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Sample records for fluorescent protein identification

  1. Mass spectrometry based approach for identification and characterisation of fluorescent proteins from marine organisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wojdyla, Katarzyna Iwona; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Wrzesinski, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    We present here a new analytical strategy for identification and characterisation of fluorescent proteins from marine organisms. By applying basic proteomics tools it is possible to screen large sample collections for fluorescent proteins of desired characteristics prior to gene cloning. Our...

  2. Adaptive Evolution of Eel Fluorescent Proteins from Fatty Acid Binding Proteins Produces Bright Fluorescence in the Marine Environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F Gruber

    Full Text Available We report the identification and characterization of two new members of a family of bilirubin-inducible fluorescent proteins (FPs from marine chlopsid eels and demonstrate a key region of the sequence that serves as an evolutionary switch from non-fluorescent to fluorescent fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs. Using transcriptomic analysis of two species of brightly fluorescent Kaupichthys eels (Kaupichthys hyoproroides and Kaupichthys n. sp., two new FPs were identified, cloned and characterized (Chlopsid FP I and Chlopsid FP II. We then performed phylogenetic analysis on 210 FABPs, spanning 16 vertebrate orders, and including 163 vertebrate taxa. We show that the fluorescent FPs diverged as a protein family and are the sister group to brain FABPs. Our results indicate that the evolution of this family involved at least three gene duplication events. We show that fluorescent FABPs possess a unique, conserved tripeptide Gly-Pro-Pro sequence motif, which is not found in non-fluorescent fatty acid binding proteins. This motif arose from a duplication event of the FABP brain isoforms and was under strong purifying selection, leading to the classification of this new FP family. Residues adjacent to the motif are under strong positive selection, suggesting a further refinement of the eel protein's fluorescent properties. We present a phylogenetic reconstruction of this emerging FP family and describe additional fluorescent FABP members from groups of distantly related eels. The elucidation of this class of fish FPs with diverse properties provides new templates for the development of protein-based fluorescent tools. The evolutionary adaptation from fatty acid-binding proteins to fluorescent fatty acid-binding proteins raises intrigue as to the functional role of bright green fluorescence in this cryptic genus of reclusive eels that inhabit a blue, nearly monochromatic, marine environment.

  3. Protein recognition by a pattern-generating fluorescent molecular probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pode, Zohar; Peri-Naor, Ronny; Georgeson, Joseph M.; Ilani, Tal; Kiss, Vladimir; Unger, Tamar; Markus, Barak; Barr, Haim M.; Motiei, Leila; Margulies, David

    2017-12-01

    Fluorescent molecular probes have become valuable tools in protein research; however, the current methods for using these probes are less suitable for analysing specific populations of proteins in their native environment. In this study, we address this gap by developing a unimolecular fluorescent probe that combines the properties of small-molecule-based probes and cross-reactive sensor arrays (the so-called chemical 'noses/tongues'). On the one hand, the probe can detect different proteins by generating unique identification (ID) patterns, akin to cross-reactive arrays. On the other hand, its unimolecular scaffold and selective binding enable this ID-generating probe to identify combinations of specific protein families within complex mixtures and to discriminate among isoforms in living cells, where macroscopic arrays cannot access. The ability to recycle the molecular device and use it to track several binding interactions simultaneously further demonstrates how this approach could expand the fluorescent toolbox currently used to detect and image proteins.

  4. Fluorogen-activating proteins: beyond classical fluorescent proteins

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    Shengnan Xu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence imaging is a powerful technique for the real-time noninvasive monitoring of protein dynamics. Recently, fluorogen activating proteins (FAPs/fluorogen probes for protein imaging were developed. Unlike the traditional fluorescent proteins (FPs, FAPs do not fluoresce unless bound to their specific small-molecule fluorogens. When using FAPs/fluorogen probes, a washing step is not required for the removal of free probes from the cells, thus allowing rapid and specific detection of proteins in living cells with high signal-to-noise ratio. Furthermore, with different fluorogens, living cell multi-color proteins labeling system was developed. In this review, we describe about the discovery of FAPs, the design strategy of FAP fluorogens, the application of the FAP technology and the advances of FAP technology in protein labeling systems. KEY WORDS: Fluorogen activating proteins, Fluorogens, Genetically encoded sensors, Fluorescence imaging, Molecular imaging

  5. Fluorescent S-layer fusion proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kainz, B.

    2010-01-01

    This work describes the construction and characterisation of fluorescent S-layer fusion proteins used as building blocks for the fabrication of nanostructured monomolecular biocoatings on silica particles with defined fluorescence properties. The S-layer protein SgsE of Geobacillus stearothermophilus NRS 2004/3a was fused with the pH-dependant cyan, green and yellow variant of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) and the red fluorescent protein mRFP1. These fluorescent S-layer fusion proteins, acting as scaffold and optical sensing element simultaneously, were able to reassemble in solution and on silica particles forming 2D nanostructures with p2 lattice symmetry (a=11 ±0.5 nm, b=14 ±0.4 nm, g=80 ±1 o ). The pH-dependant fluorescence behaviour was studied with fluorimetry, confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. These fluorescent S-layer fusion proteins can be used as pH-sensor. 50% of the fluorescence intensity decreases at their calculated pKa values (pH6 - pH5). The fluorescence intensity of the GFP variants vanished completely between pH4 and pH3 whereas the chromophore of the red protein mRFP1 was only slightly affected in acidic conditions. At the isoelectric point of the S-layer coated silica particles (pH4.6 ±0.2) an increase in particle aggregation was detected by flow cytometry. The cyan and yellow fluorescent proteins were chosen to create a bi-fluorescent S-layer tandem fusion protein with the possibility for resonance energy transfer (FRET). A transfer efficiency of 20% and a molecular distance between the donor (ECFP) and acceptor (YFP) chromophores of around 6.2 nm could be shown. This bi-fluorescent ECFP-SgsE-YFP tandem fusion protein was able to reassemble on solid surfaces. The remarkable combination of fluorescence and self-assembly and the design of bi-functional S-layer tandem fusion protein matrices makes them to a promising tool in nanobiotechnology. (author) [de

  6. The fluorescence intensities ratio is not a reliable parameter for evaluation of protein unfolding transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žoldák, Gabriel; Jancura, Daniel; Sedlák, Erik

    2017-06-01

    Monitoring the fluorescence of proteins, particularly the fluorescence of intrinsic tryptophan residues, is a popular method often used in the analysis of unfolding transitions (induced by temperature, chemical denaturant, and pH) in proteins. The tryptophan fluorescence provides several suitable parameters, such as steady-state fluorescence intensity, apparent quantum yield, mean fluorescence lifetime, position of emission maximum that are often utilized for the observation of the conformational/unfolding transitions of proteins. In addition, the fluorescence intensities ratio at different wavelengths (usually at 330 nm and 350 nm) is becoming an increasingly popular parameter for the evaluation of thermal transitions. We show that, under certain conditions, the use of this parameter for the analysis of unfolding transitions leads to the incorrect determination of thermodynamic parameters characterizing unfolding transitions in proteins (e.g., melting temperature) and, hence, can compromise the hit identification during high-throughput drug screening campaigns. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  7. Highly thermostable fluorescent proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Andrew M [Santa Fe, NM; Waldo, Geoffrey S [Santa Fe, NM; Kiss, Csaba [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-03-22

    Thermostable fluorescent proteins (TSFPs), methods for generating these and other stability-enhanced proteins, polynucleotides encoding such proteins, and assays and method for using the TSFPs and TSFP-encoding nucleic acid molecules are provided. The TSFPs of the invention show extremely enhanced levels of stability and thermotolerance. In one case, for example, a TSFP of the invention is so stable it can be heated to 99.degree. C. for short periods of time without denaturing, and retains 85% of its fluorescence when heated to 80.degree. C. for several minutes. The invention also provides a method for generating stability-enhanced variants of a protein, including but not limited to fluorescent proteins.

  8. Protein subcellular localization assays using split fluorescent proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldo, Geoffrey S [Santa Fe, NM; Cabantous, Stephanie [Los Alamos, NM

    2009-09-08

    The invention provides protein subcellular localization assays using split fluorescent protein systems. The assays are conducted in living cells, do not require fixation and washing steps inherent in existing immunostaining and related techniques, and permit rapid, non-invasive, direct visualization of protein localization in living cells. The split fluorescent protein systems used in the practice of the invention generally comprise two or more self-complementing fragments of a fluorescent protein, such as GFP, wherein one or more of the fragments correspond to one or more beta-strand microdomains and are used to "tag" proteins of interest, and a complementary "assay" fragment of the fluorescent protein. Either or both of the fragments may be functionalized with a subcellular targeting sequence enabling it to be expressed in or directed to a particular subcellular compartment (i.e., the nucleus).

  9. Fluorescent sensors based on bacterial fusion proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateu, Batirtze Prats; Pum, Dietmar; Sleytr, Uwe B; Toca-Herrera, José L; Kainz, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    Fluorescence proteins are widely used as markers for biomedical and technological purposes. Therefore, the aim of this project was to create a fluorescent sensor, based in the green and cyan fluorescent protein, using bacterial S-layers proteins as scaffold for the fluorescent tag. We report the cloning, expression and purification of three S-layer fluorescent proteins: SgsE-EGFP, SgsE-ECFP and SgsE-13aa-ECFP, this last containing a 13-amino acid rigid linker. The pH dependence of the fluorescence intensity of the S-layer fusion proteins, monitored by fluorescence spectroscopy, showed that the ECFP tag was more stable than EGFP. Furthermore, the fluorescent fusion proteins were reassembled on silica particles modified with cationic and anionic polyelectrolytes. Zeta potential measurements confirmed the particle coatings and indicated their colloidal stability. Flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy showed that the fluorescence of the fusion proteins was pH dependent and sensitive to the underlying polyelectrolyte coating. This might suggest that the fluorescent tag is not completely exposed to the bulk media as an independent moiety. Finally, it was found out that viscosity enhanced the fluorescence intensity of the three fluorescent S-layer proteins. (paper)

  10. Synchronous fluorescence based biosensor for albumin determination by cooperative binding of fluorescence probe in a supra-biomolecular host-protein assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Digambara

    2010-01-15

    A synchronous fluorescence probe based biosensor for estimation of albumin with high sensitivity and selectivity was developed. Unlike conventional fluorescence emission or excitation spectral measurements, synchronous fluorescence measurement offered exclusively a new synchronous fluorescence peak in the shorter wavelength range upon binding of chrysene with protein making it an easy identification tool for albumin determination. The cooperative binding of a fluorescence probe, chrysene, in a supramolecular host-protein assembly during various albumin assessments was investigated. The presence of supramolecular host molecules such as beta-cyclodextrin, curucurbit[6]uril or curucurbit[7]uril have little influence on sensitivity or limit of detection during albumin determination but reduced dramatically interference from various coexisting metal ion quenchers/enhancers. Using the present method the limit of detection for BSA and gamma-Globulin was found to be 0.005 microM which is more sensitive than reported values. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. An orange fluorescent protein tagging system for real-time pollen tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, J Hollis; Millwood, Reginald J; Mundell, Richard E; Chambers, Orlando D; Abercrombie, Laura L; Davies, H Maelor; Stewart, C Neal

    2013-09-27

    Monitoring gene flow could be important for future transgenic crops, such as those producing plant-made-pharmaceuticals (PMPs) in open field production. A Nicotiana hybrid (Nicotiana. tabacum × Nicotiana glauca) shows limited male fertility and could be used as a bioconfined PMP platform. Effective assessment of gene flow from these plants is augmented with methods that utilize fluorescent proteins for transgenic pollen identification. We report the generation of a pollen tagging system utilizing an orange fluorescent protein to monitor pollen flow and as a visual assessment of transgene zygosity of the parent plant. This system was created to generate a tagged Nicotiana hybrid that could be used for the incidence of gene flow. Nicotiana tabacum 'TN 90' and Nicotiana glauca were successfully transformed via Agrobacterium tumefaciens to express the orange fluorescent protein gene, tdTomato-ER, in pollen and a green fluorescent protein gene, mgfp5-er, was expressed in vegetative structures of the plant. Hybrids were created that utilized the fluorescent proteins as a research tool for monitoring pollen movement and gene flow. Manual greenhouse crosses were used to assess hybrid sexual compatibility with N. tabacum, resulting in seed formation from hybrid pollination in 2% of crosses, which yielded non-viable seed. Pollen transfer to the hybrid formed seed in 19% of crosses and 10 out of 12 viable progeny showed GFP expression. The orange fluorescent protein is visible when expressed in the pollen of N. glauca, N. tabacum, and the Nicotiana hybrid, although hybrid pollen did not appear as bright as the parent lines. The hybrid plants, which show limited ability to outcross, could provide bioconfinement with the benefit of detectable pollen using this system. Fluorescent protein-tagging could be a valuable tool for breeding and in vivo ecological monitoring.

  12. Spectroscopic detection of fluorescent protein marker gene activity in genetically modified plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, O. W.; Chong, Jenny P. C.; Asundi, Anand K.

    2005-04-01

    This work focuses on developing a portable fibre optic fluorescence analyser for rapid identification of genetically modified plants tagged with a fluorescent marker gene. Independent transgenic tobacco plant lines expressing the enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) gene were regenerated following Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer. Molecular characterisation of these plant lines was carried out at the DNA level by PCR screening to confirm their transgenic status. Conventional transgene expression analysis was then carried out at the RNA level by RT-PCR and at the protein level by Western blotting using anti-GFP rabbit antiserum. The amount of plant-expressed EGFP on a Western blot was quantified against known amounts of purified EGFP by scanning densitometry. The expression level of EGFP in transformed plants was found to range from 0.1 - 0.6% of total extractable protein. A comparison between conventional western analysis of transformants and direct spectroscopic quantification using the fibre optic fluorescence analyser was made. The results showed that spectroscopic measurements of fluorescence emission from strong EGFP expressors correlated positively with Western blot data. However, the fluorescence analyser was also able to identify weakly expressing plant transformants below the detection limit of colorimetric Western blotting.

  13. Single Molecule Spectroscopy of Fluorescent Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blum, Christian; Subramaniam, Vinod

    2009-01-01

    The discovery and use of fluorescent proteins has revolutionized cellular biology. Despite the widespread use of visible fluorescent proteins as reporters and sensors in cellular environments the versatile photophysics of fluorescent proteins is still subject to intense research. Understanding the

  14. Testing the utility of fluorescent proteins in Mimulus lewisii by an Agrobacterium-mediated transient assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Baoqing; Yuan, Yao-Wu

    2016-04-01

    The Agrobacterium -mediated transient expression assay by leaf infiltration in Mimulus lewisii is robust. Fluorescent proteins EGFP, EYFP and DsRed give bright fluorescence signals in the infiltrated tissue. Mimulus lewisii is an emerging developmental genetic model system. Recently developed genomic and genetic resources and a stable transformation protocol have greatly facilitated the identification and functional characterization of genes controlling the development of ecologically important floral traits using this species. To further expedite gene and protein function analyses in M. lewisii, we adopted and simplified the Agrobacterium-mediated transient gene expression method routinely used in tobacco plants. With the validated transient assay, we examined the performance of fluorescent proteins EGFP, EYFP and DsRed in M. lewisii. All three proteins gave bright fluorescence signals when transiently expressed in agroinfiltrated leaves. Furthermore, we demonstrated the utility of fluorescent proteins in M. lewisii by showing the nuclear localization of Reduced Carotenoid Pigmentation 1 (RCP1), a recently discovered R2R3-MYB transcription factor that regulates carotenoid pigmentation during flower development. Both the transient assay and the fluorescent proteins are valuable additions to the M. lewisii toolbox, making this emerging genetic and developmental model system even more powerful.

  15. Optimization of fluorescent proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bindels, D.S.; Goedhart, J.; Hink, M.A.; van Weeren, L.; Joosen, L.; Gadella (jr.), T.W.J.; Engelborghs, Y.; Visser, A.J.W.G.

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, fluorescent protein (FP) variants have been engineered to fluoresce in all different colors; to display photoswitchable, or photochromic, behavior; or to show yet other beneficial properties that enable or enhance a still growing set of new fluorescence spectroscopy and microcopy

  16. Fluorescent Protein Approaches in Alpha Herpesvirus Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian B. Hogue

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the nearly two decades since the popularization of green fluorescent protein (GFP, fluorescent protein-based methodologies have revolutionized molecular and cell biology, allowing us to literally see biological processes as never before. Naturally, this revolution has extended to virology in general, and to the study of alpha herpesviruses in particular. In this review, we provide a compendium of reported fluorescent protein fusions to herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1 and pseudorabies virus (PRV structural proteins, discuss the underappreciated challenges of fluorescent protein-based approaches in the context of a replicating virus, and describe general strategies and best practices for creating new fluorescent fusions. We compare fluorescent protein methods to alternative approaches, and review two instructive examples of the caveats associated with fluorescent protein fusions, including describing several improved fluorescent capsid fusions in PRV. Finally, we present our future perspectives on the types of powerful experiments these tools now offer.

  17. Hue-shifted monomeric variants of Clavularia cyan fluorescent protein: identification of the molecular determinants of color and applications in fluorescence imaging

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    Davidson Michael W

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the 15 years that have passed since the cloning of Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein (avGFP, the expanding set of fluorescent protein (FP variants has become entrenched as an indispensable toolkit for cell biology research. One of the latest additions to the toolkit is monomeric teal FP (mTFP1, a bright and photostable FP derived from Clavularia cyan FP. To gain insight into the molecular basis for the blue-shifted fluorescence emission we undertook a mutagenesis-based study of residues in the immediate environment of the chromophore. We also employed site-directed and random mutagenesis in combination with library screening to create new hues of mTFP1-derived variants with wavelength-shifted excitation and emission spectra. Results Our results demonstrate that the protein-chromophore interactions responsible for blue-shifting the absorbance and emission maxima of mTFP1 operate independently of the chromophore structure. This conclusion is supported by the observation that the Tyr67Trp and Tyr67His mutants of mTFP1 retain a blue-shifted fluorescence emission relative to their avGFP counterparts (that is, Tyr66Trp and Tyr66His. Based on previous work with close homologs, His197 and His163 are likely to be the residues with the greatest contribution towards blue-shifting the fluorescence emission. Indeed we have identified the substitutions His163Met and Thr73Ala that abolish or disrupt the interactions of these residues with the chromophore. The mTFP1-Thr73Ala/His163Met double mutant has an emission peak that is 23 nm red-shifted from that of mTFP1 itself. Directed evolution of this double mutant resulted in the development of mWasabi, a new green fluorescing protein that offers certain advantages over enhanced avGFP (EGFP. To assess the usefulness of mTFP1 and mWasabi in live cell imaging applications, we constructed and imaged more than 20 different fusion proteins. Conclusion Based on the results of our

  18. [Establishment and identification of mouse lymphoma cell line EL4 expressing red fluorescent protein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Jie; Cao, Jiang; Chen, Chong; Wang, Dong-Yang; Zeng, Ling-Yu; Pan, Xiu-Ying; Xu, Kai-Lin

    2010-02-01

    This study was purposed to construct a lentiviral vector encoding red fluorescent protein (DsRed) and transfect DsRed into EL4 cells for establishing mouse leukemia/lymphoma model expressing DsRed. The bicistronic SIN lentiviral transfer plasmid containing the genes encoding neo and internal ribosomal entry site-red fluorescent protein (IRES-DsRed) was constructed. Human embryonic kidney 293FT cells were co-transfected with the three plasmids by liposome method. The viral particles were collected and used to transfect EL4 cells, then the cells were selected by G418. The results showed that the plasmid pXZ208-neo-IRES-DsRed was constructed successfully, and the viral titer reached to 10(6) U/ml. EL4 cells were transfected by the viral solution efficiently. The transfected EL4 cells expressing DsRed survived in the final concentration 600 microg/ml of G418. The expression of DsRed in the transfected EL4 cells was demonstrated by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. In conclusion, the EL4/DsRed cell line was established successfully.

  19. First molecular identification of the transgene red fluorescent protein (RFP in transgenic ornamental zebrafish (Danio rerio introduced in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Scotto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the transgenic fluorescent red, orange and pink zebra fish (Danio rerio, found in local aquariums in Peru, were identified using the PCR technique to amplify the transgene RFP sea anemone belonging to Discosoma spp. The gene expression of the red fluorescent protein (RFP transgene was found to determine different gradients-of-bioluminescence (shades in color in each GMO fish analyzed. We performed sequence analysis of the two variants of the RFP along with six variants of the existing fluorescent protein GFP from the Genbank, this could help identify quickly if they are new genes or variants thereof as these novel fluorescent proteins may be introduced in aquatic GMO in the future. Thus, developing and improving biosecurity measures through its timely detection at the molecular genetic level.

  20. Protein- protein interaction detection system using fluorescent protein microdomains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Cabantous, Stephanie

    2010-02-23

    The invention provides a protein labeling and interaction detection system based on engineered fragments of fluorescent and chromophoric proteins that require fused interacting polypeptides to drive the association of the fragments, and further are soluble and stable, and do not change the solubility of polypeptides to which they are fused. In one embodiment, a test protein X is fused to a sixteen amino acid fragment of GFP (.beta.-strand 10, amino acids 198-214), engineered to not perturb fusion protein solubility. A second test protein Y is fused to a sixteen amino acid fragment of GFP (.beta.-strand 11, amino acids 215-230), engineered to not perturb fusion protein solubility. When X and Y interact, they bring the GFP strands into proximity, and are detected by complementation with a third GFP fragment consisting of GFP amino acids 1-198 (strands 1-9). When GFP strands 10 and 11 are held together by interaction of protein X and Y, they spontaneous association with GFP strands 1-9, resulting in structural complementation, folding, and concomitant GFP fluorescence.

  1. Fluorescence of Alexa fluor dye tracks protein folding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Lindhoud

    Full Text Available Fluorescence spectroscopy is an important tool for the characterization of protein folding. Often, a protein is labeled with appropriate fluorescent donor and acceptor probes and folding-induced changes in Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET are monitored. However, conformational changes of the protein potentially affect fluorescence properties of both probes, thereby profoundly complicating interpretation of FRET data. In this study, we assess the effects protein folding has on fluorescence properties of Alexa Fluor 488 (A488, which is commonly used as FRET donor. Here, A488 is covalently attached to Cys69 of apoflavodoxin from Azotobacter vinelandii. Although coupling of A488 slightly destabilizes apoflavodoxin, the three-state folding of this protein, which involves a molten globule intermediate, is unaffected. Upon folding of apoflavodoxin, fluorescence emission intensity of A488 changes significantly. To illuminate the molecular sources of this alteration, we applied steady state and time-resolved fluorescence techniques. The results obtained show that tryptophans cause folding-induced changes in quenching of Alexa dye. Compared to unfolded protein, static quenching of A488 is increased in the molten globule. Upon populating the native state both static and dynamic quenching of A488 decrease considerably. We show that fluorescence quenching of Alexa Fluor dyes is a sensitive reporter of conformational changes during protein folding.

  2. Development of a Novel Green Fluorescent Protein-Based Binding Assay to Study the Association of Plakins with Intermediate Filament Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favre, Bertrand; Begré, Nadja; Bouameur, Jamal-Eddine; Borradori, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions are fundamental for most biological processes, such as the formation of cellular structures and enzymatic complexes or in signaling pathways. The identification and characterization of protein-protein interactions are therefore essential for understanding the mechanisms and regulation of biological systems. The organization and dynamics of the cytoskeleton, as well as its anchorage to specific sites in the plasma membrane and organelles, are regulated by the plakins. These structurally related proteins anchor different cytoskeletal networks to each other and/or to other cellular structures. The association of several plakins with intermediate filaments (IFs) is critical for maintenance of the cytoarchitecture. Pathogenic mutations in the genes encoding different plakins can lead to dramatic manifestations, occurring principally in the skin, striated muscle, and/or nervous system, due to cytoskeletal disorganization resulting in abnormal cell fragility. Nevertheless, it is still unclear how plakins bind to IFs, although some general rules are slowly emerging. We here describe in detail a recently developed protein-protein fluorescence binding assay, based on the production of recombinant proteins tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP) and their use as fluid-phase fluorescent ligands on immobilized IF proteins. Using this method, we have been able to assess the ability of C-terminal regions of GFP-tagged plakin proteins to bind to distinct IF proteins and IF domains. This simple and sensitive technique, which is expected to facilitate further studies in this area, can also be potentially employed for any kind of protein-protein interaction studies. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Ultrafast Proton Shuttling in Psammocora Cyan Fluorescent Protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kennis, J.T.M.; van Stokkum, I.H.M.; Peterson, D.S.; Pandit, A.; Wachter, R.M.

    2013-01-01

    Cyan, green, yellow, and red fluorescent proteins (FPs) homologous to green fluorescent protein (GFP) are used extensively as model systems to study fundamental processes in photobiology, such as the capture of light energy by protein-embedded chromophores, color tuning by the protein matrix, energy

  4. Activation of 5-[125I]iodonaphthyl-1-azide via excitation of fluorescent (N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)) lipid analogs in living cells. A potential tool for identification of compartment-specific proteins and proteins involved in intracellular transport and metabolism of lipids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenwald, A.G.; Pagano, R.E.; Raviv, Y.

    1991-01-01

    We describe a new technique for analysis of proteins located near fluorescent lipid analogs in intact living cells using the membrane-permeant, photoactivatable probe, 5-[ 125 I]iodonaphthyl-1-azide ([ 125 I]INA). [ 125 I] INA can be activated directly with UV light or indirectly through excitation of adjacent fluorophores (photosensitizers) with visible light to modify nearby proteins covalently with 125 I. In this report we demonstrate that fluorescent phospholipids and sphingolipids containing N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)-6-aminocaproic acid serve as appropriate photosensitizers for [ 125 I]INA. Using Chinese hamster ovary fibroblasts, we optimized the labeling conditions with respect to lipid concentration and time of irradiation and then examined the profiles of cellular proteins that were labeled when fluorescent analogs of ceramide, sphingomyelin, and phosphatidic acid were used as photosensitizers in living cells. The use of different fluorescent lipids, which label different subcellular compartments of cells as determined by fluorescence microscopy, derivatized different sets of cellular proteins with 125 I. The labeled proteins were subsets of the total set of proteins available for derivatization as determined by direct activation of [ 125 I]INA. Most proteins labeled by this procedure were pelleted by centrifugation of cell lysates at high speed (260,000 x g), but several soluble proteins were also labeled under these conditions. The implications of using this technique for identification of compartment-specific proteins and proteins involved in lipid metabolism and transport are discussed

  5. Some secrets of fluorescent proteins: distinct bleaching in various mounting fluids and photoactivation of cyan fluorescent proteins at YFP-excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkani, Naila; Schmid, Johannes A

    2011-04-07

    The use of spectrally distinct variants of green fluorescent protein (GFP) such as cyan or yellow mutants (CFP and YFP, respectively) is very common in all different fields of life sciences, e.g. for marking specific proteins or cells or to determine protein interactions. In the latter case, the quantum physical phenomenon of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) is exploited by specific microscopy techniques to visualize proximity of proteins. When we applied a commonly used FRET microscopy technique--the increase in donor (CFP)-fluorescence after bleaching of acceptor fluorophores (YFP), we obtained good signals in live cells, but very weak signals for the same samples after fixation and mounting in commercial microscopy mounting fluids. This observation could be traced back to much faster bleaching of CFP in these mounting media. Strikingly, the opposite effect of the mounting fluid was observed for YFP and also for other proteins such as Cerulean, TFP or Venus. The changes in photostability of CFP and YFP were not caused by the fixation but directly dependent on the mounting fluid. Furthermore we made the interesting observation that the CFP-fluorescence intensity increases by about 10-15% after illumination at the YFP-excitation wavelength--a phenomenon, which was also observed for Cerulean. This photoactivation of cyan fluorescent proteins at the YFP-excitation can cause false-positive signals in the FRET-microscopy technique that is based on bleaching of a yellow FRET acceptor. Our results show that photostability of fluorescent proteins differs significantly for various media and that CFP bleaches significantly faster in commercial mounting fluids, while the opposite is observed for YFP and some other proteins. Moreover, we show that the FRET microscopy technique that is based on bleaching of the YFP is prone to artifacts due to photoactivation of cyan fluorescent proteins under these conditions.

  6. A Laboratory Exercise for Visible Gel Filtration Chromatography Using Fluorescent Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenqiang; Cao, Yibin; Xu, Lishan; Gong, Jufang; Sun, Meihao

    2015-01-01

    Gel filtration chromatography (GFC) separates molecules according to size and is one of the most widely used methods for protein purification. Here, red fluorescent protein (RFP), green fluorescent protein (GFP), yellow fluorescent protein (YFP), cyan fluorescent protein (CFP), and/or their fusion proteins were prokaryotically expressed, purified,…

  7. Fluorescence quantum yield measurements of fluorescent proteins: a laboratory experiment for a biochemistry or molecular biophysics laboratory course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Kathryn P; Dillon, Rebecca; Knowles, Michelle K

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescent proteins are commonly used in cell biology to assess where proteins are within a cell as a function of time and provide insight into intracellular protein function. However, the usefulness of a fluorescent protein depends directly on the quantum yield. The quantum yield relates the efficiency at which a fluorescent molecule converts absorbed photons into emitted photons and it is necessary to know for assessing what fluorescent protein is the most appropriate for a particular application. In this work, we have designed an upper-level, biochemistry laboratory experiment where students measure the fluorescence quantum yields of fluorescent proteins relative to a standard organic dye. Four fluorescent protein variants, enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (ECFP), enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), mCitrine, and mCherry, were used, however the methods described are useful for the characterization of any fluorescent protein or could be expanded to fluorescent quantum yield measurements of organic dye molecules. The laboratory is designed as a guided inquiry project and takes two, 4 hr laboratory periods. During the first day students design the experiment by selecting the excitation wavelength, choosing the standard, and determining the concentration needed for the quantum yield experiment that takes place in the second laboratory period. Overall, this laboratory provides students with a guided inquiry learning experience and introduces concepts of fluorescence biophysics into a biochemistry laboratory curriculum. © 2014 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  8. Thermal precipitation fluorescence assay for protein stability screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Junping; Huang, Bo; Wang, Xianping; Zhang, Xuejun C

    2011-09-01

    A simple and reliable method of protein stability assessment is desirable for high throughput expression screening of recombinant proteins. Here we described an assay termed thermal precipitation fluorescence (TPF) which can be used to compare thermal stabilities of recombinant protein samples directly from cell lysate supernatants. In this assay, target membrane proteins are expressed as recombinant fusions with a green fluorescence protein tag and solubilized with detergent, and the fluorescence signals are used to report the quantity of the fusion proteins in the soluble fraction of the cell lysate. After applying a heat shock, insoluble protein aggregates are removed by centrifugation. Subsequently, the amount of remaining protein in the supernatant is quantified by in-gel fluorescence analysis and compared to samples without a heat shock treatment. Over 60 recombinant membrane proteins from Escherichia coli were subject to this screening in the presence and absence of a few commonly used detergents, and the results were analyzed. Because no sophisticated protein purification is required, this TPF technique is suitable to high throughput expression screening of recombinant membrane proteins as well as soluble ones and can be used to prioritize target proteins based on their thermal stabilities for subsequent large scale expression and structural studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Measuring and sorting cell populations expressing isospectral fluorescent proteins with different fluorescence lifetimes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Sands

    Full Text Available Study of signal transduction in live cells benefits from the ability to visualize and quantify light emitted by fluorescent proteins (XFPs fused to different signaling proteins. However, because cell signaling proteins are often present in small numbers, and because the XFPs themselves are poor fluorophores, the amount of emitted light, and the observable signal in these studies, is often small. An XFP's fluorescence lifetime contains additional information about the immediate environment of the fluorophore that can augment the information from its weak light signal. Here, we constructed and expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae variants of Teal Fluorescent Protein (TFP and Citrine that were isospectral but had shorter fluorescence lifetimes, ∼ 1.5 ns vs ∼ 3 ns. We modified microscopic and flow cytometric instruments to measure fluorescence lifetimes in live cells. We developed digital hardware and a measure of lifetime called a "pseudophasor" that we could compute quickly enough to permit sorting by lifetime in flow. We used these abilities to sort mixtures of cells expressing TFP and the short-lifetime TFP variant into subpopulations that were respectively 97% and 94% pure. This work demonstrates the feasibility of using information about fluorescence lifetime to help quantify cell signaling in living cells at the high throughput provided by flow cytometry. Moreover, it demonstrates the feasibility of isolating and recovering subpopulations of cells with different XFP lifetimes for subsequent experimentation.

  10. High-throughput kinase assays with protein substrates using fluorescent polymer superquenching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weatherford Wendy

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-throughput screening is used by the pharmaceutical industry for identifying lead compounds that interact with targets of pharmacological interest. Because of the key role that aberrant regulation of protein phosphorylation plays in diseases such as cancer, diabetes and hypertension, kinases have become one of the main drug targets. With the exception of antibody-based assays, methods to screen for specific kinase activity are generally restricted to the use of small synthetic peptides as substrates. However, the use of natural protein substrates has the advantage that potential inhibitors can be detected that affect enzyme activity by binding to a site other than the catalytic site. We have previously reported a non-radioactive and non-antibody-based fluorescence quench assay for detection of phosphorylation or dephosphorylation using synthetic peptide substrates. The aim of this work is to develop an assay for detection of phosphorylation of chemically unmodified proteins based on this polymer superquenching platform. Results Using a modified QTL Lightspeed™ assay, phosphorylation of native protein was quantified by the interaction of the phosphorylated proteins with metal-ion coordinating groups co-located with fluorescent polymer deposited onto microspheres. The binding of phospho-protein inhibits a dye-labeled "tracer" peptide from associating to the phosphate-binding sites present on the fluorescent microspheres. The resulting inhibition of quench generates a "turn on" assay, in which the signal correlates with the phosphorylation of the substrate. The assay was tested on three different proteins: Myelin Basic Protein (MBP, Histone H1 and Phosphorylated heat- and acid-stable protein (PHAS-1. Phosphorylation of the proteins was detected by Protein Kinase Cα (PKCα and by the Interleukin -1 Receptor-associated Kinase 4 (IRAK4. Enzyme inhibition yielded IC50 values that were comparable to those obtained using

  11. High-throughput kinase assays with protein substrates using fluorescent polymer superquenching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rininsland, Frauke; Stankewicz, Casey; Weatherford, Wendy; McBranch, Duncan

    2005-05-31

    High-throughput screening is used by the pharmaceutical industry for identifying lead compounds that interact with targets of pharmacological interest. Because of the key role that aberrant regulation of protein phosphorylation plays in diseases such as cancer, diabetes and hypertension, kinases have become one of the main drug targets. With the exception of antibody-based assays, methods to screen for specific kinase activity are generally restricted to the use of small synthetic peptides as substrates. However, the use of natural protein substrates has the advantage that potential inhibitors can be detected that affect enzyme activity by binding to a site other than the catalytic site. We have previously reported a non-radioactive and non-antibody-based fluorescence quench assay for detection of phosphorylation or dephosphorylation using synthetic peptide substrates. The aim of this work is to develop an assay for detection of phosphorylation of chemically unmodified proteins based on this polymer superquenching platform. Using a modified QTL Lightspeed assay, phosphorylation of native protein was quantified by the interaction of the phosphorylated proteins with metal-ion coordinating groups co-located with fluorescent polymer deposited onto microspheres. The binding of phospho-protein inhibits a dye-labeled "tracer" peptide from associating to the phosphate-binding sites present on the fluorescent microspheres. The resulting inhibition of quench generates a "turn on" assay, in which the signal correlates with the phosphorylation of the substrate. The assay was tested on three different proteins: Myelin Basic Protein (MBP), Histone H1 and Phosphorylated heat- and acid-stable protein (PHAS-1). Phosphorylation of the proteins was detected by Protein Kinase Calpha (PKCalpha) and by the Interleukin -1 Receptor-associated Kinase 4 (IRAK4). Enzyme inhibition yielded IC50 values that were comparable to those obtained using peptide substrates. Statistical parameters that

  12. Chromophore photophysics and dynamics in fluorescent proteins of the GFP family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nienhaus, Karin; Nienhaus, G Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Proteins of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) family are indispensable for fluorescence imaging experiments in the life sciences, particularly of living specimens. Their essential role as genetically encoded fluorescence markers has motivated many researchers over the last 20 years to further advance and optimize these proteins by using protein engineering. Amino acids can be exchanged by site-specific mutagenesis, starting with naturally occurring proteins as templates. Optical properties of the fluorescent chromophore are strongly tuned by the surrounding protein environment, and a targeted modification of chromophore-protein interactions requires a profound knowledge of the underlying photophysics and photochemistry, which has by now been well established from a large number of structural and spectroscopic experiments and molecular-mechanical and quantum-mechanical computations on many variants of fluorescent proteins. Nevertheless, such rational engineering often does not meet with success and thus is complemented by random mutagenesis and selection based on the optical properties. In this topical review, we present an overview of the key structural and spectroscopic properties of fluorescent proteins. We address protein-chromophore interactions that govern ground state optical properties as well as processes occurring in the electronically excited state. Special emphasis is placed on photoactivation of fluorescent proteins. These light-induced reactions result in large structural changes that drastically alter the fluorescence properties of the protein, which enables some of the most exciting applications, including single particle tracking, pulse chase imaging and super-resolution imaging. We also present a few examples of fluorescent protein application in live-cell imaging experiments. (topical review)

  13. Chromophore photophysics and dynamics in fluorescent proteins of the GFP family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nienhaus, Karin; Nienhaus, G. Ulrich

    2016-11-01

    Proteins of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) family are indispensable for fluorescence imaging experiments in the life sciences, particularly of living specimens. Their essential role as genetically encoded fluorescence markers has motivated many researchers over the last 20 years to further advance and optimize these proteins by using protein engineering. Amino acids can be exchanged by site-specific mutagenesis, starting with naturally occurring proteins as templates. Optical properties of the fluorescent chromophore are strongly tuned by the surrounding protein environment, and a targeted modification of chromophore-protein interactions requires a profound knowledge of the underlying photophysics and photochemistry, which has by now been well established from a large number of structural and spectroscopic experiments and molecular-mechanical and quantum-mechanical computations on many variants of fluorescent proteins. Nevertheless, such rational engineering often does not meet with success and thus is complemented by random mutagenesis and selection based on the optical properties. In this topical review, we present an overview of the key structural and spectroscopic properties of fluorescent proteins. We address protein-chromophore interactions that govern ground state optical properties as well as processes occurring in the electronically excited state. Special emphasis is placed on photoactivation of fluorescent proteins. These light-induced reactions result in large structural changes that drastically alter the fluorescence properties of the protein, which enables some of the most exciting applications, including single particle tracking, pulse chase imaging and super-resolution imaging. We also present a few examples of fluorescent protein application in live-cell imaging experiments.

  14. Directed evolution of an extremely stable fluorescent protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Csaba; Temirov, Jamshid; Chasteen, Leslie; Waldo, Geoffrey S; Bradbury, Andrew R M

    2009-05-01

    In this paper we describe the evolution of eCGP123, an extremely stable green fluorescent protein based on a previously described fluorescent protein created by consensus engineering (CGP: consensus green protein). eCGP123 could not be denatured by a standard thermal melt, preserved almost full fluorescence after overnight incubation at 80 degrees C and possessed a free energy of denaturation of 12.4 kcal/mol. It was created from CGP by a recursive process involving the sequential introduction of three destabilizing heterologous inserts, evolution to overcome the destabilization and finally 'removal' of the destabilizing insert by gene synthesis. We believe that this approach may be generally applicable to the stabilization of other proteins.

  15. Genetic barcoding with fluorescent proteins for multiplexed applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smurthwaite, Cameron A; Williams, Wesley; Fetsko, Alexandra; Abbadessa, Darin; Stolp, Zachary D; Reed, Connor W; Dharmawan, Andre; Wolkowicz, Roland

    2015-04-14

    Fluorescent proteins, fluorescent dyes and fluorophores in general have revolutionized the field of molecular cell biology. In particular, the discovery of fluorescent proteins and their genes have enabled the engineering of protein fusions for localization, the analysis of transcriptional activation and translation of proteins of interest, or the general tracking of individual cells and cell populations. The use of fluorescent protein genes in combination with retroviral technology has further allowed the expression of these proteins in mammalian cells in a stable and reliable manner. Shown here is how one can utilize these genes to give cells within a population of cells their own biosignature. As the biosignature is achieved with retroviral technology, cells are barcoded 'indefinitely'. As such, they can be individually tracked within a mixture of barcoded cells and utilized in more complex biological applications. The tracking of distinct populations in a mixture of cells is ideal for multiplexed applications such as discovery of drugs against a multitude of targets or the activation profile of different promoters. The protocol describes how to elegantly develop and amplify barcoded mammalian cells with distinct genetic fluorescent markers, and how to use several markers at once or one marker at different intensities. Finally, the protocol describes how the cells can be further utilized in combination with cell-based assays to increase the power of analysis through multiplexing.

  16. Fluorescence Quantum Yield Measurements of Fluorescent Proteins: A Laboratory Experiment for a Biochemistry or Molecular Biophysics Laboratory Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Kathryn P.; Dillon, Rebecca; Knowles, Michelle K.

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescent proteins are commonly used in cell biology to assess where proteins are within a cell as a function of time and provide insight into intracellular protein function. However, the usefulness of a fluorescent protein depends directly on the quantum yield. The quantum yield relates the efficiency at which a fluorescent molecule converts…

  17. Targeted nanodiamonds for identification of subcellular protein assemblies in mammalian cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Michael P.; Bouchard, Louis-S.

    2017-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) can be used to successfully determine the structures of proteins. However, such studies are typically done ex situ after extraction of the protein from the cellular environment. Here we describe an application for nanodiamonds as targeted intensity contrast labels in biological TEM, using the nuclear pore complex (NPC) as a model macroassembly. We demonstrate that delivery of antibody-conjugated nanodiamonds to live mammalian cells using maltotriose-conjugated polypropylenimine dendrimers results in efficient localization of nanodiamonds to the intended cellular target. We further identify signatures of nanodiamonds under TEM that allow for unambiguous identification of individual nanodiamonds from a resin-embedded, OsO4-stained environment. This is the first demonstration of nanodiamonds as labels for nanoscale TEM-based identification of subcellular protein assemblies. These results, combined with the unique fluorescence properties and biocompatibility of nanodiamonds, represent an important step toward the use of nanodiamonds as markers for correlated optical/electron bioimaging. PMID:28636640

  18. Targeted nanodiamonds for identification of subcellular protein assemblies in mammalian cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Lake

    Full Text Available Transmission electron microscopy (TEM can be used to successfully determine the structures of proteins. However, such studies are typically done ex situ after extraction of the protein from the cellular environment. Here we describe an application for nanodiamonds as targeted intensity contrast labels in biological TEM, using the nuclear pore complex (NPC as a model macroassembly. We demonstrate that delivery of antibody-conjugated nanodiamonds to live mammalian cells using maltotriose-conjugated polypropylenimine dendrimers results in efficient localization of nanodiamonds to the intended cellular target. We further identify signatures of nanodiamonds under TEM that allow for unambiguous identification of individual nanodiamonds from a resin-embedded, OsO4-stained environment. This is the first demonstration of nanodiamonds as labels for nanoscale TEM-based identification of subcellular protein assemblies. These results, combined with the unique fluorescence properties and biocompatibility of nanodiamonds, represent an important step toward the use of nanodiamonds as markers for correlated optical/electron bioimaging.

  19. Targeted nanodiamonds for identification of subcellular protein assemblies in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Michael P; Bouchard, Louis-S

    2017-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) can be used to successfully determine the structures of proteins. However, such studies are typically done ex situ after extraction of the protein from the cellular environment. Here we describe an application for nanodiamonds as targeted intensity contrast labels in biological TEM, using the nuclear pore complex (NPC) as a model macroassembly. We demonstrate that delivery of antibody-conjugated nanodiamonds to live mammalian cells using maltotriose-conjugated polypropylenimine dendrimers results in efficient localization of nanodiamonds to the intended cellular target. We further identify signatures of nanodiamonds under TEM that allow for unambiguous identification of individual nanodiamonds from a resin-embedded, OsO4-stained environment. This is the first demonstration of nanodiamonds as labels for nanoscale TEM-based identification of subcellular protein assemblies. These results, combined with the unique fluorescence properties and biocompatibility of nanodiamonds, represent an important step toward the use of nanodiamonds as markers for correlated optical/electron bioimaging.

  20. The enhanced cyan fluorescent protein: a sensitive pH sensor for fluorescence lifetime imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poëa-Guyon, Sandrine; Pasquier, Hélène; Mérola, Fabienne; Morel, Nicolas; Erard, Marie

    2013-05-01

    pH is an important parameter that affects many functions of live cells, from protein structure or function to several crucial steps of their metabolism. Genetically encoded pH sensors based on pH-sensitive fluorescent proteins have been developed and used to monitor the pH of intracellular compartments. The quantitative analysis of pH variations can be performed either by ratiometric or fluorescence lifetime detection. However, most available genetically encoded pH sensors are based on green and yellow fluorescent proteins and are not compatible with multicolor approaches. Taking advantage of the strong pH sensitivity of enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (ECFP), we demonstrate here its suitability as a sensitive pH sensor using fluorescence lifetime imaging. The intracellular ECFP lifetime undergoes large changes (32 %) in the pH 5 to pH 7 range, which allows accurate pH measurements to better than 0.2 pH units. By fusion of ECFP with the granular chromogranin A, we successfully measured the pH in secretory granules of PC12 cells, and we performed a kinetic analysis of intragranular pH variations in living cells exposed to ammonium chloride.

  1. Dark proteins disturb multichromophore coupling in tetrameric fluorescent proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blum, Christian; Meixner, Alfred J.; Subramaniam, Vinod

    2011-01-01

    DsRed is representative of the tetrameric reef coral fluorescent proteins that constitute particularly interesting coupled multichromophoric systems. Either a green emitting or a red emitting chromophore can form within each of the monomers of the protein tetramer. Within the tetramers the

  2. In vivo cellular imaging using fluorescent proteins - Methods and Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Monti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The discovery and genetic engineering of fluorescent proteins has revolutionized cell biology. What was previously invisible to the cell often can be made visible with the use of fluorescent proteins. With this words, Robert M. Hoffman introduces In vivo Cellular Imaging Using Fluorescent proteins, the eighteen chapters book dedicated to the description of how fluorescence proteins have changed the way to analyze cellular processes in vivo. Modern researches aim to study new and less invasive methods able to follow the behavior of different cell types in different biological contexts: for example, how cancer cells migrate or how they respond to different therapies. Also, in vivo systems can help researchers to better understand animal embryonic development so as how fluorescence proteins may be used to monitor different processes in living organisms at the molecular and cellular level.

  3. Split green fluorescent protein as a modular binding partner for protein crystallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Hau B.; Hung, Li-Wei; Yeates, Todd O.; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Waldo, Geoffrey S.

    2013-01-01

    A strategy using a new split green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a modular binding partner to form stable protein complexes with a target protein is presented. The modular split GFP may open the way to rapidly creating crystallization variants. A modular strategy for protein crystallization using split green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a crystallization partner is demonstrated. Insertion of a hairpin containing GFP β-strands 10 and 11 into a surface loop of a target protein provides two chain crossings between the target and the reconstituted GFP compared with the single connection afforded by terminal GFP fusions. This strategy was tested by inserting this hairpin into a loop of another fluorescent protein, sfCherry. The crystal structure of the sfCherry-GFP(10–11) hairpin in complex with GFP(1–9) was determined at a resolution of 2.6 Å. Analysis of the complex shows that the reconstituted GFP is attached to the target protein (sfCherry) in a structurally ordered way. This work opens the way to rapidly creating crystallization variants by reconstituting a target protein bearing the GFP(10–11) hairpin with a variety of GFP(1–9) mutants engineered for favorable crystallization

  4. Identification of a functional nuclear export signal in the green fluorescent protein asFP499

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, Huseyin; Strasser, Bernd; Rauth, Sabine; Irving, Robert A.; Wark, Kim L.

    2006-01-01

    The green fluorescent protein (GFP) asFP499 from Anemonia sulcata is a distant homologue of the GFP from Aequorea victoria. We cloned the asFP499 gene into a mammalian expression vector and showed that this protein was expressed in the human lymphoblast cell line Ramos RA1 and in the embryonic kidney 293T cell line (HEK 293T). In HEK 293T cells, asFP499 was localized mainly in the cytoplasm, suggesting that the protein was excluded from the nucleus. We identified 194 LRMEKLNI 201 as a candidate nuclear export signal in asFP499 and mutated the isoleucine at position 201 to an alanine. Unlike the wildtype form, the mutant protein was distributed throughout the cytoplasm and nucleus. This is First report of a GFP that contains a functional NES

  5. Impact of fluorescent protein fusions on the bacterial flagellar motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, M; Nord, A L; Chamousset, D; van Rijn, E; Beaumont, H J E; Pedaci, F

    2017-10-03

    Fluorescent fusion proteins open a direct and unique window onto protein function. However, they also introduce the risk of perturbation of the function of the native protein. Successful applications of fluorescent fusions therefore rely on a careful assessment and minimization of the side effects, but such insight is still lacking for many applications. This is particularly relevant in the study of the internal dynamics of motor proteins, where both the chemical and mechanical reaction coordinates can be affected. Fluorescent proteins fused to the stator of the Bacterial Flagellar Motor (BFM) have previously been used to unveil the motor subunit dynamics. Here we report the effects on single motors of three fluorescent proteins fused to the stators, all of which altered BFM behavior. The torque generated by individual stators was reduced while their stoichiometry remained unaffected. MotB fusions decreased the switching frequency and induced a novel bias-dependent asymmetry in the speed in the two directions. These effects could be mitigated by inserting a linker at the fusion point. These findings provide a quantitative account of the effects of fluorescent fusions to the stator on BFM dynamics and their alleviation- new insights that advance the use of fluorescent fusions to probe the dynamics of protein complexes.

  6. Bioorthogonal fluorescent labeling of functional G-protein-coupled receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, He; Naganathan, Saranga; Kazmi, Manija A

    2014-01-01

    Novel methods are required for site-specific, quantitative fluorescent labeling of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and other difficult-to-express membrane proteins. Ideally, fluorescent probes should perturb the native structure and function as little as possible. We evaluated bioorthogonal...

  7. mKikGR, a monomeric photoswitchable fluorescent protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Habuchi

    Full Text Available The recent demonstration and utilization of fluorescent proteins whose fluorescence can be switched on and off has greatly expanded the toolkit of molecular and cell biology. These photoswitchable proteins have facilitated the characterization of specifically tagged molecular species in the cell and have enabled fluorescence imaging of intracellular structures with a resolution far below the classical diffraction limit of light. Applications are limited, however, by the fast photobleaching, slow photoswitching, and oligomerization typical for photoswitchable proteins currently available. Here, we report the molecular cloning and spectroscopic characterization of mKikGR, a monomeric version of the previously reported KikGR that displays high photostability and switching rates. Furthermore, we present single-molecule imaging experiments that demonstrate that individual mKikGR proteins can be localized with a precision of better than 10 nanometers, suggesting their suitability for super-resolution imaging.

  8. Exploiting fluorescence for multiplex immunoassays on protein microarrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbáth, Melinda; Balogh, Andrea; Matkó, János; Papp, Krisztián; Prechl, József

    2014-01-01

    Protein microarray technology is becoming the method of choice for identifying protein interaction partners, detecting specific proteins, carbohydrates and lipids, or for characterizing protein interactions and serum antibodies in a massively parallel manner. Availability of the well-established instrumentation of DNA arrays and development of new fluorescent detection instruments promoted the spread of this technique. Fluorescent detection has the advantage of high sensitivity, specificity, simplicity and wide dynamic range required by most measurements. Fluorescence through specifically designed probes and an increasing variety of detection modes offers an excellent tool for such microarray platforms. Measuring for example the level of antibodies, their isotypes and/or antigen specificity simultaneously can offer more complex and comprehensive information about the investigated biological phenomenon, especially if we take into consideration that hundreds of samples can be measured in a single assay. Not only body fluids, but also cell lysates, extracted cellular components, and intact living cells can be analyzed on protein arrays for monitoring functional responses to printed samples on the surface. As a rapidly evolving area, protein microarray technology offers a great bulk of information and new depth of knowledge. These are the features that endow protein arrays with wide applicability and robust sample analyzing capability. On the whole, protein arrays are emerging new tools not just in proteomics, but glycomics, lipidomics, and are also important for immunological research. In this review we attempt to summarize the technical aspects of planar fluorescent microarray technology along with the description of its main immunological applications. (topical review)

  9. Impact of fluorescent protein fusions on the bacterial flagellar motor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heo, M.; Nord, A. L.; Chamousset, D.; van Rijn, E.; Beaumont, H.J.E.; Pedaci, F.

    2017-01-01

    Fluorescent fusion proteins open a direct and unique window onto protein function. However, they also introduce the risk of perturbation of the function of the native protein. Successful applications of fluorescent fusions therefore rely on a careful assessment and minimization of the side

  10. Engineering and Characterization of a Superfolder Green Fluorescent Protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedelacq, J.; Cabantous, S.; Tran, T.; Terwilliger, T.; Waldo, G.

    2006-01-01

    Existing variants of green fluorescent protein (GFP) often misfold when expressed as fusions with other proteins. We have generated a robustly folded version of GFP, called 'superfolder' GFP, that folds well even when fused to poorly folded polypeptides. Compared to 'folding reporter' GFP, a folding-enhanced GFP containing the 'cycle-3' mutations and the 'enhanced GFP' mutations F64L and S65T, superfolder GFP shows improved tolerance of circular permutation, greater resistance to chemical denaturants and improved folding kinetics. The fluorescence of Escherichia coli cells expressing each of eighteen proteins from Pyrobaculum aerophilum as fusions with superfolder GFP was proportional to total protein expression. In contrast, fluorescence of folding reporter GFP fusion proteins was strongly correlated with the productive folding yield of the passenger protein. X-ray crystallographic structural analyses helped explain the enhanced folding of superfolder GFP relative to folding reporter GFP

  11. Highly Selective Fluorescent Sensing of Proteins Based on a Fluorescent Molecularly Imprinted Nanosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Wang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A fluorescent molecularly imprinted nanosensor was obtained by grafting imprinted polymer onto the surface of multi-wall carbon nanotubes and post-imprinting treatment with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC. The fluorescence of lysozyme-imprinted polymer (Lys-MIP was quenched more strongly by Lys than that of nonimprinted polymer (NIP, which indicated that the Lys-MIP could recognize Lys. The resulted imprinted material has the ability to selectively sense a target protein, and an imprinting factor of 3.34 was achieved. The Lys-MIP also showed selective detection for Lys among other proteins such as cytochrome C (Cyt C, hemoglobin (HB and bovine serum albumin (BSA due to the imprinted sites in the Lys-MIP. This approach combines the high selectivity of surface molecular imprinting technology and fluorescence, and converts binding events into detectable signals by monitoring fluorescence spectra. Therefore, it will have further applications for Lys sensing.

  12. Diversity and evolution of coral fluorescent proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naila O Alieva

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available GFP-like fluorescent proteins (FPs are the key color determinants in reef-building corals (class Anthozoa, order Scleractinia and are of considerable interest as potential genetically encoded fluorescent labels. Here we report 40 additional members of the GFP family from corals. There are three major paralogous lineages of coral FPs. One of them is retained in all sampled coral families and is responsible for the non-fluorescent purple-blue color, while each of the other two evolved a full complement of typical coral fluorescent colors (cyan, green, and red and underwent sorting between coral groups. Among the newly cloned proteins are a "chromo-red" color type from Echinopora forskaliana (family Faviidae and pink chromoprotein from Stylophora pistillata (Pocilloporidae, both evolving independently from the rest of coral chromoproteins. There are several cyan FPs that possess a novel kind of excitation spectrum indicating a neutral chromophore ground state, for which the residue E167 is responsible (numeration according to GFP from A. victoria. The chromoprotein from Acropora millepora is an unusual blue instead of purple, which is due to two mutations: S64C and S183T. We applied a novel probabilistic sampling approach to recreate the common ancestor of all coral FPs as well as the more derived common ancestor of three main fluorescent colors of the Faviina suborder. Both proteins were green such as found elsewhere outside class Anthozoa. Interestingly, a substantial fraction of the all-coral ancestral protein had a chromohore apparently locked in a non-fluorescent neutral state, which may reflect the transitional stage that enabled rapid color diversification early in the history of coral FPs. Our results highlight the extent of convergent or parallel evolution of the color diversity in corals, provide the foundation for experimental studies of evolutionary processes that led to color diversification, and enable a comparative analysis of

  13. On the purported "backbone fluorescence" in protein three-dimensional fluorescence spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bortolotti, Annalisa; Wong, Yin How; Korsholm, Stine S.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, several proteins (albumin, lysozyme, insulin) and model compounds (Trp, Tyr, homopolypeptides) were used to demonstrate the origin of the fluorescence observed upon their excitation at 220-230 nm. In the last 10 years we have observed a worrying increase in the number of articles...... as any traditional protein emission spectrum. The many papers in reputable journals erroneously reporting this peak assignment, contradicting 5 decades of prior knowledge, have led to the creation of a new dogma, where many authors and reviewers now take the purported backbone fluorescence...... as an established fact. We hope the current paper helps counter this new situation and leads to a reassessment of those papers that make this erroneous claim....

  14. Cyclin B1 Destruction Box-Mediated Protein Instability: The Enhanced Sensitivity of Fluorescent-Protein-Based Reporter Gene System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Hsun Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The periodic expression and destruction of several cyclins are the most important steps for the exact regulation of cell cycle. Cyclins are degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system during cell cycle. Besides, a short sequence near the N-terminal of cyclin B called the destruction box (D-box; CDB is also required. Fluorescent-protein-based reporter gene system is insensitive to analysis because of the overly stable fluorescent proteins. Therefore, in this study, we use human CDB fused with both enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP at C-terminus and red fluorescent protein (RFP, DsRed at N-terminus in the transfected human melanoma cells to examine the effects of CDB on different fluorescent proteins. Our results indicated that CDB-fused fluorescent protein can be used to examine the slight gene regulations in the reporter gene system and have the potential to be the system for screening of functional compounds in the future.

  15. Two-photon excited UV fluorescence for protein crystal detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madden, Jeremy T.; DeWalt, Emma L.; Simpson, Garth J.

    2011-01-01

    Complementary measurements using SONICC and TPE-UVF allow the sensitive and selective detection of protein crystals. Two-photon excited ultraviolet fluorescence (TPE-UVF) microscopy is explored for sensitive protein-crystal detection as a complement to second-order nonlinear optical imaging of chiral crystals (SONICC). Like conventional ultraviolet fluorescence (UVF), TPE-UVF generates image contrast based on the intrinsic fluorescence of aromatic residues, generally producing higher fluorescence emission within crystals than the mother liquor by nature of the higher local protein concentration. However, TPE-UVF has several advantages over conventional UVF, including (i) insensitivity to optical scattering, allowing imaging in turbid matrices, (ii) direct compatibility with conventional optical plates and windows by using visible light for excitation, (iii) elimination of potentially damaging out-of-plane UV excitation, (iv) improved signal to noise through background reduction from out-of-plane excitation and (v) relatively simple integration into instrumentation developed for SONICC

  16. Photonic reagents for concentration measurement of flu-orescent proteins with overlapping spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goun, Alexei; Bondar, Denys I.; Er, Ali O.; Quine, Zachary; Rabitz, Herschel A.

    2016-05-01

    By exploiting photonic reagents (i.e., coherent control by shaped laser pulses), we employ Optimal Dynamic Discrimination (ODD) as a novel means for quantitatively characterizing mixtures of fluorescent proteins with a large spectral overlap. To illustrate ODD, we simultaneously measured concentrations of in vitro mixtures of Enhanced Blue Fluorescent Protein (EBFP) and Enhanced Cyan Fluorescent Protein (ECFP). Building on this foundational study, the ultimate goal is to exploit the capabilities of ODD for parallel monitoring of genetic and protein circuits by suppressing the spectral cross-talk among multiple fluorescent reporters.

  17. Identification of powdered Chinese herbal medicines by fluorescence microscopy, Part 1: Fluorescent characteristics of mechanical tissues, conducting tissues, and ergastic substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Qiong; Liang, Zhi-Tao; Li, Qin; Yang, Hua; Chen, Hu-Biao; Zhao, Zhong-Zhen; Li, Ping

    2011-03-01

    The light microscope has been successfully used in identification of Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) for more than a century. However, positive identification is not always possible. Given the popularity of fluorescence microscopy in bioanalysis, researchers dedicated to finding new ways to identify CHMs more effectively are now turning to fluorescence microscopy for authentication purposes. Some studies on distinguishing confused species from the same genus and on exploring distributions of chemicals in tissues of CHMs by fluorescence microscopy have been reported; however, no systematic investigations on fluorescent characteristics of powdered CHMs have been reported. Here, 46 samples of 16 CHMs were investigated. Specifically, the mechanical tissues including stone cells and fibers, the conducting tissues including three types of vessels, and ergastic substances including crystals of calcium oxalate and secretions, in various powdered CHMs were investigated by both light microscope and fluorescence microscope. The results showed many microscopic features emit fluorescence that makes them easily observed, even against complex backgrounds. Under the fluorescence microscope, different microscopic features from the same powdered CHM or some same features from different powdered CHMs emitted the different fluorescence, making this information very helpful for the authentication of CHMs in powder form. Moreover, secretions with unique chemical profiles from different powdered CHMs showed different fluorescent characteristics. Hence, fluorescence microscopy could be a useful additional method for the authentication of powdered CHMs if the fluorescent characteristics of specific CHMs are known. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Fluorescent proteins such as eGFP lead to catalytic oxidative stress in cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganini, Douglas; Leinisch, Fabian; Kumar, Ashutosh; Jiang, JinJie; Tokar, Erik J; Malone, Christine C; Petrovich, Robert M; Mason, Ronald P

    2017-08-01

    Fluorescent proteins are an important tool that has become omnipresent in life sciences research. They are frequently used for localization of proteins and monitoring of cells [1,2]. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) was the first and has been the most used fluorescent protein. Enhanced GFP (eGFP) was optimized from wild-type GFP for increased fluorescence yield and improved expression in mammalian systems [3]. Many GFP-like fluorescent proteins have been discovered, optimized or created, such as the red fluorescent protein TagRFP [4]. Fluorescent proteins are expressed colorless and immature and, for eGFP, the conversion to the fluorescent form, mature, is known to produce one equivalent of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) per molecule of chromophore [5,6]. Even though it has been proposed that this process is non-catalytic and generates nontoxic levels of H 2 O 2 [6], this study investigates the role of fluorescent proteins in generating free radicals and inducing oxidative stress in biological systems. Immature eGFP and TagRFP catalytically generate the free radical superoxide anion (O 2 •- ) and H 2 O 2 in the presence of NADH. Generation of the free radical O 2 •- and H 2 O 2 by eGFP in the presence of NADH affects the gene expression of cells. Many biological pathways are altered, such as a decrease in HIF1α stabilization and activity. The biological pathways altered by eGFP are known to be implicated in the pathophysiology of many diseases associated with oxidative stress; therefore, it is critical that such experiments using fluorescent proteins are validated with alternative methodologies and the results are carefully interpreted. Since cells inevitably experience oxidative stress when fluorescent proteins are expressed, the use of this tool for cell labeling and in vivo cell tracing also requires validation using alternative methodologies. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Frame-Insensitive Expression Cloning of Fluorescent Protein from Scolionema suvaense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Horiuchi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Expression cloning from cDNA is an important technique for acquiring genes encoding novel fluorescent proteins. However, the probability of in-frame cDNA insertion following the first start codon of the vector is normally only 1/3, which is a cause of low cloning efficiency. To overcome this issue, we developed a new expression plasmid vector, pRSET-TriEX, in which transcriptional slippage was induced by introducing a DNA sequence of (dT14 next to the first start codon of pRSET. The effectiveness of frame-insensitive cloning was validated by inserting the gene encoding eGFP with all three possible frames to the vector. After transformation with one of these plasmids, E. coli cells expressed eGFP with no significant difference in the expression level. The pRSET-TriEX vector was then used for expression cloning of a novel fluorescent protein from Scolionema suvaense. We screened 3658 E. coli colonies transformed with pRSET-TriEX containing Scolionema suvaense cDNA, and found one colony expressing a novel green fluorescent protein, ScSuFP. The highest score in protein sequence similarity was 42% with the chain c of multi-domain green fluorescent protein like protein “ember” from Anthoathecata sp. Variations in the N- and/or C-terminal sequence of ScSuFP compared to other fluorescent proteins indicate that the expression cloning, rather than the sequence similarity-based methods, was crucial for acquiring the gene encoding ScSuFP. The absorption maximum was at 498 nm, with an extinction efficiency of 1.17 × 105 M−1·cm−1. The emission maximum was at 511 nm and the fluorescence quantum yield was determined to be 0.6. Pseudo-native gel electrophoresis showed that the protein forms obligatory homodimers.

  20. Design and synthesis of new fluorescent probe for rapid and highly sensitive detection of proteins via electrophoretic gel stain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshio; Takagi, Nobuyuki; Chimuro, Tomoyuki; Shinohara, Atsushi; Sakaguchi, Nao; Hiratsuka, Atsunori; Yokoyama, Kenji

    2011-06-01

    A new fluorescent molecular probe, 2,2'-(1E,1'E)-2,2'-(4-(dicyanomethylene)-4H-pyrane-2,6-diyl)bis(ethene-2,1-diyl)bis(sodium benzenesulfonate) salt (1), possessing the cyanopyranyl moieties and two benzene sulfonic acid groups was designed and synthesized to detect proteins in solution and for high-throughput SDS-PAGE. Compound 1 exhibited no fluorescence in the absence of proteins; however, it exhibited strong fluorescence on the addition of bovine serum albumin as a result of intramolecular charge transfer. Compared with the conventional protocols for in-gel protein staining, such as SYPRO Ruby and silver staining, 1 achieves higher sensitivity, even though it offers a simplified, higher throughput protocol. In fact, the total time required for protein staining was 60-90 min under optimum conditions much shorter than that required by the less-sensitive silver staining or SYPRO Ruby staining protocols. Moreover, 1 was successfully applied to protein identification by mass spectrometry via in-gel tryptic digestion, Western blotting, and native PAGE together with protein staining by 1, which is a modified protocol of blue native PAGE (BN-PAGE). Thus, 1 may facilitate high-sensitivity protein detection, and it may be widely applicable as a convenient tool in various scientific and medical fields. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Spectroscopic Analysis of Red Fluorescent Proteins and Development of a Microfluidic Cell Sorter for the Generation of Improved Variants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubbeck, Jennifer L.

    The discovery of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) launched the development of a wide variety of fluorescent protein (FP) mutants whose spectral and photophysical diversity revolutionized in vivo imaging. The excitation and emission spectra of red fluorescent proteins (RFPs), in particular, have been ideally tuned to a window optically favorable for in vivo work. However, their quantum yields, photostabilities and fluorescence intermittency properties require improvement if they are to be broadly employed for low-copy or single-molecule measurements. Attempts to engineer improved RFPs often result in optimization of one photophysical property at the expense of others. We developed a microfluidic-based cytometer for screening HeLa cell-based genetic RFP-libraries simultaneously on the basis of fluorescence lifetime (a proxy for quantum yield), photostability, and brightness. Ten 532 nm excitation beams interrogate each cell in flow. The first is electro-optically modulated (30 MHz) to enable lifetime measurement with phase fluorimetry. The remaining beams act as a pulse sequence for isolating the irreversible photobleaching time constant. Optical-force switching is employed to sort cells based on any combination of the photophysical parameters. Screening with this instrument enables identification of regions of the structure that synergistically affect quantum yield and photostability and the sorting capability provides a new tool for accelerating the development of next generation RFPs.

  2. [Ph-Sensor Properties of a Fluorescent Protein from Dendronephthya sp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhomov, A A; Chertkova, R V; Martynov, V I

    2015-01-01

    Genetically encoded biosensors based on fluorescent proteins are now widely applicable for monitoring pH changes in live cells. Here, we have shown that a fluorescent protein from Dendronephthya sp. (DendFP) exhibits a pronounced pH-sensitivity. Unlike most of known genetically encoded pH-sensors, fluorescence of the protein is not quenched upon medium acidification, but is shifting from the red to green spectral range. Therefore, quantitative measurements of intracellular pH are feasible by ratiometric comparison of emission intensities in the red and green spectral ranges, which makes DendFP advantageous compared with other genetically encoded pH-sensors.

  3. Small fluorescence-activating and absorption-shifting tag for tunable protein imaging in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plamont, Marie-Aude; Billon-Denis, Emmanuelle; Maurin, Sylvie; Gauron, Carole; Pimenta, Frederico M; Specht, Christian G; Shi, Jian; Quérard, Jérôme; Pan, Buyan; Rossignol, Julien; Moncoq, Karine; Morellet, Nelly; Volovitch, Michel; Lescop, Ewen; Chen, Yong; Triller, Antoine; Vriz, Sophie; Le Saux, Thomas; Jullien, Ludovic; Gautier, Arnaud

    2016-01-19

    This paper presents Yellow Fluorescence-Activating and absorption-Shifting Tag (Y-FAST), a small monomeric protein tag, half as large as the green fluorescent protein, enabling fluorescent labeling of proteins in a reversible and specific manner through the reversible binding and activation of a cell-permeant and nontoxic fluorogenic ligand (a so-called fluorogen). A unique fluorogen activation mechanism based on two spectroscopic changes, increase of fluorescence quantum yield and absorption red shift, provides high labeling selectivity. Y-FAST was engineered from the 14-kDa photoactive yellow protein by directed evolution using yeast display and fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Y-FAST is as bright as common fluorescent proteins, exhibits good photostability, and allows the efficient labeling of proteins in various organelles and hosts. Upon fluorogen binding, fluorescence appears instantaneously, allowing monitoring of rapid processes in near real time. Y-FAST distinguishes itself from other tagging systems because the fluorogen binding is highly dynamic and fully reversible, which enables rapid labeling and unlabeling of proteins by addition and withdrawal of the fluorogen, opening new exciting prospects for the development of multiplexing imaging protocols based on sequential labeling.

  4. Engineering a novel multifunctional green fluorescent protein tag for a wide variety of protein research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Kobayashi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genetically encoded tag is a powerful tool for protein research. Various kinds of tags have been developed: fluorescent proteins for live-cell imaging, affinity tags for protein isolation, and epitope tags for immunological detections. One of the major problems concerning the protein tagging is that many constructs with different tags have to be made for different applications, which is time- and resource-consuming. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report a novel multifunctional green fluorescent protein (mfGFP tag which was engineered by inserting multiple peptide tags, i.e., octa-histidine (8xHis, streptavidin-binding peptide (SBP, and c-Myc tag, in tandem into a loop of GFP. When fused to various proteins, mfGFP monitored their localization in living cells. Streptavidin agarose column chromatography with the SBP tag successfully isolated the protein complexes in a native form with a high purity. Tandem affinity purification (TAP with 8xHis and SBP tags in mfGFP further purified the protein complexes. mfGFP was clearly detected by c-Myc-specific antibody both in immunofluorescence and immuno-electron microscopy (EM. These findings indicate that mfGFP works well as a multifunctional tag in mammalian cells. The tag insertion was also successful in other fluorescent protein, mCherry. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The multifunctional fluorescent protein tag is a useful tool for a wide variety of protein research, and may have the advantage over other multiple tag systems in its higher expandability and compatibility with existing and future tag technologies.

  5. Comparative assessment of fluorescent proteins for in vivo imaging in an animal model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heppert, Jennifer K; Dickinson, Daniel J; Pani, Ariel M; Higgins, Christopher D; Steward, Annette; Ahringer, Julie; Kuhn, Jeffrey R; Goldstein, Bob

    2016-11-07

    Fluorescent protein tags are fundamental tools used to visualize gene products and analyze their dynamics in vivo. Recent advances in genome editing have expedited the precise insertion of fluorescent protein tags into the genomes of diverse organisms. These advances expand the potential of in vivo imaging experiments and facilitate experimentation with new, bright, photostable fluorescent proteins. Most quantitative comparisons of the brightness and photostability of different fluorescent proteins have been made in vitro, removed from biological variables that govern their performance in cells or organisms. To address the gap, we quantitatively assessed fluorescent protein properties in vivo in an animal model system. We generated transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans strains expressing green, yellow, or red fluorescent proteins in embryos and imaged embryos expressing different fluorescent proteins under the same conditions for direct comparison. We found that mNeonGreen was not as bright in vivo as predicted based on in vitro data but is a better tag than GFP for specific kinds of experiments, and we report on optimal red fluorescent proteins. These results identify ideal fluorescent proteins for imaging in vivo in C. elegans embryos and suggest good candidate fluorescent proteins to test in other animal model systems for in vivo imaging experiments. © 2016 Heppert et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  6. Control of the blue fluorescent protein with advanced evolutionary pulse shaping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkaczyk, Eric R.; Mauring, Koit; Tkaczyk, Alan H.; Krasnenko, Veera; Ye, Jing Yong; Baker, James R.; Norris, Theodore B.

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate optical coherent control of the two-photon fluorescence of the blue fluorescent protein (BFP), which is of interest in investigations of protein-protein interactions. In addition to biological relevance, BFP represents an interesting target for coherent control from a chemical perspective due to its many components of highly nonexponential fluorescence decay and low quantum yield resulting from excited state isomerization. Using a genetic algorithm with a multiplicative (rather than ratiometric) fitness parameter, we are able to control the ratio of BFP fluorescence to second-harmonic generation without a considerable drop in the maximized signal. The importance of linear chirp and power-scaling on the discrimination process is investigated in detail

  7. Fluorescent IgG fusion proteins made in E. coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Yael; Raichlin, Dina; Benhar, Itai

    2012-01-01

    Antibodies are among the most powerful tools in biological and biomedical research and are presently the fastest growing category of new bio-pharmaceutics. The most common format of antibody applied for therapeutic, diagnostic and analytical purposes is the IgG format. For medical applications, recombinant IgGs are made in cultured mammalian cells in a process that is too expensive to be considered for producing antibodies for diagnostic and analytical purposes. Therefore, for such purposes, mouse monoclonal antibodies or polyclonal sera from immunized animals are used. While looking for an easier and more rapid way to prepare full-length IgGs for therapeutic purposes, we recently developed and reported an expression and purification protocol for full-length IgGs, and IgG-based fusion proteins in E. coli, called “Inclonals.” By applying the Inclonals technology, we could generate full-length IgGs that are genetically fused to toxins. The aim of the study described herein was to evaluate the possibility of applying the “Inclonals” technology for preparing IgG-fluorophore fusion proteins. We found that IgG fused to the green fluorescent proteins enhanced GFP (EGFP) while maintaining functionality in binding, lost most of its fluorescence during the refolding process. In contrast, we found that green fluorescent Superfolder GFP (SFGFP)-fused IgG and red fluorescent mCherry-fused IgG were functional in antigen binding and maintained fluorescence intensity. In addition, we found that we can link several SFGFPs in tandem to each IgG, with fluorescence intensity increasing accordingly. Fluorescent IgGs made in E. coli may become attractive alternatives to monoclonal or polyclonal fluorescent antibodies derived from animals. PMID:22531449

  8. Identification of catecholamine neurotransmitters using fluorescence sensor array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghasemi, Forough [Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11155-9516 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hormozi-Nezhad, M. Reza, E-mail: hormozi@sharif.edu [Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11155-9516 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahmoudi, Morteza, E-mail: mahmoudi@stanford.edu [Department of Nanotechnology and Nanotechnology Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 13169-43551 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305-5101 (United States)

    2016-04-21

    A nano-based sensor array has been developed for identification and discrimination of catecholamine neurotransmitters based on optical properties of their oxidation products under alkaline conditions. To produce distinct fluorescence response patterns for individual catecholamine, quenching of thioglycolic acid functionalized cadmium telluride (CdTe) quantum dots, by oxidation products, were employed along with the variation of fluorescence spectra of oxidation products. The spectral changes were analyzed with hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) to identify catecholamine patterns. The proposed sensor could efficiently discriminate the individual catecholamine (i.e., dopamine, norepinephrine, and L-DOPA) and their mixtures in the concentration range of 0.25–30 μmol L{sup −1}. Finally, we found that the sensor had capability to identify the various catecholamines in urine sample. - Highlights: • We have proposed a fluorescence sensor array to detect catecholamine neurotransmitters. • Visual differentiation of catecholamines is provided by fluorescence array fingerprints. • Discrimination of catecholamines from each other, and from their mixture is obtained on a PCA plot. • Proposed sensor array can be used for detection of catecholamines in urine samples.

  9. Combining random gene fission and rational gene fusion to discover near-infrared fluorescent protein fragments that report on protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Naresh; Nobles, Christopher L; Zechiedrich, Lynn; Maresso, Anthony W; Silberg, Jonathan J

    2015-05-15

    Gene fission can convert monomeric proteins into two-piece catalysts, reporters, and transcription factors for systems and synthetic biology. However, some proteins can be challenging to fragment without disrupting function, such as near-infrared fluorescent protein (IFP). We describe a directed evolution strategy that can overcome this challenge by randomly fragmenting proteins and concomitantly fusing the protein fragments to pairs of proteins or peptides that associate. We used this method to create libraries that express fragmented IFP as fusions to a pair of associating peptides (IAAL-E3 and IAAL-K3) and proteins (CheA and CheY) and screened for fragmented IFP with detectable near-infrared fluorescence. Thirteen novel fragmented IFPs were identified, all of which arose from backbone fission proximal to the interdomain linker. Either the IAAL-E3 and IAAL-K3 peptides or CheA and CheY proteins could assist with IFP fragment complementation, although the IAAL-E3 and IAAL-K3 peptides consistently yielded higher fluorescence. These results demonstrate how random gene fission can be coupled to rational gene fusion to create libraries enriched in fragmented proteins with AND gate logic that is dependent upon a protein-protein interaction, and they suggest that these near-infrared fluorescent protein fragments will be suitable as reporters for pairs of promoters and protein-protein interactions within whole animals.

  10. Decay time shortening of fluorescence from donor-acceptor pair proteins using ultrafast time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Motoyoshi; Suzuki, Masayuki; Ganeev, Rashid A.; Kuroda, Hiroto; Ozaki, Tsuneyuki; Hamakubo, Takao; Masuda, Kazuyuki; Hayashi, Masahiro; Sakihama, Toshiko; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Kozasa, Tohru

    2007-01-01

    We improved an ultrafast time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) spectroscopy system and measured directly the decrease in the fluorescence decay time of the FRET signal, without any entanglement of components in the picosecond time scale from the donor-acceptor protein pairs (such as cameleon protein for calcium ion indicator, and ligand-activated GRIN-Go proteins pair). The drastic decrease in lifetime of the donor protein fluorescence under the FRET condition (e.g. a 47.8% decrease for a GRIN-Go protein pair) proves the deformation dynamics between donor and acceptor fluorescent proteins in an activated state of a mixed donor-acceptor protein pair. This study is the first clear evidence of physical contact of the GRIN-Go proteins pair using time-resolved FRET system. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the most important protein family for the recognition of many chemical substances at the cell surface. They are the targets of many drugs. Simultaneously, we were able to observe the time-resolved spectra of luminous proteins at the initial stage under the FRET condition, within 10 ns from excitation. This new FRET system allows us to trace the dynamics of the interaction between proteins at the ligand-induced activated state, molecular structure change and combination or dissociation. It will be a key technology for the development of protein chip technology

  11. Glycine Insertion Makes Yellow Fluorescent Protein Sensitive to Hydrostatic Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tomonobu M.; Imada, Katsumi; Yoshizawa, Keiko; Nishiyama, Masayoshi; Kato, Chiaki; Abe, Fumiyoshi; Morikawa, Takamitsu J.; Kinoshita, Miki; Fujita, Hideaki; Yanagida, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescent protein-based indicators for intracellular environment conditions such as pH and ion concentrations are commonly used to study the status and dynamics of living cells. Despite being an important factor in many biological processes, the development of an indicator for the physicochemical state of water, such as pressure, viscosity and temperature, however, has been neglected. We here found a novel mutation that dramatically enhances the pressure dependency of the yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) by inserting several glycines into it. The crystal structure of the mutant showed that the tyrosine near the chromophore flipped toward the outside of the β-can structure, resulting in the entry of a few water molecules near the chromophore. In response to changes in hydrostatic pressure, a spectrum shift and an intensity change of the fluorescence were observed. By measuring the fluorescence of the YFP mutant, we succeeded in measuring the intracellular pressure change in living cell. This study shows a new strategy of design to engineer fluorescent protein indicators to sense hydrostatic pressure. PMID:24014139

  12. Fluorescence-Based Multiplex Protein Detection Using Optically Encoded Microbeads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae Hong Jeong

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Potential utilization of proteins for early detection and diagnosis of various diseases has drawn considerable interest in the development of protein-based multiplex detection techniques. Among the various techniques for high-throughput protein screening, optically-encoded beads combined with fluorescence-based target monitoring have great advantages over the planar array-based multiplexing assays. This review discusses recent developments of analytical methods of screening protein molecules on microbead-based platforms. These include various strategies such as barcoded microbeads, molecular beacon-based techniques, and surface-enhanced Raman scattering-based techniques. Their applications for label-free protein detection are also addressed. Especially, the optically-encoded beads such as multilayer fluorescence beads and SERS-encoded beads are successful for generating a large number of coding.

  13. Rapid identification of fluorochrome modification sites in proteins by LC ESI-Q-TOF mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikwar, Prakash; Zimmerman, Tahl; Blanco, Francisco J; Williams, Todd D; Siahaan, Teruna J

    2011-07-20

    Conjugation of either a fluorescent dye or a drug molecule to the ε-amino groups of lysine residues of proteins has many applications in biology and medicine. However, this type of conjugation produces a heterogeneous population of protein conjugates. Because conjugation of fluorochrome or drug molecule to a protein may have deleterious effects on protein function, the identification of conjugation sites is necessary. Unfortunately, the identification process can be time-consuming and laborious; therefore, there is a need to develop a rapid and reliable way to determine the conjugation sites of the fluorescent label or drug molecule. In this study, the sites of conjugation of fluorescein-5'-isothiocyanate and rhodamine-B-isothiocyanate to free amino groups on the insert-domain (I-domain) protein derived from the α-subunit of lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) were determined by electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-Q-TOF MS) along with peptide mapping using trypsin digestion. A reporter fragment of the fluorochrome moiety that is generated in the collision cell of the Q-TOF without explicit MS/MS precursor selection was used to identify the conjugation site. Selected ion plots of the reporter ion readily mark modified peptides in chromatograms of the complex digest. Interrogation of theses spectra reveals a neutral loss/precursor pair that identifies the modified peptide. The results show that one to seven fluorescein molecules or one to four rhodamine molecules were attached to the lysine residue(s) of the I-domain protein. No modifications were found in the metal ion-dependent adhesion site (MIDAS), which is an important binding region of the I-domain.

  14. Enhanced green fluorescent protein is a nearly ideal long-term expression tracer for hematopoietic stem cells, whereas DsRed-express fluorescent protein is not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Wen; Evans, Barbara-Graham; Yao, Jing; Cooper, Scott; Cornetta, Kenneth; Ballas, Christopher B; Hangoc, Giao; Broxmeyer, Hal E

    2007-03-01

    Validated gene transfer and expression tracers are essential for elucidating functions of mammalian genes. Here, we have determined the suitability and unintended side effects of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and DsRed-Express fluorescent protein as expression tracers in long-term hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Retrovirally transduced mouse bone marrow cells expressing either EGFP or DsRed-Express in single or mixed dual-color cell populations were clearly discerned by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. The results from in vivo competitive repopulation assays demonstrated that EGFP-expressing HSCs were maintained nearly throughout the lifespan of the transplanted mice and retained long-term multilineage repopulating potential. All mice assessed at 15 months post-transplantation were EGFP positive, and, on average, 24% total peripheral white blood cells expressed EGFP. Most EGFP-expressing recipient mice lived at least 22 months. In contrast, Discosoma sp. red fluorescent protein (DsRed)-expressing donor cells dramatically declined in transplant-recipient mice over time, particularly in the competitive setting, in which mixed EGFP- and DsRed-expressing cells were cotransplanted. Moreover, under in vitro culture condition favoring preservation of HSCs, purified EGFP-expressing cells grew robustly, whereas DsRed-expressing cells did not. Therefore, EGFP has no detectable deteriorative effects on HSCs, and is nearly an ideal long-term expression tracer for hematopoietic cells; however, DsRed-Express fluorescent protein is not suitable for these cells.

  15. A green fluorescent protein with photoswitchable emission from the deep sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Vogt

    Full Text Available A colorful variety of fluorescent proteins (FPs from marine invertebrates are utilized as genetically encoded markers for live cell imaging. The increased demand for advanced imaging techniques drives a continuous search for FPs with new and improved properties. Many useful FPs have been isolated from species adapted to sun-flooded habitats such as tropical coral reefs. It has yet remained unknown if species expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP-like proteins also exist in the darkness of the deep sea. Using a submarine-based and -operated fluorescence detection system in the Gulf of Mexico, we discovered ceriantharians emitting bright green fluorescence in depths between 500 and 600 m and identified a GFP, named cerFP505, with bright fluorescence emission peaking at 505 nm. Spectroscopic studies showed that approximately 15% of the protein bulk feature reversible ON/OFF photoswitching that can be induced by alternating irradiation with blue und near-UV light. Despite being derived from an animal adapted to essentially complete darkness and low temperatures, cerFP505 maturation in living mammalian cells at 37 degrees C, its brightness and photostability are comparable to those of EGFP and cmFP512 from shallow water species. Therefore, our findings disclose the deep sea as a potential source of GFP-like molecular marker proteins.

  16. Plasmonic photocatalyst-like fluorescent proteins for generating reactive oxygen species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leem, Jung Woo; Kim, Seong-Ryul; Choi, Kwang-Ho; Kim, Young L.

    2018-03-01

    The recent advances in photocatalysis have opened a variety of new possibilities for energy and biomedical applications. In particular, plasmonic photocatalysis using hybridization of semiconductor materials and metal nanoparticles has recently facilitated the rapid progress in enhancing photocatalytic efficiency under visible or solar light. One critical underlying aspect of photocatalysis is that it generates and releases reactive oxygen species (ROS) as intermediate or final products upon light excitation or activation. Although plasmonic photocatalysis overcomes the limitation of UV irradiation, synthesized metal/semiconductor nanomaterial photocatalysts often bring up biohazardous and environmental issues. In this respect, this review article is centered in identifying natural photosensitizing organic materials that can generate similar types of ROS as those of plasmonic photocatalysis. In particular, we propose the idea of plasmonic photocatalyst-like fluorescent proteins for ROS generation under visible light irradiation. We recapitulate fluorescent proteins that have Type I and Type II photosensitization properties in a comparable manner to plasmonic photocatalysis. Plasmonic photocatalysis and protein photosensitization have not yet been compared systemically in terms of ROS photogeneration under visible light, although the phototoxicity and cytotoxicity of some fluorescent proteins are well recognized. A comprehensive understanding of plasmonic photocatalyst-like fluorescent proteins and their potential advantages will lead us to explore new environmental, biomedical, and defense applications.

  17. Identification of endangered or threatened Costa Rican tree species by wood anatomy and fluorescence activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Róger; Wiemann, Michael C; Olivares, Carlos

    2013-09-01

    A total of 45 native Costa Rican tree species are threatened or in danger of extinction, but the Convention on International Trade Endangered Species (CITES) includes only eight of these in its Appendices. However, the identification of other species based on their wood anatomy is limited. The present study objective was to describe and to compare wood anatomy and fluorescence activity in some endangered or threatened species of Costa Rica. A total of 45 (22 endangered and 23 threatened with extinction) wood samples of these species, from the xylaria of the Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica and the Forest Products Laboratory in Madison, Wisconsin, were examined. Surface fluorescence was positive in eight species, water extract fluorescence was positive in six species and ethanol extract fluorescence was positive in 24 species. Almost all species were diffuse porous except for occasional (Cedrela odorata, C. fissilis, Cordia gerascanthus) or regular (C. salvadorensis and C. tonduzii) semi-ring porosity. A dendritic vessel arrangement was found in Sideroxylon capari, and pores were solitary in Guaiacum sanctum and Vantanea barbourii. Vessel element length was shortest in Guaiacum sanctum and longest in Humiriastrum guianensis, Minquartia guianensis and Vantanea barbourii. Finally, anatomical information and fluorescence activity were utilized to construct an identification key of species, in which fluorescence is a feature used in identification.

  18. Identification of endangered or threatened Costa Rican tree species by wood anatomy and fluorescence activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róger Moya

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 45 native Costa Rican tree species are threatened or in danger of extinction, but the Convention on International Trade Endangered Species (CITES includes only eight of these in its Appendices. However, the identification of other species based on their wood anatomy is limited. The present study objective was to describe and to compare wood anatomy and fluorescence activity in some endangered or threatened species of Costa Rica. A total of 45 (22 endangered and 23 threatened with extinction wood samples of these species, from the xylaria of the Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica and the Forest Products Laboratory in Madison, Wisconsin, were examined. Surface fluorescence was positive in eight species, water extract fluorescence was positive in six species and ethanol extract fluorescence was positive in 24 species. Almost all species were diffuse porous except for occasional (Cedrela odorata, C. fissilis, Cordia gerascanthus or regular (C. salvadorensis and C. tonduzii semi-ring porosity. A dendritic vessel arrangement was found in Sideroxylon capari, and pores were solitary in Guaiacum sanctum and Vantanea barbourii. Vessel element length was shortest in Guaiacum sanctum and longest in Humiriastrum guianensis, Minquartia guianensis and Vantanea barbourii. Finally, anatomical information and fluorescence activity were utilized to construct an identification key of species, in which fluorescence is a feature used in identification.

  19. Fluorescence diffuse tomography of small animals with DsRed2 fluorescent protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchin, I. V.; Plehanov, V. I.; Orlova, A. G.; Kamenskiy, V. A.; Kleshnin, M. S.; Shirmanova, M. V.; Shakhova, N. M.; Balalaeva, I. V.; Savitskiy, A. P.

    2006-05-01

    Fluorescent compounds are used as markers to diagnose oncological diseases, to study molecular processes typical for carcinogenesis, and to investigate metastasis formation and tumor regress under the influence of therapeutics. Different types of tomography, such as continuous wave (CW), frequency-domain (FD), and time-domain (TD) tomography, allow fluorescence imaging of tumors located deep in human or animal tissue. In this work, preliminary results of the frequency domain fluorescent diffuse tomography (FDT) method in application to DsRed2 protein as a fluorescent agent are presented. For the first step of our experiments, we utilized low-frequency amplitude modulation (1 kHz) of second harmonic of Nd: YAG (532 nm). The transilluminative configuration was used in the setup. The results of post mortem experiments with capsules containing DsRed2 inserted inside the esophagus of a 3-day-old hairless rat to simulate tumor are shown. An algorithm of processing fluorescent images based on calculating the zero of maximum curvature has been applied to detect fluorescent inclusion boundaries in the image. This work demonstrates the potential capability of the FDT method for imaging deep fluorescent tumors in human tissue or animal models of human cancer. Improvement of the setup can be accomplished by using high-frequency modulation (using a 110-MHz acoustooptical modulator).

  20. Refractive index sensing of green fluorescent proteins in living cells using fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Manen, Henk-Jan; Verkuijlen, Paul; Wittendorp, Paul; Subramaniam, Vinod; van den Berg, Timo K; Roos, Dirk; Otto, Cees

    2008-01-01

    We show that fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) of green fluorescent protein (GFP) molecules in cells can be used to report on the local refractive index of intracellular GFP. We expressed GFP fusion constructs of Rac2 and gp91(phox), which are both subunits of the phagocyte NADPH

  1. Green Fluorescent Protein as a Model for Protein Crystal Growth Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agena, Sabine; Smith, Lori; Karr, Laurel; Pusey, Marc

    1998-01-01

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP) from jellyfish Aequorea Victoria has become a popular marker for e.g. mutagenesis work. Its fluorescent property, which originates from a chromophore located in the center of the molecule, makes it widely applicable as a research too]. GFP clones have been produced with a variety of spectral properties, such as blue and yellow emitting species. The protein is a single chain of molecular weight 27 kDa and its structure has been determined at 1.9 Angstrom resolution. The combination of GFP's fluorescent property, the knowledge of its several crystallization conditions, and its increasing use in biophysical and biochemical studies, all led us to consider it as a model material for macromolecular crystal growth studies. Initial preparations of GFP were from E.coli with yields of approximately 5 mg/L of culture media. Current yields are now in the 50 - 120 mg/L range, and we hope to further increase this by expression of the GFP gene in the Pichia system. The results of these efforts and of preliminary crystal growth studies will be presented.

  2. Determination of the topology of endoplasmic reticulum membrane proteins using redox-sensitive green-fluorescence protein fusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsachaki, Maria; Birk, Julia; Egert, Aurélie; Odermatt, Alex

    2015-07-01

    Membrane proteins of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are involved in a wide array of essential cellular functions. Identification of the topology of membrane proteins can provide significant insight into their mechanisms of action and biological roles. This is particularly important for membrane enzymes, since their topology determines the subcellular site where a biochemical reaction takes place and the dependence on luminal or cytosolic co-factor pools and substrates. The methods currently available for the determination of topology of proteins are rather laborious and require post-lysis or post-fixation manipulation of cells. In this work, we have developed a simple method for defining intracellular localization and topology of ER membrane proteins in living cells, based on the fusion of the respective protein with redox-sensitive green-fluorescent protein (roGFP). We validated the method and demonstrated that roGFP fusion proteins constitute a reliable tool for the study of ER membrane protein topology, using as control microsomal 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD) proteins whose topology has been resolved, and comparing with an independent approach. We then implemented this method to determine the membrane topology of six microsomal members of the 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD) family. The results revealed a luminal orientation of the catalytic site for three enzymes, i.e. 17β-HSD6, 7 and 12. Knowledge of the intracellular location of the catalytic site of these enzymes will enable future studies on their biological functions and on the role of the luminal co-factor pool. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Localizing Proteins in Fixed Giardia lamblia and Live Cultured Mammalian Cells by Confocal Fluorescence Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyindodo-Ogari, Lilian; Schwartzbach, Steven D; Skalli, Omar; Estraño, Carlos E

    2016-01-01

    Confocal fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy (EM) are complementary methods for studying the intracellular localization of proteins. Confocal fluorescence microscopy provides a rapid and technically simple method to identify the organelle in which a protein localizes but only EM can identify the suborganellular compartment in which that protein is present. Confocal fluorescence microscopy, however, can provide information not obtainable by EM but required to understand the dynamics and interactions of specific proteins. In addition, confocal fluorescence microscopy of cells transfected with a construct encoding a protein of interest fused to a fluorescent protein tag allows live cell studies of the subcellular localization of that protein and the monitoring in real time of its trafficking. Immunostaining methods for confocal fluorescence microscopy are also faster and less involved than those for EM allowing rapid optimization of the antibody dilution needed and a determination of whether protein antigenicity is maintained under fixation conditions used for EM immunogold labeling. This chapter details a method to determine by confocal fluorescence microscopy the intracellular localization of a protein by transfecting the organism of interest, in this case Giardia lamblia, with the cDNA encoding the protein of interest and then processing these organisms for double label immunofluorescence staining after chemical fixation. Also presented is a method to identify the organelle targeting information in the presequence of a precursor protein, in this case the presequence of the precursor to the Euglena light harvesting chlorophyll a/b binding protein of photosystem II precursor (pLHCPII), using live cell imaging of mammalian COS7 cells transiently transfected with a plasmid encoding a pLHCPII presequence fluorescent protein fusion and stained with organelle-specific fluorescent dyes.

  4. Characterization of Fluorescent Proteins for Three- and Four-Color Live-Cell Imaging in S. cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi-Sanabria, Ryo; Garcia, Enrique J; Tomoiaga, Delia; Munteanu, Emilia L; Feinstein, Paul; Pon, Liza A

    2016-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae are widely used for imaging fluorescently tagged protein fusions. Fluorescent proteins can easily be inserted into yeast genes at their chromosomal locus, by homologous recombination, for expression of tagged proteins at endogenous levels. This is especially useful for incorporation of multiple fluorescent protein fusions into a single strain, which can be challenging in organisms where genetic manipulation is more complex. However, the availability of optimal fluorescent protein combinations for 3-color imaging is limited. Here, we have characterized a combination of fluorescent proteins, mTFP1/mCitrine/mCherry for multicolor live cell imaging in S. cerevisiae. This combination can be used with conventional blue dyes, such as DAPI, for potential four-color live cell imaging.

  5. Fluorescent tags of protein function in living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, M

    2000-02-01

    A cell's biochemistry is now known to be the biochemistry of molecular machines, that is, protein complexes that are assembled and dismantled in particular locations within the cell as needed. One important element in our understanding has been the ability to begin to see where proteins are in cells and what they are doing as they go about their business. Accordingly, there is now a strong impetus to discover new ways of looking at the workings of proteins in living cells. Although the use of fluorescent tags to track individual proteins in cells has a long history, the availability of laser-based confocal microscopes and the imaginative exploitation of the green fluorescent protein from jellyfish have provided new tools of great diversity and utility. It is now possible to watch a protein bind its substrate or its partners in real time and with submicron resolution within a single cell. The importance of processes of self-organisation represented by protein folding on the one hand and subcellular organelles on the other are well recognised. Self-organisation at the intermediate level of multimeric protein complexes is now open to inspection. BioEssays 22:180-187, 2000. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  6. Identification of scleractinian coral recruits using fluorescent censusing and DNA barcoding techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Min Hsu

    Full Text Available The identification of coral recruits has been problematic due to a lack of definitive morphological characters being available for higher taxonomic resolution. In this study, we tested whether fluorescent detection of coral recruits used in combinations of different DNA-barcoding markers (cytochrome oxidase I gene [COI], open reading frame [ORF], and nuclear Pax-C intron [PaxC] could be useful for increasing the resolution of coral spat identification in ecological studies. One hundred and fifty settlement plates were emplaced at nine sites on the fringing reefs of Kenting National Park in southern Taiwan between April 2011 and September 2012. A total of 248 living coral spats and juveniles (with basal areas ranging from 0.21 to 134.57 mm(2 were detected on the plates with the aid of fluorescent light and collected for molecular analyses. Using the COI DNA barcoding technique, 90.3% (224/248 of coral spats were successfully identified into six genera, including Acropora, Isopora, Montipora, Pocillopora, Porites, and Pavona. PaxC further separated I. cuneata and I. palifera of Isopora from Acropora, and ORF successfully identified the species of Pocillopora (except P. meandrina and P. eydouxi. Moreover, other cnidarian species such as actinarians, zoanthids, and Millepora species were visually found using fluorescence and identified by COI DNA barcoding. This combination of existing approaches greatly improved the taxonomic resolution of early coral life stages, which to date has been mainly limited to the family level based on skeletal identification. Overall, this study suggests important improvements for the identification of coral recruits in ecological studies.

  7. Identification of scleractinian coral recruits using fluorescent censusing and DNA barcoding techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chia-Min; de Palmas, Stéphane; Kuo, Chao-Yang; Denis, Vianney; Chen, Chaolun Allen

    2014-01-01

    The identification of coral recruits has been problematic due to a lack of definitive morphological characters being available for higher taxonomic resolution. In this study, we tested whether fluorescent detection of coral recruits used in combinations of different DNA-barcoding markers (cytochrome oxidase I gene [COI], open reading frame [ORF], and nuclear Pax-C intron [PaxC]) could be useful for increasing the resolution of coral spat identification in ecological studies. One hundred and fifty settlement plates were emplaced at nine sites on the fringing reefs of Kenting National Park in southern Taiwan between April 2011 and September 2012. A total of 248 living coral spats and juveniles (with basal areas ranging from 0.21 to 134.57 mm(2)) were detected on the plates with the aid of fluorescent light and collected for molecular analyses. Using the COI DNA barcoding technique, 90.3% (224/248) of coral spats were successfully identified into six genera, including Acropora, Isopora, Montipora, Pocillopora, Porites, and Pavona. PaxC further separated I. cuneata and I. palifera of Isopora from Acropora, and ORF successfully identified the species of Pocillopora (except P. meandrina and P. eydouxi). Moreover, other cnidarian species such as actinarians, zoanthids, and Millepora species were visually found using fluorescence and identified by COI DNA barcoding. This combination of existing approaches greatly improved the taxonomic resolution of early coral life stages, which to date has been mainly limited to the family level based on skeletal identification. Overall, this study suggests important improvements for the identification of coral recruits in ecological studies.

  8. Protein kinase substrate identification on functional protein arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Fang

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last decade, kinases have emerged as attractive therapeutic targets for a number of different diseases, and numerous high throughput screening efforts in the pharmaceutical community are directed towards discovery of compounds that regulate kinase function. The emerging utility of systems biology approaches has necessitated the development of multiplex tools suitable for proteomic-scale experiments to replace lower throughput technologies such as mass spectroscopy for the study of protein phosphorylation. Recently, a new approach for identifying substrates of protein kinases has applied the miniaturized format of functional protein arrays to characterize phosphorylation for thousands of candidate protein substrates in a single experiment. This method involves the addition of protein kinases in solution to arrays of immobilized proteins to identify substrates using highly sensitive radioactive detection and hit identification algorithms. Results To date, the factors required for optimal performance of protein array-based kinase substrate identification have not been described. In the current study, we have carried out a detailed characterization of the protein array-based method for kinase substrate identification, including an examination of the effects of time, buffer compositions, and protein concentration on the results. The protein array approach was compared to standard solution-based assays for assessing substrate phosphorylation, and a correlation of greater than 80% was observed. The results presented here demonstrate how novel substrates for protein kinases can be quickly identified from arrays containing thousands of human proteins to provide new clues to protein kinase function. In addition, a pooling-deconvolution strategy was developed and applied that enhances characterization of specific kinase-substrate relationships and decreases reagent consumption. Conclusion Functional protein microarrays are an

  9. Effect of tissue scaffold topography on protein structure monitored by fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portugal, Carla A M; Truckenmüller, Roman; Stamatialis, Dimitrios; Crespo, João G

    2014-11-10

    The impact of surface topography on the structure of proteins upon adhesion was assessed through non-invasive fluorescence monitoring. This study aimed at obtaining a better understanding about the role of protein structural status on cell-scaffold interactions. The changes induced upon adsorption of two model proteins with different geometries, trypsin (globular conformation) and fibrinogen (rod-shaped conformation) on poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA) scaffolds with different surface topographies, flat, fibrous and surfaces with aligned nanogrooves, were assessed by fluorescence spectroscopy monitoring, using tryptophan as structural probe. Hence, the maximum emission blue shift and the increase of fluorescence anisotropy observed after adsorption of globular and rod-like shaped proteins on surfaces with parallel nanogrooves were ascribed to more intense protein-surface interactions. Furthermore, the decrease of fluorescence anisotropy observed upon adsorption of proteins to scaffolds with fibrous morphology was more significant for rod-shaped proteins. This effect was associated to the ability of these proteins to adjust to curved surfaces. The additional unfolding of proteins induced upon adsorption on scaffolds with a fibrous morphology may be the reason for better cell attachment there, promoting an easier access of cell receptors to initially hidden protein regions (e.g. RGDS sequence), which are known to have a determinant role in cell attaching processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Click chemistry for the conservation of cellular structures and fluorescent proteins: ClickOx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löschberger, Anna; Niehörster, Thomas; Sauer, Markus

    2014-05-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS), including hydrogen peroxide, are known to cause structural damage not only in living, but also in fixed, cells. Copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (click chemistry) is known to produce ROS. Therefore, fluorescence imaging of cellular structures, such as the actin cytoskeleton, remains challenging when combined with click chemistry protocols. In addition, the production of ROS substantially weakens the fluorescence signal of fluorescent proteins. This led us to develop ClickOx, which is a new click chemistry protocol for improved conservation of the actin structure and better conservation of the fluorescence signal of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion proteins. Herein we demonstrate that efficient oxygen removal by addition of an enzymatic oxygen scavenger system (ClickOx) considerably reduces ROS-associated damage during labeling of nascent DNA with ATTO 488 azide by Cu(I)-catalyzed click chemistry. Standard confocal and super-resolution fluorescence images of phalloidin-labeled actin filaments and GFP/yellow fluorescent protein-labeled cells verify the conservation of the cytoskeleton microstructure and fluorescence intensity, respectively. Thus, ClickOx can be used advantageously for structure preservation in conventional and most notably in super-resolution microscopy methods. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Identification of catecholamine neurotransmitters using fluorescence sensor array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Forough; Hormozi-Nezhad, M Reza; Mahmoudi, Morteza

    2016-04-21

    A nano-based sensor array has been developed for identification and discrimination of catecholamine neurotransmitters based on optical properties of their oxidation products under alkaline conditions. To produce distinct fluorescence response patterns for individual catecholamine, quenching of thioglycolic acid functionalized cadmium telluride (CdTe) quantum dots, by oxidation products, were employed along with the variation of fluorescence spectra of oxidation products. The spectral changes were analyzed with hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) to identify catecholamine patterns. The proposed sensor could efficiently discriminate the individual catecholamine (i.e., dopamine, norepinephrine, and l-DOPA) and their mixtures in the concentration range of 0.25-30 μmol L(-1). Finally, we found that the sensor had capability to identify the various catecholamines in urine sample. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of novel 2, 2'-bipyrimidine fluorescent derivative for protein binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padalkar Vikas S

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fluorescent dyes with biocompatible functional group and good fluorescence behavior are used as biosensor for monitoring different biological processes as well as detection of protein assay. All reported fluorophore used as sensors are having high selectivity and sensitivity but till there is more demand to synthesized new fluorophore which have improved fluorescence properties and good biocompatibility. Results Novel 4, 4'-(1, 1'-(5-(2-methoxyphenoxy-[2, 2'-bipyrimidine]-4, 6-diylbis(1H-pyrazol-3, 1-diyl dianiline fluorescent dye was synthesized by multistep synthesis from 2-phenylacetonitrile, 2-chloropyrimidine and 2-methoxyphenol. This dye has absorption at 379 nm with intense single emission at 497 nm having fairly good quantum yield (0.375 and Stokes shift. The intermediates and dye were characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and Mass spectral analysis. The pyrazole bipyrimidine based fluorescent dye possessing two amino groups suitable for binding with protein is reported. Its utility as a biocompatible conjugate was explained by conjugation with bovine serum albumin. The method is based on direct fluorescence detection of fluorophore-labelled protein before and after conjugation. Purified fluorescent conjugate was subsequently analyzed by fluorimetry. The analysis showed that the tested conjugation reaction yielded fluorescent conjugates of the dye through carbodiimide chemistry. Conclusion In summery synthesized fluorophore pyrazole-bipyrimidine has very good interaction towards protein bovine serum albumin and it acts as good candidate for protein assay.

  13. Click strategies for single-molecule protein fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milles, Sigrid; Tyagi, Swati; Banterle, Niccolò; Koehler, Christine; VanDelinder, Virginia; Plass, Tilman; Neal, Adrian P; Lemke, Edward A

    2012-03-21

    Single-molecule methods have matured into central tools for studies in biology. Foerster resonance energy transfer (FRET) techniques, in particular, have been widely applied to study biomolecular structure and dynamics. The major bottleneck for a facile and general application of these studies arises from the need to label biological samples site-specifically with suitable fluorescent dyes. In this work, we present an optimized strategy combining click chemistry and the genetic encoding of unnatural amino acids (UAAs) to overcome this limitation for proteins. We performed a systematic study with a variety of clickable UAAs and explored their potential for high-resolution single-molecule FRET (smFRET). We determined all parameters that are essential for successful single-molecule studies, such as accessibility of the probes, expression yield of proteins, and quantitative labeling. Our multiparameter fluorescence analysis allowed us to gain new insights into the effects and photophysical properties of fluorescent dyes linked to various UAAs for smFRET measurements. This led us to determine that, from the extended tool set that we now present, genetically encoding propargyllysine has major advantages for state-of-the-art measurements compared to other UAAs. Using this optimized system, we present a biocompatible one-step dual-labeling strategy of the regulatory protein RanBP3 with full labeling position freedom. Our technique allowed us then to determine that the region encompassing two FxFG repeat sequences adopts a disordered but collapsed state. RanBP3 serves here as a prototypical protein that, due to its multiple cysteines, size, and partially disordered structure, is not readily accessible to any of the typical structure determination techniques such as smFRET, NMR, and X-ray crystallography.

  14. Identification of Increased Amounts of Eppin Protein Complex Components in Sperm Cells of Diabetic and Obese Individuals by Difference Gel Electrophoresis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paasch, Uwe; Heidenreich, Falk; Pursche, Theresia; Kuhlisch, Eberhard; Kettner, Karina; Grunewald, Sonja; Kratzsch, Jürgen; Dittmar, Gunnar; Glander, Hans-Jürgen; Hoflack, Bernard; Kriegel, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic disorders like diabetes mellitus and obesity may compromise the fertility of men and women. To unveil disease-associated proteomic changes potentially affecting male fertility, the proteomes of sperm cells from type-1 diabetic, type-2 diabetic, non-diabetic obese and clinically healthy individuals were comparatively analyzed by difference gel electrophoresis. The adaptation of a general protein extraction procedure to the solubilization of proteins from sperm cells allowed for the resolution of 3187 fluorescent spots in the difference gel electrophoresis image of the master gel, which contained the entirety of solubilized sperm proteins. Comparison of the pathological and reference proteomes by applying an average abundance ratio setting of 1.6 and a p ≤ 0.05 criterion resulted in the identification of 79 fluorescent spots containing proteins that were present at significantly changed levels in the sperm cells. Biometric evaluation of the fluorescence data followed by mass spectrometric protein identification revealed altered levels of 12, 71, and 13 protein species in the proteomes of the type-1 diabetic, type-2 diabetic, and non-diabetic obese patients, respectively, with considerably enhanced amounts of the same set of one molecular form of semenogelin-1, one form of clusterin, and two forms of lactotransferrin in each group of pathologic samples. Remarkably, β-galactosidase-1-like protein was the only protein that was detected at decreased levels in all three pathologic situations. The former three proteins are part of the eppin (epididymal proteinase inhibitor) protein complex, which is thought to fulfill fertilization-related functions, such as ejaculate sperm protection, motility regulation and gain of competence for acrosome reaction, whereas the putative role of the latter protein to function as a glycosyl hydrolase during sperm maturation remains to be explored at the protein/enzyme level. The strikingly similar differences detected in the

  15. Fluorescent Molecular Rotor-in-Paraffin Waxes for Thermometry and Biometric Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Young-Jae; Dogra, Rubal; Cheong, In Woo; Kwak, Giseop

    2015-07-08

    Novel thermoresponsive sensor systems consisting of a molecular rotor (MR) and paraffin wax (PW) were developed for various thermometric and biometric identification applications. Polydiphenylacetylenes (PDPAs) coupled with long alkyl chains were used as MRs, and PWs of hydrocarbons having 16-20 carbons were utilized as phase-change materials. The PDPAs were successfully dissolved in the molten PWs and did not act as an impurity that prevents phase transition of the PWs. These PDPA-in-PW hybrids had almost the same enthalpies and phase-transition temperatures as the corresponding pure PWs. The hybrids exhibited highly reversible fluorescence (FL) changes at the critical temperatures during phase transition of the PWs. These hybrids were impregnated into common filter paper in the molten state by absorption or were encapsulated into urea resin to enhance their mechanical integrity and cyclic stability during repeated use. The wax papers could be utilized in highly advanced applications including FL image writing/erasing, an array-type thermo-indicator, and fingerprint/palmprint identification. The present findings should facilitate the development of novel fluorescent sensor systems for biometric identification and are potentially applicable for biological and biomedical thermometry.

  16. Structural characterization of the photoswitchable fluorescent protein Dronpa-C62S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Ki-Hyun; Kwon, Oh Yeun; Sugiyama, Kanako; Lee, Won-Ho; Kim, Young Kwan; Song, Hyun Kyu; Kim, Eunice Eunkyung; Park, Sam-Yong; Jeon, Hyesung; Hwang, Kwang Yeon

    2007-01-01

    The photoswitching behavior of green fluorescent proteins (GFPs) or GFP-like proteins is increasingly recognized as a new technique for optical marking. Recently, Ando and his colleagues developed a new green fluorescent protein Dronpa, which possesses the unique photochromic property of being photoswitchable in a non-destructive manner. To better understand this mechanism, we determined the crystal structures of a new GFP Dronpa and its mutant C62S, at 1.9 A and 1.8 A, respectively. Determination of the structures demonstrates that a unique hydrogen-bonding network and the sulfur atom of the chromophore are critical to the photoswitching property of Dronpa. Reversible photoswitching was lost in cells expressing the Dronpa-C62S upon repetitive irradiation compared to the native protein. Structural and mutational analyses reveal the chemical basis for the functional properties of photoswitchable fluorescent proteins and provide the basis for subsequent coherent engineering of this subfamily of Dronpa homolog's

  17. Tolerance of a knotted near infrared fluorescent protein to random circular permutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Naresh; Kuypers, Brianna E.; Nassif, Barbara; Thomas, Emily E.; Alnahhas, Razan N.; Segatori, Laura; Silberg, Jonathan J.

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophytochrome photoreceptors (BphP) are knotted proteins that have been developed as near-infrared fluorescent protein (iRFP) reporters of gene expression. To explore how rearrangements in the peptides that interlace into the knot within the BphP photosensory core affect folding, we subjected iRFP to random circular permutation using an improved transposase mutagenesis strategy and screened for variants that fluoresce. We identified twenty seven circularly permuted iRFP that display biliverdin-dependent fluorescence in Escherichia coli. The variants with the brightest whole cell fluorescence initiated translation at residues near the domain linker and knot tails, although fluorescent variants were discovered that initiated translation within the PAS and GAF domains. Circularly permuted iRFP retained sufficient cofactor affinity to fluoresce in tissue culture without the addition of biliverdin, and one variant displayed enhanced fluorescence when expressed in bacteria and tissue culture. This variant displayed a similar quantum yield as iRFP, but exhibited increased resistance to chemical denaturation, suggesting that the observed signal increase arose from more efficient protein maturation. These results show how the contact order of a knotted BphP can be altered without disrupting chromophore binding and fluorescence, an important step towards the creation of near-infrared biosensors with expanded chemical-sensing functions for in vivo imaging. PMID:27304983

  18. Site-Specific Bioorthogonal Labeling for Fluorescence Imaging of Intracellular Proteins in Living Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Tao; Hang, Howard C

    2016-11-02

    Over the past years, fluorescent proteins (e.g., green fluorescent proteins) have been widely utilized to visualize recombinant protein expression and localization in live cells. Although powerful, fluorescent protein tags are limited by their relatively large sizes and potential perturbation to protein function. Alternatively, site-specific labeling of proteins with small-molecule organic fluorophores using bioorthogonal chemistry may provide a more precise and less perturbing method. This approach involves site-specific incorporation of unnatural amino acids (UAAs) into proteins via genetic code expansion, followed by bioorthogonal chemical labeling with small organic fluorophores in living cells. While this approach has been used to label extracellular proteins for live cell imaging studies, site-specific bioorthogonal labeling and fluorescence imaging of intracellular proteins in live cells is still challenging. Herein, we systematically evaluate site-specific incorporation of diastereomerically pure bioorthogonal UAAs bearing stained alkynes or alkenes into intracellular proteins for inverse-electron-demand Diels-Alder cycloaddition reactions with tetrazine-functionalized fluorophores for live cell labeling and imaging in mammalian cells. Our studies show that site-specific incorporation of axial diastereomer of trans-cyclooct-2-ene-lysine robustly affords highly efficient and specific bioorthogonal labeling with monosubstituted tetrazine fluorophores in live mammalian cells, which enabled us to image the intracellular localization and real-time dynamic trafficking of IFITM3, a small membrane-associated protein with only 137 amino acids, for the first time. Our optimized UAA incorporation and bioorthogonal labeling conditions also enabled efficient site-specific fluorescence labeling of other intracellular proteins for live cell imaging studies in mammalian cells.

  19. Thermal green protein, an extremely stable, nonaggregating fluorescent protein created by structure-guided surface engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, Devin W; Paul, Craig Don; Langan, Patricia S; Wilce, Matthew C J; Traore, Daouda A K; Halfmann, Randal; Rocha, Reginaldo C; Waldo, Geoffery S; Payne, Riley J; Rucker, Joseph B; Prescott, Mark; Bradbury, Andrew R M

    2015-07-01

    In this article, we describe the engineering and X-ray crystal structure of Thermal Green Protein (TGP), an extremely stable, highly soluble, non-aggregating green fluorescent protein. TGP is a soluble variant of the fluorescent protein eCGP123, which despite being highly stable, has proven to be aggregation-prone. The X-ray crystal structure of eCGP123, also determined within the context of this paper, was used to carry out rational surface engineering to improve its solubility, leading to TGP. The approach involved simultaneously eliminating crystal lattice contacts while increasing the overall negative charge of the protein. Despite intentional disruption of lattice contacts and introduction of high entropy glutamate side chains, TGP crystallized readily in a number of different conditions and the X-ray crystal structure of TGP was determined to 1.9 Å resolution. The structural reasons for the enhanced stability of TGP and eCGP123 are discussed. We demonstrate the utility of using TGP as a fusion partner in various assays and significantly, in amyloid assays in which the standard fluorescent protein, EGFP, is undesirable because of aberrant oligomerization. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Fluorescence-based Western blotting for quantitation of protein biomarkers in clinical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellner, Maria; Babeluk, Rita; Diestinger, Michael; Pirchegger, Petra; Skeledzic, Senada; Oehler, Rudolf

    2008-09-01

    Since most high throughput techniques used in biomarker discovery are very time and cost intensive, highly specific and quantitative analytical alternative application methods are needed for the routine analysis. Conventional Western blotting allows detection of specific proteins to the level of single isotypes while its quantitative accuracy is rather limited. We report a novel and improved quantitative Western blotting method. The use of fluorescently labelled secondary antibodies strongly extends the dynamic range of the quantitation and improves the correlation with the protein amount (r=0.997). By an additional fluorescent staining of all proteins immediately after their transfer to the blot membrane, it is possible to visualise simultaneously the antibody binding and the total protein profile. This allows for an accurate correction for protein load. Applying this normalisation it could be demonstrated that fluorescence-based Western blotting is able to reproduce a quantitative analysis of two specific proteins in blood platelet samples from 44 subjects with different diseases as initially conducted by 2D-DIGE. These results show that the proposed fluorescence-based Western blotting is an adequate application technique for biomarker quantitation and suggest possibilities of employment that go far beyond.

  1. Human cytomegaloviruses expressing yellow fluorescent fusion proteins--characterization and use in antiviral screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Straschewski

    Full Text Available Recombinant viruses labelled with fluorescent proteins are useful tools in molecular virology with multiple applications (e.g., studies on intracellular trafficking, protein localization, or gene activity. We generated by homologous recombination three recombinant cytomegaloviruses carrying the enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP fused with the viral proteins IE-2, ppUL32 (pp150, and ppUL83 (pp65. In growth kinetics, the three viruses behaved all like wild type, even at low multiplicity of infection (MOI. The expression of all three fusion proteins was detected, and their respective localizations were the same as for the unmodified proteins in wild-type virus-infected cells. We established the in vivo measurement of fluorescence intensity and used the recombinant viruses to measure inhibition of viral replication by neutralizing antibodies or antiviral substances. The use of these viruses in a pilot screen based on fluorescence intensity and high-content analysis identified cellular kinase inhibitors that block viral replication. In summary, these viruses with individually EYFP-tagged proteins will be useful to study antiviral substances and the dynamics of viral infection in cell culture.

  2. Expression and characterization of insulin growth factor-I-enhanced green fluorescent protein fused protein as a tracer for immunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi Ruina [College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Huang Yong [College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wang Dan [College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhao Meiping [College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Li Yuanzong [College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)]. E-mail: yzli@pku.edu.cn

    2006-09-25

    The insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is an important polypeptide hormone under investigation for body metabolism study and for doping detection. Here, we describe for the first time the expression of a recombinant fusion protein of IGF-I and the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). The genetic fusion approach enables preparation of conjugates with 1:1 stoichiometry and homogeneous structure. The fused protein (EGFP-IGF-I) was expressed as a soluble protein in cytoplasm of Escherichia coli and its fluorescence and immunoreaction properties were thoroughly characterized. Finally, we demonstrated the utility of the EGFP-IGF-I fusion protein for the fluorescence immunoassay of IGF-1. The linear range of the assay is 1.6 x 10{sup -8} to 2.0 x 10{sup -6} M with a detection limit of 1.6 x 10{sup -8} M. To our knowledge, this is the first time that EGFP has been used as a quantitative label in a fusion protein to develop a quantitative assay for IGF-I. Furthermore, the use of genetically engineered fusion proteins, which combine peptide hormones with fluorescent protein, can lead to a new labeling approach to a number of bioanalytical applications.

  3. Expression and characterization of insulin growth factor-I-enhanced green fluorescent protein fused protein as a tracer for immunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Ruina; Huang Yong; Wang Dan; Zhao Meiping; Li Yuanzong

    2006-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is an important polypeptide hormone under investigation for body metabolism study and for doping detection. Here, we describe for the first time the expression of a recombinant fusion protein of IGF-I and the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). The genetic fusion approach enables preparation of conjugates with 1:1 stoichiometry and homogeneous structure. The fused protein (EGFP-IGF-I) was expressed as a soluble protein in cytoplasm of Escherichia coli and its fluorescence and immunoreaction properties were thoroughly characterized. Finally, we demonstrated the utility of the EGFP-IGF-I fusion protein for the fluorescence immunoassay of IGF-1. The linear range of the assay is 1.6 x 10 -8 to 2.0 x 10 -6 M with a detection limit of 1.6 x 10 -8 M. To our knowledge, this is the first time that EGFP has been used as a quantitative label in a fusion protein to develop a quantitative assay for IGF-I. Furthermore, the use of genetically engineered fusion proteins, which combine peptide hormones with fluorescent protein, can lead to a new labeling approach to a number of bioanalytical applications

  4. Ultrafast proton shuttling in Psammocora cyan fluorescent protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennis, John T M; van Stokkum, Ivo H M; Peterson, Dayna S; Pandit, Anjali; Wachter, Rebekka M

    2013-09-26

    Cyan, green, yellow, and red fluorescent proteins (FPs) homologous to green fluorescent protein (GFP) are used extensively as model systems to study fundamental processes in photobiology, such as the capture of light energy by protein-embedded chromophores, color tuning by the protein matrix, energy conversion by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), and excited-state proton transfer (ESPT) reactions. Recently, a novel cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) termed psamFP488 was isolated from the genus Psammocora of reef building corals. Within the cyan color class, psamFP488 is unusual because it exhibits a significantly extended Stokes shift. Here, we applied ultrafast transient absorption and pump-dump-probe spectroscopy to investigate the mechanistic basis of psamFP488 fluorescence, complemented with fluorescence quantum yield and dynamic light scattering measurements. Transient absorption spectroscopy indicated that, upon excitation at 410 nm, the stimulated cyan emission rises in 170 fs. With pump-dump-probe spectroscopy, we observe a very short-lived (110 fs) ground-state intermediate that we assign to the deprotonated, anionic chromophore. In addition, a minor fraction (14%) decays with 3.5 ps to the ground state. Structural analysis of homologous proteins indicates that Glu-167 is likely positioned in sufficiently close vicinity to the chromophore to act as a proton acceptor. Our findings support a model where unusually fast ESPT from the neutral chromophore to Glu-167 with a time constant of 170 fs and resulting emission from the anionic chromophore forms the basis of the large psamFP488 Stokes shift. When dumped to the ground state, the proton on neutral Glu is very rapidly shuttled back to the anionic chromophore in 110 fs. Proton shuttling in excited and ground states is a factor of 20-4000 faster than in GFP, which probably results from a favorable hydrogen-bonding geometry between the chromophore phenolic oxygen and the glutamate acceptor, possibly

  5. Using Fluorescence Intensity of Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein to Quantify Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Wilson

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A variety of direct and indirect methods have been used to quantify planktonic and biofilm bacterial cells. Direct counting methods to determine the total number of cells include plate counts, microscopic cell counts, Coulter cell counting, flow cytometry, and fluorescence microscopy. However, indirect methods are often used to supplement direct cell counting, as they are often more convenient, less time-consuming, and require less material, while providing a number that can be related to the direct cell count. Herein, an indirect method is presented that uses fluorescence emission intensity as a proxy marker for studying bacterial accumulation. A clinical strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was genetically modified to express a green fluorescent protein (PA14/EGFP. The fluorescence intensity of EGFP in live cells was used as an indirect measure of live cell density, and was compared with the traditional cell counting methods of optical density (OD600 and plate counting (colony-forming units (CFUs. While both OD600 and CFUs are well-established methods, the use of fluorescence spectroscopy to quantify bacteria is less common. This study demonstrates that EGFP intensity is a convenient reporter for bacterial quantification. In addition, we demonstrate the potential for fluorescence spectroscopy to be used to measure the quantity of PA14/EGFP biofilms, which have important human health implications due to their antimicrobial resistance. Therefore, fluorescence spectroscopy could serve as an alternative or complementary quick assay to quantify bacteria in planktonic cultures and biofilms.

  6. Intrinsic fluorescence of protein in turbid media using empirical relation based on Monte Carlo lookup table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, Gnanatheepam; Udayakumar, Kanniyappan; Aruna, Prakasarao; Ganesan, Singaravelu

    2017-03-01

    Fluorescence of Protein has been widely used in diagnostic oncology for characterizing cellular metabolism. However, the intensity of fluorescence emission is affected due to the absorbers and scatterers in tissue, which may lead to error in estimating exact protein content in tissue. Extraction of intrinsic fluorescence from measured fluorescence has been achieved by different methods. Among them, Monte Carlo based method yields the highest accuracy for extracting intrinsic fluorescence. In this work, we have attempted to generate a lookup table for Monte Carlo simulation of fluorescence emission by protein. Furthermore, we fitted the generated lookup table using an empirical relation. The empirical relation between measured and intrinsic fluorescence is validated using tissue phantom experiments. The proposed relation can be used for estimating intrinsic fluorescence of protein for real-time diagnostic applications and thereby improving the clinical interpretation of fluorescence spectroscopic data.

  7. Fluorescent protein Dendra2 as a ratiometric genetically encoded pH-sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhomov, Alexey A; Martynov, Vladimir I; Orsa, Alexander N; Bondarenko, Alena A; Chertkova, Rita V; Lukyanov, Konstantin A; Petrenko, Alexander G; Deyev, Igor E

    2017-12-02

    Fluorescent protein Dendra2 is a monomeric GFP-like protein that belongs to the group of Kaede-like photoconvertible fluorescent proteins with irreversible photoconversion from a green- to red-emitting state when exposed to violet-blue light. In an acidic environment, photoconverted Dendra2 turns green due to protonation of the phenolic group of the chromophore with pKa of about 7.5. Thus, photoconverted form of Dendra2 can be potentially used as a ratiometric pH-sensor in the physiological pH range. However, incomplete photoconversion makes ratiometric measurements irreproducible when using standard filter sets. Here, we describe the method to detect fluorescence of only photoconverted Dendra2 form, but not nonconverted green Dendra2. We show that the 350 nm excitation light induces solely the fluorescence of photoconverted protein. By measuring the red to green fluorescence ratio, we determined intracellular pH in live CHO and HEK 293 cells. Thus, Dendra2 can be used as a novel ratiometric genetically encoded pH sensor with emission maxima in the green-red spectral region, which is suitable for application in live cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Murine leukemia virus (MLV replication monitored with fluorescent proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bittner Alexandra

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer gene therapy will benefit from vectors that are able to replicate in tumor tissue and cause a bystander effect. Replication-competent murine leukemia virus (MLV has been described to have potential as cancer therapeutics, however, MLV infection does not cause a cytopathic effect in the infected cell and viral replication can only be studied by immunostaining or measurement of reverse transcriptase activity. Results We inserted the coding sequences for green fluorescent protein (GFP into the proline-rich region (PRR of the ecotropic envelope protein (Env and were able to fluorescently label MLV. This allowed us to directly monitor viral replication and attachment to target cells by flow cytometry. We used this method to study viral replication of recombinant MLVs and split viral genomes, which were generated by replacement of the MLV env gene with the red fluorescent protein (RFP and separately cloning GFP-Env into a retroviral vector. Co-transfection of both plasmids into target cells resulted in the generation of semi-replicative vectors, and the two color labeling allowed to determine the distribution of the individual genomes in the target cells and was indicative for the occurrence of recombination events. Conclusions Fluorescently labeled MLVs are excellent tools for the study of factors that influence viral replication and can be used to optimize MLV-based replication-competent viruses or vectors for gene therapy.

  9. Imaging metals in proteins by combining electrophoresis with rapid x-ray fluorescence mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finney, L.; Chishti, Y.; Khare, T.; Giometti, C.; Levina, A.; Lay, P.A.; Vogt, S.

    2010-01-01

    Growing evidence points toward a very dynamic role for metals in biology. This suggests that physiological circumstance may mandate metal ion redistribution among ligands. This work addresses a critical need for technology that detects, identifies, and measures the metal-containing components of complex biological matrixes. We describe a direct, user-friendly approach for identifying and quantifying metal?protein adducts in complex samples using native- or SDS-PAGE, blotting, and rapid synchrotron X-ray fluorescence mapping with micro-XANES (X-ray absorption near-edge structure) of entire blots. The identification and quantification of each metal bound to a protein spot has been demonstrated, and the technique has been applied in two exemplary cases. In the first, the speciation of the in vitro binding of exogenous chromium to blood serum proteins was influenced markedly by both the oxidation state of chromium exposed to the serum proteins and the treatment conditions, which is of relevance to the biochemistry of Cr dietary supplements. In the second case, in vivo changes in endogenous metal speciation were examined to probe the influence of oxygen depletion on iron speciation in Shewanella oneidensis.

  10. Sizing protein-templated gold nanoclusters by time resolved fluorescence anisotropy decay measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleilhac, Antonin; Bertorelle, Franck; Antoine, Rodolphe

    2018-03-01

    Protein-templated gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) are very attractive due to their unique fluorescence properties. A major problem however may arise due to protein structure changes upon the nucleation of an AuNC within the protein for any future use as in vivo probes, for instance. In this work, we propose a simple and reliable fluorescence based technique measuring the hydrodynamic size of protein-templated gold nanoclusters. This technique uses the relation between the time resolved fluorescence anisotropy decay and the hydrodynamic volume, through the rotational correlation time. We determine the molecular size of protein-directed AuNCs, with protein templates of increasing sizes, e.g. insulin, lysozyme, and bovine serum albumin (BSA). The comparison of sizes obtained by other techniques (e.g. dynamic light scattering and small-angle X-ray scattering) between bare and gold clusters containing proteins allows us to address the volume changes induced either by conformational changes (for BSA) or the formation of protein dimers (for insulin and lysozyme) during cluster formation and incorporation.

  11. Sizing protein-templated gold nanoclusters by time resolved fluorescence anisotropy decay measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleilhac, Antonin; Bertorelle, Franck; Antoine, Rodolphe

    2018-03-15

    Protein-templated gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) are very attractive due to their unique fluorescence properties. A major problem however may arise due to protein structure changes upon the nucleation of an AuNC within the protein for any future use as in vivo probes, for instance. In this work, we propose a simple and reliable fluorescence based technique measuring the hydrodynamic size of protein-templated gold nanoclusters. This technique uses the relation between the time resolved fluorescence anisotropy decay and the hydrodynamic volume, through the rotational correlation time. We determine the molecular size of protein-directed AuNCs, with protein templates of increasing sizes, e.g. insulin, lysozyme, and bovine serum albumin (BSA). The comparison of sizes obtained by other techniques (e.g. dynamic light scattering and small-angle X-ray scattering) between bare and gold clusters containing proteins allows us to address the volume changes induced either by conformational changes (for BSA) or the formation of protein dimers (for insulin and lysozyme) during cluster formation and incorporation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Tolerance of a Knotted Near-Infrared Fluorescent Protein to Random Circular Permutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Naresh; Kuypers, Brianna E; Nassif, Barbara; Thomas, Emily E; Alnahhas, Razan N; Segatori, Laura; Silberg, Jonathan J

    2016-07-12

    Bacteriophytochrome photoreceptors (BphP) are knotted proteins that have been developed as near-infrared fluorescent protein (iRFP) reporters of gene expression. To explore how rearrangements in the peptides that interlace into the knot within the BphP photosensory core affect folding, we subjected iRFPs to random circular permutation using an improved transposase mutagenesis strategy and screened for variants that fluoresce. We identified 27 circularly permuted iRFPs that display biliverdin-dependent fluorescence in Escherichia coli. The variants with the brightest whole cell fluorescence initiated translation at residues near the domain linker and knot tails, although fluorescent variants that initiated translation within the PAS and GAF domains were discovered. Circularly permuted iRFPs retained sufficient cofactor affinity to fluoresce in tissue culture without the addition of biliverdin, and one variant displayed enhanced fluorescence when expressed in bacteria and tissue culture. This variant displayed a quantum yield similar to that of iRFPs but exhibited increased resistance to chemical denaturation, suggesting that the observed increase in the magnitude of the signal arose from more efficient protein maturation. These results show how the contact order of a knotted BphP can be altered without disrupting chromophore binding and fluorescence, an important step toward the creation of near-infrared biosensors with expanded chemical sensing functions for in vivo imaging.

  13. Identification of a progenitor cell population destined to form fracture fibrocartilage callus in Dickkopf-related protein 3-green fluorescent protein reporter mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Yu; Adams, Douglas; Hagiwara, Yusuke; Yoshida, Ryu; Kamimura, Masayuki; Itoi, Eiji; Rowe, David W

    2016-11-01

    Fracture healing is a complex biological process involving the proliferation of mesenchymal progenitor cells, and chondrogenic, osteogenic, and angiogenic differentiation. The mechanisms underlying the proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal progenitor cells remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate Dickkopf-related protein 3 (Dkk3) expression in periosteal cells using Dkk3-green fluorescent protein reporter mice. We found that proliferation of mesenchymal progenitor cells began in the periosteum, involving Dkk3-positive cell proliferation near the fracture site. In addition, Dkk3 was expressed in fibrocartilage cells together with smooth muscle α-actin and Col3.6 in the early phase of fracture healing as a cell marker of fibrocartilage cells. Dkk3 was not expressed in mature chondrogenic cells or osteogenic cells. Transient expression of Dkk3 disappeared in the late phase of fracture healing, except in the superficial periosteal area of fracture callus. The Dkk3 expression pattern differed in newly formed type IV collagen positive blood vessels and the related avascular tissue. This is the first report that shows Dkk3 expression in the periosteum at a resting state and in fibrocartilage cells during the fracture healing process, which was associated with smooth muscle α-actin and Col3.6 expression in mesenchymal progenitor cells. These fluorescent mesenchymal lineage cells may be useful for future studies to better understand fracture healing.

  14. [Rapid identification of hogwash oil by using synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan-Hui; An, Hai-Yang; Jia, Xiao-Li; Wang, Juan

    2012-10-01

    To identify hogwash oil quickly, the characteristic delta lambda of hogwash oil was analyzed by three dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy with parallel factor analysis, and the model was built up by using synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy with support vector machines (SVM). The results showed that the characteristic delta lambda of hogwash oil was 60 nm. Collecting original spectrum of different samples under the condition of characteristic delta lambda 60 nm, the best model was established while 5 principal components were selected from original spectrum and the radial basis function (RBF) was used as the kernel function, and the optimal penalty factor C and kernel function g were 512 and 0.5 respectively obtained by the grid searching and 6-fold cross validation. The discrimination rate of the model was 100% for both training sets and prediction sets. Thus, it is quick and accurate to apply synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy to identification of hogwash oil.

  15. Mechanistic studies of the genetically encoded fluorescent protein voltage probe ArcLight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Han

    Full Text Available ArcLight, a genetically encoded fluorescent protein voltage probe with a large ΔF/ΔV, is a fusion between the voltage sensing domain of the Ciona instestinalis voltage sensitive phosphatase and super ecliptic pHluorin carrying a single mutation (A227D in the fluorescent protein. Without this mutation the probe produces only a very small change in fluorescence in response to voltage deflections (∼ 1%. The large signal afforded by this mutation allows optical detection of action potentials and sub-threshold electrical events in single-trials in vitro and in vivo. However, it is unclear how this single mutation produces a probe with such a large modulation of its fluorescence output with changes in membrane potential. In this study, we identified which residues in super ecliptic pHluorin (vs eGFP are critical for the ArcLight response, as a similarly constructed probe based on eGFP also exhibits large response amplitude if it carries these critical residues. We found that D147 is responsible for determining the pH sensitivity of the fluorescent protein used in these probes but by itself does not result in a voltage probe with a large signal. We also provide evidence that the voltage dependent signal of ArcLight is not simply sensing environmental pH changes. A two-photon polarization microscopy study showed that ArcLight's response to changes in membrane potential includes a reorientation of the super ecliptic pHluorin. We also explored different changes including modification of linker length, deletion of non-essential amino acids in the super ecliptic pHluorin, adding a farnesylation site, using tandem fluorescent proteins and other pH sensitive fluorescent proteins.

  16. Identification of rare earth elements by their fluorescence complexes with tetracycline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanotti-Cavazzoni, J.C.; Boveda V, J.C.; Abrao, A.

    1994-01-01

    A procedure for identification of rare earth elements (REE) based on the complex formation with tetracycline (TC) and visual observation under ultraviolet light is described. One micro drop of REE chloride is placed over the filter paper impregnated with tetracycline and previously dried before use. After dried (30-60 O C) the paper is examined under the UV light. In a second procedure for the identification of mixture of REE a drop of the analyte is added over a filter paper strip impregnated with TC followed by a chromatographic development using a 2:1:1:1 (vol/vol) ethanol, acetone, ether and 1% acetic acid mixture of pH 5,8. After dried, the strip is observed under UV light. Sc, Y, La, Dy, Ho and Lu exhibited high yellow fluorescence; Gd, Tm and Yb a weak yellow; Ce an intense violet; Pr, ND, Sm and Tb violet: Eu a high red fluorescence and Er a violet brown wish, not well defined. It is possible to identify for instance 0.3 ug Ce (concentration 6 mg/L) and 0.2 ug Er (concentration 6 mg/L). Preliminary experiments indicated that those REE-TC chelates can be used for the identification and determination of the REE by spectro fluorimetry. (author). 30 refs

  17. Identification of Cyclin A Binders with a Fluorescent Peptide Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Elena; Mascareñas, José L; Vázquez, M Eugenio

    2016-01-01

    A peptide sensor that integrates the 4-dimethylaminophthalimide (4-DMAP) fluorophore in a short cyclin A binding sequence displays a large fluorescence emission increase upon interacting with the cyclin A Binding Groove (CBG). Competitive displacement assays of this probe allow the straightforward identification of peptides that interact with the CBG, which could potentially block the recognition of CDK/cyclin A kinase substrates.

  18. The potential of a fluorescent-based approach for bioassay of antifungal agents against chili anthracnose disease in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chutrakul, Chanikul; Khaokhajorn, Pratoomporn; Auncharoen, Patchanee; Boonruengprapa, Tanapong; Mongkolporn, Orarat

    2013-01-01

    Severe chili anthracnose disease in Thailand is caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. capsici. To discover anti-anthracnose substances we developed an efficient dual-fluorescent labeling bioassay based on a microdilution approach. Indicator strains used in the assay were constructed by integrating synthetic green fluorescent protein (sGFP) and Discosoma sp. red fluorescent protein (DsRedExp) genes into the genomes of C. gloeosporioides or C. capsici respectively. Survival of co-spore cultures in the presence of inhibitors was determined by the expression levels of these fluorescent proteins. This developed assay has high potential for utilization in the investigation of selective inhibition activity to either one of the pathogens as well as the broad-range inhibitory effect against both pathogens. The value of using the dual-fluorescent assay is rapid, reliable, and consistent identification of anti-anthracnose agents. Most of all, the assay enables the identification of specific inhibitors under the co-cultivation condition.

  19. Early history, discovery, and expression of Aequorea green fluorescent protein, with a note on an unfinished experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Frederick I

    2010-08-01

    The bioluminescent hydromedusan jellyfish, Aequorea victoria, emits a greenish light (lambda(max) = 508 nm) when stimulated electrically or mechanically. The light comes from photocytes located along the margin of its umbrella. The greenish light depends on two intracellular proteins working in consort: aequorin (21.4 kDa) and a green fluorescent protein (27 kDa). An excited state green fluorescent protein molecule results, which, on returning to the ground state, emits a greenish light. Similarly, a green light emission may be induced in the green fluorescent protein by exposing it to ultraviolet or blue light. Because the green light can be readily detected under a fluorescence microscope, the green fluorescent protein, tagged to a protein of interest, has been used widely as a marker to locate proteins in cells and to monitoring gene expression. This article reviews the work that took place leading to the discovery, cloning, and expression of the green fluorescent protein, with a note on an unfinished experiment. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Stabilization of structure in near-infrared fluorescent proteins by binding of biliverdin chromophore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanenko, Olesya V.; Stepanenko, Olga V.; Bublikov, G. S.; Kuznetsova, I. M.; Verkhusha, V. V.; Turoverov, K. K.

    2017-07-01

    Near-infrared fluorescent proteins (NIR FPs) engineered from bacterial phytochromes and their mutants with different location of Cys residues, which able to bind a biliverdin chromophore, or without these Cys residues were studied using intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence, NIR fluorescence and circular dichroism. It was shown that a covalent binding of the biliverdin chromophore to a Cys residue via thioether group substantially stabilizes the spatial structure of NIR FPs. The stability of the protein structure and the chromophore association strength strongly depends on the location of Cys residues and decreases in the following order: a protein with Cys residues in both domains, a protein with Cys in PAS domains, and a protein with Cys in GAF domains. NIR FPs without Cys residues capable to covalently attach biliverdin have the lowest stability, comparable to NIR FP apoforms.

  1. Stabilizing Protein Effects on the Pressure Sensitivity of Fluorescent Gold Nanoclusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-13

    affected by the environment of the stabilizing protein, allowing these hybrid systems to act as sensors in many applications.2,9,14–19 This has led...Biosens Bioelectron. 2012;32:297–299. 8. Joseph D, Geckeler KE. Synthesis of highly fluorescent gold nanoclusters using egg white proteins. Colloids Surf...Chang HW, Chien YC, Hsiao JK, Cheng JT, Chou PT. Insulin -directed synthesis of fluorescent gold nanoclusters: preservation of insulin bioactivity and

  2. Molecular recognition of DNA-protein complexes: A straightforward method combining scanning force and fluorescence microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Sanchez (Humberto); R. Kanaar (Roland); C. Wyman (Claire)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractCombining scanning force and fluorescent microscopy allows simultaneous identification of labeled biomolecules and analysis of their nanometer level architectural arrangement. Fluorescent polystyrene nano-spheres were used as reliable objects for alignment of optical and topographic

  3. Ratiometric Matryoshka biosensors from a nested cassette of green- and orange-emitting fluorescent proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ast, Cindy; Foret, Jessica; Oltrogge, Luke M; De Michele, Roberto; Kleist, Thomas J; Ho, Cheng-Hsun; Frommer, Wolf B

    2017-09-05

    Sensitivity, dynamic and detection range as well as exclusion of expression and instrumental artifacts are critical for the quantitation of data obtained with fluorescent protein (FP)-based biosensors in vivo. Current biosensors designs are, in general, unable to simultaneously meet all these criteria. Here, we describe a generalizable platform to create dual-FP biosensors with large dynamic ranges by employing a single FP-cassette, named GO-(Green-Orange) Matryoshka. The cassette nests a stable reference FP (large Stokes shift LSSmOrange) within a reporter FP (circularly permuted green FP). GO- Matryoshka yields green and orange fluorescence upon blue excitation. As proof of concept, we converted existing, single-emission biosensors into a series of ratiometric calcium sensors (MatryoshCaMP6s) and ammonium transport activity sensors (AmTryoshka1;3). We additionally identified the internal acid-base equilibrium as a key determinant of the GCaMP dynamic range. Matryoshka technology promises flexibility in the design of a wide spectrum of ratiometric biosensors and expanded in vivo applications.Single fluorescent protein biosensors are susceptible to expression and instrumental artifacts. Here Ast et al. describe a dual fluorescent protein design whereby a reference fluorescent protein is nested within a reporter fluorescent protein to control for such artifacts while preserving sensitivity and dynamic range.

  4. Synthesis and evaluation of radioactive and fluorescent residualizing labels for identifying sites of plasma protein catabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, J.L.; Baynes, J.W.; Thorpe, S.R.

    1986-01-01

    Inulin and lactose were each coupled to tyramine by reductive amination with NaBH 3 CN and the tyramine then labeled with 125 I. Dilactitol- 125 I-tyramine (DLT) and inulin- 125 I-tyramine (InTn) were coupled by reductive amination and cyanuric chloride, respectively, to asialofetuin (ASF), fetuin and rat serum albumin (RSA). Attachment of either label had no effect on the circulating half-lives of the proteins. Radioactivity from labeled ASF was recovered in rat liver (> 90%) by 1 h post-injection and remained in liver with half-lives of 2 and 6 days, respectively, for the DLT and InTn labels. Whole body recoveries of radioactivity from DLT- and InTn labels. Whole body recoveries of radioactivity from DLT- and InTn-labeled RSA were 5 and 6.5 days, respectively, again indicating that the larger glycoconjugate label residualized more efficiently in cells following protein degradation. (Lactitol) 2 -N-CH 2 -CH 2 -NH-fluroescein (DLF) was also coupled to ASF by reductive amination and recovered quantitatively in liver at 1 h post-injection. Native ASF was an effective competitor for clearance of DLF-ASF from the circulation. Fluorescent degradation products were retained in liver with a half-life of 1.2 days. Residualizing fluorescent labels should be useful for identification and sorting of cells active in the degradation of plasma proteins

  5. Microspectroscopic analysis of green fluorescent proteins infiltrated into mesoporous silica nanochannels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, Yujie; Rajendran, Prayanka; Blum, Christian; Cesa, Yanina; Gartmann, Nando; Brühwiler, Dominik; Subramaniam, Vinod

    2011-01-01

    The infiltration of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) into nanochannels of different diameters in mesoporous silica particles was studied in detail by fluorescence microspectroscopy at room temperature. Silica particles from the MCM-41, ASNCs and SBA-15 families possessing nanometer-sized

  6. Luminescent conjugated oligothiophenes for sensitive fluorescent assignment of protein inclusion bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingstedt, Therése; Blechschmidt, Cristiane; Nogalska, Anna; Prokop, Stefan; Häggqvist, Bo; Danielsson, Olof; Engel, W King; Askanas, Valerie; Heppner, Frank L; Nilsson, K Peter R

    2013-03-18

    Small hydrophobic ligands identifying intracellular protein deposits are of great interest, as protein inclusion bodies are the pathological hallmark of several degenerative diseases. Here we report that fluorescent amyloid ligands, termed luminescent conjugated oligothiophenes (LCOs), rapidly and with high sensitivity detect protein inclusion bodies in skeletal muscle tissue from patients with sporadic inclusion body myositis (s-IBM). LCOs having a conjugated backbone of at least five thiophene units emitted strong fluorescence upon binding, and showed co-localization with proteins reported to accumulate in s-IBM protein inclusion bodies. Compared with conventional amyloid ligands, LCOs identified a larger fraction of immunopositive inclusion bodies. When the conjugated thiophene backbone was extended with terminal carboxyl groups, the LCO revealed striking spectral differences between distinct protein inclusion bodies. We conclude that 1) LCOs are sensitive, rapid and powerful tools for identifying protein inclusion bodies and 2) LCOs identify a wider range of protein inclusion bodies than conventional amyloid ligands. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Red fluorescent protein responsible for pigmentation in trematode-infected Porites compressa tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Caroline V; Roth, Melissa S; Gates, Ruth D

    2009-02-01

    Reports of coral disease have increased dramatically over the last decade; however, the biological mechanisms that corals utilize to limit infection and resist disease remain poorly understood. Compromised coral tissues often display non-normal pigmentation that potentially represents an inflammation-like response, although these pigments remain uncharacterized. Using spectral emission analysis and cryo-histological and electrophoretic techniques, we investigated the pink pigmentation associated with trematodiasis, infection with Podocotyloides stenometre larval trematode, in Porites compressa. Spectral emission analysis reveals that macroscopic areas of pink pigmentation fluoresce under blue light excitation (450 nm) and produce a broad emission peak at 590 nm (+/-6) with a 60-nm full width at half maximum. Electrophoretic protein separation of pigmented tissue extract confirms the red fluorescence to be a protein rather than a low-molecular-weight compound. Histological sections demonstrate green fluorescence in healthy coral tissue and red fluorescence in the trematodiasis-compromised tissue. The red fluorescent protein (FP) is limited to the epidermis, is not associated with cells or granules, and appears unstructured. These data collectively suggest that the red FP is produced and localized in tissue infected by larval trematodes and plays a role in the immune response in corals.

  8. Phytoplankton IF-FISH: Species-specific labeling of cellular proteins by immunofluorescence (IF) with simultaneous species identification by fluorescence immunohybridization (FISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Megan E; Van Dolah, Frances M

    2016-05-01

    Phytoplankton rarely occur as unialgal populations. Therefore, to study species-specific protein expression, indicative of physiological status in natural populations, methods are needed that will both assay for a protein of interest and identify the species expressing it. Here we describe a protocol for IF-FISH, a dual labeling procedure using immunofluorescence (IF) labeling of a protein of interest followed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to identify the species expressing that protein. The protocol was developed to monitor expression of the cell cycle marker proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in the red tide dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, using a large subunit (LSU) rRNA probe to identify K. brevis in a mixed population of morphologically similar Karenia species. We present this protocol as proof of concept that IF-FISH can be successfully applied to phytoplankton cells. This method is widely applicable for the analysis of single-cell protein expression of any protein of interest within phytoplankton communities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A Practical Teaching Course in Directed Protein Evolution Using the Green Fluorescent Protein as a Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruller, Roberto; Silva-Rocha, Rafael; Silva, Artur; Schneider, Maria Paula Cruz; Ward, Richard John

    2011-01-01

    Protein engineering is a powerful tool, which correlates protein structure with specific functions, both in applied biotechnology and in basic research. Here, we present a practical teaching course for engineering the green fluorescent protein (GFP) from "Aequorea victoria" by a random mutagenesis strategy using error-prone polymerase…

  10. Refractive Index Sensing of Green Fluorescent Proteins in Living Cells Using Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Manen, Henk-Jan; Verkuijlen, Paul; Wittendorp, Paul; Subramaniam, Vinod; van den Berg, Timo K.; Roos, Dirk; Otto, Cees

    2008-01-01

    We show that fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) of green fluorescent protein (GFP) molecules in cells can be used to report on the local refractive index of intracellular GFP. We expressed GFP fusion constructs of Rac2 and gp91phox, which are both subunits of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase enzyme, in human myeloid PLB-985 cells and showed by high-resolution confocal fluorescence microscopy that GFP-Rac2 and GFP-gp91phox are targeted to the cytosol and to membranes, respectively. Frequency-domain FLIM experiments on these PLB-985 cells resulted in average fluorescence lifetimes of 2.70 ns for cytosolic GFP-Rac2 and 2.31 ns for membrane-bound GFP-gp91phox. By comparing these lifetimes with a calibration curve obtained by measuring GFP lifetimes in PBS/glycerol mixtures of known refractive index, we found that the local refractive indices of cytosolic GFP-Rac2 and membrane-targeted GFP-gp91phox are ∼1.38 and ∼1.46, respectively, which is in good correspondence with reported values for the cytosol and plasma membrane measured by other techniques. The ability to measure the local refractive index of proteins in living cells by FLIM may be important in revealing intracellular spatial heterogeneities within organelles such as the plasma and phagosomal membrane. PMID:18223002

  11. Chromophore-protein coupling beyond nonpolarizable models: understanding absorption in green fluorescent protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daday, C.; Curutchet, C.; Sinicropi, A.; Mennucci, B.; Filippi, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    The nature of the coupling of the photoexcited chromophore with the environment in a prototypical system like green fluorescent protein (GFP) is to date not understood, and its description still defies state-of-the-art multiscale approaches. To identify which theoretical framework of the

  12. Dissecting Redox Biology Using Fluorescent Protein Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzländer, Markus; Dick, Tobias P; Meyer, Andreas J; Morgan, Bruce

    2016-05-01

    Fluorescent protein sensors have revitalized the field of redox biology by revolutionizing the study of redox processes in living cells and organisms. Within one decade, a set of fundamental new insights has been gained, driven by the rapid technical development of in vivo redox sensing. Redox-sensitive yellow and green fluorescent protein variants (rxYFP and roGFPs) have been the central players. Although widely used as an established standard tool, important questions remain surrounding their meaningful use in vivo. We review the growing range of thiol redox sensor variants and their application in different cells, tissues, and organisms. We highlight five key findings where in vivo sensing has been instrumental in changing our understanding of redox biology, critically assess the interpretation of in vivo redox data, and discuss technical and biological limitations of current redox sensors and sensing approaches. We explore how novel sensor variants may further add to the current momentum toward a novel mechanistic and integrated understanding of redox biology in vivo. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 24, 680-712.

  13. Site-directed fluorescence labeling of a membrane protein with BADAN: probing protein topology and local environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koehorst, R.B.M.; Spruijt, R.B.; Hemminga, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    We present a new and simple method based on site-directed fluorescence labeling using the BADAN label that allows to examine protein-lipid interactions in great detail. We apply this approach to a membrane-embedded mainly -helical reference protein, the M13 major coat protein, of which in a

  14. Preparation of fluorescent tocopherols for use in protein binding and localization with the alpha-tocopherol transfer protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Phillip; Cecchini, Matt; Chirico, Sara; Gordon, Heather; Morley, Samantha; Manor, Danny; Atkinson, Jeffrey

    2006-06-01

    Sixteen fluorescent analogues of the lipid-soluble antioxidant vitamin alpha-tocopherol were prepared incorporating fluorophores at the terminus of omega-functionalized 2-n-alkyl-substituted chromanols (1a-d and 4a-d) that match the methylation pattern of alpha-tocopherol, the most biologically active form of vitamin E. The fluorophores used include 9-anthroyloxy (AO), 7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (NBD), N-methyl anthranilamide (NMA), and dansyl (DAN). The compounds were designed to function as fluorescent reporter ligands for protein-binding and lipid transfer assays. The fluorophores were chosen to maximize the fluorescence changes observed upon moving from an aqueous environment (low fluorescence intensity) to an hydrophobic environment such as a protein's binding site (high fluorescence intensity). Compounds 9d (anthroyloxy) and 10d (nitrobenzoxadiazole), having a C9-carbon chain between the chromanol and the fluorophore, were shown to bind specifically and reversibly to recombinant human tocopherol transfer protein (alpha-TTP) with dissociation constants of approximately 280 and 60 nM, respectively, as compared to 25 nM for the natural ligand 2R,4'R,8'R-alpha-tocopherol. Thus, compounds have been prepared that allow the investigation of the rate of alpha-TTP-mediated inter-membrane transfer of alpha-tocopherol and to investigate the mechanism of alpha-TTP function at membranes of different composition.

  15. Combining metal oxide affinity chromatography (MOAC and selective mass spectrometry for robust identification of in vivo protein phosphorylation sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weckwerth Wolfram

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein phosphorylation is accepted as a major regulatory pathway in plants. More than 1000 protein kinases are predicted in the Arabidopsis proteome, however, only a few studies look systematically for in vivo protein phosphorylation sites. Owing to the low stoichiometry and low abundance of phosphorylated proteins, phosphorylation site identification using mass spectrometry imposes difficulties. Moreover, the often observed poor quality of mass spectra derived from phosphopeptides results frequently in uncertain database hits. Thus, several lines of evidence have to be combined for a precise phosphorylation site identification strategy. Results Here, a strategy is presented that combines enrichment of phosphoproteins using a technique termed metaloxide affinity chromatography (MOAC and selective ion trap mass spectrometry. The complete approach involves (i enrichment of proteins with low phosphorylation stoichiometry out of complex mixtures using MOAC, (ii gel separation and detection of phosphorylation using specific fluorescence staining (confirmation of enrichment, (iii identification of phosphoprotein candidates out of the SDS-PAGE using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, and (iv identification of phosphorylation sites of these enriched proteins using automatic detection of H3PO4 neutral loss peaks and data-dependent MS3-fragmentation of the corresponding MS2-fragment. The utility of this approach is demonstrated by the identification of phosphorylation sites in Arabidopsis thaliana seed proteins. Regulatory importance of the identified sites is indicated by conservation of the detected sites in gene families such as ribosomal proteins and sterol dehydrogenases. To demonstrate further the wide applicability of MOAC, phosphoproteins were enriched from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cell cultures. Conclusion A novel phosphoprotein enrichment procedure MOAC was applied to seed proteins of A. thaliana and to

  16. Development and application of a fluorescence protein microarray for detecting serum alpha-fetoprotein in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Aiying; Yin, Chengzeng; Wang, Zhenshun; Zhang, Yonghong; Zhao, Yuanshun; Li, Ang; Sun, Huanqin; Lin, Dongdong; Li, Ning

    2016-12-01

    Objective To develop a simple, effective, time-saving and low-cost fluorescence protein microarray method for detecting serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Method Non-contact piezoelectric print techniques were applied to fluorescence protein microarray to reduce the cost of prey antibody. Serum samples from patients with HCC and healthy control subjects were collected and evaluated for the presence of AFP using a novel fluorescence protein microarray. To validate the fluorescence protein microarray, serum samples were tested for AFP using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results A total of 110 serum samples from patients with HCC ( n = 65) and healthy control subjects ( n = 45) were analysed. When the AFP cut-off value was set at 20 ng/ml, the fluorescence protein microarray had a sensitivity of 91.67% and a specificity of 93.24% for detecting serum AFP. Serum AFP quantified via fluorescence protein microarray had a similar diagnostic performance compared with ELISA in distinguishing patients with HCC from healthy control subjects (area under receiver operating characteristic curve: 0.906 for fluorescence protein microarray; 0.880 for ELISA). Conclusion A fluorescence protein microarray method was developed for detecting serum AFP in patients with HCC.

  17. Bodipy-FL-Verapamil: A Fluorescent Probe for the Study of Multidrug Resistance Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rosati

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the substances used as fluorescent probes to study drug transport and the effect of efflux blockers in multidrug resistant cells have many drawbacks, such as toxicity, unspecific background, accumulation in mitochondria. New fluorescent compounds, among which Bodipy‐FL‐verapamil (BV, have been therefore proposed as more useful tools. The uptake of BV has been evaluated by cytofluorimetry and fluorescence microscopy using cell lines that overexpress P‐glycoprotein (P388/ADR and LLC‐PK1/ADR or MRP (multidrug resistance‐related protein (PANC‐1 and clinical specimens from patients. The effect of specific inhibitors for P‐glycoprotein (verapamil and vinblastine or MRP (MK571 and probenecid has been also studied. BV intracellular concentrations were significantly lower in the two P‐glycoprotein overexpressing cell lines in comparison with the parental lines. In addition, verapamil and vinblastine increased the intracellular concentrations of the dye; MK571 and probenecid, two MRP inhibitors, increased BV levels in PANC‐1 cells, that express this protein. These findings were confirmed in clinical specimens from patients. Fluorescence microscopy revealed a faint fluorescence emission in P‐glycoprotein or MRP expressing cell lines; however, treatment with specific inhibitors significantly increased the fluorescence. BV is a useful tool for studying multidrug resistance proteins with different techniques such as cytofluorimetry and fluorescence microscopy, but does not discriminate between P‐glycoprotein and MRP. In comparison with other classic fluorescent probes, the assay with this dye is extremely rapid, simple, not toxic for cells, devoid of fluorescent background, and can be useful in the clinical settings.

  18. Simulation of fluorescence resonance energy transfer experiments: effect of the dyes on protein folding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, Lucy R; Paci, Emanuele

    2010-01-01

    Fluorescence resonance energy transfer is a powerful technique which is often used to probe the properties of proteins and complex macromolecules. The technique relies on relatively large fluorescent dyes which are engineered into the molecule of interest. In the case of small proteins, these dyes may affect the stability of the protein, and modify the folding kinetics and the folding mechanisms which are being probed. Here we use atomistic simulation to investigate the effect that commonly used fluorescent dyes have on the folding of a four-helix bundle protein. We show that, depending on where the dyes are attached, their effect on the kinetic and thermodynamic properties of the protein may be significant. We find that, while the overall folding mechanism is not affected by the dyes, they can destabilize, or even stabilize, intermediate states.

  19. Imaging Intracellular pH in Live Cells with a Genetically-Encoded Red Fluorescent Protein Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Tantama, Mathew; Hung, Yin Pun; Yellen, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Intracellular pH affects protein structure and function, and proton gradients underlie the function of organelles such as lysosomes and mitochondria. We engineered a genetically-encoded pH sensor by mutagenesis of the red fluorescent protein mKeima, providing a new tool to image intracellular pH in live cells. This sensor, named pHRed, is the first ratiometric, single-protein red fluorescent sensor of pH. Fluorescence emission of pHRed peaks at 610 nm while exhibiting dual excitation peaks at...

  20. CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Fluorescent Tagging of Endogenous Proteins in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Arun; Toepfer, Christopher N; Ward, Tarsha; Wasson, Lauren; Agarwal, Radhika; Conner, David A; Hu, Johnny H; Seidman, Christine E

    2018-01-24

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) can be used to mass produce surrogates of human tissues, enabling new advances in drug screening, disease modeling, and cell therapy. Recent developments in clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 genome editing technology use homology-directed repair (HDR) to efficiently generate custom hiPSC lines harboring a variety of genomic insertions and deletions. Thus, hiPSCs that encode an endogenous protein fused to a fluorescent reporter protein can be rapidly created by employing CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing, enhancing HDR efficiency and optimizing homology arm length. These fluorescently tagged hiPSCs can be used to visualize protein function and dynamics in real time as cells proliferate and differentiate. Given that nearly any intracellular protein can be fluorescently tagged, this system serves as a powerful tool to facilitate new discoveries across many biological disciplines. In this unit, we present protocols for the design, generation, and monoclonal expansion of genetically customized hiPSCs encoding fluorescently tagged endogenous proteins. © 2018 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  1. A new approach to dual-color two-photon microscopy with fluorescent proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebane Aleks

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two-photon dual-color imaging of tissues and cells labeled with fluorescent proteins (FPs is challenging because most two-photon microscopes only provide one laser excitation wavelength at a time. At present, methods for two-photon dual-color imaging are limited due to the requirement of large differences in Stokes shifts between the FPs used and their low two-photon absorption (2PA efficiency. Results Here we present a new method of dual-color two-photon microscopy that uses the simultaneous excitation of the lowest-energy electronic transition of a blue fluorescent protein and a higher-energy electronic transition of a red fluorescent protein. Conclusion Our method does not require large differences in Stokes shifts and can be extended to a variety of FP pairs with larger 2PA efficiency and more optimal imaging properties.

  2. Selective Labeling of Proteins on Living Cell Membranes Using Fluorescent Nanodiamond Probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shingo Sotoma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The impeccable photostability of fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs is an ideal property for use in fluorescence imaging of proteins in living cells. However, such an application requires highly specific labeling of the target proteins with FNDs. Furthermore, the surface of unmodified FNDs tends to adsorb biomolecules nonspecifically, which hinders the reliable targeting of proteins with FNDs. Here, we combined hyperbranched polyglycerol modification of FNDs with the β-lactamase-tag system to develop a strategy for selective imaging of the protein of interest in cells. The combination of these techniques enabled site-specific labeling of Interleukin-18 receptor alpha chain, a membrane receptor, with FNDs, which eventually enabled tracking of the diffusion trajectory of FND-labeled proteins on the membrane surface.

  3. The fluorescence theatre: a cost-effective device using theatre gels for fluorescent protein and dye screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heil, John R; Nordeste, Ricardo F; Charles, Trevor C

    2011-04-01

    Here we report a simple cost-effective device for screening colonies on plates for expression of the monomeric red fluorescent protein mRFP1 and the fluorescent dye Nile red. This device can be built from any simple light source, in our case a Quebec Colony Counter, and cost-effective theatre gels. The device can be assembled in as little as 20 min, and it produces excellent results when screening a large number of colonies.

  4. Optical probing of single fluorescent molecules and proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Parajo, M.F.; Veerman, J.A.; Bouwhuis, R.; Bouwhuis, Rudo; van Hulst, N.F.; Vallée, R.A.L.

    2001-01-01

    Single-molecule detection and analysis of organic fluorescent molecules and proteins are presented, with emphasis o­n the underlying principles methodology and the application of single-molecule analysis at room temperature. This Minireview is mainly focused o­n the application of confocal and

  5. A SIMPLE FLUORESCENT LABELING METHOD FOR STUDIES OF PROTEIN OXIDATION, PROTEIN MODIFICATION, AND PROTEOLYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Andrew. M.; Davies, Kelvin. J. A.

    2014-01-01

    Proteins are sensitive to oxidation, and oxidized proteins are excellent substrates for degradation by proteolytic enzymes such as the Proteasome and the mitochondrial Lon protease. Protein labeling is required for studies of protein turnover. Unfortunately, most labeling techniques involve 3H or 14C methylation which is expensive, exposes researchers to radioactivity, generates large amounts of radioactive waste, and allows only single-point assays because samples require acid-precipitation. Alternative labeling methods, have largely proven unsuitable, either because the probe itself is modified by the oxidant(s) being studied, or because the alternative labeling techniques are too complex or too costly for routine use. What is needed is a simple, quick, and cheap labeling technique that uses a non-radioactive marker, that binds strongly to proteins, is resistant to oxidative modification, and emits a strong signal. We have devised a new reductive method for labeling free carboxyl groups of proteins with the small fluorophore 7-amino-4-methycoumarin (AMC). When bound to target proteins, AMC fluoresces very weakly but when AMC is released by proteinases, proteases, or peptidases, it fluoresces strongly. Thus, without acid-precipitation, the proteolysis of any target protein can be studied continuously, in multiwell plates. In direct comparisons, 3H-labeled proteins and AMC-labeled proteins exhibited essentially identical degradation patterns during incubation with trypsin, cell extracts, and purified proteasome. AMC-labeled proteins are well-suited to study increased proteolytic susceptibility following protein modification, since the AMC-protein bond is resistant to oxidizing agents such as hydrogen peroxide and peroxynitrite, and is stable over time and to extremes of pH, temperature (even boiling), freeze-thawing, mercaptoethanol, and methanol. PMID:21988844

  6. FRET-based localization of fluorescent protein insertions within the ryanodine receptor type 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta A Raina

    Full Text Available Fluorescent protein (FP insertions have often been used to localize primary structure elements in mid-resolution 3D cryo electron microscopic (EM maps of large protein complexes. However, little is known as to the precise spatial relationship between the location of the fused FP and its insertion site within a larger protein. To gain insights into these structural considerations, Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET measurements were used to localize green fluorescent protein (GFP insertions within the ryanodine receptor type 1 (RyR1, a large intracellular Ca(2+ release channel that plays a key role in skeletal muscle excitation contraction coupling. A series of full-length His-tagged GFP-RyR1 fusion constructs were created, expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK-293T cells and then complexed with Cy3NTA, a His-tag specific FRET acceptor. FRET efficiency values measured from each GFP donor to Cy3NTA bound to each His tag acceptor site were converted into intermolecular distances and the positions of each inserted GFP were then triangulated relative to a previously published X-ray crystal structure of a 559 amino acid RyR1 fragment. We observed that the chromophoric centers of fluorescent proteins inserted into RyR1 can be located as far as 45 Å from their insertion sites and that the fused proteins can also be located in internal cavities within RyR1. These findings should prove useful in interpreting structural results obtained in cryo EM maps using fusions of small fluorescent proteins. More accurate point-to-point distance information may be obtained using complementary orthogonal labeling systems that rely on fluorescent probes that bind directly to amino acid side chains.

  7. Application of split-green fluorescent protein for topology mapping membrane proteins in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toddo, Stephen; Soderstrom, Bill; Palombo, Isolde

    2012-01-01

    A topology map of a membrane protein defines the location of transmembrane helices and the orientation of soluble domains relative to the membrane. In the absence of a high-resolution structure, a topology map is an essential guide for studying structurefunction relationships. Although these maps....../periplasmic location of the N-terminus of a protein. Here, we show that the bimolecular split-green fluorescent protein complementation system can overcome this limitation and can be used to determine the location of both the N- and C-termini of inner membrane proteins in Escherichia coli....

  8. Fluorescence detection of a protein-bound 2Fe2S cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Kevin G; Goodlitt, Rochelle; Li, Rui; Smolke, Christina D; Silberg, Jonathan J

    2009-03-02

    A fluorescent biosensor is described for 2Fe2S clusters that is composed of green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused to glutaredoxin 2 (Grx2), as illustrated here. 2Fe2S detection is based on the reduction of GFP fluorescence upon the 2Fe2S-induced dimerization of GFP-Grx2. This assay is sufficiently sensitive to detect submicromolar changes in 2Fe2S levels, thus making it suitable for high-throughput measurements of metallocluster degradation and synthesis reactions.

  9. Study of protein-probe complexation equilibria and protein-surfactant interaction using charge transfer fluorescence probe methyl ester of N,N-dimethylamino naphthyl acrylic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahanta, Subrata; Balia Singh, Rupashree; Bagchi, Arnab [Department of Chemistry University of Calcutta 92, A.P.C. Road, Kolkata 700009 (India); Nath, Debnarayan [Department of Physical Chemistry, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Guchhait, Nikhil, E-mail: nguchhait@yahoo.co [Department of Chemistry University of Calcutta 92, A.P.C. Road, Kolkata 700009 (India)

    2010-06-15

    In this paper, we demonstrate the interaction between intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) probe-Methyl ester of N,N-dimethylamino naphthyl acrylic acid (MDMANA) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) using absorption and fluorescence emission spectroscopy. The nature of probe protein binding interaction, fluorescence resonance energy transfer from protein to probe and time resolved fluorescence decay measurement predict that the probe molecule binds strongly to the hydrophobic cavity of the protein. Furthermore, the interaction of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) with water soluble protein BSA has been investigated using MDMANA as fluorescenece probe. The changes in the spectral characteristics of charge transfer fluorescence probe MDMANA in BSA-SDS environment reflects well the nature of the protein-surfactant binding interaction such as specific binding, non-cooperative binding, cooperative binding and saturation binding.

  10. Yellow fluorescent protein phiYFPv (Phialidium): structure and structure-based mutagenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pletneva, Nadya V.; Pletnev, Vladimir Z., E-mail: vzpletnev@gmail.com; Souslova, Ekaterina; Chudakov, Dmitry M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lukyanov, Sergey [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Nizhny Novgorod State Medical Academy, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Martynov, Vladimir I.; Arhipova, Svetlena; Artemyev, Igor [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Wlodawer, Alexander [National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD 21702 (United States); Dauter, Zbigniew [National Cancer Institute, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Pletnev, Sergei [National Cancer Institute, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); SAIC-Frederick, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-06-01

    The yellow fluorescent protein phiYFPv with improved folding has been developed from the spectrally identical wild-type phiYFP found in the marine jellyfish Phialidium. The yellow fluorescent protein phiYFPv (λ{sub em}{sup max} ≃ 537 nm) with improved folding has been developed from the spectrally identical wild-type phiYFP found in the marine jellyfish Phialidium. The latter fluorescent protein is one of only two known cases of naturally occurring proteins that exhibit emission spectra in the yellow–orange range (535–555 nm). Here, the crystal structure of phiYFPv has been determined at 2.05 Å resolution. The ‘yellow’ chromophore formed from the sequence triad Thr65-Tyr66-Gly67 adopts the bicyclic structure typical of fluorophores emitting in the green spectral range. It was demonstrated that perfect antiparallel π-stacking of chromophore Tyr66 and the proximal Tyr203, as well as Val205, facing the chromophore phenolic ring are chiefly responsible for the observed yellow emission of phiYFPv at 537 nm. Structure-based site-directed mutagenesis has been used to identify the key functional residues in the chromophore environment. The obtained results have been utilized to improve the properties of phiYFPv and its homologous monomeric biomarker tagYFP.

  11. In Vivo Imaging of Far-red Fluorescent Proteins after DNA Electrotransfer to Muscle Tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hojman, Pernille; Eriksen, Jens; Gehl, Julie

    2009-01-01

    DNA electrotransfer to muscle tissue yields long-term, high levels of gene expression; showing great promise for future gene therapy. We want to characterize the novel far-red fluorescent protein Katushka as a marker for gene expression using time domain fluorescence in vivo imaging. Highly...... weeks. Depth and 3D analysis proved that the expression was located in the target muscle. In vivo bio-imaging using the novel Katushka fluorescent protein enables excellent evaluation of the transfection efficacy, and spatial distribution, but lacks long-term stability....... efficient transgenic expression was observed after DNA electrotransfer with 100-fold increase in fluorescent intensity. The fluorescent signal peaked 1 week after transfection and returned to background level within 4 weeks. Katushka expression was not as stable as GFP expression, which was detectable for 8...

  12. Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) as a reporter gene for the plant pathogenic oomycete Phytophthora ramorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marko Riedel; Gautier Calmin; Lassaad Belbahri; Francois Lefort; Monika Gotz; Stefan Wagner; Sabine. Werres

    2009-01-01

    Transgenic Phytophthora ramorum strains that produce green fluorescent protein (GFP) constitutively were obtained after stable DNA integration using a polyethylene glycol and CaCl2-based transformation protocol. Green fluorescent protein production was studied in developing colonies and in different propagules of the pathogen...

  13. Ubiquitous distribution of fluorescent protein in muscles of four ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, the localization of fluorescent protein (FP) was characterized in the muscles of ... A. mossambica have four exons and three introns, and were common to that of FABP family. ..... organization of the neurons (Rakic 1971; Feng et al.

  14. Detection of NT-pro BNP using fluorescent protein modified by streptavidin as a label in immunochromatographic assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haixia Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel fluorescent immunochromatographic assay for the detection of NT-proBNP in human serum has been developed. Based on a sandwich-type immunoassay format, analytes in samples were captured by one monoclonal antibody labeled with fluorescent protein and “sandwiched” by another monoclonal antibody immobilized on the nitrocellulose membrane, the fluorescence and concentration of analytes were measured and then calculated by fluoroanalyzer. The fluorescent protein is a fusion protein and was prepared through the application of Streptavidin gene SA, β subunit cpcB of Phycocyanin, lyase alr0617, and phycoerythrobilin synthetase gene ho1, pebA, pebB for covalent binding. It is characterized with higher stability, good solubility in water and it is not easy to quench fluorescence. Take the advantages of fluorescent protein, the immunochromatographic assay exhibited a wide linear range for NT-proBNP from 200 pg ml−1 to 26,000 pg ml−1, with a detection limit of 47 pg ml−1 under optimal conditions. Compared with chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA, 131 human serum samples were analyzed and the correlation coefficient of the developed immunoassay was 0.978. These results demonstrated that fluorescent immunochromatographic assay is a more rapid, sensitive, specific method and could be developed into a platform for more biomarkers determination in clinical practice. Keywords: NT-pro BNP, Fluorescent protein, Immunochromatographic assay

  15. Subunits of highly Fluorescent Protein R-Phycoerythrin as Probes for Cell Imaging and Single-Molecule Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isailovic, Dragan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The purposes of our research were: (1) To characterize subunits of highly fluorescent protein R-Phycoerythrin (R-PE) and check their suitability for single-molecule detection (SMD) and cell imaging, (2) To extend the use of R-PE subunits through design of similar proteins that will be used as probes for microscopy and spectral imaging in a single cell, and (3) To demonstrate a high-throughput spectral imaging method that will rival spectral flow cytometry in the analysis of individual cells. We first demonstrated that R-PE subunits have spectroscopic and structural characteristics that make them suitable for SMD. Subunits were isolated from R-PE by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and detected as single molecules by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM). In addition, R-PE subunits and their enzymatic digests were characterized by several separation and detection methods including HPLC, capillary electrophoresis, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and HPLC-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Favorable absorption and fluorescence of the R-PE subunits and digest peptides originate from phycoerythrobilin (PEB) and phycourobilin (PUB) chromophores that are covalently attached to cysteine residues. High absorption coefficients and strong fluorescence (even under denaturing conditions), broad excitation and emission fluorescence spectra in the visible region of electromagnetic spectrum, and relatively low molecular weights make these molecules suitable for use as fluorescence labels of biomolecules and cells. We further designed fluorescent proteins both in vitro and in vivo (in Escherichia coli) based on the highly specific attachment of PEB chromophore to genetically expressed apo-subunits of R-PE. In one example, apo-alpha and apo-beta R-PE subunits were cloned from red algae Polisiphonia boldii (P. boldii), and expressed in E. coli. Although expressed apo-subunits formed inclusion

  16. Dual time-resolved temperature-jump fluorescence and infrared spectroscopy for the study of fast protein dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Caitlin M; Reddish, Michael J; Dyer, R Brian

    2017-05-05

    Time-resolved temperature-jump (T-jump) coupled with fluorescence and infrared (IR) spectroscopy is a powerful technique for monitoring protein dynamics. Although IR spectroscopy of the polypeptide amide I mode is more technically challenging, it offers complementary information because it directly probes changes in the protein backbone, whereas, fluorescence spectroscopy is sensitive to the environment of specific side chains. With the advent of widely tunable quantum cascade lasers (QCL) it is possible to efficiently probe multiple IR frequencies with high sensitivity and reproducibility. Here we describe a dual time-resolved T-jump fluorescence and IR spectrometer and its application to study protein folding dynamics. A Q-switched Ho:YAG laser provides the T-jump source for both time-resolved IR and fluorescence spectroscopy, which are probed by a QCL and Ti:Sapphire laser, respectively. The Ho:YAG laser simultaneously pumps the time-resolved IR and fluorescence spectrometers. The instrument has high sensitivity, with an IR absorbance detection limit of jump induced difference spectrum from 50ns to 0.5ms. This study demonstrates the power of the dual time-resolved T-jump fluorescence and IR spectroscopy to resolve complex folding mechanisms by complementary IR absorbance and fluorescence measurements of protein dynamics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Monitoring protein synthesis by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Currently available methodologies for measuring protein synthesis rates rely on metabolic labelling by incorporation of radioactive amino acids into nascent polypeptides. These approaches are hampered by several limitations and cannot be applied to monitor protein synthesis in specific cells or tissues, in live specimens. Here, we describe a novel method for monitoring protein synthesis in specific cells and tissues of live Caenorhabditis elegans animals. Fluorescent reporter proteins such as...

  18. Identification of Protein-Protein Interactions with Glutathione-S-Transferase (GST) Fusion Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarson, Margret B; Pugacheva, Elena N; Orlinick, Jason R

    2007-08-01

    INTRODUCTIONGlutathione-S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins have had a wide range of applications since their introduction as tools for synthesis of recombinant proteins in bacteria. GST was originally selected as a fusion moiety because of several desirable properties. First and foremost, when expressed in bacteria alone, or as a fusion, GST is not sequestered in inclusion bodies (in contrast to previous fusion protein systems). Second, GST can be affinity-purified without denaturation because it binds to immobilized glutathione, which provides the basis for simple purification. Consequently, GST fusion proteins are routinely used for antibody generation and purification, protein-protein interaction studies, and biochemical analysis. This article describes the use of GST fusion proteins as probes for the identification of protein-protein interactions.

  19. A recombinant fusion protein-based, fluorescent protease assay for high throughput-compatible substrate screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozóki, Beáta; Gazda, Lívia; Tóth, Ferenc; Miczi, Márió; Mótyán, János András; Tőzsér, József

    2018-01-01

    In connection with the intensive investigation of proteases, several methods have been developed for analysis of the substrate specificity. Due to the great number of proteases and the expected target molecules to be analyzed, time- and cost-efficient high-throughput screening (HTS) methods are preferred. Here we describe the development and application of a separation-based HTS-compatible fluorescent protease assay, which is based on the use of recombinant fusion proteins as substrates of proteases. The protein substrates used in this assay consists of N-terminal (hexahistidine and maltose binding protein) fusion tags, cleavage sequences of the tobacco etch virus (TEV) and HIV-1 proteases, and a C-terminal fluorescent protein (mApple or mTurquoise2). The assay is based on the fluorimetric detection of the fluorescent proteins, which are released from the magnetic bead-attached substrates by the proteolytic cleavage. The protease assay has been applied for activity measurements of TEV and HIV-1 proteases to test the suitability of the system for enzyme kinetic measurements, inhibition studies, and determination of pH optimum. We also found that denatured fluorescent proteins can be renatured after SDS-PAGE of denaturing conditions, but showed differences in their renaturation abilities. After in-gel renaturation both substrates and cleavage products can be identified by in-gel UV detection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. TGP, an extremely stable, non-aggregating fluorescent protein created by structure-guided surface engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Close, Devin W.; Don Paul, Craig; Langan, Patricia S.; Wilce, Matthew C.J.; Traore, Daouda A.K.; Halfmann, Randal; Rocha, Reginaldo C.; Waldo, Geoffery S.; Payne, Riley J.; Rucker, Joseph B.; Prescott, Mark; Bradbury, Andrew R.M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we describe the engineering and X-ray crystal structure of Thermal Green Protein (TGP), an extremely stable, highly soluble, non-aggregating green fluorescent protein. TGP is a soluble variant of the fluorescent protein eCGP123, which despite being highly stable, has proven to be aggregation-prone. The X-ray crystal structure of eCGP123, also determined within the context of this paper, was used to carry out rational surface engineering to improve its solubility, leading to TGP....

  1. Shedding light on disulfide bond formation: engineering a redox switch in green fluorescent protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, H.; Henriksen, A.; Hansen, Flemming G.

    2001-01-01

    To visualize the formation of disulfide bonds in living cells, a pair of redox-active cysteines was introduced into the yellow fluorescent variant of green fluorescent protein. Formation of a disulfide bond between the two cysteines was fully reversible and resulted in a >2-fold decrease...... in the intrinsic fluorescence. Inter conversion between the two redox states could thus be followed in vitro as well as in vivoby non- invasive fluorimetric measurements. The 1.5 Angstrom crystal structure of the oxidized protein revealed a disulfide bond- induced distortion of the beta -barrel, as well...... the physiological range for redox-active cysteines. In the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli, the protein was a sensitive probe for the redox changes that occur upon disruption of the thioredoxin reductive pathway....

  2. Rotational order–disorder structure of fluorescent protein FP480

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pletnev, Sergei; Morozova, Kateryna S.; Verkhusha, Vladislav V.; Dauter, Zbigniew

    2009-01-01

    An analysis of the rotational order–disorder structure of fluorescent protein FP480 is presented. In the last decade, advances in instrumentation and software development have made crystallography a powerful tool in structural biology. Using this method, structural information can now be acquired from pathological crystals that would have been abandoned in earlier times. In this paper, the order–disorder (OD) structure of fluorescent protein FP480 is discussed. The structure is composed of tetramers with 222 symmetry incorporated into the lattice in two different ways, namely rotated 90° with respect to each other around the crystal c axis, with tetramer axes coincident with crystallographic twofold axes. The random distribution of alternatively oriented tetramers in the crystal creates a rotational OD structure with statistically averaged I422 symmetry, although the presence of very weak and diffuse additional reflections suggests that the randomness is only approximate

  3. Identification of the pigment responsible for the blue fluorescence band in the laser induced fluorescence (LIF) spectra of green plants, and the potential use of this band in remotely estimating rates of photosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chappelle, E.W.; McMurtrey, J.E. III; Kim, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    The laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) of vegetation is being investigated in this laboratory for use as a technique for the remote detection of the effects of environmental stress upon vegetation, as well as for plant identification. The fluorescence band with a maximum at 440 nm, in conjunction with the chlorophyll bands with maxima at 685 and 740 nm, has been found to be a critical band in the development of algorithms for detecting stress, and identifying plant types. The identification of the plant constituent responsible for this band is vital to understanding the mechanism underlying its fluorescence changes in response to environmental and physiological changes. The identification was achieved as follows: The laser induced fluorescence (LIF) spectra of pure plant pigments were determined. Fluorescence bands with maxima at 420 nm, 440 nm, 490 nm, and 525 nm were observed for vitamin K 1 , reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADPH), beta-carotene, and riboflavin, respectively. The LIF spectra of water extracts and acetone extracts of clover leaves were also measured. It was found that the blue fluorescence band was associated with the water extract. NADPH which is a water-soluble compound, and the water extract of clover had no fluorescence after oxidation by potassium ferricyanide, while the fluorescence of water insoluble vitamin K 1 was unchanged by the oxidizing agent. It was also found that the absorption maximum of NADPH was the same as the absorption maximum of the aqueous extract of clover. The above findings indicated that the compound responsible for the blue fluorescence at 440 nm is in the reduced state and is water-soluble. It was concluded that NADPH was responsible for the blue fluorescence at 440 nm. The strong linear relationship between the fluorescence at 440 nm and the rate of photosynthesis suggests the possible use of LIF measurements in the remote estimation of photosynthetic rates. (author)

  4. Selective labeling of a single organelle by using two-photon conversion of a photoconvertible fluorescent protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Wataru; Shimada, Tomoko; Matsunaga, Sachihiro; Kurihara, Daisuke; Arimura, Shin-ichi; Tsutsumi, Nobuhiro; Fukui, Kiichi; Itoh, Kazuyoshi

    2008-02-01

    We present space-selective labeling of organelles by using two-photon conversion of a photoconvertible fluorescent protein with near-infrared femtosecond laser pulses. Two-photon excitation of photoconvertible fluorescent-protein, Kaede, enables space-selective labeling of organelles. We alter the fluorescence of target mitochondria in a tobacco BY-2 cell from green to red by focusing femtosecond laser pulses with a wavelength of 750 nm.

  5. Computational methods for protein identification from mass spectrometry data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo McHugh

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Protein identification using mass spectrometry is an indispensable computational tool in the life sciences. A dramatic increase in the use of proteomic strategies to understand the biology of living systems generates an ongoing need for more effective, efficient, and accurate computational methods for protein identification. A wide range of computational methods, each with various implementations, are available to complement different proteomic approaches. A solid knowledge of the range of algorithms available and, more critically, the accuracy and effectiveness of these techniques is essential to ensure as many of the proteins as possible, within any particular experiment, are correctly identified. Here, we undertake a systematic review of the currently available methods and algorithms for interpreting, managing, and analyzing biological data associated with protein identification. We summarize the advances in computational solutions as they have responded to corresponding advances in mass spectrometry hardware. The evolution of scoring algorithms and metrics for automated protein identification are also discussed with a focus on the relative performance of different techniques. We also consider the relative advantages and limitations of different techniques in particular biological contexts. Finally, we present our perspective on future developments in the area of computational protein identification by considering the most recent literature on new and promising approaches to the problem as well as identifying areas yet to be explored and the potential application of methods from other areas of computational biology.

  6. Identification, expression profiling and fluorescence-based binding assays of a chemosensory protein gene from the Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Ke Zhang

    Full Text Available Using RT-PCR and RACE-PCR strategies, we cloned and identified a new chemosensory protein (FoccCSP from the Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, a species for which no chemosensory protein (CSP has yet been identified. The FoccCSP gene contains a 387 bp open-reading frame encoding a putative protein of 128 amino acids with a molecular weight of 14.51 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5.41. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal peptide of 19 amino acid residues at the N-terminus, as well as the typical four-cysteine signature found in other insect CSPs. As FoccCSP is from a different order of insect than other known CSPs, the GenBank FoccCSP homolog showed only 31-50% sequence identity with them. A neighbor-joining tree was constructed and revealed that FoccCSP is in a group with CSPs from Homopteran insects (e.g., AgosCSP4, AgosCSP10, ApisCSP, and NlugCSP9, suggesting that these genes likely developed from a common ancestral gene. The FoccCSP gene expression profile of different tissues and development stages was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. The results of this analysis revealed this gene is predominantly expressed in the antennae and also highly expressed in the first instar nymph, suggesting a function for FoccCSP in olfactory reception and in particular life activities during the first instar nymph stage. We expressed recombinant FoccCSP protein in a prokaryotic expression system and purified FoccCSP protein by affinity chromatography using a Ni-NTA-Sepharose column. Using N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine (1-NPN as a fluorescent probe in fluorescence-based competitive binding assay, we determined the binding affinities of 19 volatile substances for FoccCSP protein. This analysis revealed that anisic aldehyde, geraniol and methyl salicylate have high binding affinities for FoccCSP, with KD values of 10.50, 15.35 and 35.24 μM, respectively. Thus, our study indicates that FoccCSP may play an important role in

  7. Colorful packages : fluorescent proteins in complex coacervate core micelles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolles, Antsje

    2018-01-01

    This thesis explores the encapsulation of fluorescent proteins (FPs) into complex coacervate core micelles (C3Ms) and features the impact of this encapsulation on the biophysical properties of the FPs. In total eight different FPs were investigated originating from two different classes

  8. Evaluation of chemical fluorescent dyes as a protein conjugation partner for live cell imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Hayashi-Takanaka

    Full Text Available To optimize live cell fluorescence imaging, the choice of fluorescent substrate is a critical factor. Although genetically encoded fluorescent proteins have been used widely, chemical fluorescent dyes are still useful when conjugated to proteins or ligands. However, little information is available for the suitability of different fluorescent dyes for live imaging. We here systematically analyzed the property of a number of commercial fluorescent dyes when conjugated with antigen-binding (Fab fragments directed against specific histone modifications, in particular, phosphorylated H3S28 (H3S28ph and acetylated H3K9 (H3K9ac. These Fab fragments were conjugated with a fluorescent dye and loaded into living HeLa cells. H3S28ph-specific Fab fragments were expected to be enriched in condensed chromosomes, as H3S28 is phosphorylated during mitosis. However, the degree of Fab fragment enrichment on mitotic chromosomes varied depending on the conjugated dye. In general, green fluorescent dyes showed higher enrichment, compared to red and far-red fluorescent dyes, even when dye:protein conjugation ratios were similar. These differences are partly explained by an altered affinity of Fab fragment after dye-conjugation; some dyes have less effect on the affinity, while others can affect it more. Moreover, red and far-red fluorescent dyes tended to form aggregates in the cytoplasm. Similar results were observed when H3K9ac-specific Fab fragments were used, suggesting that the properties of each dye affect different Fab fragments similarly. According to our analysis, conjugation with green fluorescent dyes, like Alexa Fluor 488 and Dylight 488, has the least effect on Fab affinity and is the best for live cell imaging, although these dyes are less photostable than red fluorescent dyes. When multicolor imaging is required, we recommend the following dye combinations for optimal results: Alexa Fluor 488 (green, Cy3 (red, and Cy5 or CF640 (far-red.

  9. Quantization of bovine serum albumin by fluorescence enhancement effects and corresponding binding of macrocyclic host-protein assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardhan, Munmun; Misra, Tapas; Ganguly, Tapan

    2012-01-05

    The present paper reports the investigations on the spectroscopic behavior of the binary complexes of the dye aurintricarboxylic acid (ATA) with protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) and 18-crown 6 (CW) (ATA·BSA, ATA·CW) and the ternary complex ATA·CW·BSA by using UV-vis steady state and time resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The primary aim of the work is to determine the protein (BSA) quantization by fluorescence enhancement method and investigate the 'enhancer' activity of crown ether (CW) on it to increase the resolution. Steady state and time resolved fluorescence measurements demonstrated how fluorescence intensity of ATA could be used for the determination of the protein BSA in aqueous solution. The binding of dye (probe/fluorescent medicinal molecule) with protein and the denaturing effect in the polar environment of acetonitrile of the dye protein complex act as drug binding as well as drug release activity. Apart from its basic research point of view, the present study also possesses significant importance and applications in the field of medicinal chemistry. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Rapid identification of DNA-binding proteins by mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordhoff, E.; Korgsdam, A.-M.; Jørgensen, H.F.

    1999-01-01

    We report a protocol for the rapid identification of DNA-binding proteins. Immobilized DNA probes harboring a specific sequence motif are incubated with cell or nuclear extract. Proteins are analyzed directly off the solid support by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass...... was validated by the identification of known prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins, and its use provided evidence that poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase exhibits DNA sequence-specific binding to DNA....

  11. Construction of green fluorescent protein-tagged recombinant iridovirus to assess viral replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Youhua; Huang, Xiaohong; Cai, Jia; Ye, Fuzhou; Guan, Liya; Liu, Hong; Qin, Qiwei

    2011-09-01

    Green fluorescent protein-tagged recombinant virus has been successfully applied to observing the infective dynamics and evaluating viral replication. Here, we identified soft-shelled turtle iridovirus (STIV) ORF55 as an envelope protein (VP55), and developed a recombinant STIV expressing an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) fused to VP55 (EGFP-STIV). Recombinant EGFP-STIV shared similar single-step growth curves and ultrastructural morphology with wild type STIV (wt-STIV). The green fluorescence distribution during EGFP-STIV infection was consistent with the intracellular distribution of VP55 which was mostly co-localized with virus assembly sites. Furthermore, EGFP-STIV could be used to evaluate viral replication conveniently under drug treatment, and the result showed that STIV replication was significantly inhibited after the addition of antioxidant pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC). Thus, the EGFP-tagged recombinant iridovirus will not only be useful for further investigations on the viral replicative dynamics, but also provide an alternative simple strategy to screen for antiviral substances. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Fluorescent Reporters and Biosensors for Probing the Dynamic Behavior of Protein Kinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. González-Vera

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Probing the dynamic activities of protein kinases in real-time in living cells constitutes a major challenge that requires specific and sensitive tools tailored to meet the particular demands associated with cellular imaging. The development of genetically-encoded and synthetic fluorescent biosensors has provided means of monitoring protein kinase activities in a non-invasive fashion in their native cellular environment with high spatial and temporal resolution. Here, we review existing technologies to probe different dynamic features of protein kinases and discuss limitations where new developments are required to implement more performant tools, in particular with respect to infrared and near-infrared fluorescent probes and strategies which enable improved signal-to-noise ratio and controlled activation of probes.

  13. Characterization of a spectrally diverse set of fluorescent proteins as FRET acceptors for mTurquoise2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastop, M.; Bindels, D.S.; Shaner, N.C.; Postma, M.; Gadella, T.W.J.; Goedhart, J.

    2017-01-01

    The performance of Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) biosensors depends on brightness and photostability, which are dependent on the characteristics of the fluorescent proteins that are employed. Yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) is often used as an acceptor but YFP is prone to photobleaching

  14. Site-specific fluorescent labeling of nascent proteins on the translating ribosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraogi, Ishu; Zhang, Dawei; Chandrasekaran, Sandhya; Shan, Shu-ou

    2011-09-28

    As newly synthesized proteins emerge from the ribosome, they interact with a variety of cotranslational cellular machineries that facilitate their proper folding, maturation, and localization. These interactions are essential for proper function of the cell, and the ability to study these events is crucial to understanding cellular protein biogenesis. To this end, we have developed a highly efficient method to generate ribosome-nascent chain complexes (RNCs) site-specifically labeled with a fluorescent dye on the nascent polypeptide. The fluorescent RNC provides real-time, quantitative information on its cotranslational interaction with the signal recognition particle and will be a valuable tool in elucidating the role of the translating ribosome in numerous biochemical pathways.

  15. Quantification of protein based on single-molecule counting by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy with adsorption equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lei; Xu Guang; Shi Zhikun; Jiang Wei; Jin Wenrui

    2007-01-01

    We developed a sensitive single-molecule imaging method for quantification of protein by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy with adsorption equilibrium. In this method, the adsorption equilibrium of protein was achieved between solution and glass substrate. Then, fluorescence images of protein molecules in a evanescent wave field were taken by a highly sensitive electron multiplying charge coupled device. Finally, the number of fluorescent spots corresponding to the protein molecules in the images was counted. Alexa Fluor 488-labeled goat anti-rat IgG(H + L) was chosen as the model protein. The spot number showed an excellent linear relationship with protein concentration. The concentration linear range was 5.4 x 10 -11 to 8.1 x 10 -10 mol L -1

  16. IR-FEL-induced green fluorescence protein (GFP) gene transfer into plant cell

    CERN Document Server

    Awazu, K; Tamiya, E

    2002-01-01

    A Free Electron Laser (FEL) holds potential for various biotechnological applications due to its characteristics such as flexible wavelength tunability, short pulse and high peak power. We could successfully introduce the Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) gene into tobacco BY2 cells by IR-FEL laser irradiation. The irradiated area of the solution containing BY2 cells and plasmid was about 0.1 mm sup 2. FEL irradiation at a wavelength of 5.75 and 6.1 mu m, targeting absorption by the ester bond of the lipid and the amide I bond of the protein, respectively, was shown to cause the introduction of the fluorescent dye into the cell. On the other hand, transient expression of the GFP fluorescence was only observed after irradiation at 5.75 mu m. The maximum transfer efficiency was about 0.5%.

  17. Effect of pH on the Heat-Induced Denaturation and Renaturation of Green Fluorescent Protein: A Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Rosa V.; Sola, Hilda M.; Torres, Juan C.; Torres, Rafael E.; Guzman, Ernick E.

    2013-01-01

    A fluorescence spectroscopy experiment is described where students integrated biochemistry and instrumental analysis, while characterizing the green fluorescent protein excitation and emission spectra in terms of its phenolic and phenolate chromophores. Students studied the combined effect of pH and temperature on the protein's fluorescence,…

  18. Proteomic Analysis of Bovine Pregnancy-specific Serum Proteins by 2D Fluorescence Difference Gel Electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Eun; Lee, Jae Young; Kim, Hong Rye; Shin, Hyun Young; Lin, Tao; Jin, Dong Il

    2015-01-01

    Two dimensional-fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE) is an emerging technique for comparative proteomics, which improves the reproducibility and reliability of differential protein expression analysis between samples. The purpose of this study was to investigate bovine pregnancy-specific proteins in the proteome between bovine pregnant and non-pregnant serum using DIGE technique. Serums of 2 pregnant Holstein dairy cattle at day 21 after artificial insemination and those of 2 non-pregnant were used in this study. The pre-electrophoretic labeling of pregnant and non-pregnant serum proteins were mixed with Cy3 and Cy5 fluorescent dyes, respectively, and an internal standard was labeled with Cy2. Labeled proteins with Cy2, Cy3, and Cy5 were separated together in a single gel, and then were detected by fluorescence image analyzer. The 2D DIGE method using fluorescence CyDye DIGE flour had higher sensitivity than conventional 2D gel electrophoresis, and showed reproducible results. Approximately 1,500 protein spots were detected by 2D DIGE. Several proteins showed a more than 1.5-fold up and down regulation between non-pregnant and pregnant serum proteins. The differentially expressed proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer. A total 16 protein spots were detected to regulate differentially in the pregnant serum, among which 7 spots were up-regulated proteins such as conglutinin precursor, modified bovine fibrinogen and IgG1, and 6 spots were down-regulated proteins such as hemoglobin, complement component 3, bovine fibrinogen and IgG2a three spots were not identified. The identified proteins demonstrate that early pregnant bovine serum may have several pregnancy-specific proteins, and these could be a valuable information for the development of pregnancy-diagnostic markers in early pregnancy bovine serum. PMID:25925056

  19. Proteomic Analysis of Bovine Pregnancy-specific Serum Proteins by 2D Fluorescence Difference Gel Electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Eun Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Two dimensional-fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE is an emerging technique for comparative proteomics, which improves the reproducibility and reliability of differential protein expression analysis between samples. The purpose of this study was to investigate bovine pregnancy-specific proteins in the proteome between bovine pregnant and non-pregnant serum using DIGE technique. Serums of 2 pregnant Holstein dairy cattle at day 21 after artificial insemination and those of 2 non-pregnant were used in this study. The pre-electrophoretic labeling of pregnant and non-pregnant serum proteins were mixed with Cy3 and Cy5 fluorescent dyes, respectively, and an internal standard was labeled with Cy2. Labeled proteins with Cy2, Cy3, and Cy5 were separated together in a single gel, and then were detected by fluorescence image analyzer. The 2D DIGE method using fluorescence CyDye DIGE flour had higher sensitivity than conventional 2D gel electrophoresis, and showed reproducible results. Approximately 1,500 protein spots were detected by 2D DIGE. Several proteins showed a more than 1.5-fold up and down regulation between non-pregnant and pregnant serum proteins. The differentially expressed proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer. A total 16 protein spots were detected to regulate differentially in the pregnant serum, among which 7 spots were up-regulated proteins such as conglutinin precursor, modified bovine fibrinogen and IgG1, and 6 spots were down-regulated proteins such as hemoglobin, complement component 3, bovine fibrinogen and IgG2a three spots were not identified. The identified proteins demonstrate that early pregnant bovine serum may have several pregnancy-specific proteins, and these could be a valuable information for the development of pregnancy-diagnostic markers in early pregnancy bovine serum.

  20. Time-Resolved Fluorescence Immunoassay for C-Reactive Protein Using Colloidal Semiconducting Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekka Hänninen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Besides the typical short-lived fluorescence with decay times in the nanosecond range, colloidal II/VI semiconductor nanoparticles dispersed in buffer also possess a long-lived fluorescence component with decay times in the microsecond range. Here, the signal intensity of the long-lived luminescence at microsecond range is shown to increase 1,000-fold for CdTe nanoparticles in PBS buffer. This long-lived fluorescence can be conveniently employed for time-gated fluorescence detection, which allows for improved signal-to-noise ratio and thus the use of low concentrations of nanoparticles. The detection principle is demonstrated with a time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay for the detection of C-reactive protein (CRP using CdSe-ZnS nanoparticles and green light excitation.

  1. Effect of tissue scaffold topography on protein structure monitored by fluorescence spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Portugal, C.A.M.; Truckenmüller, R.K.; Stamatialis, Dimitrios; Crespo, J.G.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of surface topography on the structure of proteins upon adhesion was assessed through non-invasive fluorescence monitoring. This study aimed at obtaining a better understanding about the role of protein structural status on cell–scaffold interactions. The changes induced upon adsorption

  2. Automatic Identification and Quantification of Extra-Well Fluorescence in Microarray Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Robert; Wang, Jie; Yu, Xiaobo; Demirkan, Gokhan; Hopper, Marika; Bian, Xiaofang; Tahsin, Tasnia; Magee, D Mitchell; Qiu, Ji; LaBaer, Joshua; Wallstrom, Garrick

    2017-11-03

    In recent studies involving NAPPA microarrays, extra-well fluorescence is used as a key measure for identifying disease biomarkers because there is evidence to support that it is better correlated with strong antibody responses than statistical analysis involving intraspot intensity. Because this feature is not well quantified by traditional image analysis software, identification and quantification of extra-well fluorescence is performed manually, which is both time-consuming and highly susceptible to variation between raters. A system that could automate this task efficiently and effectively would greatly improve the process of data acquisition in microarray studies, thereby accelerating the discovery of disease biomarkers. In this study, we experimented with different machine learning methods, as well as novel heuristics, for identifying spots exhibiting extra-well fluorescence (rings) in microarray images and assigning each ring a grade of 1-5 based on its intensity and morphology. The sensitivity of our final system for identifying rings was found to be 72% at 99% specificity and 98% at 92% specificity. Our system performs this task significantly faster than a human, while maintaining high performance, and therefore represents a valuable tool for microarray image analysis.

  3. Fluorescent fusion proteins of soluble guanylyl cyclase indicate proximity of the heme nitric oxide domain and catalytic domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Haase

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To examine the structural organisation of heterodimeric soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET was measured between fluorescent proteins fused to the amino- and carboxy-terminal ends of the sGC beta1 and alpha subunits. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cyan fluorescent protein (CFP was used as FRET donor and yellow fluorescent protein (YFP as FRET acceptor. After generation of recombinant baculovirus, fluorescent-tagged sGC subunits were co-expressed in Sf9 cells. Fluorescent variants of sGC were analyzed in vitro in cytosolic fractions by sensitized emission FRET. Co-expression of the amino-terminally tagged alpha subunits with the carboxy-terminally tagged beta1 subunit resulted in an enzyme complex that showed a FRET efficiency of 10% similar to fluorescent proteins separated by a helix of only 48 amino acids. Because these findings indicated that the amino-terminus of the alpha subunits is close to the carboxy-terminus of the beta1 subunit we constructed fusion proteins where both subunits are connected by a fluorescent protein. The resulting constructs were not only fluorescent, they also showed preserved enzyme activity and regulation by NO. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Based on the ability of an amino-terminal fragment of the beta1 subunit to inhibit activity of an heterodimer consisting only of the catalytic domains (alphacatbetacat, Winger and Marletta (Biochemistry 2005, 44:4083-90 have proposed a direct interaction of the amino-terminal region of beta1 with the catalytic domains. In support of such a concept of "trans" regulation of sGC activity by the H-NOX domains our results indicate that the domains within sGC are organized in a way that allows for direct interaction of the amino-terminal regulatory domains with the carboxy-terminal catalytic region. In addition, we constructed "fluorescent-conjoined" sGC's by fusion of the alpha amino-terminus to the beta1 carboxy-terminus leading to a

  4. Identification Of Natural Dyes On Archaeological Textile Objects Using Laser Induced Fluorescent Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Kareem, O.; Eltokhy, A.; Harith, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the use of Laser Fluorescent as a non-destructive technique for identification of natural dyes on archaeological textile objects. In this study wool textile samples were dyed with 10 natural dyes such as cochineal, cutch, henna, indigo, Lac, madder, safflower, saffron, sumac and turmeric. These dyes common present on archaeological textile objects to be used as standard dyed textile samples. These selected natural dyes will be used as known references that can be used a guide to identify unknown archaeological dyes. The dyed textile samples were investigated with laser radiation in different wavelengths to detect the best wavelengths for identification each dye. This study confirms that Laser Florescent is very useful and a rapid technique can be used as a non-destructive technique for identification of natural dyes on archaeological textile objects. The results obtained with this study can be a guide for all conservators in identification of natural organic dyes on archaeological textile objects.

  5. Identification Of Natural Dyes On Archaeological Textile Objects Using Laser Induced Fluorescent Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Kareem, O.; Eltokhy, A.; Harith, M. A.

    2011-09-01

    This study aims to evaluate the use of Laser Fluorescent as a non-destructive technique for identification of natural dyes on archaeological textile objects. In this study wool textile samples were dyed with 10 natural dyes such as cochineal, cutch, henna, indigo, Lac, madder, safflower, saffron, sumac and turmeric. These dyes common present on archaeological textile objects to be used as standard dyed textile samples. These selected natural dyes will be used as known references that can be used a guide to identify unknown archaeological dyes. The dyed textile samples were investigated with laser radiation in different wavelengths to detect the best wavelengths for identification each dye. This study confirms that Laser Florescent is very useful and a rapid technique can be used as a non-destructive technique for identification of natural dyes on archaeological textile objects. The results obtained with this study can be a guide for all conservators in identification of natural organic dyes on archaeological textile objects.

  6. A sulfhydryl-reactive ruthenium (II complex and its conjugation to protein G as a universal reagent for fluorescent immunoassays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Tang Lin

    Full Text Available To develop a fluorescent ruthenium complex for biosensing, we synthesized a novel sulfhydryl-reactive compound, 4-bromophenanthroline bis-2,2'-dipyridine Ruthenium bis (hexafluorophosphate. The synthesized Ru(II complex was crosslinked with thiol-modified protein G to form a universal reagent for fluorescent immunoassays. The resulting Ru(II-protein G conjugates were identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. The emission peak wavelength of the Ru(II-protein G conjugate was 602 nm at the excitation of 452 nm which is similar to the spectra of the Ru(II complex, indicating that Ru(II-protein G conjugates still remain the same fluorescence after conjugation. To test the usefulness of the conjugate for biosensing, immunoglobulin G (IgG binding assay was conducted. The result showed that Ru(II-protein G conjugates were capable of binding IgG and the more cross-linkers to modify protein G, the higher conjugation efficiency. To demonstrate the feasibility of Ru(II-protein G conjugates for fluorescent immunoassays, the detection of recombinant histidine-tagged protein using the conjugates and anti-histidine antibody was developed. The results showed that the histidine-tagged protein was successfully detected with dose-response, indicating that Ru(II-protein G conjugate is a useful universal fluorescent reagent for quantitative immunoassays.

  7. Time variation of fluorescence lifetime in enhanced cyan fluorescence protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Soonhyouk; Kim, Soo Yong; Park, Kyoungsook; Jeong, Jinyoung; Chung, Bong Hyun; Kim, Sok Won

    2010-01-01

    The lifetime variations of enhanced cyan fluorescence protein (ECFP) in relatively short integration time bins were studied via time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) measurement. We observed that minimum photon counts are necessary for the lifetime estimation to achieve a certain range of variance. The conditions to decrease the variance of lifetime were investigated and the channel width of the measurement of TCSPC data was found to be another important factor for the variance of lifetime. Though the lifetime of ECFP is best fit by a double exponential, a mono exponential fit for the same integration time is more stable. The results may be useful in the analysis of photophysical dynamics for ensemble molecules in short measurement time windows.

  8. Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy for rapid identification and quality evaluation of cell culture media components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Boyan; Ryan, Paul W; Shanahan, Michael; Leister, Kirk J; Ryder, Alan G

    2011-11-01

    The application of fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy to the quantitative analysis of complex, aqueous solutions of cell culture media components was investigated. These components, yeastolate, phytone, recombinant human insulin, eRDF basal medium, and four different chemically defined (CD) media, are used for the formulation of basal and feed media employed in the production of recombinant proteins using a Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell based process. The comprehensive analysis (either identification or quality assessment) of these materials using chromatographic methods is time consuming and expensive and is not suitable for high-throughput quality control. The use of EEM in conjunction with multiway chemometric methods provided a rapid, nondestructive analytical method suitable for the screening of large numbers of samples. Here we used multiway robust principal component analysis (MROBPCA) in conjunction with n-way partial least squares discriminant analysis (NPLS-DA) to develop a robust routine for both the identification and quality evaluation of these important cell culture materials. These methods are applicable to a wide range of complex mixtures because they do not rely on any predetermined compositional or property information, thus making them potentially very useful for sample handling, tracking, and quality assessment in biopharmaceutical industries.

  9. Protein A Detection Based on Quantum Dots-Antibody Bioprobe Using Fluorescence Coupled Capillary Electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Qiu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this report, fluorescence detection coupled capillary electrophoresis (CE-FL was used to detect Protein A. Antibody was first labeled with Cy5 and then mixed with quantum dots (QDs to form QDs-antibody bioprobe. Further, we observed fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET from QDs donor to Cy5 acceptor. The bioprobe was formed and brought QDs and Cy5 close enough to allow FRET to occur. After adding protein A, the FRET system was broken and caused the FRET signal to decrease. Thus, a new method for the determination of protein A was proposed based on the FRET signal changes. This study provides a new trail of thought for the detection of protein.

  10. Truncated forms of viral VP2 proteins fused to EGFP assemble into fluorescent parvovirus-like particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuento Matti

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS monitors random movements of fluorescent molecules in solution, giving information about the number and the size of for example nano-particles. The canine parvovirus VP2 structural protein as well as N-terminal deletion mutants of VP2 (-14, -23, and -40 amino acids were fused to the C-terminus of the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP. The proteins were produced in insect cells, purified, and analyzed by western blotting, confocal and electron microscopy as well as FCS. The non-truncated form, EGFP-VP2, diffused with a hydrodynamic radius of 17 nm, whereas the fluorescent mutants truncated by 14, 23 and 40 amino acids showed hydrodynamic radii of 7, 20 and 14 nm, respectively. These results show that the non-truncated EGFP-VP2 fusion protein and the EGFP-VP2 constructs truncated by 23 and by as much as 40 amino acids were able to form virus-like particles (VLPs. The fluorescent VLP, harbouring VP2 truncated by 23 amino acids, showed a somewhat larger hydrodynamic radius compared to the non-truncated EGFP-VP2. In contrast, the construct containing EGFP-VP2 truncated by 14 amino acids was not able to assemble into VLP-resembling structures. Formation of capsid structures was confirmed by confocal and electron microscopy. The number of fluorescent fusion protein molecules present within the different VLPs was determined by FCS. In conclusion, FCS provides a novel strategy to analyze virus assembly and gives valuable structural information for strategic development of parvovirus-like particles.

  11. TGP, an extremely stable, non-aggregating fluorescent protein created by structure-guided surface engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, Devin W.; Don Paul, Craig; Langan, Patricia S.; Wilce, Matthew C.J.; Traore, Daouda A.K.; Halfmann, Randal; Rocha, Reginaldo C.; Waldo, Geoffery S.; Payne, Riley J.; Rucker, Joseph B.; Prescott, Mark; Bradbury, Andrew R.M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we describe the engineering and X-ray crystal structure of Thermal Green Protein (TGP), an extremely stable, highly soluble, non-aggregating green fluorescent protein. TGP is a soluble variant of the fluorescent protein eCGP123, which despite being highly stable, has proven to be aggregation-prone. The X-ray crystal structure of eCGP123, also determined within the context of this paper, was used to carry out rational surface engineering to improve its solubility, leading to TGP. The approach involved simultaneously eliminating crystal lattice contacts while increasing the overall negative charge of the protein. Despite intentional disruption of lattice contacts and introduction of high entropy glutamate side chains, TGP crystallized readily in a number of different conditions and the X-ray crystal structure of TGP was determined to 1.9 Å resolution. The structural reasons for the enhanced stability of TGP and eCGP123 are discussed. We demonstrate the utility of using TGP as a fusion partner in various assays and significantly, in amyloid assays in which the standard fluorescent protein, EGFP, is undesirable because of aberrant oligomerization. PMID:25287913

  12. Once for All: A Novel Robust System for Co-expression of Multiple Chimeric Fluorescent Fusion Proteins in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guitao Zhong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Chimeric fluorescent fusion proteins have been employed as a powerful tool to reveal the subcellular localizations and dynamics of proteins in living cells. Co-expression of a fluorescent fusion protein with well-known organelle markers in the same cell is especially useful in revealing its spatial and temporal functions of the protein in question. However, the conventional methods for co-expressing multiple fluorescent tagged proteins in plants have the drawbacks of low expression efficiency, variations in the expression level and time-consuming genetic crossing. Here, we have developed a novel robust system that allows for high-efficient co-expression of multiple chimeric fluorescent fusion proteins in plants in a time-saving fashion. This system takes advantage of employing a single expression vector which consists of multiple semi-independent expressing cassettes for the protein co-expression thereby overcoming the limitations of using multiple independent expressing plasmids. In addition, it is a highly manipulable DNA assembly system, in which modification and recombination of DNA molecules are easily achieved through an optimized one-step assembly reaction. By employing this effective system, we demonstrated that co-expression of two chimeric fluorescent fusion reporter proteins of vacuolar sorting receptor and secretory carrier membrane protein gave rise to their perspective subcellular localizations in plants via both transient expression and stable transformation. Thus, we believed that this technical advance represents a promising approach for multi-color-protein co-expression in plant cells.

  13. Analytical use of multi-protein Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer to demonstrate membrane-facilitated interactions within cytokine receptor complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Christopher D; Izotova, Lara S; Pestka, Sidney

    2013-10-01

    Experiments measuring Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) between cytokine receptor chains and their associated proteins led to hypotheses describing their organization in intact cells. These interactions occur within a larger protein complex or within a given nano-environment. To illustrate this complexity empirically, we developed a protocol to analyze FRET among more than two fluorescent proteins (multi-FRET). In multi-FRET, we model FRET among more than two fluorophores as the sum of all possible pairwise interactions within the complex. We validated our assumption by demonstrating that FRET among pairs within a fluorescent triplet resembled FRET between each pair measured in the absence of the third fluorophore. FRET between two receptor chains increases with increasing FRET between the ligand-binding chain (e.g., IFN-γR1, IL-10R1 and IFN-λR1) and an acylated fluorescent protein that preferentially resides within subsections of the plasma membrane. The interaction of IL-10R2 with IFN-λR1 or IL-10R1 results in decreased FRET between IL-10R2 and the acylated fluorescent protein. Finally, we analyzed FRET among four fluorescent proteins to demonstrate that as FRET between IFN-γR1 and IFN-γR2 or between IFN-αR1 and IFN-αR2c increases, FRET among other pairs of proteins changes within each complex. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Determination of Dynamics of Plant Plasma Membrane Proteins with Fluorescence Recovery and Raster Image Correlation Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laňková, Martina; Humpolíčková, Jana; Vosolsobě, Stanislav; Cit, Zdeněk; Lacek, Jozef; Čovan, Martin; Čovanová, Milada; Hof, Martin; Petrášek, Jan

    2016-04-01

    A number of fluorescence microscopy techniques are described to study dynamics of fluorescently labeled proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and whole organelles. However, for studies of plant plasma membrane (PM) proteins, the number of these techniques is still limited because of the high complexity of processes that determine the dynamics of PM proteins and the existence of cell wall. Here, we report on the usage of raster image correlation spectroscopy (RICS) for studies of integral PM proteins in suspension-cultured tobacco cells and show its potential in comparison with the more widely used fluorescence recovery after photobleaching method. For RICS, a set of microscopy images is obtained by single-photon confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Fluorescence fluctuations are subsequently correlated between individual pixels and the information on protein mobility are extracted using a model that considers processes generating the fluctuations such as diffusion and chemical binding reactions. As we show here using an example of two integral PM transporters of the plant hormone auxin, RICS uncovered their distinct short-distance lateral mobility within the PM that is dependent on cytoskeleton and sterol composition of the PM. RICS, which is routinely accessible on modern CLSM instruments, thus represents a valuable approach for studies of dynamics of PM proteins in plants.

  15. Second and third generation voltage-sensitive fluorescent proteins for monitoring membrane potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelie Perron

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, optical neuroimaging methods have been enriched by engineered biosensors derived from fluorescent protein (FP reporters fused to protein detectors that convert physiological signals into changes of intrinsic FP fluorescence. These FP-based indicators are genetically encoded, and hence targetable to specific cell populations within networks of heterologous cell types. Among this class of biosensors, the development of optical probes for membrane potential is both highly desirable and challenging. A suitable FP voltage sensor would indeed be a valuable tool for monitoring the activity of thousands of individual neurons simultaneously in a non-invasive manner. Previous prototypic genetically-encoded FP voltage indicators achieved a proof of principle but also highlighted several difficulties such as poor cell surface targeting and slow kinetics. Recently, we developed a new series of FRET-based Voltage-Sensitive Fluorescent Proteins (VSFPs, referred to as VSFP2s, with efficient targeting to the plasma membrane and high responsiveness to membrane potential signaling in excitable cells. In addition to these FRET-based voltage sensors, we also generated a third series of probes consisting of single FPs with response kinetics suitable for the optical imaging of fast neuronal signals. These newly available genetically-encoded reporters for membrane potential will be instrumental for future experimental approaches directed toward the understanding of neuronal network dynamics and information processing in the brain. Here, we review the development and current status of these novel fluorescent probes.

  16. Post-Electrophoretic Identification of Oxidized Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Craig C; Talent, John M; Malakowsky, Christina A

    1999-01-01

    The oxidative modification of proteins has been shown to play a major role in a number of human diseases. However, the ability to identify specific proteins that are most susceptible to oxidative modifications is difficult. Separation of proteins using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) offers the analytical potential for the recovery, amino acid sequencing, and identification of thousands of individual proteins from cells and tissues. We have developed a method to allow underivatized proteins to be electroblotted onto PVDF membranes before derivatization and staining. Since both the protein and oxidation proteins are quantifiable, the specific oxidation index of each protein can be determined. The optimal sequence and conditions for the staining process are (a) electrophoresis, (b) electroblotting onto PVDF membranes, (c) derivatization of carbonyls with 2,4-DNP, (d) immunostaining with anti DNP antibody, and (e) protein staining with colloidal gold. PMID:12734585

  17. Intrinsic Tryptophan Fluorescence in the Detection and Analysis of Proteins: A Focus on Förster Resonance Energy Transfer Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar B. T. Ghisaidoobe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available F resonance energy transfer (FRET occurs when the distance between a donor fluorophore and an acceptor is within 10 nm, and its application often necessitates fluorescent labeling of biological targets. However, covalent modification of biomolecules can inadvertently give rise to conformational and/or functional changes. This review describes the application of intrinsic protein fluorescence, predominantly derived from tryptophan (\\(\\uplambda_{\\textsc{ex}}\\sim\\ nm, \\(\\uplambda_{\\textsc{em}}\\sim\\ 350 nm, in protein-related research and mainly focuses on label-free FRET techniques. In terms of wavelength and intensity, tryptophan fluorescence is strongly influenced by its (or the proteinlocal environment, which, in addition to fluorescence quenching, has been applied to study protein conformational changes. Intrinsic F resonance energy transfer (iFRET, a recently developed technique, utilizes the intrinsic fluorescence of tryptophan in conjunction with target-specific fluorescent probes as FRET donors and acceptors, respectively, for real time detection of native proteins.

  18. Fluorescent molecularly imprinted polymer thin films for specific protein detection prepared with dansyl ethylenediamine-conjugated O-acryloyl L-hydroxyproline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yuki; Kuwahara, Atsushi; Ohmori, Kohei; Sunayama, Hirobumi; Ooya, Tooru; Takeuchi, Toshifumi

    2013-10-15

    Protein-imprinted polymers, capable of specific transduction of protein binding events into fluorescent signal change, were designed and synthesized by using dansyl ethylenediamine-conjugated O-acryloyl L-hydroxyproline (Hyp-En-Dans). Human serum albumin (HSA) was used as a model target protein and HSA-imprinted polymers (HSA-IP) were prepared on glass substrates. Specific fluorescence change was observed for HSA binding on the imprinted polymer thin film, whereas a weaker response was observed for other proteins, including bovine serum albumin, chymotrypsin, lysozyme, and avidin. The binding specificity was found to derive from the rigid structure of the hydrogen-bondable pyrrolidine moiety. Compared with SPR measurements, the non-specific binding caused by the polymer matrix and/or randomly located fluorescent monomer residues that did not compose specific binding sites did not contribute to the observed fluorescence change. These results revealed that the proposed protein-imprinting technique using Hyp-En-Dans could provide a highly selective protein-sensing platform, in which only specific binding events would be detected by fluorescent measurements. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A polarizable embedding DFT study of one-photon absorption in fluorescent proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beerepoot, Maarten; Steindal, Arnfinn H.; Kongsted, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    mutants (BFP, eGFP, YFP and eCFP). The observed trends in excitation energies among the FPs are reproduced by our approach when performing calculations directly on the crystal structures or when using structures extracted from a molecular dynamics simulations. However, in the former case, QM/MM geometry......A theoretical study of the one-photon absorption of five fluorescent proteins (FPs) is presented. The absorption properties are calculated using a polarizable embedding approach combined with density functional theory (PE-DFT) on the wild-type green fluorescent protein (wtGFP) and several of its...... optimization of the chromophores within a frozen protein environment is needed in order to reproduce the experimental trends. Explicit account of polarization in the force field is not needed to yield the correct trend between the different FPs, but is necessary for reproducing the experimentally observed red...

  20. Determination of Protein by Fluorescence Enhancement of Curcumin in Lanthanum-Curcumin-Sodium Dodecyl Benzene Sulfonate-Protein System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Feng [Zaozhuang University, People' s Republic of China; Huang, Wei [Zaozhuang University, People' s Republic of China; Zhang, Yunfeng [Zaozhuang University, People' s Republic of China; Wang, Mingyin [Zaozhuang University, People' s Republic of China; Sun, Lina [Zaozhuang University, People' s Republic of China; Tang, Bo [Shandong University, Jinan, China; Wang, Wei [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    We found that the fluorescence intensity of the lanthanum (La(3+))-curcumin (CU) complex can be highly enhanced by proteins in the presence of sodium dodecyl benzene sulphonate (SDBS). Based on this finding, a new fluorimetric method for the determination of protein was developed. Under optimized conditions, the enhanced intensities of fluorescence are quantitatively in proportion to the concentrations of proteins in the range 0.0080-20.0 g mL(-1) for bovine serum albumin (BSA) and 0.00080-20.0 g mL(-1) for human serum albumin (HSA) with excitation of 425 nm, and 0.00020-20.0 g mL(-1) for bovine serum albumin (BSA) and 0.00080-20.0 g mL(-1)for human serum albumin (HSA) with excitation of 280 nm, while corresponding qualitative detection limits (S/N 3) are as low as 5.368, 0.573, 0.049, 0.562 g mL(-1), respectively. Study on reaction mechanism reveals that proteins can bind with La(3+), CU and SDBS through self-assembling function with electrostatic attraction, hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic interaction and van der Waals forces, etc. The proteins form a supermolecular association with multilayer structure, in which La(3+)-CU is clamped between BSA and SDBS. The unique high fluorescence enhancement of CU is resulted through synergic effects of favorable hydrophobic microenvironment provided by BSA and SDBS, and efficient intermolecular energy transfer among BSA, SDBS and CU. In energy transfer process, La(3+) plays a crucial role because it not only shortens the distance between SDBS and CU, but also acts as a "bridge" for transferring the energy from BSA to CU.

  1. Monitoring protein turnover during phosphate starvation-dependent autophagic degradation using a photoconvertible fluorescent protein aggregate in tobacco BY-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasaki, Maiko; Asatsuma, Satoru; Matsuoka, Ken

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a system for quantitative monitoring of autophagic degradation in transformed tobacco BY-2 cells using an aggregate-prone protein comprised of cytochrome b5 (Cyt b5) and a tetrameric red fluorescent protein (RFP). Unfortunately, this system is of limited use for monitoring the kinetics of autophagic degradation because the proteins synthesized before and after induction of autophagy cannot be distinguished. To overcome this problem, we developed a system using kikume green-red (KikGR), a photoconvertible and tetrameric fluorescent protein that changes its fluorescence from green to red upon irradiation with purple light. Using the fusion protein of Cyt b5 and KikGR together with a method for the bulk conversion of KikGR, which we had previously used to convert the Golgi-localized monomeric KikGR fusion protein, we were able to monitor both the growth and de novo formation of aggregates. Using this system, we found that tobacco cells do not cease protein synthesis under conditions of phosphate (Pi)-starvation. Induction of autophagy under Pi-starvation, but not under sugar- or nitrogen-starvation, was specifically inhibited by phosphite, which is an analog of Pi with a different oxidation number. Therefore, the mechanism by which BY-2 cells can sense Pi-starvation and induce autophagy does not involve sensing a general decrease in energy supply and a specific Pi sensor might be involved in the induction of autophagy under Pi-starvation.

  2. Emission shaping in fluorescent proteins: role of electrostatics and π-stacking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Woo; Rhee, Young Min

    2016-02-07

    For many decades, simulating the excited state properties of complex systems has been an intriguing but daunting task due to its high computational cost. Here, we apply molecular dynamics based techniques with interpolated potential energy surfaces toward calculating fluorescence spectra of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) and its variants in a statistically meaningful manner. With the GFP, we show that the diverse electrostatic tuning can shape the emission features in many different ways. By computationally modulating the electrostatic interactions between the chromophore phenoxy oxygen and its nearby residues, we demonstrate that we indeed can shift the emission to the blue or to the red side in a predictable manner. We rationalize the shifting effects of individual residues in the GFP based on the responses of both the adiabatic and the diabatic electronic states of the chromophore. We next exhibit that the yellow emitting variant, the Thr203Tyr mutant, generates changes in the electrostatic interactions and an additional π-stacking interaction. These combined effects indeed induce a red shift to emit the fluorescence into the yellow region. With the series of demonstrations, we suggest that our approach can provide sound rationales and useful insights in understanding different responses of various fluorescent complexes, which may be helpful in designing new light emitting proteins and other related systems in future studies.

  3. Highly sensitive C-reactive protein (CRP) assay using metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yi; Keegan, Gemma L.; Stranik, Ondrej; Brennan-Fournet, Margaret E.; McDonagh, Colette

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence has been extensively employed in the area of diagnostic immunoassays. A significant enhancement of fluorescence can be achieved when noble metal nanoparticles are placed in close proximity to fluorophores. This effect, referred to as metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF), has the potential to produce immunoassays with a high sensitivity and a low limit of detection (LOD). In this study, we investigate the fluorescence enhancement effect of two different nanoparticle systems, large spherical silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and gold edge-coated triangular silver nanoplates, and both systems were evaluated for MEF. The extinction properties and electric field enhancement of both systems were modeled, and the optimum system, spherical AgNPs, was used in a sandwich immunoassay for human C-reactive protein with a red fluorescent dye label. A significant enhancement in the fluorescence was observed, which corresponded to an LOD improvement of ∼19-fold compared to a control assay without AgNPs

  4. Highly sensitive C-reactive protein (CRP) assay using metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yi; Keegan, Gemma L., E-mail: gemmakeegan@gmail.com [Dublin City University, School of Physical Sciences, Biomedical Diagnostics Institute (Ireland); Stranik, Ondrej [Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology, Department of NanoBiophotonics (Germany); Brennan-Fournet, Margaret E. [CMP-EMSE, MOC, Department of Bioelectronics, Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines (France); McDonagh, Colette [Dublin City University, School of Physical Sciences, Biomedical Diagnostics Institute (Ireland)

    2015-07-15

    Fluorescence has been extensively employed in the area of diagnostic immunoassays. A significant enhancement of fluorescence can be achieved when noble metal nanoparticles are placed in close proximity to fluorophores. This effect, referred to as metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF), has the potential to produce immunoassays with a high sensitivity and a low limit of detection (LOD). In this study, we investigate the fluorescence enhancement effect of two different nanoparticle systems, large spherical silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and gold edge-coated triangular silver nanoplates, and both systems were evaluated for MEF. The extinction properties and electric field enhancement of both systems were modeled, and the optimum system, spherical AgNPs, was used in a sandwich immunoassay for human C-reactive protein with a red fluorescent dye label. A significant enhancement in the fluorescence was observed, which corresponded to an LOD improvement of ∼19-fold compared to a control assay without AgNPs.

  5. New unstable variants of green fluorescent protein for studies of transient gene expression in bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Bo; Sternberg, Claus; Poulsen, Lars K.

    1998-01-01

    Use of the green fluorescent protein (Gfp) from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria ia is a powerful method for nondestructive in situ monitoring, since expression of green fluorescence does not require any substrate addition. To expand the use of Gfp as a reporter protein, new variants have been...... constructed by the addition of short peptide sequences to the C-terminal end of intact Gfp. This rendered the Gfp susceptible to the action of indigenous housekeeping proteases, resulting in protein variants with half-lives ranging from 40 min to a few hours when synthesized in Escherichia coli...

  6. Broadband photon pair generation in green fluorescent proteins through spontaneous four-wave mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Siyuan; Thomas, Abu; Corzo, Neil V.; Kumar, Prem; Huang, Yuping; Lee, Kim Fook

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies in quantum biology suggest that quantum mechanics help us to explore quantum processes in biological system. Here, we demonstrate generation of photon pairs through spontaneous four-wave mixing process in naturally occurring fluorescent proteins. We develop a general empirical method for analyzing the relative strength of nonlinear optical interaction processes in five different organic fluorophores. Our results indicate that the generation of photon pairs in green fluorescent proteins is subject to less background noises than in other fluorophores, leading to a coincidence-to-accidental ratio ~145. As such proteins can be genetically engineered and fused to many biological cells, our experiment enables a new platform for quantum information processing in a biological environment such as biomimetic quantum networks and quantum sensors. PMID:27076032

  7. Expression of green fluorescent protein (GFPuv) in Escherichia coli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    The recombinant green fluorescent protein (GFPuv) was expressed by transformed cells of Escherichia coli DH5-α grown in LB/amp broth at 37oC, for 8 h and 24 h. To evaluate the effectiveness of different parameters to improve the expression of GFPuv by E. coli, four variable culturing conditions were set up for assays by ...

  8. Red fluorescent proteins for gene expression and protein localization studies in Streptococcus pneumoniae and efficient transformation with Gibson assembled DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beilharz, Katrin; van Raaphorst, Renske; Kjos, Morten; Veening, Jan-Willem

    2015-01-01

    During the last decades, a wide range of fluorescent proteins (FPs) have been developed and improved. This has had a great impact on the possibilities in biological imaging and the investigation of cellular processes at the single cell level. Recently, we have benchmarked a set of green fluorescent

  9. Application of green fluorescent protein for monitoring phenol-degrading strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Milena Valderrama F.

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Several methods have been developed for detecting microorganisms in environmental samples. Some systems for incorporating reporter genes, such as lux or the green fluorescent protein (GFP gene, have been developed recently This study describes gfp gene marking of a phenol degrading strain, its evaluation and monitoring in a bioreactor containing refinery sour water. Tagged strains were obtained having the same physiological and metabolic characteristics as the parent strain. Fluorescent expression was kept stable with no selection for more than 50 consecutive generations and tagged strains were recovered from the bioreactor after forty-five days of phenol-degradation treatment.

  10. Imaging intracellular pH in live cells with a genetically encoded red fluorescent protein sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantama, Mathew; Hung, Yin Pun; Yellen, Gary

    2011-07-06

    Intracellular pH affects protein structure and function, and proton gradients underlie the function of organelles such as lysosomes and mitochondria. We engineered a genetically encoded pH sensor by mutagenesis of the red fluorescent protein mKeima, providing a new tool to image intracellular pH in live cells. This sensor, named pHRed, is the first ratiometric, single-protein red fluorescent sensor of pH. Fluorescence emission of pHRed peaks at 610 nm while exhibiting dual excitation peaks at 440 and 585 nm that can be used for ratiometric imaging. The intensity ratio responds with an apparent pK(a) of 6.6 and a >10-fold dynamic range. Furthermore, pHRed has a pH-responsive fluorescence lifetime that changes by ~0.4 ns over physiological pH values and can be monitored with single-wavelength two-photon excitation. After characterizing the sensor, we tested pHRed's ability to monitor intracellular pH by imaging energy-dependent changes in cytosolic and mitochondrial pH.

  11. Characterization of protein adsorption onto FePt nanoparticles using dual-focus fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Maffre

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Using dual-focus fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, we have analyzed the adsorption of three human blood serum proteins, namely serum albumin, apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein E4, onto polymer-coated, fluorescently labeled FePt nanoparticles (~12 nm diameter carrying negatively charged carboxyl groups on their surface. For all three proteins, a step-wise increase in hydrodynamic radius with protein concentration was observed, strongly suggesting the formation of protein monolayers that enclose the nanoparticles. Consistent with this interpretation, the absolute increase in hydrodynamic radius can be correlated with the molecular shapes of the proteins known from X-ray crystallography and solution experiments, indicating that the proteins bind on the nanoparticles in specific orientations. The equilibrium dissociation coefficients, measuring the affinity of the proteins to the nanoparticles, were observed to differ by almost four orders of magnitude. These variations can be understood in terms of the electrostatic properties of the proteins. From structure-based calculations of the surface potentials, positively charged patches of different extents can be revealed, through which the proteins interact electrostatically with the negatively charged nanoparticle surfaces.

  12. Heterologous overexpression of sfCherry fluorescent protein in Nannochloropsis salina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam Kyu Kang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Oleaginous microalgae of the Nannochloropsis genus are considered excellent candidates for biofuels and value-added products owing to their high biomass productivity and lipid content. Here, we report the first overexpression and detection of a heterologous sfCherry fluorescent protein in Nannochloropsis salina in order to develop a transformation toolbox for future genetic improvements. Particle bombardment was employed for transformation, and expression of Shble under the control of TUB and UEP promoters, cloned from N. salina, was used to confer resistance to Zeocin antibiotics, resulting in 5.9 and 4.7 transformants per 108 cells, respectively. Stable integration of the markers into the genome was confirmed using a restriction enzyme site-directed amplification (RESDA PCR. The expression of sfCherry fluorescent protein was confirmed by Western blot analysis and confocal microscopy. These results suggest new possibilities of efficient genetic engineering of Nannochloropsis for the production of biofuels and other biochemicals.

  13. Activity, polypeptide and gene identification of thylakoid Ndh complex in trees: potential physiological relevance of fluorescence assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrot, Patricia H; Sabater, Bartolomé; Martín, Mercedes

    2012-09-01

    Three evergreen (Laurus nobilis, Viburnum tinus and Thuja plicata) and two autumnal abscission deciduous trees (Cydonia oblonga and Prunus domestica) have been investigated for the presence (zymogram and immunodetection) and functionality (post-illumination chlorophyll fluorescence) of the thylakoid Ndh complex. The presence of encoding ndh genes has also been investigated in T. plicata. Western assays allowed tentative identification of zymogram NADH dehydrogenase bands corresponding to the Ndh complex after native electrophoresis of solubilized fractions from L. nobilis, V. tinus, C. oblonga and P. domestica leaves, but not in those of T. plicata. However, Ndh subunits were detected after SDS-PAGE of thylakoid solubilized proteins of T. plicata. The leaves of the five plants showed the post-illumination chlorophyll fluorescence increase dependent on the presence of active Ndh complex. The fluorescence increase was higher in autumn in deciduous, but not in evergreen trees, which suggests that the thylakoid Ndh complex could be involved in autumnal leaf senescence. Two ndhB genes were sequenced from T. plicata that differ at the 350 bp 3' end sequence. Comparison with the mRNA revealed that ndhB genes have a 707-bp type II intron between exons 1 (723 bp) and 2 (729 bp) and that the UCA 259th codon is edited to UUA in mRNA. Phylogenetically, the ndhB genes of T. plicata group close to those of Metasequoia, Cryptomeria, Taxodium, Juniperus and Widdringtonia in the cupresaceae branch and are 5' end shortened by 18 codons with respect to that of angiosperms. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2012.

  14. First identification of the herpes simplex virus by skin-dedicated ex vivo fluorescence confocal microscopy during herpetic skin infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinotti, E; Perrot, J L; Labeille, B; Campolmi, N; Thuret, G; Naigeon, N; Bourlet, T; Pillet, S; Cambazard, F

    2015-06-01

    Skin-dedicated ex vivo fluorescence confocal microscopy (FCM) has so far been used to identify cutaneous tumours on freshly excised samples using acridine orange as fluorochrome. To use FCM for a new indication, namely, the identification of the herpes simplex virus (HSV) in skin lesions, using fluorescent antibodies. Six roof samples from skin vesicles suspicious for HSV lesions were incubated with anti-HSV-1 and anti-HSV-2 antibodies coupled with fluorescein isothiocyanate, and examined under skin-dedicated ex vivo FCM. The positive controls were swabs taken from the floor of each vesicle and observed under conventional direct fluorescence assay (DFA) and by viral cultures. Roof samples from three bullae of bullous pemphigoid were the negative controls. Using ex vivo FCM, the samples from the lesions clinically suspicious for HSV infection were seen to be fluorescent after incubation with anti-HSV-1, and were negative after incubation with anti-HSV-2 antibodies. Conventional DFA with an optical microscope and cultures confirmed the presence of HSV-1 infection. By using fluorescent antibodies to identify precise structures, ex vivo FCM can be used for indications other than tumour identification. More specifically, it can be an additional diagnostic tool for HSV infection. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  15. Characterization of Protein-Excipient Microheterogeneity in Biopharmaceutical Solid-State Formulations by Confocal Fluorescence Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshari, Stijn H S; Ross, Jean L; Nayak, Purnendu K; Zarraga, Isidro E; Rajagopal, Karthikan; Wagner, Norman J; Lenhoff, Abraham M

    2017-02-06

    Protein-stabilizer microheterogeneity is believed to influence long-term protein stability in solid-state biopharmaceutical formulations and its characterization is therefore essential for the rational design of stable formulations. However, the spatial distribution of the protein and the stabilizer in a solid-state formulation is, in general, difficult to characterize because of the lack of a functional, simple, and reliable characterization technique. We demonstrate the use of confocal fluorescence microscopy with fluorescently labeled monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and antibody fragments (Fabs) to directly visualize three-dimensional particle morphologies and protein distributions in dried biopharmaceutical formulations, without restrictions on processing conditions or the need for extensive data analysis. While industrially relevant lyophilization procedures of a model IgG1 mAb generally lead to uniform protein-excipient distribution, the method shows that specific spray-drying conditions lead to distinct protein-excipient segregation. Therefore, this method can enable more definitive optimization of formulation conditions than has previously been possible.

  16. Molecular quantification of genes encoding for green-fluorescent proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felske, A; Vandieken, V; Pauling, B V

    2003-01-01

    A quantitative PCR approach is presented to analyze the amount of recombinant green fluorescent protein (gfp) genes in environmental DNA samples. The quantification assay is a combination of specific PCR amplification and temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE). Gene quantification...... PCR strategy is a highly specific and sensitive way to monitor recombinant DNA in environments like the efflux of a biotechnological plant....

  17. A new terthiophene derivative as a fluorescent sensor for protein detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Jingqiu; Xia, Bing; Elioff, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    A terthiophene carboxylic derivative, 3,3″-dihexyl-2,2′:5′,2″-terthiophene-5-carboxylic acid (3TC6A), was synthesized and its application as fluorescent biosensor was investigated using Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) and Lectin from Triticum as the target proteins. The photophysical properties of terthiophene carboxylic acid depend on the solvent polarity and the pH of the solution. At low concentrations, the dye exhibits monomer emission in organic solvents. In acidic and neutral aqueous solutions, it displays dimer emission (490–500 nm). The emission can be completely quenched by heptyl viologen in aqueous solutions due to intermolecular electron transfer. While no emission enhancement was observed in the presence of cytochrome C, hemoglobin, or lysozyme, upon binding to trace amounts of BSA, the dye displayed strongly enhanced monomer emission at 450 nm. Upon binding to Lectin from Triticum vulgaris, the dye displayed enhanced dimer emission at 490 nm. In both cases, the fluorescence intensity is proportional to the concentration of proteins, making this organic dye a promising reagent for protein analysis.

  18. A new terthiophene derivative as a fluorescent sensor for protein detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jingqiu [Department of Chemistry, West Chester University of Pennsylvania, West Chester, PA 19383 (United States); Xia, Bing [RD Platform Technology & Science, GlaxoSmithKline, Waltham, MA 02451 (United States); Elioff, Michael S., E-mail: melioff@millersville.edu [Department of Chemistry, Millersville University of Pennsylvania, Millersville, PA 17551 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    A terthiophene carboxylic derivative, 3,3″-dihexyl-2,2′:5′,2″-terthiophene-5-carboxylic acid (3TC6A), was synthesized and its application as fluorescent biosensor was investigated using Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) and Lectin from Triticum as the target proteins. The photophysical properties of terthiophene carboxylic acid depend on the solvent polarity and the pH of the solution. At low concentrations, the dye exhibits monomer emission in organic solvents. In acidic and neutral aqueous solutions, it displays dimer emission (490–500 nm). The emission can be completely quenched by heptyl viologen in aqueous solutions due to intermolecular electron transfer. While no emission enhancement was observed in the presence of cytochrome C, hemoglobin, or lysozyme, upon binding to trace amounts of BSA, the dye displayed strongly enhanced monomer emission at 450 nm. Upon binding to Lectin from Triticum vulgaris, the dye displayed enhanced dimer emission at 490 nm. In both cases, the fluorescence intensity is proportional to the concentration of proteins, making this organic dye a promising reagent for protein analysis.

  19. Differential tissue expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein in ‘Green mice’

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, De-Fu; Tezuka, Hideo; Kondo, Tetsuo; Sudo, Katsuko; Niu, Dong-Feng; Nakazawa, Tadao; Kawasaki, Tomonori; Yamane, Tetsu; Nakamura, Nobuki; Katoh, Ryohei

    2010-01-01

    In order to clarify tissue expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in ‘green mice’ from a transgenic line having an EGFP cDNA under the control of a chicken beta-actin promoter and cytomegalovirus enhancer, we studied the expression of EGFP in various organs and tissues from these ‘green mice’ by immunohistochemistry with anti- EGFP antibody in conjunction with direct observation for EGFP fluorescence using confocal laser scanning microscopy. On i...

  20. Superresolution imaging in live Caulobacter crescentus cells using photoswitchable enhanced yellow fluorescent protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biteen, Julie S.; Thompson, Michael A.; Tselentis, Nicole K.; Shapiro, Lucy; Moerner, W. E.

    2009-02-01

    Recently, photoactivation and photoswitching were used to control single-molecule fluorescent labels and produce images of cellular structures beyond the optical diffraction limit (e.g., PALM, FPALM, and STORM). While previous live-cell studies relied on sophisticated photoactivatable fluorescent proteins, we show in the present work that superresolution imaging can be performed with fusions to the commonly used fluorescent protein EYFP. Rather than being photoactivated, however, EYFP can be reactivated with violet light after apparent photobleaching. In each cycle after initial imaging, only a sparse subset fluorophores is reactivated and localized, and the final image is then generated from the measured single-molecule positions. Because these methods are based on the imaging nanometer-sized single-molecule emitters and on the use of an active control mechanism to produce sparse sub-ensembles, we suggest the phrase "Single-Molecule Active-Control Microscopy" (SMACM) as an inclusive term for this general imaging strategy. In this paper, we address limitations arising from physiologically imposed upper boundaries on the fluorophore concentration by employing dark time-lapse periods to allow single-molecule motions to fill in filamentous structures, increasing the effective labeling concentration while localizing each emitter at most once per resolution-limited spot. We image cell-cycle-dependent superstructures of the bacterial actin protein MreB in live Caulobacter crescentus cells with sub-40-nm resolution for the first time. Furthermore, we quantify the reactivation quantum yield of EYFP, and find this to be 1.6 x 10-6, on par with conventional photoswitchable fluorescent proteins like Dronpa. These studies show that EYFP is a useful emitter for in vivo superresolution imaging of intracellular structures in bacterial cells.

  1. Identification and quantitation of signal molecule-dependent protein phosphorylation

    KAUST Repository

    Groen, Arnoud J.

    2013-09-03

    Phosphoproteomics is a fast-growing field that aims at characterizing phosphorylated proteins in a cell or a tissue at a given time. Phosphorylation of proteins is an important regulatory mechanism in many cellular processes. Gel-free phosphoproteome technique involving enrichment of phosphopeptide coupled with mass spectrometry has proven to be invaluable to detect and characterize phosphorylated proteins. In this chapter, a gel-free quantitative approach involving 15N metabolic labelling in combination with phosphopeptide enrichment by titanium dioxide (TiO2) and their identification by MS is described. This workflow can be used to gain insights into the role of signalling molecules such as cyclic nucleotides on regulatory networks through the identification and quantification of responsive phospho(proteins). © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013.

  2. Small acid soluble proteins for rapid spore identification.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branda, Steven S.; Lane, Todd W.; VanderNoot, Victoria A.; Jokerst, Amanda S.

    2006-12-01

    This one year LDRD addressed the problem of rapid characterization of bacterial spores such as those from the genus Bacillus, the group that contains pathogenic spores such as B. anthracis. In this effort we addressed the feasibility of using a proteomics based approach to spore characterization using a subset of conserved spore proteins known as the small acid soluble proteins or SASPs. We proposed developing techniques that built on our previous expertise in microseparations to rapidly characterize or identify spores. An alternative SASP extraction method was developed that was amenable to both the subsequent fluorescent labeling required for laser-induced fluorescence detection and the low ionic strength requirements for isoelectric focusing. For the microseparations, both capillary isoelectric focusing and chip gel electrophoresis were employed. A variety of methods were evaluated to improve the molecular weight resolution for the SASPs, which are in a molecular weight range that is not well resolved by the current methods. Isoelectric focusing was optimized and employed to resolve the SASPs using UV absorbance detection. Proteomic signatures of native wild type Bacillus spores and clones genetically engineered to produce altered SASP patterns were assessed by slab gel electrophoresis, capillary isoelectric focusing with absorbance detection as well as microchip based gel electrophoresis employing sensitive laser-induced fluorescence detection.

  3. C-Terminal Fluorescent Labeling Impairs Functionality of DNA Mismatch Repair Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brieger, Angela; Plotz, Guido; Hinrichsen, Inga; Passmann, Sandra; Adam, Ronja; Zeuzem, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The human DNA mismatch repair (MMR) process is crucial to maintain the integrity of the genome and requires many different proteins which interact perfectly and coordinated. Germline mutations in MMR genes are responsible for the development of the hereditary form of colorectal cancer called Lynch syndrome. Various mutations mainly in two MMR proteins, MLH1 and MSH2, have been identified so far, whereas 55% are detected within MLH1, the essential component of the heterodimer MutLα (MLH1 and PMS2). Most of those MLH1 variants are pathogenic but the relevance of missense mutations often remains unclear. Many different recombinant systems are applied to filter out disease-associated proteins whereby fluorescent tagged proteins are frequently used. However, dye labeling might have deleterious effects on MutLα's functionality. Therefore, we analyzed the consequences of N- and C-terminal fluorescent labeling on expression level, cellular localization and MMR activity of MutLα. Besides significant influence of GFP- or Red-fusion on protein expression we detected incorrect shuttling of single expressed C-terminal GFP-tagged PMS2 into the nucleus and found that C-terminal dye labeling impaired MMR function of MutLα. In contrast, N-terminal tagged MutLαs retained correct functionality and can be recommended both for the analysis of cellular localization and MMR efficiency. PMID:22348133

  4. C-terminal fluorescent labeling impairs functionality of DNA mismatch repair proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Brieger

    Full Text Available The human DNA mismatch repair (MMR process is crucial to maintain the integrity of the genome and requires many different proteins which interact perfectly and coordinated. Germline mutations in MMR genes are responsible for the development of the hereditary form of colorectal cancer called Lynch syndrome. Various mutations mainly in two MMR proteins, MLH1 and MSH2, have been identified so far, whereas 55% are detected within MLH1, the essential component of the heterodimer MutLα (MLH1 and PMS2. Most of those MLH1 variants are pathogenic but the relevance of missense mutations often remains unclear. Many different recombinant systems are applied to filter out disease-associated proteins whereby fluorescent tagged proteins are frequently used. However, dye labeling might have deleterious effects on MutLα's functionality. Therefore, we analyzed the consequences of N- and C-terminal fluorescent labeling on expression level, cellular localization and MMR activity of MutLα. Besides significant influence of GFP- or Red-fusion on protein expression we detected incorrect shuttling of single expressed C-terminal GFP-tagged PMS2 into the nucleus and found that C-terminal dye labeling impaired MMR function of MutLα. In contrast, N-terminal tagged MutLαs retained correct functionality and can be recommended both for the analysis of cellular localization and MMR efficiency.

  5. Fluorescent detection of C-reactive protein using polyamide beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadeesh, Shreesha; Chen, Lu; Aitchison, Stewart

    2016-03-01

    Bacterial infection causes Sepsis which is one of the leading cause of mortality in hospitals. This infection can be quantified from blood plasma using C - reactive protein (CRP). A quick diagnosis at the patient's location through Point-of- Care (POC) testing could give doctors the confidence to prescribe antibiotics. In this paper, the development and testing of a bead-based procedure for CRP quantification is described. The size of the beads enable them to be trapped in wells without the need for magnetic methods of immobilization. Large (1.5 mm diameter) Polyamide nylon beads were used as the substrate for capturing CRP from pure analyte samples. The beads captured CRP either directly through adsorption or indirectly by having specific capture antibodies on their surface. Both methods used fluorescent imaging techniques to quantify the protein. The amount of CRP needed to give a sufficient fluorescent signal through direct capture method was found suitable for identifying bacterial causes of infection. Similarly, viral infections could be quantified by the more sensitive indirect capture method. This bead-based assay can be potentially integrated as a disposable cartridge in a POC device due to its passive nature and the small quantities needed.

  6. A fluorescence-based polymerase chain reaction-linked single-strand conformation polymorphism (F-PCR-SSCP) assay for the identification of Fasciola spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alasaad, Samer; Soriguer, Ramón C; Abu-Madi, Marawan; El Behairy, Ahmed; Baños, Pablo Díez; Píriz, Ana; Fickel, Joerns; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2011-06-01

    The present study aimed to establish a fluorescence-based polymerase chain reaction-linked single-strand conformation polymorphism (F-PCR-SSCP) assay for the identification of Fasciola spp. Based on the sequences of the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA, we designed a set of genus-specific primers for the amplification of Fasciola ITS-2, with an estimated size of 140 bp. These primers were labelled by fluorescence dyes, and the PCR products were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis under non-denaturing conditions (F-PCR-SSCP). Capillary electrophoresis analysis of the fluorescence-labelled DNA fragments displayed three different peak profiles that allowed the accurate identification of Fasciola species: one single peak specific for either Fasciola hepatica or Fasciola gigantica and a doublet peak corresponding to the "intermediate" Fasciola. Validation of our novel method was performed using Fasciola specimens from different host animals from China, Spain, Nigeria, and Egypt. This F-PCR-SSCP assay provides a rapid, simple, and robust tool for the identification and differentiation between Fasciola spp.

  7. Self-Assembly of Spider Silk-Fusion Proteins Comprising Enzymatic and Fluorescence Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humenik, Martin; Mohrand, Madeleine; Scheibel, Thomas

    2018-04-18

    The recombinant spider silk protein eADF4(C16) was genetically fused either with esterase 2 (EST2) or green fluorescent protein (GFP). The fusions EST-eADF4(C16) and GFP-eADF4(C16) were spectroscopically investigated and showed native structures of EST and GFP. The structural integrity was confirmed by the enzymatic activity of EST and the fluorescence of GFP. The spider silk moiety retained its intrinsically unstructured conformation in solution and the self-assembly into either nanofibrils or nanoparticles could be controlled by the concentration of phosphate. Particles, however, showed significantly lower activity of the EST and GFP domains likely caused by a steric hindrance. However, upon self-assembly of EST-eADF4(C16) and GFP-eADF4(C16) into fibrils the protein activities were retained. In general, the fusion of globular enzymes with the spider silk domain allows the generation of fibrous biomaterials with catalytic or light emitting properties.

  8. Using a Specific RNA-Protein Interaction To Quench the Fluorescent RNA Spinach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roszyk, Laura; Kollenda, Sebastian; Hennig, Sven

    2017-12-15

    RNAs are involved in interaction networks with other biomolecules and are crucial for proper cell function. Yet their biochemical analysis remains challenging. For Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET), a common tool to study such interaction networks, two interacting molecules have to be fluorescently labeled. "Spinach" is a genetically encodable RNA aptamer that starts to fluoresce upon binding of an organic molecule. Therefore, it is a biological fluorophore tag for RNAs. However, spinach has never been used in a FRET assembly before. Here, we describe how spinach is quenched when close to acceptors. We used RNA-DNA hybridization to bring quenchers or red organic dyes in close proximity to spinach. Furthermore, we investigate RNA-protein interactions quantitatively on the example of Pseudomonas aeruginosa phage coat protein 7 (PP7) and its interacting pp7-RNA. We utilize spinach quenching as a fully genetically encodable system even under lysate conditions. Therefore, this work represents a direct method to analyze RNA-protein interactions by quenching the spinach aptamer.

  9. Multiplexed fluorescent microarray for human salivary protein analysis using polymer microspheres and fiber-optic bundles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Shuai; Benito-Peña, Elena; Zhang, Huaibin; Wu, Yue; Walt, David R

    2013-10-10

    Herein, we describe a protocol for simultaneously measuring six proteins in saliva using a fiber-optic microsphere-based antibody array. The immuno-array technology employed combines the advantages of microsphere-based suspension array fabrication with the use of fluorescence microscopy. As described in the video protocol, commercially available 4.5 μm polymer microspheres were encoded into seven different types, differentiated by the concentration of two fluorescent dyes physically trapped inside the microspheres. The encoded microspheres containing surface carboxyl groups were modified with monoclonal capture antibodies through EDC/NHS coupling chemistry. To assemble the protein microarray, the different types of encoded and functionalized microspheres were mixed and randomly deposited in 4.5 μm microwells, which were chemically etched at the proximal end of a fiber-optic bundle. The fiber-optic bundle was used as both a carrier and for imaging the microspheres. Once assembled, the microarray was used to capture proteins in the saliva supernatant collected from the clinic. The detection was based on a sandwich immunoassay using a mixture of biotinylated detection antibodies for different analytes with a streptavidin-conjugated fluorescent probe, R-phycoerythrin. The microarray was imaged by fluorescence microscopy in three different channels, two for microsphere registration and one for the assay signal. The fluorescence micrographs were then decoded and analyzed using a homemade algorithm in MATLAB.

  10. Fluorescent in situ folding control for rapid optimization of cell-free membrane protein synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Müller-Lucks

    Full Text Available Cell-free synthesis is an open and powerful tool for high-yield protein production in small reaction volumes predestined for high-throughput structural and functional analysis. Membrane proteins require addition of detergents for solubilization, liposomes, or nanodiscs. Hence, the number of parameters to be tested is significantly higher than with soluble proteins. Optimization is commonly done with respect to protein yield, yet without knowledge of the protein folding status. This approach contains a large inherent risk of ending up with non-functional protein. We show that fluorophore formation in C-terminal fusions with green fluorescent protein (GFP indicates the folding state of a membrane protein in situ, i.e. within the cell-free reaction mixture, as confirmed by circular dichroism (CD, proteoliposome reconstitution and functional assays. Quantification of protein yield and in-gel fluorescence intensity imply suitability of the method for membrane proteins of bacterial, protozoan, plant, and mammalian origin, representing vacuolar and plasma membrane localization, as well as intra- and extracellular positioning of the C-terminus. We conclude that GFP-fusions provide an extension to cell-free protein synthesis systems eliminating the need for experimental folding control and, thus, enabling rapid optimization towards membrane protein quality.

  11. Reorientational properties of fluorescent analogues of the protein kinase C cofactors diacylglycerol and phorbol ester.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pap, E.H.W.; Ketelaars, M.; Borst, J.W.; Hoek, van A.; Visser, A.J.W.G.

    1996-01-01

    The reorientational properties of the fluorescently labelled protein kinase C (PKC) cofactors diacylglycerol (DG) and phorbol ester (PMA) in vesicles and mixed micelles have been investigated using time-resolved polarised fluorescence. The sn-2 acyl chain of DG was replaced by diphenylhexatriene-

  12. A dark green fluorescent protein as an acceptor for measurement of Förster resonance energy transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakoshi, Hideji; Shibata, Akihiro C E; Nakahata, Yoshihisa; Nabekura, Junichi

    2015-10-15

    Measurement of Förster resonance energy transfer by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM-FRET) is a powerful method for visualization of intracellular signaling activities such as protein-protein interactions and conformational changes of proteins. Here, we developed a dark green fluorescent protein (ShadowG) that can serve as an acceptor for FLIM-FRET. ShadowG is spectrally similar to monomeric enhanced green fluorescent protein (mEGFP) and has a 120-fold smaller quantum yield. When FRET from mEGFP to ShadowG was measured using an mEGFP-ShadowG tandem construct with 2-photon FLIM-FRET, we observed a strong FRET signal with low cell-to-cell variability. Furthermore, ShadowG was applied to a single-molecule FRET sensor to monitor a conformational change of CaMKII and of the light oxygen voltage (LOV) domain in HeLa cells. These sensors showed reduced cell-to-cell variability of both the basal fluorescence lifetime and response signal. In contrast to mCherry- or dark-YFP-based sensors, our sensor allowed for precise measurement of individual cell responses. When ShadowG was applied to a separate-type Ras FRET sensor, it showed a greater response signal than did the mCherry-based sensor. Furthermore, Ras activation and translocation of its effector ERK2 into the nucleus could be observed simultaneously. Thus, ShadowG is a promising FLIM-FRET acceptor.

  13. Stability of some Cactaceae proteins based on fluorescence, circular dichroism, and differential scanning calorimetry measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorinstein, S; Zemser, M; Vargas-Albores, F; Ochoa, J L; Paredes-Lopez, O; Scheler, C; Aksu, S; Salnikow, J

    1999-02-01

    Characterization of three cactus proteins (native and denatured) from Machaerocereus gummosus (Pitahaya agria), Lophocereu schottii (Garambullo), and Cholla opuntia (Cholla), was based on electrophoretic, fluorescence, CD (circular dichroism), DSC (differential scanning calorimetry), and FT-IR (Fourier transform infrared) measurements. The obtained results of intrinsic fluorescence, DSC, and CD were dissimilar for the three species of cactus, providing evidence of differences in secondary and tertiary structures. Cactus proteins may be situated in the following order corresponding to their relative stability: Machaerocereus gummosus (Pitahaya agria) > Cholla opuntia (Cholla) > Lophocereu schottii (Garambullo). Thermodynamic properties of proteins and their changes upon denaturation (temperature of denaturation, enthalphy, and the number of ruptured hydrogen bonds) were correlated with the secondary structure of proteins and disappearance of alpha-helix.

  14. Quantitative fluorescence loss in photobleaching for analysis of protein transport and aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wüstner Daniel

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fluorescence loss in photobleaching (FLIP is a widely used imaging technique, which provides information about protein dynamics in various cellular regions. In FLIP, a small cellular region is repeatedly illuminated by an intense laser pulse, while images are taken with reduced laser power with a time lag between the bleaches. Despite its popularity, tools are lacking for quantitative analysis of FLIP experiments. Typically, the user defines regions of interest (ROIs for further analysis which is subjective and does not allow for comparing different cells and experimental settings. Results We present two complementary methods to detect and quantify protein transport and aggregation in living cells from FLIP image series. In the first approach, a stretched exponential (StrExp function is fitted to fluorescence loss (FL inside and outside the bleached region. We show by reaction–diffusion simulations, that the StrExp function can describe both, binding/barrier–limited and diffusion-limited FL kinetics. By pixel-wise regression of that function to FL kinetics of enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP, we determined in a user-unbiased manner from which cellular regions eGFP can be replenished in the bleached area. Spatial variation in the parameters calculated from the StrExp function allow for detecting diffusion barriers for eGFP in the nucleus and cytoplasm of living cells. Polyglutamine (polyQ disease proteins like mutant huntingtin (mtHtt can form large aggregates called inclusion bodies (IB’s. The second method combines single particle tracking with multi-compartment modelling of FL kinetics in moving IB’s to determine exchange rates of eGFP-tagged mtHtt protein (eGFP-mtHtt between aggregates and the cytoplasm. This method is self-calibrating since it relates the FL inside and outside the bleached regions. It makes it therefore possible to compare release kinetics of eGFP-mtHtt between different cells and

  15. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of the genetically encoded fluorescent calcium indicator protein GCaMP2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez Guilbe, María M.; Alfaro Malavé, Elisa C.; Akerboom, Jasper; Marvin, Jonathan S.; Looger, Loren L.; Schreiter, Eric R.

    2008-01-01

    The genetically encoded fluorescent calcium-indicator protein GCaMP2 was crystallized in the calcium-saturated form. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.0 Å resolution and the structure was solved by molecular replacement. Fluorescent proteins and their engineered variants have played an important role in the study of biology. The genetically encoded calcium-indicator protein GCaMP2 comprises a circularly permuted fluorescent protein coupled to the calcium-binding protein calmodulin and a calmodulin target peptide, M13, derived from the intracellular calmodulin target myosin light-chain kinase and has been used to image calcium transients in vivo. To aid rational efforts to engineer improved variants of GCaMP2, this protein was crystallized in the calcium-saturated form. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.0 Å resolution. The crystals belong to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 126.1, b = 47.1, c = 68.8 Å, β = 100.5° and one GCaMP2 molecule in the asymmetric unit. The structure was phased by molecular replacement and refinement is currently under way

  16. The structure of mAG, a monomeric mutant of the green fluorescent protein Azami-Green, reveals the structural basis of its stable green emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebisawa, Tatsuki; Yamamura, Akihiro; Kameda, Yasuhiro; Hayakawa, Kou; Nagata, Koji; Tanokura, Masaru

    2010-01-01

    The crystal structure of a monomeric mutant of Azami-Green (mAG) from G. fascicularis was determined at 2.2 Å resolution. Monomeric Azami-Green (mAG) from the stony coral Galaxea fascicularis is the first known monomeric green-emitting fluorescent protein that is not a variant of Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein (avGFP). These two green fluorescent proteins are only 27% identical in their amino-acid sequences. mAG is more similar in its amino-acid sequence to four fluorescent proteins: Dendra2 (a green-to-red irreversibly photoconverting fluorescent protein), Dronpa (a bright-and-dark reversibly photoswitchable fluorescent protein), KikG (a tetrameric green-emitting fluorescent protein) and Kaede (another green-to-red irreversibly photoconverting fluorescent protein). To reveal the structural basis of stable green emission by mAG, the 2.2 Å crystal structure of mAG has been determined and compared with the crystal structures of avGFP, Dronpa, Dendra2, Kaede and KikG. The structural comparison revealed that the chromophore formed by Gln62-Tyr63-Gly64 (QYG) and the fixing of the conformation of the imidazole ring of His193 by hydrogen bonds and van der Waals contacts involving His193, Arg66 and Thr69 are likely to be required for the stable green emission of mAG. The crystal structure of mAG will contribute to the design and development of new monomeric fluorescent proteins with faster maturation, brighter fluorescence, improved photostability, new colours and other preferable properties as alternatives to avGFP and its variants

  17. A new fluorescence-based method identifies protein phosphatases regulating lipid droplet metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno L Bozaquel-Morais

    Full Text Available In virtually every cell, neutral lipids are stored in cytoplasmic structures called lipid droplets (LDs and also referred to as lipid bodies or lipid particles. We developed a rapid high-throughput assay based on the recovery of quenched BODIPY-fluorescence that allows to quantify lipid droplets. The method was validated by monitoring lipid droplet turnover during growth of a yeast culture and by screening a group of strains deleted in genes known to be involved in lipid metabolism. In both tests, the fluorimetric assay showed high sensitivity and good agreement with previously reported data using microscopy. We used this method for high-throughput identification of protein phosphatases involved in lipid droplet metabolism. From 65 yeast knockout strains encoding protein phosphatases and its regulatory subunits, 13 strains revealed to have abnormal levels of lipid droplets, 10 of them having high lipid droplet content. Strains deleted for type I protein phosphatases and related regulators (ppz2, gac1, bni4, type 2A phosphatase and its related regulator (pph21 and sap185, type 2C protein phosphatases (ptc1, ptc4, ptc7 and dual phosphatases (pps1, msg5 were catalogued as high-lipid droplet content strains. Only reg1, a targeting subunit of the type 1 phosphatase Glc7p, and members of the nutrient-sensitive TOR pathway (sit4 and the regulatory subunit sap190 were catalogued as low-lipid droplet content strains, which were studied further. We show that Snf1, the homologue of the mammalian AMP-activated kinase, is constitutively phosphorylated (hyperactive in sit4 and sap190 strains leading to a reduction of acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity. In conclusion, our fast and highly sensitive method permitted us to catalogue protein phosphatases involved in the regulation of LD metabolism and present evidence indicating that the TOR pathway and the SNF1/AMPK pathway are connected through the Sit4p-Sap190p pair in the control of lipid droplet biogenesis.

  18. Use of fluorescent proteins and color-coded imaging to visualize cancer cells with different genetic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Robert M

    2016-03-01

    Fluorescent proteins are very bright and available in spectrally-distinct colors, enable the imaging of color-coded cancer cells growing in vivo and therefore the distinction of cancer cells with different genetic properties. Non-invasive and intravital imaging of cancer cells with fluorescent proteins allows the visualization of distinct genetic variants of cancer cells down to the cellular level in vivo. Cancer cells with increased or decreased ability to metastasize can be distinguished in vivo. Gene exchange in vivo which enables low metastatic cancer cells to convert to high metastatic can be color-coded imaged in vivo. Cancer stem-like and non-stem cells can be distinguished in vivo by color-coded imaging. These properties also demonstrate the vast superiority of imaging cancer cells in vivo with fluorescent proteins over photon counting of luciferase-labeled cancer cells.

  19. High-performance fluorescence-encoded magnetic microbeads as microfluidic protein chip supports for AFP detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Xiaoqun [School of Life Sciences, Tianjin Engineering Center of Micro-Nano Biomaterials and Detection-Treatment Technology, Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Yan, Huan; Yang, Jiumin [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, 300052 (China); Wu, Yudong; Zhang, Jian; Yao, Yingyi [School of Life Sciences, Tianjin Engineering Center of Micro-Nano Biomaterials and Detection-Treatment Technology, Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Liu, Ping [Bioscience (Tianjin) Diagnostic Technology CO., LTD, Tianjin, 300300 (China); Wang, Huiquan [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Electronics and Information Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin, 300387 (China); Hu, Zhidong, E-mail: huzhidong27@163.com [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, 300052 (China); Chang, Jin, E-mail: jinchang@tju.edu.cn [School of Life Sciences, Tianjin Engineering Center of Micro-Nano Biomaterials and Detection-Treatment Technology, Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2016-10-05

    Fluorescence-encoded magnetic microbeads (FEMMs), with the fluorescence encoding ability of quantum dots (QDs) and magnetic enrichment and separation functions of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles, have been widely used for multiple biomolecular detection as microfluidic protein chip supports. However, the preparation of FEMMs with long-term fluorescent encoding and immunodetection stability is still a challenge. In this work, we designed a novel high-temperature chemical swelling strategy. The QDs and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were effectively packaged into microbeads via the thermal motion of the polymer chains and the hydrophobic interaction between the nanoparticles and microbeads. The FEMMs obtained a highly uniform fluorescent property and long-term encoding and immunodetection stability and could be quickly magnetically separated and enriched. Then, the QD-encoded magnetic microbeads were applied to alpha fetoprotein (AFP) detection via sandwich immunoreaction. The properties of the encoded microspheres were characterized using a self-designed detecting apparatus, and the target molecular concentration in the sample was also quantified. The results suggested that the high-performance FEMMs have great potential in the field of biomolecular detection. - Graphical abstract: We designed a novel strategy to prepare a kind of high-performance fluorescence-encoded magnetic microbeads as microfluidic protein chip support with long-time fluorescent encoding and immunodetection stability for AFP detection. - Highlights: • A novel strategy combined the high temperature with chemical swelling technology is designed. • Based on hydrophobic interaction and polymer thermal motion, QDs and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} were effectively packaged into microbeads. • The fluorescence-encoded magnetic microbeads show long-term fluorescent encoding and immunodetection stability.

  20. Kinetic analysis of the mechanism and specificity of protein-disulfide isomerase using fluorescence-quenched peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westphal, V; Spetzler, J C; Meldal, M

    1998-01-01

    Protein-disulfide isomerase (PDI) is an abundant folding catalyst in the endoplasmic reticulum of eukaryotic cells. PDI introduces disulfide bonds into newly synthesized proteins and catalyzes disulfide bond isomerizations. We have synthesized a library of disulfide-linked fluorescence......-quenched peptides, individually linked to resin beads, for two purposes: 1) to probe PDI specificity, and 2) to identify simple, sensitive peptide substrates of PDI. Using this library, beads that became rapidly fluorescent by reduction by human PDI were selected. Amino acid sequencing of the bead-linked peptides...

  1. Experimental Evolution of a Green Fluorescent Protein Composed of 19 Unique Amino Acids without Tryptophan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara-Kobayashi, Akio; Hitotsuyanagi, Mitsuhiro; Amikura, Kazuaki; Kiga, Daisuke

    2014-04-01

    At some stage of evolution, genes of organisms may have encoded proteins that were synthesized using fewer than 20 unique amino acids. Similar to evolution of the natural 19-amino-acid proteins GroEL/ES, proteins composed of 19 unique amino acids would have been able to evolve by accumulating beneficial mutations within the 19-amino-acid repertoire encoded in an ancestral genetic code. Because Trp is thought to be the last amino acid included in the canonical 20-amino-acid repertoire, this late stage of protein evolution could be mimicked by experimental evolution of 19-amino-acid proteins without tryptophan (Trp). To further understand the evolution of proteins, we tried to mimic the evolution of a 19-amino-acid protein involving the accumulation of beneficial mutations using directed evolution by random mutagenesis on the whole targeted gene sequence. We created active 19-amino-acid green fluorescent proteins (GFPs) without Trp from a poorly fluorescent 19-amino-acid mutant, S1-W57F, by using directed evolution with two rounds of mutagenesis and selection. The N105I and S205T mutations showed beneficial effects on the S1-W57F mutant. When these two mutations were combined on S1-W57F, we observed an additive effect on the fluorescence intensity. In contrast, these mutations showed no clear improvement individually or in combination on GFPS1, which is the parental GFP mutant composed of 20 amino acids. Our results provide an additional example for the experimental evolution of 19-amino-acid proteins without Trp, and would help understand the mechanisms underlying the evolution of 19-amino-acid proteins. (236 words)

  2. Fluorescent proteins as singlet oxygen photosensitizers: mechanistic studies in photodynamic inactivation of bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-González, Rubén.; White, John H.; Cortajarena, Aitziber L.; Agut, Montserrat; Nonell, Santi; Flors, Cristina

    2013-02-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) combines a photosensitizer, light and oxygen to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), mainly singlet oxygen (1O2), to photo-oxidize important biomolecules and induce cell death. aPDT is a promising alternative to standard antimicrobial strategies, but its mechanisms of action are not well understood. One of the reasons for that is the lack of control of the photosensitizing drugs location. Here we report the use of geneticallyencoded fluorescent proteins that are also 1O2 photosensitizers to address the latter issue. First, we have chosen the red fluorescent protein TagRFP as a photosensitizer, which unlike other fluorescent proteins such as KillerRed, is able to produce 1O2 but not other ROS. TagRFP photosensitizes 1O2 with a small, but not negligible, quantum yield. In addition, we have used miniSOG, a more efficient 1O2 photosensitizing fluorescent flavoprotein that has been recently engineered from phototropin 2. We have genetically incorporated these two photosensitizers into the cytosol of E. coli and demonstrated that intracellular 1O2 is sufficient to kill bacteria. Additional assays have provided further insight into the mechanism of cell death. Photodamage seems to occur primarily in the inner membrane, and extends to the outer membrane if the photosensitizer's efficiency is high enough. These observations are markedly different to those reported for external photosensitizers, suggesting that the site where 1O2 is primarily generated proves crucial for inflicting different types of cell damage.

  3. The 1.6 Å resolution structure of a FRET-optimized Cerulean fluorescent protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, Jennifer L.; Kim, Hanseong [Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1604 (United States); Markwardt, Michele L. [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201-1559 (United States); Chen, Liqing; Fromme, Raimund [Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1604 (United States); Rizzo, Mark A. [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201-1559 (United States); Wachter, Rebekka M., E-mail: rwachter@asu.edu [Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1604 (United States)

    2013-05-01

    The high resolution X-ray structure of the cyan fluorescent protein mCerulean3 demonstrates that different combinations of correlated residue substitutions can provide near optimum quantum yield values for fluorescence. Genetically encoded cyan fluorescent proteins (CFPs) bearing a tryptophan-derived chromophore are commonly used as energy-donor probes in Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) experiments useful in live cell-imaging applications. In recent years, significant effort has been expended on eliminating the structural and excited-state heterogeneity of these proteins, which has been linked to undesirable photophysical properties. Recently, mCerulean3, a descendant of enhanced CFP, was introduced as an optimized FRET donor protein with a superior quantum yield of 0.87. Here, the 1.6 Å resolution X-ray structure of mCerulean3 is reported. The chromophore is shown to adopt a planar trans configuration at low pH values, indicating that the acid-induced isomerization of Cerulean has been eliminated. β-Strand 7 appears to be well ordered in a single conformation, indicating a loss of conformational heterogeneity in the vicinity of the chromophore. Although the side chains of Ile146 and Leu167 appear to exist in two rotamer states, they are found to be well packed against the indole group of the chromophore. The Ser65 reversion mutation allows improved side-chain packing of Leu220. A structural comparison with mTurquoise2 is presented and additional engineering strategies are discussed.

  4. The 1.6 Å resolution structure of a FRET-optimized Cerulean fluorescent protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, Jennifer L.; Kim, Hanseong; Markwardt, Michele L.; Chen, Liqing; Fromme, Raimund; Rizzo, Mark A.; Wachter, Rebekka M.

    2013-01-01

    The high resolution X-ray structure of the cyan fluorescent protein mCerulean3 demonstrates that different combinations of correlated residue substitutions can provide near optimum quantum yield values for fluorescence. Genetically encoded cyan fluorescent proteins (CFPs) bearing a tryptophan-derived chromophore are commonly used as energy-donor probes in Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) experiments useful in live cell-imaging applications. In recent years, significant effort has been expended on eliminating the structural and excited-state heterogeneity of these proteins, which has been linked to undesirable photophysical properties. Recently, mCerulean3, a descendant of enhanced CFP, was introduced as an optimized FRET donor protein with a superior quantum yield of 0.87. Here, the 1.6 Å resolution X-ray structure of mCerulean3 is reported. The chromophore is shown to adopt a planar trans configuration at low pH values, indicating that the acid-induced isomerization of Cerulean has been eliminated. β-Strand 7 appears to be well ordered in a single conformation, indicating a loss of conformational heterogeneity in the vicinity of the chromophore. Although the side chains of Ile146 and Leu167 appear to exist in two rotamer states, they are found to be well packed against the indole group of the chromophore. The Ser65 reversion mutation allows improved side-chain packing of Leu220. A structural comparison with mTurquoise2 is presented and additional engineering strategies are discussed

  5. Interferences of Silica Nanoparticles in Green Fluorescent Protein Folding Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Géraldine; Devineau, Stéphanie; Aude, Jean Christophe; Boulard, Yves; Pasquier, Hélène; Labarre, Jean; Pin, Serge; Renault, Jean Philippe

    2016-01-12

    We investigated the relationship between unfolded proteins, silica nanoparticles and chaperonin to determine whether unfolded proteins could stick to silica surfaces and how this process could impair heat shock protein activity. The HSP60 catalyzed green fluorescent protein (GFP) folding was used as a model system. The adsorption isotherms and adsorption kinetics of denatured GFP were measured, showing that denaturation increases GFP affinity for silica surfaces. This affinity is maintained even if the surfaces are covered by a protein corona and allows silica NPs to interfere directly with GFP folding by trapping it in its unstructured state. We determined also the adsorption isotherms of HSP60 and its chaperonin activity once adsorbed, showing that SiO2 NP can interfere also indirectly with protein folding through chaperonin trapping and inhibition. This inhibition is specifically efficient when NPs are covered first with a layer of unfolded proteins. These results highlight for the first time the antichaperonin activity of silica NPs and ask new questions about the toxicity of such misfolded proteins/nanoparticles assembly toward cells.

  6. A sensitive fluorescent probe for the polar solvation dynamics at protein-surfactant interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Priya; Choudhury, Susobhan; Singha, Subhankar; Jun, Yongwoong; Chakraborty, Sandipan; Sengupta, Jhimli; Das, Ranjan; Ahn, Kyo-Han; Pal, Samir Kumar

    2017-05-17

    Relaxation dynamics at the surface of biologically important macromolecules is important taking into account their functionality in molecular recognition. Over the years it has been shown that the solvation dynamics of a fluorescent probe at biomolecular surfaces and interfaces account for the relaxation dynamics of polar residues and associated water molecules. However, the sensitivity of the dynamics depends largely on the localization and exposure of the probe. For noncovalent fluorescent probes, localization at the region of interest in addition to surface exposure is an added challenge compared to the covalently attached probes at the biological interfaces. Here we have used a synthesized donor-acceptor type dipolar fluorophore, 6-acetyl-(2-((4-hydroxycyclohexyl)(methyl)amino)naphthalene) (ACYMAN), for the investigation of the solvation dynamics of a model protein-surfactant interface. A significant structural rearrangement of a model histone protein (H1) upon interaction with anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) as revealed from the circular dichroism (CD) studies is nicely corroborated in the solvation dynamics of the probe at the interface. The polarization gated fluorescence anisotropy of the probe compared to that at the SDS micellar surface clearly reveals the localization of the probe at the protein-surfactant interface. We have also compared the sensitivity of ACYMAN with other solvation probes including coumarin 500 (C500) and 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(p-dimethylamino-styryl)-4H-pyran (DCM). In comparison to ACYMAN, both C500 and DCM fail to probe the interfacial solvation dynamics of a model protein-surfactant interface. While C500 is found to be delocalized from the protein-surfactant interface, DCM becomes destabilized upon the formation of the interface (protein-surfactant complex). The timescales obtained from this novel probe have also been compared with other femtosecond resolved studies and molecular dynamics simulations.

  7. Photoabsorption of green and red fluorescent protein chromophore anions in vacuo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Songbo; Liu, Shasha; Zhao, Guangjiu; Chen, Maodu; Han, Keli; Sun, Mengtao

    2007-09-01

    Photoabsorption properties of green and red fluorescent protein chromophore anions in vacuo were investigated theoretically, based on the experimental results in gas phase [Phys. Rev. Lett. 2001, 87, 228102; Phys. Rev. Lett. 2003, 90, 118103]. Their calculated transition energies in absorption with TD-DFT and ZINDO methods are directly compared to the experimental reports in gas phase, and the calculations with ZINDO method can correctly reproduce the absorption spectra. The orientation and strength of their transition dipole moments were revealed with transition density. We also showed the orientation and result of their intramolecular charge transfer with transition difference density. The calculated results show that with the increase of the extended conjugated system, the orientation of transition dipole moments and the orientation of charge transfer can be reversed. They are the linear responds with the external electric fields. These theoretical results reveal the insight understanding of the photoinduced dynamics of green and red fluorescent protein chromophore anions and cations in vacuo.

  8. Expression of pH-sensitive green fluorescent protein in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseyko, N.; Feldman, L. J.

    2001-01-01

    This is the first report on using green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a pH reporter in plants. Proton fluxes and pH regulation play important roles in plant cellular activity and therefore, it would be extremely helpful to have a plant gene reporter system for rapid, non-invasive visualization of intracellular pH changes. In order to develop such a system, we constructed three vectors for transient and stable transformation of plant cells with a pH-sensitive derivative of green fluorescent protein. Using these vectors, transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana and tobacco plants were produced. Here the application of pH-sensitive GFP technology in plants is described and, for the first time, the visualization of pH gradients between different developmental compartments in intact whole-root tissues of A. thaliana is reported. The utility of pH-sensitive GFP in revealing rapid, environmentally induced changes in cytoplasmic pH in roots is also demonstrated.

  9. Chromophore Structure of Photochromic Fluorescent Protein Dronpa: Acid-Base Equilibrium of Two Cis Configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashino, Asuka; Mizuno, Misao; Mizutani, Yasuhisa

    2016-04-07

    Dronpa is a novel photochromic fluorescent protein that exhibits fast response to light. The present article is the first report of the resonance and preresonance Raman spectra of Dronpa. We used the intensity and frequency of Raman bands to determine the structure of the Dronpa chromophore in two thermally stable photochromic states. The acid-base equilibrium in one photochromic state was observed by spectroscopic pH titration. The Raman spectra revealed that the chromophore in this state shows a protonation/deprotonation transition with a pKa of 5.2 ± 0.3 and maintains the cis configuration. The observed resonance Raman bands showed that the other photochromic state of the chromophore is in a trans configuration. The results demonstrate that Raman bands selectively enhanced for the chromophore yield valuable information on the molecular structure of the chromophore in photochromic fluorescent proteins after careful elimination of the fluorescence background.

  10. Lentiviral gene ontology (LeGO) vectors equipped with novel drug-selectable fluorescent proteins: new building blocks for cell marking and multi-gene analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, K; Mock, U; Petrowitz, B; Bartsch, U; Fehse, B

    2010-04-01

    Vector-encoded fluorescent proteins (FPs) facilitate unambiguous identification or sorting of gene-modified cells by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Exploiting this feature, we have recently developed lentiviral gene ontology (LeGO) vectors (www.LentiGO-Vectors.de) for multi-gene analysis in different target cells. In this study, we extend the LeGO principle by introducing 10 different drug-selectable FPs created by fusing one of the five selection marker (protecting against blasticidin, hygromycin, neomycin, puromycin and zeocin) and one of the five FP genes (Cerulean, eGFP, Venus, dTomato and mCherry). All tested fusion proteins allowed both fluorescence-mediated detection and drug-mediated selection of LeGO-transduced cells. Newly generated codon-optimized hygromycin- and neomycin-resistance genes showed improved expression as compared with their ancestors. New LeGO constructs were produced at titers >10(6) per ml (for non-concentrated supernatants). We show efficient combinatorial marking and selection of various cells, including mesenchymal stem cells, simultaneously transduced with different LeGO constructs. Inclusion of the cytomegalovirus early enhancer/chicken beta-actin promoter into LeGO vectors facilitated robust transgene expression in and selection of neural stem cells and their differentiated progeny. We suppose that the new drug-selectable markers combining advantages of FACS and drug selection are well suited for numerous applications and vector systems. Their inclusion into LeGO vectors opens new possibilities for (stem) cell tracking and functional multi-gene analysis.

  11. Seed Storage Proteins as a System for Teaching Protein Identification by Mass Spectrometry in Biochemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Karl A.; Tan-Wilson, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) has become an important tool in studying biological systems. One application is the identification of proteins and peptides by the matching of peptide and peptide fragment masses to the sequences of proteins in protein sequence databases. Often prior protein separation of complex protein mixtures by 2D-PAGE is needed,…

  12. Picosecond Fluorescence Dynamics of Tryptophan and 5-Fluorotryptophan in Monellin : Slow Water-Protein Relaxation Unmasked

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Jianhua; Chen, Binbin; Callis, Patrik Robert; Muiño, Pedro L; Rozeboom, Henriette J; Broos, Jaap; Toptygin, Dmitri; Brand, Ludwig; Knutson, Jay R

    2015-01-01

    Time Dependent Fluorescence Stokes (emission wavelength) Shifts (TDFSS) from tryptophan (Trp) following sub-picosecond excitation are increasingly used to investigate protein dynamics, most recently enabling active research interest into water dynamics near the surface of proteins. Unlike many

  13. Measurement of protein-like fluorescence in river and waste water using a handheld spectrophotometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Andy; Ward, David; Lieten, Shakti H; Periera, Ryan; Simpson, Ellie C; Slater, Malcolm

    2004-07-01

    Protein-like fluorescence intensity in rivers increases with increasing anthropogenic DOM inputs from sewerage and farm wastes. Here, a portable luminescence spectrophotometer was used to investigate if this technology could be used to provide both field scientists with a rapid pollution monitoring tool and process control engineers with a portable waste water monitoring device, through the measurement of river and waste water tryptophan-like fluorescence from a range of rivers in NE England and from effluents from within two waste water treatment plants. The portable spectrophotometer determined that waste waters and sewerage effluents had the highest tryptophan-like fluorescence intensity, urban streams had an intermediate tryptophan-like fluorescence intensity, and the upstream river samples of good water quality the lowest tryptophan-like fluorescence intensity. Replicate samples demonstrated that fluorescence intensity is reproducible to +/- 20% for low fluorescence, 'clean' river water samples and +/- 5% for urban water and waste waters. Correlations between fluorescence measured by the portable spectrophotometer with a conventional bench machine were 0.91; (Spearman's rho, n = 143), demonstrating that the portable spectrophotometer does correlate with tryptophan-like fluorescence intensity measured using the bench spectrophotometer.

  14. Near-infrared fluorescence glucose sensing based on glucose/galactose-binding protein coupled to 651-Blue Oxazine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Faaizah; Pickup, John C., E-mail: john.pickup@kcl.ac.uk

    2013-08-30

    Highlights: •We showed that the NIR fluorophore, 651-Blue Oxazine, is solvatochromic (polarity sensitive). •Blue Oxazine was covalently attached to mutants of glucose/galactose-binding protein (GBP). •Fluorescence intensity of GBP-Blue Oxazine increased with addition of glucose. •Fluorescence from bead-immobilised GBP-Blue Oxazine was detectable through skin in vitro. •This shows proof-of-concept for non-invasive glucose sensing using GBP-Blue Oxazine. -- Abstract: Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent dyes that are environmentally sensitive or solvatochromic are useful tools for protein labelling in in vivo biosensor applications such as glucose monitoring in diabetes since their spectral properties are mostly independent of tissue autofluorescence and light scattering, and they offer potential for non-invasive analyte sensing. We showed that the fluorophore 651-Blue Oxazine is polarity-sensitive, with a marked reduction in NIR fluorescence on increasing solvent polarity. Mutants of glucose/galactose-binding protein (GBP) used as the glucose receptor were site-specifically and covalently labelled with Blue Oxazine using click chemistry. Mutants H152C/A213R and H152C/A213R/L238S showed fluorescence increases of 15% and 21% on addition of saturating glucose concentrations and binding constants of 6 and 25 mM respectively. Fluorescence responses to glucose were preserved when GBP-Blue Oxazine was immobilised to agarose beads, and the beads were excited by NIR light through a mouse skin preparation studied in vitro. We conclude GBP-Blue Oxazine shows proof-of-concept as a non-invasive continuous glucose sensing system.

  15. PDTD: a web-accessible protein database for drug target identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Zhenting

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Target identification is important for modern drug discovery. With the advances in the development of molecular docking, potential binding proteins may be discovered by docking a small molecule to a repository of proteins with three-dimensional (3D structures. To complete this task, a reverse docking program and a drug target database with 3D structures are necessary. To this end, we have developed a web server tool, TarFisDock (Target Fishing Docking http://www.dddc.ac.cn/tarfisdock, which has been used widely by others. Recently, we have constructed a protein target database, Potential Drug Target Database (PDTD, and have integrated PDTD with TarFisDock. This combination aims to assist target identification and validation. Description PDTD is a web-accessible protein database for in silico target identification. It currently contains >1100 protein entries with 3D structures presented in the Protein Data Bank. The data are extracted from the literatures and several online databases such as TTD, DrugBank and Thomson Pharma. The database covers diverse information of >830 known or potential drug targets, including protein and active sites structures in both PDB and mol2 formats, related diseases, biological functions as well as associated regulating (signaling pathways. Each target is categorized by both nosology and biochemical function. PDTD supports keyword search function, such as PDB ID, target name, and disease name. Data set generated by PDTD can be viewed with the plug-in of molecular visualization tools and also can be downloaded freely. Remarkably, PDTD is specially designed for target identification. In conjunction with TarFisDock, PDTD can be used to identify binding proteins for small molecules. The results can be downloaded in the form of mol2 file with the binding pose of the probe compound and a list of potential binding targets according to their ranking scores. Conclusion PDTD serves as a comprehensive and

  16. Mechanistic background and clinical applications of indocyanine green fluorescence imaging of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizawa, Takeaki; Masuda, Koichi; Urano, Yasuteru; Kawaguchi, Yoshikuni; Satou, Shouichi; Kaneko, Junichi; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Shibahara, Junji; Fukayama, Masashi; Tsuji, Shingo; Midorikawa, Yutaka; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2014-02-01

    Although clinical applications of intraoperative fluorescence imaging of liver cancer using indocyanine green (ICG) have begun, the mechanistic background of ICG accumulation in the cancerous tissues remains unclear. In 170 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HCC), the liver surfaces and resected specimens were intraoperatively examined by using a near-infrared fluorescence imaging system after preoperative administration of ICG (0.5 mg/kg i.v.). Microscopic examinations, gene expression profile analysis, and immunohistochemical staining were performed for HCCs, which showed ICG fluorescence in the cancerous tissues (cancerous-type fluorescence), and HCCs showed fluorescence only in the surrounding non-cancerous liver parenchyma (rim-type fluorescence). ICG fluorescence imaging enabled identification of 273 of 276 (99%) HCCs in the resected specimens. HCCs showed that cancerous-type fluorescence was associated with higher cancer cell differentiation as compared with rim-type HCCs (P Fluorescence microscopy identified the presence of ICG in the canalicular side of the cancer cell cytoplasm, and pseudoglands of the HCCs showed a cancerous-type fluorescence pattern. The ratio of the gene and protein expression levels in the cancerous to non-cancerous tissues for Na(+)/taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) and organic anion-transporting polypeptide 8 (OATP8), which are associated with portal uptake of ICG by hepatocytes that tended to be higher in the HCCs that showed cancerous-type fluorescence than in those that showed rim-type fluorescence. Preserved portal uptake of ICG in differentiated HCC cells by NTCP and OATP8 with concomitant biliary excretion disorders causes accumulation of ICG in the cancerous tissues after preoperative intravenous administration. This enables highly sensitive identification of HCC by intraoperative ICG fluorescence imaging.

  17. Simulation of Far-Field Superresolution Fluorescence Imaging with Two-Color One-Photon Excitation of Reversible Photoactivatable Protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chen; Qiao Ling-Ling; Mao Zheng-Le

    2011-01-01

    We propose to achieve far-field super-resolution imaging by using offset two-color one-photon (2C1P) excitation of reversible photoactivatable fluorescence proteins. Due to the distinctive photoswitching performance of the proteins, such as dronpa, the fluorescence emission will only come from the overlapped region of activation beam and excitation beam. The analysis solution of rate equation shows that the resolution of offset 2C1P microscope is 'engineered' by laser power of excitation and activation beams and the power ratio between them. Superior lateral and transverse resolution is theoretically demonstrated compared with conventional fluorescence scanning microscopy. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  18. Protein mediated synthesis of fluorescent Au-nanoclusters for metal sensory coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, Manja; Raff, Johannes [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Biogeochemistry

    2017-06-01

    Fluorescent Au-nanocluster were successfully synthesized and used for the selective detection of Cu{sup 2} {sup +}. The synthesized Au-BSA-nanoclusters remain functional also after immobilization and show high thermal stability. Additionally, the transfer of the protein mediated Au-nanocluster synthesis route to S-layer proteins was achieved. (The presented work is part of the project BIONEWS dealing with long-term stable cells for the set-up and regeneration of sensor and actor materials for strategic relevant metals, in particular rare earth elements).

  19. Lie Group Analysis of the Photo-Induced Fluorescence of Drosophila Oogenesis with the Asymmetrically Localized Gurken Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Cheng Wang

    Full Text Available Lie group analysis of the photo-induced fluorescence of Drosophila oogenesis with the asymmetrically localized Gurken protein has been performed systematically to assess the roles of ligand-receptor complexes in follicle cells. The (2×2 matrix representations resulting from the polarized tissue spectra were employed to characterize the asymmetrical Gurken distributions. It was found that the fluorescence of the wild-type egg shows the Lie point symmetry X 23 at early stages of oogenesis. However, due to the morphogen regulation by intracellular proteins and extracellular proteins, the fluorescence of the embryogenesis with asymmetrically localized Gurken expansions exhibits specific symmetry features: Lie point symmetry Z 1 and Lie point symmetry X 1. The novel approach developed herein was successfully used to validate that the invariant-theoretical characterizations are consonant with the observed asymmetric fluctuations during early embryological development.

  20. Reduced Fluorescent Protein Switching Fatigue by Binding-Induced Emissive State Stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thijs Roebroek

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Reversibly switchable fluorescent proteins (RSFPs enable advanced fluorescence imaging, though the performance of this imaging crucially depends on the properties of the labels. We report on the use of an existing small binding peptide, named Enhancer, to modulate the spectroscopic properties of the recently developed rsGreen series of RSFPs. Fusion constructs of Enhancer with rsGreen1 and rsGreenF revealed an increased molecular brightness and pH stability, although expression in living E. coli or HeLa cells resulted in a decrease of the overall emission. Surprisingly, Enhancer binding also increased off-switching speed and resistance to switching fatigue. Further investigation suggested that the RSFPs can interconvert between fast- and slow-switching emissive states, with the overall protein population gradually converting to the slow-switching state through irradiation. The Enhancer modulates the spectroscopic properties of both states, but also preferentially stabilizes the fast-switching state, supporting the increased fatigue resistance. This work demonstrates how the photo-physical properties of RSFPs can be influenced by their binding to other small proteins, which opens up new horizons for applications that may require such modulation. Furthermore, we provide new insights into the photoswitching kinetics that should be of general consideration when developing new RSFPs with improved or different photochromic properties.

  1. Recombination-stable multimeric green fluorescent protein for characterization of weak promoter outputs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rugbjerg, Peter; Knuf, Christoph; Förster, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    a less leaky Cu2+-inducible promoter based on CUP1. The basal expression level of the new promoter was approx. 61% below the wild-type CUP1 promoter, thus expanding the absolute range of Cu2+-based gene control. The stability of 3vGFP towards direct-repeat recombination was assayed in S. cerevisiae......Green fluorescent proteins (GFPs) are widely used for visualization of proteins to track localization and expression dynamics. However, phenotypically important processes can operate at too low expression levels for routine detection, i.e. be overshadowed by autofluorescence noise. While GFP...... functions well in translational fusions, the use of tandem GFPs to amplify fluorescence signals is currently avoided in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and many other microorganisms due to the risk of loop-out by direct-repeat recombination. We increased GFP fluorescence by translationally fusing three different...

  2. Fluorescent Proteins for Investigating Biological Events in Acidic Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajime Shinoda

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The interior lumen of acidic organelles (e.g., endosomes, secretory granules, lysosomes and plant vacuoles is an important platform for modification, transport and degradation of biomolecules as well as signal transduction, which remains challenging to investigate using conventional fluorescent proteins (FPs. Due to the highly acidic luminal environment (pH ~ 4.5–6.0, most FPs and related sensors are apt to lose their fluorescence. To address the need to image in acidic environments, several research groups have developed acid-tolerant FPs in a wide color range. Furthermore, the engineering of pH insensitive sensors, and their concomitant use with pH sensitive sensors for the purpose of pH-calibration has enabled characterization of the role of luminal ions. In this short review, we summarize the recent development of acid-tolerant FPs and related functional sensors and discuss the future prospects for this field.

  3. Adaptation of Tri-molecular fluorescence complementation allows assaying of regulatory Csr RNA-protein interactions in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelderman, Grant; Sivakumar, Anusha; Lipp, Sarah; Contreras, Lydia

    2015-02-01

    sRNAs play a significant role in controlling and regulating cellular metabolism. One of the more interesting aspects of certain sRNAs is their ability to make global changes in the cell by interacting with regulatory proteins. In this work, we demonstrate the use of an in vivo Tri-molecular Fluorescence Complementation assay to detect and visualize the central regulatory sRNA-protein interaction of the Carbon Storage Regulatory system in E. coli. The Carbon Storage Regulator consists primarily of an RNA binding protein, CsrA, that alters the activity of mRNA targets and of an sRNA, CsrB, that modulates the activity of CsrA. We describe the construction of a fluorescence complementation system that detects the interactions between CsrB and CsrA. Additionally, we demonstrate that the intensity of the fluorescence of this system is able to detect changes in the affinity of the CsrB-CsrA interaction, as caused by mutations in the protein sequence of CsrA. While previous methods have adopted this technique to study mRNA or RNA localization, this is the first attempt to use this technique to study the sRNA-protein interaction directly in bacteria. This method presents a potentially powerful tool to study complex bacterial RNA protein interactions in vivo. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. State-of-the-Art Fluorescence Fluctuation-Based Spectroscopic Techniques for the Study of Protein Aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Akira; Kinjo, Masataka

    2018-03-23

    Neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease, are devastating proteinopathies with misfolded protein aggregates accumulating in neuronal cells. Inclusion bodies of protein aggregates are frequently observed in the neuronal cells of patients. Investigation of the underlying causes of neurodegeneration requires the establishment and selection of appropriate methodologies for detailed investigation of the state and conformation of protein aggregates. In the current review, we present an overview of the principles and application of several methodologies used for the elucidation of protein aggregation, specifically ones based on determination of fluctuations of fluorescence. The discussed methods include fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), imaging FCS, image correlation spectroscopy (ICS), photobleaching ICS (pbICS), number and brightness (N&B) analysis, super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI), and transient state (TRAST) monitoring spectroscopy. Some of these methodologies are classical protein aggregation analyses, while others are not yet widely used. Collectively, the methods presented here should help the future development of research not only into protein aggregation but also neurodegenerative diseases.

  5. The past, present and future of fluorescent protein tags in anaerobic protozoan parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin-Adeline, Victoria; Šlapeta, Jan

    2016-03-01

    The world health organization currently recognizes diarrhoeal diseases as a significant cause of death in children globally. Protozoan parasites such as Giardia and Entamoeba that thrive in the oxygen-deprived environment of the human gut are common etiological agents of diarrhoea. In the urogenital tract of humans, the anaerobic protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis is notorious as the most common non-viral, sexually transmitted pathogen. Even with high medical impact, our understanding of anaerobic parasite physiology is scarce and as a result, treatment choices are limited. Fluorescent proteins (FPs) are invaluable tools as genetically encoded protein tags for advancing knowledge of cellular function. These FP tags emit fluorescent colours and once attached to a protein of interest, allow tracking of parasite proteins in the dynamic cellular space. Application of green FPs-like FPs in anaerobic protozoans is hindered by their oxygen dependency. In this review, we examine aspects of anaerobic parasite biology that clash with physio-chemical properties of FPs and limit their use as live-parasite protein tags. We expose novel FPs, such as miniSOG that do not require oxygen for signal production. The potential use of novel FPs has the opportunity to leverage the anaerobe parasitologist toolkit to that of aerobe parasitologist.

  6. Serum Protein Profile Study of Clinical Samples Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Laser Induced Fluorescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karemore, Gopal Raghunath; Ukendt, Sujatha; Rai, Lavanya

    2009-01-01

    The serum protein profiles of normal subjects, patients diagnosed with cervical cancer, and oral cancer were recorded using High Performance Liquid Chromatography combined with Laser Induced Fluorescence detection (HPLC-LIF). Serum protein profiles of the above three classes were tested for estab...

  7. Coupled aggregation of mitochondrial single-strand DNA-binding protein tagged with Eos fluorescent protein visualizes synchronized activity of mitochondrial nucleoids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Olejár, Tomáš; Pajuelo-Reguera, David; Alán, Lukáš; Dlasková, Andrea; Ježek, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 4 (2015), s. 5185-5190 ISSN 1791-2997 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/10/0346; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0025 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : mitochondrial nucleoid * single-stranded DNA-binding protein * photoconvertible fluorescent protein Eos Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.559, year: 2015

  8. Site-Specific Analysis of Protein Hydration Based on Unnatural Amino Acid Fluorescence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Amaro, Mariana; Brezovský, J.; Kováčová, S.; Sýkora, Jan; Bednář, D.; Němec, V.; Lišková, V.; Kurumbang, N. P.; Beerens, K.; Chaloupková, R.; Paruch, K.; Hof, Martin; Damborský, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 137, č. 15 (2015), s. 4988-4992 ISSN 0002-7863 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP208/12/G016 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : analysis * fluorescence * hydration of proteins Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 13.038, year: 2015

  9. Cytotoxicity Test Based on Human Cells Labeled with Fluorescent Proteins: Fluorimetry, Photography, and Scanning for High-Throughput Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinina, Marina A; Skvortsov, Dmitry A; Rubtsova, Maria P; Komarova, Ekaterina S; Dontsova, Olga A

    2018-06-01

    High- and medium-throughput assays are now routine methods for drug screening and toxicology investigations on mammalian cells. However, a simple and cost-effective analysis of cytotoxicity that can be carried out with commonly used laboratory equipment is still required. The developed cytotoxicity assays are based on human cell lines stably expressing eGFP, tdTomato, mCherry, or Katushka2S fluorescent proteins. Red fluorescent proteins exhibit a higher signal-to-noise ratio, due to less interference by medium autofluorescence, in comparison to green fluorescent protein. Measurements have been performed on a fluorescence scanner, a plate fluorimeter, and a camera photodocumentation system. For a 96-well plate assay, the sensitivity per well and the measurement duration were 250 cells and 15 min for the scanner, 500 cells and 2 min for the plate fluorimeter, and 1000 cells and less than 1 min for the camera detection. These sensitivities are similar to commonly used MTT (tetrazolium dye) assays. The used scanner and the camera had not been previously applied for cytotoxicity evaluation. An image processing scheme for the high-resolution scanner is proposed that significantly diminishes the number of control wells, even for a library containing fluorescent substances. The suggested cytotoxicity assay has been verified by measurements of the cytotoxicity of several well-known cytotoxic drugs and further applied to test a set of novel bacteriotoxic compounds in a medium-throughput format. The fluorescent signal of living cells is detected without disturbing them and adding any reagents, thus allowing to investigate time-dependent cytotoxicity effects on the same sample of cells. A fast, simple and cost-effective assay is suggested for cytotoxicity evaluation based on mammalian cells expressing fluorescent proteins and commonly used laboratory equipment.

  10. Using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy to study conformational changes in denatured proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Eilon; Itkin, Anna; Kuttner, Yosef Yehuda; Rhoades, Elizabeth; Amir, Dan; Haas, Elisha; Haran, Gilad

    2008-06-01

    Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is a sensitive analytical tool that allows dynamics and hydrodynamics of biomolecules to be studied under a broad range of experimental conditions. One application of FCS of current interest is the determination of the size of protein molecules in the various states they sample along their folding reaction coordinate, which can be accessed through the measurement of diffusion coefficients. It has been pointed out that the analysis of FCS curves is prone to artifacts that may lead to erroneous size determination. To set the stage for FCS studies of unfolded proteins, we first show that the diffusion coefficients of small molecules as well as proteins can be determined accurately even in the presence of high concentrations of co-solutes that change the solution refractive index significantly. Indeed, it is found that the Stokes-Einstein relation between the measured diffusion coefficient and solution viscosity holds even in highly concentrated glycerol or guanidinium hydrochloride (GuHCl) solutions. These measurements form the basis for an investigation of the structure of the denatured state of two proteins, the small protein L and the larger, three-domain protein adenylate kinase (AK). FCS is found useful for probing expansion in the denatured state beyond the unfolding transition. It is shown that the denatured state of protein L expands as the denaturant concentration increases, in a process akin to the transition from a globule to a coil in polymers. This process continues at least up to 5 M GuHCl. On the other hand, the denatured state of AK does not seem to expand much beyond 2 M GuHCl, a result that is in qualitative accord with single-molecule fluorescence histograms. Because both the unfolding transition and the coil-globule transition of AK occur at a much lower denaturant concentration than those of protein L, a possible correlation between the two phenomena is suggested.

  11. Development of an X-ray fluorescence holographic measurement system for protein crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato-Tomita, Ayana; Shibayama, Naoya; Okabe, Takahiro; Happo, Naohisa; Kimura, Koji; Matsushita, Tomohiro; Park, Sam-Yong; Sasaki, Yuji C.; Hayashi, Kouichi

    2016-01-01

    Experimental procedure and setup for obtaining X-ray fluorescence hologram of crystalline metalloprotein samples are described. Human hemoglobin, an α_2β_2 tetrameric metalloprotein containing the Fe(II) heme active-site in each chain, was chosen for this study because of its wealth of crystallographic data. A cold gas flow system was introduced to reduce X-ray radiation damage of protein crystals that are usually fragile and susceptible to damage. A χ-stage was installed to rotate the sample while avoiding intersection between the X-ray beam and the sample loop or holder, which is needed for supporting fragile protein crystals. Huge hemoglobin crystals (with a maximum size of 8 × 6 × 3 mm"3) were prepared and used to keep the footprint of the incident X-ray beam smaller than the sample size during the entire course of the measurement with the incident angle of 0°-70°. Under these experimental and data acquisition conditions, we achieved the first observation of the X-ray fluorescence hologram pattern from the protein crystals with minimal radiation damage, opening up a new and potential method for investigating the stereochemistry of the metal active-sites in biomacromolecules.

  12. High-resolution imaging of redox signaling in live cells through an oxidation-sensitive yellow fluorescent protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maulucci, Giuseppe; Labate, Valentina; Mele, Marina

    2008-01-01

    We present the application of a redox-sensitive mutant of the yellow fluorescent protein (rxYFP) to image, with elevated sensitivity and high temporal and spatial resolution, oxidative responses of eukaryotic cells to pathophysiological stimuli. The method presented, based on the ratiometric...... quantitation of the distribution of fluorescence by confocal microscopy, allows us to draw real-time "redox maps" of adherent cells and to score subtle changes in the intracellular redox state, such as those induced by overexpression of redox-active proteins. This strategy for in vivo imaging of redox...

  13. Reporter-Based Synthetic Genetic Array Analysis: A Functional Genomics Approach for Investigating Transcript or Protein Abundance Using Fluorescent Proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göttert, Hendrikje; Mattiazzi Usaj, Mojca; Rosebrock, Adam P; Andrews, Brenda J

    2018-01-01

    Fluorescent reporter genes have long been used to quantify various cell features such as transcript and protein abundance. Here, we describe a method, reporter synthetic genetic array (R-SGA) analysis, which allows for the simultaneous quantification of any fluorescent protein readout in thousands of yeast strains using an automated pipeline. R-SGA combines a fluorescent reporter system with standard SGA analysis and can be used to examine any array-based strain collection available to the yeast community. This protocol describes the R-SGA methodology for screening different arrays of yeast mutants including the deletion collection, a collection of temperature-sensitive strains for the assessment of essential yeast genes and a collection of inducible overexpression strains. We also present an alternative pipeline for the analysis of R-SGA output strains using flow cytometry of cells in liquid culture. Data normalization for both pipelines is discussed.

  14. Fluorescent QDs-polystyrene composite nanospheres for highly efficient and rapid protein antigen detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Changhua; Mao, Mao [Henan University, Key Laboratory for Special Functional Materials of the Ministry of Education (China); Yuan, Hang [Tsinghua University, Life Science Division, Graduate School at Shenzhen (China); Shen, Huaibin [Henan University, Key Laboratory for Special Functional Materials of the Ministry of Education (China); Wu, Feng; Ma, Lan, E-mail: malan@sz.tsinghua.edu.cn [Tsinghua University, Life Science Division, Graduate School at Shenzhen (China); Li, Lin Song, E-mail: lsli@henu.edu.cn [Henan University, Key Laboratory for Special Functional Materials of the Ministry of Education (China)

    2013-09-15

    In this paper, high-quality carboxyl-functionalized fluorescent (red, green, and blue emitting) nanospheres (46-103 nm) consisting of hydrophobic quantum dots (QDs) and polystyrene were prepared by a miniemulsion polymerization approach. This miniemulsion polymerization approach induced a homogeneous distribution and high aqueous-phase transport efficiency of fluorescent QDs in composite nanospheres, which proved the success of our encoding QDs strategy. The obtained fluorescent nanospheres exhibited high stability in aqueous solution under a wide range of pH, different salt concentrations, PBS buffer, and thermal treatment at 80 Degree-Sign C. Based on the red emitting composite nanosphere, we performed fluorescent lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) strips for high-sensitivity and rapid alpha-fetal protein detection. The detection limit reached 0.1 ng/mL, which was 200 times higher than commercial colloidal gold-labeled LFIA strips, and it reached similar detection level in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit.

  15. Identification of Open Stomata1-Interacting Proteins Reveals Interactions with Sucrose Non-fermenting1-Related Protein Kinases2 and with Type 2A Protein Phosphatases That Function in Abscisic Acid Responses1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waadt, Rainer; Manalansan, Bianca; Rauniyar, Navin; Munemasa, Shintaro; Booker, Matthew A.; Brandt, Benjamin; Waadt, Christian; Nusinow, Dmitri A.; Kay, Steve A.; Kunz, Hans-Henning; Schumacher, Karin; DeLong, Alison; Yates, John R.; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2015-01-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) controls growth and development and regulates plant water status through an established signaling pathway. In the presence of ABA, pyrabactin resistance/regulatory component of ABA receptor proteins inhibit type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs). This, in turn, enables the activation of Sucrose Nonfermenting1-Related Protein Kinases2 (SnRK2). Open Stomata1 (OST1)/SnRK2.6/SRK2E is a major SnRK2-type protein kinase responsible for mediating ABA responses. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) expressing an epitope-tagged OST1 in the recessive ost1-3 mutant background was used for the copurification and identification of OST1-interacting proteins after osmotic stress and ABA treatments. These analyses, which were confirmed using bimolecular fluorescence complementation and coimmunoprecipitation, unexpectedly revealed homo- and heteromerization of OST1 with SnRK2.2, SnRK2.3, OST1, and SnRK2.8. Furthermore, several OST1-complexed proteins were identified as type 2A protein phosphatase (PP2A) subunits and as proteins involved in lipid and galactolipid metabolism. More detailed analyses suggested an interaction network between ABA-activated SnRK2-type protein kinases and several PP2A-type protein phosphatase regulatory subunits. pp2a double mutants exhibited a reduced sensitivity to ABA during seed germination and stomatal closure and an enhanced ABA sensitivity in root growth regulation. These analyses add PP2A-type protein phosphatases as another class of protein phosphatases to the interaction network of SnRK2-type protein kinases. PMID:26175513

  16. Functional incorporation of green fluorescent protein into hepatitis B virus envelope particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, Carsten; Thome, Nicole; Kluck, Christoph J.; Prange, Reinhild

    2004-01-01

    The envelope of hepatitis B virus (HBV), containing the L, M, and S proteins, is essential for virus entry and maturation. For direct visualization of HBV, we determined whether envelope assembly could accommodate the green fluorescent protein (GFP). While the C-terminal addition of GFP to S trans-dominant negatively inhibited empty envelope particle secretion, the N-terminal GFP fusion to S (GFP.S) was co-integrated into the envelope, giving rise to fluorescent particles. Microscopy and topogenesis analyses demonstrated that the proper intracellular distribution and folding of GFP.S, required for particle export were rescued by interprotein interactions with wild-type S. Thereby, a dual location of GFP, inside and outside the envelope, was observed. GFP.S was also efficiently packaged into the viral envelope, and these GFP-tagged virions retained the capacity for attachment to HBV receptor-positive cells in vitro. Together, GFP-tagged virions should be suitable to monitor HBV uptake and egress in live hepatocytes

  17. Identification of mammalian proteins cross-linked to DNA by ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Sharon; Weinfeld, Michael; Zheng, Jing; Li, Liang; Murray, David

    2005-10-07

    Ionizing radiation (IR) is an important environmental risk factor for various cancers and also a major therapeutic agent for cancer treatment. Exposure of mammalian cells to IR induces several types of damage to DNA, including double- and single-strand breaks, base and sugar damage, as well as DNA-DNA and DNA-protein cross-links (DPCs). Little is known regarding the biological consequences of DPCs. Identifying the proteins that become cross-linked to DNA by IR would be an important first step in this regard. We have therefore undertaken a proteomics study to isolate and identify proteins involved in IR-induced DPCs. DPCs were induced in AA8 Chinese hamster ovary or GM00637 human fibroblast cells using 0-4 gray of gamma-rays under either aerated or hypoxic conditions. DPCs were isolated using a recently developed method, and proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. We identified 29 proteins as being cross-linked to DNA by IR under aerated and/or hypoxic conditions. The identified proteins include structural proteins, actin-associated proteins, transcription regulators, RNA-splicing components, stress-response proteins, cell cycle regulatory proteins, and GDP/GTP-binding proteins. The involvement of several proteins (actin, histone H2B, and others) in DPCs was confirmed by using Western blot analysis. The dose responsiveness of DPC induction was examined by staining one-dimensional SDS-polyacrylamide gels with SYPRO Tangerine followed by analysis using fluorescence imaging. Quantitation of the fluorescence signal indicated no significant difference in total yields of IR-induced DPCs generated under aerated or hypoxic conditions, although differences were observed for several individual protein bands.

  18. A Review of Fluorescent Proteins for Use in Yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialecka-Fornal, Maja; Makushok, Tatyana; Rafelski, Susanne M

    2016-01-01

    The field of fluorescent proteins (FPs) is constantly developing. The use of FPs changed the field of life sciences completely, starting a new era of direct observation and quantification of cellular processes. The broad spectrum of FPs (see Fig. 1) with a wide range of characteristics allows their use in many different experiments. This review discusses the use of FPs for imaging in budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe). The information included in this review is relevant for both species unless stated otherwise.

  19. Bright blue-shifted fluorescent proteins with Cys in the GAF domain engineered from bacterial phytochromes: fluorescence mechanisms and excited-state dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hontani, Yusaku; Shcherbakova, Daria M.; Baloban, Mikhail; Zhu, Jingyi; Verkhusha, Vladislav V.; Kennis, John T. M.

    2016-01-01

    Near-infrared fluorescent proteins (NIR FPs) engineered from bacterial phytochromes (BphPs) are of great interest for in vivo imaging. They utilize biliverdin (BV) as a chromophore, which is a heme degradation product, and therefore they are straightforward to use in mammalian tissues. Here, we

  20. Structural Basis of X-ray-Induced Transient Photo-bleaching in a Photoactivatable Green Fluorescent Protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, V. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Carpentier, Ph.; Lelimousin, M.; Darnault, C.; Bourgeois, D. [IBS, Institut de Biologie Structurale Jean-Pierre Ebel, CEA, CNRS, UniVersite Joseph Fourier, 41 rue Jules Horowitz, 38027 Grenoble (France); Violot, S. [Laboratoire de Physiologie Cellulaire Vegetale, Institut de Recherches en Technologie et Sciences pour le ViVant, CEA, CNRS, INRA, UniVersite Joseph Fourier, 17 rue des Martyrs, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Nienhaus, U. [Institute of Applied Physics and Center for Functional nano-structures (CFN), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Nienhaus, U. [Department of Physics, UniVersity of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (US)

    2009-07-01

    We have observed the photoactivatable fluorescent protein IrisFP in a transient dark state with near-atomic resolution. This dark state is assigned to a radical species that either relaxes to the ground state or evolves into a permanently bleached chromophore. We took advantage of X-rays to populate the radical, which presumably forms under illumination with visible light by an electron-transfer reaction in the triplet state. The combined X-ray diffraction and in crystallo UV-vis absorption, fluorescence, and Raman data reveal that radical formation in IrisFP involves pronounced but reversible distortion of the chromophore, suggesting a transient loss of {pi} conjugation. These results reveal that the methylene bridge of the chromophore is the Achilles' heel of fluorescent proteins and help unravel the mechanisms of blinking and photo-bleaching in FPs, which are of importance in the rational design of photo-stable variants. and is also partly reversible. (authors)

  1. Identification of outer membrane proteins of Yersinia pestis through biotinylation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smither, S.J.; Hill, J.; Baar, B.L.M. van; Hulst, A.G.; Jong, A.L. de; Titball, R.W.

    2007-01-01

    The outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria contains proteins that might be good targets for vaccines, antimicrobials or detection systems. The identification of surface located proteins using traditional methods is often difficult. Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, was labelled with

  2. Mass spectrometry allows direct identification of proteins in large genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Küster, B; Mortensen, Peter V.; Andersen, Jens S.

    2001-01-01

    Proteome projects seek to provide systematic functional analysis of the genes uncovered by genome sequencing initiatives. Mass spectrometric protein identification is a key requirement in these studies but to date, database searching tools rely on the availability of protein sequences derived fro...

  3. Identification of herpesvirus proteins that contribute to G1/S arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paladino, Patrick; Marcon, Edyta; Greenblatt, Jack; Frappier, Lori

    2014-04-01

    Lytic infection by herpesviruses induces cell cycle arrest at the G1/S transition. This appears to be a function of multiple herpesvirus proteins, but only a minority of herpesvirus proteins have been examined for cell cycle effects. To gain a more comprehensive understanding of the viral proteins that contribute to G1/S arrest, we screened a library of over 200 proteins from herpes simplex virus type 1, human cytomegalovirus, and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) for effects on the G1/S interface, using HeLa fluorescent, ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator (Fucci) cells in which G1/S can be detected colorimetrically. Proteins from each virus were identified that induce accumulation of G1/S cells, predominantly tegument, early, and capsid proteins. The identification of several capsid proteins in this screen suggests that incoming viral capsids may function to modulate cellular processes. The cell cycle effects of selected EBV proteins were further verified and examined for effects on p53 and p21 as regulators of the G1/S transition. Two EBV replication proteins (BORF2 and BMRF1) were found to induce p53 but not p21, while a previously uncharacterized tegument protein (BGLF2) was found to induce p21 protein levels in a p53-independent manner. Proteomic analyses of BGLF2-interacting proteins identified interactions with the NIMA-related protein kinase (NEK9) and GEM-interacting protein (GMIP). Silencing of either NEK9 or GMIP induced p21 without affecting p53 and abrogated the ability of BGLF2 to further induce p21. Collectively, these results suggest multiple viral proteins contribute to G1/S arrest, including BGLF2, which induces p21 levels likely by interfering with the functions of NEK9 and GMIP. Most people are infected with multiple herpesviruses, whose proteins alter the infected cells in several ways. During lytic infection, the viral proteins block cell proliferation just before the cellular DNA replicates. We used a novel screening method to identify proteins

  4. Development of an X-ray fluorescence holographic measurement system for protein crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato-Tomita, Ayana, E-mail: ayana.sato@jichi.ac.jp, E-mail: shibayam@jichi.ac.jp, E-mail: hayashi.koichi@nitech.ac.jp; Shibayama, Naoya, E-mail: ayana.sato@jichi.ac.jp, E-mail: shibayam@jichi.ac.jp, E-mail: hayashi.koichi@nitech.ac.jp; Okabe, Takahiro [Division of Biophysics, Department of Physiology, Jichi Medical University, Yakushiji, Shimotsuke 329-0498 (Japan); Happo, Naohisa [Department of Computer and Network Engineering, Graduate School of Information Sciences, Hiroshima City University, Asa-Minami-Ku, Hiroshima 731-3194 (Japan); Kimura, Koji [Department of Physical Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso, Showa, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Matsushita, Tomohiro [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI), SPring-8, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Park, Sam-Yong [Drug Design Laboratory, Department of Medical Life Science, Yokohama City University, Suehiro, Tsurumi, Yokohama 230-0045 (Japan); Sasaki, Yuji C. [Department of Advanced Material Science, Graduate School of Frontier Science, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa 277-8561 (Japan); Hayashi, Kouichi, E-mail: ayana.sato@jichi.ac.jp, E-mail: shibayam@jichi.ac.jp, E-mail: hayashi.koichi@nitech.ac.jp [Department of Physical Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso, Showa, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Frontier Research Institute for Materials Science, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso, Showa, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    Experimental procedure and setup for obtaining X-ray fluorescence hologram of crystalline metalloprotein samples are described. Human hemoglobin, an α{sub 2}β{sub 2} tetrameric metalloprotein containing the Fe(II) heme active-site in each chain, was chosen for this study because of its wealth of crystallographic data. A cold gas flow system was introduced to reduce X-ray radiation damage of protein crystals that are usually fragile and susceptible to damage. A χ-stage was installed to rotate the sample while avoiding intersection between the X-ray beam and the sample loop or holder, which is needed for supporting fragile protein crystals. Huge hemoglobin crystals (with a maximum size of 8 × 6 × 3 mm{sup 3}) were prepared and used to keep the footprint of the incident X-ray beam smaller than the sample size during the entire course of the measurement with the incident angle of 0°-70°. Under these experimental and data acquisition conditions, we achieved the first observation of the X-ray fluorescence hologram pattern from the protein crystals with minimal radiation damage, opening up a new and potential method for investigating the stereochemistry of the metal active-sites in biomacromolecules.

  5. Peptide aptamer-assisted immobilization of green fluorescent protein for creating biomolecule-complexed carbon nanotube device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nii, Daisuke; Nozawa, Yosuke; Miyachi, Mariko; Yamanoi, Yoshinori; Nishihara, Hiroshi; Tomo, Tatsuya; Shimada, Yuichiro

    2017-10-01

    Carbon nanotubes are a novel material for next-generation applications. In this study, we generated carbon nanotube and green fluorescent protein (GFP) conjugates using affinity binding peptides. The carbon nanotube-binding motif was introduced into the N-terminus of the GFP through molecular biology methods. Multiple GFPs were successfully aligned on a single-walled carbon nanotube via the molecular recognition function of the peptide aptamer, which was confirmed through transmission electron microscopy and optical analysis. Fluorescence spectral analysis results also suggested that the carbon nanotube-GFP complex was autonomously formed with orientation and without causing protein denaturation during immobilization. This simple process has a widespread potential for fabricating carbon nanotube-biomolecule hybrid devices.

  6. Fluorescent protein pair emit intracellular FRET signal suitable for FACS screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Daniel X.; Brismar, Hjalmar; Persson, Mats A.A.

    2007-01-01

    The fluorescent proteins ECFP and HcRed were shown to give an easily resolved FRET-signal when expressed as a fusion inside mammalian cells. HeLa-tat cells expressing ECFP, pHcRed, or the fusion protein pHcRed-ECFP were analyzed by flow cytometry after excitation of ECFP. Cells expressing HcRed-ECFP, or ECFP and HcRed, were mixed and FACS-sorted for FRET positive cells: HcRed-ECFP cells were greatly enriched (72 times). Next, cloned human antibodies were fused with ECFP and expressed anchored to the ER membrane. Their cognate antigens (HIV-1 gp120 or gp41) were fused to HcRed and co-expressed in the ER. An increase of 13.5 ± 1.5% (mean ± SEM) and 8.0 ± 0.7% in ECFP fluorescence for the specific antibodies reacting with gp120 or gp41, respectively, was noted after photobleaching. A positive control (HcRed-ECFP) gave a 14.8 ± 2.6% increase. Surprisingly, the unspecific antibody (anti-TT) showed 12.1 ± 1.1% increase, possibly because overexpression in the limited ER compartment gave false FRET signals

  7. Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP-Based Overexpression Screening and Characterization of AgrC, a Receptor Protein of Quorum Sensing in Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengdi Fan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus AgrC is an important component of the agr quorum-sensing system. AgrC is a membrane-embedded histidine kinase that is thought to act as a sensor for the recognition of environmental signals and the transduction of signals into the cytoplasm. However, the difficulty of expressing and purifying functional membrane proteins has drastically hindered in-depth understanding of the molecular structures and physiological functions of these proteins. Here, we describe the high-yield expression and purification of AgrC, and analyze its kinase activity. A C-terminal green fluorescent protein (GFP fusion to AgrC served as a reporter for monitoring protein expression levels in real time. Protein expression levels were analyzed by the microscopic assessment of the whole-cell fluorescence. The expressed AgrC-GFP protein with a C-terminal His-tagged was purified using immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC and size exclusion chromatography (SEC at yields of ≥10 mg/L, following optimization. We also assessed the effects of different detergents on membrane solubilization and AgrC kinase activity, and polyoxyethylene-(23-lauryl-ether (Brij-35 was identified as the most suitable detergent. Furthermore, the secondary structural stability of purified AgrC was analyzed using circular dichroism (CD spectroscopy. This study may serve as a general guide for improving the yields of other membrane protein preparations and selecting the appropriate detergent to stabilize membrane proteins for biophysical and biochemical analyses.

  8. [Artificial Cysteine Bridges on the Surface of Green Fluorescent Protein Affect Hydration of Its Transition and Intermediate States].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, T N; Nagibina, G S; Surin, A K; Glukhova, K A; Melnik, B S

    2018-01-01

    Studying the effect of cysteine bridges on different energy levels of multistage folding proteins will enable a better understanding of the process of folding and functioning of globular proteins. In particular, it will create prospects for directed change in the stability and rate of protein folding. In this work, using the method of differential scanning microcalorimetry, we have studied the effect of three cysteine bridges introduced in different structural elements of the green fluorescent protein on the denaturation enthalpies, activation energies, and heat-capacity increments when this protein passes from native to intermediate and transition states. The studies have allowed us to confirm that, with this protein denaturation, the process hardly damages the structure initially, but then changes occur in the protein structure in the region of 4-6 beta sheets. The cysteine bridge introduced in this region decreases the hydration of the second transition state and increases the hydration of the second intermediate state during the thermal denaturation of the green fluorescent protein.

  9. Fluorescent Probes and Fluorescence (Microscopy Techniques — Illuminating Biological and Biomedical Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor P. C. Drummen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence, the absorption and re-emission of photons with longer wavelengths, is one of those amazing phenomena of Nature. Its discovery and utilization had, and still has, a major impact on biological and biomedical research, since it enables researchers not just to visualize normal physiological processes with high temporal and spatial resolution, to detect multiple signals concomitantly, to track single molecules in vivo, to replace radioactive assays when possible, but also to shed light on many pathobiological processes underpinning disease states, which would otherwise not be possible. Compounds that exhibit fluorescence are commonly called fluorochromes or fluorophores and one of these fluorescent molecules in particular has significantly enabled life science research to gain new insights in virtually all its sub-disciplines: Green Fluorescent Protein. Because fluorescent proteins are synthesized in vivo, integration of fluorescent detection methods into the biological system via genetic techniques now became feasible. Currently fluorescent proteins are available that virtually span the whole electromagnetic spectrum. Concomitantly, fluorescence imaging techniques were developed, and often progress in one field fueled innovation in the other. Impressively, the properties of fluorescence were utilized to develop new assays and imaging modalities, ranging from energy transfer to image molecular interactions to imaging beyond the diffraction limit with super-resolution microscopy. Here, an overview is provided of recent developments in both fluorescence imaging and fluorochrome engineering, which together constitute the “fluorescence toolbox” in life science research.

  10. Conformational detection of prion protein with biarsenical labeling and FlAsH fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, Bradley M.; Nisbet, Rebecca M.; Han, Sen; Cappai, Roberto; Hatters, Danny M.; Hill, Andrew F.

    2009-01-01

    Prion diseases are associated with the misfolding of the host-encoded cellular prion protein (PrP C ) into a disease associated form (PrP Sc ). Recombinant PrP can be refolded into either an α-helical rich conformation (α-PrP) resembling PrP C or a β-sheet rich, protease resistant form similar to PrP Sc . Here, we generated tetracysteine tagged recombinant PrP, folded this into α- or β-PrP and determined the levels of FlAsH fluorescence. Insertion of the tetracysteine tag at three different sites within the 91-111 epitope readily distinguished β-PrP from α-PrP upon FlAsH labeling. Labelling of tetracysteine tagged PrP in the α-helical form showed minimal fluorescence, whereas labeling of tagged PrP in the β-sheet form showed high fluorescence indicating that this region is exposed upon conversion. This highlights a region of PrP that can be implicated in the development of diagnostics and is a novel, protease free mechanism for distinguishing PrP Sc from PrP C . This technique may also be applied to any protein that undergoes conformational change and/or misfolding such as those involved in other neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's, Huntington's and Parkinson's diseases.

  11. Ultrafast fluorescence of photosynthetic crystals and light-harvesting complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Oort, van, B.F.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the study of photosynthetic pigment protein complexes using time resolved fluorescence techniques. Fluorescence spectroscopy often requires attaching fluorescent labels to the proteins under investigation. With photosynthetic proteins this is not necessary, because these proteins contain fluorescent pigments. Each pigment’s fluorescence is influenced by its environment, and thereby may provide information on structure and dynamics of pigment protein complexes in vitro a...

  12. Effect of secretory pathway gene overexpression on secretion of a fluorescent reporter protein in Aspergillus nidulans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schalén, Martin; Anyaogu, Diana Chinyere; Hoof, Jakob Blæsbjerg

    2016-01-01

    roles in the process have been identified through transcriptomics. The assignment of function to these genes has been enabled in combination with gene deletion studies. In this work, 14 genes known to play a role in protein secretion in filamentous fungi were overexpressed in Aspergillus nidulans....... The background strain was a fluorescent reporter secreting mRFP. The overall effect of the overexpressions could thus be easily monitored through fluorescence measurements, while the effects on physiology were determined in batch cultivations and surface growth studies. Results: Fourteen protein secretion...... pathway related genes were overexpressed with a tet-ON promoter in the RFP-secreting reporter strain and macromorphology, physiology and protein secretion were monitored when the secretory genes were induced. Overexpression of several of the chosen genes was shown to cause anomalies on growth, micro...

  13. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction of fluorescence recovery protein from Synechocystis PCC 6803

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ting; Shuai, Yingli; Zhou, Honggang

    2011-01-01

    Fluorescence recovery protein from Synechocystis PCC 6803 plays a key role in the orange carotenoid protein-related photoprotective mechanism in cyanobacteria. The full-length form and a truncated form were overexpressed, purified and crystallized, and diffraction was observed to 2.75 Å resolution. Fluorescence recovery protein (FRP), which is encoded by the slr1964 gene in Synechocystis PCC 6803, plays a key role in the orange carotenoid protein-related photoprotective mechanism in cyanobacteria. As the crystal structure of FRP may provide information about the biological functions and mechanism of action of the protein, recombinant full-length FRP and a truncated form were overexpressed, purified and crystallized at 291 K using ethylene imine polymer as the precipitant. An FRP data set was collected to a resolution of 2.75 Å at low temperature (100 K). The crystal belonged to space group P4 1 2 1 2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 61.9, c = 160.7 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. Assuming that the asymmetric unit contains three molecules, the Matthews coefficient was calculated to be 2.1 Å 3 Da −1

  14. Two-Photon Absorption Properties of Gold Fluorescent Protein: A Combined Molecular Dynamics and Quantum Chemistry Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Yusuf; Brown, Alex

    2018-05-09

    Molecular dynamic (MD) simulations were carried out to obtain the conformational changes of the chromophore in the gold fluorescent protein (PDB ID: 1OXF). To obtain two-photon absorption (TPA) cross-sections, time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) computations were performed for chromophore geometries sampled along the trajectory. The TD-DFT computations used the CAM-B3LYP functional and 6-31+G(d) basis set with the conductor-like polarizable continuum model (PCM) with parameters for water. Results showed that two dihedral angles change remarkably over the simulation time. TPA cross-sections were found to average 20 GM for the excitation to S1 between 430 and 460 nm; however, the maximal and minimal values were 35GM and 5GM, respectively. Besides the effects of the dihedrals on the spectroscopic properties, some bond lengths affected the excitation energies and the TPA cross-sections significantly (up to ±25-30%) while the effects of bond angles were smaller (±5%). Overall the present results provide insight in the effects of conformational exibility on TPA (with gold fluorescent protein as a specific example) and suggest that further experimental measurements of TPA for gold fluorescent protein should be undertaken.

  15. Identification of protein binding in pictorial art Cuban

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza, Ariadna; Correa, Maurin; Maqueira, Isis

    2011-01-01

    In this paper were implemented microanalysis methodologies by histochemical analysis, and infrared spectroscopy to determine the nature of the binder in paintings and Gas Chromatography (GC) coupled to Mass Spectrometry (MS) for identification of protein binders of common use in tempera technique with the aim of having these methods as part of the identification of artistic materials in Cuban cultural heritage carried out by Archaeometry Laboratory of Havana city's Historian Cabinet. The methodologies implemented were evaluated using model samples of traditional painting techniques with variable protein binder: yolk, egg white, casein, nut oil and animal glue; ageing for 5 years. The models samples were correctly identified. It was determined the interference of pigments with the presence of nitrogen by histochemical analysis with Amido Black dye. IR spectroscopy technique allowed to differentiate between oily and mixed (oil plus protein) techniques and tempera with yolk. Oily technique was identified in wall paintings of the New San Francisco church (XIX century) and the Obrapia House (XVII century) and the technique of tempera with animal glue in the polychrome of the XVIII century which represents St. John the Evangelist belonging to the San Juan de Letran church

  16. Thermal stability of chemically denatured green fluorescent protein (GFP) A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, Attila; Malnasi-Csizmadia, Andras; Somogyi, Bela; Lorinczy, Denes

    2004-02-09

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP) is a light emitter in the bioluminescence reaction of the jellyfish Aequorea victoria. The protein consist of 238 amino acids and produces green fluorescent light ({lambda}{sub max}=508 nm), when irradiated with near ultraviolet light. The fluorescence is due to the presence of chromophore consisting of an imidazolone ring, formed by a post-translational modification of the tripeptide -Ser{sup 65}-Tyr{sup 66}-Gly{sup 67}-, which buried into {beta}-barrel. GFP is extremely compact and heat stable molecule. In this work, we present data for the effect of chemical denaturing agent on the thermal stability of GFP. When denaturing agent is applied, global thermal stability and the melting point of the molecule is decreases, that can be monitored with differential scanning calorimetry. The results indicate, that in 1-6 M range of GuHCl the melting temperature is decreasing continuously from 83 to 38 deg. C. Interesting finding, that the calculated calorimetric enthalpy decreases with GuHCl concentration up to 3 M (5.6-0.2 kJ mol{sup -1}), but at 4 M it jumps to 8.4 and at greater concentration it is falling down to 1.1 kJ mol{sup -1}. First phenomena, i.e. the decrease of melting point with increasing GuHCl concentration can be easily explained by the effect of the extended chemical denaturation, when less and less amount of heat required to diminish the remaining hydrogen bonds in {beta}-barrel. The surprising increase of calorimetric enthalpy at 4 M concentration of GuHCl could be the consequence of a dimerization or a formation of stable complex between GFP and denaturing agent as well as a precipitation at an extreme GuHCl concentration. We are planning further experiments to elucidate fluorescent consequence of these processes.

  17. Highly sensitive rapid fluorescence detection of protein residues on surgical instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalev, Valeri I; Bartona, James S; Richardson, Patricia R; Jones, Anita C

    2006-01-01

    There is a risk of contamination of surgical instruments by infectious protein residues, in particular, prions which are the agents for Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease in humans. They are exceptionally resistant to conventional sterilization, therefore it is important to detect their presence as contaminants so that alternative cleaning procedures can be applied. We describe the development of an optimized detection system for fluorescently labelled protein, suitable for in-hospital use. We show that under optimum conditions the technique can detect ∼10 attomole/cm 2 with a scan speed of ∼3-10 cm 2 /s of the test instrument's surface. A theoretical analysis and experimental measurements will be discussed

  18. A vector carrying the GFP gene (Green fluorescent protein as a yeast marker for fermentation processes Um vetor com o gene da GFP (Green fluorescent protein para a marcação de leveduras em processos fermentativos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Humberto Gomes

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Contaminant yeasts spoil pure culture fermentations and cause great losses in quality and product yields. They can be detected by a variety of methods although none being so efficient for early detection of contaminant yeast cells that appear at low frequency. Pure cultures bearing genetic markers can ease the direct identification of cells and colonies among contaminants. Fast and easy detection are desired and morphological markers would even help the direct visualization of marked pure cultures among contaminants. The GFP gene for green fluorescent protein of Aquorea victoria, proved to be a very efficient marker to visualize transformed cells in mixed populations and tissues. To test this marker in the study of contaminated yeast fermentations, the GFP gene was used to construct a vector under the control of the ADH2 promoter (pYGFP3. Since ADH2 is repressed by glucose the expression of the protein would not interfere in the course of fermentation. The transformed yeasts with the vector pYGFP3 showed high stability and high bioluminescence to permit identification of marked cells among a mixed population of cells. The vector opens the possibility to conduct further studies aiming to develop an efficient method for early detection of spoilage yeasts in industrial fermentative processes.Leveduras contaminantes podem causar grandes perdas em processos fermentativos quando infectam culturas puras e degradam a qualidade do produto final. Estas leveduras podem ser detectadas por diversos métodos mas nenhum deles oferece resultados com a exatidão e precisão necessárias, quando os contaminantes estão em baixa freqüência. Culturas puras contendo um gene marcador podem ser utilizadas para a direta identificação de células e colônias contaminantes. Detecção rápida e fácil é desejada e marcadores morfológicos podem auxiliar na visualização da cultura marcada. O gene da GFP (green fluorescent protein extraído da Aequorea victoria

  19. Green Fluorescence of Cytaeis Hydroids Living in Association with Nassarius Gastropods in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Prudkovsky, Andrey A.; Ivanenko, Viatcheslav N.; Nikitin, Mikhail A.; Lukyanov, Konstantin A.; Belousova, Anna; Reimer, James D.; Berumen, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Green Fluorescent Proteins (GFPs) have been reported from a wide diversity of medusae, but only a few observations of green fluorescence have been reported for hydroid colonies. In this study, we report on fluorescence displayed by hydroid polyps of the genus Cytaeis Eschscholtz, 1829 (Hydrozoa: Anthoathecata: Filifera) found at night time in the southern Red Sea (Saudi Arabia) living on shells of the gastropod Nassarius margaritifer (Dunker, 1847) (Neogastropoda: Buccinoidea: Nassariidae). We examined the fluorescence of these polyps and compare with previously reported data. Intensive green fluorescence with a spectral peak at 518 nm was detected in the hypostome of the Cytaeis polyps, unlike in previous reports that reported fluorescence either in the basal parts of polyps or in other locations on hydroid colonies. These results suggest that fluorescence may be widespread not only in medusae, but also in polyps, and also suggests that the patterns of fluorescence localization can vary in closely related species. The fluorescence of polyps may be potentially useful for field identification of cryptic species and study of geographical distributions of such hydroids and their hosts.

  20. Green Fluorescence of Cytaeis Hydroids Living in Association with Nassarius Gastropods in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Prudkovsky, Andrey A.

    2016-02-03

    Green Fluorescent Proteins (GFPs) have been reported from a wide diversity of medusae, but only a few observations of green fluorescence have been reported for hydroid colonies. In this study, we report on fluorescence displayed by hydroid polyps of the genus Cytaeis Eschscholtz, 1829 (Hydrozoa: Anthoathecata: Filifera) found at night time in the southern Red Sea (Saudi Arabia) living on shells of the gastropod Nassarius margaritifer (Dunker, 1847) (Neogastropoda: Buccinoidea: Nassariidae). We examined the fluorescence of these polyps and compare with previously reported data. Intensive green fluorescence with a spectral peak at 518 nm was detected in the hypostome of the Cytaeis polyps, unlike in previous reports that reported fluorescence either in the basal parts of polyps or in other locations on hydroid colonies. These results suggest that fluorescence may be widespread not only in medusae, but also in polyps, and also suggests that the patterns of fluorescence localization can vary in closely related species. The fluorescence of polyps may be potentially useful for field identification of cryptic species and study of geographical distributions of such hydroids and their hosts.

  1. Computational identification of strain-, species- and genus-specific proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiagarajan Rathi

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of unique proteins at different taxonomic levels has both scientific and practical value. Strain-, species- and genus-specific proteins can provide insight into the criteria that define an organism and its relationship with close relatives. Such proteins can also serve as taxon-specific diagnostic targets. Description A pipeline using a combination of computational and manual analyses of BLAST results was developed to identify strain-, species-, and genus-specific proteins and to catalog the closest sequenced relative for each protein in a proteome. Proteins encoded by a given strain are preliminarily considered to be unique if BLAST, using a comprehensive protein database, fails to retrieve (with an e-value better than 0.001 any protein not encoded by the query strain, species or genus (for strain-, species- and genus-specific proteins respectively, or if BLAST, using the best hit as the query (reverse BLAST, does not retrieve the initial query protein. Results are manually inspected for homology if the initial query is retrieved in the reverse BLAST but is not the best hit. Sequences unlikely to retrieve homologs using the default BLOSUM62 matrix (usually short sequences are re-tested using the PAM30 matrix, thereby increasing the number of retrieved homologs and increasing the stringency of the search for unique proteins. The above protocol was used to examine several food- and water-borne pathogens. We find that the reverse BLAST step filters out about 22% of proteins with homologs that would otherwise be considered unique at the genus and species levels. Analysis of the annotations of unique proteins reveals that many are remnants of prophage proteins, or may be involved in virulence. The data generated from this study can be accessed and further evaluated from the CUPID (Core and Unique Protein Identification system web site (updated semi-annually at http://pir.georgetown.edu/cupid. Conclusion CUPID

  2. An interaction of the functionalized closo-borates with albumins: The protein fluorescence quenching and calorimetry study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losytskyy, Mykhaylo Yu.; Kovalska, Vladyslava B.; Varzatskii, Oleg A.; Kuperman, Marina V.; Potocki, Slawomir; Gumienna-Kontecka, Elzbieta; Zhdanov, Andrey P.; Yarmoluk, Sergiy M.; Voloshin, Yan Z.; Zhizhin, Konstantin Yu.; Kuznetsov, Nikolai T.; Elskaya, Anna V.

    2016-01-01

    An interaction of the boron clusters closo-borates K 2 [B 10 H 10 ], K 2 [B 12 H 12 ] and their functionalized derivatives with serum proteins human (HSA) and bovine (BSA) albumins and immonoglobulin IgG as well as globular proteins β-lactoglobulin and lysozyme was characterized. The steady state and time resolved protein fluorescence quenching studies point on the binding of the closo-borate arylamine derivatives to serum albumins and discrimination of other proteins. The mechanism of the albumin fluorescence quenching by the closo-borate arylamine derivatives was proposed. The complex formation between albumin and the closo-borate molecules has been confirmed by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). The compound (K 2 [B 10 H 10 ]) and its arylamine derivative both interact with HSA, have close values of K a (1.4 and 1.2×10 3 M −1 respectively) and Gibbs energy (−17.9 and −17.5 kJ/mol respectively). However, the arylamine derivative forms complex with the higher guest/host binding ratio (4:1) comparing to the parent closo-borate (2:1). - Highlights: • Complex formation between boron clusters closo-borates and albumins was confirmed. • Functional substituent of closo-borate strongly affects its complex with albumins. • Binding of arylamine closo-borates essentially quench the albumin fluorescence. • Mechanism of tryptophan emission quenching by arylamine closo-borates was proposed.

  3. Fluorescence Microspectroscopy for Testing the Dimerization Hypothesis of BACE1 Protein in Cultured HEK293 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardeen, Spencer; Johnson, Joseph L.; Heikal, Ahmed A.

    2016-06-01

    Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that results from the formation of beta-amyloid plaques in the brain that trigger the known symptoms of memory loss in AD patients. The beta-amyloid plaques are formed by the proteolytic cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by the proteases BACE1 and gamma-secretase. These enzyme-facilitated cleavages lead to the production of beta-amyloid fragments that aggregate to form plaques, which ultimately lead to neuronal cell death. Recent detergent protein extraction studies suggest that BACE1 protein forms a dimer that has significantly higher catalytic activity than its monomeric counterpart. In this contribution, we examine the dimerization hypothesis of BACE1 in cultured HEK293 cells using complementary fluorescence spectroscopy and microscopy methods. Cells were transfected with a BACE1-EGFP fusion protein construct and imaged using confocal, and differential interference contrast to monitor the localization and distribution of intracellular BACE1. Complementary fluorescence lifetime and anisotropy measurements enabled us to examine the conformational and environmental changes of BACE1 as a function of substrate binding. Using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, we also quantified the diffusion coefficient of BACE1-EGFP on the plasma membrane as a means to test the dimerization hypothesis as a fucntion of substrate-analog inhibitition. Our results represent an important first towards examining the substrate-mediated dimerization hypothesis of BACE1 in live cells.

  4. Focal switching of photochromic fluorescent proteins enables multiphoton microscopy with superior image contrast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Ya-Ting; Zhu, Xinxin; Xu, Fang; Min, Wei

    2012-08-01

    Probing biological structures and functions deep inside live organisms with light is highly desirable. Among the current optical imaging modalities, multiphoton fluorescence microscopy exhibits the best contrast for imaging scattering samples by employing a spatially confined nonlinear excitation. However, as the incident laser power drops exponentially with imaging depth into the sample due to the scattering loss, the out-of-focus background eventually overwhelms the in-focus signal, which defines a fundamental imaging-depth limit. Herein we significantly improve the image contrast for deep scattering samples by harnessing reversibly switchable fluorescent proteins (RSFPs) which can be cycled between bright and dark states upon light illumination. Two distinct techniques, multiphoton deactivation and imaging (MPDI) and multiphoton activation and imaging (MPAI), are demonstrated on tissue phantoms labeled with Dronpa protein. Such a focal switch approach can generate pseudo background-free images. Conceptually different from wave-based approaches that try to reduce light scattering in turbid samples, our work represents a molecule-based strategy that focused on imaging probes.

  5. High-throughput screening of hybridoma supernatants using multiplexed fluorescent cell barcoding on live cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Mei; Chan, Brian M; Schow, Peter W; Chang, Wesley S; King, Chadwick T

    2017-12-01

    With current available assay formats using either immobilized protein (ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) or immunostaining of fixed cells for primary monoclonal antibody (mAb) screening, researchers often fail to identify and characterize antibodies that recognize the native conformation of cell-surface antigens. Therefore, screening using live cells has become an integral and important step contributing to the successful identification of therapeutic antibody candidates. Thus the need for developing high-throughput screening (HTS) technologies using live cells has become a major priority for therapeutic mAb discovery and development. We have developed a novel technique called Multiplexed Fluorescent Cell Barcoding (MFCB), a flow cytometry-based method based upon the Fluorescent Cell Barcoding (FCB) technique and the Luminex fluorescent bead array system, but is applicable to high-through mAb screens on live cells. Using this technique in our system, we can simultaneously identify or characterize the antibody-antigen binding of up to nine unique fluorescent labeled cell populations in the time that it would normally take to process a single population. This has significantly reduced the amount of time needed for the identification of potential lead candidates. This new technology enables investigators to conduct large-scale primary hybridoma screens using flow cytometry. This in turn has allowed us to screen antibodies more efficiently than before and streamline identification and characterization of lead molecules. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Use of green fluorescent protein to monitor Lactobacillus plantarum in the gastrointestinal tract of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xufeng; Wang, Lei; Li, Wei; Li, Bibo; Yang, Yuxin; Yan, Hailong; Qu, Lei; Chen, Yulin

    2015-01-01

    The experiment aimed to specifically monitor the passage of lactobacilli in vivo after oral administration. The green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene was cloned downstream from the constitutive p32 promoter from L. lactis subsp. cremoris Wg2. The recombinant expression vector, pLEM415-gfp-p32, was electroporated into Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) isolated from goat. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) was successfully expressed in L. plantarum. After 2 h post-administration, transformed Lactobacillus could be detectable in all luminal contents. In the rumen, bacteria concentration initially decreased, reached the minimum at 42 h post-oral administration and then increased. However, this concentration decreased constantly in the duodenum. This result indicated that L. plantarum could colonize in the rumen but not in the duodenum.

  7. Automated protein identification by the combination of MALDI MS and MS/MS spectra from different instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levander, Fredrik; James, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The identification of proteins separated on two-dimensional gels is most commonly performed by trypsin digestion and subsequent matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) with time-of-flight (TOF). Recently, atmospheric pressure (AP) MALDI coupled to an ion trap (IT) has emerged as a convenient method to obtain tandem mass spectra (MS/MS) from samples on MALDI target plates. In the present work, we investigated the feasibility of using the two methodologies in line as a standard method for protein identification. In this setup, the high mass accuracy MALDI-TOF spectra are used to calibrate the peptide precursor masses in the lower mass accuracy AP-MALDI-IT MS/MS spectra. Several software tools were developed to automate the analysis process. Two sets of MALDI samples, consisting of 142 and 421 gel spots, respectively, were analyzed in a highly automated manner. In the first set, the protein identification rate increased from 61% for MALDI-TOF only to 85% for MALDI-TOF combined with AP-MALDI-IT. In the second data set the increase in protein identification rate was from 44% to 58%. AP-MALDI-IT MS/MS spectra were in general less effective than the MALDI-TOF spectra for protein identification, but the combination of the two methods clearly enhanced the confidence in protein identification.

  8. Identification of Essential Proteins Based on a New Combination of Local Interaction Density and Protein Complexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiawei Luo

    Full Text Available Computational approaches aided by computer science have been used to predict essential proteins and are faster than expensive, time-consuming, laborious experimental approaches. However, the performance of such approaches is still poor, making practical applications of computational approaches difficult in some fields. Hence, the development of more suitable and efficient computing methods is necessary for identification of essential proteins.In this paper, we propose a new method for predicting essential proteins in a protein interaction network, local interaction density combined with protein complexes (LIDC, based on statistical analyses of essential proteins and protein complexes. First, we introduce a new local topological centrality, local interaction density (LID, of the yeast PPI network; second, we discuss a new integration strategy for multiple bioinformatics. The LIDC method was then developed through a combination of LID and protein complex information based on our new integration strategy. The purpose of LIDC is discovery of important features of essential proteins with their neighbors in real protein complexes, thereby improving the efficiency of identification.Experimental results based on three different PPI(protein-protein interaction networks of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli showed that LIDC outperformed classical topological centrality measures and some recent combinational methods. Moreover, when predicting MIPS datasets, the better improvement of performance obtained by LIDC is over all nine reference methods (i.e., DC, BC, NC, LID, PeC, CoEWC, WDC, ION, and UC.LIDC is more effective for the prediction of essential proteins than other recently developed methods.

  9. Redox proteomics changes in the fungal pathogen Trichosporon asahii on arsenic exposure: identification of protein responses to metal-induced oxidative stress in an environmentally-sampled isolate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidra Ilyas

    Full Text Available Trichosporon asahii is a yeast pathogen implicated in opportunistic infections. Cultures of an isolate collected from industrial wastewater were exposed for 2 days to 100 mg/L sodium arsenite (NaAsO2 and cadmium (CdCl2. Both metals reduced glutathione transferase (GST activity but had no effect on superoxide dismutase or catalase. NaAsO2 exposure increased glutathione reductase activity while CdCl2 had no effect. Protein thiols were labeled with 5-iodoacetamido fluorescein followed by one dimensional electrophoresis which revealed extensive protein thiol oxidation in response to CdCl2 treatment but thiol reduction in response to NaAsO2. Two dimensional electrophoresis analyses showed that the intensity of some protein spots was enhanced on treatment as judged by SameSpots image analysis software. In addition, some spots showed decreased IAF fluorescence suggesting thiol oxidation. Selected spots were excised and tryptic digested for identification by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. Twenty unique T. asahii proteins were identified of which the following proteins were up-regulated in response to NaAsO2: 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase, phospholipase B, alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase, ATP synthase alpha chain, 20S proteasome beta-type subunit Pre3p and the hypothetical proteins A1Q1_08001, A1Q2_03020, A1Q1_06950, A1Q1_06913. In addition, the following showed decreased thiol-associated fluorescence consistent with thiol oxidation; aconitase; aldehyde reductase I; phosphoglycerate kinase; translation elongation factor 2; heat shock protein 70 and hypothetical protein A1Q2_04745. Some proteins showed both increase in abundance coupled with decrease in IAF fluorescence; 3-hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA hydrolase; homoserine dehydrogenase Hom6 and hypothetical proteins A1Q2_03020 and A1Q1_00754. Targets implicated in redox response included 10 unique metabolic enzymes, heat shock proteins, a component of the 20S proteasome and translation elongation factor 2. These data

  10. Development of a green fluorescent protein metastatic-cancer chick-embryo drug-screen model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobek, Vladimir; Plachy, Jiri; Pinterova, Daniela; Kolostova, Katarina; Boubelik, Michael; Jiang, Ping; Yang, Meng; Hoffman, Robert M

    2004-01-01

    The chick-embryo model has been an important tool to study tumor growth, metastasis, and angiogenesis. However, an imageable model with a genetic fluorescent tag in the growing and spreading cancer cells that is stable over time has not been developed. We report here the development of such an imageable fluorescent chick-embryo metastatic cancer model with the use of green fluorescent protein (GFP). Lewis lung carcinoma cells, stably expressing GFP, were injected on the 12th day of incubation in the chick embryo. GFP-Lewis lung carcinoma metastases were visualized by fluorescence, after seven days additional incubation, in the brain, heart, and sternum of the developing chick embryo, with the most frequent site being the brain. The combination of streptokinase and gemcitabine was evaluated in this GFP metastatic model. Twelve-day-old chick embryos were injected intravenously with GFP-Lewis lung cancer cells, along with these two agents either alone or in combination. The streptokinase-gemcitabine combination inhibited metastases at all sites. The effective dose of gemcitabine was found to be 10 mg/kg and streptokinase 2000 IU per embryo. The data in this report suggest that this new stably fluorescent imageable metastatic-cancer chick-embryo model will enable rapid screening of new antimetastatic agents.

  11. Identification of cell wall proteins in the flax (Linum usitatissimum) stem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Arnaud; Fénart, Stéphane; Neutelings, Godfrey; Hawkins, Simon; Rolando, Christian; Tokarski, Caroline

    2013-03-01

    Sequential salt (CaCl2 , LiCl) extractions were used to obtain fractions enriched in cell wall proteins (CWPs) from the stem of 60-day-old flax (Linum usitatissimum) plants. High-resolution FT-ICR MS analysis and the use of recently published genomic data allowed the identification of 11 912 peptides corresponding to a total of 1418 different proteins. Subcellular localization using TargetP, Predotar, and WoLF PSORT led to the identification of 152 putative flax CWPs that were classified into nine different functional classes previously established for Arabidopsis thaliana. Examination of different functional classes revealed the presence of a number of proteins known to be involved in, or potentially involved in cell-wall metabolism in plants. The flax stem cell wall proteome was also compared with transcriptomic data previously obtained on comparable samples. This study represents a major contribution to the identification of CWPs in flax and will lead to a better understanding of cell wall biology in this species. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Ultrafast excited and ground-state dynamics of the green fluorescent protein chromophore in solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vengris, M.; van Stokkum, I.H.M.; He, X.; Bell, A.F.; Tonge, P.J.; van Grondelle, R.; Larsen, D.S.

    2004-01-01

    Ultrafast dispersed pump-dump-probe spectroscopy was applied to HBDI (4′-hydroxybenzylidene-2,3-dimethylimidazolinone), a model green fluorescent protein (GFP) chromophore in solution with different protonation states. The measured three-dimensional data was analyzed using a global analysis method

  13. Dynamic in vivo imaging and cell tracking using a histone fluorescent protein fusion in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papaioannou Virginia E

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advances in optical imaging modalities and the continued evolution of genetically-encoded fluorescent proteins are coming together to facilitate the study of cell behavior at high resolution in living organisms. As a result, imaging using autofluorescent protein reporters is gaining popularity in mouse transgenic and targeted mutagenesis applications. Results We have used embryonic stem cell-mediated transgenesis to label cells at sub-cellular resolution in vivo, and to evaluate fusion of a human histone protein to green fluorescent protein for ubiquitous fluorescent labeling of nucleosomes in mice. To this end we have generated embryonic stem cells and a corresponding strain of mice that is viable and fertile and exhibits widespread chromatin-localized reporter expression. High levels of transgene expression are maintained in a constitutive manner. Viability and fertility of homozygous transgenic animals demonstrates that this reporter is developmentally neutral and does not interfere with mitosis or meiosis. Conclusions Using various optical imaging modalities including wide-field, spinning disc confocal, and laser scanning confocal and multiphoton excitation microscopy, we can identify cells in various stages of the cell cycle. We can identify cells in interphase, cells undergoing mitosis or cell death. We demonstrate that this histone fusion reporter allows the direct visualization of active chromatin in situ. Since this reporter segments three-dimensional space, it permits the visualization of individual cells within a population, and so facilitates tracking cell position over time. It is therefore attractive for use in multidimensional studies of in vivo cell behavior and cell fate.

  14. Preparation of fluorescence quenched libraries containing interchain disulphide bonds for studies of protein disulphide isomerases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spetzler, J C; Westphal, V; Winther, Jakob R.

    1998-01-01

    Protein disulphide isomerase is an enzyme that catalyses disulphide redox reactions in proteins. In this paper, fluorogenic and interchain disulphide bond containing peptide libraries and suitable substrates, useful in the study of protein disulphide isomerase, are described. In order to establish...... the quenching chromophore (Tyr(NO2)) and Cys(pNpys) activated for reaction with a second thiol. The formation and cleavage of the interchain disulphide bonds in the library were monitored under a fluorescence microscope. Substrates to investigate the properties of protein disulphide isomerase in solution were...

  15. Efficiency of Database Search for Identification of Mutated and Modified Proteins via Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Pevzner, Pavel A.; Mulyukov, Zufar; Dancik, Vlado; Tang, Chris L

    2001-01-01

    Although protein identification by matching tandem mass spectra (MS/MS) against protein databases is a widespread tool in mass spectrometry, the question about reliability of such searches remains open. Absence of rigorous significance scores in MS/MS database search makes it difficult to discard random database hits and may lead to erroneous protein identification, particularly in the case of mutated or post-translationally modified peptides. This problem is especially important for high-thr...

  16. Resolving Electronic Transitions in Synthetic Fluorescent Protein Chromophores by Magnetic Circular Dichroism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štěpánek, P.; Cowie, T. Y.; Šafařík, Martin; Šebestík, Jaroslav; Pohl, Radek; Bouř, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 15 (2016), s. 2348-2354 ISSN 1439-4235 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-03978S; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-05935S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : density functional calculations * fluorescence protein chromophores * magnetic circular dichroism * organic synthesis * spectral simulations Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.075, year: 2016

  17. Very bright orange fluorescent plants: endoplasmic reticulum targeting of orange fluorescent proteins as visual reporters in transgenic plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mann David GJ

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The expression of fluorescent protein (FP genes as real-time visual markers, both transiently and stably, has revolutionized plant biotechnology. A palette of colors of FPs is now available for use, but the diversity has generally been underutilized in plant biotechnology. Because of the green and far-red autofluorescent properties of many plant tissues and the FPs themselves, red and orange FPs (RFPs, and OFPs, respectfully appear to be the colors with maximum utility in plant biotechnology. Within the color palette OFPs have emerged as the brightest FP markers in the visible spectra. This study compares several native, near-native and modified OFPs for their “brightness” and fluorescence, therefore, their usability as marker genes in transgenic plant tissues. Results The OFPs DsRed2, tdTomato, mOrange and pporRFP were all expressed under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter in agroinfiltration-mediated transient assays in Nicotiana benthamiana. Each of these, as well as endoplasmic reticulum (ER-targeted versions, were stably expressed in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum and Arabidopsis thaliana. Congruent results were observed between transient and stable assays. Our results demonstrated that there are several adequate OFP genes available for plant transformation, including the new pporRFP, an unaltered tetramer from the hard coral Porites porites. When the tandem dimer tdTomato and the monomeric mOrange were targeted to the ER, dramatic, ca. 3-fold, increase in plant fluorescence was observed. Conclusions From our empirical data, and a search of the literature, it appears that tdTomato-ER and mOrange-ER are the two highest fluorescing FPs available as reporters for transgenic plants. The pporRFP is a brightly fluorescing tetramer, but all tetramer FPs are far less bright than the ER-targeted monomers we report here.

  18. 21 CFR 866.2600 - Wood's fluorescent lamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2600 Wood's fluorescent lamp. (a) Identification. A Wood's fluorescent lamp is a device intended for medical purposes to detect...

  19. Highly sensitive rapid fluorescence detection of protein residues on surgical instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalev, Valeri I [School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Bartona, James S [School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Richardson, Patricia R [School of Chemistry, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JJ (United Kingdom); Jones, Anita C [School of Chemistry, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JJ (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-15

    There is a risk of contamination of surgical instruments by infectious protein residues, in particular, prions which are the agents for Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease in humans. They are exceptionally resistant to conventional sterilization, therefore it is important to detect their presence as contaminants so that alternative cleaning procedures can be applied. We describe the development of an optimized detection system for fluorescently labelled protein, suitable for in-hospital use. We show that under optimum conditions the technique can detect {approx}10 attomole/cm{sup 2} with a scan speed of {approx}3-10 cm{sup 2}/s of the test instrument's surface. A theoretical analysis and experimental measurements will be discussed.

  20. ONIOM Investigation of the Second-Order Nonlinear Optical Responses of Fluorescent Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wergifosse, Marc; Botek, Edith; De Meulenaere, Evelien; Clays, Koen; Champagne, Benoît

    2018-05-17

    The first hyperpolarizability (β) of six fluorescent proteins (FPs), namely, enhanced green fluorescent protein, enhanced yellow fluorescent protein, SHardonnay, ZsYellow, DsRed, and mCherry, has been calculated to unravel the structure-property relationships on their second-order nonlinear optical properties, owing to their potential for multidimensional biomedical imaging. The ONIOM scheme has been employed and several of its refinements have been addressed to incorporate efficiently the effects of the microenvironment on the nonlinear optical responses of the FP chromophore that is embedded in a protective β-barrel protein cage. In the ONIOM scheme, the system is decomposed into several layers (here two) treated at different levels of approximation (method1/method2), from the most elaborated method (method1) for its core (called the high layer) to the most approximate one (method2) for the outer surrounding (called the low layer). We observe that a small high layer can already account for the variations of β as a function of the nature of the FP, provided the low layer is treated at an ab initio level to describe properly the effects of key H-bonds. Then, for semiquantitative reproduction of the experimental values obtained from hyper-Rayleigh scattering experiments, it is necessary to incorporate electron correlation as described at the second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) level as well as implicit solvent effects accounted for using the polarizable continuum model (PCM). This led us to define the MP2/6-31+G(d):HF/6-31+G(d)/IEFPCM scheme as an efficient ONIOM approach and the MP2/6-31+G(d):HF/6-31G(d)/IEFPCM as a better compromise between accuracy and computational needs. Using these methods, we demonstrate that many parameters play a role on the β response of FPs, including the length of the π-conjugated segment, the variation of the bond length alternation, and the presence of π-stacking interactions. Then, noticing the small diversity

  1. A set of enhanced green fluorescent protein concatemers for quantitative determination of nuclear localization signal strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Jennifer; Thavaraja, Ramya; Giehler, Susanne; Nalaskowski, Marcus M

    2017-09-15

    Regulated transport of proteins between nucleus and cytoplasm is an important process in the eukaryotic cell. In most cases, active nucleo-cytoplasmic protein transport is mediated by nuclear localization signal (NLS) and/or nuclear export signal (NES) motifs. In this study, we developed a set of vectors expressing enhanced GFP (EGFP) concatemers ranging from 2 to 12 subunits (2xEGFP to 12xEGFP) for analysis of NLS strength. As shown by in gel GFP fluorescence analysis and αGFP Western blotting, EGFP concatemers are expressed as fluorescent full-length proteins in eukaryotic cells. As expected, nuclear localization of concatemeric EGFPs decreases with increasing molecular weight. By oligonucleotide ligation this set of EGFP concatemers can be easily fused to NLS motifs. After determination of intracellular localization of EGFP concatemers alone and fused to different NLS motifs we calculated the size of a hypothetic EGFP concatemer showing a defined distribution of EGFP fluorescence between nucleus and cytoplasm (n/c ratio = 2). Clear differences of the size of the hypothetic EGFP concatemer depending on the fused NLS motif were observed. Therefore, we propose to use the size of this hypothetic concatemer as quantitative indicator for comparing strength of different NLS motifs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Fluorescent Photo-conversion: A second chance to label unique cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellott, Adam J; Shinogle, Heather E; Moore, David S; Detamore, Michael S

    2015-03-01

    Not all cells behave uniformly after treatment in tissue engineering studies. In fact, some treated cells display no signs of treatment or show unique characteristics not consistent with other treated cells. What if the "unique" cells could be isolated from a treated population, and further studied? Photo-convertible reporter proteins, such as Dendra2 , allow for the ability to selectively identify unique cells with a secondary label within a primary labeled treated population. In the current study, select cells were identified and labeled through photo-conversion of Dendra2 -transfected human Wharton's Jelly cells (hWJCs) for the first time. Robust photo-conversion of green-to-red fluorescence was achieved consistently in arbitrarily selected cells, allowing for precise cell identification of select hWJCs. The current study demonstrates a method that offers investigators the opportunity to selectively label and identify unique cells within a treated population for further study or isolation from the treatment population. Photo-convertible reporter proteins, such as Dendra2 , offer the ability over non-photo-convertible reporter proteins, such as green fluorescent protein, to analyze unique individual cells within a treated population, which allows investigators to gain more meaningful information on how a treatment affects all cells within a target population.

  3. Disruption of the hydrogen bonding network determines the pH-induced non-fluorescent state of the fluorescent protein ZsYellow by protonation of Glu221.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Ji-Eun; Kim, In Jung; Nam, Ki Hyun

    2017-11-04

    Many fluorescent proteins (FPs) exhibit fluorescence quenching at a low pH. This pH-induced non-fluorescent state of an FP serves as a useful indicator of the cellular pH. ZsYellow is widely used as an optical marker in molecular biology, but its pH-induced non-fluorescent state has not been characterized. Here, we report the pH-dependent spectral properties of ZsYellow, which exhibited the pH-induced non-fluorescence state at a pH below 4.0. We determined the crystal structures of ZsYellow at pH 3.5 (non-fluorescence state) and 8.0 (fluorescence state), which revealed the cis-configuration of the chromophore without pH-induced isomerization. In the non-fluorescence state, Arg95, which is involved in stabilization of the exited state of the chromophore, was found to more loosely interact with the carbonyl oxygen atom of the chromophore when compared to the interaction at pH 8.0. In the fluorescence state, Glu221, which is involved in the hydrogen bonding network around the chromophore, stably interacted with Gln42 and His202. By contrast, in the non-fluorescence state, the protonated conserved Glu221 residue exhibited a large conformational change and was separated from His202 by 5.46 Å, resulting in breakdown of the hydrogen bond network. Our results provide insight into the critical role of the conserved Glu221 residue for generating the pH-induced non-fluorescent state. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. An interaction of the functionalized closo-borates with albumins: The protein fluorescence quenching and calorimetry study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Losytskyy, Mykhaylo Yu., E-mail: mlosytskyy@gmail.com [Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics, NASU, 150 Zabolotnogo Street, 03143 Kyiv (Ukraine); Kovalska, Vladyslava B. [Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics, NASU, 150 Zabolotnogo Street, 03143 Kyiv (Ukraine); Varzatskii, Oleg A. [V. I. Vernadsky Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, 32/34 Palladin Avenue, 03080 Kyiv (Ukraine); Kuperman, Marina V. [Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics, NASU, 150 Zabolotnogo Street, 03143 Kyiv (Ukraine); Potocki, Slawomir; Gumienna-Kontecka, Elzbieta [Faculty of Chemistry, Wroclaw University, 14F. Joliot-Curie Street, 50-383 Wroclaw (Poland); Zhdanov, Andrey P. [Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, 31 Leninskii Avenue, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Yarmoluk, Sergiy M. [Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics, NASU, 150 Zabolotnogo Street, 03143 Kyiv (Ukraine); Voloshin, Yan Z. [Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelement Compounds, 28 Vavilova Street, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Zhizhin, Konstantin Yu.; Kuznetsov, Nikolai T. [Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, 31 Leninskii Avenue, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Elskaya, Anna V. [Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics, NASU, 150 Zabolotnogo Street, 03143 Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2016-01-15

    An interaction of the boron clusters closo-borates K{sub 2}[B{sub 10}H{sub 10}], K{sub 2}[B{sub 12}H{sub 12}] and their functionalized derivatives with serum proteins human (HSA) and bovine (BSA) albumins and immonoglobulin IgG as well as globular proteins β-lactoglobulin and lysozyme was characterized. The steady state and time resolved protein fluorescence quenching studies point on the binding of the closo-borate arylamine derivatives to serum albumins and discrimination of other proteins. The mechanism of the albumin fluorescence quenching by the closo-borate arylamine derivatives was proposed. The complex formation between albumin and the closo-borate molecules has been confirmed by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). The compound (K{sub 2}[B{sub 10}H{sub 10}]) and its arylamine derivative both interact with HSA, have close values of K{sub a} (1.4 and 1.2×10{sup 3} M{sup −1} respectively) and Gibbs energy (−17.9 and −17.5 kJ/mol respectively). However, the arylamine derivative forms complex with the higher guest/host binding ratio (4:1) comparing to the parent closo-borate (2:1). - Highlights: • Complex formation between boron clusters closo-borates and albumins was confirmed. • Functional substituent of closo-borate strongly affects its complex with albumins. • Binding of arylamine closo-borates essentially quench the albumin fluorescence. • Mechanism of tryptophan emission quenching by arylamine closo-borates was proposed.

  5. [Rapid Identification of Epicarpium Citri Grandis via Infrared Spectroscopy and Fluorescence Spectrum Imaging Technology Combined with Neural Network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Sha-sha; Huang, Fu-rong; Xiao, Chi; Xian, Rui-yi; Ma, Zhi-guo

    2015-10-01

    To explore rapid reliable methods for detection of Epicarpium citri grandis (ECG), the experiment using Fourier Transform Attenuated Total Reflection Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR/ATR) and Fluorescence Spectrum Imaging Technology combined with Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) Neural Network pattern recognition, for the identification of ECG, and the two methods are compared. Infrared spectra and fluorescence spectral images of 118 samples, 81 ECG and 37 other kinds of ECG, are collected. According to the differences in tspectrum, the spectra data in the 550-1 800 cm(-1) wavenumber range and 400-720 nm wavelength are regarded as the study objects of discriminant analysis. Then principal component analysis (PCA) is applied to reduce the dimension of spectroscopic data of ECG and MLP Neural Network is used in combination to classify them. During the experiment were compared the effects of different methods of data preprocessing on the model: multiplicative scatter correction (MSC), standard normal variable correction (SNV), first-order derivative(FD), second-order derivative(SD) and Savitzky-Golay (SG). The results showed that: after the infrared spectra data via the Savitzky-Golay (SG) pretreatment through the MLP Neural Network with the hidden layer function as sigmoid, we can get the best discrimination of ECG, the correct percent of training set and testing set are both 100%. Using fluorescence spectral imaging technology, corrected by the multiple scattering (MSC) results in the pretreatment is the most ideal. After data preprocessing, the three layers of the MLP Neural Network of the hidden layer function as sigmoid function can get 100% correct percent of training set and 96.7% correct percent of testing set. It was shown that the FTIR/ATR and fluorescent spectral imaging technology combined with MLP Neural Network can be used for the identification study of ECG and has the advantages of rapid, reliable effect.

  6. Investigation on the infection mechanism of the fungus Clonostachys rosea against nematodes using the green fluorescent protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Yang, Jinkui; Niu, Qiuhong; Zhao, Xuna; Ye, Fengping; Liang, Lianming; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2008-04-01

    The fungus Clonostachys rosea (syn. Gliocladium roseum) is a potential biocontrol agent. It can suppress the sporulation of the plant pathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea and kill pathogenic nematodes, but the process of nematode pathogenesis is poorly understood. To help understand the underlying mechanism, we constructed recombinant strains containing a plasmid with both the enhanced green fluorescent protein gene egfp and the hygromycin resistance gene hph. Expression of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) was monitored using fluorescence microscopy. Our observations reveal that the pathogenesis started from the adherence of conidia to nematode cuticle for germination, followed by the penetration of germ tubes into the nematode body and subsequent death and degradation of the nematodes. These are the first findings on the infection process of the fungal pathogen marked with GFP, and the developed method can become an important tool for studying the molecular mechanisms of nematode infection by C. rosea.

  7. Photochemical properties and sensor applications of modified yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) covalently attached to the surfaces of etched optical fibers (EOFs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselov, Alexey A; Abraham, Bobin George; Lemmetyinen, Helge; Karp, Matti T; Tkachenko, Nikolai V

    2012-01-01

    Fluorescent proteins have the inherent ability to act as sensing components which function both in vitro and inside living cells. We describe here a novel study on a covalent site-specific bonding of fluorescent proteins to form self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on the surface of etched optical fibers (EOFs). Deposition of fluorescent proteins on EOFs gives the opportunity to increase the interaction of guided light with deposited molecules relative to plane glass surfaces. The EOF modification is carried out by surface activation using 3-aminopropylthrimethoxysilane (APTMS) and bifunctional crosslinker sulfosuccinimidyl 4-[N-maleimidomethyl]cyclohexane-1-carboxylate (sulfo-SMCC) which exposes sulfhydryl-reactive maleimide groups followed by covalent site-specific coupling of modified yellow fluorescent protein (YFP). Steady-state and fluorescence lifetime measurements confirm the formation of SAM. The sensor applications of YPF SAMs on EOF are demonstrated by the gradual increase of emission intensity upon addition of Ca(2+) ions in the concentration range from a few tens of micromolars up to a few tens of millimolars. The studies on the effect of pH, divalent cations, denaturing agents, and proteases reveal the stability of YFP on EOFs at normal physiological conditions. However, treatments with 0.5% SDS at pH 8.5 and protease trypsin are found to denaturate or cleave the YFP from fiber surfaces.

  8. The developmental expression of fluorescent proteins in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures from transgenic mice and its use in the determination of excitotoxic neurodegeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noraberg, Jens; Jensen, Carsten V; Bonde, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Transgenic mice, expressing fluorescent proteins in neurons and glia, provide new opportunities for real-time microscopic monitoring of degenerative and regenerative structural changes. We have previously validated and compared a number of quantifiable markers for neuronal damage and cell death...... changes, as well as the opportunity to monitor reversible changes or long-term effects in the event of minor damage. As a first step, we present: a) the developmental expression in organotypic hippocampal brain slice cultures of transgenic fluorescent proteins, useful for the visualisation of neuronal...... transgenic mouse strains which express fluorescent proteins in their neurons and/or astroglial cells. From the time of explantation, and subsequently for up to nine weeks in culture, the transgenic neuronal fluorescence displayed the expected characteristics of a developmental, in vivo-like increase...

  9. Two-color fluorescence analysis of individual virions determines the distribution of the copy number of proteins in herpes simplex virus particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Richard W; Monnier, Nilah; Li, Haitao; Zhou, Dejian; Browne, Helena; Klenerman, David

    2007-08-15

    We present a single virion method to determine absolute distributions of copy number in the protein composition of viruses and apply it to herpes simplex virus type 1. Using two-color coincidence fluorescence spectroscopy, we determine the virion-to-virion variability in copy numbers of fluorescently labeled tegument and envelope proteins relative to a capsid protein by analyzing fluorescence intensity ratios for ensembles of individual dual-labeled virions and fitting the resulting histogram of ratios. Using EYFP-tagged capsid protein VP26 as a reference for fluorescence intensity, we are able to calculate the mean and also, for the first time to our knowledge, the variation in numbers of gD, VP16, and VP22 tegument. The measurement of the number of glycoprotein D molecules was in good agreement with independent measurements of average numbers of these glycoproteins in bulk virus preparations, validating the method. The accuracy, straightforward data processing, and high throughput of this technique make it widely applicable to the analysis of the molecular composition of large complexes in general, and it is particularly suited to providing insights into virus structure, assembly, and infectivity.

  10. Three dimensional subsurface elemental identification of minerals using confocal micro-X-ray fluorescence and micro-X-ray computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordes, Nikolaus L.; Seshadri, Srivatsan; Havrilla, George J.; Yuan, Xiaoli; Feser, Michael; Patterson, Brian M.

    2015-01-01

    Current non-destructive elemental characterization methods, such as scanning electron microscopy-based energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM–EDS) and micro-X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (MXRF), are limited to either elemental identification at the surface (SEM–EDS) or suffer from an inability to discriminate between surface or depth information (MXRF). Thus, a non-destructive elemental characterization of individual embedded particles beneath the surface is impossible with either of these techniques. This limitation can be overcome by using laboratory-based 3D confocal micro-X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (confocal MXRF). This technique utilizes focusing optics on the X-ray source and detector which allows for spatial discrimination in all three dimensions. However, the voxel-by-voxel serial acquisition of a 3D elemental scan can be very time-intensive (~ 1 to 4 weeks) if it is necessary to locate individual embedded particles of interest. As an example, if each point takes a 5 s measurement time, a small volume of 50 × 50 × 50 pixels leads to an acquisition time of approximately 174 h, not including sample stage movement time. Initially screening the samples for particles of interest using micro-X-ray computed tomography (micro-CT) can significantly reduce the time required to spatially locate these particles. Once located, these individual particles can be elementally characterized with confocal MXRF. Herein, we report the elemental identification of high atomic number surface and subsurface particles embedded in a mineralogical matrix by coupling micro-CT and confocal MXRF. Synergistically, these two X-ray based techniques first rapidly locate and then elementally identify individual subsurface particles. - Highlights: • Coupling of confocal X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and X-ray computed tomography • Qualitative elemental identification of surface and subsurface mineral particles • Non-destructive particle size measurements • Utilization of

  11. Three dimensional subsurface elemental identification of minerals using confocal micro-X-ray fluorescence and micro-X-ray computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordes, Nikolaus L., E-mail: ncordes@lanl.gov [Polymers and Coatings Group, Material Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Seshadri, Srivatsan, E-mail: srivatsan.seshadri@zeiss.com [Carl Zeiss X-ray Microscopy, Inc., Pleasanton, CA 94588 (United States); Havrilla, George J. [Chemical Diagnostics and Engineering, Chemistry Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Yuan, Xiaoli [Julius Kruttschnitt Mineral Research Centre, University of Queensland, Indooroopilly, Brisbane, QLD 4068 (Australia); Feser, Michael [Carl Zeiss X-ray Microscopy, Inc., Pleasanton, CA 94588 (United States); Patterson, Brian M. [Polymers and Coatings Group, Material Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Current non-destructive elemental characterization methods, such as scanning electron microscopy-based energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM–EDS) and micro-X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (MXRF), are limited to either elemental identification at the surface (SEM–EDS) or suffer from an inability to discriminate between surface or depth information (MXRF). Thus, a non-destructive elemental characterization of individual embedded particles beneath the surface is impossible with either of these techniques. This limitation can be overcome by using laboratory-based 3D confocal micro-X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (confocal MXRF). This technique utilizes focusing optics on the X-ray source and detector which allows for spatial discrimination in all three dimensions. However, the voxel-by-voxel serial acquisition of a 3D elemental scan can be very time-intensive (~ 1 to 4 weeks) if it is necessary to locate individual embedded particles of interest. As an example, if each point takes a 5 s measurement time, a small volume of 50 × 50 × 50 pixels leads to an acquisition time of approximately 174 h, not including sample stage movement time. Initially screening the samples for particles of interest using micro-X-ray computed tomography (micro-CT) can significantly reduce the time required to spatially locate these particles. Once located, these individual particles can be elementally characterized with confocal MXRF. Herein, we report the elemental identification of high atomic number surface and subsurface particles embedded in a mineralogical matrix by coupling micro-CT and confocal MXRF. Synergistically, these two X-ray based techniques first rapidly locate and then elementally identify individual subsurface particles. - Highlights: • Coupling of confocal X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and X-ray computed tomography • Qualitative elemental identification of surface and subsurface mineral particles • Non-destructive particle size measurements • Utilization of

  12. [Identification of spill oil species based on low concentration synchronous fluorescence spectra and RBF neural network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian-qian; Wang, Chun-yan; Shi, Xiao-feng; Li, Wen-dong; Luan, Xiao-ning; Hou, Shi-lin; Zhang, Jin-liang; Zheng, Rong-er

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, a new method was developed to differentiate the spill oil samples. The synchronous fluorescence spectra in the lower nonlinear concentration range of 10(-2) - 10(-1) g x L(-1) were collected to get training data base. Radial basis function artificial neural network (RBF-ANN) was used to identify the samples sets, along with principal component analysis (PCA) as the feature extraction method. The recognition rate of the closely-related oil source samples is 92%. All the results demonstrated that the proposed method could identify the crude oil samples effectively by just one synchronous spectrum of the spill oil sample. The method was supposed to be very suitable to the real-time spill oil identification, and can also be easily applied to the oil logging and the analysis of other multi-PAHs or multi-fluorescent mixtures.

  13. Pooled protein immunization for identification of cell surface antigens in Streptococcus sanguinis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuchun Ge

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Available bacterial genomes provide opportunities for screening vaccines by reverse vaccinology. Efficient identification of surface antigens is required to reduce time and animal cost in this technology. We developed an approach to identify surface antigens rapidly in Streptococcus sanguinis, a common infective endocarditis causative species.We applied bioinformatics for antigen prediction and pooled antigens for immunization. Forty-seven surface-exposed proteins including 28 lipoproteins and 19 cell wall-anchored proteins were chosen based on computer algorithms and comparative genomic analyses. Eight proteins among these candidates and 2 other proteins were pooled together to immunize rabbits. The antiserum reacted strongly with each protein and with S. sanguinis whole cells. Affinity chromatography was used to purify the antibodies to 9 of the antigen pool components. Competitive ELISA and FACS results indicated that these 9 proteins were exposed on S. sanguinis cell surfaces. The purified antibodies had demonstrable opsonic activity.The results indicate that immunization with pooled proteins, in combination with affinity purification, and comprehensive immunological assays may facilitate cell surface antigen identification to combat infectious diseases.

  14. Pooled protein immunization for identification of cell surface antigens in Streptococcus sanguinis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xiuchun; Kitten, Todd; Munro, Cindy L; Conrad, Daniel H; Xu, Ping

    2010-07-26

    Available bacterial genomes provide opportunities for screening vaccines by reverse vaccinology. Efficient identification of surface antigens is required to reduce time and animal cost in this technology. We developed an approach to identify surface antigens rapidly in Streptococcus sanguinis, a common infective endocarditis causative species. We applied bioinformatics for antigen prediction and pooled antigens for immunization. Forty-seven surface-exposed proteins including 28 lipoproteins and 19 cell wall-anchored proteins were chosen based on computer algorithms and comparative genomic analyses. Eight proteins among these candidates and 2 other proteins were pooled together to immunize rabbits. The antiserum reacted strongly with each protein and with S. sanguinis whole cells. Affinity chromatography was used to purify the antibodies to 9 of the antigen pool components. Competitive ELISA and FACS results indicated that these 9 proteins were exposed on S. sanguinis cell surfaces. The purified antibodies had demonstrable opsonic activity. The results indicate that immunization with pooled proteins, in combination with affinity purification, and comprehensive immunological assays may facilitate cell surface antigen identification to combat infectious diseases.

  15. DNA-hosted copper nanoclusters/graphene oxide based fluorescent biosensor for protein kinase activity detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mengke; Lin, Zihan; Liu, Qing; Jiang, Shan; Liu, Hua; Su, Xingguang

    2018-07-05

    A novel fluorescent biosensor for protein kinase activity (PKA) detection was designed by applying double-strands DNA-hosted copper nanoclusters (dsDNA-CuNCs) and graphene oxide (GO). One DNA strand of the dsDNA consisted of two domains, one domain can hybridize with another complementary DNA strand to stabilize the fluorescent CuNCs and another domain was adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) aptamer. ATP aptamer of the dsDNA-CuNCs would be spontaneously absorbed onto the GO surface through π-π stacking interactions. Thus GO can efficiently quench the fluorescence (FL) of dsDNA-CuNCs through fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). In the present of ATP, ATP specifically combined with ATP aptamer to form ATP-ATP aptamer binding complexes, which had much less affinity to GO, resulting in the fluorescence recovery of the system. Nevertheless, in the presence of PKA, ATP could be translated into ADP and ADP could not combine with ATP aptamer resulting in the fluorescence quenching of dsDNA-CuNCs again. According to the change of the fluorescence signal, PKA activity could be successfully monitored in the range of 0.1-5.0 U mL -1 with a detection limit (LOD) of 0.039 U mL -1 . Besides, the inhibitory effect of H-89 on PKA activity was studied. The sensor was performed for PKA activity detection in cell lysates with satisfactory results. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A rapid and cost-effective fluorescence detection in tube (FDIT) method to analyze protein phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiao; Gou, Jin-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is one of the most important post-translational modifications catalyzed by protein kinases in living organisms. The advance of genome sequencing provided the information of protein kinase families in many organisms, including both model and non-model plants. The development of proteomics technologies also enabled scientists to efficiently reveal a large number of protein phosphorylations of an organism. However, kinases and phosphorylation targets are still to be connected to illustrate the complicated network in life. Here we adapted Pro-Q ® Diamond (Pro-Q ® Diamond Phosphoprotein Gel Stain), a widely used phosphoprotein gel-staining fluorescence dye, to establish a rapid, economical and non-radioactive fluorescence detection in tube (FDIT) method to analyze phosphorylated proteins. Taking advantages of high sensitivity and specificity of Pro-Q ® diamond, the FDIT method is also demonstrated to be rapid and reliable, with a suitable linear range for in vitro protein phosphorylation. A significant and satisfactory protein kinase reaction was detected as fast as 15 min from Wheat Kinase START 1.1 (WKS1.1) on a thylakoid ascorbate peroxidase (tAPX), an established phosphorylation target in our earlier study. The FDIT method saves up to 95% of the dye consumed in a gel staining method. The FDIT method is remarkably quick, highly reproducible, unambiguous and capable to be scaled up to dozens of samples. The FDIT method could serve as a simple and sensitive alternative procedure to determine protein kinase reactions with zero radiation exposure, as a supplementation to other widely used radioactive and in-gel assays.

  17. A rapid and cost-effective fluorescence detection in tube (FDIT method to analyze protein phosphorylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Jin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein phosphorylation is one of the most important post-translational modifications catalyzed by protein kinases in living organisms. The advance of genome sequencing provided the information of protein kinase families in many organisms, including both model and non-model plants. The development of proteomics technologies also enabled scientists to efficiently reveal a large number of protein phosphorylations of an organism. However, kinases and phosphorylation targets are still to be connected to illustrate the complicated network in life. Results Here we adapted Pro-Q® Diamond (Pro-Q® Diamond Phosphoprotein Gel Stain, a widely used phosphoprotein gel-staining fluorescence dye, to establish a rapid, economical and non-radioactive fluorescence detection in tube (FDIT method to analyze phosphorylated proteins. Taking advantages of high sensitivity and specificity of Pro-Q® diamond, the FDIT method is also demonstrated to be rapid and reliable, with a suitable linear range for in vitro protein phosphorylation. A significant and satisfactory protein kinase reaction was detected as fast as 15 min from Wheat Kinase START 1.1 (WKS1.1 on a thylakoid ascorbate peroxidase (tAPX, an established phosphorylation target in our earlier study. Conclusion The FDIT method saves up to 95% of the dye consumed in a gel staining method. The FDIT method is remarkably quick, highly reproducible, unambiguous and capable to be scaled up to dozens of samples. The FDIT method could serve as a simple and sensitive alternative procedure to determine protein kinase reactions with zero radiation exposure, as a supplementation to other widely used radioactive and in-gel assays.

  18. Development of a reverse genetics system to generate a recombinant Ebola virus Makona expressing a green fluorescent protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albariño, César G., E-mail: calbarino@cdc.gov; Wiggleton Guerrero, Lisa; Lo, Michael K.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Towner, Jonathan S.

    2015-10-15

    Previous studies have demonstrated the potential application of reverse genetics technology in studying a broad range of aspects of viral biology, including gene regulation, protein function, cell entry, and pathogenesis. Here, we describe a highly efficient reverse genetics system used to generate recombinant Ebola virus (EBOV) based on a recent isolate from a human patient infected during the 2014–2015 outbreak in Western Africa. We also rescued a recombinant EBOV expressing a fluorescent reporter protein from a cleaved VP40 protein fusion. Using this virus and an inexpensive method to quantitate the expression of the foreign gene, we demonstrate its potential usefulness as a tool for screening antiviral compounds and measuring neutralizing antibodies. - Highlights: • Recombinant Ebola virus (EBOV) derived from Makona variant was rescued. • New protocol for viral rescue allows 100% efficiency. • Modified EBOV expresses a green fluorescent protein from a VP40-fused protein. • Modified EBOV was tested as tool to screen antiviral compounds and measure neutralizing antibodies.

  19. Development of a reverse genetics system to generate a recombinant Ebola virus Makona expressing a green fluorescent protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albariño, César G.; Wiggleton Guerrero, Lisa; Lo, Michael K.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Towner, Jonathan S.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the potential application of reverse genetics technology in studying a broad range of aspects of viral biology, including gene regulation, protein function, cell entry, and pathogenesis. Here, we describe a highly efficient reverse genetics system used to generate recombinant Ebola virus (EBOV) based on a recent isolate from a human patient infected during the 2014–2015 outbreak in Western Africa. We also rescued a recombinant EBOV expressing a fluorescent reporter protein from a cleaved VP40 protein fusion. Using this virus and an inexpensive method to quantitate the expression of the foreign gene, we demonstrate its potential usefulness as a tool for screening antiviral compounds and measuring neutralizing antibodies. - Highlights: • Recombinant Ebola virus (EBOV) derived from Makona variant was rescued. • New protocol for viral rescue allows 100% efficiency. • Modified EBOV expresses a green fluorescent protein from a VP40-fused protein. • Modified EBOV was tested as tool to screen antiviral compounds and measure neutralizing antibodies

  20. Simple fluorescence-based detection of protein kinase A activity using a molecular beacon probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Changbei; Lv, Xiaoyuan; Wang, Kemin; Jin, Shunxin; Liu, Haisheng; Wu, Kefeng; Zeng, Weimin

    2017-11-02

    Protein kinase A was detected by quantifying the amount of ATP used after a protein kinase reaction. The ATP assay was performed using the T4 DNA ligase and a molecular beacon (MB). In the presence of ATP, DNA ligase catalyzed the ligation of short DNA. The ligation product then hybridized to MB, resulting in a fluorescence enhancement of the MB. This assay was capable of determining protein kinase A in the range of 12.5∼150 nM, with a detection limit of 1.25 nM. Furthermore, this assay could also be used to investigate the effect of genistein on protein kinase A. It was a universal, non-radioisotopic, and homogeneous method for assaying protein kinase A.

  1. Replication-Competent Influenza A and B Viruses Expressing a Fluorescent Dynamic Timer Protein for In Vitro and In Vivo Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Breen

    Full Text Available Influenza A and B viruses (IAV and IBV, respectively cause annual seasonal human respiratory disease epidemics. In addition, IAVs have been implicated in occasional pandemics with inordinate health and economic consequences. Studying influenza viruses in vitro or in vivo requires the use of laborious secondary methodologies to identify infected cells. To circumvent this requirement, replication-competent infectious influenza viruses expressing an easily traceable fluorescent reporter protein can be used. Timer is a fluorescent protein that undergoes a time-dependent color emission conversion from green to red. The rate of spectral change is independent of Timer protein concentration and can be used to chronologically measure the duration of its expression. Here, we describe the generation of replication-competent IAV and IBV where the viral non-structural protein 1 (NS1 was fused to the fluorescent dynamic Timer protein. Timer-expressing IAV and IBV displayed similar plaque phenotypes and growth kinetics to wild-type viruses in tissue culture. Within infected cells, Timer's spectral shift can be used to measure the rate and cell-to-cell spread of infection using fluorescent microscopy, plate readers, or flow cytometry. The progression of Timer-expressing IAV infection was also evaluated in a mouse model, demonstrating the feasibility to characterize IAV cell-to-cell infections in vivo. By providing the ability to chronologically track viral spread, Timer-expressing influenza viruses are an excellent option to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo dynamics of viral infection.

  2. Trade-Offs Associated with Photoprotective Green Fluorescent Protein Expression as Potential Drivers of Balancing Selection for Color Polymorphism in Reef Corals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathryn Quick

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Photodamage of symbiotic algae exposed to thermal stress is involved in mass coral bleaching, a major cause of reef decline. Photoprotection is therefore a vital part of coral stress physiology. Corals produce a variety of green fluorescent protein (GFP-like proteins, some of which screen the symbiotic algae from excess sun light. Different tissue concentrations of these GFP-like proteins distinguish color morphs that are characteristic for many coral species. The question arises whether these pigmentation differences may diversify the niches that can be occupied by corals along the steep light gradient that structures coral reef communities. We assessed the implications of GFP-like protein expression in two color morphs of the symbiotic coral Hydnophora grandis, both associated with the same Symbiodinium sp. (subclade C40. The color morphs of this species (high fluorescent, HF; and low fluorescent, LF, characterized by markedly different contents of a cyan fluorescent protein, were exposed to different quantities of blue light (470 nm that matched the major absorption band of the host pigment (473 nm. High intensities of blue light caused less photodamage to the symbiotic algae of the HF morph and resulted in higher growth rates of these corals compared to representatives of the LF morph. In contrast, under low intensities of blue light, the HF morph showed lower growth rates than the LF morph, indicating that trade-offs are associated with high levels of fluorescent protein expression under this condition. Both morphs showed highest growth rates at medium light intensities with no obvious influence of the tissue pigmentation. Reef coral color polymorphism caused by photoprotective GFP-like proteins may therefore be a product of balancing selection in which high pigment contents may be beneficial at the upper and detrimental at the lower end of the depth distribution range of symbiotic corals. Conversely, color morphs with GFP-like proteins

  3. Quantitative in vivo fluorescence cross-correlation analyses highlight the importance of competitive effects in the regulation of protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadaie, Wakako; Harada, Yoshie; Matsuda, Michiyuki; Aoki, Kazuhiro

    2014-09-01

    Computer-assisted simulation is a promising approach for clarifying complicated signaling networks. However, this approach is currently limited by a deficiency of kinetic parameters determined in living cells. To overcome this problem, we applied fluorescence cross-correlation spectrometry (FCCS) to measure dissociation constant (Kd) values of signaling molecule complexes in living cells (in vivo Kd). Among the pairs of fluorescent molecules tested, that of monomerized enhanced green fluorescent protein (mEGFP) and HaloTag-tetramethylrhodamine was most suitable for the measurement of in vivo Kd by FCCS. Using this pair, we determined 22 in vivo Kd values of signaling molecule complexes comprising the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-Ras-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway. With these parameters, we developed a kinetic simulation model of the EGFR-Ras-ERK MAP kinase pathway and uncovered a potential role played by stoichiometry in Shc binding to EGFR during the peak activations of Ras, MEK, and ERK. Intriguingly, most of the in vivo Kd values determined in this study were higher than the in vitro Kd values reported previously, suggesting the significance of competitive bindings inside cells. These in vivo Kd values will provide a sound basis for the quantitative understanding of signal transduction. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Identification of Sumoylated Proteins in the Silkworm Bombyx mori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xudong; Fu, Xuliang; Hao, Bifang; Zhu, Feng; Xiao, Shengyan; Xu, Li; Shen, Zhongyuan

    2014-01-01

    Small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) modification (SUMOylation) is an important and widely used reversible modification system in eukaryotic cells. It regulates various cell processes, including protein targeting, transcriptional regulation, signal transduction, and cell division. To understand its role in the model lepidoptera insect Bombyx mori, a recombinant baculovirus was constructed to express an enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP)-SUMO fusion protein along with ubiquitin carrier protein 9 of Bombyx mori (BmUBC9). SUMOylation substrates from Bombyx mori cells infected with this baculovirus were isolated by immunoprecipitation and identified by LC–ESI-MS/MS. A total of 68 candidate SUMOylated proteins were identified, of which 59 proteins were functionally categorized to gene ontology (GO) terms. Analysis of kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathways showed that 46 of the identified proteins were involved in 76 pathways that mainly play a role in metabolism, spliceosome and ribosome functions, and in RNA transport. Furthermore, SUMOylation of four candidates (polyubiquitin-C-like isoform X1, 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, cyclin-related protein FAM58A-like and GTP-binding nuclear protein Ran) were verified by co-immunoprecipitation in Drosophila schneide 2 cells. In addition, 74% of the identified proteins were predicted to have at least one SUMOylation site. The data presented here shed light on the crucial process of protein sumoylation in Bombyx mori. PMID:25470021

  5. Identification of new interacting partners of the shuttling protein ubinuclein (Ubn-1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupo, Julien [Unit of Virus Host Cell Interactions (UVHCI), UMI 3265 UJF-EMBL-CNRS, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP 181, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); CHU de Grenoble, BP217, 38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Conti, Audrey [Unit of Virus Host Cell Interactions (UVHCI), UMI 3265 UJF-EMBL-CNRS, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP 181, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Sueur, Charlotte [Unit of Virus Host Cell Interactions (UVHCI), UMI 3265 UJF-EMBL-CNRS, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP 181, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); CHU de Grenoble, BP217, 38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Coly, Pierre-Alain [Unit of Virus Host Cell Interactions (UVHCI), UMI 3265 UJF-EMBL-CNRS, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP 181, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Coute, Yohann [CEA, IRTSV, Laboratoire Biologie a Grande Echelle, F-38054 Grenoble (France); INSERM, U1038, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble 1, F-38000 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Hunziker, Walter [Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Epithelial Cell Biology Laboratory, Singapore 1386473 (Singapore); Burmeister, Wim P. [Unit of Virus Host Cell Interactions (UVHCI), UMI 3265 UJF-EMBL-CNRS, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP 181, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Germi, Raphaelle [Unit of Virus Host Cell Interactions (UVHCI), UMI 3265 UJF-EMBL-CNRS, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP 181, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); CHU de Grenoble, BP217, 38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Manet, Evelyne; Gruffat, Henri [INSERM U758, Unite de Virologie humaine, Lyon, 46 allee d' Italie F-69007 France (France); Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, F-69007 France (France); Universite Lyon1, F-69007, Lyon (France); and others

    2012-03-10

    We have previously characterized ubinuclein (Ubn-1) as a NACos (Nuclear and Adherent junction Complex components) protein which interacts with viral or cellular transcription factors and the tight junction (TJ) protein ZO-1. The purpose of the present study was to get more insights on the binding partners of Ubn-1, notably those present in the epithelial junctions. Using an in vivo assay of fluorescent protein-complementation assay (PCA), we demonstrated that the N-terminal domains of the Ubn-1 and ZO-1 proteins triggered a functional interaction inside the cell. Indeed, expression of both complementary fragments of venus fused to the N-terminal parts of Ubn-1 and ZO-1 was able to reconstitute a fluorescent venus protein. Furthermore, nuclear expression of the chimeric Ubn-1 triggered nuclear localization of the chimeric ZO-1. We could localize this interaction to the PDZ2 domain of ZO-1 using an in vitro pull-down assay. More precisely, a 184-amino acid region (from amino acids 39 to 223) at the N-terminal region of Ubn-1 was responsible for the interaction with the PDZ2 domain of ZO-1. Co-imunoprecipitation and confocal microscopy experiments also revealed the tight junction protein cingulin as a new interacting partner of Ubn-1. A proteomic approach based on mass spectrometry analysis (MS) was then undertaken to identify further binding partners of GST-Ubn-1 fusion protein in different subcellular fractions of human epithelial HT29 cells. LYRIC (Lysine-rich CEACAM1-associated protein) and RACK-1 (receptor for activated C-kinase) proteins were validated as bona fide interacting partners of Ubn-1. Altogether, these results suggest that Ubn-1 is a scaffold protein influencing protein subcellular localization and is involved in several processes such as cell-cell contact signalling or modulation of gene activity.

  6. Identification of Arsenic Direct-Binding Proteins in Acute Promyelocytic Leukaemia Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The identification of arsenic direct-binding proteins is essential for determining the mechanism by which arsenic trioxide achieves its chemotherapeutic effects. At least two cysteines close together in the amino acid sequence are crucial to the binding of arsenic and essential to the identification of arsenic-binding proteins. In the present study, arsenic binding proteins were pulled down with streptavidin and identified using a liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS. More than 40 arsenic-binding proteins were separated, and redox-related proteins, glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1, heat shock 70 kDa protein 9 (HSPA9 and pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2, were further studied using binding assays in vitro. Notably, PKM2 has a high affinity for arsenic. In contrast to PKM2, GSTP1and HSPA9 did not combine with arsenic directly in vitro. These observations suggest that arsenic-mediated acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL suppressive effects involve PKM2. In summary, we identified several arsenic binding proteins in APL cells and investigated the therapeutic mechanisms of arsenic trioxide for APL. Further investigation into specific signal pathways by which PKM2 mediates APL developments may lead to a better understanding of arsenic effects on APL.

  7. Absorption tuning of the green fluorescent protein chromophore: synthesis and studies of model compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndsted Nielsen, Mogens; Andersen, Lars Henrik; Rinza, Tomás Rocha

    2011-01-01

    The green fluorescent protein (GFP) chromophore is a heterocyclic compound containing a p-hydroxybenzylidine attached to an imidazol-5(4H)-one ring. This review covers the synthesis of a variety of model systems for elucidating the intrinsic optical properties of the chromophore in the gas phase ...

  8. Sequence-specific capture of protein-DNA complexes for mass spectrometric protein identification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Hsien Wu

    Full Text Available The regulation of gene transcription is fundamental to the existence of complex multicellular organisms such as humans. Although it is widely recognized that much of gene regulation is controlled by gene-specific protein-DNA interactions, there presently exists little in the way of tools to identify proteins that interact with the genome at locations of interest. We have developed a novel strategy to address this problem, which we refer to as GENECAPP, for Global ExoNuclease-based Enrichment of Chromatin-Associated Proteins for Proteomics. In this approach, formaldehyde cross-linking is employed to covalently link DNA to its associated proteins; subsequent fragmentation of the DNA, followed by exonuclease digestion, produces a single-stranded region of the DNA that enables sequence-specific hybridization capture of the protein-DNA complex on a solid support. Mass spectrometric (MS analysis of the captured proteins is then used for their identification and/or quantification. We show here the development and optimization of GENECAPP for an in vitro model system, comprised of the murine insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 1 (IGFBP1 promoter region and FoxO1, a member of the forkhead rhabdomyosarcoma (FoxO subfamily of transcription factors, which binds specifically to the IGFBP1 promoter. This novel strategy provides a powerful tool for studies of protein-DNA and protein-protein interactions.

  9. Protein social behavior makes a stronger signal for partner identification than surface geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, Elodie

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cells are interactive living systems where proteins movements, interactions and regulation are substantially free from centralized management. How protein physico‐chemical and geometrical properties determine who interact with whom remains far from fully understood. We show that characterizing how a protein behaves with many potential interactors in a complete cross‐docking study leads to a sharp identification of its cellular/true/native partner(s). We define a sociability index, or S‐index, reflecting whether a protein likes or not to pair with other proteins. Formally, we propose a suitable normalization function that accounts for protein sociability and we combine it with a simple interface‐based (ranking) score to discriminate partners from non‐interactors. We show that sociability is an important factor and that the normalization permits to reach a much higher discriminative power than shape complementarity docking scores. The social effect is also observed with more sophisticated docking algorithms. Docking conformations are evaluated using experimental binding sites. These latter approximate in the best possible way binding sites predictions, which have reached high accuracy in recent years. This makes our analysis helpful for a global understanding of partner identification and for suggesting discriminating strategies. These results contradict previous findings claiming the partner identification problem being solvable solely with geometrical docking. Proteins 2016; 85:137–154. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27802579

  10. Spectrally-resolved response properties of the three most advanced FRET based fluorescent protein voltage probes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Mutoh

    Full Text Available Genetically-encoded optical probes for membrane potential hold the promise of monitoring electrical signaling of electrically active cells such as specific neuronal populations in intact brain tissue. The most advanced class of these probes was generated by molecular fusion of the voltage sensing domain (VSD of Ci-VSP with a fluorescent protein (FP pair. We quantitatively compared the three most advanced versions of these probes (two previously reported and one new variant, each involving a spectrally distinct tandem of FPs. Despite these different FP tandems and dissimilarities within the amino acid sequence linking the VSD to the FPs, the amplitude and kinetics of voltage dependent fluorescence changes were surprisingly similar. However, each of these fluorescent probes has specific merits when considering different potential applications.

  11. A fluorescence anisotropy method for measuring protein concentration in complex cell culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groza, Radu Constantin; Calvet, Amandine; Ryder, Alan G

    2014-04-22

    The rapid, quantitative analysis of the complex cell culture media used in biopharmaceutical manufacturing is of critical importance. Requirements for cell culture media composition profiling, or changes in specific analyte concentrations (e.g. amino acids in the media or product protein in the bioprocess broth) often necessitate the use of complicated analytical methods and extensive sample handling. Rapid spectroscopic methods like multi-dimensional fluorescence (MDF) spectroscopy have been successfully applied for the routine determination of compositional changes in cell culture media and bioprocess broths. Quantifying macromolecules in cell culture media is a specific challenge as there is a need to implement measurements rapidly on the prepared media. However, the use of standard fluorescence spectroscopy is complicated by the emission overlap from many media components. Here, we demonstrate how combining anisotropy measurements with standard total synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (TSFS) provides a rapid, accurate quantitation method for cell culture media. Anisotropy provides emission resolution between large and small fluorophores while TSFS provides a robust measurement space. Model cell culture media was prepared using yeastolate (2.5 mg mL(-1)) spiked with bovine serum albumin (0 to 5 mg mL(-1)). Using this method, protein emission is clearly discriminated from background yeastolate emission, allowing for accurate bovine serum albumin (BSA) quantification over a 0.1 to 4.0 mg mL(-1) range with a limit of detection (LOD) of 13.8 μg mL(-1). Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Construction of a plasmid coding for green fluorescent protein tagged cathepsin L and data on expression in colorectal carcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripti Tamhane

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The endo-lysosomal cysteine cathepsin L has recently been shown to have moonlighting activities in that its unexpected nuclear localization in colorectal carcinoma cells is involved in cell cycle progression (Tamhane et al., 2015 [1]. Here, we show data on the construction and sequence of a plasmid coding for human cathepsin L tagged with an enhanced green fluorescent protein (phCL-EGFP in which the fluorescent protein is covalently attached to the C-terminus of the protease. The plasmid was used for transfection of HCT116 colorectal carcinoma cells, while data from non-transfected and pEGFP-N1-transfected cells is also shown. Immunoblotting data of lysates from non-transfected controls and HCT116 cells transfected with pEGFP-N1 and phCL-EGFP, showed stable expression of cathepsin L-enhanced green fluorescent protein chimeras, while endogenous cathepsin L protein amounts exceed those of hCL-EGFP chimeras. An effect of phCL-EGFP expression on proliferation and metabolic states of HCT116 cells at 24 h post-transfection was observed.

  13. Proteomic Analysis of Bovine Pregnancy-specific Serum Proteins by 2D Fluorescence Difference Gel Electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jae Eun; Lee, Jae Young; Kim, Hong Rye; Shin, Hyun Young; Lin, Tao; Jin, Dong Il

    2015-01-01

    Two dimensional-fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE) is an emerging technique for comparative proteomics, which improves the reproducibility and reliability of differential protein expression analysis between samples. The purpose of this study was to investigate bovine pregnancy-specific proteins in the proteome between bovine pregnant and non-pregnant serum using DIGE technique. Serums of 2 pregnant Holstein dairy cattle at day 21 after artificial insemination and those of 2...

  14. Benchmarking Various Green Fluorescent Protein Variants in Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Lactococcus lactis for Live Cell Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overkamp, Wout; Beilharz, Katrin; Weme, Ruud Detert Oude; Solopova, Ana; Karsens, Harma; Kovacs, Akos T.; Kok, Jan; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Veening, Jan-Willem

    2013-01-01

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP) offers efficient ways of visualizing promoter activity and protein localization in vivo, and many different variants are currently available to study bacterial cell biology. Which of these variants is best suited for a certain bacterial strain, goal, or experimental

  15. Constitutive expression of fluorescent protein by Aspergillus var. niger and Aspergillus carbonarius to monitor fungal colonization in maize plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palencia, Edwin Rene; Glenn, Anthony Elbie; Hinton, Dorothy Mae; Bacon, Charles Wilson

    2013-09-01

    Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus carbonarius are two species in the Aspergillus section Nigri (black-spored aspergilli) frequently associated with peanut (Arachis hypogea), maize (Zea mays), and other plants as pathogens. These infections are symptomless and as such are major concerns since some black aspergilli produce important mycotoxins, ochratoxins A, and the fumonisins. To facilitate the study of the black aspergilli-maize interactions with maize during the early stages of infections, we developed a method that used the enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (eYFP) and the monomeric red fluorescent protein (mRFP1) to transform A. niger and A. carbonarius, respectively. The results were constitutive expressions of the fluorescent genes that were stable in the cytoplasms of hyphae and conidia under natural environmental conditions. The hyphal in planta distribution in 21-day-old seedlings of maize were similar wild type and transformants of A. niger and A. carbonarius. The in planta studies indicated that both wild type and transformants internally colonized leaf, stem and root tissues of maize seedlings, without any visible disease symptoms. Yellow and red fluorescent strains were capable of invading epidermal cells of maize roots intercellularly within the first 3 days after inoculation, but intracellular hyphal growth was more evident after 7 days of inoculation. We also tested the capacity of fluorescent transformants to produce ochratoxin A and the results with A. carbonarius showed that this transgenic strain produced similar concentrations of this secondary metabolite. This is the first report on the in planta expression of fluorescent proteins that should be useful to study the internal plant colonization patterns of two ochratoxigenic species in the Aspergillus section Nigri. © 2013.

  16. A fluorescent cassette-based strategy for engineering multiple domain fusion proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khorchid Ahmad

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The engineering of fusion proteins has become increasingly important and most recently has formed the basis of many biosensors, protein purification systems, and classes of new drugs. Currently, most fusion proteins consist of three or fewer domains, however, more sophisticated designs could easily involve three or more domains. Using traditional subcloning strategies, this requires micromanagement of restriction enzymes sites that results in complex workaround solutions, if any at all. Results Therefore, to aid in the efficient construction of fusion proteins involving multiple domains, we have created a new expression vector that allows us to rapidly generate a library of cassettes. Cassettes have a standard vector structure based on four specific restriction endonuclease sites and using a subtle property of blunt or compatible cohesive end restriction enzymes, they can be fused in any order and number of times. Furthermore, the insertion of PCR products into our expression vector or the recombination of cassettes can be dramatically simplified by screening for the presence or absence of fluorescence. Conclusions Finally, the utility of this new strategy was demonstrated by the creation of basic cassettes for protein targeting to subcellular organelles and for protein purification using multiple affinity tags.

  17. Photophysical studies on the interaction of amides with Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) in aqueous solution: Fluorescence quenching and protein unfolding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumaran, R.; Ramamurthy, P.

    2014-01-01

    Addition. of amides containing a H-CO(NH 2 ) or CH 3 -CO(NH 2 ) framework to BSA results in a fluorescence quenching. On the contrary, fluorescence enhancement with a shift in the emission maximum towards the blue region is observed on the addition of dimethylformamide (DMF) (H-CON(CH 3 ) 2 ). Fluorescence quenching accompanied initially with a shift towards the blue region and a subsequent red shift in the emission maximum of BSA is observed on the addition of formamide (H-CO(NH 2 )), whereas a shift in the emission maximum only towards the red region results on the addition of acetamide (CH 3 -CONH 2 ). Steady state emission spectral studies reveal that amides that possess a free NH 2 and N(CH 3 ) 2 moiety result in fluorescence quenching and enhancement of BSA respectively. The 3D contour spectral studies of BSA with formamide exhibit a shift in the emission towards the red region accompanied with fluorescence quenching, which indicates that the tryptophan residues of the BSA are exposed to a more polar environment. Circular Dichroism (CD) studies of BSA with amides resulted in a gradual decrease in the α-helical content of BSA at 208 nm, which confirms that there is a conformational change in the native structure of BSA. Time-resolved fluorescence studies illustrate that the extent of buried trytophan moieties exposed to the aqueous phase on the addition of amides follows the order DMF 2 hydrogen and the carbonyl oxygen of amide form a concerted hydrogen-bonding network with the carbonyl oxygen and the amino moieties of amino acids respectively is established from fluorescence methods. -- Highlights: • The manuscript deals with the absorption, emission and fluorescence lifetime studies of Bovine Serum Albumin with amides in aqueous medium. • Fluorescence is correlated to the presence of fluorescing amino acid, tryptophan located in a heterogeneous environment. • This article provides an insight about the fluorescence spectral characteristics of a protein

  18. Ultrafast fluorescence of photosynthetic crystals and light-harvesting complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, van B.F.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the study of photosynthetic pigment protein complexes using time resolved fluorescence techniques. Fluorescence spectroscopy often requires attaching fluorescent labels to the proteins under investigation. With photosynthetic proteins this is not necessary, because these

  19. Live-cell topology assessment of URG7, MRP6102 and SP-C using glycosylatable green fluorescent protein in mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hunsang; Lara, Patricia; Ostuni, Angela; Presto, Jenny; Johansson, Janne; Nilsson, IngMarie; Kim, Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Glycosylatable GFP (gGFP) is developed for the use in mammalian cells. • gGFP selectively loses its fluorescence upon N-linked glycosylation in the ER lumen. • Differential fluorescence/glycosylation pattern probes membrane protein topology. • Membrane topology of URG7, MRP6 102 , and SP-C was determined by gGFP tagging in vivo. - Abstract: Experimental tools to determine membrane topology of a protein are rather limited in higher eukaryotic organisms. Here, we report the use of glycosylatable GFP (gGFP) as a sensitive and versatile membrane topology reporter in mammalian cells. gGFP selectively loses its fluorescence upon N-linked glycosylation in the ER lumen. Thus, positive fluorescence signal assigns location of gGFP to the cytosol whereas no fluorescence signal and a glycosylated status of gGFP map the location of gGFP to the ER lumen. By using mammalian gGFP, the membrane topology of disease-associated membrane proteins, URG7, MRP6 102 , SP-C(Val) and SP-C(Leu) was confirmed. URG7 is partially targeted to the ER, and inserted in C in form. MRP6 102 and SP-C(Leu/Val) are inserted into the membrane in C out form. A minor population of untargeted SP-C is removed by proteasome dependent quality control system

  20. An automated wide-field time-gated optically sectioning fluorescence lifetime imaging multiwell plate reader for high-content analysis of protein-protein interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibhai, Dominic; Kumar, Sunil; Kelly, Douglas; Warren, Sean; Alexandrov, Yuriy; Munro, Ian; McGinty, James; Talbot, Clifford; Murray, Edward J.; Stuhmeier, Frank; Neil, Mark A. A.; Dunsby, Chris; French, Paul M. W.

    2011-03-01

    We describe an optically-sectioned FLIM multiwell plate reader that combines Nipkow microscopy with wide-field time-gated FLIM, and its application to high content analysis of FRET. The system acquires sectioned FLIM images in fluorescent protein. It has been applied to study the formation of immature HIV virus like particles (VLPs) in live cells by monitoring Gag-Gag protein interactions using FLIM FRET of HIV-1 Gag transfected with CFP or YFP. VLP formation results in FRET between closely packed Gag proteins, as confirmed by our FLIM analysis that includes automatic image segmentation.

  1. Direct and Indirect Electron Emission from the Green Fluorescent Protein Chromophore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toker, Y.; Rahbek, D. B.; Klærke, B.; Bochenkova, A. V.; Andersen, L. H.

    2012-09-01

    Photoelectron spectra of the deprotonated green fluorescent protein chromophore have been measured in the gas phase at several wavelengths within and beyond the S0-S1 photoabsorption band of the molecule. The vertical detachment energy (VDE) was determined to be 2.68±0.1eV. The data show that the first electronically excited state is bound in the Franck-Condon region, and that electron emission proceeds through an indirect (resonant) electron-emission channel within the corresponding absorption band.

  2. Identification of a novel Plasmopara halstedii elicitor protein combining de novo peptide sequencing algorithms and RACE-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madlung Johannes

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Often high-quality MS/MS spectra of tryptic peptides do not match to any database entry because of only partially sequenced genomes and therefore, protein identification requires de novo peptide sequencing. To achieve protein identification of the economically important but still unsequenced plant pathogenic oomycete Plasmopara halstedii, we first evaluated the performance of three different de novo peptide sequencing algorithms applied to a protein digests of standard proteins using a quadrupole TOF (QStar Pulsar i. Results The performance order of the algorithms was PEAKS online > PepNovo > CompNovo. In summary, PEAKS online correctly predicted 45% of measured peptides for a protein test data set. All three de novo peptide sequencing algorithms were used to identify MS/MS spectra of tryptic peptides of an unknown 57 kDa protein of P. halstedii. We found ten de novo sequenced peptides that showed homology to a Phytophthora infestans protein, a closely related organism of P. halstedii. Employing a second complementary approach, verification of peptide prediction and protein identification was performed by creation of degenerate primers for RACE-PCR and led to an ORF of 1,589 bp for a hypothetical phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. Conclusions Our study demonstrated that identification of proteins within minute amounts of sample material improved significantly by combining sensitive LC-MS methods with different de novo peptide sequencing algorithms. In addition, this is the first study that verified protein prediction from MS data by also employing a second complementary approach, in which RACE-PCR led to identification of a novel elicitor protein in P. halstedii.

  3. Sensing of heavy metal ions by intrinsic TMV coat protein fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Serene S.; Green, Philippe; Blum, Amy Szuchmacher

    2018-04-01

    We propose the use of a cysteine mutant of TMV coat protein as a signal transducer for the selective sensing and quantification of the heavy metal ions, Cd2+, Pb2+, Zn2+ and Ni2+ based on intrinsic tryptophan quenching. TMV coat protein is inexpensive, can be mass-produced since it is expressed and extracted from E-coli. It also displays several different functional groups, enabling a wide repertoire of bioconjugation chemistries; thus it can be easily integrated into functional devices. In addition, TMV-ion interactions have been widely reported and utilized for metallization to generate organic-inorganic hybrid composite novel materials. Building on these previous observations, we herein determine, for the first time, the TMV-ion binding constants assuming the static fluorescence quenching model. We also show that by comparing TMV-ion interactions between native and denatured coat protein, we can distinguish between chemically similar heavy metal ions such as cadmium and zinc ions.

  4. Identification of ATM Protein Kinase Phosphorylation Sites by Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Mark E; Lavin, Martin F; Kozlov, Sergei V

    2017-01-01

    ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) protein kinase is a key regulator of cellular responses to DNA damage and oxidative stress. DNA damage triggers complex cascade of signaling events leading to numerous posttranslational modification on multitude of proteins. Understanding the regulation of ATM kinase is therefore critical not only for understanding the human genetic disorder ataxia-telangiectasia and potential treatment strategies, but essential for deciphering physiological responses of cells to stress. These responses play an important role in carcinogenesis, neurodegeneration, and aging. We focus here on the identification of DNA damage inducible ATM phosphorylation sites to understand the importance of autophosphorylation in the mechanism of ATM kinase activation. We demonstrate the utility of using immunoprecipitated ATM in quantitative LC-MS/MS workflow with stable isotope dimethyl labeling of ATM peptides for identification of phosphorylation sites.

  5. New cell line development for antibody-producing Chinese hamster ovary cells using split green fluorescent protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Yeon-Gu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The establishment of high producer is an important issue in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cell culture considering increased heterogeneity by the random integration of a transfected foreign gene and the altered position of the integrated gene. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS-based cell line development is an efficient strategy for the selection of CHO cells in high therapeutic protein production. Results An internal ribosome entry site (IRES was introduced for using two green fluorescence protein (GFP fragments as a reporter to both antibody chains, the heavy chain and the light chain. The cells co-transfected with two GFP fragments showed the emission of green fluorescence by the reconstitution of split GFP. The FACS-sorted pool with GFP expression had a higher specific antibody productivity (qAb than that of the unsorted pool. The qAb was highly correlated with the fluorescence intensity with a high correlation coefficient, evidenced from the analysis of median GFP and qAb in individual selected clones. Conclusions This study proved that the fragment complementation for split GFP could be an efficient indication for antibody production on the basis of high correlation of qAb with reconstitution of GFP. Taken together, we developed an efficient FACS-based screening method for high antibody-producing CHO cells with the benefits of the split GFP system.

  6. Distribution and Spectroscopy of Green Fluorescent Protein and Acyl-CoA: Cholesterol Acytransferase in Sf21 Insect Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, R. C.; Mahtani, H.; Lu, X.; Chang, T. Y.; Malak, H.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) is thought to significantly participate in the pathway of cholesterol esterification that underlies the pathology of artherosclerosis. This enzyme is a membrane protein known to be preferentially bound within the endoplasmic reticulum of mammalian cells, from which location it esterifies cholesterol derived from low density lipoprotein. Cultures of insect cells were separately infected with baculovirus containing the gene for green fluroescent protein (GFP) and with baculovirus containing tandem genes for GFP and ACAT. These infected cultures expressed GFP and the fusion protein GCAT, respectively, with maximum expression occurring on the fourth day after infection. Extraction of GFP- and of GCAT-expressing cells with urea and detergent resulted in recovery of fluorescent protein in aqueous solution. Fluorescence spectra at neutral pH were identical for both GFP and GCAT extracts in aqueous solution, indicating unperturbed tertiary structure for the GFP moiety within GCAT. In a cholesterol esterification assay, GCAT demonstrated ACAT activity, but with less efficiency compared to native ACAT. It was hypothesized that the membrane protein ACAT would lead to differences in localization of GCAT compared to GFP within the respective expressing insect cells. The GFP marker directly and also within the fusion protein GCAT was accordingly used as the intracellular probe that was fluorescently analyzed by the new biophotonics technique of hyperspectral imaging. In that technique, fluorescence imaging was obtained from two dimensional arrays of cells, and regions of interest from within those images were then retrospectively analyzed for the emission spectra that comprises the image. Results of hyperspectral imaging of insect cells on day 4 postinfection showed that GCAT was preferentially localized to the cytoplasm of these cells compared to GFP. Furthermore, the emission spectra obtained for the localized GCAT displayed a peak

  7. Accelerated identification of proteins by mass spectrometry by employing covalent pre-gel staining with Uniblue A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A Mata-Gómez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The identification of proteins by mass spectrometry is a standard method in biopharmaceutical quality control and biochemical research. Prior to identification by mass spectrometry, proteins are usually pre-separated by electrophoresis. However, current protein staining and de-staining protocols are tedious and time consuming, and therefore prolong the sample preparation time for mass spectrometry. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We developed a 1-minute covalent pre-gel staining protocol for proteins, which does not require de-staining before the mass spectrometry analysis. We investigated the electrophoretic properties of derivatized proteins and peptides and studied their behavior in mass spectrometry. Further, we elucidated the preferred reaction of proteins with Uniblue A and demonstrate the integration of the peptide derivatization into typical informatics tools. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The Uniblue A staining method drastically speeds up the sample preparation for the mass spectrometry based identification of proteins. The application of this chemo-proteomic strategy will be advantageous for routine quality control of proteins and for time-critical tasks in protein analysis.

  8. Enhanced detection method for corneal protein identification using shotgun proteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlager John J

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cornea is a specialized transparent connective tissue responsible for the majority of light refraction and image focus for the retina. There are three main layers of the cornea: the epithelium that is exposed and acts as a protective barrier for the eye, the center stroma consisting of parallel collagen fibrils that refract light, and the endothelium that is responsible for hydration of the cornea from the aqueous humor. Normal cornea is an immunologically privileged tissue devoid of blood vessels, but injury can produce a loss of these conditions causing invasion of other processes that degrade the homeostatic properties resulting in a decrease in the amount of light refracted onto the retina. Determining a measure and drift of phenotypic cornea state from normal to an injured or diseased state requires knowledge of the existing protein signature within the tissue. In the study of corneal proteins, proteomics procedures have typically involved the pulverization of the entire cornea prior to analysis. Separation of the epithelium and endothelium from the core stroma and performing separate shotgun proteomics using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry results in identification of many more proteins than previously employed methods using complete pulverized cornea. Results Rabbit corneas were purchased, the epithelium and endothelium regions were removed, proteins processed and separately analyzed using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Proteins identified from separate layers were compared against results from complete corneal samples. Protein digests were separated using a six hour liquid chromatographic gradient and ion-trap mass spectrometry used for detection of eluted peptide fractions. The SEQUEST database search results were filtered to allow only proteins with match probabilities of equal or better than 10-3 and peptides with a probability of 10-2 or less with at least two unique peptides isolated within

  9. Proteomics - a novel approach to the identification and characterisation of plasmodesmatal proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faulkner, C.R.; Blackman, L.M.; Lyon, B.R.; Overall, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    The development of proteomic methods, such as 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), has established a high resolution means of identifying and characterising proteins from a given protein mixture. The biochemical composition of plasmodesmata, the intercellular channels between plant cells, is poorly described despite extensive attempts to identify protemaceous plasmodesmatal components. These attempts have been confounded by the large number of proteins in the cell wall. We have exploited the anatomy of the alga Chara corallina to separate tissues with (nodal cells) and tissues without (internodal cells) plasmodesmata. Proteins specific to the cytoplasmic and wall protein extracts of nodal and internodal tissue were identified by comparison of 2-DE gels of these extracts. In particular, a 95 kDa protein was identified as specific to the nodal cells in both 1-dimensional and 2-dimensional comparisons of cytoplasmic nodal and internodal protein extracts. This protein was analysed by electron spray ionization time of flight tandem mass spectroscopy (ESI-TOF MS/MS) and the sequence obtained showed similarity to plant lipoxygenases. Further proteins of interest were identified in 2-DE resolution of extracts from the nodal cytoplasm, including two 49 kDa proteins and two 46 kDa proteins, and from the nodal cell walls, including a cluster of proteins around 30 kDa. Thus, a proteomic strategy for the identification and characterisation of proteins specific to different cell types in Chara corallina has been developed, with potential application to the identification and characterisation of plasmodesmatal proteins

  10. Simultaneous neuron- and astrocyte-specific fluorescent marking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, Wiebke [Laboratory of Molecular Neuropharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Hayata-Takano, Atsuko [Molecular Research Center for Children' s Mental Development, United Graduate School of Child Development, Osaka University, Kanazawa University, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Chiba University and University of Fukui, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kamo, Toshihiko [Laboratory of Molecular Neuropharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nakazawa, Takanobu, E-mail: takanobunakazawa-tky@umin.ac.jp [iPS Cell-based Research Project on Brain Neuropharmacology and Toxicology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nagayasu, Kazuki [iPS Cell-based Research Project on Brain Neuropharmacology and Toxicology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kasai, Atsushi; Seiriki, Kaoru [Laboratory of Molecular Neuropharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Interdisciplinary Program for Biomedical Sciences, Institute for Academic Initiatives, Osaka University, 1-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Shintani, Norihito [Laboratory of Molecular Neuropharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ago, Yukio [Laboratory of Medicinal Pharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Farfan, Camille [Laboratory of Molecular Neuropharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); and others

    2015-03-27

    Systematic and simultaneous analysis of multiple cell types in the brain is becoming important, but such tools have not yet been adequately developed. Here, we aimed to generate a method for the specific fluorescent labeling of neurons and astrocytes, two major cell types in the brain, and we have developed lentiviral vectors to express the red fluorescent protein tdTomato in neurons and the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in astrocytes. Importantly, both fluorescent proteins are fused to histone 2B protein (H2B) to confer nuclear localization to distinguish between single cells. We also constructed several expression constructs, including a tandem alignment of the neuron- and astrocyte-expression cassettes for simultaneous labeling. Introducing these vectors and constructs in vitro and in vivo resulted in cell type-specific and nuclear-localized fluorescence signals enabling easy detection and distinguishability of neurons and astrocytes. This tool is expected to be utilized for the simultaneous analysis of changes in neurons and astrocytes in healthy and diseased brains. - Highlights: • We develop a method for the specific fluorescent labeling of neurons and astrocytes. • Neuron-specific labeling is achieved using Scg10 and synapsin promoters. • Astrocyte-specific labeling is generated using the minimal GFAP promoter. • Nuclear localization of fluorescent proteins is achieved with histone 2B protein.

  11. Simultaneous neuron- and astrocyte-specific fluorescent marking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, Wiebke; Hayata-Takano, Atsuko; Kamo, Toshihiko; Nakazawa, Takanobu; Nagayasu, Kazuki; Kasai, Atsushi; Seiriki, Kaoru; Shintani, Norihito; Ago, Yukio; Farfan, Camille

    2015-01-01

    Systematic and simultaneous analysis of multiple cell types in the brain is becoming important, but such tools have not yet been adequately developed. Here, we aimed to generate a method for the specific fluorescent labeling of neurons and astrocytes, two major cell types in the brain, and we have developed lentiviral vectors to express the red fluorescent protein tdTomato in neurons and the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in astrocytes. Importantly, both fluorescent proteins are fused to histone 2B protein (H2B) to confer nuclear localization to distinguish between single cells. We also constructed several expression constructs, including a tandem alignment of the neuron- and astrocyte-expression cassettes for simultaneous labeling. Introducing these vectors and constructs in vitro and in vivo resulted in cell type-specific and nuclear-localized fluorescence signals enabling easy detection and distinguishability of neurons and astrocytes. This tool is expected to be utilized for the simultaneous analysis of changes in neurons and astrocytes in healthy and diseased brains. - Highlights: • We develop a method for the specific fluorescent labeling of neurons and astrocytes. • Neuron-specific labeling is achieved using Scg10 and synapsin promoters. • Astrocyte-specific labeling is generated using the minimal GFAP promoter. • Nuclear localization of fluorescent proteins is achieved with histone 2B protein

  12. Interrogation of an autofluorescence-based method for protein fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddaramaiah, Manjunath; Rao, Bola Sadashiva S; Joshi, Manjunath B; Datta, Anirbit; Sandya, S; Vishnumurthy, Vasudha; Chandra, Subhash; Nayak, Subramanya G; Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu; Mahato, Krishna K

    2018-03-14

    In the present study, we have designed a laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) based instrumentation and developed a sensitive methodology for the effective separation, visualization, identification and analysis of proteins on a single platform. In this method, intrinsic fluorescence spectra of proteins were detected after separation on 1 or 2 dimensional Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine (SDS-TCEP) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and the data were analyzed. The MATLAB assisted software was designed for the development of PAGE fingerprint for the visualization of protein after 1- and 2-dimensional protein separation. These provided objective parameters of intrinsic fluorescence intensity, emission peak, molecular weight and isoelectric point using a single platform. Further, the current architecture could differentiate the overlapping proteins in the PAGE gels which otherwise were not identifiable by conventional staining, imaging and tagging methods. Categorization of the proteins based on the presence or absence of tyrosine or tryptophan residues and assigning the corresponding emission peaks (309-356 nm) with pseudo colors allowed the detection of proportion of proteins within the given spectrum. The present methodology doesn't use stains or tags, hence amenable to couple with mass spectroscopic measurements. This technique may have relevance in the field of proteomics that is used for innumerable applications. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. LASER BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE: Application of laser fluorimetry for determining the influence of a single amino-acid substitution on the individual photophysical parameters of a fluorescent form of a fluorescent protein mRFP1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banishev, A. A.; Vrzheshch, E. P.; Shirshin, E. A.

    2009-03-01

    Individual photophysical parameters of the chromophore of a fluorescent protein mRFP1 and its two mutants (amino-acid substitution at position 66 - mRFP1/ Q66C and mRFP1/Q66S proteins) are determined. For this purpose, apart from conventional methods of fluorimetry and spectrophotometry, nonlinear laser fluorimetry is used. It is shown that the individual extinction coefficients of the chromophore of proteins correlate (correlation coefficient above 0.9) with the volume of the substituted amino-acid residue at position 66 (similar to the positions of the absorption, fluorescence excitation and emission maxima).

  14. Gene identification and protein classification in microbial metagenomic sequence data via incremental clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Weizhong

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification and study of proteins from metagenomic datasets can shed light on the roles and interactions of the source organisms in their communities. However, metagenomic datasets are characterized by the presence of organisms with varying GC composition, codon usage biases etc., and consequently gene identification is challenging. The vast amount of sequence data also requires faster protein family classification tools. Results We present a computational improvement to a sequence clustering approach that we developed previously to identify and classify protein coding genes in large microbial metagenomic datasets. The clustering approach can be used to identify protein coding genes in prokaryotes, viruses, and intron-less eukaryotes. The computational improvement is based on an incremental clustering method that does not require the expensive all-against-all compute that was required by the original approach, while still preserving the remote homology detection capabilities. We present evaluations of the clustering approach in protein-coding gene identification and classification, and also present the results of updating the protein clusters from our previous work with recent genomic and metagenomic sequences. The clustering results are available via CAMERA, (http://camera.calit2.net. Conclusion The clustering paradigm is shown to be a very useful tool in the analysis of microbial metagenomic data. The incremental clustering method is shown to be much faster than the original approach in identifying genes, grouping sequences into existing protein families, and also identifying novel families that have multiple members in a metagenomic dataset. These clusters provide a basis for further studies of protein families.

  15. Are neutral loss and internal product ions useful for top-down protein identification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Kaijie; Yu, Fan; Fang, Houqin; Xue, Bingbing; Liu, Yan; Li, Yunhui; Tian, Zhixin

    2017-05-08

    Neutral loss and internal product ions have been found to be significant in both peptide and protein tandem mass spectra and they have been proposed to be included in database search and for protein identification. In addition to common canonical b/y ions in collision-based dissociation or c/z ions in electron-based dissociation, inclusion of neutral loss and internal product ions would certainly make better use of tandem mass spectra data; however, their ultimate utility for protein identification with false discovery rate control remains unclear. Here we report our proteome-level utility benchmarking of neutral loss and internal product ions with tandem mass spectra of intact E. coli proteome. Utility of internal product ions was further evaluated at the protein level using selected tandem mass spectra of individual E. coli proteins. We found that both neutral loss and internal products ions do not have direct utility for protein identification when they were used for scoring of P Score; but they do have indirect utility for provision of more canonical b/y ions when they are included in the database search and overlapping ions between different ion types are resolved. Tandem mass spectrometry has evolved to be a state-of-the-art method for characterization of protein primary structures (including amino acid sequence, post-translational modifications (PTMs) as well as their site location), where full study and utilization tandem mass spectra and product ions are indispensable. This primary structure information is essential for higher order structure and eventual function study of proteins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of capsid proteins to ICG mass ratio on fluorescent quantum yield of virus-resembling optical nano-materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sharad; Ico, Gerardo; Matsumura, Paul; Rao, A. L. N.; Vullev, Valentine; Anvari, Bahman

    2012-03-01

    We recently reported construction of a new type of optical nano-construct composed of genome-depleted plant infecting brome mosaic virus (BMV) doped with Indocyanine green (ICG), an FDA-approved chromophore. We refer to these constructs as optical viral ghosts (OVGs) since only the capsid protein (CP) subunits of BMV remain to encapsulate ICG. To utilize OVGs as effective nano-probes in fluorescence imaging applications, their fluorescence quantum yield needs to be maximized. In this study, we investigate the effect of altering the CP to ICG mass ratio on the fluorescent quantum yield of OVGs. Results of this study provide the basis for construction of OVGs with optimal amounts of CP and ICG to yield maximal fluorescence quantum yield.

  17. Fluorescent eosin probe in investigations of structural changes in glycated proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravdin, A. B.; Kochubey, V. I.; Mel'Nikov, A. G.

    2010-08-01

    The possibility of using the luminescent-kinetic probe method to investigate structural changes in bovine serum albumin (BSA) upon nonenzymatic thermal glycation is studied. An increase in the glycation time lead to a decrease in the intensity of the probe (eosin) fluorescence and to a long-wavelength shift of its maximum, as well as to an increase in the eosin phosphorescence intensity, which indicates that eosin binds to hydrophobic regions of protein at any times of incubation of BSA with glucose. From a decrease in the rate constant of the triplet-triplet energy transfer between the donor (eosin) and acceptor (anthracene) bound to proteins, it is found that the changes observed in the spectral characteristics of eosin are caused by structural changes in albumin globules as a result of glycosylation.

  18. Induction of the arginine vasopressin-enhanced green fluorescent protein fusion transgene in the rat locus coeruleus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Todoroki, M.; Ueta, Y.; Fujihara, H.; Otsubo, H.; Shibata, M.; Hashimoto, H.; Kabayashi, M.; Sakamoto, H.; Kawata, M.; Dayanithi, Govindan; Murphy, D.; Hiro, H.; Takahashi, E.; Nagata, S.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 4 (2010), s. 281-292 ISSN 1025-3890 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : colchicine * green fluorescent protein * hypothalamus Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.553, year: 2010

  19. Red-shifted fluorescent proteins mPlum and mRaspberry and polynucleotides encoding the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsien, Roger Y [La Jolla, CA; Wang, Lei [San Diego, CA

    2008-07-01

    Methods using somatic hypermutation (SHM) for producing polypeptide and nucleic acid variants, and nucleic acids encoding such polypeptide variants are disclosed. Such variants may have desired properties. Also disclosed are novel polypeptides, such as improved fluorescent proteins, produced by the novel methods, and nucleic acids, vectors, and host cells comprising such vectors.

  20. Fluorescence spectroscopy and multi-way techniques. PARAFAC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murphy, Kathleen R.; Stedmon, Colin A.; Graeber, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    PARAllel FACtor analysis (PARAFAC) is increasingly used to decompose fluorescence excitation emission matrices (EEMs) into their underlying chemical components. In the ideal case where fluorescence conforms to Beers Law, this process can lead to the mathematical identification and quantification...

  1. A fluorescent-based HPLC assay for quantification of cysteine and cysteamine adducts in Escherichia coli-derived proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, Brian D; Tam, Lei-Ting T; Lu, Hsieng S; Valladares, Violeta G

    2012-01-01

    Recombinant proteins expressed in Escherichia coli are often produced as unfolded, inactive forms accumulated in inclusion bodies. Redox-coupled thiols are typically employed in the refolding process in order to catalyze the formation of correct disulfide bonds at maximal folding efficiency. These thiols and the recombinant proteins can form mixed disulfide bonds to generate thiol-protein adducts. In this work, we apply a fluorescent-based assay for the quantification of cysteine and cysteamine adducts as observed in E. coli-derived proteins. The thiols are released by reduction of the adducted protein, collected and labeled with a fluorescent reagent, 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate. The derivatized thiols are separated by reversed-phase HPLC and can be accurately quantified after method optimization. The estimated thiol content represents total amount of adducted forms present in the analyzed samples. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was established; specifically, the lowest amount of quantifiable cysteine adduction is 30 picograms and the lowest amount of quantifiable cysteamine adduction is 60 picograms. The assay is useful for quantification of adducts in final purified products as well as in-process samples from various purification steps. The assay indicates that the purification process accomplishes a decrease in cysteine adduction from 0.19 nmol adduct/nmol protein to 0.03 nmol adduct/nmol protein as well as a decrease in cysteamine adduction from 0.24 nmol adduct/nmol protein to 0.14 nmol adduct/nmol protein. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Identification and analysis of multi-protein complexes in placenta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuqiang Wang

    Full Text Available Placental malfunction induces pregnancy disorders which contribute to life-threatening complications for both the mother and the fetus. Identification and characterization of placental multi-protein complexes is an important step to integratedly understand the protein-protein interaction networks in placenta which determine placental function. In this study, blue native/sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN/SDS-PAGE and Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS were used to screen the multi-protein complexes in placenta. 733 unique proteins and 34 known and novel heterooligomeric multi-protein complexes including mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes, integrin complexes, proteasome complexes, histone complex, and heat shock protein complexes were identified. A novel protein complex, which involves clathrin and small conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK channel protein 2, was identified and validated by antibody based gel shift assay, co-immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence staining. These results suggest that BN/SDS-PAGE, when integrated with LC-MS/MS, is a very powerful and versatile tool for the investigation of placental protein complexes. This work paves the way for deeper functional characterization of the placental protein complexes associated with pregnancy disorders.

  3. Identification of Tobacco Topping Responsive Proteins in Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxiang eGuo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco plant has many responses to topping, such as the increase in ability of nicotine synthesis and secondary growth of roots. Some topping responsive miRNAs and genes had been identified in our previous work, but it is not enough to elaborate mechanism of tobacco response to topping. Here, topping responsive proteins were screened from tobacco roots with two-dimensional electrophoresis. Of these proteins, calretulin (CRT and Auxin-responsive protein IAA9 were related to the secondary growth of roots, LRR disease resistance, heat shock protein 70 and farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase 1(FPPS)were involved in wounding stress response, and F-box protein played an important role in promoting the ability of nicotine synthesis after topping. In addition, there were five tobacco bHLH proteins (NtbHLH, NtMYC1a, NtMYC1b, NtMYC2a and NtMYC2b related to nicotine synthesis. It was suggested that NtMYC2 might be the main positive transcription factor and NtbHLH protein is a negative regulator in the JA-mediating activation of nicotine synthesis after topping. Tobacco topping activates some comprehensive biology processes involving IAA and JA signaling pathway, and the identification of these proteins will be helpful to understand the process of topping response.

  4. Identification of proteins from tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsuk, Sibele; Newcombe, Jane; Mendum, Tom A; Dellagostin, Odir A; McFadden, Johnjoe

    2009-11-01

    The tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) is a widely used diagnostic antigen for tuberculosis, however it is poorly defined. Most mycobacterial proteins are extensively denatured by the procedure employed in its preparation, which explains previous difficulties in identifying constituents from PPD to characterize their behaviour in B- and T-cell reactions. We here described a proteomics-based characterization of PPD from several different sources by LC-MS/MS, which combines the solute separation power of HPLC, with the detection power of a mass spectrometer. The technique is able to identify proteins from complex mixtures of peptide fragments. A total of 171 different proteins were identified among the four PPD samples (two bovine PPD and two avium PPD) from Brazil and UK. The majority of the proteins were cytoplasmic (77.9%) and involved in intermediary metabolism and respiration (24.25%) but there was a preponderance of proteins involved in lipid metabolism. We identified a group of 21 proteins that are present in both bovine PPD but were not detected in avium PPD preparation. In addition, four proteins found in bovine PPD are absent in Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine strain. This study provides a better understanding of the tuberculin PPD components leading to the identification of additional antigens useful as reagents for specific diagnosis of tuberculosis.

  5. Verification of Single-Peptide Protein Identifications by the Application of Complementary Database Search Algorithms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rohrbough, James G; Breci, Linda; Merchant, Nirav; Miller, Susan; Haynes, Paul A

    2005-01-01

    .... One such technique, known as the Multi-Dimensional Protein Identification Technique, or MudPIT, involves the use of computer search algorithms that automate the process of identifying proteins...

  6. Leptospiral outer membrane protein microarray, a novel approach to identification of host ligand-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinne, Marija; Matsunaga, James; Haake, David A

    2012-11-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonosis with worldwide distribution caused by pathogenic spirochetes belonging to the genus Leptospira. The leptospiral life cycle involves transmission via freshwater and colonization of the renal tubules of their reservoir hosts. Infection requires adherence to cell surfaces and extracellular matrix components of host tissues. These host-pathogen interactions involve outer membrane proteins (OMPs) expressed on the bacterial surface. In this study, we developed an Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni strain Fiocruz L1-130 OMP microarray containing all predicted lipoproteins and transmembrane OMPs. A total of 401 leptospiral genes or their fragments were transcribed and translated in vitro and printed on nitrocellulose-coated glass slides. We investigated the potential of this protein microarray to screen for interactions between leptospiral OMPs and fibronectin (Fn). This approach resulted in the identification of the recently described fibronectin-binding protein, LIC10258 (MFn8, Lsa66), and 14 novel Fn-binding proteins, denoted Microarray Fn-binding proteins (MFns). We confirmed Fn binding of purified recombinant LIC11612 (MFn1), LIC10714 (MFn2), LIC11051 (MFn6), LIC11436 (MFn7), LIC10258 (MFn8, Lsa66), and LIC10537 (MFn9) by far-Western blot assays. Moreover, we obtained specific antibodies to MFn1, MFn7, MFn8 (Lsa66), and MFn9 and demonstrated that MFn1, MFn7, and MFn9 are expressed and surface exposed under in vitro growth conditions. Further, we demonstrated that MFn1, MFn4 (LIC12631, Sph2), and MFn7 enable leptospires to bind fibronectin when expressed in the saprophyte, Leptospira biflexa. Protein microarrays are valuable tools for high-throughput identification of novel host ligand-binding proteins that have the potential to play key roles in the virulence mechanisms of pathogens.

  7. Insights into the interaction between nucleoid-associated proteins H ha and H-NS by NMR and fluorescence anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordeiro, T.N.; Garcia, J.; Pons, M.

    2005-01-01

    NMR and fluorescence anisotropy are both valuable tools for studying bio molecular interactions. NMR can provide structural insights at atomic resolution. Still, it can be wisely complemented by lower-resolution biophysical techniques, such as fluorescence anisotropy. In this article we report the combination of NMR and fluorescence anisotropy in establishing novel structure-function insights into the interaction between two bacterial nucleoid-associated proteins, H ha and H-NS. H ha (H-NS) complexes are known to play an important role in modulating the expression of some environmentally regulated genes that confer survival advantage in a particular growth condition. (author)

  8. Insights into the interaction between nucleoid-associated proteins H ha and H-NS by NMR and fluorescence anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordeiro, T.N.; Garcia, J. [Institut de Recerca Biomedica-Parc Cientific de (Spain). Lab. of Biomolecular NMR; Pons, M. [Universitat de Barcelona (Spain). Dept. de Quimica Organica]. E-mail: mpons@ub.edu

    2005-07-01

    NMR and fluorescence anisotropy are both valuable tools for studying bio molecular interactions. NMR can provide structural insights at atomic resolution. Still, it can be wisely complemented by lower-resolution biophysical techniques, such as fluorescence anisotropy. In this article we report the combination of NMR and fluorescence anisotropy in establishing novel structure-function insights into the interaction between two bacterial nucleoid-associated proteins, H ha and H-NS. H ha (H-NS) complexes are known to play an important role in modulating the expression of some environmentally regulated genes that confer survival advantage in a particular growth condition. (author)

  9. Chiral recognition of proteins having L-histidine residues on the surface with lanthanide ion complex incorporated-molecularly imprinted fluorescent nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzun, Lokman; Uzek, Recep; Şenel, Serap; Say, Ridvan; Denizli, Adil

    2013-01-01

    In this study, lanthanide ion complex incorporated molecularly imprinted fluorescent nanoparticles were synthesized. A combination of three novel approaches was applied for the purpose. First, lanthanide ions [Terbium(III)] were complexed with N-methacryloyl-L-histidine (MAH), polymerizable derivative of L-histidine amino acid, in order to incorporate the complex directly into the polymeric backbone. At the second stage, L-histidine molecules imprinted nanoparticles were utilized instead of whole protein imprinting in order to avoid whole drawbacks such as fragility, complexity, denaturation tendency, and conformation dependency. At the third stage following the first two steps mentioned above, imprinted L-histidine was coordinated with cupric ions [Cu(II)] to conduct the study under mild conditions. Then, molecularly imprinted fluorescent nanoparticles synthesized were used for L-histidine adsorption from aqueous solution to optimize conditions for adsorption and fluorimetric detection. Finally, usability of nanoparticles was investigated for chiral biorecognition using stereoisomer, D-histidine, racemic mixture, D,L-histidine, proteins with surface L-histidine residue, lysozyme, cytochrome C, or without ribonuclease A. The results revealed that the proposed polymerization strategy could make significant contribution to the solution of chronic problems of fluorescent component introduction into polymers. Additionally, the fluorescent nanoparticles reported here could be used for selective separation and fluorescent monitoring purposes. Highlights: • Lanthanide ion complex incorporated molecularly imprinted fluorescent nanoparticles • Direct incorporation of the fluorescent complex into polymeric backbone. • Imprinting by assistance of cupric ion coordination into nanoparticles • Evaluation of the chiral biorecognition ability of nanoparticles • Simultaneous selective separation and fluorescent monitoring

  10. Chiral recognition of proteins having L-histidine residues on the surface with lanthanide ion complex incorporated-molecularly imprinted fluorescent nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uzun, Lokman, E-mail: lokman@hacettepe.edu.tr [Hacettepe University, Department of Chemistry, 06381, Ankara (Turkey); Uzek, Recep; Şenel, Serap [Hacettepe University, Department of Chemistry, 06381, Ankara (Turkey); Say, Ridvan [Anadolu University, Department of Chemistry, 26470, Eskisehir (Turkey); Denizli, Adil [Hacettepe University, Department of Chemistry, 06381, Ankara (Turkey)

    2013-08-01

    In this study, lanthanide ion complex incorporated molecularly imprinted fluorescent nanoparticles were synthesized. A combination of three novel approaches was applied for the purpose. First, lanthanide ions [Terbium(III)] were complexed with N-methacryloyl-L-histidine (MAH), polymerizable derivative of L-histidine amino acid, in order to incorporate the complex directly into the polymeric backbone. At the second stage, L-histidine molecules imprinted nanoparticles were utilized instead of whole protein imprinting in order to avoid whole drawbacks such as fragility, complexity, denaturation tendency, and conformation dependency. At the third stage following the first two steps mentioned above, imprinted L-histidine was coordinated with cupric ions [Cu(II)] to conduct the study under mild conditions. Then, molecularly imprinted fluorescent nanoparticles synthesized were used for L-histidine adsorption from aqueous solution to optimize conditions for adsorption and fluorimetric detection. Finally, usability of nanoparticles was investigated for chiral biorecognition using stereoisomer, D-histidine, racemic mixture, D,L-histidine, proteins with surface L-histidine residue, lysozyme, cytochrome C, or without ribonuclease A. The results revealed that the proposed polymerization strategy could make significant contribution to the solution of chronic problems of fluorescent component introduction into polymers. Additionally, the fluorescent nanoparticles reported here could be used for selective separation and fluorescent monitoring purposes. Highlights: • Lanthanide ion complex incorporated molecularly imprinted fluorescent nanoparticles • Direct incorporation of the fluorescent complex into polymeric backbone. • Imprinting by assistance of cupric ion coordination into nanoparticles • Evaluation of the chiral biorecognition ability of nanoparticles • Simultaneous selective separation and fluorescent monitoring.

  11. In situ identification of the synthrophic protein fermentative Coprothermobacter spp. involved in the thermophilic anaerobic digestion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliano, Maria Cristina; Braguglia, Camilla Maria; Rossetti, Simona

    2014-09-01

    Thermophilic bacteria have recently attracted great attention because of their potential application in improving different biochemical processes such as anaerobic digestion of various substrates, wastewater treatment or hydrogen production. In this study we report on the design of a specific 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probe for detecting members of Coprothermobacter genus characterized by a strong protease activity to degrade proteins and peptides. The newly designed CTH485 probe and helper probes hCTH429 and hCTH439 were optimized for use in fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on thermophilic anaerobic sludge samples. In situ probing revealed that thermo-adaptive mechanisms shaping the 16S rRNA gene may affect the identification of thermophilic microorganisms. The novel developed FISH probe extends the possibility to study the widespread thermophilic syntrophic interaction of Coprothermobacter spp. with hydrogenotrophic methanogenic archaea, whose establishment is a great benefit for the whole anaerobic system. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysis of primary aromatic amines using precolumn derivatization by HPLC fluorescence detection and online MS identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xianen; Suo, Yourui

    2008-03-01

    2-(2-phenyl-1H-phenanthro-[9,10-d]imidazole-1-yl)-acetic acid (PPIA) and 2-(9-acridone)-acetic acid (AAA), two novel precolumn fluorescent derivatization reagents, have been developed and compared for analysis of primary aromatic amines by high performance liquid chromatographic fluorescence detection coupled with online mass spectrometric identification. PPIA and AAA react rapidly and smoothly with the aromatic amines on the basis of a condensation reaction using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide (EDC) as dehydrating catalyst to form stable derivatives with emission wavelengths at 380 and 440 nm, respectively. Taking six primary aromatic amines (aniline, 2-methylaniline, 2-methoxyaniline, 4-methylaniline, 4-chloroaniline, and 4-bromoaniline) as testing compounds, derivatization conditions such as coupling reagent, basic catalyst, reaction temperature and time, reaction solvent, and fluorescent labeling reagent concentration have also been investigated. With the better PPIA method, chromatographic separation of derivatized aromatic amines exhibited a good baseline resolution on an RP column. At the same time, by online mass spectrometric identification with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) source in positive ion mode, the PPIA-labeled derivatives were characterized by easy-to-interpret mass spectra due to the prominent protonated molecular ion m/z [M + H](+) and specific fragment ions (MS/MS) m/z 335 and 295. The linear range is 24.41 fmol-200.0 pmol with correlation coefficients in the range of 0.9996-0.9999, and detection limits of PPIA-labeled aromatic amines are 0.12-0.21 nmol/L (S/N = 3). Method repeatability, precision, and recovery were evaluated and the results were excellent for the efficient HPLC analysis. The most important argument, however, was the high sensitivity and ease-of-handling of the PPIA method. Preliminary experiments with wastewater samples collected from the waterspout of a paper mill and its nearby soil where

  13. Membrane mobility and microdomain association of the dopaminetransporter studied with fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adkins, Erika; Samuvel, Devadoss; Fog, Jacob

    2007-01-01

    To investigate microdomain association of the dopamine transporter (DAT), we employed FCS (fluorescence correlation spectroscopy) and FRAP (fluorescence recovery after photobleaching). In non-neuronal cells (HEK293), FCS measurements revealed for the YFP-DAT (DAT tagged with yellow fluorescent...... protein) a diffusion coefficient (D) of ~3.6 × 10-9 cm2/s, consistent with a relatively freely diffusible protein. In neuronally derived cells (N2a), we were unable to perform FCS measurements on plasma membrane-associated protein due to photobleaching, suggesting partial immobilization...

  14. A novel monodisperse SiO2@C-dot for the rapid and facile identification of latent fingermarks using self-quenching resistant solid-state fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Di; Liu, Xiang; Huang, Mengjun; Wang, Dan; Liu, Renlong

    2018-04-24

    Solid powder fluorescence shows great potential for application in medicine, biology, and engineering, especially in the identification of latent fingermarks in forensic science. However, conventional developing methods suffer from some drawbacks, such as low contrast, low sensitivity, low selectivity, and high toxicity. To conquer these challenges, novel SiO2@C-dot microspheres were prepared via a facile one-pot hydrothermal method by using citric acid as a carbon source and aminosilane as a nitrogen source. Interestingly, the results showed that the resultant powders possess good monodispersity, high fluorescence emission, and resistance to self-quenching. Additionally, the mechanism for the solid-state fluorescence of SiO2@C-dot compounds was also investigated. More importantly, the fingermarks on various surfaces, including transparent glasses, ceramic tiles, transparent plastics, aluminum alloys, plastic cards, painted woods, artificial leathers, and Chinese paper money, developed by the powders have indicated well-defined papillary ridges under a 365 nm UV lamp. The novel strategy of using monodisperse SiO2@C-dot microspheres as a fluorescent label for developing latent fingermarks showed greater advantages compared to conventional methods, which was also demonstrated using the automatic fingerprint identification system. It is simple, rapid, low-cost, nontoxic, and effective, and is expected to be a promising alternative for the development of latent fingerprints in forensic science.

  15. Construction of a bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protein–protein interactions are essential for signal transduction in cells. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) is a novel technology that utilises green fluorescent proteins to visualize protein–protein interactions and subcellular protein localisation. BiFC based on pSATN vectors are a good system for ...

  16. 21 CFR 872.1745 - Laser fluorescence caries detection device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Laser fluorescence caries detection device. 872... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1745 Laser fluorescence caries detection device. (a) Identification. A laser fluorescence caries detection device is a laser, a...

  17. Ubiquitous distribution of fluorescent protein in muscles of four species and two subspecies of eel (genus Anguilla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funahashi, Aki; Itakura, Takao; Hassanin Abeer, A I; Komatsu, Masaharu; Hayashi, Seiichi; Kaminishi, Yoshio

    2017-03-01

    In this study, the localization of fluorescent protein (FP) was characterized in the muscles of four species and two subspecies of eels Anguilla anguilla, A. australis, A. bicolor bicolor (b.), A. bicolor pacifica (p.) and A. mossambica in addition to the previously reported A. japonica. The open reading frame of each eel FP was 417 bp encoding 139 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequences among the four species and two subspecies exhibited 91.4-100% identity, and belonged to the fatty-acid-binding protein (FABP) family. The gene structure of eel FPs in A. japonica, A. anguilla, A. australis, A. bicolor b., A. bicolor p. and A. mossambica have four exons and three introns, and were common to that of FABP family. The apo eel FPs expressed by Escherichia coli with recombinant eel FP genes were analysed for the fluorescent properties in the presence of bilirubin. The excitation and emission spectra of holo eel FPs had the maximum wavelengths of 490-496 and 527-530 nm, respectively. The holo eel FPs indicated that the fluorescent intensities were stronger in A. japonica and A. bicolor than in A. mossambica, A. australis and A. anguilla. The comparison of amino acid sequences revealed two common substitutions in A. mossambica, A. australis and A. anguilla with weak fluorescent intensity.

  18. Polyethylenimine-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles effectively quench fluorescent DNA, which can be developed as a novel platform for protein detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Long; Sun, Nana; Zhang, Jinyan; Tu, Chunhao; Cao, Xiuqi; Duan, Demin; Diao, Aipo; Man, Shuli

    2017-11-23

    We report a novel assembly of polyethyleneimine (PEI)-coated Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles (NPs) with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), and the fluorescence of the dye labeled in the DNA is remarkably quenched. In the presence of a target protein, the protein-DNA aptamer mutual interaction releases the ssDNA from this assembly and hence restores the fluorescence. This feature could be adopted to develop an aptasensor for protein detection. As a proof-of-concept, for the first time, we have used this proposed sensing strategy to detect thrombin selectively and sensitively. Furthermore, simultaneous multiple detection of thrombin and lysozyme in a complex protein mixture has been proven to be possible.

  19. Preparation of a novel fluorescence probe of terbium-europium co-luminescence composite nanoparticles and its application in the determination of proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Feng [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Anhui Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241000 (China)], E-mail: summit8848cn@hotmail.com; Luo Fabao; Tang Lijuan; Dai Lu [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Anhui Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241000 (China); Wang Lun [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Anhui Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241000 (China)], E-mail: wanglun@mail.ahnu.edu.cn

    2008-03-15

    Terbium-europium Tb-Eu/acetylacetone(acac)/poly(acrylamide) (PAM) co-luminescence composite nanoparticles were successfully prepared using the ultrasonic approach. The as-prepared composite nanoparticles show the characteristic emission spectra of Tb{sup 3+}, located at 496 and 549 nm. Furthermore, the nanoparticles are water soluble, stable and have extremely narrow emission bands and high internal fluorescence quantum yield due to the co-luminescence effect. Further studies indicate that proteins can interact with the nanoparticles and induce the fluorescence quenching of the nanoparticles. Based on the fluorescence quenching of nanopaticles in the presence of proteins, a novel method for the sensitive determination of trace amounts of proteins was proposed. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the linear ranges of calibration curves are 0-3.5 {mu}g mL{sup -1} for human serum albumin (HSA) and 0-4.0 {mu}g mL{sup -1} for {gamma}-globulin ({gamma}-IgG), respectively. The limits of detection are 7.1 for HSA and 6.7ng mL{sup -1} for {gamma}-IgG, respectively. The method was applied to the quantification of proteins in synthetic samples and actual human serum samples with satisfactory results. This proposed method is sensitive, simple and has potential application in the clinical assay of proteins.

  20. Non-radiographic intraoperative fluorescent cholangiography is feasible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Søren Schytt; Schulze, Svend; Bisgaard, Thue

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Intraoperative fluorescent cholangiography (IFC) with concomitant fluorescent angiography was recently developed for non-invasive identification of the anatomy during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The objective of this study was to assess the time required for routine-use of IFC...... hepatic duct was identified by IFC in all patients. In 29 of the 35 patients (83%; 95% confidence interval: 71-96%), the cystic artery was visualised by fluorescent angiography. No adverse effects or complications were recorded. CONCLUSION: Routine-use of IFC with fluorescent angiography during...

  1. Use of direct fluorescence labeling and confocal microscopy to determine the biodistribution of two protein therapeutics, Cerezyme and Ceredase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piepenhagen, Peter A; Vanpatten, Scott; Hughes, Heather; Waire, James; Murray, James; Andrews, Laura; Edmunds, Tim; O'Callaghan, Michael; Thurberg, Beth L

    2010-07-01

    Efficient targeting of therapeutic reagents to tissues and cell types of interest is critical to achieving therapeutic efficacy and avoiding unwanted side effects due to offtarget uptake. To increase assay efficiency and reduce the number of animals used per experiment during preclinical development, we used a combination of direct fluorescence labeling and confocal microscopy to simultaneously examine the biodistribution of two therapeutic proteins, Cerezyme and Ceredase, in the same animals. We show that the fluorescent tags do not interfere with protein uptake and localization. We are able to detect Cerezyme and Ceredase in intact cells and organs and demonstrate colocalization within target cells using confocal microscopy. In addition, the relative amount of protein internalized by different cell types can be quantified using cell type-specific markers and morphometric analysis. This approach provides an easy and straightforward means of assessing the tissue and cell type-specific biodistribution of multiple protein therapeutics in target organs using a minimal number of animals. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. A highly sensitive quantitative cytosensor technique for the identification of receptor ligands in tissue extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenkei, Z; Beaudet, A; Chartrel, N; De Mota, N; Irinopoulou, T; Braun, B; Vaudry, H; Llorens-Cortes, C

    2000-11-01

    Because G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute excellent putative therapeutic targets, functional characterization of orphan GPCRs through identification of their endogenous ligands has great potential for drug discovery. We propose here a novel single cell-based assay for identification of these ligands. This assay involves (a) fluorescent tagging of the GPCR, (b) expression of the tagged receptor in a heterologous expression system, (c) incubation of the transfected cells with fractions purified from tissue extracts, and (d) imaging of ligand-induced receptor internalization by confocal microscopy coupled to digital image quantification. We tested this approach in CHO cells stably expressing the NT1 neurotensin receptor fused to EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein), in which neurotensin promoted internalization of the NT1-EGFP receptor in a dose-dependent fashion (EC(50) = 0.98 nM). Similarly, four of 120 consecutive reversed-phase HPLC fractions of frog brain extracts promoted internalization of the NT1-EGFP receptor. The same four fractions selectively contained neurotensin, an endogenous ligand of the NT1 receptor, as detected by radioimmunoassay and inositol phosphate production. The present internalization assay provides a highly specific quantitative cytosensor technique with sensitivity in the nanomolar range that should prove useful for the identification of putative natural and synthetic ligands for GPCRs.

  3. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a monomeric mutant of Azami-Green (mAG), an Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein-like green-emitting fluorescent protein from the stony coral Galaxea fascicularis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebisawa, Tatsuki; Yamamura, Akihiro; Kameda, Yasuhiro; Hayakawa, Kou; Nagata, Koji; Tanokura, Masaru

    2009-01-01

    A monomeric mutant of Azami-Green from G. fascicularis was expressed, purified and crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystal belonged to space group P1 and diffracted X-rays to 2.20 Å resolution. Monomeric Azami-Green (mAG) from the stony coral Galaxea fascicularis is the first monomeric green-emitting fluorescent protein that is not a derivative of Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein (avGFP). mAG and avGFP are 27% identical in amino-acid sequence. Diffraction-quality crystals of recombinant mAG were obtained by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 3350 as the precipitant. The mAG crystal diffracted X-rays to 2.20 Å resolution on beamline AR-NW12A at the Photon Factory (Tsukuba, Japan). The crystal belonged to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 41.78, b = 51.72, c = 52.89 Å, α = 90.96, β = 103.41, γ = 101.79°. The Matthews coefficient (V M = 2.10 Å 3 Da −1 ) indicated that the crystal contained two mAG molecules per asymmetric unit

  4. Cell segmentation in time-lapse fluorescence microscopy with temporally varying sub-cellular fusion protein patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunyak, Filiz; Palaniappan, Kannappan; Chagin, Vadim; Cardoso, M

    2009-01-01

    Fluorescently tagged proteins such as GFP-PCNA produce rich dynamically varying textural patterns of foci distributed in the nucleus. This enables the behavioral study of sub-cellular structures during different phases of the cell cycle. The varying punctuate patterns of fluorescence, drastic changes in SNR, shape and position during mitosis and abundance of touching cells, however, require more sophisticated algorithms for reliable automatic cell segmentation and lineage analysis. Since the cell nuclei are non-uniform in appearance, a distribution-based modeling of foreground classes is essential. The recently proposed graph partitioning active contours (GPAC) algorithm supports region descriptors and flexible distance metrics. We extend GPAC for fluorescence-based cell segmentation using regional density functions and dramatically improve its efficiency for segmentation from O(N(4)) to O(N(2)), for an image with N(2) pixels, making it practical and scalable for high throughput microscopy imaging studies.

  5. Development of a keratinocyte-based screening model for antipsoriatic drugs using green fluorescent protein under the control of an endogenous promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pol, Arno; van Ruissen, Fred; Schalkwijk, Joost

    2002-08-01

    Inflamed epidermis (psoriasis, wound healing, ultraviolet-irradiated skin) harbors keratinocytes that are hyperproliferative and display an abnormal differentiation program. A distinct feature of this so-called regenerative maturation pathway is the expression of proteins such as the cytokeratins CK6, CK16, and CK17 and the antiinflammatory protein SKALP/elafin. These proteins are absent in normal skin but highly induced in lesional psoriatic skin. Expression of these genes can be used as a surrogate marker for psoriasis in drug-screening procedures of large compound libraries. The aim of this study was to develop a keratinocyte cell line that contained a reporter gene under the control of a psoriasis-associated endogenous promoter and demonstrate its use in an assay suitable for screening. We generated a stably transfected keratinocyte cell line that expresses enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), under the control of a 0.8-kb fragment derived from the promoter of the SKALP/elafin gene, which confers high levels of tissue-specific expression at the mRNA level. Induction of the SKALP promoter by tumor necrosis factor-alpha resulted in increased expression levels of the secreted SKALP-EGFP fusion protein as assessed by direct readout of fluorescence and fluorescence polarization in 96-well cell culture plates. The fold stimulation of the reporter gene was comparable to that of the endogenous SKALP gene as assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Although the dynamic range of the screening system is limited, the small standard deviation yields a Z factor of 0.49. This indicates that the assay is suitable as a high-throughput screen, and provides proof of the concept that a secreted EGFP fusion protein under the control of a physiologically relevant endogenous promoter can be used as a fluorescence-based high-throughput screen for differentiation-modifying or antiinflammatory compounds that act via the keratinocyte.

  6. Fluorescence energy transfer on erythrocyte membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, H.M.; Hof, M.; Lawaczeck, R.

    1995-08-01

    Stationary and time-dependent fluorescence have been measured for a donor/acceptor (DA) pair bound to membrane proteins of bovine erythrocyte ghosts. The donor N-(p-(2-benzoxazolyl)phenyl)-maleimid (BMI) and the acceptor fluram bind to SH- and NH 2 -residues, respectively. The fluorescence spectra and the time-dependent emission are consistent with a radiationless fluorescence energy transfer (RET). The density of RET-effective acceptor binding sites c=0.072 nm -2 was calculated on the basis of the two-dimensional Foerster-kinetic. Band3 protein is the only membrane spanning protein with accessible SH-groups, and therefore only effective binding sites on the band3 protein are counted for the RET measurements performed. (author). 23 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  7. Dynamic trafficking of wheat γ-gliadin and of its structural domains in tobacco cells, studied with fluorescent protein fusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francin-Allami, Mathilde; Saumonneau, Amélie; Lavenant, Laurence; Bouder, Axelle; Sparkes, Imogen; Hawes, Chris; Popineau, Yves

    2011-01-01

    Prolamins, the main storage proteins of wheat seeds, are synthesized and retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of the endosperm cells, where they accumulate in protein bodies (PBs) and are then exported to the storage vacuole. The mechanisms leading to these events are unresolved. To investigate this unconventional trafficking pathway, wheat γ-gliadin and its isolated repeated N-terminal and cysteine-rich C-terminal domains were fused to fluorescent proteins and expressed in tobacco leaf epidermal cells. The results indicated that γ-gliadin and both isolated domains were able to be retained and accumulated as protein body-like structures (PBLS) in the ER, suggesting that tandem repeats are not the only sequence involved in γ-gliadin ER retention and PBLS formation. The high actin-dependent mobility of γ-gliadin PBLS is also reported, and it is demonstrated that most of them do not co-localize with Golgi body or pre-vacuolar compartment markers. Both γ-gliadin domains are found in the same PBLS when co-expressed, which is most probably due to their ability to interact with each other, as indicated by the yeast two-hybrid and FRET-FLIM experiments. Moreover, when stably expressed in BY-2 cells, green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusions to γ-gliadin and its isolated domains were retained in the ER for several days before being exported to the vacuole in a Golgi-dependent manner, and degraded, leading to the release of the GFP ‘core’. Taken together, the results show that tobacco cells are a convenient model to study the atypical wheat prolamin trafficking with fluorescent protein fusions. PMID:21617248

  8. Live-cell topology assessment of URG7, MRP6{sub 102} and SP-C using glycosylatable green fluorescent protein in mammalian cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hunsang [School of Biological Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Lara, Patricia [Center for Biomembrane Research, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Ostuni, Angela [Department of Sciences, University of Basilicata, Viale dell’Ateneo Lucano 10, 85100 Potenza (Italy); Presto, Jenny [Karolinska Institutet, Dept of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Novum 5th Floor, 141 86 Stockholm (Sweden); Johansson, Janne [Karolinska Institutet, Dept of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Novum 5th Floor, 141 86 Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Biochemistry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, The Biomedical Centre, 751 23 Uppsala (Sweden); Institute of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Tallinn University, Narva mnt 25, 101 20 Tallinn (Estonia); Nilsson, IngMarie [Center for Biomembrane Research, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Kim, Hyun, E-mail: joy@snu.ac.kr [School of Biological Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • Glycosylatable GFP (gGFP) is developed for the use in mammalian cells. • gGFP selectively loses its fluorescence upon N-linked glycosylation in the ER lumen. • Differential fluorescence/glycosylation pattern probes membrane protein topology. • Membrane topology of URG7, MRP6{sub 102}, and SP-C was determined by gGFP tagging in vivo. - Abstract: Experimental tools to determine membrane topology of a protein are rather limited in higher eukaryotic organisms. Here, we report the use of glycosylatable GFP (gGFP) as a sensitive and versatile membrane topology reporter in mammalian cells. gGFP selectively loses its fluorescence upon N-linked glycosylation in the ER lumen. Thus, positive fluorescence signal assigns location of gGFP to the cytosol whereas no fluorescence signal and a glycosylated status of gGFP map the location of gGFP to the ER lumen. By using mammalian gGFP, the membrane topology of disease-associated membrane proteins, URG7, MRP6{sub 102}, SP-C(Val) and SP-C(Leu) was confirmed. URG7 is partially targeted to the ER, and inserted in C{sub in} form. MRP6{sub 102} and SP-C(Leu/Val) are inserted into the membrane in C{sub out} form. A minor population of untargeted SP-C is removed by proteasome dependent quality control system.

  9. Context based mixture model for cell phase identification in automated fluorescence microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Xiaobo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Automated identification of cell cycle phases of individual live cells in a large population captured via automated fluorescence microscopy technique is important for cancer drug discovery and cell cycle studies. Time-lapse fluorescence microscopy images provide an important method to study the cell cycle process under different conditions of perturbation. Existing methods are limited in dealing with such time-lapse data sets while manual analysis is not feasible. This paper presents statistical data analysis and statistical pattern recognition to perform this task. Results The data is generated from Hela H2B GFP cells imaged during a 2-day period with images acquired 15 minutes apart using an automated time-lapse fluorescence microscopy. The patterns are described with four kinds of features, including twelve general features, Haralick texture features, Zernike moment features, and wavelet features. To generate a new set of features with more discriminate power, the commonly used feature reduction techniques are used, which include Principle Component Analysis (PCA, Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA, Maximum Margin Criterion (MMC, Stepwise Discriminate Analysis based Feature Selection (SDAFS, and Genetic Algorithm based Feature Selection (GAFS. Then, we propose a Context Based Mixture Model (CBMM for dealing with the time-series cell sequence information and compare it to other traditional classifiers: Support Vector Machine (SVM, Neural Network (NN, and K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN. Being a standard practice in machine learning, we systematically compare the performance of a number of common feature reduction techniques and classifiers to select an optimal combination of a feature reduction technique and a classifier. A cellular database containing 100 manually labelled subsequence is built for evaluating the performance of the classifiers. The generalization error is estimated using the cross validation technique. The

  10. Membrane mobility and microdomain association of the dopamine transporter studied with fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adkins, Erika M; Samuvel, Devadoss J; Fog, Jacob U

    2007-01-01

    To investigate microdomain association of the dopamine transporter (DAT), we employed FCS (fluorescence correlation spectroscopy) and FRAP (fluorescence recovery after photobleaching). In non-neuronal cells (HEK293), FCS measurements revealed for the YFP-DAT (DAT tagged with yellow fluorescent...... protein) a diffusion coefficient (D) of approximately 3.6 x 10(-9) cm2/s, consistent with a relatively freely diffusible protein. In neuronally derived cells (N2a), we were unable to perform FCS measurements on plasma membrane-associated protein due to photobleaching, suggesting partial immobilization...

  11. Membranes and Fluorescence microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagatolli, Luis

    2009-01-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy-based techniques using conventional fluorimeters have been extensively applied since the late 1960s to study different aspects of membrane-related phenomena, i.e., mainly relating to lipid-lipid and lipid-protein (peptide) interactions. Even though fluorescence...

  12. Identification of hierarchy of dynamic domains in proteins: comparison of HDWA and HCCP techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesylevskyy S. O.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim. There are several techniques for the identification of hierarchy of dynamic domains in proteins. The goal of this work is to compare systematically two recently developed techniques, HCCP and HDWA,on a set of proteins from diverse structural classes. Methods. HDWA and HCCP techniques are used. The HDWA technique is designed to identify hierarchically organized dynamic domains in proteins using the Molecular Dynamics (MD trajectories, while HCCP utilizes the normal modes of simplified elastic network models. Results. It is shown that the dynamic domains found by HDWA are consistent with the domains identified by HCCP and other techniques. At the same time HDWA identifies flexible mobile loops of proteins correctly, which is hard to achieve with other model-based domain identification techniques. Conclusion. HDWA is shown to be a powerful method of analysis of MD trajectories, which can be used in various areas of protein science.

  13. Aptamer-mediated indirect quantum dot labeling and fluorescent imaging of target proteins in living cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jianbo; Zhang, Pengfei; Yang, Xiaohai; Wang, Kemin; Guo, Qiuping; Huang, Jin; Li, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Protein labeling for dynamic living cell imaging plays a significant role in basic biological research, as well as in clinical diagnostics and therapeutics. We have developed a novel strategy in which the dynamic visualization of proteins within living cells is achieved by using aptamers as mediators for indirect protein labeling of quantum dots (QDs). With this strategy, the target protein angiogenin was successfully labeled with fluorescent QDs in a minor intactness model, which was mediated by the aptamer AL6-B. Subsequent living cell imaging analyses indicated that the QDs nanoprobes were selectively bound to human umbilical vein endothelial cells, gradually internalized into the cytoplasm, and mostly localized in the lysosome organelle, indicating that the labeled protein retained high activity. Compared with traditional direct protein labeling methods, the proposed aptamer-mediated strategy is simple, inexpensive, and provides a highly selective, stable, and intact labeling platform that has shown great promise for future biomedical labeling and intracellular protein dynamic analyses. (paper)

  14. Identification of proteins in the postsynaptic density fraction by mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walikonis, R S; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard; Mann, M

    2000-01-01

    Our understanding of the organization of postsynaptic signaling systems at excitatory synapses has been aided by the identification of proteins in the postsynaptic density (PSD) fraction, a subcellular fraction enriched in structures with the morphology of PSDs. In this study, we have completed...... not previously known to be constituents of the PSD fraction and 24 that had previously been associated with the PSD by other methods. The newly identified proteins include the heavy chain of myosin-Va (dilute myosin), a motor protein thought to be involved in vesicle trafficking, and the mammalian homolog...

  15. Receptor-mediated oral delivery of a bioencapsulated green fluorescent protein expressed in transgenic chloroplasts into the mouse circulatory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limaye, Arati; Koya, Vijay; Samsam, Mohtashem; Daniell, Henry

    2006-05-01

    Oral delivery of biopharmaceutical proteins expressed in plant cells should reduce their cost of production, purification, processing, cold storage, transportation, and delivery. However, poor intestinal absorption of intact proteins is a major challenge. To overcome this limitation, we investigate here the concept of receptor-mediated oral delivery of chloroplast-expressed foreign proteins. Therefore, the transmucosal carrier cholera toxin B-subunit and green fluorescent protein (CTB-GFP), separated by a furin cleavage site, was expressed via the tobacco chloroplast genome. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot analyses confirmed site-specific transgene integration and homoplasmy. Immunoblot analysis and ELISA confirmed expression of monomeric and pentameric forms of CTB-GFP, up to 21.3% of total soluble proteins. An in vitro furin cleavage assay confirmed integrity of the engineered furin cleavage site, and a GM1 binding assay confirmed the functionality of CTB-GFP pentamers. Following oral administration of CTB-GFP expressing leaf material to mice, GFP was observed in the mice intestinal mucosa, liver, and spleen in fluorescence and immunohistochemical studies, while CTB remained in the intestinal cell. This report of receptor-mediated oral delivery of a foreign protein into the circulatory system opens the door for low-cost production and delivery of human therapeutic proteins.

  16. Discovering functional interdependence relationship in PPI networks for protein complex identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Winnie W M; Chan, Keith C C

    2012-04-01

    Protein molecules interact with each other in protein complexes to perform many vital functions, and different computational techniques have been developed to identify protein complexes in protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. These techniques are developed to search for subgraphs of high connectivity in PPI networks under the assumption that the proteins in a protein complex are highly interconnected. While these techniques have been shown to be quite effective, it is also possible that the matching rate between the protein complexes they discover and those that are previously determined experimentally be relatively low and the "false-alarm" rate can be relatively high. This is especially the case when the assumption of proteins in protein complexes being more highly interconnected be relatively invalid. To increase the matching rate and reduce the false-alarm rate, we have developed a technique that can work effectively without having to make this assumption. The name of the technique called protein complex identification by discovering functional interdependence (PCIFI) searches for protein complexes in PPI networks by taking into consideration both the functional interdependence relationship between protein molecules and the network topology of the network. The PCIFI works in several steps. The first step is to construct a multiple-function protein network graph by labeling each vertex with one or more of the molecular functions it performs. The second step is to filter out protein interactions between protein pairs that are not functionally interdependent of each other in the statistical sense. The third step is to make use of an information-theoretic measure to determine the strength of the functional interdependence between all remaining interacting protein pairs. Finally, the last step is to try to form protein complexes based on the measure of the strength of functional interdependence and the connectivity between proteins. For performance evaluation

  17. Branched-chain Amino Acid Biosensing Using Fluorescent Modified Engineered Leucine/Isoleucine/Valine Binding Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Sode

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel fluorescence sensing system for branched-chain amino acids (BCAAswas developed based on engineered leucine/isoleucine/valine-binding proteins (LIVBPsconjugated with environmentally sensitive fluorescence probes. LIVBP was cloned fromEscherichia coli and Gln149Cys, Gly227Cys, and Gln254Cys mutants were generated bygenetic engineering. The mutant LIVBPs were then modified with environmentallysensitive fluorophores. Based on the fluorescence intensity change observed upon thebinding of the ligands, the MIANS-conjugated Gln149Cys mutant (Gln149Cys-M showedthe highest and most sensitive response. The BCAAs Leu, Ile, and Val can each bemonitored at the sub-micromolar level using Gln149Cys-M. Measurements were alsocarried out on a mixture of BCAFAs and revealed that Gln149Cys-M-based measurementis not significantly affected by the change in the molar ratio of Leu, Ile and Val in thesample. Its high sensitivity and group-specific molecular recognition ability make the newsensing system ideally suited for the measurement of BCAAs and the determination of theFischer ratio, an indicator of hepatic disease involving metabolic dysfunction.

  18. Fluorescence reporters for Hfq oligomerization and RNA annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panja, Subrata; Woodson, Sarah A.

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy is a sensitive technique for detecting protein-protein, protein-RNA and RNA-RNA interactions, requiring only nanomolar concentrations of labeled components. Fluorescence anisotropy provides information about the assembly of multi-subunit proteins, while molecular beacons provide a sensitive and quantitative reporter for base pairing between complementary RNAs. Here we present a detailed protocol for labeling Hfq protein with cyanine 3-maleimide and dansyl chloride to study the protein oligomerization and RNA binding by semi-native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and fluorescence anisotropy. We also present a detailed protocol for measuring the rate of annealing between a molecular beacon and a target RNA in the presence of Hfq using a stopped-flow spectrometer. PMID:25579597

  19. Transgenic nude mouse with green fluorescent protein expression-based human glioblastoma multiforme animal model with EGFR expression and invasiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Guo-Wei; Lan, Fo-Lin; Gao, Jian-Guo; Jiang, Cai-Mou; Zhang, Yi; Huang, Xiao-Hong; Ma, Yue-Hong; Shao, He-Dui; He, Xue-Yang; Chen, Jin-Long; Long, Jian-Wu; Xiao, Hui-Sheng; Guo, Zhi-Tong; Diao, Yi

    2012-08-01

    Previously, we developed an orthotopic xenograft model of human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) with high EGFR expression and invasiveness in Balb/c nu/nu nude mice. Now we also developed the same orthotopic xenograft model in transgenic nude mice with green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression. The present orthotopic xenografts labeled by phycoerythrin fluorescing red showed high EGFR expression profile, and invasive behavior under a bright green-red dual-color fluorescence background. A striking advantage in the present human GBM model is that the change of tumor growth can be observed visually instead of sacrificing animals in our further antitumor therapy studies.

  20. Background-free, high sensitivity staining of proteins in one- and two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels using a luminescent ruthenium complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, K; Chernokalskaya, E; Steinberg, T H; Kemper, C; Lopez, M F; Diwu, Z; Haugland, R P; Patton, W F

    2000-07-01

    SYPRO Ruby dye is a permanent stain comprised of ruthenium as part of an organic complex that interacts noncovalently with proteins. SYPRO Ruby Protein Gel Stain provides a sensitive, gentle, fluorescence-based method for detecting proteins in one-dimensional and two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. Proteins are fixed, stained from 3h to overnight and then rinsed in deionized water or dilute methanol/acetic acid solution for 30 min. The stain can be visualized using a wide range of excitation sources commonly used in image analysis systems including a 302 nm UV-B transilluminator, 473 nm second harmonic generation (SHG) laser, 488 nm argon-ion laser, 532 nm yttrium-aluminum-garnet (YAG) laser, xenon arc lamp, blue fluorescent light bulb or blue light-emitting diode (LED). The sensitivity of SYPRO Ruby Protein Gel Stain is superior to colloidal Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB) stain or monobromobimane labeling and comparable with the highest sensitivity silver or zinc-imidazole staining procedures available. The linear dynamic range of SYPRO Ruby Protein Gel stain extends over three orders of magnitude, which is vastly superior to silver, zinc-imidazole, monobromobimane and CBB stain. The fluorescent stain does not contain superfluous chemicals (formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, Tween-20) that frequently interfere with peptide identification in mass spectrometry. While peptide mass profiles are severely altered in protein samples prelabeled with monobromobimane, successful identification of proteins by peptide mass profiling using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry was easily performed after protein detection with SYPRO Ruby Protein Gel stain.

  1. Predicting the "usefulness" of 5-ALA-derived tumor fluorescence for fluorescence-guided resections in pediatric brain tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stummer, Walter; Rodrigues, Floriano; Schucht, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    fluorescence was "useful", i.e., leading to changes in surgical strategy or identification of residual tumor. Recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) was used for defining cohorts with high or low likelihoods for useful fluorescence. RESULTS: Data on 78 patients ..., 25 %) and pilocytic astrocytomas (two of 13; 15 %). RPA of pre-operative factors showed tumors with supratentorial location, strong contrast enhancement and first operation to have a likelihood of useful fluorescence of 64.3 %, as opposed to infratentorial tumors with first surgery (23...

  2. Determination of glutaredoxin enzyme activity and protein S-glutathionylation using fluorescent eosin-glutathione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppo, Lucia; Montano, Sergio J; Padilla, Alicia C; Holmgren, Arne

    2016-04-15

    Glutaredoxins catalyze glutathione-dependent disulfide oxidoreductions, particularly reduction of glutathione (GSH)-protein mixed disulfides. Mammalian glutaredoxins are present in the cytosol/nucleus as Grx1 or in mitochondria as Grx2a. Here we describe di-eosin-glutathione disulfide (Di-E-GSSG) as a new tool to study glutaredoxin (Grx) activity. Di-E-GSSG has almost no fluorescence in its disulfide form due to self-quenching, whereas the reduced form (E-GSH) has a large fluorescence emission at 545 nm after excitation at 520 nm. Di-E-GSSG was a very poor substrate for glutathione reductase, but we discovered that the molecule was an excellent substrate for glutaredoxin in a coupled assay system with GSH, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), and glutathione reductase or with lipoamide, NADH, and lipoamide dehydrogenase. In addition, Di-E-GSSG was used to glutathionylate the free SH group of bovine serum albumin (BSA), yielding eosin-glutathionylated BSA (E-GS-BSA) readily observed in ultraviolet (UV) light. E-GS-BSA also displayed a quenched fluorescence, and its Grx-catalyzed reduction could be followed by the formation of E-GSH by fluorescence emission using microtiter plates. This way of measuring Grx activity provided an ultrasensitive method that detected Grx1 and Grx2 at picomolar levels. Human Grx1 was readily quantified in 40 μl of plasma and determined to be 680 ± 208 pM in healthy controls. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. In vitro and in vivo mapping of the Prunus necrotic ringspot virus coat protein C-terminal dimerization domain by bimolecular fluorescence complementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Frederic; Sánchez-Navarro, Jesús A; Pallás, Vicente

    2006-06-01

    Interactions between viral proteins are critical for virus viability. Bimolecular fluorescent complementation (BiFC) technique determines protein interactions in real-time under almost normal physiological conditions. The coat protein (CP) of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus is required for multiple functions in its replication cycle. In this study, the region involved in CP dimerization has been mapped by BiFC in both bacteria and plant tissue. Full-length and C-terminal deleted forms of the CP gene were fused in-frame to the N- and C-terminal fragments of the yellow fluorescent protein. The BiFC analysis showed that a domain located between residues 9 and 27 from the C-end plays a critical role in dimerization. The importance of this C-terminal region in dimer formation and the applicability of the BiFC technique to analyse viral protein interactions are discussed.

  4. Efficient and dynamic nuclear localization of green fluorescent protein via RNA binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitamura, Akira; Nakayama, Yusaku; Kinjo, Masataka, E-mail: kinjo@sci.hokudai.ac.jp

    2015-07-31

    Classical nuclear localization signal (NLS) sequences have been used for artificial localization of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in the nucleus as a positioning marker or for measurement of the nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling rate in living cells. However, the detailed mechanism of nuclear retention of GFP-NLS remains unclear. Here, we show that a candidate mechanism for the strong nuclear retention of GFP-NLS is via the RNA-binding ability of the NLS sequence. GFP tagged with a classical NLS derived from Simian virus 40 (GFP-NLS{sup SV40}) localized not only in the nucleoplasm, but also to the nucleolus, the nuclear subdomain in which ribosome biogenesis takes place. GFP-NLS{sup SV40} in the nucleolus was mobile, and intriguingly, the diffusion coefficient, which indicates the speed of diffusing molecules, was 1.5-fold slower than in the nucleoplasm. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) analysis showed that GFP-NLS{sup SV40} formed oligomers via RNA binding, the estimated molecular weight of which was larger than the limit for passive nuclear export into the cytoplasm. These findings suggest that the nuclear localization of GFP-NLS{sup SV40} likely results from oligomerization mediated via RNA binding. The analytical technique used here can be applied for elucidating the details of other nuclear localization mechanisms, including those of several types of nuclear proteins. In addition, GFP-NLS{sup SV40} can be used as an excellent marker for studying both the nucleoplasm and nucleolus in living cells. - Highlights: • Nuclear localization signal-tagged GFP (GFP-NLS) showed clear nuclear localization. • The GFP-NLS dynamically localized not only in the nucleoplasm, but also to the nucleolus. • The nuclear localization of GFP-NLS results from transient oligomerization mediated via RNA binding. • Our NLS-tagging procedure is ideal for use in artificial sequestration of proteins in the nucleus.

  5. Efficient and dynamic nuclear localization of green fluorescent protein via RNA binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Akira; Nakayama, Yusaku; Kinjo, Masataka

    2015-01-01

    Classical nuclear localization signal (NLS) sequences have been used for artificial localization of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in the nucleus as a positioning marker or for measurement of the nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling rate in living cells. However, the detailed mechanism of nuclear retention of GFP-NLS remains unclear. Here, we show that a candidate mechanism for the strong nuclear retention of GFP-NLS is via the RNA-binding ability of the NLS sequence. GFP tagged with a classical NLS derived from Simian virus 40 (GFP-NLS SV40 ) localized not only in the nucleoplasm, but also to the nucleolus, the nuclear subdomain in which ribosome biogenesis takes place. GFP-NLS SV40 in the nucleolus was mobile, and intriguingly, the diffusion coefficient, which indicates the speed of diffusing molecules, was 1.5-fold slower than in the nucleoplasm. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) analysis showed that GFP-NLS SV40 formed oligomers via RNA binding, the estimated molecular weight of which was larger than the limit for passive nuclear export into the cytoplasm. These findings suggest that the nuclear localization of GFP-NLS SV40 likely results from oligomerization mediated via RNA binding. The analytical technique used here can be applied for elucidating the details of other nuclear localization mechanisms, including those of several types of nuclear proteins. In addition, GFP-NLS SV40 can be used as an excellent marker for studying both the nucleoplasm and nucleolus in living cells. - Highlights: • Nuclear localization signal-tagged GFP (GFP-NLS) showed clear nuclear localization. • The GFP-NLS dynamically localized not only in the nucleoplasm, but also to the nucleolus. • The nuclear localization of GFP-NLS results from transient oligomerization mediated via RNA binding. • Our NLS-tagging procedure is ideal for use in artificial sequestration of proteins in the nucleus

  6. Vibrational energy flow through the green fluorescent protein-water interface: communication maps and thermal boundary conductance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yao; Leitner, David M

    2014-07-17

    We calculate communication maps for green fluorescent protein (GFP) to elucidate energy transfer pathways between the chromophore and other parts of the protein in the ground and excited state. The approach locates energy transport channels from the chromophore to remote regions of the protein via residues and water molecules that hydrogen bond to the chromophore. We calculate the thermal boundary conductance between GFP and water over a wide range of temperature and find that the interface between the protein and the cluster of water molecules in the β-barrel poses negligible resistance to thermal flow, consistent with facile vibrational energy transfer from the chromophore to the β-barrel waters observed in the communication maps.

  7. A two-channel detection method for autofluorescence correction and efficient on-bead screening of one-bead one-compound combinatorial libraries using the COPAS fluorescence activated bead sorting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hintersteiner, Martin; Auer, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    One-bead one-compound combinatorial library beads exhibit varying levels of autofluorescence after solid phase combinatorial synthesis. Very often this causes significant problems for automated on-bead screening using TentaGel beads and fluorescently labeled target proteins. Herein, we present a method to overcome this limitation when fluorescence activated bead sorting is used as the screening method. We have equipped the COPAS bead sorting instrument with a high-speed profiling unit and developed a spectral autofluorescence correction method. The correction method is based on a simple algebraic operation using the fluorescence data from two detection channels and is applied on-the-fly in order to reliably identify hit beads by COPAS bead sorting. Our method provides a practical tool for the fast and efficient isolation of hit beads from one-bead one-compound library screens using either fluorescently labeled target proteins or biotinylated target proteins. This method makes hit bead identification easier and more reliable. It reduces false positives and eliminates the need for time-consuming pre-sorting of library beads in order to remove autofluorescent beads. (technical note)

  8. Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching Analysis of the Diffusional Mobility of Plasma Membrane Proteins: HER3 Mobility in Breast Cancer Cell Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Mitul; Koland, John G

    2016-01-01

    The fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) method is a straightforward means of assessing the diffusional mobility of membrane-associated proteins that is readily performed with current confocal microscopy instrumentation. We describe here the specific application of the FRAP method in characterizing the lateral diffusion of genetically encoded green fluorescence protein (GFP)-tagged plasma membrane receptor proteins. The method is exemplified in an examination of whether the previously observed segregation of the mammalian HER3 receptor protein in discrete plasma membrane microdomains results from its physical interaction with cellular entities that restrict its mobility. Our FRAP measurements of the diffusional mobility of GFP-tagged HER3 reporters expressed in MCF7 cultured breast cancer cells showed that despite the observed segregation of HER3 receptors within plasma membrane microdomains their diffusion on the macroscopic scale is not spatially restricted. Thus, in FRAP analyses of various HER3 reporters a near-complete recovery of fluorescence after photobleaching was observed, indicating that HER3 receptors are not immobilized by long-lived physical interactions with intracellular species. An examination of HER3 proteins with varying intracellular domain sequence truncations also indicated that a proposed formation of oligomeric HER3 networks, mediated by physical interactions involving specific HER3 intracellular domain sequences, either does not occur or does not significantly reduce HER3 mobility on the macroscopic scale.

  9. Production of a soluble recombinant prion protein fused to blue fluorescent protein without refolding or detergents in Escherichia coli cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arii, Yasuhiro; Yamaguchi, Hidenori; Fukuoka, Shin-Ichi

    2007-10-01

    The physiological function of prion proteins (PrP) remains unclear. To investigate the physiological relevance of PrP, we constructed a fusion protein of PrP with enhanced blue fluorescent protein (PrP-EBFP) to quantify the interaction of PrP with other molecules. Production of soluble PrP-EBFP was achieved by lowering the expression temperature in Escherichia coli (E. coli) cells to 15 degrees C. Soluble PrP-EBFP was purified on cation exchange and heparin-affinity columns to yield high purity protein. This is the first report of the preparation of soluble recombinant PrP without refolding following solubilization using denaturants or disruption using detergents. To confirm the integrity of PrP-EBFP, anisotropy was estimated under physiological conditions in the presence of heparin, which interacts with PrP. The dissociation constant was determined to be 0.88+/-0.07 microM. PrP-EBFP should be useful in the quantification of PrP interactions with other molecules.

  10. Identification of surface proteins in Enterococcus faecalis V583

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eijsink Vincent GH

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surface proteins are a key to a deeper understanding of the behaviour of Gram-positive bacteria interacting with the human gastro-intestinal tract. Such proteins contribute to cell wall synthesis and maintenance and are important for interactions between the bacterial cell and the human host. Since they are exposed and may play roles in pathogenicity, surface proteins are interesting targets for drug design. Results Using methods based on proteolytic "shaving" of bacterial cells and subsequent mass spectrometry-based protein identification, we have identified surface-located proteins in Enterococcus faecalis V583. In total 69 unique proteins were identified, few of which have been identified and characterized previously. 33 of these proteins are predicted to be cytoplasmic, whereas the other 36 are predicted to have surface locations (31 or to be secreted (5. Lipid-anchored proteins were the most dominant among the identified surface proteins. The seemingly most abundant surface proteins included a membrane protein with a potentially shedded extracellular sulfatase domain that could act on the sulfate groups in mucin and a lipid-anchored fumarate reductase that could contribute to generation of reactive oxygen species. Conclusions The present proteome analysis gives an experimental impression of the protein landscape on the cell surface of the pathogenic bacterium E. faecalis. The 36 identified secreted (5 and surface (31 proteins included several proteins involved in cell wall synthesis, pheromone-regulated processes, and transport of solutes, as well as proteins with unknown function. These proteins stand out as interesting targets for further investigation of the interaction between E. faecalis and its environment.

  11. Systematic identification of protein complexes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ho, Yuen; Gruhler, Albrecht; Heilbut, Adrian

    2002-01-01

    The recent abundance of genome sequence data has brought an urgent need for systematic proteomics to decipher the encoded protein networks that dictate cellular function. To date, generation of large-scale protein-protein interaction maps has relied on the yeast two-hybrid system, which detects...... as a test case, an example of this approach, which we term high-throughput mass spectrometric protein complex identification (HMS-PCI). Beginning with 10% of predicted yeast proteins as baits, we detected 3,617 associated proteins covering 25% of the yeast proteome. Numerous protein complexes were...... identified, including many new interactions in various signalling pathways and in the DNA damage response. Comparison of the HMS-PCI data set with interactions reported in the literature revealed an average threefold higher success rate in detection of known complexes compared with large-scale two...

  12. Preparation and Observation of Fresh-frozen Sections of the Green Fluorescent Protein Transgenic Mouse Head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tada, Masahito; Shinohara, Yoshinori; Kato, Ichiro; Hiraga, Koichi; Aizawa, Tomoyasu; Demura, Makoto; Mori, Yoshihiro; Shinoda, Hiroyuki; Mizuguchi, Mineyuki; Kawano, Keiichi

    2006-01-01

    Hard tissue decalcification can cause variation in the constituent protein characteristics. This paper describes a method of preparating of frozen mouse head sections so as to clearly observe the nature of the constituent proteins. Frozen sections of various green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mouse heads were prepared using the film method developed by Kawamoto and Shimizu. This method made specimen dissection without decalcification possible, wherein GFP was clearly observed in an undamaged state. Conversely, using the same method with decalcification made GFP observation in the transgenic mouse head difficult. This new method is suitable for observing GFP marked cells, enabling us to follow the transplanted GFP marked cells within frozen head sections

  13. Homogeneous competitive assay of ligand affinities based on quenching fluorescence of tyrosine/tryptophan residues in a protein via Főrster-resonance-energy-transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yanling; Yang, Xiaolan; Pu, Jun; Zhao, Yunsheng; Zhang, Ying; Xie, Guoming; Zheng, Jun; Yuan, Huidong; Liao, Fei

    2010-11-01

    A new homogeneous competitive assay of ligand affinities was proposed based on quenching the fluorescence of tryptophan/tyrosine residues in a protein via Főrster-resonance-energy-transfer using a fluorescent reference ligand as the acceptor. Under excitation around 280 nm, the fluorescence of a protein or a bound acceptor was monitored upon competitive binding against a nonfluorescent candidate ligand. Chemometrics for deriving the binding ratio of the acceptor with either fluorescence signal was discussed; the dissociation constant ( Kd) of a nonfluorescent candidate ligand was calculated from its concentration to displace 50% binding of the acceptor. N-biotinyl-N'-(1-naphthyl)-ethylenediamine (BNEDA) and N-biotinyl-N'-dansyl-ethylenediamine (BDEDA) were used as the reference ligands and acceptors to streptavidin to test this new homogeneous competitive assay. Upon binding of an acceptor to streptavidin, there were the quench of streptavidin fluorescence at 340 nm and the characteristic fluorescence at 430 nm for BNEDA or at 525 nm for BDEDA. Kd of BNEDA and BDEDA was obtained via competitive binding against biotin. By quantifying BNEDA fluorescence, Kd of each tested nonfluorescent biotin derivative was consistent with that by quantifying streptavidin fluorescence using BNEDA or BDEDA as the acceptor. The overall coefficients of variation were about 10%. Therefore, this homogeneous competitive assay was effective and promising to high-throughput-screening.

  14. Use of green fluorescent protein fusions to analyse the N- and C-terminal signal peptides of GPI-anchored cell wall proteins in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yuxin; Zhang, Zimei; Wong, Brian

    2003-12-01

    Glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins account for 26-35% of the Candida albicans cell wall. To understand the signals that regulate these proteins' cell surface localization, green fluorescent protein (GFP) was fused to the N- and C-termini of the C. albicans cell wall proteins (CWPs) Hwp1p, Als3p and Rbt5p. C. albicans expressing all three fusion proteins were fluorescent at the cell surface. GFP was released from membrane fractions by PI-PLC and from cell walls by beta-glucanase, which implied that GFP was GPI-anchored to the plasma membrane and then covalently attached to cell wall glucans. Twenty and 25 amino acids, respectively, from the N- and C-termini of Hwp1p were sufficient to target GFP to the cell surface. C-terminal substitutions that are permitted by the omega rules (G613D, G613N, G613S, G613A, G615S) did not interfere with GFP localization, whereas some non-permitted substitutions (G613E, G613Q, G613R, G613T and G615Q) caused GFP to accumulate in intracellular ER-like structures and others (G615C, G613N/G615C and G613D/G615C) did not. These results imply that (i) GFP fusions can be used to analyse the N- and C-terminal signal peptides of GPI-anchored CWPs, (ii) the omega amino acid in Hwp1p is G613, and (iii) C can function at the omega+2 position in C. albicans GPI-anchored proteins.

  15. Evaluating the binding efficiency of pheromone binding protein with its natural ligand using molecular docking and fluorescence analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilayaraja, Renganathan; Rajkumar, Ramalingam; Rajesh, Durairaj; Muralidharan, Arumugam Ramachandran; Padmanabhan, Parasuraman; Archunan, Govindaraju

    2014-06-01

    Chemosignals play a crucial role in social and sexual communication among inter- and intra-species. Chemical cues are bound with protein that is present in the pheromones irrespective of sex are commonly called as pheromone binding protein (PBP). In rats, the pheromone compounds are bound with low molecular lipocalin protein α2u-globulin (α2u). We reported farnesol is a natural endogenous ligand (compound) present in rat preputial gland as a bound volatile compound. In the present study, an attempt has been made through computational method to evaluating the binding efficiency of α2u with the natural ligand (farnesol) and standard fluorescent molecule (2-naphthol). The docking analysis revealed that the binding energy of farnesol and 2-naphthol was almost equal and likely to share some binding pocket of protein. Further, to extrapolate the results generated through computational approach, the α2u protein was purified and subjected to fluorescence titration and binding assay. The results showed that the farnesol is replaced by 2-naphthol with high hydrophobicity of TYR120 in binding sites of α2u providing an acceptable dissociation constant indicating the binding efficiency of α2u. The obtained results are in corroboration with the data made through computational approach.

  16. Identification of novel direct protein-protein interactions by irradiating living cells with femtosecond UV laser pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itri, Francesco; Monti, Daria Maria; Chino, Marco; Vinciguerra, Roberto; Altucci, Carlo; Lombardi, Angela; Piccoli, Renata; Birolo, Leila; Arciello, Angela

    2017-10-07

    The identification of protein-protein interaction networks in living cells is becoming increasingly fundamental to elucidate main biological processes and to understand disease molecular bases on a system-wide level. We recently described a method (LUCK, Laser UV Cross-linKing) to cross-link interacting protein surfaces in living cells by UV laser irradiation. By using this innovative methodology, that does not require any protein modification or cell engineering, here we demonstrate that, upon UV laser irradiation of HeLa cells, a direct interaction between GAPDH and alpha-enolase was "frozen" by a cross-linking event. We validated the occurrence of this direct interaction by co-immunoprecipitation and Immuno-FRET analyses. This represents a proof of principle of the LUCK capability to reveal direct protein interactions in their physiological environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. AFM-based identification of the dynamic properties of globular proteins: simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Deok Ho; Park, Jung Yul; Kim, Moon K.; Hong, Keum Shik

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays a mathematical model-based computational approach is getting more attention as an effective tool for understanding the mechanical behaviors of biological systems. To find the mechanical properties of the proteins required to build such a model, this paper investigates a real-time identification method based on an AFM nanomanipulation system. First, an AFM-based bio-characterization system is introduced. Second, a second-order time-varying linear model representing the interaction between an AFM cantilever and globular proteins in a solvent is presented. Finally, we address a real-time estimation method in which the results of AFM experiments are designed to be inputs of the state estimator proposed here. Our attention is restricted to a theoretical feasibility analysis of the proposed methodology. We simply set the mechanical properties of the particular protein such as mass, stiffness, and damping coefficient in the system model prior to running the simulation. Simulation results show very good agreement with the preset properties. We anticipate that the realization of the AFM-based bio-characterization system will also provide an experimental validation of the proposed identification procedure in the future. This methodology can be used to determine a model of protein motion for the purpose of computer simulation and for a real-time modification of protein deformation

  18. Combination of microautoradiography and fluorescence in situ hybridization for identification of microorganisms degrading xenobiotic contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanru; Zarda, Annatina; Zeyer, Josef

    2003-12-01

    One of the central topics in environmental bioremediation research is to identify microorganisms that are capable of degrading the contaminants of interest. Here we report application of combined microautoradiography (MAR) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The method has previously been used in a number of systems; however, here we demonstrate its feasibility in studying the degradation of xenobiotic compounds. With a model system (coculture of Pseudomonas putida B2 and Sphingomonas stygia incubated with [14C] o-nitrophenol), combination of MAR and FISH was shown to be able to successfully identify the microorganisms degrading o-nitrophenol. Compared with the conventional techniques, MAR-FISH allows fast and accurate identification of the microorganisms involved in environmental contaminant degradation.

  19. Enhanced detection of single-cell-secreted proteins using a fluorescent immunoassay on the protein-G-terminated glass substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Y

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Yoon Jeong,1,2 Kwan Hong Lee,1,2 Hansoo Park,3 Jonghoon Choi1,2 1Department of Bionano Technology, Graduate School, Hanyang University, Seoul, 2Department of Bionano Engineering, Hanyang University ERICA, Ansan, 3School of Integrative Engineering, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, South Korea Abstract: We present an evaluation of protein-G-terminated glass slides that may contain a suitable substrate for aligning the orientation of antibodies to obtain better binding moiety to the target antigen. The results of the protein-G-terminated slides were compared with those obtained with epoxy-based slides to evaluate signal enhancement for human immunoglobulin G (IgG targets, and an increase in the average fluorescence intensity was observed for the lowest measurable amount of IgG target in the assay using protein-G-terminated slides. Applying this strategy for signal amplification to single-cell assays improves the limits of detection for human IgG protein and cytokines (interleukin-2 and interferon-γ captured from hybridomas. Our data indicate that protein-G-terminated slides have a higher binding capacity for antigens and have better spot-to-spot consistency than that of traditional epoxy-based slides. These properties would be beneficial in the detection of fine amounts of single-cell-secreted proteins, which may provide key insights into cell–cell communication and immune responses. Keywords: microwell array, antibody’s orientation, single cell analysis, secreted cytokine, protein-G-terminated surface

  20. Chiral recognition of proteins having L-histidine residues on the surface with lanthanide ion complex incorporated-molecularly imprinted fluorescent nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, Lokman; Uzek, Recep; Senel, Serap; Say, Ridvan; Denizli, Adil

    2013-08-01

    In this study, lanthanide ion complex incorporated molecularly imprinted fluorescent nanoparticles were synthesized. A combination of three novel approaches was applied for the purpose. First, lanthanide ions [Terbium(III)] were complexed with N-methacryloyl-L-histidine (MAH), polymerizable derivative of L-histidine amino acid, in order to incorporate the complex directly into the polymeric backbone. At the second stage, L-histidine molecules imprinted nanoparticles were utilized instead of whole protein imprinting in order to avoid whole drawbacks such as fragility, complexity, denaturation tendency, and conformation dependency. At the third stage following the first two steps mentioned above, imprinted L-histidine was coordinated with cupric ions [Cu(II)] to conduct the study under mild conditions. Then, molecularly imprinted fluorescent nanoparticles synthesized were used for L-histidine adsorption from aqueous solution to optimize conditions for adsorption and fluorimetric detection. Finally, usability of nanoparticles was investigated for chiral biorecognition using stereoisomer, D-histidine, racemic mixture, D,L-histidine, proteins with surface L-histidine residue, lysozyme, cytochrome C, or without ribonuclease A. The results revealed that the proposed polymerization strategy could make significant contribution to the solution of chronic problems of fluorescent component introduction into polymers. Additionally, the fluorescent nanoparticles reported here could be used for selective separation and fluorescent monitoring purposes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Genetic transformation of an obligate anaerobe, P. gingivalis for FMN-green fluorescent protein expression in studying host-microbe interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chul Hee Choi

    Full Text Available The recent introduction of "oxygen-independent" flavin mononucleotide (FMN-based fluorescent proteins (FbFPs is of major interest to both eukaryotic and prokaryotic microbial biologists. Accordingly, we demonstrate for the first time that an obligate anaerobe, the successful opportunistic pathogen of the oral cavity, Porphyromonas gingivalis, can be genetically engineered for expression of the non-toxic green FbFP. The resulting transformants are functional for studying dynamic bacterial processes in living host cells. The visualization of the transformed P. gingivalis (PgFbFP revealed strong fluorescence that reached a maximum emission at 495 nm as determined by fluorescence microscopy and spectrofluorometry. Human primary gingival epithelial cells (GECs were infected with PgFbFP and the bacterial invasion of host cells was analyzed by a quantitative fluorescence microscopy and antibiotic protection assays. The results showed similar levels of intracellular bacteria for both wild type and PgFbFP strains. In conjunction with organelle specific fluorescent dyes, utilization of the transformed strain provided direct and accurate determination of the live/metabolically active P. gingivalis' trafficking in the GECs over time. Furthermore, the GECs were co-infected with PgFbFP and the ATP-dependent Clp serine protease-deficient mutant (ClpP- to study the differential fates of the two strains within the same host cells. Quantitative co-localization analyses displayed the intracellular PgFbFP significantly associated with the endoplasmic reticulum network, whereas the majority of ClpP- organisms trafficked into the lysosomes. Hence, we have developed a novel and reliable method to characterize live host cell-microbe interactions and demonstrated the adaptability of FMN-green fluorescent protein for studying persistent host infections induced by obligate anaerobic organisms.

  2. Genetic transformation of an obligate anaerobe, P. gingivalis for FMN-green fluorescent protein expression in studying host-microbe interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Chul Hee; DeGuzman, Jefferson V; Lamont, Richard J; Yilmaz, Özlem

    2011-04-15

    The recent introduction of "oxygen-independent" flavin mononucleotide (FMN)-based fluorescent proteins (FbFPs) is of major interest to both eukaryotic and prokaryotic microbial biologists. Accordingly, we demonstrate for the first time that an obligate anaerobe, the successful opportunistic pathogen of the oral cavity, Porphyromonas gingivalis, can be genetically engineered for expression of the non-toxic green FbFP. The resulting transformants are functional for studying dynamic bacterial processes in living host cells. The visualization of the transformed P. gingivalis (PgFbFP) revealed strong fluorescence that reached a maximum emission at 495 nm as determined by fluorescence microscopy and spectrofluorometry. Human primary gingival epithelial cells (GECs) were infected with PgFbFP and the bacterial invasion of host cells was analyzed by a quantitative fluorescence microscopy and antibiotic protection assays. The results showed similar levels of intracellular bacteria for both wild type and PgFbFP strains. In conjunction with organelle specific fluorescent dyes, utilization of the transformed strain provided direct and accurate determination of the live/metabolically active P. gingivalis' trafficking in the GECs over time. Furthermore, the GECs were co-infected with PgFbFP and the ATP-dependent Clp serine protease-deficient mutant (ClpP-) to study the differential fates of the two strains within the same host cells. Quantitative co-localization analyses displayed the intracellular PgFbFP significantly associated with the endoplasmic reticulum network, whereas the majority of ClpP- organisms trafficked into the lysosomes. Hence, we have developed a novel and reliable method to characterize live host cell-microbe interactions and demonstrated the adaptability of FMN-green fluorescent protein for studying persistent host infections induced by obligate anaerobic organisms.

  3. Enhancing Membrane Protein Identification Using a Simplified Centrifugation and Detergent-Based Membrane Extraction Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanting; Gao, Jing; Zhu, Hongwen; Xu, Jingjing; He, Han; Gu, Lei; Wang, Hui; Chen, Jie; Ma, Danjun; Zhou, Hu; Zheng, Jing

    2018-02-20

    Membrane proteins may act as transporters, receptors, enzymes, and adhesion-anchors, accounting for nearly 70% of pharmaceutical drug targets. Difficulties in efficient enrichment, extraction, and solubilization still exist because of their relatively low abundance and poor solubility. A simplified membrane protein extraction approach with advantages of user-friendly sample processing procedures, good repeatability and significant effectiveness was developed in the current research for enhancing enrichment and identification of membrane proteins. This approach combining centrifugation and detergent along with LC-MS/MS successfully identified higher proportion of membrane proteins, integral proteins and transmembrane proteins in membrane fraction (76.6%, 48.1%, and 40.6%) than in total cell lysate (41.6%, 16.4%, and 13.5%), respectively. Moreover, our method tended to capture membrane proteins with high degree of hydrophobicity and number of transmembrane domains as 486 out of 2106 (23.0%) had GRAVY > 0 in membrane fraction, 488 out of 2106 (23.1%) had TMs ≥ 2. It also provided for improved identification of membrane proteins as more than 60.6% of the commonly identified membrane proteins in two cell samples were better identified in membrane fraction with higher sequence coverage. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD008456.

  4. Proteome scale identification, classification and structural analysis of iron-binding proteins in bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Shailender Kumar; Sharma, Ankita; Sandhu, Padmani; Choudhary, Neha; Sharma, Shailaja; Acharya, Vishal; Akhter, Yusuf

    2017-05-01

    Bread wheat is one of the major staple foods of worldwide population and iron plays a significant role in growth and development of the plant. In this report, we are presenting the genome wide identification of iron-binding proteins in bread wheat. The wheat genome derived putative proteome was screened for identification of iron-binding sequence motifs. Out of 602 putative iron-binding proteins, 130 were able to produce reliable structural models by homology techniques and further analyzed for the presence of iron-binding structural motifs. The computationally identified proteins appear to bind to ferrous and ferric ions and showed diverse coordination geometries. Glu, His, Asp and Cys amino acid residues were found to be mostly involved in iron binding. We have classified these proteins on the basis of their localization in the different cellular compartments. The identified proteins were further classified into their protein folds, families and functional classes ranging from structure maintenance of cellular components, regulation of gene expression, post translational modification, membrane proteins, enzymes, signaling and storage proteins. This comprehensive report regarding structural iron binding proteome provides useful insights into the diversity of iron binding proteins of wheat plants and further utilized to study their roles in plant growth, development and physiology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Enhancing analysis of cells and proteins by fluorescence imaging on silk-based biomaterials: modulating the autofluorescence of silk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neo, Puay Yong; Tan, Daryl Jian-An; Shi, Pujiang; Toh, Siew Lok; Goh, James Cho-Hong

    2015-02-01

    Silk is a versatile and established biomaterial for various tissue engineering purposes. However, it also exhibits strong autofluorescence signals-thereby hindering fluorescence imaging analysis of cells and proteins on silk-derived biomaterials. Sudan Black B (SB) is a lysochrome dye commonly used to stain lipids in histology. It has also been reported to be able to quench autofluorescence of tissues in histology and has been tested on artificial biomedical polymers in recent years. It was hypothesized that SB would exert similar quenching effects on silk, modulating the autofluorescence signals, and thereby enabling improved imaging analysis of cells and molecules of interests. The quenching effect of SB on the intrinsic fluorescence properties of silk and on commercial fluorescent dyes were first investigated in this study. SB was then incorporated into typical fluorescence-based staining protocols to study its effectiveness in improving fluorescence-based imaging of the cells and proteins residing with the silk-based biomaterials. Silk processed into various forms of biomaterials (e.g., films, sponges, fibers, and electrospun mats) was seeded with cells and cultured in vitro. At sacrificial time points, specimens were harvested, fixed, and prepared for fluorescence staining. SB, available commercially as a powder, was dissolved in 70% ethanol (0.3% [w/v]) to form staining solutions. SB treatment was introduced at the last step of typical immunofluorescence staining protocols for 15-120 min. For actin staining protocols by phalloidin toxin, SB staining solutions were added before and after permeabilization with Triton-X for 15-30 min. Results showed that ideal SB treatment duration is about 15 min. Apart from being able to suppress the autofluorescence of silk, this treatment duration was also not too long to adversely affect the fluorescent labeling probes used. The relative improvement brought about by SB treatment was most evident in the blue and green

  6. Velocity landscape correlation resolves multiple flowing protein populations from fluorescence image time series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandžić, Elvis; Abu-Arish, Asmahan; Whan, Renee M; Hanrahan, John W; Wiseman, Paul W

    2018-02-16

    Molecular, vesicular and organellar flows are of fundamental importance for the delivery of nutrients and essential components used in cellular functions such as motility and division. With recent advances in fluorescence/super-resolution microscopy modalities we can resolve the movements of these objects at higher spatio-temporal resolutions and with better sensitivity. Previously, spatio-temporal image correlation spectroscopy has been applied to map molecular flows by correlation analysis of fluorescence fluctuations in image series. However, an underlying assumption of this approach is that the sampled time windows contain one dominant flowing component. Although this was true for most of the cases analyzed earlier, in some situations two or more different flowing populations can be present in the same spatio-temporal window. We introduce an approach, termed velocity landscape correlation (VLC), which detects and extracts multiple flow components present in a sampled image region via an extension of the correlation analysis of fluorescence intensity fluctuations. First we demonstrate theoretically how this approach works, test the performance of the method with a range of computer simulated image series with varying flow dynamics. Finally we apply VLC to study variable fluxing of STIM1 proteins on microtubules connected to the plasma membrane of Cystic Fibrosis Bronchial Epithelial (CFBE) cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Post-mortem re-cloning of a transgenic red fluorescent protein dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, So Gun; Koo, Ok Jae; Oh, Hyun Ju; Park, Jung Eun; Kim, Minjung; Kim, Geon-A; Park, Eun Jung; Jang, Goo; Lee, Byeong-Chun

    2011-12-01

    Recently, the world's first transgenic dogs were produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer. However, cellular senescence is a major limiting factor for producing more advanced transgenic dogs. To overcome this obstacle, we rejuvenated transgenic cells using a re-cloning technique. Fibroblasts from post-mortem red fluorescent protein (RFP) dog were reconstructed with in vivo matured oocytes and transferred into 10 surrogate dogs. One puppy was produced and confirmed as a re-cloned dog. Although the puppy was lost during birth, we successfully established a rejuvenated fibroblast cell line from this animal. The cell line was found to stably express RFP and is ready for additional genetic modification.

  8. A support vector machine approach to the automatic identification of fluorescence spectra emitted by biological agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfusa, M.; Murari, A.; Lungaroni, M.; Malizia, A.; Parracino, S.; Peluso, E.; Cenciarelli, O.; Carestia, M.; Pizzoferrato, R.; Vega, J.; Gaudio, P.

    2016-10-01

    Two of the major new concerns of modern societies are biosecurity and biosafety. Several biological agents (BAs) such as toxins, bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites are able to cause damage to living systems either humans, animals or plants. Optical techniques, in particular LIght Detection And Ranging (LIDAR), based on the transmission of laser pulses and analysis of the return signals, can be successfully applied to monitoring the release of biological agents into the atmosphere. It is well known that most of biological agents tend to emit specific fluorescence spectra, which in principle allow their detection and identification, if excited by light of the appropriate wavelength. For these reasons, the detection of the UVLight Induced Fluorescence (UV-LIF) emitted by BAs is particularly promising. On the other hand, the stand-off detection of BAs poses a series of challenging issues; one of the most severe is the automatic discrimination between various agents which emit very similar fluorescence spectra. In this paper, a new data analysis method, based on a combination of advanced filtering techniques and Support Vector Machines, is described. The proposed approach covers all the aspects of the data analysis process, from filtering and denoising to automatic recognition of the agents. A systematic series of numerical tests has been performed to assess the potential and limits of the proposed methodology. The first investigations of experimental data have already given very encouraging results.

  9. Fluorescence of the 'fire-chaser' beetle Melanophila acuminata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Israelowitz, Meir; Rizvi, Syed H.W.; Schroeder, Herbert P. von

    2007-01-01

    Melanophila acuminata beetles are attracted to forest fires over long distances by a pair of specialized infrared sensory organs. To date, there is no knowledge of their ability to detect or emit fluorescent radiation. We studied the Melanophila acuminata infrared sensory organs histologically and by using fluorescent microscopy, acoustic-optic tunable filter microscopy, and two-photon microscopy to identify fluorescence. We found fluorescent absorption at radiation wavelengths of 480 nm and emission at 570 nm. The functional role of this novel fluorescence is, as of yet, unknown but may be applied to species classification, identification and behavioral studies

  10. Identification of adiponectin receptor agonist utilizing a fluorescence polarization based high throughput assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiyi Sun

    Full Text Available Adiponectin, the adipose-derived hormone, plays an important role in the suppression of metabolic disorders that can result in type 2 diabetes, obesity, and atherosclerosis. It has been shown that up-regulation of adiponectin or adiponectin receptor has a number of therapeutic benefits. Given that it is hard to convert the full size adiponectin protein into a viable drug, adiponectin receptor agonists could be designed or identified using high-throughput screening. Here, we report on the development of a two-step screening process to identify adiponectin agonists. First step, we developed a high throughput screening assay based on fluorescence polarization to identify adiponectin ligands. The fluorescence polarization assay reported here could be adapted to screening against larger small molecular compound libraries. A natural product library containing 10,000 compounds was screened and 9 hits were selected for validation. These compounds have been taken for the second-step in vitro tests to confirm their agonistic activity. The most active adiponectin receptor 1 agonists are matairesinol, arctiin, (--arctigenin and gramine. The most active adiponectin receptor 2 agonists are parthenolide, taxifoliol, deoxyschizandrin, and syringin. These compounds may be useful drug candidates for hypoadiponectin related diseases.

  11. Green-fluorescent protein+ Astrocytes Attach to beta-Amyloid Plaques in an Alzheimer Mouse Model and GFPare Sensitive for Clasmatodendrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eHumpel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is pathologically characterized by beta-amyloid (Aβ plaques and Tau pathology. It is well-established that Aβ plaques are surrounded by reactive astrocytes, highly expressing glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP. In order to study the cellular interaction of reactive astrocytes with Aβ plaques, we crossbred mice overexpressing amyloid precursor protein (APP with the Swedish-Dutch-Iowa mutations (APP-SweDI with mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP under the GFAP-promotor. Three-dimensional confocal microscopy revealed a tight association and intense sprouting of astrocytic fine branched processes towards Aβ plaques in 12 month old mice. In order to study phagocytosis, 110 µm thick brain slices from 12 month old crossbred mice were cultured overnight, however, we found that the GFP fluorescence faded away, distal processes degenerated and a complete loss of astrocytic morphology was seen (clasmatodendrosis. In summary, our data show that GFP+ reactive astrocytes make intense contact with Aβ plaques but these cells are highly vulnerable for degeneration.

  12. Crystal structure of the fluorescent protein from Dendronephthya sp. in both green and photoconverted red forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pletneva, Nadya V.; Pletnev, Sergei; Pakhomov, Alexey A.; Chertkova, Rita V.; Martynov, Vladimir I.; Muslinkina, Liya; Dauter, Zbigniew; Pletnev, Vladimir Z.

    2016-07-13

    The fluorescent protein fromDendronephthyasp. (DendFP) is a member of the Kaede-like group of photoconvertible fluorescent proteins with a His62-Tyr63-Gly64 chromophore-forming sequence. Upon irradiation with UV and blue light, the fluorescence of DendFP irreversibly changes from green (506 nm) to red (578 nm). The photoconversion is accompanied by cleavage of the peptide backbone at the Cα—N bond of His62 and the formation of a terminal carboxamide group at the preceding Leu61. The resulting double Cα=Cβbond in His62 extends the conjugation of the chromophore π system to include imidazole, providing the red fluorescence. Here, the three-dimensional structures of native green and photoconverted red forms of DendFP determined at 1.81 and 2.14 Å resolution, respectively, are reported. This is the first structure of photoconverted red DendFP to be reported to date. The structure-based mutagenesis of DendFP revealed an important role of positions 142 and 193: replacement of the original Ser142 and His193 caused a moderate red shift in the fluorescence and a considerable increase in the photoconversion rate. It was demonstrated that hydrogen bonding of the chromophore to the Gln116 and Ser105 cluster is crucial for variation of the photoconversion rate. The single replacement Gln116Asn disrupts the hydrogen bonding of Gln116 to the chromophore, resulting in a 30-fold decrease in the photoconversion rate, which was partially restored by a further Ser105Asn replacement.

  13. Identification of Inhibitors of Biological Interactions Involving Intrinsically Disordered Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Marasco

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Protein–protein interactions involving disordered partners have unique features and represent prominent targets in drug discovery processes. Intrinsically Disordered Proteins (IDPs are involved in cellular regulation, signaling and control: they bind to multiple partners and these high-specificity/low-affinity interactions play crucial roles in many human diseases. Disordered regions, terminal tails and flexible linkers are particularly abundant in DNA-binding proteins and play crucial roles in the affinity and specificity of DNA recognizing processes. Protein complexes involving IDPs are short-lived and typically involve short amino acid stretches bearing few “hot spots”, thus the identification of molecules able to modulate them can produce important lead compounds: in this scenario peptides and/or peptidomimetics, deriving from structure-based, combinatorial or protein dissection approaches, can play a key role as hit compounds. Here, we propose a panoramic review of the structural features of IDPs and how they regulate molecular recognition mechanisms focusing attention on recently reported drug-design strategies in the field of IDPs.

  14. Conformational study of red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein isolate (KPI) by tryptophan fluorescence and differential scanning calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shou-Wei; Tang, Chuan-He; Yang, Xiao-Quan; Wen, Qi-Biao

    2011-01-12

    Fluorescence and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to study changes in the conformation of red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein isolate (KPI) under various environmental conditions. The possible relationship between fluorescence data and DSC characteristics was also discussed. Tryptophan fluorescence and fluorescence quenching analyses indicated that the tryptophan residues in KPI, exhibiting multiple fluorophores with different accessibilities to acrylamide, are largely buried in the hydrophobic core of the protein matrix, with positively charged side chains close to at least some of the tryptophan residues. GdnHCl was more effective than urea and SDS in denaturing KPI. SDS and urea caused variable red shifts, 2-5 nm, in the emission λ(max), suggesting the conformational compactness of KPI. The result was further supported by DSC characteristics that a discernible endothermic peak was still detected up to 8 M urea or 30 mM SDS, also evidenced by the absence of any shift in emission maximum (λ(max)) at different pH conditions. Marked decreases in T(d) and enthalpy (ΔH) were observed at extreme alkaline and/or acidic pH, whereas the presence of NaCl resulted in higher T(d) and ΔH, along with greater cooperativity of the transition. Decreases in T(d) and ΔH were observed in the presence of protein perturbants, for example, SDS and urea, indicating partial denaturation and decrease in thermal stability. Dithiothreitol and N-ethylmaleimide have a slight effect on the thermal properties of KPI. Interestingly, a close linear relationship between the T(d) (or ΔH) and the λ(max) was observed for KPI in the presence of 0-6 M urea.

  15. Insights into cellulase-lignin non-specific binding revealed by computational redesign of the surface of green fluorescent protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarmeyer, Carolyn N; Smith, Matthew D; Chundawat, Shishir P S; Sammond, Deanne; Whitehead, Timothy A

    2017-04-01

    Biological-mediated conversion of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass to biofuels and biochemicals is a promising avenue toward energy sustainability. However, a critical impediment to the commercialization of cellulosic biofuel production is the high cost of cellulase enzymes needed to deconstruct biomass into fermentable sugars. One major factor driving cost is cellulase adsorption and inactivation in the presence of lignin, yet we currently have a poor understanding of the protein structure-function relationships driving this adsorption. In this work, we have systematically investigated the role of protein surface potential on lignin adsorption using a model monomeric fluorescent protein. We have designed and experimentally characterized 16 model protein variants spanning the physiological range of net charge (-24 to +16 total charges) and total charge density (0.28-0.40 charges per sequence length) typical for natural proteins. Protein designs were expressed, purified, and subjected to in silico and in vitro biophysical measurements to evaluate the relationship between protein surface potential and lignin adsorption properties. The designs were comparable to model fluorescent protein in terms of thermostability and heterologous expression yield, although the majority of the designs unexpectedly formed homodimers. Protein adsorption to lignin was studied at two different temperatures using Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation Monitoring and a subtractive mass balance assay. We found a weak correlation between protein net charge and protein-binding capacity to lignin. No other single characteristic, including apparent melting temperature and 2nd virial coefficient, showed correlation with lignin binding. Analysis of an unrelated cellulase dataset with mutations localized to a family I carbohydrate-binding module showed a similar correlation between net charge and lignin binding capacity. Overall, our study provides strategies to identify highly active, low

  16. Identification of a third protein 4.1 tumor suppressor, protein 4.1R, in meningioma pathogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robb, Victoria A.; Li, Wen; Gascard, Philippe; Perry, Arie; Mohandas, Narla; Gutmann, David H.

    2003-06-11

    Meningiomas are common tumors of the central nervous system, however, the mechanisms under lying their pathogenesis are largely undefined. Two members of the Protein 4.1 super family, the neuro fibromatosis 2 (NF2) gene product (merlin/schwannomin) and Protein 4.1B have been implicated as meningioma tumor suppressors. In this report, we demonstrate that another Protein 4.1 family member, Protein 4.1R, also functions as a meningioma tumor suppressor. Based on the assignment of the Protein 4.1R gene to chromosome 1p32-36, a common region of deletion observed in meningiomas, we analyzed Protein 4.1R expression in meningioma cell lines and surgical tumor specimens. We observed loss of Protein 4.1R protein expression in two meningioma cell lines (IOMM-Lee, CH157-MN) by Western blotting as well as in 6 of 15 sporadic meningioma as by immuno histo chemistry (IHC). Analysis of a subset of these sporadic meningiomas by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with a Protein 4.1R specific probe demonstrated 100 percent concordance with the IHC results. In support of a meningioma tumor suppressor function, over expression of Protein 4.1R resulted in suppression of IOMM-Lee and CH157MN cell proliferation. Similar to the Protein 4.1B and merlin meningioma tumor suppressors, Protein 4.1R localization in the membrane fraction increased significantly under conditions of growth arrest in vitro. Lastly, Protein 4.1R interacted with some known merlin/Protein 4.1B interactors such as CD44 and bII-spectrin, but did not associate with the Protein 4.1B interactors 14-3-3 and PRMT3 or the merlin binding proteins SCHIP-1 and HRS. Collectively, these results suggest that Protein 4.1R functions as an important tumor suppressor important in the molecular pathogenesis of meningioma.

  17. [Effects of redox state of disulfide bonds on the intrinsic fluorescence and denaturation of Trx-fused gibberellin-induced cysteine-rich protein from Gymnadnia conopsea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Teng; Feng, Juan; Li, Yang; Chen, Rui; Tang, Li-Xia; Pang, Xiao-Feng; Ren, Zheng-Long

    2010-02-01

    In the present paper, thioredoxin-fused gibberellin-induced cysteine-rich protein from Gymnadnia conopsea, desigated as Trx-GcGASA and expressed prokaryotically, was purified and identified by using Ni(2+) -NTA affinity chromatography column and SDS-PAGE, and then its intrinsic fluorescence was investigated in the absence and presence of dithiothreitol (DTT), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), peroxide and guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl) by means of steady-state fluorescence spectroscopic methods. It was found that (1) at the neutral pH Trx-GcGASA had maximum fluorescence emission at 305 nm following excitation at different wavelengths varying from 250 to 280 nm, which was ascribed to the fluorescence emission from tyrosine residues. (2) The reduction of disulphide bonds lead to the changes in the relative fluorescence intensity between tyrosine and tryptophan residues from 0.7 to 1.8. (3) Both Tyr and Trp residues underwent 12%-21% decrease in fluorescence intensity with the addition of 0.5 mmol x L(-1) GSSG or 5 mmol x L(-1) peroxide. The latter was roughly consistent with the antioxidative activity reported in vivo. (4) No matter whether 1 mmol x L(-1) DTT was absent or present, the fusion protein could not be fully unfolded with lambda(max) Trx-GcGASA experienced GdnHCl-induced denaturation process, and the unfolding equilibrium curve could be well fitted by using two-state model, giving the Gibbs free energy change (deltaG) of 3.7 kJ x mol(-1). However, it was not the case for reduced Trx-GcGASA protein. The aforementioned experimental results will not only provide some guides to investigate the effects of fusion partner Trx on the unfolding thermodynamics, kinetics and refolding process of Trx-GcGASA, but also will be useful for further studies on the strucuture of GA-induced cysteine-rich protein with the help of spectroscopic methods.

  18. Mechanistic insight provided by glutaredoxin within a fusion to redox-sensitive yellow fluorescent protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björnberg, Olof; Østergaard, Henrik; Winther, Jakob R

    2006-01-01

    Redox-sensitive yellow fluorescent protein (rxYFP) contains a dithiol disulfide pair that is thermodynamically suitable for monitoring intracellular glutathione redox potential. Glutaredoxin 1 (Grx1p) from yeast is known to catalyze the redox equilibrium between rxYFP and glutathione, and here, we...... have generated a fusion of the two proteins, rxYFP-Grx1p. In comparison to isolated subunits, intramolecular transfer of reducing equivalents made the fusion protein kinetically superior in reactions with glutathione. The rate of GSSG oxidation was thus improved by a factor of 3300. The reaction...... separately and in the fusion. This could not be ascribed to the lack of an unproductive side reaction to glutaredoxin disulfide. Instead, slower alkylation kinetics with iodoacetamide indicates a better leaving-group capability of the remaining cysteine residue, which can explain the increased activity....

  19. Assisted Interpretation of Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectra of Egg-Based Binding Media Using Total Emission Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anglos, D.; Nevin, A.

    2006-01-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy can provide nondestructive, qualitative analysis of protein-based binding media found in artworks. Fluorescence emissions from proteins in egg yolk and egg white are due to auto fluorescent aromatic amino acids as well as other native and age-related fluorophores, but the potential of fluorescence spectroscopy for the differentiation between binding media is dependent on the choice of a suitable excitation wavelength and limited by problems in interpretation. However, a better understanding of emission spectra associated with LIF can be achieved following comparisons with total emission fluorescence spectra where a series of consecutive emission spectra are recorded over a specific range. Results using nanosecond UV laser sources for LIF of egg-based binding media are presented which are rationalised following comparisons with total emission spectra. Specifically, fluorescence is assigned to tryptophan and oxidation products of amino acids; in the case of egg yolk, fatty-acid polymerisation and age-related degradation products account for the formation of fluorophores.

  20. Rapid identification of sequences for orphan enzymes to power accurate protein annotation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R Ramkissoon

    Full Text Available The power of genome sequencing depends on the ability to understand what those genes and their proteins produ