination leads to a substantial underestimate of the N2 results. At the same time, the incorrect introduction of corrections for N2 has no effect on the heat creativity of the disolved gas.

  1. Brine migration test - Asse salt mine, Federal Republic of Germany

    Rothfuchs, T.; Wieczorek, K.; Feddersen, H.K.; Staupendahl, G.; Coyle, A.J.; Kalia, H.; Eckert, J.

    1988-03-01

    This document is the final report on the Cooperative German-American 'Brine Migration Tests' that were performed at the Asse Salt Mine in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI), Columbus, Ohio, and the Institut fuer Tieflagerung (IfT), Braunschweig, of the Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH Muenchen (GSF). Final test and equipment design as well as manufacturing and installation was carried out by Westinghouse Electric Corporation. The tests were designed to simulate a nuclear waste repository to measure the effects of heat and gamma radiation on brine migration, salt decrepitation, disassociation of brine, and gases collected. The thermal mechanical behavior of salt, such as room closure, stresses and changes of the properties of salt are measured and compared with predicted behavior. The performance of an array of candidate waste package materials, test equipment and procedures under repository conditions will be evaluated with a view towards future in-depth testing of potential repository sites. (orig./RB)

  2. Fluid inclusion brine compositions from Palo Duro Basin salt sites

    Moody, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    The fluid inclusion analyses were done on salt samples from Lower San Andres Cycle 4 and 5. The stable isotope composition of the fluid inclusion brines was measured on duplicate samples taken from the same fluid inclusion brine for correlation of geochemical content with the stable isotopic content. The analyzed Palo Duro Basin salt fluid inclusions are predominantly one phase, i.e., the presence of a fluid only. However, many of the larger fluid inclusions do have a small vapor bubble. This liquid/vapor ratio is so high in these vapor-containing fluid inclusions that their behavior in a thermal gradient would be almost identical to that of all liquid inclusions. Closely associated with the fluid inclusions are cryptomelane where some fibers penetrate into halite host crystal. The fluid inclusions have a wide variability in content for those components that were analyzed, even within the same salt type. The fluid inclusion brines are also acidic, ranging from 3 to 6 as measured with pH test papers

  3. CO2/Brine transport into shallow aquifers along fault zones.

    Keating, Elizabeth H; Newell, Dennis L; Viswanathan, Hari; Carey, J W; Zyvoloski, G; Pawar, Rajesh

    2013-01-02

    Unintended release of CO(2) from carbon sequestration reservoirs poses a well-recognized risk to groundwater quality. Research has largely focused on in situ CO(2)-induced pH depression and subsequent trace metal mobilization. In this paper we focus on a second mechanism: upward intrusion of displaced brine or brackish-water into a shallow aquifer as a result of CO(2) injection. Studies of two natural analog sites provide insights into physical and chemical mechanisms controlling both brackish water and CO(2) intrusion into shallow aquifers along fault zones. At the Chimayó, New Mexico site, shallow groundwater near the fault is enriched in CO(2) and, in some places, salinity is significantly elevated. In contrast, at the Springerville, Arizona site CO(2) is leaking upward through brine aquifers but does not appear to be increasing salinity in the shallow aquifer. Using multiphase transport simulations we show conditions under which significant CO(2) can be transported through deep brine aquifers into shallow layers. Only a subset of these conditions favor entrainment of salinity into the shallow aquifer: high aspect-ratio leakage pathways and viscous coupling between the fluid phases. Recognition of the conditions under which salinity is favored to be cotransported with CO(2) into shallow aquifers will be important in environmental risk assessments.

  4. Performance and life cycle environmental benefits of recycling spent ion exchange brines by catalytic treatment of nitrate.

    Choe, Jong Kwon; Bergquist, Allison M; Jeong, Sangjo; Guest, Jeremy S; Werth, Charles J; Strathmann, Timothy J

    2015-09-01

    Salt used to make brines for regeneration of ion exchange (IX) resins is the dominant economic and environmental liability of IX treatment systems for nitrate-contaminated drinking water sources. To reduce salt usage, the applicability and environmental benefits of using a catalytic reduction technology to treat nitrate in spent IX brines and enable their reuse for IX resin regeneration were evaluated. Hybrid IX/catalyst systems were designed and life cycle assessment of process consumables are used to set performance targets for the catalyst reactor. Nitrate reduction was measured in a typical spent brine (i.e., 5000 mg/L NO3(-) and 70,000 mg/L NaCl) using bimetallic Pd-In hydrogenation catalysts with variable Pd (0.2-2.5 wt%) and In (0.0125-0.25 wt%) loadings on pelletized activated carbon support (Pd-In/C). The highest activity of 50 mgNO3(-)/(min - g(Pd)) was obtained with a 0.5 wt%Pd-0.1 wt%In/C catalyst. Catalyst longevity was demonstrated by observing no decrease in catalyst activity over more than 60 days in a packed-bed reactor. Based on catalyst activity measured in batch and packed-bed reactors, environmental impacts of hybrid IX/catalyst systems were evaluated for both sequencing-batch and continuous-flow packed-bed reactor designs and environmental impacts of the sequencing-batch hybrid system were found to be 38-81% of those of conventional IX. Major environmental impact contributors other than salt consumption include Pd metal, hydrogen (electron donor), and carbon dioxide (pH buffer). Sensitivity of environmental impacts of the sequencing-batch hybrid reactor system to sulfate and bicarbonate anions indicate the hybrid system is more sustainable than conventional IX when influent water contains reuse cycles. The study showed that hybrid IX/catalyst reactor systems have potential to reduce resource consumption and improve environmental impacts associated with treating nitrate-contaminated water sources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  5. Effect of iron cation on geochemical trapping of CO2 in brine

    Liu, Qi; Maroto-Valer, Mercedes

    2014-05-01

    Carbon dioxide sequestration using brines has emerged as a promising technology to mitigate the adverse impacts of climate change due to its large storage capacity and favorable chemistries. However, the permanent storage (mineral trapping) of CO2 in brines takes significantly long periods of time as the formation and precipitation of carbonates is very slow .[1]. The main parameters reported to effect on mineral trapping of CO2 sequestration in brines are brine composition, brine pH, system temperature and pressure.[2, 3]. It is suggested that the precipitation of mineral carbonates is mostly dependent on brine pH. Previous studies by the authors concluded that iron in natural brines causes pH instability, but it was not ascertained whether ferric iron or ferrous iron caused pH instability .[4]. Accordingly, the aim of this project is to study synthetic brines mimicking the major ions found in natural brines and including different concentrations of ferric and ferrous iron. Three brines were prepared, as follows: Brine 1 was prepared with ferric Fe3+ iron, Brine 2 prepared with ferrous Fe2+ iron and Brine 3 prepared with no iron. A series of pH stability studies and carbonation reactions were conducted using the above three brines. It is concluded that the ferrous iron causes pH instability, while ferric iron might promote carbonate precipitation. .1. Garcia, S., et al., Sequestration of non-pure carbon dioxide streams in iron oxyhydroxide-containing saline repositories. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 2012. 7: p. 89-97. 2. Liu, Q. and M.M. Maroto-Valer, Investigation of the pH effect of a typical host rock and buffer solution on CO 2 sequestration in synthetic brines. Fuel Processing Technology, 2010. 91(10): p. 1321-1329. 3. Liu, Q. and M.M. MarotoValer, Parameters affecting mineral trapping of CO2 sequestration in brines. Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology, 2011. 1(3): p. 211-222. 4. Druckenmiller, M.L. and M.M. Maroto-Valer, Carbon

  6. An evaporated seawater origin for the ore-forming brines in unconformity-related uranium deposits (Athabasca Basin, Canada): Cl/Br and δ 37Cl analysis of fluid inclusions

    Richard, Antonin; Banks, David A.; Mercadier, Julien; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Cuney, Michel; Cathelineau, Michel

    2011-05-01

    Analyses of halogen concentration and stable chlorine isotope composition of fluid inclusions from hydrothermal quartz and carbonate veins spatially and temporally associated with giant unconformity-related uranium deposits from the Paleoproterozoic Athabasca Basin (Canada) were performed in order to determine the origin of chloride in the ore-forming brines. Microthermometric analyses show that samples contain variable amounts of a NaCl-rich brine (Cl concentration between 120,000 and 180,000 ppm) and a CaCl 2-rich brine (Cl concentration between 160,000 and 220,000 ppm). Molar Cl/Br ratios of fluid inclusion leachates range from ˜100 to ˜900, with most values between 150 and 350. Cl/Br ratios below 650 (seawater value) indicate that the high salinities were acquired by evaporation of seawater. Most δ 37Cl values are between -0.6‰ and 0‰ (seawater value) which is also compatible with a common evaporated seawater origin for both NaCl- and CaCl 2-rich brines. Slight discrepancies between the Cl concentration, Cl/Br, δ 37Cl data and seawater evaporation trends, indicate that the evaporated seawater underwent secondary minor modification of its composition by: (i) mixing with a minor amount of halite-dissolution brine or re-equilibration with halite during burial; (ii) dilution in a maximum of 30% of connate and/or formation waters during its migration towards the base of the Athabasca sandstones; (iii) leaching of chloride from biotites within basement rocks and (iv) water loss by hydration reactions in alteration haloes linked to uranium deposition. The chloride in uranium ore-forming brines of the Athabasca Basin has an unambiguous dominantly marine origin and has required large-scale seawater evaporation and evaporite deposition. Although the direct evidence for evaporative environments in the Athabasca Basin are lacking due to the erosion of ˜80% of the sedimentary pile, Cl/Br ratios and δ 37Cl values of brines have behaved conservatively at the basin

  7. Microbial changes and growth of Listeria monocytogenes during chilled storage of brined shrimp ( Pandalus borealis )

    Mejlholm, Ole; Kjeldgaard, J.; Modberg, A.

    2008-01-01

    Thirteen storage trials and ten challenge tests were carried out to examine microbial changes, spoilage and the potential growth of Listeria monocytogenes in brined shrimp (Pandalus borealis). Shrimp in brine as well as brined and drained shrimp in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) were produced...... and lactic acids were studied. Furthermore, the effect of adding diacetate to brined shrimp was evaluated. A single batch of cooked and peeled shrimp was used to study both industrially and manually processed brined shrimp with respect to the effect of process hygiene on microbial changes and the shelf life...... of products. Concentrations of microorganisms on newly produced brined shrimp from an industrial scale processing line were 1.0-2.3 log (CFU g(-1)) higher than comparable concentrations in manually processed samples. This resulted in a substantially shorter shelf life and a more diverse spoilage microflora...

  8. Pressurized brines in continental Antarctica as a possible analogue of Mars.

    Forte, Emanuele; Dalle Fratte, Michele; Azzaro, Maurizio; Guglielmin, Mauro

    2016-09-12

    Interest in brines in extreme and cold environments has recently increased after they have been found on Mars. Those brines can be potential new subsurface habitats for peculiar ecosystems. In the McMurdo Dry Valleys of the Antarctic, the best analogue for Mars conditions, only a few cases of brines have been identified in some perennially frozen lakes and in one case in an underground aquifer. Here, we present the occurrence of pressurized brines in a shallow perennially ice-covered lake south of 70°S in an ice-free area of Victoria Land, Antarctica. For the first time, we also imaged, by means of ground penetrating radar data, the existence of a pingo-like-feature (PLF) formed by the extrusion of brines, which has also been confirmed by borehole evidence. Those brines are fed by an underground talik external to the lake basin, enhancing the possibility of unexploited ecosystems that could find an analogue in Martian environments.

  9. CO2 Fixation by Membrane Separated NaCl Electrolysis

    Park, Hyun Sic; Lee, Ju Sung; Han, Junyoung

    2015-01-01

    for converting CO2 into CaCO3 requires high temperature and high pressure as reaction conditions. This study proposes a method to fixate CaCO3 stably by using relatively less energy than existing methods. After forming NaOH absorbent solution through electrolysis of NaCl in seawater, CaCO3 was precipitated...... crystal product was high-purity calcite. The study shows a successful method for fixating CO2 by reducing carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere while forming high-purity CaCO3.......Atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), a major cause of global warming, have been rising due to industrial development. Carbon capture and storage (CCS), which is regarded as the most effective way to reduce such atmospheric CO2 concentrations, has several environmental and technical...

  10. Computer simulation of aqueous Na-Cl electrolytes

    Hummer, G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Soumpasis, D.M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Biophysikalische Chemie (Karl-Friedrich-Bonhoeffer-Institut), Goettingen (Germany); Neumann, M. [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik

    1993-11-01

    Equilibrium structure of aqueous Na-Cl electrolytes between 1 and 5 mol/l is studied by means of molecular dynamics computer simulation using interaction site descriptions of water and ionic components. Electrostatic interactions are treated both with the newly developed charged-clouds scheme and with Ewald summation. In the case of a 5 mol/l electrolyte, the results for pair correlations obtained by the two methods are in excellent agreement. However, the charged-clouds technique is much faster than Ewald summation and makes simulations at lower salt concentrations feasible. It is found that both ion-water and ion-ion correlation functions depend only weakly on the ionic concentration. Sodium and chloride ions exhibit only a negligible tendency to form contact pairs. In particular, no chloride ion pairs in contact are observed.

  11. Computer simulation of aqueous Na-Cl electrolytes

    Hummer, G.; Soumpasis, D.M.; Neumann, M.

    1993-01-01

    Equilibrium structure of aqueous Na-Cl electrolytes between 1 and 5 mol/l is studied by means of molecular dynamics computer simulation using interaction site descriptions of water and ionic components. Electrostatic interactions are treated both with the newly developed charged-clouds scheme and with Ewald summation. In the case of a 5 mol/l electrolyte, the results for pair correlations obtained by the two methods are in excellent agreement. However, the charged-clouds technique is much faster than Ewald summation and makes simulations at lower salt concentrations feasible. It is found that both ion-water and ion-ion correlation functions depend only weakly on the ionic concentration. Sodium and chloride ions exhibit only a negligible tendency to form contact pairs. In particular, no chloride ion pairs in contact are observed

  12. Receding and advancing (CO_2 + brine + quartz) contact angles as a function of pressure, temperature, surface roughness, salt type and salinity

    Al-Yaseri, Ahmed Z.; Lebedev, Maxim; Barifcani, Ahmed; Iglauer, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • (Water + CO_2) contact angle on quartz increases substantially with pressure and salinity. • (Water + CO_2) contact angle on quartz increases slightly with temperature. • Surface roughness has only a minor influence on (water + CO_2 + quartz) contact angles. - Abstract: The wetting characteristics of CO_2 in rock are of vital importance in carbon geo-storage as they determine fluid dynamics and storage capacities. However, the current literature data has a high uncertainty, which translates into uncertain predictions in terms of containment security and economic project feasibility. We thus measured contact angles for the CO_2/water/quartz system at relevant reservoir conditions, and analysed the effects of pressure (0.1 to 20) MPa, temperature (296 to 343) K, surface roughness (56 to 1300) nm, salt type (NaCl, CaCl_2, and MgCl_2) and brine salinities (0 to 35) wt%. Water contact angles decreased with surface roughness, but increased with pressure, temperature, and brine salinity. Overall the contact angles were significantly increased at storage conditions (∼50°) when compared to ambient conditions (always 0°). Consequently quartz is weakly water-wet (not completely water-wet) at storage conditions, and structural and residual trapping capacities are reduced accordingly.

  13. Metamorphic brines and no surficial fluids trapped in the detachment footwall of a Metamorphic Core Complex (Nevado-Filábride units, Betics, Spain)

    Dyja-Person, Vanessa; Tarantola, Alexandre; Richard, Antonin; Hibsch, Christian; Siebenaller, Luc; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Cathelineau, Michel; Boulvais, Philippe

    2018-03-01

    The ductile-brittle transition zone in extensional regimes can play the role of a hydrogeological barrier. Quartz veins developed within an orthogneiss body located in the detachment footwall of a Metamorphic Core Complex (MCC) in the Nevado-Filábride units (Betics, Spain). The detachment footwall is composed mainly of gneisses, schists and metacarbonates from the Bédar-Macael sub-unit. Schist and metacarbonate bodies show evidence of ductile deformation at the time the gneiss was already undergoing brittle deformation and vein opening during exhumation. The vein system provides the opportunity to investigate the origin, composition and PVTX conditions of the fluids that circulated in the detachment footwall while the footwall units were crossing the ductile-brittle transition. The analysis of fluid inclusions reveals the presence of a single type of fluid: 30-40 mass% NaCl > KCl > CaCl2 > MgCl2 brines, with trace amounts of CO2 and N2 and tens to thousands of ppm of metals such as Fe, Sr, Li, Zn, Ba, Pb and Cu. δDfluid values between -39.8 and -16.7‰ and δ18Ofluid values between 4.4 and 11.7 ± 0.5‰ show that the brines have undergone protracted interaction with the host orthogneissic body. Coupled salinity and Cl/Br ratios (200 to 4400) indicate that the brines originate from dissolution of Triassic metaevaporites by metamorphic fluids variably enriched in Br by interaction with graphitic schists. This study highlights the absence of any record of surficial fluids within the veins, despite the brittle deformation conditions prevailing in this orthogneiss body. The fact that fluids from the detachment footwall were isolated from surficial fluid reservoirs may result from the presence of overlying schists and metacarbonates that continued to be affected by ductile deformation during vein formation in the gneiss, preventing downward circulation of surface-derived fluids.

  14. Impaired NaCl taste thresholds in Zn deprived rats

    Brosvic, G.M.; Slotnick, B.M.; Nelson, N.; Henkin, R.I.

    1986-01-01

    Zn deficiency is a relatively common cause of loss of taste acuity in humans. In some patients replacement with exogenous Zn results in rapid reversal of the loss whereas in others prolonged treatment is needed to restore normal taste function. To study this 300 gm outbred Sprague Dawley rats were given Zn deficient diet (< 1 ppm Zn) supplemented with Zn in drinking water (0.1 gm Zn/100 gm body weight). Rats were trained in an automated operant conditions procedure and NaCl taste thresholds determined. During an initial training period and over two replications mean thresholds were 0.006% and mean plasma Zn was 90 +/- 2 μg/dl (M +/- SEM) determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Rats were then divided into two groups; in one (3 rats) Zn supplement was removed, in the other (4 rats), pair-fed with the former group, Zn supplement was continued. In 10 days NaCl thresholds in Zn deprived rats increased significantly (0.07%, p < 0.01) and in 17 days increased 13 fold (0.08%) but thresholds for pair fed, supplemented rats remained constant (0.006%). There was no overlap in response between any rat in the two groups. Plasma Zn at 17 days in Zn-deprived rats was significantly below pair-fed rats (52 +/- 13 vs 89 +/- 6 μg/dl, respectively, P < 0.01). At this time Zn-deprived rats were supplemented with Zn for 27 days without any reduction in taste thresholds. These preliminary results are consistent with previous observations in Zn deficient patients

  15. The technology of uranium extraction from the brine with high chlorine-ion content

    Khakimov, N.; Nazarov, Kh.M.; Mirsaidov, I.U.; Negmatov, Sh.I.; Barotov, B.B.

    2010-01-01

    Present article is devoted to technology of uranium extraction from the brine with high chlorine-ion content. The research results on uranium extraction from the brine of Sasik-Kul Lake by means of sorption method were considered. The chemical composition of salt was determined. The process of uranium sorption was described and analyzed. The technology of uranium extraction from the brine with high chlorine-ion content was proposed.

  16. Crystallographic characterization of cement pastes hydrated with NaCl; Caracterizacao cristalografica de pastas de cimento hidratadas com NaCl

    Melo, Carina Gabriela de Melo e; Martinelli, Antonio Eduardo; Melo, Dulce Maria Araujo; Melo, Marcus Antonio de Freitas; Melo, Vitor Rodrigo de Melo e [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    One of the major current challenges faced by oil companies is the exploration of pre salt basins. Salt layers deposited upon the evaporation of ocean water and continental separation are mainly formed by NaCl and isolate immense oil reservoirs. The mechanical stability and zonal isolation of oil wells that run through salt layers must be fulfilled by cement sheaths saturated with NaCl to assure chemical compatibility between cement and salt layer. The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of NaCl addition on the hydration of oil well cement slurries as well as identifying the nature of crystalline phases present in the hardened cement. To that end, cement slurries containing NaCl were mixed, hardened and characterized by X-ray diffraction. The results revealed that the presence of NaCl affects the formation of hydration products by the presence of Friedel's salt. The intensity of the corresponding peaks increase as the contents of NaCl in the slurry increase. High concentrations of NaCl in Portland slurries increase the setting time of cement and the presence of Friedel's salt decreases the strength of the hardened cement. (author)

  17. Process development for treatment of fluoride containing wastes

    Singh, Mahesh; Kanvinde, V Y [Chemical Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    1994-06-01

    Many chemical and metallurgical industries generate liquid wastes containing high values of fluorides in association of nitrates and other metals. Due to harmful effects of fluorides these type of wastes can not be disposed off in the environment without proper treatment. Bench-scale laboratory experiments were conducted to develop a process scheme to fix the fluorides as non-leachable solid waste and fluoride free treated liquid waste for their disposal. To optimize the important parameters, simulated synthetic and actual wastes were used. For this study, three waste streams were collected from Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad. (author). 6 tabs., 1 fig.

  18. Pressure-induced brine migration in consolidated salt in a repository

    Hwang, Y.; Chambre, P.L.; Lee, W.W.L.; Pigford, T.H.

    1987-06-01

    This report describes a mathematical model for brine migration through intact salt near a radioactive waste package emplaced in salt. Solutions indicate limited movement following ten years emplacement

  19. Pressurized brines in continental Antarctica as a possible analogue of Mars

    Forte, Emanuele; Dalle Fratte, Michele; Azzaro, Maurizio; Guglielmin, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Interest in brines in extreme and cold environments has recently increased after they have been found on Mars. Those brines can be potential new subsurface habitats for peculiar ecosystems. In the McMurdo Dry Valleys of the Antarctic, the best analogue for Mars conditions, only a few cases of brines have been identified in some perennially frozen lakes and in one case in an underground aquifer. Here, we present the occurrence of pressurized brines in a shallow perennially ice-covered lake sou...

  20. Strontium isotope evidence on the history of oilfield brines, Mediterranean Coastal Plain, Israel

    Starinsky, A.; Bielski, M.; Lazar, B.; Steinitz, G.; Raab, M.

    1983-01-01

    The isotopic composition of Sr in oil field brines from the Mediterranean Coastal Plain was determined in 18 drillholes. The brines are characterized by salinities ranging from 35 to 93 g/l (TDS), Sr from 28 to 350 mg/l, Sr/Ca molar ratios from 0.011 to 0.053 and 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios from 0.7075 to 0.7090. E and A = 0.7081 +- 0.0004 (2σ). The brines are classified into two groups: (a) Mavqi'im group - brines with relatively high 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios, sampled from clastics, dolomites and anhydrites of Upper Miocene age. (b) Heletz group - brines with relatively low 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios, sampled from sandstones and dolomites of Lower Cretaceous age. Equations were derived to show the relations between 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio of the brines and the processes through which they evolved. It is suggested that both groups of brines originated from Mediterranean evaporated seawater during the Messinian desiccation. The strontium isotope composition of the seawater is reflected in that of both groups of brines, the Mavqi'im group containing the original 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio. The Heletz group evolved later on, through exchange reactions of those primary brines with a carbonate sequence of Cretaceous age and consequently new 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios could have been developed. (author)

  1. Brine migrations in the Athabasca Basin platform, alteration and associated fluid-rock exchanges

    Mercadier, J.; Cathelineau, M.; Richard, A.; Boiron, M.Ch.; Cuney, M.; Milesi, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Uranium deposits of Athabasca Basin (Saskatchewan, Canada) are considered as the richest in the world. They result from massive percolation of basin brines in the underlying platform. The authors describe the brine movements and how structures and micro-fractures promoted this percolation until very important depths (hundreds of meters under the discordance), and their chemical modifications as they interacted with platform rocks, thus promoting the transformation of an initially sodic brine into a uranium-enriched calcic brine which is essential to the formation of discordance-type deposit

  2. IRSL characteristics of NaCl and KCl relative to dosimeter

    Tanir, Guenes; Hicabi Boeluekdemir, M.; Catli, Serap; Tel, Eyyuep

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work is to determine and compare the dosimetric properties of NaCl and KCl samples using infrared-stimulated luminescence (IRSL) technique. For a material to be used as dosimeter, both the IRSL temperature dependence and the radiation dose response have critical importance. In this work the IRSL characteristics from NaCl and KCl samples were experimentally investigated as a function of temperature and laboratory radiation doses. Dosimetric properties of NaCl and KCl samples were found significantly different. The IRSL signals displayed by NaCl were found to be more stable, reliable and agreeable than those of KCl

  3. TOUGHREACT Testing in High Ionic Strength Brine Sandstone Systems

    Xu, Tianfu

    2008-01-01

    Deep saline formations and oil and gas reservoirs often contain concentrated brine solutions of ionic strength greater than 1 (I > 1 M). Geochemical modeling, involving high ionic strength brines, is a challenge. In the original TOUGHREACT code (Xu et al., 2004; Xu et al., 2006), activity coefficients of charged aqueous species are computed using an extended Debye-Huckel (DH) equation and parameters derived by Helgeson et al. (1981). The DH model can deal with ionic strengths from dilute to moderately saline water (up to 6 molal for an NaCl-dominant solution). The equations implemented for the DH model are presented in Appendix A. During the course of the Yucca Mountain project, a Pitzer ion-interaction model was implemented into TOUGHREACT. This allows the application of this simulator to problems involving much more concentrated aqueous solutions, such as those involving geochemical processes in and around high-level nuclear waste repositories where fluid evaporation and/or boiling is expected to occur (Zhang et al., 2007). The Pitzer ion-interaction model, which we refer to as the Pitzer virial approach, and associated ion-interaction parameters have been applied successfully to study non-ideal concentrated aqueous solutions. The formulation of the Pitzer model is presented in Appendix B; detailed information can be founded in Zhang et al. (2007). For CO 2 geological sequestration, the Pitzer ion-interaction model for highly concentrated brines was incorporated into TOUGHREACT/ECO2N, then was tested and compared with a previously implemented extended Debye-Hueckel (DH) ion activity model. The comparison was made through a batch geochemical system using a Gulf Coast sandstone saline formation

  4. Modeling of nonuniform corrosion in salt brines: Salt Repository Project

    Reimus, P.W.

    1988-03-01

    A mechanistic approach to modeling nonuniform corrosion in brines is presented in this report. Equations are derived for completely describing the electrochemical environment within a localized corrosion cavity, and appropriate initial and boundary conditions are invoked to obtain a solvable system of equations. The initial and boundary conditions can be adjusted to simulate pitting, crevice corrosion, or stress corrosion cracking. Although no numerical results are presented, a numerical strategy for solving the equations is presented. The report focuses on the nonuniform corrosion behavior of mild steel; however, the modeling approach presented is expected to apply to a broad range of metallic materials. 34 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Protein removal from waste brines generated during ham salting through acidification and centrifugation.

    Gutiérrez-Martínez, Maria del Rosario; Muñoz-Guerrero, Hernán; Alcaína-Miranda, Maria Isabel; Barat, José Manuel

    2014-03-01

    The salting step in food processes implies the production of large quantities of waste brines, having high organic load, high conductivity, and other pollutants with high oxygen demand. Direct disposal of the residual brine implies salinization of soil and eutrophication of water. Since most of the organic load of the waste brines comes from proteins leaked from the salted product, precipitation of dissolved proteins by acidification and removal by centrifugation is an operation to be used in waste brine cleaning. The aim of this study is optimizing the conditions for carrying out the separation of proteins from waste brines generated in the pork ham salting operation, by studying the influence of pH, centrifugal force, and centrifugation time. Models for determining the removal of proteins depending on the pH, centrifugal force, and time were obtained. The results showed a high efficacy of the proposed treatment for removing proteins, suggesting that this method could be used for waste brine protein removal. The best pH value to be used in an industrial process seems to be 3, while the obtained results indicate that almost 90% of the proteins from the brine can be removed by acidification followed by centrifugation. A further protein removal from the brine should have to be achieved using filtrating techniques, which efficiency could be highly improved as a consequence of the previous treatment through acidification and centrifugation. Waste brines from meat salting have high organic load and electrical conductivity. Proteins can be removed from the waste brine by acidification and centrifugation. The total protein removal can be up to 90% of the initial content of the waste brine. Protein removal is highly dependent on pH, centrifugation rate, and time. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Passivity of alloy C-22 in NaCl solutions

    Rodriguez, Martin A.; Carranza, Ricardo M.

    2004-01-01

    Alloy C-22 has been proposed as the corrosion resistant barrier of high-level waste nuclear containers. This alloy must be resistant to corrosion in multi-ionic solutions for a period of time as long as 10,000 years. The aim of the present work was to study the corrosion behavior of alloy C-22 in NaCl solutions. General and crevice corrosion were studied by means of electrochemical techniques. Open circuit potential was measured over the time, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements were carried out at open circuit and passivity potentials, as well as cyclic potentiodynamic polarization curves. Corrosion rates obtained by EIS measurements were acceptable for a waste nuclear container ( P ) values increased with open circuit potential and polarization time at constant potential. This was attributed to an increase in oxide film thickness and its aging respectively. The passive oxide form on alloy C-22 at the studied conditions presented a n-type semiconductor behavior in the passive potential range. Repassivation potential values (E R1 ) were determined for alloy C-22 at the studied conditions using PCA probes. (author) [es

  7. Accurate thermoelastic tensor and acoustic velocities of NaCl

    Marcondes, Michel L., E-mail: michel@if.usp.br [Physics Institute, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, 05508-090 (Brazil); Chemical Engineering and Material Science, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 55455 (United States); Shukla, Gaurav, E-mail: shukla@physics.umn.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 55455 (United States); Minnesota supercomputer Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 55455 (United States); Silveira, Pedro da [Chemical Engineering and Material Science, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 55455 (United States); Wentzcovitch, Renata M., E-mail: wentz002@umn.edu [Chemical Engineering and Material Science, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 55455 (United States); Minnesota supercomputer Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 55455 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Despite the importance of thermoelastic properties of minerals in geology and geophysics, their measurement at high pressures and temperatures are still challenging. Thus, ab initio calculations are an essential tool for predicting these properties at extreme conditions. Owing to the approximate description of the exchange-correlation energy, approximations used in calculations of vibrational effects, and numerical/methodological approximations, these methods produce systematic deviations. Hybrid schemes combining experimental data and theoretical results have emerged as a way to reconcile available information and offer more reliable predictions at experimentally inaccessible thermodynamics conditions. Here we introduce a method to improve the calculated thermoelastic tensor by using highly accurate thermal equation of state (EoS). The corrective scheme is general, applicable to crystalline solids with any symmetry, and can produce accurate results at conditions where experimental data may not exist. We apply it to rock-salt-type NaCl, a material whose structural properties have been challenging to describe accurately by standard ab initio methods and whose acoustic/seismic properties are important for the gas and oil industry.

  8. Brine Pockets in the Icy Shell on Europa: Distribution, Chemistry, and Habitability

    Zolotov, M. Yu; Shock, E. L.; Barr, A. C.; Pappalardo, R. T.

    2004-01-01

    On Earth, sea ice is rich in brine, salt, and gas inclusions that form through capturing of seawater during ice formation. Cooling of the ice over time leads to sequential freezing of captured sea-water, precipitation of salts, exsolution of gases, and formation of brine channels and pockets. Distribution and composition of brines in sea ice depend on the rate of ice formation, vertical temperature gradient, and the age of the ice. With aging, the abundance of brine pockets decreases through downward migration. De- spite low temperatures and elevated salinities, brines in sea ice provide a habitat for photosynthetic and chemosynthetic organisms. On Europa, brine pockets and channels could exist in the icy shell that may be from a few km to a few tens of km thick and is probably underlain by a water ocean. If the icy shell is relatively thick, convection could develop, affecting the temperature pattern in the ice. To predict the distribution and chemistry of brine pockets in the icy shell we have combined numerical models of the temperature distribution within a convecting shell, a model for oceanic chemistry, and a model for freezing of Europan oceanic water. Possible effects of brine and gas inclusions on ice rheology and tectonics are discussed.

  9. Recovery of biomolecules from marinated herring (Clupea harengus) brine using ultrafiltration through ceramic membranes

    Gringer, Nina; Hosseini, Seyed Vali; Svendsen, Tore

    2015-01-01

    Marinated herring processing brines, which are usually discarded, are rich in salt, protein, non-protein nitrogen, iron, fatty acids, antioxidant and even possess enzymatic activity. This study investigated the performance of ceramic ultrafiltration of two herring spice brines with a major focus...

  10. Corrosion and hydrogen permeation of A216 Grade WCA steel in hydrothermal magnesium-containing brines

    Haberman, J.H.; Frydrych, D.J.; Westerman, R.E.

    1988-03-01

    Corrosion rates determined at 1 month in 150/degree/C brine increased with magnesium concentration. The structure of the corrosion product, as determined by x-ray diffraction, depended upon the magnesium concentration. In brines with less than 10,000 ppM magnesium, the primary corrosion product had a spinel structure characteristic of magnetite or magnesioferrite. In brines containing magnesium concentrations greater than 20,000 ppM, the primary corrosion product had the amakinite structure characteristic of a complex iron-magnesium hydroxide. The high corrosion rates observed in brines containing high magnesium concentrations suggest that the corrosion products having the amakinite structure is less protective than corrosion products having the spinel structure. Corrosion rates in high-magnesium (inclusion) brine determined over a 6-month test duration were essentially constant. Hydrogen permeation rates observed in exposing mild steel to high-Mg/sup 2/plus// brine at 150/degree/C could be potentially damaging to a mild steel waste package container. The rate of hydrogen permeation was proportional to the brine flow rate in the autoclave. Thiourea additions to the brine increased the hydrogen permeation rate; sulfate and bromide ion additions did not. The maximum gaseous hydrogen pressure attainable is not known (based on 3Fe /plus/ 4H 2 O /plus/ Fe(sub 3)O /plus/ 4H 2 , would be /approximately/900 atmospheres), and the dependence of permeation rate on temperature is not known. 8 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Geochemistry of Salado Formation brines recovered from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository

    Abitz, R.; Myers, J.; Drez, P.; Deal, D.

    1990-01-01

    Intergranular brines recovered from the repository horizon of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) have major- and trace-element compositions that reflect seawater evaporation and diagenetic processes. Brines obtained from repository drill holes are heterogenous with respect to composition, but their compositional fields are distinct from those obtained from fluid inclusions in WIPP halite. The heterogeneity of brine compositions within the drill-hole population indicates a lack of mixing and fluid homogenization within the salt at the repository level. Compositional differences between intergranular (drill hole) and intragranular (fluid inclusions) brines is attributed to isolation of the latter from diagenetic fluids that were produced from dehydration reactions involving gypsum and clay minerals. Modeling of brine-rock equilibria indicates that equilibration with evaporite minerals controls the concentrations of major elements in the brine. Drill-hole brines are in equilibrium with the observed repository minerals halite, anhydrite, magnesite, polyhalite and quartz. The equilibrium model supports the derivation of drill-hole brines from near-field fluid, rather than large-scale vertical migration of fluids from the overlying Rustler or underlying Castile Formations. 13 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs

  12. Geochemistry of Salado formation brines recovered from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository

    Abitz, R.; Myers, J.; Drez, P.; Deal, D.

    1990-01-01

    Intergranular brines recovered from the repository horizon of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) have major- and trace-element compositions that reflect seawater evaporation and diagenetic processes. Brines obtained from repository drill holes are heterogeneous with respect to composition but their compositional fields are distinct from those obtained from fluid inclusions in WIPP halite. The heterogeneity of brine compositions within the drill-hole population indicates a lack of mixing and fluid homogenization within the salt at the repository level. Compositional differences between intergranular (drill hole) and intragranular (fluid inclusions) brines is attributed to isolation of the latter from diagenetic fluids that were produced from dehydration reactions involving gypsum and clay minerals. Modeling of brine-rock equilibria indicates that equilibration with evaporite minerals controls the concentrations of major elements in the brine. Drill-hole brines are in equilibrium with the observed repository minerals halite, anhydrite, magnesite, polyhalite and quartz. The equilibrium model supports the derivation of drill-hole brines from near-field fluid, rather than large-scale vertical migration of fluids from the overlying Rustler or underlying Castile Formations. 13 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs

  13. Water Recovery from Brine in the Short and Long Term: A KSC Approach

    Lunn, Griffin; Melendez, Orlando; Anthony, Steve

    2014-01-01

    KSC has spent many years researching Hollow Fiber Membrane Bioreactors as well as research encompassing:Alternate ammonia removal/Advanced oxidation. Brine purification technologies KSC-ISRU has built an electrolysis cell for the removal of acids in ISRU mining brines. Our goal is to combine all such technologies.

  14. Improving the performance of brine wells at Gulf Coast strategic petroleum reserve sites

    Owen, L.B.; Quong, R. (eds.)

    1979-11-05

    At the request of the Department of Energy, field techniques were developed to evaluate and improve the injection of brine into wells at Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) sites. These wells are necessary for the disposal of saturated brine removed from salt domes where oil is being stored. The wells, which were accepting brine at 50 percent or less of their initial design rates, were impaired by saturated brine containing particulates that deposited on the sand face and in the geologic formation next to the wellbore. Corrosion of the brine-disposal pipelines and injection wells contributed to the impairment by adding significant amounts of particulates in the form of corrosion products. When tests were implemented at the SPR sites, it was found that the poor quality of injected brines was the primary cause of impaired injection; that granular-media filtration, when used with chemical pretreatment, is an effective method for removing particulates from hypersaline brine; that satisfactory injection-well performance can be attained with prefiltered brines; and that corrosion rates can be substantially reduced by oxygen-scavenging.

  15. The use of bacconcentrate Herobacterin in brine cheese technology

    I. Slyvka:

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article a comparative analysis of the use of the bacterial preparation Herobacterin and the starter RSF-742 (Chr. Hansen, Denmark in the technology of brine cheese was conducted. Herobacterin is a bacterial preparation created using bacteria Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Enterococcus faecium, Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Lactococcus garvieae, isolated from traditional Carpathian brine cheese brynza and identified using classical microbiological and modern molecular genetic methods (RAPD-PCR, RFLP-PCR, sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The results of investigations of organoleptic, physico-chemical, syneretical and microbiological parameters of cheese brynza with use of preparation Herobacterin are presented in comparison with the starter RSF-742, which includes cultures: Lactococcus lactis subsp. сremoris, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus helveticus. The use of Herobacterin has a positive effect on organoleptic, physico-chemical and microbiological parameters, all parameters complied with the requirements of DSTU 7065:2009. The level of survival of lactic acid bacteria in brynza during maturation and storage is high, which confirms the correctness of the selection of strains to preparation Herobakterin, which demonstrated good adaptability to the composition and properties of ewe's milk.

  16. Observations of brine plumes below melting Arctic sea ice

    A. K. Peterson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In sea ice, interconnected pockets and channels of brine are surrounded by fresh ice. Over time, brine is lost by gravity drainage and flushing. The timing of salt release and its interaction with the underlying water can impact subsequent sea ice melt. Turbulence measurements 1 m below melting sea ice north of Svalbard reveal anticorrelated heat and salt fluxes. From the observations, 131 salty plumes descending from the warm sea ice are identified, confirming previous observations from a Svalbard fjord. The plumes are likely triggered by oceanic heat through bottom melt. Calculated over a composite plume, oceanic heat and salt fluxes during the plumes account for 6 and 9 % of the total fluxes, respectively, while only lasting in total 0.5 % of the time. The observed salt flux accumulates to 7.6 kg m−2, indicating nearly full desalination of the ice. Bulk salinity reduction between two nearby ice cores agrees with accumulated salt fluxes to within a factor of 2. The increasing fraction of younger, more saline ice in the Arctic suggests an increase in desalination processes with the transition to the new Arctic.

  17. Observations of brine plumes below melting Arctic sea ice

    Peterson, Algot K.

    2018-02-01

    In sea ice, interconnected pockets and channels of brine are surrounded by fresh ice. Over time, brine is lost by gravity drainage and flushing. The timing of salt release and its interaction with the underlying water can impact subsequent sea ice melt. Turbulence measurements 1 m below melting sea ice north of Svalbard reveal anticorrelated heat and salt fluxes. From the observations, 131 salty plumes descending from the warm sea ice are identified, confirming previous observations from a Svalbard fjord. The plumes are likely triggered by oceanic heat through bottom melt. Calculated over a composite plume, oceanic heat and salt fluxes during the plumes account for 6 and 9 % of the total fluxes, respectively, while only lasting in total 0.5 % of the time. The observed salt flux accumulates to 7.6 kg m-2, indicating nearly full desalination of the ice. Bulk salinity reduction between two nearby ice cores agrees with accumulated salt fluxes to within a factor of 2. The increasing fraction of younger, more saline ice in the Arctic suggests an increase in desalination processes with the transition to the new Arctic.

  18. Long-Term CO2 Exposure Experiments - Geochemical Effects on Brine-Saturated Reservoir Sandstone

    Fischer, Sebastian; Zemke, Kornelia; Liebscher, Axel; Wandrey, Maren

    2010-05-01

    The injection of CO2 into deep saline aquifers is the most promising strategy for the reduction of CO2 emissions to the atmosphere via long-term geological storage. The study is part of the CO2SINK project conducted at Ketzin, situated 40 km west of Berlin. There, food grade CO2 has been pumped into the Upper Triassic Stuttgart Formation since June 2008. The main objective of the experimental program is to investigate the effects of long-term CO2 exposure on the physico-chemical properties of the reservoir rock. To achieve this goal, core samples from observation well Ktzi 202 have been saturated with synthetic brine and exposed to CO2 in high quality steel autoclaves at simulated reservoir P-T-conditions of 5.5 MPa and 40 ° C. The synthetic brine had a composition representative of the formation fluid (Förster et al., 2006) of 172.8 g/l NaCl, 8.0 g/l MgCl2×2H2O, 4.8 g/l CaCl2×2H2O and 0.6 g/l KCl. After 15 months, the first set of CO2-exposed samples was removed from the pressure vessels. Thin sections, XRD, SEM as well as EMP data were used to determine the mineralogical features of the reservoir rocks before and after the experiments. Additionally, NMR relaxation and MP was performed to measure poroperm and pore size distribution values of the twin samples. The analyzed samples are fine- to medium grained, moderately well- to well sorted and weakly consolidated sandstones. Quartz and plagioclase are the major components, while K-feldspar, hematite, white & dark mica, chlorite and illite are present in minor and varying amounts. Cements are composed of analcime, dolomite and anhydrite. Some samples show mm- to cm-scale cross-beddings. The laminae comprise lighter, quartz- and feldspar-dominated layers and dark-brownish layers with notably less quartz and feldspars. The results are consistent with those of Blaschke et al. (2008). The plagioclase composition indicates preferred dissolution of the Ca-component and a trend toward albite-rich phases or even pure

  19. Effect of mycorrhiza symbiosis on the Nacl salinity in Sorghum bicolor

    In order to determine mycorrhizal symbiosis on the Nacl salinity tolerance in Sorghum bicolor (aspydfyd cultivar), an experiment with two factors was done in Damghan Islamic Azad University laboratory (Iran) in 2007. The first factor with two levels (mycorihizal and non-mycorihizal) and second factor with six levels Nacl ...

  20. Visible laser induced positive ion emissions from NaCl nanoparticles prepared by droplet rapid drying

    Sun, Mao-Xu; Guo, Deng-Zhu; Xing, Ying-Jie; Zhang, Geng-Min

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► NaCl nanoparticles were firstly prepared by heat induced explosion on silicon wafer. ► We found that laser induced ion emissions from NaCl nanoparticles are more prominent. ► We found that water adsorption can efficiently enhance laser induced ion emissions. ► The ultra-photothermal effect in NaCl nanoparticles was observed and explained. - Abstract: A novel convenient way for the formation of sodium chloride (NaCl) nanoparticles on silicon wafer is proposed by using a droplet rapid drying method. The laser induced positive ion emissions from NaCl nanoparticles with and without water treatment is demonstrated by using a laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer, with laser intensity well below the plasma formation threshold. It is found that the positive ion emissions from NaCl nanoparticles are obviously higher than that from microsize NaCl particles under soft 532 nm laser irradiations, and water adsorption can efficiently enhance the ion emissions from NaCl nanoparticles. The initial kinetic energies of the emitted ions are estimated as 16–17 eV. The synergy of the ultra-thermal effect in nanomaterials, the defect-mediated multiphoton processes, and the existence of intermediate states in NaCl-water interfaces are suggested as the mechanisms.

  1. Combined Effects of Boron and NaCl on Wheat Seedlings

    ZHEN Mei-nan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the combined effects of boron(Band NaCl on the growth of wheat, a pot experiment was conducted using wheat (Triticum aestivum Linn.seedlings. Boron concentrations of culture medium were set as 0, 50 mg·kg-1 and 100 mg·kg-1, and NaCl concentrations were 0, 1 g·kg-1 and 2 g·kg-1. The results showed that both boron and NaCl could significantly inhibit wheat growth. At 50 mg B·kg-1, NaCl aggravated growth inhibition caused by boron. At 100 mg B·kg-1, however, NaCl alleviated the inhibition caused by boron. The combined stress of boron and NaCl significantly increased the root to shoot ratio of wheat. NaCl inhibited the uptake of boron by wheat. It suggests that under severe boron stress, NaCl is able to alleviate boron toxicity in wheat by increasing root to shoot ratio and reducing boron uptake.

  2. Evolution of mineralizing brines in the east Tennessee Mississippi Valley-type ore field

    Kesler, S.E.; Gesink, J.A.; Haynes, F.M. (Univ. of Michingan, Ann Arbor (USA))

    1989-05-01

    The east Tennessee Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) ore field contains barite-fluorite and sphalterite deposits in a continuous paleoaquifer consisting of breccia zones in the Upper Cambrian-Lower Ordovician Knox Group. Paragenetic observations and fluid inclusion compositions in these deposits indicate that the Knox paleoaquifer was invaded first by Ca-rich brines (Ca:Na about 1) that deposited fluorite and barite, and later by Na-Ca brines (Ca:Na = 0.1 to 0.5) that deposited sphalerite. Geologic relation sindicate that these brines were derived from the southeast, in the area of the Middle Ordovician Servier foreland shale basin, and that imposed by fluorite solubility indicate further that all original connate water in the Sevier basin was required to deposit the estimated flourite reserves of the ore field.Thus, the later, sphalerite-depositing brines represent recycled meteoric water from the Sevier basin or connate brines from underlying (Cambrian) shales.

  3. Scanning electron microscope observations of brine shrimp larvae from space shuttle experiments

    DeBell, L.; Paulsen, A.; Spooner, B.

    1992-01-01

    Brine shrimp are encysted as gastrula stage embryos, and may remain dehydrated and encysted for years without compromising their viability. This aspect of brine shrimp biology is desirable for studying development of animals during space shuttle flight, as cysts placed aboard a spacecraft may be rehydrated at the convenience of an astronaut, guaranteeing that subsequent brine shrimp development occurs only on orbit and not on the pad during launch delays. Brine shrimp cysts placed in 5 ml syringes were rehydrated with salt water and hatched during a 9 day space shuttle mission. Subsequent larvae developed to the 8th larval stage in the sealed syringes. We studied the morphogenesis of the brine shrimp larvae and found the larvae from the space shuttle experiments similar in rate of growth and extent of development, to larvae grown in sealed syringes on the ground. Extensive differentiation and development of embryos and larvae can occur in a microgravity environment.

  4. Indoor tests to investigate the effect of brine depth on the performance of solar still

    Ali, Marwah A.W.; Jabbar N. Khalifa, Abdul [Nahrain University, College of Engineering, Jadiriya, P.O. Box 64040, Baghdad (Iraq)

    2013-07-01

    Many experimental and numerical studies have been done on different configurations of solar stills to optimize the design by examining the effect of climatic, operational and design parameters on its performance. One of the most important of the operational parameters that has received a considerable attention in the literature is the brine depth. This paper reports indoor experimental investigations on the effect of brine depth on the productivity and efficiency of the solar stills at four different brine depths of 1.5, 2, 4 and 5.5 cm. Indoor tests were used by simulating the solar input by proper electric heaters located at the bottom of the still for heating the water contained in the basin of the still. The present study validated the decreasing trend in productivity with the increase of brine depth and showed that the still productivity could be influenced by the brine depth by up to 24%.

  5. Adsorption of small NaCl clusters on surfaces of silicon nanostructures

    Amsler, Maximilian; Alireza Ghasemi, S; Goedecker, Stefan; Neelov, Alexey; Genovese, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    We have studied possible adsorption geometries of neutral NaCl clusters on the disordered surface of a large silicon model tip used in non-contact atomic force microscopy. The minima hopping method was used to determine low energy model tip configurations as well as ground state geometries of isolated NaCl clusters. The combined system was treated with density functional theory. Alkali halides have proven to be strong structure seekers and tend to form highly stable ground state configurations whenever possible. The favored adsorption geometry for four Na and four Cl atoms was found to be an adsorption of four NaCl dimers due to the formation of Cl-Si bonds. However, for larger NaCl clusters, the increasing energy required to dissociate the cluster into NaCl dimers suggests that adsorption of whole clusters in their isolated ground state configuration is preferred.

  6. [Effect of NaCl stress on ion compartmentation, photosynthesis and growth of Salicornia bigelovii Torr].

    Wang, Li-Yan; Zhao, Ke-Fu

    2004-02-01

    Seedlings of Salicornia bigelovii Torr. were treated with different concentrations of NaCl (0, 100, 300, 600 mmol/L). Ion contents, Na(+) subcelluar localization, photosynthetic rate, ultrastructure of chloroplast and other parameters were measured. The data showed both fresh and dry weight of whole plant of Salicornia bigelovii Torr. under salinity were higher than the control. When NaCl concentration is about 300 mmol/L Salicornia bigelovii Torr. grow strongest. The contents of Na(+) and Cl(-) and c(Na)/c(K) in shoots increased with the salinity. Both Na(+) and Cl(-) were mainly transported to shoots. Ion X-ray microanalysis indicated Na(+) was mainly compartmentalized into vacuoles. Photosynthetic rate increased with the salinity under NaCl 100-300 mmol/L, but declined under NaCl 600 mmol/L. Ultrastructure of chloroplast was destroyed by NaCl 600 mmol/L.

  7. Oil exudation and histological structures of duck egg yolks during brining.

    Lai, K M; Chung, W H; Jao, C L; Hsu, K C

    2010-04-01

    Changes in oil exudation and histological structures of salted duck egg yolks during brining up to 5 wk were investigated. During brining, the salt contents of albumen, exterior yolk (hardened portion), and interior yolk (soft or liquid portion) gradually increased accompanied by slight decreases in moisture content. The hardening ratio of salted egg yolks increased rapidly to about 60% during the first week of brining and then reached 100% at the end of brining. After brining, part of the lipids in salted egg yolk became free due to the structural changes of low-density lipoprotein induced by dehydration and increase of salt content, and more free lipids in salted egg yolk were released after the cooking process. With the brining time increased up to 5 wk, the outer region of the cooked salted yolk gradually changed into dark brown, brown, orange, and then dark brown, whereas the center region changed into light yellow, yellow, dark yellow, and then yellow again. The microstructures of cooked salted egg yolks showed that the yolk spheres in the outer and middle regions retained their original shape, with some shrinking and being packed more loosely when brining time increased, and the exuded oil filled the space between the spheres. Furthermore, the yolk spheres in the center region transformed to a round shape but still showed granulation after 4 wk of brining, whereas they were mostly disrupted after 2 to 5 wk of brining. One of the most important characteristics of cooked salted egg yolks, gritty texture, contributed to oil exudation and granulated yolk spheres were observed at the brining time of 4 wk.

  8. NaCl responsive taste cells in the mouse fungiform taste buds.

    Yoshida, R; Horio, N; Murata, Y; Yasumatsu, K; Shigemura, N; Ninomiya, Y

    2009-03-17

    Previous studies have demonstrated that rodents' chorda tympani (CT) nerve fibers responding to NaCl can be classified according to their sensitivities to the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) blocker amiloride into two groups: amiloride-sensitive (AS) and -insensitive (AI). The AS fibers were shown to respond specifically to NaCl, whereas AI fibers broadly respond to various electrolytes, including NaCl. These data suggest that salt taste transduction in taste cells may be composed of at least two different systems; AS and AI ones. To further address this issue, we investigated the responses to NaCl, KCl and HCl and the amiloride sensitivity of mouse fungiform papilla taste bud cells which are innervated by the CT nerve. Comparable with the CT data, the results indicated that 56 NaCl-responsive cells tested were classified into two groups; 25 cells ( approximately 44%) narrowly responded to NaCl and their NaCl response were inhibited by amiloride (AS cells), whereas the remaining 31 cells ( approximately 56%) responded not only to NaCl, but to KCl and/or HCl and showed no amiloride inhibition of NaCl responses (AI cells). Amiloride applied to the basolateral side of taste cells had no effect on NaCl responses in the AS and AI cells. Single cell reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) experiments indicated that ENaC subunit mRNA was expressed in a subset of AS cells. These findings suggest that the mouse fungiform taste bud is composed of AS and AI cells that can transmit taste information differently to their corresponding types of CT fibers, and apical ENaCs may be involved in the NaCl responses of AS cells.

  9. Quorum Quenching Bacillus sonorensis Isolated from Soya Sauce Fermentation Brine

    Kok-Gan Chan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available An N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL-degrading bacterial strain, L62, was isolated from a sample of fermentation brine of Chinese soya sauce by using rich medium agar supplemented with soya sauce (10% v/v. L62, a rod-shaped Gram positive bacterium with amylolytic activity, was phylogentically related to Bacillus sonorensis by 16S ribosomal DNA and rpoB sequence analyses. B. sonorensis L62 efficiently degraded N-3-oxohexanoyl homoserine lactone and N-octanoylhomoserine lactone. However, the aiiA homologue, encoding an autoinducer inactivation enzyme catalyzing the degradation of AHLs, was not detected in L62, suggesting the presence of a different AHL-degrading gene in L62. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of AHL-degrading B. sonorensis from soya sauce liquid state fermentation.

  10. Guiding brine shrimp through mazes by solving reaction diffusion equations

    Singal, Krishma; Fenton, Flavio

    Excitable systems driven by reaction diffusion equations have been shown to not only find solutions to mazes but to also to find the shortest path between the beginning and the end of the maze. In this talk we describe how we can use the Fitzhugh-Nagumo model, a generic model for excitable media, to solve a maze by varying the basin of attraction of its two fixed points. We demonstrate how two dimensional mazes are solved numerically using a Java Applet and then accelerated to run in real time by using graphic processors (GPUs). An application of this work is shown by guiding phototactic brine shrimp through a maze solved by the algorithm. Once the path is obtained, an Arduino directs the shrimp through the maze using lights from LEDs placed at the floor of the Maze. This method running in real time could be eventually used for guiding robots and cars through traffic.

  11. Ice Control with Brine Spread with Nozzles on Highways

    Bolet, Lars; Fonnesbech, Jens Kristian

    2010-01-01

    on the major roads (150 km) in the municipality of North Funen from the winter 2007/8. The result has been a dramatically reduction in the number of traffic accidents on slippery roads during the winter season. From 7 and 5 accidents in the previous 2 winters to 1 accident in the winter 2007/8. Neighbouring...... municipalities had an increasing number of traffic accidents on slippery roads in the same period.......During the years 1996-2006, the former county of Funen, Denmark, gradually replaced pre-wetted salt with brine spread with nozzles as anti-icing agent in all her ice control activities. The replacement related to 1000 kilometres of highways. Jeopardizing neither road safety nor traffic flow...

  12. In-situ fracture mapping using geotomography and brine tracers

    Deadrick, F.J.; Ramirez, A.L.; Lytle, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is currently assessing the capabilities of high resolution geophysical methods to characterize geologic sites for the disposal of high level nuclear waste. A successful experiment has recently been performed in which salt water tracers and high frequency electromagnetic waves were utilized to map rock mass fracture zones in-situ. Multiple cross-borehole EM transmissions were used to generate a tomographic image of the fractured rock region between two boreholes. The tomographs obtained correlate well with conventional wireline geophysical logs which can be used to infer the location of fractured zones in the rock mass. This indirect data suggests that the geotomography and brine tracer technique may have merit in mapping fractured zones between boreholes

  13. Effect of NaCl treatments on glucosinolate metabolism in broccoli sprouts*

    Guo, Rong-fang; Yuan, Gao-feng; Wang, Qiao-mei

    2013-01-01

    To understand the regulation mechanism of NaCl on glucosinolate metabolism in broccoli sprouts, the germination rate, fresh weight, contents of glucosinolates and sulforaphane, as well as myrosinase activity of broccoli sprouts germinated under 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 mmol/L of NaCl were investigated in our experiment. The results showed that glucoerucin, glucobrassicin, and 4-hydroxy glucobrassicin in 7-d-old broccoli sprouts were significantly enhanced and the activity of myrosinase was inhibited by 100 mmol/L of NaCl. However, the total glucosinolate content in 7-d-old broccoli sprouts was markedly decreased although the fresh weight was significantly increased after treatment with NaCl at relatively low concentrations (20, 40, and 60 mmol/L). NaCl treatment at the concentration of 60 mmol/L for 5 d maintained higher biomass and comparatively higher content of glucosinolates in sprouts of broccoli with decreased myrosinase activity. A relatively high level of NaCl treatment (100 mmol/L) significantly increased the content of sulforaphane in 7-d-old broccoli sprouts compared with the control. These results indicate that broccoli sprouts grown under a suitable concentration of NaCl could be desirable for human nutrition. PMID:23365011

  14. CO2/ brine substitution experiments at simulated reservoir conditions

    Kummerow, Juliane; Spangenberg, Erik

    2015-04-01

    Capillary properties of rocks affect the mobility of fluids in a reservoir. Therefore, the understanding of the capillary pressure behaviour is essential to assess the long-term behaviour of CO2 reservoirs. Beyond this, a calibration of the petrophysical properties on water saturation of reservoir rocks at simulated in situ conditions is crucial for a proper interpretation of field monitoring data. We present a set-up, which allows for the combined measurements of capillary pressure, electric resistivity, and elastic wave velocities under controlled reservoir conditions (pconf = 400 bar, ppore = 180 bar, T = 65 ° C) at different brine-CO2 saturations. The capillary properties of the samples are measured using the micropore membrane technique. The sample is jacketed with a Viton tube (thickness = 4 mm) and placed between two current electrode endcaps, which as well contain pore fluid ports and ultrasonic P and S wave transducers. Between the sample and the lower endcap the hydrophilic semi-permeable micro-pore membrane (pore size = 100 nm) is integrated. It is embedded into filter papers to establish a good capillary contact and to protect the highly sensitive membrane against mechanical damage under load. Two high-precision syringe pumps are used to displace a quantified volume of brine by CO2 and determine the corresponding sample saturation. The fluid displacement induces a pressure gradient along the sample, which corresponds to the capillary pressure at a particular sample saturation. It is measured with a differential pressure sensor in the range between 0 - 0.2 MPa. Drainage and imbibition cycles are performed to provide information on the efficiency of capillary trapping and to get a calibration of the petrophysical parameters of the sample.

  15. Viruses-to-mobile genetic elements skew in the deep Atlantis II brine pool sediments

    Adel, Mustafa

    2016-09-06

    The central rift of the Red Sea has 25 brine pools with different physical and geochemical characteristics. Atlantis II (ATIID), Discovery Deeps (DD) and Chain Deep (CD) are characterized by high salinity, temperature and metal content. Several studies reported microbial communities in these brine pools, but few studies addressed the brine pool sediments. Therefore, sediment cores were collected from ATIID, DD, CD brine pools and an adjacent brine-influenced site. Sixteen different lithologic sediment sections were subjected to shotgun DNA pyrosequencing to generate 1.47 billion base pairs (1.47 × 109 bp). We generated sediment-specific reads and attempted to annotate all reads. We report the phylogenetic and biochemical uniqueness of the deepest ATIID sulfur-rich brine pool sediments. In contrary to all other sediment sections, bacteria dominate the deepest ATIID sulfur-rich brine pool sediments. This decrease in virus-to-bacteria ratio in selected sections and depth coincided with an overrepresentation of mobile genetic elements. Skewing in the composition of viruses-to-mobile genetic elements may uniquely contribute to the distinct microbial consortium in sediments in proximity to hydrothermally active vents of the Red Sea and possibly in their surroundings, through differential horizontal gene transfer.

  16. Distribution of Cathepsin D Activity between Lysosomes and a Soluble Fraction of Marinating Brine.

    Szymczak, Mariusz

    2016-08-01

    This paper is the first ever to describe the phenomenon of bimodal distribution of cathepsin D in the lysosomal and soluble fractions of brine left after herring marinating. Up to 2 times higher cathepsin D activity was observed in the lysosome fraction. Activity of cathepsin D in brine increased according to the logarithmic function during low frequency-high power ultrasounds treatment or according to the linear function after multiple freezing-thawing of brine. Activity enhancement was achieved only in the brine devoid of lipids and suspension. Study results show also that measurement of lysosomal cathepsin D activity in the marinating brine requires also determining cathepsin E activity. Decreasing pore size of microfilter from 2.7 to 0.3 μm significantly reduced the lysosome content in the brine. The presence of lysosomes and the possibility of their separation as well as the likely release of cathepsins shall be considered during industrial application of the marinating brine, as new cathepsins preparations in fish and meat technology. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Alcohol Brine Freezing of Japanese Horse Mackerel (Trachurus japonicus) for Raw Consumption

    Maeda, Toshimichi; Yuki, Atsuhiko; Sakurai, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Koichiro; Itoh, Nobuo; Inui, Etsuro; Seike, Kazunori; Mizukami, Yoichi; Fukuda, Yutaka; Harada, Kazuki

    In order to test the possible application of alcohol brine freezing to Japanese horse mackerel (Trachurus japonicus) for raw consumption, the quality and taste of fish frozen by direct immersion in 60% ethanol brine at -20, -25 and -30°C was compared with those by air freezing and fresh fish without freezing. Cracks were not found during the freezing. Smell of ethanol did not remain. K value, an indicator of freshness, of fish frozen in alcohol brine was less than 8.3%, which was at the same level as those by air freezing and fresh fish. Oxidation of lipid was at the same level as air freezing does, and lower than that of fresh fish. The pH of fish frozen in alcohol brine at -25 and -30°C was 6.5 and 6.6, respectively, which were higher than that by air freezing and that of fresh fish. Fish frozen in alcohol brine was better than that by air and at the same level as fresh fish in total evaluation of sensory tests. These results show that the alcohol brine freezing is superior to air freezing, and fish frozen in alcohol brine can be a material for raw consumption. The methods of thawing in tap water, cold water, refrigerator, and at room temperature were compared. Thawing in tap water is considered to be convenient due to the short thaw time and the quality of thawed fish that was best among the methods.

  18. Modeling brine inflow to Room Q: A numerical investigation of flow mechanisms

    Freeze, G.A.; Christian-Frear, T.L.; Webb, S.W.

    1997-04-01

    A hydrologic modeling study was performed to gain insight into the flow mechanisms around Room Q. A summary of hydrologic and structural data and of predictive fluid flow models from Room Q are provided. Six years of measured data are available from the time of excavation. No brine accumulation in Room Q was measured in the first two years following excavation. However, there is considerable uncertainty associated with this early-time data due to inadequate sealing of the room. Brine may have been lost to evaporation or it may have flowed into newly created disturbed rock zone (DRZ) porosity resulting from excavation. Non-zero brine accumulation rates were measured from 2--5 years, but brine accumulation within the room dropped to zero after 5.5 years. A conceptual model for brine inflow to Room Q was developed which assumes far-field Darcy flow combined with an increasing DRZ pore volume. Numerical simulations employed TOUGH28W and used predictive DRZ porosity increase with time from SPECTROM-32 rock deformation simulations. Simulated brine inflow showed good agreement with measured brine accumulation rates for the first five years. Two important conclusions were drawn from the simulation results: (1) early-time brine inflow to the room can be reduced to zero if the DRZ pore volume increases with time, and (2) brine accumulation (inflow) rates from 2 to 5 years suggest a far-field permeability of 5 x 10 -22 m 2 with a bulk rock compressibility of 5.4 x 10 -12 Pa -1

  19. Weeks Island brine diffuser site study: baseline conditions and environmental assessment technical report

    None

    1980-12-12

    This technical report presents the results of a study conducted at two alternative brine diffuser sites (A and B) proposed for the Weeks Island salt dome, together with an analysis of the potential physical, chemical, and biological effects of brine disposal for this area of the Gulf of Mexico. Brine would result from either the leaching of salt domes to form or enlarge oil storage caverns, or the subsequent use of these caverns for crude oil storage in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) program. Brine leached from the Weeks Island salt dome would be transported through a pipeline which would extend from the salt dome either 27 nautical miles (32 statute miles) for Site A, or 41 nautical miles (47 statute miles) for Site B, into Gulf waters. The brine would be discharged at these sites through an offshore diffuser at a sustained peak rate of 39 ft/sup 3//sec. The disposal of large quantities of brine in the Gulf could have a significant impact on the biology and water quality of the area. Physical and chemical measurements of the marine environment at Sites A and B were taken between September 1977 and July 1978 to correlate the existing environmental conditions with the estimated physical extent of tthe brine discharge as predicted by the MIT model (US Dept. of Commerce, 1977a). Measurements of wind, tide, waves, currents, and stratification (water column structure) were also obtained since the diffusion and dispersion of the brine plume are a function of the local circulation regime. These data were used to calculate both near- and far-field concentrations of brine, and may also be used in the design criteria for diffuser port configuration and verification of the plume model. Biological samples were taken to characterize the sites and to predict potential areas of impact with regard to the discharge. This sampling focused on benthic organisms and demersal fish. (DMC)

  20. Cost-effective bioregeneration of nitrate-laden ion exchange brine through deliberate bicarbonate incorporation.

    Li, Qi; Huang, Bin; Chen, Xin; Shi, Yi

    2015-05-15

    Bioregeneration of nitrate-laden ion exchange brine is desired to minimize its environmental impacts, but faces common challenges, i.e., enriching sufficient salt-tolerant denitrifying bacteria and stabilizing brine salinity and alkalinity for stable brine biotreatment and economically removing undesired organics derived in biotreatment. Incorporation of 0.25 M bicarbonate in 0.5 M chloride brine little affected resin regeneration but created a benign alkaline condition to favor bio-based brine regeneration. The first-quarter sulfate-mainly enriched spent brine (SB) was acidified with carbon source acetic acid for using CaCl2 at an efficiency >80% to remove sulfate. Residual Ca(2+) was limited below 2 mM by re-mixing the first-quarter and remained SB to favor denitrification. Under [Formula: see text] system buffered pH condition (8.3-8.8), nitrate was removed at 0.90 gN/L/d by hematite-enriched well-settled activated sludge (SVI 8.5 ml/g) and the biogenic alkalinity was retained as bicarbonate. The biogenic alkalinity met the need of alkalinity in removing residual Ca(2+) after sulfate removal and in CaCl2-induced CaCO3 flocculation to remove 63% of soluble organic carbon (SOC) in biotreated brine. Carbon-limited denitrification was also operated after activated sludge acclimation with sulfide to cut SOC formation during denitrification. Overall, this bicarbonate-incorporation approach, stabilizing the brine salinity and alkalinity for stable denitrification and economical removal of undesired SOC, suits long-term cost-effective brine bioregeneration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Proteomic changes in Debaryomyces hansenii upon exposure to NaCl stress

    Gori, Klaus; Hébraud, Michel; Chambon, Christophe

    2007-01-01

    The proteome of the highly NaCl-tolerant yeast Debaryomyces hansenii was investigated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D PAGE), and 47 protein spots were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) followed by mass spectrometry (MS...... 7% and 4% of the rate in medium without NaCl. In addition, the number of protein spots detected on 2D gels prepared from cells exposed to 8% and 12% (w/v) NaCl exceeded less than 28% of the number of protein spots detected on 2D gels prepared from cells without added NaCl. Several proteins were...

  2. Threshold temperature gradient effect on migration of brine inclusions in salt

    Pigford, T.H.

    1987-01-01

    Theories of the migration of brine inclusions in salt were interpreted as simple physical processes, and theories by Russian and US workers were shown to yield the same results. The migration theory was used to predict threshold temperature gradients below which migration of brine inclusions should not occur. The predicted threshold gradients were compared with the temperature gradients expected at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. The theory of threshold gradients helps explain the existence of brine inclusions in natural salt deposits

  3. Evaluation of the bioactivities of some Myanmar medicinal plants using brine shrimp (Artemia salina) toxicity test

    Sabai; Khin Khin Win Aung; Nwe Ni Thin; Kyi Shwe; Tin Myint Htwe

    2001-01-01

    For a variety of toxic substances, brine shrimp larvae (Artemia salina) are usually used as a simple bioassay method and it is also applied for natural product research. The brine shrimp larvae (nauplii) are obtained by natural hatching method from Artemia cysts. By using the larvae, the results from these experiments lead to the lethal dose, LD 50 values of extracts of selected medicinal plants. Activities of a broad range of plant extracts are manifested as toxicity to the brine shrimp. Screening results with six plant extracts are compared with pure caffeine. This method is rapid, reliable, inexpensive and convenient. (author)

  4. Deep brine recognition upstream the EBE syndicate. Geochemical and isotopic investigations. Final report

    2009-01-01

    The authors report and discuss the results obtained after performing a drilling upstream the drinkable water harnessing field of a water supply syndicate in Alsace (Ensisheim, Bollwiller and surroundings), in order to confirm the existence of a deep brine source. This brine is diluted by recent waters. The first isotopic investigations do not allow the origin of this brine to be identified, but fractures due to some seismic events are suspected. The report presents the drilling and the various aspects of the chemical and isotopic studies (sampling, physico-chemical analysis, dating, identification of various isotopes)

  5. Ring Resonator for Detection of Melting Brine Under Shallow Subsurface of Mars

    Ponchak, George E.; Jordan, Jennifer L.; Scardelletti, Maximilian C.

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory experimental evidence using Raman spectroscopy has shown that liquid brine may form below the shallow subsurface of Mars. A simpler experimental method to verify the presence of liquid brine or liquid water below Mars surface is needed. In this paper, a ring resonator is used to detect the phase change between frozen water and liquid water below a sandy soil that simulates the Mars surface. Experimental data shows that the ring resonator can detect the melting of thin layers of frozen brine or water up to 15 mm below the surface.

  6. A surface complexation model of YREE sorption on Ulva lactuca in 0.05-5.0 M NaCl solutions

    Zoll, Alison M.; Schijf, Johan

    2012-11-01

    We present distribution coefficients, log iKS, for the sorption of yttrium and the rare earth elements (YREEs) on BCR-279, a dehydrated tissue homogenate of a marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, resembling materials featured in chemical engineering studies aimed at designing renewable biosorbents. Sorption experiments were conducted in NaCl solutions of different ionic strength (0.05, 0.5, and 5.0 M) at T = 25 °C over the pH range 2.7-8.5. Distribution coefficients based on separation of the dissolved and particulate phase by conventional filtration (3 kDa) using an existing pH-dependent model. Colloid-corrected values were renormalized to free-cation concentrations by accounting for YREE hydrolysis and chloride complexation. At each ionic strength, the pH dependence of the renormalized values is accurately described with a non-electrostatic surface complexation model (SCM) that incorporates YREE binding to three monoprotic functional groups, previously characterized by alkalimetric titration, as well as binding of YREE-hydroxide complexes (MOH2+) to the least acidic one (pKa ∼ 9.5). In non-linear regressions of the distribution coefficients as a function of pH, each pKa was fixed at its reported value, while stability constants of the four YREE surface complexes were used as adjustable parameters. Data for a single fresh U. lactuca specimen in 0.5 M NaCl show generally the same pH-dependent behavior but a lower degree of sorption and were excluded from the regressions. Good linear free-energy relations (LFERs) between stability constants of the YREE-acetate and YREE-hydroxide solution complex and surface complexes with the first and third functional group, respectively, support their prior tentative identifications as carboxyl and phenol. A similar confirmation for the second group is precluded by insufficient knowledge of the stability of YREE-phosphate complexes and a perceived lack of YREE binding in 0.05 M NaCl; this issue awaits further study. The results

  7. Regeneration of plantlets under NaCl stress from NaN3 treated ...

    use

    2011-11-16

    Nov 16, 2011 ... plant regeneration under NaCl stressed conditions was assessed in some sugarcane ( ... cell is a useful work for the establishment of pure form of ... balance. The relative water contents (RWC) were calculated .... J. Life Sci.

  8. Swelling/deswelling of polyacrylamide gels in aqueous NaCl solution

    Swelling kinetics of water-swollen polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogels (WSG) was investigated in various ... parameter, χ, were calculated and found to decrease with increase in [NaCl]. Collective ..... in other words, increase in hydrophilicity.

  9. Elevated NaCl concentration improves cryotolerance and developmental competence of porcine oocytes

    Lin, L; Du, Y; Liu, Y

    2009-01-01

    High hydrostatic pressure has been reported to improve the fertilizing or developmental ability of mammalian spermatozoa, oocytes and embryos. This study investigated the effect of another stress, temporarily increased NaCl concentration, on cryotolerance and developmental competence of porcine...

  10. Difusão multicomponente durante a salga mista de queijo prato Multicomponent diffusion during simultaneous brining of prato Brazilian cheese

    Evandro Bona

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A relação entre o NaCl e a hipertensão arterial tem estimulado a sua substituição parcial por KCl em queijos. Entretanto, para manter a qualidade final do produto, é de suma importância assegurar uma proporção adequada de NaCl/KCl, bem como a distribuição homogênea destes sais. Os modelos que estimam a concentração salina, portanto, são valiosas ferramentas para o controle de qualidade. Para simular a difusão multicomponente durante a salga em salmoura estática, foi proposto um modelo unidimensional, baseado na solução analítica da 2ª lei de Fick generalizada para dois solutos. A solução analítica, implementada através de um algoritmo computacional, permitiu o ajuste dos coeficientes de difusão e a avaliação da resistência externa. Os resultados da simulação obtidos apresentaram boa concordância com os valores experimentais (desvio de 2,7% para o NaCl e 6,6% para o KCl, validando a capacidade preditiva do modelo proposto. Além disso, a simulação pode permitir um ajuste de ganhos de produtividade (redução do tempo de salga através da estimativa do tempo de salga para teores salinos desejados.The relation between NaCl and arterial hypertension has stimulated a partial substitution for KCl on cheese. However, it is very important to guarantee an adequate proportion of NaCl/KCl, and also the homogeneous distribution of these salts, to maintain the final quality of the product. Therefore, the models that calculate the salty concentration are useful tools to control the quality. In this study an analytic resolution of Fick's 2nd law, generalized for two salts, was used to simulate the salting in stationary brine. The analytic resolution, carried out through a computer program, allowed an adjustment of the diffusion coefficients and to evaluate the external resistance. The results calculated show a close comparison of the experimental values (an deviation of 2.7% to NaCl and 6.6% to KCl, validating the proposed

  11. Phase equilibria of hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide simple hydrates in the presence of methanol, (methanol + NaCl) and (ethylene glycol + NaCl) aqueous solutions

    Mohammadi, Amir H.; Richon, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: → Dissociation conditions of H 2 S or CO 2 hydrate + inhibitor aqueous solution are reported. → Methanol, methanol + NaCl and EG + NaCl aqueous solutions are considered as inhibitors. → Comparisons are made between our experimental data and the corresponding literature data. - Abstract: This work aims at reporting the dissociation pressures of hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide simple hydrates in the presence of methanol, (methanol + NaCl) and (ethylene glycol + NaCl) aqueous solutions at different temperatures and various concentrations of inhibitor in aqueous solution. The equilibrium results were generated using an isochoric pressure-search method. These values are compared with some selected experimental data from the literature on the dissociation conditions of hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide simple hydrates in the presence of pure water to show the inhibition effects of the above mentioned aqueous solutions. Comparisons are finally made between our experimental values and the corresponding literature data. Some disagreements among the literature data and our data are found.

  12. Laboratory and field studies on an Indian strain of the brine shrimp Artemia

    Royan, J.P.

    The Tuticorin strain of the brine shrimp @iArtemia@@ was studied under both laboratory and field conditions. Studies on the survival of the nauplii at different temperatures and salinities revealed that the nauplii preferred a salinity of 35 ppt...

  13. Microbiology of the Red Sea (and other) deep-sea anoxic brine lakes

    Antunes, Andre; Ngugi, David; Stingl, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    environments on Earth. After 50 years of research mostly driven by chemists, geophysicists and geologists, the microbiology of the brines has been receiving increased interest in the last decade. Recent molecular and cultivation-based studies have provided us

  14. Bead Evaporator for Complete Water and Salt Recovery from Brine, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A microgravity-compatible Brine Evaporation and Mineralization System (BEMS) is proposed for 100% water recovery from highly contaminated wastewater as well as water...

  15. Brine shrimp lethality and antibacterial activity of extracts from the bark of Schleichera oleosa

    Laxman Pokhrel

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the antibacterial efficacy and brine shrimp toxicity of extracts (hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water obtained from the bark of Schleichera oleosa. Methods: The powdered bark sample was Soxhlet extracted sequentially in hexanes, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. Antibacterial evaluation was carried out by following the agar diffusion method and amoxicillin disc was used as a reference. Slightly modified Meyer’s method was used to determine the toxicity of the extracts in brine shrimps. Results: Among the nine bacterial strains tested, the methanolic and aqueous extracts showed promising antibacterial efficacy against Serratia marcescens, Escherarichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus luteus. None of the extracts were found significantly toxic to brine shrimps. Conclusions: Strong antibacterial activity and low brine shrimp toxicity of methanolic and aqueous extracts can provide new antibacterial compounds.

  16. Attempt to enrich of a new spontaneous fissioning nuclide by evaporation of natural brine

    Adamek, A.; Zhuravleva, E.L.; Constantinescu, M.; Constantinescu, o.; Chuburkov, Yu.T.

    1983-01-01

    The enrichment of the new spontaneous fissioning nuclide discovered in the Cheleken brine, was made by evaporation. The purpose of this work was the comparison of behaviour of the new spontaneous fissioning nuclide with that of the known elements in the formation processes of the high concentration brines. Spontaneous fission of the nuclide was measured by means of the counters for multiple emission of neutrons. It is shown that the new spontaneous fissioning nuclide was enriched as well as other trace elements (Hg, Tl, Bi and Pb) in a solution remained after the evaporation of the initial solution. The conclusion is drawn that from the sea water brines could be obtained by evaporation which are enriched in trace elements with an enrichment degree higher than the natural brines

  17. Enrichment of extremophilic exoelectrogens in microbial electrolysis cells using Red Sea brine pools as inocula

    Chehab, Noura A.; Ortiz-Madina, Juan F.; Katuri, Krishna; Rao, Hari Ananda; Amy, Gary L.; Logan, Bruce E.; Saikaly, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    environments and can be used to startup MEC under thermophilic and hypersaline conditions. Bacteroides was enriched on the anode of the Valdivia MEC, but it was not detected in the open circuit voltage reactor seeded with the Valdivia brine pool.

  18. Genomic and Transcriptomic Evidence for Carbohydrate Consumption among Microorganisms in a Cold Seep Brine Pool

    Zhang, Weipeng; Ding, Wei; Yang, Bo; Tian, Renmao; Gu, Shuo; Luo, Haiwei; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    the Thuwal cold seep brine pool of the Red Sea. The recovered metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) belong to six different phyla: Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Candidatus Cloacimonetes, Candidatus Marinimicrobia, Bathyarchaeota, and Thaumarchaeota

  19. Utilizing NaCl to increase the porosity of electrospun materials

    Wright, L.D.; Andric, T.; Freeman, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    Electrospinning has emerged as a popular method for creating scaffolding materials used in tissue engineering applications to repair or replace damaged tissues. To become a viable scaffold material, however, pore sizes in electrospun materials must be increased to improve cell infiltration. Deposition of NaCl crystals during electrospinning was utilized to help overcome this obstacle. The NaCl crystals are released above the rotating collection mandrel and become incorporated into the poly(L-lactide) electrospun material. The NaCl then leaches out of the electrospun material creating larger pores: average pore diameter of 48.7 μm for PLLA-NaCl electrospinning versus 5.5 μm for PLLA alone electrospinning. Electrospun PLLA scaffolds with NaCl pores have a lower elastic modulus (8.05 MPa) and yield stress (349 kPa) and a higher yield strain (0.04) compared to their traditional counterparts (40.36 MPa, 676 kPa, and 0.0188). Decreased elastic modulus and yield stress would be beneficial to tissue engineering of elastic tissues including skin. The presence of NaCl pores did not significantly affect the cellular proliferation of MC3T3 cells but did allow for cell infiltration into the electrospun material. Therefore, the creation of large pores through NaCl leaching can significantly improve the performance of electrospun materials for tissue engineering applications by improving cellular infiltration.

  20. The CPA Equation of State and an Activity Coefficient Model for Accurate Molar Enthalpy Calculations of Mixtures with Carbon Dioxide and Water/Brine

    Myint, P. C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hao, Y. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Firoozabadi, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-03-27

    Thermodynamic property calculations of mixtures containing carbon dioxide (CO2) and water, including brines, are essential in theoretical models of many natural and industrial processes. The properties of greatest practical interest are density, solubility, and enthalpy. Many models for density and solubility calculations have been presented in the literature, but there exists only one study, by Spycher and Pruess, that has compared theoretical molar enthalpy predictions with experimental data [1]. In this report, we recommend two different models for enthalpy calculations: the CPA equation of state by Li and Firoozabadi [2], and the CO2 activity coefficient model by Duan and Sun [3]. We show that the CPA equation of state, which has been demonstrated to provide good agreement with density and solubility data, also accurately calculates molar enthalpies of pure CO2, pure water, and both CO2-rich and aqueous (H2O-rich) mixtures of the two species. It is applicable to a wider range of conditions than the Spycher and Pruess model. In aqueous sodium chloride (NaCl) mixtures, we show that Duan and Sun’s model yields accurate results for the partial molar enthalpy of CO2. It can be combined with another model for the brine enthalpy to calculate the molar enthalpy of H2O-CO2-NaCl mixtures. We conclude by explaining how the CPA equation of state may be modified to further improve agreement with experiments. This generalized CPA is the basis of our future work on this topic.

  1. Self-oscillations in large storages of highly mineralized brines

    Lyubimova, Tatyana; Lepikhin, Anatoly; Tsiberkin, Kirill; Parshakova, Yanina

    2014-05-01

    One of the stages of the production process at large enrichment plants is settling of aqueous solutions in large technological storages. The present work is devoted to the modeling of hydrodynamic regimes of large storage of highly mineralized brines. The density of brines in these objects depends not only on the content of dissolved macrocomponents, but also on the concentration of fine particulate matter. This leads to the need to consider the dynamics of the suspended sediment under significant density stratification, which greatly complicates the problem. Because of that it is important to develop hydrodynamical models of these objects. A peculiarity of these systems is the possibility of self-oscillatory regimes the mechanism of which is as follows. In warm sunny days, with high solar insolation, the heating of the sediments and bottom water takes place. The bottom water warming and the decrease of its density give rise to flow. The slurry particles composing the sediments are involved in the flow. The heated particles entrained by the flow transfer the heat to the surrounding liquid and increase the absorption of the solar radiation in the volume, which leads to equalization of temperature and convective flow damping. After the particle settling on the bottom the process is repeated. We study the stability of equilibrium of the horizontal liquid layer containing heavy insoluble particles in the presence of evaporation from the free surface and solar radiation absorption by insoluble particles. The time-dependent solution of heat transfer problem is obtained and used for estimate of time of instability onset. It is found that for the layer of saturated brines of potassium chloride of the thickness about 10 m the time for instability onset is about one hour. By using analytical estimates based on the empirical model of turbulence by Prandtl we confirmed the time for the onset of instability and obtained the estimates for the period of self

  2. Modeling Episodic Ephemeral Brine Lake Evaporation and Salt Crystallization on the Bonneville Salt Flats, Utah

    Liu, T.; Harman, C. J.; Kipnis, E. L.; Bowen, B. B.

    2017-12-01

    Public concern about apparent reductions in the areal extent of the Bonneville Salt Flat (BSF) and perceived changes in inundation frequency has motivated renewed interest in the hydrologic and geochemical behavior of this salt playa. In this study, we develop a numerical modeling framework to simulate the relationship between hydrometeorologic variability, brine evaporation and salt crystallization processes on BSF. The BSF, locates in Utah, is the remnant of paleo-lake Bonneville, and is capped by up to 1 meter of salt deposition over a 100 km2 area. The BSF has two distinct hydrologic periods each year: a winter wet periods with standing surface brine and the summer dry periods when the brine is evaporated, exposing the surface salt crust. We develop a lumped non-linear dynamical models coupling conservation expressions from water, dissolved salt and thermal energy to investigate the seasonal and diurnal behavior of brine during the transition from standing brine to exposed salt at BSF. The lumped dynamic models capture important nonlinear and kinetic effects introduced by the high ionic concentration of the brine, including the pronounced effect of the depressed water activity coefficient on evaporation. The salt crystallization and dissolution rate is modeled as a kinetic process linearly proportional to the degree of supersaturation of brine. The model generates predictions of the brine temperature and the solute and solvent masses controlled by diurnal net radiation input and aerodynamic forcing. Two distinct mechanisms emerge as potential controls on salt production and dissolution: (1) evapo-concentration and (2) changes in solubility related to changes in brine temperature. Although the evaporation of water is responsible for ultimate disappearance of the brine each season ,variation in solubility is found to be the dominant control on diurnal cycles of salt precipitation and dissolution in the BSF case. Most salt is crystallized during nighttime, but the

  3. Experimental determination of the H2O + 15 wt% NaCl and H2O + 25 wt% NaCl liquidi to 1.4 GPa

    Valenti, P.; Schmidt, C.

    2009-12-01

    The binary H2O+NaCl is one of the most important model systems for chloridic fluids in many geologic environments such as the Earth’s crust, upper mantle, and subducting slabs, and is also applicable to extraterrestrial icy planetary bodies (e.g., Manning 2004, Zolensky et al., 1999). The knowledge on phase equilibria and PVTx properties of this system is still fragmentary at high pressures, e.g., very little has been reported on liquidi at compositions Daniel 2008). In this study, we investigated the liquidus of 15 and 25 wt% NaCl solutions at pressures up to 1.4 GPa. The experiments were performed using a hydrothermal diamond-anvil cell (Bassett et al. 1993) modified for Raman spectroscopy and accurate temperature measurements. A quartz chip, halite, and water were loaded into the sample chamber, which also contained a small trapped air bubble (10 vol%) when it was sealed. The actual salinity was then determined from measurement of the vapor-saturated liquidus temperature. The sample chamber was then compressed until the bubble disappeared. After freezing, phase transitions occurring with increasing temperature were observed optically, and the pressure was determined from the frequency shift of the 464 cm-1 Raman line of quartz (Schmidt and Ziemann 2000). The sample chamber was then compressed further, and the experiment was repeated at various bulk densities until a pressure of ~1.4 GPa was attained. At some conditions, Raman spectra were acquired for identification of the phase assemblage. The solution always crystallized to a single phase upon cooling above ~0.15 GPa at 25 wt% NaCl and above ~1 GPa at 15 wt% NaCl. Raman spectra in the OH stretching region indicate that this phase contains or is a NaCl hydrate other than hydrohalite, probably in solid solution with ice. Melting of this phase produced liquid and hydrohalite and/or ice VI. Ice VI was the last solid that dissolved upon heating, between 1100 MPa, 3 °C and 1370 MPa, 17 °C for 15 wt% NaCl and at

  4. Meltability and Stretchability of White Brined Cheese: Effect of Emulsifier Salts

    Khaled Abu-Alruz; Ayman S. Mazahreh; Ali F. Al-Shawabkeh; Amer A. Omari; Jihad M. Quasem

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: This study was based on the hypothesis that by adding low concentrations of emulsifier salts, may specifically act on the cross linking bonds of the protein matrix, to the original brine (storage medium) it would be possible to induce meltability and stretchability in white brined cheese. Approach: A new apparatus for measuring the actual stretchability was designed and constructed; measurements on different cheese samples proved its validity and reliability to measure stre...

  5. Antagonism Between Osmophilic Lactic Acid Bacteria and Yeasts in Brine Fermentation of Soy Sauce

    Noda, Fumio; Hayashi, Kazuya; Mizunuma, Takeji

    1980-01-01

    Brine fermentation by osmophilic lactic acid bacteria and yeasts for long periods of time is essential to produce a good quality of shoyu (Japanese fermented soy sauce). It is well known that lactic acid fermentation by osmophilic lactic acid bacteria results in the depression of alcoholic fermentation by osmophilic yeasts, but the nature of the interaction between osmophilic lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in brine fermentation of shoyu has not been revealed. The inhibitory effect of osmophi...

  6. CONTACT ANGLE OF YUCCA MOUNTAIN WELDED TUFF WITH WATER AND BRINES

    H. Kalia

    2006-01-01

    A number of tests were performed to acquire contact angles between Yucca Mountain welded tuff from Topopah Springs Lower Lithophysal geologic unit and various brine solutions. The tests were performed on core disks received from Sample Management Facility (SMF), oven dried to a constant weight and the core disks vacuum saturated in: distilled water, J-13 water, calcium chloride brine and sodium chloride brine to constant weight. The contact angles were acquired from eight points on the surface of the core disks, four on rough surface, and four on polished surface. The contact angle was measured by placing a droplet of the test fluid, distilled water, J-13 water, calcium chloride brine and sodium chloride brine on the core disks. The objective of this test was to acquire contact angles as a potential input to estimating capillary forces in accumulated dust on the waste packages and drip shields slated for the proposed High-Level Radioactive Waste Repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. It was noted that once the droplet contacts the test surface, it continues to spread hence the contact angle continues to decrease with elapsed time. The maximum observed angle was at time 0 or when the drop contacted the rock surface. The measured contact angle, in all cases has significant scatter. In general, the time zero contact angles for core disks saturated in sodium chloride brine were smaller than those saturated in calcium chloride brine, distilled water, and J-13 water. The contact angles for samples saturated in distilled water, J-13 water and calcium chloride brine at time zero were similar. There was slight difference between the observed contact angles for smooth and rough surface of the test samples. The contact angles for smooth surfaces were smaller than for the rough surfaces

  7. Study of thermal-gradient-induced migration of brine inclusions in salt. Final report

    Olander, D.R.

    1984-08-01

    Natural salt deposits, which are being considered for high-level waste disposal, contain a small volume fraction of water in the form of brine inclusions distributed throughout the salt. Radioactive decay heating of the nuclear wastes will impose a temperature gradient on the surrounding salt which mobilizes the brine inclusions. Inclusions filled completely with brine (the all-liquid inclusions) migrate up the temperature gradient and eventually accumulate brine near the buried waste forms. The brine may slowly corrode or degrade the waste forms, which is undesirable. Therefore it is important to consider the migration of brine inclusions in salt under imposed temperature gradients to properly evaluate the performance of a future salt repository for nuclear wastes. The migration velocities of the inclusions were found to be dependent on temperature, temperature gradient, and inclusion shape and size. The velocities were also dictated by the interfacial mass transfer resistance at brine/solid interface. This interfacial resistance depends on the dislocation density in the crystal, which in turn, depends on the axial compressive loading of the crystal. At low axial loads, the dependence between the velocity and temperature gradient is nonlinear. At high axial loads, the interfacial resistance is reduced and the migration velocity depends linearly on the temperature gradient. All-liquid inclusions filled with mixed brines were also studied. For gas-liquid inclusions, helium, air and argon were compared. Migration studies were also conducted on single crystallites of natural salt as well as in polycrystalline natural salt samples. The behavior of the inclusions at large-ange grain boundaries was observed

  8. Study of thermal-gradient-induced migration of brine inclusions in salt. Final report

    Olander, D.R.

    1984-08-01

    Natural salt deposits, which are being considered for high-level waste disposal, contain a small volume fraction of water in the form of brine inclusions distributed throughout the salt. Radioactive decay heating of the nuclear wastes will impose a temperature gradient on the surrounding salt which mobilizes the brine inclusions. Inclusions filled completely with brine (the all-liquid inclusions) migrate up the temperature gradient and eventually accumulate brine near the buried waste forms. The brine may slowly corrode or degrade the waste forms, which is undesirable. Therefore it is important to consider the migration of brine inclusions in salt under imposed temperature gradients to properly evaluate the performance of a future salt repository for nuclear wastes. The migration velocities of the inclusions were found to be dependent on temperature, temperature gradient, and inclusion shape and size. The velocities were also dictated by the interfacial mass transfer resistance at brine/solid interface. This interfacial resistance depends on the dislocation density in the crystal, which in turn, depends on the axial compressive loading of the crystal. At low axial loads, the dependence between the velocity and temperature gradient is nonlinear. At high axial loads, the interfacial resistance is reduced and the migration velocity depends linearly on the temperature gradient. All-liquid inclusions filled with mixed brines were also studied. For gas-liquid inclusions, helium, air and argon were compared. Migration studies were also conducted on single crystallites of natural salt as well as in polycrystalline natural salt samples. The behavior of the inclusions at large-ange grain boundaries was observed.

  9. Haloprofundus marisrubri gen. nov., sp. nov., an extremely halophilic archaeon isolated from a brine-seawater interface.

    Zhang, Guishan; Gu, Jingang; Zhang, Ruifu; Rashid, Mamoon; Haroon, Mohamed Fauzi; Xun, Weibing; Ruan, Zhiyong; Dong, Xiuzhu; Stingl, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    We isolated a Gram-stain-negative, pink-pigmented, motile, pleomorphic, extremely halophilic archaeon from the brine-seawater interface of Discovery Deep in the Saudi Arabian Red Sea. This strain, designated SB9T, was capable of growth within a wide range of temperatures and salinity, but required MgCl2. Cells lysed in distilled water, but at 7.0 % (w/v) NaCl cell lysis was prevented. The major polar lipids from strain SB9T were phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerolphosphate methyl ester, sulfated mannosyl glucosyl diether, mannosyl glucosyl diether, an unidentified glycolipid and two unidentified phospholipids. The major respiratory quinones of strain SB9T were menaquinones MK8 (66 %) and MK8 (VIII-H2) (34 %). Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain SB9T was closely related to species in the genera Halogranum and Haloplanus; in particular, it shared highest sequence similarity with the type strain of Halogranum rubrum (93.4 %), making it its closest known relative. The unfinished draft genome of strain SB9Twas 3 931 127 bp in size with a total G+C content of 62.53 mol% and contained 3917 ORFs, 50 tRNAs and eight rRNAs. Based on comparisons with currently available genomes, the highest average nucleotide identity value was 83 % to Halogranum salarium B-1T (GenBank accession no. GCA_000283335.1). These data indicate that this new isolate cannot be classified into any recognized genera of the family Haloferacaceae, and therefore strain SB9T is considered to be a representative of a novel species of a new genus within this family, for which the name Haloprofundus marisrubri gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Haloprofundus marisrubri is SB9T (=JCM 19565T=CGMCC 1.14959T).

  10. Nuclear waste repository simulation experiments (brine migration), Asse Mine of the Federal Republic of Germany: Quarterly brine migration data report, October--December 1985

    Eckert, J.L.; Kalia, H.N.; Coyle, A.J.

    1988-03-01

    The tenth brine migration data report describes experiments simulating a nuclear waste repository at the 800-m (2624-ft) level of the Asse Salt Mine in the Federal Republic of Germany from May 1983 through December 1985. This report describes the test equipment, the Asse Salt Mine, and the pretest properties of the salt in the test gallery. This report includes test data for 31 months of operations on brine migration rates, borehole pressure, salt temperatures and thermomechanical behavior of the salt. 3 refs., 118 figs., 93 tabs

  11. Quarterly brine migration data report, May-September 1983: Nuclear Waste Repository simulation experiments (brine migration), Asse Mine of the Federal Republic of Germany

    Coyle, A.J.; Kalia, H.N.; Eckert, J.L.

    1987-04-01

    The first quarterly brine migration data report describes experiments simulating a nuclear waste repository at the 800-m (2624-ft) level of the Asse Salt Mine in the Federal Republic of Germany from May 1983 through September 1983. This report describes the test equipment, the Asse Salt Mine, and the pretest properties of the salt in the test gallery. This report also includes test data for the first 4 months of operations on brine migration rates, borehole pressure, salt temperatures, and thermomechanical behavior of the salt. The duration of the experiments will be approximately 2 years, ending in December 1985. 83 figs., 55 tabs

  12. Recovery of energy from geothermal brine and other hot water sources

    Wahl, III, Edward F.; Boucher, Frederic B.

    1981-01-01

    Process and system for recovery of energy from geothermal brines and other hot water sources, by direct contact heat exchange between the brine or hot water, and an immiscible working fluid, e.g. a hydrocarbon such as isobutane, in a heat exchange column, the brine or hot water therein flowing countercurrent to the flow of the working fluid. The column can be operated at subcritical, critical or above the critical pressure of the working fluid. Preferably, the column is provided with a plurality of sieve plates, and the heat exchange process and column, e.g. with respect to the design of such plates, number of plates employed, spacing between plates, area thereof, column diameter, and the like, are designed to achieve maximum throughput of brine or hot water and reduction in temperature differential at the respective stages or plates between the brine or hot water and the working fluid, and so minimize lost work and maximize efficiency, and minimize scale deposition from hot water containing fluid including salts, such as brine. Maximum throughput approximates minimum cost of electricity which can be produced by conversion of the recovered thermal energy to electrical energy.

  13. Cryogenic formation of brine and sedimentary mirabilite in submergent coastal lake basins, Canadian Arctic

    Grasby, Stephen E.; Rod Smith, I.; Bell, Trevor; Forbes, Donald L.

    2013-06-01

    Two informally named basins (Mirabilite Basins 1 and 2) along a submergent coastline on Banks Island, Canadian Arctic Archipelago, host up to 1 m-thick accumulations of mirabilite (Na2SO4·10H2O) underlying stratified water bodies with basal anoxic brines. Unlike isostatically uplifting coastlines that trap seawater in coastal basins, these basins formed from freshwater lakes that were transgressed by seawater. The depth of the sill that separates the basins from the sea is shallow (1.15 m), such that seasonal sea ice formation down to 1.6 m isolates the basins from open water exchange through the winter. Freezing of seawater excludes salts, generating dense brines that sink to the basin bottom. Progressive freezing increases salinity of residual brines to the point of mirabilite saturation, and as a result sedimentary deposits of mirabilite accumulate on the basin floors. Brine formation also leads to density stratification and bottom water anoxia. We propose a model whereby summer melt of the ice cover forms a temporary freshwater lens, and rather than mixing with the underlying brines, it is exchanged with seawater once the ice plug that separates the basins from the open sea melts. This permits progressive brine development and density stratification within the basins.

  14. Concentrated Brine Treatment using New Energy in Coal Mine Evaporation Ponds

    Li, Ting; Li, Jingfeng

    2017-12-01

    Recently, more and more coal mine water is being advanced treated and reused in China. The concentrated brine that results from advanced treatment methods can only be evaporated in an evaporation pond. Because of limited treatment capabilities and winter freezing, evaporation ponds often overflow, causing environment contamination. In this paper, based on analysis of brine water quality and economic-technical feasibility, we present a suitable treatment method for brine in evaporation ponds as electrodialysis using solar energy. In addition, we propose a new system to treat brine in coal mine evaporation ponds, which is powered by solar and wind. The operating efficiency of this treatment system proposed in this paper can meet the concentrated brine treatment demands in most coal mines in western mining areas of China and it places the photovoltaic power generation plates on the surface of the evaporation pond on a fixed floating island, which reduces any risk associated with land acquisition. This system can enhance brine treatment efficiency, requires a reduced evaporation pond area, increases the utilization of coal mine water, and minimizes the risk of environment contamination.

  15. Water Recovery from Brines to Further Close the Water Recovery Loop in Human Spaceflight

    Jackson, W. Andrew; Barta, Daniel J.; Anderson, Molly S.; Lange, Kevin E.; Hanford, Anthony J.; Shull, Sarah A.; Carter, D. Layne

    2014-01-01

    Further closure of water recovery systems will be necessary for future long duration human exploration missions. NASA's Space Technology Roadmap for Human Health, Life Support and Habitation Systems specified a milestone to advance water management technologies during the 2015 to 2019 timeframe to achieve 98% H2O recovery from a mixed wastewater stream containing condensate, urine, hygiene, laundry, and water derived from waste. This goal can only be achieved by either reducing the amount of brines produced by a water recovery system or by recovering water from wastewater brines. NASA convened a Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM) on the topic of Water Recovery from Brines (WRB) that was held on January14-15th, 2014 at Johnson Space Center. Objectives of the TIM were to review systems and architectures that are sources of brines and the composition of brines they produce, review the state of the art in NASA technology development and perspectives from other industries, capture the challenges and difficulties in developing brine processing hardware, identify key figures of merit and requirements to focus technology development and evaluate candidate technologies, and identify other critical issues including microgravity sensitivity, and concepts of operation, safety. This paper represents an initial summary of findings from the workshop.

  16. Kinetics of radioisotope exchange between brine and rock in a geothermal system

    Hammond, D.E.; Zukin, J.G.; Teh-Lung Ku

    1988-01-01

    A wide range of isotopes in the /sup 238/U, /sup 235/U, and /sup 232/Th decay chains was measured in geothermal brines collected from two production zones at 1898 and 3220 m in the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project well. High concentrations of radium, radon, and lead isotopes are generated and maintained by the input of these isotopes from solid phases into brine by both recoil and leaching processes, by the high chloride content of the brine which complexes radium and lead, and by the apparent absence of suitable unoccupied adsorption sites. In contrast, uranium, thorium, actinium, bismuth, and polonium isotopes all have low concentrations due to their efficient sorption from brine to rock. Measurements of short-lived isotopes in these decay series yield insights regarding the mechanisms controlling radioisotope exchange, and they permit estimation of rates of brine-rock interaction. For example, the /sup 228/Ac//sup 228/Ra activity ratio of 0.2 in brines indicates that the mean residence time of actinium in solution before sorption onto solid surfaces is less than 2.5 hours

  17. Actinide Biocolloid Formation in Brine by Halophilic Bacteria

    Gillow, J.B.; Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.J.; Harris, R.; Beveridge, T.J.; Brady, P.V.; Papenguth, H.W.

    1999-07-28

    We examined the ability of a halophilic bacterium (WFP 1A) isolated from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site to accumulate uranium in order to determine the potential for biocolloid facilitated actinide transport. The bacterial cell Surface functional groups involved in the complexation of the actinide were determined by titration. Uranium, added as uranyl nitrate, was removed from solution at pH 5 by cells but at pH 7 and 9 very little uranium was removed due to its limited volubility. Although present as soluble species, uranyl citrate at pH 5, 7, and 9, and uranyl carbonate at pH 9 were not removed by the bacterium because they were not bioavailable due to their neutral or negative charge. Addition of uranyl EDTA to brine at pH 5, 7, and 9 resulted in the immediate precipitation of U. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis revealed that uranium was not only associated with the cell surface but also accumulated intracellulary as uranium-enriched granules. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis, of the bacterial cells indicated the bulk sample contained more than one uranium phase. Nevertheless these results show the potential for the formation of actinide bearing bacterial biocolloids that are strictly regulated by the speciation and bioavailability of the actinide.

  18. Actinide biocolloid formation in brine by halophilic bacteria

    Gillow, J.B.; Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.J.; Harris, R.; Beveridge, T.J.; Brady, P.V.; Papenguth, H.W.

    1999-01-01

    The authors examined the ability of a halophilic bacterium (WIPP 1A) isolated from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site to accumulate uranium in order to determine the potential for biocolloid facilitated actinide transport. The bacterial cell surface functional groups involved in the complexation of the actinide were determined by titration. Uranium, added as uranyl nitrate, was removed from solution at pH 5 by cells but at pH 7 and 9 very little uranium was removed due to its limited solubility. Although present as soluble species, uranyl citrate at pH 5, 7, and 9, and uranyl carbonate at pH 9 were not removed by the bacterium because they were not bioavailable due to their neutral or negative charge. Addition of uranyl EDTA to brine at pH 5, 7, and 9 resulted in the immediate precipitation of U. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis revealed that uranium was not only associated with the cell surface but also accumulated intracellularly as uranium-enriched granules. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis of the bacterial cells indicated the bulk sample contained more than one uranium phase. Nevertheless these results show the potential for the formation of actinide bearing bacterial biocolloids that are strictly regulated by the speciation and bioavailability of the actinide

  19. Actinide Biocolloid Formation in Brine by Halophilic Bacteria

    Gillow, J.B.; Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.J.; Harris, R.; Beveridge, T.J.; Brady, P.V.; Papenguth, H.W.

    1999-01-01

    We examined the ability of a halophilic bacterium (WFP 1A) isolated from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site to accumulate uranium in order to determine the potential for biocolloid facilitated actinide transport. The bacterial cell Surface functional groups involved in the complexation of the actinide were determined by titration. Uranium, added as uranyl nitrate, was removed from solution at pH 5 by cells but at pH 7 and 9 very little uranium was removed due to its limited volubility. Although present as soluble species, uranyl citrate at pH 5, 7, and 9, and uranyl carbonate at pH 9 were not removed by the bacterium because they were not bioavailable due to their neutral or negative charge. Addition of uranyl EDTA to brine at pH 5, 7, and 9 resulted in the immediate precipitation of U. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis revealed that uranium was not only associated with the cell surface but also accumulated intracellulary as uranium-enriched granules. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis, of the bacterial cells indicated the bulk sample contained more than one uranium phase. Nevertheless these results show the potential for the formation of actinide bearing bacterial biocolloids that are strictly regulated by the speciation and bioavailability of the actinide

  20. Actinide biocolloid formation in brine by halophilic bacteria

    Gillow, J.B.; Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.J.; Harris, R.; Beveridge, T.J.; Brady, P.B.; Papenguth, H.W.

    1998-01-01

    The authors examined the ability of a halophilic bacterium (WIPP 1A) isolated from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site to accumulate uranium in order to determine the potential for biocolloid facilitated actinide transport. The bacterial cell surface functional groups involved in the complexation of the actinide were determined by titration. Uranium, added as uranyl nitrate, was removed from solution at pH 5 by cells but at pH 7 and 9 very little uranium was removed due to its limited solubility. Although present as soluble species, uranyl citrate at pH 5, 7, and 9, and uranyl carbonate at pH 9 were not removed by the bacterium because they were not bioavailable due to their neutral or negative charge. Addition of uranyl EDTA to brine at pH 5, 7, and 9 resulted in the immediate precipitation of U. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis revealed that uranium was not only associated with the cell surface but also accumulated intracellularly as uranium-enriched granules. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis of the bacterial cells indicated the bulk sample contained more than one uranium phase. Nevertheless these results show the potential for the formation of actinide bearing bacterial biocolloids that are strictly regulated by the speciation and bioavailability of the actinide

  1. Effect of NaCl on seed germination in some Centaurium Hill. Species (Gentianaceae

    Živković S.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of high NaCl concentrations on seed germination in both light and darkness was examined in the species Centaurium pulchellum, C. erythraea, C. littorale, C. spicatum, and C. tenuiflorum. Salt tolerance was found to depend on the life history of the seeds. To be specific, seeds of all five species failed to complete germination when exposed to continuous white light if kept all the time in the presence of 100-200 mM and greater NaCl concentrations. However, when after two weeks NaCl was rinsed from the seeds and the seeds were left in distilled water under white light for an additional two weeks, all species completed germination to a certain extent. The percent of germination not only depended on NaCl concentration in the prior medium, but was also species specific. Thus, seeds of C. pulchellum, C. erythraea, and C. littorale completed germination well almost irrespective of the salt concentration previously experienced. On the other hand, seeds of C. tenuiflorum completed germination poorly if NaCl concentrations in the prior media were greater than 200 mM. When seeds after washing were transferred to darkness for an additional 14 days, they failed to complete germination if previously imbibed on media containing NaCl concentrations greater than 400 mM. However, the seeds of all species, even if previously imbibed at 800 mM NaCl, could be induced to complete germination in darkness by 1 mM gibberellic acid. .

  2. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi mitigates nacl induced adverse effects on solanum lycopersicum l

    Abeer, H.

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of AMF on the growth and physio-biochemical attributes, antioxidant enzyme activities, plant growth regulators and inorganic nutrients in tomato grown under salt stress condition. Tomato plants were exposed to different concentrations of NaCl alone (0, 50 and 150 mM) and in combination with AMF (0mM+AMF, 50mM+AMF and 150mM+AMF). Spore population and colonization, growth and biomass yield, pigments, membrane stability index and malondialdehyde were negatively affected. Exposure of plants to combination of NaCl and AMF showed positive impact on the above parameters. Proline and antioxidant enzyme activity increased with increasing concentration of NaCl and further increase was observed in plants treated with NaCl in combination with AMF. Acid and alkaline phosphatase, hydrolytic enzymes and pectinase are also affected with increasing concentration of salt. However plants treated with NaCl in combination with AMF balances the above enzymatic activity. Salt stress decreases the auxin concentration in plants but application of AMF has been shown to restore the auxin content. ABA increases with salt concentration but less accumulation of ABA have been found in plants treated with AMF. Regarding the nutrient uptake, Na+ and Na;K ratio increased and P, K, Mg and Ca decreases with increasing concentration of NaCl. Enhanced accumulation of P, K, Mg, Ca and K:N ratio and less uptake of Na+ was observed in presence of AMF. The results confirm that NaCl imposes threat to the survival of tomato plants and application of AMF mitigates the negative effect to an appreciable level. (author)

  3. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume III. Biological oceanography. Final report

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

    1983-02-01

    The Department of Energy's Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program began discharging brine into the Gulf of Mexico from its West Hackberry site near Cameron, Louisiana in May 1981. The brine originates from underground salt domes being leached with water from the Intracoastal Waterway, making available vast underground storage caverns for crude oil. The effects of brine discharge on aquatic organisms are presented in this volume. The topics covered are: benthos; nekton; phytoplankton; zooplankton; and data management.

  4. Proteins associated with adaptation of cultured tobacco cells to NaCl

    Singh, N.K.; Handa, A.K.; Hasegawa, P.M.; Bressan, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    Cultured tobacco cells (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Wisconsin 38) adapted to grow in medium containing high levels of NaCl or polyethylene glycol (PEG) produce several new or enhanced polypeptide bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyarylamide gel electrophoresis. The intensities of some of the polypeptide bands increase with increasing levels of NaCl adaptation, while the intensities of other polypeptide bands are reduced. Synthesis of 26-kilodalton polypeptide(s) occurs at two different periods during culture growth of NaCl adapted cells. Unadapted cells also incorporate 35 S into a 26-kilodalton polypeptide during the later stage of culture growth beginning at midlog phase. The 26-kilodalton polypeptides from adapted and unadapted cells have similar partial proteolysis peptide maps and are immunologically cross-reactive. During adaptation to NaCl, unadapted cells synthesize and accumulate a major 26-kilodalton polypeptide, and the beginning of synthesis corresponds to the period of osmotic adjustment and culture growth. From their results, the authors suggest an involvement of the 26-kilodalton polypeptide in the adaptation of cultured tobacco cells to NaCl and water stress. 38 references, 11 figures, 2 tables

  5. Irreversible dilation of NaCl contaminated lime-cement mortar due to crystallization cycles

    Lubelli, B.; Hees, R.P.J. van; Huinink, H.P.; Groot, C.J.W.P.

    2006-01-01

    The mechanism of damage occurring in NaCl contaminated materials has not been clarified yet. Apart from crystallization pressure, other hypotheses have been proposed to explain the cause of decay. Irreversible dilation has been observed in a few cases but has never been studied in a more systematic way. The aim of the research is to contribute to the modeling of this phenomenon. In the present paper the effect of NaCl on the hydric and hygric behavior of a lime-cement mortar is extensively studied. The results indicate that NaCl influences the hydric and hygric dilation behavior of the material. The material contaminated with NaCl shrinks during dissolution and dilates during crystallization of the salt. This dilation is irreversible and sufficient to damage the material after few dissolution/crystallization cycles. This behavior is not restricted to NaCl, but is observed in the presence of other salts as well (NaNO 3 and KCl). Outcomes of electron microscopy studies suggest that salts causing irreversible dilation tend to crystallize as layers on the pore wall

  6. The initial stages of NaCl dissolution: Ion or ion pair solvation?

    Klimes, Jiri; Michaelides, Angelos

    2009-03-01

    The interaction of water with rock salt (NaCl) is important in a wide variety of natural processes and human activities. A lot is known about NaCl dissolution at the macroscopic level but we do not yet have a detailed atomic scale picture of how salt crystals dissolve. Here we report an extensive series of density functional theory, forcefield and molecular dynamics studies of water clusters at flat and defective NaCl surfaces and NaCl clusters. The focus is on answering seemingly elementary questions such as how many water molecules are needed before it becomes favorable to extract an ion or a pair of ions from the crystal or the cluster. It turns out, however, that the answers to these questions are not so straightforward: below a certain number of water molecules (˜ 12) solvation of individual ions is less costly and above this number solvation of ion pairs is favored. These results reveal a hitherto unknown complexity in the NaCl dissolution process born out of a subtle interplay between water-water and water-ion interactions.

  7. Sorption of cesium and strontium from concentrated brines by backfill barrier materials

    Winslow, C.D.

    1981-03-01

    The sorption of radionuclides from potentially intruding groundwater at a nuclear waste repository is a major chemical function of backfill barriers. In this study, various materials (including clays, zeolites and an inorganic ion exchanger) were screened for the sorption of the fission products cesium and strontium in concentrated brines. Representative brines A and B for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a proposed radioactive waste repository and test facility in bedded salt were used. Sorption properties were quantified using empirical distribution coefficients, k/sub d/. Of the materials examined, sodium titanate had the highest k/sub d/ for the sorption of Sr(II) in both brine A (k/sub d/ = 125 ml/g) and brine B(k/sub d/ = 500 to 600 ml/g). A mordenite-type zeolite was the most effective getter for Cs(I) in brine A (k/sub d = 27 ml/g), while illite yielded the highest k/sub d/ for Cs(I) in brine B (k/sub d/ = 115 ml/g). The relative merit of these k/sub d/ values is evaluated in terms of calculated estimates of breakthrough times for a backfill barrier containing the getter. Results show that a backfill mixture containing these getters is potentially an effective barrier to the migration of Sr(II) and Cs(I), although further study (especially for the sorption of cesium from brine A) is recommended. Initial mechanistic studies revealed competing ion effects which would support an ion exchange mechanism. K/sub d/'s were constant over a Sr(II) concentration range of 10 -11 to 10 -5 M and a Cs(I) concentration range of 10 -8 to 10 -5 M, supporting the choice of a linear sorption isotherm as a model for the results. Constant batch composition was shown to be attained within one week

  8. Aerobic methanotrophic communities at the Red Sea brine-seawater interface

    Rehab Z. Abdallah

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The central rift of the Red Sea contains 25 brine pools with different physicochemical conditions, dictating the diversity and abundance of the microbial community. Three of these pools, the Atlantis II, Kebrit and Discovery Deeps, are uniquely characterized by a high concentration of hydrocarbons. The brine-seawater interface, described as an anoxic-oxic (brine-seawater boundary, is characterized by a high methane concentration, thus favoring aerobic methane oxidation. The current study analyzed the aerobic free–living methane-oxidizing bacterial communities that potentially contribute to methane oxidation at the brine-seawater interfaces of the three aforementioned brine pools, using metagenomic pyrosequencing, 16S rRNA pyrotags and pmoA library constructs. The sequencing of 16S rRNA pyrotags revealed that these interfaces are characterized by high microbial community diversity. Signatures of aerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria were detected in the Atlantis II Interface (ATII-I and the Kebrit Deep Upper (KB-U and Lower (KB-L brine-seawater interfaces. Through phylogenetic analysis of pmoA, we further demonstrated that the ATII-I aerobic methanotroph community is highly diverse. We propose four ATII-I pmoA clusters. Most importantly, cluster 2 groups with marine methane seep methanotrophs, and cluster 4 represent a unique lineage of an uncultured bacterium with divergent alkane monooxygenases. Moreover, non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS based on the ordination of putative enzymes involved in methane metabolism showed that the Kebrit interface layers were distinct from the ATII-I and DD-I brine-seawater interfaces.

  9. Numerical studies of CO2 and brine leakage into a shallow aquifer through an open wellbore

    Wang, Jingrui; Hu, Litang; Pan, Lehua; Zhang, Keni

    2018-03-01

    Industrial-scale geological storage of CO2 in saline aquifers may cause CO2 and brine leakage from abandoned wells into shallow fresh aquifers. This leakage problem involves the flow dynamics in both the wellbore and the storage reservoir. T2Well/ECO2N, a coupled wellbore-reservoir flow simulator, was used to analyze CO2 and brine leakage under different conditions with a hypothetical simulation model in water-CO2-brine systems. Parametric studies on CO2 and brine leakage, including the salinity, excess pore pressure (EPP) and initially dissolved CO2 mass fraction, are conducted to understand the mechanism of CO2 migration. The results show that brine leakage rates increase proportionally with EPP and inversely with the salinity when EPP varies from 0.5 to 1.5 MPa; however, there is no CO2 leakage into the shallow freshwater aquifer if EPP is less than 0.5 MPa. The dissolved CO2 mass fraction shows an important influence on the CO2 plume, as part of the dissolved CO2 becomes a free phase. Scenario simulation shows that the gas lifting effect will significantly increase the brine leakage rate into the shallow freshwater aquifer under the scenario of 3.89% dissolved CO2 mass fraction. The equivalent porous media (EPM) approach used to model the wellbore flow has been evaluated and results show that the EPM approach could either under- or over-estimate brine leakage rates under most scenarios. The discrepancies become more significant if a free CO2 phase evolves. Therefore, a model that can correctly describe the complex flow dynamics in the wellbore is necessary for investigating the leakage problems.

  10. State-of-the-art review of brine migration studies in salt. Technical memorandum report RSI-0075

    Gnirk, P.F.; Krause, W.B.; Fossum, A.F.

    1981-09-01

    This report provides a state-of-the-art review of brine migration studies in rock salt. Emphasis is placed on the review of literature relating to brine migration phenomena around nuclear waste canisters. This review includes experimental work which has been conducted in the laboratory and in the field. In addition to the literature review, some additional thoughts on brine migration are given and a series of laboratory experiments is proposed. The proposed laboratory experiments are designed to determine whether or not a relationship exists between brine migration and temperature, temperature gradient and stress in rock salt. 34 references, 9 figures, 3 tables

  11. The brine shrimp Artemia: adapted to critical life conditions

    Gonzalo M Gajardo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The brine shrimp Artemia is a micro-crustacean, well adapted to the harsh conditions that severely hypersaline environments impose on survival and reproduction. Adaptation to these conditions has taken place at different functional levels or domains, from the individual (molecular-cellular-physiological to the population level. Such conditions are experienced by very few equivalent macro-planktonic organisms; thus, Artemia can be considered a model animal extremophile offering a unique suite of adaptations that are the focus of this review. The most obvious is a highly efficient osmoregulation system to withstand up to 10 times the salt concentration of ordinary seawater. Under extremely critical environmental conditions, for example when seasonal lakes dry out, Artemia takes refuge by producing a highly resistant encysted gastrula embryo (cyst capable of severe dehydration enabling an escape from population extinction. Cysts can be viewed as gene banks that store a genetic memory of historical population conditions. Their occurrence is due to the evolved ability of females to perceive forthcoming unstable environmental conditions expressed by their ability to switch reproductive mode, producing either cysts (oviparity when environmental conditions become deleterious or free-swimming nauplii (ovoviviparity that are able to maintain the population under suitable conditions.At the population level the trend is for conspecific populations to be fragmented into locally adapted populations, whereas species are restricted to salty lakes in particular regions (regional endemism. The Artemia model depicts adaptation as a complex response to critical life conditions, integrating and refining past and present experiences at all levels of organization. Although we consider an invertebrate restricted to a unique environment, the processes to be discussed are of general biological interest. Finally, we highlight the benefits of understanding the stress

  12. Ab initio interionic potentials for NaCl by multiple lattice inversion

    Zhang Shuo; Chen Nanxian

    2002-01-01

    Based on the Chen-Moebius lattice inversion and a series of pseudopotential total-energy curves, a different method is presented to derive the ab initio interionic pair potentials for B1-type ionic crystals. Comparing with the experimental data, the static properties of B1- and B2-type NaCl are well reproduced by the interionic potentials. Moreover, the phase stability of B1-NaCl has been described by the energy minimizations from the global deformed and disturbed states. The molecular-dynamics simulations for the molten NaCl indicate that the calculated mean-square displacements, radial distribution function, and diffusion coefficients gain good agreements with the experimental results. It can be concluded that the inversion pair potentials are valid over a wide range of interionic separations for describing the structural properties of B1-type ionic crystals

  13. Proteomic analysis of the response to NaCl stress of Lactobacillus bulgaricus.

    Li, Chun; Li, Pei-Zhao; Sun, Jin-Wei; Huo, Gui-Cheng; Liu, Li-Bo

    2014-11-01

    Lactobacillus bulgaricus is commonly used in dairy products as a starter culture. Its viability during freeze-drying is of commercial interest. Here a significant (p bulgaricus ATCC 11842 was achieved during freeze-drying when it was prestressed with 2 % (w/v) NaCl for 2 h in the late growth phase. To understand the mechanism of this stress-related viability improvement in L. bulgaricus, protein synthesis was analyzed by 2D difference gel electrophoresis. Nine protein spots were significantly altered by NaCl and were subsequently identified by peptide mass fingerprinting. The functions of the proteins included stress-related protein synthesis, amino acid biosynthesis, nucleotide biosynthesis, sugar metabolism, transport systems, and vitamin biosynthesis. These findings provide a considerable background regarding the NaCl stress response of L. bulgaricus.

  14. Neutralization of Hydroxide Ion in Melt-Grown NaCl Crystals

    Otterson, Dumas A.

    1961-01-01

    Many recent studies of solid-state phenomena, particularly in the area of crystal imperfections, have involved the use of melt-grown NaCl single crystals. Quite often trace impurities in these materials have had a prominent effect on these phenomena. Trace amounts of hydroxide ion have been found in melt-grown NaCl crystals. This paper describes a nondestructive method of neutralizing the hydroxide ion in such crystals. Crystals of similar hydroxide content are maintained at an elevated temperature below the melting point of NaCl in a flowing atmosphere containing. dry hydrogen chloride. Heat treatment is continued until an analysis of the test specimens shows no excess hydroxide ion. A colorimetric method previously described4 is used for this analysis.

  15. Equilibrium chemical transformations in NaPO3 + NaCl melts

    Kovarskaya, E.N.; Rodionov, Yu.I.

    1988-01-01

    Because of the problems of the burial of solidified radioactive wastes into different geological rock formations, in particular into massives of rock-salt, the state of molten polyphosphate-chloride mixtures (taking into account the chemical character of the interaction of their components) for a prolonged period of time. The equilibrium products of the reaction in the NaPO 3 -NaCl system were studied in melts in air in the composition range of 30-70 mole % NaCl. It was shown that with increase in the NaCl content in the mixtures, the polyphosphate gradually depolymerizes to sodium tri-, di-, and monophosphates, and the composition of the equilibrium melts is dependent only on the ratio between the components in the initial molten mixtures. The time until the equilibrium is attained is shorter, the higher is the experimental temperature

  16. Intergranular Pressure Solution in Nacl: Grain-To-Grain Contact Experiments under the Optical Microscope Dissolution sous contrainte dans NaCl : expériences de contact grain à grain sous microscope optique

    Spiers C. J.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Intergranular Pressure Solution (IPS is an important geologic lithification, compaction and deformation mechanism in a wide variety of crustal rocks. Experimental studies of IPS in quartz aggregates have not been very successful due to the low rate of IPS, and IPS experiments performed using wet halite as a rock analogue (Spiers and Schutjens, 1990; Hickman and Evans, 1991 have left uncertainty about the detailed IPS mechanism and grain contact structure/wetting in this material. The present study reports four contact dissolution experiments performed under the optical microscope to study the mechanism and kinetics of IPS at single halite/halite and halite/glass contacts loaded under brine (room temperature. Normal constant contact forces in the range 1. 0 to 2. 6 N were applied in the presence of NaCl-saturated brine, exerting stresses of 0. 8 to 7. 4 MPa. Time-dependent mass removal and convergence were observed at all contacts. In all cases, loading of the contact (or increasing the load on the contact led to instantaneous formation of a rough contact morphology, composed of a crystallographically-controlled pattern of islands and channels with a length scale of several micrometers. This nonequilibrium microstructure evolved with time to an optically flat contact face while contact broadening and convergence continued. The smoothing/convergence process must therefore have involved diffusion of mass out of the contact, and expulsion of brine, through a connected brine phase within the contact. Whether a fine-scale rough structure persisted in contacts which evolved to optical flatness is not known, though post-test SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy observations suggest that it may have. If so, its amplitude was less than 500 nm. Measurements of dissolution rates enabled comparison with a model for IPS. The analysis suggests that solute diffusion through the contact boundary was probably rate-controlling, with the contact structure and

  17. Heterogeneous Ice Nucleation Ability of NaCl and Sea Salt Aerosol Particles at Cirrus Temperatures

    Wagner, Robert; Kaufmann, Julia; Möhler, Ottmar; Saathoff, Harald; Schnaiter, Martin; Ullrich, Romy; Leisner, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    In situ measurements of the composition of heterogeneous cirrus ice cloud residuals have indicated a substantial contribution of sea salt in sampling regions above the ocean. We have investigated the heterogeneous ice nucleation ability of sodium chloride (NaCl) and sea salt aerosol (SSA) particles at cirrus cloud temperatures between 235 and 200 K in the Aerosol Interaction and Dynamics in the Atmosphere aerosol and cloud chamber. Effloresced NaCl particles were found to act as ice nucleating particles in the deposition nucleation mode at temperatures below about 225 K, with freezing onsets in terms of the ice saturation ratio, Sice, between 1.28 and 1.40. Above 225 K, the crystalline NaCl particles deliquesced and nucleated ice homogeneously. The heterogeneous ice nucleation efficiency was rather similar for the two crystalline forms of NaCl (anhydrous NaCl and NaCl dihydrate). Mixed-phase (solid/liquid) SSA particles were found to act as ice nucleating particles in the immersion freezing mode at temperatures below about 220 K, with freezing onsets in terms of Sice between 1.24 and 1.42. Above 220 K, the SSA particles fully deliquesced and nucleated ice homogeneously. Ice nucleation active surface site densities of the SSA particles were found to be in the range between 1.0 · 1010 and 1.0 · 1011 m-2 at T < 220 K. These values are of the same order of magnitude as ice nucleation active surface site densities recently determined for desert dust, suggesting a potential contribution of SSA particles to low-temperature heterogeneous ice nucleation in the atmosphere.

  18. A possible NaCl pathway in the bioregenerative human life support system

    Polonskiy, V. I.; Gribovskaya, I. V.

    One of the ways to involve NaCl in the mass exchange of the bioregenerative human life support system (BLSS) is to grow some vegetables and leafy greens that can accumulate sodium chloride at high concentrations in their edible biomass. Lettuce, celery cabbage, chard, dill and radish plants were grown hydroponically in Knop's nutrient solution. In the first series of experiments, at the end of the growth period the plants were grown on solutions containing 2-14 g/L of NaCl for 1-5 days. It was found that the amount of sodium in edible biomass of the plants increased with NaCl concentration in the solution and with the time plants were irrigated with that solution. The content of NaCl in the biomass of leaves and edible roots was considerable—up to 10% dry matter. At the same time, the amount of water in the leaves decreased and productivity of the treatment plants was 14-28% lower than that of the control ones, grown on Knop's solution. The treatment plants contained less than half of the amount of nitrates recorded in the control ones. Expert evaluation showed that the taste of the vegetables and leafy greens of the treatment group were not inferior to the taste of the control plants. In the second series of experiments, prior to being grown on the NaCl solution, the plants were irrigated with water for 2, 4 or 6 days. It was found that lower salt status of the plants was not favorable for increased salt accumulation in their biomass. If a human consumes 30 g salad vegetables and follows a low-sodium diet (3 g/d of table salt), it may be feasible to recycle NaCl in the BLSS using vegetables and leafy greens.

  19. Near-field environment research at PNL relevant to brine migration phenomena

    Pederson, L.R.; Gray, W.J.; Hodges, F.N.

    1987-01-01

    Heat and radiation resulting from emplacement of a high level nuclear waste package in a repository in salt will cause physical and chemical changes in the host rock and any brines present. These changes may alter the performance of waste package materials. Gamma radiolysis decomposes water into hydrogen and oxygen, hydrogen peroxide, and various other free radical and ionic species. Gamma ray irradiation of rock salt decomposes that salt to sodium metal colloids and neutral chlorine (unknown form), changing both its physical and chemical properties. Sodium metal will react, if contacted by water, to form sodium hydroxide plus hydrogen gas, while chlorine will react to form hydrochloric plus hypochlorous acids. If irradiated salts are completely dissolved, little impact on the chemical environment is expected because the acids and bases formed will neutralize each other. Heat from the waste package can alter the chemistry of the host rock. Changes in temperature can also alter the chemistry of brines by precipitation of phases with retrograde solubility, addition of more soluble salt components to the brine, and by reaction with clays and other impurities in the salt. Some of these reactions could be accompanied by significant shifts in the pH. In experiments to date, no important changes in chemistry have been observed when typical Permian Basin intrusion or inclusion brines were heated up to 150 0 C with no excess site-specific salt present. When excess salt was included, acidic shifts were noted, increasing with brine-salt interaction time and temperature

  20. Sorption-reagent treatment of brines produced by reverse osmosis unit for liquid radioactive waste management

    Avramenko, V. A.; Zheleznov, V. V.; Sergienko, V. I.; Chizhevsky, I. Yu

    2003-01-01

    The results of the pilot plant tests (2002-2003) of the sorption-reagent decontamination of high salinity radioactive waste (brines) remaining after the low-salinity liquid radioactive waste (LRW) treatment in the reverse-osmosis unit from long-lived radionuclides are presented. The sorption-reagent materials used in this work were developed in the Institute of Chemistry FEDRAS. They enable one to decontaminate brines with total salt content up to 50 g/l from long-lived radionuclides of Cs, Sr and Co. At joint application of the reverse-osmosis and sorption-reagent technologies total volume of solid radioactive waste (SRW) decreases up to 100-fold as compared to the technology of cementation of reverse osmosis brines. In this case total cost of LRW treatment and SRW disposal decreases more than 10-fold. Brines decontaminated from radionuclides are then diluted down to the ecologically safe total salts content in water to be disposed of. Tests were performed to compare the efficiency of technologies including evaporation of brines remaining after reverse osmosis process and their decontamination by means of the sorption-reagent method. It was shown that, as compared to evaporation, the sorption-reagent technology provides substantial advantages as in regard to radioactive waste total volume reduction as in view of total cost of the waste management

  1. Lithium recovery from salt lake brine by H2TiO3.

    Chitrakar, Ramesh; Makita, Yoji; Ooi, Kenta; Sonoda, Akinari

    2014-06-21

    The details of the ion exchange properties of layered H2TiO3, derived from the layered Li2TiO3 precursor upon treatment with HCl solution, with lithium ions in the salt lake brine (collected from Salar de Uyuni, Bolivia) are reported. The lithium adsorption rate is slow, requiring 1 d to attain equilibrium at room temperature. The adsorption of lithium ions by H2TiO3 follows the Langmuir model with an adsorptive capacity of 32.6 mg g(-1) (4.7 mmol g(-1)) at pH 6.5 from the brine containing NaHCO3 (NaHCO3 added to control the pH). The total amount of sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium adsorbed from the brine was lithium ions from the brine containing competitive cations such as sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium in extremely large excess. The results indicate that the selectivity order Li(+) ≫ Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+) originates from a size effect. The H2TiO3 can be regenerated and reused for lithium exchange in the brine with an exchange capacity very similar to the original H2TiO3.

  2. Design calculations for a combined ventilation and brine injection experiment at the Grimsel Rock Laboratory, Switzerland

    Finsterle, S.; Pruess, K.

    1993-07-01

    A combined ventilation and brine injection test is planned at the Grimsel Test Site. The objective of the experiment is to study the transport of liquid and gas in the vicinity of a ventilated drift in order to evaluate the impact of the drying process on the characterization of the rock matrix. The proposed test sequence includes a desaturation-resaturation cycle. In addition, brine and fresh water will be injected from a borehole as trace electrolytes in order to better track the propagation of the individual phases. Results of design calculations using the TOUGH2 code show that injection of brine may significantly influence the unsaturated flow behavior by changing the pressure and saturation distribution around the borehole. Transport velocity is predicted to be very slow, requiring several months for the brine to reach the draft wall. However, the presence of preferential flow paths may reduce travel time and alter brine content and saturation distribution so that certain sensors may respond earlier or not at all

  3. Subsurface transport of inorganic and organic solutes from experimental road spreading of oil-field brine

    Bair, E.S.; Digel, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    A study designed to evaluate ground water quality changes resulting from spreading oil-field brine on roads for ice and dust control was conducted using a gravel roadbed that received weekly applications of brine eight times during the winter phase and 11 times during the summer phase of the study. A network of 11 monitoring wells and five pressure-vacuum lysimeters was installed to obtain ground water and soil water samples. Thirteen sets of water-quality samples were collected and analyzed for major ions, trace metals, and volatile organic compounds. Two sets of samples were taken prior to brine spreading, four sets during winter-phase spreading, five sets during summer-phase spreading, and two sets during the interim between the winter and summer phases. A brine plume delineated by elevated specific-conductance values and elevated chloride concentrations in ground water samples to exceed US EPA public drinking-water standards by two-fold during the winter phase and five-fold during the summer phase. No other major ions, trace metals, or volatile organic compounds exceeded the standards during the winter or summer phases. More than 99% dilution of the solutes in the brine occurred between the roadbed surface and the local ground water flow system. Further attenuation of calcium, sodium, potassium, and strontium resulted from adsorption, whereas further attenuation of benzene resulted from volatilization and adsorption

  4. Distinctive Microbial Community Structure in Highly Stratified Deep-Sea Brine Water Columns

    Bougouffa, Salim; Yang, J. K.; Lee, O. O.; Wang, Y.; Batang, Zenon B.; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaziz M.; Qian, P. Y.

    2013-01-01

    Atlantis II and Discovery are two hydrothermal and hypersaline deep-sea pools in the Red Sea rift that are characterized by strong thermohalo-stratification and temperatures steadily peaking near the bottom. We conducted comprehensive vertical profiling of the microbial populations in both pools and highlighted the influential environmental factors. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes revealed shifts in community structures vis-à-vis depth. High diversity and low abundance were features of the deepest convective layers despite the low cell density. Surprisingly, the brine interfaces had significantly higher cell counts than the overlying deep-sea water, yet they were lowest in diversity. Vertical stratification of the bacterial populations was apparent as we moved from the Alphaproteobacteria-dominated deep sea to the Planctomycetaceae- or Deferribacteres-dominated interfaces to the Gammaproteobacteria-dominated brine layers. Archaeal marine group I was dominant in the deep-sea water and interfaces, while several euryarchaeotic groups increased in the brine. Across sites, microbial phylotypes and abundances varied substantially in the brine interface of Discovery compared with Atlantis II, despite the near-identical populations in the overlying deep-sea waters. The lowest convective layers harbored interestingly similar microbial communities, even though temperature and heavy metal concentrations were very different. Multivariate analysis indicated that temperature and salinity were the major influences shaping the communities. The harsh conditions and the low-abundance phylotypes could explain the observed correlation in the brine pools.

  5. Recovery of Lithium from Geothermal Brine with Lithium-Aluminum Layered Double Hydroxide Chloride Sorbents.

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Li, Ling; Luo, Jiaqi; Hoke, Thomas; Ucar, Huseyin; Moyer, Bruce A; Harrison, Stephen

    2017-11-21

    We report a three-stage bench-scale column extraction process to selectively extract lithium chloride from geothermal brine. The goal of this research is to develop materials and processing technologies to improve the economics of lithium extraction and production from naturally occurring geothermal and other brines for energy storage applications. A novel sorbent, lithium aluminum layered double hydroxide chloride (LDH), is synthesized and characterized with X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), and thermogravimetric analysis. Each cycle of the column extraction process consists of three steps: (1) loading the sorbent with lithium chloride from brine; (2) intermediate washing to remove unwanted ions; (3) final washing for unloading the lithium chloride ions. Our experimental analysis of eluate vs feed concentrations of Li and competing ions demonstrates that our optimized sorbents can achieve a recovery efficiency of ∼91% and possess excellent Li apparent selectivity of 47.8 compared to Na ions and 212 compared to K ions, respectively in the brine. The present work demonstrates that LDH is an effective sorbent for selective extraction of lithium from brines, thus offering the possibility of effective application of lithium salts in lithium-ion batteries leading to a fundamental shift in the lithium supply chain.

  6. Distinctive Microbial Community Structure in Highly Stratified Deep-Sea Brine Water Columns

    Bougouffa, Salim

    2013-03-29

    Atlantis II and Discovery are two hydrothermal and hypersaline deep-sea pools in the Red Sea rift that are characterized by strong thermohalo-stratification and temperatures steadily peaking near the bottom. We conducted comprehensive vertical profiling of the microbial populations in both pools and highlighted the influential environmental factors. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes revealed shifts in community structures vis-à-vis depth. High diversity and low abundance were features of the deepest convective layers despite the low cell density. Surprisingly, the brine interfaces had significantly higher cell counts than the overlying deep-sea water, yet they were lowest in diversity. Vertical stratification of the bacterial populations was apparent as we moved from the Alphaproteobacteria-dominated deep sea to the Planctomycetaceae- or Deferribacteres-dominated interfaces to the Gammaproteobacteria-dominated brine layers. Archaeal marine group I was dominant in the deep-sea water and interfaces, while several euryarchaeotic groups increased in the brine. Across sites, microbial phylotypes and abundances varied substantially in the brine interface of Discovery compared with Atlantis II, despite the near-identical populations in the overlying deep-sea waters. The lowest convective layers harbored interestingly similar microbial communities, even though temperature and heavy metal concentrations were very different. Multivariate analysis indicated that temperature and salinity were the major influences shaping the communities. The harsh conditions and the low-abundance phylotypes could explain the observed correlation in the brine pools.

  7. Geochemical evaluation of flowback brine from Marcellus gas wells in Pennsylvania, USA

    Haluszczak, Lara O.; Rose, Arthur W.; Kump, Lee R.

    2013-01-01

    Large quantities of highly saline brine flow from gas wells in the Marcellus Formation after hydraulic stimulation (“fracking”). This study assesses the composition of these flowback waters from the Marcellus shale in Pennsylvania, USA. Concentrations of most inorganic components of flowback water (Cl, Br, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Sr, Ba, Ra, Fe, Mn, total dissolved solids, and others) increase with time from a well after hydraulic stimulation. Based on results in several datasets reported here, the greatest concentration of Cl − in flowback water is 151,000 mg/L. For total Ra (combined 226 Ra and 228 Ra) in flowback, the highest level reported is 6540 pCi/L. Flowback waters from hydraulic fracturing of Marcellus wells resemble brines produced from conventional gas wells that tap into other Paleozoic formations in the region. The Br/Cl ratio and other parameters indicate that both types of brine formed by the evaporation of seawater followed by dolomitization, sulfate reduction and subsurface mixing with seawater and/or freshwater. Trends and relationships in brine composition indicate that (1) increased salt concentration in flowback is not mainly caused by dissolution of salt or other minerals in rock units, (2) the flowback waters represent a mixture of injection waters with highly concentrated in situ brines similar to those in the other formations, and (3) these waters contain concentrations of Ra and Ba that are commonly hundreds of times the US drinking water standards.

  8. Fate of Brine Applied to Unpaved Roads at a Radioactive Waste Subsurface Disposal Area

    Larry C. Hull; Carolyn W. Bishop

    2004-01-01

    Between 1984 and 1993, MgCl 2 brine was used to suppress dust on unpaved roads at a radioactive waste subsurface disposal area. Because Cl - might enhance corrosion of buried metals in the waste, we investigated the distribution and fate of Cl - in the vadose zone using pore water samples collected from suction lysimeters and soluble salt concentrations extracted from sediment samples. The Cl/Br mass ratio and the total dissolved Cl - concentration of pore water show that brine contamination occurs primarily within 13 m of treated roads, but can extend as much as 30 m laterally in near-surface sedimentary deposits. Within the deep vadose zone, which consists of interlayered basalt lava flows and sedimentary interbeds, brine has moved up to 110 m laterally. This lateral migration suggests formation of perched water and horizontal transport during periods of high recharge. In a few locations, brine migrated to depths of 67 m within 3 to 5 yr. Elevated Cl - concentrations were found to depths of 2 m in roadbed material. In drainage ditches along roads, where runoff accumulates and recharge of surface water is high, Cl - was flushed from the sediments in 3 to 4 yr. In areas of lower recharge, Cl - remained in the sediments after 5 yr. Vertical brine movement is directly related to surface recharge through sediments. The distribution of Cl - in pore water and sediments is consistent with estimates of vadose zone residence times and spatial distribution of surface water recharge from other investigations at the subsurface disposal area

  9. Effects of gamma radiation on the survival and growth of brine shrimp, Artemia salina

    Engel, D.W.; Davis, E.M.

    1976-01-01

    To determine the effects of gamma radiation on the survival and growth of brine shrimp, nauplii and adults were exposed to different doses of radiation and maintained at different salinities and temperatures. The LD 50 determination demonstrated that nauplii were thirty to forty times more sensitive than the adults and had a 25-day LD 50 of 450 rads. Radiation and salinity reduced survival of adult female brine shrimp more than the males. The interaction of salinity, 5 and 50 ppt, temperature, 10, 20 and 30 0 C, and radiation, 25 to 100 kilorads, decreased the survival of both male and female brine shrimp, with the males having the greater sensitivity. Brine shrimp nauplii irradiated with doses of 500 and 2,500 rads had accelerated growth and matured earlier than the controls. A test of the effect of crowding on growth showed that volume per individual was important, and a dose of 500 rads accelerated brine shrimp growth in all concentrations, with the greatest increase at 8 ml/nauplius

  10. Effect of NaCl and KCl on irradiated diploid yeast cells

    Amirtaev, K.G.; Lobachevskij, P.N.; Lyu Gvan Son

    1984-01-01

    Irradiated dipload yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae kept in NaCl and KCl solutions died more readily than nonirradiated cells: the death rate was a functaon of radiation Jose and temperature of exposure. It was suggested that the radiation-induced injury to mass cell structures was responsible for the death rate. It was shown that the postirradiataon recovery of cells from radiation damages proceeded in KCl solution two-three times slower than mn water, and it was inhibited completely in NaCl solution

  11. Low-field NMR determination of water distribution in meat batters with NaCl and polyphosphate addition.

    Shao, Jun-Hua; Deng, Ya-Min; Jia, Na; Li, Ru-Ren; Cao, Jin-Xuan; Liu, Deng-Yong; Li, Jian-Rong

    2016-06-01

    The objective was to elucidate the influence of NaCl and polyphosphates in the stage of protein swelling on the water-holding capacity (WHC) of meat batter. The meat batters were formulated with salt in different ways by adding established amounts of only NaCl, only polyphosphates, jointly adding NaCl and polyphosphates, and a control without any salt. An increase (pwater retention was found when a combination of NaCl and polyphosphates was used. A high textural parameter was observed in the two treatments with NaCl, but not in the group with only polyphosphate. For the polyphosphate group, T22 was lower (pwater, particularly with polyphosphate, but polyphosphate could not be an equal substitute for NaCl given its resulting lowest textural properties and poor microstructure. By presenting different hydration states in the protein swelling stage, the meat batter qualities were differentiated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Separation study of Mg+2 from seawater and RO brine through a facilitated bulk liquid membrane transport using 18-Crown-6

    Mir Mahdi Zahedi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A facilitated bulk liquid membrane transport approach is studied for Mg(II extraction from seawater and reversed osmosis brine simulated media using 18-Crown-6 and dibenzo (DB-18-Crown-6. The work is based on investigating the experimental parameters affecting the transport efficiency, such as pH of feed and receiving phase, type of membrane solvent, temperature, type and concentration of the carrier, and stripping solution conditions. The transported amount of magnesium ions from feed phase (Mg(II = 0.059 M, NaCl = 0.01 M, pH = 3.3 across a chloroform membrane (18C6 = 0.001 M into the receiving phase (SCN− 0.1 M pH 3 was found to be %97 (±0.7 after 2.5 hr. The selectivity of the method was evaluated by performing competitive transport experiments on the mixtures containing Ca2+, Na+, K+, and Mg2+ ions.

  13. Modeling gas and brine migration for assessing compliance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Vaughn, P.; Butcher, B.; Helton, J.; Swift, P.

    1993-10-01

    At the request of the WIPP Project Integration Office (WPIO) of the DOE, the WIPP Performance Assessment (PA) Department of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has completed preliminary uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of gas and brine migration away from the undisturbed repository. This paper contains descriptions of the numerical model and simulations, including model geometries and parameter values, and a summary of major conclusions from sensitivity analyses. Because significant transport of contaminants can only occur in a fluid (gas or brine) medium, two-phase flow modeling can provide an estimate of the distance to which contaminants can migrate. Migration of gas or brine beyond the RCRA ''disposal-unit boundary'' or the Standard's accessible environment constitutes a potential, but not certain, violation and may require additional evaluations of contaminant concentrations

  14. Influence of radiolytic products on the chemistry of uranium VI in brines

    Lucchini, J-F.; Reed, D.T.; Borkowski, M.; Rafalski, A.; Conca, J.

    2004-01-01

    In the near field of a salt repository of nuclear waste, ionizing radiations can strongly affect the chemistry of concentrated saline solutions. Radiolysis can locally modify the redox conditions, speciation, solubility and mobility of the actinide compounds. In the case of uranium VI, radiolytic products can not only reduce U(VI), but also react with uranium species. The net effect on the speciation of uranyl depends on the relative kinetics of the reactions and the buildup of molecular products in brine solutions. The most important molecular products in brines are expected to be hypochlorite ion, hypochlorous acid and hydrogen peroxide. Although U(VI) is expected not to be significantly affected by radiolysis, the combined effects of the major molecular radiolytic products on the chemistry of U(VI) in brines have not been experimentally established previously. (authors)

  15. Brine reuse in ion-exchange softening: salt discharge, hardness leakage, and capacity tradeoffs.

    Flodman, Hunter R; Dvorak, Bruce I

    2012-06-01

    Ion-exchange water softening results in the discharge of excess sodium chloride to the aquatic environment during the regeneration cycle. In order to reduce sodium chloride use and subsequent discharge from ion-exchange processes, either brine reclaim operations can be implemented or salt application during regeneration can be reduced. Both result in tradeoffs related to loss of bed volumes treated per cycle and increased hardness leakage. An experimentally validated model was used to compare concurrent water softening operations at various salt application quantities with and without the direct reuse of waste brine for treated tap water of typical midwestern water quality. Both approaches were able to reduce salt use and subsequent discharge. Reducing salt use and discharge by lowering the salt application rate during regeneration consequently increased hardness leakage and decreased treatment capacity. Single or two tank brine recycling systems are capable of reducing salt use and discharge without increasing hardness leakage, although treatment capacity is reduced.

  16. In situ brine migration experiments at the Avery Island salt mine

    Krause, W.B.; Van Sambeek, L.L.; Stickney, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    An in situ brine movement study was conducted at the Avery Island Salt Mine of the International Salt Company in southwestern Louisiana. The objective of the in situ experiments was to relate field measurements to previously determined laboratory and analytical results for the purpose of determining the rate and amount of brine movement through dome salt when subjected to heating. The heating in the experiments was provided by electrical heaters emplaced in the salt mine floor. An understanding of thermally induced brine movement is essential from the standpoint of identifying conditions which may influence the physical integrity of the nuclear waste canisters or impede the functional performance of the waste package system in a nuclear waste repository in geologic salt. 28 refs

  17. Brine migration resulting from pressure increases in a layered subsurface system

    Delfs, Jens-Olaf; Nordbeck, Johannes; Bauer, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    Brine originating from the deep subsurface impairs parts of the freshwater resources in the North German Basin. Some of the deep porous formations (esp. Trias and Jurassic) exhibit considerable storage capacities for waste fluids (CO2, brine from oil production or cavern leaching), raising concerns among water providers that this type of deep subsurface utilization might impair drinking water supplies. On the one hand, overpressures induced by fluid injections and the geothermal gradient support brine migration from deep into shallow formations. On the other hand, the rising brine is denser than the surrounding less-saline formation waters and, therefore, tends to settle down. Aim of this work is to investigate the conditions under which pressurized formation brine from deep formations can reach shallow freshwater resources. Especially, the role of intermediate porous formations between the storage formation and the groundwater is studied. For this, complex thermohaline simulations using a coupled numerical process model are necessary and performed in this study, in which fluid density depends on fluid pressure, temperature and salt content and the governing partial differential equations are coupled. The model setup is 2D and contains a hypothetic series of aquifers and barriers, each with a thickness of 200 m. Formation pressure is increased at depths of about 2000 m in proximity to a salt wall and a permeable fault. The domain size reaches up to tens of kilometers horizontally to the salt wall. The fault connects the injection formation and the freshwater aquifer such that conditions can be considered as extremely favorable for induced brine migration (worst case scenarios). Brine, heat, and salt fluxes are quantified with reference to hydraulic permeabilities, storage capacities (in terms of domain size), initial salt and heat distribution, and operation pressures. The simulations reveal the development of a stagnation point in the fault region in each

  18. FIELD IMPLEMENTATION PLAN FOR A WILLISTON BASIN BRINE EXTRACTION AND STORAGE TEST

    Hamling, John; Klapperich, Ryan; Stepan, Daniel; Sorensen, James; Pekot, Lawrence; Peck, Wesley; Jacobson, Lonny; Bosshart, Nicholas; Hurley, John; Wilson, William; Kurz, Marc; Burnison, Shaughn; Salako, Olarinre; Musich, Mark; Botnen, Barry; Kalenze, Nicholas; Ayash, Scott; Ge, Jun; Jiang, Tao; Dalkhaa, Chantsalmaa; Oster, Benjamin; Peterson, Kyle; Feole, Ian; Gorecki, Charles; Steadman, Edward

    2016-03-31

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) successfully completed all technical work of Phase I, including development of a field implementation plan (FIP) for a brine extraction and storage test (BEST) in the North Dakota portion of the Williston Basin. This implementation plan was commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) as a proxy for managing formation pressure plumes and measuring/monitoring the movement of differential pressure and CO2 plumes in the subsurface for future saline CO2 storage projects. BEST comprises the demonstration and validation of active reservoir management (ARM) strategies and extracted brine treatment technologies. Two prospective commercial brine injection sites were evaluated for BEST to satisfy DOE’s goals. Ultimately, an active saltwater disposal (SWD) site, Johnsons Corner, was selected because it possesses an ideal combination of key factors making it uniquely suited to host BEST. This site is located in western North Dakota and operated by Nuverra Environmental Solutions (Nuverra), a national leader in brine handling, treatment, and injection. An integrated management approach was used to incorporate local and regional geologic characterization activities with geologic and simulation models, inform a monitoring, verification, and accounting (MVA) plan, and to conduct a risk assessment. This approach was used to design a FIP for an ARM schema and an extracted brine treatment technology test bed facility. The FIP leverages an existing pressure plume generated by two commercial SWD wells. These wells, in conjunction with a new brine extraction well, will be used to conduct the ARM schema. Results of these tests will be quantified based on their impact on the performance of the existing SWD wells and the surrounding reservoir system. Extracted brine will be injected into an underlying deep saline formation through a new injection well. The locations of proposed

  19. A deep sea community at the Kebrit brine pool in the Red Sea

    Vestheim, Hege

    2015-02-26

    Approximately 25 deep sea brine pools occur along the mid axis of the Red Sea. These hypersaline, anoxic, and acidic environments have previously been reported to host diverse microbial communities. We visited the Kebrit brine pool in April 2013 and found macrofauna present just above the brine–seawater interface (~1465 m). In particular, inactive sulfur chimneys had associated epifauna of sea anemones, sabellid type polychaetes, and hydroids, and infauna consisting of capitellid polychaetes, gastropods of the genus Laeviphitus (fam. Elachisinidae), and top snails of the family Cocculinidae. The deep Red Sea generally is regarded as extremely poor in benthos. We hypothesize that the periphery along the Kebrit holds increased biomass and biodiversity that are sustained by prokaryotes associated with the brine pool or co-occurring seeps.

  20. Biological screening of chitosan derivatives using Artemia spp. (brine shrimp test)

    Rozaini Mohd Zohdi; Norimah Yusof; Asnah Hassan

    2006-01-01

    The present study reported on the screening of six selected chitosan derivatives using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay. In addition, the irradiation effects towards the compounds at 25 kGy were also studied. Chitosan is a natural polysaccharide derived from chitin, extracted from the exoskeletons of crustaceans and insects as well as walls of some bacteria and fungi. Brine shrimp test is employed for the screening of toxicity of chitosan derivatives. Toxicity test was carried out by adding different concentrations of tested samples to approximately 5 to 15 Artemia salina larvae. Biological activity using the brine shrimp bioassay was recorded as LC 50 i.e. lethal concentration that kills 50% of the larvae within 24 hours of contact with the samples. Compounds are considered toxic when the LC 50 value is lower than 1 mg/ml by brine shrimp bioassay and practically non-toxic when the value is larger. Of the samples tested, none were toxic to the brine shrimp (LC 50 > 1 mg/ml). The LC 50 values of all chitosan derivatives tested, control and irradiated at 25 kGy were above 1 mg/ml thus all tested samples are considered non-toxic. This study demonstrated that irradiation at 25 kGy showed no significant effects towards the toxicity of the chitosan derivatives. After irradiation, only NO-CMC exhibited marked decrease in LC 50 value, reduced by 3-fold from 34.96 mg/ml to 11.07 mg/ml while O-CMC (5.45 mg/ml to 5 mg/ml) showed no clear differences based on rough estimation. This study suggested that brine shrimp bioassay is a simple, reliable and convenient method that could provide useful clues of the relative toxic potential of the sample tested. (Author)

  1. Effects of NaCl treatment on the antioxidant enzymes of oilseed rape ...

    The effects of NaCl treatment on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in leaves of oilseed rape seedlings (Brassica napus L.) were studied. The results showed that the relative water content from leaves of oilseed rape seedlings was gradually decreased and the electronic conductivity was increased during 0 - 24 h under 200 ...

  2. Over-expression of Arabidopsis DnaJ (Hsp40) contributes to NaCl ...

    USER

    2010-02-15

    Feb 15, 2010 ... levels of DnaJ in their transgenic sense lines exhibited tolerance to NaCl stress. Under 120 mM ... polymerase chain reaction; RT-PCR, reverse transcriptase –. PCR; CTAB ..... Engineering salt tolerance in plants. Curr. Opin.

  3. [Effects of NaCl stress on cation contents in different pumpkin cultivars' seedlings].

    Li, Wei-Xin; Chen, Gui-Lin; Ren, Liang-Yu; Wang, Peng

    2008-03-01

    With the seedlings of 19 pumpkin cultivars as test materials, this paper studied the variations of Na+, K+, Ca2+, Na+/K+, Na+/Ca2+, SN+, K+ and SNa+, ca2+ in their shoots and roots under the stress of 300 mmol NaCl x L(-1). The results showed that after an 8-day exposure to 300 mmol NaCl x L(-1), the Na+ content in the seedlings increased significantly while the K+ content decreased, resulting in the brokenness of ion balance. The root Na+ content, shoot Na+/K+ and Na+/Ca2+ ratios, and SNa+, K+ and SNa+, Ca2+ of Cucurbita moschata (Q1) were significantly higher than those of C. maxima (H2) and C. ficifolia (H3). The variation tendency of these parameters of different pumpkin cultivars' seedlings were nearly consistent with the salt injury index of the seedlings under NaCl stress, which further proved that the strong salt-tolerance of Q1 was related to the lower values of shoot Na+/K+, Na+/Ca2+, SNa+, K+ and SNa+, Ca2+, and the high contents of K+ and Ca2+, while the salt-sensitivity of H2 and H3 was related to the higher values of shoot Na+/K+, Na+/Ca2+, SNa+, K+ and SNa+, Ca2+, and low contents of K+ and Ca2+ under NaCl stress.

  4. Response of Eucalyptus occidentais to water stress induced by NaCl

    Itai, C.

    1978-01-01

    Eucalyptus occidentalis plants were exposed to NaCl in their culture solution for various time. Determination of cytokinin, abscisic acid, /sup 14/C leucine incorporation of E. occidentalis, a xerophyte, does not differ from the response of mesophytes to such treatments. 13 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  5. Growth responses of NaCl stressed rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants ...

    GREGORY

    2010-09-27

    Sep 27, 2010 ... Growth responses of NaCl stressed rice (Oryza sativa. L.) plants ... 2008), which is a real threat to human's food security. Existed situation may ..... content and composition of essential oil and minerals in black cumin. (Nigella ...

  6. Effect of NaCl salinity on nitrate uptake in Plantago maritima L.

    Rubinigg, Michael; Posthumus, F.S; Elzenga, J.T.M.; Stulen, I.

    2005-01-01

    Exposure of plants to NaCl salinity reduces the rate of nitrate net uptake by the roots. Previous studies showed that this effect was due to a reduced nitrate influx, which could only partially be explained by a lower demand of nitrate for growth. In the present work we tested the hypothesis that

  7. PLASMA-MEMBRANE LIPID ALTERATIONS INDUCED BY NACL IN WINTER-WHEAT ROOTS

    MANSOUR, MMF; VANHASSELT, PR; KUIPER, PJC

    A highly enriched plasma membrane fraction was isolated by two phase partitioning from wheat roots (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Vivant) grown with and without 100 mM NaCl. The lipids of the plasma membrane fraction were extracted and characterized. Phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine were

  8. The effects of NaCl priming on salt tolerance in sunflower ...

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of NaCl priming with KNO3 on the germination traits and seedling growth of four Helianthus annuus L. cultivars under salinity conditions. Seeds of four spring sunflower (Armawireski, Airfloure, Alestar and Ismailli) were primed with KNO3 (-1.0 M Pa) for 24 h in ...

  9. Effects of NaCl stress on seed germination, early seedling growth ...

    Effects of salt stress on seed germination, early seedling growth and some physiological characteristics were evaluated for four cauliflower species in seven treatments of salinity including 0 (control), 34, 68, 102, 136, 170 and 204 mM NaCl in a three replicated randomized completely block design (RCBD). This result shows ...

  10. Morphological, Physiological, and Structural Responses of Two Species of Artemisia to NaCl Stress

    Zhi-Yong Guan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of salt stress on Artemisia scoparia and A. vulgaris “Variegate” were examined. A. scoparia leaves became withered under NaCl treatment, whereas A. vulgaris “Variegate” leaves were not remarkably affected. Chlorophyll content decreased in both species, with a higher reduction in A. scoparia. Contents of proline, MDA, soluble carbohydrate, and Na+ increased in both species under salt stress, but A. vulgaris “Variegate” had higher level of proline and soluble carbohydrate and lower level of MDA and Na+. The ratios of K+/Na+, Ca2+/Na+, and Mg2+/Na+ in A. vulgaris “Variegate” under NaCl stress were higher. Moreover, A. vulgaris “Variegate” had higher transport selectivity of K+/Na+ from root to stem, stem to middle mature leaves, and upper newly developed leaves than A. scoparia under NaCl stress. A. vulgaris “Variegate” chloroplast maintained its morphological integrity under NaCl stress, whereas A. scoparia chloroplast lost integrity. The results indicated that A. scoparia is more sensitive to salt stress than A. vulgaris “Variegate.” Salt tolerance is mainly related to the ability of regulating osmotic pressure through the accumulation of soluble carbohydrates and proline, and the gradient distribution of K+ between roots and leaves was also contributed to osmotic pressure adjustment and improvement of plant salt tolerance.

  11. Effects of exogenous salinity (NaCl) gradient on Cd release in acidified contaminated brown soil

    Zhang, Lina; Rong, Yong; Mao, Li; Gao, Zhiyuan; Liu, Xiaoyu; Dong, Zhicheng

    2018-02-01

    Taking acidified Cd contaminated brown soil in Yantai as the research object, based on different exogenous salinity (NaCl) gradient (0%, 0.3%, 0.6%, 0.9%, 1.5%, 2% and 5%), indoor simulation experiments of Cd release were carried out after field investigation. Results showed that there was a significantly positive relation (r>0.90) between Cd release concentration/amount/ratio and exogenous salt (NaCl). Besides, the more exogenous salt (NaCl) was added; maximum release concentration/amount of Cd appeared the earlier. It was found that exogenous salt (NaCl) addition could obviously promote Cd release from acidified Cd contaminated brown soil. It was believed that this could be mainly due to the cation exchange between Cd2+ and Na+, together with the dissociation and/or complexation between Cl- and Cd2+. In addition, available adsorption sites reduction by exchange base in soil causing Cd changed from solid state to soil solution was also a probable reason.

  12. Terahertz reflection spectroscopy of aqueous NaCl and LiCl solutions

    Jepsen, Peter Uhd; Merbold, Hannes

    2010-01-01

    frequencies. Whereas both the real and imaginary part of the permittivity of NaCl increases with concentration,we see that the imaginary part of the permittivity of LiCl (related to the absorption)decreases with increasing salt concentration. We relate these changes to the behavior...

  13. AFM of metallic nano-particles and nano-structures in heavily irradiated NaCl

    Gaynutdinov, R; Vainshtein, DI; Hak, SJ; Tolstikhina, A; Den Hartog, HW

    2003-01-01

    AFM investigations are reported for heavily, electron irradiated NaCl crystals in ultra high vacuum (UHV) in the non-contact mode-with an UHV AFM/STM Omicron system. To avoid chemical reactions between the radiolytic Na and oxygen and water, the irradiated samples were cleaved and prepared for the

  14. Irreversible dilation of NaCl contaminated lime-cement mortar due to crystallization cycles

    Lubelli, B.; van Hees, R.P.J.; Huinink, H.P.; Groot, C.J.W.P.

    2006-01-01

    The mechanism of damage occurring in NaCl contaminated materials has not been clarified yet. Apart from crystn. pressure, other hypotheses have been proposed to explain the cause of decay. Irreversible dilation has been obsd. in a few cases but has never been studied in a more systematic way. The

  15. Effect of NaCl on Asparagus Quality, Production and Mineral Leaching

    Kruistum, van G.; Poll, J.T.K.; Meijer, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has shown that the incidence of Fusarium oxysporum and F. redolens on asparagus roots was reduced by field applications of NaCl. F. oxysporum and F. redolens are important diseases in asparagus crops causing physiological rust (brown discoloration on the harvested spears), reduced

  16. The release of stored energy in heavily irradiated NaCl explosive reactions

    Vainshtein, D.; Bemt, M. van den; Seinen, J.; Datema, H.C.; Hartog, H.W. den

    1995-01-01

    During irradiation of NaCl with ionizing radiation at moderate temperatures (50-150 degrees C) irregular structures of very fine Na and Cl nano-precipitates are formed. The increase of the temperature to a value between 50 and 250 degrees C might induce explosive reactions between radiolytic Na and

  17. Heteroepitaxial strain in alkali halide thin films: KCl on NaCl

    Baker, J.; Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1999-01-01

    We have pet-formed Monte Carlo simulations of the properties of a NaCl (001) surface covered by full or partial layers of KCl, for coverages up to 5 monolayers (ML). A wide variety of structures of the film is found. For integer ML coverages we find the continuous, so-called floating mode rumple ...

  18. Color kinetics and acrylamide formation in NaCl soaked potato chips

    Pedreschi, Franco; Bustos, Oscar; Mery, Domingo

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the kinetics of color development in blanched and blanched-NaCl impregnated potato slices during frying by using the dynamic method and also to evaluate the effect of NaCl in reducing acrylamide formation in potato chips. The measurement of color was done b...

  19. Evaluation of Potential Effects of NaCl and Sorbic Acid on Staphylococcal Enterotoxin A Formation

    Nikoleta Zeaki

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The prophage-encoded staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA is recognized as the main cause of staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP, a common foodborne intoxication disease, caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Studies on the production of SEA suggest that activation of the SOS response and subsequent prophage induction affect the regulation of the sea gene and the SEA produced, increasing the risk for SFP. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of NaCl and sorbic acid, in concentrations relevant to food production, on SOS response activation, prophage induction and SEA production. The impact of stress was initially evaluated on steady state cells for a homogenous cell response. NaCl 2% was found to activate the SOS response, i.e., recA expression, and trigger prophage induction, in a similar way as the phage-inducer mitomycin C. In contrast, sorbic acid decreased the pH of the culture to a level where prophage induction was probably suppressed, even when combined with NaCl stress. The impact of previous physiological state of the bacteria was also addressed on cells pre-exposed to NaCl, and was found to potentially affect cell response upon exposure to further stress. The results obtained highlight the possible SFP-related risks arising from the use of preservatives during food processing.

  20. Production and characterization of a functional Iranian white brined cheese by replacement of dairy fat with vegetable oils.

    Achachlouei, B Fathi; Hesari, J; Damirchi, S Azadmard; Peighambardoust, Sh; Esmaiili, M; Alijani, S

    2013-10-01

    Full-fat cheese usually contains high amounts of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, which may have negative health effects. In this study, full-fat white brined cheese, as a control sample, and experimental cheeses with olive and canola oils (T1, white brined cheese containing 50% canola oil, T2, white brined cheese containing 50% olive oil, T3, white brined cheese containing 100% canola oil and T4, white brined cheese containing 100% olive oil) were prepared from bovine milk. Physicochemical properties, lipolysis, proteolysis patterns and sensorial properties in the prepared samples were determined during 80 days of storage at 20-day intervals. Cheese incorporating vegetable oils showed lower amounts of saturated fatty acids and higher amounts of unsaturated fatty acids compared with the full-fat cheese (control) samples. Moisture, pH, lipolysis value, as assessed by the acid-degree value, and proteolysis values (pH 4.6 SN/TN% and NPN/TN%) significantly (p titrable acidity decreased during 40 days of ripening but then increased slightly. Sensory properties of white brined cheese incorporating with vegetable oils were different from those of full-fat cheese samples. White brined cheese containing olive and canola oils (100% fat substitution) received better sensory scores compared to other samples. The results showed that it is possible to replace dairy fat with olive and canola oils, which can lead to produce a new healthy and functional white brined cheese.

  1. Brine flow up a borehole caused by pressure perturbation from CO2 storage: Static and dynamic evaluations

    Birkholzer, J.T.; Nicot, J.-P.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Zhou, Q.; Kraemer, S.; Bandilla, K.W.

    2011-05-01

    Industrial-scale storage of CO{sub 2} in saline sedimentary basins will cause zones of elevated pressure, larger than the CO{sub 2} plume itself. If permeable conduits (e.g., leaking wells) exist between the injection reservoir and overlying shallow aquifers, brine could be pushed upwards along these conduits and mix with groundwater resources. This paper discusses the potential for such brine leakage to occur in temperature- and salinity-stratified systems. Using static mass-balance calculations as well as dynamic well flow simulations, we evaluate the minimum reservoir pressure that would generate continuous migration of brine up a leaking wellbore into a freshwater aquifer. Since the brine invading the well is denser than the initial fluid in the wellbore, continuous flow only occurs if the pressure perturbation in the reservoir is large enough to overcome the increased fluid column weight after full invasion of brine into the well. If the threshold pressure is exceeded, brine flow rates are dependent on various hydraulic (and other) properties, in particular the effective permeability of the wellbore and the magnitude of pressure increase. If brine flow occurs outside of the well casing, e.g., in a permeable fracture zone between the well cement and the formation, the fluid/solute transfer between the migrating fluid and the surrounding rock units can strongly retard brine flow. At the same time, the threshold pressure for continuous flow to occur decreases compared to a case with no fluid/solute transfer.

  2. Handling the problem of the brine tubing bend on the basis of experiences gained during UGS - Mogilno construction

    Zola, P.; Skwarczynski, S.

    2005-01-01

    In the article problems of brine tubing bending and bent string cutting methods in the well conditions has been described. Implementation of safety joint in the brine string as an alternative solution that eliminates the need of cutting has been presented as well. (authors)

  3. Vertical distributions and speciation of dissolved rare earth elements in the anoxic brines of Bannock Basin, eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Schijf, Johan; Baar, Hein J.W. de; Millero, Frank J.; Byrne, R.H.

    1995-01-01

    Vertical distributions of dissolved rare earth elements (REEs) are presented for the anoxic, highly sulfidic brines of Bannock Basin in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. REE concentrations at the seawater-brine interface are the highest ever recorded in the water column of an anoxic basin and

  4. ASSESSMENT OF TECHNETIUM LEACHABILITY IN CEMENT STABILIZED BASIN 43 GROUNDWATER BRINE

    COOKE GA; DUNCAN JB; LOCKREM LL

    2008-01-01

    This report is an initial report on the laboratory effort executed under RPP-PLAN-33338, Test Plan for the Assessment of Technetium Leachability in Cement-Stabilized Basin 43 Groundwater Brine. This report delineates preliminary data obtained under subcontract 21065, release 30, from the RJ Lee Group, Inc., Center for Laboratory Sciences. The report is predicated on CLS RPT-816, Draft Report: Assessment of Technetium Leachability in Cement Stabilized Basin 43 Groundwater Brine. This document will be revised on receipt of the final RJ Lee Group, Inc., Center for Laboratory Sciences report, which will contain data subjected to quality control and quality assurance criteria

  5. Brine transport studies in the bedded salt of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    McTigue, D.F.; Nowak, E.J.

    1987-01-01

    Brine flow has been measured to unheated boreholes for periods of a few days and to heated holes for two years in the WIPP facility. It is suggested that Darcy flow may dominate the observed influx of brine. Exact solutions to a linearized model for one-dimensional, radial flow are evaluated for conditions approximating the field experiments. Flow rates of the correct order of magnitude are calculated for permeabilities in the range 10 -21 to 10 -20 m 2 (1 to 10 nanodarcy) for both the unheated and heated cases. 20 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  6. Salting by vacuum brine impregnation in nitrite-free lonza: effect on Enterobacteriaceae

    Annalisa Serio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lonza is a traditional Italian meat product made from whole pork muscles, which is typically cured by dry salting. In this work, we study the effects of vacuum brine impregnation (VBI as an alternative salting method on the survival of Enterobacteriaceae, in presence and in absence of nitrites. In comparison with the traditional brining process, VBI contributed to reducing the Enterobacteriaceae population on product surface but induced contamination of the inner muscle tissues. Our results suggest that the species isolated became adapted to processing conditions, and salt tolerance was species- or straindependent. This result is of particular importance for future applications of VBI in lonza manufacturing.

  7. Salting by Vacuum Brine Impregnation in Nitrite-Free Lonza: Effect on Enterobacteriaceae.

    Serio, Annalisa; Chaves-López, Clemencia; Rossi, Chiara; Pittia, Paola; Rosa, Marco Dalla; Paparella, Antonello

    2017-01-24

    Lonza is a traditional Italian meat product made from whole pork muscles, which is typically cured by dry salting. In this work, we study the effects of vacuum brine impregnation (VBI) as an alternative salting method on the survival of Enterobacteriaceae, in presence and in absence of nitrites. In comparison with the traditional brining process, VBI contributed to reducing the Enterobacteriaceae population on product surface but induced contamination of the inner muscle tissues. Our results suggest that the species isolated became adapted to processing conditions, and salt tolerance was species- or strain-dependent. This result is of particular importance for future applications of VBI in lonza manufacturing.

  8. Antioxidant activities and functional properties of protein and peptide fractions isolated from salted herring brine

    Taheri, Ali; Farvin, Sabeena; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    In the present study proteins isolated from herring brine, which is a by-product of marinated herring production were evaluated for their functional properties and antioxidant activity. Herring brine was collected from the local herring industry and proteins were precipitated by adjusting the p...... to delay iron catalyzed lipid oxidation in 5% fish oil in water emulsions and the 10–50kDa fraction was the best. These results show the potential of proteins and peptide fractions recovered from waste water from the herring industry as source of natural antioxidants for use in food products....

  9. Long-term brine migration through an engineered shaft seal system

    Fryar, D.G.; Beach, J.A.; Kelley, V.A.; Knowles, M.K.

    1997-01-01

    The shaft seal system for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) must provide a barrier to the migration of fluids within the shafts to prevent the release of contaminants to the accessible environment. To investigate the performance of the shaft seal system, a set of fluid flow performance models was developed based upon the physical characteristics of the WIPP shaft seal system and the surrounding geologic media. This paper describes the results of a numerical model used to investigate the long-term potential for brine migration through the shaft seal system. Modeling results demonstrate that the WIPP shaft seal system will effectively limit brine migration within the repository shafts

  10. Modeling Coupled THM Processes and Brine Migration in Salt at High Temperatures

    Rutqvist, Jonny [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Blanco-Martin, Laura [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Molins, Sergi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Trebotich, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Birkholzer, Jens [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    In this report, we present FY2015 progress by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) related to modeling of coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes in salt and their effect on brine migration at high temperatures. This is a combined milestone report related to milestone Salt R&D Milestone “Modeling Coupled THM Processes and Brine Migration in Salt at High Temperatures” (M3FT-15LB0818012) and the Salt Field Testing Milestone (M3FT-15LB0819022) to support the overall objectives of the salt field test planning.

  11. Modeling Coupled THM Processes and Brine Migration in Salt at High Temperatures

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Blanco-Martin, Laura; Molins, Sergi; Trebotich, David; Birkholzer, Jens

    2015-01-01

    In this report, we present FY2015 progress by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) related to modeling of coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes in salt and their effect on brine migration at high temperatures. This is a combined milestone report related to milestone Salt R&D Milestone ''Modeling Coupled THM Processes and Brine Migration in Salt at High Temperatures'' (M3FT-15LB0818012) and the Salt Field Testing Milestone (M3FT-15LB0819022) to support the overall objectives of the salt field test planning.

  12. Nuclear waste repository simulation experiments (brine migration), Asse Mine of the Federal of Germany: Quarterly brine migration data report, July-September 1984

    Coyle, A.J.; Kalia, H.N.; Eckert, J.L.

    1986-10-01

    The fifth brine migration data status report describes experiments simulating a nuclear waste repository at the 800-m (2624-ft) level of the Asse Salt Mine in the Federal Republic of Germany from May 1983 through September 1984. This report describes the test equipment, the Asse Salt Mine, and the pretest properties of the salt in the test gallery. This report also includes test data for the first 16 months of operations on brine migration rates, borehole pressure, salt temperatures, and thermomechanical behavior of the salt. Annual reports have been prepared for the years 1983 and 1984, describing the test activities on a yearly basis (Rothfuchs et al., 1984, 1986). The duration of the experiments will be approximately 2 years, ending in December 1985. 2 refs., 118 figs., 91 tabs

  13. Experimental alteration of R7T7 glass in salt brines at 90 deg C and 150 deg C

    Godon, N.; Vernaz, E.; Gin, S.; Beaufort, D.; Thomassin, J.H.

    1991-01-01

    Static experiments have been developed to investigate the R7T7 glass corrosion in four natural salt brines (brines 1 and 3: pure halite, brines 2 and 4: high Mg, K fluid inclusions rich halite), at 90 deg C and 150 deg C with 0.7 cm -1 S/V ratio and at 11 different running times. Analysis of brines after alteration (pHmeter and ICP) added to a detailed study of the crystalline phases developed at the interface glass-brine (XRD,SEM and Microprobe), showed that the influence of the compositional difference is more important on the nature of the secondary phases formed than on the corrosion rate of the glass. After 91 days of alteration at 150 deg C stady states to be reached (after 40 days at 90 deg C). A long term experiment (1 year) is necessary to confirm this hypothesis. 7 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Kinetic Effect on the Freezing of Ammonium-Sodium-Carbonate-Chloride Brines and Implications for Origin of Ceres' Bright Spots

    Hodyss, R. P.; Thomas, E. C.; Vu, T. H.; Johnson, P. V.; Choukroun, M.

    2017-12-01

    Subsurface brines on Ceres containing natrite (Na2CO3) and smaller amounts of NH4Cl or NH4HCO3 have been proposed to reach the dwarf planet's surface from an internal reservoir, where the brines freeze and result in bright spots across Ceres. Kinetically frozen solutions containing the likely constituents of Ceres' subsurface brines (ammonium, sodium, carbonate, and chloride ions) were studied via infrared and micro-Raman spectroscopy, where the flash-frozen mixtures were found to preferentially form ammonium chloride and ammonium bicarbonate, even in sodium-dominated solutions. Additionally, sodium chloride only formed when sodium or chloride (or both) were present in excess in the brine solutions. Raman spectroscopy was further employed to analyze the effect of vacuum exposure on these frozen brines over longer periods of time to simulate the surface conditions of Ceres.

  15. Effect of NaCl on thermophilic (55°C) methanol degradation in sulfate reducing granular sludge reactors

    Vallero, M.V.G.; Hulshoff Pol, L.W.; Lettinga, G.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of NaCl on thermophilic (55degreesC) methanol conversion in the presence of excess of sulfate (COD/SO42-=0.5) was investigated in two 6.5L lab-scale upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactors inoculated with granular sludge previously not adapted to NaCl
    The effect of NaCl on thermophilic

  16. Effect of NaCl on the hydric and hygric dilation behaviour of lime-cement mortar

    Lubelli, B.; van Hees, R.P.J.; Huinink, H.P.

    2006-01-01

    The mechanism of damage due to NaCl crystallization has not been clarified yet. Apart from crystallization pressure, other hypotheses have been proposed to explain the decay. Irreversible dilation during NaCl crystallization has been observed in a few cases but has never been studied in a systematic

  17. Stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes of brines - comparing isotope ratio mass spectrometry and isotope ratio infrared spectroscopy

    Ahrens, Christian; Koeniger, Paul; van Geldern, Robert; Stadler, Susanne

    2013-04-01

    Today's standard analytical methods for high precision stable isotope analysis of fluids are gas-water equilibration and high temperature pyrolysis coupled to isotope ratio mass spectrometers (IRMS). In recent years, relatively new laser-based analytical instruments entered the market that are said to allow high isotope precision data on nearly every media. This optical technique is referred to as isotope ratio infrared spectroscopy (IRIS). The objective of this study is to evaluate the capability of this new instrument type for highly saline solutions and a comparison of the analytical results with traditional IRMS analysis. It has been shown for the equilibration method that the presence of salts influences the measured isotope values depending on the salt concentration (see Lécuyer et al, 2009; Martineau, 2012). This so-called 'isotope salt effect' depends on the salt type and salt concentration. These factors change the activity in the fluid and therefore shift the isotope ratios measured by the equilibration method. Consequently, correction factors have to be applied to these analytical data. Direct conversion techniques like pyrolysis or the new laser instruments allow the measurement of the water molecule from the sample directly and should therefore not suffer from the salt effect, i.e. no corrections of raw values are necessary. However, due to high salt concentrations this might cause technical problems with the analytical hardware and may require labor-intensive sample preparation (e.g. vacuum distillation). This study evaluates the salt isotope effect for the IRMS equilibration technique (Thermo Gasbench II coupled to Delta Plus XP) and the laser-based IRIS instruments with liquid injection (Picarro L2120-i). Synthetic salt solutions (NaCl, KCl, CaCl2, MgCl2, MgSO4, CaSO4) and natural brines collected from the Stassfurt Salt Anticline (Germany; Stadler et al., 2012) were analysed with both techniques. Salt concentrations ranged from seawater salinity

  18. Study on the spectrum of photonic crystal cavity and its application in measuring the concentration of NaCl solution

    Zhang, Yun [Nanjing Agricultural Univ., Nanjing (China). Dept. of Physics; Wuxi Institute of Commerce, Wuxi (China). School of Electromechanical Technology; Xie, Xun; Hao, Jiong-Ju; Yang, Hong-Wei [Nanjing Agricultural Univ., Nanjing (China). Dept. of Physics; Yang, Ze-Kun [Lanzhou Univ. (China). School of Information Science and Engineering; Xu, Zhi-Gang [Nanjing Agricultural Univ., Nanjing (China). College of Agriculture

    2017-07-01

    In this article, we propose an approach to measure solution concentrations by using photonic crystal cavities. Based on the experimental data, the refractive index of a NaCl solution is proportional to the concentration. Filling the proposed photonic crystal cavity with a NaCl solution, we calculate the spectral transmission using the transfer matrix method. We found that the cavity transmittance was proportional to the refractive index of the NaCl solution, and thus we obtained a linear relationship between cavity transmittance and the concentration of the NaCl solution. The formula was found by fitting the simulation results with experimental data. Such a formula can be applied to the measurement of an unknown concentration of NaCl solution utilizing a photonic crystal cavity.

  19. Characteristics of injury and recovery of net NO3- transport of barley seedlings from treatments of NaCl

    Klobus, G.; Ward, M. R.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1988-01-01

    The nature of the injury and recovery of nitrate uptake (net uptake) from NaCl stress in young barley (Hordeum vulgare L, var CM 72) seedlings was investigated. Nitrate uptake was inhibited rapidly by NaCl, within 1 minute after exposure to 200 millimolar NaCl. The duration of exposure to saline conditions determined the time of recovery of NO3- uptake from NaCl stress. Recovery was dependent on the presence of NO3- and was inhibited by cycloheximide, 6-methylpurine, and cerulenin, respective inhibitors of protein, RNA, and sterol/fatty acid synthesis. These inhibitors also prevented the induction of the NO3- uptake system in uninduced seedlings. Uninduced seedlings exhibited endogenous NO3- transport activity that appeared to be constitutive. This constitutive activity was also inhibited by NaCl. Recovery of constitutive NO3- uptake did not require the presence of NO3-.

  20. NaCl stress impact on the key enzymes in glycolysis from Lactobacillus bulgaricus during freeze-drying.

    Li, Chun; Sun, Jinwei; Qi, Xiaoxi; Liu, Libo

    2015-01-01

    The viability of Lactobacillus bulgaricus in freeze-drying is of significant commercial interest to dairy industries. In the study, L.bulgaricus demonstrated a significantly improved (p enzymes in glycolysis during 2% NaCl stress were studied. NaCl stress significantly enhanced (p enzymes (phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase) decreased during freeze-drying, and NaCl stress were found to improve activities of these enzymes before and after freeze-drying. However, a transcriptional analysis of the corresponding genes suggested that the effect of NaCl stress on the expression of the pfk2 gene was not obvious. The increased survival of freeze-dried cells of L. bulgaricus under NaCl stress might be due to changes in only the activity or translation level of these enzymes in different environmental conditions but have no relation to their mRNA transcription level.

  1. Effect of gas field production and CO2 injection on brine flow and salt precipitation

    Loeve, D.; Tambach, T.J.; Hofstee, C.; Plug, W.J.; Maas, J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports modeling of gas field produc-tion and CO2 injection from a theoretical reser-voir based on characteristics of the P18 gas field in the Dutch offshore, which consists of four geological deposits with different petrophysical properties. We especially focus on the brine flow during

  2. Construction of a cylindrical brine test room using a tunnel boring machine

    Likar, V.F.; Burrington, T.P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the construction of a horizontal cylindrical brine test room at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The room was constructed in the bedded salt formation at a depth of 655 meters with a tunnel boring machine. The machine leasing, technical and operational management, parameters involved, and successful completion of this effort are included. 3 figs

  3. Grain Size Data from the Brine Disposal Program, Gulf of Mexico

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are part of the Brine Disposal Program funded by NOAA in the US Gulf of Mexico, compiled by NOAA/CEAS and partially conducted by R. W. Hann of Texas A and...

  4. Aerobic methanotrophic communities at the Red Sea brine-seawater interface

    Abdallah, Rehab Z.

    2014-09-23

    Abdallah RZ, Adel M, Ouf A, Sayed A, Ghazy MA, Alam I, Essack M, Lafi FF, Bajic VB, El-Dorry H and Siam R (2014) Aerobic methanotrophic communities at the Red Sea brine-seawater interface. Front. Microbiol. 5:487. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2014.00487

  5. Autotrophic microbe metagenomes and metabolic pathways differentiate adjacent red sea brine pools

    Wang, Yong; Cao, Huiluo; Zhang, Guishan; Bougouffa, Salim; Lee, On On; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaziz M.; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    In the Red Sea, two neighboring deep-sea brine pools, Atlantis II and Discovery, have been studied extensively, and the results have shown that the temperature and concentrations of metal and methane in Atlantis II have increased over the past

  6. Review of the African distribution of the brine shrimp genus Artemia ...

    Brine shrimp (genus Artemia) are small (8 to 12 mm long) cosmopolitan crustaceans (Anostraca) found predominately in hypersaline water bodies such as inland salt lakes and pans, coastal lagoons, and salt works at salinity levels above 40 g·ℓ-1. They have been extensively studied due to their high monetary value as ...

  7. Construction of a cylindrical brine test room using a tunnel boring machine

    Likar, V.F.; Burrington, T.P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the construction of a horizontal cylindrical brine test room at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The room was constructed in the bedded salt formation at a depth of 655 meters with a tunnel boring machine. The machine leasing technical and operational management, parameters involved, and successful completion of this effort are included. 3 figs

  8. Design of the Brine Evaporation Bag for Increased Water Recovery in Microgravity

    Hayden, Anna L.; Delzeit, Lance D.

    2015-01-01

    The existing water recovery system on the International Space Station (ISS) is limited to 75% reclamation; consequently, long duration space missions are currently unfeasible due to the large quantity of water necessary to sustain the crew. The Brine Evaporation Bag (BEB) is a proposed system to supplement the existing water recovery system aboard the ISS that can to increase water recovery to 99%. The largest barrier to high water recovery is mineral scaling inside the water recovery equipment, which leads to equipment failure; therefore, some water must remain to keep the minerals dissolved. This waste stream is liquid brine containing salts, acids, organics, and water. The BEB is designed to recover this remaining water while protecting the equipment from scale. The BEB consists of a sealed bag containing a hydrophobic membrane that allows water vapor and gas to pass through. It is operated under vacuum, heated, and continuously filled with brine to boil away the water. The water vapor is recovered and the solids are contained inside the bag for disposal. The BEB can dry the brine to a solid block. Ongoing work includes improving the design of the BEB and the evaporator to prevent leaks, maximize the rate of water removal, and minimize energy use and weight. Additional testing will determine whether designs are heat- or mass-transfer limited and the optimal water recovery rate.

  9. Antioxidative low molecular weight compounds in marinated herring (Clupea harengus) salt brine

    Gringer, Nina; Safafar, Hamed; du Mesnildot, Axelle

    2016-01-01

    salt brines contain LMWC holding ABTS-radical scavenging activity, reducing power and iron chelating activity. Generally, a strong correlation between TPC and ABTSradical scavenging was found. In contrast, reducing power and iron chelating activity seemed to be caused by peptides. Protein...

  10. Simulation of the high-pressure phase equilibria of hydrocarbon-water/brine systems

    Zuo, You-Xiang; Stenby, Erling Halfdan; Guo, Tian-Min

    1996-01-01

    The major objectives of this work are: (1) extend the modified Patel-Teja (MPT) equation of state proposed for aqueous electrolyte systems (Zuo and Guo, 1991) to describe the liquid-liquid and vapor-liquid-liquid equilibria of hydrocarbon-water/brine systems through introducing an unconventional...

  11. Metagenomic insights into the uncultured diversity and physiology of microbes in four hypersaline soda lake brines

    Vavourakis, Charlotte D.; Ghai, Rohit; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco; Sorokin, Dimitry Y.; Tringe, Susannah G.; Hugenholtz, Philip; Muyzer, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Soda lakes are salt lakes with a naturally alkaline pH due to evaporative concentration of sodium carbonates in the absence of major divalent cations. Hypersaline soda brines harbor microbial communities with a high species- and strain-level archaeal diversity and a large proportion of still

  12. Metagenomic Insights into the Uncultured Diversity and Physiology of Microbes in Four Hypersaline Soda Lake Brines

    Vavourakis, C.D.; Ghai, R.; Rodriguez-valera, F.; Sorokin, D.Y.; Tringe, S.G.; Hugenholtz, P.; Muyzer, G.

    2016-01-01

    Soda lakes are salt lakes with a naturally alkaline pH due to evaporative concentration of sodium carbonates in the absence of major divalent cations. Hypersaline soda brines harbor microbial communities with a high species- and strain-level archaeal diversity and a large proportion of still

  13. Origin of brine in the Kangan gasfield: isotopic and hydrogeochemical approaches

    Bagheri, R.; Nadri, A.; Raeisi, E.; Kazemi, G.A.; Eggenkamp, H.G.M.; Montaseri, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Kangan Permo-Triassic brine aquifer and the overlying gas reservoir in the southern Iran are located in Kangan and Dalan Formations, consisting dominantly of limestone, dolomite, and to a lesser extent, shale and anhydrite. The gasfield, 2,900 m in depth and is exploited by 36 wells, some of

  14. Characterization of Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Activities of Red Radish Brines during Lactic Acid Fermentation

    Pu Jing

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Red radish (Raphanus L. pickles are popular appetizers or spices in Asian-style cuisine. However, tons of radish brines are generated as wastes from industrial radish pickle production. In this study, we evaluated the dynamic changes in colour properties, phenolics, anthocyanin profiles, phenolic acid composition, flavonoids, and antioxidant properties in radish brines during lactic acid fermentation. The results showed that five flavonoids detected were four anthocyanins and one kaempferol derivative, including pelargonidin-3-digluoside-5-glucoside derivatives acylated with p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric and manolic acids, or ferulic and malonic acids. Amounts ranged from 15.5–19.3 µg/mL in total monomeric anthocyanins, and kaempferol-3,7-diglycoside (15–30 µg/mL. 4-Hydroxy-benzoic, gentisic, vanillic, syringic, p-coumaric, ferulic, sinapic and salicylic acids were detected in amounts that varied from 70.2–92.2 µg/mL, whereas the total phenolic content was 206–220 µg/mL. The change in colour of the brine was associated with the accumulation of lactic acid and anthocyanins. The ORAC and Fe2+ chelation capacity of radish brines generally decreased, whereas the reducing power measured as FRAP values was increased during the fermentation from day 5 to day 14. This study provided information on the phytochemicals and the antioxidative activities of red radish fermentation waste that might lead to further utilization as nutraceuticals or natural colorants.

  15. Experimental evaporation of hyperacid brines : Effects on chemical composition and chlorine isotope fractionation

    Rodríguez, Alejandro; van Bergen, Manfred J.; Eggenkamp, H. G.M.

    2018-01-01

    Hyperacid brines from active volcanic lakes are some of the chemically most complex aqueous solutions on Earth. Their compositions provide valuable insights into processes of elemental transfer from a magma body to the surface and interactions with solid rocks and the atmosphere. This paper

  16. Bacterial use of choline to tolerate salinity shifts in sea-ice brines

    Firth, E.; Carpenter, S. D.; Sørensen, H. L.

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria within the brine network of sea ice experience temperature-driven fluctuations in salinity on both short and long temporal scales, yet their means of osmoprotection against such fluctuations is poorly understood. One mechanism used to withstand the ion fluxes caused by salinity shifts, w...

  17. Metagenomic insights into the uncultured diversity and physiology of microbes in four hypersaline soda lake brines.

    Vavourakis, C. D.; Ghai, Rohit; Rodriguez-Valera, F.; Sorokin, D. Y.; Tringe, S. G.; Hugenholtz, P.; Muyzer, G.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, February (2016), č. článku 211. ISSN 1664-302X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00243S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : soda lake brines * Nanohaloarchaea * Halobacteria * Bacteroidetes * hydrolytics * cellulase * chitinase * rhodopsin Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.076, year: 2016

  18. The Salty Scrambled Egg: Detection of NaCl Toward CRL 2688

    Highberger, J. L.; Thomson, K. J.; Young, P. A.; Arnett, D.; Ziurys, L. M.

    2003-08-01

    NaCl has been detected toward the circumstellar envelope of the post-AGB star CRL 2688 using the IRAM 30 m telescope, the first time this molecule has been identified in a source other than IRC +10216. The J=7-->6, 11-->10, 12-->11, and 18-->17 transitions of NaCl at 1, 2, and 3 mm have been observed, as well as the J=8-->7 line of the 37Cl isotopomer. The J=12-->11 line was also measured at the ARO 12 m telescope. An unsuccessful search was additionally conducted for AlCl toward CRL 2688, although in the process new transitions of NaCN were observed. Both NaCl and NaCN were found to be present in the AGB remnant wind, as suggested by their U-shaped line profiles, indicative of emission arising from an optically thin, extended shell-like source of radius ~10"-12". These data contrast with past results in IRC +10216, where the distribution of both molecules is confined to within a few arcseconds of the star. A high degree of excitation is required for the transitions observed for NaCl and NaCN; therefore, these two species likely arise in the region where the high-velocity outflow has collided with the remnant wind. Here the effects of shocks and clumping due to Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities have raised the densities and temperatures significantly. The shell source is thus likely to be clumpy and irregular. The chemistry producing the sodium compounds is consequently more complex than simple LTE formation. Abundances of NaCl and NaCN, relative to H2, are f~1.6×10-10 and ~5.2×10-9, respectively, while the upper limit to AlCl is f<2×10-9. These values differ substantially from those in IRC +10216, where AlCl has an abundance near 10-7. The NaCl observations additionally indicate a chlorine isotope ratio of 35Cl/37Cl=2.1+/-0.8 in CRL 2688, suggestive of s-process enhancement of chlorine 37.

  19. Carbonate and carbon isotopic evolution of groundwater contaminated by produced water brine with hydrocarbons

    Atekwana, Eliot A.; Seeger, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    The major ionic and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentrations and the stable carbon isotope composition of DIC (δ"1"3C_D_I_C) were measured in a freshwater aquifer contaminated by produced water brine with petroleum hydrocarbons. Our aim was to determine the effects of produced water brine contamination on the carbonate evolution of groundwater. The groundwater was characterized by three distinct anion facies: HCO_3"−-rich, SO_4"2"−-rich and Cl"−-rich. The HCO_3"−-rich groundwater is undergoing closed system carbonate evolution from soil CO_2_(_g_) and weathering of aquifer carbonates. The SO_4"2"−-rich groundwater evolves from gypsum induced dedolomitization and pyrite oxidation. The Cl"−-rich groundwater is contaminated by produced water brine and undergoes common ion induced carbonate precipitation. The δ"1"3C_D_I_C of the HCO_3"−-rich groundwater was controlled by nearly equal contribution of carbon from soil CO_2_(_g_) and the aquifer carbonates, such that the δ"1"3C of carbon added to the groundwater was −11.6‰. In the SO_4"2"−-rich groundwater, gypsum induced dedolomitization increased the "1"3C such that the δ"1"3C of carbon added to the groundwater was −9.4‰. In the produced water brine contaminated Cl"−-rich groundwater, common ion induced precipitation of calcite depleted the "1"3C such that the δ"1"3C of carbon added to the groundwater was −12.7‰. The results of this study demonstrate that produced water brine contamination of fresh groundwater in carbonate aquifers alters the carbonate and carbon isotopic evolution. - Highlights: • We studied carbonate and δ"1"3C evolution in groundwater contaminated by produced water brine. • Multiple processes affect the carbonate and δ"1"3C evolution of the groundwater. • The processes are carbonate weathering, dedolomitization and common ion induce calcite precipitation. • The δ"1"3C added to DIC was −11.6‰ for weathering, −9.4‰ for dedolomitization

  20. Brine contamination to aquatic resources from oil and gas development in the Williston Basin, United States

    Gleason, Robert A.; Contributions by Chesley-Preston, Tara L.; Coleman, James L.; Haines, Seth S.; Jenni, Karen E.; Nieman, Timothy L.; Peterman, Zell E.; van der Burg, Max Post; Preston, Todd M.; Smith, Bruce D.; Tangen, Brian A.; Thamke, Joanna N.; Gleason, Robert A.; Tangen, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    The Williston Basin, which includes parts of Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota in the United States and the provinces of Manitoba and Saskatchewan in Canada, has been a leading domestic oil and gas producing region for more than one-half a century. Currently, there are renewed efforts to develop oil and gas resources from deep geologic formations, spurred by advances in recovery technologies and economic incentives associated with the price of oil. Domestic oil and gas production has many economic benefits and provides a means for the United States to fulfill a part of domestic energy demands; however, environmental hazards can be associated with this type of energy production in the Williston Basin, particularly to aquatic resources (surface water and shallow groundwater) by extremely saline water, or brine, which is produced with oil and gas. The primary source of concern is the migration of brine from buried reserve pits that were used to store produced water during recovery operations; however, there also are considerable risks of brine release from pipeline failures, poor infrastructure construction, and flow-back water from hydraulic fracturing associated with modern oilfield operations. During 2008, a multidisciplinary (biology, geology, water) team of U.S. Geological Survey researchers was assembled to investigate potential energy production effects in the Williston Basin. Researchers from the U.S. Geological Survey participated in field tours and met with representatives from county, State, tribal, and Federal agencies to identify information needs and focus research objectives. Common questions from agency personnel, especially those from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, were “are the brine plumes (plumes of brine-contaminated groundwater) from abandoned oil wells affecting wetlands on Waterfowl Production Areas and National Wildlife Refuges?” and “are newer wells related to Bakken and Three Forks development different than the older

  1. Experimental and petrological constraints on local-scale interaction of biotite-amphibole gneiss with H2O-CO2-(K, NaCl fluids at middle-crustal conditions: Example from the Limpopo Complex, South Africa

    Oleg G. Safonov

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Reaction textures and fluid inclusions in the ∼2.0 Ga pyroxene-bearing dehydration zones within the Sand River biotite-hornblende orthogneisses (Central Zone of the Limpopo Complex suggest that the formation of these zones is a result of close interplay between dehydration process along ductile shear zones triggered by H2O-CO2-salt fluids at 750–800 °C and 5.5–6.2 kbar, partial melting, and later exsolution of residual brine and H2O-CO2 fluids during melt crystallization at 650–700 °C. These processes caused local variations of water and alkali activity in the fluids, resulting in various mineral assemblages within the dehydration zone. The petrological observations are substantiated by experiments on the interaction of the Sand River gneiss with the H2O-CO2-(K, NaCl fluids at 750 and 800 °C and 5.5 kbar. It follows that the interaction of biotite-amphibole gneiss with H2O-CO2-(K, NaCl fluids is accompanied by partial melting at 750–800 °C. Orthopyroxene-bearing assemblages are characteristic for temperature 800 °C and are stable in equilibrium with fluids with low salt concentrations, while salt-rich fluids produce clinopyroxene-bearing assemblages. These observations are in good agreement with the petrological data on the dehydration zones within the Sand River orthogneisses.

  2. Review of the impacts of leaking CO 2 gas and brine on groundwater quality

    Qafoku, Nikolla P.; Lawter, Amanda R.; Bacon, Diana H.; Zheng, Liange; Kyle, Jennifer; Brown, Christopher F.

    2017-06-01

    This review paper provides a synthetic view of the existing knowledge and summarizes data and findings of the recent literature on the subject of the potential leaking of CO2 from the deep subsurface storage reservoirs and the effects on aquifer quality. New ideas and concepts are developed and insights are also provided. The objectives of this paper are to: 1) present and discuss potential risks for groundwater degradation due to CO2 gas and brine exposure; 2) identify the set of geochemical data required to assess and predict aquifer responses to CO2 and brine leakage. Specifically, this paper will discuss the following issues: 1) Aquifer responses (such as changes in aqueous phase/groundwater chemical composition; changes in solid phase chemistry and mineralogy; changes in the extent and rate of reactions and processes and possible establishment of a new network of reactions and processes affecting or controlling overall mobility of major, minor, and trace elements; development of conceptual and reduced order models (ROMs) to describe and predict aquifer responses); 2) The degree of impact such as significant or insignificant changes in pH and major, minor, and trace element release that depend on the following controlling variables; the effect of leaking plume characteristics (gas composition, pure CO2 and/or CO2 -CH4 -H2S mixtures and brine concentration and composition (trace metals); aquifer properties [such as initial aqueous phase conditions and mineralogy: minerals controlling sediments’ response (e.g., calcite, Si bearing minerals, etc.)]; overview of relevant hydrogeological and geochemical processes related to the impact of CO2 gas and brine on groundwater quality; the fate of the elements released from sediments or transported with brine (such as precipitation/incorporation into minerals (calcite and other minerals), adsorption, electron transfer reactions, the role of natural attenuation; whether or not the release of metals following exposure to

  3. Amorphous salts formed from rapid dehydration of multicomponent chloride and ferric sulfate brines: Implications for Mars

    Sklute, Elizabeth C.; Rogers, A. Deanne; Gregerson, Jason C.; Jensen, Heidi B.; Reeder, Richard J.; Dyar, M. Darby

    2018-01-01

    Salts with high hydration states have the potential to maintain high levels of relative humidity (RH) in the near subsurface of Mars, even at moderate temperatures. These conditions could promote deliquescence of lower hydrates of ferric sulfate, chlorides, and other salts. Previous work on deliquesced ferric sulfates has shown that when these materials undergo rapid dehydration, such as that which would occur upon exposure to present day Martian surface conditions, an amorphous phase forms. However, the fate of deliquesced halides or mixed ferric sulfate-bearing brines are presently unknown. Here we present results of rapid dehydration experiments on Ca–, Na–, Mg– and Fe–chloride brines and multi-component (Fe2 (SO4)3 ± Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, Cl, HCO3) brines at ∼21°C, and characterize the dehydration products using visible/near-infrared (VNIR) reflectance spectroscopy, mid-infrared attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. We find that rapid dehydration of many multicomponent brines can form amorphous solids or solids with an amorphous component, and that the presence of other elements affects the persistence of the amorphous phase under RH fluctuations. Of the pure chloride brines, only Fe–chloride formed an amorphous solid. XRD patterns of the multicomponent amorphous salts show changes in position, shape, and magnitude of the characteristic diffuse scattering observed in all amorphous materials that could be used to help constrain the composition of the amorphous salt. Amorphous salts deliquesce at lower RH values compared to their crystalline counterparts, opening up the possibility of their role in potential deliquescence-related geologic phenomena such as recurring slope lineae (RSLs) or soil induration. This work suggests that a wide range of aqueous mixed salt solutions can lead to the formation of amorphous salts and are possible for Mars; detailed studies of the formation mechanisms, stability and

  4. Amorphous salts formed from rapid dehydration of multicomponent chloride and ferric sulfate brines: Implications for Mars

    Sklute, Elizabeth C.; Rogers, A. Deanne; Gregerson, Jason C.; Jensen, Heidi B.; Reeder, Richard J.; Dyar, M. Darby

    2018-03-01

    Salts with high hydration states have the potential to maintain high levels of relative humidity (RH) in the near subsurface of Mars, even at moderate temperatures. These conditions could promote deliquescence of lower hydrates of ferric sulfate, chlorides, and other salts. Previous work on deliquesced ferric sulfates has shown that when these materials undergo rapid dehydration, such as that which would occur upon exposure to present day Martian surface conditions, an amorphous phase forms. However, the fate of deliquesced halides or mixed ferric sulfate-bearing brines are presently unknown. Here we present results of rapid dehydration experiments on Ca-, Na-, Mg- and Fe-chloride brines and multicomponent (Fe2(SO4)3 ± Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, Cl, HCO3) brines at ∼21 °C, and characterize the dehydration products using visible/near-infrared (VNIR) reflectance spectroscopy, mid-infrared attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. We find that rapid dehydration of many multicomponent brines can form amorphous solids or solids with an amorphous component, and that the presence of other elements affects the persistence of the amorphous phase under RH fluctuations. Of the pure chloride brines, only Fe-chloride formed an amorphous solid. XRD patterns of the multicomponent amorphous salts show changes in position, shape, and magnitude of the characteristic diffuse scattering observed in all amorphous materials that could be used to help constrain the composition of the amorphous salt. Amorphous salts deliquesce at lower RH values compared to their crystalline counterparts, opening up the possibility of their role in potential deliquescence-related geologic phenomena such as recurring slope lineae (RSLs) or soil induration. This work suggests that a wide range of aqueous mixed salt solutions can lead to the formation of amorphous salts and are possible for Mars; detailed studies of the formation mechanisms, stability and transformation

  5. Comparison of the Sr isotopic signatures in brines of the Canadian and Fennoscandian shields

    Negrel, Philippe; Casanova, Joel

    2005-01-01

    A synthesis of Sr isotope data from shallow and deep groundwaters, and brines from the Fennoscandian and Canadian Shields is presented. A salinity gradient is evident in the water with concentrations varying from approximately 1-75 g L -1 below 1500 m depth in the Fennoscandian Shield and from 10 up to 300 g L -1 below 650 m depth in the Canadian Shield. Strontium isotope ratios were measured to assess the origin of the salinity and evaluate the degree of water-rock interaction in the systems. In both shields, the Sr concentrations are enriched relative to Cl, defining a positive trend parallel to the seawater dilution line and indicative of Sr addition through weathering processes. The depth distribution for Sr concentration increases strongly with increasing depth in both shields although the variation in Sr-isotope composition does not mirror that of Sr concentrations. Strontium-isotope compositions are presented for surface waters, and groundwaters in several sites in the Fennoscandian and Canadian Shields. Numerous mixing lines can be drawn reflecting water-rock interaction. A series of calculated lines links the surface end-members (surface water and shallow groundwater) and the deep brines; these mixing lines define a range of 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios for the deep brines in different selected sites. All sites show a specific 87 Sr/ 86 Sr signature and the occurrence of large 87 Sr/ 86 Sr variations is site specific in both shields. In Canadian Shield brines, the Sr isotope ratios clearly highlight large water rock interaction that increases the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio from water that could have been of marine origin. In contrast to the Canadian Shield, groundwater does not occur in closed pockets in the Fennoscandian, and the well-constrained 87 Sr/ 86 Sr signatures in deep brines should correspond to a large, well-mixed and homogeneous water reservoir, whose Sr isotope signature results from water-rock interaction

  6. Thermal gradient brine inclusion migration in salt study: gas-liquid inclusions, preliminary model

    Olander, D.R.; Machiels, A.J.

    1979-10-01

    Natural salt deposits contain small cubical inclusions of brine distributed through the salt. Temperature gradients, resulting from storing heat-generating wastes in the salt, can cause the inclusions to move through the salt. Prediction of the rate and amount of brine-inclusion migration is necessary for the evaluation of bedded or domed salts as possible media for waste repositories. Inclusions filled exclusively with liquid migrate up the temperature gradient towards the heat source. The solubility of salt in the brine inclusion increases with temperature. Consequently, salt dissolves into the inclusion across the hot surface and crystallizes out at the cold surface. Diffusion of salt within the liquid phase from the hot to the cold faces causes the inclusions to move in the opposite direction. In so doing, they change shape and eventually become rectangular parallelipipeds with a width (dimension perpendicular to the thermal gradient) much larger than the thickness (dimension in the direction of the thermal gradient). The inclusions may also contain a gas phase predominantly consisting of water vapor. These entities are termed two-phase or gas-liquid inclusions. The two-phase inclusions usually migrate down the temperature gradient away from the heat source remaining more-or-less cubical. A two-phase inclusion also forms when an all-liquid inclusion reaches the waste package; upon opening up at the salt-package interface, the brine partially evaporates and the inclusion reseals with some insoluble gas trapped inside. These gas-liquid inclusions proceed to move down the temperature gradient, in the opposite sense of the all-liquid inclusions. The gas-liquid inclusions phenomenon provides a pathway by which radionuclides leached from the wasteform by the brine can be transported away from the waste package and thus might have greater access to the biosphere

  7. Amorphous salts formed from rapid dehydration of multicomponent chloride and ferric sulfate brines: Implications for Mars.

    Sklute, Elizabeth C; Rogers, A Deanne; Gregerson, Jason C; Jensen, Heidi B; Reeder, Richard J; Dyar, M Darby

    2018-03-01

    Salts with high hydration states have the potential to maintain high levels of relative humidity (RH) in the near subsurface of Mars, even at moderate temperatures. These conditions could promote deliquescence of lower hydrates of ferric sulfate, chlorides, and other salts. Previous work on deliquesced ferric sulfates has shown that when these materials undergo rapid dehydration, such as that which would occur upon exposure to present day Martian surface conditions, an amorphous phase forms. However, the fate of deliquesced halides or mixed ferric sulfate-bearing brines are presently unknown. Here we present results of rapid dehydration experiments on Ca-, Na-, Mg- and Fe-chloride brines and multi-component (Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 ± Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, Cl, HCO 3 ) brines at ∼21°C, and characterize the dehydration products using visible/near-infrared (VNIR) reflectance spectroscopy, mid-infrared attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. We find that rapid dehydration of many multicomponent brines can form amorphous solids or solids with an amorphous component, and that the presence of other elements affects the persistence of the amorphous phase under RH fluctuations. Of the pure chloride brines, only Fe-chloride formed an amorphous solid. XRD patterns of the multicomponent amorphous salts show changes in position, shape, and magnitude of the characteristic diffuse scattering observed in all amorphous materials that could be used to help constrain the composition of the amorphous salt. Amorphous salts deliquesce at lower RH values compared to their crystalline counterparts, opening up the possibility of their role in potential deliquescence-related geologic phenomena such as recurring slope lineae (RSLs) or soil induration. This work suggests that a wide range of aqueous mixed salt solutions can lead to the formation of amorphous salts and are possible for Mars; detailed studies of the formation mechanisms, stability and transformation

  8. Calculation of inelastic helium atom scattering from H2/ NaCl(001)

    Bruch, L.W.; Hansen, Flemming Yssing; Traeger, F.

    2011-01-01

    The one-phonon inelastic low energy helium atom scattering theory is adapted to cases where the target monolayer is a p(1 × 1) commensurate square lattice. Experimental data for para-H2/NaCl(001) are re-analyzed and the relative intensities of energy loss peaks in the range 6 to 9 meV are determi......The one-phonon inelastic low energy helium atom scattering theory is adapted to cases where the target monolayer is a p(1 × 1) commensurate square lattice. Experimental data for para-H2/NaCl(001) are re-analyzed and the relative intensities of energy loss peaks in the range 6 to 9 me...

  9. Evaluation of NaCl Salinity Stress Using Three Different Laboratory Methods

    S Laleh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of different salinity levels of NaCl on germination of safflower (cv. Esfahan 24 seeds under three different incubation methods, a factorial experiment was carried out based on a complete randomize design with three replications. Salinity levels were 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 dSm-1 (NaCl and incubation methods were sandwich method, and using petri dishes with open or closed doors. The results showed that among investigated traits, including germination percentage and rate, length, fresh and dry weight of root and shoot, salinity had the highest negative correlation with germination percentage. There was not a significant difference in germination percentage between 5 dSm-1 and control, but increasing salinity levels to 10, 15 and 20 dSm-1 led to 13, 23.50 and 39.74 % reduction in germination percentage, respectively, compared to control (P

  10. Effect of Acacia Gum, NaCl, and Sucrose on Physical Properties of Lotus Stem Starch

    Gill, Balmeet Singh

    2014-01-01

    Consumer preferences in east Asian part of the world pave the way for consumption of lotus stem starch (LSS) in preparations such as breakfast meals, fast foods, and traditional confectioneries. The present study envisaged the investigation and optimization of additives, that is, acacia gum, sodium chloride (NaCl), and sucrose, on water absorption (WA), water absorption index (WAI), and water solubility index (WSI) of LSS employing response surface methodology (RSM). Acacia gum resulted in increased water uptake and swelling of starch; however, NaCl reduced the swelling power of starch by making water unavailable to starch and also due to starch-ion electrostatic interaction. Sucrose restricted the water absorption by binding free water and decreased amylose leaching by building bridges with starch chains and thus forming rigid structure. PMID:26904639

  11. Reaction of metal oxides with molten mixtures NaPO3+NaCl

    Kovarskaya, E.N.; Mityakhina, V.S.; Rodionov, Yu.I.; Silin, M.Yu.

    1988-01-01

    By methods of solubility determination and paper chromatography it is shown, that Fe 2 O 3 solution in NaPO 3 +NaCl melts in the air relizes due to its chemical interaction with solvent resulting in formation of iron and sodium binary di- and monophosphates depending on melt-solvent initial composition, its attainment of equilibrium state and experiment temperature. It is established, that oxides increased solubility in melts with NaCl initial content ∼30 mol.% is specified by sodium tri- and tricyclophosphates presence in the melts. On this basis of NGR-spectroscopy data the presence of iron, europium, tin and sodium binary di- and monophosphates in some chloride-polyphosphate melts is confirmed

  12. Short-pulse CO2-laser damage studies of NaCl and KCl windows

    Newnam, B.E.; Nowak, A.V.; Gill, D.H.

    1979-01-01

    The damage resistance of bare surfaces and the bulk interior of NaCl and KCl windows was measured with a short-pulse CO 2 laser at 10.6 μm. Parametric studies with 1.7-ns pulses indicated that adsorbed water was probably the limiting agent on surface thresholds in agreement with previous studies at long pulsewidths. Rear-surface thresholds up to 7 J/cm 2 were measured for polished NaCl windows, whereas KCl surfaces damaged at approximately 60% of this level. The breakdown electric-field thresholds of exit surfaces were only 50% of the value of the bulk materials. The pulsewidth dependence of surface damage from 1 to 65 ns, in terms of incident laser fluence, increased as t/sup 1/3/

  13. Thermoluminescence and recovery processes in pure and doped NaCl after 20 K irradiation

    Lopez, F.J.; Aguilar, M.; Jaque, F.; Agullo-Lopez, F.

    1980-01-01

    The thermoluminescence (TL) spectra after X-ray irradiation at 20 K have been investigated for pure as well as divalent cation doped NaCl. The F-centre decay has also been determined in pure and Ca and Mg doped NaCl for comparison purposes. A clear decrease in F-centre concentration appears to correlate with glow peaks at 44 and 50 K for pure and Ca-doped samples. Main glow peak appearing at 69 K is not associated to any appreciable F-centre decay step. Below liquid nitrogen temperature (LNT) all peaks show both σ and π exciton emission bands. Above LNT, the glow peaks for doped samples show the σ emission together with another band at 410 nm, whereas pure samples still present the intrinsic emission bands. (author)

  14. Recovery of phenol of industrial wastewaters with NaCl treatment

    Serna, Iveth; Torres, Jesus; Hoyos Bibian

    2003-01-01

    A technique for phenol recovery from residual wastewater, which has been made in an empiric way in some local industries, is explored in this work. It was carried out an experimental design that takes into account the concentration of NaCl as the entrance variable and the phenol recovery percentage as the exit variable. The statistical analysis of data determined that the best operation point is 25 Celsius degrade, with a initial ph between 2 and 3, an initial concentration of 6% and 21,5% for phenol and NaCl respectively, achieving a phenol recovery of 79 % with a phenol concentration in the organic phase of 83%. Besides the experimental part some theories are exposed dealing with the separation of a no electrolyte and water by salt addition

  15. Effect of applied voltage and initial concentration to desalting NaCl solution using electrodialysis

    Boubakri, Ali; Gzara, Lassaad; Dhahbi, Mahmoud; Bouguecha, Salah

    2009-01-01

    The desalination process of electrodialysis is one of membrane separation that competes with reverse osmosis for desalination of brackish water and seawater. In this work water desalination using a laboratory electrodialysis was performed and evaluated to desalting aqueous solutions containing 5000, 10000 and 20000 mg/L NaCl at different applied potential (10, 15 and 20 V) and at a constant flow rate of 3 L/min. Nine electrodialysis runs were performed. The results showed that the increasing of applied potential and decreasing of NaCl concentration have an important effect to enhance the electrodialysis performance. The efficiencies of each experiment were evaluated as function of specific power consumption with the electrical energy consumed in electrodialysis stack. It was obtained that the specific power consumption increased when the salt concentration and applied voltage increased. A laboratory electrodialysis stack containing fifteen cation exchange membranes and fifteen anion exchange membranes of 0,716 m 2 total effective area was used.

  16. Disposal/recovery options for brine waters from oil and gas production in New York State. Final report

    Matsumoto, M.R.; Atkinson, J.F.; Bunn, M.D.; Hodge, D.S.

    1996-03-01

    Produced water from oil and gas operations, or brine as it is typically referred, may be characterized as being highly saline, with total dissolved solids greater than 100 g/L. If these bribes are disposed improperly there may be severe adverse environmental effects. Thus, it is important that brine be disposed using environmentally sound methods. Unfortunately, costs for the disposal of brine water are a significant burden to oil and gas producers in New York State. These costs and the relatively low market price of oil and natural gas have contributed to the decline in gas and oil production in New York State during the past 10 years. The objectives of this study were to evaluate new and existing options for brine disposal in New York State, examine the technical and economic merits of these options, and assess environmental impacts associated with each option. Two new disposal options investigated for New York State oil and gas producers included construction of a regional brine treatment facility to treat brine prior to discharge into a receiving water and a salt production facility that utilizes produced water as a feed stock. Both options are technically feasible; however, their economic viability depends on facility size and volume of brine treated.

  17. A review of theories on the origins of saline waters and brines in the Canadian Precambrian Shield

    Bottomley, D.J.

    1996-02-01

    Groundwater at depths greater that 500 m in the Canadian Precambrian Shield is typically saline with a sodium-calcium/chloride chemical composition. Brines with dissolved solid concentrations exceeding 100 g/L have been encountered in several deep mines (>1000 m) on the Shield. Theories on the origins of these deep saline waters and brines can be grouped into two general categories: (1) autochthonous (in situ) origins attributable to silicate mineral hydrolysis over geologic time scales, leaching of fluid inclusions or radiolysis effects, and (2) allochthonous (external) sources caused by the infiltration of brine of modified seawater origins in the geologic past. Although the chemical and isotopic compositions of these waters clearly reflect the effects of reaction between the water and their silicate host rocks, it is unlikely that the high chlorinity of the brines is in an autochthonous attribute. It is proposed that the compositions of these brines are most compatible with the Paleozoic residual brine hypothesis of Spencer (1987). This theory invokes deep infiltration of a high-density residual brine, formed by the evaporation of seawater during Devonian time, into underlying Precambrian basement rocks where subsequent chemical modifications occurred. (author) 39 refs., 2 figs

  18. Disposal/recovery options for brine waters from oil and gas production in New York State. Final report

    Matsumoto, M.R.; Atkinson, J.F.; Bunn, M.D.; Hodge, D.S.

    1996-03-01

    Produced water from oil and gas operations, or brine as it is typically referred, may be characterized as being highly saline, with total dissolved solids greater than 100 g/L. If these bribes are disposed improperly there may be severe adverse environmental effects. Thus, it is important that brine be disposed using environmentally sound methods. Unfortunately, costs for the disposal of brine water are a significant burden to oil and gas producers in New York State. These costs and the relatively low market price of oil and natural gas have contributed to the decline in gas and oil production in New York State during the past 10 years. The objectives of this study were to evaluate new and existing options for brine disposal in New York State, examine the technical and economic merits of these options, and assess environmental impacts associated with each option. Two new disposal options investigated for New York State oil and gas producers included construction of a regional brine treatment facility to treat brine prior to discharge into a receiving water and a salt production facility that utilizes produced water as a feed stock. Both options are technically feasible; however, their economic viability depends on facility size and volume of brine treated

  19. Radiation induced color center and colloid formation in synthetic NaCl and natural rock salt

    Levy, P.W.; Swyler, K.J.; Klaffky, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    F-center and colloid particle formation has been studied in synthetic NaCl and natural rock salt crystals with apparatus for making optical absorption measurements during irradiation. F-center and colloid formation are functions of temperature, dose, dose rate, strain applied prior to irradiation and numerous other factors. Many of the observed properties are in accord with the Jain-Lidiard theory for radiation induced F-center and colloid growth above room temperature

  20. MARINATED WITH EFFECT OF NaCl AND SODIUM TRIPOLYPHOSPHATE BROMATOLOGICAL PROPERTIES ON THE MEAT GOAT

    Ricardo Peña F.; Daniel Salvador Duran O; Luis Carlos Baleta M.

    2014-01-01

    Goat meat has all the significant nutritional characteristics by consumers to be an excellent alternative supply; therefore, this study proposes the use of a mixture of NaCl, sodium tripolyphosphate, laurel and rosemary extracts as marginalisers agents using maceration technique marinade as facilitator system and applying vacuum packaging and storage at refrigeration of an overall strategy of modernization. In the finished product bromatologic variables pH, fat, protein, water holding c...

  1. Liquid Scintillation counting Standardization of 22 NaCl by the CIEMAT/NIST method

    Rodriguez Barquero, L.; Grau Carles, A.; Grau Malonda, A.

    1995-09-01

    We describe a procedure for preparing a stable solution of ''22 NaCl for liquid scintillation counting and its counting stability and spectral evolution in Insta-Gel''R is studied. The solution has been standardised in terms of activity concentration by the CIEMAT/NIST method with discrepancies between experimental and computed efficiencies lower than 0.4/% and an overall uncertainty of 0.35%

  2. Liquid Scintillation Counting Standardization of 22NaCl by te CIEMAT/NIST method

    Rodriguez Barquero, L.; Grau Carles, A.; Grau Malonda, A.

    1995-01-01

    We describe a procedure for preparing a stable solution of ''22NaCl for liquid scintillation counting and its counting stability and spectral evolution in Insta-Gel''R is studied. The solution has been standardised in terms of activity concentration by the CIEMAT/NIST method with discrepancies between experimental and computed efficiencies lower than 0.4 % and an overall uncertainty of 0.35 %. (Author) 4 refs

  3. Combinations of nisin with salt (NaCl) to control Listeria ...

    This study evaluated the effect of combinations of nisin with salt (NaCl) to control Listeria monocytogenes on sheep natural sausage casings. Casings were inoculated with 3.0 x 105 cfu/g final inocula of L. monocytogenes, stored at 6°C in different solutions of nisin at 0, 100, 150 and 200 ìg/g. Each combined with salt at 0, 4, ...

  4. A thermoluminescence study of Z2-centres in terbium-doped NaCl crystals

    Reddy, K.N.; Ahmed, I.M.; Pandaraiah, N.; Rao, U.V.S.; Babu, V.H.

    1983-01-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL), optical absorption are used to correlate thermal annealing of Z 2 -centres with TL peak occurring around 110 0 C in terbium-doped NaCl crystals. The TL glow peak occurring around 190 0 C is attributed to the thermal annealing of F-centres. The thermal activation parameters are calculated for both Z 2 - and F-centre peaks. (author)

  5. Influence of NaCl salinity on growth analysis of strawberry cv. Camarosa

    H. Mirdehghan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to study of salinity effect on growth analysis of strawberry, a greenhouse experiment was conducted in Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan in 2010. This study was carried out RCBD design with 4 replications to determine the influence of salinity (30, 60, 90 Mmol and control with distilled water on strawberry growth analysis. Results indicated that relative growth rate (RGR, crop growth rate (CGR, leaf area ratio (LAR and dry matter accumulation were decreased with increasing salinity. The lowest RGR, CGR and LAR were observed in 90 Mmol NaCl salinity. Results also indicated that maximum dry matter accumulations were observed in 1050, 1200 and 1400 degree days in 30, 60 and 90 Mmol NaCl salinity, respectively. Water salinity more than 30 Mmol NaCl L-1 will decreased fresh fruit yield more than 50 percent in hydroponics strawberry production. Dry mass partitioning in NaCl-stressed plants was in favor of crown and petioles and at expense of root, stem and leaf whereas leaf, stem and root DM progressively declined with an increase in salinity.

  6. Forward flux sampling calculation of homogeneous nucleation rates from aqueous NaCl solutions.

    Jiang, Hao; Haji-Akbari, Amir; Debenedetti, Pablo G; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z

    2018-01-28

    We used molecular dynamics simulations and the path sampling technique known as forward flux sampling to study homogeneous nucleation of NaCl crystals from supersaturated aqueous solutions at 298 K and 1 bar. Nucleation rates were obtained for a range of salt concentrations for the Joung-Cheatham NaCl force field combined with the Extended Simple Point Charge (SPC/E) water model. The calculated nucleation rates are significantly lower than the available experimental measurements. The estimates for the nucleation rates in this work do not rely on classical nucleation theory, but the pathways observed in the simulations suggest that the nucleation process is better described by classical nucleation theory than an alternative interpretation based on Ostwald's step rule, in contrast to some prior simulations of related models. In addition to the size of NaCl nucleus, we find that the crystallinity of a nascent cluster plays an important role in the nucleation process. Nuclei with high crystallinity were found to have higher growth probability and longer lifetimes, possibly because they are less exposed to hydration water.

  7. Effects of dilute aqueous NaCl solution on caffeine aggregation

    Sharma, Bhanita; Paul, Sandip, E-mail: sandipp@iitg.ernet.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati 781039, Assam (India)

    2013-11-21

    The effect of salt concentration on association properties of caffeine molecule was investigated by employing molecular dynamics simulations in isothermal-isobaric ensemble of eight caffeine molecules in pure water and three different salt (NaCl) concentrations, at 300 K temperature and 1 atm pressure. The concentration of caffeine was taken almost at the solubility limit. With increasing salt concentration, we observe enhancement of first peak height and appearance of a second peak in the caffeine-caffeine distribution function. Furthermore, our calculated solvent accessible area values and cluster structure analyses suggest formation of higher order caffeine cluster on addition of salt. The calculated hydrogen bond properties reveal that there is a modest decrease in the average number of water-caffeine hydrogen bonds on addition of NaCl salt. Also observed are: (i) decrease in probability of salt contact ion pair as well as decrease in the solvent separated ion pair formation with increasing salt concentration, (ii) a modest second shell collapse in the water structure, and (iii) dehydration of hydrophobic atomic sites of caffeine on addition of NaCl.

  8. Effect of halopriming on the induction of nacl salt tolerance in different wheat genotypes

    Muhammad, Z.; Hussain, F.; Rehmanullah, M.; Majeed, A.

    2015-01-01

    Salinity is a major environmental stress limiting plant growth and productivity of wide range of crops with impairing effects on germination and yield. The present study was conducted to assess the induction of salt tolerance in seven wheat genotypes (Bakhtawar-92, Bhakar-2002, Fakhar-e-Sarhad, Khyber-87, Nasir-2000, Pirsabak-2005, and Uqab-2000) at germination and seedling stage through halo-priming with NaCl. Seeds of each wheat genotype were halo-primed separately. Halo-primed seeds of each wheat genotype were subjected to 0.02 (control), 2, 4, 6 and 8 dS/m NaCl salinity under laboratory conditions. Germination percentage age varied significantly among various wheat genotypes; however, differences between different salt concentrations were non-significant. All the seedling growth characters (germination, plumule growth, fresh and dry weight of seedling and moisture contents) exhibited significant differences among wheat genotypes as well as under the applied salt concentration except for radicle growth which varied non-significantly under salt stress. Interaction between various wheat genotypes and salt concentration was also significant for all the seedling growth characters, while it was non-significant for germination percentage age. It is concluded that NaCl proved to be effective priming agents in inducing salt tolerance in the tested wheat genotypes. (author)

  9. Supercooling of aqueous NaCl and KCl solutions under acoustic levitation.

    Lü, Y J; Wei, B

    2006-10-14

    The supercooling capability of aqueous NaCl and KCl solutions is investigated at containerless state by using acoustic levitation method. The supercooling of water is obviously enhanced by the alkali metal ions and increases linearly with the augmentation of concentrations. Furthermore, the supercooling depends on the nature of ions and is 2-3 K larger for NaCl solution than that for KCl solution in the present concentration range: Molecular dynamics simulations are performed to reveal the intrinsic correlation between supercoolability and microstructure. The translational and orientational order parameters are applied to quantitatively demonstrate the effect of ionic concentration on the hydrogen-bond network and ice melting point. The disrupted hydrogen-bond structure determines essentially the concentration dependence of supercooling. On the other hand, the introduced acoustic pressure suppresses the increase of supercooling by promoting the growth and coalescence of microbubbles, the effective nucleation catalysts, in water. However, the dissolved ions can weaken this effect, and moreover the degree varies with the ion type. This results in the different supercoolability for NaCl and KCl solutions under the acoustic levitation conditions.

  10. Effects of dilute aqueous NaCl solution on caffeine aggregation

    Sharma, Bhanita; Paul, Sandip

    2013-01-01

    The effect of salt concentration on association properties of caffeine molecule was investigated by employing molecular dynamics simulations in isothermal-isobaric ensemble of eight caffeine molecules in pure water and three different salt (NaCl) concentrations, at 300 K temperature and 1 atm pressure. The concentration of caffeine was taken almost at the solubility limit. With increasing salt concentration, we observe enhancement of first peak height and appearance of a second peak in the caffeine-caffeine distribution function. Furthermore, our calculated solvent accessible area values and cluster structure analyses suggest formation of higher order caffeine cluster on addition of salt. The calculated hydrogen bond properties reveal that there is a modest decrease in the average number of water-caffeine hydrogen bonds on addition of NaCl salt. Also observed are: (i) decrease in probability of salt contact ion pair as well as decrease in the solvent separated ion pair formation with increasing salt concentration, (ii) a modest second shell collapse in the water structure, and (iii) dehydration of hydrophobic atomic sites of caffeine on addition of NaCl

  11. Charging induced emission of neutral atoms from NaCl nanocube corners

    Ceresoli, Davide; Zykova-Timan, Tatyana; Tosatti, Erio

    2008-01-01

    Detachment of neutral cations/anions from solid alkali halides can in principle be provoked by donating/subtracting electrons to the surface of alkali halide crystals, but generally constitutes a very endothermic process. However, the amount of energy required for emission is smaller for atoms located in less favorable positions, such as surface steps and kinks. For a corner ion in an alkali halide cube the binding is the weakest, so it should be easier to remove that atom, once it is neutralized. We carried out first principles density functional calculations and simulations of neutral and charged NaCl nanocubes, to establish the energetics of extraction of neutralized corner ions. Following hole donation (electron removal) we find that detachment of neutral Cl corner atoms will require a limited energy of about 0.8 eV. Conversely, following the donation of an excess electron to the cube, a neutral Na atom is extractable from the corner at the lower cost of about 0.6 eV. Since the cube electron affinity level (close to that a NaCl(100) surface state, which we also determine) is estimated to lie about 1.8 eV below vacuum, the overall energy balance upon donation to the nanocube of a zero-energy electron from vacuum will be exothermic. The atomic and electronic structure of the NaCl(100) surface, and of the nanocube Na and Cl corner vacancies are obtained and analyzed as a byproduct

  12. Recuperación de fenol de aguas residuales industriales por tratamiento con NaCl

    Iveth Serna

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se explora una técnica para la recuperación de fenol de aguas residuales que hasta el momento se ha realizado en forma empírica en algunas industrias locales. Se realizó un diseño experimental donde se tomó la concentración de NaCl como variable de entrada del proceso y el porcentaje de recuperación de fenol como variable de salida. El análisis estadístico de los datos muestra que la concentración de NaCl es una variable de suma importancia en el proceso. Se determinó que el mejor punto de operación está a 25º C, con un pH inicial entre 2 y 3, una concentración inicial de fenol de 6% y concentración inicial de NaCl de 21,5%, logrando una recuperación del fenol del 79 % con una concentración de fenol en la fase orgánica del 83 %. Además de la parte experimental, en el trabajo se exponen algunas teorías desarrolladas acerca de la separación de una solución de no electrolito y agua por adición de sal.

  13. Reactions of metal oxides with molten NaPO3 + NaCl mixtures

    Kovarskaya, E.N.; Mityakhina, V.S.; Rodionov, Yu.I.; Silin, M.Yu.

    1988-01-01

    We consider the dissolution mechanism for iron (III), europium(III), and tin(IV) oxides in molten NaPO 3 + NaCl that are responsible for the peak solubilities. We chose Fe 2 O 3 as the basic material since this occurs in large amounts around damaged metal structures in rock salt mines in a proposed zone for storing vitrified radioactive wastes. Solubility measurement and paper chromatography show that Fe 2 O 3 dissolves in molten NaPO 3 + NaCl in air by reaction with the solvent to give double iron and sodium diphosphates and monophosphates in accordance with the initial solution-in-the-melt composition, the degree of equilibration, and the temperature. The elevated solubilities for initial NaCl contents close to 30 mole % are due to sodium triphosphates and tricyclophosphates present in these melts. Moessbauer spectroscopy confirms that double iron, europium and tin diphosphates and monophosphates containing sodium occur in these chloride-polyphosphate melts

  14. Cephradine as corrosion inhibitor for copper in 0.9% NaCl solution

    Tasić, Žaklina Z.; Petrović Mihajlović, Marija B.; Radovanović, Milan B.; Simonović, Ana T.; Antonijević, Milan M.

    2018-05-01

    The effect of (6R,7R)-7-[[(2R)-2-amino-2-cyclohexa-1,4-dien-1-ylacetyl]amino]-3-methyl-8-oxo-5-thia-1-azobicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylic acid (cephradine) on corrosion behavior of copper in 0.9% NaCl solution was investigated. The electrochemical methods including the open circuit potential measurements, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations were used for this investigation. According to the results obtained by potentiodynamic polarization, cephradine acts as mixed type inhibitor. Also, the results obtained by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy indicate that cephradine provides good copper protection in 0.9% NaCl solution. The inhibition efficiency of cephradine increases with increasing its concentration. The scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirms that a protective layer is formed on the copper surface due to the adsorption of cephradine on the active sites on the copper surface. Adsorption of cephradine in 0.9% NaCl solution follows the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Quantum chemical calculations are in agreement with results obtained by electrochemical measurements.

  15. The equation of state of B2-type NaCl

    Ono, S

    2010-01-01

    The equation of state (EOS) of B2-type NaCl has been investigated to 270 GPa and 3000 K using the first-principles molecular dynamics method and high-pressure experiments in a diamond anvil cell. We used the high-pressure experimental data to determine the compressibility at room temperature, and used the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and the projector augmented-wave method (PAW) in simulations to calculate the thermal pressure. A Vinet EOS fitted to the room temperature data yielded an isothermal bulk modulus of B T0 = 39.25 GPa and a pressure derivative of B T0 ' = 4.72. The high-temperature data from the first-principles calculations were fitted to the thermal pressure EOS. The resulting calculated parameters of the thermal pressure, αB T (V 0 ,T) and (δB T /δT) V , were 3.28 x 10 -3 (GPa/K) and 4.3 x10 -4 (GPa/K), respectively. A small volume dependence of the thermal pressure of B2-type NaCl was revealed from the analysis of our data. A significant temperature dependence of the calculated Grueneisen parameters was confirmed. This indicates that the conventional approach using the Mie-Grueneisen approximation is likely to have a significant uncertainty in determining the EOS for B2-type NaCl, and that an intrinsic anharmonicity should be considered to analyze the EOS.

  16. Body Temperatures During Exercise in Deconditioned Dogs: Effect of NACL and Glucose Infusion

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Kruk, B.; Nazar, K.; Kaciuba-Usciko, H.

    2000-01-01

    Infusion of glucose (Glu) into normal exercising dogs attenuates the rise in rectal temperature (Delta-Tre) when compared with delta-Tre during FFA infusion or no infusion. Rates of rise and delta-=Tre levels are higher during exercise after confinement. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if Glu infusion would attenuate the exercise-induced excess hyperthermia after deconditioning. Rectal and quadricep femoris muscle temperatures (Tmu) were measured in 7 male, mongrel dogs dogs (19.6 +/- SD 3.0 kg) during 90 minutes of treadmill exercise (3.1 +/-SD 0.2 W/kg) with infusion (30ml/min/kg) of 40% Glu or 0.9% NaCL before BC) and after confinement (AC) in cages (40 x 110 x 80 cm) for 8 wk. Mean (+/-SE body wt. were 19.6 +/- 1.1 kg BC and 19.5 +/- 1.1kg AC, exercise VO2 were not different (40.0 - 42.0 mi/min/kg-1). With NaCl AC, NaCl BC, GluAC, and GluBC: Delta-Tre were, 1.8, 1.4, 1.3 and 0.9C respectively; and Delta-Tmu were 2.3, 1.9, 1.6, and 1.4C. respectively (Pbody temperature with Glu infusion must affect avenues of heat dissipation.

  17. Experimental evaporation of hyperacid brines: Effects on chemical composition and chlorine isotope fractionation

    Rodríguez, Alejandro; van Bergen, Manfred J.; Eggenkamp, H. G. M.

    2018-02-01

    Hyperacid brines from active volcanic lakes are some of the chemically most complex aqueous solutions on Earth. Their compositions provide valuable insights into processes of elemental transfer from a magma body to the surface and interactions with solid rocks and the atmosphere. This paper describes changes in chemical and δ37Cl signatures observed in a 1750 h isothermal evaporation experiment on hyperacid (pH 0.1) sulphate-chloride brine water from the active lake of Kawah Ijen volcano (Indonesia). Although gypsum was the only evaporite mineral identified in the evolving brine, decreasing Si concentrations may ultimately result in amorphous silica precipitation. Geochemical simulations predict the additional formation of elemental sulphur at lower water activities (aH2O ≤ 0.65) that were not reached in the experiment. Absence of other sulphates and halides despite the high load of dissolved elements (initial TDS ca. 100 g/kg) can be attributed to increased solubility of metals, promoted by extensive formation of complexes between the variety of cations and the major anions (HSO4-, Cl-, F-) present. Chlorine deviations from a conservative behaviour point to losses of gaseous hydrogen chloride (HCl(g)) and consequently an increase in Br/Cl ratios. Chlorine isotope fractionation that accompanied the escape of HCl(g) showed a marked change in sign and magnitude in the course of progressive evaporation of the brine. The calculated factor of fractionation between HCl(g) and dissolved Cl for the initial interval (before 500 h) is positive (1000lnαHCl(g)-Cldiss. = + 1.55 ± 0.49‰to + 3.37 ± 1.11‰), indicating that, at first, the escaping HCl(g) was isotopically heavier than the dissolved Cl remaining in the brine. Conversely, fractionation shifted to the opposite direction in the subsequent interval (1000lnαHCl(g)-Cldiss. = 5.67 ± 0.17‰to - 5.64 ± 0.08‰), in agreement with values reported in literature. It is proposed that Cl isotopic fractionation in

  18. Laboratory tests to determine the effect of Olkiluoto bounding brine water on buffer performance

    Martikainen, J.; Schatz, T.

    2011-10-01

    This report presents a set of results from laboratory studies on the effect of bounding brine water exposure on buffer performance. In order to evaluate the effect of bounding brine water exposure on compacted bentonite buffer performance a series of experiments were conducted using swelling pressure and hydraulic conductivity measurements as follows: Direct exposure measurements were performed on MX-80 bentonite samples encompassing a range of dry density values from 1334 to 1585 kg/m 3 . These samples were saturated directly with a 70 g/L solution composed of calcium and sodium chloride at a Ca 2+ /Na + mass ratio of 3:2. Direct exposure measurements were performed on IBECO RWC samples encompassing a range of dry density values from 1314 to 1564 kg/m 3 . These samples were saturated directly with a 68.45 g/L solution composed of calcium and sodium chloride at a Ca 2+ /Na + mass ratio of 3.2:2. A set of MX-80 and IBECO RWC samples encompassing a range of dry density values from 1018 to 1607 kg/m 3 were initially saturated with tap water followed by (indirect) exposure to a 68.45 g/L solution composed of calcium and sodium chloride at a Ca 2+ /Na + mass ratio of 3.2:2. Sample swelling pressures were continuously monitored and hydraulic conductivity measurements were performed at each constant swelling pressure condition. In some cases, exchangeable cation analyses were performed. The specific test results are summarized as follows: All of the measured swelling pressure values upon exposure to bounding brine water were lower than the corresponding values after saturation with tap water. The relative swelling pressure decrease for the IBECO RWC samples was approximately half of the corresponding decrease for the MX-80 samples. On exposure to bounding brine water, hydraulic conductivity values were increased at the lowest densities, for both the MX-80 and IBECO samples, while at higher densities hydraulic conductivity values were essentially equivalent, for both the

  19. Determination of oxidative stress in wheat leaves as influenced by boron toxicity and NaCl stress.

    Masood, Sajid; Saleh, Livia; Witzel, Katja; Plieth, Christoph; Mühling, Karl H

    2012-07-01

    Boron (B) toxicity symptoms are visible in the form of necrotic spots and may worsen the oxidative stress caused by salinity. Hence, the interactive effects of combined salinity and B toxicity stress on antioxidative activities (TAC, LUPO, SOSA, CAT, and GR) were investigated by novel luminescence assays and standard photometric procedures. Wheat plants grown under hydroponic conditions were treated with 2.5 μM H₃BO₃ (control), 75 mM NaCl, 200 μM H₃BO₃, or 75 mM NaCl + 200 μM H₃BO₃, and analysed 6 weeks after germination. Shoot fresh weight (FW), shoot dry weight (DW), and relative water content (RWC) were significantly reduced, whereas the antioxidative activity of all enzymes was increased under salinity compared with the control. High B application led to necrotic leaf spots but did not influence growth parameters. Following NaCl + B treatment, shoot DW, RWC, SOSA, GR, and CAT activities remained the same compared with NaCl alone, whereas the TAC and LUPO activities were increased under the combined stress compared with NaCl alone. However, shoot FW was significantly reduced under NaCl + B compared with NaCl alone, as an additive effect of combined stress. Thus, we found an adjustment of antioxidative enzyme activity to the interactive effects of NaCl and high B. The stress factor "salt" mainly produced more oxidative stress than that of the factor "high B". Furthermore, addition of higher B in the presence of NaCl increases TAC and LUPO demonstrating that increased LUPO activity is an important physiological response in wheat plants against multiple stresses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. DNA scanning mechanism of T4 endonuclease V. Effect of NaCl concentration on processive nicking activity

    Gruskin, E.A.; Lloyd, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    T4 endonuclease V is a pyrimidine dimer-specific endonuclease which generates incisions in DNA at the sites of pyrimidine dimers by a processive reaction mechanism. A model is presented in which the degree of processivity is directly related to the efficacy of the one-dimensional diffusion of endonuclease V on DNA by which the enzyme locates pyrimidine dimers. The modulation of the processive nicking activity of T4 endonuclease V on superhelical covalently closed circular DNA (form I) which contains pyrimidine dimers has been investigated as a function of the ionic strength of the reaction. Agarose gel electrophoresis was used to separate the three topological forms of the DNA which were generated in time course reactions of endonuclease V with dimer-containing form I DNA in the absence of NaCl, and in 25, 50, and 100 mM NaCl. The degree of processivity was evaluated in terms of the mass fraction of form III (linear) DNA which was produced as a function of the fraction of form I DNA remaining. Processivity is maximal in the absence of NaCl and decreases as the NaCl concentration is increased. At 100 mM NaCl, processivity is abolished and endonuclease V generates incisions in DNA at the site of dimers by a distributive reaction mechanism. The change from the distributive to a processive reaction mechanism occurs at NaCl concentrations slightly below 50 mM. The high degree of processivity which is observed in the absence of NaCl is reversible to the distributive mechanism, as demonstrated by experiments in which the NaCl concentration was increased during the time course reaction. In addition, unirradiated DNA inhibited the incision of irradiated DNA only at NaCl concentrations at which processivity was observed

  1. Synchronized dynamics of bacterial niche-specific functions during biofilm development in a cold seep brine pool

    Zhang, Weipeng; Wang, Yong; Bougouffa, Salim; Tian, Renmao; Cao, Huiluo; Li, Yongxin; Cai, Lin; Wong, Yue Him; Zhang, Gen; Zhou, Guowei; Zhang, Xixiang; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaziz M.; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    in the brine biofilms were reconstructed. Despite rather small genome sizes, the deltaproteobacterium possessed enhanced polysaccharide fermentation pathways, whereas the epsilonproteobacterium was a versatile nitrogen reactor possessing nar, nap and nif gene

  2. The effect of stratigraphic dip on brine inflow and gas migration at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Webb, S.W.; Larson, K.W.

    1996-02-01

    The natural dip of the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), although regionally only about 111, has the potential to affect brine inflow and gas-migration distances due to buoyancy forces. Current models, including those in WIPP Performance Assessment calculations, assume a perfectly horizontal repository and stratigraphy. With the addition of buoyancy forces due to the dip, brine and gas flow patterns can be affected. Brine inflow may increase due to countercurrent flow, and gas may preferentially migrate up dip. This scoping study has used analytical and numerical modeling to evaluate the impact of the dip on brine inflow and gas-migration distances at the WIPP in one, two, and three dimensions. Sensitivities to interbed permeabilities, two-phase curves, gas-generation rates, and interbed fracturing were studied

  3. The effect of stratigraphic dip on brine inflow and gas migration at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Webb, S.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Larson, K.W. [INTERA, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-02-01

    The natural dip of the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), although regionally only about 111, has the potential to affect brine inflow and gas-migration distances due to buoyancy forces. Current models, including those in WIPP Performance Assessment calculations, assume a perfectly horizontal repository and stratigraphy. With the addition of buoyancy forces due to the dip, brine and gas flow patterns can be affected. Brine inflow may increase due to countercurrent flow, and gas may preferentially migrate up dip. This scoping study has used analytical and numerical modeling to evaluate the impact of the dip on brine inflow and gas-migration distances at the WIPP in one, two, and three dimensions. Sensitivities to interbed permeabilities, two-phase curves, gas-generation rates, and interbed fracturing were studied.

  4. Variations in isotopic compositions of chlorine in evaporation-controlled salt lake brines of Qaidam Basin, China

    Xiao, Ying-kai; Liu, Wei-guo; Zhou, Y.M.; Wang, Yun-hui; Shirodkar, P.V.

    The variations in the isotopic compositions of chlorine in evaporation-controlled saline lake brines were determined by using an improved procedure for precise measurement of chlorine isotopes based on Cs sub(2) Cl sup(+) ion by thermal ionization...

  5. Water recovery from brines and salt-saturated solutions: operability and thermodynamic efficiency considerations for desalination technologies

    This review provides an overview of desalination technologies and discusses the thermodynamic efficiencies and operational issues associated with the various technologies particularly with regard to high salinity streams. When water is recovered from a saline source, a brine conc...

  6. Generation of Chemical Commodities and Fertilizer from ISS and ISRU Water Brines Using Combined Ion Exchange and Electrodialysis

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal is to develop a next generation brine recovery and electrolysis grade potable water producing system for Environmental Control and Life Support System...

  7. Environmental impacts of oil and gas brine applications for dust and ice control in New York : final report.

    2016-04-01

    Transportation agencies are required to treat roads for dust and ice control to ensure adequate safety for travelers. This is commonly achieved through application of solid and liquid chemicals. These materials can be conventional rock salt, brine fr...

  8. Changes of washing water during debittering and the brine during storage of irradiated olive fruits (Olea Europea. 1.)

    Al-Bachir, M.

    2003-01-01

    Olive fruits (Olea Europea. var. Surrany) treated with 0, 1, 2, and 3 kGy of gamma irradiation were debittered in distilled water for 8 days and stored in brine for 12 months at room temperature. Total dissolved and inorganic dissolved solids, Na, K, Ca, electric conductivity (EC) and pH values were evaluated in washing wastewater 9 daily), and in brine (after 6 and 12 months). The results showed that gamma irradiation increased the total and inorganic dissolved solids, Na and K in washing wastewater, and in brine throughout debittering and storage periods. Also, gamma irradiation had an effect on EC and pH values of washing wastewater and brine. (author)

  9. Changes of washing water during debittering and the brine during storage of irradiated olive fruits (Olea europea. L.)

    AL-Bachir, M.

    2001-01-01

    Olive fruits (Olea europea. var. Surrany) treated with 0, 1, 2 and 3 kGy of gamma irradiation were debittered in distilled water for 8 days and stored in brine for 12 months at room temperature. Total dissolved and inorganic dissolved solids, Na, K, Ca, electric conductivity (EC) and pH values were evaluated in washing wastewater (daily), and in brine (after 6 and 12 months). The results showed that gamma irradiation increased the total and inorganic dissolved solids, Na and K in washing wastewater, and in brine throughout debittering and storage periods. Also, gamma irradiation had an effect on EC and pH values of washing wastewater and brine [es

  10. Long-term adaptation of methanol-fed thermophilic (55°C) sulfate-reducing reactors to NaCl

    Vallero, M.V.G.; Lettinga, G.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2003-01-01

    A laboratory-scale upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor was operated during 273 days at increasing NaCl concentrations (0.5-12.5 g NaCl l(-1)) to assess whether the stepwise addition of the salt NaCl results in the acclimation of that sludge. The 6.5-1 thermophilic (55 degreesC), sulfidogenic

  11. A new automated NaCl based robust method for routine production of gallium-68 labeled peptides

    Schultz, Michael K.; Mueller, Dirk; Baum, Richard P.; Leonard Watkins, G.; Breeman, Wouter A.P.

    2013-01-01

    A new NaCl based method for preparation of gallium-68 labeled radiopharmaceuticals has been adapted for use with an automated gallium-68 generator system. The method was evaluated based on 56 preparations of [ 68 Ga]DOTATOC and compared to a similar acetone-based approach. Advantages of the new NaCl approach include reduced preparation time ( 97%), and specific activity (>40 MBq nmole −1 [ 68 Ga]DOTATOC) and is well-suited for clinical production of radiopharmaceuticals. - Highlights: ► A NaCl based automated production of Ga-68-radiopharmaceuticals is described. ► Using 5 M NaCl for pre-purification of 68Ga eliminates the need for organic solvents. ► The method provides for high efficiency, specific activity, and radiochemical purity. ► The new method eliminates the need for the quality control by gas chromatography

  12. Effects of temperature, temperature gradients, stress, and irradiation on migration of brine inclusions in a salt repository

    Jenks, G.H.

    1979-07-01

    Available experimental and theoretical information on brine migration in bedded salt are reviewed and analyzed. The effects of temperature, thermal gradients, stress, irradiation, and pressure in a salt repository are among the factors considered. The theoretical and experimental (with KCl) results of Anthony and Cline were used to correlate and explain the available data for rates of brine migration at temperatures up to 250 0 C in naturally occurring crystals of bedded salt from Lyons and Hutchinson, Kansas. Considerations of the effects of stressing crystals of bedded salt on the migratin properties of brine inclusions within the crystals led to the conclusion that the most probable effects are a small fractional increase in the solubility of the salt within the liquid and a concomitant and equal fractional increase in the rate of the thermal gradient-induced migration of the brine. The greatest uncertainty relative to the prediction of rates of migration of brine into a waste emplacement cavity in bedded salt is associated with questions concerning the effects of the grain boundaries (within the aggregates of single crystals which comprise a bedded salt deposit) on brine migration through the deposit. The results of some of the estimates of rates and total amounts of brine inflow to HLW and SURF waste packages emplaced in bedded salt were included to illustrate the inflow volumes which might occur in a repository. The results of the brine inflow estimates for 10-year-old HLW emplaced at 150 kW/acre indicated inflow rates starting at 0.7 liter/year and totaling 12 liters at 30 years after emplacement. The results of the estimates for 10-year-old PWR SURF emplaced at 60 kW/acre indicated a constant inflow of 0.035 liter/year for the first 35 years after emplacement

  13. Effects of brine contamination from energy development on wetland macroinvertebrate community structure in the Prairie Pothole Region

    Preston, Todd M.; Borgreen, Michael J.; Ray, Andrew M.

    2018-01-01

    Wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North America support macroinvertebrate communities that are integral to local food webs and important to breeding waterfowl. Macroinvertebrates in PPR wetlands are primarily generalists and well adapted to within and among year changes in water permanence and salinity. The Williston Basin, a major source of U.S. energy production, underlies the southwest portion of the PPR. Development of oil and gas results in the coproduction of large volumes of highly saline, sodium chloride dominated water (brine) and the introduction of brine can alter wetland salinity. To assess potential effects of brine contamination on macroinvertebrate communities, 155 PPR wetlands spanning a range of hydroperiods and salinities were sampled between 2014 and 2016. Brine contamination was documented in 34 wetlands with contaminated wetlands having significantly higher chloride concentrations, specific conductance and percent dominant taxa, and significantly lower taxonomic richness, Shannon diversity, and Pielou evenness scores compared to uncontaminated wetlands. Non-metric multidimensional scaling found significant correlations between several water quality parameters and macroinvertebrate communities. Chloride concentration and specific conductance, which can be elevated in naturally saline wetlands, but are also associated with brine contamination, had the strongest correlations. Five wetland groups were identified from cluster analysis with many of the highly contaminated wetlands located in a single cluster. Low or moderately contaminated wetlands were distributed among the remaining clusters and had macroinvertebrate communities similar to uncontaminated wetlands. While aggregate changes in macroinvertebrate community structure were observed with brine contamination, systematic changes were not evident, likely due to the strong and potentially confounding influence of hydroperiod and natural salinity. Therefore, despite the observed

  14. Determination of nickel in chloralkali electrolysis brines by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry on a membrane filter

    Andrade, L.L.; Minzl, E.

    1984-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence spectrometry after ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC) preconcentration is proposed for the determination of nickel in chloralkali electrolysis brines. The optimum conditions for the precipitation target tube, peak intensity, background, analysing crystal, counters and exposure time were investigated. The method was applied to chloralkali brines of evaporite salts (halite, sylvinite, carnallite and tachhydrite), sodium, potassium and magnesium salts, explored in Sergipe (Brazil), by Petrobras-Mineracao S.A.(Author) [pt

  15. Performance evaluation of a once-through multi-stage flash distillation system: Impact of brine heater fouling

    Baig, Hasan; Antar, Mohamed A.; Zubair, Syed M.

    2011-01-01

    Multi-stage flash distillation (MSF) system modeling involves a number of process variables. An estimation of all these process variables requires both analytical solutions and experimental/field analysis. However, the accurate estimate of variables related to the brine heater operation in a MSF system is very important for a reliable operation of the system. For example, steam operating conditions as well as the brine properties including fouling of the brine heater tubes have a significant effect on the heat transfer characteristics of the brine heater, which in turn influence the distillate output from the system. In this study, the effect of various design as well as operating conditions on the performance ratio (PR), brine temperature and salinity as it leaves the last flash stage are investigated in a once-through system. Increasing the number of stages from 24 to 32 has a significant effect on the PR, it ranges between 79% (for ΔT = 1.5) and 327% (for ΔT = 2.3) for a top-brine temperature of 106 o C. This value increase as the top-brine temperature increases. Increasing the stage-to-stage temperature difference increases the water salinity as it leaves the final stage and reduces its temperature that would imply better energy utilization within the plant. Results show that brine side heat exchanger fouling has a significant effect in decreasing the overall heat transfer coefficient, which reduces the production rate as the fouling increases with time. A sensitivity analysis to identify the key parameters, which can have a significant influence on the desalination plant performance, is carried out in an attempt to contribute a better understanding and operation of MSF desalination processes.

  16. West Hackberry Brine Disposal Project pre-discharge characterization. Final report

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C. (eds.)

    1982-01-01

    The physical, chemical and biological attributes are described for: (1) a coastal marine environment centered about a Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) brine disposal site 11.4 km off the southwest coast of Louisiana; and (2) the lower Calcasieu and Sabine estuarine systems that provide leach waters for the SPR project. A three month sampling effort, February through April 1981, and previous investigations from the study area are integrated to establish baseline information for evaluation of impacts from brine disposal in the nearshore marine waters and from freshwater withdrawal from the coastal marsh of the Chenier Plain. January data are included for some tasks that sampled while testing and mobilizing their instruments prior to the February field effort. The study addresses the areas of physical oceanography, estuarine hydrology and hydrography, water and sediment quality, benthos, nekton, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and data management.

  17. Microbial succession and the functional potential during the fermentation of Chinese soy sauce brine.

    Sulaiman, Joanita; Gan, Han Ming; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2014-01-01

    The quality of traditional Chinese soy sauce is determined by microbial communities and their inter-related metabolic roles in the fermentation tank. In this study, traditional Chinese soy sauce brine samples were obtained periodically to monitor the transitions of the microbial population and functional properties during the 6 months of fermentation process. Whole genome shotgun method revealed that the fermentation brine was dominated by the bacterial genus Weissella and later dominated by the fungal genus Candida. Metabolic reconstruction of the metagenome sequences demonstrated a characteristic profile of heterotrophic fermentation of proteins and carbohydrates. This was supported by the detection of ethanol with stable decrease of pH values. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that explores the temporal changes in microbial successions over a period of 6 months, through metagenome shotgun sequencing in traditional Chinese soy sauce fermentation and the biological processes therein.

  18. Microbial succession and the functional potential during the fermentation of Chinese soy sauce brine

    Joanita eSulaiman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The quality of traditional Chinese soy sauce is determined by microbial communities and their inter-related metabolic roles in the fermentation tank. In this study, traditional Chinese soy sauce brine samples were obtained periodically to monitor the transitions of the microbial population and functional properties during the six months of fermentation process. Whole genome shotgun (WGS method revealed that the fermentation brine was dominated by the bacterial genus Weissella and later dominated by the fungal genus Candida. Metabolic reconstruction of the metagenome sequences demonstrated a characteristic profile of heterotrophic fermentation of proteins and carbohydrates. This was supported by the detection of ethanol with stable decrease of pH values. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that explores the temporal changes in microbial successions over a period of six months, through metagenome shotgun sequencing in traditional Chinese soy sauce fermentation and the biological processes therein.

  19. Recovery Act: Molecular Simulation of Dissolved Inorganic Carbons for Underground Brine CO2 Sequestration

    Goddard, William

    2012-11-30

    To further our understanding and develop the method for measuring the DICs under geological sequestration conditions, we studied the infrared spectra of DICs under high pressure and temperature conditions. First principles simulations of DICs in brine conditions were performed using a highly optimized ReaxFF-DIC forcefield. The thermodynamics stability of each species were determined using the 2PT method, and shown to be consistent with the Reax simulations. More importantly, we have presented the IR spectra of DIC in real brine conditions as a function of temperature and pressure. At near earth conditions, we find a breaking of the O-C-O bending modes into asymmetric and symmetric modes, separated by 100cm{sup -1} at 400K and 5 GPa. These results can now be used to calibrate FTIR laser measurements.

  20. In-Situ X-ray Tomography Study of Cement Exposed to CO2 Saturated Brine

    Chavez Panduro, E. A.; Torsæter, M.; Gawel, K.

    2017-01-01

    For successful CO2 storage in underground reservoirs, the potential problem of CO2 leakage needs to be addressed. A profoundly improved understanding of the behavior of fractured cement under realistic subsurface conditions including elevated temperature, high pressure and the presence of CO2...... saturated brine is required. Here, we report in situ X-ray micro computed tomography (μ-CT) studies visualizing the microstructural changes upon exposure of cured Portland cement with an artificially engineered leakage path (cavity) to CO2 saturated brine at high pressure. Carbonation of the bulk cement......, self-healing of the leakage path in the cement specimen, and leaching of CaCO3 were thus directly observed. The precipitation of CaCO3, which is of key importance as a possible healing mechanism of fractured cement, was found to be enhanced in confined regions having limited access to CO2...

  1. The application of bioflocs technology to protect brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) from pathogenic Vibrio harveyi.

    Crab, R; Lambert, A; Defoirdt, T; Bossier, P; Verstraete, W

    2010-11-01

    To study the potential biocontrol activity of bioflocs technology. Glycerol-grown bioflocs were investigated for their antimicrobial and antipathogenic properties against the opportunistic pathogen Vibrio harveyi. The bioflocs did not produce growth-inhibitory substances. However, bioflocs and biofloc supernatants decreased quorum sensing-regulated bioluminescence of V. harveyi. This suggested that the bioflocs had biocontrol activity against this pathogen because quorum sensing regulates virulence of vibrios towards different hosts. Interestingly, the addition of live bioflocs significantly increased the survival of gnotobiotic brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) larvae challenged to V. harveyi. Bioflocs grown on glycerol as carbon source inhibit quorum sensing-regulated bioluminescence in V. harveyi and protect brine shrimp larvae from vibriosis. The results presented in this study indicate that in addition to water quality control and in situ feed production, bioflocs technology could help in controlling bacterial infections within the aquaculture pond. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Microbiology of the Red Sea (and other) deep-sea anoxic brine lakes

    Antunes, Andre

    2011-05-30

    Summary: The Red Sea harbours approximately 25 deep-sea anoxic brine pools. They constitute extremely unique and complex habitats with the conjugation of several extreme physicochemical parameters rendering them some of the most inhospitable environments on Earth. After 50 years of research mostly driven by chemists, geophysicists and geologists, the microbiology of the brines has been receiving increased interest in the last decade. Recent molecular and cultivation-based studies have provided us with a first glimpse on the enormous biodiversity of the local microbial communities, the identification of several new taxonomic groups, and the isolation of novel extremophiles that thrive in these environments. This review presents a general overview of these unusual biotopes and compares them with other similar environments in the Mediterranean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, with a focus on their microbial ecology. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Chemistry and geothermometry of brine produced from the Salton Sea Scientific drill hole, Imperial Valley, California

    Thompson, J.M.; Fournier, R.O.

    1988-01-01

    The December 29-30, 1985, flow test of the State 2-14 well, also known as the Salton Sea Scientific drill hole, produced fluid from a depth of 1865-1877 m at a reservoir temperature of 305????5??C. Samples were collected at five different flashing pressures. The brines are Na-Ca-K-Cl-type waters with very high metal and low SO4 and HCO3 contents. Compositions of the flashed brines were normalized relative to the 25??C densities of the solutions, and an ionic charge balance was achieved by adjusting the Na concentration. Calculated Na/K geothermometer temperatures, using equations suggested by different investigators, range from 326?? to 364??C. The Mg/K2 method gives a temperature of about 350??C, Mg/Li2 about 282??, and Na/Li 395??-418??C. -from Authors

  4. Synthesis of NaCl Single Crystals with Defined Morphologies as Templates for Fabricating Hollow Nano/micro-structures

    Wang, B.B.; Jin, P.; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2015-01-01

    . These naturally abundant NaCl single crystal templates are water-soluble, environmentally-friendly and uniform in both geometry and size, and hence are ideal for preparing high quality hollow nano/micro structures. The new approach may have the potential to replace the conventional hard or soft template...... approaches. Furthermore, this work has revealed the formation mechanism of nano/micron NaCl crystals with different sizes and geometries....

  5. Liquid interfacial water and brines in the upper surface of Mars

    Moehlmann, Diedrich

    2013-04-01

    Liquid interfacial water and brines in the upper surface of Mars Diedrich T.F. Möhlmann DLR Institut für Planetenforschung, Rutherfordstr. 2, D - 12489 Berlin, Germany dirk.moehlmann@dlr.de Interfacial water films and numerous brines are known to remain liquid at temperatures far below 0° C. The physical processes behind are described in some detail. Deliquescence, i.e. the liquefaction of hygroscopic salts at the threshold of a specific "Deliquescence Relative Humidity", is shown to be that process, which on present Mars supports the formation of stable interfacial water and bulk liquids in form of temporary brines on and in a salty upper surface of present Mars in a diurnally temporary and repetitive process. Temperature and relative humidity are the governing conditions for deliquescence (and the counterpart "efflorescence") to evolve. The current thermo-dynamical conditions on Mars support these processes to evolve on present Mars. The deliquescence-driven presence of liquid brines in the soil of the upper surface of Mars can expected to be followed by physical and chemical processes like "surface cementation", down-slope flows, and physical and chemical weathering processes. A remarkable and possibly also biologically relevant evolution towards internally interfacial water bearing structures of dendritic capillaries is related to their freezing - thawing driven formation. The internal walls of these network-pores or -tubes can be covered by films of interfacial water, providing that way possibly habitable crack-systems in soil and rock. These evolutionary processes of networks, driven by their tip-growth, can expected to be ongoing also at present.

  6. Biochemical solubilization of toxic salts from residual geothermal brines and waste waters

    Premuzic, Eugene T.; Lin, Mow S.

    1994-11-22

    A method of solubilizing metal salts such as metal sulfides in a geothermal sludge using mutant Thiobacilli selected for their ability to metabolize metal salts at high temperature is disclosed, The method includes the introduction of mutated Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans to a geothermal sludge or brine. The microorganisms catalyze the solubilization of metal salts, For instance, in the case of metal sulfides, the microorganisms catalyze the solubilization to form soluble metal sulfates.

  7. Coupled modelling of convergence, steel corrosion, gas production and brine flow in a rock salt repository

    Becker, D.A.; Hirsekorn, R.P.

    2013-01-01

    This poster presents the global simulation of the behaviour of thick-walled steel containers piled up in a borehole in a rock salt repository. The simulation takes into account: the convergence by the creeping of rock salt, the backfill and waste compaction, the porosity dependent flow resistance, the anaerobic corrosion (iron to magnetite transformation, gas production, brine consumption, water consumption and salt precipitation) and pressure development. Mechanical influence of corrosion has not yet been taken into account in the integrated code LOPOS

  8. Measured and calculated closures of open and brine filled shafts and deep vertical boreholes in salt

    Munson, D.E.; DeVries, K.L.; Schiermeister, D.M.; DeYonge, W.F.; Jones, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    Shaft closure measurements are presented which are based on a rather unusual emplacement of very early time closure points. These data are in good agreement with calculations based on the prediction technique developed for underground rooms in salt using a complete stratigraphy. However, a simplified calculational mesh also gives good agreement, which permits this mesh to be used for parametric studies of long term closures of open and brine filled shafts and boreholes

  9. Measured and calculated closures of open and brine filled shafts and deep vertical boreholes in salt

    Munson, D.E.; DeVries, K.L.; Schiermeister, D.M.; DeYonge, W.F.; Jones, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Shaft closure measurements are presented which are based on a rather unusual emplacement of very early time closure points. These data are in good agreement with calculations based on the prediction techniques developed for underground rooms in salt using a complete stratigraphy. However, a simplified calculational mesh also gives good agreement, which permits this mesh to be used for parametric studies of long term closures of open and brine filled shafts and boreholes

  10. A method for the specific detection of resident bacteria in brine shrimp larvae.

    Niu, Yufeng; Defoirdt, Tom; Rekecki, Anamaria; De Schryver, Peter; Van den Broeck, Wim; Dong, Shuanglin; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Boon, Nico; Bossier, Peter

    2012-04-01

    In this study, we describe an easy but efficient method to specifically target the intestinal resident microbiota in brine shrimp larvae during DGGE analysis, hereby excluding the interference of both transient (luminal) bacteria and body surface bacteria. This effective technique has several advantages over alternative methods, with respect of ease of use and rapidity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Investigation of an innovative technology for oil-field brine treatment

    Miskovic, D; Dalmacija, B; Hain, Z; Karlovic, E; Maric, S; Uzelac, N [Inst. of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, V. Vlahovica 2 (YU)

    1989-01-01

    Various aspects of an innovative technology for oil field brine treatment were investigated on a laboratory scale. The both free and dispersed oily matter were separated by gravitation and sedimentation. Apart from the physico-chemical oil removal process, special attention was paid to different variants of improved microbiological treatment: dilution with fresh water and application of powdered activated carbon (PAC). Advanced treatment was carried out on granular biological activated carbon (GBAC). A technological scheme for complete treatment was proposed. (author).

  12. The impact of radioactivity of brine water on environment on the territory of the Caspian sea

    Mamedov, F.I.; Gurbanova, E.K.

    2015-01-01

    At the present, the problem of purification of the petroleum polluted areas is getting essential. The reason of that is the increased scope of work on oil producing and oil refining. Consequently, the risk of contamination of the environment increases. So far, experts have considered that hydrocarbons which are contained in composition of oil waste are most dangerous for environment. In the last decade were discovered tens of different metals, halogens and radioactive elements in the oil, the gas and the brine water.

  13. Choice of optimal working fluid for binary power plants at extremely low temperature brine

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.; Sorokina, E. V.

    2016-12-01

    The geothermal energy development problems based on using binary power plants utilizing lowpotential geothermal resources are considered. It is shown that one of the possible ways of increasing the efficiency of heat utilization of geothermal brine in a wide temperature range is the use of multistage power systems with series-connected binary power plants based on incremental primary energy conversion. Some practically significant results of design-analytical investigations of physicochemical properties of various organic substances and their influence on the main parameters of the flowsheet and the technical and operational characteristics of heat-mechanical and heat-exchange equipment for binary power plant operating on extremely-low temperature geothermal brine (70°C) are presented. The calculation results of geothermal brine specific flow rate, capacity (net), and other operation characteristics of binary power plants with the capacity of 2.5 MW at using various organic substances are a practical interest. It is shown that the working fluid selection significantly influences on the parameters of the flowsheet and the operational characteristics of the binary power plant, and the problem of selection of working fluid is in the search for compromise based on the priorities in the field of efficiency, safety, and ecology criteria of a binary power plant. It is proposed in the investigations on the working fluid selection of the binary plant to use the plotting method of multiaxis complex diagrams of relative parameters and characteristic of binary power plants. Some examples of plotting and analyzing these diagrams intended to choose the working fluid provided that the efficiency of geothermal brine is taken as main priority.

  14. Partition behavior of virgin olive oil phenolic compounds in oil-brine mixtures during thermal processing for fish canning.

    Sacchi, Raffaele; Paduano, Antonello; Fiore, Francesca; Della Medaglia, Dorotea; Ambrosino, Maria Luisa; Medina, Isabel

    2002-05-08

    The chemical modifications and partitioning toward the brine phase (5% salt) of major phenol compounds of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) were studied in a model system formed by sealed cans filled with oil-brine mixtures (5:1, v/v) simulating canned-in-oil food systems. Filled cans were processed in an industrial plant using two sterilization conditions commonly used during fish canning. The partitioning of phenolic compounds toward brine induced by thermal processing was studied by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of the phenol fraction extracted from oils and brine. Hydroxytyrosol (1), tyrosol (2), and the complex phenolic compounds containing 1 and 2 (i.e., the dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl oleuropein aglycon 3, the dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl ligstroside aglycon 4, and the oleuropein aglycon 6) decreased in the oily phase after sterilization with a marked partitioning toward the brine phase. The increase of the total amount of 1 and 2 after processing, as well as the presence of elenolic acid 7 released in brine, revealed the hydrolysis of the ester bond of hydrolyzable phenolic compounds 3, 4, and 6 during thermal processing. Both phenomena (partitioning toward the water phase and hydrolysis) contribute to explain the loss of phenolic compounds exhibited by EVOO used as filling medium in canned foods, as well as the protection of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in canned-in-EVOO fish products.

  15. Strontium isotope systematics of mixing groundwater and oil-field brine at Goose Lake in northeastern Montana, USA

    Peterman, Zell E.; Thamke, Joanna N.; Futa, Kiyoto; Preston, Todd

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater, surface water, and soil in the Goose Lake oil field in northeastern Montana have been affected by Cl−-rich oil-field brines during long-term petroleum production. Ongoing multidisciplinary geochemical and geophysical studies have identified the degree and local extent of interaction between brine and groundwater. Fourteen samples representing groundwater, surface water, and brine were collected for Sr isotope analyses to evaluate the usefulness of 87Sr/86Sr in detecting small amounts of brine. Differences in Sr concentrations and 87Sr/86Sr are optimal at this site for the experiment. Strontium concentrations range from 0.13 to 36.9 mg/L, and corresponding 87Sr/86Sr values range from 0.71097 to 0.70828. The local brine has 168 mg/L Sr and a 87Sr/86Sr value of 0.70802. Mixing relationships are evident in the data set and illustrate the sensitivity of Sr in detecting small amounts of brine in groundwater. The location of data points on a Sr isotope-concentration plot is readily explained by an evaporation-mixing model. The model is supported by the variation in concentrations of most of the other solutes.

  16. Chemical composition of selected Kansas brines as an aid to interpreting change in water chemistry with depth

    Dingman, R.J.; Angino, E.E.

    1969-01-01

    Chemical analyses of approximately 1,881 samples of water from selected Kansas brines define the variations of water chemistry with depth and aquifer age. The most concentrated brines are found in the Permian rocks which occupy the intermediate section of the geologic column of this area. Salinity decreases below the Permian until the Ordovician (Arbuckle) horizon is reached and then increases until the Precambrian basement rocks are reached. Chemically, the petroleum brines studied in this small area fit the generally accepted pattern of an increase in calcium, sodium and chloride content with increasing salinity. They do not fit the often-predicted trend of increases in the calcium to chloride ratio, calcium content and salinity with depth and geologic age. The calcium to chloride ratio tends to be asymptotic to about 0.2 with increasing chloride content. Sulfate tends to decrease with increasing calcium content. Bicarbonate content is relatively constant with depth. If many of the hypotheses concerning the chemistry of petroleum brines are valid, then the brines studied are anomolous. An alternative lies in accepting the thesis that exceptions to these hypotheses are rapidly becoming the rule and that indeed we still do not have a valid and general hypothesis to explain the origin and chemistry of petroleum brines. ?? 1969.

  17. Proteomic and Physiological Analyses Reveal Putrescine Responses in Roots of Cucumber Stressed by NaCl

    Yinghui Yuan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity is a major environmental constraint that threatens agricultural productivity. Different strategies have been developed to improve crop salt tolerance, among which the effects of polyamines have been well reported. To gain a better understanding of the cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. responses to NaCl and unravel the underlying mechanism of exogenous putrescine (Put alleviating salt-induced damage, comparative proteomic analysis was conducted on cucumber roots treated with NaCl and/or Put for 7 days. The results showed that exogenous Put restored the root growth inhibited by NaCl. 62 differentially expressed proteins implicated in various biological processes were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. The four largest categories included proteins involved in defense response (24.2%, protein metabolism (24.2%, carbohydrate metabolism (19.4% and amino acid metabolism (14.5%. Exogenous Put up-regulated most identified proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism, implying an enhancement in energy generation. Proteins involved in defense response and protein metabolism were differently regulated by Put, which indicated the roles of Put in stress resistance and proteome rearrangement. Put also increased the abundance of proteins involved in amino acid metabolism. Meanwhile, physiological analysis showed that Put could further up-regulated the levels of free amino acids in salt stressed-roots. In addition, Put also improved endogenous polyamines contents by regulating the transcription levels of key enzymes in polyamine metabolism. Taken together, these results suggest that Put may alleviate NaCl-induced growth inhibition through degradation of misfolded/damaged proteins, activation of stress defense, and the promotion of carbohydrate metabolism to generate more energy.

  18. Observations of brine drainage networks and microstructure of first-year sea ice

    Cole, D. M.; Shapiro, L. H.

    1998-09-01

    Brine drainage networks and the microstructure of first-year sea ice have been examined at two locations near Barrow, northern Alaska. A method for obtaining full-depth sections of ice sheets up to 1.8 m thick is presented and shown to provide information on the spatial distribution and geometry of brine drainage networks on a scale of meters. A number of such sections from the two test sites are presented which reveal a greater variety of main channel and side branch configurations than is typically observed in ice grown in the laboratory. Vertical and horizontal micrographs and thin section photographs were obtained in November 1993, and March and May 1994 at a test site in the relatively protected Elson Lagoon. The resulting time series of photographic records provide detailed information on the size, shape, and spatial distribution of the brine- and gas-filled inclusions and a means to quantify their size and shape changes with time. An example of the changes with time in inclusion sizes and aspect ratios in the vertical and horizontal directions for a depth of 0.2 m, with a given thermal history is also presented.

  19. Enrichment of extremophilic exoelectrogens in microbial electrolysis cells using Red Sea brine pools as inocula.

    Shehab, Noura A; Ortiz-Medina, Juan F; Katuri, Krishna P; Hari, Ananda Rao; Amy, Gary; Logan, Bruce E; Saikaly, Pascal E

    2017-09-01

    Applying microbial electrochemical technologies for the treatment of highly saline or thermophilic solutions is challenging due to the lack of proper inocula to enrich for efficient exoelectrogens. Brine pools from three different locations (Valdivia, Atlantis II and Kebrit) in the Red Sea were investigated as potential inocula sources for enriching exoelectrogens in microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) under thermophilic (70°C) and hypersaline (25% salinity) conditions. Of these, only the Valdivia brine pool produced high and consistent current 6.8±2.1A/m 2 -anode in MECs operated at a set anode potential of +0.2V vs. Ag/AgCl (+0.405V vs. standard hydrogen electrode). These results show that exoelectrogens are present in these extreme environments and can be used to startup MEC under thermophilic and hypersaline conditions. Bacteroides was enriched on the anode of the Valdivia MEC, but it was not detected in the open circuit voltage reactor seeded with the Valdivia brine pool. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Geological implications of radium and helium in oil-field brines: observations, inferences and speculations

    Lerche, I.

    1993-01-01

    The 1600 yr half-life of radium restricts the time and thus the distance over which radium can migrate in sediments. The dominant source of unsupported radium in sandstone reservoir brines must then be close by and is likely in shales adjacent to the oil-field reservoirs. The chemical similarity of calcium and radium can be used to argue for a local shale-source contribution to the calcium in reservoir sands -suggesting the probability of calcite cementation early in the sedimentary sequence. Helium production by radium decay increases with time. Concentrations of helium found in reservoir oil field brines are then used to suggest that: (a) such reservoirs are dominantly closed systems over geological times; (b) neither methane nor helium in the reservoirs have migrated any significant distance; and (c) the mechanism responsible for the observed helium in the brine is a continuous on-going process operative today. Diagenetic studies should then deal with both sands and shales interdependently, the two are not separable. Shales control the transport mechanisms of migration so that the primary migration of hydrocarbons, the result of kerogen catagenesis in shales, should occur sufficiently early in the sedimentary sequence in order to avoid exclusion from the reservoir by calcite cementation in association with radium transport. (author)

  1. Experimental Study of Cement - Sandstone/Shale - Brine - CO2 Interactions.

    Carroll, Susan A; McNab, Walt W; Torres, Sharon C

    2011-11-11

    Reactive-transport simulation is a tool that is being used to estimate long-term trapping of CO2, and wellbore and cap rock integrity for geologic CO2 storage. We reacted end member components of a heterolithic sandstone and shale unit that forms the upper section of the In Salah Gas Project carbon storage reservoir in Krechba, Algeria with supercritical CO2, brine, and with/without cement at reservoir conditions to develop experimentally constrained geochemical models for use in reactive transport simulations. We observe marked changes in solution composition when CO2 reacted with cement, sandstone, and shale components at reservoir conditions. The geochemical model for the reaction of sandstone and shale with CO2 and brine is a simple one in which albite, chlorite, illite and carbonate minerals partially dissolve and boehmite, smectite, and amorphous silica precipitate. The geochemical model for the wellbore environment is also fairly simple, in which alkaline cements and rock react with CO2-rich brines to form an Fe containing calcite, amorphous silica, smectite and boehmite or amorphous Al(OH)3. Our research shows that relatively simple geochemical models can describe the dominant reactions that are likely to occur when CO2 is stored in deep saline aquifers sealed with overlying shale cap rocks, as well as the dominant reactions for cement carbonation at the wellbore interface.

  2. Statistical testing of input factors in the carbonation of brine impacted fly ash.

    Grace, Muriithi N; Wilson, Gitari M; Leslie, Petrik F

    2012-01-01

    A D-optimal design was applied in the study of input factors: temperature, pressure, solid/liquid (S/L) ratio and particle size and their influence on the carbonation of brine impacted fly ash (FA) determined. Both temperature and pressure were at two levels (30°C and 90°C; 1 Mpa and 4 Mpa), S/L ratio was at three levels (0.1, 0.5 and 1) while particle size was at 4 levels (bulk ash, 150 μm). Pressure was observed to have a slight influence on the % CaCO(3) yield while higher temperatures led to higher percentage CaCO(3) yield. The particle size range of 20 μm - 150 μm enhanced the degree of carbonation of the fly ash/brine slurries. This was closely followed by the bulk ash while the >150 μm particle fraction had the least influence on the % CaCO(3). The effect of S/L ratio was temperature dependent. At low temperature, the S/L ratio of 1 resulted in the highest % CaCO(3) formation while at high temperature, the ratio of 0.5 resulted in the highest percentage CaCO(3) formation. Overall the two most important factors in the carbonation of FA and brine were found to be particle size and temperature.

  3. Genomic and Transcriptomic Evidence for Carbohydrate Consumption Among Microorganisms in a Cold Seep Brine Pool

    Weipeng Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The detailed lifestyle of microorganisms in deep-sea brine environments remains largely unexplored. Using a carefully calibrated genome binning approach, we reconstructed partial to nearly-complete genomes of 51 microorganisms in biofilms from the Thuwal cold seep brine pool of the Red Sea. The recovered metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs belong to six different phyla: Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Candidatus Cloacimonetes, Candidatus Marinimicrobia, Bathyarchaeota and Thaumarchaeota. By comparison with close relatives of these microorganisms, we identified a number of unique genes associated with organic carbon metabolism and energy generation. These genes included various glycoside hydrolases, nitrate and sulfate reductases, putative bacterial microcompartment biosynthetic clusters (BMC, and F420H2 dehydrogenases. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the acquisition of these genes probably occurred through horizontal gene transfer (HGT. Metatranscriptomics illustrated that glycoside hydrolases are among the most highly expressed genes. Our results suggest that the microbial inhabitants are well adapted to this brine environment, and anaerobic carbohydrate consumption mediated by glycoside hydrolases and electron transport systems (ETSs is a dominant process performed by microorganisms from various phyla within this ecosystem.

  4. Assessment of Contaminated Brine Fate and Transport in MB139 at WIPP

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Applied Systems Analysis and Research Dept.; Malama, Bwalya [Sandia National Lab., Carlsbad, NM (United States). Performance Assessment Dept.

    2014-07-01

    Following the radionuclide release event of February 14, 2014 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), actinide contamination has been found on the walls and floor in Panel 7 as a result of a release in Room 7 of Panel 7. It has been proposed to decontaminate Panel 7 at the WIPP by washing contaminated surfaces in the underground with fresh water. A cost-effective cleanup of this contamination would allow for a timely return to waste disposal operations at WIPP. It is expected that the fresh water used to decontaminate Panel 7 will flow as contaminated brine down into the porosity of the materials under the floor – the run-of-mine (ROM) salt above Marker Bed 139 (MB139) and MB139 itself – where its fate will be controlled by the hydraulic and transport properties of MB139. Due to the structural dip of MB139, it is unlikely that this brine would migrate northward towards the Waste-Handling Shaft sump. A few strategically placed shallow small-diameter observation boreholes straddling MB139 would allow for monitoring the flow and fate of this brine after decontamination. Additionally, given that flow through the compacted ROM salt floor and in MB139 would occur under unsaturated (or two-phase) conditions, there is a need to measure the unsaturated flow properties of crushed WIPP salt and salt from the disturbed rock zone (DRZ).

  5. Rheological behavior of pork Biceps femoris muscle influenced by injection-tumbling process and brine type

    Livia PĂTRAŞCU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of tumbling time (1-9 h, injection rate (20, 30, 40, and 50 % and k-carrageenan addition (0, 0.25, and 0.5 % on the rheological characteristics of pork Biceps femoris muscle were assessed. The results of the creep-recovery tests were analyzed using Burger’s equation. Increasing tumbling time up to 9 h along with injection rate also increased compliance values and decreased viscosity. K-carrageenan addition showed the occurrence of a more gel-like structure of the brine-meat system, causing further increase of the compliance and strain values. Samples injected with brine were more elastic compared to those containing k-carrageenan. A longer mechanical treatment provided a softer like matrix. Mathematical modeling of creep-compliance data showed a decreasing tendency for viscosity values with k-carrageenan addition. Discrete retarded elastic compliance values increased when adding k-carrageenan to meat-brine system. Addition of k-carrageenan did not affect the equilibrium compliance values.

  6. Genomic and Transcriptomic Evidence for Carbohydrate Consumption among Microorganisms in a Cold Seep Brine Pool

    Zhang, Weipeng

    2016-11-15

    The detailed lifestyle of microorganisms in deep-sea brine environments remains largely unexplored. Using a carefully calibrated genome binning approach, we reconstructed partial to nearly-complete genomes of 51 microorganisms in biofilms from the Thuwal cold seep brine pool of the Red Sea. The recovered metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) belong to six different phyla: Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Candidatus Cloacimonetes, Candidatus Marinimicrobia, Bathyarchaeota, and Thaumarchaeota. By comparison with close relatives of these microorganisms, we identified a number of unique genes associated with organic carbon metabolism and energy generation. These genes included various glycoside hydrolases, nitrate and sulfate reductases, putative bacterial microcompartment biosynthetic clusters (BMC), and F420H2 dehydrogenases. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the acquisition of these genes probably occurred through horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Metatranscriptomics illustrated that glycoside hydrolases are among the most highly expressed genes. Our results suggest that the microbial inhabitants are well adapted to this brine environment, and anaerobic carbohydrate consumption mediated by glycoside hydrolases and electron transport systems (ETSs) is a dominant process performed by microorganisms from various phyla within this ecosystem.

  7. Effect of brining on the drying rate of tilapia in a solar tunnel dryer

    Kituu, G.M.; Shitanda, D.; Kanali, C.L.; Mailutha, J.T. [Jomo Kenyatta Univ. of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi (Kenya). BEED

    2008-07-01

    In addition to being a source of protein, fish is an important source of local and foreign currency earnings in Kenya. A substantial amount of fish production is exported. Approximately 30 per cent is exported to the European Union, the United States, and countries in the Middle East, but nearly half of the total annual fish harvest in Kenya goes to waste due to poor processing and preservation. Measures must be taken to ensure the fish industry is protected and waste is minimized, since the livelihood of over 500,000 people depends on fish as a source of proteins and employment. Therefore, it is necessary to implement appropriate and affordable processing and preservation techniques for fish at the artisanal landing sites in order to reduce the wastage and spoilage of fish during oversupply, and to enhance long storage. This paper presented studies that were conducted to determine the effect of brining on the drying rate of tilapia in a solar tunnel dryer. The paper discussed the materials and methods, including a description of the solar tunnel dryer system; the brining process of fish; the fish drying process; and data analysis. It was concluded that limiting the amount of salt used in brining, and subsequently dehydrating fish with a solar tunnel dryer achieves a more stable and suitable dried fish product than osmotic dehydration or solar drying process separately. 19 refs., 5 figs., 2 appendices.

  8. Enrichment of extremophilic exoelectrogens in microbial electrolysis cells using Red Sea brine pools as inocula

    Chehab, Noura A.

    2017-05-03

    Applying microbial electrochemical technologies for the treatment of highly saline or thermophilic solutions is challenging due to the lack of proper inocula to enrich for efficient exoelectrogens. Brine pools from three different locations (Valdivia, Atlantis II and Kebrit) in the Red Sea were investigated as potential inocula sources for enriching exoelectrogens in microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) under thermophilic (70°C) and hypersaline (25% salinity) conditions. Of these, only the Valdivia brine pool produced high and consistent current 6.8 ± 2.1 A/m2-anode in MECs operated at a set anode potential of +0.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl (+0.405 V vs. standard hydrogen electrode). These results show that exoelectrogens are present in these extreme environments and can be used to startup MEC under thermophilic and hypersaline conditions. Bacteroides was enriched on the anode of the Valdivia MEC, but it was not detected in the open circuit voltage reactor seeded with the Valdivia brine pool.

  9. Long term mineralogical changes in salt formations due to water and brine interactions

    Herbert, H.J.; Brewitz, W.

    1996-01-01

    Four very common long term mineralogical changes in salt formations are discussed in the view of the safety considerations for underground repositories. Two of these processes, the 'Hartsalz' and 'Carnallite' dissolution were studied in two scale in situ experiments. The results are presented and compared with the results of the geochemical modelling with the computer code EQ3/6. Furthermore the reactions leading to the formation of the gypsum cap rock on the top of the Zechstein salt formations and to the polyhalitization of anhydrite are discussed. Geological field observations and mineral assemblages agree well with the results of the geochemical modelling employing the Pitzer formalism along with the Harvie, Moller and Weare database. We conclude that once the mechanisms of the chemical reactions are well understood it becomes possible to evaluate realistically whether such processes, when encountered in the repository, are still active or whether they are finished. It also becomes possible to estimate the volume changes associated with the reactions and thus the impact of these reactions on the integrity and the geomechanical stability of the salt formation. The intimate knowledge of the reaction mechanisms of the short and long term changes in the mineralogical assemblages and the associated brine chemistry is a first prerequisite for the correct evaluation of the origin of brines. Thus, it is essential for the correct assessment of the hazards which brine inflows may pose for the safety of a repository in salt formations. (authors). 8 refs., 14 figs., 8 tabs

  10. Evaluation of the corrosion behavior of the al-356 alloy in NaCl solutions

    Mauricio Vásquez Rendón

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular metals are a new class of materials with promising applications and a unique combination of physical, chemical and mechanical properties. The Al-356 alloy is used to manufacture metal foams from NaCl preforms. Despite the usefulness of these materials, their performance may be affected by corrosion due to residual salt. This paper reports the study of the behavior of the Al-356 alloy in chloride solutions by electrochemical techniques in rotating disk electrode. The cathodic reaction of oxygen reduction is the crucial stage of process dissolution of the material, which shows that is the oxygen transport which limits the corrosion process.

  11. Mini-review: regulation of the renal NaCl cotransporter by hormones.

    Rojas-Vega, Lorena; Gamba, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    The renal thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter, NCC, is the major pathway for salt reabsorption in the distal convoluted tubule. The activity of this cotransporter is critical for regulation of several physiological variables such as blood pressure, serum potassium, acid base metabolism, and urinary calcium excretion. Therefore, it is not surprising that numerous hormone-signaling pathways regulate NCC activity to maintain homeostasis. In this review, we will provide an overview of the most recent evidence on NCC modulation by aldosterone, angiotensin II, vasopressin, glucocorticoids, insulin, norepinephrine, estradiol, progesterone, prolactin, and parathyroid hormone. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Corrosion monitoring of the AA2024 alloy in NaCl solutions by electrochemical noise measurements

    Aballe, A.; Bethencourt, M.; Botana, F.J.; Marcos, M.; Rodriguez-Chacon, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    The behaviour of the AA2024 alloy against corrosion in 3.5% NaCl solution has been monitored. In this environment the alloy can be easily damaged under small anodic polarizations. Linear Polarization, electrochemical impedance, spectroscopy and electrochemical noise measurement have been used as experimental techniques. Data from ENM have been analyzed using statistical parameters and Chaos Theory. The results here obtained suggest that ENM is particularly useful to monitored systems that can be modified using other electrochemical techniques. (Author) 11 refs

  13. AFM of metallic nano-particles and nano-structures in heavily irradiated NaCl

    Gaynutdinov, R; Vainshtein, DI; Hak, SJ; Tolstikhina, A; Den Hartog, HW

    2003-01-01

    AFM investigations are reported for heavily, electron irradiated NaCl crystals in ultra high vacuum (UHV) in the non-contact mode-with an UHV AFM/STM Omicron system. To avoid chemical reactions between the radiolytic Na and oxygen and water, the irradiated samples were cleaved and prepared for the experiments in UHV At the surface of freshly cleaved samples, we have observed sodium nano-precipitates with shapes, which depend on the irradiation dose and the volume fraction of the radiolytic Na...

  14. The europium and praseodymium hydrolysis in a 2M NaCl environment

    Jimenez R, M.; Lopez G, H.; Solache R, M.; Rojas H, A.

    1998-01-01

    It was studied the europium and praseodymium hydrolysis in a 2M NaCl ion force environment at 303 K, through two methods: this one extraction with dissolvents (lanthanide-water-NaCl-dibenzoylmethane) in presence of a competitive ligand (diglycolic acid) and that one direct potentiometric titration, of soluble species, followed by a computer refining. The values of one or another techniques of the first hydrolysis constants obtained were similar, which demonstrates that the results are reliable. The set of data obtained on the stability constants of hydrolysis products allowed to draw up the distribution diagrams of chemical species, as europium as praseodymium in aqueous environment. (Author)

  15. Crevice corrosion resistance of high alloyed materials in 3.5 % NaCl solution

    Alar, Vesna; Stojanovic, Ivan; Simunovic, Vinko

    2014-01-01

    The effects of applied torque on the corrosion behaviour of W.-Nr. 1.4404 and 1.4462 stainless steels and W.-Nr. 2.4605 and 2.4858 nickel alloys with crevices were investigated using the cyclic potentiodynamic polarization method. Crevice corrosion (material-to-polytetrafluoroethylene) was tested in 3.5 % NaCl solution at 22 C. The corroded surface was examined using scanning electron microscopy. The results indicate similar trends in susceptibility to crevice corrosion with increasing torque. Among the four specimens, the W.-Nr. 1.4404 is the most susceptible to crevice corrosion. (orig.)

  16. Geochemical models of the precipitation of halite (NaCl) in gas fields; Modelamiento geoquimico de la precipitacion de Halita (NaCl) en yacimientos de gas

    Lombana O, Jose L; Jaramillo, Elizabeth A; Alzate E, Guillermo A

    2005-07-01

    The reservoir modeling is a tool that every day takes more importance in the petroleum industry due to multiple problems presented an also that can be afforded by it during the production of reservoir fluids from the porous media in petroleum reservoir. One of these is the formation damage which is reflected as a petrophysic properties change, caused among other factors by the scale precipitation of halite (NaCl) as a consequence of the original state alteration and thermodynamic balance disruption between the porous media and the fluids inside by the gas flow. By the gas flow over the connate water, the porous media reduce its water saturation due to water transferring from liquid to gas state. In this study, a numeric model is developed to model the formation damage for halite precipitation. The model covers one-dimensional monophasic and iso thermic gas flow and evaluates the porosity and permeability changes of porous media due to halite precipitation. The model application for different conditions of temperature, connate water salinity, water saturation,and porosity indicates the following: the biggest damage is caused to the beginning of the porous media,temperature influences considerably the water vaporization rate and therefore the amount of halite precipitation, the lower the porosity of the porous media the bigger the formation damage degree, and finally, higher salinity and water saturation for the connate water in the porous media higher the formation damage degree is reached by the gas flow.

  17. Strontium isotope detection of brine contamination in the East Poplar oil field, Montana

    Peterman, Zell E.; Thamke, Joanna N.; Futa, Kiyoto; Oliver, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    Brine contamination of groundwater in the East Poplar oil field was first documented in the mid-1980s by the U.S. Geological Survey by using hydrochemistry, with an emphasis on chloride (Cl) and total dissolved solids concentrations. Supply wells for the City of Poplar are located downgradient from the oil field, are completed in the same shallow aquifers that are documented as contaminated, and therefore are potentially at risk of being contaminated. In cooperation with the Office of Environmental Protection of the Fort Peck Tribes, groundwater samples were collected in 2009 and 2010 from supply wells, monitor wells, and the Poplar River for analyses of major and trace elements, including strontium (Sr) concentrations and isotopic compositions. The ratio of strontium-87 to strontium-86 (87Sr/86Sr) is used extensively as a natural tracer in groundwater to detect mixing among waters from different sources and to study the effects of water/rock interaction. On a plot of the reciprocal strontium concentration against the 87Sr/86Sr ratio, mixtures of two end members will produce a linear array. Using this plotting method, data for samples from most of the wells, including the City of Poplar wells, define an array with reciprocal strontium values ranging from 0.08 to 4.15 and 87Sr/86Sr ratios ranging from 0.70811 to 0.70828. This array is composed of a brine end member with an average 87Sr/86Sr of 0.70822, strontium concentrations in excess of 12.5 milligrams per liter (mg/L), and chloride concentrations exceeding 8,000 mg/L mixing with uncontaminated water similar to that in USGS06-08 with 18.0 mg/L chloride, 0.24 mg/L strontium, and a 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.70811. The position of samples from the City of Poplar public-water supply wells within this array indicates that brine contamination has reached all three wells. Outliers from this array are EPU-4G (groundwater from the Cretaceous Judith River Formation), brine samples from disposal wells (Huber 5-D and EPU 1-D

  18. Accessible reactive surface area and abiotic redox reactivity of iron oxyhydroxides in acidic brines

    Strehlau, Jennifer H.; Toner, Brandy M.; Arnold, William A.; Penn, R. Lee

    2017-01-01

    The reactivity of iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticles in low pH and high ionic strength solutions was quantified to assess abiotic contributions to oxidation-reduction chemistry in acidic brine environments, such as mine groundwater seepage, lakes in Western Australia, and acid mine drainage settings, which are of global interest for their environmental impacts and unique geomicrobiology. Factors expected to influence accessible and reactive surface area, including Fe(II) adsorption and aggregate size, were measured as a function of pH and CaCl2 concentration and related to the kinetics of redox reactions in aqueous suspensions of synthetic goethite (α-FeOOH), akaganeite (β-FeOOH), and ferrihydrite (Fe10O14(OH)2) nanoparticles. Aqueous conditions and iron oxyhydroxides were chosen based on characterization of natural iron-rich mine microbial mats located in Soudan Underground Mine State Park, Minnesota, USA. Quinone species were used as redox sensors because they are well-defined probes and are present in natural organic matter. Fe(II) adsorption to the iron oxyhydroxide mineral surfaces from aqueous solution was measurable only at pH values above 4 and either decreased or was not affected by CaCl2 concentration. Concentrations at or above 0.020 M CaCl2 in acetate buffer (pH 4.5) induced particle aggregation. Assessment of Fe(II) adsorption and particle aggregation in acidic brine suggested that accessible reactive surface area may be limited in acidic brines. This was supported by observations of decreasing benzoquinone reduction rate by adsorbed Fe(II) at high CaCl2 concentration. In contrast, the hydroquinone oxidation rate increased at high CaCl2 concentrations, which may be due to suppressed adsorption of Fe(II) generated by the reaction. Results suggest that iron geochemical cycling in acidic brine environments will be substantially different than for iron oxyhydroxides in low-saline waters with circumneutral pH. These findings have implications for acidic

  19. Hydrogeochemical characterization and groundwater quality assessment in intruded coastal brine aquifers (Laizhou Bay, China).

    Zhang, Xiaoying; Miao, Jinjie; Hu, Bill X; Liu, Hongwei; Zhang, Hanxiong; Ma, Zhen

    2017-09-01

    The aquifer in the coastal area of the Laizhou Bay is affected by salinization processes related to intense groundwater exploitation for brine resource and for agriculture irrigation during the last three decades. As a result, the dynamic balances among freshwater, brine, and seawater have been disturbed and the quality of groundwater has deteriorated. To fully understand the groundwater chemical distribution and evolution in the regional aquifers, hydrogeochemical and isotopic studies have been conducted based on the water samples from 102 observation wells. Groundwater levels and salinities in four monitoring wells are as well measured to inspect the general groundwater flow and chemical patterns and seasonal variations. Chemical components such as Na + , K + , Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , Sr 2+ , Cl - , SO 4 2- , HCO 3 - , NO 3 - , F - , and TDS during the same period are analyzed to explore geochemical evolution, water-rock interactions, sources of salt, nitrate, and fluoride pollution in fresh, brackish, saline, and brine waters. The decreased water levels without typical seasonal variation in the southeast of the study area confirm an over-exploitation of groundwater. The hydrogeochemical characteristics indicate fresh-saline-brine-saline transition pattern from inland to coast where evaporation is a vital factor to control the chemical evolution. The cation exchange processes are occurred at fresh-saline interfaces of mixtures along the hydraulic gradient. Meanwhile, isotopic data indicate that the brine in aquifers was either originated from older meteoric water with mineral dissolution and evaporation or repeatedly evaporation of retained seawater with fresher water recharge and mixing in geological time. Groundwater suitability for drinking is further evaluated according to water quality standard of China. Results reveal high risks of nitrate and fluoride contamination. The elevated nitrate concentration of 560 mg/L, which as high as 28 times of the standard content

  20. NaCl islands decorated with 2D or 3D 3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride nanostructures

    Sun Xiaonan; Silly, Fabien

    2010-01-01

    The formation of PTCDA (3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride) nanostrutures on Au(1 1 1)-(22x√(3)) covered with NaCl islands has been studied using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Atomically resolved STM images show that NaCl grows as (1 0 0)-terminated layers on Au(1 1 1)-(22x√(3)). Local atomic hexagonal packing has also been observed in the NaCl(1 0 0) layer. At submonolayer NaCl coverage, PTCDA forms two-dimensional islands on the Au(1 1 1) surface and nucleate preferentially at the NaCl island step edges. When the Au surface is fully covered with NaCl layers, PTCDA molecules form three-dimensional molecular clusters decorating the step edges of NaCl layers.