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Sample records for fluoride varnish study

  1. Studies of fluoride varnishes in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppä, L

    1991-01-01

    Despite the artificial fluoridation of drinking water in Kuopio, part of the children have high caries incidence. We therefore started our studies on fluoride varnishes in 1977 in an attempt to find a feasible means of applying fluoride topically in children at high risk of caries. In our first trial, the sodium fluoride varnish Duraphat was found to be effective in preventing caries, but the effectiveness of the silane fluoride varnish Fluor Protector could not be unequivocally established, despite the fact that Fluor Protector deposited markedly more fluoride in enamel than Duraphat. In a second study in children in a low-fluoride area, use of Duraphat was found to be more effective than fortnightly fluoride rinses or Fluor Protector. Increasing the frequency of application from two to four times a year did not increase the effectiveness of Duraphat even in highly caries-prone children in a 2-year trial. On the basis of peak values of fluoride in parotid saliva after application, use of either fluoride varnishes was considered safe. Although the fluoride content of the enamel remained elevated for at least two years after discontinuation of treatment with both varnishes, the caries preventive effect did not continue after the applications were stopped. This shows that increasing the fluoride content of enamel is not the main mechanism by which fluoride varnishes prevent caries, and that the applications need to be continued as long as caries is a problem.

  2. Fluoride release from newly marketed fluoride varnishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonowski, Beth L; Bartoloni, Joseph A; Hensley, Donna M; Vandewalle, Kraig S

    2012-03-01

    New fluoride varnishes have been marketed that reportedly release more fluoride (Enamel Pro) or release fluoride more slowly (Vanish XT). The purpose of this study was to compare the amount and rate of fluoride release of new fluoride varnishes with other traditional fluoride varnishes. Extracted molars were cut into block sections. The enamel surfaces of the sections were painted with Enamel Pro, Duraphat, Vanish, or Vanish XT fluoride varnishes. One group was not treated and served as a negative control. The tooth sections were immersed in artificial saliva. The concentration of fluoride in parts per million was measured after the first 30 minutes, daily for the first week, and weekly until the level was below the limit of detection. Fluoride release was plotted over time. Cumulative fluoride release and rate of release (slope) were analyzed using one-way ANOVA/Tukey (α = .05). Enamel Pro had the greatest cumulative fluoride release. There was no significant difference between Duraphat and Vanish. Vanish XT had the lowest cumulative fluoride release. The rate of fluoride release from 1 week to limit of detection was Enamel Pro > Vanish > Duraphat > Vanish XT. The two newly marketed fluoride varnishes (Enamel Pro and Vanish XT) had significantly different fluoride release from the two conventional fluoride varnishes (Duraphat and Vanish).

  3. Comparative evaluation of chlorhexidine varnish and fluoride varnish on plaque Streptococcus mutans count--an in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjan, P G; Nagesh, L; Sajjanar, M; Reddy, S K K; Venktesh, U G

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the study was to assess and compare the effect of chlorhexidine varnish and fluoride varnish application on Streptococcus mutans counts in plaque of occlusal pits and fissures of permanent mandibular first molars. The study was an in vivo comparative study, conducted among 50 schoolchildren aged 7-8 years under a field setting. The 50 subjects were randomly allocated into two groups. Baseline plaque samples were collected from all the subjects followed by the application of two varnishes, Cervitec and Duraphat. The varnish was applied to pit and fissures of occlusal surface of mandibular first molar. The varnish application was carried out on the first day, fifth day and tenth day after baseline plaque sampling. Subsequent plaque samples were collected at the end of 1 month and at the end of 3 months after the varnish application. The Cervitec varnish has shown a statistically significant reduction at the end of 1 month and at the end of 3 months (P varnish did not show a statistically significant difference in reducing the plaque S. mutans count at the end of 1 month and third month (P > 0.05). Cervitec varnish was found to be effective in reducing S. mutans count for a 3-month period, when compared to Duraphat varnish. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Comparative Evaluation of Longevity of Fluoride Release From three Different Fluoride Varnishes – An Invitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshan, NM; Poornima, P; Nagaveni, NB; Neena, IE; Bharath, KP

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Fluoride varnishes play a pivotal role in inhibition of dental caries by increasing remineralization. Aim To determine the longevity of fluoride release from 3 different fluoride varnishes over a period of time through salivary fluoride estimation. Materials and Methods Twenty four extracted human deciduous anterior teeth were divided into four groups, i.e., ClinproTM XT, Flouritop SR, Flourprotector and Control group. Fluoride varnishes were applied on 3mm x 3mm window on labial surface of the teeth and then the teeth were immersed and stored in artificial saliva. The concentration of fluoride in ppm was measured after 1 week, 1 month, 3 months and 6 months. Fluoride release at each time interval for different groups was statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Post Hoc Tukey’s test. Results Although all the fluoride varnishes released fluoride, with greatest release observed during 1st week by Fluoritop SR (66.92±16.30ppm), ClinproTM XT Varnish released consistently and substantially more fluoride than Fluoritop SR and Fluorprotector during 6 months analysis (pVarnish released consistently and substantially more fluoride than other tested products. PMID:27656559

  5. Fluoride varnish or fluoride mouth rinse? A comparative study of two school-based programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, M K; Klausen, B J; Twetman, S

    2016-03-01

    In many Danish communities, school-based fluoride programs are offered to children with high caries risk in adjunct to tooth brushing. The purpose of this field trial was to compare the caries-preventive effectiveness of two different fluoride programs in 6-12 year olds. Clinical controlled trial. The 2-year study was conducted in Public Dental Clinics in a multicultural low-socioeconomic suburban area of Odense, Denmark with an elevated prevalence of caries compared to the city average. 1,018 children (aged 6-12 years) from 9 different schools were enrolled after informed consent and their class unit was randomly allocated to one of two fluoride programs. One group received a semi-annual fluoride varnish applications (FV) and the other group continued with an existing program with fluoride mouth rinses once per week (FMR). All children received oral hygiene instructions and comprehensive dental care at the local Public Dental Clinics throughout the study period. Increment of caries lesions in permanent teeth at both cavitated and initial caries levels. The groups were balanced at baseline. After two years, 961 children (94.4%) were reexamined. The FV group showed a mean DMFS increment of 0.36 compared to 0.41 in the FMR group. The corresponding values for initial caries lesions were 0.83 and 0.91 respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in caries development over two years among children participating in a school-based fluoride varnish or mouth rinse program.

  6. Fissure seal or fluoride varnish?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deery, Christopher

    2016-09-01

    Data sourcesCochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Medline, Embase, the US National Institutes of Health Trials Register and the World Health Organization (WHO) Clinical Trials Registry PlatformStudy selectionRandomised controlled trials (RCTs) with at least 12 months follow-up, in which fissure sealants, or fissure sealants together with fluoride varnishes, were compared with fluoride varnishes alone for preventing caries in occlusal surfaces of permanent teeth of children and adolescents.Data extraction and synthesisTwo reviewers independently screened search results, extracted data and assessed risk of bias of included studies. Studies were grouped and analysed on the basis of sealant material type (resin-based sealant and glass ionomer-based sealant, glass ionomer and resin-modified glass ionomer) and different follow-up periods. Odds ratio were calculated for caries or no caries on occlusal surfaces of permanent molar teeth. Mean differences were calculated for continuous outcomes and data. Evidence quality was assessed using GRADE (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) methods.ResultsEight RCTs involving a total of 1747 children aged five to ten years of age were included. Three trials compared resin-based fissure sealant versus fluoride varnish. Results from two studies (358 children) after two years were combined. Sealants prevented more caries, pooled odds ratio (OR) = 0.69 (95%CI; 0.50 to 0.94). One trial with follow-up at four and nine years found that the caries-preventive benefit for sealants was maintained, with 26% of sealed teeth and 55.8% of varnished teeth having developed caries at nine years. Evidence for glass-ionomer sealants was of low quality. One split-mouth trial analysing 92 children at two-year follow-up found a significant difference in favour of resin-based fissure sealant together with fluoride varnish compared with fluoride varnish only (OR

  7. Comparison of the Effect of Fluoride Varnish, Chlorhexidine Varnish and Casein Phosphopeptide- Amorphous Calcium Phosphate (CPP-ACP) Varnish on Salivary Streptococcus mutans Level: A Six Month Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Punit Manish; Hugar, Shivayogi M; Halikerimath, Seema; Badakar, Chandrashekhar M; Gokhale, Niraj S; Thakkar, Prachi J; Kohli, Divyata; Shah, Shreyas

    2017-08-01

    Dental caries is the most widespread disease which has a multi factorial origin. Streptococcus mutans is considered to be the chief pathogen in its development. Different varnishes are available which can be used for the prevention of the carious process. To compare the effect of fluoride varnish, chlorhexidine varnish and fluoride varnish containing Casein Phosphopeptide - Amorphous Calcium Phosphate (CPP-ACP) on salivary Streptococcusmutans count in children with mixed dentition over a period of six months. Seventy two children of age 6-12 years with mixed dentition were selected fulfilling inclusion and exclusion criteria and divided into three groups: Group I- Fluoride varnish group; Group II- Chlorhexidine varnish group; Group III- MI varnish (fluoride varnish containing CPP-ACP) group. After thorough oral prophylaxis and restorative treatment the varnishes were applied to the teeth once a week for four consecutive weeks in the respective groups. Salivary Streptococcus mutans count (CFU/ml of saliva) was estimated at baseline, 1 month, 3 months and 6 months after varnish application. Bonferroni post-hoc test and paired t-test for inter group and intra group comparison was used in the study. A statistically significant reduction in salivary S. mutans colony count was seen with all three groups at all the different time intervals. Maximum reduction was noted in chlorhexidine varnish group at all the intervals after varnish application. Prevention of dental caries plays a vital role in paediatric dental practice. The use of dental varnish has proved to be effective in reducing the dental caries. Chlorhexidine varnish was found to show maximum reduction in salivary S. mutans count for six month period, when compared to MI varnish and fluoride varnish. Thus, chlorhexidine varnish can be used as potent caries inhibiting agent and promote good oral health.

  8. Effect of Fluoride Varnish Combined with Er:YAG Laser on the Permeability of Eroded Dentin: An In Situ Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemezio, Mariana Alencar; Carvalho, Sandra Chiga; Scatolin, Renata Siqueira; Colucci, Vivian; Galo, Rodrigo; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the combined effect of fluoride varnish and Er:YAG laser on the permeability of eroded bovine root dentin. After initial erosive challenge followed by a remineralization period, the specimens were divided in two groups according to the treatment - fluoride varnish and non-fluoride varnish - and were subdivided according to the irradiation protocol: Er:YAG laser (100 mJ, 3 Hz, 12.8 J/cm2per pulse, non-contact and defocus mode) and non-irradiated. After a lead-in period, 7 volunteers wore a palatal device containing 4 specimens that were subjected to erosive challenges. At the first experimental phase, 4 volunteers used specimens treated with fluoride varnish and fluoride varnish+Er:YAG laser and 3 volunteers used specimens treated with non-fluoride varnish and non-fluoride varnish+Er:YAG laser. After a washout period, volunteers were crossed to treatments, characterizing a 2x2 crossover experiment. At the end of the experimental phase, the quantitative response variable was obtained by permeability analysis and the qualitative response by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Two-way ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer's test revealed that specimens treated with fluoride varnish+Er:YAG laser showed the lowest permeability and a significant difference was found between this group and the others. When varnish (fluoride/non-fluoride) was applied in the absence of Er:YAG laser, higher permeability was found when compared to the laser-treated groups. SEM evaluations showed partially or completely obliterated dentinal tubules when specimens were treated with fluoride varnish+Er:YAG laser. It may be concluded that Er:YAG laser was able to control the permeability of eroded root dentin and the combination with fluoride varnish increased laser action.

  9. Fluoride varnishes and enamel caries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruyn, Hugo de

    1987-01-01

    Topical fluoride applications have the aim of increasing the fluoride uptake in enamel and consequently reducing caries. In the early ‘60s fluoride varnishes were introduced because they had a long contact period with the enamel which resulted in a higher fluoride uptake than from other topical appl

  10. Fluoride varnishes and enamel caries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruyn, Hugo de

    1987-01-01

    Topical fluoride applications have the aim of increasing the fluoride uptake in enamel and consequently reducing caries. In the early ‘60s fluoride varnishes were introduced because they had a long contact period with the enamel which resulted in a higher fluoride uptake than from other topical

  11. Fluoride varnish as root canal sealer: a scanning electron microscopy and bacterial penetration study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parirokh, Masoud; Talebizad, Mohammad; Forghani, Farshid Reza; Haghdoost, Ali Akabar; Asgary, Saeed; Eghbal, Mohammad Jafar; Goddousi, Jamileh

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the bacterial leakage of root canal fillings when cavity varnish containing 5% fluoride (Duraflur) was used as root canal sealer. Root canals of 88 straight single-rooted teeth were prepared. Eighty teeth were randomly divided into 3 experimental groups (n=20) and two positive and negative control groups of ten each. The roots in group I and II were obturated with gutta-percha and AH-26 sealer using lateral condensation technique. The root canal walls in group II were coated with a layer of varnish before obturation. In group III the canals were obturated with gutta-percha and fluoride varnish as the sealer. Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) was used to determine the bacterial leakage during 90 days. The Kaplan Meier survival analysis was used for assessing the leakage and log rank test was used for pairwise comparison. The rest of eight single rooted teeth were selected for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) evaluation with 5000× magnification. Leakage occurred between 20 to 89 days. Group III showed significantly less bacterial penetration than groups I and II (P=0.001 and P=0.011, respectively). However, there was no significant difference between group I and II (P>0.05). SEM evaluation showed that the varnish had covered all dentinal tubules. The present study showed promising results for the use of fluoride varnish as root canal sealer but further in vitro and in vivo studies are needed.

  12. Effect of Fluoride Varnish Combined with Er:YAG Laser on the Permeability of Eroded Dentin: An In Situ Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nemezio,Mariana Alencar; Carvalho,Sandra Chiga; Scatolin, Renata Siqueira; Colucci,Vivian; Galo, Rodrigo; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the combined effect of fluoride varnish and Er:YAG laser on the permeability of eroded bovine root dentin. After initial erosive challenge followed by a remineralization period, the specimens were divided in two groups according to the treatment - fluoride varnish and non-fluoride varnish - and were subdivided according to the irradiation protocol: Er:YAG laser (100 mJ, 3 Hz, 12.8 J/cm2per pulse, non-contact and defocus mode) and non-irradiated. After a lead-in period, 7 ...

  13. Inhibition of erosive wear by fluoride varnish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vieira, A.; Jager, D. H. J.; Ruben, J. L.; Huysmans, M. C. D. N. J. M.

    2007-01-01

    It has been suggested that fluoride products with a protective mechanical component are advantageous in the prevention of erosive wear. The aim of this study was to evaluate in situ the effect of fluoride varnish (FV) in the prevention of wear due to erosion and combined erosion and toothbrush abras

  14. Inhibition of erosive wear by fluoride varnish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vieira, A.; Jager, D. H. J.; Ruben, J. L.; Huysmans, M. C. D. N. J. M.

    2007-01-01

    It has been suggested that fluoride products with a protective mechanical component are advantageous in the prevention of erosive wear. The aim of this study was to evaluate in situ the effect of fluoride varnish (FV) in the prevention of wear due to erosion and combined erosion and toothbrush

  15. In situ study of the anticariogenic potential of fluoride varnish combined with CO2 laser on enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza-Gabriel, Aline Evangelista; Turssi, Cecília Pedroso; Colucci, Vivian; Tenuta, Lívia Maria Andaló; Serra, Mônica Campos; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori

    2015-06-01

    This in situ study evaluated the effect of fluoride varnish combined with CO2 laser in controlling enamel demineralization caused by cariogenic challenges. In a crossover study conducted in 2 phases of 14 days each, 14 volunteers (n = 14) wore palatal appliances with bovine enamel slabs treated with fluoride varnish + CO2 laser (FV + CO2), fluoride varnish (FV), nonfluoride placebo varnish (PV) and nonfluoride placebo varnish + CO2 laser (PV + CO2). Drops of sucrose solution were dripped onto enamel slabs allowing the accumulation of biofilm. At the first phase, half of the volunteers received 4 enamel slabs treated with FV while the remainders received slabs exposed to the PV with and without CO2 laser. In the second phase, the vonlunteers were reversed treatments. The slabs were evaluated for cross-sectional microhardness (CSMH) and the concentration of loosely bound fluoride (CaF2) and firmly bound fluoride (FAp). The concentration of fluoride in biofilm were also determined. Two-way ANOVA showed that the CSMH values were higher in laser-irradiated enamel, regardless of the fluoride varnish. Friedman test showed that FV group presented significantly larger amount of fluoride in biofilm (P fluoride was found in the groups FV + CO2, which was not different from FV (P > 0.05). The synergistic effect of fluoride varnish and CO2 laser on enamel demineralization was not observed, however, CO2 laser reduces enamel demineralization. CO2 laser might reduce the demineralization of subsurface enamel, although its association with a high concentrated fluoride therapy may not result in a positive synergistic interaction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fluoride varnish or fluoride mouth rinse?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, M K; Klausen, B J; Twetman, S

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In many Danish communities, school-based fluoride programs are offered to children with high caries risk in adjunct to tooth brushing. The purpose of this field trial was to compare the caries-preventive effectiveness of two different fluoride programs in 6-12 year olds. BASIC RESEARCH...... different schools were enrolled after informed consent and their class unit was randomly allocated to one of two fluoride programs. INTERVENTIONS: One group received a semi-annual fluoride varnish applications (FV) and the other group continued with an existing program with fluoride mouth rinses once per...... in caries development over two years among children participating in a school-based fluoride varnish or mouth rinse program....

  17. Pit and fissure sealants or fluoride varnishes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglia, L

    2016-09-01

    Despite the general advances in dental care, dental caries is still a global health problem affecting many children. Occlusal surfaces of first permanent molars are the most susceptible sites in the developing permanent dentition. Dentists should use sealants or fluoride varnish - as well as other means - to limit the onset of tooth decay. Application of sealants is a recommended procedure to prevent or control caries. Sealing occlusal surfaces of newly erupted permanent molars in children and teenagers delays caries onset up to 48 months compared with unsealed teeth. However longer follow-ups shows a reduction of the preventive effect [Tikhonova et al., 2015]. A review of 2013 pointed out how sealants are effective in high risk children, however information about the benefits of sealing in other conditions is still scant [Ahovuo-Saloranta et al., 2013]. Fluoride varnishes are frequently used to prevent early childhood caries and reduce caries increment in very young children [Weintraub et al., 2006] and in the most vulnerable populations, where the prevalence of caries is higher and specialist visits are occasional [Chu et al., 2010]. Many studies have reported the effectiveness of different types and forms of fluoride agents in preventing dental caries among children and adolescents [Divaris et al., 2013]. A review clarifies that professional application of a 5% sodium fluoride varnish leads to remineralisation of early enamel caries in children. Solutions of 38% silver diamine fluoride are effective in arresting active dentine caries [Gao et al., 2016]. The last systematic review [Ahovuo-Saloranta et al., 2016], comparing pit and fissure sealants with fluoride varnishes explains that the pooled estimate slightly favours resin sealants over fluoride varnishes at two years. At four and nine years, the only comparative study (with high drop-out rates) found more caries on fluoride-varnished occlusal surfaces than on resin-sealed surfaces. There is evidence

  18. Effect of a chlorhexidine/thymol and a fluoride varnish on caries development in erupting permanent molars: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamee, S; Gizani, S; Caroni, C; Papagiannoulis, L; Twetman, S

    2015-12-01

    To compare the caries preventive effect of a chlorhexidine/thymol-containing antibacterial varnish with a fluoride varnish when topically applied during the eruption of permanent molars. The study group consisted of 189 patients, 5-14 years of age, with one 1st or 2nd permanent molar in the process of eruption. After stratification for type of molar and stage of eruption, the patients were randomised to either quarterly topical applications with an antibacterial varnish (Cervitec(®) Plus; CV group) or biannual applications with a fluoride varnish plus biannual treatments with placebo varnish (Fluor Protector; FV group). The duration of the study was 2 years. The primary endpoint was caries incidence (initial and cavitated) in the erupting molars and the secondary outcome was salivary mutans streptococci (MS) counts. The groups were balanced with respect to socio-economy, oral hygiene, dietary habits and caries experience at baseline. The dropout rate was 11.6 %. The caries incidence was low (varnish or a fluoride varnish during tooth eruption.

  19. Efficacy of silver diamine fluoride as an antibacterial as well as antiplaque agent compared to fluoride varnish and acidulated phosphate fluoride gel: An in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalin Shah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Silver diamine fluoride (SDF is already proven as an antibacterial agent in vitro. Present study was formulated to compare the efficacy of SDF as an antibacterial as well as antiplaque agent in vivo with fluoride varnish and acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF gel. Study Design: Total 123 children (male = 82, female = 41 were included in the study for a period of 18 months. Children were divided into three different groups-Group 1: SDF; Group 2: fluoride varnish; and Group 3: APF gel. All subjects were evaluated via plaque score at 6 th , 12 th , and 18 th months as well as Streptococcus mutans counts in saliva at 72 h, 6 th , 12 th , and 18 th months of follow-up. Results: Significant reduction was found in plaque score as well as S. mutans counts irrespective of group division. On intergroup comparison, no statistically significant difference was found in plaque score, but significant reduction in S. mutans counts was found in Group 1 as compared with Groups 2 and 3, while no significant difference was found between Groups 2 and 3. Conclusion: In vivo application of SDF on enamel significantly decreases S. mutans counts as compared to fluoride varnish and APF gel.

  20. Fluoride Varnishes--Is There a Correlation Between Fluoride Release and Deposition on Enamel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolis, Carlo; Härtli, Gian Peider; Lendenmann, Urs

    2015-01-01

    Fluoride uptake of enamel after application of fluoride varnishes was compared with fluoride release into artificial saliva. The hypothesis was that fluoride uptake is higher for products exhibiting faster fluoride release. Fluoride varnishes, i.e. Fluor Protector S, Duraphat, MI Varnish, Clinpro White Varnish, Profluorid Varnish and Enamel Pro Varnish were applied on bovine enamel specimens. Subsequently, specimens were incubated in artificial saliva. After removal of the varnishes, surface bound fluoride was extracted with potassium hydroxide and measured with an ion-selective electrode. Structurally bound fluoride was etched from the same specimens with perchloric acid. Fluoride release of varnish films into artificial saliva was measured for comparison. After 4 h in artificial saliva, the highest total enamel fluoride uptake of 47.9 μg F·cm-² was found with Fluor Protector S, followed by Enamel Pro Varnish with 22.1 μg F·cm-². The other products ranged between 12-16 μg F·cm-². This was several times higher than the negative control. Fluoride uptake did not correlate with release into artificial saliva. During the first 4 h, Duraphat released the lowest and MI Varnish the highest amount of fluoride with 7.7 and 249 μg F·cm-², respectively. The fluoride uptake of these two products was not statistically different. Enamel fluoride uptake cannot be predicted from the fluoride release rate of a product. Hence, based on the results of this study, fluoride release into artificial saliva is no measure for the efficacy of a fluoride varnish.

  1. Uses of sodium fluoride varnish in dental practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, C H; Lo, Edward

    2008-06-01

    Fluoride varnish is developed to prolong the contact time between fluoride and tooth surface, so that the tooth becomes more resistant to caries attack. The active ingredient of fluoride varnish is usually 5% sodium fluoride, (22,600 ppm fluoride). Studies have found that fairly insoluble globules of calcium fluoride-like material formed on the tooth surface after topical fluoride application. These globules act as a reservoir of fluoride in the mouth for a prolonged period of time. Systematic reviews corroborate evidence for the efficacy of fluoride varnish in the prevention of dental caries. Sodium fluoride varnish is used to prevent caries development, arrest early enamel and even soft dentine caries through promotion of remineralization of carious tooth substance. It is also used to treat tooth hypersensitivity. Some use it as a provisional luting agent by itself or combined with other provisional luting agents for cementing provisional crowns. Fluoride varnish has recently gained much attention in dentistry because it is quick and easy to apply. It sets rapidly on teeth, and gagging and swallowing is unusual. Side-effects or complications of its use are rare. Studies show that fluoride varnish is safe for young children and the risk of dental fluorosis is minimal. The simplicity of its application makes it very suitable and practical for use in dental clinics and outreach dental services, especially in young children and in other special needs groups.

  2. Fluoride release from fluoride varnishes under acidic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippert, F

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the in vitro fluoride release from fluoride varnishes under acidic conditions. Poly(methyl methacrylate) blocks (Perspex, n=3 per group) were painted with 80 ± 5 mg fluoride varnish (n=10) and placed into artificial saliva for 30 min. Then, blocks were placed into either 1% citric acid (pH 2.27) or 0.3% citric acid (pH 3.75) solutions (n=3 per solution and varnish) for 30 min with the solutions being replaced every 5 min. Saliva and acid solutions were analyzed for fluoride content. Data were analyzed using three-way ANOVA (varnish, solution, time). The three-way interaction was significant (p>0.0001). Fluoride release and release patterns varied considerably between varnishes. Fluoride release in saliva varied by a factor of more than 10 between varnishes. Some varnishes (CavityShield, Nupro, ProFluorid, Vanish) showed higher fluoride release in saliva than during the first 5 min of acid exposure, whereas other varnishes (Acclean, Enamel-Pro, MI Varnish, Vella) showed the opposite behavior. There was little difference between acidic solutions. Fluoride release from fluoride varnishes varies considerably and also depends on the dissolution medium. Bearing in mind the limitations of laboratory research, the consumption of acidic drinks after fluoride varnish application should be avoided to optimize the benefit/risk ratio.

  3. Protective effect of fluoride varnish and fluoride gel on enamel erosion: roughness, SEM-EDS, and µ-EDXRF studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Luís Eduardo Silva; De Carvalho Filho, Antonio Carlos Belfort

    2015-03-01

    The effects of fluoride treatment on bovine enamel subjected to acid erosion were studied by roughness (Ra) measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and microenergy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (μ-EDXRF). Enamel samples (63) were divided into nine groups (n = 7): artificial saliva (AS), Pepsi Twist(®) (PT), orange juice (OJ), Duraphat(®)  + Pepsi Twist(®) (DPH/PT), Duraphat(®)  + orange juice (DPH/OJ), Duofluorid(®)  + Pepsi Twist(®) (DUO/PT), Duofluorid(®)  + orange juice (DUO/OJ), fluoride gel + Pepsi Twist(®) (FG/PT), and fluoride gel + orange juice (FG/OJ). Fluoride was applied and the samples were submitted to six cycles (demineralization: Pepsi Twist(®) or orange juice, 10 min; remineralization: saliva, 1 h). The enamel surface in depth was exposed and 63 line-scan maps were performed. The elemental analysis by EDS revealed that only fluoride treated groups had any detectable fluorine after erosion cycles (DPH/PT: 3.50 wt%; DPH/OJ: 3.37 wt%; DUO/PT: 2.69 wt%; DUO/OJ: 3.54 wt%; FG/PT: 2.17 wt%; FG/OJ: 2.77 wt%). PT treatment resulted in significantly higher Ra values than the artificial saliva (P fluoride protected enamel showed areas with some globular structures or a residual layer of varnish. The enamel thickness was significantly lower in PT (0.63 ± 0.087 mm) than in DPH/PT (0.87 ± 0.16 mm) and DUO/PT (0.92 ± 0.14 mm) groups (P Fluoride treatments protected enamel without Ra increase and loss of enamel tissue. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Effect of different concentrations of fluoride varnish on enamel surface microhardness: An in vitro randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Subramaniam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dental caries occurs as a result of demineralization-remineralization phases occurring alternately at the tooth surface. Fluoride varnishes have a caries-inhibiting effect on teeth through remineralization. The resulting enamel is resistant to acid dissolution. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess enamel surface microhardness (SMH following varnish application with different fluoride concentrations. Materials and Methods: Ninety freshly extracted, caries-free premolar teeth were used. Teeth were sectioned to obtain enamel blocks from the buccal surface of crown. The blocks were serially polished and flattened, embedded in acrylic blocks and smoothened to achieve a flat surface. The samples were divided into three groups, namely, A, B, and C consisting of 30 enamel blocks each. In Group A, Fluor Protector® varnish and in Group B, Bi-Fluorid 10® varnish was applied. Group C served as controls. All samples were subjected to a demineralization-remineralization cycle for 7 days. The SMH of enamel was measured. Data obtained was subjected to statistical analysis using the Student's t-test and one-way ANOVA. Results: The mean values of enamel SMH of Groups A and B were 496.99 ± 4.81 and 449.47 ± 7.37 Vickers Hardness Number, respectively. Conclusion: Fluor Protector varnish showed significantly higher enamel SMH than that of the other two groups (P < 0.05.

  5. The experience of medical clinicians implementing fluoride varnish in Connecticut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Amy M; Douglass, Joanna M

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the success and barriers encountered by Connecticut medical clinicians providing and billing for infant oral health screenings and fluoride varnish. Clinicians trained and registered in providing oral health services were surveyed about practice demographics, training effectiveness, and implementation barriers. Fifty-seven of 156 surveys (37 percent) were returned and analyzed. Most respondents were female (61 percent), worked at least 10 years (74 percent), and had at least 25 percent of their patients on Medicaid (79 percent). Respondents varied in how prepared they felt to offer services (Pfluoride varnish and billing services, respectively. Only 30 percent of respondents provided fluoride varnish. Clinicians were more likely to provide fluoride varnish and bill for the services if they felt well prepared after the training (Pfluoride varnish and bill for oral health services, despite feeling prepared to provide them. Additional support is required to help medical clinicians provide oral health services more consistently.

  6. Effect of fluoridated varnish and silver diamine fluoride solution on enamel demineralization: pH-cycling study

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Carlos Botazzo Delbem; Maurício Bergamaschi; Kikue Takebayashi Sassaki; Robson Frederico Cunha

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In the present investigation, the anticariogenic effect of fluoride released by two products commonly applied in infants was evaluated. METHODS: Bovine sound enamel blocks were randomly allocated to each one of the treatment groups: control (C), varnish (V) and diamine silver fluoride solution (D). The blocks were submitted to pH cycles in an oven at 37ºC. Next, surface and cross-sectional microhardness were assessed to calculate the percentage loss of surface microhardness (%SML) ...

  7. Method for the analysis of total fluoride in fluoride-releasing dental varnishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, C M; Coleman, S S

    2014-01-01

    Today's fluoride-releasing varnishes (F-varnish) contain a wide variety of ingredients which present analytical challenges for measuring their total fluoride content. This study reports improved methods to measure fluoride content in F-varnishes. Six different commercially available F-varnishes that contain difluorosilane (0.1% F) or NaF (2.26% F) alone or in combination with calcium-phosphates were analyzed. In a vial, 1-3 drops (0.05-0.15 g) of varnish product was dispensed, dissolved in chloroform, equilibrated in TISAB and analyzed via fluoride ion-selective electrode. The average weight percentage of fluoride for all F-varnishes containing NaF ranged from 2.03 to 2.24% F, which is within 90% of the declared label concentration of 2.26% F. Analysis of the difluorosilane-containing product required an additional hydrolysis step. ANOVA found no significant difference between the 5% NaF varnishes at p fluoride analysis yields reliable and reproducible results and can be used for a wide variety of F-varnishes. The standard uncertainty for this method is ±4%. This method may become the basis for national and international standards that ensure the F-varnish products used in clinical practice have the fluoride content declared in the product literature. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Method for the Analysis of Total Fluoride in Fluoride-Releasing Dental Varnishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, C.M.; Coleman, S.S.

    2016-01-01

    Today’s fluoride-releasing varnishes (F-varnish) contain a wide variety of ingredients which present analytical challenges for measuring their total fluoride content. This study reports improved methods to measure fluoride content in F-varnishes. Six different commercially available F-varnishes that contain difluorosilane (0.1% F) or NaF (2.26% F) alone or in combination with calcium-phosphates were analyzed. In a vial, 1–3 drops (0.05–0.15 g) of varnish product was dispensed, dissolved in chloroform, equilibrated in TISAB and analyzed via fluoride ion-selective electrode. The average weight percentage of fluoride for all F-varnishes containing NaF ranged from 2.03 to 2.24% F, which is within 90% of the declared label concentration of 2.26% F. Analysis of the difluorosilane-containing product required an additional hydrolysis step. ANOVA found no significant difference between the 5% NaF varnishes at p fluoride analysis yields reliable and reproducible results and can be used for a wide variety of F-varnishes. The standard uncertainty for this method is ±4%. This method may become the basis for national and international standards that ensure the F-varnish products used in clinical practice have the fluoride content declared in the product literature. PMID:24557443

  9. Oral microflora in preschool children attending a fluoride varnish program: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Maria; Grindefjord, Margaret; Dahllöf, Göran; Dahlén, Gunnar; Twetman, Svante

    2016-12-08

    To compare the oral microflora in preschool children attending a fluoride varnish program with a reference group receiving a standard oral health program without fluoride varnish applications. A second aim was to relate the microbial composition to the caries prevalence. Five hundred seven 3-year-old children were enrolled from a cohort of 3403 preschool children taking part in a community based oral health project. Two hundred sixty-three of them had attended caries-preventive program with semi-annual applications of a fluoride varnish since the age of 1 year (test group) while 237 had received standard preventive care (reference group). Oral samples were collected with a sterile swab and analysed with checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization using 12 pre-determined bacterial probes. Caries and background data were collected from clinical examinations and questionnaires. Gram-positive streptococci (S. intermedius, S. salivarius, S. oralis) were most frequently detected and displayed the highest counts in both groups. There were no significant differences between the groups concerning prevalence of any of the selected bacterial strains except for S. oralis that occurred less frequently in the reference group. In children with caries, V. parvula were significantly more common (p fluoride varnish applications did not seem to significantly influence the oral microflora in preschool children. www.controlled-trials.com (ISRCTN35086887) 20131216 'retrospectively registered'.

  10. Effect of fluoridated varnish and silver diamine fluoride solution on enamel demineralization: pH-cycling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbem, Alberto Carlos Botazzo; Bergamaschi, Maurício; Sassaki, Kikue Takebayashi; Cunha, Robson Frederico

    2006-04-01

    In the present investigation, the anticariogenic effect of fluoride released by two products commonly applied in infants was evaluated. Bovine sound enamel blocks were randomly allocated to each one of the treatment groups: control (C), varnish (V) and diamine silver fluoride solution (D). The blocks were submitted to pH cycles in an oven at 37 degrees C. Next, surface and cross-sectional microhardness were assessed to calculate the percentage loss of surface microhardness (%SML) and the mineral loss (deltaZ). The fluoride present in enamel was also determined. F/Px10(-3) (ANOVA, pfluoride released by varnish showed greater interaction with sound enamel and provided less mineral loss when compared with silver diamine solution.

  11. Ion release from calcium and fluoride containing dental varnishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, N J; Shen, P; Yuan, Y; Reynolds, E C

    2014-03-01

    A range of dental varnishes have been commercialized recently that contain calcium and inorganic phosphate in addition to fluoride. The aim of this study was to analyse the fluoride, calcium and inorganic phosphate ion release from: (1) MI Varnish containing casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP); (2) Clinpro White containing functionalized tricalcium phosphate (fTCP); (3) Enamel Pro containing amorphous calcium phosphate; (4) Bifluorid 5 containing calcium fluoride; and (5) Duraphat (no added calcium control). The varnishes were applied to a standardized surface area of polyvinyl chloride (n = 7 per group) and immersed in 25 g of distilled deionized water which was changed at 1, 4, 24, 72 and 168 hours. The ion release was determined by ion chromatography and expressed as μmol (cumulative) per gram of varnish. All varnishes released measurable fluoride and calcium, however only MI Varnish and Enamel Pro released significant levels of inorganic phosphate. At 24 hours the order of cumulative fluoride release was: 1>3>4>2=5 with 1 significantly higher (p 4>3>2=5 with 1 significantly higher (p fluoride ions. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.

  12. Effect of fluoride varnish on Streptococcus mutans counts in plaque of caries-free children using Dentocult SM strip mutans test: a randomized controlled triple blind study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jeevarathan, J; Deepti, A; Muthu, M S; Rathna Prabhu, V; Chamundeeswari, G S

    2007-01-01

    .... The aim of this study was to estimate the counts of Streptococcus mutans and to evaluate the effect of Fluor Protector fluoride varnish on these counts in the plaque of caries-free children using...

  13. Results of the Sherbrooke-Lac Mégantic fluoride varnish study after 20 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D C; Stamm, J W; Quee, T C; Robert, G

    1985-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of two fluoride varnishes (Duraphat and Fluor Protector) in the prevention of dental caries in children residing in a non-fluoridated community. At baseline, 787 grade one children (6-7-yr old) were examined and randomly allocated into a control and two treatment groups. At 20 months, 703 children remained in the study. The mean baseline caries experience and the mean number of permanent teeth present at 20 months were not significantly different among the treatment and control groups. The mean DMFS increments after 20 months were 1.70, 1.73 and 2.02 for Fluor-Protector, Duraphat and control groups respectively (% reductions of 15.8 and 14.4 for Fluor-Protector and Duraphat groups). The mean dfs increments for primary molars after 20 months were 1.56, 1.62 and 1.74 for Fluor-Protector, Duraphat and control groups respectively (% reductions of 10 for Fluor-Protector and 7 for Duraphat).

  14. CPP-ACP and CPP-ACFP versus fluoride varnish in remineralisation of early caries lesions. A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llena, C; Leyda, A M; Forner, L

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the effects of novel casein phosphopeptide (CPP) formulations CPP-amorphous calcium phosphate (CCP- ACP) and CPP-amorphous calcium fluoride phosphate (CPP-ACFP) versus fluoride varnish on the remineralisation of enamel white spot lesions (WSLs) over a 12-week follow-up period. Double-blind prospective study. Eligibility criteria were patients between 6 and 14 years old and have WSLs on their permanent teeth. We evaluated 786 WSLs. Participants were divided randomly into three groups. Groups A and B were instructed to daily topical application of GC Tooth Mouse (CPP-ACP) or Mi Paste Plus (CPP-ACFP), Group C received a monthly professional application of Duraphat fluoride varnish. WSLs were categorised according to the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS II; grades 0-3) and assessed by laser fluorescence (DIAGNOdent) at baseline and at 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Changes in mineralisation before and after treatment were analysed using two-way analysis of variance, with post hoc Bonferroni's non-parametric tests for multiple comparisons. DIAGNOdent values were significantly reduced in Group B at 4 weeks, and in Groups A and C at 8 weeks. Mean values in Group B were lower than in Groups A and C at 4 weeks, and lower than Group C at 8 weeks. CPP-ACFP appeared to have a specific effect on smooth-surface caries, but no significant effect on caries in pits and fissures. At 4 weeks, CPP-ACFP is superior to fluoride varnish at remineralising smooth-surface WSLs. CPP-ACP is not superior to fluoride varnish by any of the measures studied.

  15. Renal fluoride excretion in children following topical application of fluoride varnish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hoyos, F; Barbería, E; García-Camba, P; Varela, M

    2012-12-01

    To demonstrate that the application of dental fluoride varnishes in children increases urinary fluoride excretion. From a randomly assembled group of 42 children aged between 5 and 8 years, residing in a community with non-fluoridated water, spot urinary samples were taken before the topical application of dental fluoride varnish and 2 hours afterwards. In an age-matched control group of 16 children from the same community, who received no treatment, samples were taken the same way. The urinary excretion of fluoride was analysed by determining fluoride ion (F-) level and fluoride/creatinine (F/Cr) ratio in the urine. In the study group, the average pre- and post-treatment F/Cr ratios were 0.42 and 1.38 mg/g, respectively (p fluoride varnish leads to a significant increase in urine F-, which is attributable to the application of the product.

  16. Efficacy of fluoride varnish for prevention of white spot lesions during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances: A systematic review study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshad Rahimi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: White spot lesions (WSLs are a problem commonly found in patients who use orthodontic devices. Fluoride varnish can reduce WSLs during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the efficacy of fluoride varnish compared with other agents for preventing WSLs during orthodontic treatment. Methods: Studies were searched from four databases- PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Cochrane Library- from January 1980 to May 2017; only studies with English abstracts were included. Results: Out of 432 studies searched from the databases, 33 studies were evaluated for eligibility. Of the 33 studies, 19 were excluded with reasons and 14 studies were included in the systematic review. Parameters of WSLs (decalcification score, prevalence, incidence, progression score, ΔQ and ΔZ and DiagnoDent (DD pen score were compared for the various treatments. Conclusions: Although there were some limitations for this systematic review study, the review showed that fluoride varnish combined with chlorhexidine (CHX may be a good treatment for WSLs after orthodontic treatment, especially for a 6-month period, and that resin infiltration might also be effective for preventing WSLs. More studies are needed to further investigate these observations.

  17. Treatment effect of ozone and fluoride varnish application on occlusal caries in primary molars: a 12-month study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, E; van Dijken, J W V; Karlsson, L; Andersson-Wenckert, I

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of ozone and fluoride varnish on occlusal caries in primary molars in a split-mouth study. Caries risk was estimated by treating Public Dental Health Service dentists. Children with occlusal caries with Ekstrand index scores ≤3 (VI ≤3) were included. Selection of caries lesions was discontinued for ethical reasons due to non-acceptable clinical results during the follow-up. In the continued evaluation pairs of teeth with non-cavitated caries lesions, Ekstrand score ≤2a (VI ≤2) were selected. Fifty pairs of carious primary molars were included, 18 boys and 15 girls (mean 4.7 years, range 3-8). At baseline, the lesions were assessed by visual inspection (VI) and laser-induced fluorescence (LF), in each pair to treatment with 40 s ozone (HealOzone(TM), 2,100 ppm) or fluoride varnish Duraphat®. The treatments and evaluations were repeated at 3, 6 9 months and evaluations only at 12 months. Medium-high caries risk was observed in VI ≤3 children and low-medium risk in VI ≤2a children. In the 15 pairs VI ≤3 lesions, 8 treated with ozone and 9 with fluoride progressed to failure. In the 35 pairs VI ≤2a lesions, one lesion failed. Median baseline LF values in the VI ≤3 group were 76 and 69, for ozone and fluoride lesions, respectively, and 21 and 19 in the VI ≤2a group. At 12 months, LF values in the VI ≤2a group were 15 and 18. No improvement or difference in LF values was found over time between the caries lesions treated with ozone or fluoride. Neither ozone nor fluoride varnish treatments stopped the progression of caries in cavitated lesions. In low and medium caries risk children, non-cavitated lesions following both treatments showed slight or no progression. The use of ozone or fluoride varnish treatments in this regime as caries preventive method, added to the daily use of fluoridated toothpaste, to arrest caries progression in primary molars must therefore be questioned.

  18. Fluoride concentration in plaque in adolescents after topical application of different fluoride varnishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sköld-Larsson, K; Modéer, T; Twetman, S

    2000-03-01

    The aim of the study was to measure the fluoride (F) concentration in plaque after a single topical application of different fluoride varnishes with contrasting levels of F. Thirty adolescents (12-17 years) with fixed orthodontic appliances were randomly assigned to one of three groups: Bifluoride (6% F), Duraphat (2.23% F) and Fluor Protector (0.1% F). The varnishes were applied after professional cleaning in one upper quadrant, leaving the opposite quadrant untreated according to the split-mouth technique. Pooled plaque samples from each quadrant were collected at baseline and 3 days, 7 days and 30 days after the varnish treatment, and fluoride was analysed by microdiffusion. All fluoride varnishes increased the fluoride concentration in plaque compared with baseline, and the mean values varied between 23 and 138 ng F/mg after 3 days, depending on varnish F concentration. Compared with the control quadrant, statistically significant elevations were recorded for Bifluoride after 3 days and 7 days and Duraphat after 3 days, while no significant differences were revealed in the Fluor Protector group. The fluoride concentration in plaque was back to baseline levels for all participants in the Duraphat group after 7 days, while some individuals in the Bifluoride and Fluor Protector groups still registered slightly increased levels after 30 days. The results suggest that fluoride varnish treatments resulted in elevated fluoride levels in plaque adjacent to fixed orthodontic appliances for a period of up to 1 week, although different patterns was disclosed for the various brands.

  19. Fluoride Varnish Application in the Primary Care Setting. A Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolnick, S J; Jackson, J M; DeFor, T A; Flottemesch, T J

    2015-01-01

    The study objectives were twofold: 1. To examine how an intervention to apply fluoride varnish (FV) in a primary health setting to all young, low-income children was implemented and sustained and 2. To assess the feasibility of tracking medical care utilization in this population. The study included children age 1-5, insured through a government program, seen (7/1/2010-4/30/2012). Data on age, race, sex, clinic encounter, eligibility for and receipt of FV was obtained. The level of data in primary care, specialty care, urgent care and hospitalizations to assess feasibility of future patient tracking was also acquired.. Of 12,067 children, 85% received FV. Differences were found by age (youngest had highest rates). Small differences by race (81%-88%, highest in Blacks.) was found. No differences were found by sex. Ability to track over time was mixed. Approximately 50% had comprehensive data. However, primary care visit and hospitalization data was available on a larger percentage. FV programs can be introduced in the primary care setting and sustained. Further, long-term follow up is possible. Future study of such cohorts capturing health and cost benefits of oral health prevention efforts is needed.

  20. Effect of titanium tetrafluoride, amine fluoride and fluoride varnish on enamel erosion in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vieira, A; Ruben, JL; Huysmans, MCDNJM

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the effect of 1 and 4% titanium tetrafluoride (TiF4) gels, amine fluoride (AmF) 1 and 0.25% and a fluoride varnish (FP) on the prevention of dental erosion. Two experimental groups served as controls, one with no pretreatment and another one pre-treated with a fluoride

  1. Fluoride varnishes with calcium glycerophosphate: fluoride release and effect on in vitro enamel demineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Saads CARVALHO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were (1 to assess the amount of fluoride (F released from varnishes containing calcium glycerophosphate (CaGP and (2 to assess the effect of the experimental varnishes on in vitro demineralization. Six test groups using 5 varnishes: base varnish (no active ingredients; Duraphat® (2.26% NaF; Duofluorid® (5.63% NaF/CaF2; experimental varnish 1 (1% CaGP/5.63% NaF/CaF2; experimental varnish 2 (5% CaGP/5.63% NaF/CaF2; and no varnish were set up. In stage 1, 60 acrylic blocks were randomly distributed into 6 groups (n = 10. Then 300 µg of each varnish was applied to each block. The blocks were immersed in deionized water, which was changed after 1, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours. Fluoride concentration in the water was analyzed using a fluoride electrode. In stage 2, 60 bovine enamel samples were distributed into 6 groups (n = 10, and treated with 300 µg of the respective varnish. After 6 h the varnish was removed and the samples were subjected to a 7-day in vitro pH cycle (6 h demineralization/18 h remineralization per day. The demineralization was measured using surface hardness. The results showed that both experimental varnishes released more fluoride than Duofluorid® and Duraphat® (p < 0.05, but Duraphat® showed the best preventive effect by decreasing enamel hardness loss (p < 0.05. Therefore, we conclude that even though (1 the experimental varnishes containing CaGP released greater amounts of F, (2 they did not increase in the preventive effect against enamel demineralization.

  2. The effect of a chlorhexidine-fluoride varnish on mutans streptococci counts and laser fluorescence readings in occlusal fissures of permanent teeth: A split-mouth study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipták, Lídia; Bársony, Nóra; Twetman, Svante; Madléna, Melinda

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of a new chlorhexidine-fluoride varnish on mutans streptococci (MS) counts and laser fluorescence (LF) readings in fissures of permanent molars. The study group consisted of 57 healthy schoolchildren (7 to 14 yrs) that volunteered after informed consent. A double-blind split-mouth design was employed and 87 pairs of non-cavitated permanent molars were randomly assigned to treatments with either chlorhexidine-fluoride varnish (CHX-F) or chlorhexidine-thymol varnish (CHX-T, Cervitec Plus) as active control. The varnishes were topically applied at baseline and every sixth week throughout the 24-week study period. Endpoints were MS counts (CRT test) and occlusal LF readings (DIAGNOdent pen) registered regularly during follow-up. At baseline, > 50% of the occlusal fissures harbored high MS counts (≥ 105 CFU), but a significant decrease (P varnishes. After 24 weeks, less than 5% exhibited high counts. There were no significant differences between the varnishes at any time point. The mean LF values were similar in both treatment groups at baseline, but a significant reduction (P varnishes in terms of MS suppression after four applications over 24 weeks. Both varnishes also reduced the LF readings significantly compared with baseline, but further long-term studies are needed to confirm a caries-preventive effect.

  3. The utilization of fluoride varnish and its determining factors among Taiwanese preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Chen; Kung, Pei-Tseng; Weng, Rhay-Hung; Su, Hsun-Pi

    2016-08-01

    The Taiwanese government considers fluoride varnish to be a major component of preventive dental cares for preschool children. This study aimed to explore the extent of utilization of fluoride varnish and its determining factors among Taiwanese preschool children. Using preschool children under the age of 5 years as our participants, this study was conducted based on the 2008 Taiwan database of the Ministry of the Interior, linked with information gathered between 2006 and 2008 on preventive healthcare and health insurance from the Bureau of Health Promotion and the National Health Research Institute. A total of 949,023 preschool children (fluoride varnish services. The percentage of Taiwanese preschool children that used fluoride varnish was 34.85%.The probability that fluoride varnish would be utilized was higher among children with catastrophic illness/injury or relevant chronic illnesses than those without. In addition, the probability of children with disabilities using fluoride varnish was lower than that of nondisabled children. Finally, parent sex, parent age, urbanization level of residence, and parents' premium-based salary significantly affected the children's utilization probability of fluoride varnish. In order to increase the utilization of fluoride varnish among preschool children in Taiwan in the future, target groups consisting of females, children fluoride varnish in children. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  4. Urinary fluoride output in children following the use of a dual-fluoride varnish formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Polido Kaneshiro Olympio

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the bioavailability of fluoride after topical application of a dual-fluoride varnish commercially available in Brazil, when compared to DuraphatTM. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The urinary fluoride output was evaluated in seven 5-year-old children after application of the fluoride varnishes, in two different phases. In the first phase (I, children received topical application of the fluoride varnish Duofluorid XII (2.92% fluorine, calcium fluoride + 2.71% fluorine, sodium fluoride, FGM TM. After 1-month interval (phase II, the same amount (0.2 mL of the fluoride varnish Duraphat (2.26% fluorine, sodium fluoride, ColgateTM was applied. Before each application all the volunteers brushed their teeth with placebo dentifrice for 7 days. Urinary collections were carried out 24 h prior up to 48 h after the applications. Fluoride intake from the diet was also estimated. Fluoride concentration in diet samples and urine was analyzed with the fluoride ion-specific electrode and a miniature calomel reference electrode coupled to a potentiometer. Data were tested by ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test (p<0.05. RESULTS: There were significant differences in the urinary fluoride output between phases I and II. The use of Duofluorid XII did not significantly increase the urinary fluoride output, when compared to baseline levels. The application of Duraphat caused a transitory increase in the urinary fluoride output, returning to baseline levels 48 h after its use. CONCLUSIONS: The tested varnish formulation, which has been shown to be effective in in vitro studies, also can be considered safe.

  5. Fluoride varnish applications and caries incidence in pre-schoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keightley, Alexander J; Taylor, Greig D

    2014-09-01

    A two year placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomised control trial in 1-4-year-old children. Children were recruited from low income families in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with access to a fluoridated public water supply. Both groups received oral hygiene instruction along with provision of toothbrushes and 1450 ppm F- toothpaste. The control group had a placebo fluoride varnish applied every six months. The intervention group had 22,600 ppm F- varnish applied every six months. Clinical examinations for the presence of caries were conducted at baseline and at each subsequent six monthly visit. The primary outcome was the proportion of children in each group that went on to clinically develop any new carious surfaces using the ICDAS criteria. The number of new carious surfaces was assessed as a secondary outcome, both at the enamel and dentine level. The study also reported on the safety and acceptability of the varnish. Two hundred children participated in the trial, 91% were followed up at two years and adherence to the six-monthly applications was 84% in the intervention and 85% in control groups. The results did not show a significant difference for the development of new lesions between the two groups. In the fluoride varnish group 36% had developed new dentinal lesions compared to 47% in the placebo group, a difference of -10.8% (95% CI -24.9 to 3.3, p = 0.14). In relation to caries increment, at the enamel level, this was a mean of 2.0 teeth in the fluoride varnish group and 2.8 teeth in the placebo group, a difference of -0.8 (95% CI -2.0 to 0.4, p = 0.19). At the dentine level, caries increment was a mean of 1.8 teeth in the fluoride varnish group and 2.5 in the placebo group, a difference of -0.7 (95% CI -1.9 to 0.4, p = 0.23). Two minor complaints related to taste and appearance of the varnish were recorded and no safety events were reported. Whilst no significant difference was found, the authors note that this does not indicate ineffectiveness of

  6. Effect of light-curable fluoride varnish on enamel demineralization adjacent to orthodontic brackets: an in-vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Anurag; Paramshivam, Ganesh; Chugh, Vinay Kumar; Singh, Surjit; Halkai, Sudha; Kumar, Santosh

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this in-vivo study was to evaluate the effect of a single application of Clinpro XT (3M ESPE, Pymble, New South Wales, Australia), a light-curable fluoride varnish, on enamel demineralization adjacent to orthodontic brackets. Thirty-eight patients (152 teeth) whose orthodontic treatment involved extraction of 4 first premolars were recruited. Two premolars each were assigned to the control group (no treatment) and the experimental group (received fluoride varnish application). The study was designed as a nonrandomized split-mouth study in which diagonally opposite quadrants received the same treatment. After the bonding procedures, a sectional T-loop was ligated into each bracket to serve as a site for plaque retention for enhanced demineralization. Clinpro XT was applied on the buccal surfaces adjacent to the brackets on all teeth in the experimental group only. Teeth in both groups were extracted after 15 days (n = 30), 30 days (n = 30), 45 days (n = 30), 90 days (n = 18), and 120 days (n = 18). Buccolingual sections were then evaluated under polarized light microscopy. After we excluded the dropouts, the mean depth of the demineralized enamel lesions was measured in final sample of 126 teeth. The Mann-Whitney test was used for comparison of the groups. In the control group, the depths of the demineralized enamel lesions increased from 30 to 120 days, whereas in the experimental group no sign of demineralization was noted throughout the observation period except for 3 teeth. Significant differences in the depths of demineralized lesions were found between the study groups. Clinpro XT light-curable fluoride varnish may be a reasonable alternative in the reduction of enamel demineralization around orthodontic brackets, especially in noncompliant and high-risk patients. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of titanium tetrafluoride, amine fluoride and fluoride varnish on enamel erosion in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vieira, A; Ruben, JL; Huysmans, MCDNJM

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the effect of 1 and 4% titanium tetrafluoride (TiF4) gels, amine fluoride (AmF) 1 and 0.25% and a fluoride varnish (FP) on the prevention of dental erosion. Two experimental groups served as controls, one with no pretreatment and another one pre-treated with a

  8. The combined effect of xylitol and fluoride in varnish on bovine teeth surface microhardness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongsavan, Kadkao; Surarit, Rudee; Rirattanapong, Praphasri

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the combined effect of xylitol and fluoride in varnish on bovine tooth surface microhardness. Thirty caries-free bovine teeth were sectioned and embedded in self-cured acrylic resin and the buccal enamel surfaces were ground flat. Each tooth was then placed in demineralization solution for 40 hours. After demineralization, the teeth were randomly divided into 3 equal groups: group 1 was the control group (no treatment); group 2 was treated with fluoride varnish (Duraphat); group 3 was treated with a xylitol and fluoride varnish (Flor-Opal). All the specimens were then subjected to pH-cycling for 7 days, consisting of demineralization for 6 hours and remineralization for 18 hours repeated daily for five days followed by remineralization for 2 days. Surface microhardness was checked in each tooth at baseline, after demineralization and after pH-cycling. The results were recorded and the data were analyzed with the one-way ANOVA and Tukey tests. A p-value fluoride varnish and the fluoride with xylitol varnish were not significantly different from each other and showed significantly better remineralization than control group. The fluoride and xylitol varnish combination was beneficial for preventing enamel demineralization but no better than in fluoride varnish alone in vitro. Adding xylitol to fluoride tooth varnish does not appear to give any significant benefit in vitro.

  9. In Vitro Evaluation of Enamel Microhardness after Application of Two Types of Fluoride Varnish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molaasadolah, Fatemeh; Eskandarion, Solmaz; Ehsani, Atieh; Sanginan, Meysam

    2017-08-01

    Use of fluoride compounds is one of the most effective ways of preventing decay and among these varnishes have high acceptance among different fluoride products. Hence, the aim of this research was to evaluate the micro-hardness of tooth enamel after the usage of two different commercial products of fluoride varnish. This in vitro experimental study was performed on 51 extracted premolar teeth. The teeth were divided randomly into three 17-membered groups. The first group received Duraflor varnish, the second group received Ariadent Iranian varnish while the third group received no treatment. Micro hardness of tooth enamel was measured utilizing Vickers method before and after the use of fluoride varnish. ANOVA, Tukey, and Wilcoxon statistical tests were utilized for statistical analysis of data. The comparison of mean change in micro hardness before and after the use of fluoride showed that increase in micro hardness in Duraflor varnish and Ariadent varnish group was significant when compared to control group (p0.05). According to the findings, the use of fluoride significantly increased the enamel micro hardness which did not show a significant difference between two groups of Duraflor varnish and Ariadent varnish.

  10. Urinary fluoride excretion after application of fluoride varnish and use of fluoride toothpaste in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lockner, Frida; Twetman, Svante; Stecksén-Blicks, Christina

    2017-01-01

    the levels with and without parallel use of fluoride toothpaste. DESIGN: Fifteen healthy children were enrolled to a randomized crossover trial that was performed in two parts: Part I with twice-daily tooth brushing with fluoride toothpaste and Part II with twice-daily brushing with a non-fluoride toothpaste......: There was a statistically significant increase in the 6-h fluoride excretion after application of both experimental varnishes, with and without parallel use of fluoride toothpaste (P toothpaste was used, the mean fluoride excretion was 0.20 mg/6 h after application of Duraphat and 0.29 mg/6 h...... after application of Profluorid Varnish (P = 0.18). CONCLUSIONS: Topical applications of 0.1 mL of fluoride varnish significantly increased the 6-h fluoride excretion. As some individuals displayed excretion levels exceeding the optimal fluoride exposure, a restricted use of fluoride toothpaste...

  11. Urinary fluoride excretion after application of fluoride varnish and use of fluoride toothpaste in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockner, Frida; Twetman, Svante; Stecksén-Blicks, Christina

    2017-01-20

    The efficacy and safety of combined use of topical fluoride products are essential issues that must be monitored. To assess urinary excretion of fluoride after application of two different dental varnishes containing 2.26% fluoride in 3- to 4-year-old children and to compare the levels with and without parallel use of fluoride toothpaste. Fifteen healthy children were enrolled to a randomized crossover trial that was performed in two parts: Part I with twice-daily tooth brushing with fluoride toothpaste and Part II with twice-daily brushing with a non-fluoride toothpaste. After a 1-week run-in period, 0.1 mL of the two fluoride varnishes (Duraphat and Profluorid Varnish) was topically applied in a randomized order. Baseline and experimental urine was collected during 6-h periods. The fluoride content was determined with an ion-sensitive electrode. There was a statistically significant increase in the 6-h fluoride excretion after application of both experimental varnishes, with and without parallel use of fluoride toothpaste (P fluoridated toothpaste was used, the mean fluoride excretion was 0.20 mg/6 h after application of Duraphat and 0.29 mg/6 h after application of Profluorid Varnish (P = 0.18). Topical applications of 0.1 mL of fluoride varnish significantly increased the 6-h fluoride excretion. As some individuals displayed excretion levels exceeding the optimal fluoride exposure, a restricted use of fluoride toothpaste in connection with the varnish applications would decrease fluoride exposure. © 2017 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Fluoride Varnish Applications in Preschoolers and Dental Fluorosis in Permanent Incisors: Results of a Nested-cohort Study Within a Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Ana Paula Pires; Malta, Marcella Cristina Bordallo; de Marsillac, Mirian de Waele Souchois; de Oliveira, Branca Heloisa

    2016-10-15

    To compare the prevalence and severity of fluorosis in the permanent maxillary incisors of children who had participated in a two-year randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial on fluoride varnish application in the primary dentition and to assess children's esthetic perception of their teeth. Parents of 200 one- to four-year-old children who had received biannual applications of fluoride or placebo varnish were contacted four years after the end of the trial. Two calibrated examiners assessed dental fluorosis using the Thylstrup and Fejerskov index (TF) and interviewed the children regarding their perceptions of teeth appearance. Fluorosis (TF equals at least one) and esthetically objectionable fluorosis (TF equals at least three) were observed in 38 (30.9 percent) and eight (6.5 percent) children, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in fluorosis prevalence between children who had received fluoride or placebo varnish. Children's responses regarding the esthetic perceptions of their teeth showed no statistically significant difference between children with and without fluorosis. Fluoride varnish applications in preschoolers were not associated with any level of fluorosis in their permanent maxillary incisors. The fluorosis found in this study did not influence the children's esthetic perception of their teeth.

  13. Treatment of proximal superficial caries lesions on primary molar teeth with resin infiltration and fluoride varnish versus fluoride varnish only: efficacy after 1 year

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, K R; Bakhshandeh, A; Martignon, S

    2010-01-01

    This split-mouth study aimed to assess the efficacy of resin-infiltrated lesions covered by fluoride varnish (FV) versus FV treatment only of proximal lesions on deciduous molar teeth. The study lasted for 1 year. Children with 2 or more superficial proximal lesions on deciduous molar teeth.......01). Radiographically, 23% of the test lesions and 62% of the control lesions had progressed (p 35% and significant. To conclude, resin infiltration in conjunction with fluoride varnish seems promising...

  14. Fluoride release from three glass ionomer materials and the effects of varnishing with or without finishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight-Hanes, C; Whitford, G M

    1992-01-01

    The release rates of fluoride from discs made from three glass ionomer products, Miracle Mix (MM), Ketac-Silver (KS) and Ketac-Bond (KB), into artificial saliva for 3 weeks were determined. The discs were either not varnished, varnished or varnished and finished. The release rates were not proportional to the fluoride concentrations of the products and were ordered: MM > KB > KS. The rates declined sharply as a function of time regardless of the product or treatment. Varnishing the discs caused a reduction of 61-76% depending on the product. Finishing the varnished discs produced a significant increase in the fluoride release from MM but had no effect on the release from KS or KB. In a separate study with MM, it was determined that the release rate of fluoride was inversely proportional to the powder: liquid ratio used to prepare the discs.

  15. Insoluble NaF in Duraphat® may prolong fluoride reactivity of varnish retained on dental surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Constanza Estefany; Tenuta, Livia Maria Andaló; Zárate, Paulo; Cury, Jaime Aparecido

    2014-01-01

    There is no consensus about the clinical recommendation of the time that Duraphat® varnish should be maintained on enamel surfaces without suffering mechanical disturbance by the patient. Considering the importance of calcium fluoride (CaF2)-like reservoirs on the anticaries effect of professional fluoride application, an in vitro study was designed to test the reactivity of Duraphat® varnish with enamel forming these reservoirs as a function of time. Since most fluoride in Duraphat® varnish is insoluble to react and form products on enamel, the relative contribution of the varnish soluble and insoluble fluoride fractions to the reactivity was also evaluated. For this, whole-varnish, containing soluble and insoluble fluoride (total fluoride concentration of 23699 ± 384 µg F/g), or centrifuged varnish, containing only soluble fluoride (fluoride concentration of 258 ± 97 µg F/g), were applied in a standardized manner on enamel slabs (n=8/varnish group/time), which were immersed in continuously renewed artificial saliva for up to 36 h. CaF2-like reservoirs formed on enamel by varnish application were extracted using 1 M KOH and fluoride concentration was measured with ion specific electrode. The results were expressed as µg F/cm(2) of enamel area. Whole varnish formed significantly higher fluoride concentration on enamel than centrifuged varnish, reaching maximum concentration at 24 h (22.0 ± 4.5 µg F/cm(2)). Centrifuged varnish reached maximum concentration at 6 h (3.20 ± 0.81 µg F/cm(2)). In conclusion, a longer varnish retention time than the usually recommended could improve the anticaries effect of Duraphat® varnish, allowing that NaF particles, initially insoluble in the varnish matrix, prolong the reactivity with enamel.

  16. Parental preference for fluoride varnish: a new concept in a rapidly developing nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendaus, Mohamed A; Jama, Hibaq A; Siddiqui, Faisal J; Elsiddig, Sohair A; Alhammadi, Ahmed H

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate parental preference for fluoride varnish in a country where the average percentage of dental caries in young children is up to ~73%. Consequently, the aim of this study, despite being a pilot, was to create a nationwide project in the State of Qatar to promote oral health in children. A cross-sectional perspective study was conducted at Hamad Medical Corporation in Qatar. Parents of children aged ≤5 years were offered an interview survey. A total of 200 questionnaires were completed (response rate =100%). The study was conducted between December 1, 2014 and March 30, 2015, and included all children aged >1 year and 90% of families were aware that dental health affects the health of the whole body. The study showed that ~70% of parents were not aware of the existence of fluoride varnish, but would allow a health provider to apply fluoride varnish. Furthermore, ~80% of parents would not stop brushing their child's teeth and would not skip dentist appointments if varnish was to be applied. Approximately 40% of parents conveyed some concerns regarding the safety of fluoride varnish, despite being considered as a new concept. The main concern was that the child might swallow some of the fluoride. Another important concern expressed by parents was the availability of the fluoride varnish in all clinics. The robust positive attitude of parents in this sample suggests that introducing fluoride varnish is feasible and acceptable in our community. Actions to augment fluoride varnish acceptability in the developing world, such as focusing on safety, could be important in the disseminated implementation of fluoride varnish.

  17. Evaluation of fluoride release from experimental TiF4 and NaF varnishes in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Livia Picchi COMAR; SOUZA,Beatriz Martines de; Grizzo, Larissa Tercilia; Marília Afonso Rabelo BUZALAF; Magalhães,Ana Carolina

    2014-01-01

    Fluoride varnishes play an important role in the prevention of dental caries, promoting the inhibition of demineralization and the increase of remineralization. Objective: This study aimed to analyze the amount of fluoride released into water and artificial saliva from experimental TiF4 and NaF varnishes, with different concentrations, for 12 h. Material and Methods: Fluoride varnishes were applied on acrylic blocks and then immersed in 10 ml of deionized water and artificial saliva in ...

  18. Effect of semi-annual applications of a chlorhexidine/fluoride varnish mixture on approximal caries incidence in schoolchildren. A three-year radiographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, L G; Magnusson, K; Andersson, H; Deierborg, G; Twetman, S

    1998-04-01

    Development and progression of approximal caries is still difficult to prevent and control even in societies with declining caries prevalence. In this study, a test group of 115 12-yr old children were treated semi-annually with a mixture (1:1) of a varnish containing 0.1% F (Fluor Protector) and 1.0% chlorhexidine (Cervitec). A reference group of 104 children received fluoride varnish treatment (Fluor Protector) semi-annually. Approximal caries was recorded from bitewing radiographs at baseline and after 3 yr. At baseline, total decayed and filled surfaces (DFS) including enamel caries were 1.79+/-2.36 in the reference group and 2.0+/-2.77 in the test group. After 3 yr, the mean approximal caries incidence including enamel caries was 3.01+/-3.74 and 3.78+/-4.32, respectively. The differences at baseline as well as after 3 yr were not statistically significant. The results showed that both groups had a comparatively low incidence of approximal caries during the experimental period, and suggest that a mixture of fluoride and antibacterial varnish had no additional preventive effect on approximal caries incidence compared with fluoride varnish treatments alone.

  19. Pit and fissure sealants versus fluoride varnishes for preventing dental decay in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiiri, Anne; Ahovuo-Saloranta, Anneli; Nordblad, Anne

    2010-01-01

    ; sealants versus fluoride varnish or sealants and fluoride varnish combination versus fluoride varnish alone; and subjects under 20 years of age. The primary outcome of interest was the increment in the numbers of carious occlusal surfaces of permanent premolars and molars. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two...... review authors independently screened search results, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of trials. Risk ratios (RR) were calculated for differences between intervention and control groups and in split-mouth studies for differences of paired tooth surfaces being carious or not. No data could...

  20. Effect of fluoride varnish on Streptococcus mutans counts in plaque of caries-free children using dentocult SM strip mutans test: A randomized controlled triple blind study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeevarathan J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases and although of multifactorial origin, Streptococcus mutans is considered the chief pathogen in its development. Fluoride is one of the most effective agents used for the reduction of dental caries apart from oral hygiene maintenance. Aims: The aim of this study was to estimate the counts of Streptococcus mutans and to evaluate the effect of Fluor Protector fluoride varnish on these counts in the plaque of caries-free children using Dentocult SM Strip Mutans. Materials and Methods: Thirty caries-free subjects were selected for the study based on the information obtained from a questionnaire and were randomly assigned to the control group consisting of ten subjects and the study group consisting of twenty subjects. Plaque samples were collected on the strips from the Dentocult SM kit and after incubation, the presence of Streptococcus mutans was evaluated using the manufacturer′s chart. The study group was subjected to a Fluor Protector fluoride varnish application following which the samples were collected again after 24 hours. Results: The average Streptococcus mutan s counts in the primary dentition of caries-free children before and after the application of Fluor Protector fluoride varnish were 10 4 -10 5 colony forming units (CFU/ml and < 10 4 CFU/ml respectively. Conclusion: The results showed that the study group had a statistically significant reduction in the plaque Streptococcus mutans counts than the control group.

  1. Combined effect of fluoride varnish to Er:YAG or Nd:YAG laser on permeability of eroded root dentine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiga, Sandra; Toro, Carmen Victoria Torres; Lepri, Taísa Penazzo; Turssi, Cecília Petroso; Colucci, Vivian; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the combined effect of fluoride varnish to Er:YAG or Nd:YAG laser on permeability of eroded root dentine. Sixty slabs of bovine root dentine (2×2×2mm) were eroded with citric acid 0.3% (pH 3.2) during 2h and then kept in artificial saliva during 24h. Specimens were randomly assigned in 6 groups (n=10), to receive the following treatments: fluoride varnish; fluoride varnish+Er:YAG laser; fluoride varnish+Nd:YAG laser; non-fluoride varnish; non-fluoride varnish+Er:YAG laser; non-fluoride varnish+Nd:YAG laser. The Er:YAG (100mJ, 3Hz) and Nd:YAG (70mJ, 15Hz) were applied for 10s. Specimens were subjected to further erosive challenges with citric acid 0.3% 4×/day, during 1min, for 5 days, remaining in artificial saliva between cycles. Dentin permeability was then assessed. Two-way ANOVA demonstrated no significant interaction between laser and varnish (p=0.858). No effect was also detected for the main factor varnish (p=0.768), while permeability of eroded root dentin was significantly lower when such substrate was laser-irradiated, no matter the laser source (pfluoride varnish application. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Effect of Fluoride Varnish Containing CPP-ACP on Preventing Enamel Erosion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bayrak, Sule; Tuloglu, Nuray; Bicer, Huseyin; Sen Tunc, Emine

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of a fluoride varnish with added casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate treatment on the prevention of enamel erosion, and it compared the results...

  3. Substantial reduction in caries from regular fluoride varnish application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Derek

    2013-09-01

    The Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Medline, Embase, CINAHL, LILACS and BBO, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, Web of Science Conference Proceedings and ClinicalTrials.gov databases were searched. Reference lists of identified articles were also scanned for relevant papers. Study authors were contacted for additional information. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials using or indicating blind outcome assessment that compared fluoride varnish to placebo or no treatment for at least one year were included. Risk of bias assessment was undertaken. Study assessment and data extraction was carried out independently by at least two reviewers. The primary measure of effect was the prevented fraction, that is the difference in mean caries increments between the treatment and control groups expressed as a percentage of the mean increment in the control group. The caries increments nearest to three years were used from each included study. Random-effects meta-analyses were performed where data could be pooled. Potential sources of heterogeneity were examined in random-effects meta-regression analyses. Adverse effects information was collected from the included trials. Twenty-two trials (12,455 participants) were included. Thirteen trials were included in the permanent tooth surfaces meta-analysis, the pooled D(M)FS prevented fraction estimate comparing fluoride varnish with placebo or no treatment was 43% (95% confidence interval (CI) 30% to 57%; P fluorides, application features such as prior prophylaxis, concentration of fluoride or frequency of application. There was little information concerning possible adverse effects or acceptability of treatment. The conclusions of this updated review remain the same as when it was first published. The review suggests a substantial caries inhibiting effect of fluoride varnish in both permanent and primary teeth; however the quality of the evidence

  4. Effect of Fluoride Varnish on Streptococcus mutans Count in Saliva of Caries Free Children Using Dentocult SM Strip Mutans Test: A Randomized Controlled Triple Blind Study

    OpenAIRE

    A, Deepti; Jeevarathan, J; Muthu, MS; Prabhu V, Rathna; Chamundeswari

    2008-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to estimate the count of Streptococcus mutans in saliva of caries free children using Dentocult SM strip mutans and to evaluate the effect of fluoride varnish on the Streptococcus mutans count in saliva of these caries free children. Methods and material: Thirty caries free children were selected for the study based on the information obtained from a questionnaire prepared. They were randomly assigned into the control group and the study group consisting of ten...

  5. The utilization of fluoride varnish and its determining factors among Taiwanese preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, Wen-Chen; Kung, Pei-Tseng; Weng, Rhay-Hung; Su, Hsun-Pi

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Taiwanese government considers fluoride varnish to be a major component of preventive dental cares for preschool children. This study aimed to explore the extent of utilization of fluoride varnish and its determining factors among Taiwanese preschool children. Methods: Using preschool children under the age of 5 years as our participants, this study was conducted based on the 2008 Taiwan database of the Ministry of the Interior, linked with information gathered between 2006...

  6. Effect of fluoride varnish supplemented with sodium trimetaphosphate on enamel erosion and abrasion: an in situ/ex vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto, M J; Delbem, A C B; Manarelli, M M; Pessan, J P; Martinhon, C C R

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of fluoride (F) varnishes supplemented or not with sodium trimetaphosphate (TMP) on enamel erosive wear followed or not by abrasion in situ. Ten volunteers were selected and randomly divided into four groups, according to the varnishes tested: placebo (no F or TMP), 5% NaF (positive control), 2.5% NaF and 2.5% NaF/5% TMP. Enamel blocks (n=4) were mounted in palatal devices and received an application of each test varnish, following a double-blind, crossover protocol. After 6h, varnishes were completely removed and the blocks were subjected to erosive challenges by ex vivo immersion in citric acid (5 min, 4×/dia, 5 days). Following, half of the blocks were subjected to abrasion by brushing with a placebo dentifrice slurry for 15s. Enamel wear (μm), surface hardness (SHf) and cross-sectional hardness (ΔKHN) were assessed after each experimental period. Results were analyzed by ANOVA, Student-Newman-Keuls's test and Pearson correlation coefficient (pfluoride varnish supplemented with TMP promoted significantly lower wear and ΔKHN when compared to the other groups after erosive challenges, followed or not by abrasion (pfluoride varnish supplemented with TMP promoted similar results to the 5% NaF product, being significantly higher than the remaining groups after erosive and erosive+abrasive challenges (p<0.05). TMP significantly enhanced the effects of F on enamel wear after erosive challenges, followed or not by abrasion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. New fluoride MI Varnish as root canal sealer: An in vitro analysis of bacterial leakage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanu G Rao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the sealing ability of root canal obturation after the application of fluoride varnish (MI Varnish containing 5% sodium fluoride and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate, fluoride varnish, and AH Plus and AH-Plus as root canal sealer by bacterial penetration test. Materials and Methods: Root canals of 65 single-rooted and single-canalled teeth were prepared. They were divided into three experimental groups (n = 15 and two control groups (n = 10. The root canal walls in Group I were coated with AH Plus, Group II were coated with AH Plus and fluoride varnish, and Group III were coated with fluoride varnish. All the teeth were obturated with gutta-percha using the lateral condensation technique. Enterococcus faecalis were used as test bacteria to determine the leakage during 100 days. Statistical Analysis: The data were analyzed using log-rank test and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Results: Group III showed significantly less bacterial penetration as compared to Group I (P = 0.01 and Group II (P = 0.03. However, there was no statistical significance between Groups I and II (P = 0.672. Conclusions: It can be concluded from the present study that fluoride varnish can be used as a root canal sealer. However, further in vitro and in vivo studies are required.

  8. New fluoride MI Varnish as root canal sealer: An in vitro analysis of bacterial leakage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Dhanu G; Trivedi, Malay Vishnuprasad; Havale, Raghavendra; Shrutha, S P

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the sealing ability of root canal obturation after the application of fluoride varnish (MI Varnish) containing 5% sodium fluoride and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate, fluoride varnish, and AH Plus and AH-Plus as root canal sealer by bacterial penetration test. Root canals of 65 single-rooted and single-canalled teeth were prepared. They were divided into three experimental groups (n = 15) and two control groups (n = 10). The root canal walls in Group I were coated with AH Plus, Group II were coated with AH Plus and fluoride varnish, and Group III were coated with fluoride varnish. All the teeth were obturated with gutta-percha using the lateral condensation technique. Enterococcus faecalis were used as test bacteria to determine the leakage during 100 days. The data were analyzed using log-rank test and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Group III showed significantly less bacterial penetration as compared to Group I (P = 0.01) and Group II (P = 0.03). However, there was no statistical significance between Groups I and II (P = 0.672). It can be concluded from the present study that fluoride varnish can be used as a root canal sealer. However, further in vitro and in vivo studies are required.

  9. Fluoride varnish: a primary prevention tool for dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswami, Neerrajah

    2008-01-01

    Fluoride varnish is an effective tool that has been proven to prevent dental caries both in primary and permanent dentition. Its ease of use, acceptability and efficacy make it an important tool in the primary prevention of dental caries in high-caries-risk children. There has been an increase in third-party reimbursement for fluoride varnish applications in high-risk children and adults.

  10. Fluoride varnish or fluoride mouth rinse?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, M K; Klausen, BJ; Twetman, S

    2016-01-01

    week (FMR). All children received oral hygiene instructions and comprehensive dental care at the local Public Dental Clinics throughout the study period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Increment of caries lesions in permanent teeth at both cavitated and initial caries levels. RESULTS: The groups were balanced...

  11. Effect of Fluoride Varnish Containing CPP-ACP on Preventing Enamel Erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sule Bayrak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effect of a fluoride varnish with added casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate treatment on the prevention of enamel erosion, and it compared the results with those of other fluoride varnishes. Fifty enamel specimens obtained from bovine incisors were randomly divided into five groups (n=10 based on the type of surface pretreatment used: intact enamel (Group 1; intact enamel+erosive cycles (Group 2; intact enamel+MI varnish+erosive cycles (Group 3; intact enamel+Clinpro White varnish+erosive cycles (Group 4; and intact enamel+Duraphat varnish+erosive cycles (Group 5. The specimens were subjected to erosive cycles for five days. The surface roughness was evaluated using atomic force microscopy. The results were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s tests. Group 1 had the smoothest surfaces. After the erosive cycles, the greatest surface roughness values were observed in Group 2, followed by Groups 5, 4, and 3, respectively. Statistically significant differences were observed among all groups (p<0.05. The application of fluoride varnishes had some positive effects on preventing enamel erosion; however, the most effective agent was fluoride varnish with added casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate.

  12. Parental preference for fluoride varnish: a new concept in a rapidly developing nation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendaus MA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mohamed A Hendaus,1,2 Hibaq A Jama,1 Faisal J Siddiqui,1,3 Sohair A Elsiddig,1 Ahmed H Alhammadi1,2 1Department of Pediatrics, General Academic Pediatrics Section, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, 2Department of Clinical Pediatrics, Weill Cornell Medical College, 3Pediatric Residency Program, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate parental preference for fluoride varnish in a country where the average percentage of dental caries in young children is up to ~73%. Consequently, the aim of this study, despite being a pilot, was to create a nationwide project in the State of Qatar to promote oral health in children. Methods: A cross-sectional perspective study was conducted at Hamad Medical Corporation in Qatar. Parents of children aged ≤5 years were offered an interview survey. A total of 200 questionnaires were completed (response rate =100%. The study was conducted between December 1, 2014 and March 30, 2015, and included all children aged >1 year and <5 years who came to the outpatient clinics for well-child and sick visits. We also included children who were admitted to the inpatient wards. Results: The mean age of participant children was 2.8±1.1 years. When inquiring regarding parents’ knowledge and awareness of dental health, we found that >90% of families were aware that dental health affects the health of the whole body. The study showed that ~70% of parents were not aware of the existence of fluoride varnish, but would allow a health provider to apply fluoride varnish. Furthermore, ~80% of parents would not stop brushing their child’s teeth and would not skip dentist appointments if varnish was to be applied. Approximately 40% of parents conveyed some concerns regarding the safety of fluoride varnish, despite being considered as a new concept. The main concern was that the child might swallow some of the fluoride. Another important concern expressed by parents was the

  13. Fluoride Varnish Efficacy in Preventing Early Childhood Caries

    OpenAIRE

    Weintraub, J.A.; Ramos-Gomez, F; Jue, B.; Shain, S.; Hoover, C I; Featherstone, J.D.B.; Gansky, S.A.

    2006-01-01

    To determine the efficacy of fluoride varnish (5% NaF, Duraphat®, Colgate) added to caregiver counseling to prevent early childhood caries, we conducted a two-year randomized, dental-examiner-masked clinical trial. Initially, 376 caries-free children, from low-income Chinese or Hispanic San Francisco families, were enrolled (mean age ± standard deviation, 1.8 ± 0.6 yrs). All families received counseling, and children were randomized to the following groups: no fluoride varnish, fluoride varni...

  14. Evaluation of fluoride release from experimental TiF4 and NaF varnishes in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Picchi COMAR

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fluoride varnishes play an important role in the prevention of dental caries, promoting the inhibition of demineralization and the increase of remineralization. Objective: This study aimed to analyze the amount of fluoride released into water and artificial saliva from experimental TiF4 and NaF varnishes, with different concentrations, for 12 h. Material and Methods: Fluoride varnishes were applied on acrylic blocks and then immersed in 10 ml of deionized water and artificial saliva in polystyrene bottles. The acrylic blocks were divided in seven groups (n=10: 1.55% TiF4 varnish (0.95% F, pH 1.0; 3.10% TiF4 varnish (1.90% F, pH 1.0; 3.10% and 4% TiF4 varnish (2.45% F, pH 1.0; 2.10% NaF varnish (0.95% F, pH 5.0; 4.20% NaF varnish (1.90% F, pH 5.0; 5.42% NaF varnish (2.45% F, pH 5.0 and control (no treatment, n=5. The fluoride release was analyzed after 1/2, 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 h of exposure. The analysis was performed using an ion-specific electrode coupled to a potentiometer. Two-way ANOVA and Bonferroni's test were applied for the statistical analysis (p<0.05. Results: TiF4 varnishes released larger amounts of fluoride than NaF varnishes during the first 1/2 h, regardless of their concentration; 4% TiF4 varnish released more fluoride than NaF varnishes for the first 6 h. The peak of fluoride release occurred at 3 h. There was a better dose-response relationship among the varnishes exposed to water than to artificial saliva. Conclusions: The 3.10% and 4% TiF4 -based varnishes have greater ability to release fluoride into water and artificial saliva compared to NaF varnish; however, more studies must be conducted to elucidate the mechanism of action of TiF4 varnish on tooth surface.

  15. The Effect of Fluoride Varnish on Enamel Shear Bond Strength of Pit and Fissure Sealants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazer, Rebecca A; Platt, Jeffrey A; Sanders, Brian J; Yepes, Juan F; Jones, James E

    2017-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of fluoride varnish on the enamel shear bond strength of pit and fissure sealants. Ninety-six teeth were divided into three duplicated test groups: sealant (S)/sealant thermocycle (ST) received Clinpro Sealant only; varnish sealant (VS)/varnish sealant thermocycle (VST) received five percent sodium fluoride (NaF) varnish plus sealant (VPS); and VPS/VPS thermocycle (VPST) received NaF, polish with Clinpro Prophy Paste, plus sealant. One set of each group (ST, VST, VPST) was thermocycled to represent aging, and one set (S, VS, PVS) was not. The shear bond strengths for the thermocycled groups and nonthermocycled groups were determined, and two-way analysis of variance tested the effects of thermocycling and varnish. Thermocycling did not have a significant effect on the peak stresses of the groups (P=0.0552), so sets were combined. The peak stress for S/ST was significantly higher than for VS/VST (PFluoride varnish applied immediately before pit and fissure sealant placement negatively affected the shear bond strength of the sealant. Mechanically cleaning a fluoride varnish-coated tooth with prophy paste did not provide pit and fissure sealant enamel shear bond strengths comparable to those of untreated enamel.

  16. Effects of Fluoride Varnish on Streptococcus mutans Count in Saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badjatia, Sourabh; Badjatia, Rini G; Thanveer, K; Krishnan, Ajith Cg

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of fluoride varnish on Streptococcus mutans count in saliva among 12-year-old school children. A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of fluoride varnish on S. mutans count in saliva among 12-year-old school children. A total of 42 school-going children attending schools in Vadodara district, Gujarat, India, were divided into two groups. Group I was treated with fluoride varnish and group II received no treatment. Assessment of S. mutans was carried out at baseline and 3 to 6 months postfluoride varnish application. Friedman analysis of variance test and post hoc test were applied to detect statistically significant differences between baseline, 3 to 6 months of fluoride varnish application, and also between groups I and II. The mean number of salivary S. mutans value found in case group at baseline, 3 to 6 months was 31.23 ± 1.119, 9.27 ± 0.852, and 9.39 ± 0.908 × 10(4) colony-forming unit CFU/mL respectively. The difference in S. mutans count from baseline to 3 to 6 months was highly statistically significant (p = 0.000), but the difference from 3 to 6 months was not statistically significant (p = 0.142). In control group, the mean S. mutans value found at baseline, 3 to 6 months was 30.63 ± 1.436, 31.23 ± 1.351, and 31.40 ± 1.374 × 10(4) CFU/mL respectively. The differences between these values were not statistically significant (p = 0.11). Statistically significant reduction in S. mutans count in saliva was seen 3 to 6 months after fluoride varnish application. Badjatia S, Badjatia RG, Thanveer K, Krishnan ACG. Effects of Fluoride Varnish on Streptococcus mutans Count in Saliva. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(1):62-66.

  17. Comparison of the caries-protective effect of fluoride varnish with treatment as usual in nursery school attendees receiving preventive oral health support through the Childsmile oral health improvement programme - the Protecting Teeth@3 Study: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, William; Turner, Stephen; Anopa, Yulia; McIntosh, Emma; Wu, Olivia; Conway, David I; Macpherson, Lorna M D; McMahon, Alex D

    2015-12-18

    The Scottish Government set out its policy on addressing the poor oral health of Scottish children in 2005. This led to the establishment of Childsmile, a national programme designed to improve the oral health of children in Scotland. One element of the programme promotes daily tooth brushing in all nurseries in Scotland (Childsmile Core). A second targeted component (Childsmile Nursery) offers twice-yearly application of fluoride varnish to children attending nurseries in deprived areas. Studies suggest that fluoride varnish application can reduce caries in both adult and child populations. This trial aims to explore the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of additional preventive value fluoride varnish application compared to Childsmile Core. The Protecting Teeth@3 Study is an ongoing 2 year parallel group randomised treatment as usual controlled trial. Three-year-old children attending the ante pre-school year are randomised (1:1) to the intervention arm (fluoride varnish & treatment as usual) or the control arm (treatment as usual). Children in the intervention arm will have Duraphat® fluoride varnish painted on the primary tooth surfaces and will continue to receive treatment as usual: the core Childsmile Nursery intervention. Children in the treatment as usual arm will receive the same series of contacts, without the application of varnish and will also continue with the Childsmile Core intervention. Interventions are undertaken by Childsmile trained extended duty dental nurses at six-monthly intervals. Participants receive a baseline dental inspection in nursery and an endpoint inspection in Primary 1 at the age of 5 years old. We will use primary and secondary outcome measures to compare the effectiveness of Duraphat® fluoride varnish plus treatment as usual with treatment as usual only in preventing any further dental decay. We will also undertake a full economic evaluation of the trial. This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov. Number: NCT

  18. Insoluble NaF in Duraphat® May Prolong Fluoride Reactivity of Varnish Retained on Dental Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    FERNÁNDEZ,Constanza Estefany; Tenuta,Livia Maria Andaló; Zárate,Paulo; Cury,Jaime Aparecido

    2014-01-01

    There is no consensus about the clinical recommendation of the time that Duraphat® varnish should be maintained on enamel surfaces without suffering mechanical disturbance by the patient. Considering the importance of calcium fluoride (CaF2)-like reservoirs on the anticaries effect of professional fluoride application, an in vitro study was designed to test the reactivity of Duraphat® varnish with enamel forming these reservoirs as a function of time. Since most fluoride in Duraphat...

  19. Evaluation of fluoride release from experimental TiF4 and NaF varnishes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comar, Livia Picchi; Souza, Beatriz Martines de; Grizzo, Larissa Tercilia; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo; Magalhães, Ana Carolina

    2014-04-01

    Fluoride varnishes play an important role in the prevention of dental caries, promoting the inhibition of demineralization and the increase of remineralization. This study aimed to analyze the amount of fluoride released into water and artificial saliva from experimental TiF4 and NaF varnishes, with different concentrations, for 12 h. Fluoride varnishes were applied on acrylic blocks and then immersed in 10 ml of deionized water and artificial saliva in polystyrene bottles. The acrylic blocks were divided in seven groups (n=10): 1.55% TiF4 varnish (0.95% F, pH 1.0); 3.10% TiF4 varnish (1.90% F, pH 1.0); 3.10% and 4% TiF4 varnish (2.45% F, pH 1.0); 2.10% NaF varnish (0.95% F, pH 5.0); 4.20% NaF varnish (1.90% F, pH 5.0); 5.42% NaF varnish (2.45% F, pH 5.0) and control (no treatment, n=5). The fluoride release was analyzed after 1/2, 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 h of exposure. The analysis was performed using an ion-specific electrode coupled to a potentiometer. Two-way ANOVA and Bonferroni's test were applied for the statistical analysis (pvarnishes released larger amounts of fluoride than NaF varnishes during the first 1/2 h, regardless of their concentration; 4% TiF4 varnish released more fluoride than NaF varnishes for the first 6 h. The peak of fluoride release occurred at 3 h. There was a better dose-response relationship among the varnishes exposed to water than to artificial saliva. The 3.10% and 4% TiF4 -based varnishes have greater ability to release fluoride into water and artificial saliva compared to NaF varnish; however, more studies must be conducted to elucidate the mechanism of action of TiF4 varnish on tooth surface.

  20. Oral microflora in preschool children attending a fluoride varnish program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Maria; Grindefjord, Margaret; Dahllöf, Göran

    2016-01-01

    hundred seven 3-year-old children were enrolled from a cohort of 3403 preschool children taking part in a community based oral health project. Two hundred sixty-three of them had attended caries-preventive program with semi-annual applications of a fluoride varnish since the age of 1 year (test group......BACKGROUND: To compare the oral microflora in preschool children attending a fluoride varnish program with a reference group receiving a standard oral health program without fluoride varnish applications. A second aim was to relate the microbial composition to the caries prevalence. METHODS: Five......) while 237 had received standard preventive care (reference group). Oral samples were collected with a sterile swab and analysed with checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization using 12 pre-determined bacterial probes. Caries and background data were collected from clinical examinations and questionnaires...

  1. Effects of Two Fluoride Varnishes and One Fluoride/Chlorhexidine Varnish on Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus Biofilm Formation in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Pinar Erdem, Elif Sepet, Güven Kulekci, Sule Can Trosola, Yegane Guven

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate and to compare the effect of two fluoride varnishes and one fluoride/chlorhexidine varnish on Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus biofilm formation, in vitro.Study design: Standard acrylic discs were prepared and divided into groups based on the varnish applied to the disc surface: Fluor Protector, Bifluoride 12, and Fluor Protector + Cervitec (1:1. Untreated discs served as controls. In the study groups, biofilms of S. mutans and S. sobrinus were formed over 24 h, 48 h, and 5 days. The fluoride concentrations in the monospecies biofilms and viable counts of S. mutans and S. sobrinus were investigated.Results: In all study groups, a statistically significant increase in the viable number of S. mutans and S. sobrinus cells was observed between 24 h and 5 days. In both monospecies biofilms, the greatest antibacterial efficacy was detected in the Fluor Protector and Fluor Protector + Cervitec groups at 24 h. For all groups, the amount of fluoride released was highest during the first 24 h, followed by a significant decrease over the next 4 days. A negative correlation was detected between fluoride concentration and antibacterial effect in those groups with biofilms containing both species. Despite the release of high levels of fluoride, the greatest number of viable S. mutans and S. sobrinus cells was detected in the Bifluoride 12 group.Statistics: The data were analyzed using GraphPad Prism software (ver. 3.Conclusions: The Fluor Protector + Cervitec varnish exerted prolonged antibacterial effects on S. mutans and S. sobrinus biofilms compared to the other varnishes tested.

  2. Three-year caries increments after fluoride rinses or topical applications with a fluoride varnish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruun, C; Bille, J; Hansen, K T; Kann, J; Qvist, V; Thylstrup, A

    1985-12-01

    251 9-12-yr-old children completed a 3-yr, double-blind, clinical trial of two caries preventive fluoride programs. Caries increments and progression patterns were compared in two groups of children who rinsed every fortnight with a 0.2% NaF solution or received biannual topical applications with a fluoride varnish (Fluor-Protector). Clinically recorded mean DFS increments were 3.3 +/- 0.2 (SE) in the rinse group and 3.5 +/- 0.2 in the varnish group. In both groups nearly half of these increments were recorded in the occlusal surfaces of second molars. The mean incremental DFS recorded radiographically on approximal surfaces of posterior teeth were 1.1 +/- 0.2 and 1.5 +/- 0.2 in the rinse and varnish group, respectively. None of the inter-group differences were statistically significant (P greater than 0.05). Detailed analyses of the radiographic scores revealed a similar and extremely slow caries progression in the two study groups and they strengthened the conclusion of equal clinical efficacy of the two treatments. None of the fluoride programs had been able to change preestablished patterns of caries development among the children.

  3. Effects of two fluoride varnishes and one fluoride/chlorhexidine varnish on Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus biofilm formation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinar Erdem, Arzu; Sepet, Elif; Kulekci, Güven; Trosola, Sule Can; Guven, Yegane

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and to compare the effect of two fluoride varnishes and one fluoride/chlorhexidine varnish on Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus biofilm formation, in vitro. Standard acrylic discs were prepared and divided into groups based on the varnish applied to the disc surface: Fluor Protector, Bifluoride 12, and Fluor Protector + Cervitec (1:1). Untreated discs served as controls. In the study groups, biofilms of S. mutans and S. sobrinus were formed over 24 h, 48 h, and 5 days. The fluoride concentrations in the monospecies biofilms and viable counts of S. mutans and S. sobrinus were investigated. In all study groups, a statistically significant increase in the viable number of S. mutans and S. sobrinus cells was observed between 24 h and 5 days. In both monospecies biofilms, the greatest antibacterial efficacy was detected in the Fluor Protector and Fluor Protector + Cervitec groups at 24 h. For all groups, the amount of fluoride released was highest during the first 24 h, followed by a significant decrease over the next 4 days. A negative correlation was detected between fluoride concentration and antibacterial effect in those groups with biofilms containing both species. Despite the release of high levels of fluoride, the greatest number of viable S. mutans and S. sobrinus cells was detected in the Bifluoride 12 group. The data were analyzed using GraphPad Prism software (ver. 3). The Fluor Protector + Cervitec varnish exerted prolonged antibacterial effects on S. mutans and S. sobrinus biofilms compared to the other varnishes tested.

  4. Effectiveness of a new fluoride varnish for caries prevention in pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitchika, Vinay; Kokel, Claudia J; Andreeva, Jana; Crispin, Alexander; Hickel, Reinhard; Kühnisch, Jan; Heinrich-Weltzien, Roswitha

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of a new fluoride varnish (Clinpro White Varnish, 3MEspe, Seefeld, Germany) with regard to the caries incidence within a 2-year period A non-randomized sample of 400 children from the Kyffhäuser district (Thuringia, Germany) was divided into a fluoride group (FG, biannual application of fluoride varnish) and control group (CG, no intervention). (Non-)cavitated caries lesions were recorded using World Health Organization (WHO) and Universal Visual Scoring System (UniViSS) criteria. Parents were given questionnaires to gather information about their socio-economic status (SES). Non-parametric methods and binomial logistic regression were used for data analysis. There was a significant increase in caries incidence in both groups. The number of non-cavitated carious lesions was significantly lower in the FG (mean 2.2; sd 2.3) compared with the CG (mean 2.9; sd 1.9). Initial statistical analysis revealed that fluoride varnish might prevent non-cavitated carious lesions. When including SES as a confounder into regression model, potential preventive effect was lost. This study underlines the importance of the multi-factorial etiology of caries and illustrates that the effectiveness of biannual fluoride varnish application was evident in non-cavitated carious lesions only.

  5. Noncontact remineralization of incipient lesions treated with a 5% sodium fluoride varnish in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlinsey, Robert L; Mackey, Allen C; Dodge, Lauren E; Schwandt, Craig S

    2014-01-01

    Fluoride varnishes are appealing topical fluoride preparations that may provide anticaries benefits. The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess the noncontact remineralization effects of a commercial 5% sodium fluoride varnish on white spot lesions (WSLs). Three-millimeter diameter enamel cores were extracted from bovine teeth, mounted in acrylic rods, ground and polished, and initially demineralized to create WSLs. Specimens were evaluated for surface microhardness and divided (N=6) into two groups (water control or noncontact 5% sodium fluoride white varnish with tricalcium phosphate, where one 0.50 ml unit dose was applied to acrylic rods instead of directly on WSLs). Groups were cycled in a three-day regimen consisting of two rounds of one-hour treatments and one-hour static immersions in demineralization solution. Between these events, WSLs were immersed in artificial saliva. Remineralization was evaluated using surface and cross-sectional microhardness and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The noncontact varnish treatment produced significantly greater percent surface microhardness recoveries (Pvarnish. Noncontact application of a commercial 5% sodium fluoride varnish reduced white spot lesion porosity and produced significant acid-resistant white spot lesion remineralization.

  6. Evaluation of fluoride release from experimental TiF4 and NaF varnishes in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    COMAR, Livia Picchi; de SOUZA, Beatriz Martines; GRIZZO, Larissa Tercilia; BUZALAF, Marília Afonso Rabelo; MAGALHÃES, Ana Carolina

    2014-01-01

    Fluoride varnishes play an important role in the prevention of dental caries, promoting the inhibition of demineralization and the increase of remineralization. Objective This study aimed to analyze the amount of fluoride released into water and artificial saliva from experimental TiF4 and NaF varnishes, with different concentrations, for 12 h. Material and Methods Fluoride varnishes were applied on acrylic blocks and then immersed in 10 ml of deionized water and artificial saliva in polystyrene bottles. The acrylic blocks were divided in seven groups (n=10): 1.55% TiF4 varnish (0.95% F, pH 1.0); 3.10% TiF4 varnish (1.90% F, pH 1.0); 3.10% and 4% TiF4 varnish (2.45% F, pH 1.0); 2.10% NaF varnish (0.95% F, pH 5.0); 4.20% NaF varnish (1.90% F, pH 5.0); 5.42% NaF varnish (2.45% F, pH 5.0) and control (no treatment, n=5). The fluoride release was analyzed after 1/2, 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 h of exposure. The analysis was performed using an ion-specific electrode coupled to a potentiometer. Two-way ANOVA and Bonferroni's test were applied for the statistical analysis (pfluoride than NaF varnishes during the first 1/2 h, regardless of their concentration; 4% TiF4 varnish released more fluoride than NaF varnishes for the first 6 h. The peak of fluoride release occurred at 3 h. There was a better dose-response relationship among the varnishes exposed to water than to artificial saliva. Conclusions The 3.10% and 4% TiF4 -based varnishes have greater ability to release fluoride into water and artificial saliva compared to NaF varnish; however, more studies must be conducted to elucidate the mechanism of action of TiF4 varnish on tooth surface. PMID:24676585

  7. The effect of topical fluoride varnish on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhan, Ruby Thuy-Huy; Xu, Xaoming; Yu, Qingzhao; Ballard, Richard; Armbruster, Paul

    2015-05-01

    The present study examined the effect of topical fluoride treatment on the shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic brackets using single-dose fluoride varnishes and assessed according to different post-application times and the pattern of debond. Of the 105 extracted human mandibular premolars used in the study, 70 were subjected to the SBS test and the remaining 35 to the Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI) test. The teeth were divided into a control group and six test groups: Kolorz ClearShield 5% NaFl varnish Day 1, 8, and 15; and Vanish 5% NaFl varnish Day 1, 8, and 15. The samples were coated with their respective varnish, following which, brackets were bonded. Each specimen was subjected to a shear force in a universal testing machine until failure. Data were analysed using the analysis of variance (ANOVA). At all time intervals, the mean SBS of the Vanish groups was not significantly different from the control group, and the shear strength in the ClearShield groups was significantly higher than the control and Vanish groups, except at Day 8 (no difference). For the same bonding material, there was no significant difference in mean SBS over different time intervals. ARI scores showed no significant difference between the groups. The application of single-dose fluoride varnish, irrespective of the length of time between the fluoride treatment and bonding procedure, does not negatively affect the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets.

  8. Comparison of Effect of Fluoride Varnish, Fluoridereleasing Composite, and Casein Phosphopeptideamorphous Calcium Phosphate Fluoride on Demineralization around Brackets: An in vivo Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navya Puvvula

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Enamel demineralization around brackets is significantly reduced by all the three materials used in this study. The highest amount of lesion depth reduction was seen in the Bifluoride varnish group. Transbond plus, was the least effective among the three materials used.

  9. Chlorhexidine, fluoride varnish, and xylitol chewing gum: underutilized preventive therapies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anusavice, K J

    1998-01-01

    The successful implementation of a preventive dentistry program depends, to a large extent, on the compliance of the patient. The scheduled program would include: recall appointments, all instructions relative to oral hygiene, use of nightly fluoride rinses, and control of diet. To ensure that high-risk patients who have cariogenic bacteria are adequately treated, chlorhexidine rinses may be required on a periodic basis. The patient's level of risk must determine all treatment decisions. For low-risk patients, the times between recall appointments can be extended when evidence of caries arrest and remineralization can be documented. High-risk patients should be recalled at least every three months, until evidence of lesion arrest and/or remineralization has been documented. For patients with extremely low saliva flow rates, the combined chlorhexidine and fluoride method may be required. If the caries risk is still judged to be high according to bacteria counts and/or evidence of further lesion development or progression, more frequent applications of chlorhexidine may be required. Because fluoride varnish is generally more effective on smooth surfaces than on fissure sites, moderate caries-risk patients should receive fluoride varnish on smooth surfaces, and sealants, when indicated, on fissure sites. As the caries risk of the patient is reduced to a low-risk level, less frequent use of fluoride-containing or fluoride releasing products is indicated, and there can be longer periods between recall examinations. Three applications of fluoride varnish, applied to a single week, appear to provide greater caries protection than two applications per year. Attempts should be made to ensure that the varnish is applied immediately after cleaning the teeth and protected as long as possible after the varnish has been applied (preferably at least 10 hours). Fluoride varnish appears to be as effective as topical fluoride gel and may be safer. Thus, a greater frequently of

  10. Effect of fluoride varnish on Streptococcus mutans counts in plaque of caries-free children using dentocult SM strip mutans test: A randomized controlled triple blind study

    OpenAIRE

    Jeevarathan J; Deepti A; Muthu M; Rathna Prabhu V; Chamundeeswari G

    2007-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases and although of multifactorial origin, Streptococcus mutans is considered the chief pathogen in its development. Fluoride is one of the most effective agents used for the reduction of dental caries apart from oral hygiene maintenance. Aims: The aim of this study was to estimate the counts of Streptococcus mutans and to evaluate the effect of Fluor Protector fluoride varnish on these counts in the plaque of caries-free childr...

  11. Comparative evaluation of the efficacy of fluoride varnish and casein phosphopeptide - Amorphous calcium phosphate in reducing Streptococcus mutans counts in dental plaque of children: An in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandak, Shweta; Bhondey, Ashish; Bhardwaj, Amit; Pimpale, Jitesh; Chandwani, Manisha

    2016-01-01

    To assess the comparative efficacy of fluoride varnish and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) complex visa viz. Streptococcus mutans in plaque, and thereby the role that these two agents could play in the prevention of dental caries. A cluster sample of 120 caries inactive individuals belonging to moderate and high caries risk group were selected from 3-5-year-old age group based on the criteria given by Krassee and were randomized to four groups, namely, fluoride varnish - Group I, CPP-ACP complex - Group II, mixture of CPP-ACP complex -Gourp III, and fluoride and routine oral hygiene procedures as control - Group IV. The results thus obtained were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16. A statistically significant difference in the pre and post-application scores of S. mutans (P fluoride group being the most proficient. Materials such as fluoride varnish, CPP-ACP, and CPP-ACP plus fluoride protects the tooth structure, preserving the integrity of primary dentition, with the most encouraging results being with CPP-ACP plus fluoride.

  12. The Use of Fluoride Varnish and Its Determining Factors among Children with Disability in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Rhay-Hung; Kung, Pei-Tseng; Tsai, Wen-Chen; Chiang, Hsien-Hsiung; Chiu, Li-Ting

    2011-01-01

    The oral health of children with disability is often not as good as that of other children. In view of improving their oral health, this study aims to explore the utilization of fluoride varnish services among children with disability in Taiwan and its relevant influencing factors. With children under the age of 5 as subjects, this study is…

  13. Role of fluoride varnish in preventing early childhood caries: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Poulami; Fareed, Nusrath; Battur, Hemant; Khanagar, Sanjeev; Bhat, Manohar A; Palaniswamy, Jagan

    2017-01-01

    Early childhood caries is a public health problem that continues to affect babies and preschool children worldwide. This untreated caries process results in progressive destruction of the crowns of the teeth, often accompanied by severe pain and suffering, affecting the quality of life. Fluoride varnish which is one of the most important materials to prevent ECC is easy to apply and well tolerated by children. This study aimed to evaluate the scientific evidence regardingthe role of fluoride varnish in preventing early childhood caries. Records were searched from various databases such as PubMed/Medline, Cochrane, and EMBASE. Articles published over the past 36 years (1979-2015) were identified using the key search terms. A total of 190 records were identified by title/abstracts/full text articles and were retrieved. Potentially relevant reports identified from the reference lists of relevant studies, review articles and chapters were hand-searched, which yielded an additional 10 articles. The main outcome of our investigation was prevention of early childhood caries following application of fluoride varnish and unavoidable fluoride exposure. Out of 190 articles originally identified, 30 records were considered potentially eligible and sought for further assessment. 17 articles met the inclusion criteria and these studies were assessed independently for methodology and performance. Analysis of literature revealed that basically two concentrations of fluoride varnishes have been used: 1% and 5%, with a caries preventive fraction ranges of 6.4-30% and 5-63%, respectively. The results showed that fluoride varnishes have been used at concentrations of 1% and 5% in the prevention of ECC. The preventive fraction was influenced by the frequency of application, the duration of study and sample size. The evidence level of the studies was of moderate to limited value.

  14. Fluoride Varnish Effect on Preventing Dental Caries in a Sample of 3-6 Years Old Children

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi, Tayebeh Malek; Hajizamani, Abolghasem; Hajizamani, Hamid Reza; Abolghasemi, Batol

    2015-01-01

    Background: Early childhood caries is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases of children that affect their life and their family in different aspects. Using different types of fluoride is one of the most effective ways for preventing the disease. Fluoride varnish is a topical fluoride product which could use in the community even by non-professional. This study aimed to assess the effect of fluoride varnish on dental caries in a group of children aged 3-6 years old in Kerman kindergarten ...

  15. Pharmacokinetics of fluoride in toddlers after application of 5% sodium fluoride dental varnish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgrom, Peter; Taves, Donald M; Kim, Amy S; Watson, Gene E; Horst, Jeremy A

    2014-09-01

    The prevalence of dental caries (tooth decay) among preschool children is increasing, driven partially by an earlier age of onset of carious lesions. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends application of 5% sodium fluoride varnish at intervals increasing with caries risk status, as soon as teeth are present. However, the varnishes are marketed for treatment of tooth sensitivity and are regulated as medical devices rather than approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for prevention of dental caries (tooth decay). The objective of this research is to examine the safety of use in toddlers by characterizing the absorption and distribution profile of a currently marketed fluoride varnish. We measured urinary fluoride for 5 hours after application of fluoride varnish to teeth in 6 toddlers aged 12 to 15 months. Baseline levels were measured on a separate day. The urine was extracted from disposable diapers, measured by rapid diffusion, and extrapolated to plasma levels. The mean estimated plasma fluoride concentration was 13 μg/L (SD, 9 μg/L) during the baseline visit and 21 μg/L (SD, 8 μg/L) during the 5 hours after treatment. Mean estimated peak plasma fluoride after treatment was 57 μg/L (SD, 22 μg/L), and 20 μg/kg (SD, 4 μg/L) was retained on average. Retained fluoride was 253 times lower than the acute toxic dose of 5 mg/kg. Mean plasma fluoride after placement of varnish was within an SD of control levels. Occasional application of fluoride varnish following American Academy of Pediatrics guidance is safe for toddlers. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. Industry sponsorship in trials on fluoride varnish or gels for caries prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reda, Seif; Elhennawy, Karim; Meyer-Lückel, Hendrik; Paris, Sebastian; Schwendicke, Falk

    2017-08-01

    Fluoride is effective for caries prevention, but trials on fluoride varnish or gels are often industry-sponsored. We assessed trial design and findings in sponsored and nonsponsored trials on fluoride varnish and fluoride gels for caries prevention. Data on trials included in the most recent Cochrane Reviews on fluoride varnish and fluoride gels were extracted. Sample sizes/age/dentition, year/country of publication, follow-up, test and control, risk of bias and spin (claims of a beneficial effect that were not supported by reported data) were assessed. Studies were categorized as certainly, possibly and not sponsored, and statistically compared. Inverse-generic meta-analysis and multivariable weighted least-squares meta-regression were used to assess impact of sponsorship status on effect estimates. Based on 19 nonsponsored, 14 possibly sponsored and 11 certainly sponsored trials, sponsored studies were published significantly earlier, always had >1 test group, and had significantly lower risk of spin. Caries-preventive effects were higher in earlier trials, without indication for sponsorship bias in trials published until 1990 (there were no sponsored trials afterwards). If assessing the overall body of evidence and accounting for confounders, the caries-preventive effect was significantly associated with year of publication (β: -0.06, 95% CI: -0.10/-0.02), but not sponsorship status. Industry-sponsorship bias had limited impact on the overall evidence. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Pit and fissure sealants versus fluoride varnishes for preventing dental decay in the permanent teeth of children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahovuo-Saloranta, Anneli; Forss, Helena; Hiiri, Anne; Nordblad, Anne; Mäkelä, Marjukka

    2016-01-18

    Most of the detected increment in dental caries among children and adolescents is confined to occlusal surfaces of posterior permanent molars. Dental sealants and fluoride varnishes are much used preventive options for caries. Although the effectiveness of sealants and fluoride varnishes for controlling caries as compared with no intervention has been demonstrated in clinical trials and summarised in systematic reviews, the relative effectiveness of these two interventions remains unclear. This review is an update of one first published in 2006 and last updated in 2010. Primary objective • To evaluate the relative effectiveness of fissure sealants compared with fluoride varnishes, or fissure sealants together with fluoride varnishes compared with fluoride varnishes alone, for preventing dental caries in the occlusal surfaces of permanent teeth of children and adolescents. Secondary objectives • To evaluate whether effectiveness is influenced by sealant material type and length of follow-up.• To document and report on data concerning adverse events associated with sealants and fluoride varnishes. We searched the following electronic databases: the Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register (to 18 December 2015), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2015, Issue 11), MEDLINE via Ovid (1946 to 18 December 2015) and EMBASE via Ovid (1980 to 18 December 2015). We also searched the US National Institutes of Health Trials Register (http://clinicaltrials.gov) and the World Health Organization (WHO) Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials. We placed no restrictions on language or date of publication when searching electronic databases. We screened the reference lists of identified trials and review articles for additional relevant studies. We included randomised controlled trials with at least 12 months of follow-up comparing fissure sealants, or fissure sealants together with fluoride varnishes, versus fluoride varnishes for

  18. Effect of fluoride varnish on caries prevention of partially erupted of permanent molar in high caries risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwansingha, Orawan; Rirattanapong, Praphasri

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the effectiveness of fluoride varnish as a public health intervention to prevent caries on partially erupted first and second permanent molars among 6-11 year old children at high risk for caries. In a six-month clinical trial, 105 children were randomly divided into a fluoride varnish (Duraphat) group (117 molars) or a control group (117 molars). The chi-square test used to compare caries occurrence in each group with a 95% level of confidence (pfluoride varnish resulted in 79% and 77.5% caries reduction in partially erupted permanent molars at 3 and 6 months, respectively. There were statistically significant differences in caries progression between the groups at 3 and 6 months. Fluoride varnish significantly reduced carious lesions in partially erupted molars at six months among high caries risk children.

  19. Pharmacokinetics of Fluoride in Toddlers After Application of 5% Sodium Fluoride Dental Varnish

    OpenAIRE

    Milgrom, Peter; Taves, Donald M.; Kim, Amy S.; Watson, Gene E.; Horst, Jeremy A

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of dental caries (tooth decay) among preschool children is increasing, driven partially by an earlier age of onset of carious lesions. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends application of 5% sodium fluoride varnish at intervals increasing with caries risk status, as soon as teeth are present. However, the varnishes are marketed for treatment of tooth sensitivity and are regulated as medical devices rather than approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for preventi...

  20. Randomised Clinical Trial on Resin Infiltration and Fluoride Varnish vs Fluoride Varnish Treatment Only of Smooth-surface Early Caries Lesions in Deciduous Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turska-Szybka, Anna; Gozdowski, Dariusz; Mierzwińska-Nastalska, Elżbieta; Olczak-Kowalczyk, Dorota

    2016-01-01

    To clinically evaluate the effectiveness of resin infiltration in conjunction with fluoride varnish treatment vs fluoride varnish treatment alone on facial smooth-surface caries lesions in deciduous teeth. This randomised clinical trial was conducted in 419 children aged 18-71 months with at least two active smooth-surface caries lesions in deciduous teeth (ICDAS II score 2). Eighty-one participants met the inclusion criteria and were allocated to one of the two treatment groups: resin infiltration and fluoride varnish (RI+FV) (n = 41) and fluoride varnish only (FV) (n = 40). The prevalence of treated white spot lesions (WSL) was scored. Fluoride varnish was applied in both groups every 3 months for a year. The mean baseline age of children was 3.8 ± 1.3 years. The effectiveness of resin infiltration measured as the percentage of children who did not present any progression of the treated lesions amounted to 43.1%. After one year, 92.1% of the infiltrated lesions (RI+FV) and 70.6% of the FV lesions had not progressed (p fluoride varnish treatment of early facial smooth-surface caries lesions in deciduous teeth is superior to fluoride varnish treatment alone for reducing lesion progression.

  1. Effect of fluoride varnish with added casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate on the acid resistance of the primary enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuloglu, Nuray; Bayrak, Sule; Tunc, Emine Sen; Ozer, Fusun

    2016-09-26

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of a fluoride varnish with added Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate (CPP-ACP) treatments on acid resistance of primary teeth enamel. Enamel specimens obtained from 40 primary incisors (for surface microhardness testing) and 40 primary molars (for demineralization depth measurement) were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10 incisors and 10 molars) each according to surface treatment: no treatment (control), MI varnish (1-8 % sodium fluoride and 1-5 % CPP-ACP), Clinpro White (1-5 % sodium fluoride and fluoride). Specimens were stored for 24 h in a moist environment. After varnish residues were removed, specimens were subjected to pH cycling. The effects of fluoride varnishes were evaluated according to surface microhardness, lesion depth and structural changes. Results were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's tests. The lowest changes in surface microhardness and lesion depth occurred in MI varnish group, followed by the Clinpro White, Duraphat and no treatment (control) group (for percentage of loss surface microhardness -20.80, -34.60, -57.80 and -73.40; for lesion depth values 23.60 μm ± 3.36, 29.85 μm ± 3.27, 40.37 μm ± 3.41 and 54.56 μm ± 4.16, respectively). Statistically significant differences in both surface microhardness and lesion depth were observed among all groups (P fluoride varnish containing CPP-ACP was more effective in increasing the acid resistance of primary enamel than other fluoride varnishes. However, further clinical research is needed to confirm these in vitro results.

  2. Antibacterial effects of fluoride varnish compared with chlorhexidine plus fluoride in disabled children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baygin, Ozgul; Tuzuner, Tamer; Kusgoz, Adem; Senel, Ahmet Can; Tanriver, Mehmet; Arslan, Ipek

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of fluoride varnish vs a combination of chlorhexidine-thymol varnish plus a gel containing chlorhexidine and fluoride on oral hygiene and caries prevention in disabled children. Ninety patients aged 3-17 years who were treated under general anaesthesia were randomly assigned into three groups as follows: group 1: Fluor Protector (0.1% fluoride varnish); group 2: Cervitec Plus (1% chlorhexidine- 1% thymol varnish) + Cervitec Gel (0.2% chlorhexidine-0.2% sodium fluoride); group 3: control (toothbrushing only). Mutans streptococci (MS) and lactobacilli (LB) levels, visible plaque index (VPI) and gingival bleeding index (GBI) were evaluated at four stages: T0, before general anaesthesia; T1, one month after treatment; T2, six months after treatment; T3, twelve months after treatment. The data were evaluated using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests (P 0.05). The use of materials that include both fluoride and chlorhexidine as routine treatment of children with disability may increase the success of restorations by improving oral hygiene, reduce the need for future restorative treatments and thus the need for general anaesthesia.

  3. Fluoride varnish in the prevention of dental caries in children and adolescents: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarpazhooh, Amir; Main, Patricia A

    2009-01-01

    To develop a scientifically current and evidence-based protocol for the use of fluoride varnish for the prevention of dental caries among high-risk children and adolescents. Previous systematic reviews on this topic were used as the basis for the current review. Ovid MEDLINE, CINAHL and several other relevant bibliographic databases were searched for English-language articles, with human subjects, published from 2000 to 2007. A total of 105 articles were identified by the literature search; relevance was determined by examining the title, abstract and body of the article. Seven original research studies met the inclusion criteria. These articles were read and scored independently by 2 reviewers, and evidence was extracted for systematic review. The following recommendations were developed on the basis of the evidence: 1. For high-risk populations (e.g., people with low socioeconomic status, new immigrants and refugees, First Nations and Inuit children and adolescents), fluoride varnish should be applied twice a year, unless the individual has no risk of caries, as indicated by past and current caries history. This schedule of application would permit sealants to be checked biannually to ensure retention. 2. Single-dose packages of fluoride varnish should be used for children; the varnish in such packages should be stirred vigorously before application, to ensure that any precipitated fluoride is redissolved. 3. There is good evidence of the complementary efficacy of preventive strategies such as sealants and varnish, as well as toothbrushing and nutritional counselling; oral health care programs should therefore include as many complementary strategies as possible.

  4. Caries-preventive effectiveness of a fluoride varnish: a randomized controlled trial in adolescents with fixed orthodontic appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecksén-Blicks, C; Renfors, G; Oscarson, N D; Bergstrand, F; Twetman, S

    2007-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate the efficacy of topical fluoride varnish applications on white spot lesion (WSL) formation in adolescents during treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances. The study design was a double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled trial with two parallel arms. The subjects were 273 consecutive 12- to 15-year-old children referred for maxillary treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances. The patients were randomly assigned to a test or a control group with topical applications of either a fluoride varnish (Fluor Protector) or a placebo varnish every 6th week during the treatment period. The outcome measures at debonding were incidence and progression of WSL on the upper incisors, cuspids and premolars as scored from digital photographs by 2 independent examiners. The attrition rate was 5%. The mean number of varnish applications was 10 (range 4-20) in both groups. The incidence of WSL during the treatment with fixed appliances was 7.4% in the fluoride varnish compared to 25.3% placebo group (p treatment with fixed appliances may reduce the development of WSL adjacent to the bracket base. Application of fluoride varnish should be advocated as a routine measure in orthodontic practice. (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

  5. The utilization of fluoride varnish and its determining factors among Taiwanese preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chen Tsai

    2016-08-01

    Conclusion: In order to increase the utilization of fluoride varnish among preschool children in Taiwan in the future, target groups consisting of females, children < 3 years of age, and disabled children should be prioritized. Parental factors are also important in affecting the utilization of fluoride varnish in children.

  6. Combination effect of fluoride dentifrices and varnish on deciduous enamel demineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Gatti

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the anticaries potential of 500 or 1100 ppm F dentifrices combined with fluoride varnish using a pH-cycling regimen. Seventy primary canines were covered with nail polish, leaving a 4×4 mm window on their buccal surface, and randomly assigned into 7 groups (n = 10: S: sound enamel not submitted to the pH-cycling regimen or treatment; N: negative control, submitted to the pH-cycling regimen without any treatment; D1 and D2: subjected to the pH-cycling regimen and treated twice daily with 1100 or 500 ppm F dentifrice, respectively; VF: fluoride varnish (subjected to F-varnish before and in the middle of the pH-cycling regimen; and VF+D1 and VF+D2. After 10 days, the teeth were sectioned, and enamel demineralization was assessed by cross-sectional hardness at different distances from the dental surface. Data were analyzed using a two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's test. Dentifrice with 1100 ppm F and the combination of F-varnish with the dentifrices significantly reduced enamel demineralization compared with the negative control (p 0.05. The effect of combining F-varnish with the dentifrices was not greater than the effect of the dentifrices alone (p < 0.05. The data suggest that the combination of F-varnish with dentifrices containing 500 and 1100 ppm F is not more effective in reducing demineralization in primary teeth than the isolated effect of dentifrice containing 1100 ppm F.

  7. Evaluation of a fluoride-containing varnish in children with low caries incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolehmainen, L

    1981-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the caries-preventive effect of four applications during 2 years of the fluoride-containing varnish, Fluor Protector. The final series examined during the 2-year follow-up period comprised 76 girls and 87 boys, whose average age at the onset of the experiment was 12.8 +/- 0.6 years. The test was carried out as a blind study, using a half-month technique. The fluoride content of the surface enamel was measured in 40 children. The results obtained by the conventional fluoride electrode technique were compared with those obtained by the sensitive physical technique based on proton beam bombarding using bovine primary teeth. The teeth were cut longitudinally into two halves; one half was treated with Fluor Protector and the other half served as a control. Clinical examinations of the children showed that the number of carious lesions requiring active treatment was low on both the control and experimental side of the mouth. Varnish treatment did not reduce caries in these children. The fluoride content of the surface enamel was relatively high on the untreated control side, but no increasing trend was observed during the 2-year follow-up period. The fluoride content of the treated teeth was markedly elevated throughout the follow-up period. The in vitro experiments with the bovine teeth showed that etching did not release all the fluoride present in the tooth enamel.

  8. Evaluation of the remineralization capacity of CPP-ACP containing fluoride varnish by different quantitative methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selcuk SAVAS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of CPP-ACP containing fluoride varnish for remineralizing white spot lesions (WSLs with four different quantitative methods. Material and Methods Four windows (3x3 mm were created on the enamel surfaces of bovine incisor teeth. A control window was covered with nail varnish, and WSLs were created on the other windows (after demineralization, first week and fourth week in acidified gel system. The test material (MI Varnish was applied on the demineralized areas, and the treated enamel samples were stored in artificial saliva. At the fourth week, the enamel surfaces were tested by surface microhardness (SMH, quantitative light-induced fluorescence-digital (QLF-D, energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS and laser fluorescence (LF pen. The data were statistically analyzed (α=0.05. Results While the LF pen measurements showed significant differences at baseline, after demineralization, and after the one-week remineralization period (p0.05. With regards to the SMH and QLF-D analyses, statistically significant differences were found among all the phases (p<0.05. After the 1- and 4-week treatment periods, the calcium (Ca and phosphate (P concentrations and Ca/P ratio were higher compared to those of the demineralization surfaces (p<0.05. Conclusion CPP-ACP containing fluoride varnish provides remineralization of WSLs after a single application and seems suitable for clinical use.

  9. Parental preference for fluoride varnish: a new concept in a rapidly developing nation

    OpenAIRE

    Hendaus MA; Jama HA; Siddiqui FJ; Elsiddig SA; Alhammadi AH

    2016-01-01

    Mohamed A Hendaus,1,2 Hibaq A Jama,1 Faisal J Siddiqui,1,3 Sohair A Elsiddig,1 Ahmed H Alhammadi1,2 1Department of Pediatrics, General Academic Pediatrics Section, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, 2Department of Clinical Pediatrics, Weill Cornell Medical College, 3Pediatric Residency Program, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate parental preference for fluoride varnish in a country where the average percentage of dental caries in y...

  10. Parental preference for fluoride varnish: a new concept in a rapidly developing nation

    OpenAIRE

    Hendaus MA; Jama HA; Siddiqui FJ; Elsiddig SA; Alhammadi AH

    2016-01-01

    Mohamed A Hendaus,1,2 Hibaq A Jama,1 Faisal J Siddiqui,1,3 Sohair A Elsiddig,1 Ahmed H Alhammadi1,2 1Department of Pediatrics, General Academic Pediatrics Section, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, 2Department of Clinical Pediatrics, Weill Cornell Medical College, 3Pediatric Residency Program, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate parental preference for fluoride varnish in a country where the average percentage of dental caries in y...

  11. The Effect of Topical Iodine and Fluoride Varnish Combination in Preventing Early Childhood Caries: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Hashemi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early Childhood Caries (ECC in the earliest stage is preventable. The studies indicate oral bacteria play an important role in pathogenesis of dental caries. According to high prevalence of ECC, alternative therapies should be explored in order to reduce the occurrence of it. Aim: This study aims to assess the effectiveness of a product containing Povidone Iodine 10% and Sodium Fluoride 0.2% as a supplementary intervention for preventing ECC.Materials and Methods: Thirty-seven children aged 4 to 6 year-old were recruited. Maxillary incisors on each side of the mouth were selected either as a test or control group. Early caries detection examinations were conducted using International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS clinically and photographically. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study, a product containing a mixture of  Povidone Iodine 10%  and Sodium Fluoride 0.2%  was applied to the designated incisors of the test group participants. This application was performed every week for a 3-month. The control group participants received a placebo mixture during the same time interval. The caries detection examinations were conducted again after 6 months and the results were compared. The data was analyzed with SPSS V.18, using McNemar test.Results: The incidence of carious lesions increased for the control group while it decreased in the test group (P

  12. In vitro caries lesion rehardening and enamel fluoride uptake from fluoride varnishes as a function of application mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippert, Frank; Hara, Anderson T; Martinez-Mier, Esperanza Angeles; Zero, Domenick T

    2013-04-01

    To study the laboratory predicted anticaries efficacy of five commercially available fluoride varnishes (FV) by determining their ability to reharden and to deliver fluoride to an early caries lesion when applied directly or in close vicinity to the lesion (halo effect). Early caries lesions were created in 80 polished bovine enamel specimens. Specimens were allocated to five FV groups (n = 16) based on Knoop surface microhardness (KHN) after lesion creation. All tested FV claimed to contain 5% sodium fluoride and were: CavityShield, Enamel Pro, MI Varnish, Prevident and Vanish. FV were applied (10 +/- 2 mg per lesion) to eight specimens per FV group (direct application); the remaining eight specimens received no FV but were later exposed to fluoride released from specimens which received a FV treatment (indirect application). Specimens were paired again and placed into containers (one per FV). Artificial saliva was added and containers placed into an incubator (27 hours at 37 degrees C). Subsequently, FV was carefully removed using chloroform. Specimens were exposed to fresh artificial saliva again (67 hours at 37 degrees C). KHN was measured and differences to baseline values calculated. Enamel fluoride uptake (EFU) was determined using the acid etch technique. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA. The two-way ANOVA highlighted significant interactions between FV vs. application mode, for both deltaKHN and EFU (P Vanish did not differ. Prevident exhibited a higher EFU when applied directly, but little difference in rehardening.

  13. The effect of fluoride varnishes on caries lesions: an in vitro investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Dehailan, Laila; Martinez-Mier, Esperanza Angeles; Lippert, Frank

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of five commercially available fluoride varnishes (FV) on caries lesions. Ninety bovine enamel specimens were assigned to five varnish groups (n = 18). Early caries lesions were created in the specimens and characterized using Vickers surface microhardness number (VHN). FV was applied to each group of specimens. Immediately afterwards, 7.5 ml of artificial saliva (AS) were pipetted over each group of specimens, collected and renewed every 15 min for 6 h. AS samples were analyzed for fluoride using an ion-specific electrode. Enamel fluoride uptake (EFU) was determined using the acid etch technique. Each group was then subjected to a pH cycling regimen for 5 days after which VHN was determined again. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for data analysis. FVs differed in their rehardening capability (highest mean value was for Enamel Pro = 32.3 ± 5.8 and lowest mean value was for Vanish = 18.9 ± 11.3). No significant difference in EFU was found among groups. Total fluoride release over 6 h was in the order of MI Varnish (303 μg/ml) > Enamel Pro (217 μg/ml) > Flor-Opal (153 μg/ml) > PreviDent(84 μg/ml) > Vanish(28 μg/ml). ΔVHN and fluoride release characteristics differ among FV products. These differences may be attributed to the different compositions and physical properties of the tested FV. Fundamental, comparable research on FV and how different formulations affect early caries lesion rehardening, fluoride release into saliva, and uptake by teeth is scarce.

  14. Impact of South Carolina's Medicaid fluoride varnish reimbursement policy on children's receipt of fluoride varnish in medical and dental settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veschusio, Christine N; Probst, Janice C; Martin, Amy B; Hardin, James W; L Hale, Nathan

    2016-09-01

    We estimated the effect of South Carolina's (SC) Medicaid fluoride varnish (FV) reimbursement policy on children's receipt of fluoride varnish in medical (MFV) and dental (DFV) settings. We obtained data from SC Medicaid enrollment and claims files for children ≤ 47 months of age across State Fiscal Years (SFY) 2008-2013 and created a panel dataset of 52,841 children representing 126,464 child-years of observation. Pooled multivariate logistic regression models were estimated to identify factors associated with a higher likelihood of a child receiving one or more MFV or DFV treatments. The FV rates per child-year were 1 percent for physicians and 23 percent for dentists, respectively. The child-year rate for receipt of FV from both a physician and a dentist was less than one-third of one percent. A policy designed to increase access to FV treatments from physicians and dentists for children up to forty-seven months of age was not successful for physicians; however, the positive findings for dentists were promising. © 2016 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  15. Caries prevention during orthodontic treatment: In-vivo assessment of high-fluoride varnish to prevent white spot lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrini, Federico; Lombardo, Luca; Arreghini, Angela; Medori, Silvia; Siciliani, Giuseppe

    2016-02-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of a fluoridated varnish in preventing white spot lesions in patients with fixed appliances. A laser-induced fluorescence device was used to determine any correlations between the degree of demineralization and the length of the observation period, the arch sector, the frequency of varnish application, and the specific tooth site. A split-mouth study design was used for 24 orthodontic patients, allocated randomly to 2 subgroups with differing frequencies of Duraphat varnish (Colgate-Palmolive, New York, NY) application. Repeated measures of the degree of demineralization were taken on the vestibular surfaces of 12 teeth (6 varnished and 6 unvarnished controls). Measurements were taken at 4 sites using a DIAGNOdent Pen 2190 laser (KaVo, Biberach an der Riss, Germany) and then subjected to statistical analysis. Generalized linear model and coefficient model analysis showed differences in the degrees of demineralization between treated and untreated teeth, but this was not statistically significant in terms of time point, frequency of application, or specific tooth site. However, when we analyzed the position of the teeth, the varnished anterior teeth showed a statistically significant reduction in demineralization compared with their unvarnished counterparts. Periodic application of fluoride varnish can offer some protection against white spots, but not to a statistically significant degree if the patients have excellent oral hygiene. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Fluoride varnish effect on preventing dental caries in a sample of 3-6 years old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Tayebeh Malek; Hajizamani, Abolghasem; Hajizamani, Hamid Reza; Abolghasemi, Batol

    2015-01-01

    Early childhood caries is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases of children that affect their life and their family in different aspects. Using different types of fluoride is one of the most effective ways for preventing the disease. Fluoride varnish is a topical fluoride product which could use in the community even by non-professional. This study aimed to assess the effect of fluoride varnish on dental caries in a group of children aged 3-6 years old in Kerman kindergarten during 6 month's period. This community interventional study recruited a sample of volunteer children from 12 kindergartens through a cluster sampling. Kindergarten randomly allocated to test and control group after matching. Dental examination was performed in three phases of the study by a trained dentist using criteria of Intentional Caries Detection and Assessment System. Fluoride varnish was applied for test group in the first phase after dental examination and also 3 and 6 months after this phase. Control group has received varnish product just after 3 and 6 months after the first dental exam. Mean decayed, missed and filled teeth (dmft) were compared between and within groups using T-test. From 476 children who participated in the study 55% were boys and the 6 years group was the most frequent group with 35% (166). Mean dmft difference was significant between Phase 1 and 2 (P = 0.05) in the test group but there was no significant difference between Phase 2 and 3 (P = 0.07). The difference was not significant between Phase 1 and 2 (P = 0.09) but it was significant between Phase 1 and 3 (P = 0.03) in the control group. The study results showed a decrease in mean dmft after applying the fluoride varnish which confirms previous studies.

  17. Evaluation of the remineralization capacity of CPP-ACP containing fluoride varnish by different quantitative methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savas, Selcuk; Kavrìk, Fevzi; Kucukyìlmaz, Ebru

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of CPP-ACP containing fluoride varnish for remineralizing white spot lesions (WSLs) with four different quantitative methods. Four windows (3x3 mm) were created on the enamel surfaces of bovine incisor teeth. A control window was covered with nail varnish, and WSLs were created on the other windows (after demineralization, first week and fourth week) in acidified gel system. The test material (MI Varnish) was applied on the demineralized areas, and the treated enamel samples were stored in artificial saliva. At the fourth week, the enamel surfaces were tested by surface microhardness (SMH), quantitative light-induced fluorescence-digital (QLF-D), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and laser fluorescence (LF pen). The data were statistically analyzed (α=0.05). While the LF pen measurements showed significant differences at baseline, after demineralization, and after the one-week remineralization period (p0.05). With regards to the SMH and QLF-D analyses, statistically significant differences were found among all the phases (pfluoride varnish provides remineralization of WSLs after a single application and seems suitable for clinical use.

  18. Effect of different fluoride varnishes on mineralization of artificial enamel carious lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Said, Siti Norhazlin Binti

    2015-01-01

    The chalky white appearance on enamel is known as White Spot Lesion (WSL). This initial caries lesion involves the dynamic process of demineralization and remineralization. Fluoride varnish has been shown to prevent WSL in post-eruptive tooth. The literature review summarized the available evidence on the various agents added to topical fluoride varnish, such as casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP), xylito-coated calcium and phosphate, amorphous calcium phosphate (A...

  19. Randomized Equivalence Trial of Intensive and Semiannual Applications of Fluoride Varnish in the Primary Dentition

    OpenAIRE

    Weinstein, P; Spiekerman, C.; Milgrom, P

    2009-01-01

    For children in the primary dentition with high caries prevalence the standard semiannual application of fluoride varnish may not be successful in preventing tooth decay. Oftentimes this population is mobile and does not receive consistent preventive care. This trial tested whether an intensive fluoride 5% sodium varnish regimen (three applications/2 weeks) applied annually has an equivalent effect on caries progression in the primary dentition compared to single applications applied semiannu...

  20. Effectiveness of Fluoride Varnish Application as Cariostatic and Desensitizing Agent in Irradiated Head and Neck Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Dholam, Kanchan P.; Priyanka Piyush Somani; Prabhu, Seema D.; Ambre, Shubhangi R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of three-month fluoride varnish application on radiation caries and dental sensitivity and to assess compliance to three-month fluoride varnish application. Materials and Methods. 190 irradiated head and neck cancer patients were randomly selected and reviewed retrospectively. Oral prophylaxis, fluoride varnish application, and treatment of dental caries were done prior to radiation therapy. Patients were followed up at every three months for dental ev...

  1. Absence of Fluoride Varnish-Related Adverse Events in Caries Prevention Trials in Young Children, United States

    OpenAIRE

    Gansky, Stuart; Garcia, RI; Gregorich, SE; Ramos-Gomez, F; Braun, PA; Wilson, A.; Albino, J; Tiwari , T.; Harper, M.; Batliner, TS; Rasmussen, M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Fluoride varnish is an effective prevention intervention for caries in young children. Its routine use in clinical care is supported by meta-analyses and recommended by clinical guidelines, including the US Preventive Services Task Force (B rating). This report is the first prospective systematic assessment of adverse events related to fluoride varnish treatment in young children. Methods We determined the incidence of adverse events related to fluoride varnish treatment in 3 cli...

  2. The effect of a chlorhexidine-fluoride varnish on mutans streptococci counts and laser fluorescence readings in occlusal fissures of permanent teeth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipták, Lídia; Bársony, Nóra; Twetman, Svante

    2016-01-01

    informed consent. A double-blind split-mouth design was employed and 87 pairs of non-cavitated permanent molars were randomly assigned to treatments with either chlorhexidine- fluoride varnish (CHX-F) or chlorhexidine-thymol varnish (CHX-T, Cervitec Plus) as active control. The varnishes were topically......Objective: To evaluate the effect of a new chlorhexidinefluor ide varnish on mutans streptococci (MS) counts and laser fluorescence (LF) readings in fissures of permanent molars. Method and Materials: The study group consisted of 57 healthy schoolchildren (7 to 14 yrs) that volunteered after...... decrease (P varnishes. After 24 weeks, less than 5% exhibited high counts. There were no significant differences between the varnishes at any time point. The mean LF values were similar in both treatment groups at baseline, but a significant reduction (P

  3. The influence of varnish and high fluoride on erosion and abrasion in a laboratory investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sar Sancakli, H; Austin, R S; Al-Saqabi, F; Moazzez, R; Bartlett, D

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of concentrated fluoride varnishes to reduce enamel loss from repeated cycles of citric acid erosion and toothbrush abrasion in vitro. Polished human enamel samples were exposed to fluoride varnishes: Bifluorid10® (NaF&CaF2- 45,200 ppmF), Duraphat® (NaF 22,600 ppmF), Fluor-Protector® (difluorsilane 1000 ppmF) and a control coating of copal ether varnish (0 ppmF) group and a deionized water group. For each group of 16 samples, nine cycles of erosion and nine cycles of erosion-abrasion [1 cycle=erosion (0.3% citric acid, pH 3.2, 5 min)+artificial saliva (1 h, pH 7.0)+abrasion (120 linear strokes in artificial saliva from Oral B medium soft brushes 300 g loading]. The change in the enamel surface was evaluated using optical profilometry. Duraphat® and Bifluorid10® applications had a median (IQR) step height of 4.21 um (1.59) and 5.01 um (1.02). This was statistically significantly less than Fluor-Protector® 6.83 um (1.25), copal ether 7.22 um (1.97) and water 7.39 um (1.96) (pfluoride in a range of single-application topical varnishes was effective in reducing enamel wear from erosion and erosion-abrasion in this laboratory study. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  4. Absence of Fluoride Varnish-Related Adverse Events in Caries Prevention Trials in Young Children, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Raul I; Gregorich, Steven E; Ramos-Gomez, Francisco; Braun, Patricia A; Wilson, Anne; Albino, Judith; Tiwari, Tamanna; Harper, Maya; Batliner, Terrence S; Rasmussen, Margaret; Cheng, Nancy F; Santo, William; Geltman, Paul L; Henshaw, Michelle; Gansky, Stuart A

    2017-02-16

    Fluoride varnish is an effective prevention intervention for caries in young children. Its routine use in clinical care is supported by meta-analyses and recommended by clinical guidelines, including the US Preventive Services Task Force (B rating). This report is the first prospective systematic assessment of adverse events related to fluoride varnish treatment in young children. We determined the incidence of adverse events related to fluoride varnish treatment in 3 clinical trials on the prevention of early childhood caries, conducted under the auspices of the Early Childhood Caries Collaborating Centers, an initiative sponsored by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research. Each trial incorporated use of fluoride varnish in its protocol and systematically queried all children's parents or legal guardians about the occurrence of acute adverse events after each fluoride varnish treatment. A total of 2,424 community-dwelling, dentate children aged 0 to 5 years were enrolled and followed for up to 3 years. These children received a cumulative total of 10,249 fluoride varnish treatments. On average, each child received 4.2 fluoride varnish treatments. We found zero fluoride varnish-related adverse events. Fluoride varnish was not associated with treatment-related adverse events in young children. Our findings support its safety as an effective prevention intervention for caries in young children.

  5. 氟保护漆和氟化泡沫预防乳牙龋效果的对比研究%The Comparative Study of Fluoride Varnish and Fluoride Foam against Caries of Deciduous Teeth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈周焕; 南小思; 王唯希

    2015-01-01

    Objective:The aim of the research was to compare the preventive ef ects of fluoride varnish and fluoride foam on the caries of deciduous teeth.Methods:589 3-year-old children were randomG ly chosen and divided into fluoride varnish group,fluoride foam group and control group.Objects in fluoride groups received caries prevention operation twice in the first and seventh month respectively,and 553 objects received the oral examination in the thirteenth month.A double check system was applied in data col ecting and inputting.Statistical software SPSS 17.0 was used to analyze the data.The test reG sult P<0.05 refers to the statistical y significant dif erence of the data.Result:Compared with the data before,the dental caries rates and the dmft,as wel as the SiC indexes of the three groups were higher after the fluoride measure(P<0.001).After the fluoride measure,the dmft increases of the three groups had statistical y significant dif erence(P<0.001),and the dmft increase of the fluoride varnish group was less than those of the fluoride foam group and the control group(P=0.001,P=0.002).After the fluoride measure,the SiC indexes increases of the three groups had statistical y significant dif erence(P<0.001),and the SiC index increase of the fluoride varnish group was less than those of the fluoride foam group and the control group(P<0.05).After the experiment,the incidence rates of the three groups had statistical y significant dif erence(P=0.002).The control group had higher incidence rate than the fluoride varnish group and the fluoride foam group(P=0.015,P=0.001).Conclusion:Both fluG oride varnish and fluoride foam could prevent dental caries ef ectively.For people with high caries risk,fluoride vanish had a better preventing ef ect than fluoride foam.%目的::研究氟保护漆和氟化泡沫预防乳牙龋病的效果.方法:选取辖区托幼机构内589名3岁儿童,随机分成氟保护漆组、氟化泡沫组和空白对照组.研究对象第1、7个月分

  6. Effectiveness of silver diamine fluoride and sodium fluoride varnish in arresting dentin caries in Chinese pre-school children

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, CH; Lo, ECM; Lin, HC

    2002-01-01

    Untreated dental caries in Chinese pre-school children is common. This prospective controlled clinical trial investigated the effectiveness of topical fluoride applications in arresting dentin caries. Three hundred seventy-five children, aged 3-5 years, with carious upper anterior teeth were divided into five groups. Children in the first and second groups received annual applications of silver diamine fluoride solution (44,800 ppm F). Sodium fluoride varnish (22,600 ppm F) was applied every ...

  7. The effectiveness of the biannual application of silver nitrate solution followed by sodium fluoride varnish in arresting early childhood caries in preschool children: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chun-Hung; Gao, Sherry Shiqian; Li, Samantha Ky; Wong, May Cm; Lo, Edward Cm

    2015-09-25

    The application of 38 % silver diamine fluoride (SDF) has been shown to be effective in arresting early childhood caries (ECC). Since SDF is not available in certain countries, some dentists use adjunctive application of 25 % silver nitrate (AgNO3) and 5 % sodium fluoride (NaF) to arrest ECC. This randomised controlled trial will systematically compare the efficacy of a 25 % AgNO3 solution followed by 5 % NaF varnish with that of a 38 % SDF solution in arresting ECC when applied at half-yearly intervals over a 30-month period. This study is a randomised, double-blinded, non-inferiority clinical trial. The hypothesis tested is that adjunctive application of 25 % AgNO3 followed by 5 % NaF is at least not appreciably worse than a 38 % SDF in arresting ECC. Approximately 3100 kindergarten children aged 3-4 years will be screened and at least 1070 children with caries will be recruited. This sample size is sufficient for an appropriate statistical analysis (power at 90 % (β = 0.10) with a 2-sided type-I error of α = 0.05), allowing for an overall 20 % drop-out rate. The children will be randomly allocated into 2 groups to treat their caries over a 30-month period: Group A - biannual adjunctive application of a 25 % AgNO3 solution and a 5 % NaF varnish, and Group B - biannual adjunctive application of a 38 % SDF solution followed by a placebo varnish. Clinical examinations will be conducted at 6-month intervals. Primary outcome measured is the number of active caries surfaces which are arrested. Information on confounding factors such as oral hygiene habits will be collected through a parental questionnaire. We expect that adjunctive application of 25 % AgNO3 solution and 5 % NaF varnish and of 38 % SDF solution can both effectively arrest ECC. Lower concentrations of silver and fluoride are contained in 25 % AgNO3 and 5 % NaF, respectively, than in 38 % SDF; therefore, AgNO3/NaF are more favourable for use in young children. Because its use for caries management is

  8. The Effect of the Addition of Tricalcium Phosphate to 5% Sodium Fluoride Varnishes on the Microhardness of Enamel of Primary Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Aedha AlAmoudi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of pH cycling on the microhardness of the enamel of primary human teeth treated with a conventional brown Sodium Fluoride (5% NaF Varnish to those treated with a white Fluoride Varnish (5% NaF enhanced with functionalized tricalcium phosphate (fTCP. Materials and Methods. Ninety extracted caries-free primary incisors were washed in a detergent and divided into three groups; group A received no treatment, teeth in group B were coated with Sodium Fluoride (5% NaF Varnish, while teeth in group C were coated with 5% NaF varnish enhanced with functionalized tricalcium phosphate (fTCP. After ten days of pH cycling, the surface microhardness of the teeth was measured using a Knoop indenter. Results. The mean Knoop hardness number (KHN of 5% NaF with fTCP was greater than that of 5% NaF alone while the control group had the lowest mean KHN. Conclusion. The results of this study suggest that the use of an additive such as fTCP to a fluoride varnish significantly improves the protective ability of the varnish on primary teeth in vitro.

  9. Sealant versus Fluoride in Primary Molars of Kindergarten Children Regularly Receiving Fluoride Varnish: One-Year Randomized Clinical Trial Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkala, Sisko; ElSalhy, Mohamed; Shyama, Maddi; Al-Mutawa, Sabiha A; Boodai, Hanan; Honkala, Eino

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to measure the caries preventive effect of sealants applied to occlusal surfaces of primary molars compared to fluoride varnish applications, and to assess the retention rate of sealants after 1 year. 147 first-grade pupils from two kindergarten schools in Kuwait, whose parents gave their written consent, were included. The children were examined by one dentist using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System. After the examination, sealants and fluoride varnish were applied on the selected occlusal surfaces of primary molars by another dentist. The jaw quadrant for intervention was selected randomly; molars on the contralateral side of the mouth received the contralateral intervention. Examinations and intervention were provided on the school premises in the mobile dental unit with a portable spotlight. Moisture was controlled by cotton rolls, suction and air drying. The follow-up examinations were conducted after 1 year. All children received fluoride varnish before and 6 months after the intervention. From 267 matched pairs of occlusal surfaces of primary molars, varnished surfaces were significantly more likely to develop new caries lesions than the sealed ones (odds ratio = 2.92; 95% confidence interval = 1.82-4.71) during the 1-year follow-up. The majority (73.0%) of the sealants were completely retained and 15.1% partially. Sealing fissures seems to be better in preventing occlusal caries lesions in primary molars than applying only fluoride varnish. After 1 year, the majority of sealants were retained sound. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Anti-demineralization effect of a novel fluoride-releasing varnish on dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiiya, Toru; Mukai, Yoshiharu; Tomiyama, Kiyoshi; Teranaka, Toshio

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the laboratory anti-demineralization effect of a novel fluoride-releasing varnish containing surface reaction-type prereacted glass-ionomer (S-PRG) filler. Paired specimens were cut from bovine root dentin. One of each pair was used for the S-PRG group, and the other served as a control (n = 6). A 1 x 3 mm test surface was made on each specimen with the fluoride-releasing varnish. The novel fluoride-releasing varnish is categorized as a two-bottle-type self-etch adhesive. These liquids were mixed, applied on the test surface, and light-cured for 10 seconds. As a control, an S-PRG filler-free varnish was applied in the same manner. Each specimen was immersed in 8% methylcellulose gel demineralization system (1.5 mM Ca, 0.9 mM PO4, 0.1 M acetic acid, pH 5.0) for 7 days at 3 degrees C. The mineral profiles and integrated mineral loss (IML) of the lesions were obtained by transversal microradiography and analytical software. The S-PRG group exhibited significantly thicker surface layer than the control group. Furthermore, the S-PRG group showed significantly lower IML (3,459 vol% xmicropm) than the control group (4,687 vol% xmicropm) ( P fluoride-releasing varnish increased acid resistance of root dentin in the vicinity of the coated surface.

  11. Effect of fluoride varnish and chlorhexidine-thymol varnish on mutans streptococci levels in human dental plaque: a double-blinded randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Sanchit; Baranya Shrikrishna, Suprabha; Suman, Ethel; Shenoy, Ramya; Rao, Arathi

    2014-11-01

    Recent systematic reviews on clinical trials comparing the efficacy of chlorhexidine and fluoride varnish found that the evidence was inconclusive and further well-conducted randomized controlled clinical trials were advocated. To compare the effect of fluoride varnish (F) and Chlorhexidine-thymol varnish (CHX/T) with intensive application regimen on mutans streptococci (MS) levels in human dental plaque. Seventy-five subjects between 6 and 10 years of age were allocated into three groups: Group 1-F varnish (n = 29); Group 2-CHX/T varnish(n = 29); Group 3-placebo varnish (n = 17) by stratified block randomization. After baseline plaque samples were obtained, varnish application was applied and repeated at an interval of 3 days in each group. Plaque samples were repeated at 48 h, 1 month, and 3 months. The samples were spread over mitis-salivarius-bacitracin (MSB) culture media, and the colony-forming units per ml (CFU) were measured. In both Groups 1 and 2, Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test revealed significant differences in log CFU values of MS between baseline and 48 h, baseline and 1 month but no significant difference between baseline and 3 months. An intergroup comparison at different time intervals showed that the difference between three groups was statistically insignificant. F varnish and CHX/T varnish, with an intensive regimen application have equivocal effect on MS levels in dental plaque. © 2013 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. In situ effect of sodium fluoride or titanium tetrafluoride varnish and solution on carious demineralization of enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comar, Livia P; Wiegand, Annette; Moron, Bruna M; Rios, Daniela; Buzalaf, Marília A R; Buchalla, Wolfgang; Magalhães, Ana C

    2012-08-01

    This study evaluated the effect of titanium tetrafluoride (TiF(4)) formulations on enamel carious demineralization in situ. Thirteen subjects took part in this cross-over, split-mouth, double-blind study performed in three phases of 14 d each. In each subject, two sound and two predemineralized specimens of bovine enamel were worn intra-orally and plaque accumulation was allowed. One sound and one predemineralized specimen in each subject was treated once with sodium fluoride (NaF) varnish or solution (Treatment A); TiF(4) varnish or solution (Treatment B); or placebo varnish or no treatment (Treatment C). The initially sound enamel specimens were exposed to severe cariogenic challenge (20% sucrose, eight times daily for 5 min each time), whereas the predemineralized specimens were not. Eleven subjects were able to finish all experimental phases. The enamel alterations were quantified by surface hardness and transversal microradiography. Demineralization of previously sound enamel was reduced by all test formulations except for the NaF solution, while both TiF(4) formulations were as effective as NaF varnish. For the predemineralized specimens, enamel surface hardness was increased only by TiF(4) formulations, while subsurface mineral remineralization could not be seen in any group. Within the experimental protocol, TiF(4) was able to decrease enamel demineralization to a similar degree as NaF varnish under severe cariogenic challenges, while only TiF(4) formulations remineralized the enamel surface. © 2012 Eur J Oral Sci.

  13. Effectiveness of early preventive intervention with semiannual fluoride varnish application in toddlers living in high-risk areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Maria; Dahllöf, Göran; Twetman, Svante

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated whether toddlers in an extended preventive program of semiannual fluoride varnish applications from 1 year of age had a lower incidence of caries than those undergoing a standard program. A cohort of 1-year-old children (n = 3,403) living in multicultural areas of low...... socioeconomic standing in Stockholm participated in a cluster-randomized controlled field trial with two parallel arms. The children attended 23 dental clinics. Using the ICDAS II criteria, the examiners recorded caries at baseline and after 1 and 2 years. The children in the reference group received...... a standardized oral health program once yearly between 1 and 3 years of age. The children in the test group received the same standard program supplemented with topical applications of fluoride varnish every 6 months. We compared the test group and the reference group for the prevalence and increment of caries...

  14. Effect of a chlorhexidine/thymol and a fluoride varnish on caries development in erupting permanent molars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flamee, S; Gizani, S; Caroni, C

    2015-01-01

    hygiene, dietary habits and caries experience at baseline. The dropout rate was 11.6 %. The caries incidence was low (development in the erupting molars (relative risk 1.08, 95 % CI...... 0.94-1.25). Significantly lower levels of salivary MS were disclosed in the CV group at the end of the study (p development in young permanent molars was displayed after topical applications of either a chlorhexidine/thymol varnish or a fluoride...

  15. Comparative evaluation of the efficacy of fluoride varnish and casein phosphopeptide – Amorphous calcium phosphate in reducing Streptococcus mutans counts in dental plaque of children: An in vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandak, Shweta; Bhondey, Ashish; Bhardwaj, Amit; Pimpale, Jitesh; Chandwani, Manisha

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To assess the comparative efficacy of fluoride varnish and casein phosphopeptide–amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP–ACP) complex visa viz. Streptococcus mutans in plaque, and thereby the role that these two agents could play in the prevention of dental caries. Materials and Methods: A cluster sample of 120 caries inactive individuals belonging to moderate and high caries risk group were selected from 3–5-year-old age group based on the criteria given by Krassee and were randomized to four groups, namely, fluoride varnish – Group I, CPP–ACP complex – Group II, mixture of CPP–ACP complex –Gourp III, and fluoride and routine oral hygiene procedures as control – Group IV. The results thus obtained were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16. Results: A statistically significant difference in the pre and post-application scores of S. mutans (P fluoride varnish, CPP–ACP, and CPP–ACP plus fluoride protects the tooth structure, preserving the integrity of primary dentition, with the most encouraging results being with CPP–ACP plus fluoride. PMID:27891308

  16. Effectiveness of fluoride varnish application as cariostatic and desensitizing agent in irradiated head and neck cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dholam, Kanchan P; Somani, Priyanka Piyush; Prabhu, Seema D; Ambre, Shubhangi R

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of three-month fluoride varnish application on radiation caries and dental sensitivity and to assess compliance to three-month fluoride varnish application. Materials and Methods. 190 irradiated head and neck cancer patients were randomly selected and reviewed retrospectively. Oral prophylaxis, fluoride varnish application, and treatment of dental caries were done prior to radiation therapy. Patients were followed up at every three months for dental evaluation and fluoride varnish application. Decayed-missing-filling-teeth indices, dental sensitivity, and compliance to fluoride varnish application were noted for fifteen months and analyzed statistically. Results. Significant increase in decayed-missing-filling-teeth index was seen at nine (P = 0.028), twelve (P = 0.003) and fifteen (P = 0.002) months follow-up. However, the rate of increase in decayed-missing-filling-teeth indices was 1.64/month which is less than the rate mentioned in the literature (2.5/month). There was no significant effect of sex (P = 0.952) and surgery (P = 0.672) on radiation caries, but site of disease (P = 0.038) and radiation dose (P = 0.015) were found to have statistically significant effect. Dental sensitivity decreased from 39% at 3 months to 25% at 15 months followup. 99% compliance to fluoride varnish application was seen till six months followup which decreased to 46% at fifteen months. Conclusion. Three-month fluoride varnish application is effective in decreasing radiation caries and sensitivity and has good compliance.

  17. Efficacy of fluoride varnish and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate for remineralization of primary teeth: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memarpour, Mahtab; Fakhraei, Ebrahim; Dadaein, Shorangize; Vossoughi, Mehrdad

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of oral hygiene instruction, fluoride varnish and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) for remineralizing white spot lesions (WSL), and the effect of these on the dmft index in primary teeth. In this 1-year, randomized clinical trial, 140 children aged 12-36 months with WSL in the anterior maxillary teeth were selected and randomly divided into 4 groups of 35 children each. Group 1 (control) received no preventive intervention. In group 2, there was oral hygiene and dietary counseling. In group 3, there was oral hygiene and the application of fluoride varnish at 4, 8 and 12 months after baseline. In group 4, there was oral hygiene and tooth mousse was applied by the parents twice a day over a 12-month period. At baseline and 4, 8 and 12 months after the intervention, the size of WSL in millimeters and the dmft index were recorded. One hundred and twenty-two children completed the study. Data were analyzed using the repeated-measures ANOVA test. In group 1, the mean percent WSL area and dmft index values had increased significantly at 12 months after baseline (p fluoride varnish applications or constant CPP-ACP during the 12- month period reduced the size of WSL in the anterior primary teeth and caused a small increase in dmft index values.

  18. Prediction of nursery school-aged children who refuse fluoride varnish administration in a community setting: a Childsmile investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphris, Gerry M; Zhou, Yuefang

    2014-07-01

    Young children of pre-school age may find a minimal intervention (fluoride varnish application) difficult to tolerate. To determine the significant predictors for refusing a fluoride varnish application from child, parental and nurse behaviour factors. Data included videos from 238 children (52% female, aged 3-5 years) receiving a fluoride varnish application in a Scottish nursery school setting. The St Andrews Behavioural Interaction Scheme (SABICS) was used for video coding and retrieved child refusal status, initial anxious behaviour, and nurse behaviour. A parental survey collected parent's dental anxiety [Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS)] and the child's home behaviour [Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ)]. Child demographics, dental status, and previous varnish application experience were recorded. Multivariate binary logistic regression was applied to predict child refusal of the varnish application. The response rate was 79%. Twelve children refused. The significant predictors of varnish refusal included initial anxious child behaviour (β = 5.14, P = 0.001), no previous varnish application (β = -3.89, P = 0.04), and no nurse praise (β = -1.06, P = 0.02). Information giving (P = 0.06) and reassurance (P = 0.08) were borderline significant. Initial anxiety behaviour, previous varnish experience, and not using praise by the nursing staff predicted fluoride varnish application refusal. © 2013 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Prevention of early childhood caries (ECC) through parental toothbrushing training and fluoride varnish application: a 24-month randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Emily Ming; Lo, Edward Chin Man; Chu, Chun Hung; Wong, May Chun Mei

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of hands-on training in parental toothbrushing, with or without semi-annual applications of 5% sodium fluoride varnish in preventing ECC. Study was conducted in Hong Kong where water is optimally fluoridated. Children aged 8-23 months were recruited and randomly allocated to one of three groups: Gp 1 - control, one-off oral health education talk to parents; Gp 2 - oral health education talk and parental toothbrushing training, reinforced every 6 months; Gp 3 - semi-annual application of fluoride varnish onto child's teeth in addition to the intervention provided to Gp 2. Clinical examinations of the children and interviews were conducted at baseline and after 24 months to assess the children's dental caries status and toothbrushing behaviour. Out of the 450 child-parent dyads recruited at baseline, 415 (92%) remained after 24 months. At baseline, 2% of the children had non-cavitated enamel caries lesions and the mean dmft score was 0.03 ± 0.24. Most of the children did not have daily parental toothbrushing (65-73%) and self toothbrushing (86-90%). At 24-month follow-up, including both non-cavitated and cavitated carious lesions, the incidences of ECC in Gp 1 to Gp 3 were 11.9%, 11.8%, and 17.5%, respectively (p>0.05); and the mean new dmft scores in Gp 1 to Gp 3 were 0.3, 0.2, and 0.3, respectively (p>0.05). Proportions of parents who practiced parental toothbrushing twice daily were 62.7%, 60.4%, and 65.7% in Gp 1 to Gp 3, respectively (p>0.05). In a water fluoridated area, hands-on training in parental toothbrushing, with or without semi-annual application of 5% sodium fluoride varnish may not have additional effect on preventing ECC in young children with low risk of dental caries compared to provision of oral health education to parents. In a water fluoridated area, provision of individual oral health education to parents may be sufficient for preventing ECC in young children below age 3. Supplemental training in parental

  20. Caries-preventive effectiveness of fluoride varnish as adjunct to oral health promotion and supervised tooth brushing in preschool children: a double-blind randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agouropoulos, A; Twetman, S; Pandis, N; Kavvadia, K; Papagiannoulis, L

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of biannual fluoride varnish applications in preschool children as an adjunct to school-based oral health promotion and supervised tooth brushing with 1000ppm fluoride toothpaste. 424 preschool children, 2-5 year of age, from 10 different pre schools in Athens were invited to this double-blind randomized controlled trial and 328 children completed the 2-year programme. All children received oral health education with hygiene instructions twice yearly and attended supervised tooth brushing once daily. The test group was treated with fluoride varnish (0.9% diflurosilane) biannually while the control group had placebo applications. The primary endpoints were caries prevalence and increment; secondary outcomes were gingival health, mutans streptococci growth and salivary buffer capacity. The groups were balanced at baseline and no significant differences in caries prevalence or increment were displayed between the groups after 1 and 2 years, respectively. There was a reduced number of new pre-cavitated enamel lesions during the second year of the study (p=0.05) but the decrease was not statistically significant. The secondary endpoints were unaffected by the varnish treatments. Under the present conditions, biannual fluoride varnish applications in preschool children did not show significant caries-preventive benefits when provided as an adjunct to school-based supervised tooth brushing with 1000ppm fluoride toothpaste. In community based, caries prevention programmes, for high caries risk preschool children, a fluoride varnish may add little to caries prevention, when 1000ppm fluoride toothpaste is used daily. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Threshold analysis of reimbursing physicians for the application of fluoride varnish in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Kristin S; Downs, Stephen M; Brophy, Ginger; Carney Doebbeling, Caroline; Swigonski, Nancy L

    2013-01-01

    Most state Medicaid programs reimburse physicians for providing fluoride varnish, yet the only published studies of cost-effectiveness do not show cost-savings. Our objective is to apply state-specific claims data to an existing published model to quickly and inexpensively estimate the cost-savings of a policy consideration to better inform decisions - specifically, to assess whether Indiana Medicaid children's restorative service rates met the threshold to generate cost-savings. Threshold analysis was based on the 2006 model by Quiñonez et al. Simple calculations were used to "align" the Indiana Medicaid data with the published model. Quarterly likelihoods that a child would receive treatment for caries were annualized. The probability of a tooth developing a cavitated lesion was multiplied by the probability of using restorative services. Finally, this rate of restorative services given cavitation was multiplied by 1.5 to generate the threshold to attain cost-savings. Restorative services utilization rates, extrapolated from available Indiana Medicaid claims, were compared with these thresholds. For children 1-2 years old, restorative services utilization was 2.6 percent, which was below the 5.8 percent threshold for cost-savings. However, for children 3-5 years of age, restorative services utilization was 23.3 percent, exceeding the 14.5 percent threshold that suggests cost-savings. Combining a published model with state-specific data, we were able to quickly and inexpensively demonstrate that restorative service utilization rates for children 36 months and older in Indiana are high enough that fluoride varnish regularly applied by physicians to children starting at 9 months of age could save Medicaid funds over a 3-year horizon. © 2013 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  2. Efficacy of Concomitant Therapy with Fluoride and Chlorhexidine Varnish on Remineralization of Incipient Lesions in Young Children

    OpenAIRE

    Naidu, Sarika; Tandon, Shobha; Nayak, Rashmi; Ratnanag, P Venkat; Prajapati, Deepesh; Kamath, Namitha

    2016-01-01

    Aim To assess the effect of combined use of chlorhexidine and fluoride varnish on the remineralization of incipient carious lesions in young children. Materials and methods Twenty caries-active children (80 lesions) were randomly divided into four groups and subjected to initial examination. Caries status was assessed visually and with the aid of DIAGNOdent. Baseline enamel biopsies were obtained. Subjects of groups I and II received fluoride and chlorhexidine varnish respectively. Group III ...

  3. Control of White Spot Lesion Adjacent to Orthodontic Bracket with Use of Fluoride Varnish or Chlorhexidine Gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Restrepo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to compare the effectiveness of fluoride varnish and chlorhexidine gel in controlling white spot lesions (WSLs adjacent to orthodontic brackets and to compare the ability of Quantitative Light-Induced Fluorescence (QLF to measure mineral uptake with that of transverse microradiography (TMR. Thirty premolars with artificially induced WSLs were randomly assigned to three groups: (1 two applications of 5% NaF-varnish (F, with one-week interval, (2 two applications of 2% chlorhexidine gel (CHX, with one-week interval, and (3 control (CO, no treatment. QLF was used to measure changes in fluorescence before and after caries induction, 1 week after each application and 1, 2, and 3 months after the last application of F or CHX. TMR was performed to quantify lesion depth and mineral content after caries induction to evaluate the effects of F, CHX, and CO 3 months after the last application of agents. The data were analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey’s test. All treatments increased the mineral content during the experimental period; however, F induced faster remineralization than CHX. The correlation between QLF and TMR was significantly moderate. Two applications of fluoride varnish or 2% chlorhexidine gel at one-week intervals were effective in controlling WSLs.

  4. Control of white spot lesion adjacent to orthodontic bracket with use of fluoride varnish or chlorhexidine gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Manuel; Bussaneli, Diego G; Jeremias, Fabiano; Cordeiro, Rita C L; Magalhães, Ana C; Palomari Spolidorio, Denise M; Santos-Pinto, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the effectiveness of fluoride varnish and chlorhexidine gel in controlling white spot lesions (WSLs) adjacent to orthodontic brackets and to compare the ability of Quantitative Light-Induced Fluorescence (QLF) to measure mineral uptake with that of transverse microradiography (TMR). Thirty premolars with artificially induced WSLs were randomly assigned to three groups: (1) two applications of 5% NaF-varnish (F), with one-week interval, (2) two applications of 2% chlorhexidine gel (CHX), with one-week interval, and (3) control (CO), no treatment. QLF was used to measure changes in fluorescence before and after caries induction, 1 week after each application and 1, 2, and 3 months after the last application of F or CHX. TMR was performed to quantify lesion depth and mineral content after caries induction to evaluate the effects of F, CHX, and CO 3 months after the last application of agents. The data were analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey's test. All treatments increased the mineral content during the experimental period; however, F induced faster remineralization than CHX. The correlation between QLF and TMR was significantly moderate. Two applications of fluoride varnish or 2% chlorhexidine gel at one-week intervals were effective in controlling WSLs.

  5. Comparison of the caries-protective effect of fluoride varnish with treatment as usual in nursery school attendees receiving preventive oral health support through the Childsmile oral health improvement programme. The Protecting Teeth@3 Study: a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, William; Turner, Stephen; Anopa, Yulia; McIntosh, Emma; Wu, Olivia; Conway, David I.; Macpherson, Lorna M. D.; Alex D McMahon

    2015-01-01

    Background The Scottish Government set out its policy on addressing the poor oral health of Scottish children in 2005. This led to the establishment of Childsmile, a national programme designed to improve the oral health of children in Scotland. One element of the programme promotes daily tooth brushing in all nurseries in Scotland (Childsmile Core). A second targeted component (Childsmile Nursery) offers twice-yearly application of fluoride varnish to children attending nurseries in deprived...

  6. A 12-Week Assessment of the Treatment of White Spot Lesions with CPP-ACP Paste and/or Fluoride Varnish

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    Zeynep Aslı Güçlü

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This 12-week clinical study evaluated the impact of 10% CPP-ACP and 5% sodium fluoride varnish regimes on the regression of nonorthodontic white spot lesions (WSLs. The study included 21 children with 101 WSLs who were randomised into four treatment regimes: weekly clinical applications of fluoride varnish for the first month (FV; twice daily self-applications of CPP-ACP paste (CPP-ACP; weekly applications of fluoride varnish for the first month and twice daily self-applications of CPP-ACP paste (CPP-ACP-FV; and no intervention (control. All groups undertook a standard oral hygiene protocol and weekly consultation. Visual appraisals and laser fluorescence (LF measurements were made in weeks one and twelve. The majority of WSLs in the control and FV groups exhibited no shift in appearance, whereas, in the CPP-ACP and CPP-ACP-FV groups, the lesions predominantly regressed. The visual and LF assessments indicated that the extent of remineralisation afforded by the treatments was of the following order: control ~ FV < CPP-ACP ~ CPP-ACP-FV. Self-applications of CPP-ACP paste as an adjunct to standard oral hygiene significantly improved the appearance and remineralisation of WSLs. No advantage was observed for the use of fluoride varnish as a supplement to either the standard or CPP-ACP-enhanced oral hygiene regimes.

  7. A 12-Week Assessment of the Treatment of White Spot Lesions with CPP-ACP Paste and/or Fluoride Varnish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güçlü, Zeynep Aslı; Alaçam, Alev; Coleman, Nichola Jayne

    2016-01-01

    This 12-week clinical study evaluated the impact of 10% CPP-ACP and 5% sodium fluoride varnish regimes on the regression of nonorthodontic white spot lesions (WSLs). The study included 21 children with 101 WSLs who were randomised into four treatment regimes: weekly clinical applications of fluoride varnish for the first month (FV); twice daily self-applications of CPP-ACP paste (CPP-ACP); weekly applications of fluoride varnish for the first month and twice daily self-applications of CPP-ACP paste (CPP-ACP-FV); and no intervention (control). All groups undertook a standard oral hygiene protocol and weekly consultation. Visual appraisals and laser fluorescence (LF) measurements were made in weeks one and twelve. The majority of WSLs in the control and FV groups exhibited no shift in appearance, whereas, in the CPP-ACP and CPP-ACP-FV groups, the lesions predominantly regressed. The visual and LF assessments indicated that the extent of remineralisation afforded by the treatments was of the following order: control ~ FV fluoride varnish as a supplement to either the standard or CPP-ACP-enhanced oral hygiene regimes.

  8. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of fluoride varnish in preventing dental caries of Sjögren's syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Weini; Leung, Katherine Chiu Man; Lo, Edward Chin Man; Mok, Mo Yin; Leung, Moon Ho

    2016-09-23

    Sjögren's syndrome (SS) patients are prone to caries development due to reduction of salivary flow. Topical fluoride is commonly prescribed for caries prevention. In this 24-month randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, SS patients were randomly assigned to receive either fluoride varnish or placebo gel quarterly. Development and arrest of caries at the coronal and root surfaces were recorded at 12-month and 24-month and compared to that of the baseline. Effect of fluoride varnish on oral Candida and lactobacilli colonization was explored by comparing baseline oral microbiological assessments to data obtained at 12-month and 24-month. Seventy-eight SS patients (mean age = 50 years, 2 men) completed this trial. At 24-month, the mean new coronal enamel caries were 1.6 surfaces in both groups, and new dentin caries were 1.4 and 2.7 surfaces in the fluoride and placebo group respectively (p > 0.05). Mean arrested caries were 0.6 and 0.7 surfaces for fluoride and placebo groups respectively and that of root caries were 0.3 and 0.1 surfaces (p > 0.05). The mean oral Candida count was reduced by 30 % in the fluoride group but increased 61 % in the placebo group while no change in oral lactobacilli counts in both groups at 24 months (p > 0.05). SS patients receiving fluoride varnish were significantly less likely to develop dentin caries (p fluoride varnish can prevent development of dental caries in people with Sjögren's syndrome. This study was retrospectively registered at the ISRCTN registry ( ISRCTN85164658 ) on 9 Sept 2016 and was funded by the Research Grant Council of Hong Kong.

  9. The effectiveness of the biannual application of silver nitrate solution followed by sodium fluoride varnish in arresting early childhood caries in preschool children: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Chun-Hung; Gao, Sherry Shiqian; Li, Samantha KY; Wong, May CM; Lo, Edward CM

    2015-01-01

    Background The application of 38 % silver diamine fluoride (SDF) has been shown to be effective in arresting early childhood caries (ECC). Since SDF is not available in certain countries, some dentists use adjunctive application of 25 % silver nitrate (AgNO3) and 5 % sodium fluoride (NaF) to arrest ECC. This randomised controlled trial will systematically compare the efficacy of a 25 % AgNO3 solution followed by 5 % NaF varnish with that of a 38 % SDF solution in arresting ECC when applied at...

  10. The effectiveness of the biannual application of silver nitrate solution followed by sodium fluoride varnish in arresting early childhood caries in preschool children: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Chun-Hung; Gao, Sherry Shiqian; Li, Samantha KY; Wong, May CM; Lo, Edward CM.

    2015-01-01

    Background The application of 38 % silver diamine fluoride (SDF) has been shown to be effective in arresting early childhood caries (ECC). Since SDF is not available in certain countries, some dentists use adjunctive application of 25 % silver nitrate (AgNO3) and 5 % sodium fluoride (NaF) to arrest ECC. This randomised controlled trial will systematically compare the efficacy of a 25 % AgNO3 solution followed by 5 % NaF varnish with that of a 38 % SDF solution in arresting ECC when applied at...

  11. Prevention of early childhood caries through training in parental toothbrushing and fluoride varnish application

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Ming; 姜鸣

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Early childhood caries (ECC) is common among Hong Kong preschool children. It is a disease caused by dental plaque bacteria and may be controlled by good toothbrushing habits. However, preschool children are often too young to perform effective tothbrushing, and therefore parental toothbrushing is recommended for them. The oral hygiene status of Hong Kong preschool children is usually not good and parental toothbrushing is not common. Fluoride varnish is effective in preventing ...

  12. 氟化物涂膜对正畸固定矫治中牙釉质脱矿影响的SEM研究%SEM study of fluoride varnish on enamel demineralization effects during fixed orthodontic treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚丽芸

    2015-01-01

    目的:采用扫描电镜(SEM)观察氟化物涂膜对抑制离体牙牙釉质脱矿及促进再矿化的功效。方法:选择因正畸需要拔除的前磨牙15颗,经37%磷酸处理,制备人工釉质脱矿标本,并用氟化物涂膜进行表面处理。采用SEM对标本脱矿前(对照组),脱矿后(脱矿组)以及氟化物涂膜治疗后(治疗组)的表面形貌进行观察分析。结果:对照组与脱矿组之间、脱矿组与治疗组之间形态学存在显著差异,而对照组与治疗组之间形态学差异相对较小。结论:氟化物涂膜可有效改善釉质脱矿后的牙齿脱矿形貌。%Objective:To investigate effects of fluoride varnish on the inhibition of teeth enamel demineralization and promotion of remineralization using scanning electron microscopy(SEM),and provide the experimental basis for dental caries prevention during fixed orthodontic treatment. Method:15 premolars extracted for orthodontic treatment were used and demineralized using 37%phosphate acid to prepare artificial demineralization of enamel specimens. Then the demineralized surface was treated by fluoride varnish. SEM was applied to observe surface morphology before and after demineralization , and after fluoride varnish. Result:There was significant morphological difference among the control group ,the demineralized group and the fluoride treatment group. However,the morphological difference between the control group and fluoride treated group is relatively small. Conclusion:Fluoride varnish can effectively improve remineralization of demineralized enamel.

  13. Effectiveness of Fluoride Varnish Application as Cariostatic and Desensitizing Agent in Irradiated Head and Neck Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanchan P. Dholam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of three-month fluoride varnish application on radiation caries and dental sensitivity and to assess compliance to three-month fluoride varnish application. Materials and Methods. 190 irradiated head and neck cancer patients were randomly selected and reviewed retrospectively. Oral prophylaxis, fluoride varnish application, and treatment of dental caries were done prior to radiation therapy. Patients were followed up at every three months for dental evaluation and fluoride varnish application. Decayed-missing-filling-teeth indices, dental sensitivity, and compliance to fluoride varnish application were noted for fifteen months and analyzed statistically. Results. Significant increase in decayed-missing-filling-teeth index was seen at nine (P=0.028, twelve (P=0.003 and fifteen (P=0.002 months follow-up. However, the rate of increase in decayed-missing-filling-teeth indices was 1.64/month which is less than the rate mentioned in the literature (2.5/month. There was no significant effect of sex (P=0.952 and surgery (P=0.672 on radiation caries, but site of disease (P=0.038 and radiation dose (P=0.015 were found to have statistically significant effect. Dental sensitivity decreased from 39% at 3 months to 25% at 15 months followup. 99% compliance to fluoride varnish application was seen till six months followup which decreased to 46% at fifteen months. Conclusion. Three-month fluoride varnish application is effective in decreasing radiation caries and sensitivity and has good compliance.

  14. Efficacy of Concomitant Therapy with Fluoride and Chlorhexidine Varnish on Remineralization of Incipient Lesions in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Shobha; Nayak, Rashmi; Ratnanag, P Venkat; Prajapati, Deepesh; Kamath, Namitha

    2016-01-01

    Aim To assess the effect of combined use of chlorhexidine and fluoride varnish on the remineralization of incipient carious lesions in young children. Materials and methods Twenty caries-active children (80 lesions) were randomly divided into four groups and subjected to initial examination. Caries status was assessed visually and with the aid of DIAGNOdent. Baseline enamel biopsies were obtained. Subjects of groups I and II received fluoride and chlorhexidine varnish respectively. Group III received both fluoride and chlorhexidine varnish alternatively, for a period of 4 weeks. Group IV served as the control. At 3-month follow-up, the incipient lesions were assessed again with DIAGNOdent and enamel biopsy. Results Increased calcium, phosphate, and fluoride levels were noticed in groups I, II, III compared to group IV, at the 3-month follow-up (p < 0.001). Conclusion The combined therapy with fluoride and chlorhex-idine varnish may be considered an alternative therapy for early reversal of incipient lesions. How to cite this article Naidu S, Tandon S, Nayak R, Ratnanag PV, Prajapati D, Kamath N. Efficacy of Concomitant Therapy with Fluoride and Chlorhexidine Varnish on Remineralization of Incipient Lesions in Young Children. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(4):296-302. PMID:28127159

  15. Efficacy of Concomitant Therapy with Fluoride and Chlorhexidine Varnish on Remineralization of Incipient Lesions in Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, Sarika; Tandon, Shobha; Nayak, Rashmi; Ratnanag, P Venkat; Prajapati, Deepesh; Kamath, Namitha

    2016-01-01

    To assess the effect of combined use of chlorhexidine and fluoride varnish on the remineralization of incipient carious lesions in young children. Twenty caries-active children (80 lesions) were randomly divided into four groups and subjected to initial examination. Caries status was assessed visually and with the aid of DIAGNOdent. Baseline enamel biopsies were obtained. Subjects of groups I and II received fluoride and chlorhexidine varnish respectively. Group III received both fluoride and chlorhexidine varnish alternatively, for a period of 4 weeks. Group IV served as the control. At 3-month follow-up, the incipient lesions were assessed again with DIAGNOdent and enamel biopsy. Increased calcium, phosphate, and fluoride levels were noticed in groups I, II, III compared to group IV, at the 3-month follow-up (p fluoride and chlorhex-idine varnish may be considered an alternative therapy for early reversal of incipient lesions. Naidu S, Tandon S, Nayak R, Ratnanag PV, Prajapati D, Kamath N. Efficacy of Concomitant Therapy with Fluoride and Chlorhexidine Varnish on Remineralization of Incipient Lesions in Young Children. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(4):296-302.

  16. Caries-preventive effectiveness of fluoride varnish as adjunct to oral health promotion and supervised tooth brushing in preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agouropoulos, A; Twetman, S; Pandis, N

    2014-01-01

    in Athens were invited to this double-blind randomized controlled trial and 328 children completed the 2-year programme. All children received oral health education with hygiene instructions twice yearly and attended supervised tooth brushing once daily. The test group was treated with fluoride varnish (0......OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of biannual fluoride varnish applications in preschool children as an adjunct to school-based oral health promotion and supervised tooth brushing with 1000ppm fluoride toothpaste. METHODS: 424 preschool children, 2-5 year of age, from 10 different pre schools...

  17. Effect of 5% fluoride varnish application on caries among school children in rural Brazil: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda, Airton O; Senthamarai Kannan, Raghavendra; Inglehart, Marita R; Rezende, Cristiane T; Sohn, Woosung

    2012-06-01

    To determine the efficacy of 5% sodium fluoride (NaF) varnish application in reducing caries increments in the permanent dentition of rural Brazilian school children over the course of 12 months. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted with 379 children aged 7-14 years who attended three schools in Brazil between January 2006 and December 2007. During this period, each school was visited four times at 6-month interval for recruitment, dental examinations, and fluoride varnish applications. Recruited children were randomly assigned to either a treatment (5% NaF varnish, n = 198) or a control group (placebo, n = 181). Trained interviewers collected data on oral health habits and sociodemographic characteristics from the children. Information on the child's diet was collected through a 7-day food frequency diary. Caries examinations were conducted using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS). The efficacy of fluoride varnish application on caries prevention was reported as a preventive fraction (PF). Crude caries increments of decayed and filled surfaces (DFS) were compared between fluoride varnish and placebo groups. A generalized linear model (GLM) was constructed to test the differences in DFS increments between the groups after accounting for confounding factors. Of the total sample (N = 379), 210 (55.4%) children had completed 12 months of follow-up including one or two applications of fluoride varnish or placebo. At the baseline examination, the children in the treatment and control groups presented on average 6.2 and 5.6 DFS, respectively (P varnish group showed significantly lower DFS increments than did children in the control group (10.8 versus 13.3; P varnish can be recommended as a public health measure for reducing caries incidence in this high-caries-risk population. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. Evaluation of the effects of fluoride-releasing varnish on dentin demineralization using optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotaku, Mayumi; Murayama, Ryosuke; Shimamura, Yutaka; Takahashi, Fuminori; Suzuki, Takayuki; Kurokawa, Hiroyasu; Miyazaki, Masashi

    2014-01-01

    Effects of a fluoride-releasing varnish containing surface reaction-type prereacted glass ionomer (S-PRG) filler on dentin demineralization were examined using optical coherence tomography. Bovine incisors that were sliced and treated with undersaturated 0.1 M lactic acid buffer solution (DE group). A thin film of varnish-containing S-PRG filler was applied before demineralization (PRG group). Control was maintained in artificial saliva. Using optical coherence tomography of selected locations on the dentin surface, peak intensity (dB) and width (μm) at 1/e(2) were obtained and integrated values calculated. Although alterations in integrated values were different in each group, there was a slight but not significant increase in those for the control group and a slight but significant increase for the De group. For the PRG group, integrated values were doubled seven days after experiment initiation, followed by a significant increase. Fluoride-releasing varnish containing S-PRG fillers prevented dentin demineralization as detected by optical coherence tomography.

  19. Comparative assessment of fluoride varnish and fluoride film for remineralization of postorthodontic white spot lesions in adolescents and adults over a 6-month period: A single-center, randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Tao; Li, Xue; Dong, Ying; Zhang, Na; Zhong, Yisi; Yin, Wei; Hu, Deyu

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this 3-arm parallel randomized trial was to evaluate the effects of a fluoride varnish and a fluoride film on the remineralization of white spot lesions around orthodontic brackets after orthodontic treatment. Patients who had recently completed orthodontic treatment were randomly assigned to the varnish, film, and control groups. Eligibility criteria included age of 12 to 25 years, good general health, and at least 1 maxillary anterior tooth with a white spot lesion. The primary outcome was the decrease in the lesion volume of each patient after 6 months of treatment; fluorescence loss and area were the secondary outcome measures. Randomization was accomplished according to a computer-generated randomization schedule, and allocation concealment was achieved with nontransparent concealed envelopes. Blinding was applicable for the treatments only. The test groups received fluoride varnish or film treatment once a month for 6 months, and the control group received a placebo treatment. All patients received oral hygiene education and were required to use fluoride toothpaste daily. Quantitative light-induced fluorescence images were taken at baseline and at the 3-month and 6-month follow-ups. A mixed-effects linear model was used to analyze quantitative light-induced fluorescence parameters with confounders integrated into the model. Two hundred forty patients (mean age, 16.9 years; range, 12-25 years) with 597 teeth with a white spot lesion were randomized 1:1:1 to the varnish, film, and control groups. Baseline demographics were similar between groups, and 29 patients were lost to follow-up. The primary analysis was carried out on a per-protocol basis involving 72 patients in the control group, 69 patients in the varnish group, and 70 patients in the film group who completed the study. The product of fluorescence loss and lesion area values were statistically associated with time (estimate, -4.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], -5.84 to -3.31; P varnish

  20. Comparative evaluation of the efficacy of fluoride varnish and casein phosphopeptide – Amorphous calcium phosphate in reducing Streptococcus mutans counts in dental plaque of children: An in vivo study

    OpenAIRE

    Chandak, Shweta; Bhondey, Ashish; Bhardwaj, Amit; Pimpale, Jitesh; Chandwani, Manisha

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To assess the comparative efficacy of fluoride varnish and casein phosphopeptide–amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP–ACP) complex visa viz. Streptococcus mutans in plaque, and thereby the role that these two agents could play in the prevention of dental caries. Materials and Methods: A cluster sample of 120 caries inactive individuals belonging to moderate and high caries risk group were selected from 3–5-year-old age group based on the criteria given by Krassee and were randomized to four ...

  1. Comparison of the effect of resin infiltrant, fluoride varnish, and nano-hydroxy apatite paste on surface hardness and streptococcus mutans adhesion to artificial enamel lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziznezhad, Mahdiye; Alaghemand, Homayoon; Shahande, Zahra; Pasdar, Nilgoon; Bijani, Ali; Eslami, Abdolreza; Dastan, Zohre

    2017-03-01

    Dental caries is a major public health problem, and Streptococcus mutans is considered the main causal agent of dental caries. This study aimed to compare the effect of three re-mineralizing materials: resin infiltrant, fluoride varnish, and nano-hydroxy apatite paste on the surface hardness and adhesion of Streptococcus mutans as noninvasive treatments for initial enamel lesions. This experimental study was conducted from December 2015 through March 2016 in Babol, Iran. Artificial enamel lesions were created on 60 enamel surfaces, which were divided into two groups: Group A and Group B (30 subjects per group). Group A was divided into three subgroups (10 samples in each subgroup), including fluoride varnish group, nano-hydroxy apatite paste group (Nano P paste), and resin infiltrant group (Icon-resin). In Group A, the surface hardness of each sample was measured in three stages: First, on an intact enamel (baseline); second, after creating artificial enamel lesions; third, after application of re-mineralizing materials. In Group B, the samples were divided into five subgroups, including intact enamel, demineralized enamel, demineralized enamel treated with fluoride varnish, Nano P paste, and Icon-resin. In Group B, standard Streptococcus mutans bacteria adhesion (PTCC 1683) was examined and reported in terms of colony forming units (CFU/ml). Then, data were analyzed using ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, and post hoc tests. In Group A, after treatment with re-mineralizing materials, the Icon-resin group had the highest surface hardness among the studied groups, then the Nano P paste group and fluoride varnish group, respectively (p = 0.035). In Group B, in terms of bacterial adhesion, fluoride varnish group had zero bacterial adhesion level, and then the Nano P paste group, Icon-resin group, intact enamel group, and the de-mineralized enamel group showed bacterial adhesion increasing in order (p enamel and fluoride varnish had the highest reduction level for

  2. Impact of biannual treatment with fluoride varnish on tooth-surface-level caries progression in children aged 1-3 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Maria; Dahllöf, Göran; Soares, Fernanda Cunha; Grindefjord, Margaret

    2017-10-01

    This study describes caries progression at tooth-surface level in children from 1 to 3 years of age and the impact of biannual treatment with fluoride varnish. Children who participated in a cluster-randomized controlled trial and had shown signs of dental caries were included in this study (n=801). International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) was used to classify dental caries. The present study compared children receiving a standard yearly intervention to children receiving the same standard preventive intervention supplemented with an application of fluoride varnish every half year. The maxillary incisors were the first teeth to develop cavitation (ICDAS 3-6) and also mostly affected. Further analyses focusing on maxillary incisors buccal surfaces showed that sound surfaces had least progression and that progression to extensive decay was more common in teeth that had exhibited moderate decay. A summarizing progression index (PI) was calculated for the buccal surfaces of the maxillary incisors. Between 1 and 2 years of age PI was 26% and between 2 and 3 years of age PI was 21%. The progression on buccal incisors and on occlusal first primary molars did not differ between intervention groups (p≤0,05). No impact on caries progression for biannual treatment with fluoride varnish was found. Using fluoride varnish as a complement to standard intervention in toddlers did not add in the prevention of dental caries or its progression. The education of parents in the use fluoride toothpaste as they start brushing the teeth of their children is essential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Clinical Efficacy of Fluoride Varnish and Low-Level Laser Radiation in Treating Dentin Hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Euler Maciel; Amorim, Fernanda Kyarelly de Oliveira; Nóbrega, Fernando José de Oliveira; Dantas, Poliana Medeiros Cunha; Vasconcelos, Rodrigo Gadelha; Queiroz, Lélia Maria Guedes

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of fluoride varnish (Fluorniz(r)) and irradiation with a gallium-arsenide-aluminum diode laser in the treatment of cervical dentin hypersensitivity. Cervical dentin hypersensitivity (CDH) is a painful condition that is highly prevalent in the world's adult population, with one in six patients presenting this symptom. Eighty-six teeth were divided into two groups: Group 1, teeth treated with Fluorniz; Group 2, teeth irradiated with a GaAlAs laser at a 4 J/cm2 dose. The two treatments were applied to the buccal cervical region in four sessions, at intervals of 72 to 96 h. The response of the patient to tactile and thermal-evaporative stimuli was rated on a visual analog scale. The results showed a reduction of hypersensitivity in response to tactile and thermal-evaporative stimulation at the end of treatment in both groups. In conclusion, short-term treatment with Fluorniz was found to be more effective than low-level laser radiation in reducing cervical dentin hypersensitivity.

  4. Approximal caries increment in relation to baseline approximal caries prevalence among adolescents in Sweden with and without a school-based fluoride varnish programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sköld, U M

    2016-12-01

    Approximal surfaces are a focal point for caries prevention among adolescents in Sweden and the aims of this study were therefore to evaluate approximal caries incidence and caries progression among adolescents with and without a three-year school-based fluoride varnish programme in relation to approximal caries prevalence at baseline. In all, 758 (89%) 13-year-olds completed the three-year randomised controlled trial. They all used fluoride toothpaste at home and had regular dental check-ups at the public dental clinics. The mean approximal caries incidence for the adolescents who were caries free on these surfaces at baseline was 0.13 (SD 0.54) in the fluoride varnish group and 0.79 (1.93) in the control group. The corresponding values for those who had caries at baseline in these groups were 1.29 (2.21) and 2.62 (3.22) respectively. The latter two groups also had 0.34 (1.00) and 0.70 (1.13) approximal enamel lesions that progressed. All differences were statistically significant (p⟨0.001). Among those individuals who had approximal caries at baseline, double the number of early approximal enamel lesions in the control group progressed compared with the fluoride varnish group. The school-based fluoride varnish programme inhibited new approximal lesions to a great extent and effectively kept approximal enamel lesions within the enamel among 13-16-year-olds. It is therefore recommended that such a programme is warranted when the approximal surfaces are still caries free in order to keep these surfaces free from caries and keep upcoming approximal enamel lesions within the enamel.

  5. Effectiveness of fluoride varnish in preventing early childhood caries in rural areas without access to fluoridated drinking water: A randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Millán, Patricia; Zaror, Carlos; Espinoza-Espinoza, Gerardo; Vergara-Gonzalez, Carolina; Muñoz, Sergio; Atala-Acevedo, Claudia; Martínez-Zapata, Maria José

    2017-08-29

    Early childhood caries (ECC) constitutes a serious public health issue, especially in communities without water fluoridation. We assessed the effectiveness of biannual fluoride varnish applications to prevent ECC in children from nonfluoridated rural areas. A triple-blind randomized control trial with two parallel arms was conducted with 275 two- to three-year-old children without cavitated carious lesions from 28 rural public preschools in Chile. The preschools were located in areas of low socioeconomic status without access to fluoridated water. An oral health education component was administered to children, parents and educators. A new toothbrush and toothpaste for each child was delivered to the parents at baseline and at four follow-up visits. The participants were randomly allocated to receive fluoride varnish or placebo applications every six months. Trained, calibrated dentists blind to the treatment arm performed visual dental assessments at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months. The primary endpoint was the development of cavitated carious lesions in children during the 24-month follow-up period using WHO criteria, and the secondary outcomes were an increase in caries measured as a change in the index of decayed, missing or filled teeth (dmft) since the beginning of the study and the development of adverse effects. An intention-to-treat (ITT) approach was used for the primary analysis. We included 131 participants in the intervention group and 144 participants in the placebo group; of these children, 89 (67.9%) in the intervention group and 100 (69.4%) in the control group completed the protocol. The comparative ITT analysis of caries incidence after 24 months of follow-up showed a between-group prevention fraction of 18.9% (-2.9%-36.2%). Caries incidence was 45.0% for the experiment group and 55.6% for the control group (P = .081), with a mean dmft of 1.6 (SD = 2.4) and 2.1 (SD = 2.5), respectively. No adverse effects were reported. In conclusion, biannual fluoride

  6. Effectiveness of silver diamine fluoride and sodium fluoride varnish in arresting dentin caries in Chinese pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, C H; Lo, E C M; Lin, H C

    2002-11-01

    Untreated dental caries in Chinese pre-school children is common. This prospective controlled clinical trial investigated the effectiveness of topical fluoride applications in arresting dentin caries. Three hundred seventy-five children, aged 3-5 years, with carious upper anterior teeth were divided into five groups. Children in the first and second groups received annual applications of silver diamine fluoride solution (44,800 ppm F). Sodium fluoride varnish (22,600 ppm F) was applied every three months to the lesions of children in the third and fourth groups. For children in the first and third groups, soft carious tissues were removed prior to fluoride application. The fifth group was the control. Three hundred eight children were followed for 30 months. The respective mean numbers of arrested carious tooth surfaces in the five groups were 2.5, 2.8, 1.5, 1.5, and 1.3 (p Silver diamine fluoride was found to be effective in arresting dentin caries in primary anterior teeth in pre-school children.

  7. Comparison of the effect of resin infiltrant, fluoride varnish, and nano-hydroxy apatite paste on surface hardness and streptococcus mutans adhesion to artificial enamel lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Aziznezhad, Mahdiye; Alaghemand, Homayoon; Shahande, Zahra; Pasdar, Nilgoon; Bijani, Ali; Eslami, Abdolreza; Dastan, Zohre

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Dental caries is a major public health problem, and Streptococcus mutans is considered the main causal agent of dental caries. This study aimed to compare the effect of three re-mineralizing materials: resin infiltrant, fluoride varnish, and nano-hydroxy apatite paste on the surface hardness and adhesion of Streptococcus mutans as noninvasive treatments for initial enamel lesions. Methods This experimental study was conducted from December 2015 through March 2016 in Babol, Iran. ...

  8. Randomized controlled trial on fluoride varnish application for treatment of white spot lesion after fixed orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Minquan; Cheng, Ning; Tai, Baojun; Jiang, Han; Li, Jing; Bian, Zhuan

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of fluoride varnish (5% sodium fluoride, Duraphat(®), Colgate) in reverting white spot lesions (WSLs) after fixed orthodontic treatment. This study was a randomized, parallel group, controlled clinical trial. Using saline solution as control, 110 participants (mean age ± standard deviation: 16.6 ± 3.2 years) ranging from 12 to 22 years old were randomly assigned to either the test group (group 1) or the control group (group 2). Application of fluoride varnish or saline was applied onto tooth surfaces with WSLs every month during the first 6 months after debonding. The labial (buccal) surfaces of the teeth were assessed by the use of a DIAGNOdent pen (DD) at the baseline, 3- and 6-month follow-up visits. After 6 months, 96 subjects with a total of 209 study teeth (47 subjects, 104 teeth in group 1; 49 subjects, 105 teeth in group 2) remained. The WSLs had a mean DD reading at baseline of 17.66 ± 5.36 in group 1 and 16.19 ± 5.70 in group 2, which decreased by 5.78 and 2.44, respectively, at the 3-month follow-up visit and decreased by 7.56 and 3.09, respectively, at the 6-month follow-up visit. The mean baseline DD readings in the two groups were similar (t test, P > 0.05). There was statistically significant differences between the mean DD readings of the two groups at the 3-month (P orthodontic treatment.

  9. Effectiveness of MI Paste Plus and PreviDent fluoride varnish for treatment of white spot lesions: A randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Greg J.; Roloff-Chiang, Brie; Mills, Brian E.; Shalchi, Salma; Spiekerman, Charles; Korpak, Anna M.; Starrett, Jeri L.; Greenlee, Geoffrey M.; Drangsholt, Ross J.; Matunas, Jack C.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction White spot lesions are a common sequela of orthodontic therapy. In this parallel-group randomized trial, we assessed the effectiveness of 2 agents commonly used to ameliorate white spot lesions compared with a normal home-care regimen. Methods Patients aged 12 to 20 years were recruited from the offices of orthodontists and dentists who belonged to the Practice-based Research Collaborative in Evidence-based Dentistry network. The patients had their orthodontic appliances removed within the past 2 months and had at least 1 white spot lesion affecting their maxillary incisors. The subjects were randomized to 1 of 3 arms: (1) an 8-week regimen of MI Paste Plus (GC America, Alsip, Ill), (2) a single application of PreviDent fluoride varnish (Colgate Oral Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY), and (3) usual home care (control). Photographs were taken at enrollment and 8 weeks later. Two panels consisting of 5 dental professionals and 5 laypersons assessed the before-and-after pairs of photographs in a blinded fashion. Objective assessments and self-assessments were also performed. Results One hundred fifteen subjects completed the study; 34 were assigned to the MI Paste Plus group, 40 to the fluoride varnish group, and 41 to the control group. The mean improvements assessed by the professional panel were 21%, 29%, and 27% in the MI Paste Plus, fluoride varnish, and control groups, respectively. The results from the lay panel were 29%, 31%, and 25%, respectively. Objective improvements in the surface affected were 16%, 25%, and 17%, respectively; self-assessments of improvement were 37% in all 3 groups. No assessments indicated significant differences between subjects in the active arms compared with the control arm. Conclusions MI Paste Plus and PreviDent fluoride varnish do not appear to be more effective than normal home care for improving the appearance of white spot lesions over an 8-week period. PMID:23273358

  10. Effectiveness of MI Paste Plus and PreviDent fluoride varnish for treatment of white spot lesions: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Greg J; Roloff-Chiang, Brie; Mills, Brian E; Shalchi, Salma; Spiekerman, Charles; Korpak, Anna M; Starrett, Jeri L; Greenlee, Geoffrey M; Drangsholt, Ross J; Matunas, Jack C

    2013-01-01

    White spot lesions are a common sequela of orthodontic therapy. In this parallel-group randomized trial, we assessed the effectiveness of 2 agents commonly used to ameliorate white spot lesions compared with a normal home-care regimen. Patients aged 12 to 20 years were recruited from the offices of orthodontists and dentists who belonged to the Practice-based Research Collaborative in Evidence-based Dentistry network. The patients had their orthodontic appliances removed within the past 2 months and had at least 1 white spot lesion affecting their maxillary incisors. The subjects were randomized to 1 of 3 arms: (1) an 8-week regimen of MI Paste Plus (GC America, Alsip, Ill), (2) a single application of PreviDent fluoride varnish (Colgate Oral Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY), and (3) usual home care (control). Photographs were taken at enrollment and 8 weeks later. Two panels consisting of 5 dental professionals and 5 laypersons assessed the before-and-after pairs of photographs in a blinded fashion. Objective assessments and self-assessments were also performed. One hundred fifteen subjects completed the study; 34 were assigned to the MI Paste Plus group, 40 to the fluoride varnish group, and 41 to the control group. The mean improvements assessed by the professional panel were 21%, 29%, and 27% in the MI Paste Plus, fluoride varnish, and control groups, respectively.The results from the lay panel were 29%, 31%, and 25%, respectively. Objective improvements in the surface affected were 16%, 25%, and 17%, respectively; self-assessments of improvement were 37% in all 3 groups. No assessments indicated significant differences between subjects in the active arms compared with the control arm. MI Paste Plus and PreviDent fluoride varnish do not appear to be more effective than normal home care for improving the appearance of white spot lesions over an 8-week period. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Microradiography and confocal laser scanning microscopy applied to enamel lesions formed in vivo with and without fluoride varnish treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ogaard, B; Duschner, H; Ruben, J; Arends, J

    The aim of the present investigation was to combine 2 techniques suitable for lesion characterization: quantitative microradiography (TMR) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) on in vivo induced lesions with and without a fluoride varnish (Duraphat(R)) treatment. Orthodontic bands were

  12. Caries and costs: an evaluation of a school-based fluoride varnish programme for adolescents in a Swedish region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, E K; Lingström, P; Hakeberg, M; Gahnberg, L; Sköld, U M

    2016-06-01

    In 2003, 19 public dental clinics in Västra Götaland Region implemented a population-based programme with fluoride varnish applications at school every six months, for all 12 to 15 year olds. In 2008, the programme was extended to include all 112 clinics in the region. To evaluate caries increment and to perform a cost analysis of the programme. A retrospective design with caries data for two birth cohorts extracted from dental records. Three groups of adolescents were compared. For Group 1 (n = 3,132), born in 1993, the fluoride varnish programme started in 2003 and Group 2 (n = 13,490), also born in 1993, had no fluoride varnish programme at school. These groups were compared with Group 3 (n = 11,321), born in 1998, when the programme was implemented for all individuals. The total cost of the four-year programme was estimated at 400SEK (≈ 44€) per adolescent. Caries prevalence and caries increment in 15 year olds were significantly lower after the implementation of the programme. Group 2, without a programme, had the highest caries increment. The cost analysis showed that it was a break-even between costs and gains due to prevented fillings at the age of 15. This school-based fluoride varnish programme, implemented on a broad scale for all 12 to 15 year olds, contributed to a low caries increment at a low cost for the adolescents in the Västra Götaland Region in Sweden.

  13. Timing considerations on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets after topical fluoride varnish applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossellu, Gianguido; Lanteri, Valentina; Butera, Andrea; Laffi, Nicola; Merlini, Alberto; Farronato, Giampietro

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the best temporal association between the application of a fluoride varnish on enamel and bonding procedures. Materials and Methods: Eighty mandibular bovine incisors were used. Teeth were divided into 4 groups (20 per group); Groups 1–3 were treated with fluoride varnish (Fluor Protector, Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein), and Group 4 served as control with no pretreatment. Tooth were stored in deionized water (37°C) and subjected to thermal cycling for 400 (Group 1), 800 (Group 2), and 2500 (Group 3) cycles corresponding, respectively, to 15, 30, and 90 days in order to simulate the three different timing of bracket bonding. Shear bond strength (SBS) was measured using an Instron Universal Testing machine. Tooth surfaces were examined under a stereomicroscope at 10× magnification to assess the amount of adhesive remnant index (ARI). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's honestly significant difference post-hoc test were used for the comparison of SBS values between groups (P < 0.05). The Chi-square test was used to examine differences among ARI scores. (P < 0.05). Results: One-way ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc test showed that the SBS of different groups were significantly different and was impacted by different timing of bonding (P < 0.05). The main differences were between the control group (17.02 ± 6.38 MPa) and Group 1 (6.93 ± 4.3 MPa). The ARI scores showed that there were no significant differences between the four tested groups. Conclusions: The SBS of the brackets bonded 15 days after the application of the fluoride was set back to an optimal value. PMID:28197397

  14. Control of White Spot Lesions with Use of Fluoride Varnish or Chlorhexidine Gel During Orthodontic Treatment A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, M; Bussaneli, D G; Jeremias, F; Cordeiro, R C L; Raveli, D B; Magalhães, A C; Candolo, C; Santos-Pinto, L

    2016-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of fluoride varnish and 2% chlorhexidine gel for controlling active white spot lesions (WSLs) adjacent to orthodontic brackets. Thirty-five orthodontic patients (17.2 ± 2.3 years old) presenting 60 WSLs adjacent to orthodontic brackets were enrolled in this randomized, blind, 3-armed and controlled clinical trial. The patients were randomly allocated to 1 of 3 arms: (1) two applications of 5% NaF varnish- F, with one-week interval, (2) two applications of 2% chlorhexidine gel-CHX, with one-week interval and (3) usual home care-control (CO). The WSLs were scored by using a DIAGNOdent pen. An independent examiner scored the surfaces using Nyvad criteria for caries assessment. A total of thirty patients presenting 51 lesions completed the study. All treatments reduced the fluorescence values during the experimental period; however, F induced faster remineralization than CHX. After 3 months, 70.58 % were inactive considering all groups. DIAGNOdent pen and Nyvad presented a significant correlation. After 3 months of treatment, F, CHX and CO were capable of controlling the WSLs adjacent to the orthodontic brackets. However, the treatment with F was capable of controlling the progression of the WSLs in a shorter period of time.

  15. Comparative assessment of conventional and light-curable fluoride varnish in the prevention of enamel demineralization during fixed appliance therapy: a split-mouth randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Mandar; Paramshivam, Ganesh; Mehta, Anurag; Singh, Surjit; Chugh, Ankita; Prashar, Anil; Chugh, Vinay Kumar

    2017-05-13

    To evaluate the effects of single application of a conventional versus light-curable fluoride varnish (LCFV) on prevention of enamel demineralization during fixed orthodontic treatment over a 4 month period. The research was designed as a split-mouth, randomized control trial (RCT). Twenty-two patients requiring fixed orthodontic treatment with premolar extractions were included in the RCT. In each patient, two diagonal quadrants (i.e. upper right and lower left, or vice versa) were randomly assigned to receive conventional fluoride varnish or LCFV. After allocation of one intervention, the other diagonal quadrants received the second intervention. At specific time intervals, premolars were extracted and sectioned, and the demineralized lesion was assessed in each group. The primary outcome was demineralized enamel lesion depth (DELD) at the end of 45, 90, and 120 days. A simple complete randomization list using random allocation rule (restricted randomization) was computer generated to ensure homogeneity of application of conventional or LCFV to each contralateral quadrant in a split-mouth design. Allocation concealment was not employed. Blinding was done only for outcome assessor because of clinical limitations. Twenty-two patients with 88 teeth were enrolled in the trial. After excluding the drop-outs, primary analysis was performed on 66 teeth distributed among two interventional groups. Mean difference between DELD among two groups was 36.6 µm [95 per cent confidence interval (CI) 34.61-38.55] and 58.5 µm [95 per cent confidence interval (CI) 55.65-61.43] at 90 and 120 days, respectively. Cluster level analysis performed by Paired t-test showed that DELD was significantly higher (P fluoride varnish group at the end of 90 and 120 days as compared to LCFV group. No adverse effect was observed in any patient. Being a histologic study, the role of fluoride varnish could be assessed only for 4 months. The result of this study indicate that single application of

  16. A cluster randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of fluoride varnish as a public health measure to reduce caries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, M C; Davies, G M; Duxbury, J T; Davies, R M

    2007-01-01

    This cluster randomised controlled study assessed the effectiveness of twice-yearly applications of fluoride varnish as a public health measure to reduce dental caries in children living in relatively deprived communities. The test (n = 334) and control (n = 330) children in 2 school years (unit of randomisation) attended 24 state primary schools and were 6-8 years of age at the start. Good baseline balance was found. Duraphat varnish was applied at school on 5 occasions over 26 months, by dental therapists. A combined visual and fibre-optic transillumination examination included all surfaces of primary and first permanent molars at baseline and after 26 months for small and large enamel and dentine lesions. At the final examination the only statistically significant difference was in the caries increment for small enamel lesions in the primary dentition, with the test children having fewer lesions. This study failed to demonstrate that the twice-yearly application of fluoride varnish provided at school reduced dental caries in children living in this community. The low level of response and a lower than expected caries increment had a major impact on the effectiveness of the intervention, since the children who participated were least likely to have benefited from the programme, whereas those who might have benefited did not consent.

  17. In-Office Application of Fluoride Gel or Varnish: Cost-Effectiveness and Expected Value of Perfect Information Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendicke, Falk; Stolpe, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Application of fluoride gel/varnish (FG/FV) reduces caries increments but generates costs. Avoiding restorative treatments by preventing caries might compensate for these costs. We assessed the cost-effectiveness of dentists applying FG/FV in office and the expected value of perfect information (EVPI). EVPI analyses estimate the economic value of having perfect knowledge, assisting research resource allocation. A mixed public-private-payer perspective in Germany was adopted. A population of 12-year-olds was followed over their lifetime, with caries increments modelled using wide intervals to reflect the uncertainty of caries risk. Biannual application of FV/FG until age 18 years was compared to no fluoride application. Effectiveness parameters and their uncertainty were derived from systematic reviews. The health outcome was caries increment (decayed, missing, or filled teeth; DMFT). Cost calculations were based on fee catalogs or microcosting, including costs for individual-prophylactic fluoridation and, for FG, an individualized tray, plus material costs. Microsimulations, sensitivity, and EVPI analyses were performed. On average and applied to a largely low-risk population, no application of fluoride was least costly but also least effective (EUR 230; 11 DMFT). FV was more costly and effective (EUR 357; 7 DMFT). FG was less effective than FV and also more costly when using individualized trays. FV was the best choice for payers willing to invest EUR 39 or more per avoided DMFT. This cost-effectiveness will differ in different settings/countries or if FG/FV is applied by other care professionals. The EVPI was mainly driven by the individual's caries risk, as FV/FG were significantly more cost-effective in high-risk populations than in low-risk ones. Future studies should focus on caries risk prediction. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. A comparative evaluation to assess the efficacy of 5% sodium fluoride varnish and diode laser and their combined application in the treatment of dentin hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suri, Isha; Singh, Poonam; Shakir, Quaid Johar; Shetty, Arvind; Bapat, Ranjeet; Thakur, Roshani

    2016-01-01

    Dentin hypersensitivity (DH) is an age old complaint with a great number of treatment modalities, but none of these are totally effective till date. Lasers being one of the latest treatment options in periodontics, a study was conducted to test the efficacy of diode laser (DL) in DH alone and in comparison with 5% sodium fluoride (NaF) varnish. The aim of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of 5% topical NaF varnish and 980 nm gallium aluminum arsenide (GaAlAs) DL alone and combination of 5% NaF + 980 nm GaAlAs DL in the management of DH. The study was conducted on 120 teeth in thirty patients with DH assessed by tactile and air blast (AB) stimuli measured by visual analog scale (VAS). Teeth were randomly divided into Group 1 (P) placebo-treated control group, Group 2 (NaF) treated by 5% NaF varnish, Group 3 (DL) treated with 980 nm DL, and Group 4 (NaF + DL) treated with both 5% NaF varnish and 980 nm DL (combination group). There was a significant reduction in DH. The VAS reduction percentages were calculated, and there was a significant decrease in DH above all in G4 (NaF + DL) than G3 (DL) and G2 (NaF). Even though all the three groups (2, 3, and 4) showed improvement in terms of DH reduction, 5% NaF varnish with DL showed the best results among all the groups.

  19. A comparative evaluation to assess the efficacy of 5% sodium fluoride varnish and diode laser and their combined application in the treatment of dentin hypersensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isha Suri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dentin hypersensitivity (DH is an age old complaint with a great number of treatment modalities, but none of these are totally effective till date. Lasers being one of the latest treatment options in periodontics, a study was conducted to test the efficacy of diode laser (DL in DH alone and in comparison with 5% sodium fluoride (NaF varnish. Aim: The aim of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of 5% topical NaF varnish and 980 nm gallium aluminum arsenide (GaAlAs DL alone and combination of 5% NaF + 980 nm GaAlAs DL in the management of DH. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 120 teeth in thirty patients with DH assessed by tactile and air blast (AB stimuli measured by visual analog scale (VAS. Teeth were randomly divided into Group 1 (P placebo-treated control group, Group 2 (NaF treated by 5% NaF varnish, Group 3 (DL treated with 980 nm DL, and Group 4 (NaF + DL treated with both 5% NaF varnish and 980 nm DL (combination group. Results: There was a significant reduction in DH. The VAS reduction percentages were calculated, and there was a significant decrease in DH above all in G4 (NaF + DL than G3 (DL and G2 (NaF. Conclusion: Even though all the three groups (2, 3, and 4 showed improvement in terms of DH reduction, 5% NaF varnish with DL showed the best results among all the groups.

  20. Therapeutic effect of two fluoride varnishes on white spot lesions: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jainara Maria Soares Ferreira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this randomized clinical trial study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of two varnish formulations (G1 = 5% NaF, G2 = 6% NaF + 6% CaF2 on the remineralization of white spot lesions (WSL. The sample was composed of 15 (7- to 12-year-old children with 45 active WSL in anterior permanent teeth. The children were randomly divided into two groups providing 22 lesions for G1 and 23 for G2. The children were submitted to weekly varnish applications 4 times. The WSL were evaluated twice: baseline and on week 4. Maximum lesion dimensions (mesiodistal and incisogingival were measured in millimeters and classified in four grades of size. WSL were also assessed regarding lesion activity by one calibrated examiner. The Pearson chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used (P 0.01. It was concluded that after 4 applications the two varnish formulations tested produced similar clinical effects, indicating the reduction and the control of carious activity in most WSL.

  1. Effect of a glass ionomer cement and a fluoride varnish on cross-sectional microhardness values of artificial occlusal caries: In vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MWM Souchois

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: This in vitro study demonstrated that the use of GIC over an artificial active WSLs and exposed to an artificially HRCC setting tend to express some effect in increased surface KHN values.

  2. Recruitment and participation in pre-school and school-based fluoride varnish pilots - the South Central experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, S; John, J H

    2013-09-01

    To assess recruitment and participation within seven school/pre-school-based programmes for fluoride varnish applications. Year-long pilots were undertaken in six primary schools (ages four to seven years) and one pre-school (ages three to four years). Three applications of fluoride varnish were carried out coinciding with the three school terms. In spite of intensive recruitment efforts, only 78% of the total 589 children were enrolled in the pilot; 15% had to be excluded because no response could be obtained from their parents. At the end of 12 months, 79% of enrolled children (62% of total) had received all three applications. Children did not receive applications because they were absent on the days when the dental team were carrying out the screening or fluoride varnish applications, were ill, or because the child refused. The highest refusal rate was in the pre-school. Younger children need to be targeted if improvement in the oral health of five-year-olds is to be achieved, the only dental measure in the Public Health Outcomes Framework, but they were less likely to cooperate. More research is needed on approaches to maximise participation in community programmes such as this, if they are to achieve significant population-level improvements in child dental health.

  3. Summary of: recruitment and participation in pre-school and school-based fluoride varnish pilots - the South Central experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drugan, Caroline

    2013-09-01

    To assess recruitment and participation within seven school/pre-school-based programmes for fluoride varnish applications. Year-long pilots were undertaken in six primary schools (ages four to five years) and one pre-school (aged three years). Three applications of fluoride varnish were carried out coinciding with the three school terms. In spite of intensive recruitment efforts, only 78% of the total 589 children were enrolled in the pilot; 15% had to be excluded because no response could be obtained from their parents. At the end of 12 months, 79% of enrolled children (62% of total) had received all three applications. Children did not receive applications because they were absent on the days when the dental team were carrying out the screening or fluoride varnish applications, were ill, or because the child refused. The highest refusal rate was in the pre-school. Younger children need to be targeted if improvement in the oral health of five-year-olds is to be achieved, the only dental measure in the Public Health Outcomes Framework, but they were less likely to cooperate. More research is needed on approaches to maximise participation in community programmes such as this, if they are to achieve significant population-level improvements in child dental health.

  4. Effectiveness of Early Preventive Intervention with Semiannual Fluoride Varnish Application in Toddlers Living in High-Risk Areas: A Stratified Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Maria; Dahllöf, Göran; Twetman, Svante; Jansson, Leif; Bergenlid, Ann-Cathrine; Grindefjord, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated whether toddlers in an extended preventive program of semiannual fluoride varnish applications from 1 year of age had a lower incidence of caries than those undergoing a standard program. A cohort of 1-year-old children (n = 3,403) living in multicultural areas of low socioeconomic standing in Stockholm participated in a cluster-randomized controlled field trial with two parallel arms. The children attended 23 dental clinics. Using the ICDAS II criteria, the examiners recorded caries at baseline and after 1 and 2 years. The children in the reference group received a standardized oral health program once yearly between 1 and 3 years of age. The children in the test group received the same standard program supplemented with topical applications of fluoride varnish every 6 months. We compared the test group and the reference group for the prevalence and increment of caries. At baseline, 5% of the children had already developed caries (ICDAS II 1-6). We reexamined the children after 1 year (n = 2,675) and after 2 years (n = 2,536). Neither prevalence nor caries increment differed between the groups. At 3 years of age, 12% of the children had developed moderate and severe carious lesions (ICDAS II 3-6), with a mean increment of 0.5 (SD 2.4) in the test group and 0.6 (SD 2.2) in the reference group. In conclusion, semiannual professional applications of fluoride varnish, as a supplement to a standard oral health program, failed to reduce caries development in toddlers from high-risk communities. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Cost-effectiveness of caries-preventive fluoride varnish applications in clinic settings among patients of low, moderate and high risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendicke, Falk; Splieth, Christian H; Thomson, William Murray; Reda, Seif; Stolpe, Michael; Foster Page, Lyndie

    2017-07-06

    The total body of evidence finds fluoride varnish effective to prevent caries. However, most trials were conducted in high-risk populations, with more recent trials on low-risk groups finding a lower efficacy. We aimed to assess the cost-effectiveness of fluoride varnish application in clinic setting in populations with different caries risk. A mixed public-private-payer perspective in the context of German health care was performed using a lifetime Markov model. Effectiveness data were derived from an update of the most recent systematic Cochrane review and synthesized in three different risk groups according to control group caries increment via random-effects meta-analysis. Varnish was assumed to be applied twice yearly between age 6 and 18 years. Teeth with carious defects would be treated restoratively and could experience further follow-up treatments. Costs were deduced from German fee item catalogues. Monte Carlo microsimulations were used for to analyse lifetime treatment costs and caries increment (Euro/Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT)). In low-risk groups, fluoride varnish was nearly twice as costly and minimally more effective (293 Euro, 8.1 DMFT) than no varnish (163 Euro, 8.5 DMFT). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was 343 Euro spent per avoided DMFT. The ICER was lower in medium-risk (ICER 93 Euro/DMFT) and high-risk groups (8 Euro/DMFT). Application of fluoride varnish in the clinic setting is unlikely to be cost-effective in low-risk populations. There is the need to either target high-risk groups or to provide fluoride varnish at lower costs, possibly in nonclinic settings. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Efficacy of TiF4 and NaF varnish and solution: a randomized in situ study on enamel erosive-abrasive wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Flávia Mauad; Rios, Daniela; Buzalaf, Marília A R; Magalhães, Ana Carolina

    2014-05-01

    This in situ/ex vivo study analysed the anti-erosive/abrasive effect of TiF4 and NaF varnish and solution on enamel wear. Twelve subjects took part in this study which was performed in three periods (phases) with the duration of 5 days each. Each two human enamel specimens per subject were pretreated with experimental NaF varnish or solution (phase A), experimental-TiF4 varnish or solution (phase B) and placebo varnish or untreated control (phase C). The specimens were worn in palatal appliances; one enamel specimen, from each treatment, was subjected to erosion (ERO; cola soft drink, 4 × 90 s/day), and the other specimen was subjected to erosion plus abrasion (ERO + ABR; tooth brushing, 2 × 10 s/day). The tooth wear was quantified by a contact profilometer (micrometre) and analysed using two-way repeated measures ANOVA and Bonferroni's test (n = 12 subjects, p fluoride varnishes and solutions reduced the enamel wear (around 25 %) significantly compared to the control and placebo varnish. There were no significant differences among the fluoride formulations and between the conditions ERO and ERO + ABR. Therefore, it can be concluded that TiF4 has the same protective potential as NaF formulations to reduce human enamel wear under this experimental in situ model. In vitro studies have indicated a better anti-erosive/abrasive effect of TiF4 compared to NaF varnish. The present in situ study does not support the previous findings. Therefore, any of the tested professional fluoride varnishes in principle could be able to partially reduce enamel wear.

  7. Efficacy of fluoride varnish for preventing white spot lesions and gingivitis during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances-a prospective randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschneck, Christian; Christl, Jan-Joachim; Reicheneder, Claudia; Proff, Peter

    2016-12-01

    The development of white spot lesions around orthodontic brackets and gingivitis is a common problem during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. This prospective randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial investigated the preventive efficacy of a one-time application of two commonly used fluoride varnishes in patients with low to moderate caries risk. Ninety adolescent orthodontic patients with a low to moderate caries risk were prospectively randomized to three groups of 30 patients each: (1) standardized dental hygiene with fluoride toothpaste and one-time application of placebo varnish (control) or (2) of elmex® fluid or (3) of Fluor Protector S on all dental surfaces at the start of fixed therapy. The extent of enamel demineralization and gingivitis was determined with the ICDAS and the gingivitis index (GI) at baseline and after 4, 12, and 20 weeks. Each treatment group showed a significant increase of the ICDAS index, but not of the GI over the course of time with no significant intergroup differences detectable. A one-time application of fluoride varnish at the start of orthodontic treatment did not provide any additional preventive advantage over sufficient dental hygiene with fluoride toothpaste with regard to formation of white spots and gingivitis in patients with a low to moderate caries risk. In dental practice, patients often receive an application of fluoride varnish at the start of orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. However, the efficacy of this procedure is still unclear.

  8. Comparison of the caries-preventive effect of a glass ionomer sealant and fluoride varnish on newly erupted first permanent molars of children with and without dental caries experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Daniela Cristina; Cunha, Robson Frederico

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal clinic study evaluated the effect of a glass ionomer sealant (GIS) and a fluoride varnish (FV) in the prevention of dental decay on newly erupted permanent molars of children with and without caries experience. Eighty children, aged 6-8 years, with all four newly erupted first permanent molars, were divided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of 53 children without caries experience and group 2 consisted of 27 children with dental caries experience. Permanent molars of the right side were sealed with GIS and the fluoride varnish was applied on the other two permanent first molars. Evaluation of GIS retention and the effectiveness of both materials in the prevention of dental caries were performed after 6, 12 and 18 months. After 18 months, of the 299 teeth, 271 (91%) showed no caries lesions and 28 presented caries lesions (9%). Teeth sealed with GIS had more carious lesions (15) than teeth with fluoride varnish (13). Most of the teeth (70%) that presented carious lesions were in group 2. Of the 138 sealed teeth, only one showed GIS to be totally present, 95 were partially present and 42 teeth were absent. The caries-preventive effect was very similar between both treatments. The presence of dental caries prevailed in the children with caries experience.

  9. Protocol for “Seal or Varnish?” (SoV) trial: a randomised controlled trial to measure the relative cost and effectiveness of pit and fissure sealants and fluoride varnish in preventing dental decay

    OpenAIRE

    Chestnutt, Ivor Gordon; Chadwick, Barbara Lesley; Hutchings, Simon; Playle, Rebecca Anne; Pickles, Timothy E.; Lisles, Catherine; Kirkby, Nigel; Morgan, Maria Zeta; Hunter, Margaret Lindsay; Hodell, Ceri; Withers, Beverely; Murphy, Simon; Morgan-Trimmer, Sarah; Fitzsimmons, Deborah; Phillips, Ceri

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Dental caries remains a significant public health problem, prevalence being linked to social and economic deprivation. Occlusal surfaces of first permanent molars are the most susceptible site in the developing permanent dentition. Cochrane reviews have shown pit and fissure sealants (PFS) and fluoride varnish (FV) to be effective over no intervention in preventing caries. However, the comparative cost and effectiveness of these treatments is uncertain. The primary aim of ...

  10. EFFECT OF DAILY FLUORIDE EXPOSURE ON FLUORIDE RELEASE BY HIGH STRENGTH GLASS IONOMER RESTORATIVE MATERIAL USED WITH ATRAUMATIC RESTORATIVE TECHNIQUE: AN IN VITRO STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hegde Mithra N.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available An in-vitro study was done to evaluate the effect of fluoride exposure, fluoride release and recharging capability by High strength Glass Ionomer restorative material used with Atraumatic restorative technique. 20 specimens were divided into four groups of five specimens each. The results showed that High strength Glass ionomer cements (Fuji IX release fluoride, the greatest release takes place between 24- 48 hours.High viscous High Strength Glass ionomer cements have the ability to recharge by external sources like fluoridated dentifrices and varnishes and thus acts as a fluoride reservoir. The recommendation that individuals with a high caries rate and glass ionomer restoration should have fluoride treatment with dentifrice and varnish seems appropriate.

  11. Use of the theoretical domains framework to further understanding of what influences application of fluoride varnish to children's teeth: a national survey of general dental practitioners in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnich, Wendy; Bonetti, Debbie; Sherriff, Andrea; Sharma, Shilpi; Conway, David I; Macpherson, Lorna M D

    2015-06-01

    Despite recent improvements in the oral health of Scotland's population, the persistence of childhood dental caries underscores a need to reduce the disease burden experienced by children living in Scotland. Application of fluoride varnish (FV) to children's teeth provides an evidence-based approach to achieving this goal. Despite policy, health service targets and professional recommendations supporting application, not all children receive FV in line with guidance. The objective of this study was to use the theoretical domains framework (TDF) to further an understanding of what may influence fluoride varnish application (FVA) in General Dental Practice in Scotland. A postal questionnaire assessing current behaviour (frequency of FVA) and theoretical domains (TDs) was sent to all General Dental Practitioners (GDPs) in Scotland. Correlations and linear regression models were used to examine the association between FVA and the TDs. One thousand and ninety (53.6%) eligible GDPs responded. Respondents reported applying FV more frequently to increased risk and younger children (aged 2-5 years). Higher scores in eight TDs (Knowledge, Social/professional role and identity, Beliefs about consequences, Motivation and goals, Environmental context and resources, Social influences, Emotion and Behavioural regulation) were associated with greater frequency of FVA. Four beliefs in particular appear to be driving GDPs' decision to apply FV (recognizing that FVA is a guideline recommended behaviour (Knowledge), that FVA is perceived as an important part of the GDPs' professional role (Professional role/identity), that FV is something parents want for their children (Social influences) and that FV is something GDPs really wanted to do (Emotion). The findings of this study support the use of the TDF as a tool to understand GDPs application of FV and suggest that a multifaceted intervention, targeting dental professionals and families, and more specifically those domains and items

  12. Effect of health promotion and fluoride varnish on dental caries among Australian Aboriginal children: results from a community-randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Gary D; Bailie, Ross S; Roberts-Thomson, Kaye; Leach, Amanda J; Raye, Iris; Endean, Colin; Simmons, Bruce; Morris, Peter

    2011-02-01

    We tested a dental health program in remote Aboriginal communities of Australia's Northern Territory, hypothesizing that it would reduce dental caries in preschool children. In this 2-year, prospective, cluster-randomized, concurrent controlled, open trial of the dental health program compared to no such program, 30 communities were allocated at random to intervention and control groups. All residents aged 18-47 months were invited to participate. Twice per year for 2 years in the 15 intervention communities, fluoride varnish was applied to children's teeth, water consumption and daily tooth cleaning with toothpaste were advocated, dental health was promoted in community settings, and primary health care workers were trained in preventive dental care. Data from dental examinations at baseline and after 2 years were used to compute net dental caries increment per child (d₃mfs). A multi-level statistical model compared d₃mfs between intervention and control groups with adjustment for the clustered randomization design; four other models used additional variables for adjustment. At baseline, 666 children were examined; 543 of them (82%) were re-examined 2 years later. The adjusted d₃mfs increment was significantly lower in the intervention group compared to the control group by an average of 3.0 surfaces per child (95% CI = 1.2, 4.9), a prevented fraction of 31%. Adjustment for additional variables yielded caries reductions ranging from 2.3 to 3.5 surfaces per child and prevented fractions of 24-36%. These results corroborate findings from other studies where fluoride varnish was efficacious in preventing dental caries in young children. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Effect of health promotion and fluoride varnish on dental caries among Australian Aboriginal children: results from a community-randomized controlled trial*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Gary D; Bailie, Ross S; Roberts-Thomson, Kaye; Leach, Amanda J; Raye, Iris; Endean, Colin; Simmons, Bruce; Morris, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Objectives We tested a dental health program in remote Aboriginal communities of Australia's Northern Territory, hypothesizing that it would reduce dental caries in preschool children. Methods In this 2-year, prospective, cluster-randomized, concurrent controlled, open trial of the dental health program compared to no such program, 30 communities were allocated at random to intervention and control groups. All residents aged 18–47 months were invited to participate. Twice per year for 2 years in the 15 intervention communities, fluoride varnish was applied to children's teeth, water consumption and daily tooth cleaning with toothpaste were advocated, dental health was promoted in community settings, and primary health care workers were trained in preventive dental care. Data from dental examinations at baseline and after 2 years were used to compute net dental caries increment per child (d3mfs). A multi-level statistical model compared d3mfs between intervention and control groups with adjustment for the clustered randomization design; four other models used additional variables for adjustment. Results At baseline, 666 children were examined; 543 of them (82%) were re-examined 2 years later. The adjusted d3mfs increment was significantly lower in the intervention group compared to the control group by an average of 3.0 surfaces per child (95% CI = 1.2, 4.9), a prevented fraction of 31%. Adjustment for additional variables yielded caries reductions ranging from 2.3 to 3.5 surfaces per child and prevented fractions of 24–36%. Conclusions These results corroborate findings from other studies where fluoride varnish was efficacious in preventing dental caries in young children. PMID:20707872

  14. Effect of fluoridated varnish and silver diamine fluoride solution on enamel demineralization: pH-cycling study Efeito do verniz fluoretado e da solução de diamino fluoreto de prata na desmineralização do esmalte: estudo utilizando modelo de ciclagem de pH

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    Alberto Carlos Botazzo Delbem

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In the present investigation, the anticariogenic effect of fluoride released by two products commonly applied in infants was evaluated. METHODS: Bovine sound enamel blocks were randomly allocated to each one of the treatment groups: control (C, varnish (V and diamine silver fluoride solution (D. The blocks were submitted to pH cycles in an oven at 37ºC. Next, surface and cross-sectional microhardness were assessed to calculate the percentage loss of surface microhardness (%SML and the mineral loss (deltaZ. The fluoride present in enamel was also determined. RESULTS: F/Px10-3 (ANOVA, pOBJETIVOS: Este trabalho avaliou o efeito anticariogênico do flúor liberado por dois produtos comumente aplicados em crianças. MÉTODOS: Para isto, utilizaram-se blocos de esmalte de dentes bovinos distribuídos aleatoriamente em três grupos de tratamento: controle (C, verniz fluoretado (V e solução de diamino fluoreto de prata (D. Os blocos foram submetidos à ciclagem de pH a 37ºC. Após, realizou-se o teste de microdureza de superfície (para o cálculo da % da perda de microdureza de superfície - %SML e em secção longitudinal do esmalte (% de alteração da área mineral - %deltaZ e a determinação do flúor presente no esmalte (F/P x 10-3. RESULTADOS: As concentrações de flúor (ANOVA, p<0,05 na 1ª camada do esmalte, antes da ciclagem de pH, foram (C, V e D: 1,6ª; 21,6b e 4,0c. Os resultados de %SML (Kruskal-Wallis, p<0.05 foram: -64,0ª, -45,2b e -53,1c. Os valores de %deltaZ (ANOVA, p<0.05 foram: -18,7ª, -7,7b e -17,3ª. CONCLUSÃO: Os dados sugerem que o flúor liberado pelo verniz apresentou maior interação com o esmalte promovendo menor perda mineral quando comparado à solução de diamino de prata.

  15. 头颈肿瘤患者放疗前牙面用氟化钠涂膜预防放射性龋齿临床研究%Clinical Study on Tooth Surface Coating of Fluoride Varnish before Radiotherapy in Patients with Head and Neck Cancer to Prevent Radioactive Caries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭亚丽; 刘小娥

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察牙面使用氟化钠涂膜对接受放射治疗的头颈部肿瘤患者龋齿病患病的影响,探讨氟化钠涂膜对放射性龋齿的预防作用.方法 选择头颈部肿瘤进行放射治疗患者35例,用自身对照方法分为氟化钠涂膜组和涂生理盐水组.患者于放射治疗前1、3、5 d将氟化钠涂膜涂于牙面(氟化钠涂膜组),将生理盐水涂于牙面(生理盐水组),于放射治疗前和放射治疗后18个月分别观察两组患者的龋失补牙数(DMFT)和龋失补牙面数(DMFS).结果 患者放射治疗前,氟化钠涂膜组和生理盐水组DMFT和DMFS无统计学意义(P>0.05).与治疗前比较,放射治疗18个月后两组DMFT和DMFS均明显升高(P<0.01),但涂生理盐水组DMFT、DMFS升高更为明显(P<0.01),同时放射治疗后涂生理盐水组DMFT、DMFS明显高于氟化钠涂膜组(P<0.01).放射治疗后随访8 ~12个月,35例患者中死亡1例,失访2例.结论 头颈部肿瘤患者在放射治疗前于牙釉质表面涂布氟化钠涂膜能显著降低放射性龋齿的发生.%Objective To examine the effect of fluoride varnish on the tooth surface of the patients with head and neck cancer receiving radiotherapy and explore the preventative effect of fluoride varnish for radioactive caries. Methods 35 patients with head and neck cancer to receive radiotherapy were selected and divided into the fluoride varnish group and the sodium chloride group by self-control. NaF and NaCl were varnished 1 ,3 ,5 d before the radiotherapy. The decay missing filling tooth( DMFT )and decay missing filling surface( DMFS )in dental caries were examined before and 18 months after the radiotherapy. Results Before the radiotherapy , DMFT and DMFS of the two groups showed no significant difference( P > 0. 05 ). However,18 months after radiotherapy , DMFT and DMFS of two groups increased significantly( P < 0. 01 )and more increase took place in the sodium chloride group( P < 0. 01 ). After

  16. An in vitro comparison of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate paste, casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate paste with fluoride and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate varnish on the inhibition of demineralization and promotion of remineralization of enamel

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    Prachi Jayesh Thakkar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aims to determine and compare the extent of inhibition of demineralization and promotion of remineralization of permanent molar enamel with and without application of three remineralizing agents. Materials and Methods: Forty extracted permanent molars were randomly divided into two groups 1 and 2, longitudinally sectioned into four and divided into subgroups A, B, C, and D. The sections were coated with nail varnish leaving a window of 3 mm × 3 mm. All sections of Group 1 were treated with their respective subgroup-specific agent: Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP paste for subgroup A, CPP-amorphous calcium phosphate fluoride (ACPF paste for subgroup B, CPP-ACPF varnish for subgroup C and subgroup D served as a control. The sections were then subjected to demineralization for 12 days following which lesional depth was measured under the stereomicroscope. All the sections of Group 2 were subjected to demineralization for 12 days, examined for lesional depth, then treated with their respective subgroup specific agents and immersed in artificial saliva for 7 days. The sections were then examined again under the stereomicroscope to measure the lesional depth. Results: CPP-ACPF varnish caused significant inhibition of demineralization. All three agents showed significant remineralization of previously demineralized lesions. However, CPP-ACPF varnish showed the greatest remineralization, followed by CPP-ACPF paste and then CPP-ACP paste. Conclusion: This study shows that CPP-ACPF varnish is effective in preventing demineralization as well as promoting remineralization of enamel. Thus, it can be used as an effective preventive measure for pediatric patients where compliance with the use of tooth mousse may be questionable.

  17. Formulation of microemulsion propolis fluoride (PF) as varnish topical agent to stop activity of teeth caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlan, Muhamad; Prakoso, Chandra Dwi; Darwita, Risqa Rina; Hermansyah, Heri

    2017-02-01

    Topical fluoride is proven to have higher efficacy in preventing dental caries with low production cost and easy to apply. The objective of this research is to formulate alternative agent topical fluoride NH4F 5% mixed with extract ethanol propolis (EEP) in the micro-emulsion system that has high stability, antimicrobial activity, and remineralization capability to arrest teeth caries activity. By using total plate count (TPC) analysis, formulation 2.7% EEP; 6,3% surfactant; and 90,9% NH4F shows good perform to inhibit cariogenic bacteria development around 78-80%. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) result also showed that sample successfully remineralized enamel surface. In addition, sample showed good pH, flavonoid, and polyphenol stability for 40 days.

  18. Approximal caries increment in adolescents in a low caries prevalence area in Sweden after a 3.5-year school-based fluoride varnish programme with Bifluorid 12 and Duraphat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Eva-Karin; Birkhed, Dowen; Granlund, Christina; Sköld, Ulla Moberg

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate approximal caries increment among 12- to 16-year-olds in a low caries prevalence area in Sweden after a 3.5-year school-based fluoride (F) varnish programme with Bifluorid 12 and Duraphat. The design was a RCT study with 1365 adolescents, divided into following four groups: Group 1 Bifluorid 12 two applications/year; Group 2 Duraphat two applications/year; Group 3 Bifluorid 12 four applications/year and Group 4 no F varnish at school. 1143 children (84%) completed the study. Approximal caries was registered on bitewing radiographs. There were no statistically significant differences in caries prevalence among the groups either at baseline or after 3.5 years . The caries increment for Group 1 was 1.34 ± 2.99 (mean ± SD), 1.24 ± 2.84 for Group 2, 1.07 ± 2.66 for Group 3 and 1.25 ± 2.75 for Group 4, with no statically significant differences either between Bifluorid 12 and Duraphat with the same frequency of F varnish applications or between the F groups and the control group. In an area with low caries prevalence in Sweden, the supplementary caries-preventive effect of school-based F varnish applications, to regular use of F toothpaste at home and to regular caries prevention given at the Public Dental Clinics, appears to be nonsignificant regarding approximal caries increment. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Permeability and fluoride release of lining materials containing amine fluorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordbö, H; Eriksen, H M

    1976-11-01

    The addition of amine fluorides to a copal recin (Copalite) and a chlorine caoutchouc varnish (Pergut S-40) has been studied. The permeability of Copalite films was only slightly increased whereas the excellent film-forming qualities of Pergut S-40 were destroyed by the addition of fluorides. A high fluoride release was found initially from test films of the materials but within 2-3 weeks a decrease to very low fluoride levels was observed.

  20. Protocol for “Seal or Varnish?” (SoV trial: a randomised controlled trial to measure the relative cost and effectiveness of pit and fissure sealants and fluoride varnish in preventing dental decay

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    Chestnutt Ivor Gordon

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries remains a significant public health problem, prevalence being linked to social and economic deprivation. Occlusal surfaces of first permanent molars are the most susceptible site in the developing permanent dentition. Cochrane reviews have shown pit and fissure sealants (PFS and fluoride varnish (FV to be effective over no intervention in preventing caries. However, the comparative cost and effectiveness of these treatments is uncertain. The primary aim of the trial described in this protocol is to compare the clinical effectiveness of PFS and FV in preventing dental caries in first permanent molars in 6-7 year-olds. Secondary aims include: establishing the costs and the relative cost-effectiveness of PFS and FV delivered in a community/school setting; examining the impact of PFS and FV on children and their parents/carers in terms of quality of life/treatment acceptability measures; and examining the implementation of treatment in a community setting. Methods/design The trial design comprises a randomised, assessor-blinded, two-arm, parallel group trial in 6–7 year old schoolchildren. Clinical procedures and assessments will be performed at 66 primary schools, in deprived areas in South Wales. Treatments will be delivered via a mobile dental clinic. In total, 920 children will be recruited (460 per trial arm. At baseline and annually for 36 months dental caries will be recorded using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS by trained and calibrated dentists. PFS and FV will be applied by trained dental hygienists. The FV will be applied at baseline, 6, 12, 18, 24 and 30 months. The PFS will be applied at baseline and re-examined at 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 months, and will be re-applied if the existing sealant has become detached/is insufficient. The economic analysis will estimate the costs of providing the PFS versus FV. The process evaluation will assess implementation and

  1. Efficacy of calcium- and fluoride-containing materials for the remineralization of primary teeth with early enamel lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memarpour, Mahtab; Soltanimehr, Elham; Sattarahmady, Naghmeh

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the efficacy of different products containing fluoride, calcium and phosphate for enamel remineralization in eroded primary teeth. A total of 90 sound primary canine teeth were randomly divided into 5 groups of 18 teeth each: 1) control (polished enamel), 2) 5% DuraShield sodium fluoride varnish, 3) 500 ppm fluoridated toothpaste, 4) casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) cream, and 5) Clinpro White varnish containing functionalized tri-calcium phosphate (fTCP). Enamel microhardness (EMH) was measured in all samples before and after demineralization and after 28 days of remineralization. Also 8 samples in groups 2 to 5 and four samples of sound and demineralized enamel were examined with atomic force microscopy (AFM). All data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA (pfluoride varnish (pfluoride varnish (p=0.062). Microhardness increased more after fTCP treatment than after treatment with sodium fluoride varnish (pfluoridated toothpaste (p=0.045). AFM images showed that enamel roughness decreased most after treatment with fTCP, followed by CPP-ACP, toothpaste and fluoride varnish. The efficacy of CPP-ACP cream for remineralizing eroded enamel was greater than fluoride toothpaste, fluoride varnish or fTCP varnish. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Chlorhexidine varnishes effectively inhibit Porphyromonas gingivalis and Streptococcus mutans - An in vivo study

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    George Ashwin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chlorhexidine varnish (Cervitec- Ivoclar Vivadent- Liechtenstein is a sustained-release delivery system that can provide protection against white spots and gingivitis, which are common iatrogenic side effects of orthodontic treatment. Chlorhexidine in varnish form does not depend on patient compliance, does not stain teeth or alter taste sensation like the mouth rinse. Materials and Methods : A split-mouth technique was followed in the treatment of 30 patients selected by stringent selection criteria, evaluating a single application of the test varnish on two randomly allotted quadrants along with a placebo on the other two quadrants. Streptococcus mutans counts responsible for white spots and P. gingivalis count [using PCR test] responsible for gingivitis were done at the start of the study, and then 1 and 3 months later. Results: The chlorhexidine varnish reduced the Streptococci mutans count at the end of 1 month, and this reduction was statistically significant. At the end of 3 months, there was no difference in the S. mutans counts between the two groups. There was a statistically significant reduction in the P. gingivalis count at the end of both 1 and 3 months in comparison to the placebo group. Conclusion: Chlorhexidine varnishes are capable of reducing S. mutans and P. gingivalis and gingivitis, thus improving the overall oral health of the patient. The side effects of chlorhexidine mouth rinses are not seen with this varnish. An application schedule of at least once a month is recommended as the effectiveness is reduced comparatively at the end of 3 months.

  3. In vitro evaluation of fluoride products in the development of carious lesions in deciduous teeth

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    Lucineide de Melo Santos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the application of fluoride products on the development of enamel caries in deciduous teeth. A total of 108 deciduous teeth were chosen for the study. Acid-resistant varnish was applied on the teeth, leaving only one area of 5 mm x 1 mm of dental enamel exposed. The teeth were allocated randomly to one of the following groups: 1 control - toothpaste without fluoride; 2 1.23% fluoride gel; 3 Duraflur fluoride varnish; 4 Duraphat fluoride varnish; 5 Fluorniz fluoride varnish; 6 Fluorphat fluoride varnish; 7 varnish with Duofluorid; 8 12% silver fluoride diamine (Cariestop; 9 children's fluoride toothpaste (500 ppm. The tested products were applied on the teeth according to the manufacturer's recommendations and the teeth were stored in a moist environment for 24 hours. Each group of teeth was then subjected to a pH cycling model for 14 days, after which the teeth were cut through the center for an analysis of the depth of the carious lesion by polarized light microscopy. Comparisons were made between the treatments and the control group. The mean lesion depth values were 318 μm ± 39 (control, 213 μm ± 27 (fluoride gel, 203 μm ± 34 (Duraflur, 133 μm ± 25 (Duraphat, 207 μm ± 27 (Fluor-niz, 212 μm ± 27 (Fluorphat, 210 ± 28 (Duofluorid, 146 ± 31 (Cariestop and 228 ± 24 (fluoride toothpaste. None of the products used here was able to completely prevent the formation of lesions. The highest cariostatic effect was achieved by fluoride varnish Duraphat and the lowest by the fluoride toothpaste.

  4. An in vitro assessment of fluoride uptake by tooth enamel from four different fluoride dentifrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, V H; Anegundi, R T

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate fluoride uptake by tooth enamel with four different fluoride dentifrices. Sixty human premolars extracted for orthodontic purpose were selected for the study. The teeth were covered with nail varnish leaving a window of 4 × 4 mm on the enamel surface of the buccal and lingual sides. The teeth were demineralised and were divided into four groups with 15 teeth in each group. The buccal window served as experimental and the lingual as control. The teeth were immersed in toothpaste slurry containing: sodium fluoride (Group A); sodium monofluorophosphate (Group B); stannous fluoride (Group C) and amine fluoride (Group D). The fluoride content in the etched superficial enamel layer in the windows was analysed using a fluoride ion-specific electrode. Within the parameters of this study, the uptake of fluoride was statistically significant in Group D (p fluoride by tooth enamel in an increasing order was Group A fluoride had the highest fluoride uptake.

  5. Chlorhexidine varnish implemented treatment strategy for chronic periodontitis: A clinical and microbial study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Manikandan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the short-term clinical and microbiological effect of chlorhexidine varnish when used as an adjuvant to scaling and root planing in the treatment of chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: A split-mouth design was conducted in 11 patients suffering from chronic periodontitis. The control site underwent scaling and root planing, and the experimental site was additionally treated with chlorhexidine varnish application. Clinical parameters, namely, gingival index (GI, plaque index (PI, bleeding on probing (BoP, probing pocket depth (PPD, and clinical attachment level were recorded at baseline, 1 month, and 3 months postoperatively. Furthermore, microbial examination of the plaque samples was done at baseline, 1 month, and 3 months. Results: Both treatment strategies showed significant improvement in GI, PI, BoP, PPD, and clinical attachment level, at both follow-up visits by comparison with baseline levels. At study termination, chlorhexidine varnish implemented treatment strategy resulted in additional improvement in the clinical parameters, and more reduction in the total anaerobic count at 1 month and 3 months. Conclusions: These findings suggest that a chlorhexidine varnish implemented treatment strategy along with scaling and root planing may improve the clinical outcome for the treatment of chronic periodontitis in comparison to scaling and root planing alone.

  6. The caries-preventive effect of chlorhexidine varnish in children and adolescents: a systematic review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    James, Patrice

    2010-01-01

    Our purpose was to systematically review the literature on the effectiveness of chlorhexidine varnish for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents and to determine its effectiveness compared to fluoride varnish.

  7. Brushing abrasion of eroded bovine enamel pretreated with topical fluorides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vieira, A; Lugtenborg, M; Ruben, JL; Huysmans, MCDNJM

    2006-01-01

    Topical fluorides have been proposed for the prevention of erosive dental wear. This study evaluated the in vitro effect of a single professional application of 4% titanium tetrafluoride (TiF4), 1% amine fluoride (AmF) and 0.1% difluorosilane varnish (FV) in preventing wear due to combined erosion

  8. 水性吸塑油的研究%Study on the Waterbased Blister Varnish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁文波; 郑军; 张士军; 刘毅

    2012-01-01

    Based on the research of waterbased varnish, the mechanism of blister agglutinate was studied. The effect of blister agent, penetrating agent,. Tf, on the performance of blister varnish was studied. Depending on the result, the general blister varnish can be used at the following conditions: (1) the material is PVC or PET; ( 2 ) the paper is white board paper, white carded paper, glossy paper; ( 3) the heat sealing way is electrical heating or high frequency heating. The waterbased blister varnish is availabe commercially and is verified on lines. It comply with the printing and packaging industry trend and has widely market application prospect.%在对水性光油研究的基础上,对吸塑包装的工艺、原理进行了深入的分析,考察了吸塑剂、渗透剂、Tg对水性吸塑油使用性能的影响,得到了满足下列使用条件的水性吸塑油:(1)泡壳基材为PVC或PET;(2)纸卡材料为白版纸、白卡纸或铜版纸;(3)热封方式可采用电加热或高周波吸塑热合工艺.该水性吸塑油已经通过工业化生产并上机验证,可满足吸塑粘合要求.

  9. In vitro evaluation of fluoride products in the development of carious lesions in deciduous teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Lucineide de Melo Santos; José Ivo Limeira dos Reis; Maria Perolina de Medeiros; Sheyla Moreira Ramos; Juliane Mendes de Araújo

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the application of fluoride products on the development of enamel caries in deciduous teeth. A total of 108 deciduous teeth were chosen for the study. Acid-resistant varnish was applied on the teeth, leaving only one area of 5 mm x 1 mm of dental enamel exposed. The teeth were allocated randomly to one of the following groups: 1) control - toothpaste without fluoride; 2) 1.23% fluoride gel; 3) Duraflur fluoride varnish; 4) Duraphat fluor...

  10. Topical fluoride for caries prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyant, Robert J.; Tracy, Sharon L.; Anselmo, Theresa (Tracy); Beltrán-Aguilar, Eugenio D.; Donly, Kevin J.; Frese, William A.; Hujoel, Philippe P.; Iafolla, Timothy; Kohn, William; Kumar, Jayanth; Levy, Steven M.; Tinanoff, Norman; Wright, J. Timothy; Zero, Domenick; Aravamudhan, Krishna; Frantsve-Hawley, Julie; Meyer, Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    Background A panel of experts convened by the American Dental Association (ADA) Council on Scientific Affairs presents evidence-based clinical recommendations regarding professionally applied and prescription-strength, home-use topical fluoride agents for caries prevention. These recommendations are an update of the 2006 ADA recommendations regarding professionally applied topical fluoride and were developed by using a new process that includes conducting a systematic review of primary studies. Types of Studies Reviewed The authors conducted a search of MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library for clinical trials of professionally applied and prescription-strength topical fluoride agents—including mouthrinses, varnishes, gels, foams and pastes—with caries increment outcomes published in English through October 2012. Results The panel included 71 trials from 82 articles in its review and assessed the efficacy of various topical fluoride caries-preventive agents. The panel makes recommendations for further research. Practical Implications The panel recommends the following for people at risk of developing dental caries: 2.26 percent fluoride varnish or 1.23 percent fluoride (acidulated phosphate fluoride) gel, or a prescription-strength, home-use 0.5 percent fluoride gel or paste or 0.09 percent fluoride mouthrinse for patients 6 years or older. Only 2.26 percent fluoride varnish is recommended for children younger than 6 years. The strengths of the recommendations for the recommended products varied from “in favor” to “expert opinion for.” As part of the evidence-based approach to care, these clinical recommendations should be integrated with the practitioner's professional judgment and the patient's needs and preferences. PMID:24177407

  11. TiF4 and NaF varnishes as anti-erosive agents on enamel and dentin erosion progression in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Livia Picchi COMAR; Cardoso, Cristiane de Almeida Baldini; Charone, Senda; Grizzo, Larissa Tercilia; Marília Afonso Rabelo BUZALAF; Magalhães,Ana Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study assessed the effect of fluoride varnishes on the progression of tooth erosion in vitro. Material and Methods: Forty-eight enamel and 60 root dentin samples were previously demineralized (0.1% citric acid, pH 2.5, 30 min), leading to a baseline and erosive wear of 12.9 and 11.4 µm, respectively. The samples were randomly treated (6 h) with a 4% TiF4 varnish (2.45%F-, pH 1.0), a 5.42% NaF varnish (2.45%F-, pH 5.0), a placebo varnish and no varnish (control). The sample...

  12. Infiltration and sealing versus fluoride treatment of occlusal caries lesions in primary molar teeth. 2-3 years results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakhshandeh, Azam; Ekstrand, Kim

    2015-01-01

    , sealing, or fluoride varnishing on the occlusal surfaces with initial caries lesions. DESIGN: Split-mouth design study was carried out with 50 children aged between 5 and 8 years with three occlusal lesions. After randomization, one lesion was infiltrated with ICON and varnished with Duraphat (I+F), one...

  13. Color stability of esthetic restorative material after topical fluoride application

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Present study was conducted to compare the effect of topical fluoride agents on color change of three aesthetic restorative materials. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Restorative material used were Ketac Fill type II (GIC), Filtek Z350(Composite) and Beuttifull II (Giomer). Topical Fluorides used were Pascal (1.23% APF gel) and Fluoride Varnish (Bifluoride). 24 samples of each restorative material were prepared, which were divided into 8 each, among three groups. Treatment of Group A with APF gel,...

  14. Clinical evaluation of the efficacy of fluoride adhesive tape (F-PVA) in reducing dentin hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Ho; Lee, Nan-Young; Lee, In-Hwa

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the in vivo effectiveness of an experimental 2.26% fluoride polyvinyl alcohol (F-PVA) tape in reducing dentin hypersensitivity. 30 healthy men and women (total of 79 teeth) in their third decade of life with dentin hypersensitivity were enrolled in this study. The subjects were divided into four groups: three experimental groups were treated with fluoride agents (F-PVA tape, Vanish varnish, and ClinPro XT varnish), and a control group was treated with gelatin as a placebo. Each fluoride agent was applied according to the manufacturer's instructions. Stimulation was applied to the subjects' teeth using compressed air and ice sticks before applying the agent, as well as at 3 days and 4, 8, and 12 weeks after applying the agent. The degree of pain was measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS). The VAS scores were significantly (P Vanish varnish and ClinPro XT varnish at 4 and 8 weeks of the examination period.

  15. Fluoride and Oral Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mullane, D M; Baez, R J; Jones, S; Lennon, M A; Petersen, P E; Rugg-Gunn, A J; Whelton, H; Whitford, G M

    2016-06-01

    The discovery during the first half of the 20th century of the link between natural fluoride, adjusted fluoride levels in drinking water and reduced dental caries prevalence proved to be a stimulus for worldwide on-going research into the role of fluoride in improving oral health. Epidemiological studies of fluoridation programmes have confirmed their safety and their effectiveness in controlling dental caries. Major advances in our knowledge of how fluoride impacts the caries process have led to the development, assessment of effectiveness and promotion of other fluoride vehicles including salt, milk, tablets, toothpaste, gels and varnishes. In 1993, the World Health Organization convened an Expert Committee to provide authoritative information on the role of fluorides in the promotion of oral health throughout the world (WHO TRS 846, 1994). This present publication is a revision of the original 1994 document, again using the expertise of researchers from the extensive fields of knowledge required to successfully implement complex interventions such as the use of fluorides to improve dental and oral health. Financial support for research into the development of these new fluoride strategies has come from many sources including government health departments as well as international and national grant agencies. In addition, the unique role which industry has played in the development, formulation, assessment of effectiveness and promotion of the various fluoride vehicles and strategies is noteworthy. This updated version of 'Fluoride and Oral Health' has adopted an evidence-based approach to its commentary on the different fluoride vehicles and strategies and also to its recommendations. In this regard, full account is taken of the many recent systematic reviews published in peer reviewed literature.

  16. Are topical fluorides effective for treating incipient carious lesions?: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzi, Tathiane Larissa; Montagner, Anelise Fernandes; Soares, Fabio Zovico Maxnuck; de Oliveira Rocha, Rachel

    2016-02-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluated the effectiveness of professional topical fluoride application (gels or varnishes) on the reversal treatment of incipient enamel carious lesions in primary or permanent dentition. Literature searching was carried out by the authors in PubMed (MEDLINE), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Turning Research Into Practice, and ClinicalTrials.gov to verify the clinical trials available about the outcome. From 754 potentially eligible studies, 21 were selected for full-text analysis, 5 were included for review, and 3 for meta-analysis. The statistical analysis was performed only for studies assessing fluoride varnish; there were insufficient data to perform it for fluoride gel studies. Two reviewers independently selected the studies, extracted the data, and assessed the risk of bias. Pooled-effect estimates were expressed as the weighted mean difference between groups. The therapeutic methods ranged considerably regarding the fluoride application protocols. There was a significant trend of effectiveness of fluoride varnish on the reversal of incipient enamel carious lesions (P Fluoride varnish seems to be an effective treatment for the reversal of incipient carious lesions in primary and permanent dentition; however, further clinical trials concerning efficacy of topical fluorides for treating those lesions are still required, mainly regarding the fluoride gel. Considering the scientific evidence on topical fluorides, pediatric dentists can use fluoride varnishes as an adjuvant for the treatment of active white-spot lesions in primary or permanent dentition. Copyright © 2016 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluoride is used to prevent tooth decay. It is taken up by teeth and helps to strengthen ... and block the cavity-forming action of bacteria. Fluoride usually is prescribed for children and adults whose ...

  18. Effect of flouride varnish (Duraphat) treatment every six months compared with weekly mouthrinses with 0.2 per cent NaF solution on dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, G; Petersson, L G; Rydén, H

    1979-01-01

    Recent studies have shown a high fluorine uptake in the enamel and a considerable caries reduction following the application of varnished containing fluoride. As the application is easy to carry out it may in certain situations serve as an alternative to other topical fluoride school programmes. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to compare the caries increment in schoolchildren exposed to a fluoride varnish (Duraphat) every six months and in children receiving the conventional weekly fluoride mouthrinsing programme with 0.2 per cent sodium fluoride over a two-year period. Two hundred 14-year-old children, divided into one test and one control group took part in the study. They were clinically and radiographically examined every year. Preexperimental data revealed no differences between the groups. During the experimental period the children in the fluoride varnish group developed a statistically significant lower number of new carious lesions compared with those in the mouthrinsing group. The difference in caries increment was about 30 per cent. Further clinical studies to compare the effects of various topical fluoride programmes are recommended.

  19. Comparison of combined application treatment with one-visit varnish treatments in an orthodontic population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuzuner, Tamer; Ozel, Mehmet B.; Bostanoglu, Ozge

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of chlorhexidine-thymol varnish alone, its combination with chlorhexidine-fluoride containing dentifrice and fluoride varnish on oral hygiene and caries prevention in orthodontic patients. Study design: Sixty patients, aged 12-18, with orthodontic fixed appliances were randomly assigned into three groups as follows: Group 1 (n=20): 1% chlorhexidine and 1% thymol varnish (Cervitec®Plus); Group 2 (n=20): Cervitec®Plus+ 0.2% chlorhexidine and 0.2% sodium fluoride (900 ppm fluoride) (Cervitec®Gel)); and Group 3 (n=20): 0.1% fluoride varnish (Fluor Protector®). Mutans streptococci (MS), lactobacilli (LB) levels, buffering capacity (BC), visible plaque index (VPI), and gingival bleeding index (GBI) scores were evaluated at four stages: T0, before orthodontic bonding; T1, one week after orthodontic bonding; T2, one week; and T3, four weeks after the first application, respectively. Inter and intra group comparisons were made by the Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U, Friedman and Wilcoxon Signed-Rank tests with Bonferroni step-down correction (P0.017) were found in Group1-2 compared with T0. Significantly lower LB levels were recorded in Group 2 at T2 compared with T0 (P0.017). Conclusions: Addition of Cervitec®Plus+Cervitec®Gel combination to the standard oral hygiene regimen may be beneficial for orthodontic patients for maintaining oral health by reducing bacterial colonisation and gingivitis. Key words:Chlorhexidine, flouride, mutans streptococci, lactobacilli, antibacterial effect, plaque, gingivitis, orthodontic treatment. PMID:23385499

  20. A study of fluoride groundwater occurrence in Nathenje, Lilongwe, Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msonda, K. W. M.; Masamba, W. R. L.; Fabiano, E.

    A study was carried out to determine fluoride concentration in groundwaters of Nathenje area situated in Lilongwe District in the central region of Malawi. Water samples were collected from 176 boreholes and shallow wells during different months in 2001 and 2002. Samples were then analysed for fluoride by using a fluoride electrode and an ion selective meter. The results showed that fluoride concentrations for the rainy season varied from dental fluorosis in areas where the fluoride concentration was high.

  1. 氟保护漆预防儿童乳牙龋齿的临床效果%The clinical effect of Fluoride varnish in preventing caries of primary teeth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李闻博

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the fluoride varnish in preventing caries of primary teeth clinical effect. Methods Two large kindergarten in 600 children were randomly divided into the observation group and the control group.the observation group used fluoride coatings on dental protection, control group were brushing in the morning and evening, mouthwash after meals and other conventional oral care;used once every six months.the experimental period of 2 years.Before and after the experiment on two groups of children dental caries were inspected,the accurate statistics of the two inspection of the prevalence of caries.caries surface and new caries surface. Results Before the experiment of two groups of children with caries rate and caries surface data did not differ significantly,after the experiment group was observed in the rate of caries and caries surface data are significantly lower than the control group.the difference between the two groups (P<0.05) with statistical significance. Conclusion The fluoride varnish on prevention of caries of primary teeth has obvious clinical effect.%目的:探讨氟保护漆预防儿童乳牙龋齿的临床效果.方法:将我市几所大型幼儿园的600名儿童随机分成观察组和对照组,观察组使用含氟涂料对牙齿进行保护,对照组进行早晚刷牙、饭后漱口等常规的口腔护理;每六个月使用一次,实验为期2年.在实验前后分别对两组儿童龋齿情况进行检查,准确统计两次检查的患龋率、龋面均和新增龋面均.结果:实验前两组儿童的患龋率和龋面均数据没有明显差异,实验后观察组的患龋率和龋面均数据明显低于对照组,两组差异(P<0.05)具有统计学意义.结论:氟保护漆对预防儿童乳牙龋齿有明显的临床效果.

  2. Thickness and nanomechanical properties of protective layer formed by TiF4 varnish on enamel after erosion

    OpenAIRE

    Medeiros, Maria Isabel Dantas de; Carlo, Hugo Lemes; Lacerda-Santos, Rogério; Bruno Alessandro Guedes de LIMA; Souza, Frederico Barbosa de; Rodrigues, Jonas de Almeida [UNESP; Carvalho,Fabiola Galbiatti de

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The layer formed by fluoride compounds on tooth surface is important to protect the underlying enamel from erosion. However, there is no investigation into the properties of protective layer formed by NaF and TiF4 varnishes on eroded enamel. This study aimed to evaluate the thickness, topography, nanohardness, and elastic modulus of the protective layer formed by NaF and TiF4 varnishes on enamel after erosion using nanoindentation and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Human enamel speci...

  3. Evaluation of the therapeutic effect of fluoride varnish Duraphat for incipient carious lesions in permanent anterior teeth%氟保护漆Duraphat治疗前牙初期龋损的临床效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛蔚妮; 许青峰

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the therapeutic effect of fluoride varnish Duraphat on the performance of incipient carious lesions white spot lesions (WSL) in anterior teeth in vivo. Methods The sample included 120 children aged 7 to 13 years old , with a total of 146 active WSL in permanent anterior teeth. The children were randomly divided into 3 groups, according to the treatment received:Group A (fluoride varnish Duraphat+oral health instrument, n=52), Group B (oral health instrument, n=47) and Group C (control, n=47). Maximum WSL dimensions (mesiodistal and incisogingival) were measured in millimeters by a previously calibrated single examiner using a periodontal probe . The oral hygiene was assessed by the plaque index . Results Wilcoxon test revealed a statistically significant difference (χ2=29.1,P<0.001) between the initial size and final size in A group (1.53 vs. 0.88) and B group (1.56 vs. 1.47). Pearson′s chi-square test revealed statistically significant differences (χ2=42.5, P<0.001) in the caries activity of the WSL among three groups. Conclusions The fluoride varnish Duraphat is effective to the incipient carious lesions in permanent anterior teeth .%目的:探讨氟保护漆Duraphat对前牙初期龋损白垩色斑块的治疗效果。方法共纳入并分析120例患者146个前牙唇侧白垩斑病损,分为三组:A组(涂氟保护漆Duraphat+口腔健康教育组,n=52),B组(口腔健康教育组,n=47)和C组(对照组,n=47)。由同一位已经过培训的医生采用牙周探针对白垩斑的直径及龋活动性进行评估,同时对研究对象的口腔卫生采用改良菌斑指数进行评估。结果 A组在接受2年的涂氟治疗后其白垩斑直径明显缩小,与另外两组差异有统计学意义(χ2=29.1,P<0.001),初期龋损白垩色斑块活动性龋的比例明显下降(χ2=42.5,P<0.001)。结论氟保护漆Duraphat能有效治疗光滑面的初期龋损。

  4. Fluoride removal studies in water using natural materials : technical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fluoride removal studies in water using natural materials : technical note. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL ... The removal of fluoride was attempted using natural materials such as red soil, ...

  5. TiF4 and NaF varnishes as anti-erosive agents on enamel and dentin erosion progression in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Picchi COMAR

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study assessed the effect of fluoride varnishes on the progression of tooth erosion in vitro. Material and Methods: Forty-eight enamel and 60 root dentin samples were previously demineralized (0.1% citric acid, pH 2.5, 30 min, leading to a baseline and erosive wear of 12.9 and 11.4 µm, respectively. The samples were randomly treated (6 h with a 4% TiF4 varnish (2.45%F-, pH 1.0, a 5.42% NaF varnish (2.45%F-, pH 5.0, a placebo varnish and no varnish (control. The samples were then subjected to erosive pH cycles (4x90 s/day in 0.1% citric acid, intercalated with artificial saliva for 5 days. The increment of the erosive tooth wear was calculated. In the case of dentin, this final measurement was done with and without the demineralized organic matrix (DOM. Enamel and dentin data were analyzed using ANOVA/Tukey’s and Kruskal-Wallis/Dunn tests, respectively (p<0.05. Results The TiF4 (mean±s.d: 1.5±1.1 µm and NaF (2.1±1.7 µm varnishes significantly reduced enamel wear progression compared to the placebo varnish (3.9±1.1 µm and control (4.5±0.9 µm. The same differences were found for dentin in the presence and absence of the DOM, respectively: TiF4 (average: 0.97/1.87 µm, NaF (1.03/2.13 µm, placebo varnish (3.53/4.47 µm and control (3.53/4.36 µm. Conclusion The TiF4 and NaF varnishes were equally effective in reducing the progression of tooth erosion in vitro.

  6. O uso de vernizes fluoretados e a redução da incidência de cárie dentária em pré-escolares: uma revisão sistemática Fluoride varnishes and decrease in caries incidence in preschool children: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Martins Carvalho

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta revisão sistemática foi verificar se existe evidência conclusiva de que o verniz fluoretado reduz a incidência de cárie dentária em pré-escolares. Foram feitas buscas nas bases eletrônicas BBO, LILACS, MEDLINE e Cochrane para identificar ensaios clínicos controlados que avaliassem o desenvolvimento de lesões cavitadas de cárie em crianças com até seis anos de idade. Dois pesquisadores analisaram criticamente os trabalhos selecionados para inclusão. Foram encontrados 513 artigos e oito foram incluídos. Esses estudos apresentaram problemas quanto ao desenho e, além disso, eram heterogêneos quanto à experiência prévia de cárie dos participantes, ao tipo de intervenção administrada ao grupo controle, à exposição das crianças a outras fontes de fluoretos, e ao intervalo entre as aplicações de verniz. As diferenças absolutas entre as incidências de cárie nos grupos controle e teste e as frações prevenidas variaram de 0,30 a 1,64 e de 5 a 63%, respectivamente. O verniz fluoretado parece ser efetivo para reduzir a incidência de cárie dentária em pré-escolares, mas outros ensaios clínicos de melhor qualidade metodológica são necessários para se obter evidência conclusiva a esse respeito.The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate whether there is conclusive evidence that the professional application of fluoride varnish decreases the incidence of dental caries in preschool children. We searched the BBO, LILACS, MEDLINE and Cochrane electronic databases to identify controlled clinical trials that evaluated the development of cavitated caries lesions in children up to six years of age. Two researchers performed a critical appraisal of the studies selected for inclusion. Five-hundred and thirteen articles were found, but only eight met our inclusion criteria. Most of these eight studies were of poor methodological quality. They were also heterogeneous in relation to participants

  7. Astrobiological implications of rock varnish in Tibet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinsley, David; Dorn, Ronald I; DiGregorio, Barry

    2009-01-01

    The study of terrestrial geomicrobiology and its relationship to rock weathering processes is an essential tool in developing analogues for similar processes that may have occurred on Mars. Most studies of manganese-enhanced rock varnish have focused on samples taken from warm arid desert regions. Here, we examine samples obtained from eolian-abraded lava flows of the 4700-4800 m high Ashikule Basin in Tibet. Because it receives approximately 300 mm of precipitation annually, this site is nowhere near as dry as Atacama Desert locales. However, the dusty, sulfate-rich, high-altitude and high-UV flux environment of the Tibetan locale offers new insight into rock varnish formation processes in a terrestrial environment that displays some attributes similar to those expected on early Mars. Microprobe measurements reveal that Mn enhancements in varnish are two orders of magnitude above the dust source, but Fe is only enhanced by a factor of three. Manganese-enhancing bacterial forms are not abundant but are still approximately 3 times more common than in Mojave and Sonoran Desert varnishes. In addition to its occurrence in subaerial positions, Tibetan varnish also occurs in micron-scale "pods" enveloped by silica glaze and as remobilized constituents that have migrated into the underlying weathering rind. A lack of surficial Mn-rich varnish, therefore, might not imply the absence of varnish. In contrast to suggestions that silica glaze might be a good source of microbial fossils and a key to varnish formation, we did not observe any clear microfossil forms entombed in silica glaze; further, there is no gradation between varnish and silica glaze but only distinct contacts.

  8. TiF4 and NaF varnishes as anti-erosive agents on enamel and dentin erosion progression in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    COMAR, Livia Picchi; CARDOSO, Cristiane de Almeida Baldini; CHARONE, Senda; GRIZZO, Larissa Tercilia; BUZALAF, Marília Afonso Rabelo; MAGALHÃES, Ana Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study assessed the effect of fluoride varnishes on the progression of tooth erosion in vitro. Material and Methods: Forty-eight enamel and 60 root dentin samples were previously demineralized (0.1% citric acid, pH 2.5, 30 min), leading to a baseline and erosive wear of 12.9 and 11.4 µm, respectively. The samples were randomly treated (6 h) with a 4% TiF4 varnish (2.45%F-, pH 1.0), a 5.42% NaF varnish (2.45%F-, pH 5.0), a placebo varnish and no varnish (control). The samples were then subjected to erosive pH cycles (4x90 s/day in 0.1% citric acid, intercalated with artificial saliva) for 5 days. The increment of the erosive tooth wear was calculated. In the case of dentin, this final measurement was done with and without the demineralized organic matrix (DOM). Enamel and dentin data were analyzed using ANOVA/Tukey’s and Kruskal-Wallis/Dunn tests, respectively (pvarnishes significantly reduced enamel wear progression compared to the placebo varnish (3.9±1.1 µm) and control (4.5±0.9 µm). The same differences were found for dentin in the presence and absence of the DOM, respectively: TiF4 (average: 0.97/1.87 µm), NaF (1.03/2.13 µm), placebo varnish (3.53/4.47 µm) and control (3.53/4.36 µm). Conclusion The TiF4 and NaF varnishes were equally effective in reducing the progression of tooth erosion in vitro. PMID:25760263

  9. Antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans and inhibition of bacterial induced enamel demineralization of propolis, miswak, and chitosan nanoparticles based dental varnishes

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    Mariem O. Wassel

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Using natural products can be a cost-effective approach for caries prevention especially in low income countries where dental caries is highly prevalent and the resources are limited. Specially prepared dental varnishes containing propolis, miswak, and chitosan nanoparticles (CS-NPs with or without sodium fluoride (NaF were assessed for antibacterial effect against Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans using disk diffusion test. In addition, the protective effect of a single pretreatment of primary teeth enamel specimens against in vitro bacterial induced enamel demineralization was assessed for 3 days. All natural products containing varnishes inhibited bacterial growth significantly better than 5% NaF varnish, with NaF loaded CS-NPs (CSF-NPs showing the highest antibacterial effect, though it didn’t significantly differ than those of other varnishes except miswak ethanolic extract (M varnish. Greater inhibitory effect was noted with varnish containing freeze dried aqueous miswak extract compared to that containing ethanolic miswak extract, possibly due to concentration of antimicrobial substances by freeze drying. Adding natural products to NaF in a dental varnish showed an additive effect especially compared to fluoride containing varnish. 5% NaF varnish showed the best inhibition of demineralization effect. Fluoride containing miswak varnish (MF and CSF-NPs varnish inhibited demineralization significantly better than all experimental varnishes, especially during the first 2 days, though CSF-NPs varnish had a low fluoride concentration, probably due to better availability of fluoride ions and the smaller size of nanoparticles. Incorporating natural products with fluoride into dental varnishes can be an effective approach for caries prevention, especially miswak and propolis when financial resources are limited.

  10. Multi-analytical study of paint and varnish on a 17th century wooden polychrome antependium

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The antependium of Saint Michael's altar from the church of Saint Catherine in Osič, Croatia, is a work of the 17th century artist Matej Otoni. As a part of her Master's thesis, Aida Grga carried out a complex analysis of the paint layer (binding medium and pigments) and of the resinous varnish found on the object. Thin layer chromatography, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and micro-chemical analysis were used to identify the materials. The investigation was carried out in the Laborat...

  11. 氟化物涂膜预防农村地区儿童未建第一恒磨牙龋%Effect of fluoride varnish on caries prevention of partially erupted first permanent molars in rural areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁雪青; 罗伟; 陈晓英

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical effect of fluoride varnish on caries prevention of partially erupted first permanent molars in rural areas. Methods The sample included 476 children aged 6-7 years old based on simple random sampling, with a total of 1462 partially erupted first permanent molars. The children were randomly divided into test group (n=212, 697 molars) and control group (n=264, 765 molars). The test group was semiannually applied with fluoride varnish (Duraphat® ) for 5 times, and the control group was not applied in two years. All dental caries of all the children were checked every 6 months. Results No significantly statistical difference was found in the caries incidence rate or mean DMFS between 2 groups after 6 months (Pincidence rate=1.000;tmean DMFS=0.005, Pmean DMFS=0.996) or after 12 months (χ2incidence rate=1.489, Pincidence rate=0.222; tmean DMFS=1.417, Pmean DMFS=0.157). The caries incidence rate and mean DMFS of test group were significantly lower than those of control group (χ2incidence rate=11.645, Pincidence rate=0.001; tmean DMFS=3.408, Pmean DMFS=0.001) after 24 months. Conclusion Application of fluoride varnish for the partially erupted first permanent molars in rural areas can effectively reduce the incidence rate of caries, which was worth being popularized in clinic.%目的:探讨氟化物涂膜在预防农村地区儿童未建第一恒磨牙龋病中的临床效果。方法运用简单随机抽样方法选取广州市花都区农村地区6~7岁一年级儿童476人,共1462颗未建第一恒磨牙纳入研究。试验组(n=212,697颗磨牙)两年内每半年予1次牙面涂布氟化物涂膜(多乐氟®),共计5次。对照组(n=264,765颗磨牙)牙面不做涂氟处理。试验开始后每半年复查两组儿童的龋病发病情况。结果6个月后两组儿童第一恒磨牙龋病发病率、龋面均之间差异无统计学意义(P 发病率=1.000;t 龋面均=0.005,P 龋面均=0.996)。12个月后两组儿童第一

  12. Effect of Proanthocyanidin, Fluoride and Casein Phosphopeptide Amorphous Calcium Phosphate Remineralizing Agents on Microhardness of Demineralized Dentin

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    Zahra Khamverdi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dentin remineralization using proanthocyanidin (PA, fluoride varnish and casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP paste and their various combinations on microhardness of demineralized root dentin.Materials and Methods: One-hundred and twenty freshly extracted sound human premolars were selected and randomly divided into eight groups for dentin treatment as follows. C: Deionized water (control; PA: 6.5% PA solution; F: fluoride varnish (5% NaF, 22600 ppm fluoride; CP: CCP-ACP; PAF: 6.5% PA + fluoride varnish; PACP: 6.5% PA + CCP-ACP; FCP: fluoride varnish + CCP-ACP and PAFCP: 6.5% PA + fluoride varnish + CCP-ACP. All specimens were subjected to Vickers microhardness test (500 g, 10 seconds, 3 points. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s post hoc test. The significance level was set at 0.05. Results: The mean and standard deviation (SD values of Vickers hardness number (VHN in groups C, PA, F, CP, PAF, PACP, FCP and PAFCP were 37.39±4.97, 38.68±4.62, 48.28±2.68 ,41.91±3.32, 48.59±2.55, 53.34±2.57, 48.413±4.00 and 55.20±1.82, respectively. Pairwise comparisons of the groups revealed that there was no significant difference between groups C and PA, PA and CP, F and PAF, F and FCP, PAF and FCP, and PACP and FPACP (P>0.05; but significant differences were observed between other groups (P<0.05.Conclusions: The results of this study showed that the tested dentin treatments increased the microhardness of demineralized root dentin except for PA application.Keywords: Dentin; Fluoride; Proanthocyanidin; Remineralization 

  13. THE EFFECT OF GIC RESTORATION TO SALIVARY FLUORIDE CONCENTRATION

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    Adi Putra

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available SalGlass ionomer cement (GIC is a fluoride containing restorative material which can inhibit carious lesion. This study was performed to observe salivary fluoride change in artificial alive. Twenty premolars were restored with GIC and immersed in Fusayama artificial saliva (15 ml, pH 6,8 for 1, 2, and 3 days. Unrestored part of teeth was coated with varnish. Fluoride contents measurements were performed by taking 5 ml of artificial saliva of each group being measured with spectrophotometer The result showed that the highest fluoride contents (3,317 +- 0,168 was on the first day of immersion and significantly decreased in the second and third day (2,267 +- 0,72, 1,455 +- 0,186, alternatively. It was concluded fluoride was released from GIC restoration and the release was decreased with time.

  14. Thickness and nanomechanical properties of protective layer formed by TiF4 varnish on enamel after erosion

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    Maria Isabel Dantas de MEDEIROS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The layer formed by fluoride compounds on tooth surface is important to protect the underlying enamel from erosion. However, there is no investigation into the properties of protective layer formed by NaF and TiF4 varnishes on eroded enamel. This study aimed to evaluate the thickness, topography, nanohardness, and elastic modulus of the protective layer formed by NaF and TiF4 varnishes on enamel after erosion using nanoindentation and atomic force microscopy (AFM. Human enamel specimens were sorted into control, NaF, and TiF4 varnish groups (n = 10. The initial nanohardness and elastic modulus values were obtained and varnishes were applied to the enamel and submitted to erosive challenge (10 cycles: 5 s cola drink/5 s artificial saliva. Thereafter, nanohardness and elastic modulus were measured. Both topography and thickness were evaluated by AFM. The data were subjected to ANOVA, Tukey’s test and Student’s t test (α = 0.05. After erosion, TiF4 showed a thicker protective layer compared to the NaF group and nanohardness and elastic modulus values were significantly lower than those of the control group. It was not possible to measure nanohardness and elastic modulus in the NaF group due to the thin protective layer formed. AFM showed globular deposits, which completely covered the eroded surface in the TiF4 group. After erosive challenge, the protective layer formed by TiF4 varnish showed significant properties and it was thicker than the layer formed by NaF varnish.

  15. Enamel-Caries Prevention Using Two Applications of Fluoride-Laser Sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noureldin, Amal; Quintanilla, Ines; Kontogiorgos, Elias; Jones, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Studies demonstrated a significant synergism between fluoride and laser in reduction of enamel solubility. However, minimal research has focused on testing the sequence of their application and no other research investigated the preventive effect of repeated applications of a combined treatment. This study investigated the effect of two applications of fluoride-laser sequence on the resistance of sound enamel to cariogenic challenge compared to one-time application. Sixty enamel slabs were cut from 10 human incisors, ground flat, polished and coated with nail varnish except a 2 x 2 mm window. Specimens were randomly assigned into five groups of 12 specimens; (CON-) negative-control received no treatment, (CON+) positive-control received pH challenge, (FV) treated with M fluoride varnish, (F-L1) one-application fluoride-varnish followed by CO2 laser-treatment (short-pulsed 10.6 µm, 2.4J/ cm2, 10HZ, 10sec), and (F-L2) two-applications of fluoride varnish-laser treatment. Specimens were left in distilled water for one day between applications. Except CON-, all groups were submitted to pH cycling for 9-days (8 demin/ remin + 1 day remineralisation bath) at 37°C. Enamel demineralization was quantitatively evaluated by measurement of Knoop surface-microhardness (SM H) (50-grams/10 seconds). Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA (p ≤ 0.05) followed by Duncan's Multiple Range Test. Within the limitations of this study, it was found that one or two applications of fluoride-laser sequence significantly improved resistance of the sound enamel surface to acid attack compared to FV-treated group. Although the two applications of fluoride-laser sequence (F-L1 and F-L2) showed higher SMH values, significant resistance to demineralization was only obtained with repeated applications.

  16. Antibacterial activity and tensile strength of provisional cements modified with fluoridecontaining varnish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewinstein, Israel; Stoleru-Baron, Johanna; Block, Jonatan; Kfir, Anda; Matalon, Shlomo; Ormianer, Zeev

    2013-02-01

    To test three noneugenol provisional cements (TempBond NE, RelyX Temp NE, and Freegenol) for their antibacterial properties and to test the hypothesis that addition of fluoride varnish confers antibacterial properties on these provisional cements without compromising their tensile strength. A total of 576 cylindrical samples were prepared (96 of each of six types) from three noneugenol provisional cements, both unmodified and modified by the addition of 5% w/w Duraphat fluoride varnish. The samples were aged in saline that was replaced twice a week for up to 90 days. Twenty-four samples of each type were removed from the saline at 1, 7, 30, or 90 days and assessed for antibacterial properties against Streptococcus mutans by using an agar diffusion test (n = 12) and tensile strength by using a diametral tensile strength test (n = 12). Data were subjected to one- and three-way ANOVA, the Tukey honestly significant difference test, and t test at a significance level of .002 (P fluoride varnish. Freegenol had the highest antibacterial activity in its unmodified form, which was not altered by the addition of the varnish. RelyX Temp NE had mild antibacterial activity that was slightly enhanced by adding the varnish. Adding the varnish reduced the tensile strength of TempBond NE and Freegenol, but did not affect the tensile strength of RelyX Temp NE. Antibacterial activity was observed for the unmodified form of Freegenol and TempBond NE after the addition of the fluoride varnish. The addition of the fluoride varnish reduced the tensile strength of both TempBond NE and Freegenol.

  17. Evaluation of the effect of a CO2 laser and fluoride on the reduction of carious lesions progression in primary teeth: an in vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zancopé, Bruna R.; Cesar, Marina M. C.; Rodrigues, Lidiany K. A.; Nobre-dos-Santos, Marinês

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed at investigating if CO2 laser irradiation (λ =10.6μm - 11.3 J/cm2) combined with fluoridated products, enhances the CaF2 formation on enamel surface and inhibits lesion progression of demineralized primary enamel. Thus, 135 demineralized primary enamel specimens (DES) were allocated to 9 groups (n=15) as follows: 1- DES only, 2- DES + pH cycling (control), 3- 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride gel (APF), 4- 1.23% fluoride foam (FF), 5- 5% fluoride varnish (FV), 6- CO2 Laser (L), 7 - Laser during APF application, 8-Laser during FF application and 9-Laser during FV application. Except for the demineralized enamel group, all specimens were submitted to a 7 day pH cycling regime. The knoop hardness number (KHN) was determined by cross-sectional microhardness analysis. After treatments application, three specimens of each group had their surface examined for CaF2 formation by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The data was analyzed by ANOVA and Student's t-test (α= 0.05). Enamel mineral loss (ΔS) for groups 1 to 9 were respectively,(8,676.28+/-1,077.46b),(12,419.54+/-1,050.21a),(8,156.80+/-1,279.90b),(8,081.32+/-1,019.69b),(8,820.86+/-1,805. 99b),(8,723.45+/-1,167.14b),(9,003.17+/-796.90b),(8.229,03+/-961.25b),(9,023.32+/-1,1069b). The results showed statistically significant difference between control and all treatments groups (p0.05). SEM observations showed evidences of melting, fusion and calcium fluoride formation on enamel surface. In conclusion, laser irradiation alone or combined with fluoridated products inhibited lesion progression of demineralized primary enamel surface. However, no synergistic effect was observed when CO2 laser irradiation and fluoridated products application were combined.

  18. Multi-analytical study of paint and varnish on a 17th century wooden polychrome antependium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Grga

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The antependium of Saint Michael's altar from the church of Saint Catherine in Osič, Croatia, is a work of the 17th century artist Matej Otoni. As a part of her Master's thesis, Aida Grga carried out a complex analysis of the paint layer (binding medium and pigments and of the resinous varnish found on the object. Thin layer chromatography, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and micro-chemical analysis were used to identify the materials. The investigation was carried out in the Laboratory for Conservation Research at the Arts Academy of the University of Split, under the supervision of PhD Ivica Ljubenkov.L’antependium de Saint Michel provenant de l’église de Sainte Catherine à Osič, Croatie, est l’œuvre de l’artiste Matej Otoni (XVIIe siècle. Dans le cadre de sa thèse de maîtrise, Aida Grga a exécuté une analyse complexe de la couche picturale (liant et matières colorantes et du vernis trouvés sur l’objet. La chromatographie sur couche mince, la spectroscopie infrarouge (FT-IR et une analyse microchimique ont été utilisés pour identifier les matériaux. La recherche a été effectuée sous la supervision de Dr. Ivica Ljubenkov au Laboratoire de Recherche en Conservation auprès de l’Académie des Beaux Arts de l’Université de Split.

  19. Comparison of Rock Varnish Bacterial Communities with Surrounding Non-Varnished Rock Surfaces: Taxon-Specific Analysis and Morphological Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Alfonso; Ahmed, Engy; Ciccazzo, Sonia; Sikorski, Johannes; Overmann, Jörg; Holmström, Sara J M; Brusetti, Lorenzo

    2015-10-01

    Rock varnish is a thin layer of Fe and Mn oxyhydroxides with embedded clay minerals that contain an increased Mn/Fe ratio compared to that of the Earth's crust. Even if the study of rock varnish has important implications in several fields, the composition of epilithic bacterial communities and the distribution of taxa on varnish surfaces are still not wholly described. The aim of this study was (i) to identify the bacterial taxa which show the greatest variation between varnish and non-varnish environments, collected from the same rock, and (ii) to describe the morphology of epilithic communities through scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Triplicate samples of rock surfaces with varnish and triplicate samples without varnish were collected from five sites in Matsch Valley (South Tyrol, Italy). The V4 region of 16S rRNA gene was analyzed by Illumina sequencing. Fifty-five ubiquitous taxa have been examined to assess variation between varnish and non-varnish. Cyanobacteria, Chloroflexi, Proteobacteria along with minor taxa such as Solirubrobacterales, Conexibaxter, and Rhodopila showed significant variations of abundance, diversity, or both responding to the ecology (presence/absence of varnish). Other taxa, such as the genus Edaphobacter, showed a more marked spatial variation responding to the sampling site. SEM images showed a multitude of bacterial morphologies and structures involved in the process of attachment and creation of a suitable environment for growth. The features emerging from this analysis suggest that the highly oxidative Fe and Mn-rich varnish environment favors anoxigenic autotrophy and establishment of highly specialized bacteria.

  20. A study to investigate fluoride contamination and fluoride exposure dose assessment in lateritic zones of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samal, Alok C; Bhattacharya, Piyal; Mallick, Anusaya; Ali, Md Motakabber; Pyne, Jagadish; Santra, Subhas C

    2015-04-01

    To assess the status of severity of fluoride contamination in lateritic Bankura and Purulia districts of West Bengal, concentrations of fluoride in different water sources and agricultural field soils were investigated. The fluoride content (mg/l) was observed to differ with aquifer depths: 0.19-0.47 in dug wells, 0.01-0.17 in shallow tube wells, and 0.07-1.6 in deep tube wells. Fluoride within the World Health Organization (WHO) prescribed range (1.0-1.5 mg/l) was estimated only in ~17% of the total collected water samples while ~67% showed fluoride and thus may impede in the production and maintenance of healthy teeth and bones of the residents, especially children. Fluoride in water was found to be significantly correlated (r = 0.63) with pH. The exposure dose of fluoride (mg/kg/day) from drinking water in infants, children, and adults was estimated in the ranges 0.02-0.53, 0.01-0.24, and 0.01-0.14, respectively against the standard value of 0.05. A clear risk of dental fluorosis is apparent in infants and children of the study area. The fluoride in soil (55-399 mg/kg) was detected to be significantly correlated with the fluoride content in deep tube wells and soil pH (r = 0.56 and 0.71, respectively). The relationships of soil fluoride with total hardness and that with phosphate were not significant. There is a high possibility of bioaccumulation of fluoride from contaminated soil and water of the study area to cultivated crops. This will enhance the quantity of fluoride intake into human food chain in addition to drinking water pathway.

  1. Application of cosmetic nail varnish does not affect the antifungal efficacy of amorolfine 5% nail lacquer in the treatment of distal subungual toenail onychomycosis: results of a randomised active-controlled study and in vitro assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurgeirsson, B; Ghannoum, M A; Osman-Ponchet, H; Kerrouche, N; Sidou, F

    2016-05-01

    As onychomycosis is unsightly, this study clinically evaluated whether the antifungal efficacy of amorolfine 5% nail lacquer (NL) was affected by a masking, natural-coloured, cosmetic nail varnish applied 24 h later; in vitro investigations were also performed. Subjects with mild-to-moderate distal subungual toenail onychomycosis were randomised to receive amorolfine 5% NL once weekly with or without cosmetic nail varnish applied 24 h later. After 12-week treatment, antifungal activity of affected toenail clippings was assessed by measurement of zones of inhibition (ZOIs) on Trichophyton mentagrophytes seeded agar plates. Mean diameters were 53.5 mm for the amorolfine 5% NL-alone group (n = 23) and 53.6 mm for amorolfine 5% NL plus cosmetic nail varnish group (n = 25). Also, mycological cultures of subungual debris at week 12 were negative for all subjects in both groups. Most subjects (88%) reported that cosmetic nail varnish masked their infected toenails. Additionally, cadaver human nails coated in vitro with or without cosmetic nail varnish 10 min or 24 h post amorolfine NL application all gave ZOIs on Trichophyton rubrum agar plates representing potent antifungal activity. In conclusion, cosmetic nail varnish applied post amorolfine had no effect on the subungual antifungal activity of amorolfine 5% NL or its penetration through toenails.

  2. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY AND NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF FLUORIDE IN SAND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hong-mei; SU Bao-yu

    2006-01-01

    The transport and transformation of fluoride in sand were studied by using soil tank test under the condition of saturated water in this article. Based on the analysis of the laboratory experiments, the rules of fluorine transportation and transformation were simulated in sand by solving the advection-diffusion equation. Through comparison between computed results and observed data , it is shown that the established model and determined parameters could be used to simulate the fluoride transport in sand.

  3. An in vitro evaluation of the demineralization inhibitory effect of F− varnish and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate on enamel in young permanent teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraisamy, Vinola; Xavier, Ananda; Nayak, Ullal Anand; Reddy, Venugopal; Rao, Arun Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: To determine the demineralization inhibitory potential of fluoride varnish and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) and to compare and evaluate the additive effect of fluoride varnish + CPP-ACP. Materials and Methods: Ten healthy premolar teeth that were extracted for orthodontic purposes were collected, and each tooth was longitudinally sectioned buccolingually and mesiodistally into four sections. The teeth were then assigned to four different treatment groups namely fluoride varnish, CPP-ACP, F− varnish followed by CPP-ACP and control. The prepared enamel samples were suspended in an artificial caries challenge for 10 days. The demineralizing inhibitory effects of the groups were recorded using polarized light microscopy. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was carried out using analysis of variance and Duncan's multiple range tests. Results: The mean lesion depths of all the groups were Group 1 (fluoride varnish): 104.71, Group 2 (CPP-ACP): 127.09, Group 3: (F− varnish + CPP-ACP): 82.34, Group 4 (control): 146.93. Conclusion: Demineralization inhibitory potential on the additive use of F− varnish and casein phosphopeptide was superior to fluoride varnish or CPP-ACP applied alone on the enamel of young permanent teeth. PMID:26538909

  4. Community Water Fluoridation and Intelligence: Prospective Study in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, Jonathan M; Thomson, W Murray; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Moffitt, Terrie E; Zeng, Jiaxu; Foster Page, Lyndie A; Poulton, Richie

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study aimed to clarify the relationship between community water fluoridation (CWF) and IQ. Methods. We conducted a prospective study of a general population sample of those born in Dunedin, New Zealand, between April 1, 1972, and March 30, 1973 (95.4% retention of cohort after 38 years of prospective follow-up). Residence in a CWF area, use of fluoride dentifrice and intake of 0.5-milligram fluoride tablets were assessed in early life (prior to age 5 years); we assessed IQ repeatedly between ages 7 to 13 years and at age 38 years. Results. No clear differences in IQ because of fluoride exposure were noted. These findings held after adjusting for potential confounding variables, including sex, socioeconomic status, breastfeeding, and birth weight (as well as educational attainment for adult IQ outcomes). Conclusions. These findings do not support the assertion that fluoride in the context of CWF programs is neurotoxic. Associations between very high fluoride exposure and low IQ reported in previous studies may have been affected by confounding, particularly by urban or rural status.

  5. Comparative evaluation of 2% sodium fluoride iontophoresis and other cavity liners beneath silver amalgam restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was designed to compare 2% sodium fluoride (NaF iontophoresis with other cavity liners. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in 30 patients in the age group 10-14 years with bilateral carious permanent first molars. The study evaluated the use of 2% NaF iontophoresis as a cavity liner and also compared its desensitizing effect with varnish and an adhesive bonded liner. Sensitivity gradings were done on a subjective verbal rating scale. Results: All the liner treatments decreased the sensitivity following liner application. However, decrease of sensitivity in the case of 2% NaF iontophoresis was more compared with that of varnish and adhesive bonded liner. The results were statistically significant. Conclusions: It was found that 2% NaF iontophoresis was more effective in reducing the postoperative sensitivity compared with that of varnish and scotchbond multipurpose.

  6. Comparison of efficacy of three chemotherapeutic agents on Streptococcus mutans count in plaque and saliva: A randomized controlled triple blind study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Narayan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a need for exploration of the role of chemotherapeutic agents and its role in the prevention of early childhood caries (ECC and its recurrence. Aim: The aim of this study was two-fold: (1 To compare the antimicrobial efficacy of three commonly used chemotherapeutic agents in the prevention of ECC in comparison with a control and (2 To ascertain the role of chemotherapeutic agents in the prevention of ECC. Materials and Methods: Sixty children with ECC in the age group 3–6 years were randomly allocated into four groups. To each group of children after full oral rehabilitation either 10% povidone-iodine (PI, or chlorhexidine (CHX varnish (Cervitec Plus, or fluoride varnish (Fluor Protector were applied twice at an interval of 1 week, Group 4 served as control. Streptococcus mutans count in saliva and plaque were collected at baseline, 30, 60, and 90 days and the presence of S. mutans was evaluated using the Dentocult SM strip mutans kit. The efficacy of 10% PI, CHX varnish (Cervitec Plus, and fluoride varnish (Fluor Protector was compared with the control group at 30, 60, and 90 days. An intergroup comparison was also done during the same time intervals. Results: The reduction of S. mutans count in the plaque and saliva was greatest in the fluoride varnish treated groups at all time intervals (30, 60, and 90 days. Fluoride varnish, CHX varnish, and 10% PI showed significant improved efficacy when compared to the control group (P < 0.001. Fluoride varnish showed significantly lower counts of S. mutans compared to CHX varnish at all time intervals (30, 60, and 90 days and also significantly lower counts compared to 10% PI at 60 and 90 days interval (P < 0.001.

  7. The effect of different fluoride application methods on the remineralization of initial carious lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byeon, Seon Mi; Lee, Min Ho; Bae, Tae Sung

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of single and combined applications of fluoride on the amount of fluoride release, and the remineralization and physical properties of enamel. Each of four fluoride varnish and gel products (Fluor Protector, FP, Ivoclar Vivadent; Tooth Mousse Plus, TM, GC; 60 Second Gel, A, Germiphene; CavityShield, CS, 3M ESPE) and two fluoride solutions (2% sodium fluoride, N; 8% tin(ii) fluoride, S) were applied on bovine teeth using single and combined methods (10 per group), and then the amount of fluoride release was measured for 4 wk. The electron probe microanalysis and the Vickers microhardness measurements were conducted to assess the effect of fluoride application on the surface properties of bovine teeth. The amount of fluoride release was higher in combined applications than in single application (p < 0.05). Microhardness values were higher after combined applications of N with FP, TM, and CS than single application of them, and these values were also higher after combined applications of S than single application of A (p < 0.05). Ca and P values were higher in combined applications of N with TM and CS than single application of them (p < 0.05). They were also increased after combined applications of the S with A than after single application (p < 0.05). Combined applications of fluoride could be used as a basis to design more effective methods of fluoride application to provide enhanced remineralization.

  8. Varnish XT和ICON渗透树脂对釉质龋白斑微硬度的影响%Effect of Varnish XT and ICON resin infiltration treatment on the microhardness of white spot lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭静; 赵晓一; 吴佩玲

    2014-01-01

    to fil the region of enamel demineralization and prevent further development of lesions. OBJECTIVE:To study the effects of two minimaly invasive surgical treatment materials, Varnish XT and ICON penetrating resin, on the microhardness of enamel caries white spot. METHODS:Totaly 100 incisors of cows were selected, embedded with ethoxyline resin and polished. The lip side facing down served as the observation side. An area of at least 6 mm×10 mm on the enamel face was exposed, and there were five regions from incisal to dental cervix, A, B, C, D, E. After demineralization liquid for artificial caries, no treatment was adopted in region A, treatment with Varnish XT was for region B, treatment with ICON penetrating resin for region C, treatment with fluoride for region D, and region E was sealed with antacid nail. Surface micro-hardness was detected. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: After demineralization, surface micro-hardness of regions A, B, C, D decreases remarkably as compared with region E (P B and D for surface micro-hardness with statistical significance (P 0.05). ICON resin infiltration, Varnish XT and fluoride have obvious improvement effects on surface micro-hardness, and ICON resin infiltration is superior to Varnish XT and fluoride.

  9. Effects of experimental xylitol varnishes and solutions on bovine enamel erosion in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Jonas G; Rochel, Isabela D; Pereira, Agnes F F; Silva, Thiago C; Rios, Daniela; Machado, Maria Aparecida A M; Buzalaf, Marília A R; Magalhães, Ana Carolina

    2010-12-01

    This in vitro study aimed to analyze the effects of application of xylitol varnishes and solutions to protect against enamel erosion. Twelve bovine enamel specimens were pre-treated with 5% NaF-Duraphat varnish, 10% xylitol varnish, 20% xylitol varnish, placebo varnish, 5% NaF solution, 10% xylitol solution or 20% xylitol solution. The varnishes and solutions were applied for 6 h and 1 min, respectively. Controls remained untreated (n = 12). Specimens were then subjected to erosive demineralization (Coca-Cola, 4 × 90 s/d) and remineralization (artificial saliva, 2 h) cycling for 10 days. After 5 days, the varnishes and solutions were reapplied. After reapplication, two specimens per group were analyzed by SEM. Enamel loss was measured profilometrically after the 5th and 10th days. Data were then analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test (n = 10, P < 0.05). After the 5th day, all varnishes and 20% xylitol solution significantly reduced the enamel loss when compared to the placebo varnish/control. After 10 days of erosive pH cycling, both xylitol varnishes and solutions significantly reduced the enamel erosion when compared with the control. However, 10% xylitol solution produced a smooth layer on eroded enamel and significantly reduced the enamel erosion when compared to the placebo varnish/control. Xylitol thus appears to be a good option to partially reduce enamel erosion.

  10. Absence of Fluoride Varnish–Related Adverse Events in Caries Prevention Trials in Young Children, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorich, Steven E.; Ramos-Gomez, Francisco; Braun, Patricia A.; Wilson, Anne; Albino, Judith; Tiwari, Tamanna; Harper, Maya; Batliner, Terrence S.; Rasmussen, Margaret; Cheng, Nancy F.; Santo, William; Geltman, Paul L.; Henshaw, Michelle; Gansky, Stuart A.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Fluoride varnish is an effective prevention intervention for caries in young children. Its routine use in clinical care is supported by meta-analyses and recommended by clinical guidelines, including the US Preventive Services Task Force (B rating). This report is the first prospective systematic assessment of adverse events related to fluoride varnish treatment in young children. Methods We determined the incidence of adverse events related to fluoride varnish treatment in 3 clinical trials on the prevention of early childhood caries, conducted under the auspices of the Early Childhood Caries Collaborating Centers, an initiative sponsored by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research. Each trial incorporated use of fluoride varnish in its protocol and systematically queried all children’s parents or legal guardians about the occurrence of acute adverse events after each fluoride varnish treatment. Results A total of 2,424 community-dwelling, dentate children aged 0 to 5 years were enrolled and followed for up to 3 years. These children received a cumulative total of 10,249 fluoride varnish treatments. On average, each child received 4.2 fluoride varnish treatments. We found zero fluoride varnish–related adverse events. Conclusion Fluoride varnish was not associated with treatment-related adverse events in young children. Our findings support its safety as an effective prevention intervention for caries in young children. PMID:28207379

  11. [Mechanism study of fluoride adsorption by hydrous metal oxides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hui-Chao; Li, Wen-Jun; Chang, Zhi-Dong; Wang, Huan-Ying; Zhou, Yue

    2011-08-01

    Hydrous oxides of cerium, aluminum, nickel and copper were prepared by alkaline precipitation method. Langmuir adsorption isotherm was studied and specific surface area was measured by BET method through N2 adsorption-desorption process. IR characterization of hydrous metal oxides before and after fluoride adsorption was also studied. Results show that different hydrous metal oxides have different specific surface areas and their pore size distributions also are not all the same. Adsorption capacity is not directly dependent on the specific surface area. Isotherm study indicates that the adsorption follows Langmuir model and shows the feature of monolayer adsorption. IR study before and after fluoride adsorption shows that different hydrous metal oxides have similar adsorption sites in the same IR region as well as adsorption sites in the different IR region. The comprehensive interaction of these adsorption sites with fluoride ions results in the different adsorption capacity of different hydrous metal oxides.

  12. Relationship of vibro-mechanical properties and microstructure of wood and varnish interface in string instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedighi Gilani, Marjan; Pflaum, Johanna; Hartmann, Stefan; Kaufmann, Rolf; Baumgartner, Michael; Schwarze, Francis Willis Mathew Robert

    2016-04-01

    Wood varnish coatings not only are aesthetically important, but also preserve the musical instrument from wear and fluctuations in the ambient humidity. Depending on the thickness, extent of penetration into the wood and the physical and mechanical properties after hardening, varnishes may change the mechanical and also vibro-acoustical properties of the coated wood. Contrary to studies on the chemistry of the varnish and primer used for old and contemporary musical instruments, the physical and mechanical properties of the varnished wood in relation to the geometry of their interface have been poorly studied. We implemented non-destructive test methods, i.e., vibration tests and X-ray tomography, to characterize the hardening-dependent change in the vibrational properties of master grade tone wood specimens after coating with four different varnishes. Two were manufactured in the laboratory, and two were supplied from master violin makers. For a controlled accelerated hardening of the varnish, a UV exposure method was used. It was demonstrated that varnishes increase wood damping, along and perpendicular to the grain directions. Varnishes reduce the sound radiation along the grain, but increase it in the perpendicular direction. Changes in the vibrational properties were discussed together with results of 3D images of wood and varnish microstructure, obtained from a customized tabletop X-ray microtomographic setup. For comparison, the microstructure of the interface of the varnished wood in the laboratory and of specimens from two old violins was analyzed with the same X-ray tomography setup. Laboratory varnishes with various compositions penetrated differently into the wood structure. One varnish of a master grade old violin had a higher density and was also thicker and penetrated weaker into the wood, which is more likely related to a more sophisticated primer and varnish application. The study demonstrates the importance of the vibro-mechanical properties of

  13. Effect of Diode Laser Irradiation Combined with Topical Fluoride on Enamel Microhardness of Primary Teeth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Bahrololoomi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Laser irradiation has been suggested as an adjunct to traditional caries prevention methods. But little is known about the cariostatic effect of diode laser and most studies available are on permanent teeth.The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of diode laser irradiation combined with topical fluoride on enamel surface microhardness.Forty-five primary teeth were used in this in vitro study. The teeth were sectioned to produce 90 slabs. The baseline Vickers microhardness number of each enamel surface was determined. The samples were randomly divided into 3 groups. Group 1: 5% NaF varnish, group 2: NaF varnish+ diode laser at 5 W power and group 3: NaF varnish+ diode laser at 7 W power. Then, the final microhardness number of each surface was again determined. The data were statistically analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA at 0.05 level of significance.In all 3 groups, microhardness number increased significantly after surface treatment (P0.05.The combined application of diode laser and topical fluoride varnish on enamel surface did not show any significant additional effect on enamel resistance to caries.

  14. Fungi and bacteria involved in desert varnish formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-George, S.; Palmer, F.; Staley, J. T.; Curtiss, B.; Adams, J. B.; Borns, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    Desert varnish is a coating of ferromanganese oxides and clays that develops on rock surfaces in arid to semi-arid regions. Active respiration but not photosynthesis was detected on varnished rock surfaces from the Sonoran Desert. Light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations, and cultivation experiments indicate that both fungi, primarily dematiaceous hyphomycetes, and bacteria are found on and within desert varnish coatings from the arid regions studied. Some fungi grow as microcolonial fungi (MCF) on rocks, and microscopic observations suggest MCF become incorporated in the varnish coating. SEM-EDAX (energy dispersive X-ray systems) analyses indicate the MCF contain 3 of the characteristic elements of varnish: iron, aluminum, and silicon. In some locations, MCF are also enriched in manganese relative to the rock substratum. Furthermore, some of the dematiaceous hyphomycetes that have been cultivated are able to oxidize manganese under laboratory conditions. It is possible that manganese-oxidizing bacteria, which are found in varnish, also play an important role in varnish formation.

  15. An in vitro evaluation of the demineralization inhibitory effect of F? varnish and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate on enamel in young permanent teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Duraisamy, Vinola; Xavier, Ananda; Nayak, Ullal Anand; Reddy, Venugopal; Rao, Arun Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: To determine the demineralization inhibitory potential of fluoride varnish and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) and to compare and evaluate the additive effect of fluoride varnish + CPP-ACP. Materials and Methods: Ten healthy premolar teeth that were extracted for orthodontic purposes were collected, and each tooth was longitudinally sectioned buccolingually and mesiodistally into four sections. The teeth were then assigned to four different tre...

  16. Effect of 10% fluoride on the remineralization of dentin in situ

    OpenAIRE

    Bizhang, Mozhgan; KALETA-KRAGT,Sabine; SINGH-HÜSGEN, Preeti; Markus Jörg ALTENBURGER; Zimmer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective The purpose of this randomized, cross-over, in situ study was to determine the remineralization of demineralized dentin specimens after the application of a 10% fluoride (F-) or a 1% chlorhexidine–1% thymol (CHX–thymol) varnish. Material and Methods Twelve individuals without current caries activity wore removable appliances in the lower jaw for a period of four weeks. Each appliance contained four human demineralized dentin specimens fixed on the buccal asp...

  17. 氟化物涂膜与激光联合应用治疗牙本质过敏症的近期疗效观察%Combination of laser irradiation with fluoride varnish therapy in DH: a short-term clinical trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛芳; 刘智永; 许伟森; 郝新宇; 杨保华; 熊世江

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the short-term clinical therapeutic effects of the combination of laser irradiation with fluoride varnish on dentin hypersensitivity ( DH). Methods Forty-two patients with 142 dentin hypersensitive teeth were divided into three groups according to the treatments, the fluoride varnish group(A, 47 teeth), the semi-conductor laser irradiation group (B, 47 teeth), and the group with both procedures ( C, 48 teeth). A visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to measure DH. The selected teeth in the three groups received efficacy assessments for three sessions. VAS value was observed before the treatment, 10 minutes, one month and three months after the treatment. Finally , ANOVA was applied to determine the differences among the groups ( P < 0.05). Result Though the three treatments of DH at different time all demonstrated curative effect, group C was the best (P < 0. 05). Conclusion The combined application of semi-conductor laser irradiation and fluoride varnish is more effective in the treatment of DH than the single procedure.%目的 评价氟化物涂膜与半导体激光联合应用治疗牙本质过敏症的近期临床疗效.方法 42例牙本质过敏症患者共计142颗患牙分为3组:氟化物涂膜组(A组)47颗患牙、半导体激光组(B组)47颗患牙、氟化物涂膜与半导体激光联合组(C组)48颗患牙.采用数字化疼痛评判法测量牙本质敏感程度.每组患者分3个阶段进行疗效评估,观察治疗前、治疗后( 10 min)、1个月及3个月的VAS值.采用单因素方差分析对结果进行统计学分析.结果 3种方法对于牙本质过敏症的治疗在不同的时间均有疗效;C组与其他两组相比较,具有更好的疗效(P<0.05).结论 氟化物涂膜与半导体激光联合应用治疗牙本质过敏症的临床疗效优于单独使用氟化物涂膜或半导体激光.

  18. 氟保护漆预防儿童龋齿的效果观察%The clinical effect of fluoride varnish on preventing the dental caries in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢红

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the clinical effects of fluor varnish on preventing the dental caries in children. Methods:Seventy children were randomly divided into the control group and observation group(38 cases each group,80 teeth). The dental caries in control group and observation group were prevented using fissure sealant and fluor varnish combined with fissure sealant,respectively. All cases were followed up for 1 to 2 years,the occurrence of dental caries and sealant falling in two groups were observed. Results:The differences of the occurrences of dental caries and interproximal caries between two groups were not statistical significance(P>0. 05). The mean of caries and sealant falling in observation group were lower than those in control group(P 0.05),而龋均值明显低于对照组(P<0.01)。观察组儿童封闭剂脱落程度亦低于对照组(P<0.05)。结论:临床应用氟保护漆联合窝沟封闭术预防儿童龋齿具有较好效果,且氟保护漆可有效保护窝沟封闭剂,避免其脱落,进而可加强预防效果。

  19. Effectiveness of varnish with CPP-ACP in prevention of caries lesions around orthodontic brackets: an OCT evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pithon, Matheus M; Dos Santos, Mariana J; Andrade, Camilla S S; Leão Filho, Jorge César B; Braz, Ana Karla S; de Araujo, Renato E; Tanaka, Orlando M; Fidalgo, Tatiana K S; Dos Santos, Adrielle M; Maia, Lucianne C

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the in vitro efficiency of applying varnish containing casein phosphopeptide (CPP) and amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) in prevention of caries lesions around orthodontic brackets. For this purpose, brackets were bonded to the vestibular surface of bovine incisors, and eight groups were formed (n = 15) according to exposure of oral hygiene substances and enamel varnish: 1 (control) brushing only performed, 2 (control) brushing + use of mouth wash with fluoride, 3 Duraphat varnish application only (Colgate-Palmolive Ind. E Com. Ltda, São Paulo, SP, Brazil), 4 Duraphat + brushing, 5 Duraphat + brushing + mouth wash, 6 MI Varnish application (GC America, USA), 7 MI + brushing, and 8 MI + brushing + mouth wash. The experimental groups alternated between pH cycling and the procedures described and were kept in an oven at temperature of 37°C. Both brushing and immersion in solutions was performed in a time interval of 1 minute, followed by washing in deionized water three times a day for 28 days of experimentation. Afterwards, evaluation by optical coherence tomography (OCT) of the special type (Ganymede OCT/Thorlabs, Newton, USA) was performed. In each group, a scanning exam of the white spot lesion area (around the region where brackets were bonded) and depth measurement of caries lesions were performed. Groups 1 and 3 were shown to differ statistically from groups 5, 6, 7, and 8 (p = 0.000). MI Varnish was shown to be more effective in diminishing caries lesion depth, compared with Duraphat, irrespective of being associated with brushing and mouth wash, or not. The major limitation of this study is that it is a study in which demineralization was obtained with the use of chemical products, and did not occur due to the presence of Streptococcus mutans and its acid byproducts. Application CPP-ACP-containing varnish irrespective of being associated with brushing and mouthwash, or not, reduced depth of caries lesions around orthodontic brackets. © The

  20. Effect of 10% fluoride on the remineralization of dentin in situ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan BIZHANG

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective The purpose of this randomized, cross-over, in situ study was to determine the remineralization of demineralized dentin specimens after the application of a 10% fluoride (F- or a 1% chlorhexidine–1% thymol (CHX–thymol varnish. Material and Methods Twelve individuals without current caries activity wore removable appliances in the lower jaw for a period of four weeks. Each appliance contained four human demineralized dentin specimens fixed on the buccal aspects. The dentin specimens were obtained from the cervical regions of extracted human third molars. After demineralization, half the surface of each specimen was covered with a nail varnish to serve as the reference surface. The dentin specimens were randomly assigned to one of the three groups: F-, CHX–thymol, and control (no treatment. Before the first treatment period and between the others, there were washout periods of one week. After each treatment phase, the changes in mineral content (vol% µm and the lesion depths (µm of the dentin slabs were determined by transverse microradiography (TMR. Data analysis was accomplished by the Kruskal-Wallis test and the Mann-Whitney U test (p<0.05. Results The medians (25th/75th percentile of integrated mineral loss were 312.70 (203.0-628.7 for chlorhexidine varnish, 309.5 (109.8-665.8 for fluoride varnish, and -346.9 (-128.7 - -596.0 for the control group. The medians (25th/75th percentile of lesion depth were 13.6 (5.7-34.5 for chlorhexidine varnish, 16.5 (5.6-38.1 for fluoride varnish, and -14.2 (-4.5- -32.9 for the control group. Use of the 10% F- or 1% CHX–1% thymol varnishes resulted in significantly decreased mineral loss and lesion depth in dentin when compared with the control group. There were no statistically significant differences among the test groups. Conclusions Within the limitations of this study, the results suggest that the effect of the treatment of demineralized dentin with 10% F- or 1% CHX–1% thymol

  1. Effect of Fluoride Varnish and Self-etching Bonding System on Prevention of Enamel Decalcification in Early Orthodontic Treatment%氟保护漆与含氟自酸蚀粘结剂预防固定正畸治疗早期釉质脱矿的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐嘉莉; 贺永春

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of fluoride varnish and self — etching fluoride—releasing bonding system on prevention of enamel decalcification in early orthodontic treatment, and from these two agents, the best fluoride was chosen. Methods: Twenty two patients treated with fixed appliance were randomly selected. The brackets were bonded with self—etching bonding system in the quarter of number 1 and 3. After conventional etching on enamel in the quarter of number 2 and 4 , the brackets were bonded with composite resin enamel adhesive. The enamel decalcification of all quarters were detected by DIAGNOdent, the fluoride vanish was applied on the enamel surface around brackets in the quarter of number 2 and 4 subsequently. The detection were repeated after one and three months. Results: Immediately after bonding and one month later, the DIAGNOdent readings of self—etching bonding system region was lower significantly than that of composite resin enamel adhesive region (P<0. 05) , but there was no significant statistically difference after three months. Conclusion: The application of self—etching bonding system can decrease enamel decalcification after brackets bonding, and to some extent prevent the development of enamel decalcification in early orthodontic treatment. Fluoride varnish had better effect on enamel remineralization.%目的:对氟保护漆与含氟自酸蚀粘结剂预防固定正畸治疗早期釉质脱矿的临床效果进行对比研究,寻找一种更为有效的氟化物应用方法.方法:随机选择接受固定正畸治疗的青少年患者22名,在每个患者的1区和3区使用含氟自酸蚀粘结剂粘固托槽,在2区与4区常规酸蚀后使用化学固化型京津釉质粘结剂粘固托槽,随后涂布氟保护漆.采用DIAGNOdent激光荧光诊断仪分别对不同区域的牙面釉质脱矿程度进行定量诊断,并在患者1个月、3个月复诊时重复监测.结果:粘结完成即刻与粘结后1个月时,含氟

  2. VARNISH LAYER HARDNESS, SCRATCH RESISTANCE, AND GLOSSINESS OF VARIOUS WOOD SPECIES AS AFFECTED BY HEAT TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevzat Çakıcıer

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effects of different heat treatment and varnish application combinations on hardness, scratch resistance, and glossiness of wood materials sampled from limba (Terminalia superba, iroko (Chlorophora excelsa, ash (Fraxinus excelsior L., and Anatolian chestnut (Castenea sativa Mill. species. The heat treatment was applied at two levels (150 and 180 oC for both 3 and 6 hour periods. After the heat treatment, four types of varnish (cellulose lacquer, synthetic varnish, polyurethane varnish, and water based varnish were applied, and hardness, scratch resistance, and glossiness of varnish film layers of the treated woods were measured. The effects of heat treatment and varnish combination applications on above mentioned variables were analyzed according to the study design (factorial design with 4 (species x 2 (heat x 2(duration x 4 (varnish = 64 experimental units with 10 samples for each combination of parameters. Glossiness increased on wood samples for all of the four wood species treated with cellulose lacquer and synthetic varnish and across all heating treatments. However, glossiness values were decreased for all the wood species depending on heating temperature and time. Values of hardness and scratch resistance were also decreased for all the four wood species across all the treatment combinations. The results were obtained from the upper surface of the application process and are thought to contribute to the national economy.

  3. Hydrothermal chemistry, structures, and luminescence studies of alkali hafnium fluorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Christopher C; McMillen, Colin D; Chen, Hongyu; Anker, Jeffery N; Kolis, Joseph W

    2013-01-07

    This paper describes the hydrothermal chemistry of alkali hafnium fluorides, including the synthesis and structural characterization of five new alkali hafnium fluorides. Two ternary alkali hafnium fluorides are described: Li(2)HfF(6) in space group P31m with a = 4.9748(7) Å and c = 4.6449(9) Å and Na(5)Hf(2)F(13) in space group C2/m with a = 11.627(2) Å, b = 5.5159(11) Å, and c = 8.4317(17) Å. Three new alkali hafnium oxyfluorides are also described: two fluoroelpasolites, K(3)HfOF(5) and (NH(4))(3)HfOF(5), in space group Fm3m with a = 8.9766(10) and 9.4144(11) Å, respectively, and K(2)Hf(3)OF(12) in space group R3m with a = 7.6486(11) Å and c = 28.802(6) Å. Infrared (IR) spectra were obtained for the title solids to confirm the structure solutions. Comparison of these materials was made based on their structures and synthesis conditions. The formation of these species in hydrothermal fluids appears to be dependent upon both the concentration of the alkali fluoride mineralizer solution and the reaction temperature. Both X-ray and visible fluorescence studies were conducted on compounds synthesized in this study and showed that fluorescence was affected by a variety of factors, such as alkali metal size, the presence/absence of oxygen in the compound, and the coordination environment of Hf(4+).

  4. Dentifrice Fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakita, Philip E.

    2004-05-01

    The effectiveness of the fluoride ion in lowering the incidence of dental caries is a major factor in the field of dental health. Observations and research studies in the first half of the 20th century have lead to the widespread adoption of fluoridated water and the use of inorganic fluoride compounds in oral care products, such as toothpaste and dental rinses. This article provides a brief review of the types of compounds used and the chemistry involved.

  5. Properties Study of Epoxy Solventless Insulating Varnish Modified by Epoxidized Soybean Oil%环氧大豆油改性环氧无溶剂绝缘漆的性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗小锋; 王华; 程于峰; 朱博雅; 刘农强

    2013-01-01

      采用环氧大豆油(ESO)对环氧无溶剂绝缘漆进行共混改性,研究了ESO的用量对环氧的稀释性以及它们之间的相容性,并确定了ESO的最佳用量和改性环氧无溶剂绝缘漆的固化工艺。结果表明:加入适量ESO后可明显降低绝缘漆的成本和粘度,提高工艺适用性,虽然耐热性略有降低,但仍能满足绝缘漆对耐热性能、绝缘性能以及适用期的要求。ESO的最佳用量为6%。%  An epoxy solventless insulating varnish was blending modified by epoxidized soybean oil (ESO), and the dilution effect of ESO amount on the epoxy and the compatibility between ESO and ep-oxy were studied, and then the optimum amount of ESO and curing process of the modified epoxy sol-ventless insulating varnish were determined. The results show that adding appropriate amount of ESO can significantly reduce the cost and viscosity of the insulating varnish and improve the process applicability. Although the heat-resistance of the insulating varnish reduces slightly, the insulating varnish can also satis-fy the requirements of heat-resistance, insulating properties and pot life. The optimum amount of ESO is 6%.

  6. 21 CFR 872.3260 - Cavity varnish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3260 Cavity varnish. (a) Identification. Cavity varnish is a... restorative materials. The device is intended to prevent penetration of restorative materials, such as...

  7. Topical fluoride as a cause of dental fluorosis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, May Cm; Glenny, Anne-Marie; Tsang, Boyd Wk; Lo, Edward Cm; Worthington, Helen V; Marinho, Valeria Cc

    2010-01-20

    For many years, topical use of fluorides has gained greater popularity than systemic use of fluorides. A possible adverse effect associated with the use of topical fluoride is the development of dental fluorosis due to the ingestion of excessive fluoride by young children with developing teeth. To describe the relationship between the use of topical fluorides in young children and the risk of developing dental fluorosis. Electronic search of the Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS, Dissertation Abstracts and LILACS/BBO. Reference lists from relevant articles were searched. Date of the most recent searches: 9th March 09. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs, cohort studies, case-control studies and cross-sectional surveys, in which fluoride toothpastes, mouthrinses, gels, foams, paint-on solutions, and varnishes were compared to an alternative fluoride treatment, placebo or no intervention group. Children under the age of 6 years at the time topical fluorides were used. Data from all included studies were extracted by two review authors. Risk ratios for controlled, prospective studies and odds ratios for case-control studies or cross-sectional surveys were extracted or calculated. Where both adjusted and unadjusted risk ratios or odds ratios were presented, the adjusted value was included in the meta-analysis. 25 studies were included: 2 RCTs, 1 cohort study, 6 case-control studies and 16 cross-sectional surveys. Only one RCT was judged to be at low risk of bias. The other RCT and all observational studies were judged to be at moderate to high risk of bias. Studies were included in four intervention/exposure comparisons. A statistically significant reduction in fluorosis was found if brushing of a child's teeth with fluoride toothpaste commenced after the age of 12 months odds ratio 0.70 (random-effects: 95% confidence interval 0.57 to 0.88) (data from observational studies). Inconsistent statistically significant

  8. Effect of different frequencies of fluoride dentifrice and mouthrinse administration: an in situ study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Correia Cavalcante Souza

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of a combination of topical fluoridation methods for inhibition of enamel demineralization in the face of a cariogenic challenge has not been clearly established. This in situ crossover study aimed to assess whether the addition of daily use of fluoride mouthrinse (FR to that of fluoride dentifrice (FD is equivalent to increasing the frequency of FD application in terms of the effect on enamel demineralization and fluoride content. Over 3 phases of 14 days each, 12 volunteers wore appliances containing enamel blocks exposed to a 20 % sucrose solution 8 times/day. During each phase the blocks underwent one of the following treatments: 2x/day FD, 2x/day FD + 1x/day FR, and 3x/day FD. The blocks were assessed for hardness and fluoride content. Three x/day FD did not differ from 2x/day + 1x/day FR, however it enhanced demineralization protection when compared to 2x/day FD. All treatments produced an increase in enamel fluoride content compared to no treatment (sound blocks (p < 0.05, but the differences between them were not significant. The results of this study suggest that the daily use of fluoride mouthrinse combined with that of fluoride dentifrice has similar effects on enamel demineralization and fluoride content when compared to increasing the frequency of fluoride dentifrice use.

  9. Self-Reported Knowledge and Attitude of Dentists towards Prescription of Fluoride

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    Afsaneh Pakdaman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to assess the self-reported knowledge and attitude of dentists towards fluoride prescription.Materials and Methods: A questionnaire survey was conducted at the national annual dental congress in 2010 in Tehran-Iran. Dentists’ level of knowledge about the preventive effects of systemic and topical administration of fluoride was assessed as well as their attitudes towards its application. Self-reported practice for two paper patients (a child and an adult with high risk of dental caries was assessed. Data were analyzed using SPSS, chi-square test and logistic regression.Results: A total of 347 dentists including 232 (73.4% males and 84 (26.6% females responded; 84.7% agreed/strongly agreed with addition of fluoride to water and 66% agreed with prescription of fluoride tablets/drops in fluoride-deficient areas. Fluoridated toothpastes were considered useful by 85.3%; this rate was 78.7% for fluoride rinse and 87.6% for fluoride varnish, foam or gel. The majority of dentists (67.4% reported no access to clear guidelines on fluoride application; 83% considered fluoride to be effective for caries prevention in children less than 12 years and 39.2% believed it was useful for adults and adolescents; 50% of the respondents correctly managed the high-risk child and adult with respect to appropriate selection of fluoride product. Younger dentists (OR=0.94; 95% CI 0.8-0.9; P=0.043 and new graduates (OR=0.94; 95% CI 0.89-0.99; P=0.034 were more likely to correctly manage the high-risk child.  Conclusion: Dentists had good knowledge and positive attitudes towards fluoride application. New graduates were more likely to correctly manage the young high-risk patient.

  10. Self-Reported Knowledge and Attitude of Dentists towards Prescription of Fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarahmadi, Zahra; Kharazifard, Mohammad Javad

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to assess the self-reported knowledge and attitude of dentists towards fluoride prescription. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire survey was conducted at the national annual dental congress in 2010 in Tehran-Iran. Dentists’ level of knowledge about the preventive effects of systemic and topical administration of fluoride was assessed as well as their attitudes towards its application. Self-reported practice for two paper patients (a child and an adult with high risk of dental caries) was assessed. Data were analyzed using SPSS, chi-square test and logistic regression. Results: A total of 347 dentists including 232 (73.4%) males and 84 (26.6%) females responded; 84.7% agreed/strongly agreed with addition of fluoride to water and 66% agreed with prescription of fluoride tablets/drops in fluoride-deficient areas. Fluoridated toothpastes were considered useful by 85.3%; this rate was 78.7% for fluoride rinse and 87.6% for fluoride varnish, foam or gel. The majority of dentists (67.4%) reported no access to clear guidelines on fluoride application; 83% considered fluoride to be effective for caries prevention in children less than 12 years and 39.2% believed it was useful for adults and adolescents; 50% of the respondents correctly managed the high-risk child and adult with respect to appropriate selection of fluoride product. Younger dentists (OR=0.94; 95% CI 0.8–0.9; P=0.043) and new graduates (OR=0.94; 95% CI 0.89–0.99; P=0.034) were more likely to correctly manage the high-risk child. Conclusion: Dentists had good knowledge and positive attitudes towards fluoride application. New graduates were more likely to correctly manage the young high-risk patient. PMID:27123013

  11. Effect of low-concentration daily topical fluoride application on fluoride release of giomer and compomer: An in vitro study

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    K S Dhull

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objective: To determine the effect of low-concentration daily topical fluoride application on fluoride release of Giomer and Compomer and to compare the amount of fluoride release from Giomer to that of Compomer. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight specimens of each Giomer and Compomer were divided into four treatment groups, namely, control group, fluoridated dentifrice (500 ppm once-daily group, fluoridated dentifrice (500 ppm twice-daily group and fluoridated dentifrice (500 ppm once-daily + fluoridated mouthwash (225 ppm group. Each specimen was suspended in demineralising solution for 6 h and remineralising solution for 18 h. Fluoride release was measured in both the demineralising solution and the remineralising solution daily for 21 days. Total daily fluoride release for each specimen was calculated by adding the amount released in the demineralising solution to that released in the remineralising solution. Results and Conclusion: The fluoride release (ppm was found to be higher in Giomer when compared with Compomer. The fluoride released from Giomer and Compomer was significantly higher in the acidic demineralising solution than in the neutral remineralising solution. It was found that increasing fluoride exposure significantly increased fluoride release from Giomer and Compomer. It was found that the fluoride release from the subgroups of Giomer and Compomer was in the following order: fluoridated dentifrice twice-daily > fluoridated dentifrice once-daily + fluoridated mouthwash > fluoridated dentifrice once-daily > control group. It was found that Giomer showed a greater fluoride uptake Compomer.

  12. Comparative evaluation of fluoride release and recharge of pre-reacted glass ionomer composite and nano-ionomeric glass ionomer with daily fluoride exposure: An in vitro study

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    Jayanthi Mungara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This in vitro study was designed to investigate the effects of daily fluoride exposures on fluoride release and recharge by prereacted glass ionomer (PRG composite and nano-ionomeric glass ionomer. Materials and Methods: Seventy-two specimens (36 of each material were prepared and by placing the restorative materials into Teflon mold. Each specimen was subjected to one of three daily treatments (n = 12: (1 No fluoride treatment (control; (2 application of a fluoride dentifrice (1,000 ppm once daily; and (3 the same regimen as (2, plus immersion in a 0.05% sodium fluoride (NaF mouth rinse (225 ppm immediately following the dentifrice application. Specimens were suspended in a storage vial containing 10 ml demineralizing solution for 6 h and transferred to a new test tube containing 10 ml remineralizing solution for 18 h. Fluoride treatments of the specimens were completed every day prior to their immersion in the demineralizing solution. Media solutions were buffered with equal volumes of total ionic strength adjustment buffer (TISAB II; fluoride levels were measured using a digital ion analyzer and fluoride electrode throughout the 21 day duration of the experiment. Results: Nano-ionomeric glass ionomer showed a better amount of fluoride release than PRG composite irrespective of the fluoride treatment supplementation (P < 0.01. Additional fluoride supplementation improved fluoride release and recharge ability for both the materials when compared to their respective control groups. The fluoride recharge for both materials did not show any sustained pattern of release. Conclusion: Nano-ionomeric glass ionomer demonstrated a greater ability to release and recharge compared with that of PRG composite.

  13. Acceptability of Salt Fluoridation in a Rural Latino Community in the United States: An Ethnographic Study.

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    Judith C Barker

    Full Text Available Compared to other population groups in the United States, caries (tooth decay is a disproportionately prevalent disease among Latino populations, especially among low-income and rural sub-groups and children under five years of age. Fluoride is a primary preventive for caries. While water fluoridation is a major and effective public health means for delivering fluoride on a mass scale, it does not reach many rural areas or population groups such as Latinos who eschew drinking water from municipal sources. This study examines the acceptability to such groups of salt fluoridation, an alternate means of delivering fluoride long used on a global scale. An ethnographic study in California's rural Central Valley was performed. Thirty individual interviews and 5 focus groups (N = 61 were conducted in Spanish to investigate low-income Latino migrant caregivers' experiences, views and understandings of domestic salt, oral health, caries prevention and fluoride. Audio data were transcribed, translated, coded and thematically analyzed. Table salt was readily available and frequently consumed. Both adult and child daily sodium consumption was high. Despite a general feeling that it was good, and present in dentifrices or dietary supplements, most participants had little knowledge about fluoride. Concerns were raised about cardio-vascular and other possibly deleterious effects if an increase in salt consumption occurred because fluoridated salt was viewed as having 'extra' benefits. Once informed about fluoride's safety and role in caries prevention, most participants expressed willingness to use fluoridated salt, especially if it benefitted children. Reassurance about its safety and benefits, and demonstration of its taste, were important aspects of acceptance. Taste was paramount. Participants would not consume more fluoridated salt than their current salt as that would result in unpleasant changes in food flavor and taste. While salt fluoridation is

  14. Electrochemical studies on cerium(Ⅲ) in molten fluoride mixtures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VIRGIL; CONSTANTIN; ANA-MARIA; POPESCU; MIRCEA; OLTEANU

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to determine the principal electrochemical characteristics of the electrodeposition of cerium metal from molten fluoride systems.The cathodic process of Ce3+ ions in LiF-NaF and LiF-NaF-CaF2 molten salts was studied using electrochemical techniques as steady state and cyclic voltammetry methods.The decomposition potential(Ed) and the overvoltage(η) were determined for NaCeF4 using current-potential curves under galvanostatic conditions.The Ed was found to be 2.025 V in LiF-NaF and 2.045 V in...

  15. Studies on fluoride complexing of hexavalent actinides using a fluoride ion selective electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawant, R.M.; Chaudhuri, N.K.; Rizvi, G.H.; Patil, S.K.

    1985-08-01

    Complex formation between actinide(VI) and fluoride ions in aqueous solutions was investigated using a fluoride ion selective electrode (F-ISE). As fairly high acidity used to suppress hydrolysis of the actinide(VI) ions, significant liquid junction potentials (Esub(j)) existed in the system. An iterative procedure was developed for computing free hydrogen ion concentration (Hsup(+)) as it could not be measured directly, using data obtained with F-ISE. Esub(j) values were estimated from known (Hsup(+)) and the stability constants of fluoride complexes of actinide(VI) ions were calculated following King and Gallagher's method using a computer program. The stability constants were found to follow the order U(VI) > Np(VI) > Pu(VI). (author). 18 refs.; 3 figs.; 9 tables.

  16. Some Aspects of CNSL Varnish

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    S. C. Ganguli

    1962-10-01

    Full Text Available Indian patent No.60166 describes the preparation of a stoving varnish based on cashew Nut shell Liquid (CNSL.Essentially the process consists decarboxylating the commercial CNSL at 160°-170°C and then heat polymerising the material at 315°C.0·75%W/W litharge is then incorporated at 315°C. 1% manganese resinate at 260°C and lead linoleate dissolved in the minimum quantity of turpentine at 160°C. The varnish base obtained is then thinned with an equal weight of turpentine.

  17. [New recommendations concerning the fluoride content of toddler toothpaste - consequences for systemic application of fluoride].

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, K G

    2002-01-01

    A group of experts from 4 European countries who gathered at a convention at Basel in November 1998, arrived at the recommendation to increase the fluoride (= F) content of toddler toothpastes from 250 ppm to 500 ppm. It was recommended to make parents brush the children's teeth with a pea-size piece of this toothpaste once a day, starting when the first deciduous teeth were erupting. Routine application of F-tablets would no longer be routinely prescribed, but restricted to individual indications in special high caries risk cases. This recommendation did not consider previous ones and was based exclusively on new scientific, mainly epidemiological evidence. In April 2000 the recommendation was officially issued by the German scientific dental association DGZMK.A careful case-control study resulted in the analysis of the risk to develop mottling of enamel under the influence of fluoridated water (1 ppm F) and fluoride toothpaste (1000 ppm F) when used in early childhood. It was found that excessive use of the fluoride toothpaste doubled the fluorosis risk, whereas when fluoride supplements (tablets, drops) were given the risk was about 20 times higher than without a fluoride supplement. Experiments in Germany and the Netherlands had shown that remineralisation of enamel under influence of 500 ppm F is achieved much more quickly than under application of 250 ppm F. A panel of WHO experts came to the conclusion that there was no evidence for the effectiveness of toothpastes containing less than 500 ppm. Statistics from the Netherlands have shown that the amount of fluoride tablets sold there is barely sufficient for the use by a quarter of all children 0 to 4 years old. In contrast to this low level of acceptance of fluoride tablets, fluoride toothpastes is widely accepted. It is their extensive use which explains the marked improvement of dentitions among the youth in this country during the last 20 years; the influence of topical fluoride gels, varnishes and other

  18. Determination of fluoride source in ground water using petrographic studies in Dashtestan area, south of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaleb-Looie, Sedigheh; Moore, Farid, ,, Dr.

    2010-05-01

    The groundwater occurs in Dashtestan area, contains a high level of fluoride. Since groundwater is vastly used for drinking and irrigation purposes, the local residents are at high risk of fluoride toxicity, as already evidenced by the occurrence of dental Fluorosis in many residents. 35 surface and groundwater samples were collected in September, 2009. The results show that in 23 samples the fluoride concentration is above the permissible level (1.5ppm). Petrographic study of lithological units in the catchment area indicates that mica minerals are the most probable source of fluoride content in the study area.

  19. Focus on fluorides: update on the use of fluoride for the prevention of dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Clifton M

    2014-06-01

    Improving the efficacy of fluoride therapies reduces dental caries and lowers fluoride exposure. Fluoride is delivered to the teeth systemically or topically to aid in the prevention of dental caries. Systemic fluoride from ingested sources is in blood serum and can be deposited only in teeth that are forming in children. Topical fluoride is from sources such as community water, processed foods, beverages, toothpastes, mouthrinses, gels, foams, and varnishes. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the American Dental Association (ADA) have proposed changes in their long standing recommendations for the amount of fluoride in community drinking water in response to concerns about an increasing incidence of dental fluorosis in children. Current research is focused on the development of strategies to improve fluoride efficacy. The purpose of this update is to inform the reader about new research and policies related to the use of fluoride for the prevention of dental caries. Reviews of the current research and recent evidence based systematic reviews on the topics of fluoride are presented. Topics discussed include: updates on community water fluoridation research and policies; available fluoride in dentifrices; fluoride varnish compositions, use, and recommendations; and other fluoride containing dental products. This update provides insights into current research and discusses proposed policy changes for the use of fluoride for the prevention of dental caries. The dental profession is adjusting their recommendations for fluoride use based on current observations of the halo effect and subsequent outcomes. The research community is focused on improving the efficacy of fluoride therapies thus reducing dental caries and lowering the amount of fluoride required for efficacy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Focus on Fluorides: Update on the Use of Fluoride for the Prevention of Dental Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Clifton M.

    2014-01-01

    Declarative Title: Improving the efficacy of fluoride therapies reduces dental caries and lowers fluoride exposure. Background Fluoride is delivered to the teeth systemically or topically to aid in the prevention of dental caries. Systemic fluoride from ingested sources is in blood serum and can be deposited only in teeth that are forming in children. Topical fluoride is from sources such as community water, processed foods, beverages, toothpastes, mouthrinses, gels, foams, and varnishes. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the American Dental Association (ADA) have proposed changes in their long standing recommendations for the amount of fluoride in community drinking water in response to concerns about an increasing incidence of dental fluorosis in children. Current research is focused on the development of strategies to improve fluoride efficacy. The purpose of this update is to inform the reader about new research and policies related to the use of fluoride for the prevention of dental caries. Methods Reviews of the current research and recent evidence based systematic reviews on the topics of fluoride are presented. Topics discussed include: updates on community water fluoridation research and policies; available fluoride in dentifrices; fluoride varnish compositions, use, and recommendations; and other fluoride containing dental products. This update provides insights into current research and discusses proposed policy changes for the use of fluoride for the prevention of dental caries. Conclusions The dental profession is adjusting their recommendations for fluoride use based on current observations of the halo effect and subsequent outcomes. The research community is focused on improving the efficacy of fluoride therapies thus reducing dental caries and lowering the amount of fluoride required for efficacy. PMID:24929594

  1. Estimating Fluoride Exposure in Rural Communities: A Case Study in Western Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Janessa M.; Daniell, William; James, Frank; Milgrom, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Efforts to achieve national objectives for fluoridation, such as Healthy People 2010, and water quality monitoring regulations focus on public water systems and generally overlook the 15% of U.S. households with private wells. Mandated testing of public water systems and new building sites on San Juan Island, Washington revealed naturally occurring fluoride levels up to several times the EPA Maximum Contaminant Level. This study evaluated fluoride concentrations in private wells and estimated the prevalence of dental fluorosis among children to inform local stakeholders. Methods Primary school children were examined by a dentist for dental fluorosis, parents were surveyed about fluoride exposures, and household drinking water samples were collected to measure and map fluoride concentrations. De-identified data were analyzed using chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests. Results 18.8% of examined children exhibited mild dental fluorosis, a prevalence similar to national averages. Fluoride concentrations in drinking water were 0.08 to 1.30 mg/L, below levels for health concerns, and generally (94%) below levels recommended for caries prevention. Supplemental sources of fluoride (e.g. tablets) did not account for observed fluorosis. Conclusions Results provided community stakeholders with valuable information to support decision-making regarding fluoride levels in drinking water. Previously available information suggested potential for excessive fluoride exposure, however, these study results indicated low fluoride levels were more common. The approach used in this case study suggests a simple method of assessing the scope of fluoridation needs in communities where private water sources are common, allowing for better informed decision-making with regard to future fluoridation efforts. PMID:20617156

  2. Acceptability of Salt Fluoridation in a Rural Latino Community in the United States: An Ethnographic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Judith C.; Hoeft, Kristin S.

    2016-01-01

    Compared to other population groups in the United States, caries (tooth decay) is a disproportionately prevalent disease among Latino populations, especially among low-income and rural sub-groups and children under five years of age. Fluoride is a primary preventive for caries. While water fluoridation is a major and effective public health means for delivering fluoride on a mass scale, it does not reach many rural areas or population groups such as Latinos who eschew drinking water from municipal sources. This study examines the acceptability to such groups of salt fluoridation, an alternate means of delivering fluoride long used on a global scale. An ethnographic study in California’s rural Central Valley was performed. Thirty individual interviews and 5 focus groups (N = 61) were conducted in Spanish to investigate low-income Latino migrant caregivers’ experiences, views and understandings of domestic salt, oral health, caries prevention and fluoride. Audio data were transcribed, translated, coded and thematically analyzed. Table salt was readily available and frequently consumed. Both adult and child daily sodium consumption was high. Despite a general feeling that it was good, and present in dentifrices or dietary supplements, most participants had little knowledge about fluoride. Concerns were raised about cardio-vascular and other possibly deleterious effects if an increase in salt consumption occurred because fluoridated salt was viewed as having ‘extra’ benefits. Once informed about fluoride’s safety and role in caries prevention, most participants expressed willingness to use fluoridated salt, especially if it benefitted children. Reassurance about its safety and benefits, and demonstration of its taste, were important aspects of acceptance. Taste was paramount. Participants would not consume more fluoridated salt than their current salt as that would result in unpleasant changes in food flavor and taste. While salt fluoridation is acceptable

  3. The role of fluoride in erosion therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huysmans, Marie-Charlotte; Young, Alix; Ganss, Carolina

    2014-01-01

    The role of fluoride in erosion therapy has long been questioned. However, recent research has yielded positive results. In this chapter, an overview of the literature is provided regarding the application of fluorides in the prevention and treatment of erosion and erosive wear. The results are presented and discussed for different fluoride sources such as monovalent and polyvalent fluorides, and for different vehicles such as toothpastes, solutions and rinses, as well as varnishes and gels. It is concluded that fluoride applications are very likely to be of use in the preventive treatment of erosive wear. Most promising are high-concentration, acidic formulations and the polyvalent fluoride sources, with the best evidence available for stannous fluoride. However, the evidence base for clinical effectiveness is still small. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Fluoride rechargability of a non-resin auto-cured glass ionomer cement from a fluoridated dentifrice: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In addition to their fluoride-releasing properties, glass ionomer cement (GICs have the ability to reuptake and release fluorides from commonly used sources like fluoridated dentifrices. This property has the potential to provide a continuous low concentration of fluoride in the saliva aiding in caries prevention. The superior fluoride-recharging abilities of resin-modified GICs over conventional GICs have been documented. The manufacturer of a non-resin, auto-cured GIC (GC Fuji VII claims fluoride release from the product to be about six times that of conventional GIC. It was hypothesized that perhaps this high fluoride release could translate into a high reuptake and release, when exposed to a 1 000 ppm fluoridated dentifrice every day, thus providing increased fluoride levels in saliva. Aims: This study therefore examined fluoride-recharging abilities of the non-resin, auto-cured glass ionomer cement from a 1 000 ppm fluoridated dentifrice and compared it with resin-modified glass ionomer cement. Materials and Methods: Twelve glass ionomer discs each of resin-modified glass ionomer cement (GC Fuji II L C, Group 1 and the non-resin, auto-cured glass ionomer cement (GC Fuji VII, Group 2 were prepared with precise dimensions of 9 x 2 mm. The 12 specimens in each group were further subdivided into two subgroups of six each. Subgroup A involved no fluoride treatment (Control. Subgroup B involved application of a 1 000 ppm dentifrice for 2 minutes twice daily with a soft toothbrush. The disc-specimens were then suspended in airtight plastic bottles containing exactly 20 ml double distilled water. The fluoride concentration of the water in which the specimen discs were immersed was measured by means of a fluoride ion selective electrode connected to an ion selective electrode meter/digital ion analyzer at 1, 2, 7, 15, and 30 days. Statistical Analysis: It was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis Test. Results and Conclusion: Fuji VII

  5. Insights into the varnishes of historical musical instruments using synchrotron micro-analytical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echard, J.-P.; Cotte, M.; Dooryhee, E.; Bertrand, L.

    2008-07-01

    Though ancient violins and other stringed instruments are often revered for the beauty of their varnishes, the varnishing techniques are not much known. In particular, very few detailed varnish analyses have been published so far. Since 2002, a research program at the Musée de la musique (Paris) is dedicated to a detailed description of varnishes on famous ancient musical instruments using a series of novel analytical methods. For the first time, results are presented on the study of the varnish from a late 16th century Venetian lute, using synchrotron micro-analytical methods. Identification of both organic and inorganic compounds distributed within the individual layers of a varnish microsample has been performed using spatially resolved synchrotron Fourier transform infrared microscopy. The univocal identification of the mineral phases is obtained through synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction. The materials identified may be of utmost importance to understand the varnishing process and its similarities with some painting techniques. In particular, the proteinaceous binding medium and the calcium sulfate components (bassanite and anhydrite) that have been identified in the lower layers of the varnish microsample could be related, to a certain extent, to the ground materials of earlier Italian paintings.

  6. Reducing Exposure to High Fluoride Drinking Water in Estonia—A Countrywide Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indermitte, Ene; Saava, Astrid; Karro, Enn

    2014-01-01

    Fluoride is a naturally occurring contaminant in groundwater in Estonia. There are several regions in Estonia with fluoride contents in public water supplies as high as 7 mg/L. Long-term exposure to high-fluoride drinking water may have several adverse health effects, primarily dental fluorosis. The opportunities for exposure reduction rely highly on water treatment technologies. Since 2004 public water suppliers in Estonia have made efforts to diminish fluoride content in drinking water systems. A follow-up study on a country level was carried out in 2004–2012 to analyze the changes in population exposure to excessive (over 1.5 mg/L) fluoride in drinking water and to get information about the reduction methods applied by public water supplies (PWS) to optimize the fluoride levels in public water system. The results showed that bigger PWS have been more effective in fluoride reduction measures than small PWS. The main methods used to lower the fluoride content were reverse osmosis technology and replacement of water sources with new ones (new drilled wells). As a result of all the measures taken the overall high-fluoride exposure has been reduced substantially (82%). PMID:24637908

  7. The effect of different fluoride application methods on the remineralization of initial carious lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seon Mi Byeon

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of single and combined applications of fluoride on the amount of fluoride release, and the remineralization and physical properties of enamel. Materials and Methods Each of four fluoride varnish and gel products (Fluor Protector, FP, Ivoclar Vivadent; Tooth Mousse Plus, TM, GC; 60 Second Gel, A, Germiphene; CavityShield, CS, 3M ESPE and two fluoride solutions (2% sodium fluoride, N; 8% tin(ii fluoride, S were applied on bovine teeth using single and combined methods (10 per group, and then the amount of fluoride release was measured for 4 wk. The electron probe microanalysis and the Vickers microhardness measurements were conducted to assess the effect of fluoride application on the surface properties of bovine teeth. Results The amount of fluoride release was higher in combined applications than in single application (p < 0.05. Microhardness values were higher after combined applications of N with FP, TM, and CS than single application of them, and these values were also higher after combined applications of S than single application of A (p < 0.05. Ca and P values were higher in combined applications of N with TM and CS than single application of them (p < 0.05. They were also increased after combined applications of the S with A than after single application (p < 0.05. Conclusions Combined applications of fluoride could be used as a basis to design more effective methods of fluoride application to provide enhanced remineralization.

  8. The dentin sialoprotein (DSP) expression in rat tooth germs following fluoride treatment: an immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewska, Izabela; Spodnik, Jan Henryk; Wójcik, Sławomir; Domaradzka-Pytel, Beata; Bereznowski, Zdzisław

    2006-03-01

    Fluoride is known to alter expression of dentin matrix proteins and affect their posttranslational modifications. The objective of our study was to examine dentin sialoprotein (DSP) expression in the early and late bell stages of development of the first molar tooth germs in rats treated with fluoride. Pregnant dumps were divided into three groups. They were fed a standard diet and from the fifth day of pregnancy, each group received either tap water (with trace amounts of fluoride), tap water with a low concentration of fluoride, or tap water with a high concentration of fluoride. Changes in DSP expression and distribution were visualized by immunohistochemistry. Immunoreactivity for DSP was detected in the cervical regions of the early bell stage in tooth germs of the 1-day-old animals. The earliest reaction was visible in the control group and the group supplemented with the low fluoride concentration (F(L)) but not in the group supplemented with the high fluoride concentration (F(H)). In early bell stages across all experimental groups, the immunoreactivity to DSP was observed in the cusp tip regions and was localized to preameloblasts, young and mature odontoblasts, dental pulp cells, predentin, and dentin. Generally, more intense positive staining for DSP was detected in animals supplemented with the high fluoride concentration. In the late bell stage found in the 4-day-old control group and the group supplemented with the low fluoride concentration, immunoreactivity for DSP was less intense compared with younger animals. However, immunoreactivity was greater in the group treated with the high dose of fluoride. In this group, the positive immunostaining for DSP, especially in young ameloblasts, was prolonged and relatively strong. Fluoride supplementation causes changes in the developmental pattern of DSP expression and its distribution in rat tooth germs.

  9. Occupational fluoride exposure. [Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, H.C. (Univ. of California, San Francisco); Smith, F.A.

    1977-01-01

    Effects of airborne fluoride on industrial health are discussed with regard to acute and chronic effects. Injuries to lungs and skin from acute exposures are described. Chronic effects are discussed with regard to industrial sources of fluoride and air concentrations vs. urinary concentrations of fluoride. An extensive literature review is presented in the form of a table showing responses in man exposed to industrial airborne fluorides. Osteosclerosis is discussed with regard to the fluoride air standard, bone fluoride, and air fluoride concentrations. Occupational exposures to fluoride are also discussed with regard to arthritis, shortness of breath, asthma, upper respiratory infections, chronic respiratory disease, effects on kidneys, effects on pregnancy, and indices of fluoride intoxication. A table is presented showing references to studies on responses in neighborhood residents exposed to fluoride emissions. (HLW)

  10. An in situ interproximal model for studying the effect of fluoride on enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunipace, A J; Hall, A F; Kelly, S A; Beiswanger, A J; Fischer, G M; Lukantsova, L L; Eckert, G J; Stookey, G K

    1997-01-01

    This crossover study determined the ability of an interproximal, intra-oral model to demonstrate a fluoride dose response to 0-, 250- and 1,100-ppm fluoride (sodium fluoride) dentifrices with respect to fluoride uptake into, and remineralization of, incipient subsurface enamel lesions. Following a 1 week 'lead in' period during which 30 panelists were randomly assigned to use one of the products, two enamel specimens with artificial carious lesions were mounted into a specially designed functional partial denture worn by each panelist. Panelists continued to brush three times daily with their test dentifrice for 4 weeks, after which the specimens were removed and analyzed for fluoride uptake and remineralization. The procedure was repeated until each panelist had followed all three treatment regimens. Fluoride analyses were performed using a microdrill biopsy technique, and mineral content changes were determined by transverse microradiography. Fluoride uptake data were significantly different (p effect of 1,100 ppm F > 250 ppm F > placebo. The 1,100 ppm F dentifrice also effected significantly greater remineralization (p effects of fluoride-containing products on enamel lesions.

  11. Antibacterial activity of fluoride compounds and herbal toothpastes on Streptococcus mutans: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, J P; Seow, W K; Walsh, L J

    2015-09-01

    Streptococcus mutans is an important bacterial species implicated in dental caries. This laboratory study compared the antimicrobial activity of a number of fluoride containing and herbal dentifrices and their components against S. mutans. An agar diffusion method was used with Mueller-Hinton agar. Wells were filled with either 10 commercial fluoride or 6 herbal dentifrices, or with solutions of various fluoride compounds, sodium lauryl sulphate, sodium benzoate, chlorhexidine digluconate or triclosan. Diameters of zones of bacterial growth inhibition surrounding the wells were measured using a micrometer. Significant differences were found for growth inhibition between the 10 fluoridated dentifrices (p fluoride type or fluoride concentration. The antibacterial activities of the 6 herbal toothpastes varied, with Herbal Fresh being the strongest. Sodium lauryl sulphate showed strong antimicrobial activity against S. mutans at the levels used in dentifrices. Antimicrobial activity of commercial dentifrices against S. mutans may be exerted by components other than fluoride. Ingredients such as triclosan and sodium lauryl sulphate have larger antimicrobial effects than fluorides in this model. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  12. Sensitivity of two biomarkers for biomonitoring exposure to fluoride in children and women: A study in a volcanic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhares, Diana Paula Silva; Garcia, Patrícia Ventura; Amaral, Leslie; Ferreira, Teresa; Cury, Jaime A; Vieira, Waldomiro; Rodrigues, Armindo Dos Santos

    2016-07-01

    The natural enrichment of water with fluoride is related to natural sources such as volcanic activity, with it being documented that fluorosis, an endemic and widespread disease in volcanic areas, is associated to the ingestion of high levels of fluoride through water. Thus, in this study, we aimed to define the fluoride concentration in drinking waters of volcanic origin and compare the sensitivity of urine and nail clippings as biomarkers for fluoride exposure in adults and children. Samples of drinking water from four villages in São Miguel Island (Azores) were used and the fluoride concentration was determined, as well the fluoride content in urine and toenails clippings from 66 children and 63 adults from these villages. A validated diet questionnaire, assessing sources of fluoride, was recorded for each participant. The fluoride determination in urine and nail clipping samples was made using a fluoride-specific electrode. A positive correlation was found between the fluoride daily intake and fluoride content in children urine (rs = 0.475; p < 0.001) and in their nail clippings (rs = 0.475; p < 0.001), while in adult women, the fluoride daily intake correlated positively with fluoride content nail clippings (rs = 0.495, p < 0.001). This reveals that nail clippings are more reliable as biomarkers of chronic exposure to fluoride than urine for populations of different ages (children vs. adults). Furthermore, nail clippings are more suitable than urine fluoride levels to assess long term exposure to fluoride in areas where the exposure to fluoride in drinking water is considered within, or slightly above, the recommended legal values.

  13. [Enamel fluoride uptake following fluoride application and fluoride precipitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchalla, Wolfgang; Lennon, Aine M; Trage, Katrin; Becker, Klaus; Attin, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This study is on fluoride uptake into enamel following fluoride precipitation with calcium hydroxide. Five specimens each from 12 bovine incisors were polished, covered with a salivary pellicle, and distributed into five groups (n=12). A fluoride solution (43,500 ppm F from magnesiumfluorosilicate, copper-(II)-fluorosilicate and sodium-fluoride, pH 2; Tiefenfluorid Touchierlösung, Humanchemie) and Ca(OH)2-solution (Tiefenfluorid Nachtouchierlösung) were applied subsequently in group TN. "Touchierlosung" only was used in group T, sodium-fluoride (43,500 ppm F, pH 2) in group NaF, and aminefluoride (Elmex fluid, 10,000 ppm F, pH 4) in group EF. No fluoride was used in group NK (negative control). Following rinsing and 24 h storage in artificial saliva surface KOH-soluble fluoride content (KOHF), and structurally bound fluoride content (SBF) from three layers (0-33, 33-66 and 66-99 pm) was determined by fluoride electrode procedures. KOHF (median in microg/cm2) of NK was below the lower limit of quantification of the fluoride electrode. The other group values were significantly higher (Mann-Whitney test, p precipitation reaction with Ca(OH)2 following fluoridation did not increase enamel fluoride uptake.

  14. Nitrogen Trifluoride-Based Fluoride- Volatility Separations Process: Initial Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNamara, Bruce K.; Scheele, Randall D.; Casella, Andrew M.; Kozelisky, Anne E.

    2011-09-28

    This document describes the results of our investigations on the potential use of nitrogen trifluoride as the fluorinating and oxidizing agent in fluoride volatility-based used nuclear fuel reprocessing. The conceptual process uses differences in reaction temperatures between nitrogen trifluoride and fuel constituents that produce volatile fluorides to achieve separations and recover valuable constituents. We provide results from our thermodynamic evaluations, thermo-analytical experiments, kinetic models, and provide a preliminary process flowsheet. The evaluations found that nitrogen trifluoride can effectively produce volatile fluorides at different temperatures dependent on the fuel constituent.

  15. Study of fluoride in polluted and unpolluted estuarine environments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.; Mandalia, A.V.

    estuary, significant deviation from the theoretical dilution line (TDL) in the chlorinity range 0.5-8ppt was observed in Mindhola River estuary due to the externally added fluoride which largely remained in solution. The excess of fluroide over...

  16. Environmental fluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marier, J.R.; Rose, D.

    1971-01-01

    Modern-day man is probably exposed to more environmental fluoride than was heretofore suspected, and consideration must be given to the total ingestion from various sources as well as the types of fluoride present in air, foods, beverages, and other commodities. An effort should also be made to study the symptomology of chronic fluorine intoxication, especially the early non-skeletal manifestations of arthritic-like symptoms that may be complicated by metabolic and/or nutritional inadequacies. Finally, it must be emphasized again that dental fluorosis (i.e. mottling) will only be seen in subjects who have been exposed to fluoride during the time when the enamel of the permanent teeth is being formed, and its absence cannot be assumed to indicate freedom from other fluoride-induced effects including effects of organofluorides and their metabolites. 168 references.

  17. Ultrastructural changes in the cemento-enamel junction after vital tooth bleaching with fluoride and fluoride-free agents - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasic, Jovanka; Kesic, Ljiljana; Popovic, Jelena; Mitić, Aleksandar; Nikolic, Marija; Stankovic, Sasa; Barac, Radomir

    2012-03-01

    The impact of bleaching on the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ) is not well known. Due to frequent sensitivity of the cervical region of teeth after the vital bleaching, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the morphological features of the CEJ of human teeth after application of fluoridated and fluoride-free bleaching agents, as well as post-bleaching fluoridation treatment, by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. Thirty-five extracted permanent human teeth were longitudinally cut, yielding 70 specimens. Thirty specimens were randomly divided into the 3 experimental groups, and 20 specimens, were used as (2) control groups, each: negative (untreated) control group; positive control group treated with 35% hydrogen peroxide; experimental group 1, bleaching with 10% carbamide peroxide (CP); experimental group 2, treatment with a mixture of 10% CP and fluoride; and experimental group 3, treatment with 10% CP and 2% sodium fluoride gel applied 30 minutes after bleaching. Experimental groups were treated 8 h per day for 14 days. The samples were examined by SEM. The bleaching materials tested caused morphological changes to the surface of the CEJ. There was a statistically significant difference between experimental groups (Kruskal Wallis Test chi-square=11,668; p<0.005). Mean value of experimental group 2 scores showed statistically significant difference from groups 1 and 3. Bleaching gel with fluorides does not significantly change morphological appearance of the CEJ and represents a better choice than the hard tissue fluoridation process after bleaching.

  18. Micro-spectroscopic techniques applied to characterization of varnished archeological findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, G.; Ioppolo, S.; Majolino, D.; Migliardo, P.; Ponterio, R.

    2000-04-01

    This work reports an analysis on terracotta varnished finding recovered in east Sicily area (Messina). We have performed FTIR micro-spectroscopy and electronic microscopy (SEM)measurements in order to recognize the elemental constituents of the varnished surfaces. Furthermore, for all the samples, a study on the bulk has been performed by Fourier Transform Infrared Absorption. The analyzed samples consist of a number of pottery fragments belonging to archaic and classical ages, varnished in black and red colors. The obtained data furnished useful information about composition of decorated surfaces and bulk matrixes, about baking temperature, manufacture techniques and alteration mechanisms of findings due to the long burial.

  19. The efficacy of varnish XT and ICON resin infiltration treatment on the color of white spot lesions%Varnish XT和ICON渗透树脂对釉质龋白斑颜色的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭静; 姚悦; 包旭英; 赵晓一

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究Varnish XT和ICON渗透树脂两种微创治疗材料对釉质龋白斑颜色的影响。方法:选择牛门齿100颗,将唇面向下作为观察面,环氧树脂包埋,打磨。暴露至少6mm×10mm的釉质牙面,随机分A,B,C,D,E 5个区,E区用抗酸指甲油封闭。并分别采用人工龋脱矿液后A区不做处理,B区经Varnish XT处理,C区经ICON渗透树脂处理,D区经氟化物处理后,用电子分光光度比色仪测量L*值。结果:脱矿后样本A、 B、 C、 D较E区升高, L*值有统计学差异(P0.05),尚不能认为两区的L*值不同。%Objective:To study the effect of two minimally invasive surgical treatment materials, Varnish XT and ICON penetrating resin on the color alteration of enamel white spots.Methods:100 incisors of cow were selected, leaving lip side down as the observation side, embedded with ethoxyline resin, and polished. Exposed area of each specimen was at least 6mm×10mm on the enamel face, and divided into five regions (A-E). Region E was sealed with antiacid nail polish before demineralization. The artificial caries was realized using a demineralization solution., Each region was treated with Varnish XT for region B, ICON resin infiltration for region C, and fluoride for region D, respectively, while Region A received no treatment. Electronic spectrophotometer was used to measure L*value, and micro hardness test of the surface micro-hardness of each region was analyzed.Results:After demineralization L* value of A, B, C, D increased remarkably. After treatment, each L*value of Region B, C and D was significantly lower than that of region A (P0.05).

  20. The use of topical fluoride to prevent or reverse dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Peter; Young, Douglas

    2003-01-01

    Topical fluoride has been the main stay of caries prevention for many decades. There are several mechanisms which make it beneficial including inhibiting demineralization, enhancing remineralization, and inhibiting bacterial growth. Topical fluoride is available in many different forms. The concentrations of various fluoride preparations range from 225 parts per million (ppm) fluoride in over-the-counter oral rinses to 22,600 ppm in the fluoride varnishes. The clinician must decide which type of topical preparation is best suited for their patient. Patients with high caries risk may benefit from prescription strength fluorides (along with the other chemical and dietary therapies described in this issue of Special Care in Dentistry). The application of fluoride varnish is an excellent topical form for those patients who have access to dental care and for whom it is difficult to comply with the use of other topical forms.

  1. Retention of long-term interim restorations with sodium fluoride enriched interim cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strash, Carolyn

    Purpose: Interim fixed dental prostheses, or "provisional restorations", are fabricated to restore teeth when definitive prostheses are made indirectly. Patients undergoing extensive prosthodontic treatment frequently require provisionalization for several months or years. The ideal interim cement would retain the restoration for as long as needed and still allow for ease of removal. It would also avoid recurrent caries by preventing demineralization of tooth structure. This study aims to determine if adding sodium fluoride varnish to interim cement may assist in the retention of interim restorations. Materials and methods: stainless steel dies representing a crown preparation were fabricated. Provisional crowns were milled for the dies using CAD/CAM technology. Crowns were provisionally cemented onto the dies using TempBond NE and NexTemp provisional cements as well as a mixture of TempBond NE and Duraphat fluoride varnish. Samples were stored for 24h then tested or thermocycled for 2500 or 5000 cycles before being tested. Retentive strength of each cement was recorded using a universal testing machine. Results: TempBond NE and NexTemp cements performed similarly when tested after 24h. The addition of Duraphat significantly decreased the retention when added to TempBond NE. NexTemp cement had high variability in retention over all tested time periods. Thermocycling for 2500 and 5000 cycles significantly decreased the retention of all cements. Conclusions: The addition of Duraphat fluoride varnish significantly decreased the retention of TempBond NE and is therefore not recommended for clinical use. Thermocycling significantly reduced the retention of TempBond NE and NexTemp. This may suggest that use of these cements for three months, as simulated in this study, is not recommended.

  2. A prospective, randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial on the effects of a fluoride rinse on white spot lesion development and bleeding in orthodontic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kaaij, Nicoline C W; van der Veen, Monique H; van der Kaaij, Marleen A E; ten Cate, Jacob M

    2015-06-01

    Demineralizations around orthodontic brackets are a main disadvantage of orthodontic treatment. Several methods have been advocated to prevent their development, such as fluoride rinses or varnishes. In this randomized clinical trial, a fluoride rinse (a combination of sodium fluoride and amine fluoride) was compared with a placebo rinse, to be used every evening after toothbrushing. A total of 81 participants (mean age: 13.3 yr) completed the study (mean treatment period: 24.5 months). Demineralizations, measured using quantitative light-induced fluorescence and the decayed, missing, and filled surfaces (DMFS) index, were assessed before treatment (baseline) and around 6 wk after debonding (post treatment). Bleeding scores were measured at baseline, and during and post treatment. The incidence rate ratio for demineralizations was 2.6 (95% CI: 1.1-6.3) in the placebo group vs. the fluoride group. In the fluoride group, 31% of participants developed at least one demineralization, compared with 47% in the placebo group. Relative to baseline, gingival bleeding increased significantly in the placebo group 1 yr after the start of treatment and onwards. For the fluoride group, bleeding scores during treatment were not different from those at baseline. In conclusion, using a fluoride rinse helps to maintain better oral health during fixed appliance treatment, resulting in fewer demineralizations.

  3. Biological Communities in Desert Varnish and Potential Implications for Varnish Formation Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang-Yona, Naama; Maier, Stefanie; Macholdt, Dorothea; Rodriguez-Caballero, Emilio; Müller-Germann, Isabell; Yordanova, Petya; Jochum, Klaus-Peter; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Pöschl, Ulrich; Weber, Bettina; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine

    2017-04-01

    Desert varnishes are thin, orange to black coatings found on rocks in arid and semi-arid environments on Earth. The formation mechanisms of rock varnish are still under debate and the involvement of microorganisms in this process remains unclear. In this work we aimed to identify the microbial community occurring in rock varnish to potentially gain insights into the varnish formation mechanism. For this purpose, rocks coated with desert varnish were collected from the Anza-Borrego Desert, California, USA, as well as soils from underneath the rocks. DNA from both varnish coatings and soil samples was extracted and subsequently used for metagenomic analysis, as well as for q-PCR analyses for specific species quantification. The element composition of the varnish coatings was analyzed and compared to the soil samples. Rock varnish shows similar depleted elements, compared to soil, but Mn and Pb are 50-60 times enriched compared to the soil samples, and about 100 times enriched compared to the upper continental crust. Our genomic analyses suggest unique populations and different protein functional groups occurring in the varnish compared to soil samples. We discuss these differences and try to shed light on the mechanism of Mn oxyhydroxide production in desert varnish formation.

  4. A prospective, randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial on the effects of a fluoride rinse on white spot lesion development and bleeding in orthodontic patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kaaij, N.C.W.; van der Veen, M.H.; van der Kaaij, M.A.E.; ten Cate, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Demineralizations around orthodontic brackets are a main disadvantage of orthodontic treatment. Several methods have been advocated to prevent their development, such as fluoride rinses or varnishes. In this randomized clinical trial, a fluoride rinse (a combination of sodium fluoride and amine fluo

  5. Effect of fluoride toothpastes on enamel demineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gintner Zeno

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It was the aim of this study to investigate the effect of four different toothpastes with differing fluoride compounds on enamel remineralization. Methods A 3 × 3 mm window on the enamel surface of 90 human premolars was demineralized in a hydroxyethylcellulose solution at pH 4.8. The teeth were divided into 6 groups and the lower half of the window was covered with varnish serving as control. The teeth were immersed in a toothpaste slurry containing: placebo tooth paste (group 1; remineralization solution (group 2; Elmex Anticaries (group 3; Elmex Sensitive (group 4; Blend-a-med Complete (group 5 and Colgate GRF (group 6. Ten teeth of each group were used for the determination of the F- content in the superficial enamel layer and acid solubility of enamel expressed in soluble phosphorus. Of 6 teeth of each group serial sections were cut and investigated with polarization light microscopy (PLM and quantitative energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX. Results The PLM results showed an increased remineralization of the lesion body in the Elmex Anticaries, Elmex Sensitive and Colgate GRF group but not in the Blend-a-med group. A statistically significant higher Ca content was found in the Elmex Anticaries group. The fluoride content in the superficial enamel layer was significantly increased in both Elmex groups and the Blend-a-med group. Phosphorus solubility was significantly decreased in both Elmex groups and the Blend-a-med group. Conclusion It can be concluded that amine fluoride compounds in toothpastes result in a clearly marked remineralization of caries like enamel lesions followed by sodium fluoride and sodium monofluorophosphate formulations.

  6. EFFECT OF FLUORIDE ON KIDNEY OF ALBINO RABBIT-AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh K.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fluoride is present in environment in various forms and ingested by man from solid foods, drinks, drinking water and inhaled from the air. Out of these, fluoride is present in large quantities in dissolved state in many sources of drinking water producing toxicity in man. Fluoride, being excreted mainly through the kidneys, seems to damage it causing renal dysfunction. Kidneys are among the most sensitive body organs in their histopathological and functional responses to excessive amounts of fluoride. Trace elements are essential and beneficial to human being in minute concentrations. However, intake in large quantities produces adverse and toxic effects on our body. OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to investigate the toxic effects (evaluated as histopathological changes of sodium fluoride on the kidney in albino rabbit. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Total 40 albino rabbits were used for this study, among them 8 rabbits were taken in the control group (Group A and16 rabbits each were taken in both group B and group C who were administered low and high dose of fluoride respectively. After 2 weeks interval, up to 16 weeks the histology of the kidney of each group of the rabbit was studied for histological analysis. RESULT: Histological changes in the kidneys of both Group B and Group C rabbits, following continuous daily exposure to sodium fluoride solutions in two different doses (0.5% solution for Group B and 3% solution for Group C for different durations of time were studied in detail and compared with those of the controls (Group A. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that Sodium Fluoride solution in high doses for prolonged period has a definite adverse effect on the renal parenchyma.

  7. A basic study on fluoride-based molten salt electrolysis technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Il Soon [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Kwang Bum [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea); Park, Byung Gi [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    The objective of this project is to study on the physicochemical properties of fluoride molten salt, to develop numerical model for simulation of molten salt electrolysis, and to establish experimental technique of fluoride molten salt. Physicochemical data of fluoride molten salt are investigated and summarized. The numerical model, designated as REFIN is developed with diffusion-layer theory and electrochemical reaction kinetics. REFIN is benchmarked with published experimental data. REFIN has a capability to simulate multicomponent electrochemical system at transient conditions. Experimental device is developed to measure electrochemical properties of structural material for fluoride molten salt. Ni electrode is measured with cyclic voltammogram in the conditions of 600 .deg. C LiF-BeF{sub 2} and 700 .deg. C LiF-BeF{sub 2}. 74 refs., 23 figs., 57 tabs. (Author)

  8. The effect of casein phosphopeptide toothpaste versus fluoride toothpaste on remineralization of primary teeth enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimcharoen, Veeritta; Rirattanapong, Praphasri; Kiatchallermwong, Warawan

    2011-07-01

    This study evaluated the effect of a CPP-containing toothpaste and compared it with fluoride-containing toothpastes on remineralization of caries-like lesions in primary teeth enamel, using polarized light microscopy. Forty-eight sound primary incisors were coated with nail varnish, leaving two 1x1 mm windows before being placed in a demineralizing solution for 4 days. After demineralization, all the specimens were coated with nail varnish over one window and were randomly assigned to 4 groups (A to D; n = 12). Group A teeth were exposed to distilled water. Group B teeth were exposed to a CPP-containing toothpaste (Hi Herb). Group C teeth were exposed to a 260 ppm fluoride-containing toothpaste (Smile baby toothgel). Group D teeth were exposed to a 500 ppm fluoride-containing toothpaste (Oralmed Kid). Polarized light microscopy was used to evaluate lesion depth, before and after a 7-day pH cycle. Lesion depth was measured using a computerized method with the Image-Pro Plus program. Differences in mean lesion depth within groups and between groups were analysed using the paired t-test, Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U test at a 95% level of confidence. Mean lesion depths in Groups A, B, C and D significantly increased by 110.1, 36.1, 40.2 and 18.2%, respectively. The mean lesion depths for all the toothpaste groups (B, C and D) were significantly different from the control group (A). Comparisons made among treatment groups showed Group D was significantly different from Groups B and C. All toothpastes were effective for inhibiting progression of carious lesions. However, a 500 ppm fluoride-containing toothpaste inhibited lesion progression better than a CPP-containing toothpaste and a 260 ppm fluoride-containing toothpaste.

  9. Effect of Fluoride, Casein Phosphopeptide–Amorphous Calcium Phosphate and Casein Phosphopeptide–Amorphous Calcium Phosphate Fluoride on Enamel Surface Microhardness After Microabrasion: An In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazaleh Ahmadi Zenouz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to assess the effect of applying casein phosphopeptide–amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP paste, casein phosphopeptide–amorphous calcium phosphate fluoride (CPP-ACPF paste and sodium fluoride gel on surface microhardness of enamel after microabrasion.Materials and Methods: Thirty freshly extracted human premolars were selected. All samples were subjected to hardness indentations made with the Vickers hardness machine and the average value was recorded as the initial surface microhardness. The specimens were then randomly divided into three groups (n=10 of CPP-ACPF, fluoride and CPP-ACP. The teeth were micro-abraded with Opalustre. Microhardness test was performed to assess the post-abrasion hardness. Three remineralization modalities were performed on samples of each group. The enamel surface microhardness measurements were performed. To compare the difference between groups, the rehardening and softening values were defined. One-way ANOVA and Tukey’s post hoc test at a significance level of 5% were used for statistical analysis.Results: The mean microhardness value (MMV had a significant decrease after microabrasion from baseline. The MMV had a significant increase after remineralization in all groups. The MMV of CPP-ACPF group was significantly more than that of fluoride group (P=0.027. The rehardening value of fluoride group was significantly more than that of other groups (P<0.001.Conclusion: All the remineralizing agents were effective for rehardening the enamel after microabrasion. The CPP-ACP and CPP-ACPF pastes are effective, but to a lesser extent than neutral sodium fluoride gel in remineralizing enamel surface. Incorporation of fluoride to CPP-ACP formulation does not provide any additional remineralizing potential.Keywords: Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate nanocomplex; Enamel Microabrasion; Hardness; Sodium Fluoride

  10. Ultrastructural changes in the cemento-enamel junction after vital tooth bleaching with fluoride and fluoride-free agents – a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasic, Jovanka; Kesic, Ljiljana; Popovic, Jelena; Mitić, Aleksandar; Nikolic, Marija; Stankovic, Sasa; Barac, Radomir

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background The impact of bleaching on the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ) is not well known. Due to frequent sensitivity of the cervical region of teeth after the vital bleaching, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the morphological features of the CEJ of human teeth after application of fluoridated and fluoride-free bleaching agents, as well as post-bleaching fluoridation treatment, by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. Material/Methods Thirty-five extracted permanent human teeth were longitudinally cut, yielding 70 specimens. Thirty specimens were randomly divided into the 3 experimental groups, and 20 specimens, were used as (2) control groups, each: negative (untreated) control group; positive control group treated with 35% hydrogen peroxide; experimental group 1, bleaching with 10% carbamide peroxide (CP); experimental group 2, treatment with a mixture of 10% CP and fluoride; and experimental group 3, treatment with 10% CP and 2% sodium fluoride gel applied 30 minutes after bleaching. Experimental groups were treated 8 h per day for 14 days. The samples were examined by SEM. Results The bleaching materials tested caused morphological changes to the surface of the CEJ. There was a statistically significant difference between experimental groups (Kruskal Wallis Test chi-square=11,668; pfluorides does not significantly change morphological appearance of the CEJ and represents a better choice than the hard tissue fluoridation process after bleaching. PMID:22367139

  11. Inequalities in public water supply fluoridation in Brazil: An ecological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moysés Simone T

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The literature is scarce on the social and geographic inequalities in the access to and implementation of the fluoridation of public water supplies. This study adds knowledge to the Brazilian experience of the chronic privation of water and wastewater policies, access to potable water and fluoridation in the country. Thus, the aim of this study was to verify possible inequalities in the population's access to fluoridated drinking water in 246 Brazilian municipalities. Methods The information on the process of water fluoridation in the municipalities and in the macro region in which each municipality is located was obtained from the national epidemiological survey which was concluded in 2003. The data relating to the human development index at municipal level (HDI-M and access to mains water came from the Brazilian Human Development Atlas, whilst the size of the population was obtained from a governmental source. The Fisher exact test (P Results The results clearly showed that there is a relationship between municipalities with larger populations, located in more socio-economically advantaged regions and with better HDI-M, and where fluoridation is both present and has been implemented for a longer period of time (started before 1990. Conclusion The findings suggest that the aim of treating water with fluoride may not be being adequately achieved, requiring more effective strategies so that access to this measure can be expanded equitably.

  12. Groundwater fluoride enrichment in an active rift setting: Central Kenya Rift case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olaka, Lydia A., E-mail: lydiaolaka@gmail.com [Department of Geology, University of Nairobi, P.O Box 30197, Nairobi (Kenya); Wilke, Franziska D.H. [Geoforschungs Zentrum, Telegrafenberg, 14473 Potsdam (Germany); Olago, Daniel O.; Odada, Eric O. [Department of Geology, University of Nairobi, P.O Box 30197, Nairobi (Kenya); Mulch, Andreas [Senckenberg Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre, Senckenberganlage 25, 60325 Frankfurt (Germany); Institut für Geowissenschaften, Goethe Universität Frankfurt, Altenhöferallee 1, 60438 Frankfurt (Germany); Musolff, Andreas [UFZ-Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Hydrogeology, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2016-03-01

    Groundwater is used extensively in the Central Kenya Rift for domestic and agricultural demands. In these active rift settings groundwater can exhibit high fluoride levels. In order to address water security and reduce human exposure to high fluoride in drinking water, knowledge of the source and geochemical processes of enrichment are required. A study was therefore carried out within the Naivasha catchment (Kenya) to understand the genesis, enrichment and seasonal variations of fluoride in the groundwater. Rocks, rain, surface and groundwater sources were sampled for hydrogeochemical and isotopic investigations, the data was statistically and geospatially analyzed. Water sources have variable fluoride concentrations between 0.02–75 mg/L. 73% exceed the health limit (1.5 mg/L) in both dry and wet seasons. F{sup −} concentrations in rivers are lower (0.2–9.2 mg/L) than groundwater (0.09 to 43.6 mg/L) while saline lake waters have the highest concentrations (0.27–75 mg/L). The higher values are confined to elevations below 2000 masl. Oxygen (δ{sup 18}O) and hydrogen (δD) isotopic values range from − 6.2 to + 5.8‰ and − 31.3 to + 33.3‰, respectively, they are also highly variable in the rift floor where they attain maximum values. Fluoride base levels in the precursor vitreous volcanic rocks are higher (between 3750–6000 ppm) in minerals such as cordierite and muscovite while secondary minerals like illite and kaolinite have lower remnant fluoride (< 1000 ppm). Thus, geochemical F{sup −} enrichment in regional groundwater is mainly due to a) rock alteration, i.e. through long residence times and natural discharge and/or enhanced leakages of deep seated geothermal water reservoirs, b) secondary concentration fortification of natural reservoirs through evaporation, through reduced recharge and/or enhanced abstraction and c) through additional enrichment of fluoride after volcanic emissions. The findings are useful to help improve water management

  13. Impacts of inorganic fluorides on terrestrial ecosystems: An ecological risk assessment case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent, R.A.; Schneider, U.A.; Pawlisz, A.V. [Environment Canada, Hull, Quebec (Canada). Evaluation and Interpretation Branch

    1995-12-31

    In 1994, the national environmental assessment under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act concluded that concentrations of inorganic fluorides near industrial sources in Canada may cause long-term adverse effects in sensitive terrestrial plant and wildlife species. This case study examines the accumulation of inorganic fluorides in vegetation and subsequent effects on a sensitive herbivore species, the white tail deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on Cornwall Island, Ontario, near an aluminum smelting facility, Using environmental concentration data for air, water and food (vegetation), a Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate the probability that multimedia exposure of inorganic fluorides exceeded known effects thresholds of skeletal and dental fluorosis in deer, and in turn quantify the magnitude of that risk. With daily intakes ranging from 2--324 {micro}g/deer/day, it was estimated that exposure to fluorides exceeds the daily intake threshold for fluorosis (55 {micro}g/deer/day) in 12% of the deer population. Seasonal differences in exposure and subsequent risk were noted. These results are also supported by additional field data on domestic cattle from the Cornwall Island area where effects (e.g., excessive teeth wear, delayed eruption of permanent teeth, osteosclerosis, osteonecrosis) have been reported and linked to high levels of fluorides in air, water, and forage. It is estimated that at least 10% of the deer from the Cornwall Island area may be subject to debilitating skeletal and dental fluorosis as a result of fluoride emissions from the adjacent aluminum smelter.

  14. An In-Vitro Study on the Release of Fluoride from Two Restorative Materials and Their Rechargeability after Exposure to Daily 1000 ppm Fluoride

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    A. Kowsari

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Since the fluoride releases from materials with the property of releasing fluoride are decreasing gradually, it seems that probably the material rechargeability is more important than their long-term fluoride release.Purpose: the objective of this study was to asses the fluoride release and rechargeability of 2 types of fluoride releasing restorative materials, a resin modified glass ionomer(Vitremer and a compomer (Compoglass F, after exposure to daily NaF solutionscontaining 1000 ppm F, for 1 minute.Materials and Methods: Twelve discs ( 8 mm ×2 mm of each of the materials were fabricated, and divided into 2 groups (test and control. All discs were stored in 4 mL artificial saliva at 37°C. In group 1 (N=6, the specimens were immersed in artificialsaliva which was changed daily for 25 days. In group 2 (N=6, in addition to receiving the same treatment as group 1, the specimens were immersed in NaF solution (1000ppm F, ph=6.9 for 1 minute before daily saliva change. A potentiometer was used to determine the amount of fluoride released on days 1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25, after the daily saliva change, in all study groups. Data were analyzed by the t-student test after confirmation of the equality of variances by Leven’s test.Results: Both materials continued releasing fluoride throughout the whole study period. For each material, the release was highest on day one. During the first 3 days,glass ionomer released significantly higher amounts of fluoride as compared to compomer (p0.05. After exposure to NaF solution, none of the materials showed statistically significant rechargeability (p>0.05 and the amount of fluoride-releasecontinued to drop during the study period in similar patterns for both the test and the control groups.Conclusion: It may be concluded that rechargeability of glass ionomer and compomer,using daily neutral fluoride mouth rinses and toothpastes does not occur in reliable amounts.

  15. Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Effect of Conventional and Nanosilver-Containing Varnishes on Oral Streptococci

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    Haghgoo R.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the Problem: Nanosilver particles have the potential to serve as a bactericidal agent because of the inherent antimicrobial influences of silver ion. The literature confirmed that specific micro-organisms, especially streptococci, have an important role as an etiological factor for caries. Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of conven-tional and nanosilver-containing varnishes on oral streptococci. Materials and Method: Pure cultivations of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus salivarius were prepared on blood agar media. Thereafter, 0.5 McFarland standard of recently grown bacteria in normal saline was prepared and the bacteria were cultivated monotonously on the culture medium surface by applying a swab. Different concentrations of nanosilver varnishes were prepared in the Mueller- Hinton broth medium in the test tubes and equal amounts of 0.5 McFarland suspension of all the tested bacteria were added separately to all test tubes. A tube without varnish was included as the control sample. The tubes were kept at 37°C for 24 hours, then cultured to determine the numbers of bacteria in each tube by counting colonies. The numbers of bacteria in tubes with varnish were compared to the numbers of bacteria in the tube without varnish. In the instance of observing any reduction in the growth, the minimum inhibitory concentration for growth in the tube with varnish was deter-mined. Results: Nanosilver varnish had an antimicrobial effect on S. mutans and S. salivarius, and S. salivarius was more susceptible than S. mutans to the nanosilver. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, nanosilver varnishes can be used under amalgam restorations to reduce microbial population and subsequently preventing the recurrent caries.

  16. Excitation emission and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy of selected varnishes used in historical musical instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevin, Austin; Echard, Jean-Philippe; Thoury, Mathieu; Comelli, Daniela; Valentini, Gianluca; Cubeddu, Rinaldo

    2009-11-15

    The analysis of various varnishes from different origins, which are commonly found on historical musical instruments was carried out for the first time with both fluorescence excitation emission spectroscopy and laser-induced time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. Samples studied include varnishes prepared using shellac, and selected diterpenoid and triterpenoid resins from plants, and mixtures of these materials. Fluorescence excitation emission spectra have been collected from films of naturally aged varnishes. In parallel, time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy of varnishes provides means for discriminating between short- (less than 2.0 ns) and long-lived (greater than 7.5 ns) fluorescence emissions in each of these complex materials. Results suggest that complementary use of the two non destructive techniques allows a better understanding of the main fluorophores responsible for the emission in shellac, and further provides means for distinguishing the main classes of other varnishes based on differences in fluorescence lifetime behaviour. Spectrofluorimetric data and time resolved spectra presented here may form the basis for the interpretation of results from future in situ fluorescence examination and time resolved fluorescence imaging of varnished musical instruments.

  17. Propolis Varnish: Antimicrobial Properties against Cariogenic Bacteria, Cytotoxicity, and Sustained-Release Profile

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    Mariana P. De Luca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Varnishes are preparations that differ in the polymeric matrix and therapeutical agents. In dentistry they are used to prevent caries. In this study we developed a propolis varnish, considering propolis properties against cariogenic bacteria. To a chitosan polymeric base (CHV was added ethanolic propolis extract in different concentrations: PV1 (5%, PV2 (10%, and PV3 (15%. Antimicrobial activity was carried out against Streptococcus mutans (SM, Streptococcus sanguinis (SG, Streptococcus salivarius (SS, and Lactobacillus casei (LC through agar diffusion method. The three propolis concentrations incorporated were effective in inhibiting the growth of all microorganisms, but without significant difference between the zones of inhibition observed. Cytotoxicity assay was done by MTT method. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni test. None of the varnishes were cytotoxic, keeping 80% of viable cells, while CHV allowed cellular proliferation (120%. Sustained-release test was carried out by applying 40 μL of each varnish in the buccal surface of bovine teeth and kept in an ethanol/water solution removed in regular times. According to the “independent model approach,” the release profiles were distinct from each varnish and the most prolonged was PV3 (8 weeks. Varnish formulations had satisfactory antimicrobial activity against cariogenic bacteria and have a low cytotoxicity (<50%.

  18. Inequalities in public water supply fluoridation in Brazil: An ecological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabardo, Marilisa CL; da Silva, Wander J; Olandoski, Marcia; Moysés, Simone T; Moysés, Samuel J

    2008-01-01

    Background The literature is scarce on the social and geographic inequalities in the access to and implementation of the fluoridation of public water supplies. This study adds knowledge to the Brazilian experience of the chronic privation of water and wastewater policies, access to potable water and fluoridation in the country. Thus, the aim of this study was to verify possible inequalities in the population's access to fluoridated drinking water in 246 Brazilian municipalities. Methods The information on the process of water fluoridation in the municipalities and in the macro region in which each municipality is located was obtained from the national epidemiological survey which was concluded in 2003. The data relating to the human development index at municipal level (HDI-M) and access to mains water came from the Brazilian Human Development Atlas, whilst the size of the population was obtained from a governmental source. The Fisher exact test (P water fluoridation process in the municipalities as well as the length of time during which this measure has been implemented. Linear regression was used to observe the associations between the relevant variables in a multivariate environment. Results The results clearly showed that there is a relationship between municipalities with larger populations, located in more socio-economically advantaged regions and with better HDI-M, and where fluoridation is both present and has been implemented for a longer period of time (started before 1990). Conclusion The findings suggest that the aim of treating water with fluoride may not be being adequately achieved, requiring more effective strategies so that access to this measure can be expanded equitably. PMID:18402688

  19. Comparison of Antibacterial Effect of Fluoride and Chlorhexidine on Two Cariogenic Bacteria: An in Vitro Study

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    Poureslami HR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of problem: Dental plaque is the main source for dental caries and there is no proper vaccine that can affect dental plaques. Objectives: Daily use of an efficient anti-plaque product can be very beneficial in plaque control and, thus, prevention of caries. This study aims to evaluate the antibacterial effects of four products of Chlorhexidine and Fluoride on two types of cariogenic bacteria. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, the antibacterial effect of Chlorhexidine and Fluoride (gel and solution against Streptococci Sanguis and Sobrinus was evaluated. Chlorhexidine gluconate 1% gel (Corosodyl, France, Chlorhexidine gluconate 2% solution (Consepsis, Ultradent, US, Sodium fluoride 0.2% solution (Oral-B, US and Acidulated Phosphate Fluoride 1.23% gel ( Denti-Care, Canada were used. The disc diffusion method was used for testing bacterial sensitivity. The data were analyzed using paired t-test and Chi-square test. Results: In comparison with the negative control, each of the four gels and solutions showed antibacterial effects but the effects were not statistically significant for fluoride solution (P=0.217. For S. Sobrinus, the mean diameter of inhibition zone around the discs coated with fluoride gel (F g, fluoride solution (F s, Chlorhexidine gel (CHX g and Chlorhexidine solution (CHX s were 19, 9, 21.5 and 27.5mm, respectively. For S. Sanguis, the mean diameter of inhibition zone around the discs coated with F g, F s, CHX g and CHX s were 17, 11, 17 and 25mm, respectively. CHX s had the most effect on both bacteria and F s had the least. CHX g and F g were less effective than CHX s, respectively. Conclusion: The results demonstrated that 2% CHX s and 1.23% F g can be effective on inhibition of the growth of some of cariogenic bacteria. Therefore, these agents can be used in the prevention of Early Childhood Caries.

  20. Relative fluoride response of caries lesions created in fluorotic and sound teeth studied under remineralizing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhawij, Hala; Lippert, Frank; Martinez-Mier, Esperanza Angeles

    2015-01-01

    The present in vitro pH cycling study investigated potential differences between caries lesions created in fluorosed and sound enamel with regards to their responsiveness to fluoride under remineralizing conditions. 360 human first molars (sound and fluorosed) were divided into four groups based on their Thylstrup-Fejerskov score (TF0-3). Each group was further divided into two treatment groups (n=45): deionized water or 383 ppm fluoride. Artificial enamel caries lesions were created and pH cycled for 20 d using an established net remineralization model. Quantitative light-induced fluorescence was used throughout the study to investigate lesion severity and changes thereof. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA. There were no differences in lesion severity between all groups after lesion creation (plesion=0.1934). The TF score vs. treatment interaction was significant at all other time points (p10 d=0.0280; p20 d≤0.0001; psecdemin=0.0411). Relative differences in responsiveness to fluoride vs. deionized water increased with increasing TF scores. In comparison to lesions created in sound enamel, lesions created in enamel with moderate fluorosis (TF 2/3) were more prone to remineralization in the presence than in the absence of fluoride. Furthermore, lesions created in enamel with moderate fluorosis exhibited more remineralization in the presence of fluoride than lesions created in sound teeth, whereas the opposite was true for deionized water. Bearing in mind the limitations of laboratory research, the extent of enamel fluorosis severity may directly impact subsequent lesion re- and progression as well as the lesion's responsiveness to fluoride. Caries lesions in fluorotic teeth are more vulnerable to progression but respond more strongly to fluoride than those in non-impacted teeth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Using a fluoridated supplement with a high fluoride concentration in children aged under 6 years may increase the risk of fluorosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasines, Graciela

    2010-01-01

    The Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, Embase, BIOSIS, Dissertation Abstracts and LILACS/BBO databases were searched. Also, reference lists from relevant articles and five journals (Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, Caries Research, Journal of Dental Research, British Dental Journal, Journal of Public Health Dentistry) were searched by hand, and experts in the field of preventive dentistry and oral epidemiology contacted. Studies [randomised controlled trials (RCT), quasi-RCT, cohort studies, case-control studies and cross-sectional surveys] were selected if they had included children under the age of 6 years when topical fluorides were administered, and in which fluoride toothpastes, mouthrinses, gels, foams, paint-on solutions and varnishes were compared with an alternative fluoride treatment, placebo or no intervention group. Data from all selected studies were extracted by two review authors. Risk ratios (RR) for controlled, prospective studies and odds ratios (OR) for case-control studies or cross-sectional surveys were extracted or calculated. Where both adjusted and unadjusted risk ratios or OR were presented, the adjusted value was included in the meta-analysis. From 3573 identified papers, 25 studies were included: two RCT, one cohort study, six case-control studies and 16 cross-sectional surveys. Only one RCT was judged to be at low risk of bias. The other RCT and all observational studies were judged to be at moderate to high risk of bias. Studies were included in four intervention/ exposure comparisons. A statistically significant reduction in fluorosis was found if brushing of a child's teeth with fluoride toothpaste commenced after the age of 12 months [OR, 0.70; random-effects 95% confidence interval (CI) for topical fluoride, 0.57-0.88; data from observational studies]. Inconsistent but statistically significant associations were found between occurrence of fluorosis and

  2. Antibacterial Properties of Calcium Fluoride-Based Composite Materials: In Vitro Study

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    Monika Łukomska-Szymańska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate antibacterial activity of composite materials modified with calcium fluoride against cariogenic bacteria S. mutans and L. acidophilus. One commercially available conventional light-curing composite material containing fluoride ions (F2 and two commercially available flowable light-curing composite materials (Flow Art and X-Flow modified with 1.5, 2.5, and 5.0 wt% anhydrous calcium fluoride addition were used in the study. Composite material samples were incubated in 0.95% NaCl at 35°C for 3 days; then dilution series of S. mutans and L. acidophilus strains were made from the eluates. Bacteria dilutions were cultivated on media afterwards. Colony-forming unit per 1 mL of solution (CFU/mL was calculated. Composite materials modified with calcium fluoride highly reduced (p<0.001 bacteria growth compared to commercially available composite materials containing fluoride compounds. The greatest reduction in bacteria growth was observed for composite materials modified with 1.5% wt. CaF2. All three tested composite materials showed statistically greater antibacterial activity against L. acidophilus than against S. mutans.

  3. Antibacterial Properties of Calcium Fluoride-Based Composite Materials: In Vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarzycka, Beata; Grzegorczyk, Janina; Sokołowski, Krzysztof; Półtorak, Konrad; Sokołowski, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate antibacterial activity of composite materials modified with calcium fluoride against cariogenic bacteria S. mutans and L. acidophilus. One commercially available conventional light-curing composite material containing fluoride ions (F2) and two commercially available flowable light-curing composite materials (Flow Art and X-Flow) modified with 1.5, 2.5, and 5.0 wt% anhydrous calcium fluoride addition were used in the study. Composite material samples were incubated in 0.95% NaCl at 35°C for 3 days; then dilution series of S. mutans and L. acidophilus strains were made from the eluates. Bacteria dilutions were cultivated on media afterwards. Colony-forming unit per 1 mL of solution (CFU/mL) was calculated. Composite materials modified with calcium fluoride highly reduced (p composite materials containing fluoride compounds. The greatest reduction in bacteria growth was observed for composite materials modified with 1.5% wt. CaF2. All three tested composite materials showed statistically greater antibacterial activity against L. acidophilus than against S. mutans. PMID:28053976

  4. Antibacterial Properties of Calcium Fluoride-Based Composite Materials: In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukomska-Szymańska, Monika; Zarzycka, Beata; Grzegorczyk, Janina; Sokołowski, Krzysztof; Półtorak, Konrad; Sokołowski, Jerzy; Łapińska, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate antibacterial activity of composite materials modified with calcium fluoride against cariogenic bacteria S. mutans and L. acidophilus. One commercially available conventional light-curing composite material containing fluoride ions (F2) and two commercially available flowable light-curing composite materials (Flow Art and X-Flow) modified with 1.5, 2.5, and 5.0 wt% anhydrous calcium fluoride addition were used in the study. Composite material samples were incubated in 0.95% NaCl at 35°C for 3 days; then dilution series of S. mutans and L. acidophilus strains were made from the eluates. Bacteria dilutions were cultivated on media afterwards. Colony-forming unit per 1 mL of solution (CFU/mL) was calculated. Composite materials modified with calcium fluoride highly reduced (p materials containing fluoride compounds. The greatest reduction in bacteria growth was observed for composite materials modified with 1.5% wt. CaF2. All three tested composite materials showed statistically greater antibacterial activity against L. acidophilus than against S. mutans.

  5. In Vitro Comparison of the Effects of Diode Laser and CO2 Laser on Topical Fluoride Uptake in Primary Teeth

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    Zahra Bahrololoomi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Fluoride therapy is important for control and prevention of dental caries. Laser irradiation can increase fluoride uptake especially when combined with topical fluoride application. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of CO2 and diode lasers on enamel fluoride uptake in primary teeth.Materials and Methods: Forty human primary molars were randomly assigned to four groups (n=10. The roots were removed and the crowns were sectioned mesiodistally into buccal and lingual halves as the experimental and control groups. All samples were treated with 5% sodium fluoride (NaF varnish. The experimental samples in the four groups were irradiated with 5 or 7W diode or 1 or 2W CO2 laser for 15 seconds and were compared with the controls in terms of fluoride uptake, which was determined using an ion selective electrode after acid dissolution of the specimens. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 16 using ANOVA treating the control measurements as covariates.Results: The estimated amount of fluoride uptake was 59.5± 16.31 ppm, 66.5± 14.9 ppm, 78.6± 12.43 ppm and 90.4± 11.51 ppm for 5W and 7 W diode and 1W and 2 W CO2 lasers, respectively, which were significantly greater than the values in the conventional topical fluoridation group (P<0.005. There were no significant differences between 7W diode laser and 1W CO2 laser, 5W and 7W diode laser, or 1W and 2W CO2 laser in this regard.Conclusion: The results showed that enamel surface irradiation by CO2 and diode lasers increases the fluoride uptake.

  6. The cariostatic mechanisms of fluoride

    OpenAIRE

    Kata Rošin-Grget; Kristina Peroš; Ivana Šutej; Krešimir Bašić

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the possible cariostatic mechanisms of the action of fluoride. In the past, fluoride inhibition of caries was ascribed to reduced solubility of enamel due to incorporation of fluoride (F–) into the enamel minerals. The present evidence from clinical and laboratory studies suggests that the caries-preventive mode of action of fluoride is mainly topical. There is convincing evidence that fluoride has a major effect on demineralisation and remineralisation of dental hard t...

  7. Effect of fluoridated casein phospopeptide-amorphous-calcium phosphate complex, chlorhexidine fluoride mouthwash on shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets: A comparative in vitro study

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    C A Abdul Shahariyar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the current study was to determine the effects of casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium-phosphate (CPP-ACP complex, chlorhexidine fluoride mouthwash on shear bond strengths (SBSs of orthodontic brackets. Materials and Methods: About sixty extracted healthy human premolar teeth with intact buccal enamel were divided into two equal groups to which brackets were bonded using self-etching primers (SEPs and conventional means respectively. These were further equally divided into three subgroups - (1 control (2 CPP-ACP (3 chlorhexidine fluoride mouthwash. The SBSs were then measured using a universal testing machine. Results: SBS of the conventional group was significantly higher than the self-etching group. The intragroup differences were statistically insignificant. Conclusion: CPP-ACP, chlorhexidine fluoride mouthwash did not adversely affect SBS of orthodontic brackets irrespective of the method of conditioning. Brackets bonded with conventional technique showed greater bond strengths as compared to those bonded with SEP.

  8. Comparative study of Kefir yogurt-drink and sodium fluoride mouth rinse on salivary mutans streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasempour, Maryam; Sefdgar, Seyyed Ali Asghar; Moghadamnia, Ali Akbar; Ghadimi, Reza; Gharekhani, Samane; Shirkhani, Leila

    2014-03-01

    The level of mutans streptococci (MS) is reduced by regularly consumption of probiotic Kefir drink. The present study aiming at answer to this question 'may the Kefir drink be considered an alternative to fluoride rinse?' Twenty-two healthy volunteers aged 22-32 years with good oral hygiene participated in this study. None of participants had received any antibiotic or antimicrobial agent or professional fluoride therapy within the last month. None of them exhibited active caries lesions. Smokers and subjects who have chewing gums xylitol habit or who were undergoing orthodontic treatment were excluded. In a cross over design with 2 parallel groups, people in group A for 2 weeks received 100 ml of Kefir drink per day, then avoided brushing, eating and drinking for an hour. Simultaneously, people in group B were administered 0.05% sodium fluoride rinse in the same manner. After washout period, people in groups A and B respectively used 0.05% sodium fluoride rinse and Kefir drink. Saliva sampling was performed before and after interventions. The acidity and the count of MS were assessed and data were analyzed statistically. There was no significant difference between base line pH values of saliva in study groups (p > 0.05). Although, a significant difference was shown between MS counts before and after interventions (p ≤ 0.0001 and p ≤ 0.0001 for NaF and Kefir respectively), but the equal inhibitory effect was found between study groups (p > 0.05). Kefir drink can inhibit salivary MS as well the sodium fluoride rinse. This beverage may be considered an alternative for fluoride rinse. Clinical significance: Probiotics containing dairy products was known with anticariogenic properties. These agents may be used in caries control strategies adjunctively.

  9. EFFECT OF FLUORIDE MOUTHRINSING ON CARIES LESION DEVELOPMENT IN SHARK ENAMEL - AN INSITU CARIES MODEL STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OGAARD, B; ROLLA, G; DIJKMAN, T; RUBEN, J; ARENDS, J

    1991-01-01

    Shark enamel consists of nearly pure fluorapatite and has been shown to demineralize in an in situ caries model. The present study was conducted to investigate whether additional fluoride supplementation in the form of mouthrinsing would inhibit lesion development in shark enamel. The study slabs of

  10. EFFECT OF FLUORIDE MOUTHRINSING ON CARIES LESION DEVELOPMENT IN SHARK ENAMEL - AN INSITU CARIES MODEL STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OGAARD, B; ROLLA, G; DIJKMAN, T; RUBEN, J; ARENDS, J

    1991-01-01

    Shark enamel consists of nearly pure fluorapatite and has been shown to demineralize in an in situ caries model. The present study was conducted to investigate whether additional fluoride supplementation in the form of mouthrinsing would inhibit lesion development in shark enamel. The study slabs of

  11. Dental fluorosis in children in areas with fluoride-polluted air, high-fluoride water, and low-fluoride water as well as low-fluoride air: A study of deciduous and permanent teeth in the Shaanxi province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruan, J.P.; Bardsen, A.; Astrom, A.N.; Huang, R.Z.; Wang, Z.L.; Bjorvatn, K. [University of Bergen, Bergen (Norway). Dept. of Oral Science

    2007-07-01

    The aim of the study was to assess dental fluorosis (DF) in the deciduous and permanent teeth of children in areas with high-F coal (area A) and high-F water (area C) compared to children from area B, with low-F water and coal. DF was found to be prevalent in both dentitions in areas A and C. Similarity in percentages of DF may indicate that indoor air with about to 60 {mu}g F/m{sup 3} and drinking water with 3.6 mg F/L are similarly toxic to developing permanent teeth. The percentage of deciduous teeth with DF was significantly lower in area A compared to area C. Where low-F coal and low-F water were used (area B), similar to 20% of permanent teeth had DF, indicating a relatively low tolerance to fluoride in Chinese children brought up under the present living conditions.

  12. Comparative evaluation of fluoride release from PRG-composites and compomer on application of topical fluoride: An in-vitro study

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    Dhull K

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objective: To determine the fluoride release from Giomer and Compomer, using different topical fluoride regimes, and to compare the amount of fluoride release from giomer with that of compomer. Materials and Method: Forty-eight specimens of each giomer and compomer were divided into four treatment groups, namely, control group, fluoridated dentifrice (500 ppm once daily group, fluoridated dentifrice (500 ppm twice daily group, fluoridated dentifrice (500 ppm once daily + fluoridated mouthwash (225 ppm group. Each specimen was suspended in demineralizing solution for six hours and remineralizing solution for 18 hours. Fluoride release was measured in both the demineralizing solution and remineralizing solution daily for seven days. Total daily fluoride release for each specimen was calculated by adding the amount released in the demineralizing solution to that released in remineralizing solution. Results and Conclusion: The fluoride release (ppm was found to be more in Giomer when compared to Compomer. The fluoride released from Giomer and Compomer was significantly greater in the acidic demineralizing solution than in the neutral remineralizing solution. It was found that increasing fluoride exposure significantly increased fluoride release from the giomer and compomer. It was found that the fluoride release from the subgroups of giomer and compomer was in the following order: fluoridated dentifrice twice daily > fluoridated dentifrice once daily + fluoridated mouthwash > fluoridated dentifrice once daily > control group. It was found that the giomer showed a greater fluoride uptake than the compomer.

  13. Effect of antibacterial varnishes applied to root dentin on shear bond strength of tooth-colored restorative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Yonca; Baseren, Meserret

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of certain varnishes on the bond strength of different tooth-colored restorative materials applied to root dentin. One-hundred and eighty tooth slabs, including mesial and distal surfaces, were attained through dividing the teeth, then embedding them in methylmethacrylate. The root surfaces were ground flat through cementum, exposing the dentin. The samples were then randomly divided into three main groups: Group 1: Cervitec; Group 2: Fluor Protector and Group 3: No applications (control). Cervitec and Fluor Protector were applied to the root dentin surfaces according to the manufacturer's instructions. All the samples were kept in artificial saliva for six months. Each main group was subdivided into five groups of 12 teeth each: Group A: Flowable Resin Composite (Grandio Flow); Group B: Microhybrid Resin Composite (Artemis); Group C: Polyacid Modified Resin Composite (Dyract Extra); Group D: Resin Modified Glass Ionomer Cement (Vitremer) and Group E: Conventional Glass-Ionomer Cement (Ionofil Molar). Restorative materials were applied to the root dentin surfaces using a cylindrical mold. After thermocycling (1000 cycles, 5 degrees C/55 degrees C, dwell time 30 seconds), the shear bond strength of the restored samples was determined by a universal testing machine (Zwick Test Machine, Zwick GmbH & Co, Ulm, Germany) at a 5 mm/minute crosshead speed. Failure mode was determined under a stereomicroscope. The data were evaluated statistically by using one-way Analysis of Variance and Duncan tests (p< or =0.05). In the fluoride varnish group, all of the restorative materials except for Ionofil Molar, showed lower bond strengths when compared to the control group (p<0.05). In the Cervitec group, Artemis and Dyract Extra showed lower bond strengths; whereas, Ionofil Molar showed a higher bond strength than the control group (p<0.05). The highest percentage of cohesive fracture was observed in Artemis and Dyract Extra in the control group.

  14. The effect of water fluoride concentration on dental caries and fluorosis in five Iran provinces: A multi-center two-phase study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamhossein Ramezani

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Extremely low fluoride levels in Iran cities are an alarming finding and need attention. Higher fluoride is likely to reduce dental caries while increasing fluorosis. This finding was not confirmed in all the areas studied.

  15. Efficiency of resin infiltration versus fluride varnish for treatment of post-orthodontic white spot lesions%渗透性树脂与氟漆治疗正畸后白垩斑的疗效比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王璐; 简洁; 陆慧芳

    2013-01-01

      背景:牙釉质脱矿所引起的白垩斑是正畸治疗后常见的不良反应之一。近年来,渗透性树脂在对正畸后白垩斑的治疗中取得了很好的效果。但是渗透性树脂与常规治疗方法氟漆对正畸后白垩斑的疗效有何差别尚未见报道。目的:比较渗透性树脂与氟漆治疗正畸后白垩斑的疗效。方法:选取29例正畸结束后白垩斑患者,共70颗病患牙,分别采取渗透性树脂和氟漆治疗;收集患者白垩斑治疗前以及治疗6个月后的正面口内照片,分别经口腔医生与非口腔专业的大学生对白垩斑改善程度进行评估。结果与结论:除1例氟漆治疗患者失访外,其余患者均按期完成了复诊。口腔医生和非口腔专业的大学生评分结果显示,两组治疗后白垩斑均显著改善(P<0.05);且渗透性树脂对于正畸治疗后白垩斑的治疗效果要优于氟漆治疗。可见渗透性树脂治疗具有复诊次数少,治疗效果好等优点,是治疗正畸后白垩斑的较理想方法。%BACKGROUND:White spot lesions caused by enamel demineralization are a common side effect of orthodontic treatment. Resin infiltration treatment for white spot lesions has obtained favorable effects, but there is no report on the difference between resin infiltration and fluoride varnish treatment for post-orthodontic white spot lesions. OBJECTIVE:To compare the efficiency of resin infiltration and fluride varnish for treatment of post-orthodontic white spot lesions. METHODS:Twenty-nine patients with post-orthodontic white spot lesions were randomly divided into two groups:one group accepted the resin infiltration treatment and the other group accepted fluoride varnish treatment. Frontal intraoral photos before treatment and 6 months after treatment were col ected for study. The difference in efficiency of resin infiltration and fluride varnish for treatment of post-orthodontic white spot lesion was analyzed

  16. Effect of organic versus inorganic fluoride on enamel microhardness: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Priyadarshini

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Fluoride enhances the remineralization process by accelerating the growth of enamel crystals that have been demineralized. It can be concluded from the present study that AmF compounds result in a marked increase in enamel micro hardness when compared to NaF.

  17. Study of cryolite preparation from fluoride-containing acid slag in aluminium industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A new process of cryolite preparation is studied in this work by selecting a proper system of reaction and weeding impurity technology. The quality of artifial cryolite reaches and exceeds the first level of national standard. The utilization efficient of fluoride-containing acid slag is above 99.5%. It brings considerable economic benefit, and the environment is improved.

  18. Salivary Fluoride level in preschool children after toothbrushing with standard and low fluoride content dentifrice, using the transversal dentifrice application technique: pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Jandre Melo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the salivary fluoride concentration in pre-school children after toothbrushing with dentifrice containing standard (1100ppmF/NaF and low (500ppmF/NaF fluoride concentration, using the transversal technique of placing the product on the toothbrush. Methods: Eight children of both sexes, ranging from 4 to 9 years, and 5 years and 6 months of age, participated in the study. The experiment was divided into two phases with a weekly interval. In the first stage, the children used the standard concentration dentifrice for one week, and in the second, the low concentration product. Samples were collected at the end of each experimental stage, at the following times: Before brushing, immediately afterwards, and after 15, 30 and 45 minutes. The fluoride contents were analyzed by the microdiffusion technique. Statistical analysis was done by the analysis of variance ANOVA and Student’s-t test (p<0.05. Results: The salivary fluoride concentration was significantly higher at all times, when the standard concentration product was used. The comparison between the Halogen concentration found before bushing and immediately afterwards, showed that there was a 6.8 times increase in the standard dentifrice (0.19 x 1.29μgF/ml and in the low concentration product, an increase of 20.5 times (0.02 x 0.41μgF/ml. Conclusion: Toothbrushing with both products promoted relevant increases in the salivary fluoride concentration; however, longitudinal studies are necessary to verify the clinical result of this measurement.

  19. Urinary Fluoride Concentration in Children with Disabilities Following Long-Term Fluoride Tablet Ingestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hsiu-Yueh; Chen, Jung-Ren; Hung, Hsin-Chia; Hsiao, Szu-Yu; Huang, Shun-Te; Chen, Hong-Sen

    2011-01-01

    Urine is the most commonly utilized biomarker for fluoride excretion in public health and epidemiological studies. Approximately 30-50% of fluoride is excreted from urine in children. Urinary fluoride excretion reflects the total fluoride intake from multiple sources. After administering fluoride tablets to children with disabilities, urinary…

  20. Role of the P-F bond in fluoride-promoted aqueous VX hydrolysis: an experimental and theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciano, Daniele; Columbus, Ishay; Elias, Shlomi; Goldvaser, Michael; Shoshanim, Ofir; Ashkenazi, Nissan; Zafrani, Yossi

    2012-11-16

    Following our ongoing studies on the reactivity of the fluoride ion toward organophosphorus compounds, we established that the extremely toxic and environmentally persistent chemical warfare agent VX (O-ethyl S-2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl methylphosphonothioate) is exclusively and rapidly degraded to the nontoxic product EMPA (ethyl methylphosphonic acid) even in dilute aqueous solutions of fluoride. The unique role of the P-F bond formation in the reaction mechanism was explored using both experimental and computational mechanistic studies. In most cases, the "G-analogue" (O-ethyl methylphosphonofluoridate, Et-G) was observed as an intermediate. Noteworthy and of practical importance is the fact that the toxic side product desethyl-VX, which is formed in substantial quantities during the slow degradation of VX in unbuffered water, is completely avoided in the presence of fluoride. A computational study on a VX-model, O,S-diethyl methylphosphonothioate (1), clarifies the distinctive tendency of aqueous fluoride ions to react with such organophosphorus compounds. The facility of the degradation process even in dilute fluoride solutions is due to the increased reactivity of fluoride, which is caused by the significant low activation barrier for the P-F bond formation. In addition, the unique nucleophilicity of fluoride versus hydroxide toward VX, in contrast to their relative basicity, is discussed. Although the reaction outcomes were similar, much slower reaction rates were observed experimentally for the VX-model (1) in comparison to VX.

  1. ANTIMICROBIAL EFFECT OF A DENTAL VARNISH, INVITRO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PETERSSON, LG; EDWARDSSON, S; ARENDS, J

    1992-01-01

    The effects of a polymer based antimicrobial releasing varnish Cervitec(R) were investigated against different grampositive and gramnegative bacterial strains as well as a yeast using the agar diffusion inhibitory test (ADT-test in vitro). As positive controls a 1 % chlorhexidine gel and 1 % aqueous

  2. An estimation of fluoride release from various dental restorative materials at different pH: In vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R N Bahadure

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the mid of 1980s, the cariostatic effect of fluoride ions on enamel caries had been demonstrated in many studies. The use of fluoride releasing dental restorative materials has seen increasing from many years for the specific purpose of leaching of fluoride into the surrounding tissues to inhibit secondary dental caries as well as prevention of caries in the newly erupted tooth. In the dental caries, acidic environment causes the demineralization of tooth structure and also affect the restorative margins of dental restoration. Aim: various restorative materials show different behavior in different pH conditions of oral cavity. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the fluoride release of the various restorative materials at different pH. Design: In this in vitro study, 30 samples of each dental restorative material were prepared and grouped into five with six samples in each group as per the pH of the solution 4.3, 4.6, 5.0, 5.5, and 6.2. All the samples were subjected to alternate cycling of the demineralizing solution (6 h and remineralizing solution (18 h for 15 days. Results: the fluoride release was measured by using fluoride ion specific electrode and digital ion analyzer. The result showed that the fluoride release rate was significantly higher in first day and reduced after third day to nearly constant level. At pH 4.3, the fluoride release was highest and lowest at pH 6.2. Conclusion: the Amalgomer CR showed the highest fluoride release among all the experimental dental restorative materials.

  3. THE EFFECT OF MOISTURE CONTENT OF THE WOOD ON LAYER PERFORMANCE OF WATER BORNE VARNISHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Sönmez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The test panels obtained from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and Eastern beech (Fagus orientalis L. were initially adjusted to have 8%, 10%, and 12% moisture content in this study. One-component semi-matte and two-component water borne varnishes were applied on the surfaces in order to investigate the effect of the type and the moisture content of the wood on the hardness and the gloss values as well as the adhesion strength of the varnishes. The hardness of the test samples was evaluated based on the standard ANS/ISO1522, the gloss based on TS.4318 EN ISO 2813, and the adhesive strength based on ASTM D-4541. The results indicated that variations in the moisture content of the wood material adversely affected the layer performance of water-borne varnishes and that the best performance was obtained for the wood with moisture contents of 8% and 10%.

  4. [A comparative study of lanthanum, cerium and fluoride on the prevention of root surface caries by various procedure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, H; Zhang, W; Liu, A

    1997-05-01

    In order to evaluate the anticaries effects of several trace elements by combined and respective treating procedure, studies on inhibiting demineralization and improving remineralization were carried out with lanthanum, cerium and fluoride in a pH-cycling condition. The analysis of polarized microscope and electron microprobe demonstrated that the lanthanum and fluoride to an acetate buffer solutions had less severe demineralization of root surface than individual lanthanum or fluoride to the solution. The former, furthermore, precipitated a compound membrane which may be F-La(Ce)-Ca containing crystal on the root surface, and showed a better resistibility to acid. A further discussion was made from the viewpoint of crystal physiochemistry.

  5. Effect of pH of amine fluoride containing toothpastes on enamel remineralization in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gintner Zeno

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the important factors of the demineralization and remineralization equilibrium of enamel is the pH of the surrounding solutions. Effort has been laid in the formulation of different fluoride compounds and the fluoride content in toothpastes but much less is known about the influence of the pH of the toothpastes on their effectiveness. It was therefore the aim of this study to investigate the influence of different pH levels on enamel remineralization in an in vitro experiment using polarization light microscopy and EDX quantitative element analysis. Methods A 5 × 5 mm window on the enamel surface of 40 caries free extracted human premolars was demineralized in a hydroxyethylcellulose solution at pH 4.8. The teeth were divided into 8 groups and the lower half of the window was covered with varnish serving as control. Each group was then immersed in toothpaste slurry containing amine fluoride (1400 ppm at pH 4.1, 4.5, 5.1 and 6.9 or control toothpaste slurry without fluoride at pH 4.3, 4.7, 5.3 and 7.0. Serial sections were cut through the lesions and investigated with polarization light microscopy and quantitative EDX element analysis. Results The PLM results showed a decreased porous volume of the body of the lesion after incubation with fluoridated toothpaste at pH 4.53 and 5.16. No differences between the experimental window and the control window were found in the other groups. The quantitative element analysis showed no differences in the element content of any of the groups. Conclusion From the results it can be concluded that slightly acidified fluoridated dentifrices may have a certain positive effect on enamel remineralization.

  6. Evaluation and comparison of the microhardness of enamel after bleaching with fluoride free and fluoride containing carbamide peroxide bleaching agents and post bleaching anticay application: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liza George

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: The purpose of the study was to evaluate and compare the microhardness of enamel after the application of anticay on bleached enamel with fluoride containing and fluoride free bleaching agent. Materials and Methods: Twenty freshly extracted teeth decoronated and divided mesiodistally into two halves were randomly divided into five groups with 10 samples in each group. The enamel surface was treated as follows: Group 1 - no treatment, Group 2 - fluoride free bleaching agent, Group 3 - fluoride containing bleaching agent, and Group 4 - fluoride free bleaching agent followed by anticay application. The samples were subjected to indentation to test the microhardness using Vicker's hardness analyzer. Conclusion: Enamel microhardness significantly increased in samples where anticay was used after the application of bleaching agent.

  7. Biomonitoring of N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone in automobile varnishers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koslitz, Stephan; Meier, Swetlana; Schindler, Birgit Karin; Weiss, Tobias; Koch, Holger Martin; Brüning, Thomas; Käfferlein, Heiko Udo

    2014-12-01

    N-alkyl-2-pyrrolidones are important organic solvents for varnishes in industry. This study investigates exposure to N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone (NEP) in varnishing of hard plastic components in an automobile plant. Two specific biomarkers of exposure, 5-hydroxy-N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone (5-HNEP) and 2-hydroxy-N-ethylsuccinimide (2-HESI), were analyzed in urine samples of 14 workers. For this purpose, pre-shift, post-shift and next day pre-shift urine samples were collected midweek. Twelve workers performed regular work tasks (loading, wiping and packing), whereas two workers performed special work tasks including cleaning the sprayer system with organic solvents containing N-alkyl-2-pyrrolidones. Spot urine samples of nine non-exposed persons of the same plant served as controls. Median post-shift urinary levels of workers with regular work tasks (5-HNEP: 0.15 mg/L; 2-HESI: 0.19 mg/L) were ∼5-fold higher compared to the controls (0.03 mg/L each). Continuously increasing metabolite levels, from pre-shift via post-shift to pre-shift samples of the following day, were observed in particular for the two workers with the special working tasks. Maximum levels were 31.01 mg/L (5-HNEP) and 8.45 mg/L (2-HESI). No clear trend was evident for workers with regular working tasks. In summary, we were able to show that workers can be exposed to NEP during varnishing tasks in the automobile industry.

  8. Fluoride retention by kaolin clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kau, P. M. H.; Smith, D. W.; Binning, Philip John

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the potential effectiveness of kaolin clay liners in storage of fluoride contaminated waste, an experimental study of the sorption and desorption behaviour of fluoride in kaolin clay was conducted. The degree of fluoride sorption by kaolin was found to depend on solution p...

  9. Effect of pretreatment with an Er:YAG laser and fluoride on the prevention of dental enamel erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Reis Derceli, Juliana; Faraoni-Romano, Juliana Jendiroba; Azevedo, Danielle Torres; Wang, Linda; Bataglion, César; Palma-Dibb, Regina Guenka

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the Er:YAG laser and its association with fluoride (1.23% acidulate phosphate fluoride gel) on the prevention of enamel erosion. Sixty specimens were obtained from bovine enamel (4 × 4 mm), which were ground flat, polished, and randomly divided into five groups according to the preventive treatments: control-fluoride application; L--Er:YAG laser; L+F--laser + fluoride; F+L--fluoride + laser; L/F--laser/fluoride simultaneously. Half of the enamel surface was covered with nail varnish (control area), and the other half was pretreated with one of the preventive strategies to subsequently be submitted to erosive challenge. When the laser was applied, it was irradiated for 10 s with a focal length of 4 mm and 60 mJ/2 Hz. Fluoride gel was applied for 4 min. Each specimen was individually exposed to regular Coca-Cola® for 1 min, four times/day, for 5 days. Wear analysis was performed with a profilometer, and demineralization was assessed with an optical microscope. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test (wear)/Dunn test and ANOVA/Fisher's exact tests. The group L/F was similar to control group. The other groups showed higher wear, which did not present differences among them. In the demineralization assessment, the groups F+L and L/F showed lower demineralization in relation to the other groups. It can be concluded that none preventive method was able to inhibit dental wear. The treatments L/F and F+L showed lower enamel demineralization.

  10. The efficacy of an intraoral fluoride-releasing system in irradiated head and neck cancer patients: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerowitz, C; Watson, G E

    1998-09-01

    This study compared the anticaries effectiveness of an intraoral fluoride-releasing system, or IFRS, with a standard regimen of daily application of a 1.1 percent neutral sodium fluoride gel in custom trays. Caries protection in subjects in the IFRS group was comparable to that in subjects in the 1.1 percent neutral sodium fluoride group. The subjects all had head or neck cancer and had received radiation therapy, but no more recently than three months before taking part in the study. Overall, IFRS devices were well-tolerated and patient satisfaction was high. The IFRS appears to offer several advantages over the daily application of fluoride gels in custom trays.

  11. Bone healing at implants with a fluoride-modified surface: an experimental study in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglundh, T; Abrahamsson, I; Albouy, J-P; Lindhe, J

    2007-04-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to study early stages of osseointegration to implants with a fluoride-modified surface. Six mongrel dogs, about 1-year old, were used. All mandibular premolars and the first mandibular molars were extracted. Three months later, mucoperiosteal flaps were elevated in one side of the mandible and six sites were identified for implant placement. The control implants (MicroThread) had a TiOblast surface, while the test implants (OsseoSpeed) had a fluoride-modified TiOblast surface. Both types of implants had a similar geometry, a diameter of 3.5 mm and were 8 mm long. Following installation, cover screws were placed and the flaps were adjusted and sutured to cover all implants. Four weeks after the first implant surgery, the installation procedure was repeated in the opposite side of the mandible. Two weeks later, biopsies were obtained and prepared for histological analysis. The void that occurred between the cut bone wall of the recipient site and the macro-threads of the implant immediately following implant installation was used to study early bone formation. It was demonstrated that the amount of new bone that formed in the voids within the first 2 weeks of healing was larger at fluoride-modified implants (test) than at TiOblast (control) implants. It was further observed that the amount of bone-to-implant contact that had been established after 2 weeks in the macro-threaded portion of the implant was significantly larger at the test implants than at the controls. It is suggested that the fluoride-modified implant surface promotes osseointegration in the early phase of healing following implant installation.

  12. The influence of different fluoride compounds and treatment conditions on dental enamel: a descriptive in vitro study of the CaF(2) precipitation and microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, M

    2001-01-01

    Electron and atomic force microscopy techniques have been applied to characterize both the in vitro deposition intensity and the microstructure of the KOH-soluble fluoride precipitates on human dental enamel. The study was focused on the effects of amine fluoride, sodium fluoride and sodium monofluorophosphate having a fluoride concentration of 0.1% F in acidulated and aqueous solutions. Under certain conditions, fluoride globules were formed within an initiation time of less than 20 s. This result supports the potential significance of this process for the cariostatic action of fluorides during dentifrice use. The deposition intensity seems to be dependent on the availability of Ca and F ions on the dental surface. A nanocrystalline calcium fluoride-like microstructure was revealed, with an additional phosphorus and oxygen incorporation as a function of the treatment time. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Geochemical occurrences of arsenic and fluoride in bedrock groundwater: a case study in Geumsan County, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Joo Sung

    2012-01-01

    Bedrock groundwaters in Geumsan County, Korea, were surveyed to investigate the distribution and geochemical behaviors of arsenic and fluoride, mobilized through geogenic processes. The concentrations were enriched up to 113 μg/L for arsenic and 7.54 mg/L for fluoride, and 16% of 150 samples exceeded World Health Organization drinking water guidelines for each element. Simple Ca-HCO(3) groundwater types and positive correlations with pH, Ca, SO(4), and HCO(3) were characteristics of high (>10 μg/L) As groundwaters. The oxidation reaction of sulfide minerals in metasedimentary rocks and locally mineralized zones seems to be ultimately responsible for the existence of arsenic in groundwater. Desorption process under high pH conditions may also control the arsenic mobility in the study area. High (>1.5 mg/L) F groundwaters were found in the Na-HCO(3) type and with greater depth. Fluoride seemed to be enriched by deep groundwater interaction with granitic rocks, and continuous supply to shallow Ca-HCO(3)-type groundwater kept the concentration high. In the study area, drinking water management should include periodic As and F monitoring in groundwater.

  14. From dust to varnish: Geochemical constraints on rock varnish formation in the Negev Desert, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Yonaton; Stein, Mordechai; Enzel, Yehouda

    2014-02-01

    Chemical compositions of rock varnish from the Negev Desert of Israel and local settled dust were used to constrain the mechanisms of varnish formation and patterns of Mn enrichment and accumulation in the varnish. Rock varnish was sampled from coeval, undisturbed prehistoric flint artifacts along a south-north climatic transect (˜30-120 mm/yr of rain). Our analyses indicate that Mn, Ba and Pb in the varnish are significantly enriched (˜100×) in respect to the local settling dust and that Mn content systematically fluctuates with depth in the varnish. The varnish and settled dust data combined with basic thermodynamic and kinetic reasoning are used to constrain the following geochemical model of rock varnish formation: dust accumulates in micro-basins on exposed rock surfaces, under pH ˜8 (common Negev value) and during wetting by dew and rain, Mn in the dust is mobilized and leached to a depth of ˜5 μm under the varnish surface where Hollandite Mn-oxides precipitate and are adsorbed onto and between the porous clay minerals that comprise most of the varnish. During its mobile phase Mn-oxide is negatively charged and adsorbs rare earth elements. Once the solution dries abrasion removes the upper, weakly cemented dust sediment, which contains mainly Si, Al and Fe (which are not mobile at pH ˜8). Ca is also removed in large quantities. Mn, Ba, Pb and the REE are deposited at a depth and thus, protected from erosion. Reoccurrences of these processes result in a noticeable accumulation of these elements, but not of Si, Al or Fe. The alternating Mn-rich and Mn-poor laminas form as a result of a competition between the leaching rate of Mn and the adhesion rate of the clay minerals. When moisture is high (low), lamina with high (low) Mn/clay mineral ratio forms. The oxidation states involved in the varnish formation are unknown, therefore, to use Morgan's calculations we must assume, in agreement with the thermodynamic considerations (presented above), that during

  15. Estimated Fluoride Doses from Toothpastes Should be Based on Total Soluble Fluoride

    OpenAIRE

    Cury,Jaime A.; Saul M Paiva; Tenuta,Livia M.A; Oliveira,Maria José L.; Martins, Carolina C.

    2013-01-01

    The fluoride dose ingested by young children may be overestimated if based on levels of total fluoride (TF) rather than levels of bioavailable fluoride (total soluble fluoride-TSF) in toothpaste. The aim of the present study was to compare doses of fluoride intake based on TF and TSF. Fluoride intake in 158 Brazilian children aged three and four years was determined after tooth brushing with their usual toothpaste (either family toothpaste (n = 80) or children's toothpaste (n = 78)). The esti...

  16. Fluoride Induces Apoptosis in Mammalian Cells: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Daniel Araki; Cardoso, Caroline Margonato; Yujra, Veronica Quispe; DE Barros Viana, Milena; Aguiar, Odair; Pisani, Luciana Pellegrini; Oshima, Celina Tizuko Fujiyama

    2017-09-01

    Apoptosis is genetically programmed cell death, an irreversible process of cell senescence with characteristic features different from other cellular mechanisms of death such as necrosis. In the last years, apoptosis has been extensively studied in the scientific literature, because it has been established that apoptosis plays a crucial role following the time course of chronic degenerative diseases, such as cancer. Thus, several researchers have strugged to detect what chemical agents are able to inter fere with the apoptotic process. Thus, the purpose of this literature review is to assess if fluoride induces apoptosis in mammalian cells using in vivo and in vitro test systems. Certain mammalian cell types such as oral cells, blood and brain were exetensively investigated; the results showed that fluoride is able to induce apoptosis in both intrinsinc and extrinsic pathways. Moreover, other cells types have been poorly investigated such as bone, kidney and reproductive cells with conflicting results so far. Therefore, this area needs further investigation for the safety of human populations exposed to fluoride in a chronic way, as for example in developing countries. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  17. Adsorption of fluoride to UiO-66-NH2 in water: Stability, kinetic, isotherm and thermodynamic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew; Liu, Yu-Ting; Chen, Shen-Yi

    2016-01-01

    To provide safe drinking water, fluoride in water must be removed and adsorption processes appear to be the most widely used method. Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) represent a new class of adsorbents that have been used in various adsorption applications. To study the adsorption mechanism of fluoride to MOFs in water and obtain related adsorption parameters, we synthesized a zirconium-based MOF with a primary amine group on its ligand, named UiO-66-NH2. The kinetics, adsorption isotherm and thermodynamics of fluoride adsorption to UiO-66-NH2 were investigated. The crystalline structure of UiO-66-NH2 remained intact and the local structure of zirconium in UiO-66-NH2 did not change significantly after being exposed to fluoride. The kinetics of the fluoride adsorption in UiO-66-NH2 could be well represented by the pseudo second order rate law. The enthalpy of the adsorption indicates that the F(-) adsorption to UiO-66-NH2 was classified as a physical adsorption. However, the comparison between the adsorption capacities of UiO-66-NH2 and UiO-66 suggests that the fluoride adsorption to UiO-66-NH2 might primarily involve a strong interaction between F(-) and the metal site. The fluoride adsorption capacity of UiO-66-NH2 was found to decrease when pH>7. While the presence of chloride/bromide ions did not noticeably change the adsorption capacity of UiO-66-NH2, the ionic surfactants slightly affected the adsorption capacity of UiO-66-NH2. These findings provide insights to further optimize the adsorption process for removal of fluoride using zirconium-based MOFs.

  18. Effect of fluoride on nickel-titanium and stainless steel orthodontic archwires: an in-vitro study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzin Heravi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The commonly used Nickel-Titanium (NiTi archwires in orthodontic treatment are often exposed to fluoride-containing mouthwashes. The aim of this in-vitro study was to evaluate and compare the corrosion resistance of three commercially available NiTi archwires exposed to 0.05 wt% and 0.2 wt% fluoride mouthwashes.Three different types of NiTi archwires, 0.016″ in diameter, from Dentaurum, Global, and GAC, and a stainless steel archwire from Dentaurum were examined to assess their corrosion resistance in Fusayama-Meyer artificial saliva and in two other artificial saliva containing 0.05 wt% and 0.2 wt% sodium fluoride (NaF. After the primary setup of wires, they were tested by potentiodynamic and potentiostatic polarization and corrosion potential/time analyses. Their surfaces were evaluated using a scanning electronic microscope (SEM.The results showed that all the wires were passive in artificial saliva. In contrast, by adding fluoride ions to the solution, the decrease in the archwires' corrosion resistance was in direct proportion to the increase in fluoride concentration.The NiTi wires experienced deterioration of their corrosion properties under the effect of fluoride but not as much as the stainless steel archwires.

  19. Effect of fluoride on nickel-titanium and stainless steel orthodontic archwires: an in-vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heravi, Farzin; Moayed, Mohamad Hadi; Mokhber, Nima

    2015-01-01

    The commonly used Nickel-Titanium (NiTi) archwires in orthodontic treatment are often exposed to fluoride-containing mouthwashes. The aim of this in-vitro study was to evaluate and compare the corrosion resistance of three commercially available NiTi archwires exposed to 0.05 wt% and 0.2 wt% fluoride mouthwashes. Three different types of NiTi archwires, 0.016″ in diameter, from Dentaurum, Global, and GAC, and a stainless steel archwire from Dentaurum were examined to assess their corrosion resistance in Fusayama-Meyer artificial saliva and in two other artificial saliva containing 0.05 wt% and 0.2 wt% sodium fluoride (NaF). After the primary setup of wires, they were tested by potentiodynamic and potentiostatic polarization and corrosion potential/time analyses. Their surfaces were evaluated using a scanning electronic microscope (SEM). The results showed that all the wires were passive in artificial saliva. In contrast, by adding fluoride ions to the solution, the decrease in the archwires' corrosion resistance was in direct proportion to the increase in fluoride concentration. The NiTi wires experienced deterioration of their corrosion properties under the effect of fluoride but not as much as the stainless steel archwires.

  20. Does Fluoride Affect Serum Testosterone and Androgen Binding Protein with Age-Specificity? A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study in Chinese Male Farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Leizhen; Zhu, Jingyuan; Wang, Keyan; Zhou, Guoyu; Yang, Yuejin; Cui, Liuxin; Huang, Hui; Cheng, Xuemin; Ba, Yue

    2016-12-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that exposure to excess fluoride was associated with a variety of diseases. Little is known about the variation of testosterone (T) levels caused by fluoride exposure. The aim of this study is to explore the association of fluoride exposure and age with serum T and androgen-binding protein (ABP) levels in male farmers. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a county of Henan Province, China, including high fluoride exposure from drinking water villages and control villages. Male farmers aged 18-55 years old who lived in these villages were recruited by cluster sampling and divided into a higher fluoride exposure group (HFG) and a lower fluoride exposure group (LFG) according to the level of urinary fluoride. Levels of T and ABP in serum were measured using chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) respectively. Markedly lower T levels were observed in male farmers from the HFG than in those from the LFG (t = 2.496, P fluoride (P fluoride exposure. These results supported that excess fluoride exposure decreased serum T levels of male farmers with age-specificity.

  1. The study of devitrification processes in heavy-metal fluoride glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkley, Ian R; Smith, Reginald W; Varma, Sudhanshu

    2004-11-01

    Heavy-metal fluoride glasses are very promising optical fiber materials because of their predicted ultralow loss and long transparency range. Although conventional silica fibers have attained their theoretical minimum loss of 0.15 dB/km, fluoride glasses have the potential to yield losses of only 0.001 dB/km. Fluoride glasses also exhibit transparency into mid-IR frequencies, a region inaccessible to silica fibers. However, this group of glasses is very unstable to devitrification during both bulk glass synthesis and fiber-drawing. This instability has limited their commercial exploitation to a small niche market in the laser industry. The ZBLAN glass (53ZrF(4)-20BaF(2)-4LaF(3)-3AlF(3)-20NaF) is the most promising of these materials since its fiber-drawing region lies on the edge, or possibly just outside its crystallization region. It is believed that additional research into understanding the nucleation mechanics involved in the devitrification of fluoride glasses will lead to the development of technology to suppress such nucleation, or at least minimize the associated crystallization temperature region, allowing high optical quality fibers to be produced. It has recently been demonstrated that a microgravity environment can suppress devitrification in ZBLAN glass preform preparation, and that devitrification may be reduced when preparing ZBLAN terrestrially in a containerless facility. It is believed that the role of viscosity is critical in the devitrification mechanism of ZBLAN glass and in determining the optimum fiber-drawing temperature. Unfortunately, viscosity data for fluoride glasses are only available above the melting point and around the glass transition. A piezoelectric viscometer has been developed and is being used to determine the missing viscosity data in the fiber-drawing and crystallization temperature regions. Shear thinning of the glasses and/or the application of hydrostatic pressure on the glasses have been recently proposed to be

  2. The effect of water fluoride concentration on dental caries and fluorosis in five Iran provinces: A multi-center two-phase study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani, Gholamhossein; Valaie, Nasser; Rakhshan, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Water fluoride level is unknown in many regions of Iran. Besides, only few non-controlled studies world-wide have assessed the effect of water fluoride on dental fluorosis and caries. We aimed to measure the fluoride level of 76 water supplies in 54 cities and evaluate the effect of fluoride on dental caries and fluorosis in a large multi-project study. Materials and Methods: In the first phase (cross-sectional), fluoride levels of 76 water tanks in 54 cities/villages in five provinces of Iran were randomly evaluated in five subprojects. In the second phase (retrospective cohort), 1127 middle school children (563 cohort and 564 control subjects) in the high and low ends of fluoride concentration in each subproject were visited. Their decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) and fluorosis states were assessed. The data were analyzed using Chi-square, Mann-Whitney U and independent-samples t-test (α = 0.05). Results: Mean fluoride level was 0.298 ± 0.340 mg/L in 54 cities/villages. Only eight water tanks had fluoride levels within the normal range and only one was higher than normal and the rest (67 tanks) were all at low levels. Overall, a significant association was observed between fluoride level and fluorosis. However, this was not the case in all areas, as in 2 of 5 provinces, the effect of fluoride on fluorosis was not confirmed. In 4 of the 5 areas studied, there was a significant link between fluoride level and DMFT. Conclusion: Extremely low fluoride levels in Iran cities are an alarming finding and need attention. Higher fluoride is likely to reduce dental caries while increasing fluorosis. This finding was not confirmed in all the areas studied. PMID:25709672

  3. Oil and the Translucent. Varnishing and glazing in practice, recipes and historiography, 1100-1600

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bol, M.A.H.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation studies for the first time the history of varnishing and glazing in relation to the use of drying oils in the workshop of the medieval painter until the late sixteenth century. Results from technical research and historical reconstructions will be combined with an analysis of medie

  4. Comparison between the efficacy of self-prepared chlorhexidine varnishes and of EC 40®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawee Teanpaisan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available It was reported that clinical application of chlorhexidine (CHX varnish could reduce dental caries occurrence effectively.However, this form of CHX is not commercially available in Thailand. Our previous study showed that the released CHX from 20% and 40% self-prepared CHX varnishes were sufficient to inhibit the growth of Streptococcus mutans. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of the 20% and 40% self-prepared CHX varnishes to commercial CHX varnish EC 40®. The study included CHX release, antibacterial activity against S. mutans ATCC 25175, and the cytotoxic effect of CHX on fibroblasts. The results showed that the greatest amount of CHX was released by EC 40® followed by 40% and 20% selfpreparedCHX, which were 4,111.29 g, 2,408.7 g, and 1,136.4 g, respectively. EC 40® gave the strongest antibacterial activity; however, there was no statistical significant difference. The 20% self-prepared CHX gave the highest viability of fibroblasts. This study indicates that the self-prepared CHX should be considered to be used as antimicrobial agents for the prevention of dental caries.

  5. PIGE - Resonance profiling applied to a clinical test of flouride varnishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zschau, H. E.; Plier, F.; Otto, G.; Wyrwich, C.; Treide, A.

    1992-03-01

    A clinical in-vivo experiment had been carried out to compare two caries preventing fluorine varnishes. The fluorine depth profiles in the near surface region of tooth enamel were measured using the 935 keV resonance of the nuclear reaction 19F( p, p' γ) 19F. The results can be understood by studying the flourine anamnese of the patients.

  6. The effect of chlorhexidine varnish on root caries: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, D.E.; Vaandrager, N.C.; Loveren, C. van; Palenstein Helderman, W.H. van; Weijden, G.A. van der

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to systematically review the present literature on the effect of chlorhexidine varnish (CHX-V) on root caries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The MEDLINE-PubMed, the Cochrane-CENTRAL and EMBASE databases were searched through December 2010 to identify any appropriate

  7. The effect of chlorhexidine varnish on root caries: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, D.E.; Vaandrager, N.C.; van Loveren, C.; van Palenstein Helderman, W.H.; van der Weijden, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to systematically review the present literature on the effect of chlorhexidine varnish (CHX-V) on root caries. Materials and Methods: The MEDLINE-PubMed, the Cochrane-CENTRAL and EMBASE databases were searched through December 2010 to identify any appropriate

  8. The effect of chlorhexidine varnish on root caries: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, D.E.; Vaandrager, N.C.; Loveren, C. van; Palenstein Helderman, W.H. van; Weijden, G.A. van der

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to systematically review the present literature on the effect of chlorhexidine varnish (CHX-V) on root caries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The MEDLINE-PubMed, the Cochrane-CENTRAL and EMBASE databases were searched through December 2010 to identify any appropriate stu

  9. Preparation, properties and potential applications of a photocurable varnish with pleasant limonene smell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bednarczyk Paulina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Photocurable materials which are obtained on the basis of urethane acrylate resins are often used in the industry for the production varnishes or protective coatings. The main disadvantage which is connected with the utilization of these varnishes is their unpleasant smell during the process of production and curing. This work presents the photocurable varnish which was obtained on the basis of aliphatic urethane acrylate and R-(+-limonene. The utilization of this raw materials allows to obtain the smelling coatings. The aim of this work were the studies on the influence of limonene molecules on the mechanical properties of the UV-cured coatings. These studies showed that the coatings with limonene molecules retain their properties, and are characterized by the very good adhesion, cohesion and high gloss. These kinds of varnishes can be applied for preparation of appropriate protective coatings on the surface of wood, metals, and nail plates. These protective coatings have not only pleasure smell but also can have the bactericidal and fungicidal properties. The studies performed with Escherichia coli ATCC29425 and Candida albicans confirmed these properties.

  10. Fluoride-induced chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, O; Jouvin, M H; De Vernejoul, M C; Druet, P

    1987-08-01

    Renal fluoride toxicity in human beings is difficult to assess in the literature. Although experimental studies and research on methoxyflurane toxicity have shown frank renal damage, observations of renal insufficiency related to chronic fluoride exposure are scarce. We report a case of fluoride intoxication related to potomania of Vichy water, a highly mineralized water containing 8.5 mg/L of fluoride. Features of fluoride osteosclerosis were prominent and end-stage renal failure was present. The young age of the patient, the long duration of high fluoride intake, and the absence of other cause of renal insufficiency suggest a causal relationship between fluoride intoxication and renal failure.

  11. Effects of chlorhexidine varnish on caries during orthodontic treatment: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Machado Pingueiro OKADA

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of chlorhexidine varnish on the reduction of caries incidence during fixed orthodontic treatment. The literature searches involved The Cochrane Library, Medline, Scopus, OpenSigle databases and manual searches. The search on OpenSigle did not produce any additional articles. Clinical studies conducted in patients with orthodontic fixed appliances that used professional application of chlorhexidine varnish were included. The effect-size was calculated and a meta-analysis was performed. From 182 abstracts, a total of six articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria. After reading the full articles, one was excluded because of lack of a control group. Three articles were used for continuous data analysis, and two articles were used for the dichotomous data analysis. The pooled meta-analysis with continuous data demonstrated chlorhexidine varnish effectiveness on caries reduction (p = 0.003, with a mean difference and confidence interval of −1.49 [−2.47, −0.51]. On the basis of the pooled meta-analysis of continuous data, we were able to conclude that professional application of chlorhexidine varnish is effective in caries incidence reduction during fixed orthodontic treatment.

  12. Fluoride Rinses, Gels and Foams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Keller, Mette K

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this conference paper was to systematically review the quality of evidence and summarize the findings of clinical trials published after 2002 using fluoride mouth rinses, fluoride gels or foams for the prevention of dental caries. METHODS: Relevant papers were selected after...... an electronic search for literature published in English between 2003 and 2014. The included papers were assessed for their risk of bias and the results were narratively synthesized due to study heterogeneity. The quality of evidence was expressed according to GRADE. RESULTS: A total of 19 papers were included...... (6 on fluoride mouth rinse, 10 on fluoride gel and 3 on fluoride foam); 6 had a low risk of bias while 2 had a moderate risk. All fluoride measures appeared to be beneficial in preventing crown caries and reversing root caries, but the quality of evidence was graded as low for fluoride mouth rinse...

  13. 氟保护漆用于小学生群体防龋相关接受现状研究%Study on acceptability status of fluoride vamish use for preventing dental caries Among pupils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周爱萍; 姜荣明; 顾圣祖; 朱娟; 蒋晓明; 王立洲

    2011-01-01

    Objective To carry out the study of preventing dental caries by fluoride varnish among the students of grade 1 to 3, and understand the acceptability of parents consciousness on children preventing dental caries and coordination behavior and side effects of children, in order to provide scientific basis for carrying out preventing dental caries among youngsters. Flouride varnisher on preventing caries for pupils. Method Selecting grade 1 to 3 students of 2 elementary schools in Kunshan city as study objects, and let the parents knew the investigation by notification, and fluoride varnish was applied to six - year teeth under the organization of schools. Results Parents informed consent feedback results showed that, 75.47% was agreed, 24.53% was not The reasons of disagreement were that did not to understand and it accounted for 52. 14% , unnecessary was 29.91% , unsafely was 17.52% . Students' behavior with the best match was 86.77% , 12. 92% was better, 0. 31% was bad. Clinical symptoms without side effects was 98.31% , 1.69% with nauseated, and 0.15% with vomiting. Conclusions Fluoride varnish can used for protecting saprodontia, but some parents did not understand it, and a few parents had question on security, majority of pupils can accept the method with good behavior match, there were side effects appeared on some students, but it was security, safety and feasible in alL In the future, we should enhance the recognition of parents and students when carried out prevention work, and the doctor need to master the operation skill, avoid the adverse reaction.%目的 通过对小学1~3年级学生开展氟保护漆防龋研究,了解家长对子女防龋意识和可接受性;了解学生涂氟的配合行为及副作用,为今后开展青少年防龋提供科学的理论依据.方法 以昆山市城镇二所中心小学1~3年级学生为研究对象,以告家长书形式征得家长知情同意后,在校方的组织下进行学生“六龄齿”

  14. A randomized clinical study investigating the staining profile of an experimental stannous fluoride dentifrice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehme, Marc; Mason, Stephen; Hughes, Nathan; Targett, Darren; Parkinson, Charles; Tyson-Johnson, Deci; Kennedy, Liam; Milleman, Jeffery

    2013-03-01

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate the staining profile of an experimental test dentifrice containing 0.454% w/w stannous fluoride compared to that of a marketed control dentifrice containing 0.76% w/w sodium monofluorophosphate (Colgate Cavity Protection) following regular and repeat use, with twice daily brushing over 8 weeks. As an exploratory objective, the staining profile of the test dentifrice was compared to that of a marketed comparator dentifrice containing 0.454% w/w stannous fluoride (Crest Pro-Health - Clean Mint). This was a single-center, examiner-blind, randomized, three arm, parallel group study, stratified by pre-baseline stain score [total Lobene Stain Index (LSI) (area x intensity) score or = 31] and smoking status. Following initial screening, 137 healthy subjects, aged 18 years and above, with 12 gradable anterior teeth returned for baseline assessments. At the baseline visit, subjects received an oral soft tissue (OST) examination and an assessment of extrinsic dental stain using the LSI on the facial and lingual surfaces of the 12 anterior teeth, LSI area, LSI intensity and LSI area x intensity (the LSI area x intensity score was termed the pre-baseline LSI score). Subjects who met study requirements received a dental prophylaxis of the anterior teeth to remove all visible stain from their tooth surfaces such that an LSI (area x intensity) score of 0 was achieved. Randomized subjects brushed with their assigned dentifrice at home twice daily for 1 timed minute and returned after 4 and 8 weeks for an OST examination and dental stain assessment of the anterior teeth using LSI. There were no statistically significant differences in dental stain build-up between the test dentifrice containing 0.454% w/w stannous fluoride and a marketed control dentifrice (Colgate Cavity Protection), after 4 and 8 weeks of twice daily brushing, in terms of LSI area x intensity, LSI area or LSI intensity scores. Exploratory analysis indicated

  15. Electrochemical Study of Tantalum in Fluoride and Oxofluoride Melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polyakova, L.; Polyakov, E.; Matthiesen, F.

    1994-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of tantalum in the form of K2TaF7 in an LiF-NaF-KF eutectic melt has been studied by linear voltammetry in the temperature range of 560 to 815-degrees-C with and without additions of Na2O. An amperometric titration has been performed by measuring the heights of the ca...

  16. Penetration of varnishes into demineralized root dentine in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arends, J; Duschner, H; Ruben, JL

    1997-01-01

    In this paper the penetration of three different varnishes employed in caries prevention (Duraphat(R), Fluor Protector(R) and Cervitec(R)) into demineralized dentine is quantified using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The results show that the varnish penetration into lesions about 85 mu m in

  17. Fluoride Anion Recognition by a Multifunctional Urea Derivative: An Experimental and Theoretical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Jana; Pérez-Ruiz, Raúl; Sampedro, Diego; Marqués-López, Eugenia; Herrera, Raquel P.; Díaz Díaz, David

    2016-01-01

    In this work we demonstrate the ability of a multifaceted N,N′-disubstituted urea to selectively recognize fluoride anion (F−) among other halides. This additional function is now added to its already reported organocatalytic and organogelator properties. The signaling mechanism relies on the formation of a charge-transfer (CT) complex between the urea-based sensor and F¯ in the ground state with a high association constant as demonstrated by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The nature of the hydrogen bonding interaction between the sensor and F¯ was established by 1H-NMR studies and theoretical calculations. Moreover, the recovery of the sensor was achieved by addition of methanol. PMID:27171087

  18. Fluoride Anion Recognition by a Multifunctional Urea Derivative: An Experimental and Theoretical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Jana; Pérez-Ruiz, Raúl; Sampedro, Diego; Marqués-López, Eugenia; Herrera, Raquel P; Díaz Díaz, David

    2016-05-09

    In this work we demonstrate the ability of a multifaceted N,N'-disubstituted urea to selectively recognize fluoride anion (F(-)) among other halides. This additional function is now added to its already reported organocatalytic and organogelator properties. The signaling mechanism relies on the formation of a charge-transfer (CT) complex between the urea-based sensor and F¯ in the ground state with a high association constant as demonstrated by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The nature of the hydrogen bonding interaction between the sensor and F¯ was established by ¹H-NMR studies and theoretical calculations. Moreover, the recovery of the sensor was achieved by addition of methanol.

  19. Salt fluoridation and oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Marthaler

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to make known the potential of fluoridated salt in community oral health programs, particularly in South Eastern Europe. Since 1922, the addition of iodine to salt has been successful in Switzerland. Goiter is virtually extinct. By 1945, the cariesprotective effect of fluorides was well established. Based on the success of water fluoridation, a gynecologist started adding of fluoride to salt. The sale of fluoridated salt began in 1956 in the Swiss Canton of Zurich, and several other cantons followed suit. Studies initiated in the early seventies showed that fluoride, when added to salt, inhibits dental caries. The addition of fluoride to salt for human consumption was officially authorized in 1980-82. In Switzerland 85% of domestic salt consumed is fluoridated and 67% in Germany. Salt fluoridation schemes are reaching more than one hundred million in Mexico, Colombia, Peru and Cuba. The cost of salt fluoridation is very low, within 0.02 and 0.05 € per year and capita. Children and adults of the low socio-economic strata tend to have substantially more untreated caries than higher strata. Salt fluoridation is by far the cheapest method for improving oral health. Conclusions. Salt fluoridation has cariostatic potential like water fluoridation (caries reductions up to 50%. In Europe, meaningful percentages of users have been attained only in Germany (67% and Switzerland (85%. In Latin America, there are more than 100 million users, and several countries have arrived at coverage of 90 to 99%. Salt fluoridation is by far the cheapest method of caries prevention, and billions of people throughout the world could benefit from this method.

  20. Eggshell Powder as an Adsorbent for Removal of Fluoride from Aqueous Solution: Equilibrium, Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bhaumik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new medium, eggshell powder has been developed for fluoride removal from aqueous solution. Fluoride adsorption was studied in a batch system where adsorption was found to be pH dependent with maximum removal efficiency at 6.0. The experimental data was more satisfactorily fitted with Langmuir isotherm model. The kinetics and the factor controlling adsorption process fully accepted by pseudo-second-order model were also discussed. Ea was found to be 45.98 kJmol-1 by using Arrhenius equation, indicating chemisorption nature of fluoride onto eggshell powder. Thermodynamic study showed spontaneous nature and feasibility of the adsorption process with negative enthalpy (∆H0 value also supported the exothermic nature. Batch experiments were performed to study the applicability of the adsorbent by using fluoride contaminated water collected from affected areas. These results indicate that eggshell powder can be used as an effective, low-cost adsorbent to remove fluoride from aqueous solution as well as groundwater.

  1. The Public Health Reach of High Fluoride Vehicles: Examples of Innovative Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellez, Marisol; Wolff, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    Fluorides and sealants have been shown to reduce caries in populations, making fluoride interventions a large part of the dental public health effort. Although public health programs have traditionally focused on fluoride vehicles delivering less than 1,000 ppm of fluoride, more recent efforts have shifted toward the use of high fluoride vehicles such as varnishes and prescription toothpastes. In the USA, states are developing innovative strategies to increase access to dental services by using primary care medical providers to deliver early preventive services as part of well-child care visits. Currently, Medicaid programs in 43 states reimburse medical providers for preventive services including varnish application. Still, there is uncertainty about the cost-effectiveness of such interventions. In many resource-strained environments, with shortages of dental health care providers, lack of fluoridated water and lower dental awareness, it is necessary to develop sustainable programs utilizing already established programs, like primary school education, where caries prevention may be set as a priority. Dental caries among the elderly is an ongoing complex problem. The 5,000-ppm F toothpaste may be a reasonable approach for developing public health programs where root caries control is the main concern. Fluoride varnish and high concentration fluoride toothpaste are attractive because they can easily be incorporated into well-child visits and community-based geriatric programs. Additional research on the effectiveness and costs associated with population-based programs of this nature for high risk groups is needed, especially in areas where a community-based fluoride delivery program is not available.

  2. Goniometric and colorimetric properties of paints and varnish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacomussi, P.; Radis, M.; Rossi, G.

    2015-03-01

    The spectral reflectance of different samples of three different hues, (red, green, blue) with four different protective varnishes was measured in 8/d condition and with a goniometer equipped with a spectrometer. The samples are representative of hue and varnishes typically used in works of arts, the characterization was performed to test how the different gloss finishing induced by transparent varnishes affect the spatial distribution of the luminance coefficient in typical lighting arrangements for exposition of works of art. Nowadays the most used transparent protective varnishes are matt or glossy, natural or synthetic. The choice within them is usually made looking at mechanical, chemical (also in term of removal) and protective properties. Varnishes optical properties investigation on saturation and gloss alteration of the perceived artifacts are not usually investigated. Expected results of this research include: analysis of influences on color appearance of protective varnish according to the condition of illumination and observation, suggestion of new additional criteria for varnish selection and lighting set up exposition and reliability of 8/d measurements condition, that is a typical measurement set-up of portable instruments. Our results showed that natural varnishes are more able to change the gloss of the surfaces than synthetic ones, because the shape and intensity of the specular peak for glossy and matt natural varnish are very different. Both synthetic and natural varnishes have different behaviors at 30° or 60° light incidences: at 30° of incidence all samples have smaller variations, while at 60° of incidence the variations are larger, and for some samples the achromatic point is reached.

  3. Hydrogeochemical processes controlling the high fluoride concentration in groundwater: a case study at the Boden block area, Orissa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, R K; Swain, S K; Mishra, Sulagna; Sharma, Prachi; Patnaik, Tanushree; Singh, V K; Dehury, B N; Jha, Usha; Patel, R K

    2012-05-01

    The present investigation reports the assessment of hydrochemical/geochemical processes controlling the concentration of fluoride in groundwater of a village in India (Boden block, Orissa). Boden block is one of the severely affected fluoride-contaminated areas in the state of Orissa (India). The sampling and subsequent analysis of water samples of the study area was carried out following standard prescribed methods. The results of the analysis indicate that 36.60% groundwater F(-) concentration exceeds the limit prescribed by the World Health Organization for drinking water. The rock interaction with groundwater containing high concentration of HCO(3)(-) and Na(+) at a higher pH value of the medium could be one of the important reasons for the release of F(-) from the aquatic matrix into groundwater. Geochemical classification of groundwater based on Chadha rectangular diagram shows that most of the groundwater samples having fluoride concentration more than 1.5 mg L(-1) belongs to the Na-K-HCO(3) type. The saturation index values evaluated for the groundwater of the study area indicated that it is oversaturated with respect to calcite, whereas the same is undersaturated with respect to fluorite content. The deficiency of calcium ion concentration in the groundwater from calcite precipitation favors fluorite dissolution leading to excess of fluoride concentration. The risk index was calculated as a function of fluoride level in drinking water and morbidity of fluorosis categorizes high risk for villages of Amera and Karlakote panchayat of Boden block.

  4. Pulp response to high fluoride releasing glass ionomer, silver diamine fluoride, and calcium hydroxide used for indirect pulp treatment: An in-vivo comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atish Korwar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: The study aims at determining pulp response of two high fluoride releasing materials silver diamine fluoride (SDF and Type VII glass ionomer cement (GIC when used as indirect pulp treatment (IPT materials. Materials and Methods: Deep Class V cavities were made on four first premolars indicated for extraction for orthodontic reasons. SDF, Type VII GIC, and calcium hydroxide base are given in three premolars, and one is kept control. Premolars were extracted 6 weeks after the procedure and subjected to histopathological examination to determine the pulp response. The results were analyzed using Chi-square test. Results: No inflammatory changes were observed in any of the groups. Significantly more number of specimens in SDF and Type VII GIC groups showed tertiary dentin deposition (TDD when compared to control group. No significant difference was seen in TDD when intergroup comparison was made. Odontoblasts were seen as short cuboidal cells with dense basophilic nucleus in SDF and Type VII GIC group. Conclusion: The study demonstrated TDD inducing ability of SDF and Type VII GIC and also established the biocompatibility when used as IPT materials.

  5. Instant Varnish Cache how-to

    CERN Document Server

    Moutinho, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. Get the job done and learn as you go. Easy-to-follow, step-by-step recipes which will get you started with Varnish Cache. Practical examples will help you to get set up quickly and easily.This book is aimed at system administrators and web developers who need to scale websites without tossing money on a large and costly infrastructure. It's assumed that you have some knowledge of the HTTP protocol, how browsers and server communicate with each other, and basic Linux systems.

  6. Fluoride level in saliva after bonding orthodontic brackets with a fluoride containing adhesive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ogaard, B; Arends, J; Helseth, H; Dijkman, G; vanderKuijl, M

    1997-01-01

    The fluoride level in saliva is considered an important parameter in caries prevention. Elevation of the salivary fluoride level by a fluoride-releasing orthodontic bonding adhesive would most likely be beneficial in the prevention of enamel caries. In this study, the fluoride level in saliva was me

  7. Fluoride level in saliva after bonding orthodontic brackets with a fluoride containing adhesive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ogaard, B; Arends, J; Helseth, H; Dijkman, G; vanderKuijl, M

    The fluoride level in saliva is considered an important parameter in caries prevention. Elevation of the salivary fluoride level by a fluoride-releasing orthodontic bonding adhesive would most likely be beneficial in the prevention of enamel caries. In this study, the fluoride level in saliva was

  8. Clinical evaluation of the intraoral fluoride releasing system in radiation-induced xerostomic subjects. Part 2: Phase I study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Mark S; Mellberg, James R; Keene, Harris J; Bouwsma, Otis J; Garden, Adam S; Sipos, Tibor; Fleming, Terence J

    2006-10-01

    Radiation-induced xerostomia can result in the rapid onset and progression of dental caries in head and neck cancer patients. Topically applied fluorides have been successfully used to inhibit the formation of dental caries in this population. However, because intensive daily self-application is required, compliance is an issue. The intraoral fluoride-releasing system (IFRS) containing a sodium fluoride core is a newly developed, sustained-release, passive drug delivery system that does not require patient involvement except for periodic replacement, thus reducing the effect of patient compliance on its effectiveness in dental caries prevention. Twenty-two head and neck cancer patients from U. T. M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, with radiation-induced xerostomia, were entered into a pilot study to contrast the daily home use of a 0.4% stannous fluoride-gel-containing tray (control group) to IFRS (study group) with respect to tolerability and adherence, and to obtain information on relative caries preventive efficacy. Participants were stratified on the basis of radiation exposure and randomly assigned to treatment with either IFRS or stannous fluoride gel. Patients in both groups were fitted with two IFRS retainers and also were instructed to use a 1100-ppm fluoride conventional sodium fluoride dentifrice twice daily. The study was conducted as a single-blinded, parallel-cell trial. Pre-existing carious lesions were restored prior to the beginning of the study. The efficacy variable was determined by the mean number of new or recurrent decayed surfaces. Patients were examined for caries 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, and 48 weeks after initiation of treatment. Reports of adverse reactions were based on information volunteered by patients and that were elicited during interviews. At baseline, the resting and stimulated salivary flow rates (g/5min) were significantly greater in the control group than in the study group (pIFRS groups during the study period. The rate of new or

  9. [Comparative study of the increase in acid solubility resistance of enamel using different fluoride treatments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Miro, M J; Gallego Rodríguez, J; Elías Avila, L; Albuerne Dihigo, R; Alfonso Laguárdia, D

    1988-01-01

    This investigation was performed to evaluate, comparatively, the effect of topical application of Duraphat, Flulak, Fluor-Protector, Bifluorid 12, Profilac, Fluoro-gel-P and Fluocal-gel. Colorimetric technique was used for such purposes. It was found that 67.5% of 283 children treated with those different treatments increased their enamel resistance to acid dissolution, although notable differences were found in the use of these products. Average of increase ranged between 10.7 and 23.5%. Lacs and varnishes provide best results than gels with regard to acid dissolution rate of enamel. Behave of the two national products evaluated (Flulak and Profilac) was similar to the rest of lacs and varnishes, justifying their use at national level for the prevention of caries, avoiding in that way unnecessary importations.

  10. [Study on ecological risk assessment technology of fluoride pollution from arid oasis soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Su-Yin; Li, Ping; Wang, Sheng-Li; Nan, Zhong-Ren

    2014-03-01

    According to translocation regulation of fluoride in the typical oasis soil-plant system under field, an ecological risk assessment model of fluoride was established, and this model was used to assess ecological risk to fluoride pollution from suburban oasis soils in Baiyin City, which was specifically expressed with the potential ecological risk of bioavailability (ER(bc)) model to assess ecological risk of fluoride pollution in oasis regions. Results showed that the ecological risk indices of fluoride pollution from this region were 1.37-24.81, the level of risk at most sites was high to very high, the average ecological risk index was 11.28, belonged to very high risk. This indicated that in the suburb soil of Baiyin City needs to be concerned about the remediation of fluoride pollution.

  11. Comparison of retention of provisional crowns cemented with temporary cements containing stannous fluoride and sodium fluoride-an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachin, Bhuvana

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the addition of stannous fluoride (SnF2) and sodium fluoride (NaF) to luting cements on the retention of provisional crowns. Provisional crowns were fabricated using methyl methacrylate and bis-acryl composite resin for 32 chamfer prepared molars. For control group A, crowns were cemented with Freegenol and RelyX Temp NE non-eugenol cements. For test group B, crowns were cemented using the above cements with the addition of SnF2. For test group C, crowns were cemented using the above cements with the addition of NaF. The specimens were thermocycled and retention test was conducted after 7 days. The addition of SnF2 significantly increased the retentive strength of both the cements in the range of 27-48 %, whereas addition of NaF decreased the retentive strength of both the cements in the range of 14-23 %. SnF2 can be mixed with non-eugenol luting cements to improve the retention of both methyl methacrylate and bis-acryl composite crowns. The different effects of NaF and SnF2 on retention indicate that it may be useful to have two different types of provisional luting cements for short-term and long-term cementation, as appropriate.

  12. A comparative study of fluoride ingestion levels, serum thyroid hormone & TSH level derangements, dental fluorosis status among school children from endemic and non-endemic fluorosis areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Navneet; Verma, Kanika Gupta; Verma, Pradhuman; Sidhu, Gagandeep Kaur; Sachdeva, Suresh

    2014-01-03

    The study was undertaken to determine serum/urinary fluoride status and comparison of free T4, free T3 and thyroid stimulating hormone levels of 8 to 15 years old children with and without dental fluorosis living in an endemic and non-endemic fluorosis area. A sample group of 60 male and female school children, with or without dental fluorosis, consuming fluoride-contaminated water in endemic fluoride area of Udaipur district, Rajasthan were selected through a school dental fluorosis survey. The sample of 10 children of same age and socio-economic status residing in non endemic areas who did not have dental fluorosis form controls. Fluoride determination in drinking water, urine and blood was done with Ion 85 Ion Analyzer Radiometer with Hall et al. method. The thyroid gland functional test was done by Immonu Chemiluminiscence Micropartical Assay with Bayer Centaur Autoanalyzer. The significantly altered FT3, FT4 and TSH hormones level in both group1A and 1B school children were noted. The serum and urine fluoride levels were found to be increased in both the groups. A significant relationship of water fluoride to urine and serum fluoride concentration was seen. The serum fluoride concentration also had significant relationship with thyroid hormone (FT3/FT4) and TSH concentrations. The testing of drinking water and body fluids for fluoride content, along with FT3, FT4, and TSH in children with dental fluorosis is desirable for recognizing underlying thyroid derangements and its impact on fluorosis.

  13. A DFT Study of Pyrrole-Isoxazole Derivatives as Chemosensors for Fluoride Anion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Tang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The interactions between chemosensors, 3-amino-5-(4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-indol-2-ylisoxazole-4-carboxamide (AIC derivatives, and different anions (F Cl, Br, AcO, and H2PO4 have been theoretically investigated using DFT approaches. It turned out that the unique selectivity of AIC derivatives for F is ascribed to their ability of deprotonating the host sensors. Frontier molecular orbital (FMO analyses have shown that the vertical electronic transitions of absorption and emission for the sensing signals are characterized as intramolecular charge transfer (ICT. The study of substituent effects suggests that all the substituted derivatives are expected to be promising candidates for fluoride chemosensors both in UV-vis and fluorescence spectra except for derivative with benzo[d]thieno[3,2-b]thiophene fragment that can serve as ratiometric fluorescent fluoride chemosensor only.

  14. Fluoride Content in Alcoholic Drinks

    OpenAIRE

    Goschorska, Marta; Gutowska, Izabela; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Ra?, Monika Ewa; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the role of alcoholic drinks as a potential source of dietary fluoride by means of measuring fluoride levels in selected alcoholic drinks available on the Polish market that are also diverse in terms of the percentage content of ethanol. The study was conducted on 48 types of drinks with low, medium, and high alcohol content available on the Polish market and offered by various manufacturers, both Polish and foreign. Fluoride concentrations in individual ...

  15. Appropriate Real-Time PCR Reference Genes for Fluoride Treatment Studies Performed In Vitro or In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faibish, D.; Suzuki, M.; Bartlett, J.D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is routinely performed for experiments designed to identify the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of dental fluorosis. Expression of reference gene(s) is expected to remain unchanged in fluoride-treated cells or in rodents relative to the corresponding untreated controls. The aim of this study was to select optimal reference genes for fluoride experiments performed in vitro and in vivo. Design Five candidate genes were evaluated: B2m, Eef1a1, Gapdh, Hprt and Tbp. For in vitro experiments, LS8 cells derived from mouse enamel organ were treated with 0, 1, 3 and/or 5 mM sodium fluoride (NaF) for 6 or 18 hours followed by RNA isolation. For in vivo experiments, six-week old rats were treated with 0 or 100 ppm fluoride as NaF for six weeks at which time RNA was isolated from enamel organs. RNA from cells and enamel organs were reverse-transcribed and stability of gene expression for the candidate reference genes was evaluated by qPCR in treated versus non-treated samples. Results The most stably expressed genes in vitro according to geNorm were B2m and Tbp, and according to Normfinder were Hprt and Gapdh. The most stable genes in vivo were Eef1a1 and Gapdh. Expression of Ddit3, a gene previously shown to be induced by fluoride, was demonstrated to be accurately calculated only when using an optimal reference gene. Conclusions This study identifies suitable reference genes for relative quantification of gene expression by qPCR after fluoride treatment both in cultured cells and in the rodent enamel organ. PMID:26615575

  16. Extraction and optimization of chitosan from shrimp shell: preparation, characterization and application in fluoride removal (isotherm, kinetic and thermodynamic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Azari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fluoride in low concentrations is useful for human health. However, high concentrations of this substance is associated with problems such as fluorosis and Alzheimer's. Adsorption is efficient technique in removal of this pollutant. The aim of this study was to extraction and optimization of Chitosan as a natural biosorbent in fluoride removal. Materials and Methods: In present study, magnetized chitosan-iron oxide nano particles was prepared by co-precipitation method and its characteristics were determined by SEM, XRD, TEM and FTIR analyzes. Subsequently, the effect of magnetized chitosan was assessed as an adsorbent in fluoride removal from water solution in the batch system with considering various parameters included pH, contact time, adsorbent dosage, initial Fluoride concentration and solution temperature. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models and pseudo first-order and pseudo second-order kinetics were used to examine experimental data. Results: The results showed that the Fluoride adsorption have followed Langmuir (R2>0.982 and kinetic model of pseudo second-order (R2>0.931. The maximum adsorption capacity of Fluoride was 22.756 mg/g at optimized condition, pH 50 adsorbent dose of 1g/L at 500C. Investigation of thermodynamically parameters and positive value of ΔH0 indicatethat this process was endothermic. Conclusion: Generally, we can report that t he magnetic chitosan was used as a useful sorbent for the removal of pollutants from water and wastewater due to advantages such as easy and rapid separation from solution and high removal efficiency.

  17. Dental health behavior of parents of children using non-fluoride toothpaste: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Ota, Junko; Yamamoto, Tatsuo; Ando, Yuichi; Aida, Jun; Hirata, Yukio; Arai, Seishiro

    2013-01-01

    Background One of the dental health goals of Health Japan 21, in which the Japanese government clarified its health policy, was to ensure the use of fluoride toothpaste in 90% or more of schoolchildren. This goal was not achieved. The aim of this cross-sectional questionnaire study was to evaluate the characteristics of parents whose children use non-fluoride toothpaste. Methods In December 2010, questionnaire forms were sent to 18 elementary schools or school dentists. Students (6-12 years o...

  18. Effect of Fluoride on Nickel-Titanium and Stainless Steel Orthodontic Archwires: An In-Vitro Study

    OpenAIRE

    Farzin Heravi; Mohamad Hadi Moayed; Nima Mokhber

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The commonly used Nickel-Titanium (NiTi) archwires in orthodontic treatment are often exposed to fluoride-containing mouthwashes. The aim of this in-vitro study was to evaluate and compare the corrosion resistance of three commercially available NiTi archwires exposed to 0.05 wt% and 0.2 wt% fluoride mouthwashes. Materials and Methods: Three different types of NiTi archwires, 0.016? in diameter, from Dentaurum, Global, and GAC, and a stainless steel archwire from Dentaurum were ex...

  19. Industrial fluoride pollution: chronic fluoride poisoning in Cornwall Island cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krook, L.; Maylin, G.A.

    1979-04-01

    An aluminum plant on the south bank of the St. Lawrence River, southwest of Cornwall Island, Ontario, Canada, has emitted 0.816 metric tons of fluoride daily since 1973. Considerably higher amounts were emitted from 1959 to 1973. The plant was designated as the major source of fluoride emissions impacting on Cornwall Island. Cattle located on this island showed signs of chronic fluoride poisoning. This poisoning was manifested clinically by stunted growth and dental fluorosis to a degree of severe interference with drinking and mastication. This Cornwall Island herds study indicates that the established tolerance level of fluoride for performance of dairy and beef cattle is not valid since the tolerance level was set based on experiments with healthy calves which were exposed to dietary fluoride from 3 to 4 months of age and not on cattle which were chronically exposed to fluoride from conception to death. 56 references.

  20. Amino Acid Analyses of Acid Hydrolysates in Desert Varnish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Randall S.; Staley, James T.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Engel, Mike

    2001-01-01

    There has long been a debate as to whether rock varnish deposits are microbially mediated or are deposited by inorganic processes. Varnished rocks are found throughout the world primarily in arid and semi-arid regions. The varnish coats are typically up to 200 microns thick and are composed of clays and alternating layers enriched in manganese and iron oxides. The individual layers range in thickness from 1 micron to greater than 10 microns and may continue laterally for more than a 100 microns. Overlapping botryoidal structures are visible in thin section and scanning electron micrographs. The coatings also include small amounts of organic mater and detrital grains. Amino-acid hydrolysates offer a means of assessing the organic composition of rock varnish collected from the Sonoran Desert, near Phoenix, AZ. Chromatographic analyses of hydrolysates from powdered samples of rock varnish suggest that the interior of rock varnish is relatively enriched in amino acids and specifically in d-alanine and glutamic acid. Peptidoglycan (murein) is the main structural component of gram-positive bacterial cell walls. The d-enantiomer of alanine and glutamic acid are specific to peptidoglycan and are consequently an indicator for the presence of bacteria. D-alanine is also found in teichoic acid which is only found in gram-positive bacteria. Several researchers have cultured bacteria from the surface of rock varnish and most have been gram-positive, suggesting that gram-positive bacteria are intimately associated with varnish coatings and may play a role in the formation of varnish coatings.

  1. Comparative evaluation of fluoride release from hydroxyapatite incorporated and conventional glass ionomer cement: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Tiwari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Glass ionomers are most commonly used esthetic restorative material, but has inferior mechanical properties. The search to improve its mechanical properties led to the use of hydroxyapatite (HA whiskers as strengthening material for glass ionomer cement but its effect on fluoride release is still not clear. Aims: To evaluate and compare the fluoride release from HA incorporated glass ionomer and conventional glass ionomer cement (CGIC. Settings and Design: This in vitro study comprised of total forty sample. Twenty Specimens of each HA incorporated glass ionomer and conventional glass ionomer were fabricated. Materials and Methods: Specimens were suspended individually in 25 mL of distilled water in a 50 mL plastic container and stored at 37°C. Distilled water was renewed every 24 h for 21 days. Fluoride release of sample was measured every 24 h for 7 days and weekly from 7 th day to 21 st day using Sension4 pH/ion selective electrode/mV meter. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics, Repeated Measure analysis of variance, Paired Sample t-test, Independent Sample t-test, scheffe post hoc test. Results and Conclusion: There was a significant decrease in the mean fluoride release from day 1 to day 21 for both the groups hydroxyapatite glass ionomer cement and conventional glass ionomer cement ([HA-GIC] and CGIC. Though, the mean values of HA-GIC were slightly lower than C GIC, there was no statistically significant difference in the mean fluoride release between HA-GIC and CGIC throughout the experimental period. Within the limitations of this experimental design, definitive conclusions cannot be drawn and further investigations at a molecular level are needed to evaluate the trend of fluoride release from this material.

  2. Identifying varnished rocks on Mars using thermal infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbitts, C. A.; Gillespie, A.; Hansen, G. B.

    2004-12-01

    Thermal infrared (TIR) spectroscopy is widely implemented in attempts to determine the composition of the Mars's surface. Discoveries include basaltic rocks, possible andesites, and hematite-rich terrains associated with areas of probable hydrothermal alteration [Bandfield et al., 2000; Christensen et al., 2001; Glotch et al., 2004]. Some of the basaltic rocks appear to be covered by either a weathering rind or a varnish. The presence of a varnish would be interesting because it is believed to form through multiple wetting and drying events [reference]. The presence of these coatings can potentially be identified through unique nonlinear effects where both the substrate and varnish have strong spectral features. For example, varnished terrestrial quartz-rich rocks have a low-emissivity ~8.4-micron reststrahlan band diagnostic of a silicate-rich substrate which remains present while the longer wavelength reststrahlen band is obscured by the clay-rich varnish. In general, this non-linearity will conform to the Beer-Lambert Law, with additional reflection and scattering terms, so that the light emitted from the varnished stone will be similar to I=Io e-ax, where `Io' is the light emitted from a bare substrate, `a' is the absorption constant for the varnish coating, and `x' is the thickness of the coating. If the effect were linear, as expected for dusty surfaces [Johnson et al., 2002] or discrete patches of rock and clay, the emissivity of the emitted light would, at all wavelengths, possess equal contributions from the varnish and substrate; thus the clay feature would not completely dominate the longwave reststrahlan band without also erasing the shortwave reststrahlan band. After having theoretically determined a nonlinear at some wavelengths is probable, we have focused on laboratory spectral analyses of terrestrial varnished rocks. We have collected over 100 varnished stones from various pavements and unvarnished stones from other surfaces and have acquired over

  3. Comparison of Fluoride Levels in Tap and Bottled Water and Reported Use of Fluoride Supplementation in a United States–Mexico Border Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma I. Beamer

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundCompared to the general United States (U.S. population, Arizona counties along the U.S.–Mexico border have a higher prevalence of dental caries, which can be reduced with adequate fluoride exposure. Because of concern regarding local tap water quality, fluoride-free bottled water consumption is common in this region, raising concern that families are not receiving adequate fluoride to promote dental health.ObjectiveTo evaluate the levels of fluoride in tap and bottled water as well as the use of fluoride supplements in an Arizona border community.MethodsLow-income Latino households (n = 90 who report use of bottled water as their primary source of water intake were recruited. Participants completed a questionnaire about their and their children’s dental histories and use of fluoride supplements. Water samples (bottled and tap were collected from a subset of households (n = 30 for analysis of fluoride.ResultsFluoride detection levels were significantly greater (p = 0.02, Fisher’s exact test in tap water (average = 0.49 mg/dL than in bottled water, yet, the majority (22/30 were below the range for optimal dental health (0.7–1.2 mg/L. Concentration of fluoride in the majority (29/30 of bottled water samples was below the quantitative detection limit of 0.4 mg/L. Children were significantly less likely to have dental caries if they received fluoride varnishing treatments (p = 0.01, Fisher’s exact test, lived in households that reported using fluoridated mouthwash (p < 0.001, Fisher’s exact test, their parents received fluoride education (p = 0.01, Fisher’s exact test, and their parents reported visiting a dentist yearly (p < 0.001, Fisher’s exact test. Furthermore, none of the participants reported receiving recommendations from health-care providers about fluoride supplementation or variance in content by the type of water consumed.ConclusionAlthough fluoride was significantly more

  4. Kinetics and equilibrium studies for removal of fluoride from underground water using cryptocrystalline magnesite

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masindi, Vhahangwele

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available of competing ions. Optimum defluoridation conditions were observed to be 20 g/L magnesite, 2:100 solid:liquid ratio, 20 min of agitation and 60 mg/L fluoride concentration. Adsorption of fluoride by magnesite was observed to be independent of p...

  5. Fluorides for the prevention of early tooth decay (demineralised white lesions) during fixed brace treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Philip E; Parkin, Nicola; Dyer, Fiona; Millett, Declan T; Furness, Susan; Germain, Peter

    2013-12-12

    to the protocol regarding inclusion criteria. Fourteen studies included in the previous version of the review were excluded from this update for the following reasons: five previously included studies were quasi-randomised, a further five were split-mouth studies, three measured outcomes on extracted teeth only and in one, the same fluoride intervention was used in each intervention group of the study.Three studies and 458 participants were included in this updated review. One study was assessed at low risk of bias for all domains, in one study the risk of bias was unclear and in the remaining study, the risk of bias was high.One placebo-controlled study of fluoride varnish applied every six weeks (253 participants, low risk of bias), provided moderate-quality evidence of an almost 70% reduction in DWLs (risk ratio (RR) 0.31, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.21 to 0.44, P value < 0.001). This finding is considered to provide moderate-quality evidence for this intervention because it has not yet been replicated by further studies in orthodontic participants.One study compared two different formulations of fluoride toothpaste and mouthrinse prescribed for participants undergoing orthodontic treatment (97 participants, unclear risk of bias) and found no difference between an amine fluoride and stannous fluoride toothpaste/mouthrinse combination and a sodium fluoride toothpaste/mouthrinse combination for the outcomes of white spot index, visible plaque index and gingival bleeding index.One small study (37 participants) compared the use of an intraoral fluoride-releasing glass bead device attached to the brace versus a daily fluoride mouthrinse. The study was assessed at high risk of bias because a substantial number of participants were lost to follow-up, and compliance with use of the mouthrinse was not measured.Neither secondary outcomes of this review nor adverse effects of interventions were reported in any of the included studies. This review found some moderate

  6. Contamination of fluoride in groundwater and its effect on human health: a case study in hard rock aquifers of Siddipet, Telangana State, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narsimha, A.; Sudarshan, V.

    2017-09-01

    Hydrogeochemical investigation has been carried out in the granitic terrain of Siddipet area, Medak district, Telangana State, India with an aim to understand the distribution of fluoride in the groundwater and to understand the relationship of fluoride with other major ions, and also to identify the high fluoride-bearing groundwater zones. 104 groundwater samples were analyzed in the study area for fluoride and other major ions like calcium, magnesium, chloride, carbonate, bicarbonate, sodium, potassium, sulfate, and nitrate in addition to pH and electrical conductivity. The studies revealed that the concentration of fluoride in groundwater is ranging from 0.2 to 2.2 mg L-1 with a mean of 1.1 mg L-1. Nearly 22 % of groundwater has more than the permissible limit of fluoride (1.5 mg L-1), which is responsible for the endemic dental fluorosis in the area concerned. Geochemical classification of groundwater shows that Na-HCO3, Ca-Cl, and Ca-HCO3-Na are the dominant hydrochemical facies. Gibbs diagram shows rock-water interaction dominance and evaporation dominance, which are responsible for the change in the quality of water in the hard rock aquifer of the study area. The groundwater in villages and its environs are affected by fluoride contamination, and consequently majority of the population living in these villages suffer from dental fluorosis. Hence, they are advised to consume drinking water which has less than 1.5 mg L-1 fluoride to avoid further fluorosis risks.

  7. Contamination of fluoride in groundwater and its effect on human health: a case study in hard rock aquifers of Siddipet, Telangana State, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narsimha, A.; Sudarshan, V.

    2016-06-01

    Hydrogeochemical investigation has been carried out in the granitic terrain of Siddipet area, Medak district, Telangana State, India with an aim to understand the distribution of fluoride in the groundwater and to understand the relationship of fluoride with other major ions, and also to identify the high fluoride-bearing groundwater zones. 104 groundwater samples were analyzed in the study area for fluoride and other major ions like calcium, magnesium, chloride, carbonate, bicarbonate, sodium, potassium, sulfate, and nitrate in addition to pH and electrical conductivity. The studies revealed that the concentration of fluoride in groundwater is ranging from 0.2 to 2.2 mg L-1 with a mean of 1.1 mg L-1. Nearly 22 % of groundwater has more than the permissible limit of fluoride (1.5 mg L-1), which is responsible for the endemic dental fluorosis in the area concerned. Geochemical classification of groundwater shows that Na-HCO3, Ca-Cl, and Ca-HCO3-Na are the dominant hydrochemical facies. Gibbs diagram shows rock-water interaction dominance and evaporation dominance, which are responsible for the change in the quality of water in the hard rock aquifer of the study area. The groundwater in villages and its environs are affected by fluoride contamination, and consequently majority of the population living in these villages suffer from dental fluorosis. Hence, they are advised to consume drinking water which has less than 1.5 mg L-1 fluoride to avoid further fluorosis risks.

  8. 高固体份新型树脂改性硝基清漆的研制%Study on modification of nitrocellulose varnish by high solid new type resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙立德; 李施扬; 韩文超

    2012-01-01

    本文主要研究了利用硝化纤维素本身存在-OH和-NO2基,通过交联反应,用新型树脂进行改性,使改性的硝基清漆的固体份由原来的30%提高到40%,克服了原硝基清漆的弱点.%The new type resin was modified by cross linking reaction using -OH and NO2 group in nitro-cotton. The solid fraction of modified nitrocellulose varnish was raised from 30% to 40%. The defaults of original nitrocellulose varnish were overcome.

  9. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF GREEN TEA POLYPHENOL AND FLUORIDE ON STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鸣宇; 刘正

    2000-01-01

    Objective To disclose the mechanism of green tea polyphenol in the prevention of dental caries.Methods Using sodium fluoride (highly effective anticaries agent) as control and Streptococcus mutans (carigenous microbe) as target, green tea polyphenol (potential bacterial inhibitor) was used to testify its action on the change of microbial morphology, extramicrobial sucrase, glucosyltransferase (GTF), lactate hydrogenase (LDH),protein and pH values of the culture media. Results GTF activities were inhibited both by green tea polyphenol and sodium fluoride, the inhibitory efficacy was stronger in green tea polyphenol. Morphologic changes consisted of membrane disruption in tea polyphenol treated microbes, and cytoplasmic vacuolization in fluoride treated bacteria.High protein level in fluoride treated culture media means cytoplasmic decomposition, intracellular protein leakage into media. Conclusion The inhibition of GTF activity was stronger in green tea polyphenol treated microbes.The target of action was cell membrane disruption in green tea polyphenol treated cell and cytoplasmic in fluoride treated microbes.

  10. Gramicidin D enhances the antibacterial activity of fluoride

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, James W.; ZHOU, ZHIYUAN; Breaker, Ronald R.

    2014-01-01

    Fluoride is a toxic anion found in many natural environments. One of the major bacterial defenses against fluoride is the cell envelope, which limits passage of the membrane-impermeant fluoride anion. Accordingly, compounds that enhance the permeability of bacterial membranes to fluoride should also enhance fluoride toxicity. In this study, we demonstrate that the pore-forming antibiotic gramicidin D increases fluoride uptake in B. subtilis and that the antibacterial activity of this compound...

  11. Other Fluoride Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Other Fluoride Products Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... August 17, 2001;50(RR-14):1–42. Fluoride Products Fluoride Toothpaste Form Concentrations of fluoride in ...

  12. Bottled Water and Fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bottled water and fluoride. Does bottled water contain fluoride? Bottled water products may contain fluoride, depending on ... How can I find out the level of fluoride in bottled water? The FDA does not require ...

  13. Other Fluoride Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Water Fluoridation Journal Articles for Community Water Fluoridation Other Fluoride Products Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... Use the information listed below to compare the other fluoride products that may lower the risk for ...

  14. Age and geomorphic history of Meteor Crater, Arizona, from cosmogenic 36Cl and 14C in rock varnish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, F.M.; Zreda, M.G.; Smith, S.S.; Elmore, D.; Kubik, P.W.; Dorn, R.I.; Roddy, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    Using cosmogenic 36Cl buildup and rock varnish radiocarbon, we have measured the exposure age of rock surfaces at Meteor Crater, Arizona. Our 36Cl measurements on four dolomite boulders ejected from the crater by the impact yield a mean age of 49.7 ?? 0.85 ka, which is in excellent agreement with an average age of 49 ?? 3 ka obtained from thermoluminescence studies on shock-metamorphosed dolomite and quartz. These ages are supported by undetectably low 14C in the oldest rock varnish sample. ?? 1991.

  15. Exposure to fluoride in drinking water and hip fracture risk: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xin-Hai; Huang, Guang-Lei; Lin, Du-Ren; Wan, Cheng-Cheng; Wang, Ya-Dong; Song, Ju-Kun; Xu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Many observational studies have shown that exposure to fluoride in drinking water is associated with hip fracture risk. However, the findings are varied or even contradictory. In this work, we performed a meta-analysis to assess the relationship between fluoride exposure and hip fracture risk. PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched to identify relevant observational studies from the time of inception until March 2014 without restrictions. Data from the included studies were extracted and analyzed by two authors. Summary relative risks (RRs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled using random- or fixed-effects models as appropriate. Sensitivity analyses and meta-regression were conducted to explore possible explanations for heterogeneity. Finally, publication bias was assessed. Fourteen observational studies involving thirteen cohort studies and one case-control study were included in the meta-analysis. Exposure to fluoride in drinking water does not significantly increase the incidence of hip fracture (RRs, 1.05; 95% CIs, 0.96-1.15). Sensitivity analyses based on adjustment for covariates, effect measure, country, sex, sample size, quality of Newcastle-Ottawa Scale scores, and follow-up period validated the strength of the results. Meta-regression showed that country, gender, quality of Newcastle-Ottawa Scale scores, adjustment for covariates and sample size were not sources of heterogeneity. Little evidence of publication bias was observed. The present meta-analysis suggests that chronic fluoride exposure from drinking water does not significantly increase the risk of hip fracture. Given the potential confounding factors and exposure misclassification, further large-scale, high-quality studies are needed to evaluate the association between exposure to fluoride in drinking water and hip fracture risk.

  16. Exposure to fluoride in drinking water and hip fracture risk: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Hai Yin

    Full Text Available Many observational studies have shown that exposure to fluoride in drinking water is associated with hip fracture risk. However, the findings are varied or even contradictory. In this work, we performed a meta-analysis to assess the relationship between fluoride exposure and hip fracture risk.PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched to identify relevant observational studies from the time of inception until March 2014 without restrictions. Data from the included studies were extracted and analyzed by two authors. Summary relative risks (RRs with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs were pooled using random- or fixed-effects models as appropriate. Sensitivity analyses and meta-regression were conducted to explore possible explanations for heterogeneity. Finally, publication bias was assessed.Fourteen observational studies involving thirteen cohort studies and one case-control study were included in the meta-analysis. Exposure to fluoride in drinking water does not significantly increase the incidence of hip fracture (RRs, 1.05; 95% CIs, 0.96-1.15. Sensitivity analyses based on adjustment for covariates, effect measure, country, sex, sample size, quality of Newcastle-Ottawa Scale scores, and follow-up period validated the strength of the results. Meta-regression showed that country, gender, quality of Newcastle-Ottawa Scale scores, adjustment for covariates and sample size were not sources of heterogeneity. Little evidence of publication bias was observed.The present meta-analysis suggests that chronic fluoride exposure from drinking water does not significantly increase the risk of hip fracture. Given the potential confounding factors and exposure misclassification, further large-scale, high-quality studies are needed to evaluate the association between exposure to fluoride in drinking water and hip fracture risk.

  17. Comparative studies on plasma mineral status of cattle in fluoride toxic brackish water zone of Punjab, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Chhabra

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Chronic fluoride intoxication or fluorosis is a worldwide health problem in humans and animals. The present research work was aimed to assess the status of copper, zinc, cobalt, manganese, magnesium, calcium and phosphorus in blood of fluorotic cattle in brackish water zone of Punjab. Methods: The present study was conducted in villages of district Muktsar, a brackish water zone, of Punjab state. Cattle (n=103 showing signs of dental lesions or lameness, from the villages with water fluoride concentration more than 1 ppm, were selected for the study whereas cattle (n=98 from villages with water fluoride concentration less than 1 ppm and with no clinical signs served as control. Blood samples were collected from both the groups and were analysed for minerals.Results: Significantly (P<0.05 higher plasma F concentrations were observed in animals of fluorotic region in comparison to healthy control animals. Concentrations of plasma Ca, Mg, Cu and Zn were significantly lower in cattle of hydrofluorotic region. Plasma phosphorus, iron and iodine concentrations were higher in animals of hydrofluorotic region whereas Mo and Mn did not differ between the two groups. Conclusions: Present study indicated decrease in certain essential minerals in animals of fluorotic region and such changes may contribute to the toxic effects associated with exposure to excess fluoride and salinity

  18. Penetration Potential of a Silver Diamine Fluoride Solution on Dentin Surfaces. An Ex Vivo Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willershausen, Ines; Schulte, Daniel; Azaripour, Adriano; Weyer, Veronica; Briseño, Benjamin; Willershausen, Brita

    2015-01-01

    Occurrence of open dentinal tubules as a cause of dental hypersensitivity is a very common pnenomenon in patients. The aim of this in vitro study was to assess the effect of a silver diamine fluoride solution (Ag(NH3)2 F) on human dentin samples. A total of five fully retained wisdom teeth were selected for this study. The crowns of the teeth were separated from the roots and the occlusal enamel surface was removed. All dentin samples were treated for 60 seconds with phosphoric acid (36%) and rinsed thoroughly to remove the smear layer. Then the desensitizing agent (Riva Star, SDI; 38% Ag(NH3)2 F) was placed according to the manufacturer's instruction. Three dentin samples were prepared for element analysis using an electron beam microprobe analyzer (JEOL JXA 8900RL). The Ag concentrations in the dentin samples were measured in depths ranging from 5 to 40 μm. The other two dentin samples were vertically fractured and accordingly prepared for visualization with SEM (Zeiss DSM). The application of the desensitizing agent on the dentin areas demonstrated an increased Ag concentration (JEOL JXA 8900RL). On the dentin surface an Ag concentration of 1.7 weight % (? 0.7) was measured, but at a depth of 20 μm only 0.3 weight % (± 0.1) were detected. In depths greater than 40 μm the Ag concentration was below the detection limit. The SEM results showed that deposits could be found in a covering on the dentin layer and in the dentinal tubules to a depth of 20 μm. In this ex vivo study, the effect of silver diamine fluoride on dentin surfaces could be demonstrated. The desensitizing agent formed a film on the dentin surface and in some dentinal tubules deposits were detected. These findings can explain a certain desensitizing effect, but a direct translation to in vivo conditions can only be done with caution.

  19. Properties of calcium fluoride up to 95 kbar: A theoretical study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chun-Sheng Wang

    2010-08-01

    We have studied the high-pressure and high-temperature behaviour of calcium fluoride (CaF2) using molecular dynamics simulations with the Born–Mayer–Huggins potentials. The thermal (pressure-volume) equation of state, radial distribution functions (RDFs) just nearby the melting temperature, isothermal bulk modulus, and volume thermal expansion coefficients were calculated from the isobaric and isothermal ensemble. Structural and thermodynamical properties at ambient temperature were well reproduced for the cubic fluorite-type phase of CaF2. At an extended pressure and temperature ranges, the thermal expansivity and bulk modulus of CaF2 have also been predicted. The RDFs indicated that the melting temperature is bracketed between 1600 and 1700 K, and the thermodynamic properties of CaF2 with fluorite-type cubic structure are investigated in the pressure range 0–95 kbar and temperature up to 1600 K.

  20. Fluoride Anion Recognition by a Multifunctional Urea Derivative: An Experimental and Theoretical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Schiller

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work we demonstrate the ability of a multifaceted N,N′-disubstituted urea to selectively recognize fluoride anion (F− among other halides. This additional function is now added to its already reported organocatalytic and organogelator properties. The signaling mechanism relies on the formation of a charge-transfer (CT complex between the urea-based sensor and F¯ in the ground state with a high association constant as demonstrated by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The nature of the hydrogen bonding interaction between the sensor and F¯ was established by 1H-NMR studies and theoretical calculations. Moreover, the recovery of the sensor was achieved by addition of methanol.

  1. The color changes on varnish layers after accelerated aging through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-14

    Jun 14, 2010 ... Key words: Varnish, hot and cold-check test, color change, wood material. INTRODUCTION ... changes in dimension, have natural defects, are prone to be damaged by ..... Scandinavian Paint and Printing Ink,. Res. Inst. Rep.

  2. Microleakage of two fluoride-releasing sealants when applied following saliva contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rirattanapong, Praphasri; Vongsavan, Kadkao; Surarit, Rudee

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate microleakage of two fluoride-releasing sealants in saliva contaminated and non-contaminated conditions. Twenty-four human third molars were randomly assigned to two groups: saliva contaminated and saliva non-contaminated teeth. In the contaminated group, the teeth were contaminated with 0.02 ml artificial saliva for 20 seconds and blowed dry afterward. Each group was divided into two subgroups: Group A, a fluoride-releasing resin sealant marketed as Clinpro and Group B, a glass-ionomer sealant marketed as Fuji VII. After sealant application, all the teeth were thermocycled for 2,000 cycles and coated with nail varnish 1.0 mm from the sealed areas. The teeth were stained with 2% methylene blue dye for 24 hours and sectioned in the bucco-lingual direction. Dye penetration (microleakage) was examined with a 25x polarized light microscope and measured by a computerized-calculated method. Data were compared with the Mann-Whitney U test at significance level of ptypes of sealant revealed microleakage of the glass-ionomer sealant was present but there was no significant difference between the saliva contaminated and saliva non-contaminated teeth. Microleakage of the fluoride-releasing resin sealant was present and was greater among the saliva-contaminated teeth than the saliva non-contaminated teeth. The glass-ionomer sealant had significantly greater microleakage than the fluoride-relasing resin-based sealant in both the saliva-contaminated and saliva non-contaminated teeth.

  3. Effects of fluoride release from orthodontic bonding materials on nanomechanical properties of the enamel around orthodontic brackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hamid Raji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effects of a fluoride-releasing composite resin bonding material on reducing enamel demineralization underneath and around orthodontic brackets and compare that with a conventional adhesive system. Materials and Methods: Buccal surfaces of 10 intact extracted premolar teeth were divided into two parts with nail varnish and stainless steel brackets were randomly bonded by two resin composite systems: (Transbond XT and (Transbond XT plus Color Change (3M, Unitek, Monrovia, CA, USA on two sides of the teeth and then samples were placed in a demineralization solution. It is claimed that the second system has the ability of fluoride release. Elastic modulus and hardness of enamel were measured with nanoindentation test in 6 depths in 1-36 μm from the enamel surface and in 7 regions: Control (intact enamel surface, underneath the brackets and also 50 and 100 μm from the brackets edge. These nanomechanical features were evaluated in different regions and depths using analysis of variance and paired t-test (P < 0.05. Results: Considerable difference can be seen in different depths and regions in terms of hardness and elastic modulus. The region under the bracket with fluoridated adhesive shows similar results with intact enamel, whereas these parameters in fluoride less side show a significant reduction (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Results show that use of resin composite bonding system with the ability of fluoride release for bracket bonding, may reduce demineralization of enamel around brackets during orthodontic treatment.

  4. Fluoride bioavailability in saliva and plaque

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Different fluoride formulations may have different effects on caries prevention. It was the aim of this clinical study to assess the fluoride content, provided by NaF compared to amine fluoride, in saliva and plaque. Methods Eight trained volunteers brushed their teeth in the morning for 3 minutes with either NaF or amine fluoride, and saliva and 3-day-plaque-regrowth was collected at 5 time intervals during 6 hours after tooth brushing. The amount of collected saliva and plaque was measured, and the fluoride content was analysed using a fluoride sensitive electrode. All subjects repeated all study cycles 5 times, and 3 cycles per subject underwent statistical analysis using the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test. Results Immediately after brushing the fluoride concentration in saliva increased rapidly and dropped to the baseline level after 360 minutes. No difference was found between NaF and amine fluoride. All plaque fluoride levels were elevated after 30 minutes until 120 minutes after tooth brushing, and decreasing after 360 minutes to baseline. According to the highly individual profile of fluoride in saliva and plaque, both levels of bioavailability correlated for the first 30 minutes, and the fluoride content of saliva and plaque was back to baseline after 6 hours. Conclusions Fluoride levels in saliva and plaque are interindividually highly variable. However, no significant difference in bioavailability between NaF and amine fluoride, in saliva, or in plaque was found. PMID:22230722

  5. Fluoride adsorption studies on mixed-phase nano iron oxides prepared by surfactant mediation-precipitation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohapatra, M., E-mail: mamatamohapatra@yahoo.com [Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, Acharyavihar, Bhubaneswar 751 013, Orissa (India); Rout, K. [Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, Acharyavihar, Bhubaneswar 751 013, Orissa (India); Singh, P. [Murdoch University, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Anand, S. [Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, Acharyavihar, Bhubaneswar 751 013, Orissa (India); Layek, S.; Verma, H.C. [Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur (India); Mishra, B.K. [Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, Acharyavihar, Bhubaneswar 751 013, Orissa (India)

    2011-02-28

    Mixed nano iron oxides powder containing goethite ({alpha}-FeOOH), hematite ({alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and ferrihydrite (Fe{sub 5}HO{sub 8}.4H{sub 2}O) was synthesized through surfactant mediation-precipitation route using cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). The X-ray diffraction, FTIR, TEM, Moessbauer spectroscopy were employed to characterize the sample. These studies confirmed the nano powder contained 77% goethite, 9% hematite and 14% ferrihydrite. Fluoride adsorption onto the synthesized sample was investigated using batch adsorption method. The experimental parameters chosen for adsorption studies were: pH (3.0-10.0), temperature (35-55 deg. C), concentrations of adsorbent (0.5-3.0 g/L), adsorbate (10-100 mg/L) and some anions. Adsorption of fluoride onto mixed iron oxide was initially very fast followed by a slow adsorption phase. By varying the initial pH in the range of 3.0-10.0, maximum adsorption was observed at a pH of 5.75. Presence of either SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} or Cl{sup -} adversely affected the adsorption of fluoride in the order of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} > Cl{sup -}. The FTIR studies of fluoride loaded adsorbent showed that partly the adsorption on the surface took place at surface hydroxyl sites. Moessbauer studies indicated that the overall absorption had gone down after fluoride adsorption that implies it has reduced the crystalline bond strength. The relative absorption area of ferrihydrite was marginally increased from 14 to 17%.

  6. Fluoride adsorption studies on mixed-phase nano iron oxides prepared by surfactant mediation-precipitation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, M; Rout, K; Singh, P; Anand, S; Layek, S; Verma, H C; Mishra, B K

    2011-02-28

    Mixed nano iron oxides powder containing goethite (α-FeOOH), hematite (α-Fe(2)O(3)) and ferrihydrite (Fe(5)HO(8)·4H(2)O) was synthesized through surfactant mediation-precipitation route using cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). The X-ray diffraction, FTIR, TEM, Mössbauer spectroscopy were employed to characterize the sample. These studies confirmed the nano powder contained 77% goethite, 9% hematite and 14% ferrihydrite. Fluoride adsorption onto the synthesized sample was investigated using batch adsorption method. The experimental parameters chosen for adsorption studies were: pH (3.0-10.0), temperature (35-55°C), concentrations of adsorbent (0.5-3.0 g/L), adsorbate (10-100 mg/L) and some anions. Adsorption of fluoride onto mixed iron oxide was initially very fast followed by a slow adsorption phase. By varying the initial pH in the range of 3.0-10.0, maximum adsorption was observed at a pH of 5.75. Presence of either SO(4)(2-) or Cl(-) adversely affected the adsorption of fluoride in the order of SO(4)(2-)>Cl(-). The FTIR studies of fluoride loaded adsorbent showed that partly the adsorption on the surface took place at surface hydroxyl sites. Mössbauer studies indicated that the overall absorption had gone down after fluoride adsorption that implies it has reduced the crystalline bond strength. The relative absorption area of ferrihydrite was marginally increased from 14 to 17%. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of fluoride mouth rinses on various orthodontic archwire alloys tested by modified bending test: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamna Srivastava

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Fluorides can cause corrosion and degradation in mechanical properties of commonly used archwires by forming hydrofluoric acid HF and causing disruption of protective titanium oxide layer. Hence, the aim of this study was to assess the change in load deflection characteristics of Ni-Ti, Cu Ni-Ti, S.S, and β-Ti wires on immersing in fluoride mouth rinses of two types- Phosflur and neutral NaF mouth rinse utilizing a modified bending test and comparing it to control. Materials and Methods: Round preformed wires were immersed in 10 ml of control and test solution (Phosflur and S-Flo mouth rinse for 1.5 hours and incubated at 37°C. Modified bending test was carried out to evaluate load-deflection characteristics of different wires using Instron. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was applied to determine if statistically significant difference exist among the mean load values obtained at various deflections in control and test solutions. Results: There was no statistically significant reduction in load deflection characteristics of Ni-Ti, copper Ni-Ti, β-Ti, and S.S wires on immersing in Phosflur mouth rinse and neutral sodium fluoride mouth rinses as compared to control at 2.5 and 1 mm of deflection in unloading phase. Conclusion: Phosflur and a neutral sodium fluoride mouth rinse did not affect the mechanical bending properties of Ni-Ti, copper Ni-Ti, B-Ti, and SS wires in in vitro conditions.

  8. Effects of new formulas of bleaching gel and fluoride application on enamel microhardness: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Juliana B; Mazur, Rui Fernando

    2007-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the new formulas of bleaching products and the effect of subsequent applications of fluoride on the hardness of enamel during and after tooth bleaching. The crowns of 60 extracted intact human molars were sectioned longitudinally; the buccal part was embedded in acrylic resin, the occlusal part was ground flat, exposing enamel and dentin, and then polished. Baseline Knoop microhardness (KHN) of enamel was determined. The specimens were then randomly divided into six groups of 10 specimens, and each group was assigned to a specific 10% carbamide peroxide (CP) bleaching agent. A: Opalescence, B: Opalescence PF (3% potassium nitrate and 0.11% fluoride), C: Nite White Excel 3 (ACP), D: Opalescence + F (acidulated phosphate fluoride 1.23%), E: Opalescence PF + F, F: Nite White Excel 3 + F. The teeth were bleached for eight hours; after each procedure, the specimens were stored in artificial saliva at 37 degrees C. Immediately after day 21 of bleaching, the specimens in groups D, E and F received fluoride 1.23% for five minutes. KHN tests w ere performedbefore (baseline = control), during (14, 21) and two weeks (35 days) after the bleaching procedure and were statistically compared using ANOVA/Tukey's t-test (alpha formulas, the enamel was restored to a value similar to baseline.

  9. Comparative Assessment of Intelligence Quotient among Children Living in High and Low Fluoride Areas of Kutch, India- a Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Nagarajappa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Long-term ingestion of large amounts of fluoride can lead to potentially severe skeletal problems and neurological consequences. The study was conducted to assess and compare intelligence quotient of children living in high and low fluoride areas in Kutch, Gujarat, India.Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted among 100 school children aged 8 to 10 years, living in Kutch District, Gujarat, India during July 2012. Mundra (2.4 to 3.5 mg/L and Bhuj (0.5mg/L were the two villages randomly selected to represent the high and low water fluoride areas respectively. Seguin Form Board Test was used to assess the intelligence quotient (IQ level of children. Descriptive statistics and independent sample t-test was used for analysis.Results: Mean scores for average, shortest and total timing category were found to be significantly higher (P0.05.Conclusion: Chronic exposure to high levels of fluoride in water was observed to be associated with lower intelligence quotient.

  10. Effect of fluoride mouth rinses on various orthodontic archwire alloys tested by modified bending test: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Kamna; Chandra, Pavan Kumar; Kamat, Nandini

    2012-01-01

    Fluorides can cause corrosion and degradation in mechanical properties of commonly used archwires by forming hydrofluoric acid HF and causing disruption of protective titanium oxide layer. Hence, the aim of this study was to assess the change in load deflection characteristics of Ni-Ti, Cu Ni-Ti, S.S, and β-Ti wires on immersing in fluoride mouth rinses of two types- Phosflur and neutral NaF mouth rinse utilizing a modified bending test and comparing it to control. Round preformed wires were immersed in 10 ml of control and test solution (Phosflur and S-Flo mouth rinse) for 1.5 hours and incubated at 37°C. Modified bending test was carried out to evaluate load-deflection characteristics of different wires using Instron. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to determine if statistically significant difference exist among the mean load values obtained at various deflections in control and test solutions. There was no statistically significant reduction in load deflection characteristics of Ni-Ti, copper Ni-Ti, β-Ti, and S.S wires on immersing in Phosflur mouth rinse and neutral sodium fluoride mouth rinses as compared to control at 2.5 and 1 mm of deflection in unloading phase. Phosflur and a neutral sodium fluoride mouth rinse did not affect the mechanical bending properties of Ni-Ti, copper Ni-Ti, B-Ti, and SS wires in in vitro conditions.

  11. Control of Established Gingivitis and Dental Plaque Using a 1450 ppm Fluoride/Zinc-based Dentifrice: A Randomized Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Y; Li, X; Hu, D Y; Mateo, L R; Morrison, B M; Delgado, E; Zhang, Y P

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the clinical efficacy in controlling established gingivitis and dental plaque of a 1450 ppm fluoride as sodium monofluorophosphate (SMFP)/zinc-based dentifrice, as compared to a zinc-free dentifrice with 1450 ppm fluoride as SMFP after six months product use. A six-month clinical study, with eighty-six (86) subjects, was conducted in Chengdu, China, using a double-blind, randomized, parallel-group treatment design. After a baseline evaluation, study subjects were randomly assigned to one of the two study treatments: 1) 1450 ppm fluoride as SMFP/zinc-based dentifrice (Test) or 2) 1450 ppm fluoride as SMFP/zinc-free dentifrice (Negative Control). Subjects were provided with a soft bristle toothbrush and brushed their teeth twice daily (morning and evening) for one minute with their assigned dentifrice. After three months, and again after six months of product use, subjects returned to the testing facility for their followup gingivitis and plaque examinations. Statistical analyses were performed separately for the gingivitis assessments and dental plaque assessments using the appropriate statistical methods. All statistical tests of hypotheses were two-sided, and employed a level of significance of α = 0.05. After three and six months of product use, subjects assigned to the Test treatment exhibited statistically significant (p dentifrice provides clinically meaningful and statistically significant reductions in gingivitis (23.8%) and dental plaque (22.5%) as compared to a 1450 ppm fluoride as SMFP/zinc-free dentifrice over a six-month period of twice-daily product use.

  12. Encapsulation of ZnO particles by metal fluorides: Towards an application as transparent insulating coatings for windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenque, Isabelle; Mornet, Stéphane; Duguet, Etienne; Majimel, Jérôme; Brüll, Annelise; Teinz, Katharina; Kemnitz, Erhard; Gaudon, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Because ZnO is a promising candidate for getting efficient films or varnishes with thermal insulating abilities for windows applications, the effect of the encapsulation of ZnO particles in shells of low refractive index material on the improvement of the visible light transmission was investigated. ZnO-MgF2 core-shell particles were synthesized by deposition of fluoride sols on ZnO particles through a vacuum slip casting process like. The transmission behaviours were first indirectly studied by diffuse reflexion measurements on powder beds. Then, particle films were elaborated by a screen printing process which ensured direct transmission measurements. The encapsulation of ZnO particles with a coating shell of 1.3 wt.% of MgF2 improves the visible light transmission of 32%.

  13. Dynamics of Fluoride Bioavailability in the Biofilms of Different Oral Surfaces after Amine Fluoride and Sodium Fluoride Application

    OpenAIRE

    Ella A. Naumova; Christoph Dickten; Rico Jung; Florian Krauss; Henrik Rübesamen; Katharina Schmütsch; Tudor Sandulescu; Stefan Zimmer; Wolfgang H. Arnold

    2016-01-01

    It was the aim of this study to investigate differences in fluoride bioavailability in different oral areas after the application of amine fluoride (AmF) and sodium fluoride (NaF). The null hypothesis suggested no differences in the fluoride bioavailability. The tongue coating was removed and biofilm samples from the palate, oral floor and cheeks were collected. All subjects brushed their teeth with toothpaste containing AmF or NaF. Specimens were collected before, as well as immediately afte...

  14. Effect of fluoride-releasing restorative materials on bacteria-induced pH fall at the bacteria-material interface: an in vitro model study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayanagi, Gen; Igarashi, Koei; Washio, Jumpei; Domon-Tawaraya, Hitomi; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Inhibition of bacterial acid production by dental restorative materials is one of the strategies for secondary caries prevention. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of fluoride-releasing restorative materials on bacteria-induced pH fall at the bacteria-material interface. Four fluoride-releasing restorative materials, glass-ionomer cement (GIC), resin-modified glass-ionomer cement (RMGIC), resin composite (RC) and flowable resin composite (FRC) were used. Each specimen was immersed in potassium phosphate buffer at pH 7.0 for 10min and 4 weeks, and in potassium acetate buffer at pH 5.5 for 4 weeks. An experimental apparatus was made of polymethyl methacrylate and had a well with restorative materials or polymethyl methacrylate (control) at the bottom. The well was packed with cells of Streptococcus mutans, and the pH at the interface between cells and materials was monitored using a miniature pH electrode after the addition of 1% glucose for 90min, and the fluoride released into the well was quantified using a fluoride ion electrode. The pH of GIC (4.98-5.18), RMGIC (4.77-4.99), RC (4.62-4.75) and FRC (4.54-4.84) at 90min were higher than that of control (4.31-4.49). The fluoride amounts released from GIC were the highest, followed by RMGIC, RC and FRC, irrespective of immersion conditions. Saliva coating on materials had no significant effect. The fluoride-releasing restorative materials inhibited pH fall at the bacteria-material interface. The degree of inhibition of pH fall seemed to correspond to the amount of fluoride detected, suggesting that the inhibition was due to the fluoride released from these materials. A little amount of fluoride actually released from the fluoride-releasing materials may have caries preventive potential for oral bacteria. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Remineralization potential of fluoride and amorphous calcium phosphate-casein phospho peptide on enamel lesions: An in vitro comparative evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lata S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This in vitro study was conducted on enamel blocks of human premolars with the aim of evaluating the remineralization potential of fluoride and ACP-CPP and the combination of ACP-CPP and fluoride on early enamel lesions. Materials and Methods: Fifteen intact carious free human premolars were selected. The coronal part of each tooth was sectioned into four parts to make 4 enamel blocks. The baseline SMH (surface microhardness was measured for all the enamel specimens using Vickers microhardness (VHN testing machine. Artificial enamel carious lesions were created by inserting the specimens in demineralization solution for 3 consecutive days. The SMH of the demineralised specimens was evaluated. Then the four enamel sections of each tooth were subjected to various surface treatments , i.e. Group 1- Fluoride varnish, Group 2- ACP-CPP cream, Group 3- Fluoride + ACP-CPP & Group 4- Control (No surface treatment. A caries progression test (pH cycling was carried out, which consisted of alternative demineralization (3hours and remineralization with artificial saliva (21 hours for five consecutive days. After pH cycling again SMH of each specimen was assessed to evaluate the remineralization potential of each surface treatment agent. Then, to asses the remineralization potential of various surface treatments at the subsurface level, each enamel specimen was longitudinally sectioned through the centre to expose the subsurface enamel area. Cross-sectional microhardness (CSMH was evaluated to assess any subsurface remineralization Results: Statistical analysis using one-way ANOVA followed by multiple comparisons test was applied to detect significant differences at P ≤ 0.05 levels between various surface treatments at different phases. Conclusions: With in the limits, the present study concludes that; ACP-CPP cream is effective, but to a lesser extent than fluoride in remineralizing early enamel caries at surface level. Combination of fluoride and ACP

  16. Fluoride ion release and solubility of fluoride enriched interim cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewinstein, Israel; Block, Jonathan; Melamed, Guy; Dolev, Eran; Matalon, Shlomo; Ormianer, Zeev

    2014-08-01

    Interim and definitive restorations cemented with interim cements for a prolonged interval are susceptible to bacterial infiltration and caries formation. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the long-term fluoride release and solubility of aged ZnO-based interim cements enriched separately with 0.4% NaF and SnF2. Four different brands of cements (Tempbond, Tempbond NE, Procem, and Freegenol) were tested for fluoride release and solubility. For every test, 6 disk specimens of each cement with NaF and SnF2, and 6 with no fluoride enrichment (control) were fabricated, for a total of 72 specimens. The disks were incubated in deionized water. Fluoride ion release was recorded at 1, 7, 14, 21, 63, 91, and 182 days. Solubility was calculated as weight percent after 90 days of incubation. The data were analyzed by analysis of variance with repeated measures and the Tukey honestly significant difference post hoc test (Pfluorides released fluoride ions for at least 182 days. Cements mixed with NaF released more fluoride ions than those mixed with SnF2 (P.97), indicating a diffusion-controlled fluoride release. Cement and fluoride types were the main affecting factors in fluoride ion release. The addition of fluorides slightly increased the solubility of the cements. Given their long-term sustained and diffusive controlled release, these fluorides, particularly NaF when mixed with ZnO-based interim cements, may be useful for caries prevention under provisionally cemented restorations. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Dose-response effect of fluoride dentifrice on remineralisation and further demineralisation of erosive lesions: A randomised in situ clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creeth, J E; Kelly, S A; Martinez-Mier, E A; Hara, A T; Bosma, M L; Butler, A; Lynch, R J M; Zero, D T

    2015-07-01

    The objective was to evaluate the ability of fluoride in a conventional, non-specialised sodium fluoride-silica dentifrice to promote tooth remineralisation and enamel fluoride uptake (EFU), and assess the resistance of the newly formed mineral to attack by dietary acid, across the concentration range used in mass-market dentifrices. Subjects wore a palatal appliance containing eight polished bovine enamel specimens, each including an early erosive lesion. In a randomised full-crossover sequence, 62 healthy subjects were treated with dentifrices containing four different fluoride concentrations: no fluoride; 250ppm, 1150ppm and 1426ppm fluoride. At each treatment visit, under supervision, subjects brushed with 1.5g dentifrice and rinsed once while wearing the appliance; the appliance was removed after a 4-h remineralisation period and effects on the enamel specimens determined. The primary efficacy variable was surface microhardness recovery (SMHR); others included EFU, relative erosion resistance (RER) and comparative erosion resistance. Highly significant linear and, with the exception of SMHR, quadratic dose-response relationships were observed between all efficacy variables and fluoride concentration. For SMHR, EFU and RER, values for the different fluoride concentrations were statistically resolved from one another, with the exception of the two highest fluoride concentrations. The degree of remineralisation and the acid resistance of enamel after treatment were closely related to EFU. After a single brushing, conventional non-specialised sodium fluoride-silica dentifrices promoted remineralisation of early enamel lesions, and imparted increased acid-resistance to the enamel surface, in a dose-dependent manner at least up to 1500ppm fluoride. Enamel erosive tissue loss is an increasing concern, associated with modern diets. This study demonstrated that sodium fluoride, in a conventional non-specialised dentifrice formulation, can promote repair of the earliest

  18. Influence of nail varnish on the remineralization of enamel single sections assessed by microradiography and confocal laser scanning microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iijima, Y; Takagi, O; Duschner, H; Ruben, J; Arends, J

    1998-01-01

    Single-section techniques are attractive in enamel de- and remineralization investigations because they allow longitudinal studies in which mineral changes can be assessed by microradiography (TMR), Nail Varnish (NV) is in general applied to coat the cut thin-section sides, The aims of this study

  19. Preliminary Study on Chemical Components and Uranium Content of Calcium Fluoride Waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG; Xiao-hu; YANG; Lei; YANG; Jin-ling; SONG; Zhi-jun

    2013-01-01

    In the uranium conversion process,UF4 reduction is needed using calcium as reduction regent,so a great deal of calcium fluoride are generated,in which a no negligible amount of uranium(about 5%alleged)can be left in the calcium fluoride wastes by the entrainment effect.It is meaningful to extract and purify the uranium from these wastes,but chemical components of these waste is needed primarily.

  20. Randomized pilot study to disseminate caries-control services in dentist offices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynolds Debra

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine whether education and financial incentives increased dentists' delivery of fluoride varnish and sealants to at risk children covered by capitation dental insurance in Washington state (U.S.. Methods In 1999, 53 dental offices in Washington Dental Service's capitation dental plan were invited to participate in the study, and consenting offices were randomized to intervention (n = 9 and control (n = 10 groups. Offices recruited 689 capitation children aged 6–14 and at risk for caries, who were followed for 2 years. Intervention offices received provider education and fee-for-service reimbursement for delivering fluoride varnish and sealants. Insurance records were used to calculate office service rates for fluoride, sealants, and restorations. Parents completed mail surveys after follow-up to measure their children's dental utilization, dental satisfaction, dental fear and oral health status. Regression models estimated differences in service rates between intervention and control offices, and compared survey measures between groups. Results Nineteen offices (34% consented to participate in the study. Fluoride and sealant rates were greater in the intervention offices than the control offices, but the differences were not statistically significant. Restoration rates were lower in the intervention offices than the control offices. Parents in the intervention group reported their children had less dental fear than control group parents. Conclusion Due to low dentist participation the study lacked power to detect an intervention effect on dentists' delivery of caries-control services. The intervention may have reduced children's dental fear.

  1. Comparison of salivary fluoride levels following use of dentifrices containing different concentrations of fluoride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagpal D

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Many industrialized countries have reported a decline in caries prevalence over the past few decades. These reductions have been related to the regular use of fluoride dentifrices. Fluoride dentifrices are the most cost-effective and efficient means of caries prevention. However, there have been concerns regarding the risk of fluorosis in children due to the ingestion of dentifrices. This has led to the use of dentifrices with low concentration of fluoride. Salivary fluoride levels after tooth-brushing have been shown to be related to the anticaries efficacy of fluoride dentifrices. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of the concentration of fluoride in the dentifrice, on the salivary fluoride level in children. Twenty children in the age group of five to six years were randomly selected and divided into two groups using, either 500ppm or 1000ppm fluoride dentifrice (sodium monofluorophosphate. Salivary fluoride levels at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, minutes after brushing were estimated. The data collected was statistically evaluated using the unpaired t-test. The results showed that salivary fluoride levels following use of 500ppm fluoride dentifrice were significantly lower than 1000ppm fluoride dentifrice. The low salivary fluoride levels may thereby reduce the anticaries efficacy. Hence, the pros and cons of recommending a low fluoride concentration dentifrice must be judiciously considered.

  2. A national cross-sectional study on effects of fluoride-safe water supply on the prevalence of fluorosis in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Gao, Yanhui; Wang, Wei; Zhao, Lijun; Zhang, Wei; Han, Hepeng; Shi, Yuxia; Yu, Guangqian; Sun, Dianjun

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of provided fluoride-safe drinking-water for the prevention and control of endemic fluorosis in China. Design A national cross-sectional study in China. Setting In 1985, randomly selected villages in 27 provinces (or cities and municipalities) in 5 geographic areas all over China. Participants Involved 81 786 children aged from 8 to 12 and 594 698 adults aged over 16. Main outcome measure The prevalence of dental fluorosis and clinical skeletal fluorosis, the fluoride concentrations in the drinking-water in study villages and in the urine of subjects. Results The study showed that in the villages where the drinking-water fluoride concentrations were higher than the government standard of 1.2 mg/l, but no fluoride-safe drinking-water supply scheme was provided (FNB areas), the prevalence rate and index of dental fluorosis in children, and prevalence rate of clinical skeletal fluorosis in adults were all significantly higher than those in the historical endemic fluorosis villages after the fluoride-safe drinking-water were provided (FSB areas). Additionally, the prevalence rate of dental fluorosis as well as clinical skeletal fluorosis, and the concentration of fluoride in urine were found increased with the increase of fluoride concentration in drinking-water, with significant positive correlations in the FNB areas. While, the prevalence rate of dental fluorosis and clinical skeletal fluorosis in different age groups and their degrees of prevalence were significantly lower in the FSB areas than those in the FNB areas. Conclusions The provision of fluoride-safe drinking-water supply schemes had significant effects on the prevention and control of dental fluorosis and skeletal fluorosis. The study also indicated that the dental and skeletal fluorosis is still prevailing in the high-fluoride drinking-water areas in China. PMID:23015601

  3. Fluoride Content in Alcoholic Drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goschorska, Marta; Gutowska, Izabela; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Rać, Monika Ewa; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the role of alcoholic drinks as a potential source of dietary fluoride by means of measuring fluoride levels in selected alcoholic drinks available on the Polish market that are also diverse in terms of the percentage content of ethanol. The study was conducted on 48 types of drinks with low, medium, and high alcohol content available on the Polish market and offered by various manufacturers, both Polish and foreign. Fluoride concentrations in individual samples were measured by potentiometric method with a fluoride ion-selective electrode. The highest fluoride levels were determined in the lowest percentage drinks (less than 10 % v/v ethanol), with the lowest fluoride levels observed in the highest percentage drinks (above 40 % v/v ethanol). In terms of types of alcoholic drinks, the highest fluoride levels were determined in beers and wines, while the lowest levels were observed in vodkas. These data confirm the fact that alcoholic beverages need to be considered as a significant source of fluoride delivered into the body.

  4. Fluoridation Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... level in water is not enough to prevent tooth decay; however, some groundwater and natural springs can have ... the tooth’s surface, or enamel. Water fluoridation prevents tooth decay by providing frequent and consistent contact with low ...

  5. [Effects of demineral-resistant of Lanthanum,Cerium and Fluoride on human root surface:A comparative study in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, H; Zhang, W G; Gao, H; Liu, A R

    1995-09-01

    An in vitro acid-resistant and remineralized study on human root surface with 500ppm lanthanum,Cerium and Fluoride accidulate buffer was carried out in a pH-cy-cling system.The results of quantitative chemical and energy spectrometry analyses showed that all these three elements had the demineral-resistant effects,although fluoride showed a better effect,Furthermore,the mechanisms of lanthanum,Cerium and Fluoride on demineral-resistant were discussed from the viewpoint of crystal physicochemistry.

  6. Fluoride retention in saliva and in dental biofilm after different home-use fluoride treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Correia Cavalcante SOUZA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This single-blind, randomized, crossover study aimed at assessing the long-term fluoride concentrations in saliva and in dental biofilm after different home-use fluoride treatments. The study volunteers (n = 38 were residents of an area with fluoridated drinking water. They were administered four treatments, each of which lasted for one week: twice-daily placebo dentifrice, twice-daily fluoride dentifrice, twice-daily fluoride dentifrice and once-daily fluoride mouthrinse, and thrice-daily fluoride dentifrice. At the end of each treatment period, samples of unstimulated saliva and dental biofilm were collected 8 h after the last oral hygiene procedure. Fluoride concentrations in saliva and dental biofilm were analyzed using a specific electrode. The fluoride concentrations in saliva and dental biofilm 8 h after the last use of fluoride products did not differ among treatments. The results of this study suggest that treatments with home-use fluoride products have no long-term effect on fluoride concentrations in saliva and in dental biofilm of residents of an area with a fluoridated water supply.

  7. Fluoride retention in saliva and in dental biofilm after different home-use fluoride treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Daniela Correia Cavalcante; Maltz, Marisa; Hashizume, Lina Naomi

    2014-01-01

    This single-blind, randomized, crossover study aimed at assessing the long-term fluoride concentrations in saliva and in dental biofilm after different home-use fluoride treatments. The study volunteers (n = 38) were residents of an area with fluoridated drinking water. They were administered four treatments, each of which lasted for one week: twice-daily placebo dentifrice, twice-daily fluoride dentifrice, twice-daily fluoride dentifrice and once-daily fluoride mouthrinse, and thrice-daily fluoride dentifrice. At the end of each treatment period, samples of unstimulated saliva and dental biofilm were collected 8 h after the last oral hygiene procedure. Fluoride concentrations in saliva and dental biofilm were analyzed using a specific electrode. The fluoride concentrations in saliva and dental biofilm 8 h after the last use of fluoride products did not differ among treatments. The results of this study suggest that treatments with home-use fluoride products have no long-term effect on fluoride concentrations in saliva and in dental biofilm of residents of an area with a fluoridated water supply.

  8. The durability of a fluoride-releasing resin adhesive system to dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Masatoshi; Okuda, Mamiko; Ogata, Miwako; Pereira, Patricia N R; Tagami, Junji; Pashley, David H

    2003-01-01

    The durability of a fluoride-free (SE Bond) and a fluoride-containing (KBF) self-etching primer/ adhesive system were compared by measuring the microtensile bond strengths (microTBS) of these adhesive systems to human dentin in vitro. After bonding, the restored teeth were serially sectioned into multiple slabs that were trimmed to a 1 mm2 cross-sectional area at the bonded interface. For the three and six month specimens, half were fully covered with nail varnish (SE+, KBF+), while the other half were incubated at 37 degrees C in water without any protective varnish (SE-, KBF-). The microTBS of the one-day specimens were 44.6 +/- 11.2 MPa for SE Bond and 39.8 +/- 8.0 MPa for KBF (p > 0.05). When unprotected specimens were incubated in water for three and six months, the microTBS fell to 26.3 +/- 8.8 MPa and 23.6 +/- 10.7 MPa for SE-, respectively, but did not change in the specimens protected with nail varnish (SE+, 41.9 +/- 12.8 MPa and 41.8 +/- 9.8 MPa, respectively). In contrast, in specimens bonded with a fluoride-containing resin, KBF, the bond strengths of the unprotected specimens did not change over three and six months KBF-. Values were 32.4 +/- 6.1 MPa and 36.8 +/- 2.3 MPa, respectively. Similarly, varnish-protected KBF+ specimens did not change over three and six months (39.3 +/- 13.6 MPa and 40.9 +/- 14.7 MPa, respectively). The results indicate that decreases in bond strength over six months' storage are water-dependent but can be prevented by using fluoride-containing resins.

  9. Conversion Reaction Mechanisms in Lithium Ion Batteries: Study of the Binary Metal Fluoride Electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Feng; Robert, Rosa; Chernova, Natasha A.; Pereira, Nathalie; Omenya, Fredrick; Badway, Fadwa; Hua, Xiao; Ruotolo, Michael; Zhang, Ruigang; Wu, Lijun; Volkov, Vyacheslav; Su, Dong; Key, Baris; Whittingham, M. Stanley; Grey, Clare P.; Amatucci, Glenn G.; Zhu, Yimei; Graetz, Jason (Binghamton); (Rutgers); (BNL); (Cambridge); (SBU)

    2015-10-15

    Materials that undergo a conversion reaction with lithium (e.g., metal fluorides MF{sub 2}: M = Fe, Cu, ...) often accommodate more than one Li atom per transition-metal cation, and are promising candidates for high-capacity cathodes for lithium ion batteries. However, little is known about the mechanisms involved in the conversion process, the origins of the large polarization during electrochemical cycling, and why some materials are reversible (e.g., FeF{sub 2}) while others are not (e.g., CuF{sub 2}). In this study, we investigated the conversion reaction of binary metal fluorides, FeF{sub 2} and CuF{sub 2}, using a series of local and bulk probes to better understand the mechanisms underlying their contrasting electrochemical behavior. X-ray pair-distribution-function and magnetization measurements were used to determine changes in short-range ordering, particle size and microstructure, while high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) were used to measure the atomic-level structure of individual particles and map the phase distribution in the initial and fully lithiated electrodes. Both FeF{sub 2} and CuF{sub 2} react with lithium via a direct conversion process with no intercalation step, but there are differences in the conversion process and final phase distribution. During the reaction of Li{sup +} with FeF{sub 2}, small metallic iron nanoparticles (<5 nm in diameter) nucleate in close proximity to the converted LiF phase, as a result of the low diffusivity of iron. The iron nanoparticles are interconnected and form a bicontinuous network, which provides a pathway for local electron transport through the insulating LiF phase. In addition, the massive interface formed between nanoscale solid phases provides a pathway for ionic transport during the conversion process. These results offer the first experimental evidence explaining the origins of the high lithium reversibility in FeF{sub 2}. In contrast

  10. Searching for Life in Death Valley (and Other Deserts) - Microchemical Investigations on Desert Varnish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreae, M. O.; Al-Amri, A. M.; Jochum, K. P.; Kappl, M.; Kilcoyne, A. D.; Macholdt, D.; Müller, M.; Pöhlker, C.; Weber, B.; Weigand, M.

    2014-12-01

    Desert varnishes are thin, shiny, blackish to brown coatings frequently found on the surfaces of exposed rocks in deserts around the globe. They have been proposed as terrestrial analogues of superficial hematite enrichments observed on Mars. While the first scientific studies of such varnishes go back to Darwin and von Humboldt, and intensive studies by a variety of techniques have been conducted over the last few decades, their origin is still a matter of debate. Microscopic and molecular studies have shown the presence of fungi and bacteria, but it is still unclear whether they are involved in the formation of the varnish material or just opportunistic colonizers on available surfaces. We have analysed samples of desert varnish from sites in Death Valley, the Mojave Desert, the Negev of Israel, Central Saudi Arabia, and the Succulent Karoo by a variety of microanalytical techniques. Measurements by UV-femtosecond Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry show enrichments of manganese, iron, barium and other elements. Isotopic and trace chemical signatures show that these enriched elements cannot originate from the rocks that form the substrate on which the crusts have been deposited, but most likely are the result of (bio?)chemical transformation of windblown material. For a more detailed investigation of the internal structure of the crusts, we prepared ultra-thin sections (~100 nm) using focused ion beam slicing and analysed them by Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy with Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy (STXM-NEXAFS). This technique revealed layered or chaotic structures consisting of alternating Mn and Fe-rich zones. Some of these layers are enriched in organic carbon with spectral features dominated by aromatic and carboxylate functionalities, indicating a biological origin of some of the crust material. Some crusts also show cavities that are lined with similar organic material. Since the age of these crusts is

  11. Thermal analysis for study of the gamma radiation effects in poly(vinylidene fluoride)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Adriana S.; Gual, Maritza R.; Pereira, Claubia; Faria, Luiz O.

    2015-11-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) has attracted interest in the technology and industrial sectors, due to its mechanical and electrical properties, its resistance to weathering and its thermostability. It is well known that polymer properties change after irradiation. Thermal degradation studies after irradiation of the polymers play an important role in establishing the threshold temperature for breakdown and information about the molecular and crystalline structure. A systematic study of the effects of gamma irradiation on PVDF using DSC, TG, DTA, FTIR and XRD techniques has been conducted. The samples were irradiated with a Co-60 source at constant dose rate (12.0 kGy/h), with doses ranging from 100 kGy to 3000 kGy. The DSC data reveals a decrease in the melting temperature and melting latent heat for increasing doses. There is a remarkable decrease in the melting latent heat ranging from 46 J/kg (pristine sample) to 26 J/kg (3000 kGy). The data analysis suggests that the decrease observed in the onset decomposition temperature is due to the radio-induction of C=C bonds in the crosslinking process and that the increase of the residual amount is due to the radio-induction of C=O bonds, via chain scission.

  12. Study on Doped Fluoride Glasses for Scintillation Applications%闪烁氟化玻璃的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies the properties of fluoride glasses for use in particle calorimeters or in optical fibers. The effects of major and minor impurities in manufacturing process and ultimately on the glass properties have been investigated. Glasses in a range of compositions have been made and tested in the form of small samples as well as larger blocks of size 2 × 3 × 14 cm3. Results of measurements on these materials, using a high energy particle beam, are presented.

  13. Determination of the stability constant of Np(V) fluoride complex using a fluoride ion selective electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawant, R.M.; Rizvi, G.H.; Chaudhuri, N.K.; Patil, S.K. (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Radiochemistry Div.)

    1985-04-01

    Fluoride complexing of Np(V) was studied using fluoride ion selective electrode (F-ISE). Free fluoride ion concentrations in the presence of Np(V) were measured at 0.1 and 0.01M ionic strength. The data were used to calculate the stability constant of the fluoride complex of Np(V) and the values obtained are reported.

  14. Study on the treatment of photovoltaic wastewater using electrocoagulation: Fluoride removal with aluminium electrodes-Characteristics of products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drouiche, N., E-mail: nadjibdrouiche@yahoo.fr [Silicon Technology Development Unit (UDTS), 2, Bd Frantz Fanon BP140, Alger-7-merveilles, 16200 (Algeria); Laboratory of Environmental Biotechnologies, Ecole Polytechnique d' Alger - 10, Avenue Pasteur El-Harrach (Algeria); Aoudj, S.; Hecini, M. [Silicon Technology Development Unit (UDTS), 2, Bd Frantz Fanon BP140, Alger-7-merveilles, 16200 (Algeria); Ghaffour, N. [Middle East Desalination Research Center, P.O. Box 21, P.C.133, Muscat (Oman); Lounici, H.; Mameri, N. [Laboratory of Environmental Biotechnologies, Ecole Polytechnique d' Alger - 10, Avenue Pasteur El-Harrach (Algeria)

    2009-09-30

    In this work, treatment of synthetic fluoride-containing solutions by electrocoagulation method using aluminium electrodes has been studied. Electrocoagulation was investigated for applied potential (10-30 V), electrolysis time and supporting electrolyte (NaCl) concentration (0-100 mg/L). The results showed that with increasing applied potential and electrolysis time, the Al{sup 3+} dosage increases, and thereby favouring the fluoride ions removal. It was also observed that defluoridation is dependant on the concentration of supporting electrolyte. Finally, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy of X-rays and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the solid products formed by aluminium electrodes during the EC process.

  15. Study on the treatment of photovoltaic wastewater using electrocoagulation: fluoride removal with aluminium electrodes--characteristics of products.