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Sample records for fluorescent protein fusion

  1. Fluorescent sensors based on bacterial fusion proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateu, Batirtze Prats; Pum, Dietmar; Sleytr, Uwe B; Toca-Herrera, José L; Kainz, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    Fluorescence proteins are widely used as markers for biomedical and technological purposes. Therefore, the aim of this project was to create a fluorescent sensor, based in the green and cyan fluorescent protein, using bacterial S-layers proteins as scaffold for the fluorescent tag. We report the cloning, expression and purification of three S-layer fluorescent proteins: SgsE-EGFP, SgsE-ECFP and SgsE-13aa-ECFP, this last containing a 13-amino acid rigid linker. The pH dependence of the fluorescence intensity of the S-layer fusion proteins, monitored by fluorescence spectroscopy, showed that the ECFP tag was more stable than EGFP. Furthermore, the fluorescent fusion proteins were reassembled on silica particles modified with cationic and anionic polyelectrolytes. Zeta potential measurements confirmed the particle coatings and indicated their colloidal stability. Flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy showed that the fluorescence of the fusion proteins was pH dependent and sensitive to the underlying polyelectrolyte coating. This might suggest that the fluorescent tag is not completely exposed to the bulk media as an independent moiety. Finally, it was found out that viscosity enhanced the fluorescence intensity of the three fluorescent S-layer proteins. (paper)

  2. Fluorescent S-layer fusion proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kainz, B.

    2010-01-01

    This work describes the construction and characterisation of fluorescent S-layer fusion proteins used as building blocks for the fabrication of nanostructured monomolecular biocoatings on silica particles with defined fluorescence properties. The S-layer protein SgsE of Geobacillus stearothermophilus NRS 2004/3a was fused with the pH-dependant cyan, green and yellow variant of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) and the red fluorescent protein mRFP1. These fluorescent S-layer fusion proteins, acting as scaffold and optical sensing element simultaneously, were able to reassemble in solution and on silica particles forming 2D nanostructures with p2 lattice symmetry (a=11 ±0.5 nm, b=14 ±0.4 nm, g=80 ±1 o ). The pH-dependant fluorescence behaviour was studied with fluorimetry, confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. These fluorescent S-layer fusion proteins can be used as pH-sensor. 50% of the fluorescence intensity decreases at their calculated pKa values (pH6 - pH5). The fluorescence intensity of the GFP variants vanished completely between pH4 and pH3 whereas the chromophore of the red protein mRFP1 was only slightly affected in acidic conditions. At the isoelectric point of the S-layer coated silica particles (pH4.6 ±0.2) an increase in particle aggregation was detected by flow cytometry. The cyan and yellow fluorescent proteins were chosen to create a bi-fluorescent S-layer tandem fusion protein with the possibility for resonance energy transfer (FRET). A transfer efficiency of 20% and a molecular distance between the donor (ECFP) and acceptor (YFP) chromophores of around 6.2 nm could be shown. This bi-fluorescent ECFP-SgsE-YFP tandem fusion protein was able to reassemble on solid surfaces. The remarkable combination of fluorescence and self-assembly and the design of bi-functional S-layer tandem fusion protein matrices makes them to a promising tool in nanobiotechnology. (author) [de

  3. Impact of fluorescent protein fusions on the bacterial flagellar motor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heo, M.; Nord, A. L.; Chamousset, D.; van Rijn, E.; Beaumont, H.J.E.; Pedaci, F.

    2017-01-01

    Fluorescent fusion proteins open a direct and unique window onto protein function. However, they also introduce the risk of perturbation of the function of the native protein. Successful applications of fluorescent fusions therefore rely on a careful assessment and minimization of the side

  4. Impact of fluorescent protein fusions on the bacterial flagellar motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, M; Nord, A L; Chamousset, D; van Rijn, E; Beaumont, H J E; Pedaci, F

    2017-10-03

    Fluorescent fusion proteins open a direct and unique window onto protein function. However, they also introduce the risk of perturbation of the function of the native protein. Successful applications of fluorescent fusions therefore rely on a careful assessment and minimization of the side effects, but such insight is still lacking for many applications. This is particularly relevant in the study of the internal dynamics of motor proteins, where both the chemical and mechanical reaction coordinates can be affected. Fluorescent proteins fused to the stator of the Bacterial Flagellar Motor (BFM) have previously been used to unveil the motor subunit dynamics. Here we report the effects on single motors of three fluorescent proteins fused to the stators, all of which altered BFM behavior. The torque generated by individual stators was reduced while their stoichiometry remained unaffected. MotB fusions decreased the switching frequency and induced a novel bias-dependent asymmetry in the speed in the two directions. These effects could be mitigated by inserting a linker at the fusion point. These findings provide a quantitative account of the effects of fluorescent fusions to the stator on BFM dynamics and their alleviation- new insights that advance the use of fluorescent fusions to probe the dynamics of protein complexes.

  5. Fluorescent IgG fusion proteins made in E. coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Yael; Raichlin, Dina; Benhar, Itai

    2012-01-01

    Antibodies are among the most powerful tools in biological and biomedical research and are presently the fastest growing category of new bio-pharmaceutics. The most common format of antibody applied for therapeutic, diagnostic and analytical purposes is the IgG format. For medical applications, recombinant IgGs are made in cultured mammalian cells in a process that is too expensive to be considered for producing antibodies for diagnostic and analytical purposes. Therefore, for such purposes, mouse monoclonal antibodies or polyclonal sera from immunized animals are used. While looking for an easier and more rapid way to prepare full-length IgGs for therapeutic purposes, we recently developed and reported an expression and purification protocol for full-length IgGs, and IgG-based fusion proteins in E. coli, called “Inclonals.” By applying the Inclonals technology, we could generate full-length IgGs that are genetically fused to toxins. The aim of the study described herein was to evaluate the possibility of applying the “Inclonals” technology for preparing IgG-fluorophore fusion proteins. We found that IgG fused to the green fluorescent proteins enhanced GFP (EGFP) while maintaining functionality in binding, lost most of its fluorescence during the refolding process. In contrast, we found that green fluorescent Superfolder GFP (SFGFP)-fused IgG and red fluorescent mCherry-fused IgG were functional in antigen binding and maintained fluorescence intensity. In addition, we found that we can link several SFGFPs in tandem to each IgG, with fluorescence intensity increasing accordingly. Fluorescent IgGs made in E. coli may become attractive alternatives to monoclonal or polyclonal fluorescent antibodies derived from animals. PMID:22531449

  6. A recombinant fusion protein-based, fluorescent protease assay for high throughput-compatible substrate screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozóki, Beáta; Gazda, Lívia; Tóth, Ferenc; Miczi, Márió; Mótyán, János András; Tőzsér, József

    2018-01-01

    In connection with the intensive investigation of proteases, several methods have been developed for analysis of the substrate specificity. Due to the great number of proteases and the expected target molecules to be analyzed, time- and cost-efficient high-throughput screening (HTS) methods are preferred. Here we describe the development and application of a separation-based HTS-compatible fluorescent protease assay, which is based on the use of recombinant fusion proteins as substrates of proteases. The protein substrates used in this assay consists of N-terminal (hexahistidine and maltose binding protein) fusion tags, cleavage sequences of the tobacco etch virus (TEV) and HIV-1 proteases, and a C-terminal fluorescent protein (mApple or mTurquoise2). The assay is based on the fluorimetric detection of the fluorescent proteins, which are released from the magnetic bead-attached substrates by the proteolytic cleavage. The protease assay has been applied for activity measurements of TEV and HIV-1 proteases to test the suitability of the system for enzyme kinetic measurements, inhibition studies, and determination of pH optimum. We also found that denatured fluorescent proteins can be renatured after SDS-PAGE of denaturing conditions, but showed differences in their renaturation abilities. After in-gel renaturation both substrates and cleavage products can be identified by in-gel UV detection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Mechanistic insight provided by glutaredoxin within a fusion to redox-sensitive yellow fluorescent protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björnberg, Olof; Østergaard, Henrik; Winther, Jakob R

    2006-01-01

    Redox-sensitive yellow fluorescent protein (rxYFP) contains a dithiol disulfide pair that is thermodynamically suitable for monitoring intracellular glutathione redox potential. Glutaredoxin 1 (Grx1p) from yeast is known to catalyze the redox equilibrium between rxYFP and glutathione, and here, we...... have generated a fusion of the two proteins, rxYFP-Grx1p. In comparison to isolated subunits, intramolecular transfer of reducing equivalents made the fusion protein kinetically superior in reactions with glutathione. The rate of GSSG oxidation was thus improved by a factor of 3300. The reaction...... separately and in the fusion. This could not be ascribed to the lack of an unproductive side reaction to glutaredoxin disulfide. Instead, slower alkylation kinetics with iodoacetamide indicates a better leaving-group capability of the remaining cysteine residue, which can explain the increased activity....

  8. Human cytomegaloviruses expressing yellow fluorescent fusion proteins--characterization and use in antiviral screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Straschewski

    Full Text Available Recombinant viruses labelled with fluorescent proteins are useful tools in molecular virology with multiple applications (e.g., studies on intracellular trafficking, protein localization, or gene activity. We generated by homologous recombination three recombinant cytomegaloviruses carrying the enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP fused with the viral proteins IE-2, ppUL32 (pp150, and ppUL83 (pp65. In growth kinetics, the three viruses behaved all like wild type, even at low multiplicity of infection (MOI. The expression of all three fusion proteins was detected, and their respective localizations were the same as for the unmodified proteins in wild-type virus-infected cells. We established the in vivo measurement of fluorescence intensity and used the recombinant viruses to measure inhibition of viral replication by neutralizing antibodies or antiviral substances. The use of these viruses in a pilot screen based on fluorescence intensity and high-content analysis identified cellular kinase inhibitors that block viral replication. In summary, these viruses with individually EYFP-tagged proteins will be useful to study antiviral substances and the dynamics of viral infection in cell culture.

  9. A fluorescent cassette-based strategy for engineering multiple domain fusion proteins

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    Khorchid Ahmad

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The engineering of fusion proteins has become increasingly important and most recently has formed the basis of many biosensors, protein purification systems, and classes of new drugs. Currently, most fusion proteins consist of three or fewer domains, however, more sophisticated designs could easily involve three or more domains. Using traditional subcloning strategies, this requires micromanagement of restriction enzymes sites that results in complex workaround solutions, if any at all. Results Therefore, to aid in the efficient construction of fusion proteins involving multiple domains, we have created a new expression vector that allows us to rapidly generate a library of cassettes. Cassettes have a standard vector structure based on four specific restriction endonuclease sites and using a subtle property of blunt or compatible cohesive end restriction enzymes, they can be fused in any order and number of times. Furthermore, the insertion of PCR products into our expression vector or the recombination of cassettes can be dramatically simplified by screening for the presence or absence of fluorescence. Conclusions Finally, the utility of this new strategy was demonstrated by the creation of basic cassettes for protein targeting to subcellular organelles and for protein purification using multiple affinity tags.

  10. Once for All: A Novel Robust System for Co-expression of Multiple Chimeric Fluorescent Fusion Proteins in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guitao Zhong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Chimeric fluorescent fusion proteins have been employed as a powerful tool to reveal the subcellular localizations and dynamics of proteins in living cells. Co-expression of a fluorescent fusion protein with well-known organelle markers in the same cell is especially useful in revealing its spatial and temporal functions of the protein in question. However, the conventional methods for co-expressing multiple fluorescent tagged proteins in plants have the drawbacks of low expression efficiency, variations in the expression level and time-consuming genetic crossing. Here, we have developed a novel robust system that allows for high-efficient co-expression of multiple chimeric fluorescent fusion proteins in plants in a time-saving fashion. This system takes advantage of employing a single expression vector which consists of multiple semi-independent expressing cassettes for the protein co-expression thereby overcoming the limitations of using multiple independent expressing plasmids. In addition, it is a highly manipulable DNA assembly system, in which modification and recombination of DNA molecules are easily achieved through an optimized one-step assembly reaction. By employing this effective system, we demonstrated that co-expression of two chimeric fluorescent fusion reporter proteins of vacuolar sorting receptor and secretory carrier membrane protein gave rise to their perspective subcellular localizations in plants via both transient expression and stable transformation. Thus, we believed that this technical advance represents a promising approach for multi-color-protein co-expression in plant cells.

  11. Self-Assembly of Spider Silk-Fusion Proteins Comprising Enzymatic and Fluorescence Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humenik, Martin; Mohrand, Madeleine; Scheibel, Thomas

    2018-04-18

    The recombinant spider silk protein eADF4(C16) was genetically fused either with esterase 2 (EST2) or green fluorescent protein (GFP). The fusions EST-eADF4(C16) and GFP-eADF4(C16) were spectroscopically investigated and showed native structures of EST and GFP. The structural integrity was confirmed by the enzymatic activity of EST and the fluorescence of GFP. The spider silk moiety retained its intrinsically unstructured conformation in solution and the self-assembly into either nanofibrils or nanoparticles could be controlled by the concentration of phosphate. Particles, however, showed significantly lower activity of the EST and GFP domains likely caused by a steric hindrance. However, upon self-assembly of EST-eADF4(C16) and GFP-eADF4(C16) into fibrils the protein activities were retained. In general, the fusion of globular enzymes with the spider silk domain allows the generation of fibrous biomaterials with catalytic or light emitting properties.

  12. Dynamic in vivo imaging and cell tracking using a histone fluorescent protein fusion in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papaioannou Virginia E

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advances in optical imaging modalities and the continued evolution of genetically-encoded fluorescent proteins are coming together to facilitate the study of cell behavior at high resolution in living organisms. As a result, imaging using autofluorescent protein reporters is gaining popularity in mouse transgenic and targeted mutagenesis applications. Results We have used embryonic stem cell-mediated transgenesis to label cells at sub-cellular resolution in vivo, and to evaluate fusion of a human histone protein to green fluorescent protein for ubiquitous fluorescent labeling of nucleosomes in mice. To this end we have generated embryonic stem cells and a corresponding strain of mice that is viable and fertile and exhibits widespread chromatin-localized reporter expression. High levels of transgene expression are maintained in a constitutive manner. Viability and fertility of homozygous transgenic animals demonstrates that this reporter is developmentally neutral and does not interfere with mitosis or meiosis. Conclusions Using various optical imaging modalities including wide-field, spinning disc confocal, and laser scanning confocal and multiphoton excitation microscopy, we can identify cells in various stages of the cell cycle. We can identify cells in interphase, cells undergoing mitosis or cell death. We demonstrate that this histone fusion reporter allows the direct visualization of active chromatin in situ. Since this reporter segments three-dimensional space, it permits the visualization of individual cells within a population, and so facilitates tracking cell position over time. It is therefore attractive for use in multidimensional studies of in vivo cell behavior and cell fate.

  13. Combining random gene fission and rational gene fusion to discover near-infrared fluorescent protein fragments that report on protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Naresh; Nobles, Christopher L; Zechiedrich, Lynn; Maresso, Anthony W; Silberg, Jonathan J

    2015-05-15

    Gene fission can convert monomeric proteins into two-piece catalysts, reporters, and transcription factors for systems and synthetic biology. However, some proteins can be challenging to fragment without disrupting function, such as near-infrared fluorescent protein (IFP). We describe a directed evolution strategy that can overcome this challenge by randomly fragmenting proteins and concomitantly fusing the protein fragments to pairs of proteins or peptides that associate. We used this method to create libraries that express fragmented IFP as fusions to a pair of associating peptides (IAAL-E3 and IAAL-K3) and proteins (CheA and CheY) and screened for fragmented IFP with detectable near-infrared fluorescence. Thirteen novel fragmented IFPs were identified, all of which arose from backbone fission proximal to the interdomain linker. Either the IAAL-E3 and IAAL-K3 peptides or CheA and CheY proteins could assist with IFP fragment complementation, although the IAAL-E3 and IAAL-K3 peptides consistently yielded higher fluorescence. These results demonstrate how random gene fission can be coupled to rational gene fusion to create libraries enriched in fragmented proteins with AND gate logic that is dependent upon a protein-protein interaction, and they suggest that these near-infrared fluorescent protein fragments will be suitable as reporters for pairs of promoters and protein-protein interactions within whole animals.

  14. Fluorescent protein-tagged Vpr dissociates from HIV-1 core after viral fusion and rapidly enters the cell nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Tanay M; Marin, Mariana; Sood, Chetan; Shi, Jiong; Nawaz, Fatima; Aiken, Christopher; Melikyan, Gregory B

    2015-10-29

    HIV-1 Vpr is recruited into virions during assembly and appears to remain associated with the viral core after the reverse transcription and uncoating steps of entry. This feature has prompted the use of fluorescently labeled Vpr to visualize viral particles and to follow trafficking of post-fusion HIV-1 cores in the cytoplasm. Here, we tracked single pseudovirus entry and fusion and observed that fluorescently tagged Vpr gradually dissociates from post-fusion viral cores over the course of several minutes and accumulates in the nucleus. Kinetics measurements showed that fluorescent Vpr released from the cores very rapidly entered the cell nucleus. More than 10,000 Vpr molecules can be delivered into the cell nucleus within 45 min of infection by HIV-1 particles pseudotyped with the avian sarcoma and leukosis virus envelope glycoprotein. The fraction of Vpr from cell-bound viruses that accumulated in the nucleus was proportional to the extent of virus-cell fusion and was fully blocked by viral fusion inhibitors. Entry of virus-derived Vpr into the nucleus occurred independently of envelope glycoproteins or target cells. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy revealed two forms of nuclear Vpr-monomers and very large complexes, likely involving host factors. The kinetics of viral Vpr entering the nucleus after fusion was not affected by point mutations in the capsid protein that alter the stability of the viral core. The independence of Vpr shedding of capsid stability and its relatively rapid dissociation from post-fusion cores suggest that this process may precede capsid uncoating, which appears to occur on a slower time scale. Our results thus demonstrate that a bulk of fluorescently labeled Vpr incorporated into HIV-1 particles is released shortly after fusion. Future studies will address the question whether the quick and efficient nuclear delivery of Vpr derived from incoming viruses can regulate subsequent steps of HIV-1 infection.

  15. Determination of the topology of endoplasmic reticulum membrane proteins using redox-sensitive green-fluorescence protein fusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsachaki, Maria; Birk, Julia; Egert, Aurélie; Odermatt, Alex

    2015-07-01

    Membrane proteins of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are involved in a wide array of essential cellular functions. Identification of the topology of membrane proteins can provide significant insight into their mechanisms of action and biological roles. This is particularly important for membrane enzymes, since their topology determines the subcellular site where a biochemical reaction takes place and the dependence on luminal or cytosolic co-factor pools and substrates. The methods currently available for the determination of topology of proteins are rather laborious and require post-lysis or post-fixation manipulation of cells. In this work, we have developed a simple method for defining intracellular localization and topology of ER membrane proteins in living cells, based on the fusion of the respective protein with redox-sensitive green-fluorescent protein (roGFP). We validated the method and demonstrated that roGFP fusion proteins constitute a reliable tool for the study of ER membrane protein topology, using as control microsomal 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD) proteins whose topology has been resolved, and comparing with an independent approach. We then implemented this method to determine the membrane topology of six microsomal members of the 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD) family. The results revealed a luminal orientation of the catalytic site for three enzymes, i.e. 17β-HSD6, 7 and 12. Knowledge of the intracellular location of the catalytic site of these enzymes will enable future studies on their biological functions and on the role of the luminal co-factor pool. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Production of Hev b5 as a fluorescent biotin-binding tripartite fusion protein in insect cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordlund, Henri R.; Laitinen, Olli H.; Uotila, Sanna T.H.; Kulmala, Minna; Kalkkinen, Nisse; Kulomaa, Markku S.

    2005-01-01

    The presented green fluorescent protein and streptavidin core-based tripartite fusion system provides a simple and efficient way for the production of proteins fused to it in insect cells. This fusion protein forms a unique tag, which serves as a multipurpose device enabling easy optimization of production, one-step purification via streptavidin-biotin interaction, and visualization of the fusion protein during downstream processing and in applications. In the present study, we demonstrate the successful production, purification, and detection of a natural rubber latex allergen Hev b5 with this system. We also describe the production of another NRL allergen with the system, Hev b1, which formed large aggregates and gave small yields in purification. The aggregates were detected at early steps by microscopical inspection of the infected insect cells producing this protein. Therefore, this fusion system can also be utilized as a fast indicator of the solubility of the expressed fusion proteins and may therefore be extremely useful in high-throughput expression approaches

  17. Production of Hev b5 as a fluorescent biotin-binding tripartite fusion protein in insect cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordlund, Henri R; Laitinen, Olli H; Uotila, Sanna T H; Kulmala, Minna; Kalkkinen, Nisse; Kulomaa, Markku S

    2005-10-14

    The presented green fluorescent protein and streptavidin core-based tripartite fusion system provides a simple and efficient way for the production of proteins fused to it in insect cells. This fusion protein forms a unique tag, which serves as a multipurpose device enabling easy optimization of production, one-step purification via streptavidin-biotin interaction, and visualization of the fusion protein during downstream processing and in applications. In the present study, we demonstrate the successful production, purification, and detection of a natural rubber latex allergen Hev b5 with this system. We also describe the production of another NRL allergen with the system, Hev b1, which formed large aggregates and gave small yields in purification. The aggregates were detected at early steps by microscopical inspection of the infected insect cells producing this protein. Therefore, this fusion system can also be utilized as a fast indicator of the solubility of the expressed fusion proteins and may therefore be extremely useful in high-throughput expression approaches.

  18. Fluorescent fusion proteins of soluble guanylyl cyclase indicate proximity of the heme nitric oxide domain and catalytic domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Haase

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To examine the structural organisation of heterodimeric soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET was measured between fluorescent proteins fused to the amino- and carboxy-terminal ends of the sGC beta1 and alpha subunits. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cyan fluorescent protein (CFP was used as FRET donor and yellow fluorescent protein (YFP as FRET acceptor. After generation of recombinant baculovirus, fluorescent-tagged sGC subunits were co-expressed in Sf9 cells. Fluorescent variants of sGC were analyzed in vitro in cytosolic fractions by sensitized emission FRET. Co-expression of the amino-terminally tagged alpha subunits with the carboxy-terminally tagged beta1 subunit resulted in an enzyme complex that showed a FRET efficiency of 10% similar to fluorescent proteins separated by a helix of only 48 amino acids. Because these findings indicated that the amino-terminus of the alpha subunits is close to the carboxy-terminus of the beta1 subunit we constructed fusion proteins where both subunits are connected by a fluorescent protein. The resulting constructs were not only fluorescent, they also showed preserved enzyme activity and regulation by NO. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Based on the ability of an amino-terminal fragment of the beta1 subunit to inhibit activity of an heterodimer consisting only of the catalytic domains (alphacatbetacat, Winger and Marletta (Biochemistry 2005, 44:4083-90 have proposed a direct interaction of the amino-terminal region of beta1 with the catalytic domains. In support of such a concept of "trans" regulation of sGC activity by the H-NOX domains our results indicate that the domains within sGC are organized in a way that allows for direct interaction of the amino-terminal regulatory domains with the carboxy-terminal catalytic region. In addition, we constructed "fluorescent-conjoined" sGC's by fusion of the alpha amino-terminus to the beta1 carboxy-terminus leading to a

  19. Dynamic trafficking of wheat γ-gliadin and of its structural domains in tobacco cells, studied with fluorescent protein fusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francin-Allami, Mathilde; Saumonneau, Amélie; Lavenant, Laurence; Bouder, Axelle; Sparkes, Imogen; Hawes, Chris; Popineau, Yves

    2011-01-01

    Prolamins, the main storage proteins of wheat seeds, are synthesized and retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of the endosperm cells, where they accumulate in protein bodies (PBs) and are then exported to the storage vacuole. The mechanisms leading to these events are unresolved. To investigate this unconventional trafficking pathway, wheat γ-gliadin and its isolated repeated N-terminal and cysteine-rich C-terminal domains were fused to fluorescent proteins and expressed in tobacco leaf epidermal cells. The results indicated that γ-gliadin and both isolated domains were able to be retained and accumulated as protein body-like structures (PBLS) in the ER, suggesting that tandem repeats are not the only sequence involved in γ-gliadin ER retention and PBLS formation. The high actin-dependent mobility of γ-gliadin PBLS is also reported, and it is demonstrated that most of them do not co-localize with Golgi body or pre-vacuolar compartment markers. Both γ-gliadin domains are found in the same PBLS when co-expressed, which is most probably due to their ability to interact with each other, as indicated by the yeast two-hybrid and FRET-FLIM experiments. Moreover, when stably expressed in BY-2 cells, green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusions to γ-gliadin and its isolated domains were retained in the ER for several days before being exported to the vacuole in a Golgi-dependent manner, and degraded, leading to the release of the GFP ‘core’. Taken together, the results show that tobacco cells are a convenient model to study the atypical wheat prolamin trafficking with fluorescent protein fusions. PMID:21617248

  20. Construction and use of a Cupriavidus necator H16 soluble hydrogenase promoter (PSH fusion to gfp (green fluorescent protein

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    Bat-Erdene Jugder

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogenases are metalloenzymes that reversibly catalyse the oxidation or production of molecular hydrogen (H2. Amongst a number of promising candidates for application in the oxidation of H2 is a soluble [Ni–Fe] uptake hydrogenase (SH produced by Cupriavidus necator H16. In the present study, molecular characterisation of the SH operon, responsible for functional SH synthesis, was investigated by developing a green fluorescent protein (GFP reporter system to characterise PSH promoter activity using several gene cloning approaches. A PSH promoter-gfp fusion was successfully constructed and inducible GFP expression driven by the PSH promoter under de-repressing conditions in heterotrophic growth media was demonstrated in the recombinant C. necator H16 cells. Here we report the first successful fluorescent reporter system to study PSH promoter activity in C. necator H16. The fusion construct allowed for the design of a simple screening assay to evaluate PSH activity. Furthermore, the constructed reporter system can serve as a model to develop a rapid fluorescent based reporter for subsequent small-scale process optimisation experiments for SH expression.

  1. Fluorescent Protein Approaches in Alpha Herpesvirus Research

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    Ian B. Hogue

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the nearly two decades since the popularization of green fluorescent protein (GFP, fluorescent protein-based methodologies have revolutionized molecular and cell biology, allowing us to literally see biological processes as never before. Naturally, this revolution has extended to virology in general, and to the study of alpha herpesviruses in particular. In this review, we provide a compendium of reported fluorescent protein fusions to herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1 and pseudorabies virus (PRV structural proteins, discuss the underappreciated challenges of fluorescent protein-based approaches in the context of a replicating virus, and describe general strategies and best practices for creating new fluorescent fusions. We compare fluorescent protein methods to alternative approaches, and review two instructive examples of the caveats associated with fluorescent protein fusions, including describing several improved fluorescent capsid fusions in PRV. Finally, we present our future perspectives on the types of powerful experiments these tools now offer.

  2. Fusions between green fluorescent protein and beta-glucuronidase as sensitive and vital bifunctional reporters in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaedvlieg, N E; Schlaman, H R; Admiraal, P C; Wijting, S E; Stougaard, J; Spaink, H P

    1998-11-01

    By fusing the genes encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) and beta-glucuronidase (GUS) we have created a set of bifunctional reporter constructs which are optimized for use in transient and stable expression studies in plants. This approach makes it possible to combine the advantage of GUS, its high sensitivity in histochemical staining, with the advantages of GFP as a vital marker. The fusion proteins were functional in transient expression studies in tobacco using either DNA bombardment or potato virus X as a vector, and in stably transformed Arabidopsis thaliana and Lotus japonicus plants. The results show that high level of expression does not interfere with efficient stable transformation in A. thaliana and L. japonicus. Using confocal laser scanning microscopy we show that the fusion constructs are very suitable for promoter expression studies in all organs of living plants, including root nodules. The use of these reporter constructs in the model legume L. japonicus offers exciting new possibilities for the study of the root nodulation process.

  3. Use of green fluorescent protein fusions to analyse the N- and C-terminal signal peptides of GPI-anchored cell wall proteins in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yuxin; Zhang, Zimei; Wong, Brian

    2003-12-01

    Glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins account for 26-35% of the Candida albicans cell wall. To understand the signals that regulate these proteins' cell surface localization, green fluorescent protein (GFP) was fused to the N- and C-termini of the C. albicans cell wall proteins (CWPs) Hwp1p, Als3p and Rbt5p. C. albicans expressing all three fusion proteins were fluorescent at the cell surface. GFP was released from membrane fractions by PI-PLC and from cell walls by beta-glucanase, which implied that GFP was GPI-anchored to the plasma membrane and then covalently attached to cell wall glucans. Twenty and 25 amino acids, respectively, from the N- and C-termini of Hwp1p were sufficient to target GFP to the cell surface. C-terminal substitutions that are permitted by the omega rules (G613D, G613N, G613S, G613A, G615S) did not interfere with GFP localization, whereas some non-permitted substitutions (G613E, G613Q, G613R, G613T and G615Q) caused GFP to accumulate in intracellular ER-like structures and others (G615C, G613N/G615C and G613D/G615C) did not. These results imply that (i) GFP fusions can be used to analyse the N- and C-terminal signal peptides of GPI-anchored CWPs, (ii) the omega amino acid in Hwp1p is G613, and (iii) C can function at the omega+2 position in C. albicans GPI-anchored proteins.

  4. Development of a novel fluorescent imaging probe for tumor hypoxia by use of a fusion protein with oxygen-dependent degradation domain of HIF-1α

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shotaro; Kizaka-Kondoh, Shinae; Harada, Hiroshi; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2007-02-01

    More malignant tumors contain more hypoxic regions. In hypoxic tumor cells, expression of a series of hypoxiaresponsive genes related to malignant phenotype such as angiogenesis and metastasis are induced. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a master transcriptional activator of such genes, and thus imaging of hypoxic tumor cells where HIF-1 is active, is important in cancer therapy. We have been developing PTD-ODD fusion proteins, which contain protein transduction domain (PTD) and the VHL-mediated protein destruction motif in oxygen-dependent degradation (ODD) domain of HIF-1 alpha subunit (HIF-1α). Thus PTD-ODD fusion proteins can be delivered to any tissue in vivo through PTD function and specifically stabilized in hypoxic cells through ODD function. To investigate if PTD-ODD fusion protein can be applied to construct hypoxia-specific imaging probes, we first constructed a fluorescent probe because optical imaging enable us to evaluate a probe easily, quickly and economically in a small animal. We first construct a model fusion porein PTD-ODD-EGFP-Cy5.5 named POEC, which is PTD-ODD protein fused with EGFP for in vitro imaging and stabilization of fusion protein, and conjugated with a near-infrared dye Cy5.5. This probe is designed to be degraded in normoxic cells through the function of ODD domain and followed by quick clearance of free fluorescent dye. On the other hand, this prove is stabilized in hypoxic tumor cells and thus the dye is stayed in the cells. Between normoxic and hypoxic conditions, the difference in the clearance rate of the dye will reveals suited contrast for tumor-hypoxia imaging. The optical imaging probe has not been optimized yet but the results presented here exhibit a potential of PTD-ODD fusion protein as a hypoxia-specific imaging probe.

  5. Induction of the arginine vasopressin-enhanced green fluorescent protein fusion transgene in the rat locus coeruleus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Todoroki, M.; Ueta, Y.; Fujihara, H.; Otsubo, H.; Shibata, M.; Hashimoto, H.; Kabayashi, M.; Sakamoto, H.; Kawata, M.; Dayanithi, Govindan; Murphy, D.; Hiro, H.; Takahashi, E.; Nagata, S.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 4 (2010), s. 281-292 ISSN 1025-3890 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : colchicine * green fluorescent protein * hypothalamus Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.553, year: 2010

  6. Optimization of fluorescent proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bindels, D.S.; Goedhart, J.; Hink, M.A.; van Weeren, L.; Joosen, L.; Gadella (jr.), T.W.J.; Engelborghs, Y.; Visser, A.J.W.G.

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, fluorescent protein (FP) variants have been engineered to fluoresce in all different colors; to display photoswitchable, or photochromic, behavior; or to show yet other beneficial properties that enable or enhance a still growing set of new fluorescence spectroscopy and microcopy

  7. Highly thermostable fluorescent proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Andrew M [Santa Fe, NM; Waldo, Geoffrey S [Santa Fe, NM; Kiss, Csaba [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-03-22

    Thermostable fluorescent proteins (TSFPs), methods for generating these and other stability-enhanced proteins, polynucleotides encoding such proteins, and assays and method for using the TSFPs and TSFP-encoding nucleic acid molecules are provided. The TSFPs of the invention show extremely enhanced levels of stability and thermotolerance. In one case, for example, a TSFP of the invention is so stable it can be heated to 99.degree. C. for short periods of time without denaturing, and retains 85% of its fluorescence when heated to 80.degree. C. for several minutes. The invention also provides a method for generating stability-enhanced variants of a protein, including but not limited to fluorescent proteins.

  8. Cell segmentation in time-lapse fluorescence microscopy with temporally varying sub-cellular fusion protein patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunyak, Filiz; Palaniappan, Kannappan; Chagin, Vadim; Cardoso, M

    2009-01-01

    Fluorescently tagged proteins such as GFP-PCNA produce rich dynamically varying textural patterns of foci distributed in the nucleus. This enables the behavioral study of sub-cellular structures during different phases of the cell cycle. The varying punctuate patterns of fluorescence, drastic changes in SNR, shape and position during mitosis and abundance of touching cells, however, require more sophisticated algorithms for reliable automatic cell segmentation and lineage analysis. Since the cell nuclei are non-uniform in appearance, a distribution-based modeling of foreground classes is essential. The recently proposed graph partitioning active contours (GPAC) algorithm supports region descriptors and flexible distance metrics. We extend GPAC for fluorescence-based cell segmentation using regional density functions and dramatically improve its efficiency for segmentation from O(N(4)) to O(N(2)), for an image with N(2) pixels, making it practical and scalable for high throughput microscopy imaging studies.

  9. Fluorescence spectroscopy studies of HEK293 cells expressing DOR-Gi1alfa fusion protein; the effect of cholesterol depletion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brejchová, Jana; Sýkora, Jan; Dlouhá, Kateřina; Roubalová, Lenka; Ostašov, Pavel; Vošahlíková, Miroslava; Hof, Martin; Svoboda, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 1808, č. 12 (2011), s. 2819-2829 ISSN 0005-2736 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06063; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA ČR(CZ) GD305/08/H037 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP208/10/1090 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509; CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : plasma membrane * cholesterol depletion * fluorescence spectroscopy * hydrophobic membrane interior * delta-opioid receptor ( DOR ), * G protein Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.990, year: 2011

  10. Use of green fluorescent fusion protein to track activation of the transcription factor osterix during early osteoblast differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tai Guangping; Christodoulou, Ioannis; Bishop, Anne E.; Polak, Julia M.

    2005-01-01

    Osterix (Osx) is a transcription factor required for the differentiation of preosteoblasts into fully functioning osteoblasts. However, the pattern of Osx activation during preosteoblast differentiation and maturation has not been clearly defined. Our aim was to study Osx activation during these processes in osteoblasts differentiating from murine and human embryonic stem cells (ESC). To do this, we constructed an Osx-GFP fusion protein reporter system to track Osx translocation within the cells. The distribution of Osx-GFP at representative stages of differentiation was also investigated by screening primary osteoblasts, mesenchymal stem cells, synoviocytes, and pre-adipocytes. Our experiments revealed that Osx-GFP protein was detectable in the cytoplasm of cultured, differentiated ESC 4 days after plating of enzymatically dispersed embryoid bodies. Osterix-GFP protein became translocated into the nucleus on day 7 following transfer of differentiated ESC to osteogenic medium. After 14 days of differentiation, cells showing nuclear translocation of Osx-GFP formed rudimentary bone nodules that continued to increase in number over the following weeks (through day 21). We also found that Osx translocated into the nuclei of mesenchymal stem cells (C3H10T1/2) and pre-osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1) and showed partial activation in pre-adipocytes (MC3T3-L1). These data suggest that Osx activation occurs at a very early point in the differentiation of the mesenchymal-osteoblastic lineage

  11. Functional fluorescent protein insertions in herpes simplex virus gB report on gB conformation before and after execution of membrane fusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R Gallagher

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Entry of herpes simplex virus (HSV into a target cell requires complex interactions and conformational changes by viral glycoproteins gD, gH/gL, and gB. During viral entry, gB transitions from a prefusion to a postfusion conformation, driving fusion of the viral envelope with the host cell membrane. While the structure of postfusion gB is known, the prefusion conformation of gB remains elusive. As the prefusion conformation of gB is a critical target for neutralizing antibodies, we set out to describe its structure by making genetic insertions of fluorescent proteins (FP throughout the gB ectodomain. We created gB constructs with FP insertions in each of the three globular domains of gB. Among 21 FP insertion constructs, we found 8 that allowed gB to remain membrane fusion competent. Due to the size of an FP, regions in gB that tolerate FP insertion must be solvent exposed. Two FP insertion mutants were cell-surface expressed but non-functional, while FP insertions located in the crown were not surface expressed. This is the first report of placing a fluorescent protein insertion within a structural domain of a functional viral fusion protein, and our results are consistent with a model of prefusion HSV gB constructed from the prefusion VSV G crystal structure. Additionally, we found that functional FP insertions from two different structural domains could be combined to create a functional form of gB labeled with both CFP and YFP. FRET was measured with this construct, and we found that when co-expressed with gH/gL, the FRET signal from gB was significantly different from the construct containing CFP alone, as well as gB found in syncytia, indicating that this construct and others of similar design are likely to be powerful tools to monitor the conformation of gB in any model system accessible to light microscopy.

  12. A Laboratory Exercise for Visible Gel Filtration Chromatography Using Fluorescent Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenqiang; Cao, Yibin; Xu, Lishan; Gong, Jufang; Sun, Meihao

    2015-01-01

    Gel filtration chromatography (GFC) separates molecules according to size and is one of the most widely used methods for protein purification. Here, red fluorescent protein (RFP), green fluorescent protein (GFP), yellow fluorescent protein (YFP), cyan fluorescent protein (CFP), and/or their fusion proteins were prokaryotically expressed, purified,…

  13. Preparation of GST Fusion Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarson, Margret B; Pugacheva, Elena N; Orlinick, Jason R

    2007-04-01

    INTRODUCTIONThis protocol describes the preparation of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins, which have had a wide range of applications since their introduction as tools for synthesis of recombinant proteins in bacteria. GST was originally selected as a fusion moiety because of several desirable properties. First and foremost, when expressed in bacteria alone, or as a fusion, GST is not sequestered in inclusion bodies (in contrast to previous fusion protein systems). Second, GST can be affinity-purified without denaturation because it binds to immobilized glutathione, which provides the basis for simple purification. Consequently, GST fusion proteins are routinely used for antibody generation and purification, protein-protein interaction studies, and biochemical analysis.

  14. Protein- protein interaction detection system using fluorescent protein microdomains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Cabantous, Stephanie

    2010-02-23

    The invention provides a protein labeling and interaction detection system based on engineered fragments of fluorescent and chromophoric proteins that require fused interacting polypeptides to drive the association of the fragments, and further are soluble and stable, and do not change the solubility of polypeptides to which they are fused. In one embodiment, a test protein X is fused to a sixteen amino acid fragment of GFP (.beta.-strand 10, amino acids 198-214), engineered to not perturb fusion protein solubility. A second test protein Y is fused to a sixteen amino acid fragment of GFP (.beta.-strand 11, amino acids 215-230), engineered to not perturb fusion protein solubility. When X and Y interact, they bring the GFP strands into proximity, and are detected by complementation with a third GFP fragment consisting of GFP amino acids 1-198 (strands 1-9). When GFP strands 10 and 11 are held together by interaction of protein X and Y, they spontaneous association with GFP strands 1-9, resulting in structural complementation, folding, and concomitant GFP fluorescence.

  15. Cellulose binding domain fusion proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoseyov, Oded; Shpiegl, Itai; Goldstein, Marc A.; Doi, Roy H.

    1998-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  16. Engineering and Characterization of a Superfolder Green Fluorescent Protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedelacq, J.; Cabantous, S.; Tran, T.; Terwilliger, T.; Waldo, G.

    2006-01-01

    Existing variants of green fluorescent protein (GFP) often misfold when expressed as fusions with other proteins. We have generated a robustly folded version of GFP, called 'superfolder' GFP, that folds well even when fused to poorly folded polypeptides. Compared to 'folding reporter' GFP, a folding-enhanced GFP containing the 'cycle-3' mutations and the 'enhanced GFP' mutations F64L and S65T, superfolder GFP shows improved tolerance of circular permutation, greater resistance to chemical denaturants and improved folding kinetics. The fluorescence of Escherichia coli cells expressing each of eighteen proteins from Pyrobaculum aerophilum as fusions with superfolder GFP was proportional to total protein expression. In contrast, fluorescence of folding reporter GFP fusion proteins was strongly correlated with the productive folding yield of the passenger protein. X-ray crystallographic structural analyses helped explain the enhanced folding of superfolder GFP relative to folding reporter GFP

  17. Refractive index sensing of green fluorescent proteins in living cells using fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Manen, Henk-Jan; Verkuijlen, Paul; Wittendorp, Paul; Subramaniam, Vinod; van den Berg, Timo K; Roos, Dirk; Otto, Cees

    2008-01-01

    We show that fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) of green fluorescent protein (GFP) molecules in cells can be used to report on the local refractive index of intracellular GFP. We expressed GFP fusion constructs of Rac2 and gp91(phox), which are both subunits of the phagocyte NADPH

  18. Single Molecule Spectroscopy of Fluorescent Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blum, Christian; Subramaniam, Vinod

    2009-01-01

    The discovery and use of fluorescent proteins has revolutionized cellular biology. Despite the widespread use of visible fluorescent proteins as reporters and sensors in cellular environments the versatile photophysics of fluorescent proteins is still subject to intense research. Understanding the

  19. Distinct roles for key karyogamy proteins during yeast nuclear fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melloy, Patricia; Shen, Shu; White, Erin; Rose, Mark D

    2009-09-01

    During yeast mating, cell fusion is followed by the congression and fusion of the two nuclei. Proteins required for nuclear fusion are found at the surface (Prm3p) and within the lumen (Kar2p, Kar5p, and Kar8p) of the nuclear envelope (NE). Electron tomography (ET) of zygotes revealed that mutations in these proteins block nuclear fusion with different morphologies, suggesting that they act in different steps of fusion. Specifically, prm3 zygotes were blocked before formation of membrane bridges, whereas kar2, kar5, and kar8 zygotes frequently contained them. Membrane bridges were significantly larger and occurred more frequently in kar2 and kar8, than in kar5 mutant zygotes. The kinetics of NE fusion in prm3, kar5, and kar8 mutants, measured by live-cell fluorescence microscopy, were well correlated with the size and frequency of bridges observed by ET. However the kar2 mutant was defective for transfer of NE lumenal GFP, but not diffusion within the lumen, suggesting that transfer was blocked at the NE fusion junction. These observations suggest that Prm3p acts before initiation of outer NE fusion, Kar5p may help dilation of the initial fusion pore, and Kar2p and Kar8p act after outer NE fusion, during inner NE fusion.

  20. Cell-penetrating anti-GFAP VHH and corresponding fluorescent fusion protein VHH-GFP spontaneously cross the blood-brain barrier and specifically recognize astrocytes: application to brain imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tengfei; Bourgeois, Jean-Pierre; Celli, Susanna; Glacial, Fabienne; Le Sourd, Anne-Marie; Mecheri, Salah; Weksler, Babette; Romero, Ignacio; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; Rougeon, François; Lafaye, Pierre

    2012-10-01

    Antibodies normally do not cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and cannot bind an intracellular cerebral antigen. We demonstrate here for the first time that a new class of antibodies can cross the BBB without treatment. Camelids produce native homodimeric heavy-chain antibodies, the paratope being composed of a single-variable domain called VHH. Here, we used recombinant VHH directed against human glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a specific marker of astrocytes. Only basic VHHs (e.g., pI=9.4) were able to cross the BBB in vitro (7.8 vs. 0% for VHH with pI=7.7). By intracarotid and intravenous injections into live mice, we showed that these basic VHHs are able to cross the BBB in vivo, diffuse into the brain tissue, penetrate into astrocytes, and specifically label GFAP. To analyze their ability to be used as a specific transporter, we then expressed a recombinant fusion protein VHH-green fluorescent protein (GFP). These "fluobodies" specifically labeled GFAP on murine brain sections, and a basic variant (pI=9.3) of the fusion protein VHH-GFP was able to cross the BBB and to label astrocytes in vivo. The potential of VHHs as diagnostic or therapeutic agents in the central nervous system now deserves attention.

  1. Exo-endo cellulase fusion protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Benjamin S [Palo Alto, CA; Larenas, Edmund A [Palo Alto, CA; Mitchinson, Colin [Palo Alto, CA

    2012-01-17

    The present invention relates to a heterologous exo-endo cellulase fusion construct, which encodes a fusion protein having cellulolytic activity comprising a catalytic domain derived from a fungal exo-cellobiohydrolase and a catalytic domain derived from an endoglucanase. The invention also relates to vectors and fungal host cells comprising the heterologous exo-endo cellulase fusion construct as well as methods for producing a cellulase fusion protein and enzymatic cellulase compositions.

  2. Thermal precipitation fluorescence assay for protein stability screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Junping; Huang, Bo; Wang, Xianping; Zhang, Xuejun C

    2011-09-01

    A simple and reliable method of protein stability assessment is desirable for high throughput expression screening of recombinant proteins. Here we described an assay termed thermal precipitation fluorescence (TPF) which can be used to compare thermal stabilities of recombinant protein samples directly from cell lysate supernatants. In this assay, target membrane proteins are expressed as recombinant fusions with a green fluorescence protein tag and solubilized with detergent, and the fluorescence signals are used to report the quantity of the fusion proteins in the soluble fraction of the cell lysate. After applying a heat shock, insoluble protein aggregates are removed by centrifugation. Subsequently, the amount of remaining protein in the supernatant is quantified by in-gel fluorescence analysis and compared to samples without a heat shock treatment. Over 60 recombinant membrane proteins from Escherichia coli were subject to this screening in the presence and absence of a few commonly used detergents, and the results were analyzed. Because no sophisticated protein purification is required, this TPF technique is suitable to high throughput expression screening of recombinant membrane proteins as well as soluble ones and can be used to prioritize target proteins based on their thermal stabilities for subsequent large scale expression and structural studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Probe transfer with and without membrane fusion in a fluorescence fusion assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohki, S; Flanagan, TD; Hoekstra, D

    1998-01-01

    An analysis of the R(18) fusion assay was made during the fusion of the Sendai virus with erythrocyte ghosts. The increase in R(18) fluorescence, reflecting the interaction process, was evaluated in terms of the different processes that in principle may contribute to this increase, that is,

  4. Probing plasma membrane microdomains in cowpea protoplasts using lipidated GFP-fusion proteins and multimode FRET microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, J.E.M.; van Munster, E.B.; Vischer, N.O.; Gadella, T.

    2004-01-01

    Multimode fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) microscopy was applied to study the plasma membrane organization using different lipidated green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion proteins co-expressed in cowpea protoplasts. Cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) was fused to the hyper variable region

  5. Genetic barcoding with fluorescent proteins for multiplexed applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smurthwaite, Cameron A; Williams, Wesley; Fetsko, Alexandra; Abbadessa, Darin; Stolp, Zachary D; Reed, Connor W; Dharmawan, Andre; Wolkowicz, Roland

    2015-04-14

    Fluorescent proteins, fluorescent dyes and fluorophores in general have revolutionized the field of molecular cell biology. In particular, the discovery of fluorescent proteins and their genes have enabled the engineering of protein fusions for localization, the analysis of transcriptional activation and translation of proteins of interest, or the general tracking of individual cells and cell populations. The use of fluorescent protein genes in combination with retroviral technology has further allowed the expression of these proteins in mammalian cells in a stable and reliable manner. Shown here is how one can utilize these genes to give cells within a population of cells their own biosignature. As the biosignature is achieved with retroviral technology, cells are barcoded 'indefinitely'. As such, they can be individually tracked within a mixture of barcoded cells and utilized in more complex biological applications. The tracking of distinct populations in a mixture of cells is ideal for multiplexed applications such as discovery of drugs against a multitude of targets or the activation profile of different promoters. The protocol describes how to elegantly develop and amplify barcoded mammalian cells with distinct genetic fluorescent markers, and how to use several markers at once or one marker at different intensities. Finally, the protocol describes how the cells can be further utilized in combination with cell-based assays to increase the power of analysis through multiplexing.

  6. Impurity studies in fusion devices using laser-fluorescence-spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husinsky, W.R.

    1980-08-01

    Resonance fluorescence excitation of neutral atoms using tunable radiation from dye lasers offers a number of unique advantages for impurity studies in fusion devices. Using this technique, it is possible to perform local, time-resolved measurements of the densities and velocity distributions of metallic impurities in fusion devices without disturbing the plasma. Velocities are measured by monitoring the fluorescence intensity while tuning narrow bandwidth laser radiation through the Doppler - broadened absorbtion spectrum of the transition. The knowledge of the velocity distribution of neutral impurities is particularly useful for the determination of impurity introduction mechanisms. The laser fluorescence technique will be described in terms of its application to metallic impurities in fusion devices and related laboratory experiments. Particular attention will be given to recent results from the ISX-B tokamak using pulsed dye lasers where detection sensitivities for neutral Fe of 10 6 atoms/cm 3 with a velocity resolution of 600 m/sec (0.1 eV) have been achieved. Techniques for exciting plasma particles (H,D) will also be discussed

  7. The enhanced cyan fluorescent protein: a sensitive pH sensor for fluorescence lifetime imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poëa-Guyon, Sandrine; Pasquier, Hélène; Mérola, Fabienne; Morel, Nicolas; Erard, Marie

    2013-05-01

    pH is an important parameter that affects many functions of live cells, from protein structure or function to several crucial steps of their metabolism. Genetically encoded pH sensors based on pH-sensitive fluorescent proteins have been developed and used to monitor the pH of intracellular compartments. The quantitative analysis of pH variations can be performed either by ratiometric or fluorescence lifetime detection. However, most available genetically encoded pH sensors are based on green and yellow fluorescent proteins and are not compatible with multicolor approaches. Taking advantage of the strong pH sensitivity of enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (ECFP), we demonstrate here its suitability as a sensitive pH sensor using fluorescence lifetime imaging. The intracellular ECFP lifetime undergoes large changes (32 %) in the pH 5 to pH 7 range, which allows accurate pH measurements to better than 0.2 pH units. By fusion of ECFP with the granular chromogranin A, we successfully measured the pH in secretory granules of PC12 cells, and we performed a kinetic analysis of intragranular pH variations in living cells exposed to ammonium chloride.

  8. Expression and characterization of insulin growth factor-I-enhanced green fluorescent protein fused protein as a tracer for immunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi Ruina [College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Huang Yong [College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wang Dan [College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhao Meiping [College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Li Yuanzong [College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)]. E-mail: yzli@pku.edu.cn

    2006-09-25

    The insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is an important polypeptide hormone under investigation for body metabolism study and for doping detection. Here, we describe for the first time the expression of a recombinant fusion protein of IGF-I and the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). The genetic fusion approach enables preparation of conjugates with 1:1 stoichiometry and homogeneous structure. The fused protein (EGFP-IGF-I) was expressed as a soluble protein in cytoplasm of Escherichia coli and its fluorescence and immunoreaction properties were thoroughly characterized. Finally, we demonstrated the utility of the EGFP-IGF-I fusion protein for the fluorescence immunoassay of IGF-1. The linear range of the assay is 1.6 x 10{sup -8} to 2.0 x 10{sup -6} M with a detection limit of 1.6 x 10{sup -8} M. To our knowledge, this is the first time that EGFP has been used as a quantitative label in a fusion protein to develop a quantitative assay for IGF-I. Furthermore, the use of genetically engineered fusion proteins, which combine peptide hormones with fluorescent protein, can lead to a new labeling approach to a number of bioanalytical applications.

  9. Expression and characterization of insulin growth factor-I-enhanced green fluorescent protein fused protein as a tracer for immunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Ruina; Huang Yong; Wang Dan; Zhao Meiping; Li Yuanzong

    2006-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is an important polypeptide hormone under investigation for body metabolism study and for doping detection. Here, we describe for the first time the expression of a recombinant fusion protein of IGF-I and the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). The genetic fusion approach enables preparation of conjugates with 1:1 stoichiometry and homogeneous structure. The fused protein (EGFP-IGF-I) was expressed as a soluble protein in cytoplasm of Escherichia coli and its fluorescence and immunoreaction properties were thoroughly characterized. Finally, we demonstrated the utility of the EGFP-IGF-I fusion protein for the fluorescence immunoassay of IGF-1. The linear range of the assay is 1.6 x 10 -8 to 2.0 x 10 -6 M with a detection limit of 1.6 x 10 -8 M. To our knowledge, this is the first time that EGFP has been used as a quantitative label in a fusion protein to develop a quantitative assay for IGF-I. Furthermore, the use of genetically engineered fusion proteins, which combine peptide hormones with fluorescent protein, can lead to a new labeling approach to a number of bioanalytical applications

  10. Mitochondrial Fusion Proteins and Human Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Ranieri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are highly dynamic, complex organelles that continuously alter their shape, ranging between two opposite processes, fission and fusion, in response to several stimuli and the metabolic demands of the cell. Alterations in mitochondrial dynamics due to mutations in proteins involved in the fusion-fission machinery represent an important pathogenic mechanism of human diseases. The most relevant proteins involved in the mitochondrial fusion process are three GTPase dynamin-like proteins: mitofusin 1 (MFN1 and 2 (MFN2, located in the outer mitochondrial membrane, and optic atrophy protein 1 (OPA1, in the inner membrane. An expanding number of degenerative disorders are associated with mutations in the genes encoding MFN2 and OPA1, including Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2A and autosomal dominant optic atrophy. While these disorders can still be considered rare, defective mitochondrial dynamics seem to play a significant role in the molecular and cellular pathogenesis of more common neurodegenerative diseases, for example, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. This review provides an overview of the basic molecular mechanisms involved in mitochondrial fusion and focuses on the alteration in mitochondrial DNA amount resulting from impairment of mitochondrial dynamics. We also review the literature describing the main disorders associated with the disruption of mitochondrial fusion.

  11. Fluorogen-activating proteins: beyond classical fluorescent proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengnan Xu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence imaging is a powerful technique for the real-time noninvasive monitoring of protein dynamics. Recently, fluorogen activating proteins (FAPs/fluorogen probes for protein imaging were developed. Unlike the traditional fluorescent proteins (FPs, FAPs do not fluoresce unless bound to their specific small-molecule fluorogens. When using FAPs/fluorogen probes, a washing step is not required for the removal of free probes from the cells, thus allowing rapid and specific detection of proteins in living cells with high signal-to-noise ratio. Furthermore, with different fluorogens, living cell multi-color proteins labeling system was developed. In this review, we describe about the discovery of FAPs, the design strategy of FAP fluorogens, the application of the FAP technology and the advances of FAP technology in protein labeling systems. KEY WORDS: Fluorogen activating proteins, Fluorogens, Genetically encoded sensors, Fluorescence imaging, Molecular imaging

  12. Protein subcellular localization assays using split fluorescent proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldo, Geoffrey S [Santa Fe, NM; Cabantous, Stephanie [Los Alamos, NM

    2009-09-08

    The invention provides protein subcellular localization assays using split fluorescent protein systems. The assays are conducted in living cells, do not require fixation and washing steps inherent in existing immunostaining and related techniques, and permit rapid, non-invasive, direct visualization of protein localization in living cells. The split fluorescent protein systems used in the practice of the invention generally comprise two or more self-complementing fragments of a fluorescent protein, such as GFP, wherein one or more of the fragments correspond to one or more beta-strand microdomains and are used to "tag" proteins of interest, and a complementary "assay" fragment of the fluorescent protein. Either or both of the fragments may be functionalized with a subcellular targeting sequence enabling it to be expressed in or directed to a particular subcellular compartment (i.e., the nucleus).

  13. Fusion proteins useful for producing pinene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peralta-Yahya, Pamela P.; Keasling, Jay D

    2016-06-28

    The present invention provides for a modified host cell comprising a heterologous pinene synthase (PS), or enzymatically active fragment or variant thereof, and optionally a geranyl pyrophosphate synthase (GPPS), or enzymatically active fragment or variant thereof, or a fusion protein comprising: (a) a PS and (b) a GPPS linked by a linker.

  14. Identification of Protein-Protein Interactions with Glutathione-S-Transferase (GST) Fusion Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarson, Margret B; Pugacheva, Elena N; Orlinick, Jason R

    2007-08-01

    INTRODUCTIONGlutathione-S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins have had a wide range of applications since their introduction as tools for synthesis of recombinant proteins in bacteria. GST was originally selected as a fusion moiety because of several desirable properties. First and foremost, when expressed in bacteria alone, or as a fusion, GST is not sequestered in inclusion bodies (in contrast to previous fusion protein systems). Second, GST can be affinity-purified without denaturation because it binds to immobilized glutathione, which provides the basis for simple purification. Consequently, GST fusion proteins are routinely used for antibody generation and purification, protein-protein interaction studies, and biochemical analysis. This article describes the use of GST fusion proteins as probes for the identification of protein-protein interactions.

  15. Refractive Index Sensing of Green Fluorescent Proteins in Living Cells Using Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Manen, Henk-Jan; Verkuijlen, Paul; Wittendorp, Paul; Subramaniam, Vinod; van den Berg, Timo K.; Roos, Dirk; Otto, Cees

    2008-01-01

    We show that fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) of green fluorescent protein (GFP) molecules in cells can be used to report on the local refractive index of intracellular GFP. We expressed GFP fusion constructs of Rac2 and gp91phox, which are both subunits of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase enzyme, in human myeloid PLB-985 cells and showed by high-resolution confocal fluorescence microscopy that GFP-Rac2 and GFP-gp91phox are targeted to the cytosol and to membranes, respectively. Frequency-domain FLIM experiments on these PLB-985 cells resulted in average fluorescence lifetimes of 2.70 ns for cytosolic GFP-Rac2 and 2.31 ns for membrane-bound GFP-gp91phox. By comparing these lifetimes with a calibration curve obtained by measuring GFP lifetimes in PBS/glycerol mixtures of known refractive index, we found that the local refractive indices of cytosolic GFP-Rac2 and membrane-targeted GFP-gp91phox are ∼1.38 and ∼1.46, respectively, which is in good correspondence with reported values for the cytosol and plasma membrane measured by other techniques. The ability to measure the local refractive index of proteins in living cells by FLIM may be important in revealing intracellular spatial heterogeneities within organelles such as the plasma and phagosomal membrane. PMID:18223002

  16. Characterization of Fluorescent Proteins for Three- and Four-Color Live-Cell Imaging in S. cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi-Sanabria, Ryo; Garcia, Enrique J; Tomoiaga, Delia; Munteanu, Emilia L; Feinstein, Paul; Pon, Liza A

    2016-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae are widely used for imaging fluorescently tagged protein fusions. Fluorescent proteins can easily be inserted into yeast genes at their chromosomal locus, by homologous recombination, for expression of tagged proteins at endogenous levels. This is especially useful for incorporation of multiple fluorescent protein fusions into a single strain, which can be challenging in organisms where genetic manipulation is more complex. However, the availability of optimal fluorescent protein combinations for 3-color imaging is limited. Here, we have characterized a combination of fluorescent proteins, mTFP1/mCitrine/mCherry for multicolor live cell imaging in S. cerevisiae. This combination can be used with conventional blue dyes, such as DAPI, for potential four-color live cell imaging.

  17. Split green fluorescent protein as a modular binding partner for protein crystallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Hau B.; Hung, Li-Wei; Yeates, Todd O.; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Waldo, Geoffrey S.

    2013-01-01

    A strategy using a new split green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a modular binding partner to form stable protein complexes with a target protein is presented. The modular split GFP may open the way to rapidly creating crystallization variants. A modular strategy for protein crystallization using split green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a crystallization partner is demonstrated. Insertion of a hairpin containing GFP β-strands 10 and 11 into a surface loop of a target protein provides two chain crossings between the target and the reconstituted GFP compared with the single connection afforded by terminal GFP fusions. This strategy was tested by inserting this hairpin into a loop of another fluorescent protein, sfCherry. The crystal structure of the sfCherry-GFP(10–11) hairpin in complex with GFP(1–9) was determined at a resolution of 2.6 Å. Analysis of the complex shows that the reconstituted GFP is attached to the target protein (sfCherry) in a structurally ordered way. This work opens the way to rapidly creating crystallization variants by reconstituting a target protein bearing the GFP(10–11) hairpin with a variety of GFP(1–9) mutants engineered for favorable crystallization

  18. Fc-fusion Proteins in Therapy: An Updated View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Reza; Zolbanin, Naime M; Rafatpanah, Houshang; Majidi, Jafar; Kazemi, Tohid

    2017-01-01

    Fc-fusion proteins are composed of Fc region of IgG antibody (Hinge-CH2-CH3) and a desired linked protein. Fc region of Fc-fusion proteins can bind to neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) thereby rescuing it from degradation. The first therapeutic Fc-fusion protein was introduced for the treatment of AIDS. The molecular designing is the first stage in production of Fc-fusion proteins. The amino acid residues in the Fc region and linked protein are very important in the bioactivity and affinity of the fusion proteins. Although, therapeutic monoclonal antibodies are the top selling biologics but the application of therapeutic Fc-fusion proteins in clinic is in progress and among these medications Etanercept is the most effective in therapy. At present, eleven Fc-fusion proteins have been approved by FDA. There are novel Fc-fusion proteins which are in pre-clinical and clinical development. In this article, we review the molecular and biological characteristics of Fc-fusion proteins and then further discuss the features of novel therapeutic Fc-fusion proteins. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Diversity and evolution of coral fluorescent proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naila O Alieva

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available GFP-like fluorescent proteins (FPs are the key color determinants in reef-building corals (class Anthozoa, order Scleractinia and are of considerable interest as potential genetically encoded fluorescent labels. Here we report 40 additional members of the GFP family from corals. There are three major paralogous lineages of coral FPs. One of them is retained in all sampled coral families and is responsible for the non-fluorescent purple-blue color, while each of the other two evolved a full complement of typical coral fluorescent colors (cyan, green, and red and underwent sorting between coral groups. Among the newly cloned proteins are a "chromo-red" color type from Echinopora forskaliana (family Faviidae and pink chromoprotein from Stylophora pistillata (Pocilloporidae, both evolving independently from the rest of coral chromoproteins. There are several cyan FPs that possess a novel kind of excitation spectrum indicating a neutral chromophore ground state, for which the residue E167 is responsible (numeration according to GFP from A. victoria. The chromoprotein from Acropora millepora is an unusual blue instead of purple, which is due to two mutations: S64C and S183T. We applied a novel probabilistic sampling approach to recreate the common ancestor of all coral FPs as well as the more derived common ancestor of three main fluorescent colors of the Faviina suborder. Both proteins were green such as found elsewhere outside class Anthozoa. Interestingly, a substantial fraction of the all-coral ancestral protein had a chromohore apparently locked in a non-fluorescent neutral state, which may reflect the transitional stage that enabled rapid color diversification early in the history of coral FPs. Our results highlight the extent of convergent or parallel evolution of the color diversity in corals, provide the foundation for experimental studies of evolutionary processes that led to color diversification, and enable a comparative analysis of

  20. Dark proteins disturb multichromophore coupling in tetrameric fluorescent proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blum, Christian; Meixner, Alfred J.; Subramaniam, Vinod

    2011-01-01

    DsRed is representative of the tetrameric reef coral fluorescent proteins that constitute particularly interesting coupled multichromophoric systems. Either a green emitting or a red emitting chromophore can form within each of the monomers of the protein tetramer. Within the tetramers the

  1. Conservation of a proteinase cleavage site between an insect retrovirus (gypsy) Env protein and a baculovirus envelope fusion protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, Margot N.; Rohrmann, George F.

    2004-01-01

    The predicted Env protein of insect retroviruses (errantiviruses) is related to the envelope fusion protein of a major division of the Baculoviridae. The highest degree of homology is found in a region that contains a furin cleavage site in the baculovirus proteins and an adjacent sequence that has the properties of a fusion peptide. In this investigation, the homologous region in the Env protein of the gypsy retrovirus of Drosophila melanogaster (DmegypV) was investigated. Alteration of the predicted DmegypV Env proteinase cleavage site from RIAR to AIAR significantly reduced cleavage of Env in both Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf-9) and D. melanogaster (S2) cell lines. When the predicted DmegypV Env cleavage site RIAR was substituted for the cleavage sequence RRKR in the Lymantria dispar nucleopolyhedrovirus fusion protein (LD130) sequence, cleavage of the hybrid LD130 molecules still occurred, although at a reduced level. The conserved 21-amino acid sequence just downstream of the cleavage site, which is thought to be the fusion peptide in LD130, was also characterized. When this sequence from DmegypV Env was substituted for the homologous sequence in LD130, cleavage still occurred, but no fusion was observed in either cell type. In addition, although a DmegypV-Env-green fluorescent protein construct localized to cell membranes, no cell fusion was observed

  2. Localizing Proteins in Fixed Giardia lamblia and Live Cultured Mammalian Cells by Confocal Fluorescence Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyindodo-Ogari, Lilian; Schwartzbach, Steven D; Skalli, Omar; Estraño, Carlos E

    2016-01-01

    Confocal fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy (EM) are complementary methods for studying the intracellular localization of proteins. Confocal fluorescence microscopy provides a rapid and technically simple method to identify the organelle in which a protein localizes but only EM can identify the suborganellular compartment in which that protein is present. Confocal fluorescence microscopy, however, can provide information not obtainable by EM but required to understand the dynamics and interactions of specific proteins. In addition, confocal fluorescence microscopy of cells transfected with a construct encoding a protein of interest fused to a fluorescent protein tag allows live cell studies of the subcellular localization of that protein and the monitoring in real time of its trafficking. Immunostaining methods for confocal fluorescence microscopy are also faster and less involved than those for EM allowing rapid optimization of the antibody dilution needed and a determination of whether protein antigenicity is maintained under fixation conditions used for EM immunogold labeling. This chapter details a method to determine by confocal fluorescence microscopy the intracellular localization of a protein by transfecting the organism of interest, in this case Giardia lamblia, with the cDNA encoding the protein of interest and then processing these organisms for double label immunofluorescence staining after chemical fixation. Also presented is a method to identify the organelle targeting information in the presequence of a precursor protein, in this case the presequence of the precursor to the Euglena light harvesting chlorophyll a/b binding protein of photosystem II precursor (pLHCPII), using live cell imaging of mammalian COS7 cells transiently transfected with a plasmid encoding a pLHCPII presequence fluorescent protein fusion and stained with organelle-specific fluorescent dyes.

  3. Detection of association and fusion of giant vesicles using a fluorescence-activated cell sorter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunami, Takeshi; Caschera, Filippo; Morita, Yuuki; Toyota, Taro; Nishimura, Kazuya; Matsuura, Tomoaki; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Hanczyc, Martin M; Yomo, Tetsuya

    2010-10-05

    We have developed a method to evaluate the fusion process of giant vesicles using a fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS). Three fluorescent markers and FACS technology were used to evaluate the extent of association and fusion of giant vesicles. Two fluorescent markers encapsulated in different vesicle populations were used as association markers; when these vesicles associate, the two independent markers should be observed simultaneously in a single detection event. The quenched fluorescent marker and the dequencher, which were encapsulated in separate vesicle populations, were used as the fusion marker. When the internal aqueous solutions mix, the quenched marker is liberated by the dequencher and emits the third fluorescent signal. Although populations of pure POPC vesicles showed no detectable association or fusion, the same populations, oppositely charged by the exogenous addition of charged amphiphiles, showed up to 50% association and 30% fusion upon population analysis of 100,000 giant vesicles. Although a substantial fraction of the vesicles associated in response to a small amount of the charged amphiphiles (5% mole fraction compared to POPC alone), a larger amount of the charged amphiphiles (25%) was needed to induce vesicle fusion. The present methodology also revealed that the association and fusion of giant vesicles was dependent on size, with larger giant vesicles associating and fusing more frequently.

  4. Time variation of fluorescence lifetime in enhanced cyan fluorescence protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Soonhyouk; Kim, Soo Yong; Park, Kyoungsook; Jeong, Jinyoung; Chung, Bong Hyun; Kim, Sok Won

    2010-01-01

    The lifetime variations of enhanced cyan fluorescence protein (ECFP) in relatively short integration time bins were studied via time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) measurement. We observed that minimum photon counts are necessary for the lifetime estimation to achieve a certain range of variance. The conditions to decrease the variance of lifetime were investigated and the channel width of the measurement of TCSPC data was found to be another important factor for the variance of lifetime. Though the lifetime of ECFP is best fit by a double exponential, a mono exponential fit for the same integration time is more stable. The results may be useful in the analysis of photophysical dynamics for ensemble molecules in short measurement time windows.

  5. Thermal green protein, an extremely stable, nonaggregating fluorescent protein created by structure-guided surface engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, Devin W; Paul, Craig Don; Langan, Patricia S; Wilce, Matthew C J; Traore, Daouda A K; Halfmann, Randal; Rocha, Reginaldo C; Waldo, Geoffery S; Payne, Riley J; Rucker, Joseph B; Prescott, Mark; Bradbury, Andrew R M

    2015-07-01

    In this article, we describe the engineering and X-ray crystal structure of Thermal Green Protein (TGP), an extremely stable, highly soluble, non-aggregating green fluorescent protein. TGP is a soluble variant of the fluorescent protein eCGP123, which despite being highly stable, has proven to be aggregation-prone. The X-ray crystal structure of eCGP123, also determined within the context of this paper, was used to carry out rational surface engineering to improve its solubility, leading to TGP. The approach involved simultaneously eliminating crystal lattice contacts while increasing the overall negative charge of the protein. Despite intentional disruption of lattice contacts and introduction of high entropy glutamate side chains, TGP crystallized readily in a number of different conditions and the X-ray crystal structure of TGP was determined to 1.9 Å resolution. The structural reasons for the enhanced stability of TGP and eCGP123 are discussed. We demonstrate the utility of using TGP as a fusion partner in various assays and significantly, in amyloid assays in which the standard fluorescent protein, EGFP, is undesirable because of aberrant oligomerization. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. MEMBRANE-FUSION OF SEMLIKI FOREST VIRUS INVOLVES HOMOTRIMERS OF THE FUSION PROTEIN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WAHLBERG, JM; WILSCHUT, J; GAROFF, H

    1992-01-01

    Infection of cells with enveloped viruses is accomplished through membrane fusion. The binding and fusion Processes are mediated by the spike proteins in the envelope of the virus particle and usually involve a series of conformational changes in these proteins. We have studied the low-pH-mediated

  7. Ultrafast Proton Shuttling in Psammocora Cyan Fluorescent Protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kennis, J.T.M.; van Stokkum, I.H.M.; Peterson, D.S.; Pandit, A.; Wachter, R.M.

    2013-01-01

    Cyan, green, yellow, and red fluorescent proteins (FPs) homologous to green fluorescent protein (GFP) are used extensively as model systems to study fundamental processes in photobiology, such as the capture of light energy by protein-embedded chromophores, color tuning by the protein matrix, energy

  8. Paramyxovirus F1 protein has two fusion peptides: implications for the mechanism of membrane fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peisajovich, S G; Samuel, O; Shai, Y

    2000-03-10

    Viral fusion proteins contain a highly hydrophobic segment, named the fusion peptide, which is thought to be responsible for the merging of the cellular and viral membranes. Paramyxoviruses are believed to contain a single fusion peptide at the N terminus of the F1 protein. However, here we identified an additional internal segment in the Sendai virus F1 protein (amino acids 214-226) highly homologous to the fusion peptides of HIV-1 and RSV. A synthetic peptide, which includes this region, was found to induce membrane fusion of large unilamellar vesicles, at concentrations where the known N-terminal fusion peptide is not effective. A scrambled peptide as well as several peptides from other regions of the F1 protein, which strongly bind to membranes, are not fusogenic. The functional and structural characterization of this active segment suggest that the F1 protein has an additional internal fusion peptide that could participate in the actual fusion event. The presence of homologous regions in other members of the same family suggests that the concerted action of two fusion peptides, one N-terminal and the other internal, is a general feature of paramyxoviruses. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  9. Click chemistry for the conservation of cellular structures and fluorescent proteins: ClickOx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löschberger, Anna; Niehörster, Thomas; Sauer, Markus

    2014-05-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS), including hydrogen peroxide, are known to cause structural damage not only in living, but also in fixed, cells. Copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (click chemistry) is known to produce ROS. Therefore, fluorescence imaging of cellular structures, such as the actin cytoskeleton, remains challenging when combined with click chemistry protocols. In addition, the production of ROS substantially weakens the fluorescence signal of fluorescent proteins. This led us to develop ClickOx, which is a new click chemistry protocol for improved conservation of the actin structure and better conservation of the fluorescence signal of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion proteins. Herein we demonstrate that efficient oxygen removal by addition of an enzymatic oxygen scavenger system (ClickOx) considerably reduces ROS-associated damage during labeling of nascent DNA with ATTO 488 azide by Cu(I)-catalyzed click chemistry. Standard confocal and super-resolution fluorescence images of phalloidin-labeled actin filaments and GFP/yellow fluorescent protein-labeled cells verify the conservation of the cytoskeleton microstructure and fluorescence intensity, respectively. Thus, ClickOx can be used advantageously for structure preservation in conventional and most notably in super-resolution microscopy methods. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Assessing the utility of photoswitchable fluorescent proteins for tracking intercellular protein movement in the Arabidopsis root.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Wu

    Full Text Available One way in which cells communicate is through the direct transfer of proteins. In plants, many of these proteins are transcription factors, which are made by one cell type and traffic into another. In order to understand how this movement occurs and its role in development, we would like to track this movement in live, intact plants in real-time. Here we examine the utility of the photoconvertible proteins, Dendra2 and (to a lesser extent EosFP as tags for studying intracellular and intercellular protein movement in the Arabidopsis root. To this end, we made fusions between Dendra2 and six mobile transcription factors. Our results show that Dendra2 is an effective tool for studying protein movement between plant cells. Interestingly, we found that Dendra2 could not simply be swapped into existing constructs that had originally contained GFP. Most of the fusions made in this way failed to produce a fluorescent fusion. In addition we found that the optimal settings for photoconversion of Dendra2 in stably transformed roots were different from what has been published for photoconversion in transient assays in plants or in animal cells. By modifying the confocal setting, we were able to photoconvert Dendra2 in all cell layers in the root. However the efficiency of photoconversion was affected by the position of the cell layer within the root, with more internal tissues requiring more energy. By examining the Dendra2 fusions, we confirmed the mobility of the SHORT-ROOT (SHR and CAPRICE (CPC transcription factors between cells and we further discovered that SHR movement in stele and CPC movement in the epidermis are non-directional.

  11. Structural characterization of Mumps virus fusion protein core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yueyong; Xu Yanhui; Lou Zhiyong; Zhu Jieqing; Hu Xuebo; Gao, George F.; Qiu Bingsheng; Rao Zihe; Tien, Po

    2006-01-01

    The fusion proteins of enveloped viruses mediating the fusion between the viral and cellular membranes comprise two discontinuous heptad repeat (HR) domains located at the ectodomain of the enveloped glycoproteins. The crystal structure of the fusion protein core of Mumps virus (MuV) was determined at 2.2 A resolution. The complex is a six-helix bundle in which three HR1 peptides form a central highly hydrophobic coiled-coil and three HR2 peptides pack against the hydrophobic grooves on the surface of central coiled-coil in an oblique antiparallel manner. Fusion core of MuV, like those of simian virus 5 and human respiratory syncytium virus, forms typical 3-4-4-4-3 spacing. The similar charecterization in HR1 regions, as well as the existence of O-X-O motif in extended regions of HR2 helix, suggests a basic rule for the formation of the fusion core of viral fusion proteins

  12. The Fusion Loops of the Initial Prefusion Conformation of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Fusion Protein Point Toward the Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Fontana

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available All enveloped viruses, including herpesviruses, must fuse their envelope with the host membrane to deliver their genomes into target cells, making this essential step subject to interference by antibodies and drugs. Viral fusion is mediated by a viral surface protein that transits from an initial prefusion conformation to a final postfusion conformation. Strikingly, the prefusion conformation of the herpesvirus fusion protein, gB, is poorly understood. Herpes simplex virus (HSV, a model system for herpesviruses, causes diseases ranging from mild skin lesions to serious encephalitis and neonatal infections. Using cryo-electron tomography and subtomogram averaging, we have characterized the structure of the prefusion conformation and fusion intermediates of HSV-1 gB. To this end, we have set up a system that generates microvesicles displaying full-length gB on their envelope. We confirmed proper folding of gB by nondenaturing electrophoresis-Western blotting with a panel of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs covering all gB domains. To elucidate the arrangement of gB domains, we labeled them by using (i mutagenesis to insert fluorescent proteins at specific positions, (ii coexpression of gB with Fabs for a neutralizing MAb with known binding sites, and (iii incubation of gB with an antibody directed against the fusion loops. Our results show that gB starts in a compact prefusion conformation with the fusion loops pointing toward the viral membrane and suggest, for the first time, a model for gB’s conformational rearrangements during fusion. These experiments further illustrate how neutralizing antibodies can interfere with the essential gB structural transitions that mediate viral entry and therefore infectivity.

  13. Production of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli tagged with the fusion protein CusF3H.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Cortez, Teresa; Morones-Ramirez, Jose Ruben; Balderas-Renteria, Isaias; Zarate, Xristo

    2017-04-01

    Recombinant protein expression in the bacterium Escherichia coli still is the number one choice for large-scale protein production. Nevertheless, many complications can arise using this microorganism, such as low yields, the formation of inclusion bodies, and the requirement for difficult purification steps. Most of these problems can be solved with the use of fusion proteins. Here, the use of the metal-binding protein CusF3H+ is described as a new fusion protein for recombinant protein expression and purification in E. coli. We have previously shown that CusF produces large amounts of soluble protein, with low levels of formation of inclusion bodies, and that proteins can be purified using IMAC resins charged with Cu(II) ions. CusF3H+ is an enhanced variant of CusF, formed by the addition of three histidine residues at the N-terminus. These residues then can bind Ni(II) ions allowing improved purity after affinity chromatography. Expression and purification of Green Fluorescent Protein tagged with CusF3H+ showed that the mutation did not alter the capacity of the fusion protein to increase protein expression, and purity improved considerably after affinity chromatography with immobilized nickel ions; high yields are obtained after tag-removal since CusF3H+ is a small protein of just 10 kDa. Furthermore, the results of experiments involving expression of tagged proteins having medium to large molecular weights indicate that the presence of the CusF3H+ tag improves protein solubility, as compared to a His-tag. We therefore endorse CusF3H+ as a useful alternative fusion protein/affinity tag for production of recombinant proteins in E. coli. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Dissecting Redox Biology Using Fluorescent Protein Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzländer, Markus; Dick, Tobias P; Meyer, Andreas J; Morgan, Bruce

    2016-05-01

    Fluorescent protein sensors have revitalized the field of redox biology by revolutionizing the study of redox processes in living cells and organisms. Within one decade, a set of fundamental new insights has been gained, driven by the rapid technical development of in vivo redox sensing. Redox-sensitive yellow and green fluorescent protein variants (rxYFP and roGFPs) have been the central players. Although widely used as an established standard tool, important questions remain surrounding their meaningful use in vivo. We review the growing range of thiol redox sensor variants and their application in different cells, tissues, and organisms. We highlight five key findings where in vivo sensing has been instrumental in changing our understanding of redox biology, critically assess the interpretation of in vivo redox data, and discuss technical and biological limitations of current redox sensors and sensing approaches. We explore how novel sensor variants may further add to the current momentum toward a novel mechanistic and integrated understanding of redox biology in vivo. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 24, 680-712.

  15. Fluorescent in situ folding control for rapid optimization of cell-free membrane protein synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Müller-Lucks

    Full Text Available Cell-free synthesis is an open and powerful tool for high-yield protein production in small reaction volumes predestined for high-throughput structural and functional analysis. Membrane proteins require addition of detergents for solubilization, liposomes, or nanodiscs. Hence, the number of parameters to be tested is significantly higher than with soluble proteins. Optimization is commonly done with respect to protein yield, yet without knowledge of the protein folding status. This approach contains a large inherent risk of ending up with non-functional protein. We show that fluorophore formation in C-terminal fusions with green fluorescent protein (GFP indicates the folding state of a membrane protein in situ, i.e. within the cell-free reaction mixture, as confirmed by circular dichroism (CD, proteoliposome reconstitution and functional assays. Quantification of protein yield and in-gel fluorescence intensity imply suitability of the method for membrane proteins of bacterial, protozoan, plant, and mammalian origin, representing vacuolar and plasma membrane localization, as well as intra- and extracellular positioning of the C-terminus. We conclude that GFP-fusions provide an extension to cell-free protein synthesis systems eliminating the need for experimental folding control and, thus, enabling rapid optimization towards membrane protein quality.

  16. Aequorin fusion proteins as bioluminescent tracers for competitive immunoassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirasoli, Mara; Michelini, Elisa; Deo, Sapna K.; Dikici, Emre; Roda, Aldo; Daunert, Sylvia

    2004-06-01

    The use of bio- and chemiluminescence for the development of quantitative binding assays offers undoubted advantages over other detection systems, such as spectrophotometry, fluorescence, or radioactivity. Indeed, bio- and chemiluminescence detection provides similar, or even better, sensitivity and detectability than radioisotopes, while avoiding the problems of health hazards, waste disposal, and instability associated with the use of radioisotopes. Among bioluminescent labels, the calcium-activated photoprotein aequorin, originally isolated from Aequorea victoria and today available as a recombinant product, is characterized by very high detectability, down to attomole levels. It has been used as a bioluminescent label for developing a variety of highly sensitive immunoassays, using various analyte-aequorin conjugation strategies. When the analyte is a protein or a peptide, genetic engineering techniques can be used to produce protein fusions where the analyte is in-frame fused with aequorin, thus producing homogeneous one-to-one conjugation products, available in virtually unlimited amount. Various assays were developed using this strategy: a short review of the most interesting applications is presented, as well as the cloning, purification and initial characterization of an endothelin-1-aequorin conjugate suitable for developing a competitive immunoassay for endothelin-1, a potent vasoconstrictor peptide, involved in hypertension.

  17. Rho GTPase activity modulates paramyxovirus fusion protein-mediated cell-cell fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schowalter, Rachel M.; Wurth, Mark A.; Aguilar, Hector C.; Lee, Benhur; Moncman, Carole L.; McCann, Richard O.; Dutch, Rebecca Ellis

    2006-01-01

    The paramyxovirus fusion protein (F) promotes fusion of the viral envelope with the plasma membrane of target cells as well as cell-cell fusion. The plasma membrane is closely associated with the actin cytoskeleton, but the role of actin dynamics in paramyxovirus F-mediated membrane fusion is unclear. We examined cell-cell fusion promoted by two different paramyxovirus F proteins in three cell types in the presence of constitutively active Rho family GTPases, major cellular coordinators of actin dynamics. Reporter gene and syncytia assays demonstrated that expression of either Rac1 V12 or Cdc42 V12 could increase cell-cell fusion promoted by the Hendra or SV5 glycoproteins, though the effect was dependent on the cell type expressing the viral glycoproteins. In contrast, RhoA L63 decreased cell-cell fusion promoted by Hendra glycoproteins but had little affect on SV5 F-mediated fusion. Also, data suggested that GTPase activation in the viral glycoprotein-containing cell was primarily responsible for changes in fusion. Additionally, we found that activated Cdc42 promoted nuclear rearrangement in syncytia

  18. The dengue virus type 2 envelope protein fusion peptide is essential for membrane fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Claire Y.-H.; Butrapet, Siritorn; Moss, Kelly J.; Childers, Thomas; Erb, Steven M.; Calvert, Amanda E.; Silengo, Shawn J.; Kinney, Richard M.; Blair, Carol D.; Roehrig, John T.

    2010-01-01

    The flaviviral envelope (E) protein directs virus-mediated membrane fusion. To investigate membrane fusion as a requirement for virus growth, we introduced 27 unique mutations into the fusion peptide of an infectious cDNA clone of dengue 2 virus and recovered seven stable mutant viruses. The fusion efficiency of the mutants was impaired, demonstrating for the first time the requirement for specific FP AAs in optimal fusion. Mutant viruses exhibited different growth kinetics and/or genetic stabilities in different cell types and adult mosquitoes. Virus particles could be recovered following RNA transfection of cells with four lethal mutants; however, recovered viruses could not re-infect cells. These viruses could enter cells, but internalized virus appeared to be retained in endosomal compartments of infected cells, thus suggesting a fusion blockade. Mutations of the FP also resulted in reduced virus reactivity with flavivirus group-reactive antibodies, confirming earlier reports using virus-like particles.

  19. Bioorthogonal fluorescent labeling of functional G-protein-coupled receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, He; Naganathan, Saranga; Kazmi, Manija A

    2014-01-01

    Novel methods are required for site-specific, quantitative fluorescent labeling of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and other difficult-to-express membrane proteins. Ideally, fluorescent probes should perturb the native structure and function as little as possible. We evaluated bioorthogonal...

  20. FRET-based localization of fluorescent protein insertions within the ryanodine receptor type 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta A Raina

    Full Text Available Fluorescent protein (FP insertions have often been used to localize primary structure elements in mid-resolution 3D cryo electron microscopic (EM maps of large protein complexes. However, little is known as to the precise spatial relationship between the location of the fused FP and its insertion site within a larger protein. To gain insights into these structural considerations, Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET measurements were used to localize green fluorescent protein (GFP insertions within the ryanodine receptor type 1 (RyR1, a large intracellular Ca(2+ release channel that plays a key role in skeletal muscle excitation contraction coupling. A series of full-length His-tagged GFP-RyR1 fusion constructs were created, expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK-293T cells and then complexed with Cy3NTA, a His-tag specific FRET acceptor. FRET efficiency values measured from each GFP donor to Cy3NTA bound to each His tag acceptor site were converted into intermolecular distances and the positions of each inserted GFP were then triangulated relative to a previously published X-ray crystal structure of a 559 amino acid RyR1 fragment. We observed that the chromophoric centers of fluorescent proteins inserted into RyR1 can be located as far as 45 Å from their insertion sites and that the fused proteins can also be located in internal cavities within RyR1. These findings should prove useful in interpreting structural results obtained in cryo EM maps using fusions of small fluorescent proteins. More accurate point-to-point distance information may be obtained using complementary orthogonal labeling systems that rely on fluorescent probes that bind directly to amino acid side chains.

  1. Induction of protein body formation in plant leaves by elastin-like polypeptide fusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joensuu Jussi J

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elastin-like polypeptides are synthetic biopolymers composed of a repeating pentapeptide 'VPGXG' sequence that are valuable for the simple non-chromatographic purification of recombinant proteins. In addition, elastin-like polypeptide fusions have been shown to enhance the accumulation of a range of different recombinant proteins in plants, thus addressing the major limitation of plant-based expression systems, which is a low production yield. This study's main objectives were to determine the general utility of elastin-like polypeptide protein fusions in various intracellular compartments and to elucidate elastin-like polypeptide's mechanism of action for increasing recombinant protein accumulation in the endoplasmic reticulum of plants. Results The effect of elastin-like polypeptide fusions on the accumulation of green fluorescent protein targeted to the cytoplasm, chloroplasts, apoplast, and endoplasmic reticulum was evaluated. The endoplasmic reticulum was the only intracellular compartment in which an elastin-like polypeptide tag was shown to significantly enhance recombinant protein accumulation. Interestingly, endoplasmic reticulum-targeted elastin-like polypeptide fusions induced the formation of a novel type of protein body, which may be responsible for elastin-like polypeptide's positive effect on recombinant protein accumulation by excluding the heterologous protein from normal physiological turnover. Although expressed in the leaves of plants, these novel protein bodies appeared similar in size and morphology to the prolamin-based protein bodies naturally found in plant seeds. The elastin-like polypeptide-induced protein bodies were highly mobile organelles, exhibiting various dynamic patterns of movement throughout the cells, which were dependent on intact actin microfilaments and a functional actomyosin motility system. Conclusion An endoplasmic reticulum-targeted elastin-like polypeptide fusion approach

  2. In vivo cellular imaging using fluorescent proteins - Methods and Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Monti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The discovery and genetic engineering of fluorescent proteins has revolutionized cell biology. What was previously invisible to the cell often can be made visible with the use of fluorescent proteins. With this words, Robert M. Hoffman introduces In vivo Cellular Imaging Using Fluorescent proteins, the eighteen chapters book dedicated to the description of how fluorescence proteins have changed the way to analyze cellular processes in vivo. Modern researches aim to study new and less invasive methods able to follow the behavior of different cell types in different biological contexts: for example, how cancer cells migrate or how they respond to different therapies. Also, in vivo systems can help researchers to better understand animal embryonic development so as how fluorescence proteins may be used to monitor different processes in living organisms at the molecular and cellular level.

  3. Purification method for recombinant proteins based on a fusion between the target protein and the C-terminus of calmodulin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer-Vukasinovic, Vesna; Deo, Sapna K.; Daunert, Sylvia

    2002-01-01

    Calmodulin (CaM) was used as an affinity tail to facilitate the purification of the green fluorescent protein (GFP), which was used as a model target protein. The protein GFP was fused to the C-terminus of CaM, and a factor Xa cleavage site was introduced between the two proteins. A CaM-GFP fusion protein was expressed in E. coli and purified on a phenothiazine-derivatized silica column. CaM binds to the phenothiazine on the column in a Ca(2+)-dependent fashion and it was, therefore, used as an affinity tail for the purification of GFP. The fusion protein bound to the affinity column was then subjected to a proteolytic digestion with factor Xa. Pure GFP was eluted with a Ca(2+)-containing buffer, while CaM was eluted later with a buffer containing the Ca(2+)-chelating agent EGTA. The purity of the isolated GFP was verified by SDS-PAGE, and the fluorescence properties of the purified GFP were characterized.

  4. Adaptive Evolution of Eel Fluorescent Proteins from Fatty Acid Binding Proteins Produces Bright Fluorescence in the Marine Environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F Gruber

    Full Text Available We report the identification and characterization of two new members of a family of bilirubin-inducible fluorescent proteins (FPs from marine chlopsid eels and demonstrate a key region of the sequence that serves as an evolutionary switch from non-fluorescent to fluorescent fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs. Using transcriptomic analysis of two species of brightly fluorescent Kaupichthys eels (Kaupichthys hyoproroides and Kaupichthys n. sp., two new FPs were identified, cloned and characterized (Chlopsid FP I and Chlopsid FP II. We then performed phylogenetic analysis on 210 FABPs, spanning 16 vertebrate orders, and including 163 vertebrate taxa. We show that the fluorescent FPs diverged as a protein family and are the sister group to brain FABPs. Our results indicate that the evolution of this family involved at least three gene duplication events. We show that fluorescent FABPs possess a unique, conserved tripeptide Gly-Pro-Pro sequence motif, which is not found in non-fluorescent fatty acid binding proteins. This motif arose from a duplication event of the FABP brain isoforms and was under strong purifying selection, leading to the classification of this new FP family. Residues adjacent to the motif are under strong positive selection, suggesting a further refinement of the eel protein's fluorescent properties. We present a phylogenetic reconstruction of this emerging FP family and describe additional fluorescent FABP members from groups of distantly related eels. The elucidation of this class of fish FPs with diverse properties provides new templates for the development of protein-based fluorescent tools. The evolutionary adaptation from fatty acid-binding proteins to fluorescent fatty acid-binding proteins raises intrigue as to the functional role of bright green fluorescence in this cryptic genus of reclusive eels that inhabit a blue, nearly monochromatic, marine environment.

  5. A Geometric Dictionary Learning Based Approach for Fluorescence Spectroscopy Image Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqin Zhu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, sparse representation approaches have been integrated into multi-focus image fusion methods. The fused images of sparse-representation-based image fusion methods show great performance. Constructing an informative dictionary is a key step for sparsity-based image fusion method. In order to ensure sufficient number of useful bases for sparse representation in the process of informative dictionary construction, image patches from all source images are classified into different groups based on geometric similarities. The key information of each image-patch group is extracted by principle component analysis (PCA to build dictionary. According to the constructed dictionary, image patches are converted to sparse coefficients by simultaneous orthogonal matching pursuit (SOMP algorithm for representing the source multi-focus images. At last the sparse coefficients are fused by Max-L1 fusion rule and inverted to fused image. Due to the limitation of microscope, the fluorescence image cannot be fully focused. The proposed multi-focus image fusion solution is applied to fluorescence imaging area for generating all-in-focus images. The comparison experimentation results confirm the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed multi-focus image fusion solution.

  6. Recombination-stable multimeric green fluorescent protein for characterization of weak promoter outputs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rugbjerg, Peter; Knuf, Christoph; Förster, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    a less leaky Cu2+-inducible promoter based on CUP1. The basal expression level of the new promoter was approx. 61% below the wild-type CUP1 promoter, thus expanding the absolute range of Cu2+-based gene control. The stability of 3vGFP towards direct-repeat recombination was assayed in S. cerevisiae......Green fluorescent proteins (GFPs) are widely used for visualization of proteins to track localization and expression dynamics. However, phenotypically important processes can operate at too low expression levels for routine detection, i.e. be overshadowed by autofluorescence noise. While GFP...... functions well in translational fusions, the use of tandem GFPs to amplify fluorescence signals is currently avoided in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and many other microorganisms due to the risk of loop-out by direct-repeat recombination. We increased GFP fluorescence by translationally fusing three different...

  7. The Multifaceted Role of SNARE Proteins in Membrane Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing; Pluhackova, Kristyna; Böckmann, Rainer A

    2017-01-01

    Membrane fusion is a key process in all living organisms that contributes to a variety of biological processes including viral infection, cell fertilization, as well as intracellular transport, and neurotransmitter release. In particular, the various membrane-enclosed compartments in eukaryotic cells need to exchange their contents and communicate across membranes. Efficient and controllable fusion of biological membranes is known to be driven by cooperative action of SNARE proteins, which constitute the central components of the eukaryotic fusion machinery responsible for fusion of synaptic vesicles with the plasma membrane. During exocytosis, vesicle-associated v-SNARE (synaptobrevin) and target cell-associated t-SNAREs (syntaxin and SNAP-25) assemble into a core trans-SNARE complex. This complex plays a versatile role at various stages of exocytosis ranging from the priming to fusion pore formation and expansion, finally resulting in the release or exchange of the vesicle content. This review summarizes current knowledge on the intricate molecular mechanisms underlying exocytosis triggered and catalyzed by SNARE proteins. Particular attention is given to the function of the peptidic SNARE membrane anchors and the role of SNARE-lipid interactions in fusion. Moreover, the regulatory mechanisms by synaptic auxiliary proteins in SNARE-driven membrane fusion are briefly outlined.

  8. Inhibitory effect of PTD-OD-HA fusion protein on Bcr-Abl in K562 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao GAO

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To study the transduction dynamics, location of PTD-OD-HA fusion protein and its interaction with Bcr-Abl oncoprotein in K562 cell lines, and explore the influence of PTD-OD-HA fusion protein on oligomerization and tyrosine kinase activity of Bcr-Abl. Methods PTD-OD-HA fusion protein was labeled with FITC and co-cultured with K562 cells. The transduction efficiency of labeled PTD-OD-HA at different doses and time intervals was observed under fluorescence microscope. The location of labeled PTD-OD-HA fusion protein in K562 cells was detected by confocal microscopy. The interaction of PTD-OD-HA fusion protein with Bcr-Abl oncoprotein was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation. The phosphorylation of Bcr-Abl oncoprotein was detected by Western blotting. Results PTD-OD-HA fusion protein labeled with FITC was transduced into K562 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. PTD-OD-HA fusion protein was located in the cytoplasm of K562 cells and was consistent with the location of Bcr-Abl oncoprotein. The interaction of PTD-OD-HA fusion protein with Bcr-Abl oncoprotein was proved in K562 cells. This interaction could interrupt the homologous oligomerization of Bcr-Abl oncoprotein and reduce the phosphorylation of Bcr-Abl oncoprotein. Conclusion PTD-OD-HA fusion protein could be transduced into K562 cells efficiently, inhibit the oligomerization and reduce the phosphorylation of Bcr-Abl oncoprotein.

  9. The conserved glycine residues in the transmembrane domain of the Semliki Forest virus fusion protein are not required for assembly and fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Maofu; Kielian, Margaret

    2005-01-01

    The alphavirus Semliki Forest virus (SFV) infects cells via a low pH-triggered fusion reaction mediated by the viral E1 protein. Both the E1 fusion peptide and transmembrane (TM) domain are essential for membrane fusion, but the functional requirements for the TM domain are poorly understood. Here we explored the role of the five TM domain glycine residues, including the highly conserved glycine pair at E1 residues 415/416. SFV mutants with alanine substitutions for individual or all five glycine residues (5G/A) showed growth kinetics and fusion pH dependence similar to those of wild-type SFV. Mutants with increasing substitution of glycine residues showed an increasingly more stringent requirement for cholesterol during fusion. The 5G/A mutant showed decreased fusion kinetics and extent in fluorescent lipid mixing assays. TM domain glycine residues thus are not required for efficient SFV fusion or assembly but can cause subtle effects on the properties of membrane fusion

  10. Directed supramolecular surface assembly of SNAP-tag fusion proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uhlenheuer, D.A.; Wasserberg, D.; Haase, C.; Nguyen, H.; Schenkel, J.H.; Huskens, J.; Ravoo, B.J.; Jonkheijm, P.; Brunsveld, L.

    2012-01-01

    Supramolecular assembly of proteins on surfaces and vesicles was investigated by site-selective incorporation of a supramolecular guest element on proteins. Fluorescent proteins were site-selectively labeled with bisadamantane by SNAP-tag technology. The assembly of the bisadamantane functionalized

  11. Immobilization of ferrocene-modified SNAP-fusion proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wasserberg, D.; Uhlenheuer, D.; Neirynck, P.; Neirynck, Pauline; Cabanas Danés, Jordi; Schenkel, J.H.; Ravoo, B.J.; An, Q.; Huskens, Jurriaan; Milroy, L.G.; Brunsveld, Luc; Jonkheijm, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    The supramolecular assembly of proteins on surfaces has been investigated via the site-selective incorporation of a supramolecular moiety on proteins. To this end, fluorescent proteins have been site-selectively labeled with ferrocenes, as supramolecular guest moieties, via SNAP-tag technology. The

  12. Directed Supramolecular Surface Assembly of SNAP-tag Fusion Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uhlenheuer, D.A.; Wasserberg, D.; Haase, C.; Nguyen, Hoang D.; Schenkel, J.H.; Huskens, Jurriaan; Ravoo, B.J.; Jonkheijm, Pascal; Brunsveld, Luc

    2012-01-01

    Supramolecular assembly of proteins on surfaces and vesicles was investigated by site-selective incorporation of a supramolecular guest element on proteins. Fluorescent proteins were site-selectively labeled with bisadamantane by SNAP-tag technology. The assembly of the bisadamantane functionalized

  13. The yeast cell fusion protein Prm1p requires covalent dimerization to promote membrane fusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Engel

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Prm1p is a multipass membrane protein that promotes plasma membrane fusion during yeast mating. The mechanism by which Prm1p and other putative regulators of developmentally controlled cell-cell fusion events facilitate membrane fusion has remained largely elusive. Here, we report that Prm1p forms covalently linked homodimers. Covalent Prm1p dimer formation occurs via intermolecular disulfide bonds of two cysteines, Cys-120 and Cys-545. PRM1 mutants in which these cysteines have been substituted are fusion defective. These PRM1 mutants are normally expressed, retain homotypic interaction and can traffic to the fusion zone. Because prm1-C120S and prm1-C545S mutants can form covalent dimers when coexpressed with wild-type PRM1, an intermolecular C120-C545 disulfide linkage is inferred. Cys-120 is adjacent to a highly conserved hydrophobic domain. Mutation of a charged residue within this hydrophobic domain abrogates formation of covalent dimers, trafficking to the fusion zone, and fusion-promoting activity. The importance of intermolecular disulfide bonding informs models regarding the mechanism of Prm1-mediated cell-cell fusion.

  14. Analysis of nuclear export using photoactivatable GFP fusion proteins and interspecies heterokaryons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakrieko, Kerry-Ann; Ivanova, Iordanka A; Dagnino, Lina

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, we review protocols for the analysis of nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of transcription factors and nuclear proteins, using two different approaches. The first involves the use of photoactivatable forms of the protein of interest by fusion to photoactivatable green fluorescent protein to follow its movement out of the nucleus by live-cell confocal microscopy. This methodology allows for the kinetic characterization of protein movements as well as measurement of steady-state levels. In a second procedure to assess the ability of a nuclear protein to move into and out of the nucleus, we describe the use of interspecies heterokaryon assays, which provide a measurement of steady-state distribution. These technologies are directly applicable to the analysis of nucleocytoplasmic movements not only of transcription factors, but also other nuclear proteins.

  15. Fluorescence of Alexa fluor dye tracks protein folding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Lindhoud

    Full Text Available Fluorescence spectroscopy is an important tool for the characterization of protein folding. Often, a protein is labeled with appropriate fluorescent donor and acceptor probes and folding-induced changes in Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET are monitored. However, conformational changes of the protein potentially affect fluorescence properties of both probes, thereby profoundly complicating interpretation of FRET data. In this study, we assess the effects protein folding has on fluorescence properties of Alexa Fluor 488 (A488, which is commonly used as FRET donor. Here, A488 is covalently attached to Cys69 of apoflavodoxin from Azotobacter vinelandii. Although coupling of A488 slightly destabilizes apoflavodoxin, the three-state folding of this protein, which involves a molten globule intermediate, is unaffected. Upon folding of apoflavodoxin, fluorescence emission intensity of A488 changes significantly. To illuminate the molecular sources of this alteration, we applied steady state and time-resolved fluorescence techniques. The results obtained show that tryptophans cause folding-induced changes in quenching of Alexa dye. Compared to unfolded protein, static quenching of A488 is increased in the molten globule. Upon populating the native state both static and dynamic quenching of A488 decrease considerably. We show that fluorescence quenching of Alexa Fluor dyes is a sensitive reporter of conformational changes during protein folding.

  16. Fluorescence Quantum Yield Measurements of Fluorescent Proteins: A Laboratory Experiment for a Biochemistry or Molecular Biophysics Laboratory Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Kathryn P.; Dillon, Rebecca; Knowles, Michelle K.

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescent proteins are commonly used in cell biology to assess where proteins are within a cell as a function of time and provide insight into intracellular protein function. However, the usefulness of a fluorescent protein depends directly on the quantum yield. The quantum yield relates the efficiency at which a fluorescent molecule converts…

  17. The pharmacological efficacy of the anti-IL17 scFv and sTNFR1 bispecific fusion protein in inflammation mouse stimulated by LPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongbi; Zhang, Teng; Cao, Hongxue; Yu, Dan; Zhang, Tong; Zhao, Shaojuan; Jing, Xiaohui; Song, Liying; Liu, Yunye; Che, Ruixiang; Liu, Xin; Li, Deshan; Ren, Guiping

    2017-08-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is still a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Recently, our study found that a bispecific fusion protein treatment can ameliorate the lung injury induced by LPS. However, the molecular mechanisms which bispecific fusion protein ameliorates acute lung injury remain unclear. In this study, we found that the bispecific fusion protein treatment inhibited the nuclear transcription of NF-κB in confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy, the bispecific fusion protein exert protective effects in the cell model of ALI induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) via inhibiting the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway and mediate inflammation. Moreover, the treatment of the bispecific fusion protein show its efficacy in animal models stimulated by LPS, the results of real-time PCR and ELISA demonstrate that bispecific fusion protein treatment effectively inhibited the over-expression of inflammatory cytokines(tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 1β and interleukin 17). In addition, LPS-challenged mice exhibited significant lung injury characterized by the deterioration of histopathology, which was meliorated by bispecific fusion protein treatment. Collectively, these results demonstrate that bispecific fusion protein treatment ameliorates LPS-induced ALI through reducing inflammatory cytokines and lung inflammation, which may be associated with the decreased the nuclear transcription of NF-κB. The bispecific fusion protein may be useful as a novel therapy to treat ALI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Novel fusion protein approach for efficient high-throughput screening of small molecule-mediating protein-protein interactions in cells and living animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulmurugan, Ramasamy; Gambhir, Sanjiv S

    2005-08-15

    Networks of protein interactions execute many different intracellular pathways. Small molecules either synthesized within the cell or obtained from the external environment mediate many of these protein-protein interactions. The study of these small molecule-mediated protein-protein interactions is important in understanding abnormal signal transduction pathways in a variety of disorders, as well as in optimizing the process of drug development and validation. In this study, we evaluated the rapamycin-mediated interaction of the human proteins FK506-binding protein (FKBP12) rapamycin-binding domain (FRB) and FKBP12 by constructing a fusion of these proteins with a split-Renilla luciferase or a split enhanced green fluorescent protein (split-EGFP) such that complementation of the reporter fragments occurs in the presence of rapamycin. Different linker peptides in the fusion protein were evaluated for the efficient maintenance of complemented reporter activity. This system was studied in both cell culture and xenografts in living animals. We found that peptide linkers with two or four EAAAR repeat showed higher protein-protein interaction-mediated signal with lower background signal compared with having no linker or linkers with amino acid sequences GGGGSGGGGS, ACGSLSCGSF, and ACGSLSCGSFACGSLSCGSF. A 9 +/- 2-fold increase in signal intensity both in cell culture and in living mice was seen compared with a system that expresses both reporter fragments and the interacting proteins separately. In this fusion system, rapamycin induced heterodimerization of the FRB and FKBP12 moieties occurred rapidly even at very lower concentrations (0.00001 nmol/L) of rapamycin. For a similar fusion system employing split-EGFP, flow cytometry analysis showed significant level of rapamycin-induced complementation.

  19. Mechanistic studies of the genetically encoded fluorescent protein voltage probe ArcLight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Han

    Full Text Available ArcLight, a genetically encoded fluorescent protein voltage probe with a large ΔF/ΔV, is a fusion between the voltage sensing domain of the Ciona instestinalis voltage sensitive phosphatase and super ecliptic pHluorin carrying a single mutation (A227D in the fluorescent protein. Without this mutation the probe produces only a very small change in fluorescence in response to voltage deflections (∼ 1%. The large signal afforded by this mutation allows optical detection of action potentials and sub-threshold electrical events in single-trials in vitro and in vivo. However, it is unclear how this single mutation produces a probe with such a large modulation of its fluorescence output with changes in membrane potential. In this study, we identified which residues in super ecliptic pHluorin (vs eGFP are critical for the ArcLight response, as a similarly constructed probe based on eGFP also exhibits large response amplitude if it carries these critical residues. We found that D147 is responsible for determining the pH sensitivity of the fluorescent protein used in these probes but by itself does not result in a voltage probe with a large signal. We also provide evidence that the voltage dependent signal of ArcLight is not simply sensing environmental pH changes. A two-photon polarization microscopy study showed that ArcLight's response to changes in membrane potential includes a reorientation of the super ecliptic pHluorin. We also explored different changes including modification of linker length, deletion of non-essential amino acids in the super ecliptic pHluorin, adding a farnesylation site, using tandem fluorescent proteins and other pH sensitive fluorescent proteins.

  20. Detection of NT-pro BNP using fluorescent protein modified by streptavidin as a label in immunochromatographic assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haixia Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel fluorescent immunochromatographic assay for the detection of NT-proBNP in human serum has been developed. Based on a sandwich-type immunoassay format, analytes in samples were captured by one monoclonal antibody labeled with fluorescent protein and “sandwiched” by another monoclonal antibody immobilized on the nitrocellulose membrane, the fluorescence and concentration of analytes were measured and then calculated by fluoroanalyzer. The fluorescent protein is a fusion protein and was prepared through the application of Streptavidin gene SA, β subunit cpcB of Phycocyanin, lyase alr0617, and phycoerythrobilin synthetase gene ho1, pebA, pebB for covalent binding. It is characterized with higher stability, good solubility in water and it is not easy to quench fluorescence. Take the advantages of fluorescent protein, the immunochromatographic assay exhibited a wide linear range for NT-proBNP from 200 pg ml−1 to 26,000 pg ml−1, with a detection limit of 47 pg ml−1 under optimal conditions. Compared with chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA, 131 human serum samples were analyzed and the correlation coefficient of the developed immunoassay was 0.978. These results demonstrated that fluorescent immunochromatographic assay is a more rapid, sensitive, specific method and could be developed into a platform for more biomarkers determination in clinical practice. Keywords: NT-pro BNP, Fluorescent protein, Immunochromatographic assay

  1. Ubiquitous distribution of fluorescent protein in muscles of four ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, the localization of fluorescent protein (FP) was characterized in the muscles of ... A. mossambica have four exons and three introns, and were common to that of FABP family. ..... organization of the neurons (Rakic 1971; Feng et al.

  2. Computational and biological characterization of fusion proteins of two insecticidal proteins for control of insect pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, Shaista; Naz, Sehrish; Amin, Imran; Jander, Georg; Ul-Haq, Zaheer; Mansoor, Shahid

    2018-03-19

    Sucking pests pose a serious agricultural challenge, as available transgenic technologies such as Bacillus thuringiensis crystal toxins (Bt) are not effective against them. One approach is to produce fusion protein toxins for the control of these pests. Two protein toxins, Hvt (ω-atracotoxin from Hadronyche versuta) and onion leaf lectin, were translationally fused to evaluate the negative effects of fusion proteins on Phenacoccus solenopsis (mealybug), a phloem-feeding insect pest. Hvt was cloned both N-terminally (HL) and then C-terminally (LH) in the fusion protein constructs, which were expressed transiently in Nicotiana tabacum using a Potato Virus X (PVX) vector. The HL fusion protein was found to be more effective against P. solenopsis, with an 83% mortality rate, as compared to the LH protein, which caused 65% mortality. Hvt and lectin alone caused 42% and 45%, respectively, under the same conditions. Computational studies of both fusion proteins showed that the HL protein is more stable than the LH protein. Together, these results demonstrate that translational fusion of two insecticidal proteins improved the insecticidal activity relative to each protein individually and could be expressed in transgenic plants for effective control of sucking pests.

  3. Spatiotemporal dynamics of membrane remodeling and fusion proteins during endocytic transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlt, Henning; Auffarth, Kathrin; Kurre, Rainer; Lisse, Dominik; Piehler, Jacob; Ungermann, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Organelles of the endolysosomal system undergo multiple fission and fusion events to combine sorting of selected proteins to the vacuole with endosomal recycling. This sorting requires a consecutive remodeling of the organelle surface in the course of endosomal maturation. Here we dissect the remodeling and fusion machinery on endosomes during the process of endocytosis. We traced selected GFP-tagged endosomal proteins relative to exogenously added fluorescently labeled α-factor on its way from the plasma membrane to the vacuole. Our data reveal that the machinery of endosomal fusion and ESCRT proteins has similar temporal localization on endosomes, whereas they precede the retromer cargo recognition complex. Neither deletion of retromer nor the fusion machinery with the vacuole affects this maturation process, although the kinetics seems to be delayed due to ESCRT deletion. Of importance, in strains lacking the active Rab7-like Ypt7 or the vacuolar SNARE fusion machinery, α-factor still proceeds to late endosomes with the same kinetics. This indicates that endosomal maturation is mainly controlled by the early endosomal fusion and remodeling machinery but not the downstream Rab Ypt7 or the SNARE machinery. Our data thus provide important further understanding of endosomal biogenesis in the context of cargo sorting. © 2015 Arlt et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  4. Spectrally-resolved response properties of the three most advanced FRET based fluorescent protein voltage probes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Mutoh

    Full Text Available Genetically-encoded optical probes for membrane potential hold the promise of monitoring electrical signaling of electrically active cells such as specific neuronal populations in intact brain tissue. The most advanced class of these probes was generated by molecular fusion of the voltage sensing domain (VSD of Ci-VSP with a fluorescent protein (FP pair. We quantitatively compared the three most advanced versions of these probes (two previously reported and one new variant, each involving a spectrally distinct tandem of FPs. Despite these different FP tandems and dissimilarities within the amino acid sequence linking the VSD to the FPs, the amplitude and kinetics of voltage dependent fluorescence changes were surprisingly similar. However, each of these fluorescent probes has specific merits when considering different potential applications.

  5. G protein betagamma-subunits activated by serotonin mediate presynaptic inhibition by regulating vesicle fusion properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photowala, Huzefa; Blackmer, Trillium; Schwartz, Eric; Hamm, Heidi E; Alford, Simon

    2006-03-14

    Neurotransmitters are thought to be released as quanta, where synaptic vesicles deliver packets of neurotransmitter to the synaptic cleft by fusion with the plasma membrane. However, synaptic vesicles may undergo incomplete fusion. We provide evidence that G protein-coupled receptors inhibit release by causing such incomplete fusion. 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor signaling potently inhibits excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) between lamprey reticulospinal axons and their postsynaptic targets by a direct action on the vesicle fusion machinery. We show that 5-HT receptor-mediated presynaptic inhibition, at this synapse, involves a reduction in EPSC quantal size. Quantal size was measured directly by comparing unitary quantal amplitudes of paired EPSCs before and during 5-HT application and indirectly by determining the effect of 5-HT on the relationship between mean-evoked EPSC amplitude and variance. Results from FM dye-labeling experiments indicate that 5-HT prevents full fusion of vesicles. 5-HT reduces FM1-43 staining of vesicles with a similar efficacy to its effect on the EPSC. However, destaining of FM1-43-labeled vesicles is abolished by lower concentrations of 5-HT that leave a substantial EPSC. The use of a water-soluble membrane impermeant quenching agent in the extracellular space reduced FM1-43 fluorescence during stimulation in 5-HT. Thus vesicles contact the extracellular space during inhibition of synaptic transmission by 5-HT. We conclude that 5-HT, via free Gbetagamma, prevents the collapse of synaptic vesicles into the presynaptic membrane.

  6. Protein recognition by a pattern-generating fluorescent molecular probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pode, Zohar; Peri-Naor, Ronny; Georgeson, Joseph M.; Ilani, Tal; Kiss, Vladimir; Unger, Tamar; Markus, Barak; Barr, Haim M.; Motiei, Leila; Margulies, David

    2017-12-01

    Fluorescent molecular probes have become valuable tools in protein research; however, the current methods for using these probes are less suitable for analysing specific populations of proteins in their native environment. In this study, we address this gap by developing a unimolecular fluorescent probe that combines the properties of small-molecule-based probes and cross-reactive sensor arrays (the so-called chemical 'noses/tongues'). On the one hand, the probe can detect different proteins by generating unique identification (ID) patterns, akin to cross-reactive arrays. On the other hand, its unimolecular scaffold and selective binding enable this ID-generating probe to identify combinations of specific protein families within complex mixtures and to discriminate among isoforms in living cells, where macroscopic arrays cannot access. The ability to recycle the molecular device and use it to track several binding interactions simultaneously further demonstrates how this approach could expand the fluorescent toolbox currently used to detect and image proteins.

  7. Two-photon excited UV fluorescence for protein crystal detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madden, Jeremy T.; DeWalt, Emma L.; Simpson, Garth J.

    2011-01-01

    Complementary measurements using SONICC and TPE-UVF allow the sensitive and selective detection of protein crystals. Two-photon excited ultraviolet fluorescence (TPE-UVF) microscopy is explored for sensitive protein-crystal detection as a complement to second-order nonlinear optical imaging of chiral crystals (SONICC). Like conventional ultraviolet fluorescence (UVF), TPE-UVF generates image contrast based on the intrinsic fluorescence of aromatic residues, generally producing higher fluorescence emission within crystals than the mother liquor by nature of the higher local protein concentration. However, TPE-UVF has several advantages over conventional UVF, including (i) insensitivity to optical scattering, allowing imaging in turbid matrices, (ii) direct compatibility with conventional optical plates and windows by using visible light for excitation, (iii) elimination of potentially damaging out-of-plane UV excitation, (iv) improved signal to noise through background reduction from out-of-plane excitation and (v) relatively simple integration into instrumentation developed for SONICC

  8. LDL receptor-GFP fusion proteins: new tools for the characterization of disease-causing mutations in the LDL receptor gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Henrik Uffe; Dagnæs-Hansen, Frederik; Corydon, Thomas Juhl

    2001-01-01

    . In cultured liver cells this mutation was found to inhibit the transport of LDL receptor GFP fusion protein to the cell surface, thus leading to impaired internalisation of fluorescent labelled LDL. Co-locallisation studies confirmed the retention of the mutant protein in the endoplasmic reticulum....

  9. Fluorescence quantum yield measurements of fluorescent proteins: a laboratory experiment for a biochemistry or molecular biophysics laboratory course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Kathryn P; Dillon, Rebecca; Knowles, Michelle K

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescent proteins are commonly used in cell biology to assess where proteins are within a cell as a function of time and provide insight into intracellular protein function. However, the usefulness of a fluorescent protein depends directly on the quantum yield. The quantum yield relates the efficiency at which a fluorescent molecule converts absorbed photons into emitted photons and it is necessary to know for assessing what fluorescent protein is the most appropriate for a particular application. In this work, we have designed an upper-level, biochemistry laboratory experiment where students measure the fluorescence quantum yields of fluorescent proteins relative to a standard organic dye. Four fluorescent protein variants, enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (ECFP), enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), mCitrine, and mCherry, were used, however the methods described are useful for the characterization of any fluorescent protein or could be expanded to fluorescent quantum yield measurements of organic dye molecules. The laboratory is designed as a guided inquiry project and takes two, 4 hr laboratory periods. During the first day students design the experiment by selecting the excitation wavelength, choosing the standard, and determining the concentration needed for the quantum yield experiment that takes place in the second laboratory period. Overall, this laboratory provides students with a guided inquiry learning experience and introduces concepts of fluorescence biophysics into a biochemistry laboratory curriculum. © 2014 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  10. Measuring and sorting cell populations expressing isospectral fluorescent proteins with different fluorescence lifetimes.

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    Bryan Sands

    Full Text Available Study of signal transduction in live cells benefits from the ability to visualize and quantify light emitted by fluorescent proteins (XFPs fused to different signaling proteins. However, because cell signaling proteins are often present in small numbers, and because the XFPs themselves are poor fluorophores, the amount of emitted light, and the observable signal in these studies, is often small. An XFP's fluorescence lifetime contains additional information about the immediate environment of the fluorophore that can augment the information from its weak light signal. Here, we constructed and expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae variants of Teal Fluorescent Protein (TFP and Citrine that were isospectral but had shorter fluorescence lifetimes, ∼ 1.5 ns vs ∼ 3 ns. We modified microscopic and flow cytometric instruments to measure fluorescence lifetimes in live cells. We developed digital hardware and a measure of lifetime called a "pseudophasor" that we could compute quickly enough to permit sorting by lifetime in flow. We used these abilities to sort mixtures of cells expressing TFP and the short-lifetime TFP variant into subpopulations that were respectively 97% and 94% pure. This work demonstrates the feasibility of using information about fluorescence lifetime to help quantify cell signaling in living cells at the high throughput provided by flow cytometry. Moreover, it demonstrates the feasibility of isolating and recovering subpopulations of cells with different XFP lifetimes for subsequent experimentation.

  11. Exploiting fluorescence for multiplex immunoassays on protein microarrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbáth, Melinda; Balogh, Andrea; Matkó, János; Papp, Krisztián; Prechl, József

    2014-01-01

    Protein microarray technology is becoming the method of choice for identifying protein interaction partners, detecting specific proteins, carbohydrates and lipids, or for characterizing protein interactions and serum antibodies in a massively parallel manner. Availability of the well-established instrumentation of DNA arrays and development of new fluorescent detection instruments promoted the spread of this technique. Fluorescent detection has the advantage of high sensitivity, specificity, simplicity and wide dynamic range required by most measurements. Fluorescence through specifically designed probes and an increasing variety of detection modes offers an excellent tool for such microarray platforms. Measuring for example the level of antibodies, their isotypes and/or antigen specificity simultaneously can offer more complex and comprehensive information about the investigated biological phenomenon, especially if we take into consideration that hundreds of samples can be measured in a single assay. Not only body fluids, but also cell lysates, extracted cellular components, and intact living cells can be analyzed on protein arrays for monitoring functional responses to printed samples on the surface. As a rapidly evolving area, protein microarray technology offers a great bulk of information and new depth of knowledge. These are the features that endow protein arrays with wide applicability and robust sample analyzing capability. On the whole, protein arrays are emerging new tools not just in proteomics, but glycomics, lipidomics, and are also important for immunological research. In this review we attempt to summarize the technical aspects of planar fluorescent microarray technology along with the description of its main immunological applications. (topical review)

  12. Regulation of Exocytotic Fusion Pores by SNARE Protein Transmembrane Domains

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    Zhenyong Wu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Calcium-triggered exocytotic release of neurotransmitters and hormones from neurons and neuroendocrine cells underlies neuronal communication, motor activity and endocrine functions. The core of the neuronal exocytotic machinery is composed of soluble N-ethyl maleimide sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs. Formation of complexes between vesicle-attached v- and plasma-membrane anchored t-SNAREs in a highly regulated fashion brings the membranes into close apposition. Small, soluble proteins called Complexins (Cpx and calcium-sensing Synaptotagmins cooperate to block fusion at low resting calcium concentrations, but trigger release upon calcium increase. A growing body of evidence suggests that the transmembrane domains (TMDs of SNARE proteins play important roles in regulating the processes of fusion and release, but the mechanisms involved are only starting to be uncovered. Here we review recent evidence that SNARE TMDs exert influence by regulating the dynamics of the fusion pore, the initial aqueous connection between the vesicular lumen and the extracellular space. Even after the fusion pore is established, hormone release by neuroendocrine cells is tightly controlled, and the same may be true of neurotransmitter release by neurons. The dynamics of the fusion pore can regulate the kinetics of cargo release and the net amount released, and can determine the mode of vesicle recycling. Manipulations of SNARE TMDs were found to affect fusion pore properties profoundly, both during exocytosis and in biochemical reconstitutions. To explain these effects, TMD flexibility, and interactions among TMDs or between TMDs and lipids have been invoked. Exocytosis has provided the best setting in which to unravel the underlying mechanisms, being unique among membrane fusion reactions in that single fusion pores can be probed using high-resolution methods. An important role will likely be played by methods that can probe single fusion pores

  13. TGP, an extremely stable, non-aggregating fluorescent protein created by structure-guided surface engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, Devin W.; Don Paul, Craig; Langan, Patricia S.; Wilce, Matthew C.J.; Traore, Daouda A.K.; Halfmann, Randal; Rocha, Reginaldo C.; Waldo, Geoffery S.; Payne, Riley J.; Rucker, Joseph B.; Prescott, Mark; Bradbury, Andrew R.M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we describe the engineering and X-ray crystal structure of Thermal Green Protein (TGP), an extremely stable, highly soluble, non-aggregating green fluorescent protein. TGP is a soluble variant of the fluorescent protein eCGP123, which despite being highly stable, has proven to be aggregation-prone. The X-ray crystal structure of eCGP123, also determined within the context of this paper, was used to carry out rational surface engineering to improve its solubility, leading to TGP. The approach involved simultaneously eliminating crystal lattice contacts while increasing the overall negative charge of the protein. Despite intentional disruption of lattice contacts and introduction of high entropy glutamate side chains, TGP crystallized readily in a number of different conditions and the X-ray crystal structure of TGP was determined to 1.9 Å resolution. The structural reasons for the enhanced stability of TGP and eCGP123 are discussed. We demonstrate the utility of using TGP as a fusion partner in various assays and significantly, in amyloid assays in which the standard fluorescent protein, EGFP, is undesirable because of aberrant oligomerization. PMID:25287913

  14. mKikGR, a monomeric photoswitchable fluorescent protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Habuchi

    Full Text Available The recent demonstration and utilization of fluorescent proteins whose fluorescence can be switched on and off has greatly expanded the toolkit of molecular and cell biology. These photoswitchable proteins have facilitated the characterization of specifically tagged molecular species in the cell and have enabled fluorescence imaging of intracellular structures with a resolution far below the classical diffraction limit of light. Applications are limited, however, by the fast photobleaching, slow photoswitching, and oligomerization typical for photoswitchable proteins currently available. Here, we report the molecular cloning and spectroscopic characterization of mKikGR, a monomeric version of the previously reported KikGR that displays high photostability and switching rates. Furthermore, we present single-molecule imaging experiments that demonstrate that individual mKikGR proteins can be localized with a precision of better than 10 nanometers, suggesting their suitability for super-resolution imaging.

  15. Directed evolution of an extremely stable fluorescent protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Csaba; Temirov, Jamshid; Chasteen, Leslie; Waldo, Geoffrey S; Bradbury, Andrew R M

    2009-05-01

    In this paper we describe the evolution of eCGP123, an extremely stable green fluorescent protein based on a previously described fluorescent protein created by consensus engineering (CGP: consensus green protein). eCGP123 could not be denatured by a standard thermal melt, preserved almost full fluorescence after overnight incubation at 80 degrees C and possessed a free energy of denaturation of 12.4 kcal/mol. It was created from CGP by a recursive process involving the sequential introduction of three destabilizing heterologous inserts, evolution to overcome the destabilization and finally 'removal' of the destabilizing insert by gene synthesis. We believe that this approach may be generally applicable to the stabilization of other proteins.

  16. Highly Selective Fluorescent Sensing of Proteins Based on a Fluorescent Molecularly Imprinted Nanosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Wang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A fluorescent molecularly imprinted nanosensor was obtained by grafting imprinted polymer onto the surface of multi-wall carbon nanotubes and post-imprinting treatment with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC. The fluorescence of lysozyme-imprinted polymer (Lys-MIP was quenched more strongly by Lys than that of nonimprinted polymer (NIP, which indicated that the Lys-MIP could recognize Lys. The resulted imprinted material has the ability to selectively sense a target protein, and an imprinting factor of 3.34 was achieved. The Lys-MIP also showed selective detection for Lys among other proteins such as cytochrome C (Cyt C, hemoglobin (HB and bovine serum albumin (BSA due to the imprinted sites in the Lys-MIP. This approach combines the high selectivity of surface molecular imprinting technology and fluorescence, and converts binding events into detectable signals by monitoring fluorescence spectra. Therefore, it will have further applications for Lys sensing.

  17. Viral membrane fusion: is glycoprotein G of rhabdoviruses a representative of a new class of viral fusion proteins?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.T. Da Poian

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Enveloped viruses always gain entry into the cytoplasm by fusion of their lipid envelope with a cell membrane. Some enveloped viruses fuse directly with the host cell plasma membrane after virus binding to the cell receptor. Other enveloped viruses enter the cells by the endocytic pathway, and fusion depends on the acidification of the endosomal compartment. In both cases, virus-induced membrane fusion is triggered by conformational changes in viral envelope glycoproteins. Two different classes of viral fusion proteins have been described on the basis of their molecular architecture. Several structural data permitted the elucidation of the mechanisms of membrane fusion mediated by class I and class II fusion proteins. In this article, we review a number of results obtained by our laboratory and by others that suggest that the mechanisms involved in rhabdovirus fusion are different from those used by the two well-studied classes of viral glycoproteins. We focus our discussion on the electrostatic nature of virus binding and interaction with membranes, especially through phosphatidylserine, and on the reversibility of the conformational changes of the rhabdovirus glycoprotein involved in fusion. Taken together, these data suggest the existence of a third class of fusion proteins and support the idea that new insights should emerge from studies of membrane fusion mediated by the G protein of rhabdoviruses. In particular, the elucidation of the three-dimensional structure of the G protein or even of the fusion peptide at different pH's might provide valuable information for understanding the fusion mechanism of this new class of fusion proteins.

  18. Comparative immunoblot analysis with 10 different, partially overlapping recombinant fusion proteins derived from 5 different cytomegalovirus proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zanten, J.; LAZZAROTTO, T; CAMPISI, B; VORNHAGEN, R; JAHN, G; LANDINI, MP; The, T. Hauw

    Ten fusion proteins derived from five various CMV encoded proteins were used for the detection of specific antibody response by immunoblot technique in sera from renal transplant recipients. The fusion proteins were derived from the following CMV specific proteins: the assembly protein ppUL80a with

  19. Measles Virus Fusion Protein: Structure, Function and Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Plattet

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Measles virus (MeV, a highly contagious member of the Paramyxoviridae family, causes measles in humans. The Paramyxoviridae family of negative single-stranded enveloped viruses includes several important human and animal pathogens, with MeV causing approximately 120,000 deaths annually. MeV and canine distemper virus (CDV-mediated diseases can be prevented by vaccination. However, sub-optimal vaccine delivery continues to foster MeV outbreaks. Post-exposure prophylaxis with antivirals has been proposed as a novel strategy to complement vaccination programs by filling herd immunity gaps. Recent research has shown that membrane fusion induced by the morbillivirus glycoproteins is the first critical step for viral entry and infection, and determines cell pathology and disease outcome. Our molecular understanding of morbillivirus-associated membrane fusion has greatly progressed towards the feasibility to control this process by treating the fusion glycoprotein with inhibitory molecules. Current approaches to develop anti-membrane fusion drugs and our knowledge on drug resistance mechanisms strongly suggest that combined therapies will be a prerequisite. Thus, discovery of additional anti-fusion and/or anti-attachment protein small-molecule compounds may eventually translate into realistic therapeutic options.

  20. The destructive effect of botulinum neurotoxins on the SNARE protein: SNAP-25 and synaptic membrane fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Lu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic exocytosis requires the assembly of syntaxin 1A and SNAP-25 on the plasma membrane and synaptobrevin 2 (VAMP2 on the vesicular membrane to bridge the two opposite membranes. It is believed that the three SNARE proteins assemble in steps along the dynamic assembly pathway. The C-terminus of SNAP-25 is known to be the target of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT/A and BoNT/E that block neurotransmitters release in vivo. In this study, we employed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectroscopy to investigate the conformation of the SNAP-25 C-terminus in binary and ternary SNARE complexes. The fluorescence lipid mixing assay shows that the C-terminal of SNAP-25 is essential for membrane fusion, and that the truncated SNAP-25 mutants cleaved by BoNT/A and BoNT/E display different inhibition effects on membrane fusion: SNAP-25E (Δ26 abolishes the fusion activity of the SNARE complex, while SNAP-25A (Δ9 loses most of its function, although it can still form a SDS-resistant SNARE complex as the wild-type SNAP-25. CW-EPR spectra validate the unstable structures of the SNARE complex formed by SNAP-25 mutants. We propose that the truncated SNAP-25 mutants will disrupt the assembly of the SNARE core complex, and then inhibit the synaptic membrane fusion accordingly.

  1. Heterologous production of peptides in plants: fusion proteins and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Juliane Flávia Cançado; Dias, Simoni Campos; Franco, Octávio Luiz; Lacorte, Cristiano

    2013-11-01

    Recombinant DNA technology has allowed the ectopic production of proteins and peptides of different organisms leading to biopharmaceutical production in large cultures of bacterial, yeasts and mammalian cells. Otherwise, the expression of recombinant proteins and peptides in plants is an attractive alternative presenting several advantages over the commonly used expression systems including reduced production costs, easy scale-up and reduced risks of pathogen contamination. Different types of proteins and peptides have been expressed in plants, including antibodies, antigens, and proteins and peptides of medical, veterinary and industrial applications. However, apart from providing a proof of concept, the use of plants as platforms for heterologous protein and peptide production still depends on key steps towards optimization including the enhancement of expression levels, manipulation of post-transcriptional modifications and improvements in purification methods. In this review, strategies to increase heterologous protein and peptide stability and accumulation are discussed, focusing on the expression of peptides through the use of gene fusions.

  2. Fluorescence Microspectroscopy for Testing the Dimerization Hypothesis of BACE1 Protein in Cultured HEK293 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardeen, Spencer; Johnson, Joseph L.; Heikal, Ahmed A.

    2016-06-01

    Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that results from the formation of beta-amyloid plaques in the brain that trigger the known symptoms of memory loss in AD patients. The beta-amyloid plaques are formed by the proteolytic cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by the proteases BACE1 and gamma-secretase. These enzyme-facilitated cleavages lead to the production of beta-amyloid fragments that aggregate to form plaques, which ultimately lead to neuronal cell death. Recent detergent protein extraction studies suggest that BACE1 protein forms a dimer that has significantly higher catalytic activity than its monomeric counterpart. In this contribution, we examine the dimerization hypothesis of BACE1 in cultured HEK293 cells using complementary fluorescence spectroscopy and microscopy methods. Cells were transfected with a BACE1-EGFP fusion protein construct and imaged using confocal, and differential interference contrast to monitor the localization and distribution of intracellular BACE1. Complementary fluorescence lifetime and anisotropy measurements enabled us to examine the conformational and environmental changes of BACE1 as a function of substrate binding. Using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, we also quantified the diffusion coefficient of BACE1-EGFP on the plasma membrane as a means to test the dimerization hypothesis as a fucntion of substrate-analog inhibitition. Our results represent an important first towards examining the substrate-mediated dimerization hypothesis of BACE1 in live cells.

  3. Localization of a region in the fusion protein of avian metapneumovirus that modulates cell-cell fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yongwei; Feng, Kurtis; Yao, Xiangjie; Cai, Hui; Li, Junan; Mirza, Anne M; Iorio, Ronald M; Li, Jianrong

    2012-11-01

    The genus Metapneumovirus within the subfamily Pneumovirinae of the family Paramyxoviridae includes two members, human metapneumovirus (hMPV) and avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), causing respiratory tract infections in humans and birds, respectively. Paramyxoviruses enter host cells by fusing the viral envelope with a host cell membrane. Membrane fusion of hMPV appears to be unique, in that fusion of some hMPV strains requires low pH. Here, we show that the fusion (F) proteins of aMPV promote fusion in the absence of the attachment protein and low pH is not required. Furthermore, there are notable differences in cell-cell fusion among aMPV subtypes. Trypsin was required for cell-cell fusion induced by subtype B but not subtypes A and C. The F protein of aMPV subtype A was highly fusogenic, whereas those from subtypes B and C were not. By construction and evaluation of chimeric F proteins composed of domains from the F proteins of subtypes A and B, we localized a region composed of amino acid residues 170 to 338 in the F protein that is responsible for the hyperfusogenic phenotype of the F from subtype A. Further mutagenesis analysis revealed that residues R295, G297, and K323 in this region collectively contributed to the hyperfusogenicity. Taken together, we have identified a region in the aMPV F protein that modulates the extent of membrane fusion. A model for fusion consistent with these data is presented.

  4. Fluorescence-Based Multiplex Protein Detection Using Optically Encoded Microbeads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae Hong Jeong

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Potential utilization of proteins for early detection and diagnosis of various diseases has drawn considerable interest in the development of protein-based multiplex detection techniques. Among the various techniques for high-throughput protein screening, optically-encoded beads combined with fluorescence-based target monitoring have great advantages over the planar array-based multiplexing assays. This review discusses recent developments of analytical methods of screening protein molecules on microbead-based platforms. These include various strategies such as barcoded microbeads, molecular beacon-based techniques, and surface-enhanced Raman scattering-based techniques. Their applications for label-free protein detection are also addressed. Especially, the optically-encoded beads such as multilayer fluorescence beads and SERS-encoded beads are successful for generating a large number of coding.

  5. Using Fluorescence Intensity of Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein to Quantify Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Wilson

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A variety of direct and indirect methods have been used to quantify planktonic and biofilm bacterial cells. Direct counting methods to determine the total number of cells include plate counts, microscopic cell counts, Coulter cell counting, flow cytometry, and fluorescence microscopy. However, indirect methods are often used to supplement direct cell counting, as they are often more convenient, less time-consuming, and require less material, while providing a number that can be related to the direct cell count. Herein, an indirect method is presented that uses fluorescence emission intensity as a proxy marker for studying bacterial accumulation. A clinical strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was genetically modified to express a green fluorescent protein (PA14/EGFP. The fluorescence intensity of EGFP in live cells was used as an indirect measure of live cell density, and was compared with the traditional cell counting methods of optical density (OD600 and plate counting (colony-forming units (CFUs. While both OD600 and CFUs are well-established methods, the use of fluorescence spectroscopy to quantify bacteria is less common. This study demonstrates that EGFP intensity is a convenient reporter for bacterial quantification. In addition, we demonstrate the potential for fluorescence spectroscopy to be used to measure the quantity of PA14/EGFP biofilms, which have important human health implications due to their antimicrobial resistance. Therefore, fluorescence spectroscopy could serve as an alternative or complementary quick assay to quantify bacteria in planktonic cultures and biofilms.

  6. Fluorescence diffuse tomography of small animals with DsRed2 fluorescent protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchin, I. V.; Plehanov, V. I.; Orlova, A. G.; Kamenskiy, V. A.; Kleshnin, M. S.; Shirmanova, M. V.; Shakhova, N. M.; Balalaeva, I. V.; Savitskiy, A. P.

    2006-05-01

    Fluorescent compounds are used as markers to diagnose oncological diseases, to study molecular processes typical for carcinogenesis, and to investigate metastasis formation and tumor regress under the influence of therapeutics. Different types of tomography, such as continuous wave (CW), frequency-domain (FD), and time-domain (TD) tomography, allow fluorescence imaging of tumors located deep in human or animal tissue. In this work, preliminary results of the frequency domain fluorescent diffuse tomography (FDT) method in application to DsRed2 protein as a fluorescent agent are presented. For the first step of our experiments, we utilized low-frequency amplitude modulation (1 kHz) of second harmonic of Nd: YAG (532 nm). The transilluminative configuration was used in the setup. The results of post mortem experiments with capsules containing DsRed2 inserted inside the esophagus of a 3-day-old hairless rat to simulate tumor are shown. An algorithm of processing fluorescent images based on calculating the zero of maximum curvature has been applied to detect fluorescent inclusion boundaries in the image. This work demonstrates the potential capability of the FDT method for imaging deep fluorescent tumors in human tissue or animal models of human cancer. Improvement of the setup can be accomplished by using high-frequency modulation (using a 110-MHz acoustooptical modulator).

  7. Fusion protein is the main determinant of metapneumovirus host tropism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Miranda; Schrauwen, Eefje J A; Herfst, Sander; van Amerongen, Geert; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Fouchier, Ron A M

    2009-06-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) and avian metapneumovirus subgroup C (AMPV-C) infect humans and birds, respectively. This study confirmed the difference in host range in turkey poults, and analysed the contribution of the individual metapneumovirus genes to host range in an in vitro cell-culture model. Mammalian Vero-118 cells supported replication of both HMPV and AMPV-C in contrast to avian quail fibroblast (QT6) cells in which only AMPV-C replicated to high titres. Inoculation of Vero-118 and QT6 cells with recombinant HMPV in which genes were exchanged with those of AMPV-C revealed that the metapneumovirus fusion (F) protein is the main determinant for host tropism. Chimeric viruses in which polymerase complex proteins were exchanged between HMPV and AMPV-C replicated less efficiently compared with HMPV in QT6 cells. Using mini-genome systems, it was shown that exchanging these polymerase proteins resulted in reduced replication and transcription efficiency in QT6 cells. Examination of infected Vero-118 and QT6 cells revealed that viruses containing the F protein of AMPV-C yielded larger syncytia compared with viruses containing the HMPV F protein. Cell-content mixing assays revealed that the F protein of AMPV-C was more fusogenic compared with the F protein of HMPV, and that the F2 region is responsible for the difference observed between AMPV-C and HMPV F-promoted fusion in QT6 and Vero-118 cells. This study provides insight into the determinants of host tropism and membrane fusion of metapneumoviruses.

  8. The analysis, by a fusion procedure and X-ray-fluorescence spectrometry, of silicates and slags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, J.J.; Balaes, A.M.E.

    1980-01-01

    A glass-disc fusion method is described for the analysis, by X-ray-fluorescence spectrometry, of slags and silicate materials. The data are corrected for detector dead time and short-term instrumental drift. Corrections are made for matrix variations by use of the Lachange-Traill mathematical model, and the results are processed on a mini-computer, an iterative procedure being used in the solving of the simultaneous equations. As the alpha-correction coefficients of the Lachange-Traill model are not truly constant, a modified version of the model is proposed [af

  9. Monitoring protein turnover during phosphate starvation-dependent autophagic degradation using a photoconvertible fluorescent protein aggregate in tobacco BY-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasaki, Maiko; Asatsuma, Satoru; Matsuoka, Ken

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a system for quantitative monitoring of autophagic degradation in transformed tobacco BY-2 cells using an aggregate-prone protein comprised of cytochrome b5 (Cyt b5) and a tetrameric red fluorescent protein (RFP). Unfortunately, this system is of limited use for monitoring the kinetics of autophagic degradation because the proteins synthesized before and after induction of autophagy cannot be distinguished. To overcome this problem, we developed a system using kikume green-red (KikGR), a photoconvertible and tetrameric fluorescent protein that changes its fluorescence from green to red upon irradiation with purple light. Using the fusion protein of Cyt b5 and KikGR together with a method for the bulk conversion of KikGR, which we had previously used to convert the Golgi-localized monomeric KikGR fusion protein, we were able to monitor both the growth and de novo formation of aggregates. Using this system, we found that tobacco cells do not cease protein synthesis under conditions of phosphate (Pi)-starvation. Induction of autophagy under Pi-starvation, but not under sugar- or nitrogen-starvation, was specifically inhibited by phosphite, which is an analog of Pi with a different oxidation number. Therefore, the mechanism by which BY-2 cells can sense Pi-starvation and induce autophagy does not involve sensing a general decrease in energy supply and a specific Pi sensor might be involved in the induction of autophagy under Pi-starvation.

  10. Glycine Insertion Makes Yellow Fluorescent Protein Sensitive to Hydrostatic Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tomonobu M.; Imada, Katsumi; Yoshizawa, Keiko; Nishiyama, Masayoshi; Kato, Chiaki; Abe, Fumiyoshi; Morikawa, Takamitsu J.; Kinoshita, Miki; Fujita, Hideaki; Yanagida, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescent protein-based indicators for intracellular environment conditions such as pH and ion concentrations are commonly used to study the status and dynamics of living cells. Despite being an important factor in many biological processes, the development of an indicator for the physicochemical state of water, such as pressure, viscosity and temperature, however, has been neglected. We here found a novel mutation that dramatically enhances the pressure dependency of the yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) by inserting several glycines into it. The crystal structure of the mutant showed that the tyrosine near the chromophore flipped toward the outside of the β-can structure, resulting in the entry of a few water molecules near the chromophore. In response to changes in hydrostatic pressure, a spectrum shift and an intensity change of the fluorescence were observed. By measuring the fluorescence of the YFP mutant, we succeeded in measuring the intracellular pressure change in living cell. This study shows a new strategy of design to engineer fluorescent protein indicators to sense hydrostatic pressure. PMID:24014139

  11. Protein-induced fusion can be modulated by target membrane lipids through a structural switch at the level of the fusion peptide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pecheur, EI; Martin, [No Value; Bienvenue, A; Ruysschaert, JM; Hoekstra, D

    2000-01-01

    Regulatory features of protein-induced membrane fusion are largely unclear, particularly at the level of the fusion peptide. Fusion peptides being part of larger protein complexes, such investigations are met with technical limitations. Here, we show that the fusion activity of influenza virus or

  12. Fluorescent protein pair emit intracellular FRET signal suitable for FACS screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Daniel X.; Brismar, Hjalmar; Persson, Mats A.A.

    2007-01-01

    The fluorescent proteins ECFP and HcRed were shown to give an easily resolved FRET-signal when expressed as a fusion inside mammalian cells. HeLa-tat cells expressing ECFP, pHcRed, or the fusion protein pHcRed-ECFP were analyzed by flow cytometry after excitation of ECFP. Cells expressing HcRed-ECFP, or ECFP and HcRed, were mixed and FACS-sorted for FRET positive cells: HcRed-ECFP cells were greatly enriched (72 times). Next, cloned human antibodies were fused with ECFP and expressed anchored to the ER membrane. Their cognate antigens (HIV-1 gp120 or gp41) were fused to HcRed and co-expressed in the ER. An increase of 13.5 ± 1.5% (mean ± SEM) and 8.0 ± 0.7% in ECFP fluorescence for the specific antibodies reacting with gp120 or gp41, respectively, was noted after photobleaching. A positive control (HcRed-ECFP) gave a 14.8 ± 2.6% increase. Surprisingly, the unspecific antibody (anti-TT) showed 12.1 ± 1.1% increase, possibly because overexpression in the limited ER compartment gave false FRET signals

  13. Molecular quantification of genes encoding for green-fluorescent proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felske, A; Vandieken, V; Pauling, B V

    2003-01-01

    A quantitative PCR approach is presented to analyze the amount of recombinant green fluorescent protein (gfp) genes in environmental DNA samples. The quantification assay is a combination of specific PCR amplification and temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE). Gene quantification...... PCR strategy is a highly specific and sensitive way to monitor recombinant DNA in environments like the efflux of a biotechnological plant....

  14. Optical probing of single fluorescent molecules and proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Parajo, M.F.; Veerman, J.A.; Bouwhuis, R.; Bouwhuis, Rudo; van Hulst, N.F.; Vallée, R.A.L.

    2001-01-01

    Single-molecule detection and analysis of organic fluorescent molecules and proteins are presented, with emphasis o­n the underlying principles methodology and the application of single-molecule analysis at room temperature. This Minireview is mainly focused o­n the application of confocal and

  15. Colorful packages : fluorescent proteins in complex coacervate core micelles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolles, Antsje

    2018-01-01

    This thesis explores the encapsulation of fluorescent proteins (FPs) into complex coacervate core micelles (C3Ms) and features the impact of this encapsulation on the biophysical properties of the FPs. In total eight different FPs were investigated originating from two different classes

  16. Expression of green fluorescent protein (GFPuv) in Escherichia coli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    The recombinant green fluorescent protein (GFPuv) was expressed by transformed cells of Escherichia coli DH5-α grown in LB/amp broth at 37oC, for 8 h and 24 h. To evaluate the effectiveness of different parameters to improve the expression of GFPuv by E. coli, four variable culturing conditions were set up for assays by ...

  17. C-Terminal Fluorescent Labeling Impairs Functionality of DNA Mismatch Repair Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brieger, Angela; Plotz, Guido; Hinrichsen, Inga; Passmann, Sandra; Adam, Ronja; Zeuzem, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The human DNA mismatch repair (MMR) process is crucial to maintain the integrity of the genome and requires many different proteins which interact perfectly and coordinated. Germline mutations in MMR genes are responsible for the development of the hereditary form of colorectal cancer called Lynch syndrome. Various mutations mainly in two MMR proteins, MLH1 and MSH2, have been identified so far, whereas 55% are detected within MLH1, the essential component of the heterodimer MutLα (MLH1 and PMS2). Most of those MLH1 variants are pathogenic but the relevance of missense mutations often remains unclear. Many different recombinant systems are applied to filter out disease-associated proteins whereby fluorescent tagged proteins are frequently used. However, dye labeling might have deleterious effects on MutLα's functionality. Therefore, we analyzed the consequences of N- and C-terminal fluorescent labeling on expression level, cellular localization and MMR activity of MutLα. Besides significant influence of GFP- or Red-fusion on protein expression we detected incorrect shuttling of single expressed C-terminal GFP-tagged PMS2 into the nucleus and found that C-terminal dye labeling impaired MMR function of MutLα. In contrast, N-terminal tagged MutLαs retained correct functionality and can be recommended both for the analysis of cellular localization and MMR efficiency. PMID:22348133

  18. C-terminal fluorescent labeling impairs functionality of DNA mismatch repair proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Brieger

    Full Text Available The human DNA mismatch repair (MMR process is crucial to maintain the integrity of the genome and requires many different proteins which interact perfectly and coordinated. Germline mutations in MMR genes are responsible for the development of the hereditary form of colorectal cancer called Lynch syndrome. Various mutations mainly in two MMR proteins, MLH1 and MSH2, have been identified so far, whereas 55% are detected within MLH1, the essential component of the heterodimer MutLα (MLH1 and PMS2. Most of those MLH1 variants are pathogenic but the relevance of missense mutations often remains unclear. Many different recombinant systems are applied to filter out disease-associated proteins whereby fluorescent tagged proteins are frequently used. However, dye labeling might have deleterious effects on MutLα's functionality. Therefore, we analyzed the consequences of N- and C-terminal fluorescent labeling on expression level, cellular localization and MMR activity of MutLα. Besides significant influence of GFP- or Red-fusion on protein expression we detected incorrect shuttling of single expressed C-terminal GFP-tagged PMS2 into the nucleus and found that C-terminal dye labeling impaired MMR function of MutLα. In contrast, N-terminal tagged MutLαs retained correct functionality and can be recommended both for the analysis of cellular localization and MMR efficiency.

  19. Fluorescence-pumped photolytic gas laser system for a commercial laser fusion power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monsler, M.J.

    1977-01-01

    The first results are given for the conceptual design of a short-wavelength gas laser system suitable for use as a driver (high average power ignition source) for a commercial laser fusion power plant. A comparison of projected overall system efficiencies of photolytically excited oxygen, sulfur, selenium and iodine lasers is described, using a unique windowless laser cavity geometry which will allow scaling of single amplifier modules to 125 kJ per aperture for 1 ns pulses. On the basis of highest projected overall efficiency, a selenium laser is chosen for a conceptual power plant fusion laser system. This laser operates on the 489 nm transauroral transition of selenium, excited by photolytic dissociation of COSe by ultraviolet fluorescence radiation. Power balances and relative costs for optics, electrical power conditioning and flow conditioning of both the laser and fluorescer gas streams are discussed for a system with the following characteristics: 8 operating modules, 2 standby modules, 125 kJ per module, 1.4 pulses per second, 1.4 MW total average power. The technical issues of scaling visible and near-infrared photolytic gas laser systems to this size are discussed

  20. Truncated forms of viral VP2 proteins fused to EGFP assemble into fluorescent parvovirus-like particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuento Matti

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS monitors random movements of fluorescent molecules in solution, giving information about the number and the size of for example nano-particles. The canine parvovirus VP2 structural protein as well as N-terminal deletion mutants of VP2 (-14, -23, and -40 amino acids were fused to the C-terminus of the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP. The proteins were produced in insect cells, purified, and analyzed by western blotting, confocal and electron microscopy as well as FCS. The non-truncated form, EGFP-VP2, diffused with a hydrodynamic radius of 17 nm, whereas the fluorescent mutants truncated by 14, 23 and 40 amino acids showed hydrodynamic radii of 7, 20 and 14 nm, respectively. These results show that the non-truncated EGFP-VP2 fusion protein and the EGFP-VP2 constructs truncated by 23 and by as much as 40 amino acids were able to form virus-like particles (VLPs. The fluorescent VLP, harbouring VP2 truncated by 23 amino acids, showed a somewhat larger hydrodynamic radius compared to the non-truncated EGFP-VP2. In contrast, the construct containing EGFP-VP2 truncated by 14 amino acids was not able to assemble into VLP-resembling structures. Formation of capsid structures was confirmed by confocal and electron microscopy. The number of fluorescent fusion protein molecules present within the different VLPs was determined by FCS. In conclusion, FCS provides a novel strategy to analyze virus assembly and gives valuable structural information for strategic development of parvovirus-like particles.

  1. Survey of Red Fluorescence Proteins as Markers for Secretory Granule Exocytosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil R Gandasi

    Full Text Available Fluorescent proteins (FPs have proven to be valuable tools for high-resolution imaging studies of vesicle transport processes, including exo- and endocytosis. Since the pH of the vesicle lumen changes between acidic and neutral during these events, pH-sensitive FPs with near neutral pKa, such as pHluorin, are particularly useful. FPs with pKa>6 are readily available in the green spectrum, while red-emitting pH-sensitive FPs are rare and often not well characterized as reporters of exo- or endocytosis. Here we tested a panel of ten orange/red and two green FPs in fusions with neuropeptide Y (NPY for use as secreted vesicle marker and reporter of dense core granule exocytosis and release. We report relative brightness, bleaching rate, targeting accuracy, sensitivity to vesicle pH, and their performance in detecting exocytosis in live cells. Tandem dimer (td-mOrange2 was identified as well-targeted, bright, slowly bleaching and pH-sensitive FP that performed similar to EGFP. Single exocytosis events were readily observed, which allowed measurements of fusion pore lifetime and the dynamics of the exocytosis protein syntaxin at the release site during membrane fusion and cargo release.

  2. Recombinant fusion protein of albumin-retinol binding protein inactivates stellate cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Soyoung; Park, Sangeun; Kim, Suhyun; Lim, Chaeseung; Kim, Jungho; Cha, Dae Ryong; Oh, Junseo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We designed novel recombinant albumin-RBP fusion proteins. ► Expression of fusion proteins inactivates pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs). ► Fusion proteins are successfully internalized into and inactivate PSCs. ► RBP moiety mediates cell specific uptake of fusion protein. -- Abstract: Quiescent pancreatic- (PSCs) and hepatic- (HSCs) stellate cells store vitamin A (retinol) in lipid droplets via retinol binding protein (RBP) receptor and, when activated by profibrogenic stimuli, they transform into myofibroblast-like cells which play a key role in the fibrogenesis. Despite extensive investigations, there is, however, currently no appropriate therapy available for tissue fibrosis. We previously showed that the expression of albumin, composed of three homologous domains (I–III), inhibits stellate cell activation, which requires its high-affinity fatty acid-binding sites asymmetrically distributed in domain I and III. To attain stellate cell-specific uptake, albumin (domain I/III) was coupled to RBP; RBP-albumin domain III (R-III) and albumin domain I -RBP-albumin III (I-R-III). To assess the biological activity of fusion proteins, cultured PSCs were used. Like wild type albumin, expression of R-III or I-R-III in PSCs after passage 2 (activated PSCs) induced phenotypic reversal from activated to fat-storing cells. On the other hand, R-III and I-R-III, but not albumin, secreted from transfected 293 cells were successfully internalized into and inactivated PSCs. FPLC-purified R-III was found to be internalized into PSCs via caveolae-mediated endocytosis, and its efficient cellular uptake was also observed in HSCs and podocytes among several cell lines tested. Moreover, tissue distribution of intravenously injected R-III was closely similar to that of RBP. Therefore, our data suggest that albumin-RBP fusion protein comprises of stellate cell inactivation-inducing moiety and targeting moiety, which may lead to the development of effective anti

  3. Fluorescent tags of protein function in living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, M

    2000-02-01

    A cell's biochemistry is now known to be the biochemistry of molecular machines, that is, protein complexes that are assembled and dismantled in particular locations within the cell as needed. One important element in our understanding has been the ability to begin to see where proteins are in cells and what they are doing as they go about their business. Accordingly, there is now a strong impetus to discover new ways of looking at the workings of proteins in living cells. Although the use of fluorescent tags to track individual proteins in cells has a long history, the availability of laser-based confocal microscopes and the imaginative exploitation of the green fluorescent protein from jellyfish have provided new tools of great diversity and utility. It is now possible to watch a protein bind its substrate or its partners in real time and with submicron resolution within a single cell. The importance of processes of self-organisation represented by protein folding on the one hand and subcellular organelles on the other are well recognised. Self-organisation at the intermediate level of multimeric protein complexes is now open to inspection. BioEssays 22:180-187, 2000. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  4. Superresolution imaging in live Caulobacter crescentus cells using photoswitchable enhanced yellow fluorescent protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biteen, Julie S.; Thompson, Michael A.; Tselentis, Nicole K.; Shapiro, Lucy; Moerner, W. E.

    2009-02-01

    Recently, photoactivation and photoswitching were used to control single-molecule fluorescent labels and produce images of cellular structures beyond the optical diffraction limit (e.g., PALM, FPALM, and STORM). While previous live-cell studies relied on sophisticated photoactivatable fluorescent proteins, we show in the present work that superresolution imaging can be performed with fusions to the commonly used fluorescent protein EYFP. Rather than being photoactivated, however, EYFP can be reactivated with violet light after apparent photobleaching. In each cycle after initial imaging, only a sparse subset fluorophores is reactivated and localized, and the final image is then generated from the measured single-molecule positions. Because these methods are based on the imaging nanometer-sized single-molecule emitters and on the use of an active control mechanism to produce sparse sub-ensembles, we suggest the phrase "Single-Molecule Active-Control Microscopy" (SMACM) as an inclusive term for this general imaging strategy. In this paper, we address limitations arising from physiologically imposed upper boundaries on the fluorophore concentration by employing dark time-lapse periods to allow single-molecule motions to fill in filamentous structures, increasing the effective labeling concentration while localizing each emitter at most once per resolution-limited spot. We image cell-cycle-dependent superstructures of the bacterial actin protein MreB in live Caulobacter crescentus cells with sub-40-nm resolution for the first time. Furthermore, we quantify the reactivation quantum yield of EYFP, and find this to be 1.6 x 10-6, on par with conventional photoswitchable fluorescent proteins like Dronpa. These studies show that EYFP is a useful emitter for in vivo superresolution imaging of intracellular structures in bacterial cells.

  5. Murine leukemia virus (MLV replication monitored with fluorescent proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bittner Alexandra

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer gene therapy will benefit from vectors that are able to replicate in tumor tissue and cause a bystander effect. Replication-competent murine leukemia virus (MLV has been described to have potential as cancer therapeutics, however, MLV infection does not cause a cytopathic effect in the infected cell and viral replication can only be studied by immunostaining or measurement of reverse transcriptase activity. Results We inserted the coding sequences for green fluorescent protein (GFP into the proline-rich region (PRR of the ecotropic envelope protein (Env and were able to fluorescently label MLV. This allowed us to directly monitor viral replication and attachment to target cells by flow cytometry. We used this method to study viral replication of recombinant MLVs and split viral genomes, which were generated by replacement of the MLV env gene with the red fluorescent protein (RFP and separately cloning GFP-Env into a retroviral vector. Co-transfection of both plasmids into target cells resulted in the generation of semi-replicative vectors, and the two color labeling allowed to determine the distribution of the individual genomes in the target cells and was indicative for the occurrence of recombination events. Conclusions Fluorescently labeled MLVs are excellent tools for the study of factors that influence viral replication and can be used to optimize MLV-based replication-competent viruses or vectors for gene therapy.

  6. Studies with GFP-Vpr fusion proteins: induction of apoptosis but ablation of cell-cycle arrest despite nuclear membrane or nuclear localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldhuber, Megan G.; Bateson, Michael; Tan, Judith; Greenway, Alison L.; McPhee, Dale A.

    2003-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vpr protein is known to arrest the cell cycle in G 2 /M and induce apoptosis following arrest. The functions of Vpr relative to its location in the cell remain unresolved. We now demonstrate that the location and function of Vpr are dependent on the makeup of fusion proteins and that the functions of G 2 /M arrest and apoptosis are separable. Using green fluorescence protein mutants (EGFP or EYFP), we found that fusion at either the N- or C-terminus compromised the ability of Vpr to arrest cell cycling, relative to that of His-Vpr or wild-type protein. Additionally, utilizing the ability to specifically identify cells expressing the fusion proteins, we confirm that Vpr can induce apoptosis, but appears to be independent of cell-cycle arrest in G 2 /M. Both N- and C-terminal Vpr/EYFP fusion proteins induced apoptosis but caused minimal G 2 /M arrest. These studies with Vpr fusion proteins indicate that the functions of Vpr leading to G 2 /M arrest and apoptosis are separable and that fusion of Vpr to EGFP or EYFP affected the localization of the protein. Our findings suggest that nuclear membrane localization and nuclear import and export are strongly governed by modification of the N-terminus of Vpr

  7. A Practical Teaching Course in Directed Protein Evolution Using the Green Fluorescent Protein as a Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruller, Roberto; Silva-Rocha, Rafael; Silva, Artur; Schneider, Maria Paula Cruz; Ward, Richard John

    2011-01-01

    Protein engineering is a powerful tool, which correlates protein structure with specific functions, both in applied biotechnology and in basic research. Here, we present a practical teaching course for engineering the green fluorescent protein (GFP) from "Aequorea victoria" by a random mutagenesis strategy using error-prone polymerase…

  8. Baculovirus display of fusion protein of Peste des petits ruminants virus and hemagglutination protein of Rinderpest virus and immunogenicity of the displayed proteins in mouse model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masmudur Rahman, Md.; Shaila, M.S.; Gopinathan, Karumathil P.

    2003-01-01

    Recombinant Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedroviruses (BmNPV) displaying the immunodominant ectodomains of fusion glycoprotein (F) of Peste des petitis ruminants virus (PPRV) and the hemagglutinin protein (H) of Rinderpest virus (RPV), on the budded virions as well as the surface of the infected host cells have been constructed. The F and H protein sequences were inserted in-frame within the amino-terminal region of BmNPV envelope glycoprotein GP64 expressing under the strong viral polyhedrin (polh) promoter. We improved the recombinant virus selection in BmNPV by incorporating the green fluorescent protein gene (gfp) as selection marker under a separate promoter within the transfer cassette harboring the desired genes. Following infection of the insect larvae or the host-derived BmN cells with these recombinant BmNPVs, the expressed GP64 fusion proteins were displayed on the host cell surface and the budded virions. The antigenic epitopes of the recombinant proteins were properly displayed and the recombinant virus particles induced immune response in mice against PPRV or RPV

  9. A Protein Disulfide Isomerase Gene Fusion Expression System That Increases the Extracellular Productivity of Bacillus brevis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajino, Tsutomu; Ohto, Chikara; Muramatsu, Masayoshi; Obata, Shusei; Udaka, Shigezo; Yamada, Yukio; Takahashi, Haruo

    2000-01-01

    We have developed a versatile Bacillus brevis expression and secretion system based on the use of fungal protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) as a gene fusion partner. Fusion with PDI increased the extracellular production of heterologous proteins (light chain of immunoglobulin G, 8-fold; geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase, 12-fold). Linkage to PDI prevented the aggregation of the secreted proteins, resulting in high-level accumulation of fusion proteins in soluble and biologically active forms. We also show that the disulfide isomerase activity of PDI in a fusion protein is responsible for the suppression of the aggregation of the protein with intradisulfide, whereas aggregation of the protein without intradisulfide was prevented even when the protein was fused to a mutant PDI whose two active sites were disrupted, suggesting that another PDI function, such as chaperone-like activity, synergistically prevented the aggregation of heterologous proteins in the PDI fusion expression system. PMID:10653729

  10. [Research progress in hirudin fusion protein--review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuan-Ling; Yu, Ai-Ping; Jin, Ji-De; Wu, Chu-Tse

    2007-02-01

    Natural hirudin extracted from the secretion of medical leech salivary gland is a single-chain peptide containing 65 aminoacid residues with molecular weight of 7000 D, and exists in three isomers of HV1, HV2 and HV3. Hirudin possesses three disulfide bridges forming the structure of core cyclic peptides, which binds to the catalytic site of thrombin so as to inhibit the catalysis of thrombin. Its c-terminus rich in acidic aminoacid residues possesses hydrophilicity, and is free on the molecular surface, and can bind with fibrin recognition site of hirudin. The minimal segment of 12 - 16 C-terminal acidic residues keeps the minimal activity of anti-thrombosis. Thus, hirudin, as a potent and specific inhibitor of thrombin, can be used to protect from and to treat clinically thrombosis. As it has some disadvantages such as short half-life, bleeding side-effect and mono-function, and so on, hirudin has been fused with some other functional proteins in recent years. The obtained fusion proteins can prolong the half life of hirudin, or relieve it bleeding side effect, or bring new functions, such as thrombolysis, inhibiting the platelet aggregation, targeting specifically. The research progress in hirudin fusion protein was summarized in this review.

  11. On the purported "backbone fluorescence" in protein three-dimensional fluorescence spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bortolotti, Annalisa; Wong, Yin How; Korsholm, Stine S.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, several proteins (albumin, lysozyme, insulin) and model compounds (Trp, Tyr, homopolypeptides) were used to demonstrate the origin of the fluorescence observed upon their excitation at 220-230 nm. In the last 10 years we have observed a worrying increase in the number of articles...... as any traditional protein emission spectrum. The many papers in reputable journals erroneously reporting this peak assignment, contradicting 5 decades of prior knowledge, have led to the creation of a new dogma, where many authors and reviewers now take the purported backbone fluorescence...... as an established fact. We hope the current paper helps counter this new situation and leads to a reassessment of those papers that make this erroneous claim....

  12. Subunits of highly Fluorescent Protein R-Phycoerythrin as Probes for Cell Imaging and Single-Molecule Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isailovic, Dragan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2005-01-01

    bodies, fluorescent holo-subunits were formed after incubation of E. coli cells with PEB. Spectroscopic characterization of holo-subunits confirmed that the attachment of PEB chromophore to apo-subunits yielded holo-subunits containing both PEB and urobilin (UB). Fluorescence and differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy showed polar location of holo-subunit inclusion bodies in E. coli cells. In another example, R-PE apo-subunits were genetically fused to cytoplasmic and periplasmic versions of E. coli maltose binding protein (MBP). Fluorescent proteins formed after attachment of PEB to MBP-subunit fusions in vitro and in vivo contained PEB as the sole chromophore, were soluble, and displayed high orange fluorescence. Fluorescence microscopy showed that fusions are located either throughout cells or at cell poles. In addition, cells containing fluorescent holo-subunits or MBP-subunit fusions were up to ten times brighter than control cells as measured by flow cytometry. Results show that the fluorescent proteins formed after non-enzymatic attachment of PEB to R-PE subunit fusions could be used as reporters of gene expression and protein localization in cells as well as fluorescence labels in flow cytometry. Finally, we demonstrated a high-throughput method able to record emission fluorescence spectra of individual cells containing fluorescent proteins. Upon excitation with a 488 mn argon-ion laser many bacterial cells were imaged by a 20X microscope objective while they moved through a capillary tube. Fluorescence was dispersed by a transmission diffraction grating, and an intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) camera simultaneously recorded the zero and the first orders of the fluorescence from each cell. Single-cell fluorescence spectra were reconstructed from the distance between zero-order and first-order maxima as well as the length and the pixel intensity distribution of the first-order images. By using this approach, the emission spectrum of E. coli

  13. Localization of a Region in the Fusion Protein of Avian Metapneumovirus That Modulates Cell-Cell Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yongwei; Feng, Kurtis; Yao, Xiangjie; Cai, Hui; Li, Junan; Mirza, Anne M.; Iorio, Ronald M.

    2012-01-01

    The genus Metapneumovirus within the subfamily Pneumovirinae of the family Paramyxoviridae includes two members, human metapneumovirus (hMPV) and avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), causing respiratory tract infections in humans and birds, respectively. Paramyxoviruses enter host cells by fusing the viral envelope with a host cell membrane. Membrane fusion of hMPV appears to be unique, in that fusion of some hMPV strains requires low pH. Here, we show that the fusion (F) proteins of aMPV promote fusion in the absence of the attachment protein and low pH is not required. Furthermore, there are notable differences in cell-cell fusion among aMPV subtypes. Trypsin was required for cell-cell fusion induced by subtype B but not subtypes A and C. The F protein of aMPV subtype A was highly fusogenic, whereas those from subtypes B and C were not. By construction and evaluation of chimeric F proteins composed of domains from the F proteins of subtypes A and B, we localized a region composed of amino acid residues 170 to 338 in the F protein that is responsible for the hyperfusogenic phenotype of the F from subtype A. Further mutagenesis analysis revealed that residues R295, G297, and K323 in this region collectively contributed to the hyperfusogenicity. Taken together, we have identified a region in the aMPV F protein that modulates the extent of membrane fusion. A model for fusion consistent with these data is presented. PMID:22915815

  14. Intrafocal heterogeneity of ERG protein expression and gene fusion pattern in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Ja Hee; Park, Jeong Hwan; Lee, Cheol; Moon, Kyung Chul

    2017-10-01

    Prostate cancer is considered to be highly heterogeneous, with various morphologic features and biologic behaviors. The TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion is the most frequently observed genetic aberration in prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to elucidate the intrafocal heterogeneity of ERG gene fusion status. ERG immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed in samples from 168 prostate cancer patients who had undergone radical prostatectomy, and 40 cases showing ERG-positive IHC staining were selected for tissue microarray (TMA) construction. Two to six representative cores were selected from each tumor focus. In the cases with heterogeneous ERG IHC staining intensity, the areas showing different intensities were separately selected. Using the TMA blocks, IHC and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were conducted to evaluate the heterogeneity of ERG protein expression and ERG fusion gene patterns, respectively, in a single tumor focus. Heterogeneity of ERG IHC staining was defined as the simultaneous presence of negative and positive cores in the same tumor focus. Heterogeneity of ERG FISH was defined by the presence of cores with positive and negative FISH signals or cores with break-apart and interstitial deletion FISH signals in the same tumor focus. A total of 202 TMA cores were isolated from 40 ERG-positive cases. Of the 202 total cores, 19 were negative for ERG IHC staining, and 46 showed 1+, 52 showed 2+, and 85 showed 3+ ERG staining intensity. Eleven cores were negative for ERG FISH signal, 119 cores showed ERG break-apart FISH signals, and the remaining 72 cores revealed interstitial deletion. Intrafocal heterogeneity of ERG IHC staining was found in 20% (8/40) of cases, and intrafocal heterogeneity of ERG gene fusion pattern was found in 32.5% (13/40) of cases. In summary, this study showed significantly frequent intrafocal heterogeneity of ERG protein expression, gene fusion status and fusion pattern. This heterogeneity can be caused by the development

  15. Rotational order–disorder structure of fluorescent protein FP480

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pletnev, Sergei; Morozova, Kateryna S.; Verkhusha, Vladislav V.; Dauter, Zbigniew

    2009-01-01

    An analysis of the rotational order–disorder structure of fluorescent protein FP480 is presented. In the last decade, advances in instrumentation and software development have made crystallography a powerful tool in structural biology. Using this method, structural information can now be acquired from pathological crystals that would have been abandoned in earlier times. In this paper, the order–disorder (OD) structure of fluorescent protein FP480 is discussed. The structure is composed of tetramers with 222 symmetry incorporated into the lattice in two different ways, namely rotated 90° with respect to each other around the crystal c axis, with tetramer axes coincident with crystallographic twofold axes. The random distribution of alternatively oriented tetramers in the crystal creates a rotational OD structure with statistically averaged I422 symmetry, although the presence of very weak and diffuse additional reflections suggests that the randomness is only approximate

  16. Ultrafast proton shuttling in Psammocora cyan fluorescent protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennis, John T M; van Stokkum, Ivo H M; Peterson, Dayna S; Pandit, Anjali; Wachter, Rebekka M

    2013-09-26

    Cyan, green, yellow, and red fluorescent proteins (FPs) homologous to green fluorescent protein (GFP) are used extensively as model systems to study fundamental processes in photobiology, such as the capture of light energy by protein-embedded chromophores, color tuning by the protein matrix, energy conversion by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), and excited-state proton transfer (ESPT) reactions. Recently, a novel cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) termed psamFP488 was isolated from the genus Psammocora of reef building corals. Within the cyan color class, psamFP488 is unusual because it exhibits a significantly extended Stokes shift. Here, we applied ultrafast transient absorption and pump-dump-probe spectroscopy to investigate the mechanistic basis of psamFP488 fluorescence, complemented with fluorescence quantum yield and dynamic light scattering measurements. Transient absorption spectroscopy indicated that, upon excitation at 410 nm, the stimulated cyan emission rises in 170 fs. With pump-dump-probe spectroscopy, we observe a very short-lived (110 fs) ground-state intermediate that we assign to the deprotonated, anionic chromophore. In addition, a minor fraction (14%) decays with 3.5 ps to the ground state. Structural analysis of homologous proteins indicates that Glu-167 is likely positioned in sufficiently close vicinity to the chromophore to act as a proton acceptor. Our findings support a model where unusually fast ESPT from the neutral chromophore to Glu-167 with a time constant of 170 fs and resulting emission from the anionic chromophore forms the basis of the large psamFP488 Stokes shift. When dumped to the ground state, the proton on neutral Glu is very rapidly shuttled back to the anionic chromophore in 110 fs. Proton shuttling in excited and ground states is a factor of 20-4000 faster than in GFP, which probably results from a favorable hydrogen-bonding geometry between the chromophore phenolic oxygen and the glutamate acceptor, possibly

  17. Protein fold recognition using geometric kernel data fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakeri, Pooya; Jeuris, Ben; Vandebril, Raf; Moreau, Yves

    2014-07-01

    Various approaches based on features extracted from protein sequences and often machine learning methods have been used in the prediction of protein folds. Finding an efficient technique for integrating these different protein features has received increasing attention. In particular, kernel methods are an interesting class of techniques for integrating heterogeneous data. Various methods have been proposed to fuse multiple kernels. Most techniques for multiple kernel learning focus on learning a convex linear combination of base kernels. In addition to the limitation of linear combinations, working with such approaches could cause a loss of potentially useful information. We design several techniques to combine kernel matrices by taking more involved, geometry inspired means of these matrices instead of convex linear combinations. We consider various sequence-based protein features including information extracted directly from position-specific scoring matrices and local sequence alignment. We evaluate our methods for classification on the SCOP PDB-40D benchmark dataset for protein fold recognition. The best overall accuracy on the protein fold recognition test set obtained by our methods is ∼ 86.7%. This is an improvement over the results of the best existing approach. Moreover, our computational model has been developed by incorporating the functional domain composition of proteins through a hybridization model. It is observed that by using our proposed hybridization model, the protein fold recognition accuracy is further improved to 89.30%. Furthermore, we investigate the performance of our approach on the protein remote homology detection problem by fusing multiple string kernels. The MATLAB code used for our proposed geometric kernel fusion frameworks are publicly available at http://people.cs.kuleuven.be/∼raf.vandebril/homepage/software/geomean.php?menu=5/. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  18. The MARVEL domain protein, Singles Bar, is required for progression past the pre-fusion complex stage of myoblast fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Beatriz; Maeland, Anne D; Gisselbrecht, Stephen S; Bloor, James W; Brown, Nicholas H; Michelson, Alan M

    2007-07-15

    Multinucleated myotubes develop by the sequential fusion of individual myoblasts. Using a convergence of genomic and classical genetic approaches, we have discovered a novel gene, singles bar (sing), that is essential for myoblast fusion. sing encodes a small multipass transmembrane protein containing a MARVEL domain, which is found in vertebrate proteins involved in processes such as tight junction formation and vesicle trafficking where--as in myoblast fusion--membrane apposition occurs. sing is expressed in both founder cells and fusion competent myoblasts preceding and during myoblast fusion. Examination of embryos injected with double-stranded sing RNA or embryos homozygous for ethane methyl sulfonate-induced sing alleles revealed an identical phenotype: replacement of multinucleated myofibers by groups of single, myosin-expressing myoblasts at a stage when formation of the mature muscle pattern is complete in wild-type embryos. Unfused sing mutant myoblasts form clusters, suggesting that early recognition and adhesion of these cells are unimpaired. To further investigate this phenotype, we undertook electron microscopic ultrastructural studies of fusing myoblasts in both sing and wild-type embryos. These experiments revealed that more sing mutant myoblasts than wild-type contain pre-fusion complexes, which are characterized by electron-dense vesicles paired on either side of the fusing plasma membranes. In contrast, embryos mutant for another muscle fusion gene, blown fuse (blow), have a normal number of such complexes. Together, these results lead to the hypothesis that sing acts at a step distinct from that of blow, and that sing is required on both founder cell and fusion-competent myoblast membranes to allow progression past the pre-fusion complex stage of myoblast fusion, possibly by mediating fusion of the electron-dense vesicles to the plasma membrane.

  19. A plasmid toolkit for cloning chimeric cDNAs encoding customized fusion proteins into any Gateway destination expression vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Valuable clone collections encoding the complete ORFeomes for some model organisms have been constructed following the completion of their genome sequencing projects. These libraries are based on Gateway cloning technology, which facilitates the study of protein function by simplifying the subcloning of open reading frames (ORF) into any suitable destination vector. The expression of proteins of interest as fusions with functional modules is a frequent approach in their initial functional characterization. A limited number of Gateway destination expression vectors allow the construction of fusion proteins from ORFeome-derived sequences, but they are restricted to the possibilities offered by their inbuilt functional modules and their pre-defined model organism-specificity. Thus, the availability of cloning systems that overcome these limitations would be highly advantageous. Results We present a versatile cloning toolkit for constructing fully-customizable three-part fusion proteins based on the MultiSite Gateway cloning system. The fusion protein components are encoded in the three plasmids integral to the kit. These can recombine with any purposely-engineered destination vector that uses a heterologous promoter external to the Gateway cassette, leading to the in-frame cloning of an ORF of interest flanked by two functional modules. In contrast to previous systems, a third part becomes available for peptide-encoding as it no longer needs to contain a promoter, resulting in an increased number of possible fusion combinations. We have constructed the kit’s component plasmids and demonstrate its functionality by providing proof-of-principle data on the expression of prototype fluorescent fusions in transiently-transfected cells. Conclusions We have developed a toolkit for creating fusion proteins with customized N- and C-term modules from Gateway entry clones encoding ORFs of interest. Importantly, our method allows entry clones obtained from ORFeome

  20. Reduced Fluorescent Protein Switching Fatigue by Binding-Induced Emissive State Stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thijs Roebroek

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Reversibly switchable fluorescent proteins (RSFPs enable advanced fluorescence imaging, though the performance of this imaging crucially depends on the properties of the labels. We report on the use of an existing small binding peptide, named Enhancer, to modulate the spectroscopic properties of the recently developed rsGreen series of RSFPs. Fusion constructs of Enhancer with rsGreen1 and rsGreenF revealed an increased molecular brightness and pH stability, although expression in living E. coli or HeLa cells resulted in a decrease of the overall emission. Surprisingly, Enhancer binding also increased off-switching speed and resistance to switching fatigue. Further investigation suggested that the RSFPs can interconvert between fast- and slow-switching emissive states, with the overall protein population gradually converting to the slow-switching state through irradiation. The Enhancer modulates the spectroscopic properties of both states, but also preferentially stabilizes the fast-switching state, supporting the increased fatigue resistance. This work demonstrates how the photo-physical properties of RSFPs can be influenced by their binding to other small proteins, which opens up new horizons for applications that may require such modulation. Furthermore, we provide new insights into the photoswitching kinetics that should be of general consideration when developing new RSFPs with improved or different photochromic properties.

  1. Pooled-matrix protein interaction screens using Barcode Fusion Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yachie, Nozomu; Petsalaki, Evangelia; Mellor, Joseph C; Weile, Jochen; Jacob, Yves; Verby, Marta; Ozturk, Sedide B; Li, Siyang; Cote, Atina G; Mosca, Roberto; Knapp, Jennifer J; Ko, Minjeong; Yu, Analyn; Gebbia, Marinella; Sahni, Nidhi; Yi, Song; Tyagi, Tanya; Sheykhkarimli, Dayag; Roth, Jonathan F; Wong, Cassandra; Musa, Louai; Snider, Jamie; Liu, Yi-Chun; Yu, Haiyuan; Braun, Pascal; Stagljar, Igor; Hao, Tong; Calderwood, Michael A; Pelletier, Laurence; Aloy, Patrick; Hill, David E; Vidal, Marc; Roth, Frederick P

    2016-04-22

    High-throughput binary protein interaction mapping is continuing to extend our understanding of cellular function and disease mechanisms. However, we remain one or two orders of magnitude away from a complete interaction map for humans and other major model organisms. Completion will require screening at substantially larger scales with many complementary assays, requiring further efficiency gains in proteome-scale interaction mapping. Here, we report Barcode Fusion Genetics-Yeast Two-Hybrid (BFG-Y2H), by which a full matrix of protein pairs can be screened in a single multiplexed strain pool. BFG-Y2H uses Cre recombination to fuse DNA barcodes from distinct plasmids, generating chimeric protein-pair barcodes that can be quantified via next-generation sequencing. We applied BFG-Y2H to four different matrices ranging in scale from ~25 K to 2.5 M protein pairs. The results show that BFG-Y2H increases the efficiency of protein matrix screening, with quality that is on par with state-of-the-art Y2H methods. © 2016 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  2. A fungal biofilm reactor based on metal structured packing improves the quality of a Gla::GFP fusion protein produced by Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zune, Q; Delepierre, A; Gofflot, S; Bauwens, J; Twizere, J C; Punt, P J; Francis, F; Toye, D; Bawin, T; Delvigne, F

    2015-08-01

    Fungal biofilm is known to promote the excretion of secondary metabolites in accordance with solid-state-related physiological mechanisms. This work is based on the comparative analysis of classical submerged fermentation with a fungal biofilm reactor for the production of a Gla::green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein by Aspergillus oryzae. The biofilm reactor comprises a metal structured packing allowing the attachment of the fungal biomass. Since the production of the target protein is under the control of the promoter glaB, specifically induced in solid-state fermentation, the biofilm mode of culture is expected to enhance the global productivity. Although production of the target protein was enhanced by using the biofilm mode of culture, we also found that fusion protein production is also significant when the submerged mode of culture is used. This result is related to high shear stress leading to biomass autolysis and leakage of intracellular fusion protein into the extracellular medium. Moreover, 2-D gel electrophoresis highlights the preservation of fusion protein integrity produced in biofilm conditions. Two fungal biofilm reactor designs were then investigated further, i.e. with full immersion of the packing or with medium recirculation on the packing, and the scale-up potentialities were evaluated. In this context, it has been shown that full immersion of the metal packing in the liquid medium during cultivation allows for a uniform colonization of the packing by the fungal biomass and leads to a better quality of the fusion protein.

  3. Chemometric classification of Chinese lager beers according to manufacturer based on data fusion of fluorescence, UV and visible spectroscopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jin; Li, Rong; Jiang, Zi-Tao

    2015-10-01

    We report an application of data fusion for chemometric classification of 135 canned samples of Chinese lager beers by manufacturer based on the combination of fluorescence, UV and visible spectroscopies. Right-angle synchronous fluorescence spectra (SFS) at three wavelength difference Δλ=30, 60 and 80 nm and visible spectra in the range 380-700 nm of undiluted beers were recorded. UV spectra in the range 240-400 nm of diluted beers were measured. A classification model was built using principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). LDA with cross-validation showed that the data fusion could achieve 78.5-86.7% correct classification (sensitivity), while those rates using individual spectroscopies ranged from 42.2% to 70.4%. The results demonstrated that the fluorescence, UV and visible spectroscopies complemented each other, yielding higher synergic effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Interferences of Silica Nanoparticles in Green Fluorescent Protein Folding Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Géraldine; Devineau, Stéphanie; Aude, Jean Christophe; Boulard, Yves; Pasquier, Hélène; Labarre, Jean; Pin, Serge; Renault, Jean Philippe

    2016-01-12

    We investigated the relationship between unfolded proteins, silica nanoparticles and chaperonin to determine whether unfolded proteins could stick to silica surfaces and how this process could impair heat shock protein activity. The HSP60 catalyzed green fluorescent protein (GFP) folding was used as a model system. The adsorption isotherms and adsorption kinetics of denatured GFP were measured, showing that denaturation increases GFP affinity for silica surfaces. This affinity is maintained even if the surfaces are covered by a protein corona and allows silica NPs to interfere directly with GFP folding by trapping it in its unstructured state. We determined also the adsorption isotherms of HSP60 and its chaperonin activity once adsorbed, showing that SiO2 NP can interfere also indirectly with protein folding through chaperonin trapping and inhibition. This inhibition is specifically efficient when NPs are covered first with a layer of unfolded proteins. These results highlight for the first time the antichaperonin activity of silica NPs and ask new questions about the toxicity of such misfolded proteins/nanoparticles assembly toward cells.

  5. Intrinsic fluorescence of protein in turbid media using empirical relation based on Monte Carlo lookup table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, Gnanatheepam; Udayakumar, Kanniyappan; Aruna, Prakasarao; Ganesan, Singaravelu

    2017-03-01

    Fluorescence of Protein has been widely used in diagnostic oncology for characterizing cellular metabolism. However, the intensity of fluorescence emission is affected due to the absorbers and scatterers in tissue, which may lead to error in estimating exact protein content in tissue. Extraction of intrinsic fluorescence from measured fluorescence has been achieved by different methods. Among them, Monte Carlo based method yields the highest accuracy for extracting intrinsic fluorescence. In this work, we have attempted to generate a lookup table for Monte Carlo simulation of fluorescence emission by protein. Furthermore, we fitted the generated lookup table using an empirical relation. The empirical relation between measured and intrinsic fluorescence is validated using tissue phantom experiments. The proposed relation can be used for estimating intrinsic fluorescence of protein for real-time diagnostic applications and thereby improving the clinical interpretation of fluorescence spectroscopic data.

  6. Click strategies for single-molecule protein fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milles, Sigrid; Tyagi, Swati; Banterle, Niccolò; Koehler, Christine; VanDelinder, Virginia; Plass, Tilman; Neal, Adrian P; Lemke, Edward A

    2012-03-21

    Single-molecule methods have matured into central tools for studies in biology. Foerster resonance energy transfer (FRET) techniques, in particular, have been widely applied to study biomolecular structure and dynamics. The major bottleneck for a facile and general application of these studies arises from the need to label biological samples site-specifically with suitable fluorescent dyes. In this work, we present an optimized strategy combining click chemistry and the genetic encoding of unnatural amino acids (UAAs) to overcome this limitation for proteins. We performed a systematic study with a variety of clickable UAAs and explored their potential for high-resolution single-molecule FRET (smFRET). We determined all parameters that are essential for successful single-molecule studies, such as accessibility of the probes, expression yield of proteins, and quantitative labeling. Our multiparameter fluorescence analysis allowed us to gain new insights into the effects and photophysical properties of fluorescent dyes linked to various UAAs for smFRET measurements. This led us to determine that, from the extended tool set that we now present, genetically encoding propargyllysine has major advantages for state-of-the-art measurements compared to other UAAs. Using this optimized system, we present a biocompatible one-step dual-labeling strategy of the regulatory protein RanBP3 with full labeling position freedom. Our technique allowed us then to determine that the region encompassing two FxFG repeat sequences adopts a disordered but collapsed state. RanBP3 serves here as a prototypical protein that, due to its multiple cysteines, size, and partially disordered structure, is not readily accessible to any of the typical structure determination techniques such as smFRET, NMR, and X-ray crystallography.

  7. Fluorescent Proteins for Investigating Biological Events in Acidic Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajime Shinoda

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The interior lumen of acidic organelles (e.g., endosomes, secretory granules, lysosomes and plant vacuoles is an important platform for modification, transport and degradation of biomolecules as well as signal transduction, which remains challenging to investigate using conventional fluorescent proteins (FPs. Due to the highly acidic luminal environment (pH ~ 4.5–6.0, most FPs and related sensors are apt to lose their fluorescence. To address the need to image in acidic environments, several research groups have developed acid-tolerant FPs in a wide color range. Furthermore, the engineering of pH insensitive sensors, and their concomitant use with pH sensitive sensors for the purpose of pH-calibration has enabled characterization of the role of luminal ions. In this short review, we summarize the recent development of acid-tolerant FPs and related functional sensors and discuss the future prospects for this field.

  8. Recombinant fusion protein of albumin-retinol binding protein inactivates stellate cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Soyoung; Park, Sangeun; Kim, Suhyun [Laboratory of Cellular Oncology, Korea University Graduate School of Medicine, Ansan, Gyeonggi do 425-707 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Chaeseung [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul 152-703 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jungho [Department of Life Science, Sogang University, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Dae Ryong [Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University Ansan Hospital, Ansan, Gyeonggi do 425-020 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Junseo, E-mail: ohjs@korea.ac.kr [Laboratory of Cellular Oncology, Korea University Graduate School of Medicine, Ansan, Gyeonggi do 425-707 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We designed novel recombinant albumin-RBP fusion proteins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of fusion proteins inactivates pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fusion proteins are successfully internalized into and inactivate PSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RBP moiety mediates cell specific uptake of fusion protein. -- Abstract: Quiescent pancreatic- (PSCs) and hepatic- (HSCs) stellate cells store vitamin A (retinol) in lipid droplets via retinol binding protein (RBP) receptor and, when activated by profibrogenic stimuli, they transform into myofibroblast-like cells which play a key role in the fibrogenesis. Despite extensive investigations, there is, however, currently no appropriate therapy available for tissue fibrosis. We previously showed that the expression of albumin, composed of three homologous domains (I-III), inhibits stellate cell activation, which requires its high-affinity fatty acid-binding sites asymmetrically distributed in domain I and III. To attain stellate cell-specific uptake, albumin (domain I/III) was coupled to RBP; RBP-albumin{sup domain} {sup III} (R-III) and albumin{sup domain} {sup I}-RBP-albumin{sup III} (I-R-III). To assess the biological activity of fusion proteins, cultured PSCs were used. Like wild type albumin, expression of R-III or I-R-III in PSCs after passage 2 (activated PSCs) induced phenotypic reversal from activated to fat-storing cells. On the other hand, R-III and I-R-III, but not albumin, secreted from transfected 293 cells were successfully internalized into and inactivated PSCs. FPLC-purified R-III was found to be internalized into PSCs via caveolae-mediated endocytosis, and its efficient cellular uptake was also observed in HSCs and podocytes among several cell lines tested. Moreover, tissue distribution of intravenously injected R-III was closely similar to that of RBP. Therefore, our data suggest that albumin-RBP fusion protein comprises

  9. Protein functional links in Trypanosoma brucei, identified by gene fusion analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trimpalis Philip

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Domain or gene fusion analysis is a bioinformatics method for detecting gene fusions in one organism by comparing its genome to that of other organisms. The occurrence of gene fusions suggests that the two original genes that participated in the fusion are functionally linked, i.e. their gene products interact either as part of a multi-subunit protein complex, or in a metabolic pathway. Gene fusion analysis has been used to identify protein functional links in prokaryotes as well as in eukaryotic model organisms, such as yeast and Drosophila. Results In this study we have extended this approach to include a number of recently sequenced protists, four of which are pathogenic, to identify fusion linked proteins in Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of African sleeping sickness. We have also examined the evolution of the gene fusion events identified, to determine whether they can be attributed to fusion or fission, by looking at the conservation of the fused genes and of the individual component genes across the major eukaryotic and prokaryotic lineages. We find relatively limited occurrence of gene fusions/fissions within the protist lineages examined. Our results point to two trypanosome-specific gene fissions, which have recently been experimentally confirmed, one fusion involving proteins involved in the same metabolic pathway, as well as two novel putative functional links between fusion-linked protein pairs. Conclusions This is the first study of protein functional links in T. brucei identified by gene fusion analysis. We have used strict thresholds and only discuss results which are highly likely to be genuine and which either have already been or can be experimentally verified. We discuss the possible impact of the identification of these novel putative protein-protein interactions, to the development of new trypanosome therapeutic drugs.

  10. Production of a soluble recombinant prion protein fused to blue fluorescent protein without refolding or detergents in Escherichia coli cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arii, Yasuhiro; Yamaguchi, Hidenori; Fukuoka, Shin-Ichi

    2007-10-01

    The physiological function of prion proteins (PrP) remains unclear. To investigate the physiological relevance of PrP, we constructed a fusion protein of PrP with enhanced blue fluorescent protein (PrP-EBFP) to quantify the interaction of PrP with other molecules. Production of soluble PrP-EBFP was achieved by lowering the expression temperature in Escherichia coli (E. coli) cells to 15 degrees C. Soluble PrP-EBFP was purified on cation exchange and heparin-affinity columns to yield high purity protein. This is the first report of the preparation of soluble recombinant PrP without refolding following solubilization using denaturants or disruption using detergents. To confirm the integrity of PrP-EBFP, anisotropy was estimated under physiological conditions in the presence of heparin, which interacts with PrP. The dissociation constant was determined to be 0.88+/-0.07 microM. PrP-EBFP should be useful in the quantification of PrP interactions with other molecules.

  11. Functional incorporation of green fluorescent protein into hepatitis B virus envelope particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, Carsten; Thome, Nicole; Kluck, Christoph J.; Prange, Reinhild

    2004-01-01

    The envelope of hepatitis B virus (HBV), containing the L, M, and S proteins, is essential for virus entry and maturation. For direct visualization of HBV, we determined whether envelope assembly could accommodate the green fluorescent protein (GFP). While the C-terminal addition of GFP to S trans-dominant negatively inhibited empty envelope particle secretion, the N-terminal GFP fusion to S (GFP.S) was co-integrated into the envelope, giving rise to fluorescent particles. Microscopy and topogenesis analyses demonstrated that the proper intracellular distribution and folding of GFP.S, required for particle export were rescued by interprotein interactions with wild-type S. Thereby, a dual location of GFP, inside and outside the envelope, was observed. GFP.S was also efficiently packaged into the viral envelope, and these GFP-tagged virions retained the capacity for attachment to HBV receptor-positive cells in vitro. Together, GFP-tagged virions should be suitable to monitor HBV uptake and egress in live hepatocytes

  12. Engineering a novel multifunctional green fluorescent protein tag for a wide variety of protein research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Kobayashi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genetically encoded tag is a powerful tool for protein research. Various kinds of tags have been developed: fluorescent proteins for live-cell imaging, affinity tags for protein isolation, and epitope tags for immunological detections. One of the major problems concerning the protein tagging is that many constructs with different tags have to be made for different applications, which is time- and resource-consuming. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report a novel multifunctional green fluorescent protein (mfGFP tag which was engineered by inserting multiple peptide tags, i.e., octa-histidine (8xHis, streptavidin-binding peptide (SBP, and c-Myc tag, in tandem into a loop of GFP. When fused to various proteins, mfGFP monitored their localization in living cells. Streptavidin agarose column chromatography with the SBP tag successfully isolated the protein complexes in a native form with a high purity. Tandem affinity purification (TAP with 8xHis and SBP tags in mfGFP further purified the protein complexes. mfGFP was clearly detected by c-Myc-specific antibody both in immunofluorescence and immuno-electron microscopy (EM. These findings indicate that mfGFP works well as a multifunctional tag in mammalian cells. The tag insertion was also successful in other fluorescent protein, mCherry. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The multifunctional fluorescent protein tag is a useful tool for a wide variety of protein research, and may have the advantage over other multiple tag systems in its higher expandability and compatibility with existing and future tag technologies.

  13. Study on Fusion Protein and Its gene in Baculovirus Specificity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemr, W.A.H.

    2012-01-01

    Baculoviruses are subdivided into two groups depending on the type of budded virus envelop fusion protein; group I utilized gp64 which include the most of nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPVs), group II utilized F protein which include the remnants of NPVs and all Granuloviruses (GVs). Recent studies reported the viral F protein coding gene as a host cellular sourced gene and may evolutionary acquired from the host genome referring to phylogeny analysis of fusion proteins. Thus, it was deduced that F protein coding gene is species- specific nucleotide sequence related to the type of the specific host and if virus could infect an unexpected host, the resulted virus may encode a vary F gene. In this regard, the present study utilized the mentioned properties of F gene in an attempt to produce a model of specific and more economic wider range granulovirus bio- pesticide able to infect both Spodoptera littoralis and Phthorimaea operculella larvae. Multiple sequence alignment and phylogeny analysis were performed on six members of group II baculovirus, novel universal PCR primers were manually designed from the conserved regions in the alignment graph, targeted to amplify species- specific sequence entire F gene open reading frame (ORF) which is useful in molecular identification of baculovirus in unknown samples. So, the PCR product of SpliGV used to prepare a specific probe for the F gene of this type of virus. Results reflected that it is possible to infect S. littoralis larvae by PhopGV if injected into larval haemocoel, the resulted virus of this infection showed by using DNA hybridization technique to be encode to F gene homologous with the F gene of Spli GV, which is revealed that the resulted virus acquired this F gene sequence from the host genome after infection. Consequently, these results may infer that if genetic aberrations occur in the host genome, this may affect in baculoviral infectivity. So, this study aimed to investigate the effect of gamma radiation at

  14. The coronavirus spike protein : mechanisms of membrane fusion and virion incorporation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, B.J.

    2004-01-01

    The coronavirus spike protein is a membrane-anchored glycoprotein responsible for virus-cell attachment and membrane fusion, prerequisites for a successful virus infection. In this thesis, two aspects are described regarding the molecular biology of the coronavirus spike protein: its membrane fusion

  15. Spike Protein Fusion Peptide and Feline Coronavirus Virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hui-Wen; Egberink, Herman F.; Halpin, Rebecca; Spiro, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Coronaviruses are well known for their potential to change their host or tissue tropism, resulting in unpredictable new diseases and changes in pathogenicity; severe acute respiratory syndrome and feline coronaviruses, respectively, are the most recognized examples. Feline coronaviruses occur as 2 pathotypes: nonvirulent feline enteric coronaviruses (FECVs), which replicate in intestinal epithelium cells, and lethal feline infectious peritonitis viruses (FIPVs), which replicate in macrophages. Evidence indicates that FIPV originates from FECV by mutation, but consistent distinguishing differences have not been established. We sequenced the full genome of 11 viruses of each pathotype and then focused on the single most distinctive site by additionally sequencing hundreds of viruses in that region. As a result, we identified 2 alternative amino acid differences in the putative fusion peptide of the spike protein that together distinguish FIPV from FECV in >95% of cases. By these and perhaps other mutations, the virus apparently acquires its macrophage tropism and spreads systemically. PMID:22709821

  16. Production and characterization of active recombinant interleukin-12/eGFP fusion protein in stably-transfected DF1 chicken cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsing Chieh; Chen, Yu San; Shen, Pin Chun; Shien, Jui Hung; Lee, Long Huw; Chiu, Hua Hsien

    2015-01-01

    The adjuvant activity of chicken interleukin-12 (chIL-12) protein has been described as similar to that of mammalian IL-12. Recombinant chIL-12 can be produced using several methods, but chIL-12 production in eukaryotic cells is lower than that in prokaryotic cells. Stimulating compounds, such as dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), can be added to animal cell cultures to overcome this drawback. In this study, we constructed a cell line, DF1/chIL-12 which stably expressed a fusion protein, chIL-12 and enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) connected by a (G4 S)3 linker sequence. Fusion protein production was increased when cells were cultured in the presence of DMSO. When 1 × 10(6) DF1/chIL-12 cells were inoculated in a T-175 flask containing 30 mL of media, incubated for 15 h, and further cultivated in the presence of 4% DMSO for 48 h, the production of total fusion protein was mostly enhanced compared with the production of total fusion protein by using cell lysates induced with DMSO at other concentrations. The concentrations of the unpurified and purified total fusion proteins in cell lysates were 2,781 ± 2.72 ng mL(-1) and 2,207 ± 3.28 ng mL(-1) , respectively. The recovery rate was 79%. The fusion protein stimulated chicken splenocytes to produce IFN-γ, which was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, in the culture supernatant, indicating that treating DF1/chIL-12 cells with DMSO or producing chIL-12 in a fusion protein form does not have adverse effects on the bioactivity of chIL-12. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  17. Cyanine-based probe\\tag-peptide pair fluorescence protein imaging and fluorescence protein imaging methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer-Cumblidge, M. Uljana; Cao, Haishi

    2013-01-15

    A molecular probe comprises two arsenic atoms and at least one cyanine based moiety. A method of producing a molecular probe includes providing a molecule having a first formula, treating the molecule with HgOAc, and subsequently transmetallizing with AsCl.sub.3. The As is liganded to ethanedithiol to produce a probe having a second formula. A method of labeling a peptide includes providing a peptide comprising a tag sequence and contacting the peptide with a biarsenical molecular probe. A complex is formed comprising the tag sequence and the molecular probe. A method of studying a peptide includes providing a mixture containing a peptide comprising a peptide tag sequence, adding a biarsenical probe to the mixture, and monitoring the fluorescence of the mixture.

  18. A Review of Fluorescent Proteins for Use in Yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialecka-Fornal, Maja; Makushok, Tatyana; Rafelski, Susanne M

    2016-01-01

    The field of fluorescent proteins (FPs) is constantly developing. The use of FPs changed the field of life sciences completely, starting a new era of direct observation and quantification of cellular processes. The broad spectrum of FPs (see Fig. 1) with a wide range of characteristics allows their use in many different experiments. This review discusses the use of FPs for imaging in budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe). The information included in this review is relevant for both species unless stated otherwise.

  19. Menin-MLL inhibitors reverse oncogenic activity of MLL fusion proteins in leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grembecka, Jolanta; He, Shihan; Shi, Aibin; Purohit, Trupta; Muntean, Andrew G; Sorenson, Roderick J; Showalter, Hollis D; Murai, Marcelo J; Belcher, Amalia M; Hartley, Thomas; Hess, Jay L; Cierpicki, Tomasz

    2012-01-29

    Translocations involving the mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) gene result in human acute leukemias with very poor prognosis. The leukemogenic activity of MLL fusion proteins is critically dependent on their direct interaction with menin, a product of the multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN1) gene. Here we present what are to our knowledge the first small-molecule inhibitors of the menin-MLL fusion protein interaction that specifically bind menin with nanomolar affinities. These compounds effectively reverse MLL fusion protein-mediated leukemic transformation by downregulating the expression of target genes required for MLL fusion protein oncogenic activity. They also selectively block proliferation and induce both apoptosis and differentiation of leukemia cells harboring MLL translocations. Identification of these compounds provides a new tool for better understanding MLL-mediated leukemogenesis and represents a new approach for studying the role of menin as an oncogenic cofactor of MLL fusion proteins. Our findings also highlight a new therapeutic strategy for aggressive leukemias with MLL rearrangements.

  20. Cyclin B1 Destruction Box-Mediated Protein Instability: The Enhanced Sensitivity of Fluorescent-Protein-Based Reporter Gene System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Hsun Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The periodic expression and destruction of several cyclins are the most important steps for the exact regulation of cell cycle. Cyclins are degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system during cell cycle. Besides, a short sequence near the N-terminal of cyclin B called the destruction box (D-box; CDB is also required. Fluorescent-protein-based reporter gene system is insensitive to analysis because of the overly stable fluorescent proteins. Therefore, in this study, we use human CDB fused with both enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP at C-terminus and red fluorescent protein (RFP, DsRed at N-terminus in the transfected human melanoma cells to examine the effects of CDB on different fluorescent proteins. Our results indicated that CDB-fused fluorescent protein can be used to examine the slight gene regulations in the reporter gene system and have the potential to be the system for screening of functional compounds in the future.

  1. Distribution and Spectroscopy of Green Fluorescent Protein and Acyl-CoA: Cholesterol Acytransferase in Sf21 Insect Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, R. C.; Mahtani, H.; Lu, X.; Chang, T. Y.; Malak, H.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) is thought to significantly participate in the pathway of cholesterol esterification that underlies the pathology of artherosclerosis. This enzyme is a membrane protein known to be preferentially bound within the endoplasmic reticulum of mammalian cells, from which location it esterifies cholesterol derived from low density lipoprotein. Cultures of insect cells were separately infected with baculovirus containing the gene for green fluroescent protein (GFP) and with baculovirus containing tandem genes for GFP and ACAT. These infected cultures expressed GFP and the fusion protein GCAT, respectively, with maximum expression occurring on the fourth day after infection. Extraction of GFP- and of GCAT-expressing cells with urea and detergent resulted in recovery of fluorescent protein in aqueous solution. Fluorescence spectra at neutral pH were identical for both GFP and GCAT extracts in aqueous solution, indicating unperturbed tertiary structure for the GFP moiety within GCAT. In a cholesterol esterification assay, GCAT demonstrated ACAT activity, but with less efficiency compared to native ACAT. It was hypothesized that the membrane protein ACAT would lead to differences in localization of GCAT compared to GFP within the respective expressing insect cells. The GFP marker directly and also within the fusion protein GCAT was accordingly used as the intracellular probe that was fluorescently analyzed by the new biophotonics technique of hyperspectral imaging. In that technique, fluorescence imaging was obtained from two dimensional arrays of cells, and regions of interest from within those images were then retrospectively analyzed for the emission spectra that comprises the image. Results of hyperspectral imaging of insect cells on day 4 postinfection showed that GCAT was preferentially localized to the cytoplasm of these cells compared to GFP. Furthermore, the emission spectra obtained for the localized GCAT displayed a peak

  2. Chaperone activity of human small heat shock protein-GST fusion proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbach, Hannah; Butler, Caley; McMenimen, Kathryn A

    2017-07-01

    Small heat shock proteins (sHsps) are a ubiquitous part of the machinery that maintains cellular protein homeostasis by acting as molecular chaperones. sHsps bind to and prevent the aggregation of partially folded substrate proteins in an ATP-independent manner. sHsps are dynamic, forming an ensemble of structures from dimers to large oligomers through concentration-dependent equilibrium dissociation. Based on structural studies and mutagenesis experiments, it is proposed that the dimer is the smallest active chaperone unit, while larger oligomers may act as storage depots for sHsps or play additional roles in chaperone function. The complexity and dynamic nature of their structural organization has made elucidation of their chaperone function challenging. HspB1 and HspB5 are two canonical human sHsps that vary in sequence and are expressed in a wide variety of tissues. In order to determine the role of the dimer in chaperone activity, glutathione-S-transferase (GST) was genetically linked as a fusion protein to the N-terminus regions of both HspB1 and HspB5 (also known as Hsp27 and αB-crystallin, respectively) proteins in order to constrain oligomer formation of HspB1 and HspB5, by using GST, since it readily forms a dimeric structure. We monitored the chaperone activity of these fusion proteins, which suggest they primarily form dimers and monomers and function as active molecular chaperones. Furthermore, the two different fusion proteins exhibit different chaperone activity for two model substrate proteins, citrate synthase (CS) and malate dehydrogenase (MDH). GST-HspB1 prevents more aggregation of MDH compared to GST-HspB5 and wild type HspB1. However, when CS is the substrate, both GST-HspB1 and GST-HspB5 are equally effective chaperones. Furthermore, wild type proteins do not display equal activity toward the substrates, suggesting that each sHsp exhibits different substrate specificity. Thus, substrate specificity, as described here for full-length GST

  3. Hue-shifted monomeric variants of Clavularia cyan fluorescent protein: identification of the molecular determinants of color and applications in fluorescence imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidson Michael W

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the 15 years that have passed since the cloning of Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein (avGFP, the expanding set of fluorescent protein (FP variants has become entrenched as an indispensable toolkit for cell biology research. One of the latest additions to the toolkit is monomeric teal FP (mTFP1, a bright and photostable FP derived from Clavularia cyan FP. To gain insight into the molecular basis for the blue-shifted fluorescence emission we undertook a mutagenesis-based study of residues in the immediate environment of the chromophore. We also employed site-directed and random mutagenesis in combination with library screening to create new hues of mTFP1-derived variants with wavelength-shifted excitation and emission spectra. Results Our results demonstrate that the protein-chromophore interactions responsible for blue-shifting the absorbance and emission maxima of mTFP1 operate independently of the chromophore structure. This conclusion is supported by the observation that the Tyr67Trp and Tyr67His mutants of mTFP1 retain a blue-shifted fluorescence emission relative to their avGFP counterparts (that is, Tyr66Trp and Tyr66His. Based on previous work with close homologs, His197 and His163 are likely to be the residues with the greatest contribution towards blue-shifting the fluorescence emission. Indeed we have identified the substitutions His163Met and Thr73Ala that abolish or disrupt the interactions of these residues with the chromophore. The mTFP1-Thr73Ala/His163Met double mutant has an emission peak that is 23 nm red-shifted from that of mTFP1 itself. Directed evolution of this double mutant resulted in the development of mWasabi, a new green fluorescing protein that offers certain advantages over enhanced avGFP (EGFP. To assess the usefulness of mTFP1 and mWasabi in live cell imaging applications, we constructed and imaged more than 20 different fusion proteins. Conclusion Based on the results of our

  4. Elastin-like-polypeptide based fusion proteins for osteogenic factor delivery in bone healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Bryce; Yuan, Yuan; Koria, Piyush

    2016-07-08

    Modern treatments of bone injuries and diseases are becoming increasingly dependent on the usage of growth factors to stimulate bone growth. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), a potent osteogenic inductive protein, exhibits promising results in treatment models, but recently has had its practical efficacy questioned due to the lack of local retention, ectopic bone formation, and potentially lethal inflammation. Where a new delivery technique of the BMP-2 is necessary, here we demonstrate the viability of an elastin-like peptide (ELP) fusion protein containing BMP-2 for delivery of the BMP-2. This fusion protein retains the performance characteristics of both the BMP-2 and ELP. The fusion protein was found to induce osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells as evidenced by the production of alkaline phosphatase and extracellular calcium deposits in response to treatment by the fusion protein. Retention of the ELPs inverse phase transition property has allowed for expression of the fusion protein within a bacterial host (such as Escherichia coli) and easy and rapid purification using inverse transition cycling. The fusion protein formed self-aggregating nanoparticles at human-body temperature. The data collected suggests the viability of these fusion protein nanoparticles as a dosage-efficient and location-precise noncytotoxic delivery vehicle for BMP-2 in bone treatment. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:1029-1037, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  5. Premature activation of the paramyxovirus fusion protein before target cell attachment with corruption of the viral fusion machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzan, Shohreh F; Palermo, Laura M; Yokoyama, Christine C; Orefice, Gianmarco; Fornabaio, Micaela; Sarkar, Aurijit; Kellogg, Glen E; Greengard, Olga; Porotto, Matteo; Moscona, Anne

    2011-11-04

    Paramyxoviruses, including the childhood pathogen human parainfluenza virus type 3, enter host cells by fusion of the viral and target cell membranes. This fusion results from the concerted action of its two envelope glycoproteins, the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and the fusion protein (F). The receptor-bound HN triggers F to undergo conformational changes that render it competent to mediate fusion of the viral and cellular membranes. We proposed that, if the fusion process could be activated prematurely before the virion reaches the target host cell, infection could be prevented. We identified a small molecule that inhibits paramyxovirus entry into target cells and prevents infection. We show here that this compound works by an interaction with HN that results in F-activation prior to receptor binding. The fusion process is thereby prematurely activated, preventing fusion of the viral membrane with target cells and precluding viral entry. This first evidence that activation of a paramyxovirus F can be specifically induced before the virus contacts its target cell suggests a new strategy with broad implications for the design of antiviral agents.

  6. Fluorescent detection of C-reactive protein using polyamide beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadeesh, Shreesha; Chen, Lu; Aitchison, Stewart

    2016-03-01

    Bacterial infection causes Sepsis which is one of the leading cause of mortality in hospitals. This infection can be quantified from blood plasma using C - reactive protein (CRP). A quick diagnosis at the patient's location through Point-of- Care (POC) testing could give doctors the confidence to prescribe antibiotics. In this paper, the development and testing of a bead-based procedure for CRP quantification is described. The size of the beads enable them to be trapped in wells without the need for magnetic methods of immobilization. Large (1.5 mm diameter) Polyamide nylon beads were used as the substrate for capturing CRP from pure analyte samples. The beads captured CRP either directly through adsorption or indirectly by having specific capture antibodies on their surface. Both methods used fluorescent imaging techniques to quantify the protein. The amount of CRP needed to give a sufficient fluorescent signal through direct capture method was found suitable for identifying bacterial causes of infection. Similarly, viral infections could be quantified by the more sensitive indirect capture method. This bead-based assay can be potentially integrated as a disposable cartridge in a POC device due to its passive nature and the small quantities needed.

  7. Osteoinductive recombinant silk fusion proteins for bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinjaski, Nina; Plowright, Robyn; Zhou, Shun; Belton, David J; Perry, Carole C; Kaplan, David L

    2017-02-01

    Protein polymers provide a unique opportunity for tunable designs of material systems due to the genetic basis of sequence control. To address the challenge of biomineralization interfaces with protein based materials, we genetically engineered spider silks to design organic-inorganic hybrid systems. The spider silk inspired domain (SGRGGLGGQG AGAAAAAGGA GQGGYGGLGSQGT) 15 served as an organic scaffold to control material stability and to allow multiple modes of processing, whereas the hydroxyapatite binding domain VTKHLNQISQSY (VTK), provided control over osteogenesis. The VTK domain was fused either to the N-, C- or both terminals of the spider silk domain to understand the effect of position on material properties and mineralization. The addition of the VTK domain to silk did not affect the physical properties of the silk recombinant constructs, but it had a critical role in the induction of biomineralization. When the VTK domain was placed on both the C- and N-termini the formation of crystalline hydroxyapatite was significantly increased. In addition, all of the recombinant proteins in film format supported the growth and proliferation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Importantly, the presence of the VTK domain enhanced osteoinductive properties up to 3-fold compared to the control (silk alone without VTK). Therefore, silk-VTK fusion proteins have been shown suitable for mineralization and functionalization for specific biomedical applications. Organic-inorganic interfaces are integral to biomaterial functions in many areas of repair and regeneration. Several protein polymers have been investigated for this purpose. Despite their success the limited options to fine-tune their material properties, degradation patterns and functionalize them for each specific biomedical application limits their application. Various studies have shown that the biological performance of such proteins can be improved by genetic engineering. The present study provides data

  8. Application of split-green fluorescent protein for topology mapping membrane proteins in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toddo, Stephen; Soderstrom, Bill; Palombo, Isolde

    2012-01-01

    A topology map of a membrane protein defines the location of transmembrane helices and the orientation of soluble domains relative to the membrane. In the absence of a high-resolution structure, a topology map is an essential guide for studying structurefunction relationships. Although these maps....../periplasmic location of the N-terminus of a protein. Here, we show that the bimolecular split-green fluorescent protein complementation system can overcome this limitation and can be used to determine the location of both the N- and C-termini of inner membrane proteins in Escherichia coli....

  9. Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP-Based Overexpression Screening and Characterization of AgrC, a Receptor Protein of Quorum Sensing in Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengdi Fan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus AgrC is an important component of the agr quorum-sensing system. AgrC is a membrane-embedded histidine kinase that is thought to act as a sensor for the recognition of environmental signals and the transduction of signals into the cytoplasm. However, the difficulty of expressing and purifying functional membrane proteins has drastically hindered in-depth understanding of the molecular structures and physiological functions of these proteins. Here, we describe the high-yield expression and purification of AgrC, and analyze its kinase activity. A C-terminal green fluorescent protein (GFP fusion to AgrC served as a reporter for monitoring protein expression levels in real time. Protein expression levels were analyzed by the microscopic assessment of the whole-cell fluorescence. The expressed AgrC-GFP protein with a C-terminal His-tagged was purified using immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC and size exclusion chromatography (SEC at yields of ≥10 mg/L, following optimization. We also assessed the effects of different detergents on membrane solubilization and AgrC kinase activity, and polyoxyethylene-(23-lauryl-ether (Brij-35 was identified as the most suitable detergent. Furthermore, the secondary structural stability of purified AgrC was analyzed using circular dichroism (CD spectroscopy. This study may serve as a general guide for improving the yields of other membrane protein preparations and selecting the appropriate detergent to stabilize membrane proteins for biophysical and biochemical analyses.

  10. Chromophore-protein coupling beyond nonpolarizable models: understanding absorption in green fluorescent protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daday, C.; Curutchet, C.; Sinicropi, A.; Mennucci, B.; Filippi, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    The nature of the coupling of the photoexcited chromophore with the environment in a prototypical system like green fluorescent protein (GFP) is to date not understood, and its description still defies state-of-the-art multiscale approaches. To identify which theoretical framework of the

  11. Fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Mahaffey, James A

    2012-01-01

    As energy problems of the world grow, work toward fusion power continues at a greater pace than ever before. The topic of fusion is one that is often met with the most recognition and interest in the nuclear power arena. Written in clear and jargon-free prose, Fusion explores the big bang of creation to the blackout death of worn-out stars. A brief history of fusion research, beginning with the first tentative theories in the early 20th century, is also discussed, as well as the race for fusion power. This brand-new, full-color resource examines the various programs currently being funded or p

  12. Revealing Surface Waters on an Antifreeze Protein by Fusion Protein Crystallography Combined with Molecular Dynamic Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tianjun; Gauthier, Sherry Y; Campbell, Robert L; Davies, Peter L

    2015-10-08

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) adsorb to ice through an extensive, flat, relatively hydrophobic surface. It has been suggested that this ice-binding site (IBS) organizes surface waters into an ice-like clathrate arrangement that matches and fuses to the quasi-liquid layer on the ice surface. On cooling, these waters join the ice lattice and freeze the AFP to its ligand. Evidence for the generality of this binding mechanism is limited because AFPs tend to crystallize with their IBS as a preferred protein-protein contact surface, which displaces some bound waters. Type III AFP is a 7 kDa globular protein with an IBS made up two adjacent surfaces. In the crystal structure of the most active isoform (QAE1), the part of the IBS that docks to the primary prism plane of ice is partially exposed to solvent and has clathrate waters present that match this plane of ice. The adjacent IBS, which matches the pyramidal plane of ice, is involved in protein-protein crystal contacts with few surface waters. Here we have changed the protein-protein contacts in the ice-binding region by crystallizing a fusion of QAE1 to maltose-binding protein. In this 1.9 Å structure, the IBS that fits the pyramidal plane of ice is exposed to solvent. By combining crystallography data with MD simulations, the surface waters on both sides of the IBS were revealed and match well with the target ice planes. The waters on the pyramidal plane IBS were loosely constrained, which might explain why other isoforms of type III AFP that lack the prism plane IBS are less active than QAE1. The AFP fusion crystallization method can potentially be used to force the exposure to solvent of the IBS on other AFPs to reveal the locations of key surface waters.

  13. Photonic reagents for concentration measurement of flu-orescent proteins with overlapping spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goun, Alexei; Bondar, Denys I.; Er, Ali O.; Quine, Zachary; Rabitz, Herschel A.

    2016-05-01

    By exploiting photonic reagents (i.e., coherent control by shaped laser pulses), we employ Optimal Dynamic Discrimination (ODD) as a novel means for quantitatively characterizing mixtures of fluorescent proteins with a large spectral overlap. To illustrate ODD, we simultaneously measured concentrations of in vitro mixtures of Enhanced Blue Fluorescent Protein (EBFP) and Enhanced Cyan Fluorescent Protein (ECFP). Building on this foundational study, the ultimate goal is to exploit the capabilities of ODD for parallel monitoring of genetic and protein circuits by suppressing the spectral cross-talk among multiple fluorescent reporters.

  14. A SIMPLE FLUORESCENT LABELING METHOD FOR STUDIES OF PROTEIN OXIDATION, PROTEIN MODIFICATION, AND PROTEOLYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Andrew. M.; Davies, Kelvin. J. A.

    2014-01-01

    Proteins are sensitive to oxidation, and oxidized proteins are excellent substrates for degradation by proteolytic enzymes such as the Proteasome and the mitochondrial Lon protease. Protein labeling is required for studies of protein turnover. Unfortunately, most labeling techniques involve 3H or 14C methylation which is expensive, exposes researchers to radioactivity, generates large amounts of radioactive waste, and allows only single-point assays because samples require acid-precipitation. Alternative labeling methods, have largely proven unsuitable, either because the probe itself is modified by the oxidant(s) being studied, or because the alternative labeling techniques are too complex or too costly for routine use. What is needed is a simple, quick, and cheap labeling technique that uses a non-radioactive marker, that binds strongly to proteins, is resistant to oxidative modification, and emits a strong signal. We have devised a new reductive method for labeling free carboxyl groups of proteins with the small fluorophore 7-amino-4-methycoumarin (AMC). When bound to target proteins, AMC fluoresces very weakly but when AMC is released by proteinases, proteases, or peptidases, it fluoresces strongly. Thus, without acid-precipitation, the proteolysis of any target protein can be studied continuously, in multiwell plates. In direct comparisons, 3H-labeled proteins and AMC-labeled proteins exhibited essentially identical degradation patterns during incubation with trypsin, cell extracts, and purified proteasome. AMC-labeled proteins are well-suited to study increased proteolytic susceptibility following protein modification, since the AMC-protein bond is resistant to oxidizing agents such as hydrogen peroxide and peroxynitrite, and is stable over time and to extremes of pH, temperature (even boiling), freeze-thawing, mercaptoethanol, and methanol. PMID:21988844

  15. Flavin mononucleotide (FMN)-based fluorescent protein (FbFP) as reporter for gene expression in the anaerobe Bacteroides fragilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Leandro A; Smith, Charles J; Rocha, Edson R

    2011-04-01

    In this study, we show the expression of flavin mononucleotide-based fluorescent protein (FbFP) BS2 as a marker for gene expression in the opportunistic human anaerobic pathogen Bacteroides fragilis. Bacteroides fragilis 638R strain carrying osu∷bs2 constructs showed inducible fluorescence following addition of maltose anaerobically compared with nonfluorescent cells under glucose-repressed conditions. Bacteria carrying ahpC∷bs2 or dps∷bs2 constructs were fluorescent following induction by oxygen compared with nonfluorescent cells from the anaerobic control cultures. In addition, when these transcriptional fusion constructs were mobilized into B. fragilis IB263, a constitutive peroxide response strain, fluorescent BS2, was detected in both anaerobic and aerobic cultures, confirming the unique properties of the FbFP BS2 to yield fluorescent signal in B. fragilis in the presence and in the absence of oxygen. Moreover, intracellular expression of BS2 was also detected when cell culture monolayers of J774.1 macrophages were incubated with B. fragilis ahpC∷bs2 or dps∷bs2 strains within an anaerobic chamber. This suggests that ahpC and dps are induced following internalization by macrophages. Thus, we show that BS2 is a suitable tool for the detection of gene expression in obligate anaerobic bacteria in in vivo studies. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The fluorescence intensities ratio is not a reliable parameter for evaluation of protein unfolding transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žoldák, Gabriel; Jancura, Daniel; Sedlák, Erik

    2017-06-01

    Monitoring the fluorescence of proteins, particularly the fluorescence of intrinsic tryptophan residues, is a popular method often used in the analysis of unfolding transitions (induced by temperature, chemical denaturant, and pH) in proteins. The tryptophan fluorescence provides several suitable parameters, such as steady-state fluorescence intensity, apparent quantum yield, mean fluorescence lifetime, position of emission maximum that are often utilized for the observation of the conformational/unfolding transitions of proteins. In addition, the fluorescence intensities ratio at different wavelengths (usually at 330 nm and 350 nm) is becoming an increasingly popular parameter for the evaluation of thermal transitions. We show that, under certain conditions, the use of this parameter for the analysis of unfolding transitions leads to the incorrect determination of thermodynamic parameters characterizing unfolding transitions in proteins (e.g., melting temperature) and, hence, can compromise the hit identification during high-throughput drug screening campaigns. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  17. Cell-to-Cell Measles Virus Spread between Human Neurons Is Dependent on Hemagglutinin and Hyperfusogenic Fusion Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yuma; Watanabe, Shumpei; Fukuda, Yoshinari; Hashiguchi, Takao; Yanagi, Yusuke; Ohno, Shinji

    2018-03-15

    Measles virus (MV) usually causes acute infection but in rare cases persists in the brain, resulting in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE). Since human neurons, an important target affected in the disease, do not express the known MV receptors (signaling lymphocyte activation molecule [SLAM] and nectin 4), how MV infects neurons and spreads between them is unknown. Recent studies have shown that many virus strains isolated from SSPE patients possess substitutions in the extracellular domain of the fusion (F) protein which confer enhanced fusion activity. Hyperfusogenic viruses with such mutations, unlike the wild-type MV, can induce cell-cell fusion even in SLAM- and nectin 4-negative cells and spread efficiently in human primary neurons and the brains of animal models. We show here that a hyperfusogenic mutant MV, IC323-F(T461I)-EGFP (IC323 with a fusion-enhancing T461I substitution in the F protein and expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein), but not the wild-type MV, spreads in differentiated NT2 cells, a widely used human neuron model. Confocal time-lapse imaging revealed the cell-to-cell spread of IC323-F(T461I)-EGFP between NT2 neurons without syncytium formation. The production of virus particles was strongly suppressed in NT2 neurons, also supporting cell-to-cell viral transmission. The spread of IC323-F(T461I)-EGFP was inhibited by a fusion inhibitor peptide as well as by some but not all of the anti-hemagglutinin antibodies which neutralize SLAM- or nectin-4-dependent MV infection, suggesting the presence of a distinct neuronal receptor. Our results indicate that MV spreads in a cell-to-cell manner between human neurons without causing syncytium formation and that the spread is dependent on the hyperfusogenic F protein, the hemagglutinin, and the putative neuronal receptor for MV. IMPORTANCE Measles virus (MV), in rare cases, persists in the human central nervous system (CNS) and causes subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) several

  18. Nanoparticle-Fusion Protein Complexes Protect against Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Peter; Copland, Alastair; Diogo, Gil Reynolds; Harris, Shane; Spallek, Ralf; Oehlmann, Wulf; Singh, Mahavir; Basile, Juan; Rottenberg, Martin; Paul, Matthew John; Reljic, Rajko

    2018-03-07

    Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death from infectious disease, and the current vaccine, Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), is inadequate. Nanoparticles (NPs) are an emerging vaccine technology, with recent successes in oncology and infectious diseases. NPs have been exploited as antigen delivery systems and also for their adjuvantic properties. However, the mechanisms underlying their immunological activity remain obscure. Here, we developed a novel mucosal TB vaccine (Nano-FP1) based upon yellow carnauba wax NPs (YC-NPs), coated with a fusion protein consisting of three Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) antigens: Acr, Ag85B, and HBHA. Mucosal immunization of BCG-primed mice with Nano-FP1 significantly enhanced protection in animals challenged with low-dose, aerosolized Mtb. Bacterial control by Nano-FP1 was associated with dramatically enhanced cellular immunity compared to BCG, including superior CD4 + and CD8 + T cell proliferation, tissue-resident memory T cell (Trm) seeding in the lungs, and cytokine polyfunctionality. Alongside these effects, we also observed potent humoral responses, such as the generation of Ag85B-specific serum IgG and respiratory IgA. Finally, we found that YC-NPs were able to activate antigen-presenting cells via an unconventional IRF-3-associated activation signature, without the production of potentially harmful inflammatory mediators, providing a mechanistic framework for vaccine efficacy and future development. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Role of protein disulfide isomerase and other thiol-reactive proteins in HIV-1 envelope protein-mediated fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou Wu; Silver, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    Cell-surface protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) has been proposed to promote disulfide bond rearrangements in HIV-1 envelope protein (Env) that accompany Env-mediated fusion. We evaluated the role of PDI in ways that have not been previously tested by downregulating PDI with siRNA and by overexpressing wild-type or variant forms of PDI in transiently and stably transfected cells. These manipulations, as well as treatment with anti-PDI antibodies, had only small effects on infection or cell fusion mediated by NL4-3 or AD8 strains of HIV-1. However, the cell-surface thiol-reactive reagent 5, 5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB) had a much stronger inhibitory effect in our system, suggesting that cell-surface thiol-containing molecules other than PDI, acting alone or in concert, have a greater effect than PDI on HIV-1 Env-mediated fusion. We evaluated one such candidate, thioredoxin, a PDI family member reported to reduce a labile disulfide bond in CD4. We found that the ability of thioredoxin to reduce the disulfide bond in CD4 is enhanced in the presence of HIV-1 Env gp120 and that thioredoxin also reduces disulfide bonds in gp120 directly in the absence of CD4. We discuss the implications of these observations for identification of molecules involved in disulfide rearrangements in Env during fusion

  20. Expression of cholera toxin B–proinsulin fusion protein in lettuce and tobacco chloroplasts – oral administration protects against development of insulitis in non-obese diabetic mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ruhlman, Tracey; Ahangari, Raheleh; Devine, Andrew; Samsam, Mohtahsem; Daniell, Henry

    2007-01-01

    Lettuce and tobacco chloroplast transgenic lines expressing the cholera toxin B subunit–human proinsulin (CTB-Pins) fusion protein were generated. CTB-Pins accumulated up to ~16% of total soluble protein (TSP) in tobacco and up to ~2.5% of TSP in lettuce. Eight milligrams of powdered tobacco leaf material expressing CTB-Pins or, as negative controls, CTB–green fluorescent protein (CTB-GFP) or interferon–GFP (IFN-GFP), or untransformed leaf, were administered orally, each week for 7 weeks, to ...

  1. The fluorescence theatre: a cost-effective device using theatre gels for fluorescent protein and dye screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heil, John R; Nordeste, Ricardo F; Charles, Trevor C

    2011-04-01

    Here we report a simple cost-effective device for screening colonies on plates for expression of the monomeric red fluorescent protein mRFP1 and the fluorescent dye Nile red. This device can be built from any simple light source, in our case a Quebec Colony Counter, and cost-effective theatre gels. The device can be assembled in as little as 20 min, and it produces excellent results when screening a large number of colonies.

  2. Structural Transition and Antibody Binding of EBOV GP and ZIKV E Proteins from Pre-Fusion to Fusion-Initiation State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lappala

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Membrane fusion proteins are responsible for viral entry into host cells—a crucial first step in viral infection. These proteins undergo large conformational changes from pre-fusion to fusion-initiation structures, and, despite differences in viral genomes and disease etiology, many fusion proteins are arranged as trimers. Structural information for both pre-fusion and fusion-initiation states is critical for understanding virus neutralization by the host immune system. In the case of Ebola virus glycoprotein (EBOV GP and Zika virus envelope protein (ZIKV E, pre-fusion state structures have been identified experimentally, but only partial structures of fusion-initiation states have been described. While the fusion-initiation structure is in an energetically unfavorable state that is difficult to solve experimentally, the existing structural information combined with computational approaches enabled the modeling of fusion-initiation state structures of both proteins. These structural models provide an improved understanding of four different neutralizing antibodies in the prevention of viral host entry.

  3. Picosecond Fluorescence Dynamics of Tryptophan and 5-Fluorotryptophan in Monellin : Slow Water-Protein Relaxation Unmasked

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Jianhua; Chen, Binbin; Callis, Patrik Robert; Muiño, Pedro L; Rozeboom, Henriette J; Broos, Jaap; Toptygin, Dmitri; Brand, Ludwig; Knutson, Jay R

    2015-01-01

    Time Dependent Fluorescence Stokes (emission wavelength) Shifts (TDFSS) from tryptophan (Trp) following sub-picosecond excitation are increasingly used to investigate protein dynamics, most recently enabling active research interest into water dynamics near the surface of proteins. Unlike many

  4. Fluorescent proteins such as eGFP lead to catalytic oxidative stress in cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganini, Douglas; Leinisch, Fabian; Kumar, Ashutosh; Jiang, JinJie; Tokar, Erik J; Malone, Christine C; Petrovich, Robert M; Mason, Ronald P

    2017-08-01

    Fluorescent proteins are an important tool that has become omnipresent in life sciences research. They are frequently used for localization of proteins and monitoring of cells [1,2]. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) was the first and has been the most used fluorescent protein. Enhanced GFP (eGFP) was optimized from wild-type GFP for increased fluorescence yield and improved expression in mammalian systems [3]. Many GFP-like fluorescent proteins have been discovered, optimized or created, such as the red fluorescent protein TagRFP [4]. Fluorescent proteins are expressed colorless and immature and, for eGFP, the conversion to the fluorescent form, mature, is known to produce one equivalent of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) per molecule of chromophore [5,6]. Even though it has been proposed that this process is non-catalytic and generates nontoxic levels of H 2 O 2 [6], this study investigates the role of fluorescent proteins in generating free radicals and inducing oxidative stress in biological systems. Immature eGFP and TagRFP catalytically generate the free radical superoxide anion (O 2 •- ) and H 2 O 2 in the presence of NADH. Generation of the free radical O 2 •- and H 2 O 2 by eGFP in the presence of NADH affects the gene expression of cells. Many biological pathways are altered, such as a decrease in HIF1α stabilization and activity. The biological pathways altered by eGFP are known to be implicated in the pathophysiology of many diseases associated with oxidative stress; therefore, it is critical that such experiments using fluorescent proteins are validated with alternative methodologies and the results are carefully interpreted. Since cells inevitably experience oxidative stress when fluorescent proteins are expressed, the use of this tool for cell labeling and in vivo cell tracing also requires validation using alternative methodologies. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Fusion peptides from oncogenic chimeric proteins as putative specific biomarkers of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, Kevin P; Basrur, Venkatesha; Rolland, Delphine; Wolfe, Thomas; Nesvizhskii, Alexey I; MacCoss, Michael J; Lim, Megan S; Elenitoba-Johnson, Kojo S J

    2013-10-01

    Chromosomal translocations encoding chimeric fusion proteins constitute one of the most common mechanisms underlying oncogenic transformation in human cancer. Fusion peptides resulting from such oncogenic chimeric fusions, though unique to specific cancer subtypes, are unexplored as cancer biomarkers. Here we show, using an approach termed fusion peptide multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry, the direct identification of different cancer-specific fusion peptides arising from protein chimeras that are generated from the juxtaposition of heterologous genes fused by recurrent chromosomal translocations. Using fusion peptide multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry in a clinically relevant scenario, we demonstrate the specific, sensitive, and unambiguous detection of a specific diagnostic fusion peptide in clinical samples of anaplastic large cell lymphoma, but not in a diverse array of benign lymph nodes or other forms of primary malignant lymphomas and cancer-derived cell lines. Our studies highlight the utility of fusion peptides as cancer biomarkers and carry broad implications for the use of protein biomarkers in cancer detection and monitoring.

  6. Developing Fast Fluorescent Protein Voltage Sensors by Optimizing FRET Interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uhna Sung

    Full Text Available FRET (Förster Resonance Energy Transfer-based protein voltage sensors can be useful for monitoring neuronal activity in vivo because the ratio of signals between the donor and acceptor pair reduces common sources of noise such as heart beat artifacts. We improved the performance of FRET based genetically encoded Fluorescent Protein (FP voltage sensors by optimizing the location of donor and acceptor FPs flanking the voltage sensitive domain of the Ciona intestinalis voltage sensitive phosphatase. First, we created 39 different "Nabi1" constructs by positioning the donor FP, UKG, at 8 different locations downstream of the voltage-sensing domain and the acceptor FP, mKO, at 6 positions upstream. Several of these combinations resulted in large voltage dependent signals and relatively fast kinetics. Nabi1 probes responded with signal size up to 11% ΔF/F for a 100 mV depolarization and fast response time constants both for signal activation (~2 ms and signal decay (~3 ms. We improved expression in neuronal cells by replacing the mKO and UKG FRET pair with Clover (donor FP and mRuby2 (acceptor FP to create Nabi2 probes. Nabi2 probes also had large signals and relatively fast time constants in HEK293 cells. In primary neuronal culture, a Nabi2 probe was able to differentiate individual action potentials at 45 Hz.

  7. Some secrets of fluorescent proteins: distinct bleaching in various mounting fluids and photoactivation of cyan fluorescent proteins at YFP-excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkani, Naila; Schmid, Johannes A

    2011-04-07

    The use of spectrally distinct variants of green fluorescent protein (GFP) such as cyan or yellow mutants (CFP and YFP, respectively) is very common in all different fields of life sciences, e.g. for marking specific proteins or cells or to determine protein interactions. In the latter case, the quantum physical phenomenon of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) is exploited by specific microscopy techniques to visualize proximity of proteins. When we applied a commonly used FRET microscopy technique--the increase in donor (CFP)-fluorescence after bleaching of acceptor fluorophores (YFP), we obtained good signals in live cells, but very weak signals for the same samples after fixation and mounting in commercial microscopy mounting fluids. This observation could be traced back to much faster bleaching of CFP in these mounting media. Strikingly, the opposite effect of the mounting fluid was observed for YFP and also for other proteins such as Cerulean, TFP or Venus. The changes in photostability of CFP and YFP were not caused by the fixation but directly dependent on the mounting fluid. Furthermore we made the interesting observation that the CFP-fluorescence intensity increases by about 10-15% after illumination at the YFP-excitation wavelength--a phenomenon, which was also observed for Cerulean. This photoactivation of cyan fluorescent proteins at the YFP-excitation can cause false-positive signals in the FRET-microscopy technique that is based on bleaching of a yellow FRET acceptor. Our results show that photostability of fluorescent proteins differs significantly for various media and that CFP bleaches significantly faster in commercial mounting fluids, while the opposite is observed for YFP and some other proteins. Moreover, we show that the FRET microscopy technique that is based on bleaching of the YFP is prone to artifacts due to photoactivation of cyan fluorescent proteins under these conditions.

  8. Mass spectrometry based approach for identification and characterisation of fluorescent proteins from marine organisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wojdyla, Katarzyna Iwona; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Wrzesinski, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    We present here a new analytical strategy for identification and characterisation of fluorescent proteins from marine organisms. By applying basic proteomics tools it is possible to screen large sample collections for fluorescent proteins of desired characteristics prior to gene cloning. Our...

  9. Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) as a reporter gene for the plant pathogenic oomycete Phytophthora ramorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marko Riedel; Gautier Calmin; Lassaad Belbahri; Francois Lefort; Monika Gotz; Stefan Wagner; Sabine. Werres

    2009-01-01

    Transgenic Phytophthora ramorum strains that produce green fluorescent protein (GFP) constitutively were obtained after stable DNA integration using a polyethylene glycol and CaCl2-based transformation protocol. Green fluorescent protein production was studied in developing colonies and in different propagules of the pathogen...

  10. A Geometric Dictionary Learning Based Approach for Fluorescence Spectroscopy Image Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Zhiqin Zhu; Guanqiu Qi; Yi Chai; Penghua Li

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, sparse representation approaches have been integrated into multi-focus image fusion methods. The fused images of sparse-representation-based image fusion methods show great performance. Constructing an informative dictionary is a key step for sparsity-based image fusion method. In order to ensure sufficient number of useful bases for sparse representation in the process of informative dictionary construction, image patches from all source images are classified into different ...

  11. Development of a reverse genetics system to generate a recombinant Ebola virus Makona expressing a green fluorescent protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albariño, César G., E-mail: calbarino@cdc.gov; Wiggleton Guerrero, Lisa; Lo, Michael K.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Towner, Jonathan S.

    2015-10-15

    Previous studies have demonstrated the potential application of reverse genetics technology in studying a broad range of aspects of viral biology, including gene regulation, protein function, cell entry, and pathogenesis. Here, we describe a highly efficient reverse genetics system used to generate recombinant Ebola virus (EBOV) based on a recent isolate from a human patient infected during the 2014–2015 outbreak in Western Africa. We also rescued a recombinant EBOV expressing a fluorescent reporter protein from a cleaved VP40 protein fusion. Using this virus and an inexpensive method to quantitate the expression of the foreign gene, we demonstrate its potential usefulness as a tool for screening antiviral compounds and measuring neutralizing antibodies. - Highlights: • Recombinant Ebola virus (EBOV) derived from Makona variant was rescued. • New protocol for viral rescue allows 100% efficiency. • Modified EBOV expresses a green fluorescent protein from a VP40-fused protein. • Modified EBOV was tested as tool to screen antiviral compounds and measure neutralizing antibodies.

  12. Development of a reverse genetics system to generate a recombinant Ebola virus Makona expressing a green fluorescent protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albariño, César G.; Wiggleton Guerrero, Lisa; Lo, Michael K.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Towner, Jonathan S.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the potential application of reverse genetics technology in studying a broad range of aspects of viral biology, including gene regulation, protein function, cell entry, and pathogenesis. Here, we describe a highly efficient reverse genetics system used to generate recombinant Ebola virus (EBOV) based on a recent isolate from a human patient infected during the 2014–2015 outbreak in Western Africa. We also rescued a recombinant EBOV expressing a fluorescent reporter protein from a cleaved VP40 protein fusion. Using this virus and an inexpensive method to quantitate the expression of the foreign gene, we demonstrate its potential usefulness as a tool for screening antiviral compounds and measuring neutralizing antibodies. - Highlights: • Recombinant Ebola virus (EBOV) derived from Makona variant was rescued. • New protocol for viral rescue allows 100% efficiency. • Modified EBOV expresses a green fluorescent protein from a VP40-fused protein. • Modified EBOV was tested as tool to screen antiviral compounds and measure neutralizing antibodies

  13. Chromophore photophysics and dynamics in fluorescent proteins of the GFP family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nienhaus, Karin; Nienhaus, G Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Proteins of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) family are indispensable for fluorescence imaging experiments in the life sciences, particularly of living specimens. Their essential role as genetically encoded fluorescence markers has motivated many researchers over the last 20 years to further advance and optimize these proteins by using protein engineering. Amino acids can be exchanged by site-specific mutagenesis, starting with naturally occurring proteins as templates. Optical properties of the fluorescent chromophore are strongly tuned by the surrounding protein environment, and a targeted modification of chromophore-protein interactions requires a profound knowledge of the underlying photophysics and photochemistry, which has by now been well established from a large number of structural and spectroscopic experiments and molecular-mechanical and quantum-mechanical computations on many variants of fluorescent proteins. Nevertheless, such rational engineering often does not meet with success and thus is complemented by random mutagenesis and selection based on the optical properties. In this topical review, we present an overview of the key structural and spectroscopic properties of fluorescent proteins. We address protein-chromophore interactions that govern ground state optical properties as well as processes occurring in the electronically excited state. Special emphasis is placed on photoactivation of fluorescent proteins. These light-induced reactions result in large structural changes that drastically alter the fluorescence properties of the protein, which enables some of the most exciting applications, including single particle tracking, pulse chase imaging and super-resolution imaging. We also present a few examples of fluorescent protein application in live-cell imaging experiments. (topical review)

  14. Chromophore photophysics and dynamics in fluorescent proteins of the GFP family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nienhaus, Karin; Nienhaus, G. Ulrich

    2016-11-01

    Proteins of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) family are indispensable for fluorescence imaging experiments in the life sciences, particularly of living specimens. Their essential role as genetically encoded fluorescence markers has motivated many researchers over the last 20 years to further advance and optimize these proteins by using protein engineering. Amino acids can be exchanged by site-specific mutagenesis, starting with naturally occurring proteins as templates. Optical properties of the fluorescent chromophore are strongly tuned by the surrounding protein environment, and a targeted modification of chromophore-protein interactions requires a profound knowledge of the underlying photophysics and photochemistry, which has by now been well established from a large number of structural and spectroscopic experiments and molecular-mechanical and quantum-mechanical computations on many variants of fluorescent proteins. Nevertheless, such rational engineering often does not meet with success and thus is complemented by random mutagenesis and selection based on the optical properties. In this topical review, we present an overview of the key structural and spectroscopic properties of fluorescent proteins. We address protein-chromophore interactions that govern ground state optical properties as well as processes occurring in the electronically excited state. Special emphasis is placed on photoactivation of fluorescent proteins. These light-induced reactions result in large structural changes that drastically alter the fluorescence properties of the protein, which enables some of the most exciting applications, including single particle tracking, pulse chase imaging and super-resolution imaging. We also present a few examples of fluorescent protein application in live-cell imaging experiments.

  15. Escherichia coli fusion carrier proteins act as solubilizing agents for recombinant uncoupling protein 1 through interactions with GroEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douette, Pierre; Navet, Rachel; Gerkens, Pascal; Galleni, Moreno; Levy, Daniel; Sluse, Francis E.

    2005-01-01

    Fusing recombinant proteins to highly soluble partners is frequently used to prevent aggregation of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli. Moreover, co-overexpression of prokaryotic chaperones can increase the amount of properly folded recombinant proteins. To understand the solubility enhancement of fusion proteins, we designed two recombinant proteins composed of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), a mitochondrial membrane protein, in fusion with MBP or NusA. We were able to express soluble forms of MBP-UCP1 and NusA-UCP1 despite the high hydrophobicity of UCP1. Furthermore, the yield of soluble fusion proteins depended on co-overexpression of GroEL that catalyzes folding of polypeptides. MBP-UCP1 was expressed in the form of a non-covalent complex with GroEL. MBP-UCP1/GroEL was purified and characterized by dynamic light scattering, gel filtration, and electron microscopy. Our findings suggest that MBP and NusA act as solubilizing agents by forcing the recombinant protein to pass through the bacterial chaperone pathway in the context of fusion protein

  16. The TIP30 protein complex, arachidonic acid and coenzyme A are required for vesicle membrane fusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengliang Zhang

    Full Text Available Efficient membrane fusion has been successfully mimicked in vitro using artificial membranes and a number of cellular proteins that are currently known to participate in membrane fusion. However, these proteins are not sufficient to promote efficient fusion between biological membranes, indicating that critical fusogenic factors remain unidentified. We have recently identified a TIP30 protein complex containing TIP30, acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 4 (ACSL4 and Endophilin B1 (Endo B1 that promotes the fusion of endocytic vesicles with Rab5a vesicles, which transport endosomal acidification enzymes vacuolar (H⁺-ATPases (V-ATPases to the early endosomes in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that the TIP30 protein complex facilitates the fusion of endocytic vesicles with Rab5a vesicles in vitro. Fusion of the two vesicles also depends on arachidonic acid, coenzyme A and the synthesis of arachidonyl-CoA by ACSL4. Moreover, the TIP30 complex is able to transfer arachidonyl groups onto phosphatidic acid (PA, producing a new lipid species that is capable of inducing close contact between membranes. Together, our data suggest that the TIP30 complex facilitates biological membrane fusion through modification of PA on membranes.

  17. Biotechnological Fluorescent Ligands of the Bradykinin B1 Receptor: Protein Ligands for a Peptide Receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Charest-Morin

    Full Text Available The bradykinin (BK B1 receptor (B1R is a peculiar G protein coupled receptor that is strongly regulated to the point of being inducible in immunopathology. Limited clinical evidence suggests that its expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells is a biomarker of active inflammatory states. In an effort to develop a novel imaging/diagnostic tool, we report the rational design and testing of a fusion protein that is a ligand of the human B1R but not likely to label peptidases. This ligand is composed of a fluorescent protein (FP (enhanced green FP [EGFP] or mCherry prolonged at its N-terminus by a spacer peptide and a classical peptide agonist or antagonist (des-Arg9-BK, [Leu8]des-Arg9-BK, respectively. The design of the spacer-ligand joint peptide was validated by a competition assay for [3H]Lys-des-Arg9-BK binding to the human B1R applied to 4 synthetic peptides of 18 or 19 residues. The labeling of B1R-expressing cells with EGFP or mCherry fused with 7 of such peptides was performed in parallel (microscopy. Both assays indicated that the best design was FP-(Asn-Glyn-Lys-des-Arg9-BK; n = 15 was superior to n = 5, suggesting benefits from minimizing steric hindrance between the FP and the receptor. Cell labeling concerned mostly plasma membranes and was inhibited by a B1R antagonist. EGFP-(Asn-Gly15-Lys-des-Arg9-BK competed for the binding of [3H]Lys-des-Arg9-BK to human recombinant B1R, being only 10-fold less potent than the unlabeled form of Lys-des-Arg9-BK to do so. The fusion protein did not label HEK 293a cells expressing recombinant human BK B2 receptors or angiotensin converting enzyme. This study identifies a modular C-terminal sequence that can be adapted to protein cargoes, conferring high affinity for the BK B1R, with possible applications in diagnostic cytofluorometry, histology and drug delivery (e.g., in oncology.

  18. Comparative assessment of fluorescent proteins for in vivo imaging in an animal model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heppert, Jennifer K; Dickinson, Daniel J; Pani, Ariel M; Higgins, Christopher D; Steward, Annette; Ahringer, Julie; Kuhn, Jeffrey R; Goldstein, Bob

    2016-11-07

    Fluorescent protein tags are fundamental tools used to visualize gene products and analyze their dynamics in vivo. Recent advances in genome editing have expedited the precise insertion of fluorescent protein tags into the genomes of diverse organisms. These advances expand the potential of in vivo imaging experiments and facilitate experimentation with new, bright, photostable fluorescent proteins. Most quantitative comparisons of the brightness and photostability of different fluorescent proteins have been made in vitro, removed from biological variables that govern their performance in cells or organisms. To address the gap, we quantitatively assessed fluorescent protein properties in vivo in an animal model system. We generated transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans strains expressing green, yellow, or red fluorescent proteins in embryos and imaged embryos expressing different fluorescent proteins under the same conditions for direct comparison. We found that mNeonGreen was not as bright in vivo as predicted based on in vitro data but is a better tag than GFP for specific kinds of experiments, and we report on optimal red fluorescent proteins. These results identify ideal fluorescent proteins for imaging in vivo in C. elegans embryos and suggest good candidate fluorescent proteins to test in other animal model systems for in vivo imaging experiments. © 2016 Heppert et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  19. Rapamycin-induced oligomer formation system of FRB-FKBP fusion proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inobe, Tomonao; Nukina, Nobuyuki

    2016-07-01

    Most proteins form larger protein complexes and perform multiple functions in the cell. Thus, artificial regulation of protein complex formation controls the cellular functions that involve protein complexes. Although several artificial dimerization systems have already been used for numerous applications in biomedical research, cellular protein complexes form not only simple dimers but also larger oligomers. In this study, we showed that fusion proteins comprising the induced heterodimer formation proteins FRB and FKBP formed various oligomers upon addition of rapamycin. By adjusting the configuration of fusion proteins, we succeeded in generating an inducible tetramer formation system. Proteins of interest also formed tetramers by fusing to the inducible tetramer formation system, which exhibits its utility in a broad range of biological applications. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies specific for the six-helix bundle of the human respiratory syncytial virus fusion glycoprotein as probes of the protein post-fusion conformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palomo, Concepción; Mas, Vicente; Vázquez, Mónica; Cano, Olga; Luque, Daniel; Terrón, María C.; Calder, Lesley J.; Melero, José A.

    2014-01-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) has two major surface glycoproteins (G and F) anchored in the lipid envelope. Membrane fusion promoted by hRSV F occurs via refolding from a pre-fusion form to a highly stable post-fusion state involving large conformational changes of the F trimer. One of these changes results in assembly of two heptad repeat sequences (HRA and HRB) into a six-helix bundle (6HB) motif. To assist in distinguishing pre- and post-fusion conformations of hRSV F , we have prepared polyclonal (α-6HB) and monoclonal (R145) rabbit antibodies specific for the 6HB. Among other applications, these antibodies were used to explore the requirements of 6HB formation by isolated protein segments or peptides and by truncated mutants of the F protein. Site-directed mutagenesis and electron microscopy located the R145 epitope in the post-fusion hRSV F at a site distantly located from previously mapped epitopes, extending the repertoire of antibodies that can decorate the F molecule. - Highlights: • Antibodies specific for post-fusion respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein are described. • Polyclonal antibodies were obtained in rabbit inoculated with chimeric heptad repeats. • Antibody binding required assembly of a six-helix bundle in the post-fusion protein. • A monoclonal antibody with similar structural requirements is also described. • Binding of this antibody to the post-fusion protein was visualized by electron microscopy

  1. Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies specific for the six-helix bundle of the human respiratory syncytial virus fusion glycoprotein as probes of the protein post-fusion conformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomo, Concepción; Mas, Vicente; Vázquez, Mónica; Cano, Olga [Unidad de Biología Viral, Centro Nacional de Microbiología, Madrid (Spain); CIBER de Enfermedades Respiratorias, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid (Spain); Luque, Daniel; Terrón, María C. [Unidad de Microscopía Electrónica y Confocal, Centro Nacional de Microbiología, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid (Spain); Calder, Lesley J. [National Institute for Medical Research, MRC, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA (United Kingdom); Melero, José A., E-mail: jmelero@isciii.es [Unidad de Biología Viral, Centro Nacional de Microbiología, Madrid (Spain); CIBER de Enfermedades Respiratorias, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-07-15

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) has two major surface glycoproteins (G and F) anchored in the lipid envelope. Membrane fusion promoted by hRSV{sub F} occurs via refolding from a pre-fusion form to a highly stable post-fusion state involving large conformational changes of the F trimer. One of these changes results in assembly of two heptad repeat sequences (HRA and HRB) into a six-helix bundle (6HB) motif. To assist in distinguishing pre- and post-fusion conformations of hRSV{sub F}, we have prepared polyclonal (α-6HB) and monoclonal (R145) rabbit antibodies specific for the 6HB. Among other applications, these antibodies were used to explore the requirements of 6HB formation by isolated protein segments or peptides and by truncated mutants of the F protein. Site-directed mutagenesis and electron microscopy located the R145 epitope in the post-fusion hRSV{sub F} at a site distantly located from previously mapped epitopes, extending the repertoire of antibodies that can decorate the F molecule. - Highlights: • Antibodies specific for post-fusion respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein are described. • Polyclonal antibodies were obtained in rabbit inoculated with chimeric heptad repeats. • Antibody binding required assembly of a six-helix bundle in the post-fusion protein. • A monoclonal antibody with similar structural requirements is also described. • Binding of this antibody to the post-fusion protein was visualized by electron microscopy.

  2. Mycobacterium tuberculosis HspX/EsxS Fusion Protein: Gene Cloning, Protein Expression, and Purification in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khademi, Farzad; Yousefi-Avarvand, Arshid; Derakhshan, Mohammad; Meshkat, Zahra; Tafaghodi, Mohsen; Ghazvini, Kiarash; Aryan, Ehsan; Sankian, Mojtaba

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to clone, express, and purify a novel multidomain fusion protein of Micobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in a prokaryotic system. An hspX/esxS gene construct was synthesized and ligated into a pGH plasmid, E. coli TOP10 cells were transformed, and the vector was purified. The vector containing the construct and pET-21b (+) plasmid were digested with the same enzymes and the construct was ligated into pET-21b (+). The accuracy of cloning was confirmed by colony PCR and sequencing. E. coli BL21 cells were transformed with the pET-21b (+)/hspX/esxS expression vector and protein expression was evaluated. Finally, the expressed fusion protein was purified on a Ni-IDA column and verified by SDS-PAGE and western blotting. The hspX/esxS gene construct was inserted into pET-21b (+) and recombinant protein expression was induced with IPTG in E. coli BL21 cells. Various concentrations of IPTG were tested to determine the optimum concentration for expression induction. The recombinant protein was expressed in insoluble inclusion bodies. Three molar guanidine HCl was used to solubilize the insoluble protein. An HspX/EsxS Mtb fusion protein was expressed in E. coli and the recombinant protein was purified. After immunological analysis, the HspX/EsxS fusion protein might be an anti-tuberculosis vaccine candidate in future clinical trial studies.

  3. In vivo imaging of brain ischemia using an oxygen-dependent degradative fusion protein probe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youshi Fujita

    Full Text Available Within the ischemic penumbra, blood flow is sufficiently reduced that it results in hypoxia severe enough to arrest physiological function. Nevertheless, it has been shown that cells present within this region can be rescued and resuscitated by restoring perfusion and through other protective therapies. Thus, the early detection of the ischemic penumbra can be exploited to improve outcomes after focal ischemia. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1 is a transcription factor induced by a reduction in molecular oxygen levels. Although the role of HIF-1 in the ischemic penumbra remains unknown, there is a strong correlation between areas with HIF-1 activity and the ischemic penumbra. We recently developed a near-infrared fluorescently labeled-fusion protein, POH-N, with an oxygen-dependent degradation property identical to the alpha subunit of HIF-1. Here, we conduct in vivo imaging of HIF-active regions using POH-N in ischemic brains after transient focal cerebral ischemia induced using the intraluminal middle cerebral artery occlusion technique in mice. The results demonstrate that POH-N enables the in vivo monitoring and ex vivo detection of HIF-1-active regions after ischemic brain injury and suggest its potential in imaging and drug delivery to HIF-1-active areas in ischemic brains.

  4. Construction and characterization of stable, constitutively expressed, chromosomal green and red fluorescent transcriptional fusions in the select agents, Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, Burkholderia mallei, and Burkholderia pseudomallei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shengchang; Bangar, Hansraj; Saldanha, Roland; Pemberton, Adin; Aronow, Bruce; Dean, Gary E; Lamkin, Thomas J; Hassett, Daniel J

    2014-10-01

    Here, we constructed stable, chromosomal, constitutively expressed, green and red fluorescent protein (GFP and RFP) as reporters in the select agents, Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, Burkholderia mallei, and Burkholderia pseudomallei. Using bioinformatic approaches and other experimental analyses, we identified P0253 and P1 as potent promoters that drive the optimal expression of fluorescent reporters in single copy in B. anthracis and Burkholderia spp. as well as their surrogate strains, respectively. In comparison, Y. pestis and its surrogate strain need two chromosomal copies of cysZK promoter (P2cysZK) for optimal fluorescence. The P0253-, P2cysZK-, and P1-driven GFP and RFP fusions were first cloned into the vectors pRP1028, pUC18R6KT-mini-Tn7T-Km, pmini-Tn7-gat, or their derivatives. The resultant constructs were delivered into the respective surrogates and subsequently into the select agent strains. The chromosomal GFP- and RFP-tagged strains exhibited bright fluorescence at an exposure time of less than 200 msec and displayed the same virulence traits as their wild-type parental strains. The utility of the tagged strains was proven by the macrophage infection assays and lactate dehydrogenase release analysis. Such strains will be extremely useful in high-throughput screens for novel compounds that could either kill these organisms, or interfere with critical virulence processes in these important bioweapon agents and during infection of alveolar macrophages. © 2014 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. A fusion-spliced near-field optical fiber probe using photonic crystal fiber for nanoscale thermometry based on fluorescence-lifetime measurement of quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Takuro; Taguchi, Yoshihiro; Saiki, Toshiharu; Nagasaka, Yuji

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a novel nanoscale temperature-measurement method using fluorescence in the near-field called fluorescence near-field optics thermal nanoscopy (Fluor-NOTN). Fluor-NOTN enables the temperature distributions of nanoscale materials to be measured in vivo/in situ. The proposed method measures temperature by detecting the temperature dependent fluorescence lifetimes of Cd/Se quantum dots (QDs). For a high-sensitivity temperature measurement, the auto-fluorescence generated from a fiber probe should be reduced. In order to decrease the noise, we have fabricated a novel near-field optical-fiber probe by fusion-splicing a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) and a conventional single-mode fiber (SMF). The validity of the novel fiber probe was assessed experimentally by evaluating the auto-fluorescence spectra of the PCF. Due to the decrease of auto-fluorescence, a six- to ten-fold increase of S/N in the near-field fluorescence lifetime detection was achieved with the newly fabricated fusion-spliced near-field optical fiber probe. Additionally, the near-field fluorescence lifetime of the quantum dots was successfully measured by the fabricated fusion-spliced near-field optical fiber probe at room temperature, and was estimated to be 10.0 ns.

  6. Expression of Leukemia-Associated Nup98 Fusion Proteins Generates an Aberrant Nuclear Envelope Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrenkrog, Birthe; Martinelli, Valérie; Nilles, Nadine; Fruhmann, Gernot; Chatel, Guillaume; Juge, Sabine; Sauder, Ursula; Di Giacomo, Danika; Mecucci, Cristina; Schwaller, Jürg

    2016-01-01

    Chromosomal translocations involving the nucleoporin NUP98 have been described in several hematopoietic malignancies, in particular acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In the resulting chimeric proteins, Nup98's N-terminal region is fused to the C-terminal region of about 30 different partners, including homeodomain (HD) transcription factors. While transcriptional targets of distinct Nup98 chimeras related to immortalization are relatively well described, little is known about other potential cellular effects of these fusion proteins. By comparing the sub-nuclear localization of a large number of Nup98 fusions with HD and non-HD partners throughout the cell cycle we found that while all Nup98 chimeras were nuclear during interphase, only Nup98-HD fusion proteins exhibited a characteristic speckled appearance. During mitosis, only Nup98-HD fusions were concentrated on chromosomes. Despite the difference in localization, all tested Nup98 chimera provoked morphological alterations in the nuclear envelope (NE), in particular affecting the nuclear lamina and the lamina-associated polypeptide 2α (LAP2α). Importantly, such aberrations were not only observed in transiently transfected HeLa cells but also in mouse bone marrow cells immortalized by Nup98 fusions and in cells derived from leukemia patients harboring Nup98 fusions. Our findings unravel Nup98 fusion-associated NE alterations that may contribute to leukemogenesis.

  7. Green Fluorescent Protein as a Model for Protein Crystal Growth Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agena, Sabine; Smith, Lori; Karr, Laurel; Pusey, Marc

    1998-01-01

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP) from jellyfish Aequorea Victoria has become a popular marker for e.g. mutagenesis work. Its fluorescent property, which originates from a chromophore located in the center of the molecule, makes it widely applicable as a research too]. GFP clones have been produced with a variety of spectral properties, such as blue and yellow emitting species. The protein is a single chain of molecular weight 27 kDa and its structure has been determined at 1.9 Angstrom resolution. The combination of GFP's fluorescent property, the knowledge of its several crystallization conditions, and its increasing use in biophysical and biochemical studies, all led us to consider it as a model material for macromolecular crystal growth studies. Initial preparations of GFP were from E.coli with yields of approximately 5 mg/L of culture media. Current yields are now in the 50 - 120 mg/L range, and we hope to further increase this by expression of the GFP gene in the Pichia system. The results of these efforts and of preliminary crystal growth studies will be presented.

  8. [Effects of redox state of disulfide bonds on the intrinsic fluorescence and denaturation of Trx-fused gibberellin-induced cysteine-rich protein from Gymnadnia conopsea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Teng; Feng, Juan; Li, Yang; Chen, Rui; Tang, Li-Xia; Pang, Xiao-Feng; Ren, Zheng-Long

    2010-02-01

    In the present paper, thioredoxin-fused gibberellin-induced cysteine-rich protein from Gymnadnia conopsea, desigated as Trx-GcGASA and expressed prokaryotically, was purified and identified by using Ni(2+) -NTA affinity chromatography column and SDS-PAGE, and then its intrinsic fluorescence was investigated in the absence and presence of dithiothreitol (DTT), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), peroxide and guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl) by means of steady-state fluorescence spectroscopic methods. It was found that (1) at the neutral pH Trx-GcGASA had maximum fluorescence emission at 305 nm following excitation at different wavelengths varying from 250 to 280 nm, which was ascribed to the fluorescence emission from tyrosine residues. (2) The reduction of disulphide bonds lead to the changes in the relative fluorescence intensity between tyrosine and tryptophan residues from 0.7 to 1.8. (3) Both Tyr and Trp residues underwent 12%-21% decrease in fluorescence intensity with the addition of 0.5 mmol x L(-1) GSSG or 5 mmol x L(-1) peroxide. The latter was roughly consistent with the antioxidative activity reported in vivo. (4) No matter whether 1 mmol x L(-1) DTT was absent or present, the fusion protein could not be fully unfolded with lambda(max) Trx-GcGASA experienced GdnHCl-induced denaturation process, and the unfolding equilibrium curve could be well fitted by using two-state model, giving the Gibbs free energy change (deltaG) of 3.7 kJ x mol(-1). However, it was not the case for reduced Trx-GcGASA protein. The aforementioned experimental results will not only provide some guides to investigate the effects of fusion partner Trx on the unfolding thermodynamics, kinetics and refolding process of Trx-GcGASA, but also will be useful for further studies on the strucuture of GA-induced cysteine-rich protein with the help of spectroscopic methods.

  9. Inference of protein diffusion probed via fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsekouras, Konstantinos

    2015-03-01

    Fluctuations are an inherent part of single molecule or few particle biophysical data sets. Traditionally, ``noise'' fluctuations have been viewed as a nuisance, to be eliminated or minimized. Here we look on how statistical inference methods - that take explicit advantage of fluctuations - have allowed us to draw an unexpected picture of single molecule diffusional dynamics. Our focus is on the diffusion of proteins probed using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). First, we discuss how - in collaboration with the Bustamante and Marqusee labs at UC Berkeley - we determined using FCS data that individual enzymes are perturbed by self-generated catalytic heat (Riedel et al, Nature, 2014). Using the tools of inference, we found how distributions of enzyme diffusion coefficients shift in the presence of substrate revealing that enzymes performing highly exothermic reactions dissipate heat by transiently accelerating their center of mass following a catalytic reaction. Next, when molecules diffuse in the cell nucleus they often appear to diffuse anomalously. We analyze FCS data - in collaboration with Rich Day at the IU Med School - to propose a simple model for transcription factor binding-unbinding in the nucleus to show that it may give rise to apparent anomalous diffusion. Here inference methods extract entire binding affinity distributions for the diffusing transcription factors, allowing us to precisely characterize their interactions with different components of the nuclear environment. From this analysis, we draw key mechanistic insight that goes beyond what is possible by simply fitting data to ``anomalous diffusion'' models.

  10. Hyper-filter-fluorescer spectrometer for fusion x-ray diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    The filter-fluorescer spectrometer (FFS) is a powerful tool for measuring x-ray spectrum from high fluence x-ray sources. However, this technique is limited to energies less than 120 keV, because there are no practical absorption edges available above this energy. In this paper, we present a new method of utilizing the filter-fluorescer system for x-ray spectral measurement above 120 keV. The new apparatus is called hyper-filter-fluorescer spectrometer

  11. Trophoblast cell fusion and differentiation are mediated by both the protein kinase C and a pathways.

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    Waka Omata

    Full Text Available The syncytiotrophoblast of the human placenta is an epithelial barrier that interacts with maternal blood and is a key for the transfer of nutrients and other solutes to the developing fetus. The syncytiotrophoblast is a true syncytium and fusion of progenitor cytotrophoblasts is the cardinal event leading to the formation of this layer. BeWo cells are often used as a surrogate for cytotrophoblasts, since they can be induced to fuse, and then express certain differentiation markers associated with trophoblast syncytialization. Dysferlin, a syncytiotrophoblast membrane repair protein, is up-regulated in BeWo cells induced to fuse by treatment with forskolin; this fusion is thought to occur through cAMP/protein kinase A-dependent mechanisms. We hypothesized that dysferlin may also be up-regulated in response to fusion through other pathways. Here, we show that BeWo cells can also be induced to fuse by treatment with an activator of protein kinase C, and that this fusion is accompanied by increased expression of dysferlin. Moreover, a dramatic synergistic increase in dysferlin expression is observed when both the protein kinase A and protein kinase C pathways are activated in BeWo cells. This synergy in fusion is also accompanied by dramatic increases in mRNA for the placental fusion proteins syncytin 1, syncytin 2, as well as dysferlin. Dysferlin, however, was shown to be dispensable for stimulus-induced BeWo cell syncytialization, since dysferlin knockdown lines fused to the same extent as control cells. The classical trophoblast differentiation marker human chorionic gonadotropin was also monitored and changes in the expression closely parallel that of dysferlin in all of the experimental conditions employed. Thus different biochemical markers of trophoblast fusion behave in concert supporting the hypothesis that activation of both protein kinase C and A pathways lead to trophoblastic differentiation.

  12. Purification of CD47-streptavidin fusion protein from bacterial lysate using biotin-agarose affinity chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Nasrin; Peng, Ching-An

    2016-07-08

    CD47 is a widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that modulates the activity of a plethora of immune cells via its extracellular domain. Therefore, CD47 plays important roles in the regulation of immune responses and may serve as targets for the development of immunotherapeutic agents. To make sure CD47 functionality is intact under the process of protein conjugation, CD47-streptavidin fusion protein was expressed and purified because it can easily bind to biotin-tagged materials via the unique biotin-streptavidin affinity. In this study, gene sequences of CD47 extracellular domain (CD47ECD) and core streptavidin (coreSA) with a total 834 bp were inserted into pET20b plasmid to construct recombinant plasmid encoding CD47-SA fusion gene. After bacteria transformation, the CD47-SA fusion protein was expressed by isopropyl-β-d-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) induction. The collected bacteria lysate was loaded on biotinylated agarose to proceed the purification of CD47-SA fusion protein. Due to the unexpected high affinity between biotin and coreSA, standard washing and elution approaches (e.g., varying pH, using biotin, and applying guanidine hydrochloride) reported for biotin-streptavidin affinity chromatography were not able to separate the target fusion protein. Instead, using low concentration of the non-ionic detergent Triton X-100 followed with alkaline buffer could efficiently weaken the binding between biotin and coreSA, thereby eluting out CD47-SA fusion protein from the biotin agarose column. The purified CD47-SA fusion protein was further characterized by molecular biology methods and its antiphagocytic functionality was confirmed by the phagocytosis assay. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:949-958, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  13. Live cell imaging of interactions between replicase and capsid protein of Brome mosaic virus using Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation: Implications for replication and genome packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaturvedi, Sonali; Rao, A.L.N.

    2014-01-01

    In Brome mosaic virus, it was hypothesized that a physical interaction between viral replicase and capsid protein (CP) is obligatory to confer genome packaging specificity. Here we tested this hypothesis by employing Bimolecular Fluorescent Complementation (BiFC) as a tool for evaluating protein–protein interactions in living cells. The efficacy of BiFC was validated by a known interaction between replicase protein 1a (p1a) and protein 2a (p2a) at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) site of viral replication. Additionally, co-expression in planta of a bona fide pair of interacting protein partners of p1a and p2a had resulted in the assembly of a functional replicase. Subsequent BiFC assays in conjunction with mCherry labeled ER as a fluorescent cellular marker revealed that CP physically interacts with p2a, but not p1a, and this CP:p2a interaction occurs at the cytoplasmic phase of the ER. The significance of the CP:p2a interaction in BMV replication and genome packaging is discussed. - Highlights: • YFP fusion proteins of BMV p1a and p2a are biologically active. • Self-interaction was observed for p1a, p2a and CP. • CP interacts with p2a but not p1a. • Majority of reconstituted YFP resulting from bona fide fusion protein partners localized on ER

  14. Live cell imaging of interactions between replicase and capsid protein of Brome mosaic virus using Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation: Implications for replication and genome packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaturvedi, Sonali; Rao, A.L.N., E-mail: arao@ucr.edu

    2014-09-15

    In Brome mosaic virus, it was hypothesized that a physical interaction between viral replicase and capsid protein (CP) is obligatory to confer genome packaging specificity. Here we tested this hypothesis by employing Bimolecular Fluorescent Complementation (BiFC) as a tool for evaluating protein–protein interactions in living cells. The efficacy of BiFC was validated by a known interaction between replicase protein 1a (p1a) and protein 2a (p2a) at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) site of viral replication. Additionally, co-expression in planta of a bona fide pair of interacting protein partners of p1a and p2a had resulted in the assembly of a functional replicase. Subsequent BiFC assays in conjunction with mCherry labeled ER as a fluorescent cellular marker revealed that CP physically interacts with p2a, but not p1a, and this CP:p2a interaction occurs at the cytoplasmic phase of the ER. The significance of the CP:p2a interaction in BMV replication and genome packaging is discussed. - Highlights: • YFP fusion proteins of BMV p1a and p2a are biologically active. • Self-interaction was observed for p1a, p2a and CP. • CP interacts with p2a but not p1a. • Majority of reconstituted YFP resulting from bona fide fusion protein partners localized on ER.

  15. Small fluorescence-activating and absorption-shifting tag for tunable protein imaging in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plamont, Marie-Aude; Billon-Denis, Emmanuelle; Maurin, Sylvie; Gauron, Carole; Pimenta, Frederico M; Specht, Christian G; Shi, Jian; Quérard, Jérôme; Pan, Buyan; Rossignol, Julien; Moncoq, Karine; Morellet, Nelly; Volovitch, Michel; Lescop, Ewen; Chen, Yong; Triller, Antoine; Vriz, Sophie; Le Saux, Thomas; Jullien, Ludovic; Gautier, Arnaud

    2016-01-19

    This paper presents Yellow Fluorescence-Activating and absorption-Shifting Tag (Y-FAST), a small monomeric protein tag, half as large as the green fluorescent protein, enabling fluorescent labeling of proteins in a reversible and specific manner through the reversible binding and activation of a cell-permeant and nontoxic fluorogenic ligand (a so-called fluorogen). A unique fluorogen activation mechanism based on two spectroscopic changes, increase of fluorescence quantum yield and absorption red shift, provides high labeling selectivity. Y-FAST was engineered from the 14-kDa photoactive yellow protein by directed evolution using yeast display and fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Y-FAST is as bright as common fluorescent proteins, exhibits good photostability, and allows the efficient labeling of proteins in various organelles and hosts. Upon fluorogen binding, fluorescence appears instantaneously, allowing monitoring of rapid processes in near real time. Y-FAST distinguishes itself from other tagging systems because the fluorogen binding is highly dynamic and fully reversible, which enables rapid labeling and unlabeling of proteins by addition and withdrawal of the fluorogen, opening new exciting prospects for the development of multiplexing imaging protocols based on sequential labeling.

  16. Red fluorescent proteins for gene expression and protein localization studies in Streptococcus pneumoniae and efficient transformation with Gibson assembled DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beilharz, Katrin; van Raaphorst, Renske; Kjos, Morten; Veening, Jan-Willem

    2015-01-01

    During the last decades, a wide range of fluorescent proteins (FPs) have been developed and improved. This has had a great impact on the possibilities in biological imaging and the investigation of cellular processes at the single cell level. Recently, we have benchmarked a set of green fluorescent

  17. Synthesis and characterization of novel 2, 2'-bipyrimidine fluorescent derivative for protein binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padalkar Vikas S

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fluorescent dyes with biocompatible functional group and good fluorescence behavior are used as biosensor for monitoring different biological processes as well as detection of protein assay. All reported fluorophore used as sensors are having high selectivity and sensitivity but till there is more demand to synthesized new fluorophore which have improved fluorescence properties and good biocompatibility. Results Novel 4, 4'-(1, 1'-(5-(2-methoxyphenoxy-[2, 2'-bipyrimidine]-4, 6-diylbis(1H-pyrazol-3, 1-diyl dianiline fluorescent dye was synthesized by multistep synthesis from 2-phenylacetonitrile, 2-chloropyrimidine and 2-methoxyphenol. This dye has absorption at 379 nm with intense single emission at 497 nm having fairly good quantum yield (0.375 and Stokes shift. The intermediates and dye were characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and Mass spectral analysis. The pyrazole bipyrimidine based fluorescent dye possessing two amino groups suitable for binding with protein is reported. Its utility as a biocompatible conjugate was explained by conjugation with bovine serum albumin. The method is based on direct fluorescence detection of fluorophore-labelled protein before and after conjugation. Purified fluorescent conjugate was subsequently analyzed by fluorimetry. The analysis showed that the tested conjugation reaction yielded fluorescent conjugates of the dye through carbodiimide chemistry. Conclusion In summery synthesized fluorophore pyrazole-bipyrimidine has very good interaction towards protein bovine serum albumin and it acts as good candidate for protein assay.

  18. Macrophage fusion is controlled by the cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP-PEST/PTPN12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Inmoo; Davidson, Dominique; Souza, Cleiton Martins; Vacher, Jean; Veillette, André

    2013-06-01

    Macrophages can undergo cell-cell fusion, leading to the formation of multinucleated giant cells and osteoclasts. This process is believed to promote the proteolytic activity of macrophages toward pathogens, foreign bodies, and extracellular matrices. Here, we examined the role of PTP-PEST (PTPN12), a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase, in macrophage fusion. Using a macrophage-targeted PTP-PEST-deficient mouse, we determined that PTP-PEST was not needed for macrophage differentiation or cytokine production. However, it was necessary for interleukin-4-induced macrophage fusion into multinucleated giant cells in vitro. It was also needed for macrophage fusion following implantation of a foreign body in vivo. Moreover, in the RAW264.7 macrophage cell line, PTP-PEST was required for receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)-triggered macrophage fusion into osteoclasts. PTP-PEST had no impact on expression of fusion mediators such as β-integrins, E-cadherin, and CD47, which enable macrophages to become fusion competent. However, it was needed for polarization of macrophages, migration induced by the chemokine CC chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), and integrin-induced spreading, three key events in the fusion process. PTP-PEST deficiency resulted in specific hyperphosphorylation of the protein tyrosine kinase Pyk2 and the adaptor paxillin. Moreover, a fusion defect was induced upon treatment of normal macrophages with a Pyk2 inhibitor. Together, these data argue that macrophage fusion is critically dependent on PTP-PEST. This function is seemingly due to the ability of PTP-PEST to control phosphorylation of Pyk2 and paxillin, thereby regulating cell polarization, migration, and spreading.

  19. Site-directed fluorescence labeling of a membrane protein with BADAN: probing protein topology and local environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koehorst, R.B.M.; Spruijt, R.B.; Hemminga, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    We present a new and simple method based on site-directed fluorescence labeling using the BADAN label that allows to examine protein-lipid interactions in great detail. We apply this approach to a membrane-embedded mainly -helical reference protein, the M13 major coat protein, of which in a

  20. Structure of the cleavage-activated prefusion form of the parainfluenza virus 5 fusion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Brett D; Liu, Yuanyuan; Kors, Christopher A; Leser, George P; Jardetzky, Theodore S; Lamb, Robert A

    2012-10-09

    The paramyxovirus parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) enters cells by fusion of the viral envelope with the plasma membrane through the concerted action of the fusion (F) protein and the receptor binding protein hemagglutinin-neuraminidase. The F protein folds initially to form a trimeric metastable prefusion form that is triggered to undergo large-scale irreversible conformational changes to form the trimeric postfusion conformation. It is thought that F refolding couples the energy released with membrane fusion. The F protein is synthesized as a precursor (F0) that must be cleaved by a host protease to form a biologically active molecule, F1,F2. Cleavage of F protein is a prerequisite for fusion and virus infectivity. Cleavage creates a new N terminus on F1 that contains a hydrophobic region, known as the FP, which intercalates target membranes during F protein refolding. The crystal structure of the soluble ectodomain of the uncleaved form of PIV5 F is known; here we report the crystal structure of the cleavage-activated prefusion form of PIV5 F. The structure shows minimal movement of the residues adjacent to the protease cleavage site. Most of the hydrophobic FP residues are buried in the uncleaved F protein, and only F103 at the newly created N terminus becomes more solvent-accessible after cleavage. The conformational freedom of the charged arginine residues that compose the protease recognition site increases on cleavage of F protein.

  1. Rational design of an EGF-IL18 fusion protein: Implication for developing tumor therapeutics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Jianxin; Peng Ying; Meng Zhefeng; Jin Liqin; Lu Yongsui; Guan Minxin

    2005-01-01

    Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a proinflammatory cytokine. This protein has a role in regulating immune responses and exhibits significant anti-tumor activities. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is an important growth factor that plays a central role in the regulation of cell cycle and differentiation. It was proposed that a targeted delivery of IL-18 by generation of IL-18-EGF fusion protein might decrease adverse effects and result in enhancing cytotoxic and antitumor activities. In the present study, a fusion protein, consisting of EGFR binding domain fused to human IL-18 mature peptide via a linker peptide of (Gly 4 Ser) 3, was constructed and expressed in the insect cell line Sf9 using Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system. We showed that the purified recombinant fusion protein induced similar levels of IFN-γ to that of native IL-18 protein in human PBMC in the presence of ConA. Furthermore, EGF receptor competitive test in human epithelial cancer A431 cell line showed that EGF-IL18 fusion protein can specifically bind with EGFR by competing with native EGF protein. These suggest that this rationally designed protein can be further developed as novel tumor therapeutics

  2. [Ph-Sensor Properties of a Fluorescent Protein from Dendronephthya sp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhomov, A A; Chertkova, R V; Martynov, V I

    2015-01-01

    Genetically encoded biosensors based on fluorescent proteins are now widely applicable for monitoring pH changes in live cells. Here, we have shown that a fluorescent protein from Dendronephthya sp. (DendFP) exhibits a pronounced pH-sensitivity. Unlike most of known genetically encoded pH-sensors, fluorescence of the protein is not quenched upon medium acidification, but is shifting from the red to green spectral range. Therefore, quantitative measurements of intracellular pH are feasible by ratiometric comparison of emission intensities in the red and green spectral ranges, which makes DendFP advantageous compared with other genetically encoded pH-sensors.

  3. Identification of a human protein-derived HIV-1 fusion inhibitor targeting the gp41 fusion core structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Chao

    Full Text Available The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env gp41 plays a crucial role in the viral fusion process. The peptides derived from the C-terminal heptad repeat (CHR of gp41 are potent HIV fusion inhibitors. However, the activity of these anti-HIV-1 peptides in vivo may be attenuated by their induction of anti-gp41 antibodies. Thus, it is essential to identify antiviral peptides or proteins with low, or no, immunogenicity to humans. Here, we found that the C-terminal fragment (aa 462-521 of the human POB1 (the partner of RalBP1, designated C60, is an HIV-1 fusion inhibitor. It bound to N36, the peptide derived from the N-terminal heptad repeat (NHR of gp41, and to the six-helix bundle (6-HB formed by N36 and C34, a CHR-peptide, but it did not bind to C34. Unlike the CHR-peptides, C60 did not block gp41 6-HB formation. Rather, results suggest that C60 inhibits HIV-1 fusion by binding to the 6-HB, in particular, the residues in the gp41 NHR domain that are exposed on the surface of 6-HB. Since 6-HB plays a crucial role in the late stage of fusion between the viral envelope and endosomal membrane during the endocytic process of HIV-1, C60 may serve as a host restriction factor to suppress HIV-1 entry into CD4+ T lymphocytes. Taken together, it can be concluded from these results that C60 can be used as a lead for the development of anti-HIV-1 therapeutics or microbicides for the treatment and prevention of HIV-1 infection, as well as a molecular probe to study the fusogenic mechanism of HIV-1.

  4. Antibody-cytokine fusion proteins for improving efficacy and safety of cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valedkarimi, Zahra; Nasiri, Hadi; Aghebati-Maleki, Leili; Majidi, Jafar

    2017-11-01

    Cytokines are key players in the regulation of immune responses both in physiological and pathological states. A number of cytokines have been evaluated in clinical trials and shown promising results in the treatment of different malignancies. Despite this, the clinical application of these molecules may be plagued by undesirable side effects The development of recombinant antibody-cytokine fusion proteins, which offer a means for target delivery of cytokines toward the tumor site, has significantly improved the therapeutic index of these immunomodulatory molecules. Selective tumor localization is provided by the monoclonal antibody component of the fusion protein that binds to the molecules present on the surface of tumor cells or accumulated preferentially in the diseased site. In this manner, the cytokine element is specifically located at the tumor site and can stimulate immune cells with appropriate cytokine receptors. Over the recent years, several antibody-cytokine fusion proteins have been developed with the capacity to target a wide variety of cancers whose application, in some cases, has led to complete rejection of the tumor. These findings support the notion that antibody-cytokine fusion proteins represent huge potential for cancer therapy. This review presents an overview of the advances made in the field of targeted cytokine delivery, which is made possible by genetically engineering antibody-cytokine fusion proteins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. IGF1 is a common target gene of Ewing's sarcoma fusion proteins in mesenchymal progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Cironi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The EWS-FLI-1 fusion protein is associated with 85-90% of Ewing's sarcoma family tumors (ESFT, the remaining 10-15% of cases expressing chimeric genes encoding EWS or FUS fused to one of several ets transcription factor family members, including ERG-1, FEV, ETV1 and ETV6. ESFT are dependent on insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 for growth and survival and recent evidence suggests that mesenchymal progenitor/stem cells constitute a candidate ESFT origin. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To address the functional relatedness between ESFT-associated fusion proteins, we compared mouse progenitor cell (MPC permissiveness for EWS-FLI-1, EWS-ERG and FUS-ERG expression and assessed the corresponding expression profile changes. Whereas all MPC isolates tested could stably express EWS-FLI-1, only some sustained stable EWS-ERG expression and none could express FUS-ERG for more than 3-5 days. Only 14% and 4% of the total number of genes that were respectively induced and repressed in MPCs by the three fusion proteins were shared. However, all three fusion proteins, but neither FLI-1 nor ERG-1 alone, activated the IGF1 promoter and induced IGF1 expression. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Whereas expression of different ESFT-associated fusion proteins may require distinct cellular microenvironments and induce transcriptome changes of limited similarity, IGF1 induction may provide one common mechanism for their implication in ESFT pathogenesis.

  6. Enhanced green fluorescent protein is a nearly ideal long-term expression tracer for hematopoietic stem cells, whereas DsRed-express fluorescent protein is not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Wen; Evans, Barbara-Graham; Yao, Jing; Cooper, Scott; Cornetta, Kenneth; Ballas, Christopher B; Hangoc, Giao; Broxmeyer, Hal E

    2007-03-01

    Validated gene transfer and expression tracers are essential for elucidating functions of mammalian genes. Here, we have determined the suitability and unintended side effects of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and DsRed-Express fluorescent protein as expression tracers in long-term hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Retrovirally transduced mouse bone marrow cells expressing either EGFP or DsRed-Express in single or mixed dual-color cell populations were clearly discerned by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. The results from in vivo competitive repopulation assays demonstrated that EGFP-expressing HSCs were maintained nearly throughout the lifespan of the transplanted mice and retained long-term multilineage repopulating potential. All mice assessed at 15 months post-transplantation were EGFP positive, and, on average, 24% total peripheral white blood cells expressed EGFP. Most EGFP-expressing recipient mice lived at least 22 months. In contrast, Discosoma sp. red fluorescent protein (DsRed)-expressing donor cells dramatically declined in transplant-recipient mice over time, particularly in the competitive setting, in which mixed EGFP- and DsRed-expressing cells were cotransplanted. Moreover, under in vitro culture condition favoring preservation of HSCs, purified EGFP-expressing cells grew robustly, whereas DsRed-expressing cells did not. Therefore, EGFP has no detectable deteriorative effects on HSCs, and is nearly an ideal long-term expression tracer for hematopoietic cells; however, DsRed-Express fluorescent protein is not suitable for these cells.

  7. Egg CD9 protein tides correlated with sperm oscillations tune the gamete fusion ability in mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravaux, Benjamin; Favier, Sophie; Perez, Eric; Gourier, Christine

    2018-01-23

    Mammalian fertilization involves membrane events -adhesion, fusion, sperm engulfment, membrane block to polyspermy- whose causes remain largely unknown. Recently, specific oscillations of the sperm in contact with the egg were shown to be necessary for fusion. Using a microfluidic chip to impose the venue for the encounter of two gametes allowed real-time observation of the membrane remodelling occurring at the sperm/egg interface. The spatiotemporal mapping of egg CD9 revealed that this protein concentrates at the egg/sperm interface as a result of sperm oscillations, until a CD9-rich platform is nucleated on which fusion immediately takes place. Within 2 to 5 minutes after fusion, most of the CD9 leaves the egg for the external aqueous medium. Then an egg membrane wave engulfs the sperm head in approximately 25 minutes. These results show that sperm oscillations initiate the CD9 recruitment that causes gamete fusion after which CD9 and associated proteins leave the membrane in a process likely to contribute to block polyspermy. They highlight that the gamete fusion story in mammals is an unexpected interplay between mechanical constraints and proteins. © The Author(s) (2018). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Journal of Molecular Cell Biology, IBCB, SIBS, CAS. All rights reserved.

  8. A study of the dynamics of PTEN proteins in living cells using in vivo fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhixue; Dong, Chaoqing; Ren, Jicun

    2017-06-01

    PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog on chromosome 10) is one of the most important tumor-suppressor proteins, which plays a key role in negative regulation of the PI3K/AKT pathway, and governs many cellular processes including growth, proliferation, survival and migration. The dynamics of PTEN proteins in single living cells is as yet unclear owing to a shortage of suitable in vivo approaches. Here, we report a single-molecule method for in vivo study of the dynamics of PTEN proteins in living cells using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). First, we established a monoclonal H1299 stable cell line expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and PTEN (EGFP-PTEN) fusion proteins; we then developed an in vivo FCS method to study the dynamics of EGFP-PTEN both in the nucleus and the cytoplasm. We investigated the diffusion behaviors of EGFP and EGFP-PTEN in solution, nucleus and cytosol, and observed that the motion of PTEN in living cells was restricted compared with EGFP. Finally, we investigated the protein dynamics in living cells under oxidative stress stimulation and a cellular ATP depletion treatment. Under oxidative stress stimulation, the EGFP-PTEN concentration increased in the nucleus, but slightly decreased in the cytoplasm. The diffusion coefficient and alpha value of EGFP-PTEN reduced significantly both in the nucleus and cytoplasm; the significantly decreased alpha parameter indicates a more restricted Brownian diffusion behavior. Under the cellular ATP depletion treatment, the concentration of EGFP-PTEN remained unchanged in the nucleus and decreased significantly in cytosol. The diffusion coefficient of EGFP-PTEN decreased significantly in cytosol, but showed no significant change in the nucleus; the alpha value decreased significantly in both the nucleus and cytoplasm. These results suggest that the concentration and mobility of PTEN in the nucleus and cytoplasm can be regulated by stimulation methods. Our approach provides a unique

  9. Reorientational properties of fluorescent analogues of the protein kinase C cofactors diacylglycerol and phorbol ester.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pap, E.H.W.; Ketelaars, M.; Borst, J.W.; Hoek, van A.; Visser, A.J.W.G.

    1996-01-01

    The reorientational properties of the fluorescently labelled protein kinase C (PKC) cofactors diacylglycerol (DG) and phorbol ester (PMA) in vesicles and mixed micelles have been investigated using time-resolved polarised fluorescence. The sn-2 acyl chain of DG was replaced by diphenylhexatriene-

  10. Microspectroscopic analysis of green fluorescent proteins infiltrated into mesoporous silica nanochannels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, Yujie; Rajendran, Prayanka; Blum, Christian; Cesa, Yanina; Gartmann, Nando; Brühwiler, Dominik; Subramaniam, Vinod

    2011-01-01

    The infiltration of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) into nanochannels of different diameters in mesoporous silica particles was studied in detail by fluorescence microspectroscopy at room temperature. Silica particles from the MCM-41, ASNCs and SBA-15 families possessing nanometer-sized

  11. Characterization of the fusion core in zebrafish endogenous retroviral envelope protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Jian [State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei 430072 (China); State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei 430071 (China); Zhang, Huaidong [CAS Key Laboratory of Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei 430071 (China); Gong, Rui, E-mail: gongr@wh.iov.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei 430071 (China); Xiao, Gengfu, E-mail: xiaogf@wh.iov.cn [State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei 430072 (China); State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei 430071 (China)

    2015-05-08

    Zebrafish endogenous retrovirus (ZFERV) is the unique endogenous retrovirus in zebrafish, as yet, containing intact open reading frames of its envelope protein gene in zebrafish genome. Similarly, several envelope proteins of endogenous retroviruses in human and other mammalian animal genomes (such as syncytin-1 and 2 in human, syncytin-A and B in mouse) were identified and shown to be functional in induction of cell–cell fusion involved in placental development. ZFERV envelope protein (Env) gene appears to be also functional in vivo because it is expressible. After sequence alignment, we found ZFERV Env shares similar structural profiles with syncytin and other type I viral envelopes, especially in the regions of N- and C-terminal heptad repeats (NHR and CHR) which were crucial for membrane fusion. We expressed the regions of N + C protein in the ZFERV Env (residues 459–567, including predicted NHR and CHR) to characterize the fusion core structure. We found N + C protein could form a stable coiled-coil trimer that consists of three helical NHR regions forming a central trimeric core, and three helical CHR regions packing into the grooves on the surface of the central core. The structural characterization of the fusion core revealed the possible mechanism of fusion mediated by ZFERV Env. These results gave comprehensive explanation of how the ancient virus infects the zebrafish and integrates into the genome million years ago, and showed a rational clue for discovery of physiological significance (e.g., medicate cell–cell fusion). - Highlights: • ZFERV Env shares similar structural profiles with syncytin and other type I viral envelopes. • The fusion core of ZFERV Env forms stable coiled-coil trimer including three NHRs and three CHRs. • The structural mechanism of viral entry mediated by ZFERV Env is disclosed. • The results are helpful for further discovery of physiological function of ZFERV Env in zebrafish.

  12. Development of a keratinocyte-based screening model for antipsoriatic drugs using green fluorescent protein under the control of an endogenous promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pol, Arno; van Ruissen, Fred; Schalkwijk, Joost

    2002-08-01

    Inflamed epidermis (psoriasis, wound healing, ultraviolet-irradiated skin) harbors keratinocytes that are hyperproliferative and display an abnormal differentiation program. A distinct feature of this so-called regenerative maturation pathway is the expression of proteins such as the cytokeratins CK6, CK16, and CK17 and the antiinflammatory protein SKALP/elafin. These proteins are absent in normal skin but highly induced in lesional psoriatic skin. Expression of these genes can be used as a surrogate marker for psoriasis in drug-screening procedures of large compound libraries. The aim of this study was to develop a keratinocyte cell line that contained a reporter gene under the control of a psoriasis-associated endogenous promoter and demonstrate its use in an assay suitable for screening. We generated a stably transfected keratinocyte cell line that expresses enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), under the control of a 0.8-kb fragment derived from the promoter of the SKALP/elafin gene, which confers high levels of tissue-specific expression at the mRNA level. Induction of the SKALP promoter by tumor necrosis factor-alpha resulted in increased expression levels of the secreted SKALP-EGFP fusion protein as assessed by direct readout of fluorescence and fluorescence polarization in 96-well cell culture plates. The fold stimulation of the reporter gene was comparable to that of the endogenous SKALP gene as assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Although the dynamic range of the screening system is limited, the small standard deviation yields a Z factor of 0.49. This indicates that the assay is suitable as a high-throughput screen, and provides proof of the concept that a secreted EGFP fusion protein under the control of a physiologically relevant endogenous promoter can be used as a fluorescence-based high-throughput screen for differentiation-modifying or antiinflammatory compounds that act via the keratinocyte.

  13. Visualization of the African swine fever virus infection in living cells by incorporation into the virus particle of green fluorescent protein-p54 membrane protein chimera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernaez, Bruno; Escribano, Jose M.; Alonso, Covadonga

    2006-01-01

    Many stages of African swine fever virus infection have not yet been studied in detail. To track the behavior of African swine fever virus (ASFV) in the infected cells in real time, we produced an infectious recombinant ASFV (B54GFP-2) that expresses and incorporates into the virus particle a chimera of the p54 envelope protein fused to the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). The incorporation of the fusion protein into the virus particle was confirmed immunologically and it was determined that p54-EGFP was fully functional by confirmation that the recombinant virus made normal-sized plaques and presented similar growth curves to the wild-type virus. The tagged virus was visualized as individual fluorescent particles during the first stages of infection and allowed to visualize the infection progression in living cells through the viral life cycle by confocal microscopy. In this work, diverse potential applications of B54GFP-2 to study different aspects of ASFV infection are shown. By using this recombinant virus it was possible to determine the trajectory and speed of intracellular virus movement. Additionally, we have been able to visualize for first time the ASFV factory formation dynamics and the cytophatic effect of the virus in live infected cells. Finally, we have analyzed virus progression along the infection cycle and infected cell death as time-lapse animations

  14. Evaluation of chemical fluorescent dyes as a protein conjugation partner for live cell imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Hayashi-Takanaka

    Full Text Available To optimize live cell fluorescence imaging, the choice of fluorescent substrate is a critical factor. Although genetically encoded fluorescent proteins have been used widely, chemical fluorescent dyes are still useful when conjugated to proteins or ligands. However, little information is available for the suitability of different fluorescent dyes for live imaging. We here systematically analyzed the property of a number of commercial fluorescent dyes when conjugated with antigen-binding (Fab fragments directed against specific histone modifications, in particular, phosphorylated H3S28 (H3S28ph and acetylated H3K9 (H3K9ac. These Fab fragments were conjugated with a fluorescent dye and loaded into living HeLa cells. H3S28ph-specific Fab fragments were expected to be enriched in condensed chromosomes, as H3S28 is phosphorylated during mitosis. However, the degree of Fab fragment enrichment on mitotic chromosomes varied depending on the conjugated dye. In general, green fluorescent dyes showed higher enrichment, compared to red and far-red fluorescent dyes, even when dye:protein conjugation ratios were similar. These differences are partly explained by an altered affinity of Fab fragment after dye-conjugation; some dyes have less effect on the affinity, while others can affect it more. Moreover, red and far-red fluorescent dyes tended to form aggregates in the cytoplasm. Similar results were observed when H3K9ac-specific Fab fragments were used, suggesting that the properties of each dye affect different Fab fragments similarly. According to our analysis, conjugation with green fluorescent dyes, like Alexa Fluor 488 and Dylight 488, has the least effect on Fab affinity and is the best for live cell imaging, although these dyes are less photostable than red fluorescent dyes. When multicolor imaging is required, we recommend the following dye combinations for optimal results: Alexa Fluor 488 (green, Cy3 (red, and Cy5 or CF640 (far-red.

  15. Cleaved thioredoxin fusion protein enables the crystallization of poorly soluble ERα in complex with synthetic ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cura, Vincent; Gangloff, Monique; Eiler, Sylvia; Moras, Dino; Ruff, Marc

    2007-01-01

    A new crystallization strategy: the presence of cleaved thioredoxin fusion is critical for crystallization of the estrogen nuclear receptor ligand binding domain in complex with synthetic ligands. This novel technique should be regarded as an interesting alternative for crystallization of difficult proteins. The ligand-binding domain (LBD) of human oestrogen receptor α was produced in Escherichia coli as a cleavable thioredoxin (Trx) fusion in order to improve solubility. Crystallization trials with either cleaved and purified LBD or with the purified fusion protein both failed to produce crystals. In another attempt, Trx was not removed from the LBD after endoproteolytic cleavage and its presence promoted nucleation and subsequent crystal growth, which allowed the structure determination of two different LBD–ligand–coactivator peptide complexes at 2.3 Å resolution. This technique is likely to be applicable to other low-solubility proteins

  16. High-level expression of soluble recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli using an HE-maltotriose-binding protein fusion tag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yingqian; Guo, Wanying; Su, Bingqian; Guo, Yujie; Wang, Jiang; Chu, Beibei; Yang, Guoyu

    2018-02-01

    Recombinant proteins are commonly expressed in prokaryotic expression systems for large-scale production. The use of genetically engineered affinity and solubility enhancing fusion proteins has increased greatly in recent years, and there now exists a considerable repertoire of these that can be used to enhance the expression, stability, solubility, folding, and purification of their fusion partner. Here, a modified histidine tag (HE) used as an affinity tag was employed together with a truncated maltotriose-binding protein (MBP; consisting of residues 59-433) from Pyrococcus furiosus as a solubility enhancing tag accompanying a tobacco etch virus protease-recognition site for protein expression and purification in Escherichia coli. Various proteins tagged at the N-terminus with HE-MBP(Pyr) were expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) cells to determine expression and solubility relative to those tagged with His6-MBP or His6-MBP(Pyr). Furthermore, four HE-MBP(Pyr)-fused proteins were purified by immobilized metal affinity chromatography to assess the affinity of HE with immobilized Ni 2+ . Our results showed that HE-MBP(Pyr) represents an attractive fusion protein allowing high levels of soluble expression and purification of recombinant protein in E. coli. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of hepatitis B virus core fusion protein corresponding to octahedral particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Masaki; Iwabuchi, Shinichiro; Kikkou, Tatsuhiko; Noguchi, Keiichi; Odaka, Masafumi; Yohda, Masafumi; Kawata, Masaaki; Sato, Chikara; Matsumoto, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    Novel hepatitis B virus-like particles of recombinant dimeric core–GFP fusion protein were expressed, purified and crystallized. The crystals diffracted to 2.15 Å resolution and belonged to space group F432, with unit-cell parameters a = b = c = 219.7 Å. Recombinant hepatitis B virus core proteins dimerize to form building blocks that are capable of self-assembly into a capsid. A core capsid protein dimer (CPD) linked to a green fluorescent protein variant, EGFP, at the C-terminus has been designed. The recombinant fusion CPD was expressed in Escherichia coli, assembled into virus-like particles (VLPs), purified and crystallized. The single crystal diffracted to 2.15 Å resolution and belonged to the cubic space group F432, with unit-cell parameters a = b = c = 219.7 Å. The fusion proteins assembled into icosahedral VLPs in aqueous solution, but were rearranged into octahedral symmetry through the crystal-packing process under the crystallization conditions

  18. Stabilizing Protein Effects on the Pressure Sensitivity of Fluorescent Gold Nanoclusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-13

    affected by the environment of the stabilizing protein, allowing these hybrid systems to act as sensors in many applications.2,9,14–19 This has led...Biosens Bioelectron. 2012;32:297–299. 8. Joseph D, Geckeler KE. Synthesis of highly fluorescent gold nanoclusters using egg white proteins. Colloids Surf...Chang HW, Chien YC, Hsiao JK, Cheng JT, Chou PT. Insulin -directed synthesis of fluorescent gold nanoclusters: preservation of insulin bioactivity and

  19. In vivo immobilization of fusion proteins on bioplastics by the novel tag BioF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldes, Cristina; García, Pedro; García, José L; Prieto, María A

    2004-06-01

    A new protein immobilization and purification system has been developed based on the use of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs, or bioplastics), which are biodegradable polymers accumulated as reserve granules in the cytoplasm of certain bacteria. The N-terminal domain of the PhaF phasin (a PHA-granule-associated protein) from Pseudomonas putida GPo1 was used as a polypeptide tag (BioF) to anchor fusion proteins to PHAs. This tag provides a novel way to immobilize proteins in vivo by using bioplastics as supports. The granules carrying the BioF fusion proteins can be isolated by a simple centrifugation step and used directly for some applications. Moreover, when required, a practically pure preparation of the soluble BioF fusion protein can be obtained by a mild detergent treatment of the granule. The efficiency of this system has been demonstrated by constructing two BioF fusion products, including a functional BioF-beta-galactosidase. This is the first example of an active bioplastic consisting of a biodegradable matrix carrying an active enzyme.

  20. An ER-directed fusion protein comprising a bacterial subtilisin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nausch

    subtilase tag was fused to human interleukin 6 (IL6) and transiently expressed in Nicotiana ..... MP, tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) movement protein; TVCV-3'-NTR, TVCV-3' untranslated .... on the degradation pattern of heterologous proteins.

  1. Capillary electrophoresis coupled to fluorescence spectroscopy for protein characterisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kort, B.J.

    2012-01-01

    Proteins are essential molecules in all living organisms. Their involvement in numerous biological processes has led to the development of protein-based medicines (biopharmaceuticals). For good understanding of the properties and function of endogenous proteins and biopharmaceuticals, extensive

  2. Testing the utility of fluorescent proteins in Mimulus lewisii by an Agrobacterium-mediated transient assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Baoqing; Yuan, Yao-Wu

    2016-04-01

    The Agrobacterium -mediated transient expression assay by leaf infiltration in Mimulus lewisii is robust. Fluorescent proteins EGFP, EYFP and DsRed give bright fluorescence signals in the infiltrated tissue. Mimulus lewisii is an emerging developmental genetic model system. Recently developed genomic and genetic resources and a stable transformation protocol have greatly facilitated the identification and functional characterization of genes controlling the development of ecologically important floral traits using this species. To further expedite gene and protein function analyses in M. lewisii, we adopted and simplified the Agrobacterium-mediated transient gene expression method routinely used in tobacco plants. With the validated transient assay, we examined the performance of fluorescent proteins EGFP, EYFP and DsRed in M. lewisii. All three proteins gave bright fluorescence signals when transiently expressed in agroinfiltrated leaves. Furthermore, we demonstrated the utility of fluorescent proteins in M. lewisii by showing the nuclear localization of Reduced Carotenoid Pigmentation 1 (RCP1), a recently discovered R2R3-MYB transcription factor that regulates carotenoid pigmentation during flower development. Both the transient assay and the fluorescent proteins are valuable additions to the M. lewisii toolbox, making this emerging genetic and developmental model system even more powerful.

  3. In vitro translocation experiments with RxLR-reporter fusion proteins of Avr1b from Phytophthora sojae and AVR3a from Phytophthora infestans fail to demonstrate specific autonomous uptake in plant and animal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawra, Stephan; Djamei, Armin; Albert, Isabell; Nürnberger, Thorsten; Kahmann, Regine; van West, Pieter

    2013-05-01

    Plant-pathogenic oomycetes have a large set of secreted effectors that can be translocated into their host cells during infection. One group of these effectors are the RxLR effectors for which it has been shown, in a few cases, that the RxLR motif is important for their translocation. It has been suggested that the RxLR-leader sequences alone are enough to translocate the respective effectors into eukaryotic cells through binding to surface-exposed phosphoinositol-3-phosphate. These conclusions were primary based on translocation experiments conducted with recombinant fusion proteins whereby the RxLR leader of RxLR effectors (i.e., Avr1b from Phytophthora sojae) were fused to the green fluorescent protein reporter-protein. However, we failed to observe specific cellular uptake for a comparable fusion protein where the RxLR leader of the P. infestans AVR3a was fused to monomeric red fluorescent protein. Therefore, we reexamined the ability of the reported P. sojae AVR1b RxLR leader to enter eukaryotic cells. Different relevant experiments were performed in three independent laboratories, using fluorescent reporter fusion constructs of AVR3a and Avr1b proteins in a side-by-side comparative study on plant tissue and human and animal cells. We report that we were unable to obtain conclusive evidence for specific RxLR-mediated translocation.

  4. Localized cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity is required for myogenic cell fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukai, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Naohiro

    2008-01-01

    Multinucleated myotubes are formed by fusion of mononucleated myogenic progenitor cells (myoblasts) during terminal skeletal muscle differentiation. In addition, myoblasts fuse with myotubes, but terminally differentiated myotubes have not been shown to fuse with each other. We show here that an adenylate cyclase activator, forskolin, and other reagents that elevate intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels induced cell fusion between small bipolar myotubes in vitro. Then an extra-large myotube, designated a 'myosheet,' was produced by both primary and established mouse myogenic cells. Myotube-to-myotube fusion always occurred between the leading edge of lamellipodia at the polar end of one myotube and the lateral plasma membrane of the other. Forskolin enhanced the formation of lamellipodia where cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) was accumulated. Blocking enzymatic activity or anchoring of PKA suppressed forskolin-enhanced lamellipodium formation and prevented fusion of multinucleated myotubes. Localized PKA activity was also required for fusion of mononucleated myoblasts. The present results suggest that localized PKA plays a pivotal role in the early steps of myogenic cell fusion, such as cell-to-cell contact/recognition through lamellipodium formation. Furthermore, the localized cAMP-PKA pathway might be involved in the specification of the fusion-competent areas of the plasma membrane in lamellipodia of myogenic cells

  5. Tolerance of a knotted near infrared fluorescent protein to random circular permutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Naresh; Kuypers, Brianna E.; Nassif, Barbara; Thomas, Emily E.; Alnahhas, Razan N.; Segatori, Laura; Silberg, Jonathan J.

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophytochrome photoreceptors (BphP) are knotted proteins that have been developed as near-infrared fluorescent protein (iRFP) reporters of gene expression. To explore how rearrangements in the peptides that interlace into the knot within the BphP photosensory core affect folding, we subjected iRFP to random circular permutation using an improved transposase mutagenesis strategy and screened for variants that fluoresce. We identified twenty seven circularly permuted iRFP that display biliverdin-dependent fluorescence in Escherichia coli. The variants with the brightest whole cell fluorescence initiated translation at residues near the domain linker and knot tails, although fluorescent variants were discovered that initiated translation within the PAS and GAF domains. Circularly permuted iRFP retained sufficient cofactor affinity to fluoresce in tissue culture without the addition of biliverdin, and one variant displayed enhanced fluorescence when expressed in bacteria and tissue culture. This variant displayed a similar quantum yield as iRFP, but exhibited increased resistance to chemical denaturation, suggesting that the observed signal increase arose from more efficient protein maturation. These results show how the contact order of a knotted BphP can be altered without disrupting chromophore binding and fluorescence, an important step towards the creation of near-infrared biosensors with expanded chemical-sensing functions for in vivo imaging. PMID:27304983

  6. Tolerance of a Knotted Near-Infrared Fluorescent Protein to Random Circular Permutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Naresh; Kuypers, Brianna E; Nassif, Barbara; Thomas, Emily E; Alnahhas, Razan N; Segatori, Laura; Silberg, Jonathan J

    2016-07-12

    Bacteriophytochrome photoreceptors (BphP) are knotted proteins that have been developed as near-infrared fluorescent protein (iRFP) reporters of gene expression. To explore how rearrangements in the peptides that interlace into the knot within the BphP photosensory core affect folding, we subjected iRFPs to random circular permutation using an improved transposase mutagenesis strategy and screened for variants that fluoresce. We identified 27 circularly permuted iRFPs that display biliverdin-dependent fluorescence in Escherichia coli. The variants with the brightest whole cell fluorescence initiated translation at residues near the domain linker and knot tails, although fluorescent variants that initiated translation within the PAS and GAF domains were discovered. Circularly permuted iRFPs retained sufficient cofactor affinity to fluoresce in tissue culture without the addition of biliverdin, and one variant displayed enhanced fluorescence when expressed in bacteria and tissue culture. This variant displayed a quantum yield similar to that of iRFPs but exhibited increased resistance to chemical denaturation, suggesting that the observed increase in the magnitude of the signal arose from more efficient protein maturation. These results show how the contact order of a knotted BphP can be altered without disrupting chromophore binding and fluorescence, an important step toward the creation of near-infrared biosensors with expanded chemical sensing functions for in vivo imaging.

  7. A borax fusion technique for quantitative X-ray fluorescence analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Willigen, J.H.H.G.; Kruidhof, H.; Dahmen, E.A.M.F.

    1971-01-01

    A borax fusion technique to cast glass discs for quantitative X-ray analysis is described in detail. The method is based on the “nonwetting” properties of a Pt/Au alloy towards molten borax, on the favourable composition of the flux and finally on the favourable form of the casting mould. The

  8. In Vivo Imaging of Far-red Fluorescent Proteins after DNA Electrotransfer to Muscle Tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hojman, Pernille; Eriksen, Jens; Gehl, Julie

    2009-01-01

    DNA electrotransfer to muscle tissue yields long-term, high levels of gene expression; showing great promise for future gene therapy. We want to characterize the novel far-red fluorescent protein Katushka as a marker for gene expression using time domain fluorescence in vivo imaging. Highly...... weeks. Depth and 3D analysis proved that the expression was located in the target muscle. In vivo bio-imaging using the novel Katushka fluorescent protein enables excellent evaluation of the transfection efficacy, and spatial distribution, but lacks long-term stability....... efficient transgenic expression was observed after DNA electrotransfer with 100-fold increase in fluorescent intensity. The fluorescent signal peaked 1 week after transfection and returned to background level within 4 weeks. Katushka expression was not as stable as GFP expression, which was detectable for 8...

  9. Highly sensitive C-reactive protein (CRP) assay using metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yi; Keegan, Gemma L.; Stranik, Ondrej; Brennan-Fournet, Margaret E.; McDonagh, Colette

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence has been extensively employed in the area of diagnostic immunoassays. A significant enhancement of fluorescence can be achieved when noble metal nanoparticles are placed in close proximity to fluorophores. This effect, referred to as metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF), has the potential to produce immunoassays with a high sensitivity and a low limit of detection (LOD). In this study, we investigate the fluorescence enhancement effect of two different nanoparticle systems, large spherical silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and gold edge-coated triangular silver nanoplates, and both systems were evaluated for MEF. The extinction properties and electric field enhancement of both systems were modeled, and the optimum system, spherical AgNPs, was used in a sandwich immunoassay for human C-reactive protein with a red fluorescent dye label. A significant enhancement in the fluorescence was observed, which corresponded to an LOD improvement of ∼19-fold compared to a control assay without AgNPs

  10. Highly sensitive C-reactive protein (CRP) assay using metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yi; Keegan, Gemma L., E-mail: gemmakeegan@gmail.com [Dublin City University, School of Physical Sciences, Biomedical Diagnostics Institute (Ireland); Stranik, Ondrej [Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology, Department of NanoBiophotonics (Germany); Brennan-Fournet, Margaret E. [CMP-EMSE, MOC, Department of Bioelectronics, Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines (France); McDonagh, Colette [Dublin City University, School of Physical Sciences, Biomedical Diagnostics Institute (Ireland)

    2015-07-15

    Fluorescence has been extensively employed in the area of diagnostic immunoassays. A significant enhancement of fluorescence can be achieved when noble metal nanoparticles are placed in close proximity to fluorophores. This effect, referred to as metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF), has the potential to produce immunoassays with a high sensitivity and a low limit of detection (LOD). In this study, we investigate the fluorescence enhancement effect of two different nanoparticle systems, large spherical silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and gold edge-coated triangular silver nanoplates, and both systems were evaluated for MEF. The extinction properties and electric field enhancement of both systems were modeled, and the optimum system, spherical AgNPs, was used in a sandwich immunoassay for human C-reactive protein with a red fluorescent dye label. A significant enhancement in the fluorescence was observed, which corresponded to an LOD improvement of ∼19-fold compared to a control assay without AgNPs.

  11. Effect of tissue scaffold topography on protein structure monitored by fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portugal, Carla A M; Truckenmüller, Roman; Stamatialis, Dimitrios; Crespo, João G

    2014-11-10

    The impact of surface topography on the structure of proteins upon adhesion was assessed through non-invasive fluorescence monitoring. This study aimed at obtaining a better understanding about the role of protein structural status on cell-scaffold interactions. The changes induced upon adsorption of two model proteins with different geometries, trypsin (globular conformation) and fibrinogen (rod-shaped conformation) on poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA) scaffolds with different surface topographies, flat, fibrous and surfaces with aligned nanogrooves, were assessed by fluorescence spectroscopy monitoring, using tryptophan as structural probe. Hence, the maximum emission blue shift and the increase of fluorescence anisotropy observed after adsorption of globular and rod-like shaped proteins on surfaces with parallel nanogrooves were ascribed to more intense protein-surface interactions. Furthermore, the decrease of fluorescence anisotropy observed upon adsorption of proteins to scaffolds with fibrous morphology was more significant for rod-shaped proteins. This effect was associated to the ability of these proteins to adjust to curved surfaces. The additional unfolding of proteins induced upon adsorption on scaffolds with a fibrous morphology may be the reason for better cell attachment there, promoting an easier access of cell receptors to initially hidden protein regions (e.g. RGDS sequence), which are known to have a determinant role in cell attaching processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Inhibition of CRM1-mediated nuclear export of transcription factors by leukemogenic NUP98 fusion proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Akiko; Sarma, Nayan J; Abdul-Nabi, Anmaar M; Yaseen, Nabeel R

    2010-05-21

    NUP98 is a nucleoporin that plays complex roles in the nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of macromolecules. Rearrangements of the NUP98 gene in human leukemia result in the expression of numerous fusion oncoproteins whose effect on nucleocytoplasmic trafficking is poorly understood. The present study was undertaken to determine the effects of leukemogenic NUP98 fusion proteins on CRM1-mediated nuclear export. NUP98-HOXA9, a prototypic NUP98 fusion, inhibited the nuclear export of two known CRM1 substrates: mutated cytoplasmic nucleophosmin and HIV-1 Rev. In vitro binding assays revealed that NUP98-HOXA9 binds CRM1 through the FG repeat motif in a Ran-GTP-dependent manner similar to but stronger than the interaction between CRM1 and its export substrates. Two NUP98 fusions, NUP98-HOXA9 and NUP98-DDX10, whose fusion partners are structurally and functionally unrelated, interacted with endogenous CRM1 in myeloid cells as shown by co-immunoprecipitation. These leukemogenic NUP98 fusion proteins interacted with CRM1, Ran, and the nucleoporin NUP214 in a manner fundamentally different from that of wild-type NUP98. NUP98-HOXA9 and NUP98-DDX10 formed characteristic aggregates within the nuclei of a myeloid cell line and primary human CD34+ cells and caused aberrant localization of CRM1 to these aggregates. These NUP98 fusions caused nuclear accumulation of two transcription factors, NFAT and NFkappaB, that are regulated by CRM1-mediated export. The nuclear entrapment of NFAT and NFkappaB correlated with enhanced transcription from promoters responsive to these transcription factors. Taken together, the results suggest a new mechanism by which NUP98 fusions dysregulate transcription and cause leukemia, namely, inhibition of CRM1-mediated nuclear export with aberrant nuclear retention of transcriptional regulators.

  13. Site-directed antibody immobilization using a protein A-gold binding domain fusion protein for enhanced SPR immunosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Juan-Franco, Elena; Caruz, Antonio; Pedrajas, J R; Lechuga, Laura M

    2013-04-07

    We have implemented a novel strategy for the oriented immobilization of antibodies onto a gold surface based on the use of a fusion protein, the protein A-gold binding domain (PAG). PAG consists of a gold binding peptide (GBP) coupled to the immunoglobulin-binding domains of staphylococcal protein A. This fusion protein provides an easy and fast oriented immobilization of antibodies preserving its native structure, while leaving the antigen binding sites (Fab) freely exposed. Using this immobilization strategy, we have demonstrated the performance of the immunosensing of the human Growth Hormone by SPR. A limit of detection of 90 ng mL(-1) was obtained with an inter-chip variability lower than 7%. The comparison of this method with other strategies for the direct immobilization of antibodies over gold surfaces has showed the enhanced sensitivity provided by the PAG approach.

  14. Enhancing the productivity of soluble green fluorescent protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protein sequences might have been evolved against different environmental pressures, which results in non-optimum properties in their stability, activity and folding efficiency. Directed evolution and consensus-based engineering of proteins are the protein engineering principles for the re-evolution of such natural proteins ...

  15. Effect of pH on the Heat-Induced Denaturation and Renaturation of Green Fluorescent Protein: A Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Rosa V.; Sola, Hilda M.; Torres, Juan C.; Torres, Rafael E.; Guzman, Ernick E.

    2013-01-01

    A fluorescence spectroscopy experiment is described where students integrated biochemistry and instrumental analysis, while characterizing the green fluorescent protein excitation and emission spectra in terms of its phenolic and phenolate chromophores. Students studied the combined effect of pH and temperature on the protein's fluorescence,…

  16. Structural characterization of the photoswitchable fluorescent protein Dronpa-C62S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Ki-Hyun; Kwon, Oh Yeun; Sugiyama, Kanako; Lee, Won-Ho; Kim, Young Kwan; Song, Hyun Kyu; Kim, Eunice Eunkyung; Park, Sam-Yong; Jeon, Hyesung; Hwang, Kwang Yeon

    2007-01-01

    The photoswitching behavior of green fluorescent proteins (GFPs) or GFP-like proteins is increasingly recognized as a new technique for optical marking. Recently, Ando and his colleagues developed a new green fluorescent protein Dronpa, which possesses the unique photochromic property of being photoswitchable in a non-destructive manner. To better understand this mechanism, we determined the crystal structures of a new GFP Dronpa and its mutant C62S, at 1.9 A and 1.8 A, respectively. Determination of the structures demonstrates that a unique hydrogen-bonding network and the sulfur atom of the chromophore are critical to the photoswitching property of Dronpa. Reversible photoswitching was lost in cells expressing the Dronpa-C62S upon repetitive irradiation compared to the native protein. Structural and mutational analyses reveal the chemical basis for the functional properties of photoswitchable fluorescent proteins and provide the basis for subsequent coherent engineering of this subfamily of Dronpa homolog's

  17. Stabilization of structure in near-infrared fluorescent proteins by binding of biliverdin chromophore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanenko, Olesya V.; Stepanenko, Olga V.; Bublikov, G. S.; Kuznetsova, I. M.; Verkhusha, V. V.; Turoverov, K. K.

    2017-07-01

    Near-infrared fluorescent proteins (NIR FPs) engineered from bacterial phytochromes and their mutants with different location of Cys residues, which able to bind a biliverdin chromophore, or without these Cys residues were studied using intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence, NIR fluorescence and circular dichroism. It was shown that a covalent binding of the biliverdin chromophore to a Cys residue via thioether group substantially stabilizes the spatial structure of NIR FPs. The stability of the protein structure and the chromophore association strength strongly depends on the location of Cys residues and decreases in the following order: a protein with Cys residues in both domains, a protein with Cys in PAS domains, and a protein with Cys in GAF domains. NIR FPs without Cys residues capable to covalently attach biliverdin have the lowest stability, comparable to NIR FP apoforms.

  18. Simulation of fluorescence resonance energy transfer experiments: effect of the dyes on protein folding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, Lucy R; Paci, Emanuele

    2010-01-01

    Fluorescence resonance energy transfer is a powerful technique which is often used to probe the properties of proteins and complex macromolecules. The technique relies on relatively large fluorescent dyes which are engineered into the molecule of interest. In the case of small proteins, these dyes may affect the stability of the protein, and modify the folding kinetics and the folding mechanisms which are being probed. Here we use atomistic simulation to investigate the effect that commonly used fluorescent dyes have on the folding of a four-helix bundle protein. We show that, depending on where the dyes are attached, their effect on the kinetic and thermodynamic properties of the protein may be significant. We find that, while the overall folding mechanism is not affected by the dyes, they can destabilize, or even stabilize, intermediate states.

  19. Control of the blue fluorescent protein with advanced evolutionary pulse shaping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkaczyk, Eric R.; Mauring, Koit; Tkaczyk, Alan H.; Krasnenko, Veera; Ye, Jing Yong; Baker, James R.; Norris, Theodore B.

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate optical coherent control of the two-photon fluorescence of the blue fluorescent protein (BFP), which is of interest in investigations of protein-protein interactions. In addition to biological relevance, BFP represents an interesting target for coherent control from a chemical perspective due to its many components of highly nonexponential fluorescence decay and low quantum yield resulting from excited state isomerization. Using a genetic algorithm with a multiplicative (rather than ratiometric) fitness parameter, we are able to control the ratio of BFP fluorescence to second-harmonic generation without a considerable drop in the maximized signal. The importance of linear chirp and power-scaling on the discrimination process is investigated in detail

  20. Ratiometric Matryoshka biosensors from a nested cassette of green- and orange-emitting fluorescent proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ast, Cindy; Foret, Jessica; Oltrogge, Luke M; De Michele, Roberto; Kleist, Thomas J; Ho, Cheng-Hsun; Frommer, Wolf B

    2017-09-05

    Sensitivity, dynamic and detection range as well as exclusion of expression and instrumental artifacts are critical for the quantitation of data obtained with fluorescent protein (FP)-based biosensors in vivo. Current biosensors designs are, in general, unable to simultaneously meet all these criteria. Here, we describe a generalizable platform to create dual-FP biosensors with large dynamic ranges by employing a single FP-cassette, named GO-(Green-Orange) Matryoshka. The cassette nests a stable reference FP (large Stokes shift LSSmOrange) within a reporter FP (circularly permuted green FP). GO- Matryoshka yields green and orange fluorescence upon blue excitation. As proof of concept, we converted existing, single-emission biosensors into a series of ratiometric calcium sensors (MatryoshCaMP6s) and ammonium transport activity sensors (AmTryoshka1;3). We additionally identified the internal acid-base equilibrium as a key determinant of the GCaMP dynamic range. Matryoshka technology promises flexibility in the design of a wide spectrum of ratiometric biosensors and expanded in vivo applications.Single fluorescent protein biosensors are susceptible to expression and instrumental artifacts. Here Ast et al. describe a dual fluorescent protein design whereby a reference fluorescent protein is nested within a reporter fluorescent protein to control for such artifacts while preserving sensitivity and dynamic range.

  1. Fusion of NUP98 and the SET binding protein 1 (SETBP1) gene in a paediatric acute T cell lymphoblastic leukaemia with t(11;18)(p15;q12)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagopoulos, Ioannis; Kerndrup, Gitte; Carlsen, Niels

    2007-01-01

    Three NUP98 chimaeras have previously been reported in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL): NUP98/ADD3, NUP98/CCDC28A, and NUP98/RAP1GDS1. We report a T-ALL with t(11;18)(p15;q12) resulting in a novel NUP98 fusion. Fluorescent in situ hybridisation showed NUP98 and SET binding protein 1(...... in leukaemias; however, it encodes a protein that specifically interacts with SET, fused to NUP214 in a case of acute undifferentiated leukaemia.......Three NUP98 chimaeras have previously been reported in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL): NUP98/ADD3, NUP98/CCDC28A, and NUP98/RAP1GDS1. We report a T-ALL with t(11;18)(p15;q12) resulting in a novel NUP98 fusion. Fluorescent in situ hybridisation showed NUP98 and SET binding protein 1...

  2. Monitoring protein synthesis by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Currently available methodologies for measuring protein synthesis rates rely on metabolic labelling by incorporation of radioactive amino acids into nascent polypeptides. These approaches are hampered by several limitations and cannot be applied to monitor protein synthesis in specific cells or tissues, in live specimens. Here, we describe a novel method for monitoring protein synthesis in specific cells and tissues of live Caenorhabditis elegans animals. Fluorescent reporter proteins such as...

  3. Studies to Prevent Degradation of Recombinant Fc-Fusion Protein Expressed in Mammalian Cell Line and Protein Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjukta Chakrabarti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Clipping of recombinant proteins is a major issue in animal cell cultures. A recombinant Fc-fusion protein, VEGFR1(D1–D3-Fc expressed in CHOK1SV GS-KO cells was observed to be undergoing clippings in lab scale cultures. Partial cleaving of expressed protein initiated early on in cell culture and was observed to increase over time in culture and also on storage. In this study, a few parameters were explored in a bid to inhibit clipping in the fusion protein The effects of culture temperature, duration of culture, the addition of an anti-clumping agent, ferric citrate and use of protease inhibitor cocktail on inhibition of proteolysis of the Fc fusion were studied. Lowering of culture temperature from 37 to 30 °C alone appears to be the best solution for reducing protein degradation from the quality, cost and regulatory points of view. The obtained Fc protein was characterized and found to be in its stable folded state, exhibiting a high affinity for its ligand and also biological and functional activities.

  4. Genetically engineered endostatin-lidamycin fusion proteins effectively inhibit tumor growth and metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Wen-guo; Zhen, Yong-su; Lu, Xin-an; Shang, Bo-yang; Fu, Yan; Zhang, Sheng-hua; Zhou, Daifu; Li, Liang; Li, Yi; Luo, Yongzhang

    2013-01-01

    Endostatin (ES) inhibits endothelial cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and tube formation. It also shows antiangiogenesis and antitumor activities in several animal models. Endostatin specifically targets tumor vasculature to block tumor growth. Lidamycin (LDM), which consists of an active enediyne chromophore (AE) and a non-covalently bound apo-protein (LDP), is a member of chromoprotein family of antitumor antibiotics with extremely potent cytotoxicity to cancer cells. Therefore, we reasoned that endostatin-lidamycin (ES-LDM) fusion proteins upon energizing with enediyne chromophore may obtain the combined capability targeting tumor vasculature and tumor cell by respective ES and LDM moiety. In this study, we designed and obtained two new endostatin-based fusion proteins, endostatin-LDP (ES-LDP) and LDP-endostatin (LDP-ES). In vitro, the antiangiogenic effect of fusion proteins was determined by the wound healing assay and tube formation assay and the cytotoxicity of their enediyne-energized analogs was evaluated by CCK-8 assay. Tissue microarray was used to analyze the binding affinity of LDP, ES or ES-LDP with specimens of human lung tissue and lung tumor. The in vivo efficacy of the fusion proteins was evaluated with human lung carcinoma PG-BE1 xenograft and the experimental metastasis model of 4T1-luc breast cancer. ES-LDP and LDP-ES disrupted the formation of endothelial tube structures and inhibited endothelial cell migration. Evidently, ES-LDP accumulated in the tumor and suppressed tumor growth and metastasis. ES-LDP and ES show higher binding capability than LDP to lung carcinoma; in addition, ES-LDP and ES share similar binding capability. Furthermore, the enediyne-energized fusion protein ES-LDP-AE demonstrated significant efficacy against lung carcinoma xenograft in athymic mice. The ES-based fusion protein therapy provides some fundamental information for further drug development. Targeting both tumor vasculature and tumor cells by endostatin

  5. Red to far-red multispectral fluorescence image fusion for detection of fecal contamination on apples

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research developed a multispectral algorithm derived from hyperspectral line-scan fluorescence imaging under violet/blue LED excitation for detection of fecal contamination on Golden Delicious apples. Using a hyperspectral line-scan imaging system consisting of an EMCCD camera, spectrograph, an...

  6. Enhanced SUMOylation of proteins containing a SUMO-interacting motif by SUMO-Ubc9 fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eui Tae; Kim, Kyeong Kyu; Matunis, Mike J.; Ahn, Jin-Hyun

    2009-01-01

    Identifying new targets for SUMO and understanding the function of protein SUMOylation are largely limited by low level of SUMOylation. It was found recently that Ubc9, the SUMO E2 conjugating enzyme, is covalently modified by SUMO at a lysine 14 in the N-terminal alpha helix, and that SUMO-modified Ubc9 has enhanced conjugation activity for certain target proteins containing a SUMO-interacting motif (SIM). Here, we show that, compared to intact Ubc9, the SUMO-Ubc9 fusion protein has higher conjugating activity for SIM-containing targets such as Sp100 and human cytomegalovirus IE2. Assays using an IE2 SIM mutant revealed the requirement of SIM for the enhanced IE2 SUMOylation by SUMO-Ubc9. In pull-down assays with cell extracts, the SUMO-Ubc9 fusion protein bound to more diverse cellular proteins and interacted with some SIM-containing proteins with higher affinities than Ubc9. Therefore, the devised SUMO-Ubc9 fusion will be useful for identifying SIM-containing SUMO targets and producing SUMO-modified proteins.

  7. A fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based approach for investigating late endosome–lysosome retrograde fusion events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, A.M.; Goldman, S.D.B.; Krise, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, lysosomes have been considered to be a terminal endocytic compartment. Recent studies suggest that lysosomes are quite dynamic, being able to fuse with other late endocytic compartments as well as with the plasma membrane. Here we describe a quantitative fluorescence energy transfer (FRET)-based method for assessing rates of retrograde fusion between terminal lysosomes and late endosomes in living cells. Late endosomes were specifically labeled with 800-nm latex beads that were conjugated with streptavidin and Alexa Fluor 555 (FRET donor). Terminal lysosomes were specifically labeled with 10,000-MW dextran polymers conjugated with biotin and Alexa Fluor 647 (FRET acceptor). Following late endosome–lysosome fusion, the strong binding affinity between streptavidin and biotin brought the donor and acceptor fluorophore molecules into close proximity, thereby facilitating the appearance of a FRET emission signal. Because apparent size restrictions in the endocytic pathway do not permit endocytosed latex beads from reaching terminal lysosomes in an anterograde fashion, the appearance of the FRET signal is consistent with retrograde transport of lysosomal cargo back to late endosomes. We assessed the efficiency of this transport step in fibroblasts affected by different lysosome storage disorders—Niemann–Pick type C, mucolipidosis type IV, and Sandhoff’s disease, all of which have a similar lysosomal lipid accumulation phenotype. We report here, for the first time, that these disorders can be distinguished by their rate of transfer of lysosome cargos to late endosomes, and we discuss the implications of these findings for developing new therapeutic strategies. PMID:19109922

  8. A fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based approach for investigating late endosome-lysosome retrograde fusion events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, A M; Goldman, S D B; Krise, J P

    2009-03-01

    Traditionally, lysosomes have been considered to be a terminal endocytic compartment. Recent studies suggest that lysosomes are quite dynamic, being able to fuse with other late endocytic compartments as well as with the plasma membrane. Here we describe a quantitative fluorescence energy transfer (FRET)-based method for assessing rates of retrograde fusion between terminal lysosomes and late endosomes in living cells. Late endosomes were specifically labeled with 800-nm latex beads that were conjugated with streptavidin and Alexa Fluor 555 (FRET donor). Terminal lysosomes were specifically labeled with 10,000-MW dextran polymers conjugated with biotin and Alexa Fluor 647 (FRET acceptor). Following late endosome-lysosome fusion, the strong binding affinity between streptavidin and biotin brought the donor and acceptor fluorophore molecules into close proximity, thereby facilitating the appearance of a FRET emission signal. Because apparent size restrictions in the endocytic pathway do not permit endocytosed latex beads from reaching terminal lysosomes in an anterograde fashion, the appearance of the FRET signal is consistent with retrograde transport of lysosomal cargo back to late endosomes. We assessed the efficiency of this transport step in fibroblasts affected by different lysosome storage disorders-Niemann-Pick type C, mucolipidosis type IV, and Sandhoff's disease, all of which have a similar lysosomal lipid accumulation phenotype. We report here, for the first time, that these disorders can be distinguished by their rate of transfer of lysosome cargos to late endosomes, and we discuss the implications of these findings for developing new therapeutic strategies.

  9. Integrin αvβ1 Modulation Affects Subtype B Avian Metapneumovirus Fusion Protein-mediated Cell-Cell Fusion and Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Bing-Ling; Guan, Xiao-Lu; Liu, Yong-Zhen; Zhang, Yao; Wang, Yong-Qiang; Qi, Xiao-Le; Cui, Hong-Yu; Liu, Chang-Jun; Zhang, Yan-Ping; Gao, Hong-Lei; Gao, Li; Li, Kai; Gao, Yu-Long; Wang, Xiao-Mei

    2016-07-08

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) fusion (F) protein mediates virus-cell membrane fusion to initiate viral infection, which requires F protein binding to its receptor(s) on the host cell surface. However, the receptor(s) for aMPV F protein is still not identified. All known subtype B aMPV (aMPV/B) F proteins contain a conserved Arg-Asp-Asp (RDD) motif, suggesting that the aMPV/B F protein may mediate membrane fusion via the binding of RDD to integrin. When blocked with integrin-specific peptides, aMPV/B F protein fusogenicity and viral replication were significantly reduced. Specifically we identified integrin αv and/or β1-mediated F protein fusogenicity and viral replication using antibody blocking, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) knockdown, and overexpression. Additionally, overexpression of integrin αv and β1 in aMPV/B non-permissive cells conferred aMPV/B F protein binding and aMPV/B infection. When RDD was altered to RAE (Arg-Ala-Glu), aMPV/B F protein binding and fusogenic activity were profoundly impaired. These results suggest that integrin αvβ1 is a functional receptor for aMPV/B F protein-mediated membrane fusion and virus infection, which will provide new insights on the fusogenic mechanism and pathogenesis of aMPV. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Integrin αvβ1 Modulation Affects Subtype B Avian Metapneumovirus Fusion Protein-mediated Cell-Cell Fusion and Virus Infection*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Bing-Ling; Guan, Xiao-Lu; Liu, Yong-Zhen; Zhang, Yao; Wang, Yong-Qiang; Qi, Xiao-Le; Cui, Hong-Yu; Liu, Chang-Jun; Zhang, Yan-Ping; Gao, Hong-Lei; Gao, Li; Li, Kai; Gao, Yu-Long; Wang, Xiao-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) fusion (F) protein mediates virus-cell membrane fusion to initiate viral infection, which requires F protein binding to its receptor(s) on the host cell surface. However, the receptor(s) for aMPV F protein is still not identified. All known subtype B aMPV (aMPV/B) F proteins contain a conserved Arg-Asp-Asp (RDD) motif, suggesting that the aMPV/B F protein may mediate membrane fusion via the binding of RDD to integrin. When blocked with integrin-specific peptides, aMPV/B F protein fusogenicity and viral replication were significantly reduced. Specifically we identified integrin αv and/or β1-mediated F protein fusogenicity and viral replication using antibody blocking, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) knockdown, and overexpression. Additionally, overexpression of integrin αv and β1 in aMPV/B non-permissive cells conferred aMPV/B F protein binding and aMPV/B infection. When RDD was altered to RAE (Arg-Ala-Glu), aMPV/B F protein binding and fusogenic activity were profoundly impaired. These results suggest that integrin αvβ1 is a functional receptor for aMPV/B F protein-mediated membrane fusion and virus infection, which will provide new insights on the fusogenic mechanism and pathogenesis of aMPV. PMID:27226547

  11. Site-Specific Bioorthogonal Labeling for Fluorescence Imaging of Intracellular Proteins in Living Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Tao; Hang, Howard C

    2016-11-02

    Over the past years, fluorescent proteins (e.g., green fluorescent proteins) have been widely utilized to visualize recombinant protein expression and localization in live cells. Although powerful, fluorescent protein tags are limited by their relatively large sizes and potential perturbation to protein function. Alternatively, site-specific labeling of proteins with small-molecule organic fluorophores using bioorthogonal chemistry may provide a more precise and less perturbing method. This approach involves site-specific incorporation of unnatural amino acids (UAAs) into proteins via genetic code expansion, followed by bioorthogonal chemical labeling with small organic fluorophores in living cells. While this approach has been used to label extracellular proteins for live cell imaging studies, site-specific bioorthogonal labeling and fluorescence imaging of intracellular proteins in live cells is still challenging. Herein, we systematically evaluate site-specific incorporation of diastereomerically pure bioorthogonal UAAs bearing stained alkynes or alkenes into intracellular proteins for inverse-electron-demand Diels-Alder cycloaddition reactions with tetrazine-functionalized fluorophores for live cell labeling and imaging in mammalian cells. Our studies show that site-specific incorporation of axial diastereomer of trans-cyclooct-2-ene-lysine robustly affords highly efficient and specific bioorthogonal labeling with monosubstituted tetrazine fluorophores in live mammalian cells, which enabled us to image the intracellular localization and real-time dynamic trafficking of IFITM3, a small membrane-associated protein with only 137 amino acids, for the first time. Our optimized UAA incorporation and bioorthogonal labeling conditions also enabled efficient site-specific fluorescence labeling of other intracellular proteins for live cell imaging studies in mammalian cells.

  12. New sensitive and specific assay for human immunodeficiency virus antibodies using labeled recombinant fusion protein and time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay.

    OpenAIRE

    Siitari, H; Turunen, P; Schrimsher, J; Nunn, M

    1990-01-01

    A new, rapid method for the detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) antibody by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TR-FIA) was developed. In this assay format, microtitration strips were coated with a recombinant fusion protein, and the same protein was labeled with europium and added into the wells simultaneously with the test specimens. The recombinant fusion protein contained the HIV-1 p24 gag protein sequence that carried an insertion, near the carboxyl terminus, of a 23-am...

  13. The Use of Two-Photon FRET-FLIM to Study Protein Interactions During Nuclear Envelope Fusion In Vivo and In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Richard D; Larijani, Banafshé; Poccia, Dominic L

    2016-01-01

    FRET-FLIM techniques have wide application in the study of protein and protein-lipid interactions in cells. We have pioneered an imaging platform for accurate detection of functional states of proteins and their interactions in fixed cells. This platform, two-site-amplified Förster resonance energy transfer (a-FRET), allows greater signal generation while retaining minimal noise thus enabling application of fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) to be routinely deployed in different types of cells and tissue. We have used the method described here, time-resolved FRET monitored by two-photon FLIM, to demonstrate the direct interaction of Phospholipase Cγ (PLCγ) by Src Family Kinase 1 (SFK1) during nuclear envelope formation and during male and female pronuclear membrane fusion in fertilized sea urchin eggs. We describe here a generic method that can be applied to monitor any proteins of interest.

  14. Expression and Purification of Recombinant Human Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor Fusion Proteins and Their Uses in Human Stem Cell Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imsoonthornruksa, Sumeth; Pruksananonda, Kamthorn; Parnpai, Rangsun; Rungsiwiwut, Ruttachuk; Ketudat-Cairns, Mariena

    2015-01-01

    To reduce the cost of cytokines and growth factors in stem cell research, a simple method for the production of soluble and biological active human basic fibroblast growth factor (hbFGF) fusion protein in Escherichia coli was established. Under optimal conditions, approximately 60-80 mg of >95% pure hbFGF fusion proteins (Trx-6xHis-hbFGF and 6xHis-hbFGF) were obtained from 1 liter of culture broth. The purified hbFGF proteins, both with and without the fusion tags, were biologically active, which was confirmed by their ability to stimulate proliferation of NIH3T3 cells. The fusion proteins also have the ability to support several culture passages of undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells and induce pluripotent stem cells. This paper describes a low-cost and uncomplicated method for the production and purification of biologically active hbFGF fusion proteins. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Rational design of highly potent HIV-1 fusion inhibitory proteins: Implication for developing antiviral therapeutics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Ling; Gao, George F.; Tien Po

    2005-01-01

    Recombinant protein containing one heptad-repeat 1 (HR1) segment and one HR2 segment of the HIV-1 gp41 (HR1-HR2) has been shown to fold into thermally stable six-helix bundle, representing the fusogenic core of gp41. In this study, we have used the fusogenic core as a scaffold to design HIV-1 fusion inhibitory proteins by linking another HR1 to the C terminus of HR1-HR2 (HR121) or additional HR2 to the N terminus of HR1-HR2 (HR212). Both recombinant proteins could be abundantly and solubly expressed and easily purified, exhibiting high stability and potent inhibitory activity on HIV-1 fusion with IC 50 values of 16.2 ± 2.8 and 2.8 ± 0.63 nM, respectively. These suggest that these rationally designed proteins can be further developed as novel anti-HIV-1 therapeutics

  16. Low Resolution Structure of RAR1-GST-Tag Fusion Protein in Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taube, M.; Kozak, M.; Jarmolowski, A.

    2010-01-01

    RAR1 is a protein required for resistance mediated by many R genes and function upstream of signaling pathways leading to H 2 O 2 accumulation. The structure and conformation of RAR1-GST-Tag fusion protein from barley (Hordeum vulgare) in solution was studied by the small angle scattering of synchrotron radiation. It was found that the dimer of RAR1-GST-Tag protein is characterized in solution by radius of gyration R G = 6.19 nm and maximal intramolecular vector D max = 23 nm. On the basis of the small angle scattering of synchrotron radiation SAXS data two bead models obtained by ab initio modeling are proposed. Both models show elongated conformations. We also concluded that molecules of fusion protein form: dimers in solution via interaction of GST domains. (authors)

  17. The production of antibody fragments and antibody fusion proteins by yeasts and filamentous fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, V.; Lokman, C.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den; Punt, P.J.

    2003-01-01

    In this review we will focus on the current status and views concerning the production of antibody fragments and antibody fusion proteins by yeasts and filamentous fungi. We will focus on single-chain antibody fragment production (scFv and VHH) by these lower eukaryotes and the possible applications

  18. IgM-specific serodiagnosis of acute human cytomegalovirus infection using recombinant autologous fusion proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vornhagen, R; Hinderer, W; Sonneborn, HH; Bein, G; Matter, L; The, T. Hauw; Enders, G; Jahn, G; Plachter, B

    Portions of three human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) polypeptides, which were shown previously to be highly reactive with patient sera, were expressed in Escherichia coli as autologous fusion proteins. Purified recombinant polypeptides were used as antigens in enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and

  19. Anti-Diabetic Effects of CTB-APSL Fusion Protein in Type 2 Diabetic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunlong Liu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available To determine whether cholera toxin B subunit and active peptide from shark liver (CTB-APSL fusion protein plays a role in treatment of type 2 diabetic mice, the CTB-APSL gene was cloned and expressed in silkworm (Bombyx mori baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS, then the fusion protein was orally administrated at a dose of 100 mg/kg for five weeks in diabetic mice. The results demonstrated that the oral administration of CTB-APSL fusion protein can effectively reduce the levels of both fasting blood glucose (FBG and glycosylated hemoglobin (GHb, promote insulin secretion and improve insulin resistance, significantly improve lipid metabolism, reduce triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol (TC and low density lipoprotein (LDL levels and increase high density lipoprotein (HDL levels, as well as effectively improve the inflammatory response of type 2 diabetic mice through the reduction of the levels of inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6. Histopathology shows that the fusion protein can significantly repair damaged pancreatic tissue in type 2 diabetic mice, significantly improve hepatic steatosis and hepatic cell cloudy swelling, reduce the content of lipid droplets in type 2 diabetic mice, effectively inhibit renal interstitial inflammatory cells invasion and improve renal tubular epithelial cell nucleus pyknosis, thus providing an experimental basis for the development of a new type of oral therapy for type 2 diabetes.

  20. Membrane fusion is induced by a distinct peptide sequence of the sea urchin fertilization protein bindin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulrich, AS; Glabe, CG; Hoekstra, D

    1998-01-01

    Fertilization in the sea urchin is mediated by the membrane-associated acrosomal protein bindin, which plays a key role in the adhesion and fusion between sperm and egg. We have investigated the structure/function relationship of an 18-amino acid peptide fragment "B18," which represents the minimal

  1. An orange fluorescent protein tagging system for real-time pollen tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, J Hollis; Millwood, Reginald J; Mundell, Richard E; Chambers, Orlando D; Abercrombie, Laura L; Davies, H Maelor; Stewart, C Neal

    2013-09-27

    Monitoring gene flow could be important for future transgenic crops, such as those producing plant-made-pharmaceuticals (PMPs) in open field production. A Nicotiana hybrid (Nicotiana. tabacum × Nicotiana glauca) shows limited male fertility and could be used as a bioconfined PMP platform. Effective assessment of gene flow from these plants is augmented with methods that utilize fluorescent proteins for transgenic pollen identification. We report the generation of a pollen tagging system utilizing an orange fluorescent protein to monitor pollen flow and as a visual assessment of transgene zygosity of the parent plant. This system was created to generate a tagged Nicotiana hybrid that could be used for the incidence of gene flow. Nicotiana tabacum 'TN 90' and Nicotiana glauca were successfully transformed via Agrobacterium tumefaciens to express the orange fluorescent protein gene, tdTomato-ER, in pollen and a green fluorescent protein gene, mgfp5-er, was expressed in vegetative structures of the plant. Hybrids were created that utilized the fluorescent proteins as a research tool for monitoring pollen movement and gene flow. Manual greenhouse crosses were used to assess hybrid sexual compatibility with N. tabacum, resulting in seed formation from hybrid pollination in 2% of crosses, which yielded non-viable seed. Pollen transfer to the hybrid formed seed in 19% of crosses and 10 out of 12 viable progeny showed GFP expression. The orange fluorescent protein is visible when expressed in the pollen of N. glauca, N. tabacum, and the Nicotiana hybrid, although hybrid pollen did not appear as bright as the parent lines. The hybrid plants, which show limited ability to outcross, could provide bioconfinement with the benefit of detectable pollen using this system. Fluorescent protein-tagging could be a valuable tool for breeding and in vivo ecological monitoring.

  2. Enhancing the productivity of soluble green fluorescent protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-16

    Jan 16, 2012 ... 1Department of Chemical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan, South Korea. 2School ... protein sequences for consensus approach from whole sequence ..... stable proteins, especially if applied in buried or more.

  3. Expression and Purification of Neurotrophin-Elastin-Like Peptide Fusion Proteins for Neural Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tamina; Koria, Piyush

    2016-04-01

    Neural injuries such as spinal cord injuries, traumatic brain injuries, or nerve transection injuries pose a major health problem. Neurotrophins such as nerve growth factor (NGF) or brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) have been shown to improve the outcome of neural injuries in several pre-clinical models, but their use in clinics is limited by the lack of a robust delivery system that enhances their bioavailability and half-life. We describe two fusion proteins comprising NGF or BDNF fused with elastin-like peptides (ELPs). The aim of this study was to investigate the biological activity of neurotrophin-ELP (N-ELP) fusion proteins via in vitro culture models. NGF and BDNF were cloned in front of an elastin-like polypeptide sequence V40C2. These proteins were expressed in bacteria as inclusion bodies. These fusion proteins underwent solubilization via 8 M urea and purification via inverse transition cycling (ITC). We measured the particle size and the effect of temperature on precipitated particles using dynamic light scattering (DLS). We used western blot analysis to confirm the specificity of NGF-ELP to tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA) antibody and to confirm the specificity of BDNF-ELP to TrkB antibody. PC12 cells were used to perform a neurite outgrowth assay to determine the biological activity of NGF-ELP. Bioactivity of BDNF-ELP was ascertained via transfecting human epithelial kidney (HEK 293-T) cells to express the TrkB receptor. The proteins were successfully purified to high homogeneity by exploiting the phase transition property of ELPs and urea, which solubilize inclusion bodies. Using PC12 neurite outgrowth assay, we further demonstrated that the biological activity of NGF was retained in the fusion. Similarly, BDNF-ELP phosphorylated the TrkB receptor, suggesting the biological activity of BDNF was also retained in the fusion. We further show that owing to the phase transition property of ELPs in the fusion, these proteins self-assembled into

  4. Measurement of protein-like fluorescence in river and waste water using a handheld spectrophotometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Andy; Ward, David; Lieten, Shakti H; Periera, Ryan; Simpson, Ellie C; Slater, Malcolm

    2004-07-01

    Protein-like fluorescence intensity in rivers increases with increasing anthropogenic DOM inputs from sewerage and farm wastes. Here, a portable luminescence spectrophotometer was used to investigate if this technology could be used to provide both field scientists with a rapid pollution monitoring tool and process control engineers with a portable waste water monitoring device, through the measurement of river and waste water tryptophan-like fluorescence from a range of rivers in NE England and from effluents from within two waste water treatment plants. The portable spectrophotometer determined that waste waters and sewerage effluents had the highest tryptophan-like fluorescence intensity, urban streams had an intermediate tryptophan-like fluorescence intensity, and the upstream river samples of good water quality the lowest tryptophan-like fluorescence intensity. Replicate samples demonstrated that fluorescence intensity is reproducible to +/- 20% for low fluorescence, 'clean' river water samples and +/- 5% for urban water and waste waters. Correlations between fluorescence measured by the portable spectrophotometer with a conventional bench machine were 0.91; (Spearman's rho, n = 143), demonstrating that the portable spectrophotometer does correlate with tryptophan-like fluorescence intensity measured using the bench spectrophotometer.

  5. C-E1 fusion protein synthesized by rubella virus DI RNAs maintained during serial passage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzeng, W.-P.; Frey, Teryl K.

    2006-01-01

    Rubella virus (RUB) replicons are derivatives of the RUB infectious cDNA clone that retain the nonstructural open reading frame (NS-ORF) that encodes the replicase proteins but not the structural protein ORF (SP-ORF) that encodes the virion proteins. RUB defective interfering (DI) RNAs contain deletions within the SP-ORF and thus resemble replicons. DI RNAs often retain the 5' end of the capsid protein (C) gene that has been shown to modulate virus-specific RNA synthesis. However, when replicons either with or without the C gene were passaged serially in the presence of wt RUB as a source of the virion proteins, it was found that neither replicon was maintained and DI RNAs were generated. The majority DI RNA species contained in-frame deletions in the SP-ORF leading to a fusion between the 5' end of the C gene and the 3' end of the E1 glycoprotein gene. DI infectious cDNA clones were constructed and transcripts from these DI infectious cDNA clones were maintained during serial passage with wt RUB. The C-E1 fusion protein encoded by the DI RNAs was synthesized and was required for maintenance of the DI RNA during serial passage. This is the first report of a functional novel gene product resulting from deletion during DI RNA generation. Thus far, the role of the C-E1 fusion protein in maintenance of DI RNAs during serial passage remained elusive as it was found that the fusion protein diminished rather than enhanced DI RNA synthesis and was not incorporated into virus particles

  6. Serum Protein Profile Study of Clinical Samples Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Laser Induced Fluorescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karemore, Gopal Raghunath; Ukendt, Sujatha; Rai, Lavanya

    2009-01-01

    The serum protein profiles of normal subjects, patients diagnosed with cervical cancer, and oral cancer were recorded using High Performance Liquid Chromatography combined with Laser Induced Fluorescence detection (HPLC-LIF). Serum protein profiles of the above three classes were tested for estab...

  7. Effect of tissue scaffold topography on protein structure monitored by fluorescence spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Portugal, C.A.M.; Truckenmüller, R.K.; Stamatialis, Dimitrios; Crespo, J.G.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of surface topography on the structure of proteins upon adhesion was assessed through non-invasive fluorescence monitoring. This study aimed at obtaining a better understanding about the role of protein structural status on cell–scaffold interactions. The changes induced upon adsorption

  8. TGP, an extremely stable, non-aggregating fluorescent protein created by structure-guided surface engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Close, Devin W.; Don Paul, Craig; Langan, Patricia S.; Wilce, Matthew C.J.; Traore, Daouda A.K.; Halfmann, Randal; Rocha, Reginaldo C.; Waldo, Geoffery S.; Payne, Riley J.; Rucker, Joseph B.; Prescott, Mark; Bradbury, Andrew R.M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we describe the engineering and X-ray crystal structure of Thermal Green Protein (TGP), an extremely stable, highly soluble, non-aggregating green fluorescent protein. TGP is a soluble variant of the fluorescent protein eCGP123, which despite being highly stable, has proven to be aggregation-prone. The X-ray crystal structure of eCGP123, also determined within the context of this paper, was used to carry out rational surface engineering to improve its solubility, leading to TGP....

  9. New unstable variants of green fluorescent protein for studies of transient gene expression in bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Bo; Sternberg, Claus; Poulsen, Lars K.

    1998-01-01

    Use of the green fluorescent protein (Gfp) from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria ia is a powerful method for nondestructive in situ monitoring, since expression of green fluorescence does not require any substrate addition. To expand the use of Gfp as a reporter protein, new variants have been...... constructed by the addition of short peptide sequences to the C-terminal end of intact Gfp. This rendered the Gfp susceptible to the action of indigenous housekeeping proteases, resulting in protein variants with half-lives ranging from 40 min to a few hours when synthesized in Escherichia coli...

  10. The small G-proteins Rac1 and Cdc42 are essential for myoblast fusion in the mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasyutina, Elena; Martarelli, Benedetta; Brakebusch, Cord

    2009-01-01

    Rac1 and Cdc42 are small G-proteins that regulate actin dynamics and affect plasma membrane protrusion and vesicle traffic. We used conditional mutagenesis in mice to demonstrate that Rac1 and Cdc42 are essential for myoblast fusion in vivo and in vitro. The deficit in fusion of Rac1 or Cdc42 mut...... genetic analysis demonstrates thus that the function of Rac in myoblast fusion is evolutionarily conserved from insects to mammals and that Cdc42, a molecule hitherto not implicated in myoblast fusion, is essential for the fusion of murine myoblasts....

  11. Myristylation of gag-onc fusion proteins in mammalian transforming retroviruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, A.; Oroszlan, S.

    1984-01-01

    Four cell lines producing transforming proteins encoded by three mammalian oncogenes (fes, abl, and ras) were investigated for incorporation of [ 3 H]myristate into gag-onc fusion proteins. Using 5-min pulse-labelings, fusion proteins of Abelson murine leukemia virus, Gardner-Arnstein strain of feline sarcoma virus (FeSV), and Snyder-Theilen strain of FeSV were shown to be myristylated. In a 4-hr pulse, p29gag-ras of rat sarcoma virus (RaSV) was also shown to incorporate radiolabel. The fatty acid was recovered from this labeled protein by acid hydrolysis, and identified by reverse-phase thin-layer chromatography to be [ 3 H]myristic acid. The results indicate that substitution of viral gag sequences by cellular oncogene sequences does not abolish their ability to become post-translationally modified by this long chain fatty acid. It is assumed that in the fusion proteins the myristyl moiety is linked through an amide linkage to the amino-terminal glycine as previously found for several retroviral gag precursor polyproteins. The possible role of myristylation of transforming proteins is discussed

  12. Myristylation of gag-onc fusion proteins in mammalian transforming retroviruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, A.; Oroszlan, S.

    1984-03-01

    Four cell lines producing transforming proteins encoded by three mammalian oncogenes (fes, abl, and ras) were investigated for incorporation of (/sup 3/H)myristate into gag-onc fusion proteins. Using 5-min pulse-labelings, fusion proteins of Abelson murine leukemia virus, Gardner-Arnstein strain of feline sarcoma virus (FeSV), and Snyder-Theilen strain of FeSV were shown to be myristylated. In a 4-hr pulse, p29gag-ras of rat sarcoma virus (RaSV) was also shown to incorporate radiolabel. The fatty acid was recovered from this labeled protein by acid hydrolysis, and identified by reverse-phase thin-layer chromatography to be (/sup 3/H)myristic acid. The results indicate that substitution of viral gag sequences by cellular oncogene sequences does not abolish their ability to become post-translationally modified by this long chain fatty acid. It is assumed that in the fusion proteins the myristyl moiety is linked through an amide linkage to the amino-terminal glycine as previously found for several retroviral gag precursor polyproteins. The possible role of myristylation of transforming proteins is discussed.

  13. Frame-Insensitive Expression Cloning of Fluorescent Protein from Scolionema suvaense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Horiuchi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Expression cloning from cDNA is an important technique for acquiring genes encoding novel fluorescent proteins. However, the probability of in-frame cDNA insertion following the first start codon of the vector is normally only 1/3, which is a cause of low cloning efficiency. To overcome this issue, we developed a new expression plasmid vector, pRSET-TriEX, in which transcriptional slippage was induced by introducing a DNA sequence of (dT14 next to the first start codon of pRSET. The effectiveness of frame-insensitive cloning was validated by inserting the gene encoding eGFP with all three possible frames to the vector. After transformation with one of these plasmids, E. coli cells expressed eGFP with no significant difference in the expression level. The pRSET-TriEX vector was then used for expression cloning of a novel fluorescent protein from Scolionema suvaense. We screened 3658 E. coli colonies transformed with pRSET-TriEX containing Scolionema suvaense cDNA, and found one colony expressing a novel green fluorescent protein, ScSuFP. The highest score in protein sequence similarity was 42% with the chain c of multi-domain green fluorescent protein like protein “ember” from Anthoathecata sp. Variations in the N- and/or C-terminal sequence of ScSuFP compared to other fluorescent proteins indicate that the expression cloning, rather than the sequence similarity-based methods, was crucial for acquiring the gene encoding ScSuFP. The absorption maximum was at 498 nm, with an extinction efficiency of 1.17 × 105 M−1·cm−1. The emission maximum was at 511 nm and the fluorescence quantum yield was determined to be 0.6. Pseudo-native gel electrophoresis showed that the protein forms obligatory homodimers.

  14. Time-Resolved Fluorescence Immunoassay for C-Reactive Protein Using Colloidal Semiconducting Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekka Hänninen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Besides the typical short-lived fluorescence with decay times in the nanosecond range, colloidal II/VI semiconductor nanoparticles dispersed in buffer also possess a long-lived fluorescence component with decay times in the microsecond range. Here, the signal intensity of the long-lived luminescence at microsecond range is shown to increase 1,000-fold for CdTe nanoparticles in PBS buffer. This long-lived fluorescence can be conveniently employed for time-gated fluorescence detection, which allows for improved signal-to-noise ratio and thus the use of low concentrations of nanoparticles. The detection principle is demonstrated with a time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay for the detection of C-reactive protein (CRP using CdSe-ZnS nanoparticles and green light excitation.

  15. Engineering of a parainfluenza virus type 5 fusion protein (PIV-5 F): development of an autonomous and hyperfusogenic protein by a combinational mutagenesis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrier, O; Durupt, F; Cartet, G; Thomas, L; Lina, B; Rosa-Calatrava, M

    2009-12-01

    The entry of enveloped viruses into host cells is accomplished by fusion of the viral envelope with the target cell membrane. For the paramyxovirus parainfluenza virus type 5 (PIV-5), this fusion involves an attachment protein (HN) and a class I viral fusion protein (F). We investigated the effect of 20 different combinations of 12 amino-acid substitutions within functional domains of the PIV-5 F glycoprotein, by performing cell surface expression measurements, quantitative fusion and syncytia assays. We found that combinations of mutations conferring an autonomous phenotype with mutations leading to an increased fusion activity were compatible and generated functional PIV-5 F proteins. The addition of mutations in the heptad-repeat domains led to both autonomous and hyperfusogenic phenotypes, despite the low cell surface expression of the corresponding mutants. Such engineering approach may prove useful not only for deciphering the fundamental mechanism behind viral-mediated membrane fusion but also in the development of potential therapeutic applications.

  16. Proteomic Analysis of Bovine Pregnancy-specific Serum Proteins by 2D Fluorescence Difference Gel Electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Eun; Lee, Jae Young; Kim, Hong Rye; Shin, Hyun Young; Lin, Tao; Jin, Dong Il

    2015-01-01

    Two dimensional-fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE) is an emerging technique for comparative proteomics, which improves the reproducibility and reliability of differential protein expression analysis between samples. The purpose of this study was to investigate bovine pregnancy-specific proteins in the proteome between bovine pregnant and non-pregnant serum using DIGE technique. Serums of 2 pregnant Holstein dairy cattle at day 21 after artificial insemination and those of 2 non-pregnant were used in this study. The pre-electrophoretic labeling of pregnant and non-pregnant serum proteins were mixed with Cy3 and Cy5 fluorescent dyes, respectively, and an internal standard was labeled with Cy2. Labeled proteins with Cy2, Cy3, and Cy5 were separated together in a single gel, and then were detected by fluorescence image analyzer. The 2D DIGE method using fluorescence CyDye DIGE flour had higher sensitivity than conventional 2D gel electrophoresis, and showed reproducible results. Approximately 1,500 protein spots were detected by 2D DIGE. Several proteins showed a more than 1.5-fold up and down regulation between non-pregnant and pregnant serum proteins. The differentially expressed proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer. A total 16 protein spots were detected to regulate differentially in the pregnant serum, among which 7 spots were up-regulated proteins such as conglutinin precursor, modified bovine fibrinogen and IgG1, and 6 spots were down-regulated proteins such as hemoglobin, complement component 3, bovine fibrinogen and IgG2a three spots were not identified. The identified proteins demonstrate that early pregnant bovine serum may have several pregnancy-specific proteins, and these could be a valuable information for the development of pregnancy-diagnostic markers in early pregnancy bovine serum. PMID:25925056

  17. Proteomic Analysis of Bovine Pregnancy-specific Serum Proteins by 2D Fluorescence Difference Gel Electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Eun Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Two dimensional-fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE is an emerging technique for comparative proteomics, which improves the reproducibility and reliability of differential protein expression analysis between samples. The purpose of this study was to investigate bovine pregnancy-specific proteins in the proteome between bovine pregnant and non-pregnant serum using DIGE technique. Serums of 2 pregnant Holstein dairy cattle at day 21 after artificial insemination and those of 2 non-pregnant were used in this study. The pre-electrophoretic labeling of pregnant and non-pregnant serum proteins were mixed with Cy3 and Cy5 fluorescent dyes, respectively, and an internal standard was labeled with Cy2. Labeled proteins with Cy2, Cy3, and Cy5 were separated together in a single gel, and then were detected by fluorescence image analyzer. The 2D DIGE method using fluorescence CyDye DIGE flour had higher sensitivity than conventional 2D gel electrophoresis, and showed reproducible results. Approximately 1,500 protein spots were detected by 2D DIGE. Several proteins showed a more than 1.5-fold up and down regulation between non-pregnant and pregnant serum proteins. The differentially expressed proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer. A total 16 protein spots were detected to regulate differentially in the pregnant serum, among which 7 spots were up-regulated proteins such as conglutinin precursor, modified bovine fibrinogen and IgG1, and 6 spots were down-regulated proteins such as hemoglobin, complement component 3, bovine fibrinogen and IgG2a three spots were not identified. The identified proteins demonstrate that early pregnant bovine serum may have several pregnancy-specific proteins, and these could be a valuable information for the development of pregnancy-diagnostic markers in early pregnancy bovine serum.

  18. Very bright orange fluorescent plants: endoplasmic reticulum targeting of orange fluorescent proteins as visual reporters in transgenic plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mann David GJ

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The expression of fluorescent protein (FP genes as real-time visual markers, both transiently and stably, has revolutionized plant biotechnology. A palette of colors of FPs is now available for use, but the diversity has generally been underutilized in plant biotechnology. Because of the green and far-red autofluorescent properties of many plant tissues and the FPs themselves, red and orange FPs (RFPs, and OFPs, respectfully appear to be the colors with maximum utility in plant biotechnology. Within the color palette OFPs have emerged as the brightest FP markers in the visible spectra. This study compares several native, near-native and modified OFPs for their “brightness” and fluorescence, therefore, their usability as marker genes in transgenic plant tissues. Results The OFPs DsRed2, tdTomato, mOrange and pporRFP were all expressed under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter in agroinfiltration-mediated transient assays in Nicotiana benthamiana. Each of these, as well as endoplasmic reticulum (ER-targeted versions, were stably expressed in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum and Arabidopsis thaliana. Congruent results were observed between transient and stable assays. Our results demonstrated that there are several adequate OFP genes available for plant transformation, including the new pporRFP, an unaltered tetramer from the hard coral Porites porites. When the tandem dimer tdTomato and the monomeric mOrange were targeted to the ER, dramatic, ca. 3-fold, increase in plant fluorescence was observed. Conclusions From our empirical data, and a search of the literature, it appears that tdTomato-ER and mOrange-ER are the two highest fluorescing FPs available as reporters for transgenic plants. The pporRFP is a brightly fluorescing tetramer, but all tetramer FPs are far less bright than the ER-targeted monomers we report here.

  19. Flagellar membrane fusion and protein exchange in trypanosomes; a new form of cell-cell communication? [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Imhof

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Diverse structures facilitate direct exchange of proteins between cells, including plasmadesmata in plants and tunnelling nanotubes in bacteria and higher eukaryotes.  Here we describe a new mechanism of protein transfer, flagellar membrane fusion, in the unicellular parasite Trypanosoma brucei. When fluorescently tagged trypanosomes were co-cultured, a small proportion of double-positive cells were observed. The formation of double-positive cells was dependent on the presence of extracellular calcium and was enhanced by placing cells in medium supplemented with fresh bovine serum. Time-lapse microscopy revealed that double-positive cells arose by bidirectional protein exchange in the absence of nuclear transfer.  Furthermore, super-resolution microscopy showed that this process occurred in ≤1 minute, the limit of temporal resolution in these experiments. Both cytoplasmic and membrane proteins could be transferred provided they gained access to the flagellum. Intriguingly, a component of the RNAi machinery (Argonaute was able to move between cells, raising the possibility that small interfering RNAs are transported as cargo. Transmission electron microscopy showed that shared flagella contained two axonemes and two paraflagellar rods bounded by a single membrane. In some cases flagellar fusion was partial and interactions between cells were transient. In other cases fusion occurred along the entire length of the flagellum, was stable for several hours and might be irreversible. Fusion did not appear to be deleterious for cell function: paired cells were motile and could give rise to progeny while fused. The motile flagella of unicellular organisms are related to the sensory cilia of higher eukaryotes, raising the possibility that protein transfer between cells via cilia or flagella occurs more widely in nature.

  20. A green fluorescent protein with photoswitchable emission from the deep sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Vogt

    Full Text Available A colorful variety of fluorescent proteins (FPs from marine invertebrates are utilized as genetically encoded markers for live cell imaging. The increased demand for advanced imaging techniques drives a continuous search for FPs with new and improved properties. Many useful FPs have been isolated from species adapted to sun-flooded habitats such as tropical coral reefs. It has yet remained unknown if species expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP-like proteins also exist in the darkness of the deep sea. Using a submarine-based and -operated fluorescence detection system in the Gulf of Mexico, we discovered ceriantharians emitting bright green fluorescence in depths between 500 and 600 m and identified a GFP, named cerFP505, with bright fluorescence emission peaking at 505 nm. Spectroscopic studies showed that approximately 15% of the protein bulk feature reversible ON/OFF photoswitching that can be induced by alternating irradiation with blue und near-UV light. Despite being derived from an animal adapted to essentially complete darkness and low temperatures, cerFP505 maturation in living mammalian cells at 37 degrees C, its brightness and photostability are comparable to those of EGFP and cmFP512 from shallow water species. Therefore, our findings disclose the deep sea as a potential source of GFP-like molecular marker proteins.

  1. Bodipy-FL-Verapamil: A Fluorescent Probe for the Study of Multidrug Resistance Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rosati

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the substances used as fluorescent probes to study drug transport and the effect of efflux blockers in multidrug resistant cells have many drawbacks, such as toxicity, unspecific background, accumulation in mitochondria. New fluorescent compounds, among which Bodipy‐FL‐verapamil (BV, have been therefore proposed as more useful tools. The uptake of BV has been evaluated by cytofluorimetry and fluorescence microscopy using cell lines that overexpress P‐glycoprotein (P388/ADR and LLC‐PK1/ADR or MRP (multidrug resistance‐related protein (PANC‐1 and clinical specimens from patients. The effect of specific inhibitors for P‐glycoprotein (verapamil and vinblastine or MRP (MK571 and probenecid has been also studied. BV intracellular concentrations were significantly lower in the two P‐glycoprotein overexpressing cell lines in comparison with the parental lines. In addition, verapamil and vinblastine increased the intracellular concentrations of the dye; MK571 and probenecid, two MRP inhibitors, increased BV levels in PANC‐1 cells, that express this protein. These findings were confirmed in clinical specimens from patients. Fluorescence microscopy revealed a faint fluorescence emission in P‐glycoprotein or MRP expressing cell lines; however, treatment with specific inhibitors significantly increased the fluorescence. BV is a useful tool for studying multidrug resistance proteins with different techniques such as cytofluorimetry and fluorescence microscopy, but does not discriminate between P‐glycoprotein and MRP. In comparison with other classic fluorescent probes, the assay with this dye is extremely rapid, simple, not toxic for cells, devoid of fluorescent background, and can be useful in the clinical settings.

  2. Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus GP64 protein: Analysis of domain I and V amino acid interactions and membrane fusion activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Qianlong [State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, Key Laboratory of Northwest Loess Plateau Crop Pest Management of Ministry of Agriculture, College of Plant Protection, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Blissard, Gary W. [Boyce Thompson Institute, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, United State (United States); Liu, Tong-Xian [State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, Key Laboratory of Northwest Loess Plateau Crop Pest Management of Ministry of Agriculture, College of Plant Protection, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Li, Zhaofei, E-mail: zhaofeili73@outlook.com [State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, Key Laboratory of Northwest Loess Plateau Crop Pest Management of Ministry of Agriculture, College of Plant Protection, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China)

    2016-01-15

    The Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus GP64 is a class III viral fusion protein. Although the post-fusion structure of GP64 has been solved, its pre-fusion structure and the detailed mechanism of conformational change are unknown. In GP64, domain V is predicted to interact with two domain I segments that flank fusion loop 2. To evaluate the significance of the amino acids involved in these interactions, we examined 24 amino acid positions that represent interacting and conserved residues within domains I and V. In several cases, substitution of a single amino acid involved in a predicted interaction disrupted membrane fusion activity, but no single amino acid pair appears to be absolutely required. We identified 4 critical residues in domain V (G438, W439, T452, and T456) that are important for membrane fusion, and two residues (G438 and W439) that appear to be important for formation or stability of the pre-fusion conformation of GP64. - Highlights: • The baculovirus envelope glycoprotein GP64 is a class III viral fusion protein. • The detailed mechanism of conformational change of GP64 is unknown. • We analyzed 24 positions that might stabilize the post-fusion structure of GP64. • We identified 4 residues in domain V that were critical for membrane fusion. • Two residues are critical for formation of the pre-fusion conformation of GP64.

  3. A two photon absorption laser induced fluorescence diagnostic for fusion plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magee, R. M.; Galante, M. E.; McCarren, D.; Scime, E. E. [Physics Department, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); Boivin, R. L.; Brooks, N. H.; Groebner, R. J.; Hill, D. N. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92121 (United States); Porter, G. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    The quality of plasma produced in a magnetic confinement fusion device is influenced to a large extent by the neutral gas surrounding the plasma. The plasma is fueled by the ionization of neutrals, and charge exchange interactions between edge neutrals and plasma ions are a sink of energy and momentum. Here we describe a diagnostic capable of measuring the spatial distribution of neutral gas in a magnetically confined fusion plasma. A high intensity (5 MW/cm{sup 2}), narrow bandwidth (0.1 cm{sup -1}) laser is injected into a hydrogen plasma to excite the Lyman {beta} transition via the simultaneous absorption of two 205 nm photons. The absorption rate, determined by measurement of subsequent Balmer {alpha} emission, is proportional to the number of particles with a given velocity. Calibration is performed in situ by filling the chamber to a known pressure of neutral krypton and exciting a transition close in wavelength to that used in hydrogen. We present details of the calibration procedure, including a technique for identifying saturation broadening, measurements of the neutral density profile in a hydrogen helicon plasma, and discuss the application of the diagnostic to plasmas in the DIII-D tokamak.

  4. A two photon absorption laser induced fluorescence diagnostic for fusion plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, R M; Galante, M E; McCarren, D; Scime, E E; Boivin, R L; Brooks, N H; Groebner, R J; Hill, D N; Porter, G D

    2012-10-01

    The quality of plasma produced in a magnetic confinement fusion device is influenced to a large extent by the neutral gas surrounding the plasma. The plasma is fueled by the ionization of neutrals, and charge exchange interactions between edge neutrals and plasma ions are a sink of energy and momentum. Here we describe a diagnostic capable of measuring the spatial distribution of neutral gas in a magnetically confined fusion plasma. A high intensity (5 MW/cm(2)), narrow bandwidth (0.1 cm(-1)) laser is injected into a hydrogen plasma to excite the Lyman β transition via the simultaneous absorption of two 205 nm photons. The absorption rate, determined by measurement of subsequent Balmer α emission, is proportional to the number of particles with a given velocity. Calibration is performed in situ by filling the chamber to a known pressure of neutral krypton and exciting a transition close in wavelength to that used in hydrogen. We present details of the calibration procedure, including a technique for identifying saturation broadening, measurements of the neutral density profile in a hydrogen helicon plasma, and discuss the application of the diagnostic to plasmas in the DIII-D tokamak.

  5. Differential tissue expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein in ‘Green mice’

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, De-Fu; Tezuka, Hideo; Kondo, Tetsuo; Sudo, Katsuko; Niu, Dong-Feng; Nakazawa, Tadao; Kawasaki, Tomonori; Yamane, Tetsu; Nakamura, Nobuki; Katoh, Ryohei

    2010-01-01

    In order to clarify tissue expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in ‘green mice’ from a transgenic line having an EGFP cDNA under the control of a chicken beta-actin promoter and cytomegalovirus enhancer, we studied the expression of EGFP in various organs and tissues from these ‘green mice’ by immunohistochemistry with anti- EGFP antibody in conjunction with direct observation for EGFP fluorescence using confocal laser scanning microscopy. On i...

  6. Membrane fusion between baculovirus budded virus-enveloped particles and giant liposomes generated using a droplet-transfer method for the incorporation of recombinant membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishigami, Misako; Mori, Takaaki; Tomita, Masahiro; Takiguchi, Kingo; Tsumoto, Kanta

    2017-07-01

    Giant proteoliposomes are generally useful as artificial cell membranes in biochemical and biophysical studies, and various procedures for their preparation have been reported. We present here a novel preparation technique that involves the combination of i) cell-sized lipid vesicles (giant unilamellar vesicles, GUVs) that are generated using the droplet-transfer method, where lipid monolayer-coated water-in-oil microemulsion droplets interact with oil/water interfaces to form enclosed bilayer vesicles, and ii) budded viruses (BVs) of baculovirus (Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus) that express recombinant transmembrane proteins on their envelopes. GP64, a fusogenic glycoprotein on viral envelopes, is activated by weak acids and is thought to cause membrane fusion with liposomes. Using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), we observed that the single giant liposomes fused with octadecyl rhodamine B chloride (R18)-labeled wild-type BV envelopes with moderate leakage of entrapped soluble compounds (calcein), and the fusion profile depended on the pH of the exterior solution: membrane fusion occurred at pH ∼4-5. We further demonstrated that recombinant transmembrane proteins, a red fluorescent protein (RFP)-tagged GPCR (corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1, CRHR1) and envelope protein GP64 could be partly incorporated into membranes of the individual giant liposomes with a reduction of the pH value, though there were also some immobile fluorescent spots observed on their circumferences. This combination may be useful for preparing giant proteoliposomes containing the desired membranes and inner phases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Fluorescence detection of a protein-bound 2Fe2S cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Kevin G; Goodlitt, Rochelle; Li, Rui; Smolke, Christina D; Silberg, Jonathan J

    2009-03-02

    A fluorescent biosensor is described for 2Fe2S clusters that is composed of green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused to glutaredoxin 2 (Grx2), as illustrated here. 2Fe2S detection is based on the reduction of GFP fluorescence upon the 2Fe2S-induced dimerization of GFP-Grx2. This assay is sufficiently sensitive to detect submicromolar changes in 2Fe2S levels, thus making it suitable for high-throughput measurements of metallocluster degradation and synthesis reactions.

  8. [Construction of cTnC-linker-TnI (P) Genes, Expression of Fusion Protein and Preparation of Lyophilized Protein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoli; Liu, Xiaoyun; Cai, Lei; Wu, Jianwei; Wang, Jihua

    2015-12-01

    In order to construct and express human cardiac troponin C-linker-troponin I(P) [ cTnC-linker-TnI(P)] fusion protein, detect its activity and prepare lyophilized protein, we searched the CDs of human cTnC and cTnI from GenBank, synthesized cTnC and cTnI(30-110aa) into cloning vector by a short DNA sequence coding for 15 neutral amino acid residues. pCold I-cTnC-linker-TnI(P) was constructed and transformed into E. coli BL21(DE3). Then, cTnC-linker-TnI(P) fusion protein was induced by isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). Soluable expression of cTnC-linker-TnI(P) in prokaryotic system was successfully obtained. The fusion protein was purified by Ni²⁺ Sepharose 6 Fast Flow affinity chromatography with over 95% purity and prepared into lyophilized protein. The activity of purified cTnC-linker-TnI(P) and its lyophilized protein were detected by Wondfo Finecare™ cTnI Test. Lyophilized protein of cTnC-linker-TnI(P) was stable for 10 or more days at 37 °C and 4 or more months at 25 °C and 4 °C. The expression system established in this research is feasible and efficient. Lyophilized protein is stable enough to be provided as biological raw materials for further research.

  9. Fusion protein based on Grb2-SH2 domain for cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Yuriko; Furukawa, Takako; Arano, Yasushi; Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa; Saga, Tsuneo

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Grb2 mediates EGFR signaling through binding to phosphorylate EGFR with SH2 domain. → We generated fusion proteins containing 1 or 2 SH2 domains of Grb2 added with TAT. → The one with 2 SH2 domains (TSSF) interfered ERK phosphorylation. → TSSF significantly delayed the growth of EGFR overexpressing tumor in a mouse model. -- Abstract: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is one of the very attractive targets for cancer therapy. In this study, we generated fusion proteins containing one or two Src-homology 2 (SH2) domains of growth factor receptor bound protein 2 (Grb2), which bind to phosphorylated EGFR, added with HIV-1 transactivating transcription for cell membrane penetration (termed TSF and TSSF, respectively). We examined if they can interfere Grb2-mediated signaling pathway and suppress tumor growth as expected from the lack of SH3 domain, which is necessary to intermediate EGFR-Grb2 cell signaling, in the fusion proteins. The transduction efficiency of TSSF was similar to that of TSF, but the binding activity of TSSF to EGFR was higher than that of TSF. Treatment of EGFR-overexpressing cells showed that TSSF decreased p42-ERK phosphorylation, while TSF did not. Both the proteins delayed cell growth but did not induce cell death in culture. TSSF also significantly suppressed tumor growth in vivo under consecutive administration. In conclusion, TSSF showed an ability to inhibit EGFR-Grb2 signaling and could have a potential to treat EGFR-activated cancer.

  10. Domain fusion analysis by applying relational algebra to protein sequence and domain databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Kevin; Ikura, Mitsuhiko

    2003-05-06

    Domain fusion analysis is a useful method to predict functionally linked proteins that may be involved in direct protein-protein interactions or in the same metabolic or signaling pathway. As separate domain databases like BLOCKS, PROSITE, Pfam, SMART, PRINTS-S, ProDom, TIGRFAMs, and amalgamated domain databases like InterPro continue to grow in size and quality, a computational method to perform domain fusion analysis that leverages on these efforts will become increasingly powerful. This paper proposes a computational method employing relational algebra to find domain fusions in protein sequence databases. The feasibility of this method was illustrated on the SWISS-PROT+TrEMBL sequence database using domain predictions from the Pfam HMM (hidden Markov model) database. We identified 235 and 189 putative functionally linked protein partners in H. sapiens and S. cerevisiae, respectively. From scientific literature, we were able to confirm many of these functional linkages, while the remainder offer testable experimental hypothesis. Results can be viewed at http://calcium.uhnres.utoronto.ca/pi. As the analysis can be computed quickly on any relational database that supports standard SQL (structured query language), it can be dynamically updated along with the sequence and domain databases, thereby improving the quality of predictions over time.

  11. Structural characterization of the fusion core in syncytin, envelope protein of human endogenous retrovirus family W

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Rui; Peng Xiaoxue; Kang Shuli; Feng Huixing; Huang Jianying; Zhang Wentao; Lin Donghai; Tien Po; Xiao Gengfu

    2005-01-01

    Syncytin is a captive retroviral envelope protein, possibly involved in the formation of the placental syncytiotrophoblast layer generated by trophoblast cell fusion at the maternal-fetal interface. We found that syncytin and type I viral envelope proteins shared similar structural profiling, especially in the regions of N- and C-terminal heptad repeats (NHR and CHR). We expressed the predicted regions of NHR (41 aa) and CHR (34 aa) in syncytin as a native single chain (named 2-helix protein) to characterize it. 2-helix protein exists as a trimer and is highly α-helix, thermo-stable, and denatured by low pH. NHR and CHR could form a protease-resistant complex. The complex structure built by the molecular docking demonstrated that NHR and CHR associated in an antiparallel manner. Overall, the 2-helix protein could form a thermo-stable coiled coil trimer. The fusion core structure of syncytin was first demonstrated in endogenous retrovirus. These results support the explanation how syncytin mediates cytotrophoblast cell fusion involved in placental morphogenesis

  12. A novel fusion protein of IP10-scFv retains antibody specificity and chemokine function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junqing, Guo; Liu, Chen; Hongwu, Ai; Jiannian, Jing; Jiyong, Zhou; Chuyu, Zhang; Shangyou, You

    2004-07-23

    We combined the specificity of tumor-specific antibody with the chemokine function of interferon-{gamma} inducible protein 10 (IP-10) to recruit immune effector cells in the vicinity of tumor cells. A novel fusion protein of IP10-scFv was constructed by fusing mouse IP-10 to V{sub H} region of single-chain Fv fragment (scFv) against acidic isoferritin (AIF), and expressed in NS0 murine myeloma cells. The IP10-scFv fusion protein was shown to maintain the specificity of the antiAIF scFv with similar affinity constant, and bind to the human hepatocarcinoma SMMC 7721 cells secreting AIF as well as the activated mouse T lymphocytes expressing CXCR3 receptor. Furthermore, the IP10-scFv protein either in solution or bound on the surface of SMMC 7721 cells induced significant chemotaxis of mouse T cells in vitro. The results indicate that the IP10-scFv fusion protein possesses both bioactivities of the tumor-specific antibody and IP-10 chemokine, suggesting its possibility to induce an enhanced immune response against the residual tumor cells in vivo.

  13. A novel fusion protein of IP10-scFv retains antibody specificity and chemokine function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Junqing; Chen Liu; Ai Hongwu; Jing Jiannian; Zhou Jiyong; Zhang Chuyu; You Shangyou

    2004-01-01

    We combined the specificity of tumor-specific antibody with the chemokine function of interferon-γ inducible protein 10 (IP-10) to recruit immune effector cells in the vicinity of tumor cells. A novel fusion protein of IP10-scFv was constructed by fusing mouse IP-10 to V H region of single-chain Fv fragment (scFv) against acidic isoferritin (AIF), and expressed in NS0 murine myeloma cells. The IP10-scFv fusion protein was shown to maintain the specificity of the antiAIF scFv with similar affinity constant, and bind to the human hepatocarcinoma SMMC 7721 cells secreting AIF as well as the activated mouse T lymphocytes expressing CXCR3 receptor. Furthermore, the IP10-scFv protein either in solution or bound on the surface of SMMC 7721 cells induced significant chemotaxis of mouse T cells in vitro. The results indicate that the IP10-scFv fusion protein possesses both bioactivities of the tumor-specific antibody and IP-10 chemokine, suggesting its possibility to induce an enhanced immune response against the residual tumor cells in vivo

  14. Spectroscopic detection of fluorescent protein marker gene activity in genetically modified plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, O. W.; Chong, Jenny P. C.; Asundi, Anand K.

    2005-04-01

    This work focuses on developing a portable fibre optic fluorescence analyser for rapid identification of genetically modified plants tagged with a fluorescent marker gene. Independent transgenic tobacco plant lines expressing the enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) gene were regenerated following Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer. Molecular characterisation of these plant lines was carried out at the DNA level by PCR screening to confirm their transgenic status. Conventional transgene expression analysis was then carried out at the RNA level by RT-PCR and at the protein level by Western blotting using anti-GFP rabbit antiserum. The amount of plant-expressed EGFP on a Western blot was quantified against known amounts of purified EGFP by scanning densitometry. The expression level of EGFP in transformed plants was found to range from 0.1 - 0.6% of total extractable protein. A comparison between conventional western analysis of transformants and direct spectroscopic quantification using the fibre optic fluorescence analyser was made. The results showed that spectroscopic measurements of fluorescence emission from strong EGFP expressors correlated positively with Western blot data. However, the fluorescence analyser was also able to identify weakly expressing plant transformants below the detection limit of colorimetric Western blotting.

  15. A Type-2 fuzzy data fusion approach for building reliable weighted protein interaction networks with application in protein complex detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehranfar, Adele; Ghadiri, Nasser; Kouhsar, Morteza; Golshani, Ashkan

    2017-09-01

    Detecting the protein complexes is an important task in analyzing the protein interaction networks. Although many algorithms predict protein complexes in different ways, surveys on the interaction networks indicate that about 50% of detected interactions are false positives. Consequently, the accuracy of existing methods needs to be improved. In this paper we propose a novel algorithm to detect the protein complexes in 'noisy' protein interaction data. First, we integrate several biological data sources to determine the reliability of each interaction and determine more accurate weights for the interactions. A data fusion component is used for this step, based on the interval type-2 fuzzy voter that provides an efficient combination of the information sources. This fusion component detects the errors and diminishes their effect on the detection protein complexes. So in the first step, the reliability scores have been assigned for every interaction in the network. In the second step, we have proposed a general protein complex detection algorithm by exploiting and adopting the strong points of other algorithms and existing hypotheses regarding real complexes. Finally, the proposed method has been applied for the yeast interaction datasets for predicting the interactions. The results show that our framework has a better performance regarding precision and F-measure than the existing approaches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Expression and Activation of Horseradish Peroxidase-Protein A/G Fusion Protein in Silkworm Larvae for Diagnostic Purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xxxx, Patmawati; Minamihata, Kosuke; Tatsuke, Tsuneyuki; Lee, Jae Man; Kusakabe, Takahiro; Kamiya, Noriho

    2018-06-01

    Recombinant protein production can create artificial proteins with desired functions by introducing genetic modifications to the target proteins. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) has been used extensively as a reporter enzyme in biotechnological applications; however, recombinant production of HRP has not been very successful, hampering the utilization of HRP with genetic modifications. A fusion protein comprising an antibody binding protein and HRP will be an ideal bio-probe for high-quality HRP-based diagnostic systems. A HRP-protein A/G fusion protein (HRP-pAG) is designed and its production in silkworm (Bombyx mori) is evaluated for the first time. HRP-pAG is expressed in a soluble apo form, and is activated successfully by incubating with hemin. The activated HRP-pAG is used directly for ELISA experiments and retains its activity over 20 days at 4 °C. Moreover, HRP-pAG is modified with biotin by the microbial transglutaminase (MTG) reaction. The biotinylated HRP-pAG is conjugated with streptavidin to form a HRP-pAG multimer and the multimeric HRP-pAG produced higher signals in the ELISA system than monomeric HRP-pAG. The successful production of recombinant HRP in silkworm will contribute to creating novel HRP-based bioconjugates as well as further functionalization of HRP by applying enzymatic post-translational modifications. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Fluorescent Nanodiamonds with Bioorthogonally Reactive Protein-Resistant Polymeric Coatings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řehoř, Ivan; Macková, Hana; Filippov, Sergey K.; Kučka, Jan; Proks, Vladimír; Šlegerová, Jitka; Turner, S.; van Tendeloo, G.; Ledvina, Miroslav; Hrubý, Martin; Cígler, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 1 (2014), s. 21-24 ISSN 2192-6506 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/12/0640; GA MŠk(CZ) LH11027 Grant - others:OPPK(CZ) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/24016; Seventh Framework Programme of the European Union(XE) FP7-262348; European Research Council(XE) FP7-246791 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:61389013 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : click chemistry * fluorescence * nanoparticles * polymerization * solubilization Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry; CD - Macromolecular Chemistry (UMCH-V) Impact factor: 2.997, year: 2014

  18. Production of FMDV virus-like particles by a SUMO fusion protein approach in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Shu-Mei

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Virus-like particles (VLPs are formed by the self-assembly of envelope and/or capsid proteins from many viruses. Some VLPs have been proven successful as vaccines, and others have recently found applications as carriers for foreign antigens or as scaffolds in nanoparticle biotechnology. However, production of VLP was usually impeded due to low water-solubility of recombinant virus capsid proteins. Previous studies revealed that virus capsid and envelope proteins were often posttranslationally modified by SUMO in vivo, leading into a hypothesis that SUMO modification might be a common mechanism for virus proteins to retain water-solubility or prevent improper self-aggregation before virus assembly. We then propose a simple approach to produce VLPs of viruses, e.g., foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV. An improved SUMO fusion protein system we developed recently was applied to the simultaneous expression of three capsid proteins of FMDV in E. coli. The three SUMO fusion proteins formed a stable heterotrimeric complex. Proteolytic removal of SUMO moieties from the ternary complexes resulted in VLPs with size and shape resembling the authentic FMDV. The method described here can also apply to produce capsid/envelope protein complexes or VLPs of other disease-causing viruses.

  19. Ubiquitin–Synaptobrevin Fusion Protein Causes Degeneration of Presynaptic Motor Terminals in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Li, Hongqiao; Sugiura, Yoshie; Han, Weiping; Gallardo, Gilbert; Khvotchev, Mikhail; Zhang, Yinan; Kavalali, Ege T.; Südhof, Thomas C.

    2015-01-01

    Protein aggregates containing ubiquitin (Ub) are commonly observed in neurodegenerative disorders, implicating the involvement of the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) in their pathogenesis. Here, we aimed to generate a mouse model for monitoring UPS function using a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-based substrate that carries a “noncleavable” N-terminal ubiquitin moiety (UbG76V). We engineered transgenic mice expressing a fusion protein, consisting of the following: (1) UbG76V, GFP, and a synaptic vesicle protein synaptobrevin-2 (UbG76V-GFP-Syb2); (2) GFP-Syb2; or (3) UbG76V-GFP-Syntaxin1, all under the control of a neuron-specific Thy-1 promoter. As expected, UbG76V-GFP-Syb2, GFP-Syb2, and UbG76V-GFP-Sytaxin1 were highly expressed in neurons, such as motoneurons and motor nerve terminals of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Surprisingly, UbG76V-GFP-Syb2 mice developed progressive adult-onset degeneration of motor nerve terminals, whereas GFP-Syb2 and UbG76V-GFP-Syntaxin1 mice were normal. The degeneration of nerve terminals in UbG76V-GFP-Syb2 mice was preceded by a progressive impairment of synaptic transmission at the NMJs. Biochemical analyses demonstrated that UbG76V-GFP-Syb2 interacted with SNAP-25 and Syntaxin1, the SNARE partners of synaptobrevin. Ultrastructural analyses revealed a marked reduction in synaptic vesicle density, accompanying an accumulation of tubulovesicular structures at presynaptic nerve terminals. These morphological defects were largely restricted to motor nerve terminals, as the ultrastructure of motoneuron somata appeared to be normal at the stages when synaptic nerve terminals degenerated. Furthermore, synaptic vesicle endocytosis and membrane trafficking were impaired in UbG76V-GFP-Syb2 mice. These findings indicate that UbG76V-GFP-Syb2 may compete with endogenous synaptobrevin, acting as a gain-of-function mutation that impedes SNARE function, resulting in the depletion of synaptic vesicles and degeneration of the nerve

  20. Decay time shortening of fluorescence from donor-acceptor pair proteins using ultrafast time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Motoyoshi; Suzuki, Masayuki; Ganeev, Rashid A.; Kuroda, Hiroto; Ozaki, Tsuneyuki; Hamakubo, Takao; Masuda, Kazuyuki; Hayashi, Masahiro; Sakihama, Toshiko; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Kozasa, Tohru

    2007-01-01

    We improved an ultrafast time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) spectroscopy system and measured directly the decrease in the fluorescence decay time of the FRET signal, without any entanglement of components in the picosecond time scale from the donor-acceptor protein pairs (such as cameleon protein for calcium ion indicator, and ligand-activated GRIN-Go proteins pair). The drastic decrease in lifetime of the donor protein fluorescence under the FRET condition (e.g. a 47.8% decrease for a GRIN-Go protein pair) proves the deformation dynamics between donor and acceptor fluorescent proteins in an activated state of a mixed donor-acceptor protein pair. This study is the first clear evidence of physical contact of the GRIN-Go proteins pair using time-resolved FRET system. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the most important protein family for the recognition of many chemical substances at the cell surface. They are the targets of many drugs. Simultaneously, we were able to observe the time-resolved spectra of luminous proteins at the initial stage under the FRET condition, within 10 ns from excitation. This new FRET system allows us to trace the dynamics of the interaction between proteins at the ligand-induced activated state, molecular structure change and combination or dissociation. It will be a key technology for the development of protein chip technology

  1. A new approach to dual-color two-photon microscopy with fluorescent proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebane Aleks

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two-photon dual-color imaging of tissues and cells labeled with fluorescent proteins (FPs is challenging because most two-photon microscopes only provide one laser excitation wavelength at a time. At present, methods for two-photon dual-color imaging are limited due to the requirement of large differences in Stokes shifts between the FPs used and their low two-photon absorption (2PA efficiency. Results Here we present a new method of dual-color two-photon microscopy that uses the simultaneous excitation of the lowest-energy electronic transition of a blue fluorescent protein and a higher-energy electronic transition of a red fluorescent protein. Conclusion Our method does not require large differences in Stokes shifts and can be extended to a variety of FP pairs with larger 2PA efficiency and more optimal imaging properties.

  2. Shedding light on disulfide bond formation: engineering a redox switch in green fluorescent protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, H.; Henriksen, A.; Hansen, Flemming G.

    2001-01-01

    To visualize the formation of disulfide bonds in living cells, a pair of redox-active cysteines was introduced into the yellow fluorescent variant of green fluorescent protein. Formation of a disulfide bond between the two cysteines was fully reversible and resulted in a >2-fold decrease...... in the intrinsic fluorescence. Inter conversion between the two redox states could thus be followed in vitro as well as in vivoby non- invasive fluorimetric measurements. The 1.5 Angstrom crystal structure of the oxidized protein revealed a disulfide bond- induced distortion of the beta -barrel, as well...... the physiological range for redox-active cysteines. In the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli, the protein was a sensitive probe for the redox changes that occur upon disruption of the thioredoxin reductive pathway....

  3. Fluorescence-based Western blotting for quantitation of protein biomarkers in clinical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellner, Maria; Babeluk, Rita; Diestinger, Michael; Pirchegger, Petra; Skeledzic, Senada; Oehler, Rudolf

    2008-09-01

    Since most high throughput techniques used in biomarker discovery are very time and cost intensive, highly specific and quantitative analytical alternative application methods are needed for the routine analysis. Conventional Western blotting allows detection of specific proteins to the level of single isotypes while its quantitative accuracy is rather limited. We report a novel and improved quantitative Western blotting method. The use of fluorescently labelled secondary antibodies strongly extends the dynamic range of the quantitation and improves the correlation with the protein amount (r=0.997). By an additional fluorescent staining of all proteins immediately after their transfer to the blot membrane, it is possible to visualise simultaneously the antibody binding and the total protein profile. This allows for an accurate correction for protein load. Applying this normalisation it could be demonstrated that fluorescence-based Western blotting is able to reproduce a quantitative analysis of two specific proteins in blood platelet samples from 44 subjects with different diseases as initially conducted by 2D-DIGE. These results show that the proposed fluorescence-based Western blotting is an adequate application technique for biomarker quantitation and suggest possibilities of employment that go far beyond.

  4. Determination of Dynamics of Plant Plasma Membrane Proteins with Fluorescence Recovery and Raster Image Correlation Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laňková, Martina; Humpolíčková, Jana; Vosolsobě, Stanislav; Cit, Zdeněk; Lacek, Jozef; Čovan, Martin; Čovanová, Milada; Hof, Martin; Petrášek, Jan

    2016-04-01

    A number of fluorescence microscopy techniques are described to study dynamics of fluorescently labeled proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and whole organelles. However, for studies of plant plasma membrane (PM) proteins, the number of these techniques is still limited because of the high complexity of processes that determine the dynamics of PM proteins and the existence of cell wall. Here, we report on the usage of raster image correlation spectroscopy (RICS) for studies of integral PM proteins in suspension-cultured tobacco cells and show its potential in comparison with the more widely used fluorescence recovery after photobleaching method. For RICS, a set of microscopy images is obtained by single-photon confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Fluorescence fluctuations are subsequently correlated between individual pixels and the information on protein mobility are extracted using a model that considers processes generating the fluctuations such as diffusion and chemical binding reactions. As we show here using an example of two integral PM transporters of the plant hormone auxin, RICS uncovered their distinct short-distance lateral mobility within the PM that is dependent on cytoskeleton and sterol composition of the PM. RICS, which is routinely accessible on modern CLSM instruments, thus represents a valuable approach for studies of dynamics of PM proteins in plants.

  5. Preparation of fluorescent tocopherols for use in protein binding and localization with the alpha-tocopherol transfer protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Phillip; Cecchini, Matt; Chirico, Sara; Gordon, Heather; Morley, Samantha; Manor, Danny; Atkinson, Jeffrey

    2006-06-01

    Sixteen fluorescent analogues of the lipid-soluble antioxidant vitamin alpha-tocopherol were prepared incorporating fluorophores at the terminus of omega-functionalized 2-n-alkyl-substituted chromanols (1a-d and 4a-d) that match the methylation pattern of alpha-tocopherol, the most biologically active form of vitamin E. The fluorophores used include 9-anthroyloxy (AO), 7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (NBD), N-methyl anthranilamide (NMA), and dansyl (DAN). The compounds were designed to function as fluorescent reporter ligands for protein-binding and lipid transfer assays. The fluorophores were chosen to maximize the fluorescence changes observed upon moving from an aqueous environment (low fluorescence intensity) to an hydrophobic environment such as a protein's binding site (high fluorescence intensity). Compounds 9d (anthroyloxy) and 10d (nitrobenzoxadiazole), having a C9-carbon chain between the chromanol and the fluorophore, were shown to bind specifically and reversibly to recombinant human tocopherol transfer protein (alpha-TTP) with dissociation constants of approximately 280 and 60 nM, respectively, as compared to 25 nM for the natural ligand 2R,4'R,8'R-alpha-tocopherol. Thus, compounds have been prepared that allow the investigation of the rate of alpha-TTP-mediated inter-membrane transfer of alpha-tocopherol and to investigate the mechanism of alpha-TTP function at membranes of different composition.

  6. Fluorescent protein Dendra2 as a ratiometric genetically encoded pH-sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhomov, Alexey A; Martynov, Vladimir I; Orsa, Alexander N; Bondarenko, Alena A; Chertkova, Rita V; Lukyanov, Konstantin A; Petrenko, Alexander G; Deyev, Igor E

    2017-12-02

    Fluorescent protein Dendra2 is a monomeric GFP-like protein that belongs to the group of Kaede-like photoconvertible fluorescent proteins with irreversible photoconversion from a green- to red-emitting state when exposed to violet-blue light. In an acidic environment, photoconverted Dendra2 turns green due to protonation of the phenolic group of the chromophore with pKa of about 7.5. Thus, photoconverted form of Dendra2 can be potentially used as a ratiometric pH-sensor in the physiological pH range. However, incomplete photoconversion makes ratiometric measurements irreproducible when using standard filter sets. Here, we describe the method to detect fluorescence of only photoconverted Dendra2 form, but not nonconverted green Dendra2. We show that the 350 nm excitation light induces solely the fluorescence of photoconverted protein. By measuring the red to green fluorescence ratio, we determined intracellular pH in live CHO and HEK 293 cells. Thus, Dendra2 can be used as a novel ratiometric genetically encoded pH sensor with emission maxima in the green-red spectral region, which is suitable for application in live cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Higher accumulation of F1-V fusion recombinant protein in plants after induction of protein body formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, M Lucrecia; Topal, Emel; Martin, Federico; Cardineau, Guy A

    2010-01-01

    Improving foreign protein accumulation is crucial for enhancing the commercial success of plant-based production systems since product yields have a major influence on process economics. Cereal grain evolved to store large amounts of proteins in tightly organized aggregates. In maize, gamma-Zein is the major storage protein synthesized by the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and stored in specialized organelles called protein bodies (PB). Zera (gamma-Zein ER-accumulating domain) is the N-terminal proline-rich domain of gamma-zein that is sufficient to induce the assembly of PB formation. Fusion of the Zera domain to proteins of interest results in assembly of dense PB-like, ER-derived organelles, containing high concentration of recombinant protein. Our main goal was to increase recombinant protein accumulation in plants in order to enhance the efficiency of orally-delivered plant-made vaccines. It is well known that oral vaccination requires substantially higher doses than parental formulations. As a part of a project to develop a plant-made plague vaccine, we expressed our model antigen, the Yersinia pestis F1-V antigen fusion protein, with and without a fused Zera domain. We demonstrated that Zera-F1-V protein accumulation was at least 3x higher than F1-V alone when expressed in three different host plant systems: Ncotiana benthamiana, Medicago sativa (alfalfa) and Nicotiana tabacum NT1 cells. We confirmed the feasibility of using Zera technology to induce protein body formation in non-seed tissues. Zera expression and accumulation did not affect plant development and growth. These results confirmed the potential exploitation of Zera technology to substantially increase the accumulation of value-added proteins in plants.

  8. Selective Labeling of Proteins on Living Cell Membranes Using Fluorescent Nanodiamond Probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shingo Sotoma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The impeccable photostability of fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs is an ideal property for use in fluorescence imaging of proteins in living cells. However, such an application requires highly specific labeling of the target proteins with FNDs. Furthermore, the surface of unmodified FNDs tends to adsorb biomolecules nonspecifically, which hinders the reliable targeting of proteins with FNDs. Here, we combined hyperbranched polyglycerol modification of FNDs with the β-lactamase-tag system to develop a strategy for selective imaging of the protein of interest in cells. The combination of these techniques enabled site-specific labeling of Interleukin-18 receptor alpha chain, a membrane receptor, with FNDs, which eventually enabled tracking of the diffusion trajectory of FND-labeled proteins on the membrane surface.

  9. Fluorescent Pressure Response of Protein-Nanocluster Polymer Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    composites as pressure sensitive indicators of brain damage. The PNC composites are made up of protein coated gold nanoclusters and a styrene-ethylene...enhancement of the BSA- protected gold nanoclusters and the corresponding conformational changes of protein, J Phys Chem C. 2013;117:639–647...public release; distribution is unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT This research focuses on the uses of polymer gold nanocluster (PNC

  10. Biochemistry and biophysics of HIV-1 gp41 - membrane interactions and implications for HIV-1 envelope protein mediated viral-cell fusion and fusion inhibitor design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Lifeng; Gochin, Miriam; Liu, Keliang

    2011-12-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the pathogen of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), causes ~2 millions death every year and still defies an effective vaccine. HIV-1 infects host cells through envelope protein - mediated virus-cell fusion. The transmembrane subunit of envelope protein, gp41, is the molecular machinery which facilitates fusion. Its ectodomain contains several distinguishing functional domains, fusion peptide (FP), Nterminal heptad repeat (NHR), C-terminal heptad repeat (CHR) and membrane proximal extracellular region (MPER). During the fusion process, FP inserts into the host cell membrane, and an extended gp41 prehairpin conformation bridges the viral and cell membranes through MPER and FP respectively. Subsequent conformational change of the unstable prehairpin results in a coiled-coil 6-helix bundle (6HB) structure formed between NHR and CHR. The energetics of 6HB formation drives membrane apposition and fusion. Drugs targeting gp41 functional domains to prevent 6HB formation inhibit HIV-1 infection. T20 (enfuvirtide, Fuzeon) was approved by the US FDA in 2003 as the first fusion inhibitor. It is a 36-residue peptide from the gp41 CHR, and it inhibits 6HB formation by targeting NHR and lipids. Development of new fusion inhibitors, especially small molecule drugs, is encouraged to overcome the shortcomings of T20 as a peptide drug. Hydrophobic characteristics and membrane association are critical for gp41 function and mechanism of action. Research in gp41-membrane interactions, using peptides corresponding to specific functional domains, or constructs including several interactive domains, are reviewed here to get a better understanding of gp41 mediated virus-cell fusion that can inform or guide the design of new HIV-1 fusion inhibitors.

  11. The B isozyme creatine kinase is active as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koretsky, A.P.; Traxler, B.A.

    1989-01-01

    A cDNA encoding the B isozyme of creatine kinase CK B has been expressed in Escherichia coli from a fusion with lacZ carried by λgtll. Western blots indicate that a stable polypeptide with the appropriate mobility for the Β-galactosidase-creatine kinase Β-gal-CK B ) fusion protein cross-reacts with both Β-gal and CK B antiserum. No significant CK activity is detected in control E. coli; however, extracts from cells containing the λgtll-CK B construct have a CK activity of 1.54j0.07 μmol/min per mg protein. The fusion protein appears to provide this activity bacause immunoprecipitation of protein with Β-gal antiserum leads to a loss of CK activity from extracts. That the enzyme is active in vivo was demonstrated by detection of a phosphocreatine (PCr) peak in the 31 P NMR spectrum from E. coli grown on medium supplemented with creatine. As in mammalian brain and muscle, the PCr peak detected was sensitive to the energy status of the E. coli. (author). 17 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 tab

  12. Sizing protein-templated gold nanoclusters by time resolved fluorescence anisotropy decay measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleilhac, Antonin; Bertorelle, Franck; Antoine, Rodolphe

    2018-03-01

    Protein-templated gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) are very attractive due to their unique fluorescence properties. A major problem however may arise due to protein structure changes upon the nucleation of an AuNC within the protein for any future use as in vivo probes, for instance. In this work, we propose a simple and reliable fluorescence based technique measuring the hydrodynamic size of protein-templated gold nanoclusters. This technique uses the relation between the time resolved fluorescence anisotropy decay and the hydrodynamic volume, through the rotational correlation time. We determine the molecular size of protein-directed AuNCs, with protein templates of increasing sizes, e.g. insulin, lysozyme, and bovine serum albumin (BSA). The comparison of sizes obtained by other techniques (e.g. dynamic light scattering and small-angle X-ray scattering) between bare and gold clusters containing proteins allows us to address the volume changes induced either by conformational changes (for BSA) or the formation of protein dimers (for insulin and lysozyme) during cluster formation and incorporation.

  13. Sizing protein-templated gold nanoclusters by time resolved fluorescence anisotropy decay measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleilhac, Antonin; Bertorelle, Franck; Antoine, Rodolphe

    2018-03-15

    Protein-templated gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) are very attractive due to their unique fluorescence properties. A major problem however may arise due to protein structure changes upon the nucleation of an AuNC within the protein for any future use as in vivo probes, for instance. In this work, we propose a simple and reliable fluorescence based technique measuring the hydrodynamic size of protein-templated gold nanoclusters. This technique uses the relation between the time resolved fluorescence anisotropy decay and the hydrodynamic volume, through the rotational correlation time. We determine the molecular size of protein-directed AuNCs, with protein templates of increasing sizes, e.g. insulin, lysozyme, and bovine serum albumin (BSA). The comparison of sizes obtained by other techniques (e.g. dynamic light scattering and small-angle X-ray scattering) between bare and gold clusters containing proteins allows us to address the volume changes induced either by conformational changes (for BSA) or the formation of protein dimers (for insulin and lysozyme) during cluster formation and incorporation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Blood-brain barrier drug delivery of IgG fusion proteins with a transferrin receptor monoclonal antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardridge, William M

    2015-02-01

    Biologic drugs are large molecules that do not cross the blood- brain barrier (BBB). Brain penetration is possible following the re-engineering of the biologic drug as an IgG fusion protein. The IgG domain is a MAb against an endogenous BBB receptor such as the transferrin receptor (TfR). The TfRMAb acts as a molecular Trojan horse to ferry the fused biologic drug into the brain via receptor-mediated transport on the endogenous BBB TfR. This review discusses TfR isoforms, models of BBB transport of transferrin and TfRMAbs, and the genetic engineering of TfRMAb fusion proteins, including BBB penetrating IgG-neurotrophins, IgG-decoy receptors, IgG-lysosomal enzyme therapeutics and IgG-avidin fusion proteins, as well as BBB transport of bispecific antibodies formed by fusion of a therapeutic antibody to a TfRMAb targeting antibody. Also discussed are quantitative aspects of the plasma pharmacokinetics and brain uptake of TfRMAb fusion proteins, as compared to the brain uptake of small molecules, and therapeutic applications of TfRMAb fusion proteins in mouse models of neural disease, including Parkinson's disease, stroke, Alzheimer's disease and lysosomal storage disorders. The review covers the engineering of TfRMAb-avidin fusion proteins for BBB targeted delivery of biotinylated peptide radiopharmaceuticals, low-affinity TfRMAb Trojan horses and the safety pharmacology of chronic administration of TfRMAb fusion proteins. The BBB delivery of biologic drugs is possible following re-engineering as a fusion protein with a molecular Trojan horse such as a TfRMAb. The efficacy of this technology will be determined by the outcome of future clinical trials.

  15. CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Fluorescent Tagging of Endogenous Proteins in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Arun; Toepfer, Christopher N; Ward, Tarsha; Wasson, Lauren; Agarwal, Radhika; Conner, David A; Hu, Johnny H; Seidman, Christine E

    2018-01-24

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) can be used to mass produce surrogates of human tissues, enabling new advances in drug screening, disease modeling, and cell therapy. Recent developments in clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 genome editing technology use homology-directed repair (HDR) to efficiently generate custom hiPSC lines harboring a variety of genomic insertions and deletions. Thus, hiPSCs that encode an endogenous protein fused to a fluorescent reporter protein can be rapidly created by employing CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing, enhancing HDR efficiency and optimizing homology arm length. These fluorescently tagged hiPSCs can be used to visualize protein function and dynamics in real time as cells proliferate and differentiate. Given that nearly any intracellular protein can be fluorescently tagged, this system serves as a powerful tool to facilitate new discoveries across many biological disciplines. In this unit, we present protocols for the design, generation, and monoclonal expansion of genetically customized hiPSCs encoding fluorescently tagged endogenous proteins. © 2018 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  16. Plasmonic photocatalyst-like fluorescent proteins for generating reactive oxygen species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leem, Jung Woo; Kim, Seong-Ryul; Choi, Kwang-Ho; Kim, Young L.

    2018-03-01

    The recent advances in photocatalysis have opened a variety of new possibilities for energy and biomedical applications. In particular, plasmonic photocatalysis using hybridization of semiconductor materials and metal nanoparticles has recently facilitated the rapid progress in enhancing photocatalytic efficiency under visible or solar light. One critical underlying aspect of photocatalysis is that it generates and releases reactive oxygen species (ROS) as intermediate or final products upon light excitation or activation. Although plasmonic photocatalysis overcomes the limitation of UV irradiation, synthesized metal/semiconductor nanomaterial photocatalysts often bring up biohazardous and environmental issues. In this respect, this review article is centered in identifying natural photosensitizing organic materials that can generate similar types of ROS as those of plasmonic photocatalysis. In particular, we propose the idea of plasmonic photocatalyst-like fluorescent proteins for ROS generation under visible light irradiation. We recapitulate fluorescent proteins that have Type I and Type II photosensitization properties in a comparable manner to plasmonic photocatalysis. Plasmonic photocatalysis and protein photosensitization have not yet been compared systemically in terms of ROS photogeneration under visible light, although the phototoxicity and cytotoxicity of some fluorescent proteins are well recognized. A comprehensive understanding of plasmonic photocatalyst-like fluorescent proteins and their potential advantages will lead us to explore new environmental, biomedical, and defense applications.

  17. Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Investigation of the Structural Topology and Lipid Interactions of a Viral Fusion Protein Chimera Containing the Fusion Peptide and Transmembrane Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hongwei; Lee, Myungwoon; Liao, Shu-Yu; Hong, Mei

    2016-12-13

    The fusion peptide (FP) and transmembrane domain (TMD) of viral fusion proteins play important roles during virus-cell membrane fusion, by inducing membrane curvature and transient dehydration. The structure of the water-soluble ectodomain of viral fusion proteins has been extensively studied crystallographically, but the structures of the FP and TMD bound to phospholipid membranes are not well understood. We recently investigated the conformations and lipid interactions of the separate FP and TMD peptides of parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) fusion protein F using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance. These studies provide structural information about the two domains when they are spatially well separated in the fusion process. To investigate how these two domains are structured relative to each other in the postfusion state, when the ectodomain forms a six-helix bundle that is thought to force the FP and TMD together in the membrane, we have now expressed and purified a chimera of the FP and TMD, connected by a Gly-Lys linker, and measured the chemical shifts and interdomain contacts of the protein in several lipid membranes. The FP-TMD chimera exhibits α-helical chemical shifts in all the membranes examined and does not cause strong curvature of lamellar membranes or membranes with negative spontaneous curvature. These properties differ qualitatively from those of the separate peptides, indicating that the FP and TMD interact with each other in the lipid membrane. However, no 13 C- 13 C cross peaks are observed in two-dimensional correlation spectra, suggesting that the two helices are not tightly associated. These results suggest that the ectodomain six-helix bundle does not propagate into the membrane to the two hydrophobic termini. However, the loosely associated FP and TMD helices are found to generate significant negative Gaussian curvature to membranes that possess spontaneous positive curvature, consistent with the notion that the FP-TMD assembly may

  18. Nuclear localization and transactivating capacities of the papillary renal cell carcinoma-associated TFE3 and PRCC (fusion) proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weterman, M. A. J.; van Groningen, J. J.; Jansen, A.; van Kessel, A. G.

    2000-01-01

    The papillary renal cell carcinoma-associated t(X;1)(p11;q21) leads to fusion of the transcription factor TFE3 gene on the X-chromosome to a novel gene, PRCC, on chromosome 1. As a result, two putative fusion proteins are formed: PRCCTFE3, which contains all known domains for DNA binding,

  19. DNA-hosted copper nanoclusters/graphene oxide based fluorescent biosensor for protein kinase activity detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mengke; Lin, Zihan; Liu, Qing; Jiang, Shan; Liu, Hua; Su, Xingguang

    2018-07-05

    A novel fluorescent biosensor for protein kinase activity (PKA) detection was designed by applying double-strands DNA-hosted copper nanoclusters (dsDNA-CuNCs) and graphene oxide (GO). One DNA strand of the dsDNA consisted of two domains, one domain can hybridize with another complementary DNA strand to stabilize the fluorescent CuNCs and another domain was adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) aptamer. ATP aptamer of the dsDNA-CuNCs would be spontaneously absorbed onto the GO surface through π-π stacking interactions. Thus GO can efficiently quench the fluorescence (FL) of dsDNA-CuNCs through fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). In the present of ATP, ATP specifically combined with ATP aptamer to form ATP-ATP aptamer binding complexes, which had much less affinity to GO, resulting in the fluorescence recovery of the system. Nevertheless, in the presence of PKA, ATP could be translated into ADP and ADP could not combine with ATP aptamer resulting in the fluorescence quenching of dsDNA-CuNCs again. According to the change of the fluorescence signal, PKA activity could be successfully monitored in the range of 0.1-5.0 U mL -1 with a detection limit (LOD) of 0.039 U mL -1 . Besides, the inhibitory effect of H-89 on PKA activity was studied. The sensor was performed for PKA activity detection in cell lysates with satisfactory results. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Fluorescent QDs-polystyrene composite nanospheres for highly efficient and rapid protein antigen detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Changhua; Mao, Mao [Henan University, Key Laboratory for Special Functional Materials of the Ministry of Education (China); Yuan, Hang [Tsinghua University, Life Science Division, Graduate School at Shenzhen (China); Shen, Huaibin [Henan University, Key Laboratory for Special Functional Materials of the Ministry of Education (China); Wu, Feng; Ma, Lan, E-mail: malan@sz.tsinghua.edu.cn [Tsinghua University, Life Science Division, Graduate School at Shenzhen (China); Li, Lin Song, E-mail: lsli@henu.edu.cn [Henan University, Key Laboratory for Special Functional Materials of the Ministry of Education (China)

    2013-09-15

    In this paper, high-quality carboxyl-functionalized fluorescent (red, green, and blue emitting) nanospheres (46-103 nm) consisting of hydrophobic quantum dots (QDs) and polystyrene were prepared by a miniemulsion polymerization approach. This miniemulsion polymerization approach induced a homogeneous distribution and high aqueous-phase transport efficiency of fluorescent QDs in composite nanospheres, which proved the success of our encoding QDs strategy. The obtained fluorescent nanospheres exhibited high stability in aqueous solution under a wide range of pH, different salt concentrations, PBS buffer, and thermal treatment at 80 Degree-Sign C. Based on the red emitting composite nanosphere, we performed fluorescent lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) strips for high-sensitivity and rapid alpha-fetal protein detection. The detection limit reached 0.1 ng/mL, which was 200 times higher than commercial colloidal gold-labeled LFIA strips, and it reached similar detection level in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit.

  1. Red fluorescent protein responsible for pigmentation in trematode-infected Porites compressa tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Caroline V; Roth, Melissa S; Gates, Ruth D

    2009-02-01

    Reports of coral disease have increased dramatically over the last decade; however, the biological mechanisms that corals utilize to limit infection and resist disease remain poorly understood. Compromised coral tissues often display non-normal pigmentation that potentially represents an inflammation-like response, although these pigments remain uncharacterized. Using spectral emission analysis and cryo-histological and electrophoretic techniques, we investigated the pink pigmentation associated with trematodiasis, infection with Podocotyloides stenometre larval trematode, in Porites compressa. Spectral emission analysis reveals that macroscopic areas of pink pigmentation fluoresce under blue light excitation (450 nm) and produce a broad emission peak at 590 nm (+/-6) with a 60-nm full width at half maximum. Electrophoretic protein separation of pigmented tissue extract confirms the red fluorescence to be a protein rather than a low-molecular-weight compound. Histological sections demonstrate green fluorescence in healthy coral tissue and red fluorescence in the trematodiasis-compromised tissue. The red fluorescent protein (FP) is limited to the epidermis, is not associated with cells or granules, and appears unstructured. These data collectively suggest that the red FP is produced and localized in tissue infected by larval trematodes and plays a role in the immune response in corals.

  2. Multiplexed fluorescent microarray for human salivary protein analysis using polymer microspheres and fiber-optic bundles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Shuai; Benito-Peña, Elena; Zhang, Huaibin; Wu, Yue; Walt, David R

    2013-10-10

    Herein, we describe a protocol for simultaneously measuring six proteins in saliva using a fiber-optic microsphere-based antibody array. The immuno-array technology employed combines the advantages of microsphere-based suspension array fabrication with the use of fluorescence microscopy. As described in the video protocol, commercially available 4.5 μm polymer microspheres were encoded into seven different types, differentiated by the concentration of two fluorescent dyes physically trapped inside the microspheres. The encoded microspheres containing surface carboxyl groups were modified with monoclonal capture antibodies through EDC/NHS coupling chemistry. To assemble the protein microarray, the different types of encoded and functionalized microspheres were mixed and randomly deposited in 4.5 μm microwells, which were chemically etched at the proximal end of a fiber-optic bundle. The fiber-optic bundle was used as both a carrier and for imaging the microspheres. Once assembled, the microarray was used to capture proteins in the saliva supernatant collected from the clinic. The detection was based on a sandwich immunoassay using a mixture of biotinylated detection antibodies for different analytes with a streptavidin-conjugated fluorescent probe, R-phycoerythrin. The microarray was imaged by fluorescence microscopy in three different channels, two for microsphere registration and one for the assay signal. The fluorescence micrographs were then decoded and analyzed using a homemade algorithm in MATLAB.

  3. Functional NifD-K fusion protein in Azotobacter vinelandii is a homodimeric complex equivalent to the native heterotetrameric MoFe protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahiri, Surobhi; Pulakat, Lakshmi; Gavini, Nara

    2005-01-01

    The MoFe protein of the complex metalloenzyme nitrogenase folds as a heterotetramer containing two copies each of the homologous α and β subunits, encoded by the nifD and the nifK genes respectively. Recently, the functional expression of a fusion NifD-K protein of nitrogenase was demonstrated in Azotobacter vinelandii, strongly implying that the MoFe protein is flexible as it could accommodate major structural changes, yet remain functional [M.H. Suh, L. Pulakat, N. Gavini, J. Biol. Chem. 278 (2003) 5353-5360]. This finding led us to further explore the type of interaction between the fused MoFe protein units. We aimed to determine whether an interaction exists between the two fusion MoFe proteins to form a homodimer that is equivalent to native heterotetrameric MoFe protein. Using the Bacteriomatch Two-Hybrid System, translationally fused constructs of NifD-K (fusion) with the full-length λCI of the pBT bait vector and also NifD-K (fusion) with the N-terminal α-RNAP of the pTRG target vector were made. To compare the extent of interaction between the fused NifD-K proteins to that of the β-β interactions in the native MoFe protein, we proceeded to generate translationally fused constructs of NifK with the α-RNAP of the pTRG vector and λCI protein of the pBT vector. The strength of the interaction between the proteins in study was determined by measuring the β-galactosidase activity and extent of ampicillin resistance of the colonies expressing these proteins. This analysis demonstrated that direct protein-protein interaction exists between NifD-K fusion proteins, suggesting that they exist as homodimers. As the interaction takes place at the β-interfaces of the NifD-K fusion proteins, we propose that these homodimers of NifD-K fusion protein may function in a similar manner as that of the heterotetrameric native MoFe protein. The observation that the extent of protein-protein interaction between the β-subunits of the native MoFe protein in Bacterio

  4. Pioglitazone Induces a Proadipogenic Antitumor Response in Mice with PAX8-PPARγ Fusion Protein Thyroid Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Dobson, Melissa E.; Diallo-Krou, Ericka; Grachtchouk, Vladimir; Yu, Jingcheng; Colby, Lesley A.; Wilkinson, John E.; Giordano, Thomas J.; Koenig, Ronald J.

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 35% of follicular thyroid carcinomas harbor a chromosomal translocation that results in expression of a paired box gene 8-peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ gene (PPARγ) fusion protein (PPFP). To better understand the oncogenic role of PPFP and its relationship to endogenous PPARγ, we generated a transgenic mouse model that combines Cre-dependent PPFP expression (PPFP;Cre) with homozygous deletion of floxed Pten (PtenFF;Cre), both thyroid specific. Although neither PPF...

  5. High-performance fluorescence-encoded magnetic microbeads as microfluidic protein chip supports for AFP detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Xiaoqun [School of Life Sciences, Tianjin Engineering Center of Micro-Nano Biomaterials and Detection-Treatment Technology, Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Yan, Huan; Yang, Jiumin [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, 300052 (China); Wu, Yudong; Zhang, Jian; Yao, Yingyi [School of Life Sciences, Tianjin Engineering Center of Micro-Nano Biomaterials and Detection-Treatment Technology, Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Liu, Ping [Bioscience (Tianjin) Diagnostic Technology CO., LTD, Tianjin, 300300 (China); Wang, Huiquan [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Electronics and Information Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin, 300387 (China); Hu, Zhidong, E-mail: huzhidong27@163.com [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, 300052 (China); Chang, Jin, E-mail: jinchang@tju.edu.cn [School of Life Sciences, Tianjin Engineering Center of Micro-Nano Biomaterials and Detection-Treatment Technology, Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2016-10-05

    Fluorescence-encoded magnetic microbeads (FEMMs), with the fluorescence encoding ability of quantum dots (QDs) and magnetic enrichment and separation functions of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles, have been widely used for multiple biomolecular detection as microfluidic protein chip supports. However, the preparation of FEMMs with long-term fluorescent encoding and immunodetection stability is still a challenge. In this work, we designed a novel high-temperature chemical swelling strategy. The QDs and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were effectively packaged into microbeads via the thermal motion of the polymer chains and the hydrophobic interaction between the nanoparticles and microbeads. The FEMMs obtained a highly uniform fluorescent property and long-term encoding and immunodetection stability and could be quickly magnetically separated and enriched. Then, the QD-encoded magnetic microbeads were applied to alpha fetoprotein (AFP) detection via sandwich immunoreaction. The properties of the encoded microspheres were characterized using a self-designed detecting apparatus, and the target molecular concentration in the sample was also quantified. The results suggested that the high-performance FEMMs have great potential in the field of biomolecular detection. - Graphical abstract: We designed a novel strategy to prepare a kind of high-performance fluorescence-encoded magnetic microbeads as microfluidic protein chip support with long-time fluorescent encoding and immunodetection stability for AFP detection. - Highlights: • A novel strategy combined the high temperature with chemical swelling technology is designed. • Based on hydrophobic interaction and polymer thermal motion, QDs and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} were effectively packaged into microbeads. • The fluorescence-encoded magnetic microbeads show long-term fluorescent encoding and immunodetection stability.

  6. TALE-PvuII Fusion Proteins – Novel Tools for Gene Targeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanik, Mert; Alzubi, Jamal; Lahaye, Thomas; Cathomen, Toni; Pingoud, Alfred; Wende, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) consist of zinc fingers as DNA-binding module and the non-specific DNA-cleavage domain of the restriction endonuclease FokI as DNA-cleavage module. This architecture is also used by TALE nucleases (TALENs), in which the DNA-binding modules of the ZFNs have been replaced by DNA-binding domains based on transcription activator like effector (TALE) proteins. Both TALENs and ZFNs are programmable nucleases which rely on the dimerization of FokI to induce double-strand DNA cleavage at the target site after recognition of the target DNA by the respective DNA-binding module. TALENs seem to have an advantage over ZFNs, as the assembly of TALE proteins is easier than that of ZFNs. Here, we present evidence that variant TALENs can be produced by replacing the catalytic domain of FokI with the restriction endonuclease PvuII. These fusion proteins recognize only the composite recognition site consisting of the target site of the TALE protein and the PvuII recognition sequence (addressed site), but not isolated TALE or PvuII recognition sites (unaddressed sites), even at high excess of protein over DNA and long incubation times. In vitro, their preference for an addressed over an unaddressed site is > 34,000-fold. Moreover, TALE-PvuII fusion proteins are active in cellula with minimal cytotoxicity. PMID:24349308

  7. TALE-PvuII fusion proteins--novel tools for gene targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanik, Mert; Alzubi, Jamal; Lahaye, Thomas; Cathomen, Toni; Pingoud, Alfred; Wende, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) consist of zinc fingers as DNA-binding module and the non-specific DNA-cleavage domain of the restriction endonuclease FokI as DNA-cleavage module. This architecture is also used by TALE nucleases (TALENs), in which the DNA-binding modules of the ZFNs have been replaced by DNA-binding domains based on transcription activator like effector (TALE) proteins. Both TALENs and ZFNs are programmable nucleases which rely on the dimerization of FokI to induce double-strand DNA cleavage at the target site after recognition of the target DNA by the respective DNA-binding module. TALENs seem to have an advantage over ZFNs, as the assembly of TALE proteins is easier than that of ZFNs. Here, we present evidence that variant TALENs can be produced by replacing the catalytic domain of FokI with the restriction endonuclease PvuII. These fusion proteins recognize only the composite recognition site consisting of the target site of the TALE protein and the PvuII recognition sequence (addressed site), but not isolated TALE or PvuII recognition sites (unaddressed sites), even at high excess of protein over DNA and long incubation times. In vitro, their preference for an addressed over an unaddressed site is > 34,000-fold. Moreover, TALE-PvuII fusion proteins are active in cellula with minimal cytotoxicity.

  8. Synchronous fluorescence based biosensor for albumin determination by cooperative binding of fluorescence probe in a supra-biomolecular host-protein assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Digambara

    2010-01-15

    A synchronous fluorescence probe based biosensor for estimation of albumin with high sensitivity and selectivity was developed. Unlike conventional fluorescence emission or excitation spectral measurements, synchronous fluorescence measurement offered exclusively a new synchronous fluorescence peak in the shorter wavelength range upon binding of chrysene with protein making it an easy identification tool for albumin determination. The cooperative binding of a fluorescence probe, chrysene, in a supramolecular host-protein assembly during various albumin assessments was investigated. The presence of supramolecular host molecules such as beta-cyclodextrin, curucurbit[6]uril or curucurbit[7]uril have little influence on sensitivity or limit of detection during albumin determination but reduced dramatically interference from various coexisting metal ion quenchers/enhancers. Using the present method the limit of detection for BSA and gamma-Globulin was found to be 0.005 microM which is more sensitive than reported values. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. IQCJ-SCHIP1, a novel fusion transcript encoding a calmodulin-binding IQ motif protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwasnicka-Crawford, Dorota A.; Carson, Andrew R.; Scherer, Stephen W.

    2006-01-01

    The existence of transcripts that span two adjacent, independent genes is considered rare in the human genome. This study characterizes a novel human fusion gene named IQCJ-SCHIP1. IQCJ-SCHIP1 is the longest isoform of a complex transcriptional unit that bridges two separate genes that encode distinct proteins, IQCJ, a novel IQ motif containing protein and SCHIP1, a schwannomin interacting protein that has been previously shown to interact with the Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) protein. IQCJ-SCHIP1 is located on the chromosome 3q25 and comprises a 1692-bp transcript encompassing 11 exons spanning 828 kb of the genomic DNA. We show that IQCJ-SCHIP1 mRNA is highly expressed in the brain. Protein encoded by the IQCJ-SCHIP1 gene was localized to cytoplasm and actin-rich regions and in differentiated PC12 cells was also seen in neurite extensions

  10. Preparation of fluorescence quenched libraries containing interchain disulphide bonds for studies of protein disulphide isomerases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spetzler, J C; Westphal, V; Winther, Jakob R.

    1998-01-01

    Protein disulphide isomerase is an enzyme that catalyses disulphide redox reactions in proteins. In this paper, fluorogenic and interchain disulphide bond containing peptide libraries and suitable substrates, useful in the study of protein disulphide isomerase, are described. In order to establish...... the quenching chromophore (Tyr(NO2)) and Cys(pNpys) activated for reaction with a second thiol. The formation and cleavage of the interchain disulphide bonds in the library were monitored under a fluorescence microscope. Substrates to investigate the properties of protein disulphide isomerase in solution were...

  11. IR-FEL-induced green fluorescence protein (GFP) gene transfer into plant cell

    CERN Document Server

    Awazu, K; Tamiya, E

    2002-01-01

    A Free Electron Laser (FEL) holds potential for various biotechnological applications due to its characteristics such as flexible wavelength tunability, short pulse and high peak power. We could successfully introduce the Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) gene into tobacco BY2 cells by IR-FEL laser irradiation. The irradiated area of the solution containing BY2 cells and plasmid was about 0.1 mm sup 2. FEL irradiation at a wavelength of 5.75 and 6.1 mu m, targeting absorption by the ester bond of the lipid and the amide I bond of the protein, respectively, was shown to cause the introduction of the fluorescent dye into the cell. On the other hand, transient expression of the GFP fluorescence was only observed after irradiation at 5.75 mu m. The maximum transfer efficiency was about 0.5%.

  12. Chromophore Structure of Photochromic Fluorescent Protein Dronpa: Acid-Base Equilibrium of Two Cis Configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashino, Asuka; Mizuno, Misao; Mizutani, Yasuhisa

    2016-04-07

    Dronpa is a novel photochromic fluorescent protein that exhibits fast response to light. The present article is the first report of the resonance and preresonance Raman spectra of Dronpa. We used the intensity and frequency of Raman bands to determine the structure of the Dronpa chromophore in two thermally stable photochromic states. The acid-base equilibrium in one photochromic state was observed by spectroscopic pH titration. The Raman spectra revealed that the chromophore in this state shows a protonation/deprotonation transition with a pKa of 5.2 ± 0.3 and maintains the cis configuration. The observed resonance Raman bands showed that the other photochromic state of the chromophore is in a trans configuration. The results demonstrate that Raman bands selectively enhanced for the chromophore yield valuable information on the molecular structure of the chromophore in photochromic fluorescent proteins after careful elimination of the fluorescence background.

  13. Protein A Detection Based on Quantum Dots-Antibody Bioprobe Using Fluorescence Coupled Capillary Electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Qiu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this report, fluorescence detection coupled capillary electrophoresis (CE-FL was used to detect Protein A. Antibody was first labeled with Cy5 and then mixed with quantum dots (QDs to form QDs-antibody bioprobe. Further, we observed fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET from QDs donor to Cy5 acceptor. The bioprobe was formed and brought QDs and Cy5 close enough to allow FRET to occur. After adding protein A, the FRET system was broken and caused the FRET signal to decrease. Thus, a new method for the determination of protein A was proposed based on the FRET signal changes. This study provides a new trail of thought for the detection of protein.

  14. Stability of some Cactaceae proteins based on fluorescence, circular dichroism, and differential scanning calorimetry measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorinstein, S; Zemser, M; Vargas-Albores, F; Ochoa, J L; Paredes-Lopez, O; Scheler, C; Aksu, S; Salnikow, J

    1999-02-01

    Characterization of three cactus proteins (native and denatured) from Machaerocereus gummosus (Pitahaya agria), Lophocereu schottii (Garambullo), and Cholla opuntia (Cholla), was based on electrophoretic, fluorescence, CD (circular dichroism), DSC (differential scanning calorimetry), and FT-IR (Fourier transform infrared) measurements. The obtained results of intrinsic fluorescence, DSC, and CD were dissimilar for the three species of cactus, providing evidence of differences in secondary and tertiary structures. Cactus proteins may be situated in the following order corresponding to their relative stability: Machaerocereus gummosus (Pitahaya agria) > Cholla opuntia (Cholla) > Lophocereu schottii (Garambullo). Thermodynamic properties of proteins and their changes upon denaturation (temperature of denaturation, enthalphy, and the number of ruptured hydrogen bonds) were correlated with the secondary structure of proteins and disappearance of alpha-helix.

  15. Antibody-cytokine fusion proteins for treatment of cancer: engineering cytokines for improved efficacy and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Patricia A; Morrison, Sherie L; Timmerman, John M

    2014-10-01

    The true potential of cytokine therapies in cancer treatment is limited by the inability to deliver optimal concentrations into tumor sites due to dose-limiting systemic toxicities. To maximize the efficacy of cytokine therapy, recombinant antibody-cytokine fusion proteins have been constructed by a number of groups to harness the tumor-targeting ability of monoclonal antibodies. The aim is to guide cytokines specifically to tumor sites where they might stimulate more optimal anti-tumor immune responses while avoiding the systemic toxicities of free cytokine therapy. Antibody-cytokine fusion proteins containing interleukin (IL)-2, IL-12, IL-21, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, and interferons (IFNs) α, β, and γ have been constructed and have shown anti-tumor activity in preclinical and early-phase clinical studies. Future priorities for development of this technology include optimization of tumor targeting, bioactivity of the fused cytokine, and choice of appropriate agents for combination therapies. This review is intended to serve as a framework for engineering an ideal antibody-cytokine fusion protein, focusing on previously developed constructs and their clinical trial results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Purification, crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of human dynamin-related protein 1 GTPase-GED fusion protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinglmayr, Eva; Wenger, Julia; Mayr, Sandra; Bossy-Wetzel, Ella; Puehringer, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    The crystallization and initial diffraction analysis of human Drp1 GTPase-GED fusion protein are reported. The mechano-enzyme dynamin-related protein 1 plays an important role in mitochondrial fission and is implicated in cell physiology. Dysregulation of Drp1 is associated with abnormal mitochondrial dynamics and neuronal damage. Drp1 shares structural and functional similarities with dynamin 1 with respect to domain organization, ability to self-assemble into spiral-like oligomers and GTP-cycle-dependent membrane scission. Structural studies of human dynamin-1 have greatly improved the understanding of this prototypical member of the dynamin superfamily. However, high-resolution structural information for full-length human Drp1 covering the GTPase domain, the middle domain and the GTPase effector domain (GED) is still lacking. In order to obtain mechanistic insights into the catalytic activity, a nucleotide-free GTPase-GED fusion protein of human Drp1 was expressed, purified and crystallized. Initial X-ray diffraction experiments yielded data to 2.67 Å resolution. The hexagonal-shaped crystals belonged to space group P2 1 2 1 2, with unit-cell parameters a = 53.59, b = 151.65, c = 43.53 Å, one molecule per asymmetric unit and a solvent content of 42%. Expression of selenomethionine-labelled protein is currently in progress. Here, the expression, purification, crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of the Drp1 GTPase-GED fusion protein are presented, which form a basis for more detailed structural and biophysical analysis

  17. Expression and activity analysis of a new fusion protein targeting ovarian cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Manman; Chang, Weiqin; Wang, Dingding; Cui, Manhua; Lin, Yang; Wu, Shuying; Xu, Tianmin

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a new therapeutic drug to improve the prognosis of ovarian cancer patients. Human urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA)17-34-kunitz-type protease inhibitor (KPI) eukaryotic expression vector was constructed and recombinant human uPA17-34-KPI (rhuPA17-34-KPI) in P. pastoris was expressed. In the present study, the DNA sequences that encode uPA 17-34 amino acids were created according to the native amino acids sequence and inserted into the KPI-pPICZαC vector, which was constructed. Then, uPA17‑34-KPI-pPICZαC was transformed into P. pastoris X-33, and rhuPA17-34-KPI was expressed by induction of methanol. The bioactivities of a recombinant fusion protein were detected with trypsin inhibition analysis, and the inhibitory effects on the growth of ovarian cancer cells were identified using the TUNEL assay, in vitro wound‑healing assay and Matrigel model analysis. The results of the DNA sequence analysis of the recombinant vector uPA17-34-KPI‑pPICZα demonstrated that the DNA‑encoding human uPA 17-34 amino acids, 285-288 amino acids of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and 1-57 amino acids of KPI were correctly inserted into the pPICZαC vector. Following induction by methonal, the fusion protein with a molecular weight of 8.8 kDa was observed using SDS-PAGE and western blot analysis. RhuPA17-34-KPI was expressed in P. pastoris with a yield of 50 mg/l in a 50-ml tube. The recombinant fusion protein was able to inhibit the activity of trypsin, inhibit growth and induce apoptosis of SKOV3 cells, and inhibit the invasion and metastasis of ovarian cancer cells. By considering uPA17-34 amino acid specific binding uPAR as the targeted part of fusion protein and utilizing the serine protease inhibitor activity of KPI, it was found that the recombinant fusion protein uPA17-34-KPI inhibited the invasion and metastasis of ovarian tumors, and may therefore be regarded as effective in targeted treatment.

  18. Intrinsic Tryptophan Fluorescence in the Detection and Analysis of Proteins: A Focus on Förster Resonance Energy Transfer Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar B. T. Ghisaidoobe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available F resonance energy transfer (FRET occurs when the distance between a donor fluorophore and an acceptor is within 10 nm, and its application often necessitates fluorescent labeling of biological targets. However, covalent modification of biomolecules can inadvertently give rise to conformational and/or functional changes. This review describes the application of intrinsic protein fluorescence, predominantly derived from tryptophan (\\(\\uplambda_{\\textsc{ex}}\\sim\\ nm, \\(\\uplambda_{\\textsc{em}}\\sim\\ 350 nm, in protein-related research and mainly focuses on label-free FRET techniques. In terms of wavelength and intensity, tryptophan fluorescence is strongly influenced by its (or the proteinlocal environment, which, in addition to fluorescence quenching, has been applied to study protein conformational changes. Intrinsic F resonance energy transfer (iFRET, a recently developed technique, utilizes the intrinsic fluorescence of tryptophan in conjunction with target-specific fluorescent probes as FRET donors and acceptors, respectively, for real time detection of native proteins.

  19. Cyanine-based probe\\tag-peptide pair for fluorescence protein imaging and fluorescence protein imaging methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer-Cumblidge, M Uljana [Richland, WA; Cao, Haishi [Richland, WA

    2010-08-17

    A molecular probe comprises two arsenic atoms and at least one cyanine based moiety. A method of producing a molecular probe includes providing a molecule having a first formula, treating the molecule with HgOAc, and subsequently transmetallizing with AsCl.sub.3. The As is liganded to ethanedithiol to produce a probe having a second formula. A method of labeling a peptide includes providing a peptide comprising a tag sequence and contacting the peptide with a biarsenical molecular probe. A complex is formed comprising the tag sequence and the molecular probe. A method of studying a peptide includes providing a mixture containing a peptide comprising a peptide tag sequence, adding a biarsenical probe to the mixture, and monitoring the fluorescence of the mixture.

  20. Proteomic Analysis of Bovine Pregnancy-specific Serum Proteins by 2D Fluorescence Difference Gel Electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jae Eun; Lee, Jae Young; Kim, Hong Rye; Shin, Hyun Young; Lin, Tao; Jin, Dong Il

    2015-01-01

    Two dimensional-fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE) is an emerging technique for comparative proteomics, which improves the reproducibility and reliability of differential protein expression analysis between samples. The purpose of this study was to investigate bovine pregnancy-specific proteins in the proteome between bovine pregnant and non-pregnant serum using DIGE technique. Serums of 2 pregnant Holstein dairy cattle at day 21 after artificial insemination and those of 2...

  1. Influence of rhTPO/GM-CSF fusion protein on hemopoiesis in mice irradiated with 60Co γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Hua; Ge Zhongliang; Zhang Qunwei; Liu Xiuzhen

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To find a new biological therapy for secondary hematopoietic failure including anemia, infection and hemorrhage after administration of chemotherapeutic drugs etc. Methods: hGM-CSF gene was ligated with hTPO gene isolated from human fetal liver mRNA and a new fusion protein rh TPO/GM-CSF obtained. Results: The new fusion protein could promote recovery of peripheral WBC and PLT of 5.0 Gy irradiated mice. BFU-E, CFU-Meg and CFU-GM in bone marrow of mice after irradiation recovered significantly by treatment with rhTPO/GM-CSF fusion protein for 10 days. Conclusion: These results suggest that the new fusion protein has the biological activity of both hTPO and hGM-CSF simultaneously and can stimulate the proliferation of megakaryocytes and granulocyte progenitors

  2. Absorption tuning of the green fluorescent protein chromophore: synthesis and studies of model compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndsted Nielsen, Mogens; Andersen, Lars Henrik; Rinza, Tomás Rocha

    2011-01-01

    The green fluorescent protein (GFP) chromophore is a heterocyclic compound containing a p-hydroxybenzylidine attached to an imidazol-5(4H)-one ring. This review covers the synthesis of a variety of model systems for elucidating the intrinsic optical properties of the chromophore in the gas phase ...

  3. Site-Specific Analysis of Protein Hydration Based on Unnatural Amino Acid Fluorescence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Amaro, Mariana; Brezovský, J.; Kováčová, S.; Sýkora, Jan; Bednář, D.; Němec, V.; Lišková, V.; Kurumbang, N. P.; Beerens, K.; Chaloupková, R.; Paruch, K.; Hof, Martin; Damborský, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 137, č. 15 (2015), s. 4988-4992 ISSN 0002-7863 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP208/12/G016 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : analysis * fluorescence * hydration of proteins Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 13.038, year: 2015

  4. Ultrafast excited and ground-state dynamics of the green fluorescent protein chromophore in solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vengris, M.; van Stokkum, I.H.M.; He, X.; Bell, A.F.; Tonge, P.J.; van Grondelle, R.; Larsen, D.S.

    2004-01-01

    Ultrafast dispersed pump-dump-probe spectroscopy was applied to HBDI (4′-hydroxybenzylidene-2,3-dimethylimidazolinone), a model green fluorescent protein (GFP) chromophore in solution with different protonation states. The measured three-dimensional data was analyzed using a global analysis method

  5. Selective labeling of a single organelle by using two-photon conversion of a photoconvertible fluorescent protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Wataru; Shimada, Tomoko; Matsunaga, Sachihiro; Kurihara, Daisuke; Arimura, Shin-ichi; Tsutsumi, Nobuhiro; Fukui, Kiichi; Itoh, Kazuyoshi

    2008-02-01

    We present space-selective labeling of organelles by using two-photon conversion of a photoconvertible fluorescent protein with near-infrared femtosecond laser pulses. Two-photon excitation of photoconvertible fluorescent-protein, Kaede, enables space-selective labeling of organelles. We alter the fluorescence of target mitochondria in a tobacco BY-2 cell from green to red by focusing femtosecond laser pulses with a wavelength of 750 nm.

  6. investigating acid production by Streptococcus mutans with a surface-displayed pH-sensitive green fluorescent protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihong Guo

    Full Text Available Acidogenicity and aciduricity are the main virulence factors of the cavity-causing bacterium Streptococcus mutans. Monitoring at the individual cell level the temporal and spatial distribution of acid produced by this important oral pathogen is central for our understanding of these key virulence factors especially when S. mutans resides in multi-species microbial communities. In this study, we explored the application of pH-sensitive green fluorescent proteins (pHluorins to investigate these important features. Ecliptic pHluorin was functionally displayed on the cell surface of S. mutans as a fusion protein with SpaP. The resulting strain (O87 was used to monitor temporal and spatial pH changes in the microenvironment of S. mutans cells under both planktonic and biofilm conditions. Using strain O87, we revealed a rapid pH drop in the microenviroment of S. mutans microcolonies prior to the decrease in the macro-environment pH following sucrose fermentation. Meanwhile, a non-uniform pH distribution was observed within S. mutans biofilms, reflecting differences in microbial metabolic activity. Furthermore, strain O87 was successfully used to monitor the S. mutans acid production profiles within dual- and multispecies oral biofilms. Based on these findings, the ecliptic pHluorin allows us to investigate in vivo and in situ acid production and distribution by the cariogenic species S. mutans.

  7. Development and application of a fluorescence protein microarray for detecting serum alpha-fetoprotein in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Aiying; Yin, Chengzeng; Wang, Zhenshun; Zhang, Yonghong; Zhao, Yuanshun; Li, Ang; Sun, Huanqin; Lin, Dongdong; Li, Ning

    2016-12-01

    Objective To develop a simple, effective, time-saving and low-cost fluorescence protein microarray method for detecting serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Method Non-contact piezoelectric print techniques were applied to fluorescence protein microarray to reduce the cost of prey antibody. Serum samples from patients with HCC and healthy control subjects were collected and evaluated for the presence of AFP using a novel fluorescence protein microarray. To validate the fluorescence protein microarray, serum samples were tested for AFP using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results A total of 110 serum samples from patients with HCC ( n = 65) and healthy control subjects ( n = 45) were analysed. When the AFP cut-off value was set at 20 ng/ml, the fluorescence protein microarray had a sensitivity of 91.67% and a specificity of 93.24% for detecting serum AFP. Serum AFP quantified via fluorescence protein microarray had a similar diagnostic performance compared with ELISA in distinguishing patients with HCC from healthy control subjects (area under receiver operating characteristic curve: 0.906 for fluorescence protein microarray; 0.880 for ELISA). Conclusion A fluorescence protein microarray method was developed for detecting serum AFP in patients with HCC.

  8. Characterization of a spectrally diverse set of fluorescent proteins as FRET acceptors for mTurquoise2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastop, M.; Bindels, D.S.; Shaner, N.C.; Postma, M.; Gadella, T.W.J.; Goedhart, J.

    2017-01-01

    The performance of Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) biosensors depends on brightness and photostability, which are dependent on the characteristics of the fluorescent proteins that are employed. Yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) is often used as an acceptor but YFP is prone to photobleaching

  9. Aptamer-mediated indirect quantum dot labeling and fluorescent imaging of target proteins in living cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jianbo; Zhang, Pengfei; Yang, Xiaohai; Wang, Kemin; Guo, Qiuping; Huang, Jin; Li, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Protein labeling for dynamic living cell imaging plays a significant role in basic biological research, as well as in clinical diagnostics and therapeutics. We have developed a novel strategy in which the dynamic visualization of proteins within living cells is achieved by using aptamers as mediators for indirect protein labeling of quantum dots (QDs). With this strategy, the target protein angiogenin was successfully labeled with fluorescent QDs in a minor intactness model, which was mediated by the aptamer AL6-B. Subsequent living cell imaging analyses indicated that the QDs nanoprobes were selectively bound to human umbilical vein endothelial cells, gradually internalized into the cytoplasm, and mostly localized in the lysosome organelle, indicating that the labeled protein retained high activity. Compared with traditional direct protein labeling methods, the proposed aptamer-mediated strategy is simple, inexpensive, and provides a highly selective, stable, and intact labeling platform that has shown great promise for future biomedical labeling and intracellular protein dynamic analyses. (paper)

  10. Characterization of protein adsorption onto FePt nanoparticles using dual-focus fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Maffre

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Using dual-focus fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, we have analyzed the adsorption of three human blood serum proteins, namely serum albumin, apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein E4, onto polymer-coated, fluorescently labeled FePt nanoparticles (~12 nm diameter carrying negatively charged carboxyl groups on their surface. For all three proteins, a step-wise increase in hydrodynamic radius with protein concentration was observed, strongly suggesting the formation of protein monolayers that enclose the nanoparticles. Consistent with this interpretation, the absolute increase in hydrodynamic radius can be correlated with the molecular shapes of the proteins known from X-ray crystallography and solution experiments, indicating that the proteins bind on the nanoparticles in specific orientations. The equilibrium dissociation coefficients, measuring the affinity of the proteins to the nanoparticles, were observed to differ by almost four orders of magnitude. These variations can be understood in terms of the electrostatic properties of the proteins. From structure-based calculations of the surface potentials, positively charged patches of different extents can be revealed, through which the proteins interact electrostatically with the negatively charged nanoparticle surfaces.

  11. Functional role of the cytoplasmic tail domain of the major envelope fusion protein of group II baculoviruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long, G.; Pan, M.; Westenberg, M.; Vlak, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    F proteins from baculovirus nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) group II members are the major budded virus (BV) viral envelope fusion proteins. They undergo furin-like proteolysis processing in order to be functional. F proteins from different baculovirus species have a long cytoplasmic tail domain (CTD),

  12. Experimental Evolution of a Green Fluorescent Protein Composed of 19 Unique Amino Acids without Tryptophan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara-Kobayashi, Akio; Hitotsuyanagi, Mitsuhiro; Amikura, Kazuaki; Kiga, Daisuke

    2014-04-01

    At some stage of evolution, genes of organisms may have encoded proteins that were synthesized using fewer than 20 unique amino acids. Similar to evolution of the natural 19-amino-acid proteins GroEL/ES, proteins composed of 19 unique amino acids would have been able to evolve by accumulating beneficial mutations within the 19-amino-acid repertoire encoded in an ancestral genetic code. Because Trp is thought to be the last amino acid included in the canonical 20-amino-acid repertoire, this late stage of protein evolution could be mimicked by experimental evolution of 19-amino-acid proteins without tryptophan (Trp). To further understand the evolution of proteins, we tried to mimic the evolution of a 19-amino-acid protein involving the accumulation of beneficial mutations using directed evolution by random mutagenesis on the whole targeted gene sequence. We created active 19-amino-acid green fluorescent proteins (GFPs) without Trp from a poorly fluorescent 19-amino-acid mutant, S1-W57F, by using directed evolution with two rounds of mutagenesis and selection. The N105I and S205T mutations showed beneficial effects on the S1-W57F mutant. When these two mutations were combined on S1-W57F, we observed an additive effect on the fluorescence intensity. In contrast, these mutations showed no clear improvement individually or in combination on GFPS1, which is the parental GFP mutant composed of 20 amino acids. Our results provide an additional example for the experimental evolution of 19-amino-acid proteins without Trp, and would help understand the mechanisms underlying the evolution of 19-amino-acid proteins. (236 words)

  13. Coating Nanoparticles with Plant-Produced Transferrin-Hydrophobin Fusion Protein Enhances Their Uptake in Cancer Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuter, Lauri J.; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Makila, Ermei M.

    2017-01-01

    can be expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana plants as a fusion with Trichoderma reesei hydrophobins HFBI, HFBII, or HFBIV. Transferrin-HFBIV was further expressed in tobacco BY-2 suspension cells. Both partners of the fusion protein retained their functionality; the hydrophobin moiety enabled migration...... to a surfactant phase in an aqueous two-phase system, and the transferrin moiety was able to reversibly bind iron. Coating porous silicon nanoparticles with the fusion protein resulted in uptake of the nanoparticles in human cancer cells. This study provides a proof-of concept for the functionalization...

  14. Matrix protein 2 of influenza A virus blocks autophagosome fusion with lysosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gannagé, Monique; Dormann, Dorothee; Albrecht, Randy

    2009-01-01

    Influenza A virus is an important human pathogen causing significant morbidity and mortality every year and threatening the human population with epidemics and pandemics. Therefore, it is important to understand the biology of this virus to develop strategies to control its pathogenicity. Here, we...... demonstrate that influenza A virus inhibits macroautophagy, a cellular process known to be manipulated by diverse pathogens. Influenza A virus infection causes accumulation of autophagosomes by blocking their fusion with lysosomes, and one viral protein, matrix protein 2, is necessary and sufficient...... for this inhibition of autophagosome degradation. Macroautophagy inhibition by matrix protein 2 compromises survival of influenza virus-infected cells but does not influence viral replication. We propose that influenza A virus, which also encodes proapoptotic proteins, is able to determine the death of its host cell...

  15. Eradication of Human Hepatic and Pulmonary Melanoma Metastases in SCID Mice by Antibody--Interleukin 2 Fusion Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Jurgen C.; Pancook, James D.; Gillies, Stephen D.; Mendelsohn, John; Reisfeld, Ralph A.

    1996-04-01

    Antibody--cytokine fusion proteins combine the unique targeting ability of antibodies with the multifunctional activity of cytokines. Here, we demonstrate the therapeutic efficacy of such constructs for the treatment of hepatic and pulmonary metastases of different melanoma cell lines. Two antibody--interleukin 2 (IL-2) fusion proteins, ch225-IL2 and ch14.18-IL2, constructed by fusion of a synthetic sequence coding for human IL-2 to the carboxyl end of the Cγ 1 gene of the corresponding antibodies, were tested for their therapeutic efficacy against xenografted human melanoma in vivo. Tumorspecific fusion proteins completely inhibited the growth of hepatic and pulmonary metastases in C.B-17 scid/scid mice previously reconstituted with human lymphokine-activated killer cells, whereas treatment with combinations of the corresponding antibodies plus recombinant IL-2 only reduced the tumor load. Even when treatment with fusion proteins was delayed up to 8 days after inoculation of tumor cells, it still resulted in complete eradication of micrometastases that were established at that time point. Selection of tumor cell lines expressing or lacking the targeted antigen of the administered fusion protein proved the specificity of the observed antitumor effect. Biodistribution analysis demonstrated that the tumorspecific fusion protein accumulated not only in subcutaneous tumors but also in lungs and livers affected with micrometastases. Survival times of animals treated with the fusion protein were more than doubled as compared to those treated with the combination of the corresponding antibody plus IL-2. Our data demonstrate that an immunotherapeutic approach using cytokines targeted by antibodies to tumor sites has potent effects against disseminated human melanoma.

  16. Luminescent conjugated oligothiophenes for sensitive fluorescent assignment of protein inclusion bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingstedt, Therése; Blechschmidt, Cristiane; Nogalska, Anna; Prokop, Stefan; Häggqvist, Bo; Danielsson, Olof; Engel, W King; Askanas, Valerie; Heppner, Frank L; Nilsson, K Peter R

    2013-03-18

    Small hydrophobic ligands identifying intracellular protein deposits are of great interest, as protein inclusion bodies are the pathological hallmark of several degenerative diseases. Here we report that fluorescent amyloid ligands, termed luminescent conjugated oligothiophenes (LCOs), rapidly and with high sensitivity detect protein inclusion bodies in skeletal muscle tissue from patients with sporadic inclusion body myositis (s-IBM). LCOs having a conjugated backbone of at least five thiophene units emitted strong fluorescence upon binding, and showed co-localization with proteins reported to accumulate in s-IBM protein inclusion bodies. Compared with conventional amyloid ligands, LCOs identified a larger fraction of immunopositive inclusion bodies. When the conjugated thiophene backbone was extended with terminal carboxyl groups, the LCO revealed striking spectral differences between distinct protein inclusion bodies. We conclude that 1) LCOs are sensitive, rapid and powerful tools for identifying protein inclusion bodies and 2) LCOs identify a wider range of protein inclusion bodies than conventional amyloid ligands. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Effect of secretory pathway gene overexpression on secretion of a fluorescent reporter protein in Aspergillus nidulans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schalén, Martin; Anyaogu, Diana Chinyere; Hoof, Jakob Blæsbjerg

    2016-01-01

    roles in the process have been identified through transcriptomics. The assignment of function to these genes has been enabled in combination with gene deletion studies. In this work, 14 genes known to play a role in protein secretion in filamentous fungi were overexpressed in Aspergillus nidulans....... The background strain was a fluorescent reporter secreting mRFP. The overall effect of the overexpressions could thus be easily monitored through fluorescence measurements, while the effects on physiology were determined in batch cultivations and surface growth studies. Results: Fourteen protein secretion...... pathway related genes were overexpressed with a tet-ON promoter in the RFP-secreting reporter strain and macromorphology, physiology and protein secretion were monitored when the secretory genes were induced. Overexpression of several of the chosen genes was shown to cause anomalies on growth, micro...

  18. Fluorescent Reporters and Biosensors for Probing the Dynamic Behavior of Protein Kinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. González-Vera

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Probing the dynamic activities of protein kinases in real-time in living cells constitutes a major challenge that requires specific and sensitive tools tailored to meet the particular demands associated with cellular imaging. The development of genetically-encoded and synthetic fluorescent biosensors has provided means of monitoring protein kinase activities in a non-invasive fashion in their native cellular environment with high spatial and temporal resolution. Here, we review existing technologies to probe different dynamic features of protein kinases and discuss limitations where new developments are required to implement more performant tools, in particular with respect to infrared and near-infrared fluorescent probes and strategies which enable improved signal-to-noise ratio and controlled activation of probes.

  19. Broadband photon pair generation in green fluorescent proteins through spontaneous four-wave mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Siyuan; Thomas, Abu; Corzo, Neil V.; Kumar, Prem; Huang, Yuping; Lee, Kim Fook

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies in quantum biology suggest that quantum mechanics help us to explore quantum processes in biological system. Here, we demonstrate generation of photon pairs through spontaneous four-wave mixing process in naturally occurring fluorescent proteins. We develop a general empirical method for analyzing the relative strength of nonlinear optical interaction processes in five different organic fluorophores. Our results indicate that the generation of photon pairs in green fluorescent proteins is subject to less background noises than in other fluorophores, leading to a coincidence-to-accidental ratio ~145. As such proteins can be genetically engineered and fused to many biological cells, our experiment enables a new platform for quantum information processing in a biological environment such as biomimetic quantum networks and quantum sensors. PMID:27076032

  20. A polarizable embedding DFT study of one-photon absorption in fluorescent proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beerepoot, Maarten; Steindal, Arnfinn H.; Kongsted, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    mutants (BFP, eGFP, YFP and eCFP). The observed trends in excitation energies among the FPs are reproduced by our approach when performing calculations directly on the crystal structures or when using structures extracted from a molecular dynamics simulations. However, in the former case, QM/MM geometry......A theoretical study of the one-photon absorption of five fluorescent proteins (FPs) is presented. The absorption properties are calculated using a polarizable embedding approach combined with density functional theory (PE-DFT) on the wild-type green fluorescent protein (wtGFP) and several of its...... optimization of the chromophores within a frozen protein environment is needed in order to reproduce the experimental trends. Explicit account of polarization in the force field is not needed to yield the correct trend between the different FPs, but is necessary for reproducing the experimentally observed red...

  1. Imaging intracellular pH in live cells with a genetically encoded red fluorescent protein sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantama, Mathew; Hung, Yin Pun; Yellen, Gary

    2011-07-06

    Intracellular pH affects protein structure and function, and proton gradients underlie the function of organelles such as lysosomes and mitochondria. We engineered a genetically encoded pH sensor by mutagenesis of the red fluorescent protein mKeima, providing a new tool to image intracellular pH in live cells. This sensor, named pHRed, is the first ratiometric, single-protein red fluorescent sensor of pH. Fluorescence emission of pHRed peaks at 610 nm while exhibiting dual excitation peaks at 440 and 585 nm that can be used for ratiometric imaging. The intensity ratio responds with an apparent pK(a) of 6.6 and a >10-fold dynamic range. Furthermore, pHRed has a pH-responsive fluorescence lifetime that changes by ~0.4 ns over physiological pH values and can be monitored with single-wavelength two-photon excitation. After characterizing the sensor, we tested pHRed's ability to monitor intracellular pH by imaging energy-dependent changes in cytosolic and mitochondrial pH.

  2. Fluorescent proteins as singlet oxygen photosensitizers: mechanistic studies in photodynamic inactivation of bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-González, Rubén.; White, John H.; Cortajarena, Aitziber L.; Agut, Montserrat; Nonell, Santi; Flors, Cristina

    2013-02-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) combines a photosensitizer, light and oxygen to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), mainly singlet oxygen (1O2), to photo-oxidize important biomolecules and induce cell death. aPDT is a promising alternative to standard antimicrobial strategies, but its mechanisms of action are not well understood. One of the reasons for that is the lack of control of the photosensitizing drugs location. Here we report the use of geneticallyencoded fluorescent proteins that are also 1O2 photosensitizers to address the latter issue. First, we have chosen the red fluorescent protein TagRFP as a photosensitizer, which unlike other fluorescent proteins such as KillerRed, is able to produce 1O2 but not other ROS. TagRFP photosensitizes 1O2 with a small, but not negligible, quantum yield. In addition, we have used miniSOG, a more efficient 1O2 photosensitizing fluorescent flavoprotein that has been recently engineered from phototropin 2. We have genetically incorporated these two photosensitizers into the cytosol of E. coli and demonstrated that intracellular 1O2 is sufficient to kill bacteria. Additional assays have provided further insight into the mechanism of cell death. Photodamage seems to occur primarily in the inner membrane, and extends to the outer membrane if the photosensitizer's efficiency is high enough. These observations are markedly different to those reported for external photosensitizers, suggesting that the site where 1O2 is primarily generated proves crucial for inflicting different types of cell damage.

  3. Second and third generation voltage-sensitive fluorescent proteins for monitoring membrane potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelie Perron

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, optical neuroimaging methods have been enriched by engineered biosensors derived from fluorescent protein (FP reporters fused to protein detectors that convert physiological signals into changes of intrinsic FP fluorescence. These FP-based indicators are genetically encoded, and hence targetable to specific cell populations within networks of heterologous cell types. Among this class of biosensors, the development of optical probes for membrane potential is both highly desirable and challenging. A suitable FP voltage sensor would indeed be a valuable tool for monitoring the activity of thousands of individual neurons simultaneously in a non-invasive manner. Previous prototypic genetically-encoded FP voltage indicators achieved a proof of principle but also highlighted several difficulties such as poor cell surface targeting and slow kinetics. Recently, we developed a new series of FRET-based Voltage-Sensitive Fluorescent Proteins (VSFPs, referred to as VSFP2s, with efficient targeting to the plasma membrane and high responsiveness to membrane potential signaling in excitable cells. In addition to these FRET-based voltage sensors, we also generated a third series of probes consisting of single FPs with response kinetics suitable for the optical imaging of fast neuronal signals. These newly available genetically-encoded reporters for membrane potential will be instrumental for future experimental approaches directed toward the understanding of neuronal network dynamics and information processing in the brain. Here, we review the development and current status of these novel fluorescent probes.

  4. Application of green fluorescent protein for monitoring phenol-degrading strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Milena Valderrama F.

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Several methods have been developed for detecting microorganisms in environmental samples. Some systems for incorporating reporter genes, such as lux or the green fluorescent protein (GFP gene, have been developed recently This study describes gfp gene marking of a phenol degrading strain, its evaluation and monitoring in a bioreactor containing refinery sour water. Tagged strains were obtained having the same physiological and metabolic characteristics as the parent strain. Fluorescent expression was kept stable with no selection for more than 50 consecutive generations and tagged strains were recovered from the bioreactor after forty-five days of phenol-degradation treatment.

  5. A compact, multifunctional fusion module directs cholesterol-dependent homomultimerization and syncytiogenic efficiency of reovirus p10 FAST proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Key

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The homologous p10 fusion-associated small transmembrane (FAST proteins of the avian (ARV and Nelson Bay (NBV reoviruses are the smallest known viral membrane fusion proteins, and are virulence determinants of the fusogenic reoviruses. The small size of FAST proteins is incompatible with the paradigmatic membrane fusion pathway proposed for enveloped viral fusion proteins. Understanding how these diminutive viral fusogens mediate the complex process of membrane fusion is therefore of considerable interest, from both the pathogenesis and mechanism-of-action perspectives. Using chimeric ARV/NBV p10 constructs, the 36-40-residue ectodomain was identified as the major determinant of the differing fusion efficiencies of these homologous p10 proteins. Extensive mutagenic analysis determined the ectodomain comprises two distinct, essential functional motifs. Syncytiogenesis assays, thiol-specific surface biotinylation, and liposome lipid mixing assays identified an ∼25-residue, N-terminal motif that dictates formation of a cystine loop fusion peptide in both ARV and NBV p10. Surface immunofluorescence staining, FRET analysis and cholesterol depletion/repletion studies determined the cystine loop motif is connected through a two-residue linker to a 13-residue membrane-proximal ectodomain region (MPER. The MPER constitutes a second, independent motif governing reversible, cholesterol-dependent assembly of p10 multimers in the plasma membrane. Results further indicate that: (1 ARV and NBV homomultimers segregate to distinct, cholesterol-dependent microdomains in the plasma membrane; (2 p10 homomultimerization and cholesterol-dependent microdomain localization are co-dependent; and (3 the four juxtamembrane MPER residues present in the multimerization motif dictate species-specific microdomain association and homomultimerization. The p10 ectodomain therefore constitutes a remarkably compact, multifunctional fusion module that directs syncytiogenic

  6. Chemotropism and Cell Fusion in Neurospora crassa Relies on the Formation of Distinct Protein Complexes by HAM-5 and a Novel Protein HAM-14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonkers, Wilfried; Fischer, Monika S; Do, Hung P; Starr, Trevor L; Glass, N Louise

    2016-05-01

    In filamentous fungi, communication is essential for the formation of an interconnected, multinucleate, syncytial network, which is constructed via hyphal fusion or fusion of germinated asexual spores (germlings). Anastomosis in filamentous fungi is comparable to other somatic cell fusion events resulting in syncytia, including myoblast fusion during muscle differentiation, macrophage fusion, and fusion of trophoblasts during placental development. In Neurospora crassa, fusion of genetically identical germlings is a highly dynamic and regulated process that requires components of a MAP kinase signal transduction pathway. The kinase pathway components (NRC-1, MEK-2 and MAK-2) and the scaffold protein HAM-5 are recruited to hyphae and germling tips undergoing chemotropic interactions. The MAK-2/HAM-5 protein complex shows dynamic oscillation to hyphae/germling tips during chemotropic interactions, and which is out-of-phase to the dynamic localization of SOFT, which is a scaffold protein for components of the cell wall integrity MAP kinase pathway. In this study, we functionally characterize HAM-5 by generating ham-5 truncation constructs and show that the N-terminal half of HAM-5 was essential for function. This region is required for MAK-2 and MEK-2 interaction and for correct cellular localization of HAM-5 to "fusion puncta." The localization of HAM-5 to puncta was not perturbed in 21 different fusion mutants, nor did these puncta colocalize with components of the secretory pathway. We also identified HAM-14 as a novel member of the HAM-5/MAK-2 pathway by mining MAK-2 phosphoproteomics data. HAM-14 was essential for germling fusion, but not for hyphal fusion. Colocalization and coimmunoprecipitation data indicate that HAM-14 interacts with MAK-2 and MEK-2 and may be involved in recruiting MAK-2 (and MEK-2) to complexes containing HAM-5. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  7. Preparation and Observation of Fresh-frozen Sections of the Green Fluorescent Protein Transgenic Mouse Head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tada, Masahito; Shinohara, Yoshinori; Kato, Ichiro; Hiraga, Koichi; Aizawa, Tomoyasu; Demura, Makoto; Mori, Yoshihiro; Shinoda, Hiroyuki; Mizuguchi, Mineyuki; Kawano, Keiichi

    2006-01-01

    Hard tissue decalcification can cause variation in the constituent protein characteristics. This paper describes a method of preparating of frozen mouse head sections so as to clearly observe the nature of the constituent proteins. Frozen sections of various green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mouse heads were prepared using the film method developed by Kawamoto and Shimizu. This method made specimen dissection without decalcification possible, wherein GFP was clearly observed in an undamaged state. Conversely, using the same method with decalcification made GFP observation in the transgenic mouse head difficult. This new method is suitable for observing GFP marked cells, enabling us to follow the transplanted GFP marked cells within frozen head sections

  8. Interactions involved in pH protection of the alphavirus fusion protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, Whitney; Kielian, Margaret, E-mail: margaret.kielian@einstein.yu.edu

    2015-12-15

    The alphavirus membrane protein E1 mediates low pH-triggered fusion of the viral and endosome membranes during virus entry. During virus biogenesis E1 associates as a heterodimer with the transmembrane protein p62. Late in the secretory pathway, cellular furin cleaves p62 to the mature E2 protein and a peripheral protein E3. E3 remains bound to E2 at low pH, stabilizing the heterodimer and thus protecting E1 from the acidic pH of the secretory pathway. Release of E3 at neutral pH then primes the virus for fusion during entry. Here we used site-directed mutagenesis and revertant analysis to define residues important for the interactions at the E3–E2 interface. Our data identified a key residue, E2 W235, which was required for E1 pH protection and alphavirus production. Our data also suggest additional residues on E3 and E2 that affect their interacting surfaces and thus influence the pH protection of E1 during alphavirus exit.

  9. Protein Sub-Nuclear Localization Based on Effective Fusion Representations and Dimension Reduction Algorithm LDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunfang Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An effective representation of a protein sequence plays a crucial role in protein sub-nuclear localization. The existing representations, such as dipeptide composition (DipC, pseudo-amino acid composition (PseAAC and position specific scoring matrix (PSSM, are insufficient to represent protein sequence due to their single perspectives. Thus, this paper proposes two fusion feature representations of DipPSSM and PseAAPSSM to integrate PSSM with DipC and PseAAC, respectively. When constructing each fusion representation, we introduce the balance factors to value the importance of its components. The optimal values of the balance factors are sought by genetic algorithm. Due to the high dimensionality of the proposed representations, linear discriminant analysis (LDA is used to find its important low dimensional structure, which is essential for classification and location prediction. The numerical experiments on two public datasets with KNN classifier and cross-validation tests showed that in terms of the common indexes of sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and MCC, the proposed fusing representations outperform the traditional representations in protein sub-nuclear localization, and the representation treated by LDA outperforms the untreated one.

  10. Resolution of Disulfide Heterogeneity in Nogo Receptor 1 Fusion Proteins by Molecular Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P Weinreb; D Wen; F Qian; C Wildes; E Garber; L Walus; M Jung; J Wang; J Relton; et al.

    2011-12-31

    NgRI (Nogo-66 receptor) is part of a signalling complex that inhibits axon regeneration in the central nervous system. Truncated soluble versions of NgRI have been used successfully to promote axon regeneration in animal models of spinal-cord injury, raising interest in this protein as a potential therapeutic target. The LRR (leucine-rich repeat) regions in NgRI are flanked by N- and C-terminal disulfide-containing 'cap' domains (LRRNT and LRRCT respectively). In the present work we show that, although functionally active, the NgRI(310)-Fc fusion protein contains mislinked and heterogeneous disulfide patterns in the LRRCT domain, and we report the generation of a series of variant molecules specifically designed to prevent this heterogeneity. Using these variants we explored the effects of modifying the NgRI truncation site or the spacing between the NgRI and Fc domains, or replacing cysteines within the NgRI or IgG hinge regions. One variant, which incorporates replacements of Cys{sup 266} and Cys{sup 309} with alanine residues, completely eliminated disulfide scrambling while maintaining functional in vitro and in vivo efficacy. This modified NgRI-Fc molecule represents a significantly improved candidate for further pharmaceutical development, and may serve as a useful model for the optimization of other IgG fusion proteins made from LRR proteins.

  11. Protein Sub-Nuclear Localization Based on Effective Fusion Representations and Dimension Reduction Algorithm LDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shunfang; Liu, Shuhui

    2015-12-19

    An effective representation of a protein sequence plays a crucial role in protein sub-nuclear localization. The existing representations, such as dipeptide composition (DipC), pseudo-amino acid composition (PseAAC) and position specific scoring matrix (PSSM), are insufficient to represent protein sequence due to their single perspectives. Thus, this paper proposes two fusion feature representations of DipPSSM and PseAAPSSM to integrate PSSM with DipC and PseAAC, respectively. When constructing each fusion representation, we introduce the balance factors to value the importance of its components. The optimal values of the balance factors are sought by genetic algorithm. Due to the high dimensionality of the proposed representations, linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is used to find its important low dimensional structure, which is essential for classification and location prediction. The numerical experiments on two public datasets with KNN classifier and cross-validation tests showed that in terms of the common indexes of sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and MCC, the proposed fusing representations outperform the traditional representations in protein sub-nuclear localization, and the representation treated by LDA outperforms the untreated one.

  12. Intracellular delivery of cell-penetrating peptide-transcriptional factor fusion protein and its role in selective osteogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Jin Sook; Lee, Jue Yeon; Choi, Yoon Jung; You, Hyung Keun; Hong, Seong-Doo; Chung, Chong Pyoung; Park, Yoon Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Protein-transduction technology has been attempted to deliver macromolecular materials, including protein, nucleic acids, and polymeric drugs, for either diagnosis or therapeutic purposes. Herein, fusion protein composed of an arginine-rich cell-penetrating peptide, termed low-molecular-weight protamine (LMWP), and a transcriptional coactivator with a PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) protein was prepared and applied in combination with biomaterials to increase bone-forming capacity. TAZ has been recently identified as a specific osteogenic stimulating transcriptional coactivator in human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) differentiation, while simultaneously blocking adipogenic differentiation. However, TAZ by itself cannot penetrate the cells, and thus needs a transfection tool for translocalization. The LMWP-TAZ fusion proteins were efficiently translocalized into the cytosol of hMSCs. The hMSCs treated with cell-penetrating LMWP-TAZ exhibited increased expression of osteoblastic genes and protein, producing significantly higher quantities of mineralized matrix compared to free TAZ. In contrast, adipogenic differentiation of the hMSCs was blocked by treatment of LMWP-TAZ fusion protein, as reflected by reduced marker-protein expression, adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein 2, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ messenger ribonucleic acid levels. LMWP-TAZ was applied in alginate gel for the purpose of localization and controlled release. The LMWP-TAZ fusion protein-loaded alginate gel matrix significantly increased bone formation in rabbit calvarial defects compared with alginate gel matrix mixed with free TAZ protein. The protein transduction of TAZ fused with cell-penetrating LMWP peptide was able selectively to stimulate osteogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, this fusion protein-transduction technology for osteogenic protein can thus be applied in combination with biomaterials for tissue regeneration and controlled release for tissue

  13. Flow Cytometric Immunobead Assay for Detection of BCR-ABL1 Fusion Proteins in Chronic Myleoid Leukemia: Comparison with FISH and PCR Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia, Anna Grazia; Caruso, Nadia; Bossio, Sabrina; Pellicanò, Mariavaleria; De Stefano, Laura; Franzese, Stefania; Palummo, Angela; Abbadessa, Vincenzo; Lucia, Eugenio; Gentile, Massimo; Vigna, Ernesto; Caracciolo, Clementina; Agostino, Antolino; Galimberti, Sara; Levato, Luciano; Stagno, Fabio; Molica, Stefano; Martino, Bruno; Vigneri, Paolo; Di Raimondo, Francesco; Morabito, Fortunato

    2015-01-01

    Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) is characterized by a balanced translocation juxtaposing the Abelson (ABL) and breakpoint cluster region (BCR) genes. The resulting BCR-ABL1 oncogene leads to increased proliferation and survival of leukemic cells. Successful treatment of CML has been accompanied by steady improvements in our capacity to accurately and sensitively monitor therapy response. Currently, measurement of BCR-ABL1 mRNA transcript levels by real-time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR) defines critical response endpoints. An antibody-based technique for BCR-ABL1 protein recognition could be an attractive alternative to RQ-PCR. To date, there have been no studies evaluating whether flow-cytometry based assays could be of clinical utility in evaluating residual disease in CML patients. Here we describe a flow-cytometry assay that detects the presence of BCR-ABL1 fusion proteins in CML lysates to determine the applicability, reliability, and specificity of this method for both diagnosis and monitoring of CML patients for initial response to therapy. We show that: i) CML can be properly diagnosed at onset, (ii) follow-up assessments show detectable fusion protein (i.e. relative mean fluorescent intensity, rMFI%>1) when BCR-ABL1IS transcripts are between 1–10%, and (iii) rMFI% levels predict CCyR as defined by FISH analysis. Overall, the FCBA assay is a rapid technique, fully translatable to the routine management of CML patients. PMID:26111048

  14. Flow Cytometric Immunobead Assay for Detection of BCR-ABL1 Fusion Proteins in Chronic Myleoid Leukemia: Comparison with FISH and PCR Techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Grazia Recchia

    Full Text Available Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML is characterized by a balanced translocation juxtaposing the Abelson (ABL and breakpoint cluster region (BCR genes. The resulting BCR-ABL1 oncogene leads to increased proliferation and survival of leukemic cells. Successful treatment of CML has been accompanied by steady improvements in our capacity to accurately and sensitively monitor therapy response. Currently, measurement of BCR-ABL1 mRNA transcript levels by real-time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR defines critical response endpoints. An antibody-based technique for BCR-ABL1 protein recognition could be an attractive alternative to RQ-PCR. To date, there have been no studies evaluating whether flow-cytometry based assays could be of clinical utility in evaluating residual disease in CML patients. Here we describe a flow-cytometry assay that detects the presence of BCR-ABL1 fusion proteins in CML lysates to determine the applicability, reliability, and specificity of this method for both diagnosis and monitoring of CML patients for initial response to therapy. We show that: i CML can be properly diagnosed at onset, (ii follow-up assessments show detectable fusion protein (i.e. relative mean fluorescent intensity, rMFI%>1 when BCR-ABL1IS transcripts are between 1-10%, and (iii rMFI% levels predict CCyR as defined by FISH analysis. Overall, the FCBA assay is a rapid technique, fully translatable to the routine management of CML patients.

  15. Prm3p is a pheromone-induced peripheral nuclear envelope protein required for yeast nuclear fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shu; Tobery, Cynthia E; Rose, Mark D

    2009-05-01

    Nuclear membrane fusion is the last step in the mating pathway of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We adapted a bioinformatics approach to identify putative pheromone-induced membrane proteins potentially required for nuclear membrane fusion. One protein, Prm3p, was found to be required for nuclear membrane fusion; disruption of PRM3 caused a strong bilateral defect, in which nuclear congression was completed but fusion did not occur. Prm3p was localized to the nuclear envelope in pheromone-responding cells, with significant colocalization with the spindle pole body in zygotes. A previous report, using a truncated protein, claimed that Prm3p is localized to the inner nuclear envelope. Based on biochemistry, immunoelectron microscopy and live cell microscopy, we find that functional Prm3p is a peripheral membrane protein exposed on the cytoplasmic face of the outer nuclear envelope. In support of this, mutations in a putative nuclear localization sequence had no effect on full-length protein function or localization. In contrast, point mutations and deletions in the highly conserved hydrophobic carboxy-terminal domain disrupted both protein function and localization. Genetic analysis, colocalization, and biochemical experiments indicate that Prm3p interacts directly with Kar5p, suggesting that nuclear membrane fusion is mediated by a protein complex.

  16. Optimization of the Expression of DT386-BR2 Fusion Protein in Escherichia coli using Response Surface Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiee, Fatemeh; Rabbani, Mohammad; Jahanian-Najafabadi, Ali

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the best condition for the production of DT386-BR2 fusion protein, an immunotoxin consisting of catalytic and translocation domains of diphtheria toxin fused to BR2, a cancer specific cell penetrating peptide, for targeted eradication of cancer cells, in terms of the host, cultivation condition, and culture medium. Recombinant pET28a vector containing the codons optimized for the expression of the DT386-BR2 gene was transformed to different strains of Escherichia coli ( E. coli BL21 DE3, E. coli Rosetta DE3 and E. coli Rosetta-gami 2 DE3), followed by the induction of expression using 1 mM IPTG. Then, the strain with the highest ability to produce recombinant protein was selected and used to determine the best expression condition using response surface methodology (RSM). Finally, the best culture medium was selected. Densitometry analysis of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the expressed fusion protein showed that E. coli Rosetta DE3 produced the highest amounts of the recombinant fusion protein when quantified by 1 mg/ml bovine serum albumin (178.07 μg/ml). Results of RSM also showed the best condition for the production of the recombinant fusion protein was induction with 1 mM IPTG for 2 h at 37°C. Finally, it was established that terrific broth could produce higher amounts of the fusion protein when compared to other culture media. In this study, we expressed the recombinant DT386-BR2 fusion protein in large amounts by optimizing the expression host, cultivation condition, and culture medium. This fusion protein will be subjected to purification and evaluation of its cytotoxic effects in future studies.

  17. Optimization of the Expression of DT386-BR2 Fusion Protein in Escherichia coli using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Shafiee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to determine the best condition for the production of DT386-BR2 fusion protein, an immunotoxin consisting of catalytic and translocation domains of diphtheria toxin fused to BR2, a cancer specific cell penetrating peptide, for targeted eradication of cancer cells, in terms of the host, cultivation condition, and culture medium. Materials and Methods: Recombinant pET28a vector containing the codons optimized for the expression of the DT386-BR2 gene was transformed to different strains of Escherichia coli (E. coli BL21 DE3, E. coli Rosetta DE3 and E. coli Rosetta-gami 2 DE3, followed by the induction of expression using 1 mM IPTG. Then, the strain with the highest ability to produce recombinant protein was selected and used to determine the best expression condition using response surface methodology (RSM. Finally, the best culture medium was selected. Results: Densitometry analysis of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the expressed fusion protein showed that E. coli Rosetta DE3 produced the highest amounts of the recombinant fusion protein when quantified by 1 mg/ml bovine serum albumin (178.07 μg/ml. Results of RSM also showed the best condition for the production of the recombinant fusion protein was induction with 1 mM IPTG for 2 h at 37°C. Finally, it was established that terrific broth could produce higher amounts of the fusion protein when compared to other culture media. Conclusion: In this study, we expressed the recombinant DT386-BR2 fusion protein in large amounts by optimizing the expression host, cultivation condition, and culture medium. This fusion protein will be subjected to purification and evaluation of its cytotoxic effects in future studies.

  18. Yellow fluorescent protein phiYFPv (Phialidium): structure and structure-based mutagenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pletneva, Nadya V.; Pletnev, Vladimir Z., E-mail: vzpletnev@gmail.com; Souslova, Ekaterina; Chudakov, Dmitry M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lukyanov, Sergey [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Nizhny Novgorod State Medical Academy, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Martynov, Vladimir I.; Arhipova, Svetlena; Artemyev, Igor [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Wlodawer, Alexander [National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD 21702 (United States); Dauter, Zbigniew [National Cancer Institute, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Pletnev, Sergei [National Cancer Institute, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); SAIC-Frederick, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-06-01

    The yellow fluorescent protein phiYFPv with improved folding has been developed from the spectrally identical wild-type phiYFP found in the marine jellyfish Phialidium. The yellow fluorescent protein phiYFPv (λ{sub em}{sup max} ≃ 537 nm) with improved folding has been developed from the spectrally identical wild-type phiYFP found in the marine jellyfish Phialidium. The latter fluorescent protein is one of only two known cases of naturally occurring proteins that exhibit emission spectra in the yellow–orange range (535–555 nm). Here, the crystal structure of phiYFPv has been determined at 2.05 Å resolution. The ‘yellow’ chromophore formed from the sequence triad Thr65-Tyr66-Gly67 adopts the bicyclic structure typical of fluorophores emitting in the green spectral range. It was demonstrated that perfect antiparallel π-stacking of chromophore Tyr66 and the proximal Tyr203, as well as Val205, facing the chromophore phenolic ring are chiefly responsible for the observed yellow emission of phiYFPv at 537 nm. Structure-based site-directed mutagenesis has been used to identify the key functional residues in the chromophore environment. The obtained results have been utilized to improve the properties of phiYFPv and its homologous monomeric biomarker tagYFP.

  19. The 1.6 Å resolution structure of a FRET-optimized Cerulean fluorescent protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, Jennifer L.; Kim, Hanseong [Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1604 (United States); Markwardt, Michele L. [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201-1559 (United States); Chen, Liqing; Fromme, Raimund [Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1604 (United States); Rizzo, Mark A. [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201-1559 (United States); Wachter, Rebekka M., E-mail: rwachter@asu.edu [Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1604 (United States)

    2013-05-01

    The high resolution X-ray structure of the cyan fluorescent protein mCerulean3 demonstrates that different combinations of correlated residue substitutions can provide near optimum quantum yield values for fluorescence. Genetically encoded cyan fluorescent proteins (CFPs) bearing a tryptophan-derived chromophore are commonly used as energy-donor probes in Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) experiments useful in live cell-imaging applications. In recent years, significant effort has been expended on eliminating the structural and excited-state heterogeneity of these proteins, which has been linked to undesirable photophysical properties. Recently, mCerulean3, a descendant of enhanced CFP, was introduced as an optimized FRET donor protein with a superior quantum yield of 0.87. Here, the 1.6 Å resolution X-ray structure of mCerulean3 is reported. The chromophore is shown to adopt a planar trans configuration at low pH values, indicating that the acid-induced isomerization of Cerulean has been eliminated. β-Strand 7 appears to be well ordered in a single conformation, indicating a loss of conformational heterogeneity in the vicinity of the chromophore. Although the side chains of Ile146 and Leu167 appear to exist in two rotamer states, they are found to be well packed against the indole group of the chromophore. The Ser65 reversion mutation allows improved side-chain packing of Leu220. A structural comparison with mTurquoise2 is presented and additional engineering strategies are discussed.

  20. The 1.6 Å resolution structure of a FRET-optimized Cerulean fluorescent protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, Jennifer L.; Kim, Hanseong; Markwardt, Michele L.; Chen, Liqing; Fromme, Raimund; Rizzo, Mark A.; Wachter, Rebekka M.

    2013-01-01

    The high resolution X-ray structure of the cyan fluorescent protein mCerulean3 demonstrates that different combinations of correlated residue substitutions can provide near optimum quantum yield values for fluorescence. Genetically encoded cyan fluorescent proteins (CFPs) bearing a tryptophan-derived chromophore are commonly used as energy-donor probes in Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) experiments useful in live cell-imaging applications. In recent years, significant effort has been expended on eliminating the structural and excited-state heterogeneity of these proteins, which has been linked to undesirable photophysical properties. Recently, mCerulean3, a descendant of enhanced CFP, was introduced as an optimized FRET donor protein with a superior quantum yield of 0.87. Here, the 1.6 Å resolution X-ray structure of mCerulean3 is reported. The chromophore is shown to adopt a planar trans configuration at low pH values, indicating that the acid-induced isomerization of Cerulean has been eliminated. β-Strand 7 appears to be well ordered in a single conformation, indicating a loss of conformational heterogeneity in the vicinity of the chromophore. Although the side chains of Ile146 and Leu167 appear to exist in two rotamer states, they are found to be well packed against the indole group of the chromophore. The Ser65 reversion mutation allows improved side-chain packing of Leu220. A structural comparison with mTurquoise2 is presented and additional engineering strategies are discussed

  1. Development of a green fluorescent protein metastatic-cancer chick-embryo drug-screen model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobek, Vladimir; Plachy, Jiri; Pinterova, Daniela; Kolostova, Katarina; Boubelik, Michael; Jiang, Ping; Yang, Meng; Hoffman, Robert M

    2004-01-01

    The chick-embryo model has been an important tool to study tumor growth, metastasis, and angiogenesis. However, an imageable model with a genetic fluorescent tag in the growing and spreading cancer cells that is stable over time has not been developed. We report here the development of such an imageable fluorescent chick-embryo metastatic cancer model with the use of green fluorescent protein (GFP). Lewis lung carcinoma cells, stably expressing GFP, were injected on the 12th day of incubation in the chick embryo. GFP-Lewis lung carcinoma metastases were visualized by fluorescence, after seven days additional incubation, in the brain, heart, and sternum of the developing chick embryo, with the most frequent site being the brain. The combination of streptokinase and gemcitabine was evaluated in this GFP metastatic model. Twelve-day-old chick embryos were injected intravenously with GFP-Lewis lung cancer cells, along with these two agents either alone or in combination. The streptokinase-gemcitabine combination inhibited metastases at all sites. The effective dose of gemcitabine was found to be 10 mg/kg and streptokinase 2000 IU per embryo. The data in this report suggest that this new stably fluorescent imageable metastatic-cancer chick-embryo model will enable rapid screening of new antimetastatic agents.

  2. Fusion protein-based biofilm fabrication composed of recombinant azurin–myoglobin for dual-level biomemory application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Taek [Research Institute for Basic Science, Sogang University, Heukseok-dong, Dongjak-gu, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Yong-Ho; Yoon, Jinho [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Sogang University, Heukseok-dong, Dongjak-gu, 35 Baekbeom-ro (Sinsu-dong), Mapo-gu, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Min, Junhong [School of Integrative Engineering, Chung-Ang University, Heukseok-dong, Dongjak-gu, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jeong-Woo, E-mail: jwchoi@sogang.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Sogang University, Heukseok-dong, Dongjak-gu, 35 Baekbeom-ro (Sinsu-dong), Mapo-gu, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We developed the fusion protein-based biofilm on the inorganic surface. • For making the fusion protein, the recombinant azurin and the myoglobin was conjugated by the native chemical ligation method. • The developed fusion protein shows unique electrochemical property. • The proposed fusion protein biofilm appears to be a good method for dual-level biomemory device. - Abstract: In the present study, a fusion protein-based biofilm composed of a recombinant azurin–myoglobin (Azu-Myo) has been developed and confirmed its original electrochemical property for dual-level biomemory device application. For this purpose, the azurin was modified with cysteine residues for direct immobilization and conjugation. Then, the recombinant azurin was conjugated with the myoglobin via a sulfo-SMCC bifunctional linker using the chemical ligation method (CLM). The SDS-PAGE and UV–vis spectroscopy were performed to examine the fusion protein conjugates. The prepared Azu-Myo fusion protein was self-assembled onto Au substrate for the biofilm fabrication. Then, the atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to confirm the immobilization and the surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was carried out to the surface analysis. Also, the cyclic voltammetry (CV) was carried out to observe an electrochemical property of fabricated biofilm. As a result, the two pair of redox potential values was obtained for dual-level biomemory device application. Then, the dual-level biomemory function was verified by the multi-potential chronoamperometry (MPCA). The results indicate a new fabrication method and material combination for advances in bioelectronic device development.

  3. Fusion protein-based biofilm fabrication composed of recombinant azurin–myoglobin for dual-level biomemory application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Taek; Chung, Yong-Ho; Yoon, Jinho; Min, Junhong; Choi, Jeong-Woo

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We developed the fusion protein-based biofilm on the inorganic surface. • For making the fusion protein, the recombinant azurin and the myoglobin was conjugated by the native chemical ligation method. • The developed fusion protein shows unique electrochemical property. • The proposed fusion protein biofilm appears to be a good method for dual-level biomemory device. - Abstract: In the present study, a fusion protein-based biofilm composed of a recombinant azurin–myoglobin (Azu-Myo) has been developed and confirmed its original electrochemical property for dual-level biomemory device application. For this purpose, the azurin was modified with cysteine residues for direct immobilization and conjugation. Then, the recombinant azurin was conjugated with the myoglobin via a sulfo-SMCC bifunctional linker using the chemical ligation method (CLM). The SDS-PAGE and UV–vis spectroscopy were performed to examine the fusion protein conjugates. The prepared Azu-Myo fusion protein was self-assembled onto Au substrate for the biofilm fabrication. Then, the atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to confirm the immobilization and the surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was carried out to the surface analysis. Also, the cyclic voltammetry (CV) was carried out to observe an electrochemical property of fabricated biofilm. As a result, the two pair of redox potential values was obtained for dual-level biomemory device application. Then, the dual-level biomemory function was verified by the multi-potential chronoamperometry (MPCA). The results indicate a new fabrication method and material combination for advances in bioelectronic device development

  4. Emission shaping in fluorescent proteins: role of electrostatics and π-stacking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Woo; Rhee, Young Min

    2016-02-07

    For many decades, simulating the excited state properties of complex systems has been an intriguing but daunting task due to its high computational cost. Here, we apply molecular dynamics based techniques with interpolated potential energy surfaces toward calculating fluorescence spectra of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) and its variants in a statistically meaningful manner. With the GFP, we show that the diverse electrostatic tuning can shape the emission features in many different ways. By computationally modulating the electrostatic interactions between the chromophore phenoxy oxygen and its nearby residues, we demonstrate that we indeed can shift the emission to the blue or to the red side in a predictable manner. We rationalize the shifting effects of individual residues in the GFP based on the responses of both the adiabatic and the diabatic electronic states of the chromophore. We next exhibit that the yellow emitting variant, the Thr203Tyr mutant, generates changes in the electrostatic interactions and an additional π-stacking interaction. These combined effects indeed induce a red shift to emit the fluorescence into the yellow region. With the series of demonstrations, we suggest that our approach can provide sound rationales and useful insights in understanding different responses of various fluorescent complexes, which may be helpful in designing new light emitting proteins and other related systems in future studies.

  5. Disruption of the hydrogen bonding network determines the pH-induced non-fluorescent state of the fluorescent protein ZsYellow by protonation of Glu221.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Ji-Eun; Kim, In Jung; Nam, Ki Hyun

    2017-11-04

    Many fluorescent proteins (FPs) exhibit fluorescence quenching at a low pH. This pH-induced non-fluorescent state of an FP serves as a useful indicator of the cellular pH. ZsYellow is widely used as an optical marker in molecular biology, but its pH-induced non-fluorescent state has not been characterized. Here, we report the pH-dependent spectral properties of ZsYellow, which exhibited the pH-induced non-fluorescence state at a pH below 4.0. We determined the crystal structures of ZsYellow at pH 3.5 (non-fluorescence state) and 8.0 (fluorescence state), which revealed the cis-configuration of the chromophore without pH-induced isomerization. In the non-fluorescence state, Arg95, which is involved in stabilization of the exited state of the chromophore, was found to more loosely interact with the carbonyl oxygen atom of the chromophore when compared to the interaction at pH 8.0. In the fluorescence state, Glu221, which is involved in the hydrogen bonding network around the chromophore, stably interacted with Gln42 and His202. By contrast, in the non-fluorescence state, the protonated conserved Glu221 residue exhibited a large conformational change and was separated from His202 by 5.46 Å, resulting in breakdown of the hydrogen bond network. Our results provide insight into the critical role of the conserved Glu221 residue for generating the pH-induced non-fluorescent state. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Simple fluorescence-based detection of protein kinase A activity using a molecular beacon probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Changbei; Lv, Xiaoyuan; Wang, Kemin; Jin, Shunxin; Liu, Haisheng; Wu, Kefeng; Zeng, Weimin

    2017-11-02

    Protein kinase A was detected by quantifying the amount of ATP used after a protein kinase reaction. The ATP assay was performed using the T4 DNA ligase and a molecular beacon (MB). In the presence of ATP, DNA ligase catalyzed the ligation of short DNA. The ligation product then hybridized to MB, resulting in a fluorescence enhancement of the MB. This assay was capable of determining protein kinase A in the range of 12.5∼150 nM, with a detection limit of 1.25 nM. Furthermore, this assay could also be used to investigate the effect of genistein on protein kinase A. It was a universal, non-radioisotopic, and homogeneous method for assaying protein kinase A.

  7. High-throughput kinase assays with protein substrates using fluorescent polymer superquenching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weatherford Wendy

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-throughput screening is used by the pharmaceutical industry for identifying lead compounds that interact with targets of pharmacological interest. Because of the key role that aberrant regulation of protein phosphorylation plays in diseases such as cancer, diabetes and hypertension, kinases have become one of the main drug targets. With the exception of antibody-based assays, methods to screen for specific kinase activity are generally restricted to the use of small synthetic peptides as substrates. However, the use of natural protein substrates has the advantage that potential inhibitors can be detected that affect enzyme activity by binding to a site other than the catalytic site. We have previously reported a non-radioactive and non-antibody-based fluorescence quench assay for detection of phosphorylation or dephosphorylation using synthetic peptide substrates. The aim of this work is to develop an assay for detection of phosphorylation of chemically unmodified proteins based on this polymer superquenching platform. Results Using a modified QTL Lightspeed™ assay, phosphorylation of native protein was quantified by the interaction of the phosphorylated proteins with metal-ion coordinating groups co-located with fluorescent polymer deposited onto microspheres. The binding of phospho-protein inhibits a dye-labeled "tracer" peptide from associating to the phosphate-binding sites present on the fluorescent microspheres. The resulting inhibition of quench generates a "turn on" assay, in which the signal correlates with the phosphorylation of the substrate. The assay was tested on three different proteins: Myelin Basic Protein (MBP, Histone H1 and Phosphorylated heat- and acid-stable protein (PHAS-1. Phosphorylation of the proteins was detected by Protein Kinase Cα (PKCα and by the Interleukin -1 Receptor-associated Kinase 4 (IRAK4. Enzyme inhibition yielded IC50 values that were comparable to those obtained using

  8. High-throughput kinase assays with protein substrates using fluorescent polymer superquenching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rininsland, Frauke; Stankewicz, Casey; Weatherford, Wendy; McBranch, Duncan

    2005-05-31

    High-throughput screening is used by the pharmaceutical industry for identifying lead compounds that interact with targets of pharmacological interest. Because of the key role that aberrant regulation of protein phosphorylation plays in diseases such as cancer, diabetes and hypertension, kinases have become one of the main drug targets. With the exception of antibody-based assays, methods to screen for specific kinase activity are generally restricted to the use of small synthetic peptides as substrates. However, the use of natural protein substrates has the advantage that potential inhibitors can be detected that affect enzyme activity by binding to a site other than the catalytic site. We have previously reported a non-radioactive and non-antibody-based fluorescence quench assay for detection of phosphorylation or dephosphorylation using synthetic peptide substrates. The aim of this work is to develop an assay for detection of phosphorylation of chemically unmodified proteins based on this polymer superquenching platform. Using a modified QTL Lightspeed assay, phosphorylation of native protein was quantified by the interaction of the phosphorylated proteins with metal-ion coordinating groups co-located with fluorescent polymer deposited onto microspheres. The binding of phospho-protein inhibits a dye-labeled "tracer" peptide from associating to the phosphate-binding sites present on the fluorescent microspheres. The resulting inhibition of quench generates a "turn on" assay, in which the signal correlates with the phosphorylation of the substrate. The assay was tested on three different proteins: Myelin Basic Protein (MBP), Histone H1 and Phosphorylated heat- and acid-stable protein (PHAS-1). Phosphorylation of the proteins was detected by Protein Kinase Calpha (PKCalpha) and by the Interleukin -1 Receptor-associated Kinase 4 (IRAK4). Enzyme inhibition yielded IC50 values that were comparable to those obtained using peptide substrates. Statistical parameters that

  9. Junction region of EWS-FLI1 fusion protein has a dominant negative effect in Ewing's sarcoma in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jully, Babu; Vijayalakshmi, Ramshankar; Gopal, Gopisetty; Sabitha, Kesavan; Rajkumar, Thangarajan

    2012-11-12

    Ewing's sarcoma is a malignancy characterized by a specific 11:22 chromosomal translocation which generates a novel EWS-FLI1 fusion protein functioning as an aberrant transcription factor. In the present study, we have further characterized the junction region of the EWS-FLI1 fusion protein. In-silico model of EWS-FLI1 fusion protein was analysed for ligand binding sites, and a putative region (amino acid (aa) 251-343 of the type 1 fusion protein) in the vicinity of the fusion junction was cloned and expressed using bacterial expression. The recombinant protein was characterized by Circular Dichroism (CD). We then expressed aa 251-280 ectopically in Ewing's sarcoma cell-line and its effect on cell proliferation, tumorigenicity and expression of EWS-FLI1 target genes were analysed. Our modelling analysis indicated that Junction region (aa 251-343) encompasses potential ligand biding sites in the EWS-FLI1 protein and when expressed in bacteria was present as soluble form. Ectopically expressing this region in Ewing's sarcoma cells inhibited tumorigenicity, and EWS-FLI1 target genes indicating a dominant negative biological effect. Junction region can be exploited further as target for drug development in future to specifically target EWS-FLI1 in Ewing's Sarcoma.

  10. Delayed Toxicity Associated with Soluble Anthrax Toxin Receptor Decoy-Ig Fusion Protein Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, Christopher; Welkos, Susan; Manchester, Marianne; Young, John A. T.

    2012-01-01

    Soluble receptor decoy inhibitors, including receptor-immunogloubulin (Ig) fusion proteins, have shown promise as candidate anthrax toxin therapeutics. These agents act by binding to the receptor-interaction site on the protective antigen (PA) toxin subunit, thereby blocking toxin binding to cell surface receptors. Here we have made the surprising observation that co-administration of receptor decoy-Ig fusion proteins significantly delayed, but did not protect, rats challenged with anthrax lethal toxin. The delayed toxicity was associated with the in vivo assembly of a long-lived complex comprised of anthrax lethal toxin and the receptor decoy-Ig inhibitor. Intoxication in this system presumably results from the slow dissociation of the toxin complex from the inhibitor following their prolonged circulation. We conclude that while receptor decoy-Ig proteins represent promising candidates for the early treatment of B. anthracis infection, they may not be suitable for therapeutic use at later stages when fatal levels of toxin have already accumulated in the bloodstream. PMID:22511955

  11. HUWE1 and TRIP12 Collaborate in Degradation of Ubiquitin-Fusion Proteins and Misframed Ubiquitin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Esben G; Steinhauer, Cornelia; Lees, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells an uncleavable ubiquitin moiety conjugated to the N-terminus of a protein signals the degradation of the fusion protein via the proteasome-dependent ubiquitin fusion degradation (UFD) pathway. In yeast the molecular mechanism of the UFD pathway has been well characterized...... in degradation of the UFD substrate Ub(G76V)-YFP. The most significant hits from the screen were the E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase HUWE1, as well as PSMD7 and PSMD14 that encode proteasome subunits. Accordingly, knock down of HUWE1 led to an increase in the steady state level and a retarded degradation of the UFD...... substrate. Knock down of HUWE1 also led to a stabilization of the physiological UFD substrate UBB(+1). Precipitation experiments revealed that HUWE1 is associated with both the Ub(G76V)-YFP substrate and the 26S proteasome, indicating that it functions late in the UFD pathway. Double knock down of HUWE1...

  12. F-18 Labeled Diabody-Luciferase Fusion Proteins for Optical-ImmunoPET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Anna M. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2013-01-18

    The goal of the proposed work is to develop novel dual-labeled molecular imaging probes for multimodality imaging. Based on small, engineered antibodies called diabodies, these probes will be radioactively tagged with Fluorine-18 for PET imaging, and fused to luciferases for optical (bioluminescence) detection. Performance will be evaluated and validated using a prototype integrated optical-PET imaging system, OPET. Multimodality probes for optical-PET imaging will be based on diabodies that are dually labeled with 18F for PET detection and fused to luciferases for optical imaging. 1) Two sets of fusion proteins will be built, targeting the cell surface markers CEA or HER2. Coelenterazine-based luciferases and variant forms will be evaluated in combination with native substrate and analogs, in order to obtain two distinct probes recognizing different targets with different spectral signatures. 2) Diabody-luciferase fusion proteins will be labeled with 18F using amine reactive [18F]-SFB produced using a novel microwave-assisted, one-pot method. 3) Sitespecific, chemoselective radiolabeling methods will be devised, to reduce the chance that radiolabeling will inactivate either the target-binding properties or the bioluminescence properties of the diabody-luciferase fusion proteins. 4) Combined optical and PET imaging of these dual modality probes will be evaluated and validated in vitro and in vivo using a prototype integrated optical-PET imaging system, OPET. Each imaging modality has its strengths and weaknesses. Development and use of dual modality probes allows optical imaging to benefit from the localization and quantitation offered by the PET mode, and enhances the PET imaging by enabling simultaneous detection of more than one probe.

  13. Engineering of a Potent Recombinant Lectin-Toxin Fusion Protein to Eliminate Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateno, Hiroaki; Saito, Sayoko

    2017-07-10

    The use of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) such as human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) in regenerative medicine is hindered by their tumorigenic potential. Previously, we developed a recombinant lectin-toxin fusion protein of the hPSC-specific lectin rBC2LCN, which has a 23 kDa catalytic domain (domain III) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A (rBC2LCN-PE23). This fusion protein could selectively eliminate hPSCs following its addition to the cell culture medium. Here we conjugated rBC2LCN lectin with a 38 kDa domain of exotoxin A containing domains Ib and II in addition to domain III (PE38). The developed rBC2LCN-PE38 fusion protein could eliminate 50% of 201B7 hPSCs at a concentration of 0.003 μg/mL (24 h incubation), representing an approximately 556-fold higher activity than rBC2LCN-PE23. Little or no effect on human fibroblasts, human mesenchymal stem cells, and hiPSC-derived hepatocytes was observed at concentrations lower than 1 μg/mL. Finally, we demonstrate that rBC2LCN-PE38 selectively eliminates hiPSCs from a mixed culture of hiPSCs and hiPSC-derived hepatocytes. Since rBC2LCN-PE38 can be prepared from soluble fractions of E. coli culture at a yield of 9 mg/L, rBC2LCN-PE38 represents a practical reagent to remove human pluripotent stem cells residing in cultured cells destined for transplantation.

  14. Characterization of Protein-Excipient Microheterogeneity in Biopharmaceutical Solid-State Formulations by Confocal Fluorescence Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshari, Stijn H S; Ross, Jean L; Nayak, Purnendu K; Zarraga, Isidro E; Rajagopal, Karthikan; Wagner, Norman J; Lenhoff, Abraham M

    2017-02-06

    Protein-stabilizer microheterogeneity is believed to influence long-term protein stability in solid-state biopharmaceutical formulations and its characterization is therefore essential for the rational design of stable formulations. However, the spatial distribution of the protein and the stabilizer in a solid-state formulation is, in general, difficult to characterize because of the lack of a functional, simple, and reliable characterization technique. We demonstrate the use of confocal fluorescence microscopy with fluorescently labeled monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and antibody fragments (Fabs) to directly visualize three-dimensional particle morphologies and protein distributions in dried biopharmaceutical formulations, without restrictions on processing conditions or the need for extensive data analysis. While industrially relevant lyophilization procedures of a model IgG1 mAb generally lead to uniform protein-excipient distribution, the method shows that specific spray-drying conditions lead to distinct protein-excipient segregation. Therefore, this method can enable more definitive optimization of formulation conditions than has previously been possible.

  15. A quasi-lentiviral green fluorescent protein reporter exhibits nuclear export features of late human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transcripts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, Marcus; Ludwig, Christine; Kehlenbeck, Sylvia; Jungert, Kerstin; Wagner, Ralf

    2006-01-01

    We have previously shown that Rev-dependent expression of HIV-1 Gag from CMV immediate early promoter critically depends on the AU-rich codon bias of the gag gene. Here, we demonstrate that adaptation of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene to HIV codon bias is sufficient to turn this hivGFP RNA into a quasi-lentiviral message following the rules of late lentiviral gene expression. Accordingly, GFP expression was significantly decreased in transfected cells strictly correlating with reduced RNA levels. In the presence of the HIV 5' major splice donor, the hivGFP RNAs were stabilized in the nucleus and efficiently exported to the cytoplasm following fusion of the 3' Rev-responsive element (RRE) and coexpression of HIV-1 Rev. This Rev-dependent translocation was specifically inhibited by leptomycin B suggesting export via the CRM1-dependent pathway used by late lentiviral transcripts. In conclusion, this quasi-lentiviral reporter system may provide a new platform for developing sensitive Rev screening assays

  16. A Maltose-Binding Protein Fusion Construct Yields a Robust Crystallography Platform for MCL1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C Clifton

    Full Text Available Crystallization of a maltose-binding protein MCL1 fusion has yielded a robust crystallography platform that generated the first apo MCL1 crystal structure, as well as five ligand-bound structures. The ability to obtain fragment-bound structures advances structure-based drug design efforts that, despite considerable effort, had previously been intractable by crystallography. In the ligand-independent crystal form we identify inhibitor binding modes not observed in earlier crystallographic systems. This MBP-MCL1 construct dramatically improves the structural understanding of well-validated MCL1 ligands, and will likely catalyze the structure-based optimization of high affinity MCL1 inhibitors.

  17. Heterologous overexpression of sfCherry fluorescent protein in Nannochloropsis salina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam Kyu Kang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Oleaginous microalgae of the Nannochloropsis genus are considered excellent candidates for biofuels and value-added products owing to their high biomass productivity and lipid content. Here, we report the first overexpression and detection of a heterologous sfCherry fluorescent protein in Nannochloropsis salina in order to develop a transformation toolbox for future genetic improvements. Particle bombardment was employed for transformation, and expression of Shble under the control of TUB and UEP promoters, cloned from N. salina, was used to confer resistance to Zeocin antibiotics, resulting in 5.9 and 4.7 transformants per 108 cells, respectively. Stable integration of the markers into the genome was confirmed using a restriction enzyme site-directed amplification (RESDA PCR. The expression of sfCherry fluorescent protein was confirmed by Western blot analysis and confocal microscopy. These results suggest new possibilities of efficient genetic engineering of Nannochloropsis for the production of biofuels and other biochemicals.

  18. Photoabsorption of green and red fluorescent protein chromophore anions in vacuo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Songbo; Liu, Shasha; Zhao, Guangjiu; Chen, Maodu; Han, Keli; Sun, Mengtao

    2007-09-01

    Photoabsorption properties of green and red fluorescent protein chromophore anions in vacuo were investigated theoretically, based on the experimental results in gas phase [Phys. Rev. Lett. 2001, 87, 228102; Phys. Rev. Lett. 2003, 90, 118103]. Their calculated transition energies in absorption with TD-DFT and ZINDO methods are directly compared to the experimental reports in gas phase, and the calculations with ZINDO method can correctly reproduce the absorption spectra. The orientation and strength of their transition dipole moments were revealed with transition density. We also showed the orientation and result of their intramolecular charge transfer with transition difference density. The calculated results show that with the increase of the extended conjugated system, the orientation of transition dipole moments and the orientation of charge transfer can be reversed. They are the linear responds with the external electric fields. These theoretical results reveal the insight understanding of the photoinduced dynamics of green and red fluorescent protein chromophore anions and cations in vacuo.

  19. Use of green fluorescent protein to monitor Lactobacillus plantarum in the gastrointestinal tract of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xufeng; Wang, Lei; Li, Wei; Li, Bibo; Yang, Yuxin; Yan, Hailong; Qu, Lei; Chen, Yulin

    2015-01-01

    The experiment aimed to specifically monitor the passage of lactobacilli in vivo after oral administration. The green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene was cloned downstream from the constitutive p32 promoter from L. lactis subsp. cremoris Wg2. The recombinant expression vector, pLEM415-gfp-p32, was electroporated into Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) isolated from goat. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) was successfully expressed in L. plantarum. After 2 h post-administration, transformed Lactobacillus could be detectable in all luminal contents. In the rumen, bacteria concentration initially decreased, reached the minimum at 42 h post-oral administration and then increased. However, this concentration decreased constantly in the duodenum. This result indicated that L. plantarum could colonize in the rumen but not in the duodenum.

  20. Site-specific fluorescent labeling of nascent proteins on the translating ribosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraogi, Ishu; Zhang, Dawei; Chandrasekaran, Sandhya; Shan, Shu-ou

    2011-09-28

    As newly synthesized proteins emerge from the ribosome, they interact with a variety of cotranslational cellular machineries that facilitate their proper folding, maturation, and localization. These interactions are essential for proper function of the cell, and the ability to study these events is crucial to understanding cellular protein biogenesis. To this end, we have developed a highly efficient method to generate ribosome-nascent chain complexes (RNCs) site-specifically labeled with a fluorescent dye on the nascent polypeptide. The fluorescent RNC provides real-time, quantitative information on its cotranslational interaction with the signal recognition particle and will be a valuable tool in elucidating the role of the translating ribosome in numerous biochemical pathways.

  1. Determination of Protein by Fluorescence Enhancement of Curcumin in Lanthanum-Curcumin-Sodium Dodecyl Benzene Sulfonate-Protein System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Feng [Zaozhuang University, People' s Republic of China; Huang, Wei [Zaozhuang University, People' s Republic of China; Zhang, Yunfeng [Zaozhuang University, People' s Republic of China; Wang, Mingyin [Zaozhuang University, People' s Republic of China; Sun, Lina [Zaozhuang University, People' s Republic of China; Tang, Bo [Shandong University, Jinan, China; Wang, Wei [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    We found that the fluorescence intensity of the lanthanum (La(3+))-curcumin (CU) complex can be highly enhanced by proteins in the presence of sodium dodecyl benzene sulphonate (SDBS). Based on this finding, a new fluorimetric method for the determination of protein was developed. Under optimized conditions, the enhanced intensities of fluorescence are quantitatively in proportion to the concentrations of proteins in the range 0.0080-20.0 g mL(-1) for bovine serum albumin (BSA) and 0.00080-20.0 g mL(-1) for human serum albumin (HSA) with excitation of 425 nm, and 0.00020-20.0 g mL(-1) for bovine serum albumin (BSA) and 0.00080-20.0 g mL(-1)for human serum albumin (HSA) with excitation of 280 nm, while corresponding qualitative detection limits (S/N 3) are as low as 5.368, 0.573, 0.049, 0.562 g mL(-1), respectively. Study on reaction mechanism reveals that proteins can bind with La(3+), CU and SDBS through self-assembling function with electrostatic attraction, hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic interaction and van der Waals forces, etc. The proteins form a supermolecular association with multilayer structure, in which La(3+)-CU is clamped between BSA and SDBS. The unique high fluorescence enhancement of CU is resulted through synergic effects of favorable hydrophobic microenvironment provided by BSA and SDBS, and efficient intermolecular energy transfer among BSA, SDBS and CU. In energy transfer process, La(3+) plays a crucial role because it not only shortens the distance between SDBS and CU, but also acts as a "bridge" for transferring the energy from BSA to CU.

  2. Imaging Intracellular pH in Live Cells with a Genetically-Encoded Red Fluorescent Protein Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Tantama, Mathew; Hung, Yin Pun; Yellen, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Intracellular pH affects protein structure and function, and proton gradients underlie the function of organelles such as lysosomes and mitochondria. We engineered a genetically-encoded pH sensor by mutagenesis of the red fluorescent protein mKeima, providing a new tool to image intracellular pH in live cells. This sensor, named pHRed, is the first ratiometric, single-protein red fluorescent sensor of pH. Fluorescence emission of pHRed peaks at 610 nm while exhibiting dual excitation peaks at...

  3. Resolving Electronic Transitions in Synthetic Fluorescent Protein Chromophores by Magnetic Circular Dichroism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štěpánek, P.; Cowie, T. Y.; Šafařík, Martin; Šebestík, Jaroslav; Pohl, Radek; Bouř, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 15 (2016), s. 2348-2354 ISSN 1439-4235 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-03978S; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-05935S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : density functional calculations * fluorescence protein chromophores * magnetic circular dichroism * organic synthesis * spectral simulations Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.075, year: 2016

  4. A mature and fusogenic form of the Nipah virus fusion protein requires proteolytic processing by cathepsin L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pager, Cara Theresia; Craft, Willie Warren; Patch, Jared; Dutch, Rebecca Ellis

    2006-01-01

    The Nipah virus fusion (F) protein is proteolytically processed to F 1 + F 2 subunits. We demonstrate here that cathepsin L is involved in this important maturation event. Cathepsin inhibitors ablated cleavage of Nipah F. Proteolytic processing of Nipah F and fusion activity was dramatically reduced in cathepsin L shRNA-expressing Vero cells. Additionally, Nipah virus F-mediated fusion was inhibited in cathepsin L-deficient cells, but coexpression of cathepsin L restored fusion activity. Both purified cathepsin L and B could cleave immunopurified Nipah F protein, but only cathepsin L produced products of the correct size. Our results suggest that endosomal cathepsins can cleave Nipah F, but that cathepsin L specifically converts Nipah F to a mature and fusogenic form

  5. Early history, discovery, and expression of Aequorea green fluorescent protein, with a note on an unfinished experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Frederick I

    2010-08-01

    The bioluminescent hydromedusan jellyfish, Aequorea victoria, emits a greenish light (lambda(max) = 508 nm) when stimulated electrically or mechanically. The light comes from photocytes located along the margin of its umbrella. The greenish light depends on two intracellular proteins working in consort: aequorin (21.4 kDa) and a green fluorescent protein (27 kDa). An excited state green fluorescent protein molecule results, which, on returning to the ground state, emits a greenish light. Similarly, a green light emission may be induced in the green fluorescent protein by exposing it to ultraviolet or blue light. Because the green light can be readily detected under a fluorescence microscope, the green fluorescent protein, tagged to a protein of interest, has been used widely as a marker to locate proteins in cells and to monitoring gene expression. This article reviews the work that took place leading to the discovery, cloning, and expression of the green fluorescent protein, with a note on an unfinished experiment. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. A sensitive fluorescent probe for the polar solvation dynamics at protein-surfactant interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Priya; Choudhury, Susobhan; Singha, Subhankar; Jun, Yongwoong; Chakraborty, Sandipan; Sengupta, Jhimli; Das, Ranjan; Ahn, Kyo-Han; Pal, Samir Kumar

    2017-05-17

    Relaxation dynamics at the surface of biologically important macromolecules is important taking into account their functionality in molecular recognition. Over the years it has been shown that the solvation dynamics of a fluorescent probe at biomolecular surfaces and interfaces account for the relaxation dynamics of polar residues and associated water molecules. However, the sensitivity of the dynamics depends largely on the localization and exposure of the probe. For noncovalent fluorescent probes, localization at the region of interest in addition to surface exposure is an added challenge compared to the covalently attached probes at the biological interfaces. Here we have used a synthesized donor-acceptor type dipolar fluorophore, 6-acetyl-(2-((4-hydroxycyclohexyl)(methyl)amino)naphthalene) (ACYMAN), for the investigation of the solvation dynamics of a model protein-surfactant interface. A significant structural rearrangement of a model histone protein (H1) upon interaction with anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) as revealed from the circular dichroism (CD) studies is nicely corroborated in the solvation dynamics of the probe at the interface. The polarization gated fluorescence anisotropy of the probe compared to that at the SDS micellar surface clearly reveals the localization of the probe at the protein-surfactant interface. We have also compared the sensitivity of ACYMAN with other solvation probes including coumarin 500 (C500) and 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(p-dimethylamino-styryl)-4H-pyran (DCM). In comparison to ACYMAN, both C500 and DCM fail to probe the interfacial solvation dynamics of a model protein-surfactant interface. While C500 is found to be delocalized from the protein-surfactant interface, DCM becomes destabilized upon the formation of the interface (protein-surfactant complex). The timescales obtained from this novel probe have also been compared with other femtosecond resolved studies and molecular dynamics simulations.

  7. HUWE1 and TRIP12 collaborate in degradation of ubiquitin-fusion proteins and misframed ubiquitin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esben G Poulsen

    Full Text Available In eukaryotic cells an uncleavable ubiquitin moiety conjugated to the N-terminus of a protein signals the degradation of the fusion protein via the proteasome-dependent ubiquitin fusion degradation (UFD pathway. In yeast the molecular mechanism of the UFD pathway has been well characterized. Recently the human E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase TRIP12 was connected with the UFD pathway, but little is otherwise known about this system in mammalian cells. In the present work, we utilized high-throughput imaging on cells transfected with a targeted siRNA library to identify components involved in degradation of the UFD substrate Ub(G76V-YFP. The most significant hits from the screen were the E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase HUWE1, as well as PSMD7 and PSMD14 that encode proteasome subunits. Accordingly, knock down of HUWE1 led to an increase in the steady state level and a retarded degradation of the UFD substrate. Knock down of HUWE1 also led to a stabilization of the physiological UFD substrate UBB(+1. Precipitation experiments revealed that HUWE1 is associated with both the Ub(G76V-YFP substrate and the 26S proteasome, indicating that it functions late in the UFD pathway. Double knock down of HUWE1 and TRIP12 resulted in an additive stabilization of the substrate, suggesting that HUWE1 and TRIP12 function in parallel during UFD. However, even when both HUWE1 and TRIP12 are downregulated, ubiquitylation of the UFD substrate was still apparent, revealing functional redundancy between HUWE1, TRIP12 and yet other ubiquitin-protein ligases.

  8. Construction of green fluorescent protein-tagged recombinant iridovirus to assess viral replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Youhua; Huang, Xiaohong; Cai, Jia; Ye, Fuzhou; Guan, Liya; Liu, Hong; Qin, Qiwei

    2011-09-01

    Green fluorescent protein-tagged recombinant virus has been successfully applied to observing the infective dynamics and evaluating viral replication. Here, we identified soft-shelled turtle iridovirus (STIV) ORF55 as an envelope protein (VP55), and developed a recombinant STIV expressing an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) fused to VP55 (EGFP-STIV). Recombinant EGFP-STIV shared similar single-step growth curves and ultrastructural morphology with wild type STIV (wt-STIV). The green fluorescence distribution during EGFP-STIV infection was consistent with the intracellular distribution of VP55 which was mostly co-localized with virus assembly sites. Furthermore, EGFP-STIV could be used to evaluate viral replication conveniently under drug treatment, and the result showed that STIV replication was significantly inhibited after the addition of antioxidant pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC). Thus, the EGFP-tagged recombinant iridovirus will not only be useful for further investigations on the viral replicative dynamics, but also provide an alternative simple strategy to screen for antiviral substances. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A set of enhanced green fluorescent protein concatemers for quantitative determination of nuclear localization signal strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Jennifer; Thavaraja, Ramya; Giehler, Susanne; Nalaskowski, Marcus M

    2017-09-15

    Regulated transport of proteins between nucleus and cytoplasm is an important process in the eukaryotic cell. In most cases, active nucleo-cytoplasmic protein transport is mediated by nuclear localization signal (NLS) and/or nuclear export signal (NES) motifs. In this study, we developed a set of vectors expressing enhanced GFP (EGFP) concatemers ranging from 2 to 12 subunits (2xEGFP to 12xEGFP) for analysis of NLS strength. As shown by in gel GFP fluorescence analysis and αGFP Western blotting, EGFP concatemers are expressed as fluorescent full-length proteins in eukaryotic cells. As expected, nuclear localization of concatemeric EGFPs decreases with increasing molecular weight. By oligonucleotide ligation this set of EGFP concatemers can be easily fused to NLS motifs. After determination of intracellular localization of EGFP concatemers alone and fused to different NLS motifs we calculated the size of a hypothetic EGFP concatemer showing a defined distribution of EGFP fluorescence between nucleus and cytoplasm (n/c ratio = 2). Clear differences of the size of the hypothetic EGFP concatemer depending on the fused NLS motif were observed. Therefore, we propose to use the size of this hypothetic concatemer as quantitative indicator for comparing strength of different NLS motifs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Single chain Fc-dimer-human growth hormone fusion protein for improved drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Wang, Hsuan-Yao; Tong, Shanshan; Okamoto, Curtis T; Shen, Wei-Chiang; Zaro, Jennica L

    2017-02-01

    Fc fusion protein technology has been successfully used to generate long-acting forms of several protein therapeutics. In this study, a novel Fc-based drug carrier, single chain Fc-dimer (sc(Fc) 2 ), was designed to contain two Fc domains recombinantly linked via a flexible linker. Since the Fc dimeric structure is maintained through the flexible linker, the hinge region was omitted to further stabilize it against proteolysis and reduce FcγR-related effector functions. The resultant sc(Fc) 2 candidate preserved the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) binding. sc(Fc) 2 -mediated delivery was then evaluated using a therapeutic protein with a short plasma half-life, human growth hormone (hGH), as the protein drug cargo. This novel carrier protein showed a prolonged in vivo half-life and increased hGH-mediated bioactivity compared to the traditional Fc-based drug carrier. sc(Fc) 2 technology has the potential to greatly advance and expand the use of Fc-technology for improving the pharmacokinetics and bioactivity of protein therapeutics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Study of protein-probe complexation equilibria and protein-surfactant interaction using charge transfer fluorescence probe methyl ester of N,N-dimethylamino naphthyl acrylic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahanta, Subrata; Balia Singh, Rupashree; Bagchi, Arnab [Department of Chemistry University of Calcutta 92, A.P.C. Road, Kolkata 700009 (India); Nath, Debnarayan [Department of Physical Chemistry, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Guchhait, Nikhil, E-mail: nguchhait@yahoo.co [Department of Chemistry University of Calcutta 92, A.P.C. Road, Kolkata 700009 (India)

    2010-06-15

    In this paper, we demonstrate the interaction between intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) probe-Methyl ester of N,N-dimethylamino naphthyl acrylic acid (MDMANA) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) using absorption and fluorescence emission spectroscopy. The nature of probe protein binding interaction, fluorescence resonance energy transfer from protein to probe and time resolved fluorescence decay measurement predict that the probe molecule binds strongly to the hydrophobic cavity of the protein. Furthermore, the interaction of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) with water soluble protein BSA has been investigated using MDMANA as fluorescenece probe. The changes in the spectral characteristics of charge transfer fluorescence probe MDMANA in BSA-SDS environment reflects well the nature of the protein-surfactant binding interaction such as specific binding, non-cooperative binding, cooperative binding and saturation binding.

  12. Protein mediated synthesis of fluorescent Au-nanoclusters for metal sensory coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, Manja; Raff, Johannes [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Biogeochemistry

    2017-06-01

    Fluorescent Au-nanocluster were successfully synthesized and used for the selective detection of Cu{sup 2} {sup +}. The synthesized Au-BSA-nanoclusters remain functional also after immobilization and show high thermal stability. Additionally, the transfer of the protein mediated Au-nanocluster synthesis route to S-layer proteins was achieved. (The presented work is part of the project BIONEWS dealing with long-term stable cells for the set-up and regeneration of sensor and actor materials for strategic relevant metals, in particular rare earth elements).

  13. Highly sensitive rapid fluorescence detection of protein residues on surgical instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalev, Valeri I; Bartona, James S; Richardson, Patricia R; Jones, Anita C

    2006-01-01

    There is a risk of contamination of surgical instruments by infectious protein residues, in particular, prions which are the agents for Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease in humans. They are exceptionally resistant to conventional sterilization, therefore it is important to detect their presence as contaminants so that alternative cleaning procedures can be applied. We describe the development of an optimized detection system for fluorescently labelled protein, suitable for in-hospital use. We show that under optimum conditions the technique can detect ∼10 attomole/cm 2 with a scan speed of ∼3-10 cm 2 /s of the test instrument's surface. A theoretical analysis and experimental measurements will be discussed

  14. A sulfhydryl-reactive ruthenium (II complex and its conjugation to protein G as a universal reagent for fluorescent immunoassays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Tang Lin

    Full Text Available To develop a fluorescent ruthenium complex for biosensing, we synthesized a novel sulfhydryl-reactive compound, 4-bromophenanthroline bis-2,2'-dipyridine Ruthenium bis (hexafluorophosphate. The synthesized Ru(II complex was crosslinked with thiol-modified protein G to form a universal reagent for fluorescent immunoassays. The resulting Ru(II-protein G conjugates were identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. The emission peak wavelength of the Ru(II-protein G conjugate was 602 nm at the excitation of 452 nm which is similar to the spectra of the Ru(II complex, indicating that Ru(II-protein G conjugates still remain the same fluorescence after conjugation. To test the usefulness of the conjugate for biosensing, immunoglobulin G (IgG binding assay was conducted. The result showed that Ru(II-protein G conjugates were capable of binding IgG and the more cross-linkers to modify protein G, the higher conjugation efficiency. To demonstrate the feasibility of Ru(II-protein G conjugates for fluorescent immunoassays, the detection of recombinant histidine-tagged protein using the conjugates and anti-histidine antibody was developed. The results showed that the histidine-tagged protein was successfully detected with dose-response, indicating that Ru(II-protein G conjugate is a useful universal fluorescent reagent for quantitative immunoassays.

  15. Structural and kinetic analysis of the unnatural fusion protein 4-coumaroyl-CoA ligase::stilbene synthase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yechun; Yi, Hankuil; Wang, Melissa; Yu, Oliver; Jez, Joseph M. (WU); (Danforth)

    2012-10-24

    To increase the biochemical efficiency of biosynthetic systems, metabolic engineers have explored different approaches for organizing enzymes, including the generation of unnatural fusion proteins. Previous work aimed at improving the biosynthesis of resveratrol, a stilbene associated a range of health-promoting activities, in yeast used an unnatural engineered fusion protein of Arabidopsis thaliana (thale cress) 4-coumaroyl-CoA ligase (At4CL1) and Vitis vinifera (grape) stilbene synthase (VvSTS) to increase resveratrol levels 15-fold relative to yeast expressing the individual enzymes. Here we present the crystallographic and biochemical analysis of the 4CL::STS fusion protein. Determination of the X-ray crystal structure of 4CL::STS provides the first molecular view of an artificial didomain adenylation/ketosynthase fusion protein. Comparison of the steady-state kinetic properties of At4CL1, VvSTS, and 4CL::STS demonstrates that the fusion protein improves catalytic efficiency of either reaction less than 3-fold. Structural and kinetic analysis suggests that colocalization of the two enzyme active sites within 70 {angstrom} of each other provides the basis for enhanced in vivo synthesis of resveratrol.

  16. The past, present and future of fluorescent protein tags in anaerobic protozoan parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin-Adeline, Victoria; Šlapeta, Jan

    2016-03-01

    The world health organization currently recognizes diarrhoeal diseases as a significant cause of death in children globally. Protozoan parasites such as Giardia and Entamoeba that thrive in the oxygen-deprived environment of the human gut are common etiological agents of diarrhoea. In the urogenital tract of humans, the anaerobic protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis is notorious as the most common non-viral, sexually transmitted pathogen. Even with high medical impact, our understanding of anaerobic parasite physiology is scarce and as a result, treatment choices are limited. Fluorescent proteins (FPs) are invaluable tools as genetically encoded protein tags for advancing knowledge of cellular function. These FP tags emit fluorescent colours and once attached to a protein of interest, allow tracking of parasite proteins in the dynamic cellular space. Application of green FPs-like FPs in anaerobic protozoans is hindered by their oxygen dependency. In this review, we examine aspects of anaerobic parasite biology that clash with physio-chemical properties of FPs and limit their use as live-parasite protein tags. We expose novel FPs, such as miniSOG that do not require oxygen for signal production. The potential use of novel FPs has the opportunity to leverage the anaerobe parasitologist toolkit to that of aerobe parasitologist.

  17. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction of fluorescence recovery protein from Synechocystis PCC 6803

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ting; Shuai, Yingli; Zhou, Honggang

    2011-01-01

    Fluorescence recovery protein from Synechocystis PCC 6803 plays a key role in the orange carotenoid protein-related photoprotective mechanism in cyanobacteria. The full-length form and a truncated form were overexpressed, purified and crystallized, and diffraction was observed to 2.75 Å resolution. Fluorescence recovery protein (FRP), which is encoded by the slr1964 gene in Synechocystis PCC 6803, plays a key role in the orange carotenoid protein-related photoprotective mechanism in cyanobacteria. As the crystal structure of FRP may provide information about the biological functions and mechanism of action of the protein, recombinant full-length FRP and a truncated form were overexpressed, purified and crystallized at 291 K using ethylene imine polymer as the precipitant. An FRP data set was collected to a resolution of 2.75 Å at low temperature (100 K). The crystal belonged to space group P4 1 2 1 2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 61.9, c = 160.7 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. Assuming that the asymmetric unit contains three molecules, the Matthews coefficient was calculated to be 2.1 Å 3 Da −1

  18. Expression, purification and characterization of hepatitis B virus X protein BH3-like motif-linker-Bcl-xL fusion protein for structural studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Kusunoki

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx is a multifunctional protein that interacts directly with many host proteins. For example, HBx interacts with anti-apoptotic proteins, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, through its BH3-like motif, which leads to elevated cytosolic calcium levels, efficient viral DNA replication and the induction of apoptosis. To facilitate sample preparation and perform detailed structural characterization of the complex between HBx and Bcl-xL, we designed and purified a recombinant HBx BH3-like motif-linker-Bcl-xL fusion protein produced in E. coli. The fusion protein was characterized by size exclusion chromatography, circular dichroism and nuclear magnetic resonance experiments. Our results show that the fusion protein is a monomer in aqueous solution, forms a stable intramolecular complex, and likely retains the native conformation of the complex between Bcl-xL and the HBx BH3-like motif. Furthermore, the HBx BH3-like motif of the intramolecular complex forms an α-helix. These observations indicate that the fusion protein should facilitate structural studies aimed at understanding the interaction between HBx and Bcl-xL at the atomic level.

  19. Identification of a functional nuclear export signal in the green fluorescent protein asFP499

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, Huseyin; Strasser, Bernd; Rauth, Sabine; Irving, Robert A.; Wark, Kim L.

    2006-01-01

    The green fluorescent protein (GFP) asFP499 from Anemonia sulcata is a distant homologue of the GFP from Aequorea victoria. We cloned the asFP499 gene into a mammalian expression vector and showed that this protein was expressed in the human lymphoblast cell line Ramos RA1 and in the embryonic kidney 293T cell line (HEK 293T). In HEK 293T cells, asFP499 was localized mainly in the cytoplasm, suggesting that the protein was excluded from the nucleus. We identified 194 LRMEKLNI 201 as a candidate nuclear export signal in asFP499 and mutated the isoleucine at position 201 to an alanine. Unlike the wildtype form, the mutant protein was distributed throughout the cytoplasm and nucleus. This is First report of a GFP that contains a functional NES

  20. Human antibody recognition of antigenic site IV on Pneumovirus fusion proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, Jarrod J; Binshtein, Elad; Human, Stacey; Fong, Rachel H; Alvarado, Gabriela; Doranz, Benjamin J; Moore, Martin L; Ohi, Melanie D; Crowe, James E

    2018-02-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major human pathogen that infects the majority of children by two years of age. The RSV fusion (F) protein is a primary target of human antibodies, and it has several antigenic regions capable of inducing neutralizing antibodies. Antigenic site IV is preserved in both the pre-fusion and post-fusion conformations of RSV F. Antibodies to antigenic site IV have been described that bind and neutralize both RSV and human metapneumovirus (hMPV). To explore the diversity of binding modes at antigenic site IV, we generated a panel of four new human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and competition-binding suggested the mAbs bind at antigenic site IV. Mutagenesis experiments revealed that binding and neutralization of two mAbs (3M3 and 6F18) depended on arginine (R) residue R429. We discovered two R429-independent mAbs (17E10 and 2N6) at this site that neutralized an RSV R429A mutant strain, and one of these mAbs (17E10) neutralized both RSV and hMPV. To determine the mechanism of cross-reactivity, we performed competition-binding, recombinant protein mutagenesis, peptide binding, and electron microscopy experiments. It was determined that the human cross-reactive mAb 17E10 binds to RSV F with a binding pose similar to 101F, which may be indicative of cross-reactivity with hMPV F. The data presented provide new concepts in RSV immune recognition and vaccine design, as we describe the novel idea that binding pose may influence mAb cross-reactivity between RSV and hMPV. Characterization of the site IV epitope bound by human antibodies may inform the design of a pan-Pneumovirus vaccine.

  1. Engineering a pharmacologically superior form of granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor by fusion with gelatin-like-protein polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan-Shan; Wen, Xiao-Fang; Wu, Yi-Liang; Wang, Ye-Fei; Fan, Min; Yang, Zhi-Yu; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Lin-Fu

    2010-03-01

    The plasma half-life of therapeutic proteins is a critical factor in many clinical applications. Therefore, new strategies to prolong plasma half-life of long-acting peptides and protein drugs are in high demand. Here, we designed an artificial gelatin-like protein (GLK) and fused this hydrophilic GLK polymer to granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) to generate a chimeric GLK/G-CSF fusion protein. The genetically engineered recombinant GLK/G-CSF (rGLK/G-CSF) fusion protein was purified from Pichia pastoris. In vitro studies demonstrated that rGLK/G-CSF possessed an enlarged hydrodynamic radius, improved thermal stability and retained full bioactivity compared to unfused G-CSF. Following a single subcutaneous administration to rats, the rGLK/G-CSF fusion protein displayed a slower plasma clearance rate and stimulated greater and longer lasting increases in circulating white blood cells than G-CSF. Our findings indicate that fusion with this artificial, hydrophilic, GLK polymer provides many advantages in the construction of a potent hematopoietic factor with extended plasma half-life. This approach could be easily applied to other therapeutic proteins and have important clinical applications. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Respiratory syncytial virus subunit vaccine based on a recombinant fusion protein expressed transiently in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallet, Sophie; Amacker, Mario; Westerfeld, Nicole; Baldi, Lucia; König, Iwo; Hacker, David L; Zaborosch, Christiane; Zurbriggen, Rinaldo; Wurm, Florian M

    2009-10-30

    Although respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes severe lower respiratory tract infection in infants and adults at risk, no RSV vaccine is currently available. In this report, efforts toward the generation of an RSV subunit vaccine using recombinant RSV fusion protein (rRSV-F) are described. The recombinant protein was produced by transient gene expression (TGE) in suspension-adapted human embryonic kidney cells (HEK-293E) in 4 L orbitally shaken bioreactors. It was then purified and formulated in immunostimulating reconstituted influenza virosomes (IRIVs). The candidate vaccine induced anti-RSV-F neutralizing antibodies in mice, and challenge studies in cotton rats are ongoing. If successful in preclinical and clinical trials, this will be the first recombinant subunit vaccine produced by large-scale TGE in mammalian cells.

  3. Oncogenic fusion proteins adopt the insulin-like growth factor signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Haim; Meisel-Sharon, Shilhav; Bruchim, Ilan

    2018-02-19

    The insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) has been identified as a potent anti-apoptotic, pro-survival tyrosine kinase-containing receptor. Overexpression of the IGF1R gene constitutes a typical feature of most human cancers. Consistent with these biological roles, cells expressing high levels of IGF1R are expected not to die, a quintessential feature of cancer cells. Tumor specific chromosomal translocations that disrupt the architecture of transcription factors are a common theme in carcinogenesis. Increasing evidence gathered over the past fifteen years demonstrate that this type of genomic rearrangements is common not only among pediatric and hematological malignancies, as classically thought, but may also provide a molecular and cytogenetic foundation for an ever-increasing portion of adult epithelial tumors. In this review article we provide evidence that the mechanism of action of oncogenic fusion proteins associated with both pediatric and adult malignancies involves transactivation of the IGF1R gene, with ensuing increases in IGF1R levels and ligand-mediated receptor phosphorylation. Disrupted transcription factors adopt the IGF1R signaling pathway and elicit their oncogenic activities via activation of this critical regulatory network. Combined targeting of oncogenic fusion proteins along with the IGF1R may constitute a promising therapeutic approach.

  4. Analytical use of multi-protein Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer to demonstrate membrane-facilitated interactions within cytokine receptor complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Christopher D; Izotova, Lara S; Pestka, Sidney

    2013-10-01

    Experiments measuring Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) between cytokine receptor chains and their associated proteins led to hypotheses describing their organization in intact cells. These interactions occur within a larger protein complex or within a given nano-environment. To illustrate this complexity empirically, we developed a protocol to analyze FRET among more than two fluorescent proteins (multi-FRET). In multi-FRET, we model FRET among more than two fluorophores as the sum of all possible pairwise interactions within the complex. We validated our assumption by demonstrating that FRET among pairs within a fluorescent triplet resembled FRET between each pair measured in the absence of the thi