WorldWideScience

Sample records for fluorescent lamps part

  1. Fluorescent discharge lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, E.; Otsuka, H.; Nomi, K.; Honmo, I.

    1982-01-01

    A rapidly illuminating fluorescent lamp 1,200 mm long and 32.5 mm in diameter with an interior conducting strip which is compatible with conventional fixtures and ballasts is described. The fluorescent lamp is composed of a linear glass tube, electrodes sealed at both ends, mercury and raregas sealed in the glass tube, a fluorescent substance clad on the inner walls of the glass tube, and a clad conducting strip extending the entire length of the glass tube in the axial direction on the inner surface of the tube.

  2. Process for environmentally safe disposal of used fluorescent lamp potted ballast assemblies with component part reclamation and/or recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nardella, A.; Norian, B.

    1993-07-27

    A process is described for the environmentally safe and economical disposal of used fluorescent lamp potted ballast housing assemblies comprising removing from the housing the potted assembly with its embedded electrical component assemblies including a component capacitor containing environmentally hazardous material PCB's; after or before such removing, immersing the potted assembly in a cryogenic bath and freezing the same to reader the potting sufficiently brittle to fragment into small pieces upon being impacted; impacting the potting thoroughly to crush and fragment the same into small pieces and to cleanly remove substantially all traces of the potting from all the electrical components and parts embedded therein and without imparting damage to the components and parts; disconnecting the component containing the environmentally hazardous material; and incinerating only the component containing the environmentally hazardous material, leaving all other components and parts including the housing and potting fragments for salvage, re-use and/or recycling.

  3. Fluorescent Lamp Replacement Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    not be cited for purposes of advertisement. DISPOSITION INSTRUCTIONS: Destroy this document when no longer needed. Do not return to the... recycling , and can be disposed safely in a landfill. (2) LEDs offer reduced maintenance costs and fewer bulb replacements, significantly reducing... recycling . Several fixtures, ballasts and energy efficient fluorescent bulbs that were determined to be in pristine condition were returned to ATC

  4. Materials for incandescent and fluorescent lamps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Knud Aage

    1996-01-01

    The article gives an overview of the materials systems used for incandescent lamps as well as a brief introduction to the systems used for fluorescent lamps. The materials used for incandescent lamps are doped tungsten used for the filaments, metals and alloys used for terminal and support posts......, lead wires and internal reflectors and screens as well as glasses for the envelope. The physics of bulbs and changes in bulbs during use are elucidated. The cost and energy savings and environmental benefits by replacement of incandescent lamps by fluorescent lamps are presented....

  5. Collisional and radiative processes in fluorescent lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lister, Graeme G.

    2003-01-01

    Since electrode life is the major limiting factor in operating fluorescent lamps, many lighting companies have introduced 'electrodeless' fluorescent lamps, using inductively coupled discharges. These lamps often operate at much higher power loadings than standard lamps and numerical models have not been successful in reproducing experimental measurements in the parameter ranges of interest. A comprehensive research program was undertaken to study the fundamental physical processes of these discharges, co-funded by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and OSRAM SYLVANIA under the name of ALITE. The program included experiments and modeling of radiation transport, computations of electron-atom and atom-atom cross sections and the first comprehensive power balance studies of a highly loaded fluorescent lamp. Results from the program and their importance to the understanding of the physics of fluorescent lamps are discussed, with particular emphasis on the important collisional and radiative processes. Comparisons between results of experimental measurements and numerical models are presented

  6. Optical radiation emissions from compact fluorescent lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khazova, M.; O'Hagan, J.B.

    2008-01-01

    There is a drive to energy efficiency to mitigate climate change. To meet this challenge, the UK Government has proposed phasing out incandescent lamps by the end of 2011 and replacing them with energy efficient fluorescent lighting, including compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) with integrated ballasts. This paper presents a summary of an assessment conducted by the Health Protection Agency in March 2008 to evaluate the optical radiation emissions of CFLs currently available in the UK consumer market. The study concluded that the UV emissions from a significant percentage of the tested CFLs with single envelopes may result in foreseeable overexposure of the skin when these lamps are used in desk or task lighting applications. The optical output of all tested CFLs, in addition to high-frequency modulation, had a 100-Hz envelope with modulation in excess of 15%. This degree of modulation may be linked to a number of adverse effects. (authors)

  7. 21 CFR 866.2600 - Wood's fluorescent lamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2600 Wood's fluorescent lamp. (a) Identification. A Wood's fluorescent lamp is a device intended for medical purposes to detect...

  8. Max Tech and Beyond: Fluorescent Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholand, Michael

    2012-04-01

    Fluorescent lamps are the most widely used artificial light source today, responsible for approximately 70% of the lumens delivered to our living spaces globally. The technology was originally commercialized in the 1930's, and manufacturers have been steadily improving the efficacy of these lamps over the years through modifications to the phosphors, cathodes, fill-gas, operating frequency, tube diameter and other design attributes. The most efficient commercially available fluorescent lamp is the 25 Watt T5 lamp. This lamp operates at 114-116 lumens per watt while also providing good color rendering and more than 20,000 hours of operating life. Industry experts interviewed indicated that while this lamp is the most efficient in the market today, there is still a further 10 to 14% of potential improvements that may be introduced to the market over the next 2 to 5 years. These improvements include further developments in phosphors, fill-gas, cathode coatings and ultraviolet (UV) reflective glass coatings. The commercialization of these technology improvements will combine to bring about efficacy improvements that will push the technology up to a maximum 125 to 130 lumens per watt. One critical issue raised by researchers that may present a barrier to the realization of these improvements is the fact that technology investment in fluorescent lamps is being reduced in order to prioritize research into light emitting diodes (LEDs) and ceramic metal halide high intensity discharge (HID) lamps. Thus, it is uncertain whether these potential efficacy improvements will be developed, patented and commercialized. The emphasis for premium efficacy will continue to focus on T5 lamps, which are expected to continue to be marketed along with the T8 lamp. Industry experts highlighted the fact that an advantage of the T5 lamp is the fact that it is 40% smaller and yet provides an equivalent lumen output to that of a T8 or T12 lamp. Due to its smaller form factor, the T5 lamp

  9. Useful life test results of compact fluorescent lamps. Part 1; Resultados de las pruebas de vida til a lamparas fluorescentes compactas del proyecto Ilumex. Parte 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valera Negrete, A.; Vargas Nieto, E. [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the results obtained in the Laboratory in testing the useful life of the compact fluorescent lights supplied by the winners of the first bidding called for the project ILUMEX, and offered to users in the domestic sector of the Jalisco and Nuevo Leon states. Also, the lightning flux in different stages of the lamp`s useful life is shown. It is worthwhile to mention that this is the first time tests of this type are conducted in the Federal District`s Laboratory of Public Lightning. [Espanol] En el presente trabajo se muestran los resultados obtenidos del laboratorio de pruebas de vida util a las lamparas fluorescentes compactas ganadoras de la primera licitacion del proyecto ILUMEX, ofrecidas a los usuarios del sector domstico de los estados de Jalisco y Nuevo Leon. Asimismo, se indican los flujos luminosos a diferentes etapas de la vida util de las lamparas. Cabe hacer notar que es la primera ocasion que se realizan este tipo de pruebas en el Laboratorio de Alumbrado Publico del Departamento del Distrito Federal.

  10. Useful life test results of compact fluorescent lamps. Part 1; Resultados de las pruebas de vida til a lamparas fluorescentes compactas del proyecto Ilumex. Parte 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valera Negrete, A; Vargas Nieto, E [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents the results obtained in the Laboratory in testing the useful life of the compact fluorescent lights supplied by the winners of the first bidding called for the project ILUMEX, and offered to users in the domestic sector of the Jalisco and Nuevo Leon states. Also, the lightning flux in different stages of the lamp`s useful life is shown. It is worthwhile to mention that this is the first time tests of this type are conducted in the Federal District`s Laboratory of Public Lightning. [Espanol] En el presente trabajo se muestran los resultados obtenidos del laboratorio de pruebas de vida util a las lamparas fluorescentes compactas ganadoras de la primera licitacion del proyecto ILUMEX, ofrecidas a los usuarios del sector domstico de los estados de Jalisco y Nuevo Leon. Asimismo, se indican los flujos luminosos a diferentes etapas de la vida util de las lamparas. Cabe hacer notar que es la primera ocasion que se realizan este tipo de pruebas en el Laboratorio de Alumbrado Publico del Departamento del Distrito Federal.

  11. Mercury mass measurement in fluorescent lamps via neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viererbl, L.; Vinš, M.; Lahodová, Z.; Fuksa, A.; Kučera, J.; Koleška, M.; Voljanskij, A.

    2015-01-01

    Mercury is an essential component of fluorescent lamps. Not all fluorescent lamps are recycled, resulting in contamination of the environment with toxic mercury, making measurement of the mercury mass used in fluorescent lamps important. Mercury mass measurement of lamps via instrumental neutron activation analysis (NAA) was tested under various conditions in the LVR-15 research reactor. Fluorescent lamps were irradiated in different positions in vertical irradiation channels and a horizontal channel in neutron fields with total fluence rates from 3×10 8 cm −2 s −1 to 10 14 cm −2 s −1 . The 202 Hg(n,γ) 203 Hg nuclear reaction was used for mercury mass evaluation. Activities of 203 Hg and others induced radionuclides were measured via gamma spectrometry with an HPGe detector at various times after irradiation. Standards containing an Hg 2 Cl 2 compound were used to determine mercury mass. Problems arise from the presence of elements with a large effective cross section in luminescent material (europium, antimony and gadolinium) and glass (boron). The paper describes optimization of the NAA procedure in the LVR-15 research reactor with particular attention to influence of neutron self-absorption in fluorescent lamps. - Highlights: • Mercury is an essential component of fluorescent lamps. • Fluorescent lamps were irradiated in neutron fields in research reactor. • 203 Hg induced radionuclide activity was measured using gamma spectrometry. • Mercury mass in fluorescent lamps can be measured by neutron activation analysis.

  12. Heat transfer assembly for a fluorescent lamp and fixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siminovitch, M.J.; Rubenstein, F.M.; Whitman, R.E.

    1992-12-29

    In a lighting fixture including a lamp and a housing, a heat transfer structure is disclosed for reducing the minimum lamp wall temperature of a fluorescent light bulb. The heat transfer structure, constructed of thermally conductive material, extends from inside the housing to outside the housing, transferring heat energy generated from a fluorescent light bulb to outside the housing where the heat energy is dissipated to the ambient air outside the housing. Also disclosed is a method for reducing minimum lamp wall temperatures. Further disclosed is an improved lighting fixture including a lamp, a housing and the aforementioned heat transfer structure. 11 figs.

  13. Processes and Technologies for the Recycling of Spent Fluorescent Lamps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kujawski Wojciech

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The growing industrial application of rare earth metals led to great interest in the new technologies for the recycling and recovery of REEs from diverse sources. This work reviews the various methods for the recycling of spent fluorescent lamps. The spent fluorescent lamps are potential source of important rare earth elements (REEs such as: yttrium, terbium, europium, lanthanum and cerium. The characteristics of REEs properties and construction of typical fl uorescent lamps is described. The work compares also current technologies which can be utilized for an efficient recovery of REEs from phosphors powders coming from spent fluorescent lamps. The work is especially focused on the hydrometallurgical and pyrometallurgical processes. It was concluded that hydrometallurgical processes are especially useful for the recovery of REEs from spent fluorescent lamps. Moreover, the methods used for recycling of REEs are identical or very similar to those utilized for the raw ores processing.

  14. Fluorescent lamp with static magnetic field generating means

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, P.E.; Maya, J.

    1987-09-08

    A fluorescent lamp wherein magnetic field generating means (e.g., permanent magnets) are utilized to generate a static magnetic field across the respective electrode structures of the lamp such that maximum field strength is located at the electrode's filament. An increase in efficacy during operation has been observed. 2 figs.

  15. Mercury mass measurement in fluorescent lamps via neutron activation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viererbl, L.; Vinš, M.; Lahodová, Z.; Fuksa, A.; Kučera, J.; Koleška, M.; Voljanskij, A.

    2015-11-01

    Mercury is an essential component of fluorescent lamps. Not all fluorescent lamps are recycled, resulting in contamination of the environment with toxic mercury, making measurement of the mercury mass used in fluorescent lamps important. Mercury mass measurement of lamps via instrumental neutron activation analysis (NAA) was tested under various conditions in the LVR-15 research reactor. Fluorescent lamps were irradiated in different positions in vertical irradiation channels and a horizontal channel in neutron fields with total fluence rates from 3×108 cm-2 s-1 to 1014 cm-2 s-1. The 202Hg(n,γ)203Hg nuclear reaction was used for mercury mass evaluation. Activities of 203Hg and others induced radionuclides were measured via gamma spectrometry with an HPGe detector at various times after irradiation. Standards containing an Hg2Cl2 compound were used to determine mercury mass. Problems arise from the presence of elements with a large effective cross section in luminescent material (europium, antimony and gadolinium) and glass (boron). The paper describes optimization of the NAA procedure in the LVR-15 research reactor with particular attention to influence of neutron self-absorption in fluorescent lamps.

  16. The instantaneous light-intensity function of a fluorescent lamp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gluskin, Emanuel [Holon Institute of Technology, 52 Golomb St., Holon 58102 (Israel): Electrical Engineering Department, Ben-Gurion University, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)]. E-mail: gluskin@ee.bgu.ac.il; Topalis, Frangiskos V. [Technical University of Athens, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 9 Iroon Politechniou St., 15780 Athens (Greece); Kateri, Ifigenia [Technical University of Athens, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 9 Iroon Politechniou St., 15780 Athens (Greece); Bisketzis, Nikolas [Technical University of Athens, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 9 Iroon Politechniou St., 15780 Athens (Greece)

    2006-05-08

    Using some simple physics and 'system' considerations, the instantaneous light intensity function {psi}(t) of a fluorescent lamp fed via a regular ballast from the 50-60 Hz line is argued to be {psi}(t)={psi}{sub min}+bp(t), where p(t) is the instantaneous power function of the lamp, and b is a constant, and experiment confirms this formula well. The main frequency of {psi}(t), the very significant singularity of its waveform, and the relative intensity of the ripple, i.e., the depth of the modulation, are the focus. The results are important for research into the vision problem that some humans (autistic, but others, too) experience regarding fluorescent light. The inertia of the processes in the lamp which are responsible for the light emission, provides some nonzero emission at the instants when p(t) has zeros. The smaller the volume of the tube and the mass of the gas are, the more weakly the inertia of the processes is expressed, and the relatively smaller is {psi}{sub min}. However, it should be very difficult to theoretically obtain {psi}(t), in particular {psi}{sub min}, from the very complicated physics of the low-pressure discharge in the tube. We conclude that {psi}{sub min} has to be connected with the (also easily measured) lamp's inductance. The work should attract more attention of the physicists to the properties of the common fluorescent lamps. escent lamps.

  17. Radiation safety aspects of fluorescent lamp starters incorporating radiation source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadagopan, Geetha [Radiological Physics and Advisory Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India); Shukla, V.K. [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India)

    2000-05-01

    A fluorescent lamp starter is a switch applies the voltage to the fluorescent tube after sufficient preheating to allow the tube to conduct an electric current. Radioactive substances used in the starters are {sup 85}Kr, {sup 147}Pm, {sup 3}H and {sup 232}Th. In India, fluorescent lamp starters are classified as consumer products and users are outside regulatory control. However, regulatory control is exercised over the manufacturers at the production stage. Tritium activity measured in the lamp starters ranged from 400-4500 Bq with a mean activity of 1.78 kBq. Thorium activity measured varied from 0.44-3.3 mg. The results of radiation safety assessment of the workplace and radioactivity estimation in the starters are discussed in this paper. (author)

  18. Radiation safety aspects of fluorescent lamp starters incorporating radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadagopan, Geetha; Shukla, V.K.

    2000-01-01

    A fluorescent lamp starter is a switch applies the voltage to the fluorescent tube after sufficient preheating to allow the tube to conduct an electric current. Radioactive substances used in the starters are 85 Kr, 147 Pm, 3 H and 232 Th. In India, fluorescent lamp starters are classified as consumer products and users are outside regulatory control. However, regulatory control is exercised over the manufacturers at the production stage. Tritium activity measured in the lamp starters ranged from 400-4500 Bq with a mean activity of 1.78 kBq. Thorium activity measured varied from 0.44-3.3 mg. The results of radiation safety assessment of the workplace and radioactivity estimation in the starters are discussed in this paper. (author)

  19. An ion quencher operated lamp for multiplexed fluorescent bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Taiping; Sun, Huanhuan; He, Xiaoxiao; Huang, Xiaoqin; He, Dinggeng; Bu, Hongchang; Qiao, Zhenzhen; Wang, Kemin

    2018-02-01

    A novel and adjustable lamp based on competitive interaction among dsDNA-SYBR Green I (SGI), ion quencher, and analyte was designed for bioanalysis. The "filament" and switch of the lamp could be customized by employing different dsDNA and ion quencher. The poly(AT/TA) dsDNA was successfully screened as the most effective filament of the lamp. Two common ions, Hg 2+ and Fe 3+ , were selected as the model switch, and the corresponding ligand molecules cysteine (Cys) and pyrophosphate ions (PPi) were selected as the targets. When the fluorescence-quenched dsDNA/SGI-ion complex was introduced into a target-containing system, ions could be bound by competitive molecules and separate from the complex, thereby lighting the lamp. However, no light was observed if the biomolecule could not snatch the metal ions from the complex. Under the optimal conditions, sensitive and selective detection of Cys and PPi was achieved by the lamp, with practical applications in fetal bovine serum and human urine. This ion quencher regulated lamp for fluorescent bioassays is simple in design, fast in operation, and is more convenient than other methods. Significantly, as many molecules could form stable complexes with metal ions selectively, this ion quencher operated lamp has potential for the detection of a wide spectrum of analytes. Graphical abstract A novel and adjustable lamp on the basis of competitive interaction among dsDNA-SYBR Green I, ions quencher and analyte was designed for bioanalysis. The filament and switch of lamp could be customized by employing different dsDNA and ions quencher.

  20. Effect of irradiation with black light fluorescent lamp on coloration and hardness of strawberry [Fragaria ananassa] fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashio, H.; Hirono, H.; Sato, F.; Tokuda, S.; Uragami, A.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of irradiation by black light fluorescent lamp on the coloration and hardness of detached strawberry fruits was studied. Only the coloring of fruits (var. Toyonoka) that had started to pigment was accelerated by lamp irradiation. Maintaining the irradiation distance and ambient temperature after treatment was very important to obtain the maximum effect, and the action of lamps was restricted to the irradiated parts. The accelerating effect of a lamp on coloration was observed in all 3 of other varieties examined, and in some varieties, the level of anthocyanin concentration in fruits was greater than that in ripening stage. However, the lamp did not affect the hardness of fruits

  1. Barium transport in the hot spot region of fluorescent lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigeneger, F; Rackow, K; Uhrlandt, D; Ehlbeck, J; Lieder, G

    2010-01-01

    The transport of barium atoms and ions in the vicinity of the hot spot in fluorescent lamps operating at 25 kHz is investigated by a combined experimental and theoretical approach. By laser-induced fluorescence, the particle densities of barium atoms and ions were measured time-resolved at different distances from the spot centre. In addition, the time-dependent cathode fall voltage was measured using an improved band method. The model combines a kinetic part for the electrons with a fluid part for the barium atoms and ions. Both parts are spatially resolved in spherically symmetric geometry. The space-dependent electron Boltzmann equation yields the electron density and the ionization rate coefficient of barium as functions of the cathode fall voltage. These results are used to solve the time-dependent particle balance equations of barium atoms and ions which include the ionization of barium as gain and loss terms, respectively. Good agreement between the measured and calculated particle densities of barium atoms is obtained. A sensitive dependence of the ionization frequency and of the barium particle densities on the cathode fall voltage was found.

  2. Compact fluorescent lamp phosphors in accidental radiation monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, K. V. R.; Pallavi, S. P.; Ghildiyal, R.; Parmar, M. C.; Patel, Y. S.; Ravi Kumar, V.; Sai Prasad, A. S.; Natarajan, V.; Page, A. G.

    2006-01-01

    The application of lamp phosphors for accidental dosimetry is a new concept. Since the materials used in fluorescent lamps are good photo luminescent materials, if one can either use the inherent defects present in the phosphor or add suitable modifiers to induce thermoluminescence (TL) in these phosphors, then the device (fluorescent lamp) can be used as an accidental dosemeter. In continuation of our search for a suitable phosphor material, which can serve both as an efficient lamp phosphor and as a good radiation monitoring device, detailed examination has been carried out on cerium and terbium-doped lanthanum phosphate material. A 90 Sr beta source with 50 mCi strength (1.85 GBq) was used as the irradiation source for TL studies. The TL response as a function of dose received was examined for all phosphors used and it was observed that the intensity of the TL peak vs. dose received was a linear function in the dose range 0.1-200 Gy in each case. Incidentally LaPO 4 :Ce,Tb is a component of the compact fluorescent lamp marketed recently as an energy bright light source. Besides having very good luminescence efficiency, good dosimetric properties of these phosphors render them useful for their use in accidental dosimetry also. (authors)

  3. Breakthrough of ultraviolet light from various brands of fluorescent lamps: Lethal effects on DNA repair-defective bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, P.E.; Biggley, W.H.

    1996-01-01

    In a comparative study of 17 pairs of 15 W fluorescent lamps intended for use in homes and purchased in local stores, we detect over 10-fold differences in UVB + UVC emissions between various lamps. This breakthrough of ultraviolet (UV) light is in part correlated with ability of lamps to kill DNA repair-defective recA - uvrB - Salmonella. Relative proficiency of lamps in eliciting photoreactivation of UV-induced DNA lesions also plays a prominent role in the relative rates of bacterial inactivation by emissions from different lamps. Lamps made in Chile, such as Phillips brand lamps and one type of General Electric lamp, produce far less UVB + UVC and fail to kill recA - uvrB - bacteria. In contrast, all tested lamps manufactured in the USA, Hungary, and Japan exhibit readily observed deleterious biological effects. When an E. coli recA - uvrB - phr - (photolyase-negative) triple mutant is used for assay, lethal radiations are detected from all lamps, and single-hit exponential inactivation rates rather closely correlate to amount of directly measured UVB + UVC output of each pair of lamps. Although all lamps tested may meet international and Unite States standards for radiation safely, optimal practices in lamp manufacture are clearly capable of decreasing human exposure to indoor UV light. 38 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  4. Mercury mass measurement in fluorescent lamps via neutron activation analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Viererbl, L.; Vinš, M.; Lahodová, Z.; Fuksa, A.; Kučera, Jan; Koleska, M.; Voljanskij, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 116, NOV (2015), s. 56-59 ISSN 0969-806X R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01010237; GA MŠk LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : fluorescent lamp * mercury measurement * neutron activation analysis * research reactor Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear , Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.207, year: 2015

  5. High-frequency cold ignition of fluorescent lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haverlag, M.; Sormani, J.; Heuvelmans, J.; Geven, A.; Kaldenhoven, L.; Heijne, G.; Kraus, A.

    2002-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical investigations have been performed on the ignition process of low-pressure mercury-noble gas fluorescent lamps operating on a 50 kHz electronic driver circuit. In case the electrodes of the lamp are not heated prior to the ignition process, the ignition process can, under certain conditions, lead to premature fracture of the coiled-coil electrode, which means that the lamp ceases to operate before the emitter is consumed completely. Experimental studies of this process have shown that the erosion process responsible for this premature end-of-life consists of localized sputtering of the tungsten electrode by energetic ions from the glow discharge that is present during the ignition process. In order to understand the basic process that leads to localized sputtering of the electrodes in a glow discharge, a simple glow-discharge fluid model, in combination with a finite-element model of the heat transport in the electrode, has been built. The model shows that thermionic emission can supply a significant fraction of the electrons already at temperatures far below the normal operating temperature in fluorescent lamps. This thermionic emission is responsible for a contraction process. After the beginning of the discharge contraction it takes typically a few milliseconds before the glow-to-arc transition is observed in the lamp voltage and the normal electrode operating temperature is reached. During this time localized sputtering takes place, which eventually leads to coil fracture. (author)

  6. 76 FR 70547 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... the term ``fluorescent lamp,'' which EPCA defines as ``a low pressure mercury electric-discharge... discharge into light,'' and as including the four enumerated types of fluorescent lamps for which EPCA... Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal...

  7. Optimized elemental analysis of fluorescence lamp shredder waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobohm, Julia; Kuchta, Kerstin; Krüger, Oliver; van Wasen, Sebastian; Adam, Christian

    2016-01-15

    Fluorescence lamps contain considerable amounts of rare earth elements (REE). Several recycling procedures for REE recovery from spent lamps have been established. However, despite their economic importance, the respective recycling is scarce so far, with an REE recovery rate of less than 1%. A reliable analysis of REE and other relevant metals like Yttrium is crucial for a thorough and complete recovery process. This applies both to the solid matter and aqueous phase, since most of the recycling processes include wet-chemical steps. We tested seven different reagent mixtures for microwave-assisted digestion of fluorescent lamp shredder, including hydrofluoric acid, perchloric acid, and hydrogen peroxide. We determined the concentrations of 25 of the most relevant rare earth and other trace elements (Al, P, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Ga, Ge, As, Y, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, La, Ce, Eu, Gd, Tb, W, Au, Hg, and Pb) in the respective dilutions. Two independent digestions, one a mixture of perchlorid/nitric/hydrofluoric acid and the other aqua regia, showed the highest concentrations of 23 of these elements, excluding only Sn and Tb. The REE concentrations in the tested lamp shredder sample (stated in g/kg) were 10.2 (Y), 12.1 (La), 7.77 (Ce), 6.91 (Eu), 1.90 (Gd), and 4.11 (Tb). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Fluorescence cell imaging and manipulation using conventional halogen lamp microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuo Yamagata

    Full Text Available Technologies for vitally labeling cells with fluorescent dyes have advanced remarkably. However, to excite fluorescent dyes currently requires powerful illumination, which can cause phototoxic damage to the cells and increases the cost of microscopy. We have developed a filter system to excite fluorescent dyes using a conventional transmission microscope equipped with a halogen lamp. This method allows us to observe previously invisible cell organelles, such as the metaphase spindle of oocytes, without causing phototoxicity. Cells remain healthy even after intensive manipulation under fluorescence observation, such as during bovine, porcine and mouse somatic cell cloning using nuclear transfer. This method does not require expensive epifluorescence equipment and so could help to reduce the science gap between developed and developing countries.

  9. Occupational exposure in the fluorescent lamp recycling sector in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, François; Lecler, Marie-Thérèse; Clerc, Frédéric; Chollot, Alain; Silvente, Eric; Grosjean, Jérome

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Chemical risks were assessed in the five fluorescent lamp recycling facilities. • The main hazardous agents are mercury vapors and dust containing lead and yttrium. • Exposure and pollutant levels were correlated with steps and processes. • All the stages and processes are concerned by worrying levels of pollutants. • We suggest recommendations to reduce chemical risk. - Abstract: The fluorescent lamp recycling sector is growing considerably in Europe due to increasingly strict regulations aimed at inciting the consumption of low energy light bulbs and their end-of-life management. Chemical risks were assessed in fluorescent lamp recycling facilities by field measurement surveys in France, highlighting that occupational exposure and pollutant levels in the working environment were correlated with the main recycling steps and processes. The mean levels of worker exposure are 4.4 mg/m 3 , 15.4 μg/m 3 , 14.0 μg/m 3 , 247.6 μg/m 3 , respectively, for total inhalable dust, mercury, lead and yttrium. The mean levels of airborne pollutants are 3.1 mg/m 3 , 9.0 μg/m 3 , 9.0 μg/m 3 , 219.2 μg/m 3 , respectively, for total inhalable dust, mercury, lead and yttrium. The ranges are very wide. Surface samples from employees’ skin and granulometric analysis were also carried out. The overview shows that all the stages and processes involved in lamp recycling are concerned by the risk of hazardous substances penetrating into the bodies of employees, although exposure of the latter varies depending on the processes and tasks they perform. The conclusion of this study strongly recommends the development of a new generation of processes in parallel with more information sharing and regulatory measures

  10. Occupational exposure in the fluorescent lamp recycling sector in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, François, E-mail: francois.zimmermann@inrs.fr; Lecler, Marie-Thérèse; Clerc, Frédéric; Chollot, Alain; Silvente, Eric; Grosjean, Jérome

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • Chemical risks were assessed in the five fluorescent lamp recycling facilities. • The main hazardous agents are mercury vapors and dust containing lead and yttrium. • Exposure and pollutant levels were correlated with steps and processes. • All the stages and processes are concerned by worrying levels of pollutants. • We suggest recommendations to reduce chemical risk. - Abstract: The fluorescent lamp recycling sector is growing considerably in Europe due to increasingly strict regulations aimed at inciting the consumption of low energy light bulbs and their end-of-life management. Chemical risks were assessed in fluorescent lamp recycling facilities by field measurement surveys in France, highlighting that occupational exposure and pollutant levels in the working environment were correlated with the main recycling steps and processes. The mean levels of worker exposure are 4.4 mg/m{sup 3}, 15.4 μg/m{sup 3}, 14.0 μg/m{sup 3}, 247.6 μg/m{sup 3}, respectively, for total inhalable dust, mercury, lead and yttrium. The mean levels of airborne pollutants are 3.1 mg/m{sup 3}, 9.0 μg/m{sup 3}, 9.0 μg/m{sup 3}, 219.2 μg/m{sup 3}, respectively, for total inhalable dust, mercury, lead and yttrium. The ranges are very wide. Surface samples from employees’ skin and granulometric analysis were also carried out. The overview shows that all the stages and processes involved in lamp recycling are concerned by the risk of hazardous substances penetrating into the bodies of employees, although exposure of the latter varies depending on the processes and tasks they perform. The conclusion of this study strongly recommends the development of a new generation of processes in parallel with more information sharing and regulatory measures.

  11. Occupational exposure in the fluorescent lamp recycling sector in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, François; Lecler, Marie-Thérèse; Clerc, Frédéric; Chollot, Alain; Silvente, Eric; Grosjean, Jérome

    2014-07-01

    The fluorescent lamp recycling sector is growing considerably in Europe due to increasingly strict regulations aimed at inciting the consumption of low energy light bulbs and their end-of-life management. Chemical risks were assessed in fluorescent lamp recycling facilities by field measurement surveys in France, highlighting that occupational exposure and pollutant levels in the working environment were correlated with the main recycling steps and processes. The mean levels of worker exposure are 4.4 mg/m(3), 15.4 μg/m(3), 14.0 μg/m(3), 247.6 μg/m(3), respectively, for total inhalable dust, mercury, lead and yttrium. The mean levels of airborne pollutants are 3.1mg/m(3), 9.0 μg/m(3), 9.0 μg/m(3), 219.2 μg/m(3), respectively, for total inhalable dust, mercury, lead and yttrium. The ranges are very wide. Surface samples from employees' skin and granulometric analysis were also carried out. The overview shows that all the stages and processes involved in lamp recycling are concerned by the risk of hazardous substances penetrating into the bodies of employees, although exposure of the latter varies depending on the processes and tasks they perform. The conclusion of this study strongly recommends the development of a new generation of processes in parallel with more information sharing and regulatory measures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. On electrode erosion in fluorescent lamps during instant start

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadrath, S.

    2006-09-15

    A fluorescent lamp driven with an 'instant start electronic control gear' starts in a glow mode. In the glow mode, which lasts typically for tens of milliseconds, the cathode fall exceeds hundreds of volts. This causes high energy ion bombardment of the electrode which heats the electrode, and induces a transition from glow to arc mode. In the arc mode the electrode emits thermionically and the cathode fall drops to the 12 - 15 V range. Unfortunately, the high energy ion bombardment during the glow mode leads also to intense sputtering of electrode material, including tungsten as well as emitter. Thus, instant started fluorescent lamps often suffer from early failures due to coil fracture. Therefore, the investigation of tungsten erosion during instant start is necessary and was the main goal of this work. The density of neutral atomic tungsten is determined by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and optical emission spectroscopy measurements (OES). Investigations are performed on a low-pressure argon dc discharge and on commercial fluorescent lamps. To include the entire temperature profile along the electrode the diffuse and spot operation modes of the dc lamp are studied experimentally and theoretically. The measured dependencies of the cathode temperature along the coil on the discharge and heating parameters are compared with the calculated results. For the first time the tungsten erosion during instant start of commercial fluorescent lamps was experimentally investigated in this work. The erosion process could be related to sputtering. A reconstruction of the temporal evolution of the absolute tungsten population density of the ground state during the glow mode was presented. The sputtered tungsten density increases immediately with the ignition, reaches a maximum where the discharge contracts at the end of the glow mode, and decreases some milliseconds before the glow-to-arc transition takes place. The maximum tungsten density was observed within a

  13. 10 CFR Appendix Q to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption... Appendix Q to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Fluorescent... reference; see § 430.3). The test for measuring standby mode energy consumption of fluorescent lamp ballasts...

  14. National Policy for solid waste and reverse logistics of fluorescent lamps after consumption: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Cestari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescent lamps are used increasingly today. Considered energy-saving lamps, they become hazardous waste at the end of their life cycle. They are composed partly of mercury, considered harmful to human health. Fluorescent lamps, together with tires and pesticide containers, fall under federal legislation that establishes and regulates their proper disposal. In 2010, Federal Law 12.305 / 2010 was created, establishing the National Policy on Solid Waste (PNRS, making businesses and consumers responsible for the proper disposal of their waste. This article aims to analyze the reverse logistics process of fluorescent lamps post-consumption, in a public education institution. The research used case studies and interviews with managers of the materials administration and warehouse departments of the institution. It was identified that since 2010, the educational institution has not been performing reverse logistics and has been accumulating hazardous material in its warehouses. This paper contributes a suggestion to improve the reverse logistics process and worker safety, and to prevent environmental risks.

  15. Propagation of ionization waves during ignition of fluorescent lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langer, R; Tidecks, R; Horn, S; Garner, R; Hilscher, A

    2008-01-01

    The propagation of the first ionization wave in a compact fluorescent lamp (T4 tube with standard electrodes) during ignition was investigated for various initial dc-voltages (both polarities measured against ground) and gas compositions (with and without mercury). In addition the effect of the presence of a fluorescent powder coating was studied. The propagation velocity of the initial wave was measured by an assembly of photomultipliers installed along the tube, which detected the light emitted by the wave head. The propagation was found to be faster for positive than for negative polarity. This effect is explained involving processes in the electrode region as well as in the wave head. Waves propagate faster in the presence of a fluorescent powder coating than without it and gases of lighter mass show a faster propagation than gases with higher mass

  16. Microstructural analysis of clayey ceramic incorporated with fluorescent lamp glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morais, A.S.C.; Caldas, T.C.C.; Pereira, P.S.; Monteiro, S.N.; Vieira, C.M.F.

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of the incorporation of glass powder fluorescent lamp, from a decontamination process, in the microstructure of clayey ceramic. Formulations were prepared with incorporation of the waste in amounts of up to 10 wt.% into the clayey body. Specimens were prepared by uniaxial mold-press at 20 MPa and then fired at 850 and 1050°C. After firing, the microstructure of the ceramics was evaluated by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that the incorporation of glass powder into the clayey body changes the microstructure of the ceramics. (author)

  17. Energy Efficiency Comparison between Compact Fluorescent Lamp and Common Light Bulb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanushevsk, Atanas; Rendevski, Stojan

    2016-01-01

    For acquainting the students of applied physics and students of teaching physics with the concept of energy efficiency, electrical and spectral characteristics of two widely used lamps--integrated fluorescence lamp and common light bulb have been investigated. Characterization of the lamps has been done by measuring the spectral irradiance and…

  18. Fluorescent Lamp Glass Waste Incorporation into Clay Ceramic: A Perfect Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Alline Sardinha Cordeiro; Vieira, Carlos Maurício Fontes; Rodriguez, Rubén Jesus Sanchez; Monteiro, Sergio Neves; Candido, Veronica Scarpini; Ferreira, Carlos Luiz

    2016-09-01

    The mandatory use of fluorescent lamps as part of a Brazilian energy-saving program generates a huge number of spent fluorescent lamps (SFLs). After operational life, SFLs cannot be disposed as common garbage owing to mercury and lead contamination. Recycling methods separate contaminated glass tubes and promote cleaning for reuse. In this work, glass from decontaminated SFLs was incorporated into clay ceramics, not only as an environmental solution for such glass wastes and clay mining reduction but also due to technical and economical advantages. Up to 30 wt.% of incorporation, a significant improvement in fired ceramic flexural strength and a decrease in water absorption was observed. A prospective analysis showed clay ceramic incorporation as an environmentally correct and technical alternative for recycling the enormous amount of SFLs disposed of in Brazil. This could also be a solution for other world clay ceramic producers, such as US, China and some European countries.

  19. A light diet for a giant appetite: An assessment of China's fluorescent lamp standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Jiang

    2005-01-01

    Lighting has been one of the fastest growing electric end uses in China over the last 20 years, with an average annual growth rate of 14%. Fluorescent lighting provides a significant portion of China's lighting needs. In 1998, China produced 680 million fluorescent lamps, of which 420 million were linear fluorescent lamps of various diameters (T8-T12). There are substantial variations both in energy efficiency and lighting performance among locally produced fluorescent lamps. Such variations present a perfect opportunity for policy intervention through energy efficiency standards to promote the adoption of more efficient fluorescent lamps in China. This paper analyzes China's 2003 minimum efficiency standard for linear fluorescent lamps and presents an assessment of its likely impacts on China's lighting energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions

  20. Study on residential appliances energy efficiency standards Refrigerators, air-conditioners, incandescent lamps, fluorescent lamps, color TVs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.G.; Cho, S.K.; Choi, S.H.; Jung, B.M.; Han, S.B.; Kim, K.D. [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    The energy efficiency standards and rating act, as amended by the rational energy utilization act, provides energy efficiency standards and ratings for 6 types of consumer products(refrigerators, air-conditioners, fluorescent lamps, incandescent lamps, ballasts and cars) authorizes the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy(MOTIE) to prescribe amended or new energy efficiency standards and rating standards. This study was initiated by the KIER in 1992. KIER`s assessment of the standards is designed to evaluate their statistical and engineering analysis according to Korean(Industrial) Standards(KS). And to make distinction between the poor efficiency and good efficiency models, 5 grades are classified depending on their tested energy efficiency. This year, based on our analysis, MOTIE mandated updated standards for refrigerators, air-conditioners, incandescent lamps, and fluorescent lamps. Also the objective of this study is to set the energy efficiency standards and to grade for color TV sets. (author). 37 refs., 89 figs., 85 tabs.

  1. Fluorescent and high intensity discharge lamp use in chambers and greenhouses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhans, Robert W.

    1994-01-01

    Fluorescent and High Intensity Discharge lamps have opened up great opportunities for researchers to study plant growth under controlled environment conditions and for commercial growers to increase plant production during low/light periods. Specific technical qualities of fluorescent and HID lamps have been critically reviewed. I will direct my remarks to fluorescent and high intensity discharge (HID) lamps in growth chambers, growth rooms, and greenhouses. I will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using each lamp in growth chambers, growth rooms and greenhouses.

  2. Mercury risk from fluorescent lamps in China: current status and future perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuanan; Cheng, Hefa

    2012-09-01

    Energy-efficient lighting is one of the key measures for addressing electric power shortages and climate change mitigation, and fluorescent lamps are expected to dominate the lighting market in China over the next several years. This review presents an overview on the emissions and risk of mercury from fluorescent lamps during production and disposal, and discusses measures for reducing the mercury risk through solid waste management and source reduction. Fluorescent lamps produced in China used to contain relatively large amounts of mercury (up to 40 mg per lamp) due to the prevalence of liquid mercury dosing, which also released significant amounts of mercury to the environment. Upgrade of the mercury dosing technologies and manufacturing facilities had significantly reduced the mercury contents in fluorescent lamps, with most of them containing less than 10 or 5mg per lamp now. Occupational hygiene studies showed that mercury emissions occurred during fluorescent lamp production, particularly in the facilities using liquid mercury dosing, which polluted the environmental media at and surrounding the production sites and posed chronic health risk to the workers by causing neuropsychological and motor impairments. It is estimated that spent fluorescent lamps account for approximately 20% of mercury input in the MSW in China. Even though recycling of fluorescent lamps presents an important opportunity to capture the mercury they contain, it is difficult and not cost-effective at reducing the mercury risk under the broader context of mercury pollution control in China. In light of the significant mercury emissions associated with electricity generation in China, we propose that reduction of mercury emissions and risk associated with fluorescent lamps should be achieved primarily through lowering their mercury contents by the manufacturers while recycling programs should focus on elemental mercury-containing waste products instead of fluorescent lamps to recapture

  3. Fabry-Perot measurements of barium temperature in fluorescent lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadrath, S; Garner, R

    2010-01-01

    A scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) is used to determine the temperature of barium atoms that are liberated from the electrodes of fluorescent lamps during their steady-state operation. Barium, a constituent of the work function lowering emitter material that is placed on the tungsten coil that forms the electrode, is liberated primarily by evaporation from the hot (∼1300 K) thermionic electrode. However, there may be situations or modes of operation in which barium is, in addition, sputtered, a condition which may lead to increased end-darkening, shortened life and increased mercury consumption in the lamp. Using the FPI diagnostic, the occurrence of sputtering is inferred when barium temperatures are much greater than the electrode temperature. The FPI diagnostic senses resonance radiation (λ = 553 nm) emitted by barium atoms excited in the low pressure discharge environment, and infers temperature from the Doppler broadened linewidth. The diagnostic has proven to be successful in a number of situations. Measurements have been made on rare gas discharges and on Hg-argon discharges for different discharge currents, gas pressures and auxiliary coil currents. Measurements are phase resolved for ac-driven discharges.

  4. Potential mercury emissions from fluorescent lamps production and obsolescence in mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Quanyin; Li, Jinhui

    2016-01-01

    The use of fluorescent lamps has expanded rapidly all over the world in recent years, because of their energy-saving capability. Consequently, however, mercury emissions from production, breakage, and discard of the lamps are drawing increasing concern from the public. This article focuses on evaluating the amount of mercury used for fluorescent lamp production, as well as the potential mercury emissions during production and breakage, in mainland China. It is expected to provide a comprehensive understanding about the risks present in the mercury from fluorescent lamps, and to know about the impacts of the policies on fluorescent lamps after their implementation. It is estimated that, in 2020, mercury consumption will be about 11.30-15.69 tonnes, a significant reduction of 34.9%-37.4% from that used in 2013, owing to improvement in mercury dosing dosage technology and tighter limitations on mercury content in fluorescent lamps. With these improvements, the amount of mercury remaining in fluorescent lamps and released during production is estimated to be 10.71-14.86 and 0.59-0.83 tonnes, respectively; the mercury released from waste fluorescent lamps is estimated to be about 5.37-7.59 tonnes. Also, a significant reduction to the mercury emission can be expected when a collection and treatment system is well established and conducted in the future. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Recovery of aluminium, nickel-copper alloys and salts from spent fluorescent lamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabah, Mahmoud A

    2004-01-01

    This study explores a combined pyro-hydrometallurgical method to recover pure aluminium, nickel-copper alloy(s), and some valuable salts from spent fluorescent lamps (SFLs). It also examines the safe recycling of clean glass tubes for the fluorescent lamp industry. Spent lamps were decapped under water containing 35% acetone to achieve safe capture of mercury vapour. Cleaned glass tubes, if broken, were cut using a rotating diamond disc to a standard shorter length. Aluminium and copper-nickel alloys in the separated metallic parts were recovered using suitable flux to decrease metal losses going to slag. Operation variables affecting the quality of the products and the extent of recovery with the suggested method were investigated. Results revealed that total loss in the glass tube recycling operation was 2% of the SFLs. Pure aluminium meeting standard specification DIN 1712 was recovered by melting at 800 degrees C under sodium chloride/carbon flux for 20 min. Standard nickel-copper alloys with less than 0.1% tin were prepared by melting at 1250 degrees C using a sodium borate/carbon flux. De-tinning of the molten nickel-copper alloy was carried out using oxygen gas. Tin in the slag as oxide was recovered by reduction using carbon or hydrogen gas at 650-700 degrees C. Different valuable chloride salts were also obtained in good quality. Further research is recommended on the thermodynamics of nickel-copper recovery, yttrium and europium recovery, and process economics.

  6. Recovery of aluminium, nickel-copper alloys and salts from spent fluorescent lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabah, Mahmoud A.

    2004-01-01

    This study explores a combined pyro-hydrometallurgical method to recover pure aluminium, nickel-copper alloy(s), and some valuable salts from spent fluorescent lamps (SFLs). It also examines the safe recycling of clean glass tubes for the fluorescent lamp industry. Spent lamps were decapped under water containing 35% acetone to achieve safe capture of mercury vapour. Cleaned glass tubes, if broken, were cut using a rotating diamond disc to a standard shorter length. Aluminium and copper-nickel alloys in the separated metallic parts were recovered using suitable flux to decrease metal losses going to slag. Operation variables affecting the quality of the products and the extent of recovery with the suggested method were investigated. Results revealed that total loss in the glass tube recycling operation was 2% of the SFLs. Pure aluminium meeting standard specification DIN 1712 was recovered by melting at 800 deg. C under sodium chloride/carbon flux for 20 min. Standard nickel-copper alloys with less than 0.1% tin were prepared by melting at 1250 deg. C using a sodium borate/carbon flux. De-tinning of the molten nickel-copper alloy was carried out using oxygen gas. Tin in the slag as oxide was recovered by reduction using carbon or hydrogen gas at 650-700 deg. C. Different valuable chloride salts were also obtained in good quality. Further research is recommended on the thermodynamics of nickel-copper recovery, yttrium and europium recovery, and process economics

  7. Enhanced escape rate for Hg 254 nm resonance radiation in fluorescent lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawler, James E; Raizen, Mark G

    2013-01-01

    The potential of the low-cost MAGIS isotopic separation method to improve fluorescent lamp efficacy is explored using resonance radiation transport simulations. New Hg isotopic mixes are discovered that yield escape rates for 254 nm Hg I resonance radiation equal to 117% to 122% of the rate for a natural isotopic mix under the same lamp conditions. (paper)

  8. Determination of the cathode fall voltage in fluorescent lamps by measurement of the operating voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilscher, A.

    2002-01-01

    A new method for the determination of the cathode fall voltage of fluorescent lamps is shown. The cathode fall voltage can be determined by measurement of the lamp operating voltage at constant lamp wall temperature, constant discharge current and variation of the electrode heating current. Commercial lamps, which do not need to be specially prepared, can be used for the measurement. The results show good correlation to other measurements of the cathode fall voltage at various discharge currents by means of capacitive coupling. The measured values of the cathode fall voltage are used for determining the minimum, target and maximum setting of the sum of the squares of the pin currents of one electrode (the so-called SOS value) as a function of the discharge current in fluorescent lamp dimming. (author)

  9. The physics of fluorescent lamps: Do we understand the atomic processes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lister, Graeme G.

    2002-01-01

    Numerical models have provided insight into the operation of 'standard' fluorescent lamps for more than 40 years. Recent developments in the lighting industry have led to products with much higher power loadings, for which modeling has been less successful in reproducing the experimental results. One of the potential weaknesses of the models is the absence of fundamental data to describe important phenomena in these 'highly loaded lamps'. The current state of our knowledge of available data is reviewed, together with an overview of the recently completed ALITE 1 project to reexamine the fundamental properties of fluorescent lamp operation

  10. Effects of a fluorescent lamp to embryo growth of Gryllodes sigillatus (Orthoptera:Gryllidae)

    OpenAIRE

    新井, 哲夫

    2016-01-01

    The influence of a fluorescent lighting on embryo growth in a cricket, Gryllodes sigillatus (Orthoptera:Gryllidae) was observed. The experiment was carried out using an incubator of 25°C(±1°C), and using a 10-watt fluorescent lamp. Eggs were placed at 10-, 20-, and 30cm distances from a fluorescent lamp. Eggs were transferred from continuous light(LL)(various periods) to continuous darkness(DD)(or vice versa), it was examined hatching rate and egg period. All eggs died regardless of the dista...

  11. Self-discharge synchronizing operations in the external electrode fluorescent multi-lamps backlight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Guangsup; Kwon, Nam O; Kim, Young M; Kim, Sung J; Cho, Tae S; Kim, Bong S; Kang, June G; Choi, Eun H; Lee, Ung W; Yang, Soon C; Uhm, Han S

    2003-01-01

    The external electrode fluorescent lamp (EEFL) is operated in a high frequency mode because the lamp lighting is basically a dielectric barrier discharge. The self-discharge synchronization is defined by synchronizing the self-discharge time of the dielectric wall charge with the voltage rising and falling time. It is shown that for the self-discharge synchronization a high brightness is obtained in the multi-lamps backlight connected in parallel with the EEFLs operated with square waves from a switching inverter. The frequency for self-discharge synchronizing is also shown to increase as the driving voltage increases

  12. Recycling of rare earths from Hg-containing fluorescent lamp scraps by solid state chlorination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, Tom; Froehlich, Peter; Bertau, Martin; Golon, Katja

    2015-01-01

    Solid state chlorination with NH 4 Cl comprises a method for rare earth recycling apart from pyro- or hydrometallurgical strategies. The examined partially Hg-containing fluorescent lamp scraps are rich in rare earths like La, Ce, Tb and Gd, but especially in Y and Eu. By mixing with NH 4 Cl and heating up to NH 4 Cl decomposition temperature in a sublimation reactor, Y and Eu could be transferred selectively into their respective metal chlorides with high yields. The yield and selectivity depend on temperature and the ratio of NH 4 Cl to fluorescent lamp scraps, which were varied systematically.

  13. 75 FR 36119 - In the Matter of Certain Cold Cathode Fluorescent Lamp (“CCFL”) Inverter Circuits and Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ... Cathode Fluorescent Lamp (``CCFL'') Inverter Circuits and Products Containing the Same; Notice of... States after importation of certain cold cathode fluorescent lamp inverter circuits and products..., and the sale within the United States after importation of CCFL inverter circuits and products...

  14. A new approach to the evaluation of the discharge parameters of the electrodeless fluorescent lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statnic, Eugen; Tanach, Valentin

    2004-01-01

    A new model was developed for the characterization and quantification of the 'inaccessible' discharge parameters in closed tube high power electrodeless fluorescent lamps. The results obtained applying the model are verifiable by means of a simple comparison of the primary equivalent resistance and reactance as a result of the measured V 1 , I 1 , ψ 1 with the equivalent primary resistance and reactance inferred from the proposed model. The results are in good agreement at all operating lamp power levels. What is unexpected is the capacitive behaviour of the inductive coupled plasma at lower powers. The investigation method is suitable for the optimization of high power electrodeless lamps with a long discharge path operated at low frequencies, in order to improve the efficiency and the system stability, especially if the lamp has to be dimmed

  15. Mercury depletion as a way of changing the emission spectrum of a fluorescent lamp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, L.P.; Kroesen, G.M.W.

    2000-01-01

    We present a promising option for changing the emission spectrum of a fluorescent lamp. In a neon/mercury discharge, neon radiation is produced when the mercury density is sufficiently low. Under certain discharge conditions, radial cathaphoresis causes depletion of mercury atoms in the center of

  16. The photoluminescence of a fluorescent lamp: didactic experiments on the exponential decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onorato, Pasquale; Gratton, Luigi; Malgieri, Massimiliano; Oss, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    The lifetimes of the photoluminescent compounds contained in the coating of fluorescent compact lamps are usually measured using specialised instruments, including pulsed lasers and/or spectrofluorometers. Here we discuss how some low cost apparatuses, based on the use of either sensors for the educational lab or commercial digital photo cameras, can be employed to the same aim. The experiments do not require that luminescent phosphors are hazardously extracted from the compact fluorescent lamp, that also contains mercury. We obtain lifetime measurements for specific fluorescent elements of the bulb coating, in good agreement with the known values. We also address the physical mechanisms on which fluorescence lamps are based in a simplified way, suitable for undergraduate students; and we discuss in detail the physics of the lamp switch-off by analysing the time dependent spectrum, measured through a commercial fiber-optic spectrometer. Since the experiment is not hazardous in any way, requires a simple setup up with instruments which are commonly found in educational labs, and focuses on the typical features of the exponential decay, it is suitable for being performed in the undergraduate laboratory.

  17. An Analysis of Sources of Technological Change in Efficiency Improvement of Fluorescent Lamp Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanaka, Takeo

    In Japan, energy efficient fluorescent lamp systems which use “rare-earth phosphors” and “electronic ballasts” have shown rapid diffusion since 1990s. This report investigated sources of technological change in the efficiency improvement of fluorescent lamp systems: (i) Fluorescent lamp and luminaires have been under steady technological development for getting more energy efficient lighting and the concepts to achieve high efficiency had been found in such activities; however, it took long time until they realized and become widely used; (ii) Electronic ballasts and rare-earth phosphors add fluorescent lamp systems not only energy efficiency but also various values such as compactness, lightweight, higher output, and better color rendering properties, which have also been expected and have induced research and development (R&D) (iii) Affordable electronic ballasts are realized by the new technology “power MOSFET” which is based on IC technologies and has been developed for large markets of information and communication technologies and mobile devices; and (iv) Rare-earth phosphors became available after rare-earth industries developed for the purpose of supplying rare-earth phosphors for color television. In terms of sources of technological change, (i) corresponds to “R&D” aiming at the particular purpose i.e. energy efficiency in this case, on the other hand, (ii), (iii), and (iv) correspond to “spillovers” from activities aiming at other purposes. This case exhibits an actual example in which “spillovers” were the critical sources of technological change in energy technology.

  18. Life-cycle flow of mercury and recycling scenario of fluorescent lamps in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asari, Misuzu; Fukui, Kazuki; Sakai, Shin-Ichi

    2008-04-01

    We summarized the mercury flow of mercury-containing products from their manufacture to their disposal in Japan and discussed the current management of mercury-containing hazardous household waste (HHW). The mercury flow originating from these products was estimated to be about 10-20 tonnes annually, about 5 tonnes of which was attributable to fluorescent lamps, the major mercury-containing product in Japan. The recent rapid increase in digital home electronics with liquid crystal displays (e.g.,televisions, personal computers, mobile phones, and digital cameras) has led to a marked increase in the production of backlights, which are also fluorescent and contain mercury. Most of the annual flow was disposed of as waste, with only 0.6 tonnes Hg recovered. The mercury flow for end-of-life fluorescent lamps (excluding backlights) was analyzed under three scenarios for Kyoto, Japan for 2003: the present condition scenario, the improved recycling scenario, and the complete recycling scenario. Under the present condition scenario, mercury flow was calculated to be 34 kg Hg for incineration, 21 kg Hg for landfill, and only 4 kg Hg for recycling. The complete recycling scenario shows a simple flow, with all mercury recycled. Under this scenario for Kyoto, we calculated that a cyclic system having 47 kg of mercury (3.5 tonnes Hg in Japan) could be established if all fluorescent lamps (excluding those stored in residences) were collected and recycled. Mercury is a HHW priority chemical, and we need to limit its use and establish a closed-loop system. There are currently no regulations to achieve this, and the management of most HHWs is left to local governments. Therefore, products are disposed of in landfills or incinerated, except for some that are voluntarily collected and recycled. In order to recycle all of the waste fluorescent lamps, we must have a complete recycling system that has a high rate of public participation in collection. We also must have a closed

  19. Life-cycle flow of mercury and recycling scenario of fluorescent lamps in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asari, Misuzu; Fukui, Kazuki; Sakai, Shin-ichi

    2008-01-01

    We summarized the mercury flow of mercury-containing products from their manufacture to their disposal in Japan and discussed the current management of mercury-containing hazardous household waste (HHW). The mercury flow originating from these products was estimated to be about 10-20 tonnes annually, about 5 tonnes of which was attributable to fluorescent lamps, the major mercury-containing product in Japan. The recent rapid increase in digital home electronics with liquid crystal displays (e.g., televisions, personal computers, mobile phones, and digital cameras) has led to a marked increase in the production of backlights, which are also fluorescent and contain mercury. Most of the annual flow was disposed of as waste, with only 0.6 tonnes Hg recovered. The mercury flow for end-of-life fluorescent lamps (excluding backlights) was analyzed under three scenarios for Kyoto, Japan for 2003: the present condition scenario, the improved recycling scenario, and the complete recycling scenario. Under the present condition scenario, mercury flow was calculated to be 34 kg Hg for incineration, 21 kg Hg for landfill, and only 4 kg Hg for recycling. The complete recycling scenario shows a simple flow, with all mercury recycled. Under this scenario for Kyoto, we calculated that a cyclic system having 47 kg of mercury (3.5 tonnes Hg in Japan) could be established if all fluorescent lamps (excluding those stored in residences) were collected and recycled. Mercury is a HHW priority chemical, and we need to limit its use and establish a closed-loop system. There are currently no regulations to achieve this, and the management of most HHWs is left to local governments. Therefore, products are disposed of in landfills or incinerated, except for some that are voluntarily collected and recycled. In order to recycle all of the waste fluorescent lamps, we must have a complete recycling system that has a high rate of public participation in collection. We also must have a closed

  20. Ultraviolet Radiation Emissions and Illuminance in Different Brands of Compact Fluorescent Lamps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Safari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Replacing incandescent lamps with compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs, which are three to six times more efficient, is one of the easiest methods to achieve energy efficiency. The present study aimed to evaluate relationships between UV emissions radiated and illuminance CFLs. Material and Methods. This pilot study was conducted on 16 single envelope CFLs. The illuminance and UV irradiance of various types of CFLs are measured on a three-meter long optical bench, using a calibrated lux meter and UV meter, and measurement was done in 10, 25, 50, 100, 150, and 200 cm, in three angles, including 0°, 45°, and 90°, at the ages of 0, 100, and 2000 hours. Result. UVC irradiance was not observed at the distance of 10 cm in all of lamps. The lowest value of UVB irradiance was recorded in Pars Khazar lamp, while the highest value was recorded in Etehad lamps. UVR values measured at different times showed negligible differences; the highest asset value was detected in zero times. One way ANOVA indicated that relationships between UVA irradiance and illuminance were significant (P<0.05. Conclusion. UVB irradiance in most of the lamp in 10 and 25 cm was more than occupational exposure and UVA except for the fact that Pars Khazar 60 watts and Nama Noor 60 watts were less than occupational exposure.

  1. 10 CFR Appendix W to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Medium Base Compact Fluorescent Lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Medium Base Compact Fluorescent Lamps W Appendix W to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... the previous step. Round the final energy consumption value, as applicable, to the nearest decimal...

  2. Recycling research on spent fluorescent lamps on the basis of extended producer responsibility in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lihong; Wang, Yejun; Chang, Chang-Tang

    2014-11-01

    Mercury is a physiological toxin released by spent fluorescent lamps (SFLs) and is considered a serious pollutant. As the world's largest producer of fluorescent lamps, China suffers from SFL pollution because of inefficient recycling and management of SFLs. Drawing upon the most successful practices worldwide, this paper suggests the recycling of SFLs on the basis of the extended producer responsibility (EPR) system in China. Manufacturers and importers are the main parties responsible for the take-back, recycling, and disposal ofSFLs in the EPR system. In view of the situation in China and to address the objectives of the EPR system, this paper recommends the implementation of a third-party take-back mode for small- and medium-scale enterprises and of a takeback mode for large enterprises to be carried out by original equipment manufacturers. This paper suggests an extended responsibility fund to finance and support the SFL recycling system and discusses in detail the different recycling network systems and fund flows of the two take-back modes. By conducting a case study, the authors determine that the subsidy rate for SFLs that a recycling company can obtain from the extended responsibility fund for recycling and disposing of lamps can be set at $1.35/kg. The authors also predict the levy level that fluorescent lamp manufacturers must submit.

  3. Occupational Exposure to Mercury among Workers in a Fluorescent Lamp Factory, Quisna Industrial Zone, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Al-Batanony

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the fast growth in the market of fluorescent lamps, particularly compact fluorescent light, the associated risk of mercury exposure, which is an essential component in all types of fluorescent lamps, has received increasing public attention worldwide. Even low doses of mercury are toxic. Objective: To study the health consequences of occupational exposure to mercury in workers of a fluorescent lamp factory. Methods: In a cross-sectional study 138 workers of a florescent lamp factory and 151 people who had no occupational exposure to mercury (the comparison group were studied. Environmental study of mercury and noise levels was done. For all participants a neurobehavioral test battery was administered, spirometry was performed and air conduction audiometry was done. Urinary mercury level was also measured for all participants. Results: Prominent symptoms among workers exposed to mercury included tremors, emotional lability, memory changes, neuromuscular changes, and performance deficits in tests of cognitive function. Among the exposed group, the mean urinary mercury level was significantly higher in those who had personality changes or had manifestations of mercury toxicity. With increasing duration of employment and urinary mercury level, the performance of participants in neurobehavioral test battery and spirometric parameters deteriorated. Conclusion: Neurobehavioral test battery must be used for studying subclinical central nervous system dysfunction in those with chronic exposure to mercury. The test is especially useful for evaluating the severity of mercury effects in epidemiological studies. This study also reinforces the need for effective preventive programs for florescent lamp industry workplaces especially in developing countries with the lowest unhygienic work conditions.

  4. Time resolved measurements of cathode fall in high frequency fluorescent lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadrath, S; Garner, R C; Lieder, G H; Ehlbeck, J

    2007-01-01

    Measurements are presented of the time resolved cathode and anode falls of high frequency fluorescent lamps for a range of discharge currents typically encountered in dimming mode. Measurements were performed with the movable anode technique. Supporting spectroscopic emission measurements were made of key transitions (argon 420.1 nm and mercury 435.8 nm), whose onset coincide with cathode fall equalling the value associated with the energy, relative to the ground state, of the upper level of the respective transition. The measurements are in general agreement with the well-known understanding of dimmed lamp operation: peak cathode fall decreases with increasing lamp current and with increasing auxiliary coil heating. However, the time dependence of the measurements offers additional insight

  5. Determination of absolute Ba densities during dimming operation of fluorescent lamps by laser-induced fluorescence measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadrath, S; Beck, M; Garner, R C; Lieder, G; Ehlbeck, J

    2007-01-01

    Investigations of fluorescent lamps (FL) are often focused on the electrodes, since the lifetime of the lamps is typically limited by the electrode lifetime and durability. During steady state operation, the work function lowering emitter material, in particular, barium, is lost. Greater barium losses occur under dimming conditions, in which reduced discharge currents lead to increased cathode falls, the result of the otherwise diminished heating of the electrode by the bombarding plasma ions. In this work the barium density near the electrodes of (FL), operating in high frequency dimming mode is investigated using the high-sensitivity method of laser-induced fluorescence. From these measurements we infer barium loss for a range of discharge currents and auxiliary coil heating currents. We show that the Ba loss can very easily be reduced by moderate auxiliary coil heating

  6. Treatability study for removal of leachable mercury in crushed fluorescent lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostick, W.D.; Beck, D.E.; Bowser, K.T.

    1996-02-01

    Nonserviceable fluorescent lamps removed from radiological control areas at the Oak Ridge Department of Energy facilities have been crushed and are currently managed as mixed waste (hazardous and radiologically contaminated). We present proposed treatment flowsheets and supporting treatability study data for conditioning this solid waste residue so that it can qualify for disposal in a sanitary landfill. Mercury in spent fluorescent lamps occurs primarily as condensate on high-surface-area phosphor material. It can be solubilized with excess oxidants (e.g., hypochlorite solution) and stabilized by complexation with halide ions. Soluble mercury in dechlorinated saline solution is effectively removed by cementation with zero-valent iron in the form of steel wool. In packed column dynamic flow testing, soluble mercury was reduced to mercury metal and insoluble calomel, loading > 1.2 g of mercury per grain of steel wool before an appreciable breakthrough of soluble mercury in the effluent

  7. Treatability study for removal of leachable mercury in crushed fluorescent lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostick, W.D.; Beck, D.E.; Bowser, K.T. [and others

    1996-02-01

    Nonserviceable fluorescent lamps removed from radiological control areas at the Oak Ridge Department of Energy facilities have been crushed and are currently managed as mixed waste (hazardous and radiologically contaminated). We present proposed treatment flowsheets and supporting treatability study data for conditioning this solid waste residue so that it can qualify for disposal in a sanitary landfill. Mercury in spent fluorescent lamps occurs primarily as condensate on high-surface-area phosphor material. It can be solubilized with excess oxidants (e.g., hypochlorite solution) and stabilized by complexation with halide ions. Soluble mercury in dechlorinated saline solution is effectively removed by cementation with zero-valent iron in the form of steel wool. In packed column dynamic flow testing, soluble mercury was reduced to mercury metal and insoluble calomel, loading > 1.2 g of mercury per grain of steel wool before an appreciable breakthrough of soluble mercury in the effluent.

  8. Fluorescent lamp and ballast disposal-efficiency and the environment: Panel discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleasby, P.

    1996-01-01

    This panel discussion looked at the present state of problems related to the disposal of fluorescent lamps and ballasts. EPA has not issued a ruling defining what is to be done, and as a result different areas of the country, and different users are treating the products differently. The authors review the history of the problem, where the environmental concerns are, possible alternatives for disposal, be it landfill, recycling, incineration, or treatment as hazardous wastes, and policy concerns with regard to this issue.

  9. Comparative Study of Lettuce and Radish Grown Under Red and Blue LEDs and White Fluorescent Lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickens, Matthew A.; Massa, Gioia; Newsham, Gerard; Wheeler, Raymond; Birmele, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Growing vegetable crops in space will be an essential part of sustaining astronauts during long-range missions. To drive photosynthesis, red and blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have attracted attention because of their efficiency, longevity, small size, and safety. In efforts to optimize crop yield, there is also recent interest in analyzing the subtle effects of additional wavelengths on plant growth. For instance, since plants often look purplish gray under red and blue LEDs, the addition of green light allows easy recognition of disease and the assessment of plant health status. However, it is important to know if wavelengths outside the traditional red and blue wavebands have a direct effect on enhancing or hindering the mechanisms involved in plant growth. In this experiment, a comparative study was performed on two short cycle crops of red romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv. "Outredgeous") and radish (Raphanus sativa cv. 'Cherry Bomb'), which were grown under two light treatments. The first treatment being red (630 nm) and blue (450 nm) LEDs alone, while the second treatment consisted of daylight tri-phosphor fluorescent lamps (CCT approximately 5000 K) at equal photosynthetic photon flux (PPF). The treatment effects were evaluated by measuring the fresh biomass produced, plant morphology and leaf dimensions, leaf chlorophyll content, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) within plant leaf/storage root tissues.

  10. Characteristics of mercury emission from linear type of spent fluorescent lamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Seung-Whee; Choi, Hyo-Hyun; Park, Hun-Su

    2014-06-01

    In order to recycle the linear type of SFL (spent fluorescent lamp), mercury from SFL should be controlled to prevent leaking into the environment. For mercury emission from SFL, mercury concentration is estimated in the parts of SFL such as glass tube, phosphor powder, and base cap using the end-cutting unit. It is also evaluated mercury emission in the effluent gas in the end-cutting unit with changing flow rate. From the results of mercury emission from SFLs, phosphor powder has greater than 80% of mercury amount in SFL and about 15% of mercury amount contained in glass tube. The initial mercury concentration in vapor phase is almost decreased linearly with increasing airflow rate from 0.7 L/min to 1.3 L/min. It is desirable that airflow rate should be high until the concentration of mercury vapor will be stable because the stabilized concentration becomes to be low and the stabilized time goes to be short as increased airflow rate. From KET and TCLP results, finally, phosphor powder should be managed as a hazardous waste but base-cap and glass are not classified as hazardous wastes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 75 FR 22213 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for General Service Fluorescent Lamps, Incandescent...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ..., Department of Energy. ACTION: Final rule; technical amendments. SUMMARY: This document contains a technical... test procedure regulations for the above-specified lamps. However, due to a drafting error, part of the.... Since the publication of that rule, it has come to DOE's attention that, due to a technical oversight, a...

  12. Fluorescent and high intensity discharge lamp use in chambers and greenhouses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langhans, R.W. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Fluorescent and High Intensity Discharge lamps have opened up great opportunities for researchers to study plant growth under controlled environment conditions and for commercial growers to increase plant production during low/light periods. This report describes the advantages and disadvantages of using each lamp in growth chambers, growth rooms and greenhouses. Growth Chambers are small (3m x 4/m and smaller) walk-in or reach-in enclosures with programmable, accurate temperature, relative humidity (RH) and irradiance control over wide ranges. The intent of growth chambers was to replicate sunlight conditions and transfer research results directly to the greenhouse or outside. It was realized that sunlight and outside conditions could not be mimicked. Growth chambers are also used to study irradiance and spectral fluxes. Growth Rooms are usually large rooms (larger than 3m x 4m) with only lamp irradiance, but providing relatively limited ranges of environmental control (i.e., 10 to 30 C temperature, 50 to 90% RH and ambient to 1000 ppm CO{sub 2}), and commonly independent of outside conditions. Irradiance requirements for growth rooms are similar to those of growth chambers. Growth rooms are also used for growing a large number of plants in a uniform standard environment condition and in commercial horticulture for tissue culture, seed germination (plugs) and seedling growth. Greenhouses are designed to allow maximum sunlight penetration through the structure. Initially greenhouses were used to extend the growing season. Then as heating systems, and cooling systems improved, they were used year round. Low light during the winter months reduced plant growth, but with the advent of efficient lamps (HID and fluorescent) it became possible to increase growth to rates close to that in summer months. Supplementary lighting is used during low light periods of the year and anytime to ensure consistent total daily irradiance for research plants.

  13. Treatment of exhaust fluorescent lamps to recover yttrium: Experimental and process analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Michelis, Ida; Ferella, Francesco; Varelli, Ennio Fioravante; Veglio, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Recovery of yttrium from spent fluorescent lamps by sulphuric acid leaching. → The use of sulphuric acid allows to reduce calcium dissolutions. → Main contaminant of fluorescent powder are Si, Pb, Ca and Ba. → Hydrated yttrium oxalate, recovered by selective precipitation, is quite pure (>90%). → We have studied the whole process for the treatment of dangerous waste (plant capability). - Abstract: The paper deals with recovery of yttrium from fluorescent powder coming from dismantling of spent fluorescent tubes. Metals are leached by using different acids (nitric, hydrochloric and sulphuric) and ammonia in different leaching tests. These tests show that ammonia is not suitable to recover yttrium, whereas HNO 3 produces toxic vapours. A full factorial design is carried out with HCl and H 2 SO 4 to evaluate the influence of operating factors. HCl and H 2 SO 4 leaching systems give similar results in terms of yttrium extraction yield, but the last one allows to reduce calcium extraction with subsequent advantage during recovery of yttrium compounds in the downstream. The greatest extraction of yttrium is obtained by 20% w/v S/L ratio, 4 N H 2 SO 4 concentration and 90 deg. C. Yttrium and calcium yields are nearly 85% and 5%, respectively. The analysis of variance shows that acid concentration alone and interaction between acid and pulp density have a significant positive effect on yttrium solubilization for both HCl and H 2 SO 4 medium. Two models are empirically developed to estimate yttrium and calcium concentration during leaching. Precipitation tests demonstrate that at least the stoichiometric amount of oxalic acid is necessary to recover yttrium efficiently and a pure yttrium oxalate n-hydrate can be produced (99% grade). The process is economically feasible if other components of the fluorescent lamps (glass, ferrous and non-ferrous scraps) are recovered after the equipment dismantling and valorized, besides the cost that is usually paid

  14. Investigations regarding the wet decontamination of fluorescent lamp waste using iodine in potassium iodide solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunsu, Cristian; Ekberg, Christian; Foreman, Mark; Retegan, Teodora

    2015-02-01

    With the rising popularity of fluorescent lighting, simple and efficient methods for the decontamination of discarded lamps are needed. Due to their mercury content end-of-life fluorescent lamps are classified as hazardous waste, requiring special treatment for disposal. A simple wet-based decontamination process is required, especially for streams where thermal desorption, a commonly used but energy demanding method, cannot be applied. In this study the potential of a wet-based process using iodine in potassium iodide solution was studied for the recovery of mercury from fluorescent lamp waste. The influence of the leaching agent's concentration and solid/liquid ratio on the decontamination efficiency was investigated. The leaching behaviour of mercury was studied over time, as well as its recovery from the obtained leachates by means of anion exchange, reduction, and solvent extraction. Dissolution of more than 90% of the contained mercury was achieved using 0.025/0.05 M I2/KI solution at 21 °C for two hours. The efficiency of the process increased with an increase in leachant concentration. 97.3 ± 0.6% of the mercury contained was dissolved at 21 °C, in two hours, using a 0.25/0.5M I2/KI solution and a solid to liquid ratio of 10% w/v. Iodine and mercury can be efficiently removed from the leachates using Dowex 1X8 anion exchange resin or reducing agents such as sodium hydrosulphite, allowing the disposal of the obtained solution as non-hazardous industrial wastewater. The extractant CyMe4BTBP showed good removal of mercury, with an extraction efficiency of 97.5 ± 0.7% being achieved in a single stage. Better removal of mercury was achieved in a single stage using the extractants Cyanex 302 and Cyanex 923 in kerosene, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Improving the work environment in the fluorescent lamp recycling sector by optimizing mercury elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecler, Marie-Thérèse; Zimmermann, François; Silvente, Eric; Masson, Alain; Morèle, Yves; Remy, Aurélie; Chollot, Alain

    2018-02-26

    One of the main issues in the fluorescent lamp recycling sector is the mercury contamination of output fractions and occupational exposure associated with recycling operations. The aim of this study is to carry out effective mercury mass balance determinations and improve mercury recovery by finding the optimal levels for the recycling process parameters. These optimizations will allow upstream mercury emissions to be reduced, which will help to avoid mercury exposure among WEEE recycling workers. Firstly, the distribution of mercury was assessed in new and spent lamps. For new fluorescent tubes, the mean percentage of mercury in the solid phase is lower in new fluorescent tubes (19.5% with 5.5% in glass, 9.7% in end caps and 4.3% in luminescent powder) than in spent tubes (33.3% with 8.3% in glass, 12.9% in end caps and 12.1% in luminescent powder). The parametric study also shows that the finer the grains of glass, the higher the concentration of mercury (1.2 µg Hg/g for glass size particle >1000 µm and 152.0 µg Hg/g for glass size particle recycling companies employ processes combining as heating and mixing techniques for the recovery of mercury from lamps in order to both (i) remove as much of the mercury as possible in vapor form and (ii) avoid adsorption of the mercury at new sites created during the crushing process. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Investigations regarding the wet decontamination of fluorescent lamp waste using iodine in potassium iodide solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunsu, Cristian; Ekberg, Christian; Foreman, Mark; Retegan, Teodora

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A wet-based decontamination process for fluorescent lamp waste is proposed. • Mercury can be leached using iodine in potassium iodide solution. • The efficiency of the process increases with an increase in leachant concentration. • Selective leaching of mercury from rare earth elements is achieved. • Mercury is furthered recovered using ion exchange, reduction or solvent extraction. - Abstract: With the rising popularity of fluorescent lighting, simple and efficient methods for the decontamination of discarded lamps are needed. Due to their mercury content end-of-life fluorescent lamps are classified as hazardous waste, requiring special treatment for disposal. A simple wet-based decontamination process is required, especially for streams where thermal desorption, a commonly used but energy demanding method, cannot be applied. In this study the potential of a wet-based process using iodine in potassium iodide solution was studied for the recovery of mercury from fluorescent lamp waste. The influence of the leaching agent’s concentration and solid/liquid ratio on the decontamination efficiency was investigated. The leaching behaviour of mercury was studied over time, as well as its recovery from the obtained leachates by means of anion exchange, reduction, and solvent extraction. Dissolution of more than 90% of the contained mercury was achieved using 0.025/0.05 M I 2 /KI solution at 21 °C for two hours. The efficiency of the process increased with an increase in leachant concentration. 97.3 ± 0.6% of the mercury contained was dissolved at 21 °C, in two hours, using a 0.25/0.5 M I 2 /KI solution and a solid to liquid ratio of 10% w/v. Iodine and mercury can be efficiently removed from the leachates using Dowex 1X8 anion exchange resin or reducing agents such as sodium hydrosulphite, allowing the disposal of the obtained solution as non-hazardous industrial wastewater. The extractant CyMe 4 BTBP showed good removal of mercury, with an

  17. Investigations regarding the wet decontamination of fluorescent lamp waste using iodine in potassium iodide solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunsu, Cristian, E-mail: tunsu@chalmers.se; Ekberg, Christian; Foreman, Mark; Retegan, Teodora

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • A wet-based decontamination process for fluorescent lamp waste is proposed. • Mercury can be leached using iodine in potassium iodide solution. • The efficiency of the process increases with an increase in leachant concentration. • Selective leaching of mercury from rare earth elements is achieved. • Mercury is furthered recovered using ion exchange, reduction or solvent extraction. - Abstract: With the rising popularity of fluorescent lighting, simple and efficient methods for the decontamination of discarded lamps are needed. Due to their mercury content end-of-life fluorescent lamps are classified as hazardous waste, requiring special treatment for disposal. A simple wet-based decontamination process is required, especially for streams where thermal desorption, a commonly used but energy demanding method, cannot be applied. In this study the potential of a wet-based process using iodine in potassium iodide solution was studied for the recovery of mercury from fluorescent lamp waste. The influence of the leaching agent’s concentration and solid/liquid ratio on the decontamination efficiency was investigated. The leaching behaviour of mercury was studied over time, as well as its recovery from the obtained leachates by means of anion exchange, reduction, and solvent extraction. Dissolution of more than 90% of the contained mercury was achieved using 0.025/0.05 M I{sub 2}/KI solution at 21 °C for two hours. The efficiency of the process increased with an increase in leachant concentration. 97.3 ± 0.6% of the mercury contained was dissolved at 21 °C, in two hours, using a 0.25/0.5 M I{sub 2}/KI solution and a solid to liquid ratio of 10% w/v. Iodine and mercury can be efficiently removed from the leachates using Dowex 1X8 anion exchange resin or reducing agents such as sodium hydrosulphite, allowing the disposal of the obtained solution as non-hazardous industrial wastewater. The extractant CyMe{sub 4}BTBP showed good removal of mercury

  18. Intraocular light scatter, reflections, fluorescence and absorption: what we see in the slit lamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Thomas J T P

    2018-01-01

    Much knowledge has been collected over the past 20 years about light scattering in the eye- in particular in the eye lens- and its visual effect, called straylight. It is the purpose of this review to discuss how these insights can be applied to understanding the slit lamp image. The slit lamp image mainly results from back scattering, whereas the effects on vision result mainly from forward scatter. Forward scatter originates from particles of about wavelength size distributed throughout the lens. Most of the slit lamp image originates from small particle scatter (Rayleigh scatter). For a population of middle aged lenses it will be shown that both these scatter components remove around 10% of the light from the direct beam. For slit lamp observation close to the reflection angles, zones of discontinuity (Wasserspalten) at anterior and posterior parts of the lens show up as rough surface reflections. All these light scatter effects increase with age, but the correlations with age, and also between the different components, are weak. For retro-illumination imaging it will be argued that the density or opacity seen in areas of cortical or posterior subcapsular cataract show up because of light scattering, not because of light loss. NOTES: (1) Light scatter must not be confused with aberrations. Light penetrating the eye is divided into two parts: a relatively small part is scattered, and removed from the direct beam. Most of the light is not scattered, but continues as the direct beam. This non-scattered part is the basis for functional imaging, but its quality is under the control of aberrations. Aberrations deflect light mainly over small angles (light scatter is important because of the straylight effects over large angles (>1°), causing problems like glare and hazy vision. (2) The slit lamp image in older lenses and nuclear cataract is strongly influenced by absorption. However, this effect is greatly exaggerated by the light path lengths concerned. This

  19. Combined oxidative leaching and electrowinning process for mercury recovery from spent fluorescent lamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgur, Cihan; Coskun, Sezen; Akcil, Ata; Beyhan, Mehmet; Üncü, Ismail Serkan; Civelekoglu, Gokhan

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, oxidative leaching and electrowinnig processes were performed to recovery of mercury from spent tubular fluorescent lamps. Hypochlorite was found to be effectively used for the leaching of mercury to the solution. Mercury could be leached with an efficiency of 96% using 0.5M/0.2M NaOCl/NaCl reagents at 50°C and pH 7.5 for 2-h. Electrowinning process was conducted on the filtered leaching solutions and over the 81% of mercury was recovered at the graphite electrode using citric acid as a reducing agent. The optimal process conditions were observed as a 6A current intensity, 30g/L of reducing agent concentration, 120min. electrolysis time and pH of 7 at the room temperature. It was found that current intensity and citric acid amount had positive effect for mercury reduction. Recovery of mercury in its elemental form was confirmed by SEM/EDX. Oxidative leaching with NaOCl/NaCl reagent was followed by electrowinning process can be effectively used for the recovery of mercury from spent fluorescent lamps. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Detoxification of mercury pollutant leached from spent fluorescent lamps using bacterial strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghouti, Mohammad A; Abuqaoud, Reem H; Abu-Dieyeh, Mohammed H

    2016-03-01

    The spent fluorescent lamps (SFLs) are being classified as a hazardous waste due to having mercury as one of its main components. Mercury is considered the second most toxic heavy metal (arsenic is the first) with harmful effects on animal nervous system as it causes different neurological disorders. In this research, the mercury from phosphor powder was leached, then bioremediated using bacterial strains isolated from Qatari environment. Leaching of mercury was carried out with nitric and hydrochloric acid solutions using two approaches: leaching at ambient conditions and microwave-assisted leaching. The results obtained from this research showed that microwave-assisted leaching method was significantly better in leaching mercury than the acid leaching where the mercury leaching efficiency reached 76.4%. For mercury bio-uptake, twenty bacterial strains (previously isolated and purified from petroleum oil contaminated soils) were sub-cultured on Luria Bertani (LB) plates with mercury chloride to check the bacterial tolerance to mercury. Seven of these twenty strains showed a degree of tolerance to mercury. The bio-uptake capacities of the promising strains were investigated using the mercury leached from the fluorescent lamps. Three of the strains (Enterobacter helveticus, Citrobacter amalonaticus, and Cronobacter muytjensii) showed bio-uptake efficiency ranged from 28.8% to 63.6%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Study of Wettability of Clayey Ceramic and Fluorescent Lamp Glass Waste Powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Alline Sardinha Cordeiro; Monteiro, Sergio Neves; Ribeiro, Sebastião; Sardinha, Leonardo Carneiro; Vieira, Carlos Maurício Fontes

    The glass tube of spent fluorescent lamps is contaminated with mercury, which might be a serious hazard in the case of conventional recycling by melting with other glasses. A possible solution could be its incorporation into a clay body to fabricate common fired ceramics such as bricks and tiles. The objective of this work is to characterize a type of fluorescent lamp glass waste to be incorporated into a clayey ceramic. The characterization was performed in terms of wettability tests to evaluate the interaction between the surface of the clayey ceramic and glass waste as a function of the firing temperature. The results showed that the contact angle decreased with increasing temperature, reaching a value of 79°, at a temperature of 1100°C, but not sufficient to completely wet the ceramic. However, compatible chemical composition and reduction of porosity by the flow of soft glass waste between the clay particles favor the consolidation of the ceramics structure above 900°C.

  2. Comparative Study of Lettuce and Radish Grown Under Red and Blue Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs) and White Fluorescent Lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickens, Matthew A.

    2012-01-01

    Growing vegetable crops in space will be an essential part of sustaining astronauts during long-term missions. To drive photosynthesis, red and blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have attracted attention because of their efficiency, longevity, small size, and safety. In efforts to optimize crop production, there have also been recent interests in analyzing the subtle effects of green light on plant growth, and to determine if it serves as a source of growth enhancement or suppression. A comparative study was performed on two short cycle crops of lettuce (Outredgeous) and radish (Cherry Bomb) grown under two light treatments. The first treatment being red and blue LEDs, and the second treatment consisting of white fluorescent lamps which contain a portion of green light. In addition to comparing biomass production, physiological characterizations were conducted on how the light treatments influence morphology, water use, chlorophyll content, and the production of A TP within plant tissues.

  3. X-ray induced fluorescence measurement of segregation in a DyI{sub 3}-Hg metal-halide lamp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nimalasuriya, T [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Curry, J J [National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Stop 8422, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8422 (United States); Sansonetti, C J [National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Stop 8422, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8422 (United States); Ridderhof, E J [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Shastri, S D [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Flikweert, A J [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Stoffels, W W [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Haverlag, M [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Mullen, J J A M van der [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2007-05-07

    Segregation of elemental Dy in a DyI{sub 3}-Hg metal-halide high-intensity discharge lamp has been observed with x-ray induced fluorescence. Significant radial and axial Dy segregation are seen, with the axial segregation characterized by a Fischer parameter value of {lambda} = 0.215 {+-} 0.002 mm{sup -1}. This is within 7% of the value ({lambda} = 0.20 {+-} 0.01 mm{sup -1}) obtained by Flikweert et al (2005 J. Appl. Phys. 98 073301) based on laser absorption by neutral Dy atoms. Elemental I is seen to exhibit considerably less axial and radial segregation. Some aspects of the observed radial segregation are compatible with a simplified fluid picture describing two main transition regions in the radial coordinate. The first transition occurs in the region where DyI{sub 3} molecules are in equilibrium with neutral Dy atoms. The second transition occurs where neutral Dy atoms are in equilibrium with ionized Dy. These measurements are part of a larger study on segregation in metal-halide lamps under a variety of conditions.

  4. Compact fluorescent lamps, innovation for electricity saving; Lamparas fluorescentes compactas, innovacion para el ahorro de electricidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, Fernando [Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (Mexico); Camacho P, Wendolin E; Villalobos Alarcon, German [Phillips Lighting Mexico (Mexico)

    2007-01-15

    An extremely important resource is electricity because it has provided illumination for homes, buildings and cities in the absence of natural light. Therefore, the human being is considering to save this valuable resource by using sophisticated light bulbs. At the end of the 70's the compact fluorescent lamps appeared. In this article we can disclose the advantages and disadvantages of this technology, and how some years later of its invention, those lamps satisfied the client expectations, due to its cost, electricity saving, longer lifetime, use possibilities, and technological improvements. We can also know how Federal Electricity Commission (CFE) and The Trust Fund for Electric Energy Savings (FIDE) supported a project to favor these lamps to be in the Mexican market. [Spanish] La electricidad es un recurso de suma importancia porque ha contribuido a la iluminacion de casas, edificios y ciudades, ante la ausencia de luz natural, es por ello que se ha buscado ahorrar este recurso tan preciado con el uso de lamparas sofisticadas. Una tecnologia que aparecio a finales de los anos 70 fueron las lamparas fluorescentes compactas. En este articulo encontramos sus ventajas y desventajas, y como despues de algunos anos de su creacion comenzaron a llenar las expectativas del cliente gracias a su costo, ahorro de electricidad, mayor tiempo de vida, posibilidades de aplicacion y mejoras tecnologicas. Asi mismo podemos conocer, el proyecto que se hizo para que esta tecnologia entrara al mercado mexicano, con el apoyo de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) y del Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (FIDE).

  5. Disseminating energy-efficient technologies: a case study of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Arun; Jain, Sudhir K.; Bansal, N.K.

    2003-01-01

    Disseminating energy-efficient technologies, even when they may appear to be technically perfect, is always a tough task, more so in economies with low purchasing power and educational levels. The compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) is one such well-known product that consumes only 20% electricity for the same light output as given out by the ubiquitous incandescent lamp and which, if adopted in a big way, has the potential of reducing peak electric power loads very significantly. However, in India, the CFL sales are still not growing in the expected manner. The current study was accordingly undertaken to investigate the underlying reasons and to determine the most effective ways in which an efficient technology like this could be popularized. The task involved the designing and administering of questionnaires to some 900 respondents from 100 locations representing various socio-economic, educational and professional backgrounds in and around Delhi, and analysing the results in terms of an importance index. Based on this feedback, the authors recommend an aggressive implementation of the formula standing for EDucation, POlicy support, STAandards, Demonstrations and INdustry involvement (EDPOSTADIN) at least for popularizing CFLs

  6. The effect of contaminants on the mercury consumption of fluorescent lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakk, I P; Nyulaszi, L; Benkoe, N

    2009-01-01

    In order to study the effect of water adsorbed on the alumina coating of fluorescent lamps 35 W tubes were prepared by so setting the manufacturing process as not to fully remove contaminants. The light intensity has been measured along the tubes, showing a fast drop after the initial illumination at switching on. The minimum intensity was followed by a recovery of the light output, the brightening extending gradually from the liquid mercury reservoir of the tube. To explain the observations the reaction between mercury ions and water and its decomposition products (OH and H radicals) were considered, which decreases the free mercury concentration and thus the light output. Density functional calculations indeed indicate a strong binding between these species.

  7. The effect of contaminants on the mercury consumption of fluorescent lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakk, I. P.; Benkö, N.; Nyulászi, L.

    2009-05-01

    In order to study the effect of water adsorbed on the alumina coating of fluorescent lamps 35 W tubes were prepared by so setting the manufacturing process as not to fully remove contaminants. The light intensity has been measured along the tubes, showing a fast drop after the initial illumination at switching on. The minimum intensity was followed by a recovery of the light output, the brightening extending gradually from the liquid mercury reservoir of the tube. To explain the observations the reaction between mercury ions and water and its decomposition products (OH and H radicals) were considered, which decreases the free mercury concentration and thus the light output. Density functional calculations indeed indicate a strong binding between these species.

  8. 78 FR 16709 - Certain Cold Cathode Fluorescent Lamp (“CCFL”) Inverter Circuits and Products Containing Same...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-666 (Modification Proceeding)] Certain Cold Cathode Fluorescent Lamp (``CCFL'') Inverter Circuits and Products Containing Same; Commission's... inverter circuits and products containing the same by reason of infringement of various U.S. patents. The...

  9. Investigation of recovery and recycling of rare earth elements from waste fluorescent lamp phosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eduafo, Patrick Max

    Characterization techniques and experimental measurements were used to evaluate a process for recycling rare earth elements (REEs) from spent fluorescent lamp phosphors. QEMSCAN analysis revealed that over 60% of the rare earth bearing minerals was less than 10 microm. A representative sample of the as-received feed contained 14.59 wt% total rare earth elements (TREE) and upon sieving to below 75 microm, the grade increased to 19.60 wt% REE with 98.75% recovery. Based on experimental work, a new process for extracting the chief REEs from end of life fluorescent lamps has been developed. The proposed flowsheet employs a three-stage leaching and precipitation process for selective extraction and recovery of the REEs. Hydrochloric acid was used as lixiviant in batch leach experiments on the phosphor powder. The maximum extraction obtained was 100% for both yttrium and europium under the following leaching conditions: 2.5 M HCl, 70°C, 1 hour, 180 g/L and 600 rpm. However, the solubility of cerium, lanthanum and terbium remained low at these conditions. Kinetic data of the leaching of yttrium and europium showed best fit to the logarithmic rate expression of the empirical model of leaching. Activation energy was calculated to be 77.49 kJ/mol for Y and 72.75 kJ/mol for Eu in the temperature range of 298 to 343 K. Precipitation tests demonstrate that at least 50% excess the stoichiometric amount of oxalic acid is needed to recover yttrium and europium efficiently to produce a pure (Y, Eu) mixed oxide. Total recovery of the REEs was achieved even at very low pH or without any base added. Over 99% pure mixed rare earth oxide at 99% recovery has been attained. An economic assessment of the developed process using operating and capital cost have be undertaken and based on the analysis of the three economic scenarios, two are economic and one is non-economic.

  10. Investigation on the status of rare earth elements contained in the powder of spent fluorescent lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belardi, G.; Ippolito, N.; Piga, L.; Serracino, M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Most of rare earth elements are contained in particles of size finer than 7 μm. • Most of Si, K and Na are contained in the coarser size-fractions. • The phases in the size-fractions of the fluorescent powder have been determined. • Europium is contained in yttrium oxide and in vanadium–yttrium oxides. • The crystallo–chemical composition of all the phases has been determined. - Abstract: The aim of this study is to examine the status of rare earth elements (REE) contained in the chemical compounds that make up the powder of spent fluorescent lamps, with a view of their recovery. The status of REE in the as-received powder, as well as in a few size-class fractions of it, has been established. This way, only those size-class fractions containing high REE concentrations can be considered in a recovery process. The investigation has been carried out using particle-size, chemical, TGA/DTA, XRPD, SEM-EDS and EMPA analyses. The last technique enabled to establish the status of REE within the lattice of the chemical compounds present in the powder. The fineness of the as-received powder and the higher REE concentration in the finest size-classes suggest that physical methods of separation should not be used to separate the REE-containing chemical compounds from each other. Leaching methods seem more suitable with a material of such size

  11. Effects of Battery Voltage in Fluorescent Lamps for Use in Photovoltaic Systems; Efectos de la Tension de Bateria en Lamparas Fluorescentes para Uso en Instalaciones Fotovoltaicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Rosillo, F; Egido Aguilera, M A

    2008-07-01

    It is known the importance of lighting systems with fluorescent lamps and electronic ballast in isolated photo-voltaic systems. The positive characteristics of the fluorescent lamps sometimes are not developed in full, due to the incorrect choice of ballast The failure of a lamp in the photovoltaic system can have great significance in the subjective perception of the user for the complete system. The purpose of this study is to analyze the behavior of two very similar fluorescent lamps, fed with different electronic ballasts, showing the great influence of the electronic ballast topology in the operation of the fluorescent lamp. In particular, this work aims to analyze the effect of variations of the input voltage to the ballast in the electrical and luminous characteristics of the lamp, as well as to understand the influence of electrical parameters in the life time of the fluorescent lamp. It is also analyzed the operating temperature of the electrode and the time necessary for electrode cooling after switching off the lamp. (Author) 23 refs.

  12. Ferrite-free high power electrodeless fluorescent lamp operated at a frequency of 160-1000 kHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, Oleg A; Chandler, Robert

    2002-01-01

    An electrodeless ferrite-free fluorescent lamp of a closed-loop type ('tokamak') was studied at a driving frequency, f = 160-1000 kHz, and power of 100-250 W. The inductive discharge was ignited in the mercury-argon mixture with the help of an induction coil of several (7-15) turns made from multiple-strand (Litz) wire. The discharge parameters - current, resistance, and electric field - were calculated using the transformer model of an RF inductive discharge. They were found to be close to those measured in a plasma of a 'tokamak'-type lamp operated at the same frequency and RF power but with the use of the ferrite cores. The ferrite-free lamp had high luminous efficacy as high as 85 LPW at a frequency, f>200 kHz, and power of 100-200 W. Such a high efficacy is attributed to low coil power losses ( 90%

  13. Factors Influencing the Usage of Compact Fluorescent Lamps in Existing Residential Buildings in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusola Olugbemileke Johnson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria as a developing nation is facing increasing demand for electricity especially in the residential areas. The use of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs is one of the several measures towards reducing the demand. However, in Nigeria, the use of CFLs is low. The present study was designed to investigate some factors responsible for the low usage of CFLs in Lagos, Nigeria. Questionnaires were administered by hand on 984 households, selected through systematic random sampling techniques from 5 local government areas in Lagos State. The first building along the major street in each of the local government was selected randomly and every tenth building constituted the sample. A household head was surveyed in each of the building selected, and was asked to rate some factors that might have influenced the usage of CFLs. The data generated from the questionnaire were analysed using ranking method. The findings show that inability to measure the saving benefits of CFLs on electricity bills, lack of affordability and high initial cost of acquisition and installation were the most important factors which influence the use of the CFLs. The study concludes by providing some recommendations on how to achieve sustainable energy management in the Lagos and beyond through more efficient residential house lighting.

  14. Wood's lamp illumination (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Wood's lamp emits ultraviolet light and can be a diagnostic aid in determining if someone has a fungal ... is an infection on the area where the Wood's lamp is illuminating, the area will fluoresce. Normally ...

  15. 75 FR 71570 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    .... Furthermore, a resistive load can only model the effective resistance of a lamp operated at a particular... be paired with reference lamps rather than precision resistors. NEMA and Osram Sylvania (OSI.... 12 at p. 21-22, 38-39, 105; OSI, Public Meeting Transcript, No. 12 at p. 80) DOE agrees that...

  16. Secondary electron emission and glow discharge properties of 12CaO·7Al2O3 electride for fluorescent lamp applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Satoru; Watanabe, Toshinari; Ito, Kazuhiro; Miyakawa, Naomichi; Ito, Setsuro; Hosono, Hideo; Mikoshiba, Shigeo

    2011-01-01

    12CaO·7Al 2 O 3 electride, a sub-nanoporous compound having a work function of 2.4 eV, was examined as a candidate cathode material in fluorescent lamps. The electron emission yield was higher and the discharge voltage was lower for 12CaO·7Al 2 O 3 than for existing cathode materials such as Ni, Mo or W; therefore, the energy consumption of the fluorescent lamps can be improved using 12CaO·7Al 2 O 3 cathodes. Prototype glow-discharge lamps using 12CaO·7Al 2 O 3 were constructed and exhibited reasonable durability.

  17. Secondary electron emission and glow discharge properties of 12CaO·7Al2O3 electride for fluorescent lamp applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Satoru; Watanabe, Toshinari; Ito, Kazuhiro; Miyakawa, Naomichi; Ito, Setsuro; Hosono, Hideo; Mikoshiba, Shigeo

    2011-06-01

    12CaO·7Al 2 O 3 electride, a sub-nanoporous compound having a work function of 2.4 eV, was examined as a candidate cathode material in fluorescent lamps. The electron emission yield was higher and the discharge voltage was lower for 12CaO·7Al 2 O 3 than for existing cathode materials such as Ni, Mo or W; therefore, the energy consumption of the fluorescent lamps can be improved using 12CaO·7Al 2 O 3 cathodes. Prototype glow-discharge lamps using 12CaO·7Al 2 O 3 were constructed and exhibited reasonable durability.

  18. A retrospective analysis of compact fluorescent lamp experience curves and their correlations to deployment programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Sarah Josephine; Wei, Max; Sohn, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Experience curves are useful for understanding technology development and can aid in the design and analysis of market transformation programs. Here, we employ a novel approach to create experience curves, to examine both global and North American compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) data for the years 1990–2007. We move away from the prevailing method of fitting a single, constant, exponential curve to data and instead search for break points where changes in the learning rate may have occurred. Our analysis suggests a learning rate of approximately 21% for the period of 1990–1997, and 51% and 79% in global and North American datasets, respectively, after 1998. We use price data for this analysis; therefore our learning rates encompass developments beyond typical “learning by doing”, including supply chain impacts such as market competition. We examine correlations between North American learning rates and the initiation of new programs, abrupt technological advances, and economic and political events, and find an increased learning rate associated with design advancements and federal standards programs. Our findings support the use of segmented experience curves for retrospective and prospective technology analysis, and may imply that investments in technology programs have contributed to an increase of the CFL learning rate. - Highlights: • We develop a segmented regression technique to estimate historical CFL learning curves. • CFL experience curves do not have a constant learning rate. • CFLs exhibited a learning rate of approximately 21% from 1990 to 1997. • The CFL learning rate significantly increased after 1998. • Increased CFL learning rate is correlated to technology deployment programs.

  19. Life cycle analysis of retrofitting with high energy efficiency air-conditioner and fluorescent lamp in existing buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Techato, Kua-anan; Watts, Daniel J.; Chaiprapat, Sumate

    2009-01-01

    Life cycle analysis of mercury in discarded low energy efficiency fluorescent lamps (36 W) and of HCFC in air-conditioners (12,000 Btu) removed from service has been conducted in this study. The objective was to find out the environmental impact (EDIP 1997 category, waste evaluation) of the products that appear in the waste stream as a result of facility upgrades. The scope of the study starts from retrofitting of the lamps and air-conditioners through recycling and disposal. For a 36 W fluorescent lamp, the bulk waste 1.64E-5 kg, hazardous waste 1.11E-4 kg, radioactive waste 1.09E-9 kg, and slag-ash 6.02E-7 kg occurred at the end of life of the retrofitting cycle. For a 12,000 Btu air-conditioner, the bulk waste 0.58 kg, hazardous waste 0.11 kg, radioactive waste 0.0002 kg, and slag-ash 0.01 kg also occurred at the end of life of the retrofitting cycle. These small amounts become important when viewed at the country level. These quantities imply that the policy makers who deal with hazardous waste should be aware of this waste-generating characteristic before issuing any pertinent policy. Consideration of this characteristic and planning for appropriate waste management methods at the beginning stage will reduce any future problem of contamination by the hazardous waste

  20. Life cycle analysis of retrofitting with high energy efficiency air-conditioner and fluorescent lamp in existing buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Techato, Kua-anan [International Postgraduate Programs in Environmental Management (Hazardous Waste Management) and ERI (Energy Research Institute), Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Watts, Daniel J. [Otto H. York Center for Environmental Engineering and Science, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States); Chaiprapat, Sumate [Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai Campus, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90112 (Thailand); National Center of Excellence for Environmental and Hazardous Waste Management-Satellite Center at Prince of Songkla University (Thailand)

    2009-01-15

    Life cycle analysis of mercury in discarded low energy efficiency fluorescent lamps (36 W) and of HCFC in air-conditioners (12,000 Btu) removed from service has been conducted in this study. The objective was to find out the environmental impact (EDIP 1997 category, waste evaluation) of the products that appear in the waste stream as a result of facility upgrades. The scope of the study starts from retrofitting of the lamps and air-conditioners through recycling and disposal. For a 36 W fluorescent lamp, the bulk waste 1.64E-5 kg, hazardous waste 1.11E-4 kg, radioactive waste 1.09E-9 kg, and slag-ash 6.02E-7 kg occurred at the end of life of the retrofitting cycle. For a 12,000 Btu air-conditioner, the bulk waste 0.58 kg, hazardous waste 0.11 kg, radioactive waste 0.0002 kg, and slag-ash 0.01 kg also occurred at the end of life of the retrofitting cycle. These small amounts become important when viewed at the country level. These quantities imply that the policy makers who deal with hazardous waste should be aware of this waste-generating characteristic before issuing any pertinent policy. Consideration of this characteristic and planning for appropriate waste management methods at the beginning stage will reduce any future problem of contamination by the hazardous waste. (author)

  1. [Atomic/ionic fluorescence in microwave plasma torch discharge with excitation of high current and microsecond pulsed hollow cathode lamp: Ca atomic/ionic fluorescence spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhen-bin; Liang, Feng; Yang, Peng-yuan; Jin, Qin-han; Huang, Ben-li

    2002-02-01

    A system of atomic and ionic fluorescence spectrometry in microwave plasma torch (MPT) discharge excited by high current microsecond pulsed hollow cathode lamp (HCMP HCL) has been developed. The operation conditions for Ca atomic and ionic fluorescence spectrometry have been optimized. Compared with atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS) in argon microwave induced plasma (MIP) and MPT with the excitation of direct current and conventional pulsed HCL, the system with HCMP HCL excitation can improve AFS and ionic fluorescence spectrometry (IFS) detection limits in MPT atomizer and ionizer. Detection limits (3 sigma) with HCMP HCL-MPT-AFS/IFS are 10.1 ng.mL-1 for Ca I 422.7 nm, 14.6 ng.mL-1 for Ca II 393.4 nm, and 37.4 ng.mL-1 for Ca II 396.8 nm, respectively.

  2. Improved high-intensity microwave discharge lamp for atomic resonance absorption and fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lifshitz, A.; Skinner, G.B.; Wood, D.R.

    1978-01-01

    An unusually good combination of high intensity and narrow line has been achieved in a microwave discharge lamp by placing the optical window in the center of the microwave cavity. Construction details and performance characteristics are described

  3. Improved high-intensity microwave discharge lamp for atomic resonance absorption and fluorescence spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifshitz, A; Skinner, G B; Wood, D R

    1978-09-01

    An unusually good combination of high intensity and narrow line has been achieved in a microwave discharge lamp by placing the optical window in the center of the microwave cavity. Construction details and performance characteristics are described.

  4. 77 FR 4203 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for General Service Fluorescent Lamps, General...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... conditions. A scaling factor is then used to correlate the measured accelerated lifetime to the lifetime at... median lamp lifetime. NEMA also noted it was common industry practice to use distributional parametric...

  5. Design and testing of a separate-type lighting system using solar energy and cold-cathode fluorescent lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, J.-P.; Hsiao, H.-C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a solar-powered lighting system, using cold-cathode fluorescent-lamps (CCFLs), with its battery-charging circuit and lamp-ignition circuit being separated so that its solar panels can be installed at any distance deemed necessary away from the lighting site in order to receive the maximum solar energy available. This system adopts the maximum-power point tracking (MPPT) method to control the power output of the solar panels and uses the zero-voltage switching (ZVS) DC-DC converter, as the charging circuit, to increase the panels' power generation efficiency and the charging circuit's conversion efficiency. The electronic ballast circuit for the CCFL is constructed with a half-bridge inverter, a resonant inductor, and a Rosen-type piezoelectric transformer, which forms a piezoelectric resonant-type inverter: to simplify the circuitry and to improve the power conversion efficiency, the ballast circuit is designed to directly step up the battery voltage in igniting the lamp. We also establish the transmission-parameter model for the piezoelectric resonant-type inverter to provide the base for the electric-power circuit design. Our experimental results indicate that the proposed system possesses some advantages, such as greater energy efficiency, circuitry simplicity, and so on, and is suitable for night lighting in house yards, parks and advertising panels

  6. Design and testing of a separate-type lighting system using solar energy and cold-cathode fluorescent lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, J.-P. [Department of Electrical Engineering, China Institute of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan 115, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: april4120@tp.edu.tw; Hsiao, H.-C. [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei, Taiwan 106, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: hsiao@mouse.ee.ntust.edu.tw

    2007-01-15

    This paper presents a solar-powered lighting system, using cold-cathode fluorescent-lamps (CCFLs), with its battery-charging circuit and lamp-ignition circuit being separated so that its solar panels can be installed at any distance deemed necessary away from the lighting site in order to receive the maximum solar energy available. This system adopts the maximum-power point tracking (MPPT) method to control the power output of the solar panels and uses the zero-voltage switching (ZVS) DC-DC converter, as the charging circuit, to increase the panels' power generation efficiency and the charging circuit's conversion efficiency. The electronic ballast circuit for the CCFL is constructed with a half-bridge inverter, a resonant inductor, and a Rosen-type piezoelectric transformer, which forms a piezoelectric resonant-type inverter: to simplify the circuitry and to improve the power conversion efficiency, the ballast circuit is designed to directly step up the battery voltage in igniting the lamp. We also establish the transmission-parameter model for the piezoelectric resonant-type inverter to provide the base for the electric-power circuit design. Our experimental results indicate that the proposed system possesses some advantages, such as greater energy efficiency, circuitry simplicity, and so on, and is suitable for night lighting in house yards, parks and advertising panels.

  7. Ultraviolet radiation levels associated with the use of fluorescent general lighting, UV-A and UV-B lamps in the workplace and home

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whillock, M.; Clark, I.E.; McKinlay, A.F.; Todd, C.D.; Mundy, S.J.

    1988-09-01

    A detailed programme of measurements was undertaken by NRPB to determine the ultraviolet irradiance levels likely to be encountered in the workplace and in the home, where fluorescent lighting is used. Assessments have been made of the possible potential risk of the induction of acute effects (photokeratitis, erythema) and of inducing malignant melanoma and non-malignant melanoma skin cancers resulting from exposure to commonly used fluorescent lamps. The optical absorption properties of materials commonly used in diffusers and controllers in commercial and domestic lighting units were also measured. Irradiance data, both weighted (for biological effectiveness) and unweighted, for various lamp types are presented in the report, together with some typical spectral output distributions. The results show that at commonly used illumination levels the UVR emissions from general and special fluorescent lamps presented neither an acute nor a significant chronic hazard. High UV-B emission levels were measured from 'UV-B' lamps used in this study, and exposure to these lamps would result in acute injury within a short time. Great care should be taken in the use of these lamps, and advice should be provided to workers to ensure safe working conditions and procedures. (author)

  8. Studies on artificial light type vegetation plant using fluorescent lamps. Keikoto wo mochiita jinko kogata shokubutsu kojo no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwao, K [Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc., Nagoya (Japan)

    1991-11-01

    This paper describes the contents of studies carried out for four years on a fluorescent lamp type vegetation plant. The equipment consists of a chiller unit with 5 HP, a motive power board of three-phase 200 V/feeder with an annual power capacity of 20 kW at maximum, and a micro-computer to control the culture environmental conditions. Discussions were given on the equipment performance, profitability, production capacity for salads and lettuces, and related data. Although the system has some disadvantage in the economy, it provided effective results on the know-hows in culturing high-class vegetables and fruits under season-free and chemical-free conditions. Since the natural light is also required, the professional knowledges and know-hows in this area were incorporated in the development. Fluorescent lamps emitting three primary colors of red, green and blue were devised and used. Because insufficient light intensity would raise the temperature only up to 42{degree}C when the ambient temperature is 25{degree}C, a proximity illumination system was adopted, which provided 45KIx high light intensity as well as the working spectra over an wide area. Tomato cultivation has also become possible, which is an epoch-making success. The system yielded better than hydroponic cultivation in solar greenhouse of the same size. 11 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Human exposure to mercury in a compact fluorescent lamp manufacturing area: By food (rice and fish) consumption and occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Peng; Feng, Xinbin; Zhang, Chan; Zhang, Jin; Cao, Yucheng; You, Qiongzhi; Leung, Anna Oi Wah; Wong, Ming-Hung; Wu, Sheng-Chun

    2015-01-01

    To investigate human Hg exposure by food consumption and occupation exposure in a compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) manufacturing area, human hair and rice samples were collected from Gaohong town, Zhejiang Province, China. The mean values of total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in local cultivated rice samples were significantly higher than in commercial rice samples which indicated that CFL manufacturing activities resulted in Hg accumulation in local rice samples. For all of the study participants, significantly higher THg concentrations in human hair were observed in CFL workers compared with other residents. In comparison, MeHg concentrations in human hair of residents whose diet consisted of local cultivated rice were significantly higher than those who consumed commercial rice. These results demonstrated that CFL manufacturing activities resulted in THg accumulation in the hair of CFL workers. However, MeHg in hair were mainly affected by the sources of rice of the residents. - Highlights: • Rice samples were contaminated by Compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) manufacturing. • CFL manufacturing lead to THg accumulation in human hair. • MeHg in human hair were mainly affected by the sources of rice. • MeHg intake from fish consumption was lower than that from rice consumption. • PDI of MeHg by food consumption was below the guidelines for public health concern. - CFL manufacturing activities result in Hg accumulation in local rice samples and hair of CFL workers. However, MeHg in hair were mainly affected by sources of rice

  10. Technological evolution of the fluorescent lamps for the domestic sector; Evolucion tecnologica de lamparas fluorescentes para el sector domestico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valera Negrete, A. [Programa de Ahorro de Energia para el Sector Electrico, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    This paper shows the efficiency, the harmonic distortion and the power factor of compact and circular fluorescent lamps that replace the incandescent bulbs of 60, 75 and 100 Watts in the domestic sector offered by manufacturers to increase the efficient use of the electric energy in networks of the national electric system. Also are presented, the quality parameters such as color temperature, performance index, useful life and maintenance of the lighting source; the aesthetics as length and weight and additionally the safety measures (thermal protector) that make competitive and functional the use of fluorescent lamps in relation to the installation of incandescent bulbs. [Espanol] En este trabajo se muestran las eficacias, distorsion de armonica y factor de potencia de lamparas fluorescentes compactas y circulares, que sustituyen a focos incandescentes de 60, 75 y 100 W en el sector domestico, ofrecidas por los fabricantes para aumentar el uso eficiente de la energia electrica en las redes del sistema electrico nacional. Ademas, se presentan los parametros de calidad, como temperatura de color, indice de rendimiento de color, vida y mantenimiento de la fuente luminosa; de estetica como longitud y peso; y adicionalmente la medida de seguridad (protector termico); que hace competitivo y funcional el uso de lamparas fluorescentes respecto a la instalacion de focos incandescentes.

  11. Technological evolution of the fluorescent lamps for the domestic sector; Evolucion tecnologica de lamparas fluorescentes para el sector domestico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valera Negrete, A [Programa de Ahorro de Energia para el Sector Electrico, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    This paper shows the efficiency, the harmonic distortion and the power factor of compact and circular fluorescent lamps that replace the incandescent bulbs of 60, 75 and 100 Watts in the domestic sector offered by manufacturers to increase the efficient use of the electric energy in networks of the national electric system. Also are presented, the quality parameters such as color temperature, performance index, useful life and maintenance of the lighting source; the aesthetics as length and weight and additionally the safety measures (thermal protector) that make competitive and functional the use of fluorescent lamps in relation to the installation of incandescent bulbs. [Espanol] En este trabajo se muestran las eficacias, distorsion de armonica y factor de potencia de lamparas fluorescentes compactas y circulares, que sustituyen a focos incandescentes de 60, 75 y 100 W en el sector domestico, ofrecidas por los fabricantes para aumentar el uso eficiente de la energia electrica en las redes del sistema electrico nacional. Ademas, se presentan los parametros de calidad, como temperatura de color, indice de rendimiento de color, vida y mantenimiento de la fuente luminosa; de estetica como longitud y peso; y adicionalmente la medida de seguridad (protector termico); que hace competitivo y funcional el uso de lamparas fluorescentes respecto a la instalacion de focos incandescentes.

  12. 75 FR 14287 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... uses the same measurement techniques as the existing test procedure. In any rulemaking to amend a test...; and (3) appearing on page 29 of the transcript. \\6\\ Ballast type refers to a grouping of ballasts that... grouping of lamps that have the same length, lumen package, base type, and diameter. In the ongoing...

  13. Ultraviolet radiation levels associated with the use of fluorescent general lighting, UV-A and UV-B lamps in the workplace and home

    CERN Document Server

    Whillock, M; MacKinlay, Alistair F; Mundy, S J; Todd, Carl David

    1988-01-01

    A detailed programme of measurements was undertaken by NRPB to determine the ultraviolet irradiance levels likely to be encountered in the workplace and in the home, where fluorescent lighting is used. Assessments have been made of the possible potential risk of the induction of acute effects (photokeratitis, erythema) and of inducing malignant melanoma and non-malignant melanoma skin cancers resulting from exposure to commonly used fluorescent lamps. The optical absorption properties of materials commonly used in diffusers and controllers in commercial and domestic lighting units were also measured. Irradiance data, both weighted (for biological effectiveness) and unweighted, for various lamp types are presented in the report, together with some typical spectral output distributions. The results show that at commonly used illumination levels the UVR emissions from general and special fluorescent lamps presented neither an acute nor a significant chronic hazard. High UV-B emission levels were measured from 'U...

  14. Recycling of rare earths from Hg-containing fluorescent lamp scraps by solid state chlorination; Rueckgewinnung Seltener Erden aus quecksilberbelasteten Leuchtstoffen mittels Feststoffchlorierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, Tom; Froehlich, Peter; Bertau, Martin [TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany); Golon, Katja [FNE Entsorgungsdienste GmbH, Freiberg (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Solid state chlorination with NH{sub 4}Cl comprises a method for rare earth recycling apart from pyro- or hydrometallurgical strategies. The examined partially Hg-containing fluorescent lamp scraps are rich in rare earths like La, Ce, Tb and Gd, but especially in Y and Eu. By mixing with NH{sub 4}Cl and heating up to NH{sub 4}Cl decomposition temperature in a sublimation reactor, Y and Eu could be transferred selectively into their respective metal chlorides with high yields. The yield and selectivity depend on temperature and the ratio of NH{sub 4}Cl to fluorescent lamp scraps, which were varied systematically.

  15. Determining heavy metals in spent compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) and their waste management challenges: Some strategies for improving current conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taghipour, Hassan; Amjad, Zahra; Jafarabadi, Mohamad Asghari; Gholampour, Akbar; Norouz, Prviz

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Heavy metals in spent compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) determined. • Current waste management condition of CFLs in Iran assessed. • Currently, waste of CFLs is disposed by municipal waste stream in waste landfills. • We propose extended producer responsibility (EPR) for CFLs waste management. - Abstract: From environmental viewpoint, the most important advantage of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) is reduction of green house gas emissions. But their significant disadvantage is disposal of spent lamps because of containing a few milligrams of toxic metals, especially mercury and lead. For a successful implementation of any waste management plan, availability of sufficient and accurate information on quantities and compositions of the generated waste and current management conditions is a fundamental prerequisite. In this study, CFLs were selected among 20 different brands in Iran. Content of heavy metals including mercury, lead, nickel, arsenic and chromium was determined by inductive coupled plasma (ICP). Two cities, Tehran and Tabriz, were selected for assessing the current waste management condition of CFLs. The study found that waste generation amount of CFLs in the country was about 159.80, 183.82 and 153.75 million per year in 2010, 2011 and 2012, respectively. Waste generation rate of CFLs in Iran was determined to be 2.05 per person in 2012. The average amount of mercury, lead, nickel, arsenic and chromium was 0.417, 2.33, 0.064, 0.056 and 0.012 mg per lamp, respectively. Currently, waste of CFLs is disposed by municipal waste stream in waste landfills. For improving the current conditions, we propose by considering the successful experience of extended producer responsibility (EPR) in other electronic waste management. The EPR program with advanced recycling fee (ARF) is implemented for collecting and then recycling CFLs. For encouraging consumers to take the spent CFLs back at the end of the products’ useful life, a proportion of

  16. Determining heavy metals in spent compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) and their waste management challenges: Some strategies for improving current conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taghipour, Hassan, E-mail: hteir@yahoo.com [Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Amjad, Zahra [Student Research Committee, Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jafarabadi, Mohamad Asghari [Medical Education Research Center, Department of Statistics and Epidemiology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gholampour, Akbar [Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Norouz, Prviz [Environmental Health Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • Heavy metals in spent compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) determined. • Current waste management condition of CFLs in Iran assessed. • Currently, waste of CFLs is disposed by municipal waste stream in waste landfills. • We propose extended producer responsibility (EPR) for CFLs waste management. - Abstract: From environmental viewpoint, the most important advantage of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) is reduction of green house gas emissions. But their significant disadvantage is disposal of spent lamps because of containing a few milligrams of toxic metals, especially mercury and lead. For a successful implementation of any waste management plan, availability of sufficient and accurate information on quantities and compositions of the generated waste and current management conditions is a fundamental prerequisite. In this study, CFLs were selected among 20 different brands in Iran. Content of heavy metals including mercury, lead, nickel, arsenic and chromium was determined by inductive coupled plasma (ICP). Two cities, Tehran and Tabriz, were selected for assessing the current waste management condition of CFLs. The study found that waste generation amount of CFLs in the country was about 159.80, 183.82 and 153.75 million per year in 2010, 2011 and 2012, respectively. Waste generation rate of CFLs in Iran was determined to be 2.05 per person in 2012. The average amount of mercury, lead, nickel, arsenic and chromium was 0.417, 2.33, 0.064, 0.056 and 0.012 mg per lamp, respectively. Currently, waste of CFLs is disposed by municipal waste stream in waste landfills. For improving the current conditions, we propose by considering the successful experience of extended producer responsibility (EPR) in other electronic waste management. The EPR program with advanced recycling fee (ARF) is implemented for collecting and then recycling CFLs. For encouraging consumers to take the spent CFLs back at the end of the products’ useful life, a proportion of

  17. Which lamp will be optimum to eye? Incandescent, fluorescent or LED etc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Chen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Low frequency flicker, high frequency flicker, strong light, strong blue light, infrared, ultraviolet, electromagnetic radiation, ripple flicker and dimming flicker produced by different lamps have negative impact on vision, eyes and health. Negative impact on eyes resulting in myopia or cataract etc:the solution is to remove all the negative factors by applying upright lighting technology and that is optimum to vision, eyes and health.

  18. Determining heavy metals in spent compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) and their waste management challenges: some strategies for improving current conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghipour, Hassan; Amjad, Zahra; Jafarabadi, Mohamad Asghari; Gholampour, Akbar; Norouz, Prviz

    2014-07-01

    From environmental viewpoint, the most important advantage of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) is reduction of green house gas emissions. But their significant disadvantage is disposal of spent lamps because of containing a few milligrams of toxic metals, especially mercury and lead. For a successful implementation of any waste management plan, availability of sufficient and accurate information on quantities and compositions of the generated waste and current management conditions is a fundamental prerequisite. In this study, CFLs were selected among 20 different brands in Iran. Content of heavy metals including mercury, lead, nickel, arsenic and chromium was determined by inductive coupled plasma (ICP). Two cities, Tehran and Tabriz, were selected for assessing the current waste management condition of CFLs. The study found that waste generation amount of CFLs in the country was about 159.80, 183.82 and 153.75 million per year in 2010, 2011 and 2012, respectively. Waste generation rate of CFLs in Iran was determined to be 2.05 per person in 2012. The average amount of mercury, lead, nickel, arsenic and chromium was 0.417, 2.33, 0.064, 0.056 and 0.012 mg per lamp, respectively. Currently, waste of CFLs is disposed by municipal waste stream in waste landfills. For improving the current conditions, we propose by considering the successful experience of extended producer responsibility (EPR) in other electronic waste management. The EPR program with advanced recycling fee (ARF) is implemented for collecting and then recycling CFLs. For encouraging consumers to take the spent CFLs back at the end of the products' useful life, a proportion of ARF (for example, 50%) can be refunded. On the other hand, the government and Environmental Protection Agency should support and encourage recycling companies of CFLs both technically and financially in the first place. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Study of efficacy in a mercury-free flat discharge fluorescent lamp using a zero-dimensional positive column model

    CERN Document Server

    Shiga, T; Boeuf, J P; Mikoshiba, S

    2003-01-01

    A zero-dimensional model of the positive column in Ar/Ne/Xe gas mixtures has been developed to help understand the measured dependence of the efficacy on operating conditions in a mercury-free flat fluorescent lamp in a dielectric barrier geometry. The experimental conditions are such that the radiation from the discharge is homogeneous over most of the discharge voltage. The model uses as input the discharge current waveform from the experiments, and it yields the time variations of the mean electron energy and the species densities. From these quantities we calculate the number of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photons emitted by the xenon resonance atoms and excimers during one current pulse and the efficiency for generation of VUV radiation in the positive column, which are compared with the measured luminance and efficacy for various voltages, pulse intervals, and lamp sizes. Over the range of conditions studied, we find that most electrical energy dissipated in xenon excitation is converted to VUV radiation; ...

  20. Secondary electron emission and glow discharge properties of 12CaOcenterdot7Al2O3 electride for fluorescent lamp applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Watanabe, Toshinari Watanabe, Kazuhiro Ito, Naomichi Miyakawa, Setsuro Ito, Hideo Hosono and Shigeo Mikoshiba

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available 12CaOcenterdot7Al2O3 electride, a sub-nanoporous compound having a work function of 2.4 eV, was examined as a candidate cathode material in fluorescent lamps. The electron emission yield was higher and the discharge voltage was lower for 12CaOcenterdot7Al2O3 than for existing cathode materials such as Ni, Mo or W; therefore, the energy consumption of the fluorescent lamps can be improved using 12CaOcenterdot7Al2O3 cathodes. Prototype glow-discharge lamps using 12CaOcenterdot7Al2O3 were constructed and exhibited reasonable durability.

  1. In situ detection of atomic and molecular iodine using Resonance and Off-Resonance Fluorescence by Lamp Excitation: ROFLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Gómez Martín

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate a new instrument for in situ detection of atmospheric iodine atoms and molecules based on atomic and molecular resonance and off-resonance ultraviolet fluorescence excited by lamp emission. The instrument combines the robustness, light weight, low power consumption and efficient excitation of radio-frequency discharge light sources with the high sensitivity of the photon counting technique. Calibration of I2 fluorescence is achieved via quantitative detection of the molecule by Incoherent Broad Band Cavity-enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy. Atomic iodine fluorescence signal is calibrated by controlled broad band photolysis of known I2 concentrations in the visible spectral range at atmospheric pressure. The instrument has been optimised in laboratory experiments to reach detection limits of 1.2 pptv for I atoms and 13 pptv for I2, for S/N = 1 and 10 min of integration time. The ROFLEX system has been deployed in a field campaign in northern Spain, representing the first concurrent observation of ambient mixing ratios of iodine atoms and molecules in the 1–350 pptv range.

  2. Isonicotinic acid-ligated cobalt (II phthalocyanine-modified titania as photocatalyst for benzene degradation via fluorescent lamp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joey Andrew A. Valinton

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of bis(isonicotinic acidphthalocyaninatocobalt (II [CoPc(isa2] incorporated on TiO2 has been studied as a photocatalyst to degrade benzene vapor under fluorescent lamp (indoor light conditions. The photocatalytic activity of [CoPc(isa2]-TiO2 compared to TiO2 showed an increase in the extent of degradation. The axial isonicotinic acid ligand attached to CoPc improved the degradation rate of benzene as compared with unligated CoPc-TiO2 which may be attributed to the enhancement of electronic structure in the complex due to the additional isonicotinic acid ligand and its possible attachment to the TiO2 surface through the carboxylic acid moiety. Therefore, covalently-linked CoPc(isa2 to TiO2 can enhance the extent of photodegradation of benzene and other common volatile organic compounds under indoor lighting conditions.

  3. Selective extraction and recovery of rare earth metals from phosphor powders in waste fluorescent lamps using an ionic liquid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Fan; Kubota, Fukiko; Baba, Yuzo; Kamiya, Noriho; Goto, Masahiro

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Recycling of rare earth metals from fluorescent lamps was conducted by ionic liquid-mediated extraction. • Acid leaching from a waste phosphor powder was carried out using sulfuric and nitric acids. • An ionic liquid was used as extracting solvent for the rare earth metals. • Selective extraction of rare earth metals from leach solutions was attained. •The extracting ionic liquid phase was recyclable in the recovery process. -- Abstract: The recycling of rare earth metals from phosphor powders in waste fluorescent lamps by solvent extraction using ionic liquids was studied. Acid leaching of rare earth metals from the waste phosphor powder was examined first. Yttrium (Y) and europium (Eu) dissolved readily in the acid solution; however, the leaching of other rare earth metals required substantial energy input. Ionization of target rare earth metals from the waste phosphor powders into the leach solution was critical for their successful recovery. As a high temperature was required for the complete leaching of all rare earth metals, ionic liquids, for which vapor pressure is negligible, were used as an alternative extracting phase to the conventional organic diluent. An extractant, N, N-dioctyldiglycol amic acid (DODGAA), which was recently developed, showed a high affinity for rare earth metal ions in liquid–liquid extraction although a conventional commercial phosphonic extractant did not. An effective recovery of the rare earth metals, Y, Eu, La and Ce, from the metal impurities, Fe, Al and Zn, was achieved from the acidic leach solution of phosphor powders using an ionic liquid containing DODGAA as novel extractant system

  4. Selective extraction and recovery of rare earth metals from phosphor powders in waste fluorescent lamps using an ionic liquid system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Fan; Kubota, Fukiko; Baba, Yuzo [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Kamiya, Noriho [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Center for Future Chemistry, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Goto, Masahiro, E-mail: m-goto@mail.cstm.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Center for Future Chemistry, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: • Recycling of rare earth metals from fluorescent lamps was conducted by ionic liquid-mediated extraction. • Acid leaching from a waste phosphor powder was carried out using sulfuric and nitric acids. • An ionic liquid was used as extracting solvent for the rare earth metals. • Selective extraction of rare earth metals from leach solutions was attained. •The extracting ionic liquid phase was recyclable in the recovery process. -- Abstract: The recycling of rare earth metals from phosphor powders in waste fluorescent lamps by solvent extraction using ionic liquids was studied. Acid leaching of rare earth metals from the waste phosphor powder was examined first. Yttrium (Y) and europium (Eu) dissolved readily in the acid solution; however, the leaching of other rare earth metals required substantial energy input. Ionization of target rare earth metals from the waste phosphor powders into the leach solution was critical for their successful recovery. As a high temperature was required for the complete leaching of all rare earth metals, ionic liquids, for which vapor pressure is negligible, were used as an alternative extracting phase to the conventional organic diluent. An extractant, N, N-dioctyldiglycol amic acid (DODGAA), which was recently developed, showed a high affinity for rare earth metal ions in liquid–liquid extraction although a conventional commercial phosphonic extractant did not. An effective recovery of the rare earth metals, Y, Eu, La and Ce, from the metal impurities, Fe, Al and Zn, was achieved from the acidic leach solution of phosphor powders using an ionic liquid containing DODGAA as novel extractant system.

  5. Electro-optic characteristics and areal selective dimming method for a new highly efficient mercury-free flat fluorescent lamp (MFFL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Jae-Chul; Lee, Ju Kwang; Seo, In Woo; Oh, Byung Joo; Whang, Ki-Woong

    2009-01-01

    A highly efficient mercury-free flat fluorescent lamp (MFFL) with dielectric barrier Xe gas discharge was developed for a LCD-TV backlight source. The unit cell of the lamp has a simple structure with two main electrodes running parallel to each other and an auxiliary electrode. The adoption of the auxiliary electrode resulted in a wide, stable operating voltage margin, high luminance and efficiency. The 4 inch diagonal size lamp showed a luminous efficacy of 44 lm W -1 at a luminance of 3400 cd m -2 with Ne-Xe(18%) gas mixture. We demonstrated that the 4 inch unit cell can be used to construct a 5 x 8 multi-structured lamp of 32 inch diagonal size for application in a large-sized LCD backlight source by a simple repeat of the unit cell. Despite the increase in size, the 32 inch lamp showed the same discharge voltage and margin of the 4 inch unit cell. Using the proposed MFFL with the auxiliary electrode as the data electrode and the subfield method, we developed a driving scheme for 2-bit areal selective dimming control of an M x N multi-cell lamp which can be operated using only one inverter.

  6. [Atomic/ionic fluorescence in microwave plasma torch discharge excited by high current microsecond pulsed hollow cathode lamp-europium atomic/ionic fluorescence spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Z; Liang, F; Yang, P; Jin, Q; Huang, B

    1999-06-01

    Eu atomic and ionic fluorescence spectrometry in microwave plasma torch discharge excited by high current microsecond pulsed hollow cathode lamp (HCMP HCL-MPT AFS/IFS) was studied. Operating conditions were optimized. The best detection limits for AFS and IFS obtained with a desolvated ultrasonic nebulization system were 42.0 ng/mL for Eu I 462.7 nm and 21.8 ng/mL for Eu II 381.97 nm, respectively, both were better than those given by the instruction manual of a Baird ICP AFS-2000 spectrometer using pneumatic concentric nebulizer with desolvation for AFS, but were significantly higher than those obtained by using the Baird spectrometer with a mini-monochromator and a ultrasonic nebulzer system.

  7. Fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy (FFS), part A

    CERN Document Server

    Tetin, Sergey

    2013-01-01

    This new volume of Methods in Enzymology continues the legacy of this premier serial by containing quality chapters authored by leaders in the field. This volume covers Fluorescence Fluctuation SpectroscopyContains chapters on such topics as Time-integrated fluorescence cumulant analysis, Pulsed Interleaved Excitation, and raster image correlation spectroscopy and number and brightness analysis.Continues the legacy of this premier serial with quality chapters authored by leaders in the fieldCovers fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopyContains chapte

  8. Luminous flux improvement of xenon fluorescent lamps by applying synchronized high-voltage pulse to the auxiliary external electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motomura, Hideki; Oka, Kojiro; Sogabe, Toru; Jinno, Masafumi, E-mail: hmoto@mayu.ee.ehime-u.ac.jp [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Ehime University 3 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8577 (Japan)

    2011-06-08

    As the environmental awareness of people becomes stronger, the demand for mercury-free light sources also becomes stronger. The authors have been developing cold cathode fluorescent lamps in which xenon gas is filled as an ultraviolet radiator instead of mercury. Previously the authors reported the luminous flux enhancement method using a grounded auxiliary external electrode (AEE). In this paper, in order to improve the luminous flux much more, a positive voltage pulse which was synchronized to the main driving negative voltage pulse was applied to the AEE. As a result, the maximum input power increased under which the positive column did not constrict and the luminous flux improved by 70% at the xenon filling pressure of 6.7 kPa. It is proved that the positive voltage pulse application to the AEE with the amplitude of more than 2 kV expands the positive column in the radial direction. It is attributed to the phenomenon that the residual ions and electrons, which are generated by dielectric barrier discharge between the AEE and the anode during the falling edge of the negative pulse to the cathode, spread the discharge path from the anode towards the AEE during the cold cathode discharge mode. By increasing the xenon filling pressure, luminous efficacy was improved to 25 lm W{sup -1}.

  9. Evaluation of Energy Consumption in the Mercury Treatment of Phosphor Powder from Spent Fluorescent Lamps Using a Thermal Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Choi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In a pilot-plant-scale thermal mercury treatment of phosphor powder from spent fluorescent lamps, energy consumption was estimated to control mercury content by the consideration of reaction kinetics. Mercury content was analyzed as a function of treatment temperature and time. The initial mercury content of the phosphor powder used in the thermal process was approximately 3500 mg/kg. The target mercury content in the phosphor powder thermal process of the phosphor powder was 5 mg/kg or less at 400 °C or higher because the target mercury content was recommended by Minamata Convention and Basel Convention. During thermal processing, the reaction rate was represented by a first order reaction with the Arrhenius equation. The reaction rate constant increased with temperature from 0.0112 min−1 at 350 °C to 0.0558 min−1 at 600 °C. The frequency factor was 2.51 min−1, and the activation energy was 6509.11 kcal/kg. Reaction rate constants were used to evaluate the treatment time required to reduce mercury content in phosphor powder to be less than 5 mg/kg. The total energy consumption in a pilot-plant-scale thermal process was evaluated to determine the optimal temperature for removing mercury in phosphor powder.

  10. Selective extraction and recovery of rare earth metals from phosphor powders in waste fluorescent lamps using an ionic liquid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Kubota, Fukiko; Baba, Yuzo; Kamiya, Noriho; Goto, Masahiro

    2013-06-15

    The recycling of rare earth metals from phosphor powders in waste fluorescent lamps by solvent extraction using ionic liquids was studied. Acid leaching of rare earth metals from the waste phosphor powder was examined first. Yttrium (Y) and europium (Eu) dissolved readily in the acid solution; however, the leaching of other rare earth metals required substantial energy input. Ionization of target rare earth metals from the waste phosphor powders into the leach solution was critical for their successful recovery. As a high temperature was required for the complete leaching of all rare earth metals, ionic liquids, for which vapor pressure is negligible, were used as an alternative extracting phase to the conventional organic diluent. An extractant, N, N-dioctyldiglycol amic acid (DODGAA), which was recently developed, showed a high affinity for rare earth metal ions in liquid-liquid extraction although a conventional commercial phosphonic extractant did not. An effective recovery of the rare earth metals, Y, Eu, La and Ce, from the metal impurities, Fe, Al and Zn, was achieved from the acidic leach solution of phosphor powders using an ionic liquid containing DODGAA as novel extractant system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Analytical and experimental discussion of a circuit-based model for compact fluorescent lamps in a 60Hz power grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Alexis Malagon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an analysis and discussion on the performance of a circuit-based model for Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFL in a 120V 60Hz power grid. This model is proposed and validated in previous scientific literature for CFLs in 230V 50Hz systems. Nevertheless, the derivation of this model is not straightforward to follow and its performance in 120V 60Hz systems is a matter of research work. In this paper, the analytical derivation of this CFL model is presented in detail and its performance is discussed when predicting the current of a CFL designed to operate in a 120V 60Hz electrical system. The derived model is separately implemented in both MATLAB® and ATP-EMTP® software using two different sets of parameters previously proposed for 230V 50Hz CFLs. These simulation results are compared against laboratory measurements using a programmable AC voltage source. The measurements and simulations considered seven CFLs 110/127V 60Hz with different power ratings supplied by a sinusoidal (not distorted voltage source. The simulations under these conditions do not properly predict the current measurements and therefore the set of parameters and/or the model itself need to be adjusted for 120V 60Hz power grids.

  12. Estimation on separation efficiency of aluminum from base-cap of spent fluorescent lamp in hammer crusher unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Seung-Whee

    2017-09-01

    In order to separate aluminum from the base-cap of spent fluorescent lamp (SFL), the separation efficiency of hammer crusher unit is estimated by introducing a binary separation theory. The base-cap of SFL is composed by glass fragment, binder, ferrous metal, copper and aluminum. The hammer crusher unit to recover aluminum from the base-cap consists of 3stages of hammer crusher, magnetic separator and vibrating screen. The optimal conditions of rotating speed and operating time in the hammer crusher unit are decided at each stage. At the optimal conditions, the aluminum yield and the separation efficiency of hammer crusher unit are estimated by applying a sequential binary separation theory at each stage. And the separation efficiency between hammer crusher unit and roll crush system is compared to show the performance of aluminum recovery from the base-cap of SFL. Since the separation efficiency can be increased to 99% at stage 3, from the experimental results, it is found that aluminum from the base-cap can be sufficiently recovered by the hammer crusher unit. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. The Electrodeless Discharge Lamp: A Prospective Tool for Photochemistry Part 3. The Microwave Photochemistry Reactor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klán, P.; Hájek, Milan; Církva, Vladimír

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 140, č. 3 (2001), s. 185-189 ISSN 1010-6030 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : photochemistry * electrodeless discharge lamp * microwave Subject RIV: CH - Nuclear ; Quantum Chemistry Impact factor: 1.038, year: 2001

  14. Microstructural analysis of clayey ceramic incorporated with fluorescent lamp glass; Analise microestrutural de ceramica vermelha incorporada com vidro de lampada fluorescente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morais, A.S.C.; Caldas, T.C.C.; Pereira, P.S.; Monteiro, S.N.; Vieira, C.M.F., E-mail: allinescmorais@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (LAMAV/UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Laboratorio de Materiais Avancados

    2011-07-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of the incorporation of glass powder fluorescent lamp, from a decontamination process, in the microstructure of clayey ceramic. Formulations were prepared with incorporation of the waste in amounts of up to 10 wt.% into the clayey body. Specimens were prepared by uniaxial mold-press at 20 MPa and then fired at 850 and 1050°C. After firing, the microstructure of the ceramics was evaluated by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that the incorporation of glass powder into the clayey body changes the microstructure of the ceramics. (author)

  15. Discharge lamp technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakin, James

    1994-01-01

    This talk is an overview of discharge lamp technology commonly employed in general lighting, with emphasis on issues pertinent to lighting for plant growth. Since the audience is primarily from the plant growth community, and this begins the light source part of the program, we will start with a brief description of the discharge lamps. Challenges of economics and of thermal management make lamp efficiency a prime concern in controlled environment agriculture, so we will emphasize science considerations relating to discharge lamp efficiency. We will then look at the spectra and ratings of some representative lighting products, and conclude with a discussion of technological advances.

  16. A unique charge-coupled device/xenon arc lamp based imaging system for the accurate detection and quantitation of multicolour fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spibey, C A; Jackson, P; Herick, K

    2001-03-01

    In recent years the use of fluorescent dyes in biological applications has dramatically increased. The continual improvement in the capabilities of these fluorescent dyes demands increasingly sensitive detection systems that provide accurate quantitation over a wide linear dynamic range. In the field of proteomics, the detection, quantitation and identification of very low abundance proteins are of extreme importance in understanding cellular processes. Therefore, the instrumentation used to acquire an image of such samples, for spot picking and identification by mass spectrometry, must be sensitive enough to be able, not only, to maximise the sensitivity and dynamic range of the staining dyes but, as importantly, adapt to the ever changing portfolio of fluorescent dyes as they become available. Just as the available fluorescent probes are improving and evolving so are the users application requirements. Therefore, the instrumentation chosen must be flexible to address and adapt to those changing needs. As a result, a highly competitive market for the supply and production of such dyes and the instrumentation for their detection and quantitation have emerged. The instrumentation currently available is based on either laser/photomultiplier tube (PMT) scanning or lamp/charge-coupled device (CCD) based mechanisms. This review briefly discusses the advantages and disadvantages of both System types for fluorescence imaging, gives a technical overview of CCD technology and describes in detail a unique xenon/are lamp CCD based instrument, from PerkinElmer Life Sciences. The Wallac-1442 ARTHUR is unique in its ability to scan both large areas at high resolution and give accurate selectable excitation over the whole of the UV/visible range. It operates by filtering both the excitation and emission wavelengths, providing optimal and accurate measurement and quantitation of virtually any available dye and allows excellent spectral resolution between different fluorophores

  17. Laboratory Evaluation of LED T8 Replacement Lamp Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richman, Eric E.; Kinzey, Bruce R.; Miller, Naomi J.

    2011-05-23

    A report on a lab setting analysis involving LED lamps intended to directly replace T8 fluorescent lamps (4') showing light output, power, and economic comparisons with other fluorescent options.

  18. Are we done yet? An assessment of the remaining barriers to increasing compact fluorescent lamp installations and recommended program strategies for reducing them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Tami; Canseco, Jennifer [KEMA Inc., Sustainable Market Strategies Group (United States); Rubin, Rob [San Diego Gas and Electric Company (United States); Teja, Anu [Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Residential energy efficiency lighting programs in active regions of the United States have been successful in dramatically increasing compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) purchases over the last decade - where currently a majority of households have one or more CFLs installed. However, in these regions CFLs are used in less than 10 percent of residential lamp sockets, and much untapped energy savings potential remains. Consumers in these active regions with CFLs already installed could expand their existing CFL installations by a factor of five. The reasons that they are not doing so include waiting for incandescent bulbs to burn out, issues with CFL performance, the need for specialty CFLs (which are expensive and not widely available) and the higher cost of CFLs.Programs in these active regions should consider the following recommendations for increasing CFL installations: encourage consumers to retrofit more CFLs and not to wait for incandescent bulbs to burn out; track and address CFL performance issues for the range of CFL products; broaden program strategies to address specialty CFLs; expand incentives to year-round and to more stores and products; and track market barriers at both the household and lamp socket level.In regions of the United States or countries with emerging residential CFL programs, program planners should consider the following recommendations: research the lighting market and introduce program strategies within existing market channels; focus first on the most basic style of CFLs that are designed to replace standard incandescent bulbs and move to specialty CFLs later; and track and monitor product quality from program inception.

  19. Development of an electronic ballast with high power factor, using cd/cd conversion techniques for fluorescent lamps; Desarrollo de un balastro electronico con alto factor de potencia, utilizando tecnicas de conversion cd/cd para lamparas fluorescentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Raul Antonio

    1995-02-01

    The recent advances and improvements in fluorescent lamps and ballasts technologies have resulted in substantial gain in efficiency, in illumination (lm/w), in the useful life of the lamp, in ballasts (electric characteristics), and consequently, an increase in energy saving in the fluorescent illumination systems. This thesis work was for the development of an electronic ballast that incorporates active correction of the PF for the handling of fluorescent lamps of the fast start type F4OW T-12. The prototype was implemented in two stages. In the first stage, for the Power Factor Correction (PFC) a converter CD/CD of the boost type in Continuous Conduction Mode (CCM) was chosen. The control technique that was used for this converter was the Average Current Mode (ACM) control. This thesis work comprised part of a collaboration project between the Electronics Department of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) and the Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico (National Center of Investigation and Technological Development (CENIDET)) named Technology Assimilation of the Power Factor Correction in the Electronic Equipment Design. In chapter 1 of this thesis the advantages of fluorescent illumination systems (IS) are mentioned, with respect to the traditional incandescent illumination systems. Also the most important characteristics of the fluorescent lamps and the operation (physical) principle will be presented, as well as the design aspects of electronic ballasts and their evolution. The proposal of the development of an experimental electronic prototype of ballast will be set forth. Chapter 2 mentions the evolution of the different schemes of fluorescent lamps ballasts, of electromagnetic, as well as electronic. Also some of the specifications that were taken into consideration for the design of the electronic prototype of the ballast presented in this thesis are mentioned. In chapter 3 the specifications of the electronic prototype of

  20. Village electrification technologies - an evaluation of photovoltaic cells and compact fluorescent lamps and their applicability in rural villages based on a Tanzanian case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gullberg, Monica; Ilskog, Elisabeth; Katyega, Maneno; Kjellstroem, B.

    2005-01-01

    Electrification of remote sites in developing countries is often realised trough diesel generator sets and an electric distribution network. This was also the technology used in the village Urambo, where the first rural electrification co-operative in Tanzania was started in 1994. Climate change however calls for decreased fossil fuel combustion worldwide and new technologies have been further developed since the erection of the diesel generator sets in Urambo. It is therefore not obvious that electrification of other rural areas shall follow the Urambo example. In this article, the situation for 250 electricity consumers in Urambo will be demonstrated and the implications for them of introducing new technologies will be evaluated. Technology options regarded in the study are individual photovoltaic (PV) power systems and either incandescent lamps, tube lights or compact fluorescent lights (CFLs) supplied by diesel generation. The different options have been evaluated with respect to consumer costs and environmental impact. The results of the comparison show that PV generation is able to compete with diesel generation if combined with incandescent lamps, but not when tube lights or CFLs are used in the conventional supply system. It should be noted, however, that while the diesel option offer financially more attractive solutions, individual PV systems do not result in any CO 2 emissions. Furthermore, PV systems normally have a higher reliability. However, since the diesel option is not only cheaper but also offers a wider range of energy services and facilitates, future connection to the national electric grid, the conclusion is that this is preferable before individual PV systems for communities similar to Urambo, if the consumers shall pay the full cost of the service

  1. Marker lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, D.V.

    1980-01-01

    A marker lamp is described which consists of a block of transparent plastics material encapsulated in which is a radioactive light source. These lights comprise a small sealed glass capsule, the hollow inside surface of which is coated with phosphor and which contains tritium or similar radioactive gas. The use of such lamps for identification marking of routes, for example roads, and for identification of underwater oil pipelines is envisaged. (U.K.)

  2. Evaluation of the energetic impact of the use of compact fluorescent lamps in the residential sector of Brazil; Avaliacao do impacto energetico do uso de lampadas fluorescentes compactas no setor residencial brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Rafael Balbino; Haddad, Jamil; Nogueira, Luiz Augusto Horta [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)], e-mail: cardosorb@unifei.edu.br, e-mail: jamil@unifei.edu.br, e-mail: horta@unifei.edu.br

    2008-07-01

    Among the actions taken after the crisis of electricity supply at the beginning of this decade, the replacement of incandescent lamps for compact fluorescent lamps (CFL's, about four times more efficient than the incandescent) is one of most important. This paper develops an assessment of the impact of this measure in terms of energy saved and demand reduction, especially associated with the use of CFL's lamps in the residential sector. According to this study, which took into account the park of lamps installed in Brazilian households (38% efficient) and an average time of use of 1,000 hours per year, nowadays lightning in the residential sector corresponds to a peak demand reduction for 4,800 MW and a consumption of about 16,000 GWh, approximately 20% of whole residential sector consumption in 2005. The introduction of more efficient lamps has induced an economy of 6,858 GWh, approximately 8% of consumption observed in 2005. (author)

  3. Circular, explosion-proof lamp provides uniform illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    Circular explosion-proof fluorescent lamp is fitted around a TV camera lens to provide shadowless illumination with a low radiant heat flux. The lamp is mounted in a transparent acrylic housing sealed with clear silicone rubber.

  4. The chemistry of artificial lighting devices lamps, phosphors and cathode ray tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Ropp, Richard C

    2013-01-01

    Both the early use of artificial lighting and current manufacturing methods concerning incandescent and fluorescent lamps are covered in this book. The protocols for manufacture of fluorescent lamp phosphors and those used in cathode ray tubes are also treated in some detail. This text surveys the amazing, vast array of artificial lighting devices known to date in terms of how they arose and are, or have been used by mankind. A complete description of the formulations and methodology for manufacturing all known phosphors is given. The book will serve as a repository of such phosphor manufacturing methods, including that of cathode ray tube phosphors. Methods of manufacture of lamp parts are also presented, including that of tungsten wire. The original approaches used are described as well as improvements in technology. These will serve as comparative methods for present day manufacture of these components. A history of the lamp industry is presented. Several methods are given which may serve as a source for f...

  5. Problems of fluorescent imaging and its solution using nanofluorophores. Part I: Advantages of fluorescent nanoparticles over conventional organic fluorophores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhelev, Z.; Hadjidekov, G.; Zlateva, G.; Spasov, L.; Bakalova, R.

    2011-01-01

    The application of fluorescence in deep-tissue imaging is rapidly expanding in fast several years. The progress in fluorescent molecular probes and fluorescent imaging techniques gives an opportunity to detect single cells and even molecules in live organisms. The highly sensitive and high-speed fluorescent molecular sensors and detection devices allow the application of fluorescence in functional imaging. With development of novel bright fluorophores based on nano-technologies and fluorescence scanners with high spatial and temporal resolution, the fluorescent imaging has a potential to become an alternative of the other non-invasive imaging techniques as magnetic resonance imaging, positron-emission tomography, X-ray, computing tomography. This review outlines the current status and future trends of fluorescent nanoparticles - quantum dots (QDs), as a new generation of fluorophores in experimental and pre-clinical fluorescent imaging diagnostic. Part 1 focuses on the advantages of quantum dots over conventional organic fluorophores and defines the major requirements to the 'perfect' fluorophore for fluorescent deep-tissue imaging diagnostic. The analysis is based on the limitations of fluorescent imaging in vivo and overcome by using quantum dots

  6. The Electrodeless Discharge Lamp: a Prospective Tool for Photochemistry - Part 4. Temperature- and Envelope Material-Dependent Emission Characteristics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Müller, P.; Klán, P.; Církva, Vladimír

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 158, č. 1 (2003), s. 1-5 ISSN 1010-6030 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/02/0879 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : photochemistry * microwave * electrodeless discharge lamp Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.693, year: 2003

  7. Harmonics Monitoring Survey on LED Lamps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelrahman Ahmed Akila

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Light Emitting Diode (LED lamps are being increasingly used in many applications. These LED lamps operate using a driver, which is a switching device. Hence, LED lamps will be a source of harmonics in the power system. These harmonics if not well treated, may cause severe performance and operational problems. In this paper, harmonics (amplitude and phase angles generated by both LED lamps and conventional fluorescent lamps will be studied practically. Then they will be analyzed and evaluated. Compared to each other harmonics generated by both LED and conventional florescent lamps, self mitigation may occur based on the phase angle of these harmonics. All data will be measured using power analyzer and will be done on a sample of actual lamps.

  8. Fluorescent diagnostics of epithelial neoplasms of different colon parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korneva, Yulia S; Dorosevich, Alexander E; Maryakhina, Valeriya S

    2017-10-01

    Changes in the biochemical composition of the tissue during colon cancer progression usually precede morphological changes registered by light microscopy. These changes are very sensitive and may be used for diagnostics in difficult cases, when it is impossible to obtain sufficient amount of material during colonoscopy. The aim of the study is analysis of spectral characteristics of sporadic adenomas and tumors in different parts of colon for improving tumors diagnostics in disputable cases. The spectra of fluorescence excitation of histological sections from 78 patients with colon cancer (adenocarcinoma) and colonic adenomas of different localizations were measured. The spectra of fluorescence excitation of all types of adenomas as well as adenocarcinoma have two maxima at 260/270 nm and at 330/340 nm. The first maximum is primarily defined by tryptophan and phenylalanin containing peptides, one of them is glucagon. The second maximum is mainly defined by collagen in stroma. Progression of precancer lesions to advanced cancer leads to increase of NADH concentration impacting on the second maximum of spectra. However, spectra of all types of the investigated lesions have peculiarities depending on localization. At odds to the previous data about similarities between distal colon and rectum, our results demonstrate similar spectra for proximal colon and rectum due to some similarities in morphological and, as a consequence, biochemical composition. Tumor can be detected by spectral techniques on histological slides even if the specimen contains very few tumorous cells in stroma. Biochemical changes and their similarities for precancer lesions and advanced colon cancer have described. Peculiarities of spectral data for different parts of colon may change the previous opinion about similar mechanisms of cancerogenesis for distal colon and rectum. Moreover, investigation of tissue specimen obtained for histological examination and containing lack of malignant

  9. Discharge lamp technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dakin, J. [GE Lighting, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1994-12-31

    This talk is an overview of discharge lamp technology commonly employed in general lighting, with emphasis on issues pertinent to lighting for plant growth. Since the audience is primarily from the plant growth community, and this begins the light source part of the program, we will start with a brief description of the discharge lamps. Challenges of economics and of thermal management make lamp efficiency a prime concern in controlled environment agriculture, so we will emphasize science considerations relating to discharge lamp efficiency. We will then look at the spectra and ratings of some representative lighting products, and conclude with a discussion of technological advance. A general overview of discharge lighting technology can be found in the book of Waymouth (1971). A recent review of low pressure lighting discharge science is found in Dakin (1991). The pioneering paper of Reiling (1964) provides a good introduction to metal halide discharges. Particularly relevant to lighting for plant growth, a recent and thorough treatment of high pressure Na lamps is found in the book by deGroot and vanVliet (1986). Broad practical aspects of lighting application are thoroughly covered in the IES Lighting Handbook edited by Kaufman (1984).

  10. A hydrometallurgical process for the recovery of terbium from fluorescent lamps: Experimental design, optimization of acid leaching process and process analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innocenzi, Valentina; Ippolito, Nicolò Maria; De Michelis, Ida; Medici, Franco; Vegliò, Francesco

    2016-12-15

    Terbium and rare earths recovery from fluorescent powders of exhausted lamps by acid leaching with hydrochloric acid was the objective of this study. In order to investigate the factors affecting leaching a series of experiments was performed in according to a full factorial plan with four variables and two levels (4 2 ). The factors studied were temperature, concentration of acid, pulp density and leaching time. Experimental conditions of terbium dissolution were optimized by statistical analysis. The results showed that temperature and pulp density were significant with a positive and negative effect, respectively. The empirical mathematical model deducted by experimental data demonstrated that terbium content was completely dissolved under the following conditions: 90 °C, 2 M hydrochloric acid and 5% of pulp density; while when the pulp density was 15% an extraction of 83% could be obtained at 90 °C and 5 M hydrochloric acid. Finally a flow sheet for the recovery of rare earth elements was proposed. The process was tested and simulated by commercial software for the chemical processes. The mass balance of the process was calculated: from 1 ton of initial powder it was possible to obtain around 160 kg of a concentrate of rare earths having a purity of 99%. The main rare earths elements in the final product was yttrium oxide (86.43%) following by cerium oxide (4.11%), lanthanum oxide (3.18%), europium oxide (3.08%) and terbium oxide (2.20%). The estimated total recovery of the rare earths elements was around 70% for yttrium and europium and 80% for the other rare earths. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Thermally stable green Ba(3)Y(PO(4))3:Ce(3+),Tb(3+) and red Ca(3)Y(AlO)(3)(BO(3))4:Eu(3+) phosphors for white-light fluorescent lamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Hao; Kuo, Te-Wen; Chen, Teng-Ming

    2011-01-03

    A class of thermal stable of green-emitting phosphors Ba(3)Y(PO(4))(3):Ce(3+),Tb(3+) (BYP:Ce(3+),Tb(3+)) and red-emitting phosphors Ca(3)Y(AlO)(3)(BO(3))(4):Eu(3+) (CYAB:Eu(3+)) for white-light fluorescent lamps were synthesized by high temperature solid-state reaction. We observed a decay of only 3% at 150 °C for BYP:0.25Ce3+,0.25Tb3+ (3% for LaPO4:Ce(3+),Tb(3+)), and a decay of 4% for CYAB:0.5Eu(3+) (7% for Y(2)O(3):Eu(3+), 24% for Y(2)O(2)S:Eu(3+)). The emission intensity of composition-optimized Ba(3)(Y(0.5)Ce(0.25)Tb(0.25))(PO(4))(3) is 70% of that of commercial LaPO(4):Ce(3+),Tb(3+) phosphors, and the CIE chromaticity coordinates are found to be (0.323, 0.534). The emission intensity of Ca(3)(Y(0.5)Eu(0.5))(AlO)(3)(BO(3))(4) is 70% and 83% of those of Y(2)O(3):Eu(3+) and Y(2)O(2)S:Eu(3+) phosphors, respectively, and the CIE chromaticity coordinates are redder (0.652, 0.342) than those of Y(2)O(3):Eu(3+) (0.645, 0.347) and Y(2)O(2)S:Eu(3+) (0.647, 0.343). A white-light fluorescent lamp is fabricated using composition-optimized Ba(3)(Y(0.5)Ce(0.25)Tb(0.25))(PO(4))(3) and Ca(3)(Y(0.5)Eu(0.5))(AlO)(3)(BO(3))(4) phosphors and matching blue-emitting phosphors. The results indicate that the quality of the brightness and color reproduction is suitable for application in shortwave UV fluorescent lamps. The white-light fluorescent lamp displays CIE chromaticity coordinates of x = 0.33, y = 0.35, a warm white light with a correlated color temperature of 5646 K, and a color-rendering index of Ra = 70.

  12. Fluorescent Endoscopy of Tumors in Upper Part of Gastrointestinal Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, E.; Vladimirov, B.; Angelov, I.; Avramov, L.

    2007-04-01

    In the recent study delta-aminolevulinic acid/Protoporphyrin IX (5-ALA/PpIX) is used as fluorescent marker for dysplasia and tumor detection in esophagus and stomach. The 5-ALA is administered per os six hours before measurements at dose 20mg/kg weight. High-power light-emitting diode at 405 nm is used as an excitation source. Special opto-mechanical device is built for LED to use the light guide of standard video-endoscopic system (Olimpus Corp.). Through endoscopic instrumental channel a fiber is applied to return information about fluorescence to microspectrometer (USB4000, OceanOptics Inc.). Very good correlation between fluorescence signals and histology examination of the lesions investigated is achieved.

  13. Microwave discharge electrodeless lamps (MDEL). Part IV. Novel self-ignition system incorporating metallic microwave condensing cones to activate MDELs in photochemical reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikoshi, Satoshi; Tsuchida, Akihiro; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Sato, Susumu; Serpone, Nick

    2009-11-01

    A metallic condensing cone that concentrates microwave radiation (equivalent to an optical lens) has been developed and used as part of a system to activate a microwave discharge electrodeless lamp (MDEL) in the oxidative treatment of wastewaters by aiding the novel self-ignition of the lamp on irradiation at low microwave power levels. This approach to self-ignition can potentially lead to considerable energy savings in such treatments. System performance was examined for the ignition power of microwaves of such MDEL devices in water, whose usefulness was assessed by investigating the photolytic transformation of aqueous solutions of representatives of three classes of contaminants: chlorinated phenols, herbicides and endocrine disruptors, specifically 4-chlorophenol (4-CP), 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 4,4'-isopropylidenediphenol (bisphenol-A; BPA), respectively, taken as model wastewaters in air-equilibrated, in oxygen-saturated and in TiO2-containing aqueous media. The results are discussed in terms of the dynamics of the photo-induced degradation processes.

  14. Analysis of the performance of domestic lighting lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aman, M.M.; Jasmon, G.B.; Mokhlis, H.; Bakar, A.H.A.

    2013-01-01

    The power crisis problem is getting worse in the developing countries. Measures are being taken to overcome the power shortage problem by efficiently utilizing the available power. Replacement of high-power consumption lamps with energy efficient lamps is also among these steps. This paper presents a detailed comparative analysis between domestic lighting lamps (DLLs) use for producing artificial light. DLLs include incandescent lamp (IL), fluorescent lamp (FL) and compact fluorescent lamp (CFL). Light emitting diodes (LED) based lamp technology is relatively new in comparison with conventional incandescent and discharge lamps. However, the present study will also cover the LED lamps. Power quality based experiments have been conducted on DLLs in Power System Laboratory and power consumption based calculations are carried out using the lighting design software DIALux. The result shows that with the current technology, the use of FL and LED lamp is beneficial for utility as well as for consumer. However, with the current pace in the development of LED technology, it is possible LED lamps will lead the lighting market in the near future. The paper has also presented the uncertainties that exist in lighting market and proposed the guidelines that will help in making future energy policy. - Highlights: ► Performances of domestic lighting lamps are compared. ► Power quality and power consumption based case study results are presented. ► For future energy policies, recommendations are also given.

  15. Fluorescent lamp recycling initiatives in the United States and a recycling proposal based on extended producer responsibility and product stewardship concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Geraldo Tr; Chang, Shoou-Yuh

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents an overview of mercury-containing lamp (MCL) recycling initiatives currently available in the world, especially in the United States. The majority of MCLs contain mercury which is a neurotoxin, a persistent pollutant in the environment, and can bioaccumulate in the food chain. Although there are some recycling options in the United States, collection rates are still at 23% of all potential used MCLs. This shows that citizens are either indifferent to or unaware of the recycling alternatives. On the other hand, MCL recycling seems not to be a cost-effective process and, for this reason, in the United States, take-back programmes are still sponsored only by consumers or municipalities. A few retailers have recently initiated limited take-back alternatives and manufacturers have not yet supported financially any consistent recycling alternative in the country. Considering successful experiences, this paper makes a suggestion for an MCL recycling system based on the concepts of extended producer responsibility and product stewardship. A manufacturer-importer advance recycling fee is proposed to finance the collection and recycling system while a MCL-energy recycling fee supported by the energy sector creates a lamp refund process. 'PRO Lamp', a producer responsibility organization, will manage the entire system through a widespread public-private agreement.

  16. Disk-type piezoelectric transformer of a Na0.5K0.5NbO3–CuNb2O6 lead-free ceramic for driving T5 fluorescent lamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Ming-Ru; Chu, Sheng-Yuan; Chan, I.-Hao; Yang, Song-Ling

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► CuNb 2 O 6 dopants were doped into NKN ceramics not only improved the density but also exhibited superior piezoelectric characteristic, temperature stability of resonance frequency. ► Lead-free NKN-01CN piezoelectric transformer was simplified as an equivalent circuit and analyzed using MATLAB. ► An 8W T5 fluorescent lamp was successfully driven by the NKN-01CN piezoelectric transformer. - Abstract: Lead-free (Na 0.5 K 0.5 )NbO 3 (NKN) ceramics doped with 1 mol% CuNb 2 O 6 (CN) ceramics were prepared using the conventional mixed oxide method, with a sintering temperature of 1075 °C. Microstructural analyses of the NKN–01CN ceramics were carried out and compared, using X-ray diffraction (XRD). NKN–01CN ceramics sintered at 1075 °C not only exhibited excellent ‘hard’ piezoelectric properties of k p = 40%, k t = 45%, k 33 = 57%, a ferroelectric property of E c = 23 kV/cm, and an extraordinarily high mechanical quality factor (Q m ) of 1933 but also showed excellent stability with temperature (TCF = −154 ppm/°C). The piezoelectric transformer was simplified, using an equivalent circuit, and analyzed, using MATLAB; the simulation data agreed well with the experimental results. An efficiency of 95.7% was achieved for the NKN–01CN piezoelectric transformer with load resistance of 20 kΩ. An 8 W T5 fluorescent lamp was successfully driven by the NKN–01CN piezoelectric transformer.

  17. Wood's lamp examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003386.htm Wood lamp examination To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A Wood lamp examination is a test that uses ultraviolet ( ...

  18. Design of LED lamps | Ashryatov | Journal of Fundamental and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Design of LED lamps. ... In this paper, we study the effect of LED high brightness on the brightness of a luminaire. The nomenclature of diffusers used in the production of ... The variant of the lighting system energy efficiency increase with luminaires and linear fluorescent lamps is considered. In the proposed variant, the ...

  19. Study on excitation and fluorescence spectrums of Japanese citruses to construct machine vision systems for acquiring fluorescent images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momin, Md. Abdul; Kondo, Naoshi; Kuramoto, Makoto; Ogawa, Yuichi; Shigi, Tomoo

    2011-06-01

    Research was conducted to acquire knowledge of the ultraviolet and visible spectrums from 300 -800 nm of some common varieties of Japanese citrus, to investigate the best wave-lengths for fluorescence excitation and the resulting fluorescence wave-lengths and to provide a scientific background for the best quality fluorescent imaging technique for detecting surface defects of citrus. A Hitachi U-4000 PC-based microprocessor controlled spectrophotometer was used to measure the absorption spectrum and a Hitachi F-4500 spectrophotometer was used for the fluorescence and excitation spectrums. We analyzed the spectrums and the selected varieties of citrus were categorized into four groups of known fluorescence level, namely strong, medium, weak and no fluorescence.The level of fluorescence of each variety was also examined by using machine vision system. We found that around 340-380 nm LEDs or UV lamps are appropriate as lighting devices for acquiring the best quality fluorescent image of the citrus varieties to examine their fluorescence intensity. Therefore an image acquisition device was constructed with three different lighting panels with UV LED at peak 365 nm, Blacklight blue lamps (BLB) peak at 350 nm and UV-B lamps at peak 306 nm. The results from fluorescent images also revealed that the findings of the measured spectrums worked properly and can be used for practical applications such as for detecting rotten, injured or damaged parts of a wide variety of citrus.

  20. In-situ measurements of material thermal parameters for accurate LED lamp thermal modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellvehi, M.; Perpina, X.; Jorda, X.; Werkhoven, R.J.; Kunen, J.M.G.; Jakovenko, J.; Bancken, P.; Bolt, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    This work deals with the extraction of key thermal parameters for accurate thermal modelling of LED lamps: air exchange coefficient around the lamp, emissivity and thermal conductivity of all lamp parts. As a case study, an 8W retrofit lamp is presented. To assess simulation results, temperature is

  1. Geometric Modelling of Octagonal Lamp Poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, T. O.; Lichti, D. D.

    2014-06-01

    Lamp poles are one of the most abundant highway and community components in modern cities. Their supporting parts are primarily tapered octagonal cones specifically designed for wind resistance. The geometry and the positions of the lamp poles are important information for various applications. For example, they are important to monitoring deformation of aged lamp poles, maintaining an efficient highway GIS system, and also facilitating possible feature-based calibration of mobile LiDAR systems. In this paper, we present a novel geometric model for octagonal lamp poles. The model consists of seven parameters in which a rotation about the z-axis is included, and points are constrained by the trigonometric property of 2D octagons after applying the rotations. For the geometric fitting of the lamp pole point cloud captured by a terrestrial LiDAR, accurate initial parameter values are essential. They can be estimated by first fitting the points to a circular cone model and this is followed by some basic point cloud processing techniques. The model was verified by fitting both simulated and real data. The real data includes several lamp pole point clouds captured by: (1) Faro Focus 3D and (2) Velodyne HDL-32E. The fitting results using the proposed model are promising, and up to 2.9 mm improvement in fitting accuracy was realized for the real lamp pole point clouds compared to using the conventional circular cone model. The overall result suggests that the proposed model is appropriate and rigorous.

  2. Lamp for sunshine simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    A lamp system is provided, comprising a lamp with a lamp housing accommodating a plurality of light sources for emission of visible light, including blue light, a time keeping unit, a light sensor for sensing intensity of light incident upon it, and a light controller configured for controlling...... the plurality of light sources in response to the intensity of light sensed by the light sensor and the time provided by the time keeping unit, characterized in that the lamp emits blue light for a selected time period, wherein the blue light has a luminous flux ranging from 50 lux to 200 lux and, preferably......, an irradiance that is larger than 5 mW/nm/m2 in a selected wavelength range, such as in the wavelength range from 440 nm to 500 nm, as measured at a distance of 3 metres from the lamp....

  3. Patch-based anisotropic diffusion scheme for fluorescence diffuse optical tomography--part 2: image reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Teresa; Koch, Maximilian; Ale, Angelique; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Arridge, Simon

    2016-02-21

    Fluorescence diffuse optical tomography (fDOT) provides 3D images of fluorescence distributions in biological tissue, which represent molecular and cellular processes. The image reconstruction problem is highly ill-posed and requires regularisation techniques to stabilise and find meaningful solutions. Quadratic regularisation tends to either oversmooth or generate very noisy reconstructions, depending on the regularisation strength. Edge preserving methods, such as anisotropic diffusion regularisation (AD), can preserve important features in the fluorescence image and smooth out noise. However, AD has limited ability to distinguish an edge from noise. We propose a patch-based anisotropic diffusion regularisation (PAD), where regularisation strength is determined by a weighted average according to the similarity between patches around voxels within a search window, instead of a simple local neighbourhood strategy. However, this method has higher computational complexity and, hence, we wavelet compress the patches (PAD-WT) to speed it up, while simultaneously taking advantage of the denoising properties of wavelet thresholding. Furthermore, structural information can be incorporated into the image reconstruction with PAD-WT to improve image quality and resolution. In this case, the weights used to average voxels in the image are calculated using the structural image, instead of the fluorescence image. The regularisation strength depends on both structural and fluorescence images, which guarantees that the method can preserve fluorescence information even when it is not structurally visible in the anatomical images. In part 1, we tested the method using a denoising problem. Here, we use simulated and in vivo mouse fDOT data to assess the algorithm performance. Our results show that the proposed PAD-WT method provides high quality and noise free images, superior to those obtained using AD.

  4. 49 CFR 393.24 - Requirements for head lamps, auxiliary driving lamps and front fog lamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Devices, and Electrical Wiring § 393.24 Requirements for head lamps, auxiliary driving lamps and front fog lamps. (a) Headlamps. Every bus, truck and truck tractor shall be equipped with headlamps as required by...

  5. Retail Lamps Study 3.1: Dimming, Flicker, and Power Quality Characteristics of LED A Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royer, Michael P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poplawski, Michael E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Brown, Charles C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    To date, all three reports in the retail lamps series have focused on basic performance parameters, such as lumen output, efficacy, and color quality. This report goes a step further, examining the photoelectric characteristics (i.e., dimming and flicker) of a subset of lamps from CALiPER Retails Lamps Study 3. Specifically, this report focuses on the dimming, power quality, and flicker characteristics of 14 LED A lamps, as controlled by four different retail-available dimmers. The results demonstrate notable variation across the various lamps, but little variation between the four dimmers. Overall, the LED lamps: ~tended to have higher relative light output compared to the incandescent and halogen benchmark at the same dimmer output signal (RMS voltage). The lamps’ dimming curves (i.e., the relationship between control signal and relative light output) ranged from linear to very similar to the square-law curve typical of an incandescent lamp. ~generally exhibited symmetrical behavior—the same dimming curve—when measured proceeding from maximum to minimum or minimum to maximum control signal. ~mostly dimmed below 10% of full light output, with some exceptions for specific lamp and dimmer combinations ~exhibited a range of flicker characteristics, with many comparing favorably to the level typical of a magnetically-ballasted fluorescent lamp through at least a majority of the dimming range. ~ always exceeded the relative (normalized) efficacy over the dimming range of the benchmark lamps, which rapidly decline in efficacy when they are dimmed. This report generally does not attempt to rank the performance of one product compared to another, but instead focuses on the collective performance of the group versus conventional incandescent or halogen lamps, the performance of which is likely to be the baseline for a majority of consumers. Undoubtedly, some LED lamps perform better—or more similar to conventional lamps—than others. Some perform desirably for one

  6. A new LED lamp for the collection of nocturnal Lepidoptera and a spectral comparison of light-trapping lamps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Brehm

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Most nocturnal Lepidoptera can be attracted to artificial light sources, particularly to those that emit a high proportion of ultraviolet radiation. Here, I describe a newly developed LED lamp set for the use in the field that is lightweight, handy, robust, and energy efficient. The emitted electromagnetic spectrum corresponds to the peak sensitivity in most Lepidoptera eye receptors (ultraviolet, blue and green. Power LEDs with peaks at 368 nm (ultraviolet, 450 nm (blue, 530 nm (green, and 550 nm (cool white are used. I compared the irradiance (Ee of many commonly used light-trapping lamps at a distance of 50 cm. Between wavelengths of 300 and 1000 nm, irradiance from the new lamp was 1.43 W m-2. The new lamp proved to be the most energy efficient, and it emitted more radiation in the range between 300 and 400 nm than any other lamp tested. Cold cathodes are the second most energy-efficient lamps. Irradiation from fluorescent actinic tubes is higher than from fluorescent blacklight-blue tubes. High-wattage incandescent lamps and self-ballasted mercury vapour lamps have highest irradiance, but they mainly emit in the long wave spectrum. The use of gauze and sheets decreases the proportion of UV radiation and increases the share of blue light, probably due to optical brighteners. Compared with sunlight, UV irradiance is low at a distance of 50 cm from the lamp, but (safety glasses as well as keeping sufficient distance from the lamp are recommended. In field tests, the new LED lamp attracted large numbers of Lepidoptera in both the Italian Alps and in the Peruvian Andes.

  7. Patch-based anisotropic diffusion scheme for fluorescence diffuse optical tomography—part 1: technical principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correia, Teresa; Arridge, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence diffuse optical tomography (fDOT) provides 3D images of fluorescence distributions in biological tissue, which represent molecular and cellular processes. The image reconstruction problem is highly ill-posed and requires regularisation techniques to stabilise and find meaningful solutions. Quadratic regularisation tends to either oversmooth or generate very noisy reconstructions, depending on the regularisation strength. Edge preserving methods, such as anisotropic diffusion regularisation (AD), can preserve important features in the fluorescence image and smooth out noise. However, AD has limited ability to distinguish an edge from noise. In this two-part paper, we propose a patch-based anisotropic diffusion regularisation (PAD), where regularisation strength is determined by a weighted average according to the similarity between patches around voxels within a search window, instead of a simple local neighbourhood strategy. However, this method has higher computational complexity and, hence, we wavelet compress the patches (PAD-WT) to speed it up, while simultaneously taking advantage of the denoising properties of wavelet thresholding. The proposed method combines the nonlocal means (NLM), AD and wavelet shrinkage methods, which are image processing methods. Therefore, in this first paper, we used a denoising test problem to analyse the performance of the new method. Our results show that the proposed PAD-WT method provides better results than the AD or NLM methods alone. The efficacy of the method for fDOT image reconstruction problem is evaluated in part 2. (paper)

  8. Capacitive discharge exciplex lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosnin, E A; Erofeev, M V; Tarasenko, V F [High Current Electronics Institute, 2/3, Akademichesky Ave., Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation)

    2005-09-07

    Simple-geometry exciplex lamps of a novel type excited by a capacitive discharge (CD-excilamps) have been investigated. An efficient radiation has been obtained on KrBr*, KrCl*, XeBr*, XeCl* molecules and I* atom. The highest values of efficiency of various working molecules are approximately 10-18%. The lifetime of the operating gas mixture in KrCl*, XeCl*, I* and XeBr* exciplex lamps excited by a CD is above 1000 h. Owing to the above-mentioned characteristics, the exciplex lamps excited by a CD are supposed to be very promising for various applications.

  9. Capacitive discharge exciplex lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosnin, E A; Erofeev, M V; Tarasenko, V F

    2005-01-01

    Simple-geometry exciplex lamps of a novel type excited by a capacitive discharge (CD-excilamps) have been investigated. An efficient radiation has been obtained on KrBr*, KrCl*, XeBr*, XeCl* molecules and I* atom. The highest values of efficiency of various working molecules are approximately 10-18%. The lifetime of the operating gas mixture in KrCl*, XeCl*, I* and XeBr* exciplex lamps excited by a CD is above 1000 h. Owing to the above-mentioned characteristics, the exciplex lamps excited by a CD are supposed to be very promising for various applications

  10. Hollow-Core Fiber Lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Lin (Inventor); Tjoelker, Robert L. (Inventor); Burt, Eric A. (Inventor); Huang, Shouhua (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Hollow-core capillary discharge lamps on the millimeter or sub-millimeter scale are provided. The hollow-core capillary discharge lamps achieve an increased light intensity ratio between 194 millimeters (useful) and 254 millimeters (useless) light than conventional lamps. The capillary discharge lamps may include a cone to increase light output. Hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (HCPCF) may also be used.

  11. Optimized positioning of autonomous surgical lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teuber, Jörn; Weller, Rene; Kikinis, Ron; Oldhafer, Karl-Jürgen; Lipp, Michael J.; Zachmann, Gabriel

    2017-03-01

    We consider the problem of finding automatically optimal positions of surgical lamps throughout the whole surgical procedure, where we assume that future lamps could be robotized. We propose a two-tiered optimization technique for the real-time autonomous positioning of those robotized surgical lamps. Typically, finding optimal positions for surgical lamps is a multi-dimensional problem with several, in part conflicting, objectives, such as optimal lighting conditions at every point in time while minimizing the movement of the lamps in order to avoid distractions of the surgeon. Consequently, we use multi-objective optimization (MOO) to find optimal positions in real-time during the entire surgery. Due to the conflicting objectives, there is usually not a single optimal solution for such kinds of problems, but a set of solutions that realizes a Pareto-front. When our algorithm selects a solution from this set it additionally has to consider the individual preferences of the surgeon. This is a highly non-trivial task because the relationship between the solution and the parameters is not obvious. We have developed a novel meta-optimization that considers exactly this challenge. It delivers an easy to understand set of presets for the parameters and allows a balance between the lamp movement and lamp obstruction. This metaoptimization can be pre-computed for different kinds of operations and it then used by our online optimization for the selection of the appropriate Pareto solution. Both optimization approaches use data obtained by a depth camera that captures the surgical site but also the environment around the operating table. We have evaluated our algorithms with data recorded during a real open abdominal surgery. It is available for use for scientific purposes. The results show that our meta-optimization produces viable parameter sets for different parts of an intervention even when trained on a small portion of it.

  12. Lamps recycling aiming at the environment preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamachita, Roberto Akira; Gama, Paulo Henrique R. Pereira; Haddad, Jamil; Santos, Afonso H. Moreira; Guardia, Eduardo C.

    1999-01-01

    The article discusses the following issues of lamps recycling in Brazil: mercury lamps recycling, recycling potential, energy conservation and environmental impacts, enterprises lamps recycling, and incentives policy

  13. An operational fluorescence system for crop assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belzile, Charles; Belanger, Marie-Christine; Viau, Alain A.; Chamberland, Martin; Roy, Simon

    2004-03-01

    The development of precision farming requires new tools for plant nutritional stress monitoring. An operational fluorescence system has been designed for vegetation status mapping and stress detection at plant and field scale. The instrument gives relative values of fluorescence at different wavelengths induced by the two-excitation sources. Lightinduced fluorescence has demonstrated successful crop health monitoring and plant nutritional stress detection capabilities. The spectral response of the plants has first been measured with an hyperspectral imager using laser-induced fluorescence. A tabletop imaging fluorometer based on flash lamp technology has also been designed to study the spatial distribution of fluorescence on plant leaves. For field based non-imaging system, LED technology is used as light source to induce fluorescence of the plant. The operational fluorescence system is based on ultraviolet and blue LED to induce fluorescence. Four narrow fluorescence bands centered on 440, 520, 690 and 740nm are detected. The instrument design includes a modular approach for light source and detector. It can accommodate as many as four different light sources and six bands of fluorescence detection. As part of the design for field application, the instrument is compatible with a mobile platform equipped with a GPS and data acquisition system. The current system developed by Telops/GAAP is configured for potato crops fluorescence measurement but can easily be adapted for other crops. This new instrument offers an effective and affordable solution for precision farming.

  14. Fluorescent-labeled ligands for the benzodiazepine receptor - Part 1 : Synthesis and characterization of fluorescent-labeled benzodiazepines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, M.J; Hulst, A.J R L; Kellogg, R.M; Hendriks, M.M W B; Ensing, K; de Zeeuw, R.A

    Because radioactive labeled ligands in receptor assays have several disadvantages, we synthesized a number of fluorescent-labeled benzodiazepines. Several fluorophores were attached at different positions of 1,4-benzodiazepine molecules in order to assess the impact of the fluorophores and their

  15. Lamps and lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Cayless, MA; Marsden, A M

    2012-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive guide to the theory and practice of lighting. Covering the physics of light production, light sources, circuits and a wide variety of lighting applications, it is both suitable as a detailed textbook and as thoroughly practical guide for practising lighting engineers. This fourth edition of Lamps and Lighting has been completely updated with new chapters on the latest lamp technology and applications. The editors ahve called upon a wide range of expertise and as a result many sections have been broadened to include both European and US practice.The book begins with

  16. A study of drying and cleaning methods used in preparation for fluorescent penetrant inspection - Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasche, L.; Lopez, R.; Larson, B.

    2003-01-01

    Fluorescent penetrant inspection is the most widely used method for aerospace components such as critical rotating components of gas turbine engines. Successful use of FPI begins with a clean and dry part, followed by a carefully controlled and applied FPI process, and conscientious inspection by well trained personnel. A variety of cleaning methods are in use for cleaning of titanium and nickel parts with selection based on the soils or contamination to be removed. Cleaning methods may include chemical or mechanical methods with sixteen different types studied as part of this program. Several options also exist for use in drying parts prior to FPI. Samples were generated and exposed to a range of conditions to study the effect of both drying and cleaning methods on the flaw response of FPI. Low cycle fatigue (LCF) cracks were generated in approximately 40 nickel and 40 titanium samples for evaluation of the various cleaning methods. Baseline measurements were made for each of the samples using a photometer to measure sample brightness and a UVA videomicroscope to capture digital images of the FPI indications. Samples were exposed to various contaminants, cleaned and inspected. Brightness measurements and digital images were also taken to compare to the baseline data. A comparison of oven drying to flash dry in preparation for FPI has been completed and will be reported in Part I. Comparison of the effectiveness of various cleaning methods for the contaminants will be presented in Part II. The cleaning and drying studies were completed in cooperation with Delta Airlines using cleaning, drying and FPI processes typical of engine overhaul processes and equipment. The work was completed as part of the Engine Titanium Consortium and included investigators from Honeywell, General Electric, Pratt and Whitney, and Rolls Royce

  17. A study of drying and cleaning methods used in preparation for fluorescent penetrant inspection - Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasche, L.; Lopez, R.; Larson, B.

    2003-01-01

    Fluorescent penetrant inspection is the most widely used method for aerospace components such as critical rotating components of gas turbine engines. Successful use of FPI begins with a clean and dry part, followed by a carefully controlled and applied FPI process, and conscientious inspection by well trained personnel. A variety of cleaning methods are in use for cleaning of titanium and nickel parts with selection based on the soils or contamination to be removed. Cleaning methods may include chemical or mechanical methods with sixteen different types studied as part of this program. Several options also exist for use in drying parts prior to FPI. Samples were generated and exposed to a range of conditions to study the effect of both drying and cleaning methods on the flaw response of FPI. Low cycle fatigue (LCF) cracks were generated in approximately 40 nickel and 40 titanium samples for evaluation of the various cleaning methods. Baseline measurements were made for each of the samples using a photometer to measure sample brightness and a UVA videomicroscope to capture digital images of the FPI indications. Samples were exposed to various contaminants, cleaned and inspected. Brightness measurements and digital images were also taken to compare to the baseline data. A comparison of oven drying to flash dry in preparation for FPI has been completed and will be reported in Part I. Comparison of the effectiveness of various cleaning methods for the contaminants will be presented in Part II. The cleaning and drying studies were completed in cooperation with Delta Airlines using cleaning, drying and FPI processes typical of engine overhaul processes and equipment. The work was completed as part of the Engine Titanium Consortium and included investigators from Honeywell, General Electric, Pratt and Whitney, and Rolls Royce

  18. Microplasma light tiles: thin sheet lamps for general illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eden, J G; Park, S-J [Laboratory for Optical Physics and Engineering, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Herring, C M; Bulson, J M [Eden Park Illumination, 903 North Country Fair Drive, Champaign, IL 61821 (United States)

    2011-06-08

    Flat, thin and lightweight lamps providing spatially uniform and dimmable illumination from active areas as large as 400 cm{sup 2} are being developed for general illumination and specialty applications. Comprising an array of low-temperature, nonequilibrium microplasmas driven by a dielectric barrier structure and operating at pressures of typically 400-700 Torr, these lamps have a packaged thickness <4 mm and yet produce luminance values beyond 26 000 cd m{sup -2} with a luminous efficacy approaching 30 lm W{sup -1}. Third generation lamps, presently in limited production, offer a correlated colour temperature in the 3000-4100 K interval and a colour rendering index of 80. Current lamps employ Xe{sub 2} ({lambda} {approx} 172 nm) as the primary emitter photoexciting a mixture of phosphors, and the pressure dependence of the wavelength-integrated fluorescence from the electronically excited dimer has been investigated with a vacuum ultraviolet spectrometer. In contrast to other promising lighting technologies, the decline in luminous efficacy of microplasma lamps with increasing power delivered to the lamp is small. For a 6 x 6 inch{sup 2} ({approx}225 cm{sup 2}) lamp, efficacy falls <16% when the radiant output (luminance) is raised from 2000 cd m{sup -2} to > 10 000 cd m{sup -2}.

  19. Color Degradation of Textiles with Natural Dyes and of Blue Scale Standards Exposed to White LED Lamps:Evaluation of White LED Lamps for Effectiveness as Museum Lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Mie; Moriyama, Takayoshi; Toda, Masahiro; Kohmoto, Kohtaro; Saito, Masako

    White light-emitting diodes (LED) are well suited for museum lighting because they emit neither UV nor IR radiation, which damage artifacts. The color degradation of natural dyes and blue scale standards (JIS L 0841) by white LED lamps are examined, and the performance of white LED lamps for museum lighting is evaluated. Blue scale standard grades 1-6 and silk fabrics dyed with 22 types of natural dyes classified as mid to highly responsive in a CIE technical report (CIE157:2004) were exposed to five types of white LED lamps using different luminescence methods and color temperatures. Color changes were measured at each 15000 lx·hr (500 lx at fabric surface × 300 hr) interval ten times. The accumulated exposure totaled 150000 lx·hr. The data on conventional white LED lamps and previously reported white fluorescent (W) and museum fluorescent (NU) lamps was evaluated. All the white LED lamps showed lower fading rates compared with a W lamp on a blue scale grade 1. The fading rate of natural dyes in total was the same between an NU lamp (3000 K) and a white LED lamp (2869 K). However, yellow natural dyes showed higher fading rates with the white LED lamp. This tendency is due to the high power characteristic of the LED lamp around 400-500 nm, which possibly contributes to the photo-fading action on the dyes. The most faded yellow dyes were Ukon (Curcuma longa L.) and Kihada (Phellodendron amurense Rupr.), and these are frequently used in historic artifacts such as kimono, wood-block prints, and scrolls. From a conservation point of view, we need to continue research on white LED lamps for use in museum lighting.

  20. Instructive for disposal of fluorescent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar Vargas, Gerlin

    2014-01-01

    An instructive is established for the management system of waste fluorescent lamps, ensuring the storage, collection, transportation, and final disposal. The lamp is changed by an official of the Seccion de Matenimiento Construccion of the Oficina de Servicios Generales or is produced with the support of an official of the unit. The fluorescent should be deposited in stock of materials of the building maintenance section or unit specified with the help of a staff and in appropriate conditions. The fluorescent lamp is transported according to the guidelines in the manual. A responsible company is contracted by la Vicerrectoria de Administracion of the Universidad de Costa Rica dedicated to the transport and proper handling of fluorescent lamps [es

  1. Tanning lamps ultraviolet emissions and compliance with technical standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonino, A.; Facta, S.; Saudino, S.; Anglesio, L.; D'Amore, G.

    2009-01-01

    In this work the compliance of tanning lamps with technical standards EN 60335-2-27 'Household and similar electrical appliances-Safety. Part 2: Particular requirements for appliances for skin exposure to ultraviolet and infrared radiation' was analysed. Results of this analysis showed that none of the examined technical documentation produced by the lamps manufacturers is fully compliant with the standard technique. Furthermore data reported in the same manuals, such as effective radiant exposure or irradiance, would indicate that these sources may be the cause of undue exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. For this reason a measurement campaign on UV lamps used in tanning salons was organised. The first results of these measurements seem to confirm the doubts raised from the analysis of the lamp manuals: the use of a tanning lamp can lead to UV radiation exposure levels higher than reference maximum values recommended by EN 60335-2-27. (authors)

  2. Use of planar HPGe detector as a part of X-ray fluorescent spectrometer for educational purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verenchikova, M.S.; Kalinin, V.N.; Mikhajlov, V.A.

    2011-01-01

    This work shows the possibility of use of the nondedicated gamma and X-ray detection head on the basis of planar HPGe detector with a big sensitive area equal to 2000 mm''2 as a part of X-ray fluorescent spectrometer during students' practicum.

  3. Microwave discharge electrodeless lamps (MDELs). Part IX. A novel MDEL photoreactor for the photolytic and chemical oxidation treatment of contaminated wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikoshi, Satoshi; Tsuchida, Akihiro; Shinomiya, Tomohiro; Serpone, Nick

    2015-12-01

    This article reports on the fabrication and enhanced performance of a novel microwave discharge electrodeless lamp (MDEL) consisting of a three layered cylindrical structure that was effective in the remediation of wastewater containing the 2,4-D herbicide and the near total sterilization of bacteria-contaminated pond water (E. coli and other microorganisms) through photolysis with the emitted vacuum-UV (185 nm) and UVC (254 nm) light from the MDEL and through chemical oxidation with reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by the photolysis of dioxygen and air oxygen through one of the photoreactors. The flow rates of the 1.0 L contaminated waters were 0.6 and 1.2 L min(-1). The integrated UV/ROSO2 and UV/ROSair methods used to carry out the degradation of 2,4-D and sterilization processes were more effective than either the UV method alone or the ROSO2 and ROSair methods for short time periods (5 or 8 min). At a lower flow rate, 79% of 2,4-D was degraded by the UV/ROSO2 method and 55% by UV/ROSair after 8 min. At a faster flow rate of 1.2 L min(-1), degradation of 2,4-D in 1.0 L volume of water was 84% and 77% complete by the UV/ROSO2 and the UV/ROSair method, respectively, after 8 min of irradiation. The number of kills of E. coli bacteria was nearly quantitative (98 and 99%) by the UV/ROSO2 and UV/ROSair methods after treating the contaminated water for 5 min. The decrease of total viable microorganisms in pond water was 90% and 80% after 5 min of microwave irradiation at a flow rate of 1.2 L min(-1) by the integrated methods UV/ROSO2 and UV/ROSair, respectively. The rate of flow of oxygen gas through the photoreactor impacted the extent of degradation and the related dynamics of the 2,4-D herbicide.

  4. CALiPER Application Summary Report 21. Linear (T8) LED Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-03-01

    This report focuses on the bare lamp performance of 31 linear LED lamps intended as an alternative to T8 fluorescent lamps. Data obtained in accordance with IES LM-79-08 indicated that the mean efficacy is similar to that of fluorescent lamps, but that lumen output is often much lower. This presents a situation where something must change in order for energy savings and equivalent illumination levels to be achieved simultaneously. In this case, the luminous intensity distribution of all the tested lamps was directional or semi-directional, rather than omnidirectional. Also discussed in this report are several issues related to the electrical configuration of the lamps, such as the required socket types and power feed location. While no configuration is necessarily better, the multitude of options can make specifying and installing linear LED lamps more difficult, with the potential for safety issues. Similarly, the variety of color and power quality attributes adds a layer of complexity to the specification process. Many products offered good or excellent quality attributes, but some did not and thus could be perceived as inferior to fluorescent lamps in some installations.

  5. Luminescence Studies on Lamp Phosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagpal, J.S.; Godbole, S.V.; Varadharajan, G.; Page, A.G

    1998-07-01

    Photoluminescence and thermoluminescence of cerium magnesium aluminate CeMgAl{sub 11}O{sub 17}(Eu,Tb) and calcium halophosphate Ca{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}(F,Cl):Mn,Sb, two fluorescent materials currently in use for the commercial production of lamps in India, have been studied for possible applications in radiation and ultraviolet dosimetry. Cerium magnesium aluminate is highly sensitive to the visible spectral region. It has a linear response to 254 nm UV radiation over a wide range. Its UV sensitivity is significantly higher as compared to that of other known phosphors; however, its UV response is rate-dependent and may not play a significant role in UV dosimetry. Photoluminescence of CeMg aluminate is characteristic of Eu{sup 2+} and Tb{sup 3+} dopants, whereas the thermoluminescence emission of the UV irradiated powder at room temperature is dominated by Eu{sup 2+} dopant. Calcium halophosphate is insensitive to room lights, has a linear gamma response over 0.2-10{sup 2} Gy and may be useful in the case of radiation accidents. (author)

  6. Luminescence Studies on Lamp Phosphors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagpal, J.S.; Godbole, S.V.; Varadharajan, G.; Page, A.G.

    1998-01-01

    Photoluminescence and thermoluminescence of cerium magnesium aluminate CeMgAl 11 O 17 (Eu,Tb) and calcium halophosphate Ca 5 (PO 4 ) 3 (F,Cl):Mn,Sb, two fluorescent materials currently in use for the commercial production of lamps in India, have been studied for possible applications in radiation and ultraviolet dosimetry. Cerium magnesium aluminate is highly sensitive to the visible spectral region. It has a linear response to 254 nm UV radiation over a wide range. Its UV sensitivity is significantly higher as compared to that of other known phosphors; however, its UV response is rate-dependent and may not play a significant role in UV dosimetry. Photoluminescence of CeMg aluminate is characteristic of Eu 2+ and Tb 3+ dopants, whereas the thermoluminescence emission of the UV irradiated powder at room temperature is dominated by Eu 2+ dopant. Calcium halophosphate is insensitive to room lights, has a linear gamma response over 0.2-10 2 Gy and may be useful in the case of radiation accidents. (author)

  7. Effect of light-emitting diode vs. fluorescent lighting on laying hens in aviary hen houses: Part 1 - Operational characteristics of lights and production traits of hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, H; Zhao, Y; Wang, T; Ning, Z; Xin, H

    2016-01-01

    Light-emitting diode (LED) lights are becoming more affordable for agricultural applications. Despite many lab-scale studies concerning impact of LED on poultry, little research has been documented under field production conditions, especially for laying hens. This 15-month field study was carried out to evaluate the effects of LED vs. fluorescent (FL) lights on laying hens (Dekalb white breed) using 4 (2 pairs) aviary hen houses each at a nominal capacity of 50,000 hens. The evaluation was done regarding operational characteristics of the lights and hen production traits. The results show that spatial distribution of the LED light was less uniform than that of the FL light. Light intensity of the LED light decreased by 27% after 3,360 h use but remained quite steady from 3,360 to 5,760 h use. Eleven out of 762 (1.44%) LED lamps (new at onset of the study) in the 2 houses failed during the 15-month experiment period. The neck area of the LED lamp was hottest, presumably the primary reason for the lamp failure as cracks were noticed in the neck region of all failed LED lamps. No differences were observed in egg weight, hen-day egg production, feed use, and mortality rate between LED and FL regimens. However, hens under the FL had higher eggs per hen housed and better feed conversion than those under the LED during 20 to 70 wk production (P Hens under the LED tended to have less feather uniformity and insulation than those under the FL (P hens under the LED showed a larger median avoidance distance than those under the FL at 36 wk age (P hens under the LED were more alert; but no difference at 60 wk age. More comparative research to quantify behavioral and production responses of different breeds of hens to LED vs. FL lighting seems warranted. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  8. Case Study on Justification: High Intensity Discharge Lamps. Annex II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    High intensity discharge lamps produce bright white light of a high intensity in an energy efficient manner. These lamps are typically used in large numbers in public and professional settings such as shops, warehouses, hotels and offices. They are also used in outdoor applications to illuminate streets, buildings, statues, flags and gardens and further as architectural lighting. They also have applications associated with film projection in cinemas, manufacture of semiconductors, fluorescence endoscopy and microscopy, schlieren photography, hologram projection, ultraviolet curing, sky beamers and car headlights. Some types of high intensity discharge lamp, as well as certain other consumer products for lighting, contain radioactive substances for functional reasons. The radionuclides that are typically incorporated into high intensity discharge lamps are 85 Kr and 232 Th. Given the wide range of uses, specific decisions on justification may be required for different applications. A small number of safety assessments for high intensity discharge lamps have been carried out and published. No published decisions at the national level specifically addressing the justification of the use of high intensity discharge lamps have been identified

  9. Breakdown characteristics of xenon HID Lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaeva, Natalia; Sato, Ayumu; Brates, Nanu; Noro, Koji; Kushner, Mark

    2009-10-01

    The breakdown characteristics of mercury free xenon high intensity discharge (HID) lamps exhibit a large statistical time lag often having a large scatter in breakdown voltages. In this paper, we report on results from a computational investigation of the processes which determine the ignition voltages for positive and negative pulses in commercial HID lamps having fill pressures of up to 20 atm. Steep voltage rise results in higher avalanche electron densities and earlier breakdown times. Circuit characteristics also play a role. Large ballast resistors may limit current to the degree that breakdown is quenched. The breakdown voltage critically depends on cathode charge injection by electric field emission (or other mechanisms) which in large part controls the statistical time lag for breakdown. For symmetric lamps, ionization waves (IWs) simultaneously develop from the bottom and top electrodes. Breakdown typically occurs when the top and bottom IWs converge. Condensed salt layers having small conductivities on the inner walls of HID lamps and on the electrodes can influence the ignition behavior. With these layers, IWs tend to propagate along the inner wall and exhibit a different structure depending on the polarity.

  10. Mercury Flow Through the Mercury-Containing Lamp Sector of the Economy of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: This Scientific Investigations Report examines the flow of mercury through the mercury-containing lamp sector of the U.S. economy in 2001 from lamp manufacture through disposal or recycling. Mercury-containing lamps illuminate commercial and industrial buildings, outdoor areas, and residences. Mercury is an essential component in fluorescent lamps and high-intensity discharge lamps (high-pressure sodium, mercury-vapor, and metal halide). A typical fluorescent lamp is composed of a phosphor-coated glass tube with electrodes located at either end. Only a very small amount of the mercury is in vapor form. The remainder of the mercury is in the form of either liquid mercury metal or solid mercury oxide (mercury oxidizes over the life of the lamp). When voltage is applied, the electrodes energize the mercury vapor and cause it to emit ultraviolet energy. The phosphor coating absorbs the ultraviolet energy, which causes the phosphor to fluoresce and emit visible light. Mercury-containing lamps provide more lumens per watt than incandescent lamps and, as a result, require from three to four times less energy to operate. Mercury is persistent and toxic within the environment. Mercury-containing lamps are of environmental concern because they are widely distributed throughout the environment and are easily broken in handling. The magnitude of lamp sector mercury emissions, estimated to be 2.9 metric tons per year (t/yr), is small compared with the estimated mercury losses of the U.S. coal-burning and chlor-alkali industries, which are about 70 t/yr and about 90 t/yr, respectively.

  11. Fluorescent Lipids: Functional Parts of Fusogenic Liposomes and Tools for Cell Membrane Labeling and Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Kleusch

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a rapid and highly efficient method for controlled incorporation of fluorescent lipids into living mammalian cells is introduced. Here, the fluorescent molecules have two consecutive functions: First, they trigger rapid membrane fusion between cellular plasma membranes and the lipid bilayers of their carrier particles, so called fusogenic liposomes, and second, after insertion into cellular membranes these molecules enable fluorescence imaging of cell membranes and membrane traffic processes. We tested the fluorescent derivatives of the following essential membrane lipids for membrane fusion: Ceramide, sphingomyelin, phosphocholine, phosphatidylinositol-bisphosphate, ganglioside, cholesterol, and cholesteryl ester. Our results show that all probed lipids could more efficiently be incorporated into the plasma membrane of living cells than by using other methods. Moreover, labeling occurred in a gentle manner under classical cell culture conditions reducing cellular stress responses. Staining procedures were monitored by fluorescence microscopy and it was observed that sphingolipids and cholesterol containing free hydroxyl groups exhibit a decreased distribution velocity as well as a longer persistence in the plasma membrane compared to lipids without hydroxyl groups like phospholipids or other artificial lipid analogs. After membrane staining, the fluorescent molecules were sorted into membranes of cell organelles according to their chemical properties and biological functions without any influence of the delivery system.

  12. Inductive tuners for microwave driven discharge lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, James E.

    1999-01-01

    An RF powered electrodeless lamp utilizing an inductive tuner in the waveguide which couples the RF power to the lamp cavity, for reducing reflected RF power and causing the lamp to operate efficiently.

  13. Low-watt lamps seen bad in many retrofits: said to burn out pre-1978 standard ballasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohn, L.

    1982-06-21

    The standard ballasts used in early energy-efficient fluorescent lamps are vulnerable to premature burnout. Retrofitting expensive new ballasts will eliminate any savings from the lamps. GTE/Sylvania, Norelco, and Westinghouse acknowledged the problem, while General Electric had no comment. Ballasts made in the last four years have been made compatible with energy-efficient lamps. The vendors claim it is the ballast manufacturers' responsibility to inform users that their product risks early burnout. (DCK)

  14. Transparent ceramic lamp envelope materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, G C [OSRAM SYLVANIA, 71 Cherry Hill Drive, Beverly, MA 01915 (United States)

    2005-09-07

    Transparent ceramic materials with optical qualities comparable to single crystals of similar compositions have been developed in recent years, as a result of the improved understanding of powder-processing-fabrication- sintering-property inter-relationships. These high-temperature materials with a range of thermal and mechanical properties are candidate envelopes for focused-beam, short-arc lamps containing various fills operating at temperatures higher than quartz. This paper reviews the composition, structure and properties of transparent ceramic lamp envelope materials including sapphire, small-grained polycrystalline alumina, aluminium oxynitride, yttrium aluminate garnet, magnesium aluminate spinel and yttria-lanthana. A satisfactory thermal shock resistance is required for the ceramic tube to withstand the rapid heating and cooling cycles encountered in lamps. Thermophysical properties, along with the geometry, size and thickness of a transparent ceramic tube, are important parameters in the assessment of its resistance to fracture arising from thermal stresses in lamps during service. The corrosive nature of lamp-fill liquid and vapour at high temperatures requires that all lamp components be carefully chosen to meet the target life. The wide range of new transparent ceramics represents flexibility in pushing the limit of envelope materials for improved beamer lamps.

  15. Treating high-mercury-containing lamps using full-scale thermal desorption technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, T C; You, S J; Yu, B S; Chen, C M; Chiu, Y C

    2009-03-15

    The mercury content in high-mercury-containing lamps are always between 400 mg/kg and 200,000 mg/kg. This concentration is much higher than the 260 mg/kg lower boundary recommended for the thermal desorption process suggested by the US Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. According to a Taiwan EPA survey, about 4,833,000 cold cathode fluorescent lamps (CCFLs), 486,000 ultraviolet lamps and 25,000 super high pressure mercury lamps (SHPs) have been disposed of in the industrial waste treatment system, producing 80, 92 and 9 kg-mercury/year through domestic treatment, offshore treatment and air emissions, respectively. To deal with this problem we set up a full-scale thermal desorption process to treat and recover the mercury from SHPs, fluorescent tube tailpipes, fluorescent tubes containing mercury-fluorescent powder, and CCFLs containing mercury-fluorescent powder and monitor the use of different pre-heating temperatures and desorption times. The experimental results reveal that the average thermal desorption efficiency of SHPs and fluorescent tube tailpipe were both 99.95%, while the average thermal desorption efficiencies of fluorescent tubes containing mercury-fluorescent powder were between 97% and 99%. In addition, a thermal desorption efficiency of only 69.37-93.39% was obtained after treating the CCFLs containing mercury-fluorescent powder. These differences in thermal desorption efficiency might be due to the complexity of the mercury compounds contained in the lamps. In general, the thermal desorption efficiency of lamps containing mercury-complex compounds increased with higher temperatures.

  16. Daylight for energy-saving lamps. Recognizing with lighting sources free of charge; Tageslicht vor Energiesparlampen. Kostenlos verfuegbare Lichtquellen einplanen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, Holger

    2010-07-01

    With saving energy in the lighting, politics, economics and private households set on compact fluorescent lamps, so called energy-saving lamps. A more economical and pollution free alternative is the increased use of daylight, which is free of charge and felt more pleasant by humans.

  17. Phase out of incandescent lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Since early 2007 almost all OECD and many non-OECD governments have announced policies aimed at phasing-out incandescent lighting within their jurisdictions. This study considers the implications of these policy developments in terms of demand for regulatory compliant lamps and the capacity and motivation of the lamp industry to produce efficient lighting products in sufficient volume to meet future demand. To assess these issues, it reviews the historic international screw-based lamp market, describes the status of international phase-out policies and presents projections of anticipated market responses to regulatory requirements to determine future demand for CFLs.

  18. Porphyrin synthesized from cashew nut shell liquid as part of a novel superparamagnetic fluorescence nanosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemente, C. S.; Ribeiro, V. G. P.; Sousa, J. E. A.; Maia, F. J. N.; Barreto, A. C. H. [Universidade Federal do Ceara, Laboratorio de Produtos e Tecnologia em Processos (LPT) (Brazil); Andrade, N. F. [Universidade Federal do Ceara, Departamento de Fisica (Brazil); Denardin, J. C. [Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), Departamento de Fisica (Chile); Mele, G. [Universita del Salento, Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Innovazione (Italy); Carbone, L. [NNL, Istituto Nanoscienze UOS Lecce (Italy); Mazzetto, S. E. [Universidade Federal do Ceara, Laboratorio de Produtos e Tecnologia em Processos (LPT) (Brazil); Fechine, P. B. A., E-mail: fechine@ufc.br [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Grupo de Quimica de Materiais Avancados (GQMAT), Departamento de Quimica Analitica e Fisico-Quimica (Brazil)

    2013-06-15

    Magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with average size approximately 11 nm were first oleic acid coated to interact with the meso-porphyrin derivative from CNSL. This procedure produced a novel superparamagnetic fluorescent nanosystem (SFN) linked by van der Waals interactions. This system was characterized by transmission electron microscope, infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, magnetic measurements, UV-Vis absorption, and fluorescence emission measurements. These results showed that SFN has good thermal stability, excellent magnetization, and nanosized dimensions ({approx}13 nm). It exhibited emission peaks at 668 and 725 nm with a maximum emission at 467 nm of excitation wavelength. The type of interaction between porphyrin and magnetic nanoparticles allowed to obtain a material with interesting optical properties which might be used as an imaging agent for contrast in cells as well as heterogeneous photocatalysis.

  19. Anu Lamp / [vestelnud Kalju Orro

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lamp, Anu, 1958-

    2007-01-01

    Lavakunstikooli sisseastumisest, õppimisest, õpetajatest ja õpetamisest. Anu Lamp õppis Lavakunstikoolis 10. lennus (1978-1982). Osalenud samas lavakõne õppejõuna 18.-23. lennu ja erialaõppejõuna 20. lennu töös

  20. Identification of powdered Chinese herbal medicines by fluorescence microscopy, Part 1: Fluorescent characteristics of mechanical tissues, conducting tissues, and ergastic substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Qiong; Liang, Zhi-Tao; Li, Qin; Yang, Hua; Chen, Hu-Biao; Zhao, Zhong-Zhen; Li, Ping

    2011-03-01

    The light microscope has been successfully used in identification of Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) for more than a century. However, positive identification is not always possible. Given the popularity of fluorescence microscopy in bioanalysis, researchers dedicated to finding new ways to identify CHMs more effectively are now turning to fluorescence microscopy for authentication purposes. Some studies on distinguishing confused species from the same genus and on exploring distributions of chemicals in tissues of CHMs by fluorescence microscopy have been reported; however, no systematic investigations on fluorescent characteristics of powdered CHMs have been reported. Here, 46 samples of 16 CHMs were investigated. Specifically, the mechanical tissues including stone cells and fibers, the conducting tissues including three types of vessels, and ergastic substances including crystals of calcium oxalate and secretions, in various powdered CHMs were investigated by both light microscope and fluorescence microscope. The results showed many microscopic features emit fluorescence that makes them easily observed, even against complex backgrounds. Under the fluorescence microscope, different microscopic features from the same powdered CHM or some same features from different powdered CHMs emitted the different fluorescence, making this information very helpful for the authentication of CHMs in powder form. Moreover, secretions with unique chemical profiles from different powdered CHMs showed different fluorescent characteristics. Hence, fluorescence microscopy could be a useful additional method for the authentication of powdered CHMs if the fluorescent characteristics of specific CHMs are known. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Model of discharge lamps with magnetic ballast

    OpenAIRE

    Molina, Julio; Sainz Sapera, Luis; Mesas García, Juan José; Bergas Jané, Joan Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic ballast discharge lamp modeling has been extensively studied because these lamps can be an important source of harmonics. Discharge lamp models usually represent the arc voltage by a square waveform. However, this waveform can be far from actual arc voltages, which affects the accuracy of the lamp models. This paper investigates the actual arc voltage behavior of discharge lamps from laboratory measurements and proposes a novel characterization of these voltages to reformulate the co...

  2. CALiPER Report 21.3. Cost Effectiveness of Linear (T8) LED Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-05-01

    Meeting performance expectations is important for driving adoption of linear LED lamps, but cost-effectiveness may be an overriding factor in many cases. Linear LED lamps cost more initially than fluorescent lamps, but energy and maintenance savings may mean that the life-cycle cost is lower. This report details a series of life-cycle cost simulations that compared a two-lamp troffer using LED lamps (38 W total power draw) or fluorescent lamps (51 W total power draw) over a 10-year study period. Variables included LED system cost ($40, $80, or $120), annual operating hours (2,000 hours or 4,000 hours), LED installation time (15 minutes or 30 minutes), and melded electricity rate ($0.06/kWh, $0.12/kWh, $0.18/kWh, or $0.24/kWh). A full factorial of simulations allows users to interpolate between these values to aid in making rough estimates of economic feasibility for their own projects. In general, while their initial cost premium remains high, linear LED lamps are more likely to be cost-effective when electric utility rates are higher than average and hours of operation are long, and if their installation time is shorter.

  3. CALiPER Report 21.3: Cost-Effectiveness of Linear (T8) LED Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Naomi J.; Perrin, Tess E.; Royer, Michael P.

    2014-05-27

    Meeting performance expectations is important for driving adoption of linear LED lamps, but cost-effectiveness may be an overriding factor in many cases. Linear LED lamps cost more initially than fluorescent lamps, but energy and maintenance savings may mean that the life-cycle cost is lower. This report details a series of life-cycle cost simulations that compared a two-lamp troffer using LED lamps (38 W total power draw) or fluorescent lamps (51 W total power draw) over a 10-year study period. Variables included LED system cost ($40, $80, or $120), annual operating hours (2,000 hours or 4,000 hours), LED installation time (15 minutes or 30 minutes), and melded electricity rate ($0.06/kWh, $0.12/kWh, $0.18/kWh, or $0.24/kWh). A full factorial of simulations allows users to interpolate between these values to aid in making rough estimates of economic feasibility for their own projects. In general, while their initial cost premium remains high, linear LED lamps are more likely to be cost-effective when electric utility rates are higher than average and hours of operation are long, and if their installation time is shorter.

  4. Background study on increasing recycling of end-of-life mercury-containing lamps from residential and commercial sources in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilkene, C. [Hilkene International Policy, Toronto, ON (Canada); Friesen, K. [Pollution Probe, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2005-10-31

    The state of recycling of mercury-containing lamps in Canada was studied. Developing an efficient recovery and recycling infrastructure for mercury-containing lamps offers several benefits such as environmental protection from releases of mercury; displacing virgin materials required for production of new lamps; and increasing the sustainability associated with the use of these energy efficient products. This study summarized international experience with respect to recovery and recycling of mercury-containing lamps. It also summarized the material composition of these lamps, and provided an inventory of Canadian fluorescent lamp recycling and recovery initiatives. It provided estimates of quantities of end-of-life bulbs and tubes being disposed of in Canada; quantities of metals and other materials recovered through lamp recycling; the tonnage of metals and other materials being lost to disposal systems and energy savings and associated greenhouse gas emission reductions from substitution of recycled fluorescent lamp materials for virgin materials in manufacturing operations. The report also identified other environmental benefits arising from current or potential recycling and recovery initiatives as well as recovery opportunities and barriers to fluorescent lamp recovery and recycling initiatives. Last, the report presented options for stimulating greater recovery and recycling of mercury-containing lamps and presented critical factors for a meaningful cost benefit analysis on enhanced recovery. 76 refs., 16 tabs., 2 figs., 6 appendices.

  5. Microwave discharge electrodeless lamps (MDEL). Part VII. Photo-isomerization of trans-urocanic acid in aqueous media driven by UV light from a novel Hg-free Dewar-like microwave discharge thermally-insulated electrodeless lamp (MDTIEL). Performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikoshi, Satoshi; Sato, Tatsuro; Sakamoto, Kazutami; Abe, Masahiko; Serpone, Nick

    2011-07-01

    A novel mercury-free Dewar-like (double-walled structure) microwave discharge thermally-insulated electrodeless lamp (MDTIEL) was fabricated and its performance evaluated using the photo-isomerization of trans-urocanic acid (trans-UA) in aqueous media as a test process driven by the emitted UV light when ignited with microwave radiation. The photo-isomerization processes trans-UA → cis-UA and cis-UA → trans-UA were re-visited using light emitted from a conventional high-pressure Hg light source and examined for the influence of UV light irradiance and solution temperature; the temperature dependence of the trans → cis process displayed a negative activation energy, E(a) = -1.3 cal mol(-1). To control the photo-isomerization of urocanic acid from the heat usually dissipated by a microwave discharge electrodeless lamp (single-walled MDEL), it was necessary to suppress the microwave-initiated heat. For comparison, the gas-fill in the MDEL lamp, which typically consists of a mixture of Hg and Ar, was changed to the more eco-friendly N(2) gas in the novel MDTIEL device. The dynamics of the photo-isomerization of urocanic acid driven by the UV wavelengths of the N(2)-MDTIEL light source were compared to those from the more conventional single-walled N(2)-MDEL and Hg/Ar-MDEL light sources, and with those from the Hg lamp used to irradiate, via a fiber optic, the photoreactor located in the wave-guide of the microwave apparatus. The heating efficiency of a solution with the double-walled N(2)-MDTIEL was compared to the efficiency from the single-walled N(2)-MDEL device. Advantages of N(2)-MDTIEL are described from a comparison of the dynamics of the trans-UA → cis-UA process on the basis of unit surface area of the lamp and unit power consumption. The considerably lower temperature on the external surface of the N(2)-MDTIEL light source should make it attractive in carrying out photochemical reactions that may be heat-sensitive such as the photothermochromic

  6. Compact Fluorescent Plug-In Ballast-in-a-Socket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebecca Voelker

    2001-12-21

    The primary goal of this program was to develop a ballast system for plug-in CFLs (compact fluorescent lamps) that will directly replace standard metal shell, medium base incandescent lampholders (such as Levition No. 6098) for use with portable lamp fixtures, such as floor, table and desk lamps. A secondary goal was to identify a plug-in CFL that is optimized for use with this ballast. This Plug-in CFL Ballastin-a-Socket system will allow fixture manufacturers to easily manufacture CFL-based high-efficacy portable fixtures that provide residential and commercial consumers with attractive, cost-effective, and energy-efficient fixtures for use wherever portable incandescent fixtures are used today. The advantages of this proposed system over existing CFL solutions are that the fixtures can only be used with high-efficacy CFLs, and they will be more attractive and will have lower life-cycle costs than screw-in or adapter-based CFL retrofit solutions. These features should greatly increase the penetration of CFL's into the North American market. Our work has shown that using integrated circuits it is quite feasible to produce a lamp-fixture ballast of a size comparable to the current Edison-screw 3-way incandescent fixtures. As for price points for BIAS-based fixtures, end-users polled by the Lighting Research Institute at RPI indicated that they would pay as much as an additional $10 for a lamp containing such a ballast. The ballast has been optimized to run with a 26 W amalgam triple biax lamp in the base-down position, yet can accept non-amalgam versions of the lamp. With a few part alterations, the ballast can be produced to support 32 W lamps as well. The ballast uses GE's existing L-Comp[1] power topology in the circuit so that the integrated circuit design would be a design that could possibly be used by other CFL and EFL products with minor modifications. This gives added value by reducing cost and size of not only the BIAS, but also possibly other

  7. High-pressure sodium lamp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1996-01-01

    A high pressure sodium lamp of the invention is provided with a discharge vessel (20) which is enclosed with intervening space (1) by an outer bulb (10), which space contains a gas-fill with at least 70 mol. % nitrogen gas. Electrodes (30a, 30b) are positioned in the discharge vessel (20) and are

  8. AC ignition of HID lamps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobota, A.; Kanters, J.H.M.; Manders, F.; Veldhuizen, van E.M.; Haverlag, M.

    2010-01-01

    Our aim was to examine the starting behaviour of mid-pressure argon discharges in pin-pin (point-to-point) geometry, typically used in HID lamps. We focused our work on AC ignition of 300 and 700 mbar Ar discharges in Philips 70W standard burners. Frequency was varied between 200 kHz and 1 MHz. In

  9. UV lamp for photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, M.J.B.; Landers, R.; Sundaram, V.S.

    1983-01-01

    An UV lamp and a differential pumping system which enables to couple the lamp to an ultra-high vacuum chamber (10 -9 torr) without using windows, are described. The differential between the pressure inside the discharge chamber and the one in de UHV region, which is of 10 8 -10 9 , is achieved with two pumping states separated by pyrex capillaries having an internal diameter of 0.6 mm. In the first stage, a mechanical pump (10 -3 torr) is used; in the second stage, a diffusor pump with a cryogenic trap (N 2 liq - 10 -7 torr) is employed. The lamp produces, when used with high purity He, narrow lines almost clear at 21.2 eV and 40.8 eV, depending on the discharge chamber pressure, thus eliminating the need of a monochromator. As a high voltage source (3 KV), a commercial unit with a good current control was used, ensuring UV beam stability - an essential characteristic for this lamp if it is employed for photoelectron excitation of crystalline samples. (C.L.B.) [pt

  10. 30 CFR 57.17010 - Electric lamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric lamps. 57.17010 Section 57.17010 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE....17010 Electric lamps. Individual electric lamps shall be carried for illumination by all persons...

  11. 49 CFR 234.221 - Lamp voltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lamp voltage. 234.221 Section 234.221 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION..., Inspection, and Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.221 Lamp voltage. The voltage at each lamp shall be...

  12. Spectroscopy on metal-halide lamps under varying gravity conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flikweert, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Worldwide, 20% of all electricity is used for lighting. For this reason, efficient lamps are economically and ecologically important. High intensity discharge (HID) lamps are efficient lamps. The most common HID lamp these days is the metal-halide (MH) lamp. MH lamps have a good colour rendering

  13. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 1, Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended, establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. DOE is currently considering amending standards for seven types of products: water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, pool heaters, room air conditioners, kitchen ranges and ovens (including microwave ovens), and fluorescent light ballasts and is considering establishing standards for television sets. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data, and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of the proposed standards. This volume presents a general description of the analytic approach, including the structure of the major models.

  14. Laser-induced fluorescence with an OPO system. Part II: direct determination of lead content in seawater by electrothermal atomization-laser-excited atomic fluorescence (ETA-LEAF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bihan, A; Lijour, Y; Giamarchi, P; Burel-Deschamps, L; Stephan, L

    2003-03-01

    Fluorescence was induced by coupling a laser with an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) to develop an analytical method for the direct determination of lead content, at ultra-trace level, in seawater by electrothermal atomization-laser-excited atomic fluorescence (ETA-LEAF). The optimization of atomization conditions, laser pulse energy, and mainly temporal parameters allowed us to reach a 3 fg detection limit (0.3 ng L(-1)) despite the low repetition rate of the device. The expected error on predicted concentrations of lead, at trace levels, in seawater was below 15%.

  15. Use of invisible near infrared light fluorescence with indocyanine green and methylene blue in urology. Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polom, Wojciech; Markuszewski, Marcin; Rho, Young Soo; Matuszewski, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    In the second part of this paper, concerning the use of invisible near infrared light (NIR) fluorescence with indocyanine green (ICG) and methylene blue (MB) in urology, other possible uses of this new technique will be presented. In kidney transplantation, this concerns allograft perfusion and real time NIR-guided angiography; moreover, perfusion angiography of tissue flaps, NIRF visualization of ureters, NIR-guided visualization of urinary calcifications, NIRF in male infertility and semen quality assessment. In this part, we have also analysed cancer targeting and imaging fluorophores as well as cost benefits associated with the use of these new techniques. PubMed and Medline databases were searched for ICG and MB use in urological settings, along with data published in abstracts of urological conferences. Although NIR-guided ICG and MB are still in their initial phases, there have been significant developments in a few more major domains of urology, including 1) kidney transplantation: kidney allograft perfusion and vessel reconstruction; 2) angiography perfusion of tissue flaps; 3) visualization of ureters; 4) visualization of urinary calcifications; and 5) NIRF in male infertility and semen quality assessment. Near infrared technology in urology is at its early stages. More studies are needed to assess the true potential and limitations of the technology. Initial studies show that this pioneering tool may influence various aspects of urology.

  16. Comparative performance analysis of shunt and series passive filter for LED lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwono, Edi; Facta, Mochammad; Handoko, Susatyo

    2018-03-01

    Light Emitting Diode lamp or LED lamp nowadays is widely used by consumers as a new innovation in the lighting technologies due to its energy saving for low power consumption lamps for brighter light intensity. How ever, the LED lamp produce an electric pollutant known as harmonics. The harmonics is generated by rectifier as part of LED lamp circuit. The present of harmonics in current or voltage has made the source waveform from the grid is distorted. This distortion may cause inacurrate measurement, mall function, and excessive heating for any element at the grid. This paper present an analysis work of shunt and series filters to suppress the harmonics generated by the LED lamp circuit. The work was initiated by conducting several tests to investigate the harmonic content of voltage and currents. The measurements in this work were carried out by using HIOKI Power Quality Analyzer 3197. The measurement results showed that the harmonics current of tested LED lamps were above the limit of IEEE standard 519-2014. Based on the measurement results shunt and series filters were constructed as low pass filters. The bode analysis were appled during construction and prediction of the filters performance. Based on experimental results, the application of shunt filter at input side of LED lamp has reduced THD current up to 88%. On the other hand, the series filter has significantly reduced THD current up to 92%.

  17. Lamp with a truncated reflector cup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Allen, Steven C.; Bazydola, Sarah; Ghiu, Camil-Daniel

    2013-10-15

    A lamp assembly, and method for making same. The lamp assembly includes first and second truncated reflector cups. The lamp assembly also includes at least one base plate disposed between the first and second truncated reflector cups, and a light engine disposed on a top surface of the at least one base plate. The light engine is configured to emit light to be reflected by one of the first and second truncated reflector cups.

  18. Numerical study on xenon positive column discharges of mercury-free lamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Jiting; He, Feng; Miao, Jinsong; Wang, Jianqi; Hu, Wenbo

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the numerical study has been performed on the xenon positive column discharges of mercury-free fluorescent lamp. The plasma discharge characteristics are analyzed by numerical simulation based on two-dimensional fluid model. The effects of cell geometry, such as the dielectric layer, the electrode width, the electrode gap, and the cell height, and the filling gas including the pressure and the xenon percentage are investigated in terms of discharge current and discharge efficiency. The results show that a long transient positive column will form in the xenon lamp when applying ac sinusoidal power and the lamp can operate in a large range of voltage and frequency. The front dielectric layer of the cell plays an important role in the xenon lamp while the back layer has little effect. The ratio of electrode gap to cell height should be large to achieve a long positive column xenon lamp and higher efficiency. Increase of pressure or xenon concentration results in an increase of discharge efficiency and voltage. The discussions will be helpful for the design of commercial xenon lamp cells

  19. Tuning the white light spectrum of light emitting diode lamps to reduce attraction of nocturnal arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longcore, Travis; Aldern, Hannah L; Eggers, John F; Flores, Steve; Franco, Lesly; Hirshfield-Yamanishi, Eric; Petrinec, Laina N; Yan, Wilson A; Barroso, André M

    2015-05-05

    Artificial lighting allows humans to be active at night, but has many unintended consequences, including interference with ecological processes, disruption of circadian rhythms and increased exposure to insect vectors of diseases. Although ultraviolet and blue light are usually most attractive to arthropods, degree of attraction varies among orders. With a focus on future indoor lighting applications, we manipulated the spectrum of white lamps to investigate the influence of spectral composition on number of arthropods attracted. We compared numbers of arthropods captured at three customizable light-emitting diode (LED) lamps (3510, 2704 and 2728 K), two commercial LED lamps (2700 K), two commercial compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs; 2700 K) and a control. We configured the three custom LEDs to minimize invertebrate attraction based on published attraction curves for honeybees and moths. Lamps were placed with pan traps at an urban and two rural study sites in Los Angeles, California. For all invertebrate orders combined, our custom LED configurations were less attractive than the commercial LED lamps or CFLs of similar colour temperatures. Thus, adjusting spectral composition of white light to minimize attracting nocturnal arthropods is feasible; not all lights with the same colour temperature are equally attractive to arthropods. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  20. Lamp-Ballast Compatibility Index for Efficient Ceramic Metal Halide Lamp Operation

    OpenAIRE

    Sourish Chatterjee

    2013-01-01

    Development of energy efficient products and exploration of energy saving potential are major challenges for present day’s technology. Ceramic Metal Halide lamp is the latest improved version of metal halide lamp that finds its wide applications in indoor commercial lighting especially in retail shop lighting. This lamp shows better performance in terms of higher lumen per watt and colour constancy in comparison to conventional metal halide lamp. The inherent negative incremental impedance of...

  1. Serious complications in experiments in which UV doses are effected by using different lamp heights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Stephan D; Ryel, Ronald J; Hudelson, Timothy J; Caldwell, Martyn M

    2009-10-06

    Many experiments examining plant responses to enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation (280-315nm) simply compare an enhanced UV-B treatment with ambient UV-B (or no UV-B radiation in most greenhouse and controlled-environment studies). Some more detailed experiments utilize multiple levels of UV-B radiation. A number of different techniques have been used to adjust the UV dose. One common technique is to place racks of fluorescent UV-emitting lamps at different heights above the plant canopy. However, the lamps and associated support structure cast shadows on the plant bed below. We calculated one example of the sequence of shade intervals for two common heights of lamp racks and show the patterns and duration of shade which the plants receive is distributed differently over the course of the day for different heights of the lamp racks. We also conducted a greenhouse experiment with plants (canola, sunflower and maize) grown under unenergized lamp racks suspended at the same two heights above the canopy. Growth characteristics differed in unpredictable ways between plants grown under the two heights of lamp racks. These differences could enhance or obscure potential UV-B effects. Also, differences in leaf mass per unit foliage area, which were observed in this experiment, could contribute to differences in plant UV-B sensitivity. We recommend the use of other techniques for achieving multiple doses of UV-B radiation. These range from simple and inexpensive approaches (e.g., wrapping individual fluorescent tubes in layers of a neutral-density filter such as cheese cloth) to more technical and expensive alternatives (e.g., electronically modulated lamp control systems). These choices should be determined according to the goals of the particular experiment.

  2. VIRTIS-M flight lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melchiorri, R.; Piccioni, G.; Mazzoni, A.

    2003-01-01

    VIRTIS-M is a visible-infrared (VIS-IR) image spectrometer designed for the Rosetta mission; it intends to provide detailed informations on the physical, chemical, and mineralogical nature of comets and asteroids. The in-flight performances of VIRTIS-M are expected to be influenced by various disturbances, like the initial strong vibrations of the rocket, the long duration of the experiment (from 2003 to 2010), as well as other possible environmental changes; therefore, an in-flight recalibration procedure is mandatory. Quite often in such kinds of missions, a light emission diode (LED) is employed to calibrate the on-board spectrometers by taking advantage of the relative small dimensions, stability, and hardness of these sources. VIRTIS-M is the first image spectrometer that will use a new generation of lamps for internal calibrations. These new lamps are characterized by a wide spectral range with a blackbody-like emission with an effective temperature of about (2400-2600 K), thereby covering the whole VIRTIS-M's spectral range (0.2-5 μm); i.e., they offer the possibility of a wider spectral calibration in comparison with the quasimonochromatic LED emission. A precise spectral calibration is achieved by adding special filters for visible and infrared ranges in front of the window source, containing many narrow absorption lines. In the present article, we describe the calibration and tests of some flight prototypes of these lamps (VIS and IR), realized by the Officine Galileo and calibrated by the Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica

  3. 49 CFR 393.25 - Requirements for lamps other than head lamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... listed in paragraph (c) of this section. If motor vehicle equipment (e.g., mirrors, snow plows, wrecker...: J586—Stop Lamps for Use on Motor Vehicles Less Than 2032 mm in Overall Width, March 2000; J2261 Stop Lamps and Front- and Rear-Turn Signal Lamps for Use on Motor Vehicles 2032 mm or More in Overall Width...

  4. Discharge lamp with reflective jacket

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian P.; Kipling, Kent

    2001-01-01

    A discharge lamp includes an envelope, a fill which emits light when excited disposed in the envelope, a source of excitation power coupled to the fill to excite the fill and cause the fill to emit light, and a reflector disposed around the envelope and defining an opening, the reflector being configured to reflect some of the light emitted by the fill back into the fill while allowing some light to exit through the opening. The reflector may be made from a material having a similar thermal index of expansion as compared to the envelope and which is closely spaced to the envelope. The envelope material may be quartz and the reflector material may be either silica or alumina. The reflector may be formed as a jacket having a rigid structure which does not adhere to the envelope. The lamp may further include an optical clement spaced from the envelope and configured to reflect an unwanted component of light which exited the envelope back into the envelope through the opening in the reflector. Light which can be beneficially recaptured includes selected wavelength regions, a selected polarization, and selected angular components.

  5. Cooling analysis of a light emitting diode automotive fog lamp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zadravec Matej

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of cooling fins inside of a light emitting diode fog lamp is studied using computational fluid dynamics. Diffusion in heat sink, natural convection and radiation are the main principles of the simulated heat transfer. The Navier-Stokes equations were solved by the computational fluid dynamics code, including Monte Carlo radiation model and no additional turbulence model was needed. The numerical simulation is tested using the existing lamp geometry and temperature measurements. The agreement is excellent inside of few degrees at all measured points. The main objective of the article is to determine the cooling effect of various heat sink parts. Based on performed simulations, some heat sink parts are found to be very ineffective. The geometry and heat sink modifications are proposed. While radiation influence is significant, compressible effects are found to be minor.

  6. DC Pollution of AC Mains due to modern compact fluorescent light lamps and LED lamps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyer, Cornelis H.A.; Timens, R.B.; Buesink, Frederik Johannes Karel; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Modern so-called energy efficient equipment often draw current only during a very short period of the period of a power supply mains. This is causing unwanted non-sinusoidal and harmonic currents. In some cases even a single diode is used for rectification causing direct current (DC) in the mains

  7. Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting Products, Part 3: LED Environmental Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuenge, Jason R.; Hollomon, Brad; Dillon, Heather E.; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.

    2013-03-01

    This report covers the third part of a larger U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project to assess the life-cycle environmental and resource impacts in the manufacturing, transport, use, and disposal of light-emitting diode (LED) lighting products in relation to incumbent lighting technologies. All three reports are available on the DOE website (www.ssl.energy.gov/tech_reports.html). • Part 1: Review of the Life-Cycle Energy Consumption of Incandescent, Compact Fluorescent and LED Lamps; • Part 2: LED Manufacturing and Performance; • Part 3: LED Environmental Testing. Parts 1 and 2 were published in February and June 2012, respectively. The Part 1 report included a summary of the life-cycle assessment (LCA) process and methodology, provided a literature review of more than 25 existing LCA studies of various lamp types, and performed a meta-analysis comparing LED lamps with incandescent and compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs). Drawing from the Part 1 findings, Part 2 performed a more detailed assessment of the LED manufacturing process and used these findings to provide a comparative LCA taking into consideration a wider range of environmental impacts. Both reports concluded that the life-cycle environmental impact of a given lamp is dominated by the energy used during lamp operation—the upstream generation of electricity drives the total environmental footprint of the product. However, a more detailed understanding of end-of-life disposal considerations for LED products has become increasingly important as their installation base has grown. The Part 3 study (reported herein) was undertaken to augment the LCA findings with chemical analysis of a variety of LED, CFL, and incandescent lamps using standard testing procedures. A total of 22 samples, representing 11 different models, were tested to determine whether any of 17 elements were present at levels exceeding California or Federal regulatory thresholds for hazardous waste. Key findings include: • The selected

  8. Diode-laser-illuminated automotive lamp systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, Michael A.; Remillard, Jeffrey T.

    1998-05-01

    We have utilized the high brightness of state-of-the-art diode laser sources, and a variety of emerging optical technologies to develop a new class of thin, uniquely styled automotive brake and signal lamps. Using optics based on thin (5 mm) plastic sheets, these lamps provide appearance and functional advantages not attainable with traditional automotive lighting systems. The light is coupled into the sheets using a 1 mm diameter glass fiber, and manipulated using refraction and reflection from edges, surfaces, and shaped cut-outs. Light can be extracted with an efficiency of approximately 50% and formed into a luminance distribution that meets the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) photometric requirements. Prototype lamps using these optics have been constructed and are less than one inch in thickness. Thin lamps reduce sheet metal costs, complexity, material usage, weight, and allow for increased trunk volume. In addition, these optics enhance lamp design flexibility. When the lamps are not energized, they can appear body colored, and when lighted, the brightness distribution across the lamp can be uniform or structured. A diode laser based brake lamp consumes seven times less electrical power than one using an incandescent source and has instant on capability. Also, diode lasers have the potential to be 10-year/150,000 mile light sources.

  9. Smartphone-Imaged HIV-1 Reverse-Transcription Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (RT-LAMP on a Chip from Whole Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory L. Damhorst

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Viral load measurements are an essential tool for the long-term clinical care of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive individuals. The gold standards in viral load instrumentation, however, are still too limited by their size, cost, and sophisticated operation for these measurements to be ubiquitous in remote settings with poor healthcare infrastructure, including parts of the world that are disproportionately affected by HIV infection. The challenge of developing a point-of-care platform capable of making viral load more accessible has been frequently approached but no solution has yet emerged that meets the practical requirements of low cost, portability, and ease-of-use. In this paper, we perform reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP on minimally processed HIV-spiked whole blood samples with a microfluidic and silicon microchip platform, and perform fluorescence measurements with a consumer smartphone. Our integrated assay shows amplification from as few as three viruses in a ~ 60 nL RT-LAMP droplet, corresponding to a whole blood concentration of 670 viruses per μL of whole blood. The technology contains greater power in a digital RT-LAMP approach that could be scaled up for the determination of viral load from a finger prick of blood in the clinical care of HIV-positive individuals. We demonstrate that all aspects of this viral load approach, from a drop of blood to imaging the RT-LAMP reaction, are compatible with lab-on-a-chip components and mobile instrumentation.

  10. Characterizing risk factors for pediatric lamp oil product exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, S; Chang, A; Kieszak, S; Law, R; Bennett, H K W; Ernst, E; Bond, G R; Spiller, H A; Schurz-Rogers, H; Chu, A; Bronstein, A C; Schier, J G

    2013-11-01

    Poisonings from lamp oil ingestion continue to occur worldwide among the pediatric population despite preventive measures such as restricted sale of colored and scented lamp oils. This suggests that optimal prevention practices for unintentional pediatric exposures to lamp oil have yet to be identified and/or properly implemented. To characterize demographic, health data, and potential risk factors associated with reported exposures to lamp oil by callers to poison centers (PCs) in the US and discuss their public health implications. This was a two part study in which the first part included characterizing all exposures to a lamp oil product reported to the National Poison Data System (NPDS) with regard to demographics, exposure, health, and outcome data from 1/1/2000 to 12/31/2010. Regional penetrance was calculated using NPDS data by grouping states into four regions and dividing the number of exposure calls by pediatric population per region (from the 2000 US census). Temporal analyses were performed on NPDS data by comparing number of exposures by season and around the July 4th holiday. Poisson regression was used to model the count of exposures for these analyses. In the second part of this project, in order to identify risk factors we conducted a telephone-based survey to the parents of children from five PCs in five different states. The 10 most recent lamp oil product exposure calls for each poison center were systematically selected for inclusion. Calls in which a parent or guardian witnessed a pediatric lamp oil product ingestion were eligible for inclusion. Data on demographics, exposure information, behavioral traits, and health were collected. A descriptive analysis was performed and Fisher's exact test was used to evaluate associations between variables. All analyses were conducted using SAS v9.3. Among NPDS data, 2 years was the most common patient age reported and states in the Midwestern region had the highest numbers of exposure calls compared to

  11. Dispenser printed electroluminescent lamps on textiles for smart fabric applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, Marc; Torah, Russel; Tudor, John

    2016-04-01

    Flexible electroluminescent (EL) lamps are fabricated onto woven textiles using a novel dispenser printing process. Dispenser printing utilizes pressurized air to deposit ink onto a substrate through a syringe and nozzle. This work demonstrates the first use of this technology to fabricate EL lamps. The luminance of the dispenser printed EL lamps is compared to screen-printed EL lamps, both printed on textile, and also commercial EL lamps on polyurethane film. The dispenser printed lamps are shown to have a 1.5 times higher luminance than the best performing commercially available lamp, and have a comparable performance to the screen-printed lamps.

  12. Dispenser printed electroluminescent lamps on textiles for smart fabric applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vos, Marc; Torah, Russel; Tudor, John

    2016-01-01

    Flexible electroluminescent (EL) lamps are fabricated onto woven textiles using a novel dispenser printing process. Dispenser printing utilizes pressurized air to deposit ink onto a substrate through a syringe and nozzle. This work demonstrates the first use of this technology to fabricate EL lamps. The luminance of the dispenser printed EL lamps is compared to screen-printed EL lamps, both printed on textile, and also commercial EL lamps on polyurethane film. The dispenser printed lamps are shown to have a 1.5 times higher luminance than the best performing commercially available lamp, and have a comparable performance to the screen-printed lamps. (paper)

  13. Barriers to Technology Diffusion: The Case of Compact Fluorescent Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Despite its considerable potential in household, domestic and industry sectors, the possible contribution of solar heat is often neglected in many academic and institutional energy projections and scenarios. This is best explained by the frequent failure to distinguish heat and work as two different forms of energy transfers. As a result, policy makers in many countries or States have tended to pay lesser attention to solar thermal technologies than to other renewable energy technologies.

  14. Phosphor blends for high-CRI fluorescent lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setlur, Anant Achyut [Niskayuna, NY; Srivastava, Alok Mani [Niskayuna, NY; Comanzo, Holly Ann [Niskayuna, NY; Manivannan, Venkatesan [Clifton Park, NY; Beers, William Winder [Chesterland, OH; Toth, Katalin [Pomaz, HU; Balazs, Laszlo D [Budapest, HU

    2008-06-24

    A phosphor blend comprises at least two phosphors each selected from one of the groups of phosphors that absorb UV electromagnetic radiation and emit in a region of visible light. The phosphor blend can be applied to a discharge gas radiation source to produce light sources having high color rendering index. A phosphor blend is advantageously includes the phosphor (Tb,Y,LuLa,Gd).sub.x(Al,Ga).sub.yO.sub.12:Ce.sup.3+, wherein x is in the range from about 2.8 to and including 3 and y is in the range from about 4 to and including 5.

  15. Research on Cylindrical Surface Wave Plasma Fluorescent Lamps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun WANG

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an application of the well known SPWM technique on a voltage stabilizer, using a microcontroller. The stabilizer is AC/DC/AC type. So, the system rectifies the input AC voltage to a suitable DC level and the intelligent control of an embedded microcontroller regulates the pulse width of the output voltage in order to produce through a filter a perfect sinusoidal AC voltage. The control program on the microcontroller has the ability to change the FET transistor firing in order to compensate any input voltage variation. The applied software using the microcontroller’s interrupts managed to achieve concurrency on the running program.

  16. Development of an Infrared Lamp Array for the Smap Spacecraft Thermal Balance Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jennifer R.; Emis, Nickolas; Forgette, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    NASA launched the SMAP observatory in January 2015 aboard a Delta II into a sun-synchronous orbit around Earth. The science payload of a radar and a radiometer utilizes a shared rotating six-meter antenna to provide a global map of the Earth's soil moisture content and its freeze/thaw state on a global, high-resolution scale in this three-year mission. An observatory-level thermal balance test conducted in May/June 2014 validated the thermal design and demonstrated launch readiness as part of the planned environmental test campaign. An infrared lamp array was designed and used in the thermal balance test to replicate solar heating on the solar array and sunlit side of the spacecraft that would normally be seen in orbit. The design, implementation, and operation of an infrared lamp array used for this nineteen-day system thermal test are described in this paper. Instrumental to the smooth operation of this lamp array was a characterization test performed in the same chamber two months prior to the observatory test to provide insight into its array operation and flux uniformity. This knowledge was used to identify the lamp array power settings that would provide the worst case predicted on-orbit fluxes during eclipse, cold, and hot cases. It also showed the lamp array variation when adjustments in flux were needed. Calorimeters calibrated prior to testing determined a relationship between calorimeter temperature and lamp array flux. This allowed the team to adjust the lamp output for the desired absorbed flux on the solar array. Flux levels were within 10% of the desired value at the center of the solar array with an ability to maintain these levels within 5% during steady state cases. All tests demonstrated the infrared lamp array functionality and furthered lamp array understanding for modeling purposes. This method contributed to a high-fidelity environmental simulation, which was required to replicate the extreme on-orbit thermal environments.

  17. CALiPER Report 21.2. Linear (T8) LED Lamp Performance in Five Types of Recessed Troffers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-05-01

    Although lensed troffers are numerous, there are many other types of optical systems as well. This report looks at the performance of three linear (T8) LED lamps—chosen primarily based on their luminous intensity distributions (narrow, medium, and wide beam angles)—as well as a benchmark fluorescent lamp in five different troffer types. Also included are the results of a subjective evaluation. Results show that linear (T8) LED lamps can improve luminaire efficiency in K12-lensed and parabolic-louvered troffers, effect little change in volumetric and high-performance diffuse-lensed type luminaires, but reduce efficiency in recessed indirect troffers. These changes can be accompanied by visual appearance and visual comfort consequences, especially when LED lamps with clear lenses and narrow distributions are installed. Linear (T8) LED lamps with diffuse apertures exhibited wider beam angles, performed more similarly to fluorescent lamps, and received better ratings from observers. Guidance is provided on which luminaires are the best candidates for retrofitting with linear (T8) LED lamps.

  18. Characterization of airborne particulate matter in Santiago, Chile. Part 5: non-destructive determination by x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poblete, V.H.; Hurtado, O.; Toro, P.

    1995-01-01

    A procedure for non-destructive analysis of airborne particular matter using X ray fluorescence is presented. The elements Fe, Pb and Zn were determined and their concentration compared with the results reported by other techniques. The homogeneity of the distribution of Fe in the samples was investigated. (author). 4 refs, 5 figs

  19. UHP lamp systems for projection applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derra, Guenther; Moench, Holger; Fischer, Ernst; Giese, Hermann; Hechtfischer, Ulrich; Heusler, Gero; Koerber, Achim; Niemann, Ulrich; Noertemann, Folke-Charlotte; Pekarski, Pavel; Pollmann-Retsch, Jens; Ritz, Arnd; Weichmann, Ulrich

    2005-01-01

    Projection systems have found widespread use in conference rooms and other professional applications during the last decade and are now entering the home TV market at a considerable pace. Projectors as small as about one litre are able to deliver several thousand screen lumens and are, with a system efficacy of over 10 lm W -1 , the most efficient display systems realized today. Short arc lamps are a key component for projection systems of the highest efficiency for small-size projection displays. The introduction of the ultra high performance (UHP) lamp system by Philips in 1995 can be identified as one of the key enablers of the commercial success of projection systems. The UHP lamp concept features outstanding arc luminance, a well suited spectrum, long life and excellent lumen maintenance. For the first time it combines a very high pressure mercury discharge lamp with extremely short and stable arc gap with a regenerative chemical cycle keeping the discharge walls free from blackening, leading to lifetimes of over 10 000 h. Since the introduction of the UHP lamp system, many important new technology improvements have been realized: burner designs for higher lamp power, advanced ignition systems, miniaturized electronic drivers and innovative reflector concepts. These achievements enabled the impressive increase of projector light output, a remarkable reduction in projector size and even higher optical efficiency in projection systems during the last years. In this paper the concept of the UHP lamp system is described, followed by a discussion of the technological evolution the UHP lamp has undergone so far. Last, but not least, the important improvements of the UHP lamp system including the electronic driver and the reflector are discussed. (review article)

  20. A pulse generator for xenon lamps

    CERN Document Server

    Janata, E

    2002-01-01

    A pulse generator is described, which enhances the analyzing light emitted from a xenon lamp as used in kinetic photospectrometry experiments. The lamp current is increased to 600 A for a duration of 3 ms; the current is constant within +-0.2% during a time interval of 2 ms. Because of instabilities of the lamp arc during pulsing, the use of the enhanced light source is limited to measuring times up to 500 mu s. The enhancement in light intensity depends on the wavelength and amounts to more than 400-fold in the UV-region.

  1. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF WOOD’S LAMP AND DERMOSCOPIC FEATURES OF MELASMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunath

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Melasma is an acquired hypermelanosis of sun exposed areas commonly seen in women, it can also occur in men. It presents as symmetrical hyperpigmented macules and patches commonly over the cheeks, nose, chin and forehead. Woods lamp is a useful device used to estimate the depth of melanin determined by light induced fluorescence. A dermoscope is a non-invasive diagnostic tool which enables a clear visualization of pigment distribution and color variation of melanin depending on its location within the skin. OBJECTIVE To classify melasma according to depth of melanin by dermoscopy and correlate woods lamp and dermoscopic findings. MATERIAL AND METHODS Analysis of concordance between woods lamp and dermoscopy in classification of melasma. 30 patients with facial melasma were examined using Woods lamp (Derma India and Dermoscope (Dermlite DL3. On Woods lamp examination, melasma was considered epidermal when enhancement was noted, dermal when no enhancement was seen and mixed when few areas showed enhancement. On Dermoscopy, melasma was considered epidermal when regular pigment network with a brownish homogenous pigmentation was noted, dermal when irregular network with bluish grey pigmentation was noted and mixed when areas show both features. RESULTS The degree of concordance between the methods was considered good (k<0.56 by statistical analysis. CONCLUSION Dermoscopy is more suitable for examination for melasma, since it allows visualization of pigmentary components in more objective way. It also helps to understand the prognosis and management.

  2. Light emitting diode excitation emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sean J; JiJi, Renée D

    2002-12-01

    An excitation emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence instrument has been developed using a linear array of light emitting diodes (LED). The wavelengths covered extend from the upper UV through the visible spectrum: 370-640 nm. Using an LED array to excite fluorescence emission at multiple excitation wavelengths is a low-cost alternative to an expensive high power lamp and imaging spectrograph. The LED-EEM system is a departure from other EEM spectroscopy systems in that LEDs often have broad excitation ranges which may overlap with neighboring channels. The LED array can be considered a hybrid between a spectroscopic and sensor system, as the broad LED excitation range produces a partially selective optical measurement. The instrument has been tested and characterized using fluorescent dyes: limits of detection (LOD) for 9,10-bis(phenylethynyl)-anthracene and rhodamine B were in the mid parts-per-trillion range; detection limits for the other compounds were in the low parts-per-billion range (LED-EEMs were analyzed using parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), which allowed the mathematical resolution of the individual contributions of the mono- and dianion fluorescein tautomers a priori. Correct identification and quantitation of six fluorescent dyes in two to six component mixtures (concentrations between 12.5 and 500 ppb) has been achieved with root mean squared errors of prediction (RMSEP) of less than 4.0 ppb for all components.

  3. Vascular thrombus imaging in vivo via near-infrared fluorescent nanodiamond particles bioengineered with the disintegrin bitistatin (Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerstenhaber JA

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Jonathan A Gerstenhaber,1,* Frank C Barone,2,* Cezary Marcinkiewicz,1,3 Jie Li,2 Aaron O Shiloh,4 Mark Sternberg,3 Peter I Lelkes,1,* Giora Feuerstein1,3,* 1Department of Bioengineering, College of Engineering, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, 2Department of Neurology, State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY, 3Debina Diagnostic Inc., Newtown Square, 4Diagnostic Imaging, Inc., Philadelphia, PA, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The aim of this feasibility study was to test the ability of fluorescent nanodiamond particles (F-NDP covalently conjugated with bitistatin (F-NDP-Bit to detect vascular blood clots in vivo using extracorporeal near-infrared (NIR imaging. Specifically, we compared NIR fluorescence properties of F-NDP with N-V (F-NDPNV and N-V-N color centers and sizes (100–10,000 nm. Optimal NIR fluorescence and tissue penetration across biological tissues (rat skin, porcine axillary veins, and skin was obtained for F-NDPNV with a mean diameter of 700 nm. Intravital imaging (using in vivo imaging system [IVIS] in vitro revealed that F-NDPNV-loaded glass capillaries could be detected across 6 mm of rat red-muscle barrier and 12 mm of porcine skin, which equals the average vertical distance of a human carotid artery bifurcation from the surface of the adjacent skin (14 mm. In vivo, feasibility was demonstrated in a rat model of occlusive blood clots generated using FeCl3 in the carotid artery bifurcation. Following systemic infusions of F-NDPNV-Bit (3 or 15 mg/kg via the external carotid artery or femoral vein (N=3, presence of the particles in the thrombi was confirmed both in situ via IVIS, and ex vivo via confocal imaging. The presence of F-NDPNV in the vascular clots was further confirmed by direct counting of fluorescent particles extracted from clots following tissue solubilization. Our data suggest that F-NDPNV-Bit associate with vascular blood clots, presumably by binding

  4. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royer, Michael P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Beeson, Tracy A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-02-01

    The CALiPER program first began investigating LED lamps sold at retail stores in 2010, purchasing 33 products from eight retailers and covering six product categories. The findings revealed a fragmented marketplace, with large disparities in performance of different products, accuracy of manufacturer claims, and offerings from different retail outlets. Although there were some good products, looking back many would not be considered viable competitors to other available options, with too little lumen output, not high enough efficacy, or poor color quality. CALiPER took another look in late 2011purchasing 38 products of five different types from nine retailers and the improvement was marked. Performance was up; retailer claims were more accurate; and the price per lumen and price per unit efficacy were down, although the price per product had not changed much. Nonetheless, there was still plenty of room for improvement, with the performance of LED lamps not yet reaching that of well-established classes of conventional lamps (e.g., 75 W incandescent A19 lamps). Since the second retail lamp study was published in early 2012, there has been substantial progress in all aspects of LED lamps available from retailers. To document this progress, CALiPER again purchased a sample of lamps from retail stores 46 products in total, focusing on A19, PAR30, and MR16 lamps but instead of a random sample, sought to select products to answer specific hypotheses about performance. These hypotheses focused on expanding ranges of LED equivalency, the accuracy of lifetime claims, efficacy and price trends, as well as changes to product designs. Among other results, key findings include: There are now very good LED options to compete with 60 W, 75 W, and 100 W incandescent A19 lamps, and 75 W halogen PAR30 lamps. MR16 lamps have shown less progress, but there are now acceptable alternatives to 35 W, 12 V halogen MR16 lamps and 50 W, 120 V halogen MR16 lamps for some applications. Other

  5. LED lamp power management system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, James; Clauberg, Bernd; Van Erp, Josephus A. M.

    2013-03-19

    An LED lamp power management system and method including an LED lamp having an LED controller 58; a plurality of LED channels 60 operably connected to the LED controller 58, each of the plurality of LED channels 60 having a channel switch 62 in series with at least one shunted LED circuit 83, the shunted LED circuit 83 having a shunt switch 68 in parallel with an LED source 80. The LED controller 58 reduces power loss in one of the channel switch 62 and the shunt switch 68 when LED lamp electronics power loss (P.sub.loss) exceeds an LED lamp electronics power loss limit (P.sub.lim); and each of the channel switches 62 receives a channel switch control signal 63 from the LED controller 58 and each of the shunt switches 68 receives a shunt switch control signal 69 from the LED controller 58.

  6. Genetic point-of-care diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection using LAMP assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuya, Fujio; Kinebuchi, Takahiro; Fujiyasu, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Ryosuke; Kano, Hiroki

    2014-08-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) is a major pathogen of lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in children. A rapid diagnostic method during the acute phase is required for the prescription of effective antibiotics. A prospective, single-centered study was conducted on community-acquired LRTI in children. We regarded the day of fever onset as the first day of illness. In part 1, we studied 191 patients with signs of LRTI. We compared diagnostic reliability using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay and serological testing at the first visit. In part 2, we evaluated the clinical characteristics of 117 patients with positive LAMP assay. In part 1, 31 patients met the definite MP infection criteria. LAMP assay had a sensitivity of 96.8% and specificity of 100%, whereas enzyme immunoassay had a sensitivity of 38.7% and specificity of 76.9%, and particle agglutination test had a sensitivity of 19.4% and specificity of 93.1%. In part 2, of 106 patients with fever, 100 patients were diagnosed by the day 7 of illness. The diagnosis was made a mean of 3.5 ± 2.1 days after the onset of fever. LAMP assay had excellent sensitivity and specificity for the detection of acute MP infection at the first visit. This assay can diagnose MP infection during the very acute phase. LAMP assay is appropriate for genetic point-of-care diagnosis of MP infection in hospital laboratories. © 2014 Japan Pediatric Society.

  7. DOE CALiPER Program, Report 21.2: Linear (T8) LED Lamp Performance in Five Types of Recessed Troffers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Naomi J.; Perrin, Tess E.; Royer, Michael P.; Wilkerson, Andrea M.; Beeson, Tracy A.

    2014-05-20

    Although lensed troffers are numerous, there are many other types of optical systems as well. This report looked at the performance of three linear (T8) LED lamps chosen primarily based on their luminous intensity distributions (narrow, medium, and wide beam angles) as well as a benchmark fluorescent lamp in five different troffer types. Also included are the results of a subjective evaluation. Results show that linear (T8) LED lamps can improve luminaire efficiency in K12-lensed and parabolic-louvered troffers, effect little change in volumetric and high-performance diffuse-lensed type luminaires, but reduce efficiency in recessed indirect troffers. These changes can be accompanied by visual appearance and visual comfort consequences, especially when LED lamps with clear lenses and narrow distributions are installed. Linear (T8) LED lamps with diffuse apertures exhibited wider beam angles, performed more similarly to fluorescent lamps, and received better ratings from observers. Guidance is provided on which luminaires are the best candidates for retrofitting with linear (T8) LED lamps.

  8. A organização espacial condiciona as relações entre ambiente e saúde: o exemplo da exposição ao mercúrio em uma fábrica de lâmpadas fluorescentes Environment and health relationships are conditioned by the spatial organization: the case of mercury exposure in a fluorescent lamp plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christovam Barcellos

    1998-01-01

    explanation of the health/disease process, that are based on a set of spatial variables such as distance, neighborhood, and the linkage of data for characterization of the place. The example of a factory of fluorescent lamps allows to understand the space as mediator of social relations. The location and activity in the factory impose the risk conditions to which the workers are submitted. The spatial analysis of mercury emission, contamination and exposure indicators, identified areas and activities that produce risk conditions to workers. These factors are also related to intern and external production organization.

  9. Photoperiodic responses of Kalanchoe and chrysanthemum to radiation by an infrared lamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, C.H.; Lee, S.B.; Jeong, B.R.

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of a low intensity infrared radiation on the growth and photoperiodic responses of Kalanchoe blossfeldiana ‘Kaluna’ and ‘Taos’, and Dendranthema grandiflorum ‘Lemon Eye’ grown in growth chambers. In the first experiment, uniformly-rooted cuttings of ‘Kaluna’ and ‘Lemon Eye’ were selected and transplanted to 10 cm pots. After a week, pots were transferred from greenhouse to three environment-controlled growth chambers. All chambers were maintained at 25 ± 1 and 70% RH with an 8 hours photoperiod (760 μmol·m −2 ·s −1 ), provided by high pressure sodium and white fluorescent lamps. During the night period one chamber was left unlit (darkness), while the second and third ones were lit with an incandescent lamp (10 μmol·m −2 ·s −1 ) or an infrared lamp (15 μmol·m −2 ·s −1 ), respectively. Shoot length, root length, stem diameter, number of flowers, number of branches, fresh weight, and dry weight were measured after eight weeks. Flowering occurred on plants maintained in the unlit darkness and under an incandescent lamp during the night period, while only vegetative growth was observed under an infrared lamp. In the second experiment, cuttings of uniformly-rooted ‘Taos’ and ‘Lemon Eye’ were selected and transferred from the greenhouse to three environment-controlled growth chambers with the same environment setting as in the first experiment at a week after potting. During the night period one chamber was left unlit (darkness), the second and third ones were lit with an incandescent or an infrared heating lamp, both at a 0.3 μmol·m −2 ·s −1 PPFD level. After nine weeks, flowering in all treatments was observed, but was slightly delayed under an incandescent and an infrared heating lamp. Because both the incandescent lamp and the infrared lamp slightly delayed flowering in these two species, a more detailed experiment is necessary to find out at which

  10. Hantavirus Gc induces long-term immune protection via LAMP-targeting DNA vaccine strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dong-Bo; Zhang, Jin-Peng; Cheng, Lin-Feng; Zhang, Guan-Wen; Li, Yun; Li, Zi-Chao; Lu, Zhen-Hua; Zhang, Zi-Xin; Lu, Yu-Chen; Zheng, Lian-He; Zhang, Fang-Lin; Yang, Kun

    2018-02-01

    Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) occurs widely throughout Eurasia. Unfortunately, there is no effective treatment, and prophylaxis remains the best option against the major pathogenic agent, hantaan virus (HTNV), which is an Old World hantavirus. However, the absence of cellular immune responses and immunological memory hampers acceptance of the current inactivated HFRS vaccine. Previous studies revealed that a lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1)-targeting strategy involving a DNA vaccine based on the HTNV glycoprotein Gn successfully conferred long-term immunity, and indicated that further research on Gc, another HTNV antigen, was warranted. Plasmids encoding Gc and lysosome-targeted Gc, designated pVAX-Gc and pVAX-LAMP/Gc, respectively, were constructed. Proteins of interest were identified by fluorescence microscopy following cell line transfection. Five groups of 20 female BALB/c mice were subjected to the following inoculations: inactivated HTNV vaccine, pVAX-LAMP/Gc, pVAX-Gc, and, as the negative controls, pVAX-LAMP or the blank vector pVAX1. Humoral and cellular immunity were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and 15-mer peptide enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot) epitope mapping assays. Repeated immunization with pVAX-LAMP/Gc enhanced adaptive immune responses, as demonstrated by the specific and neutralizing antibody titers and increased IFN-γ production. The inactivated vaccine induced a comparable humoral reaction, but the negative controls only elicited insignificant responses. Using a mouse model of HTNV challenge, the in vivo protection conferred by the inactivated vaccine and Gc-based constructs (with/without LAMP recombination) was confirmed. Evidence of pan-epitope reactions highlighted the long-term cellular response to the LAMP-targeting strategy, and histological observations indicated the safety of the LAMP-targeting vaccines. The long-term protective immune responses induced by pVAX-LAMP/Gc may be

  11. Shining a light on LAMP assays--a comparison of LAMP visualization methods including the novel use of berberine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischbach, Jens; Xander, Nina Carolin; Frohme, Marcus; Glökler, Jörn Felix

    2015-04-01

    The need for simple and effective assays for detecting nucleic acids by isothermal amplification reactions has led to a great variety of end point and real-time monitoring methods. Here we tested direct and indirect methods to visualize the amplification of potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and compared features important for one-pot in-field applications. We compared the performance of magnesium pyrophosphate, hydroxynaphthol blue (HNB), calcein, SYBR Green I, EvaGreen, and berberine. All assays could be used to distinguish between positive and negative samples in visible or UV light. Precipitation of magnesium-pyrophosphate resulted in a turbid reaction solution. The use of HNB resulted in a color change from violet to blue, whereas calcein induced a change from orange to yellow-green. We also investigated berberine as a nucleic acid-specific dye that emits a fluorescence signal under UV light after a positive LAMP reaction. It has a comparable sensitivity to SYBR Green I and EvaGreen. Based on our results, an optimal detection method can be chosen easily for isothermal real-time or end point screening applications.

  12. GMO detection using a bioluminescent real time reporter (BART of loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP suitable for field use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiddle Guy

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an increasing need for quantitative technologies suitable for molecular detection in a variety of settings for applications including food traceability and monitoring of genetically modified (GM crops and their products through the food processing chain. Conventional molecular diagnostics utilising real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and fluorescence-based determination of amplification require temperature cycling and relatively complex optics. In contrast, isothermal amplification coupled to a bioluminescent output produced in real-time (BART occurs at a constant temperature and only requires a simple light detection and integration device. Results Loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP shows robustness to sample-derived inhibitors. Here we show the applicability of coupled LAMP and BART reactions (LAMP-BART for determination of genetically modified (GM maize target DNA at low levels of contamination (0.1-5.0% GM using certified reference material, and compare this to RT-PCR. Results show that conventional DNA extraction methods developed for PCR may not be optimal for LAMP-BART quantification. Additionally, we demonstrate that LAMP is more tolerant to plant sample-derived inhibitors, and show this can be exploited to develop rapid extraction techniques suitable for simple field-based qualitative tests for GM status determination. We also assess the effect of total DNA assay load on LAMP-BART quantitation. Conclusions LAMP-BART is an effective and sensitive technique for GM detection with significant potential for quantification even at low levels of contamination and in samples derived from crops such as maize with a large genome size. The resilience of LAMP-BART to acidic polysaccharides makes it well suited to rapid sample preparation techniques and hence to both high throughput laboratory settings and to portable GM detection applications. The impact of the plant sample matrix and genome loading

  13. Integrity Monitoring of Mercury Discharge Lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjoelker, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Mercury discharge lamps are critical in many trapped ion frequency standard applications. An integrity monitoring system can be implemented using end-of-life signatures observed in operational mercury discharge lamps, making it possible to forecast imminent failure and to take action to mitigate the consequences (such as switching to a redundant system). Mercury lamps are used as a source of 194-nm ultraviolet radiation for optical pumping and state selection of mercury trapped ion frequency standards. Lamps are typically fabricated using 202Hg distilled into high-purity quartz, or other 194-nm transmitting material (e.g., sapphire). A buffer gas is also placed into the bulb, typically a noble gas such as argon, neon, or krypton. The bulbs are driven by strong RF fields oscillating at .200 MHz. The lamp output may age over time by two internal mechanisms: (1) the darkening of the bulb that attenuates light transmission and (2) the loss of mercury due to migration or chemical interactions with the bulb surface. During fabrication, excess mercury is placed into a bulb, so that the loss rate is compensated with new mercury emanating from a cool tip or adjacent reservoir. The light output is nearly constant or varies slightly at a constant rate for many months/years until the mercury source is depleted. At this point, the vapor pressure abruptly falls and the total light output and atomic clock SNR (signal-to-noise ratio) decrease. After several days to weeks, the light levels decrease to a point where the atomic clock SNR is no longer sufficient to stay in lock, or the lamp self-extinguishes. This signature has been observed in four separate end-of-life lamp failures while operating in the Deep Space Network (DSN). A simple integrator circuit can observe and document steady-state lamp behavior. When the light levels drop over a predetermined time interval by a specified amount (e.g., 20 percent), an alarm is set. For critical operational applications, such as the DSN

  14. Excimer lamp pumped by a triggered discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldacchini, G.; Bollanti, S.; Di Lazzaro, P.; Flora, F.; Giordano, G.; Letardi, T.; Renieri, A.; Schina, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Rome (Italy). Dip. Innovazione; Clementi, G.; Muzzi, F.; Zheng, C.E. [EL.EN. (Electronic Engineering), Florence (Italy)

    1996-11-01

    Radiation characteristics and discharge performances of an excimer lamp are described. The discharge of the HCl/Xe gas mixture at an atmospheric pressure, occurring near the quartz tube wall, is initiated by a trigger wire. A maximum total UV energy of about 0.4 J in a (0.8-0.9) {mu}s pulse, radiated from a 10 cm discharge length, is obtained with a total discharge input energy of 8 J. Excimer lamps are the preferred choice for medical and material processing irradiations, when the monochromaticity or coherence of UV light is not required, due to their low cost, reliability and easy maintenance.

  15. THE INFLUENCE OF WALL COLOR AND LAMP COLOR TEMPERATURE TO STUDENT’S CONCENTRATION AND COGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KRISTANTO Luciana

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Concentration has an important role in our life, especially in order to get a quality and productivity in working. With concentration we can achieve the maximum and faster result in our work. Some ways to improve concentration that being researched here is by arranging the wall color and the lamp color temperature of the room. The color used as wall color in this research was the blue 9.8B, 7.4/5.6; and the orange 8.1YR, 8.7/3.7 of the Munsell color palette. Whereas the room lighting was the fluorescent lamp in 6500K (cool daylight and 2700K (warm white color temperature. Respondents of this research were 117 undergraduate students, the average GPA was 3.28; and 20,26 years as the mean age. The concentration and cognition tests are the Army Alfa test and IST subtest 9 that conducted in the room with different condition. Found in this research that the blue with cool daylight lamp has significant impact to concentration in 2,526 Lickert scale; and that orange with cool daylight lamp has correlation 0.781 to cognition result; but the other conditions have no significancy toward concentration and cognition

  16. Market research on the use of energy saving lamps in the domestic sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kofod, C.; Naser, L.; Rahbar, A.

    1996-06-01

    During the past few years, many campaigns have been carried out to encourage customers to use compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) instead of incandescent lamps. Information has been retrieved from 26 different programmes carried out in the period 1988-94, including different combinations of direct installations, rebates, give-away, wholesale discounts, and pay-on-the-bill schemes. A very broad range of promotional strategies have been employed including direct mail, give-aways, articles and/or advertisements in newspapers, brochures, TV and/or radio announcements. The percentage of customers who use CFLs in Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands is close to 50%. The use per residence depends firstly on the type, and secondly on the size of the residence and the number of inhabitants. Use of CFLs instead of incandescent lamps gives a favourable Benefit cost Ratio (BCR) for the customer as well as for the society. The main barrier to the procurement of CFLs in the three countries analyzed is that customers find the price of CFLs too high in comparison with incandescent lamps. (EG) 22 refs.

  17. An evanescent wave biosensor--Part I: Fluorescent signal acquisition from step-etched fiber optic probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, G P; Golden, J P; Ligler, F S

    1994-06-01

    A fiber-optic biosensor capable of remote continuous monitoring has recently been designed. To permit sensing at locations separate from the optoelectronic instrumentation, long optical fibers are utilized. An evanescent wave immuno-probe is prepared by removing the cladding near the distal end of the fiber and covalently attaching antibodies to the core. Probes with a radius unaltered from that of the original core inefficiently returned the signal produced upon binding the fluorescent-labelled antigen. To elucidate the limiting factors in signal acquisition, a series of fibers with increasingly reduced probe core radius was examined. The results were consistent with the V-number mismatch, the difference in mode carrying capacity between the clad and unclad fiber, being a critical factor in limiting signal coupling from the fiber probe. However, it was also delineated that conditions which conserve excitation power, such that power in the evanescent wave is optimized, must also be met to obtain a maximal signal. The threshold sensitivity for the optimal step-etched fiber probe was improved by over 20-fold in an immunoassay, although, it was demonstrated that signal acquisition decreased along the probe length, suggesting that a sensor region of uniform radius is not ideal.

  18. CALiPER Report 20.2: Dimming, Flicker, and Power Quality Characteristics of LED PAR38 Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2014-03-31

    This report focuses on the flicker and power quality performance of the Series 20 lamps at full output and various dimmed levels. All of the Series 20 PAR38 lamps that manufacturers claimed to be dimmable (including all halogen lamps) were evaluated individually (one lamp at a time) both on a switch and under the control of a phase-cut dimmer designed for use with "all classes of bulbs." Measurements of luminous flux, flicker, and power quality were taken at 10 target dimmed settings and compared with operation on a switch. Because only a single unit of each product was evaluated on a single dimmer that may or may not have been recommended by its manufacturer, this report focuses on the performance of the products relative to each other, rather than the best-case performance of each lamp or variation in performance delivered from each lamp. Despite these limitations, the results suggest that LED performance is improving, and performance trends are beginning to emerge, perhaps due in part to the identification of preferred LED driver strategies for lamp products.

  19. Surface dosimetry in phototherapy: comparison of three ultraviolet B lamps used in the treatment of psoriasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snow, J.L.; Muller, S.A. [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    1996-12-01

    The quantitation (dosimetry) of ultraviolet B irradiation (UVB) administered during phototherapy for psoriasis is fundamental to this modality of treatment because only absorbed irradiation can cause a photochemical reaction and, hence, a phototherapeutic effect. Significant differences may exist in surface dosimetry achieved with different UVB irradiators, and this could have important consequences for the observed clinical efficacy of phototherapy as well as practical implications for avoiding burning when transferring patients between systems. Multiple anatomically referenced polysulphone photodosimeters were applied to the skin of five subjects receiving treatment for severe psoriasis. Three subjects were irradiated with both a free-standing hot quartz lamp and a fluorescent cabinet. Two others were irradiated with a flat bank of fluorescent tubes. Topographical maps of surface irradiation were constructed. `Cold` areas (< 50% of stated dose) included the neck, upper chest, shoulders, and anterolateral thighs for the hot quartz lamp; the medial arms, medial legs, and feet for the cabinet; and the lateral arms, forearms, lower legs, and feet for the bank of tubes. `Hot` areas (> 100% of stated dose) included the forearms and posterior thighs for the hot quartz lamp; the lateral arms, dorsal forearm, and abdomen for the cabinet; and the central trunk (anterior and posterior) for the bank of tubes. Thus, striking differences in surface irradiation exist among the three UVB irradiators studied, and this has an impact on the results of phototherapy for psoriasis. (author).

  20. New design for a microwave discharge lamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glangetas, A

    1980-03-01

    A simple discharge lamp with a microwave cavity fitting inside provides an intense source of VUV resonance radiation for photochemical work inside a vacuum chamber. Good coupling and minimum reabsorption result in better efficiency ( greater, similar1%) and more intense output power (up to 2.5x10(16) quanta s(-1)) than have been achieved previously.

  1. Scanning For Hotspots In Lamp Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Charles E.; Van Sant, Tim; Leidecker, Henning

    1993-01-01

    Scanning photometer designed for use in investigation of failures of incandescent lamp filaments. Maps brightness as function of position along each filament to identify bright (hot) spots, occurring at notches and signifying incipient breaks or rewelds. Also used to measure nonuniformity in outputs of such linear devices as light-emitting diodes, and to measure diffraction patterns of lenses.

  2. 100 years of Wood's lamp revised

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klatte, J. L.; van der Beek, N.; Kemperman, P. M. J. H.

    2015-01-01

    The Wood's lamp is a diagnostic tool in dermatology. Unfortunately, this useful tool is often overlooked in the busy and hectic outdoor dermatology clinic. To emphasize its value in modern dermatology, we present an updated review of the principles and applications and shed new light on its proper

  3. Thomson scattering on a low-pressure, inductively-coupled gas discharge lamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sande, M.J. van de; Mullen, J.J.A.M. van der

    2002-01-01

    Excitation and light production processes in gas discharge lamps are the result of inelastic collisions between atoms and free electrons in the plasma. Therefore, knowledge of the electron density n e and temperature T e is essential for a proper understanding of such plasmas. In this paper, an experimental system for laser Thomson scattering on a low-pressure, inductively-coupled gas discharge lamp and measurements of n e and T e in this lamp are presented. The experimental system is suitable for low electron temperatures (down to below 0.2 eV) and employs a triple grating spectrograph for a high stray light rejection, or equivalently a low stray light redistribution (R eff approximately 7x10 -9 nm -1 at 0.5 nm from the laser wavelength). The electron density detection limit of the system is n e approximately 10 16 m -3 . The modifications to the lamp that were necessary for the measurements are described, and results are presented and compared to previous work and trends expected from the electron particle and energy balances. The electron density and temperature are about n e approximately 10 19 m -3 and T e approximately 1 eV in the most active part of the plasma; the exact values depend on the argon filling pressure, the mercury pressure and the position in the lamp. (author)

  4. 21 CFR 878.4635 - Ultraviolet lamp for tanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ultraviolet lamp for tanning. 878.4635 Section 878... tanning. (a) Identification. An ultraviolet lamp for tanning is a device that is a lamp (including a fixture) intended to provide ultraviolet radiation to tan the skin. See § 1040.20 of this chapter. (b...

  5. Demixing in a metal halide lamp, results from modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beks, M.L.; Hartgers, A.; Mullen, van der J.J.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Convection and diffusion in the discharge region of a metal halide lamp is studied using a computer model built with the plasma modeling package Plasimo. A model lamp contg. mercury and sodium iodide is studied. The effects of the total lamp pressure on the degree of segregation of the light

  6. Influence of Voltage on Main Characteristics of Electric Lighting Lamps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Kozlovskaya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis and systemization of data on influence of voltage value on main lighting engineering, electric and economic characteristics of incandescent lamps, gaseous-discharge lamps of low and high pressure have been made in the paper.Analytical and graphical dependences have been obtained that ensure to evaluate quantitative changes of corresponding lamp characteristics at voltage deviation from nominal value.

  7. Electrodeless discharge lamp is easily started, has high stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, W. E.; Bloom, A. L.

    1966-01-01

    Electrodeless discharge borosilicate glass lamp is used in various high-resolution optical systems. It is partially charged with krypton, contains small amounts of rubidium, and is enclosed in a hermetically sealed envelope that maintains the lamp at an optimum temperature during discharge. The lamp is quickly started by its excitation coil.

  8. Definition of a high intensity metal halide discharge reference lamp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoffels, W.W.; Baede, A.H.F.M.; Mullen, van der J.J.A.M.; Haverlag, M.; Zissis, G.

    2006-01-01

    The design of a ref. metal halide discharge lamp is presented. This lamp is meant as a common study object for researchers working on metal halide discharge lamps, who by using the same design will be able to compare results between research groups, diagnostic techniques and numerical models. The

  9. 30 CFR 57.12035 - Weatherproof lamp sockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weatherproof lamp sockets. 57.12035 Section 57.12035 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Surface and Underground § 57.12035 Weatherproof lamp sockets. Lamp sockets shall be of a weatherproof type...

  10. 30 CFR 56.12035 - Weatherproof lamp sockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weatherproof lamp sockets. 56.12035 Section 56.12035 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL....12035 Weatherproof lamp sockets. Lamp sockets shall be of a weatherproof type where they are exposed to...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1703 - Portable electric lamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Portable electric lamps. 75.1703 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1703 Portable electric lamps. [Statutory Provisions] Persons underground shall use only permissible electric lamps approved by the...

  12. 47 CFR 17.54 - Rated lamp voltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rated lamp voltage. 17.54 Section 17.54... voltage. To insure the necessary lumen output by obstruction lights, the rated voltage of incandescent lamps used shall correspond to be within 3 percent higher than the voltage across the lamp socket during...

  13. 21 CFR 1040.20 - Sunlamp products and ultraviolet lamps intended for use in sunlamp products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sunlamp products and ultraviolet lamps intended... intended to be exposed to ultraviolet radiation from the product, as recommended by the manufacturer. (2... irradiation of any part of the living human body, by ultraviolet radiation with wavelengths in air between 200...

  14. 76 FR 23255 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Associated Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ... petitions for reconsideration from Harley-Davidson Motor Company (January 18, 2008) and Ford Motor Company... [Docket No. NHTSA-2007-28322] Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Lamps, Reflective Devices, and... part, the petitions for reconsideration of the December 4, 2007, final rule reorganizing Federal Motor...

  15. Electronic Dimmable Ballasts for High-Intensity Discharge Sodium Vapor and Metal Halide Lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulanger, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Two types of high-intensity discharge lamps were tested using dimmable ballasts. The main purpose for evaluating this lighting system was to determine its efficacy for saving power. Whereas previous variable level lighting systems for HID lamps in Advanced Life Support applications were adjustable in two or three steps using capacitive switching, this system allows for continuously adjustable lamp output. This type of lighting system when used as part of an Advanced Life Support biomass production system would provide only the amount of light energy a crop needed at any particular point in its growth cycle. Since most of the equivalent system mass in an ALS system is from the light energy required to grow the crops, controlling that light energy dynamically over a continuous range of operation would dramatically reduce the power consumption and reduce system mass.

  16. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3.1: Dimming, Flicker, and Power Quality Characteristics of LED A Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-12-31

    This CALiPER report examines the characteristics of a subset of lamps from CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3 in more detail. Specifically, it focuses on the dimming, power quality, and flicker characteristics of 14 LED A lamps, as controlled by four different retail-available dimmers.

  17. Development of a highly sensitive loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for the detection of Loa loa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Soto, Pedro; Mvoulouga, Prosper Obolo; Akue, Jean Paul; Abán, Julio López; Santiago, Belén Vicente; Sánchez, Miguel Cordero; Muro, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The filarial parasite Loa loa, the causative agent of loiasis, is endemic in Central and Western Africa infecting 3-13 million people. L. loa has been associated with fatal encephalopathic reactions in high Loa-infected individuals receiving ivermectin during mass drug administration programs for the control of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. In endemic areas, the only diagnostic method routinely used is the microscopic examination of mid-day blood samples by thick blood film. Improved methods for detection of L. loa are needed in endemic regions with limited resources, where delayed diagnosis results in high mortality. We have investigated the use of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay to facilitate rapid, inexpensive, molecular diagnosis of loiasis. Primers for LAMP were designed from a species-specific repetitive DNA sequence from L. loa retrieved from GenBank. Genomic DNA of a L. loa adult worm was used to optimize the LAMP conditions using a thermocycler or a conventional heating block. Amplification of DNA in the LAMP mixture was visually inspected for turbidity as well as addition of fluorescent dye. LAMP specificity was evaluated using DNA from other parasites; sensitivity was evaluated using DNA from L. loa 10-fold serially diluted. Simulated human blood samples spiked with DNA from L. loa were also tested for sensitivity. Upon addition of fluorescent dye, all positive reactions turned green while the negative controls remained orange under ambient light. After electrophoresis on agarose gels, a ladder of multiple bands of different sizes could be observed in positive samples. The detection limit of the assay was found to be as little as 0.5 ag of L. loa genomic DNA when using a heating block. We have designed, for the first time, a highly sensitive LAMP assay for the detection of L. loa which is potentially adaptable for field diagnosis and disease surveillance in loiasis-endemic areas.

  18. Emitter depletion studies on electrodes of 50 Hz mercury/noble gas discharge lamps during ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoek, W.J. van den; Thijssen, T.L.G.; Heijden, A.J.H. van der; Buijsse, B.; Haverlag, M.

    2002-01-01

    The depletion of emitter from the oxide cathodes during the glow switch starting of the discharge in 50 Hz operated low-pressure mercury/noble gas discharge lamps (fluorescent lamps) has been studied. It follows from pulse ignition studies and computer-controlled ignition experiments that two plasma modes exist during ignition: a glow discharge and a vapour-arc discharge. The occurrence of these modes depends on the point of interruption with respect to the phase of the 50 Hz preheat current. The vapour arc appears to be the dominant mechanism of emitter depletion. The average emitter loss per vapour-arc pulse has been quantified by radioactive Ba tracer experiments. The nature of the vapour arc has been studied by fast photography and SEM. The vapour arc involves dielectric breakdown over the non-conducting oxide mass and gives rise to explosive emitter vapourization. (author)

  19. Secondary electron emission characteristics of oxide electrodes in flat electron emission lamp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Lin Chiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study concerns with the secondary electron emission coefficient, γ, of the cathode materials used in the newly developed flat electron emission lamp (FEEL devices, which essentially integrates the concept of using cathode for fluorescent lamp and anode for cathode ray tube (CRT to obtain uniform planar lighting. Three different cathode materials, namely fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO, aluminum oxide coated FTO (Al2O3/FTO and magnesium oxide coated FTO (MgO/FTO were prepared to investigate how the variations of γ and working gases influence the performance of FEEL devices, especially in lowering the breakdown voltage and pressure of the working gases. The results indicate that the MgO/FTO bilayer cathode exhibited a relatively larger effective secondary electron emission coefficient, resulting in significant reduction of breakdown voltage to about 3kV and allowing the device to be operated at the lower pressure to generate the higher lighting efficiency.

  20. Secondary electron emission characteristics of oxide electrodes in flat electron emission lamp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Chang-Lin, E-mail: CLChiang@itri.org.tw; Li, Chia-Hung [Green Energy and Environment Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, 195, Sec. 4, Chung Hsing Road, Chutung 310, Taiwan (China); Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 Ta Hsueh Road, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Zeng, Hui-Kai [Department of Electronic Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, 200 Chung Pei Road, Chung Li 320, Taiwan (China); Li, Jung-Yu, E-mail: JY-Lee@itri.org.tw; Chen, Shih-Pu; Lin, Yi-Ping [Green Energy and Environment Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, 195, Sec. 4, Chung Hsing Road, Chutung 310, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Tai-Chiung; Juang, Jenh-Yih, E-mail: jyjuang@cc.nctu.edu.tw [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 Ta Hsueh Road, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)

    2016-01-15

    The present study concerns with the secondary electron emission coefficient, γ, of the cathode materials used in the newly developed flat electron emission lamp (FEEL) devices, which essentially integrates the concept of using cathode for fluorescent lamp and anode for cathode ray tube (CRT) to obtain uniform planar lighting. Three different cathode materials, namely fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO), aluminum oxide coated FTO (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/FTO) and magnesium oxide coated FTO (MgO/FTO) were prepared to investigate how the variations of γ and working gases influence the performance of FEEL devices, especially in lowering the breakdown voltage and pressure of the working gases. The results indicate that the MgO/FTO bilayer cathode exhibited a relatively larger effective secondary electron emission coefficient, resulting in significant reduction of breakdown voltage to about 3kV and allowing the device to be operated at the lower pressure to generate the higher lighting efficiency.

  1. Stress Testing of the Philips 60W Replacement Lamp L Prize Entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poplawski, Michael E.; Ledbetter, Marc R.; Smith, Mark

    2012-04-24

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy, worked with Intertek to develop a procedure for stress testing medium screw-base light sources. This procedure, composed of alternating stress cycles and performance evaluation, was used to qualitatively compare and contrast the durability and reliability of the Philips 60W replacement lamp L Prize entry with market-proven compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) with comparable light output and functionality. The stress cycles applied simultaneous combinations of electrical, thermal, vibration, and humidity stresses of increasing magnitude. Performance evaluations measured relative illuminance, x chromaticity and y chromaticity shifts after each stress cycle. The Philips L Prize entry lamps appear to be appreciably more durable than the incumbent energy-efficient technology, as represented by the evaluated CFLs, and with respect to the applied stresses. Through the course of testing, all 15 CFL samples permanently ceased to function as a result of the applied stresses, while only 1 Philips L Prize entry lamp exhibited a failure, the nature of which was minor, non-destructive, and a consequence of a known (and resolved) subcontractor issue. Given that current CFL technology appears to be moderately mature and no Philips L Prize entry failures could be produced within the stress envelope causing 100 percent failure of the benchmark CFLs, it seems that, in this particular implementation, light-emitting diode (LED) technology would be much more durable in the field than current CFL technology. However, the Philips L Prize entry lamps used for testing were carefully designed and built for the competition, while the benchmark CFLs were mass produced for retail sale—a distinction that should be taken into consideration. Further reliability testing on final production samples would be necessary to judge the extent to which the results of this analysis apply to production versions

  2. The high pressure xenon lamp as a source of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heerdt, J.A. ter.

    1979-01-01

    An account is given of an investigation into the radiation properties of a commercially available high pressure xenon lamp (type XBO 900 W) in the spectral range 0.3 to 3 μm. The purpose of the study was to find out whether such a lamp can serve as a (secondary) standard of radiation in spectroscopic and radiometric measurements. The main advantades of the xenon lamp over other secondary standards such as the tungsten strip lamp and the anode of a carbon arc lamp are the high temperature of its discharge and the resulting strong radiation over a broad spectral range. (Auth.)

  3. [Remote Slit Lamp Microscope Consultation System Based on Web].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junfa; Zhuo, Yong; Liu, Zuguo; Chen, Yanping

    2015-11-01

    To realize the remote operation of the slit lamp microscope for department of ophthalmology consultation, and visual display the real-time status of remote slit lamp microscope, a remote slit lamp microscope consultation system based on B/S structure is designed and implemented. Through framing the slit lamp microscope on the website system, the realtime acquisition and transmission of remote control and image data is realized. The three dimensional model of the slit lamp microscope is established and rendered on the web by using WebGL technology. The practical application results can well show the real-time interactive of the remote consultation system.

  4. Recovery of yttrium from cathode ray tubes and lamps’ fluorescent powders: experimental results and economic simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Innocenzi, V.; De Michelis, I.; Ferella, F.; Vegliò, F.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Fluorescent powder of lamps. • Fluorescent powder of cathode ray rubes. • Recovery of yttrium from fluorescent powders. • Economic simulation for the processes to recover yttrium from WEEE. - Abstract: In this paper, yttrium recovery from fluorescent powder of lamps and cathode ray tubes (CRTs) is described. The process for treating these materials includes the following: (a) acid leaching, (b) purification of the leach liquors using sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide, (c) precipitation of yttrium using oxalic acid, and (d) calcinations of oxalates for production of yttrium oxides. Experimental results have shown that process conditions necessary to purify the solutions and recover yttrium strongly depend on composition of the leach liquor, in other words, whether the powder comes from treatment of CRTs or lamp. In the optimal experimental conditions, the recoveries of yttrium oxide are about 95%, 55%, and 65% for CRT, lamps, and CRT/lamp mixture (called MIX) powders, respectively. The lower yields obtained during treatments of MIX and lamp powders are probably due to the co-precipitation of yttrium together with other metals contained in the lamps powder only. Yttrium loss can be reduced to minimum changing the experimental conditions with respect to the case of the CRT process. In any case, the purity of final products from CRT, lamps, and MIX is greater than 95%. Moreover, the possibility to treat simultaneously both CRT and lamp powders is very important and interesting from an industrial point of view since it could be possible to run a single plant treating fluorescent powder coming from two different electronic wastes

  5. Lamp reliability studies for improved satellite rubidium frequency standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frueholz, R. P.; Wun-Fogle, M.; Eckert, H. U.; Volk, C. H.; Jones, P. F.

    1982-01-01

    In response to the premature failure of Rb lamps used in Rb atomic clocks onboard NAVSTAR GPS satellites experimental and theoretical investigations into their failure mechanism were initiated. The primary goal of these studies is the development of an accelerated life test for future GPS lamps. The primary failure mechanism was identified as consumption of the lamp's Rb charge via direct interaction between Rb and the lamp's glass surface. The most effective parameters to accelerate the interaction between the Rb and the glass are felt to be RF excitation power and lamp temperature. Differential scanning calorimetry is used to monitor the consumption of Rb within a lamp as a function of operation time. This technique yielded base line Rb consumption data for GPS lamps operating under normal conditions.

  6. LED lamp color control system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, James; Clauberg, Bernd; Van Erp, Josephus A.M.

    2013-02-05

    An LED lamp color control system and method including an LED lamp having an LED controller 58; and a plurality of LED channels 60 operably connected to the LED controller 58, each of the plurality of LED channels 60 having a channel switch 62 in series with at least one shunted LED circuit 83, the shunted LED circuit 83 having a shunt switch 68 in parallel with an LED source 80. The LED controller 58 determines whether the LED source 80 is in a feedback controllable range, stores measured optical flux for the LED source 80 when the LED source 80 is in the feedback controllable range, and bypasses storing the measured optical flux when the LED source 80 is not in the feedback controllable range.

  7. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-02-01

    This is a special CALiPER report on LED lamps available through the retail marketplace and targeted toward general consumers. It follows similar reports published in 2011 and 2012 (products purchased in 2010 and 2011), and is intended as a continuation that identifies long-term trends. For this report, products were selected to investigate specific hypotheses, rather than represent a sample of the increasingly large retail LED market.

  8. UVR: sun, lamps, pigmentation and vitamin D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, C M; Philipsen, P A; Wulf, H C

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) has important and significant consequences on human health. Recently, there has been renewed interest in the beneficial effects of UVR. This perspective gives an introduction to the solar spectrum, UV lamps, UV dosimetry, skin pigment and vitamin D....... The health benefits of UVR exposure through vitamin D production or non-vitamin D pathways will be discussed in this themed issue in the following articles....

  9. Raman lidar characterization using a reference lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landulfo, Eduardo; da Costa, Renata F.; Rodrigues, Patricia F.; da Silva Lopes, Fábio J.

    2014-10-01

    The determination of the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere using lidar is a calibration dependent technique. Different collocated instruments are used for this purpose, like radiossoundings and microwave radiometers. When there are no collocated instruments available, an independente lamp mapping calibration technique can be used. Aiming to stabilish an independ technique for the calibration of the six channels Nd-YAG Raman lidar system located at the Center for Lasers and Applications (CLA), S˜ao Paulo, Brazil, an optical characterization of the system was first performed using a reference tungsten lamp. This characterization is useful to identify any possible distortions in the interference filters, telescope mirror and stray light contamination. In this paper we show three lamp mapping caracterizations (01/16/2014, 01/22/2014, 04/09/2014). The first day is used to demostrate how the tecnique is useful to detect stray light, the second one how it is sensible to the position of the filters and the third one demostrates a well optimized optical system.

  10. Design of Solar Street Lamp Control System Based on MPPT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Fengying

    This paper proposes a new solar street lamp control system which is composed of photovoltaic cell, controller, battery and load. In this system controller as the key part applies the microchip to achieve many functions. According to the nonlinear output characteristics of solar cell and the influence of environment, it uses the perturbation and observation (P&O) method to realize the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) and promotes the efficiency. In order to prolong the battery life the pulse width modulation (PWM) charge mode is selected to control the battery capacity and provent the battery from the state of over-charge and over-discharge. Meanwhile the function of temperature compensation, charge and discharge protection are set to improve the running safety and stability.

  11. Rapid detection of Brucella spp. using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shouyi; Li, Xunde; Li, Juntao; Atwill, Edward R

    2013-01-01

    Brucella spp. are facultative intracellular bacteria that cause zoonotic disease of brucellosis worldwide. Livestock that are most vulnerable to brucellosis include cattle, goats, and pigs. Brucella spp. cause serious health problems to humans and animals and economic losses to the livestock industry. Traditional methods for detection of Brucella spp. take 48-72 h (Kumar et al., J Commun Dis 29:131-137, 1997; Barrouin-Melo et al., Res Vet Sci 83:340-346, 2007) that do not meet the food industry's need of rapid detection. Therefore, there is an urgent need of fast, specific, sensitive, and inexpensive method for diagnosing of Brucella spp. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a method to amplify nucleic acid at constant temperatures. Amplification can be detected by visual detection, fluorescent stain, turbidity, and electrophoresis. We targeted at the Brucella-specific gene omp25 and designed LAMP primers for detection of Brucella spp. Amplification of DNA with Bst DNA polymerase can be completed at 65 °C in 60 min. Amplified products can be detected by SYBR Green I stain and 2.0% agarose gel electrophoresis. The LAMP method is feasible for detection of Brucella spp. from blood and milk samples.

  12. Light and Light Sources High-Intensity Discharge Lamps

    CERN Document Server

    Flesch, Peter G

    2006-01-01

    Light and Light Sources gives an introduction to the working principles of high-intensity discharge (HID) lamps and points out challenges and problems associated with the development and operation of HID lamps. The state-of-the-art in electrode and plasma diagnostics as well as numerical methods used for the understanding of HID lamps are described. This volume addresses students as well as scientists and researchers at universities and in industry.

  13. 10 CFR 431.322 - Definitions concerning metal halide lamp ballasts and fixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... high intensity discharge fixture, the efficiency of a lamp and ballast combination, expressed as a... lamps. Metal halide lamp means a high intensity discharge lamp in which the major portion of the light... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions concerning metal halide lamp ballasts and...

  14. Sa uurisid ekspressionismi 1960ndatel ja 70ndatel... / Ene Lamp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lamp, Ene

    2005-01-01

    2004. a. ilmunud raamatu "Ekspressionism" eest Eesti Kultuurkapitali suure kunstipreemia (100000 kr.) saanud Ene Lamp ekspressionismi tähenduse muutumiset, ekspressionismi rollist eesti kunstis, oma tulevikuplaanidest

  15. Promoting Literacy and Protection with Solar Lamps in Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry Farrell

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available By distributing solar lamps to vulnerable rural women in Yemen, we promoted enrollment in literacy programs, as well as reading among their children. We saw a number of secondary benefits as well: safer households where dangerous kerosene lamps were used less frequently in the evening; a number of livelihood activities - cooking, husbandry, handicrafts - continued safely into evening hours; children found it easier to work on their homework using the solar powered lamps; and children found it easier and safer to walk in dark, rural streets in the evening with the solar lamps slung around their necks.

  16. Pulsed operation of high-pressure-sodium discharge lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenther, K.; Kloss, H.G.; Lehmann, T.; Radtke, R.; Serick, F.

    1990-01-01

    Results of spectral and photometric measurements are presented for pulsed operated high-pressure-sodium lamps. Choosing for the colour temperature a value of 3000 K, the output spectrum was optimized with respect to colour rendition and lamp efficacy taking the pulse parameters, the sodium mole fraction, and the cold spot temperature as quantities to be varied. For the nominal rating of 70 W a maximum lamp efficacy of 70 lm/W and a colour rendering index of 40 can be obtained. Further improvements of the colour rendition require an enhanced sodium vapour pressure which can be achieved by operating the lamp at rised cold spot temperature. (orig.)

  17. Pulsed operation of high-pressure-sodium discharge lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, K; Kloss, H G; Lehmann, T [Zentrum fuer Forschung und Technologie, Berlin (Germany, F.R.); Radtke, R; Serick, F [Zentralinstitut fuer Elektronenphysik, Berlin (Germany, F.R.)

    1990-01-01

    Results of spectral and photometric measurements are presented for pulsed operated high-pressure-sodium lamps. Choosing for the colour temperature a value of 3000 K, the output spectrum was optimized with respect to colour rendition and lamp efficacy taking the pulse parameters, the sodium mole fraction, and the cold spot temperature as quantities to be varied. For the nominal rating of 70 W a maximum lamp efficacy of 70 lm/W and a colour rendering index of 40 can be obtained. Further improvements of the colour rendition require an enhanced sodium vapour pressure which can be achieved by operating the lamp at rised cold spot temperature. (orig.).

  18. Instructive for disposal of fluorescent; Instructivo de desecho de fluorescentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar Vargas, Gerlin

    2014-07-01

    An instructive is established for the management system of waste fluorescent lamps, ensuring the storage, collection, transportation, and final disposal. The lamp is changed by an official of the Seccion de Matenimiento Construccion of the Oficina de Servicios Generales or is produced with the support of an official of the unit. The fluorescent should be deposited in stock of materials of the building maintenance section or unit specified with the help of a staff and in appropriate conditions. The fluorescent lamp is transported according to the guidelines in the manual. A responsible company is contracted by la Vicerrectoria de Administracion of the Universidad de Costa Rica dedicated to the transport and proper handling of fluorescent lamps [Spanish] Un instructivo es establecido para el sistema de manejo de las lamparas fluorescentes de desecho, garantizando el almacenamiento, recoleccion, transporte, y disposicion final. La lampara es cambiada por un funcionario de la Seccion de Mantenimiento Construccion de la Oficina de Servicios Generales o es realizado con el apoyo de un funcionario de la Unidad. El fluorescente debe ser depositado en el almacen de materiales de la seccion de mantenimiento y construccion o en la unidad especifica con la ayuda de un funcionario y en condiciones adecuadas. La lampara fluorescente es transportada segun las pautas establecidas en el manual. Una empresa responsable es contratada por la Vicerrectoria de Administracion de la Universidad de Costa Rica dedicada al transporte y manejo adecuado de las lamparas fluorescentes.

  19. Modelling the Dynamic Interaction Power System Lamp - Application to High Pressure Mercury Gas Discharge Lamps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZIANE, M.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study the dynamic behaviour of a plant constituted by an electrical power system and a gas discharge lamp, this latter, increasingly used in street lighting, remains a nonlinear load element. Various approaches are used to represent it, one is the approximation of the discharge represented by a hot "channel", which verifies the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium [LTE] or the polynomial form of the conductance variation. A calculation procedure, based on "channel" approximation of the high pressure mercury (HPM gas-discharge lamp, is developed to determine the physical and electric magnitudes, which characterize the dynamic behavior of the couple "lamp-electrical power system". The evolution of the lamp properties when principal parameters of the discharge (pressure of mercury, voltage supply, frequency are varying were studied and analyzed. We show the concordance between simulation, calculations and measurements for electric, energetic or irradiative characteristics. The model reproduces well the evolution of properties of the supply when principal parameters of the discharge vary.

  20. Fluorescence spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagatolli, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy is a powerful experimental tool used by scientists from many disciplines. During the last decades there have been important developments on distinct fluorescence methods, particularly those related to the study of biological phenomena. This chapter discusses the foundati......Fluorescence spectroscopy is a powerful experimental tool used by scientists from many disciplines. During the last decades there have been important developments on distinct fluorescence methods, particularly those related to the study of biological phenomena. This chapter discusses...

  1. Phagosome maturation in unicellular eukaryote Paramecium: the presence of RILP, Rab7 and LAMP-2 homologues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Wyroba

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Phagosome maturation is a complex process enabling degradation of internalised particles. Our data obtained at the gene, protein and cellular level indicate that the set of components involved in this process and known up to now in mammalian cells is functioning in unicellular eukaryote. Rab7-interacting partners: homologues of its effector RILP (Rab-interacting lysosomal protein and LAMP-2 (lysosomal membrane protein 2 as well as a7 subunit of the 26S proteasome were revealed in Paramecium phagolysosomal compartment. We identified the gene/transcript fragments encoding RILP-related proteins (RILP1 and RILP2 in Paramecium by PCR/RT-PCR and sequencing. The deduced amino acid sequences of RILP1 and RILP2 show 60.5% and 58.3% similarity, respectively, to the region involved in regulating of lysosomal morphology and dynein-dynactin recruitment of human RILP. RILP colocalised with Rab7 in Paramecium lysosomes and at phagolysosomal membrane during phagocytosis of both the latex beads and bacteria. In the same compartment LAMP-2 was present and its expression during latex internalisation was 2.5-fold higher than in the control when P2 protein fractions (100 000 x g of equal load were quantified by immunoblotting. LAMP-2 crossreacting polypeptide of ~106 kDa was glycosylated as shown by fluorescent and Western analysis of the same blot preceded by PNGase F treatment. The a7 subunit of 26S proteasome was detected close to the phagosomal membrane in the small vesicles, in some of which it colocalised with Rab7. Immunoblotting confirmed presence of RILPrelated polypeptide and a7 subunit of 26S proteasome in Paramecium protein fractions. These results suggest that Rab7, RILP and LAMP-2 may be involved in phagosome maturation in Paramecium.

  2. Reactor as furnace and reactor as lamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldanskii, V.I.

    1992-01-01

    There are presented general characteristics of the following ways of transforming of nuclear energy released in reactors into chemical : ordinary way (i.e. trough the heat, mechanical energy and electricity); chemonuclear synthesis ; use of high-temperature fuel elements (reactor as furnace); use of the mixed nγ-radiation of reactors; use of the radiation loops; radiation - photochemical synthesis (reactor as lamp). Advantage and disadvantages of all above variants are compared. The yield of the primary product of fixation of nitrogen (nitric oxide NO) in reactor with the high-temperature (above ca. 1900degC) fuel elements (reactor-furnace) can exceed W ∼ 200 kg per gram of burned uranium. For the latter variant (reactor-lamp) the yield of chemical products can reach W ∼ 60 kg. per gram of uranium. Such values of W are close to or even strongly exceed the yields of chemical products for other abovementioned variants and - what is particularly important - are not connected to the necessity of archscrupulous removal of radioactive contamination of products. (author)

  3. [Near infrared light irradiator using halogen lamp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Yasuo

    2012-07-01

    The practical electric light bulb was invented by Thomas Alva Edison in 1879. Halogen lamp is the toughest and brightest electric light bulb. With light filter, it is used as a source of near infrared light. Super Lizer and Alphabeam are made as near infrared light irradiator using halogen lamp. The light emmited by Super Lizer is linear polarized near infrared light. The wave length is from 600 to 1,600 nm and strongest at about 1,000 nm. Concerning Super Lizer, there is evidence of analgesic effects and normalization of the sympathetic nervous system. Super Lizer has four types of probes. SG type is used for stellate ganglion irradiation. B type is used for narrow area irradiation. C and D types are for broad area irradiation. The output of Alphabeam is not polarized. The wave length is from 700 to 1,600 nm and the strongest length is about 1,000nm. Standard attachment is used for spot irradiation. Small attachment is used for stellate ganglion irradiation. Wide attachment is used for broad area irradiation. The effects of Alphabeam are thought to be similar to that of Super Lizer.

  4. Use of efficient lamps in Brazil and the energetic and environmental gains; Emprego de lampadas eficientes no Brasil e os ganhos energeticos e ambientais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, Jamil; Nogueira, Luiz Augusto Horta; Cardoso, Rafael Balbino; Souza, Edson Palhares de [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (EXCEN/UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Centro de Excelencia em Eficiencia Energetica], emails: jamil@unifei.edu.br, horta@unifei.edu.br, cardosorb@unifei.edu.br, palharess@unifei.edu.br

    2010-07-01

    This study esteem the energy, environmental and economical impacts the use of compact fluorescent lamps - CFL's in the Brazilian residential sector, considering data of the illumination systems ownership and use habits research in the sector, accomplished by PROCEL. According to evaluation the introduction of more efficient lamps in the sector resulted in 12.2 thousand GWh of energy saving (14.5% of the sector consumption) and in 4.4 GW of reduction in the pick demand (7% annual maximum demand registered) in 2005. The study also indicates positive impacts of the environmental and economical view point. (author)

  5. 3D restoration microscopy improves quantification of enzyme-labeled fluorescence-based single-cell phosphatase activity in plankton. Cytometry Part A, 85A: 841–853

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Diaz-de-Quijano, D.; Palacios, P.; Horňák, Karel; Felip, M.

    85A, č. 10 (2014), s. 841-853 ISSN 1552-4922 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : 3D fluorescence microscopy * deconvolution * ELF phosphate * phosphatase activity * phytoplankton Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.928, year: 2014

  6. Powerful highly efficient KrF lamps excited by surface and barrier discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisov, V M; Vodchits, V A; El'tsov, A V; Khristoforov, O B

    1998-01-01

    An investigation was made of the characteristics of KrF lamps with different types of excitation by surface and barrier discharges in which the dielectric material was sapphire. The conditions were determined for the attainment of an extremely high yield of the KrF* fluorescence with the internal efficiency η in ∼30 % and 22% for pulsed surface and barrier discharges, respectively. A homogeneous surface discharge was maintained without gas circulation when the pulse repetition rate was 5 x 10 4 Hz. Quasicontinuous excitation of a surface discharge at near-atmospheric pressure made it possible to reach a KrF* fluorescence power density of about 80 W cm -3 , which was close to the limit set by the kinetics of the gaseous medium. Under prolonged excitation conditions the intensity of the UV output radiation was limited by the permissible heating of the gas to a temperature above which the operating life of the gaseous mixture containing fluorine fell steeply. This was the reason for the advantage of surface over barrier discharges: the former were characterised by a high thermal conductivity of a thin (∼0.2 mm) plasma layer on the surface of the cooled dielectric, which made it possible to construct powerful highly efficient KrF and ArF lamps emitting UV radiation of up to 1 W cm -2 intensity. (laser system components)

  7. Surface dosimetry in phototherapy: comparison of three ultraviolet B lamps used in the treatment of psoriasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snow, J.L.; Muller, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    The quantitation (dosimetry) of ultraviolet B irradiation (UVB) administered during phototherapy for psoriasis is fundamental to this modality of treatment because only absorbed irradiation can cause a photochemical reaction and, hence, a phototherapeutic effect. Significant differences may exist in surface dosimetry achieved with different UVB irradiators, and this could have important consequences for the observed clinical efficacy of phototherapy as well as practical implications for avoiding burning when transferring patients between systems. Multiple anatomically referenced polysulphone photodosimeters were applied to the skin of five subjects receiving treatment for severe psoriasis. Three subjects were irradiated with both a free-standing hot quartz lamp and a fluorescent cabinet. Two others were irradiated with a flat bank of fluorescent tubes. Topographical maps of surface irradiation were constructed. 'Cold' areas ( 100% of stated dose) included the forearms and posterior thighs for the hot quartz lamp; the lateral arms, dorsal forearm, and abdomen for the cabinet; and the central trunk (anterior and posterior) for the bank of tubes. Thus, striking differences in surface irradiation exist among the three UVB irradiators studied, and this has an impact on the results of phototherapy for psoriasis. (author)

  8. Demixing in a metal halide lamp, results from modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beks, M.L.; Hartgers, A.; Mullen, van der J.J.A.M.; Veldhuizen, van E.M.

    2005-01-01

    Metal Halide (MH) lamps are high pressure discharge devices, containing a complex chemical mixture, to emit light on a broad spectrum while maintaining good efficacies. Lamps of this type were first exhibited by General Electric at the 1964 World Fair in New York [1]. They typically consist of an

  9. 49 CFR 393.11 - Lamps and reflective devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... dolly obscures the turn signals at the rear of the towing vehicle. Footnote—6Pole trailers shall be... signals and the two rear signals to flash simultaneously as a vehicular traffic signal warning, required... vehicle, exclusive of the signal lamps, marker lamps, outside rearview mirrors, flexible fender extensions...

  10. High power solid state retrofit lamp thermal characterization and modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakovenko, J.; Formánek, J.; Vladimír, J.; Husák, M.; Werkhoven, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Thermal and thermo-mechanical modeling and characterization of solid state lightening (SSL) retrofit LED Lamp are presented in this paper. Paramount Importance is to design SSL lamps for reliability, in which thermal and thermo-mechanical aspects are key points. The main goal is to get a precise 3D

  11. Luminous flux and colour maintenance investigation of integrated LED lamps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corell, Dennis Dan; Thorseth, Anders; Dam-Hansen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    This article will present an investigation of the luminous flux and colour maintenance of white LED based retrofit lamps. The study includes 23 different types of integrated LED lamps, covering 18 directional and 5 non-directional. Luminous flux and colour data for operation up to 20000 h has been...

  12. Thermal simulation and validation of 8W LED lamp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakovenko, J.; Werkhoven, R.J.; Formánek, J.; Kunen, J.M.G.; Bolt, P.J.; Kulha, P.

    2011-01-01

    This work deals with thermal simulation and characterization of solid state lightening (SSL) LED Lamp in order to get precise 3D thermal models for further lamp thermal optimization. Simulations are performed with ANSYS-CFX and CoventorWare software tools. The simulated thermal distribution has been

  13. Ignition of mercury-free high intensity discharge lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czichy, M; Mentel, J; Awakowicz, P; Hartmann, T

    2008-01-01

    To achieve a better understanding of the ignition behaviour of D4 lamps for automotive headlights the ignition of mercury-free metal iodide test lamps characterized by a high xenon pressure, a small electrode distance and small electrode-wall distances is investigated. The ignition of these lamps is dominated by a high voltage requirement. Nevertheless lamps are found that show a surprisingly low ignition voltage. Electrical measurements and simultaneous optical observations of the ultra-fast streamer processes show that the breakdown takes place in two different modes. One of the ignition modes which requires a high ignition voltage is characterized by a breakdown in the volume between the electrode tips. The other mode is characterized by streamer discharges along the wall. In this case the cathode, its base and the wall around is involved in the ignition process and the lamp breaks down at low voltages

  14. Phase-resolved response of a metal-halide lamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flikweert, A J; Beks, M L; Nimalasuriya, T; Kroesen, G M W; Van der Mullen, J J A M; Stoffels, W W

    2009-01-01

    The metal-halide (MH) lamp sometimes shows unwanted colour segregation, caused by a combination of convection and diffusion. In the past we investigated the lamp, running on a switched dc ballast of 120 Hz, using a dc approximation for the distribution of the radiating species. Here we present phase-resolved intensity measurements to verify this approximation. The MH lamp contains Hg as buffer gas and DyI 3 as salt additive; we measure the light emitted by Dy and by Hg atoms. An intensity fluctuation of ∼25% close to the electrodes is found only. The observed fluctuations are explained by the cataphoresis effect and temperature fluctuations; the time scales are in the same order. Furthermore, measurements at higher gravity in a centrifuge (up to 10g) show that the effect becomes smaller at increasing gravity levels. From these results it is concluded that a dc approximation, which is generally assumed by lamp developers, is allowed for this MH lamp.

  15. Photo-dynamic therapy (pdt) for skin cancer using a xenon arc lamp with interference filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagekyriakou, J.

    2004-01-01

    , using the above light source in combination with Methyl Aminolevulinate (Metvix, by Galderma) as the photosensitizing agent. The patient's tumours were scraped using a small curette, in order to remove loose crust and debris from the surface. The photosensitizing drug, in a cream base, was then applied to the lesion and covered with a transparent occlusive dressing (Tegaderm, 3M) for a period not less than 3 hours, to allow the drug to diffuse throughout the lesion in question. The patient subsequently returned to the clinic whereupon the dressing was removed, excess cream wiped from the surface, and light irradiation was administered to a dose of 40 Joule/cm 2 . The light beam was delivered from the lamp using an 8mm diameter Liquid Light Guide, whose light transfer and coupling efficiency is greater than that of a glass or plastic optical fibre, for this type of application; including transmission in the UV. On application of the UV light following the 3 hour drug uptake, visible fluorescence was observed in patients with superficial BCC and Paget's Extramammary disease, with minimal (if any) fluorescence present in the neighbouring normal skin (to which drug was also applied). The fluorescence demonstrates that the photosensitizing drug has stimulated the accumulation of Hematoporphyrins within the diseased area, indicating that subsequent photo irradiation will be potentially beneficial. Excellent cosmetic results were obtained for superficial BCCs, even at 2 weeks post-treatment, for the patients evaluated thus far. Longer follow-up, typically 4 to 6 weeks, is required for a more quantitative evaluation of the procedure using the above technique. A Xenon arc lamp is capable of producing sufficient power at narrow bandwidth within the red part of the spectrum, selectable with interference filters, and be delivered to the skin surface in a flexible manner using a liquid light guide, in order to facilitate PDT for a variety of skin cancers. This type of technique

  16. Uranium vapor generator: pulsed hollow cathode lamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carleer, M.; Gagne, J.; Leblanc, B.; Demers, Y.; Mongeau, B.

    1979-01-01

    The production of uranium vapors has been studied in the 5 L 0 6 ground state using a pulsed hollow cathode lamp. The evolution of the 238 U ( 5 L 0 6 ) concentration with time has been studied with Xe and Ar as buffer gases. A density of 2.7 x 10 13 atoms cm -3 was obtained with Xe as a buffer gas. In addition, those measurements, obtained from the absorption of a laser beam tuned to the 5758.143 A ( 5 L 0 6 -17,361 7 L 6 ) transition, allowed the determination of the transition probability A=2.1 x 10 5 sec -1 and of the branching ratio BR=0.08 for this transition

  17. Modelling the Dynamic Interaction Power System Lamp - Application to High Pressure Mercury Gas Discharge Lamps

    OpenAIRE

    ZIANE, M.; MEDLES, K.; ADJOUDJ, M.; MILOUA, F.; DAMELINCOURT, J. J.; TILMATINE, A.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the dynamic behaviour of a plant constituted by an electrical power system and a gas discharge lamp, this latter, increasingly used in street lighting, remains a nonlinear load element. Various approaches are used to represent it, one is the approximation of the discharge represented by a hot "channel", which verifies the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium [LTE] or the polynomial form of the conductance variation. A calculation procedure, based on ...

  18. Detection of Coconut cadang-cadang viroid (CCCVd) in oil palm by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanarajoo, Sathis Sri; Kong, Lih Ling; Kadir, Jugah; Lau, Wei Hongi; Vadamalai, Ganesan

    2014-06-01

    A reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) detected Coconut cadang-cadang viroid (CCCVd) within 60 min at 60 °C in total nucleic acid extracted from oil palm leaves infected with CCCVd. Positive reactions showed colour change from orange to green in the reaction mix after the addition of fluorescent reagent, and a laddering pattern band on 2% agarose gel electrophoresis. Conventional RT-PCR with LAMP primers produced amplicons with a sequence identical to the 297-nt CCCVd oil palm variant with the primers being specific for CCCVd and not for other viroids such as PSTVd and CEVd. RT-LAMP was found to be rapid and specific for detecting oil palm CCCVd. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Application Summary Report 22: LED MR16 Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royer, Michael P.

    2014-07-23

    This report analyzes the independently tested photometric performance of 27 LED MR16 lamps. It describes initial performance based on light output, efficacy, distribution, color quality, electrical characteristics, and form factor, with comparisons to a selection of benchmark halogen MR16s and ENERGY STAR qualification thresholds. Three types of products were targeted. First, CALiPER sought 3000 K lamps with the highest rated lumen output (i.e., at least 500 lm) or a claim of equivalency to a 50 W halogen MR16 or higher. The test results indicate that while the initial performance of LED MR16s has improved across the board, market-available products still do not produce the lumen output and center beam intensity of typical 50 W halogen MR16 lamps. In fact, most of the 18 lamps in this category had lower lumen output and center beam intensity than a typical 35 W halogen MR16 lamp. Second, CALiPER sought lamps with a CRI of 90 or greater. Only four manufacturers were identified with a product in this category. CALiPER testing confirmed the performance of these lamps, which are a good option for applications where high color fidelity is needed. A vast majority of the LED MR16 lamps have a CRI in the low 80s; this is generally acceptable for ambient lighting, but may not always be acceptable for focal lighting. For typical LED packages, there is a fundamental tradeoff between CRI and efficacy, but the lamps in the high-CRI group in this report still offer comparable performance to the rest of the Series 22 products in other performance areas. Finally, CALiPER sought lamps with a narrow distribution, denoted as a beam angle less than 15°. Five such lamps were purchased. Notably, no lamp was identified as having high lumen output (500 lumens or greater), high CRI (90 or greater), a narrow distribution (15° or less), and an efficacy greater than 60 lm/W. This would be an important achievement for LED MR16s especially if output could reach approximately 700 800 lumens

  20. Dimmable Electronic Ballast for a Gas Discharge Lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raducanu, Marius; Hennings, Brian D.

    2013-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is the most efficient photocatalyst for organic oxidative degradation. TiO2 is effective not only in aqueous solution, but also in nonaqueous solvents and in the gas phase. It is photostable, biologically and chemically inert, and non-toxic. Low-energy UV light (approximately 375 nm, UV-A) can be used to photoactivate TiO2. TiO2 photocatalysis has been used to mineralize most types of organic compounds. Also, TiO2 photocatalysis has been effectively used in sterilization. This effectiveness has been demonstrated by its aggressive destruction of microorganisms, and aggressive oxidation effects of toxins. It also has been used for the oxidation of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide, and ammonia to nitrogen. Despite having many attractive features, advanced photocatalytic oxidation processes have not been effectively used for air cleaning. One of the limitations of the traditional photocatalytic systems is the ballast that powers (lights) the bulbs. Almost all commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) ballasts are not dimmable and do not contain safety features. COTS ballasts light the UV lamp as bright as the bulb can be lit, and this results in shorter bulb lifetime and maximal power consumption. COTS magnetic ballasts are bulky, heavy, and inefficient. Several iterations of dimmable electronic ballasts have been developed. Some manifestations have safety features such as broken-bulb or over-temperature warnings, replace-bulb alert, logbulb operational hours, etc. Several electronic ballast boards capable of independently lighting and controlling (dimming) four fluorescent (UV light) bulbs were designed, fabricated, and tested. Because of the variation in the market bulb parameters, the ballast boards were designed with a very broad range output. The ballast boards can measure and control the current (power) for each channel.

  1. Criteria of choice in the planning of a solar radiation lamp arrangement, in climatic chambers for plant physiology studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Materassi, A.; Fasano, G.; Vincenzi, M. De

    2006-01-01

    This technical note is an integration of the previous study: Climatic chambers for plant physiology: a new project concept. This note gives details regarding the planning of the lamp arrangement and demonstrates how mixing, in appropriate quantities, the radiative range of various types of lamps can give apparently contrasting results: to maximize radiation in maximum absorption range of chlorophylls and carotenoids; to minimize heat emission in the climatic chamber. With nine daylight fluorescent tubes, four sunlight metallic halide spotlights and nine red-blue fluorescent tubes, for a total of 562 W mE-2 (electric), mounted on the ceiling of a 2 m high chamber with a 4 square m surface area, on the chamber floor about 130 W mE-2 total solar radiation equivalent was obtained. This means a power emitted, in the bands of chlorophylls and carotenoids absorption, from a total solar radiation (black body of 5,500 K) of about 130 W mE-2. This radiation is sufficient to grow a large number of plant species. In the lamp arrangement there are seven other light fixtures, for fluorescent tubes, defined as auxiliary because tubes can be inserted which either integrate active radiation on the photoreceptors or produce particular spectral ranges. In the above cited work, fluorescent tubes producing in the ultraviolet B range were mounted in these auxiliary fixtures. Less thermal energy emitted in the climatic chamber means that it is possible to use a less powerful conditioning system and, thus, have lower costs of set-up and management. The efficiency of the lighting system is demonstrated by the fact that during 15 days of experimentation on 18-month-old, potted poplar plants (Populus alba), symptoms of insufficient light were not detected [it

  2. Comparison of effect of TDS and Fe in uranium measurement in LED and Xe lamp based fluorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, S.K.; Mohapatra, S.; Lenka, P.; Dubey, J.S.; Patra, A.C.; Thakur, V.K.; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of TDS and Fe on uranium fluorescence in water samples is studied by fluorometric techniques based on LED and xenon lamp systems. Fluorimeters are calibrated with uranium standards to establish the relationship between concentration and fluorescence response. Known concentration of uranium standard solution is measured in both LED and Xe lamp based fluorimeter after spiking with a series of concentration of Fe and TDS solution. Most often high levels of TDS are caused by the presence of K, CI, Na, etc. Thus here the effect of TDS is studied with NaCI solution but the effect may differ with the presence other elements. Details of the optimization procedure and measurement of uranium concentration in fluorometric technique are given elsewhere. In LED based system, sodium pyrophosphate with phosphoric acid is used as the complexing agent while sodium polysilicate is used in Xe lamp based system. Fe standard solution of 0.1 to 10 ppm was spiked with known uranium standard and analysed in both the fluorimeters. The fluorescence response gradually decreased upto 50% with 10 ppm of Fe in the solution in the LED based system whereas there was a gradual decrease of fluorescence response with increase in Fe concentration and it was 60% with 10 ppm of Fe. Thus both the instruments show nearly equal response with the increasing concentration of Fe in sample solution. Therefore, in case of high TDS and Fe content in the sample, precautions should be taken during measurement of uranium in water samples directly by fluorimetric techniques

  3. Axial mercury segregation in direct current operated low-pressure argon-mercury gas discharge: Part I. Experimental

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielen, J.W.A.M.; de Groot, S.; Dijk, van J.; Mullen, van der J.J.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Due to cataphoresis, axial segregation of mercury will occur when the gas discharge of a fluorescent lamp is operated by means of a direct current. A consequence of this is a non-uniform axial luminance distribution along the lamp. To determine the degree of axial mercury segregation experimentally,

  4. Photodegradation of 17α-ethynylestradiol in aqueous solution exposed to a high-pressure mercury lamp (250 W)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.L.; Wu, F.; Deng, N.S.

    2003-01-01

    The photodegradation of 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE 2 ) induced by high-pressure mercury lamp (λ≥313, 250 W) in aqueous solution of EE 2 was investigated initially. The affecting factors on the photodegradation were studied and described in details, such as EE 2 initial concentration, Fe 3+ , algae, exposure time, and so on. The concentration of EE 2 in distilled water was mainly determined using fluorescence spectrophotometer. The photodegradation of EE 2 in aqueous solution exposed to high-pressure mercury lamp was evident and could be accelerated by Fe 3+ or algae (e.g. Anabaena cylindrica) in general. With the algae concentration increasing, photodegradation rate increased. In this paper, the mechanism of photocatalytic degradation of EE 2 by Fe 3+ or algae is discussed primarily. - Photodegradation increased with increasing concentrations of algae

  5. THE APPARATUS FOR ALIGNMENT OF THE PHOTOMETRIC LAMP FILAMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Dlugunovich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During photometric measurements involving the use of photometric lamps it is necessary that the filament of lamp takes a strictly predetermined position with respect to the photodetector and the optical axis of the photometric setup. The errors in positioning of alignment filament with respect to the optical axis of the measuring system lead to increase the uncertainty of measurement of the photometric characteristics of the light sources. A typical method for alignment of filament of photometric lamps is based on the use a diopter tubes (telescopes. Using this method, the mounting of filament to the required position is carried out by successive approximations, which requires special concentration and a lot of time. The aim of this work is to develop an apparatus for alignment which allows simultaneous alignment of the filament of lamps in two mutually perpendicular planes. The method and apparatus for alignment of the photometric lamp filament during measurements of the photometric characteristics of light sources based on two digital video cameras is described in this paper. The apparatus allows to simultaneously displaying the image of lamps filament on the computer screen in two mutually perpendicular planes. The apparatus eliminates a large number of functional units requiring elementwise alignment and reduces the time required to carry out the alignment. The apparatus also provides the imaging of lamps filament with opaque coated on the bulb. The apparatus is used at the National standard of light intensity and illuminance units of the Republic of Belarus. 

  6. Why does the lumen maintenance of sodium-scandium metal halide lamps improve by VHF operation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Erk, W; Luijks, G M J F; Hitchcock, W

    2011-01-01

    Lifetime experiments show that sodium-scandium metal halide lamps perform better on very high frequency (VHF) drivers than on low frequency (LF) constant wattage autotransformer (CWA) ballasts. The question why, will be addressed with focus on arc tube aspects. It is argued that at high frequency operation sodium loss is less, and that the absence of thermal fluctuations in the electrode tip causes less damage and cracking to this part of the electrode. Sudden lm W -1 drops, observed with CWA-operated lamps, most probably occur when the arc attaches on such a corroded and cracked surface. Thorium is effective as an emitter both in the CWA and the VHF operation mode, despite the absence of cataphoretic transport to the cathode in the VHF case.

  7. Why does the lumen maintenance of sodium-scandium metal halide lamps improve by VHF operation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Erk, W [Philips Lighting, Sondervick 47, 5505 NB Veldhoven (Netherlands); Luijks, G M J F [Advanced Development Lighting, Philips Lighting, PO Box 80020, 5600 JM Eindhoven (Netherlands); Hitchcock, W, E-mail: Gerard.luijks@philips.com [Philips Lighting Company, 7265 Route 54, Bath, NY 14810 (United States)

    2011-06-08

    Lifetime experiments show that sodium-scandium metal halide lamps perform better on very high frequency (VHF) drivers than on low frequency (LF) constant wattage autotransformer (CWA) ballasts. The question why, will be addressed with focus on arc tube aspects. It is argued that at high frequency operation sodium loss is less, and that the absence of thermal fluctuations in the electrode tip causes less damage and cracking to this part of the electrode. Sudden lm W{sup -1} drops, observed with CWA-operated lamps, most probably occur when the arc attaches on such a corroded and cracked surface. Thorium is effective as an emitter both in the CWA and the VHF operation mode, despite the absence of cataphoretic transport to the cathode in the VHF case.

  8. Effect of starting point formation on the crystallization of amorphous silicon films by flash lamp annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Daiki; Ohdaira, Keisuke

    2018-04-01

    We succeed in the crystallization of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films by flash lamp annealing (FLA) at a low fluence by intentionally creating starting points for the trigger of explosive crystallization (EC). We confirm that a partly thick a-Si part can induce the crystallization of a-Si films. A periodic wavy structure is observed on the surface of polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) on and near the thick parts, which is a clear indication of the emergence of EC. Creating partly thick a-Si parts can thus be effective for the control of the starting point of crystallization by FLA and can realize the crystallization of a-Si with high reproducibility. We also compare the effects of creating thick parts at the center and along the edge of the substrates, and a thick part along the edge of the substrates leads to the initiation of crystallization at a lower fluence.

  9. The health risks associated with energy efficient fluorescent, LEDs, and artificial lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Allen

    2014-09-01

    With the phasing out of incandescent lamps in many countries, the introduction of new LED based light sources and luminaries sometimes raise the question of whether the spectral characteristics of the LED and other energy savings Fluorescent lights including the popular CFLs are suitable to replace the traditional incandescent lamps. These concerns are sometimes raised particularly for radiation emissions in the UV and Blue parts of the spectrum. This paper aims to address such concerns for the common `white light' sources typically used in household and other general lighting used in the work place. Recent studies have shown that women working the night shift have an increased probability of developing breast cancer. We like to report on the findings of many studies done by medical professionals, in particular the recent announcement of AMA in the US and many studies conducted in the UK, as well as the European community to increase public awareness on the long term health risks of the optical and opto-biological effects on the human health caused by artificial lighting.

  10. 78 FR 51463 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Metal Halide Lamp Fixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... merging the metal halide lamp fixture and the high-intensity discharge (HID) lamp rulemakings. This NOPR... Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Metal Halide Lamp Fixtures; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal...: Energy Conservation Standards for Metal Halide Lamp Fixtures AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and...

  11. Model study of DC ignition of fluorescent tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brok, W J M; Gendre, M F; Mullen, J J A M van der

    2007-01-01

    Breakdown in a discharge tube is investigated by means of a fluid model. The discharge tube is similar to a compact fluorescent lamp tube, containing argon at 3 Torr and mercury at a few millitorr. It was found that the minimum breakdown voltage is decreased substantially compared with a tube containing pure argon. Penning ionization of mercury via an argon metastable state plays an important role in this effect. This is illustrated for a lamp operated on a DC voltage, where significant Penning ionization takes place in the wake of the ionization front. Furthermore, contrary to what is suggested in earlier literature, the development of the surface potential of the lamp is shown to be not only determined by surface charges, but also by volume charges

  12. Sustainable LED Fluorescent Light Replacement Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2011-09-30

    Ilumisys and the National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS) partnered on a three-year project awarded by the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE), to quantify the impacts of LED lamps, incandescent lamps and fluorescent benchmark lamps over a product lifecycle – i.e. to develop a sustainable design and manufacturing strategy that addresses product manufacturing, use, recycling and disposal scenarios for LED-based lighting. Based on the knowledge gained from extensive product tear-down studies of fluorescent and screw-in lighting products, lifecycle assessment tools, and accelerated lifecycle testing protocols, an interactive Sustainable LED Design Guide has been developed to aid architectural and lighting designers and engineers in making design decisions that consider three important environmental impacts (greenhouse gas emissions, energy use and mercury emission) across all phases of the life of an LED lighting product. Critical information developed for the lifecycle analysis and product feature comparisons is the useful life of the lighting product as well as its performance. The Design Guide is available at www.ncms.org, and was developed based on operational and durability testing of a variety of lighting products including power consumption, light output, and useful life of a lamp in order to allow a more realistic comparison of lamp designs. This report describes the main project tasks, results and innovative features of the lifecycle assessment (LCA)-based design tools, and the key considerations driving the sustainable design of LED lighting systems. The Design Guide incorporates the following three novel features for efficiently evaluating LED lighting features in value-chains: Bill-of-Materials (BOM) Builder – Designers may import process data for each component and supply functional data for the product, including power, consumption, lumen output and expected useful life: Environmental Impact Review – Designs are comparable

  13. Investigation of acoustic resonances in high-power lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kettlitz, M; Zalach, J; Rarbach, J

    2011-01-01

    High-power, medium-pressure, mercury-containing lamps are used as UV sources for many industrial applications. Lamps investigated in this paper are driven with an electronic ballast with a non-sinusoidal current waveform at a fixed frequency of 20 kHz and a maximum power output of 35 kW. Instabilities can occur if the input power is reduced below 50%. The reason is identified as acoustic resonances in the lamp. Comparison of calculated and measured resonance frequencies shows a good agreement and explains the observed lamp behaviour. This has led to the development of a new ballast prototype which is able to avoid instabilities by changing the driving frequency dependent on the applied power.

  14. Anti-glare LED lamps with adjustable illumination light field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Sheng; Lin, Chung-Yi; Yeh, Chun-Ming; Kuo, Chie-Tong; Hsu, Chih-Wei; Wang, Hsiang-Chen

    2014-03-10

    We introduce a type of LED light-gauge steel frame lamp with an adjustable illumination light field that does not require a diffusion plate. Base on the Monte Carlo ray tracing method, this lamp has a good glare rating (GR) of 17.5 at 3050 lm. Compared with the traditional LED light-gauge steel frame lamp (without diffusion plate), the new type has low GR. The adjustability of the illumination light field could improve the zebra effect caused by the inadequate illumination light field of the lamp. Meanwhile, we adopt the retinal image analysis to discuss the influence of GR on vision. High GR could reflect stray light on the retinal image, which will reduce vision clarity and hasten the feeling of eye fatigue.

  15. LOOP mediated isothermal AMPlification (LAMP) in diagnosis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-02-28

    Feb 28, 2012 ... Due to disadvantages of known ... advantages, as compared to traditional diagnostic methods like ... Products of LAMP reaction are DNA fragments with stemloop ..... "Differentiation of Cryptococcus neoformans varieties and.

  16. Evaluation and improvement of LAMP assays for detection of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... principle of the reaction per- formed by a DNA polymerase with strand displacement ... target sequence in the later stage of the LAMP reaction. Under an isothermal ..... Mutation detec- tion and single-molecule counting using isothermal roll-.

  17. Part-per-trillion level detection of estradiol by competitive fluorescence immunoassay using DNA/dye conjugate as antibody multiple labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shengchao; Zhang, Qin; Guo, Liang-Hong

    2008-08-22

    Fluorescent organic dyes are currently the standard signal-generating labels used in microarray quantification. However, new labeling strategies are needed to meet the demand for high sensitivity in the detection of low-abundance proteins and small molecules. In this report, a long-chain DNA/dye conjugate was used to attach multiple fluorescence labels on antibodies to improve signal intensity and immunoassay sensitivity. Compared with the 30 base-pair (bp) oligonucleotide used in our previous work [Q. Zhang, L.-H. Guo, Bioconjugate Chem. 18 (2007) 1668-1672], conjugation of a 219 bp DNA in solution with a fluorescent DNA binder SYBR Green I resulted in more than sixfold increase in signal intensity, consistent with the increase in bp number. In a direct immunoassay for the detection of goat anti-mouse IgG in a mouse IgG-coated 96-well plate, the long DNA conjugate label also produced higher fluorescence than the short one, accompanied by about 15-fold improvement in the detection limit. To demonstrate its advantage in real applications, the DNA/dye conjugate was employed in the competitive immunoassay of 17beta-estradiol, a clinically and environmentally important analyte. The biotin-terminated DNA was attached to biotinylated anti-estradiol antibody through the biotin/streptavidin/biotin bridge after the immuno-reaction was completed, followed by conjugation with SYBR Green I. The limit of detection for 17beta-estradiol is 1.9 pg mL(-1), which is 200-fold lower than the assay using fluorescein-labeled antibodies. The new multiple labeling strategy uses readily available reagents, and is also compatible with current biochip platform. It has great potential in the sensitive detection of protein and antibody microarrays.

  18. Metal-halide lamp design: atomic and molecular data needed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapatovich, Walter P

    2009-01-01

    Metal-halide lamps are a subset of high intensity discharge (HID) lamps so named because of their high radiance. These lamps are low temperature (∼0.5 eV), weakly ionized plasmas sustained in refractory but light transmissive envelopes by the passage of electric current through atomic and molecular vapors. For commercial applications, the conversion of electric power to light must occur with good efficiency and with sufficient spectral content throughout the visible (380-780 nm) to permit the light so generated to render colors comparable to natural sunlight. This is achieved by adding multiple metals to a basic mercury discharge. Because the vapor pressure of most metals is very much lower than mercury itself, metal-halide salts of the desired metals, having higher vapor pressures, are used to introduce the material into the basic discharge. The metal compounds are usually polyatomic iodides, which vaporize and subsequently dissociate as they diffuse into the bulk plasma. Metals with multiple visible transitions are necessary to achieve high photometric efficiency (efficacy) and good color. Compounds of Sc, Dy, Ho, Tm, Ce, Pr, Yb and Nd are commonly used. The electrons, atoms and radicals are in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE), but not with the radiation field. Strong thermal (10 6 K m -1 ) and density gradients are sustained in the discharge. Atomic radiation produced in the high-temperature core transits through colder gas regions where it interacts with cold atoms and un-dissociated molecules before exiting the lamp. Power balance and spectral output of the lamp are directly affected by the strength of atomic transitions. Attempts to simulate the radiative output of functional metal-halide lamps have been successful only in very simple cases. More data (e.g. the atomic transition probabilities of Ce i) are necessary to improve lamp performance, to select appropriate radiators and in scaling the lamp geometry to various wattages for specific applications.

  19. Determination of line broadening constants in high pressure discharge lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, M; Schubert, H; Meier, S; Born, M; Reiter, D; Stroesser, M

    2005-01-01

    A numerical model of the radiative transfer in high pressure metal halide discharge lamps is used to determine line broadening parameters for atomic scandium lines. The determined broadening constants are in qualitative agreement with theoretical estimates in many cases, but significant deviations exist. The data obtained from this paper can, therefore, be used to further improve modelling of radiative contributions to the energy balance in such types of discharge lamps

  20. A gas discharge lamp for the extreme ultraviolet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, A J

    1970-05-01

    A gas discharge lamp is described suitable for producing the many-lined spectrum of hydrogen (85-160 nm) and the Hopfield continuum in helium (60-100 nm). It was designed for use with a window-less monochromator to study photoionization and operates at pressures below 50 Torr. The hydrogen lamp has a mode of operation which concentrates the discharge into the monochromator entrance slit.

  1. Slit-lamp photography and videography with high magnifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jin; Jiang, Hong; Mao, Xinjie; Ke, Bilian; Yan, Wentao; Liu, Che; Cintrón-Colón, Hector R; Perez, Victor L; Wang, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To demonstrate the use of the slit-lamp photography and videography with extremely high magnifications for visualizing structures of the anterior segment of the eye. Methods A Canon 60D digital camera with Movie Crop Function was adapted into a Nikon FS-2 slit-lamp to capture still images and video clips of the structures of the anterior segment of the eye. Images obtained using the slit-lamp were tested for spatial resolution. The cornea of human eyes was imaged with the slit-lamp and the structures were compared with the pictures captured using the ultra-high resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR-OCT). The central thickness of the corneal epithelium and total cornea was obtained using the slit-lamp and the results were compared with the thickness obtained using UHR-OCT. Results High-quality ocular images and higher spatial resolutions were obtained by using the slit-lamp with extremely high magnifications and Movie Crop Function, rather than the traditional slit-lamp. The structures and characteristics of the cornea, such as the normal epithelium, abnormal epithelium of corneal intraepithelial neoplasia, LASIK interface, and contact lenses, were clearly visualized using this device. These features were confirmed by comparing the obtained images with those acquired using UHR-OCT. Moreover, the tear film debris on the ocular surface and the corneal nerve in the anterior corneal stroma were also visualized. The thicknesses of the corneal epithelium and total cornea were similar to that measured using UHR-OCT (P photography and videography with extremely high magnifications allows better visualization of the anterior segment structures of the eye, especially of the epithelium, when compared with the traditional slit-lamp. PMID:26020484

  2. Development of Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) Assay for Rapid Detection of Cannabis sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Masashi; Aragane, Masako; Nakamura, Kou; Watanabe, Kazuhito; Sasaki, Yohei

    2016-07-01

    In many parts of the world, the possession and cultivation of Cannabis sativa L. are restricted by law. As chemical or morphological analyses cannot identify the plant in some cases, a simple yet accurate DNA-based method for identifying C. sativa is desired. We have developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the rapid identification of C. sativa. By optimizing the conditions for the LAMP reaction that targets a highly conserved region of tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase gene, C. sativa was identified within 50 min at 60-66°C. The detection limit was the same as or higher than that of conventional PCR. The LAMP assay detected all 21 specimens of C. sativa, showing high specificity. Using a simple protocol, the identification of C. sativa could be accomplished within 90 min from sample treatment to detection without use of special equipment. A rapid, sensitive, highly specific, and convenient method for detecting and identifying C. sativa has been developed and is applicable to forensic investigations and industrial quality control.

  3. Deuterium lamps as transfer standards for spectral radiance measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key, P.J.; Nettleton, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the work carried out at NPL and PTB to improve the performance of a low pressure deuterium discharge lamp, so that it can be used as a transfer standard in the spectral range 120 to 350 nm. To this end it was necessary: - to replace the original quartz windows by magnesium fluoride single crystal plates, which were cut perpendicular to the c-axis of the crystal and which had to be free of impurities, - to construct the lamps in that way that the directional uniformity of the emitted radiation is within the demands, - to age the lamps and to preselect only those of which the irradiance was stable within ± 1% during a thirty minute period after warm-up, - to improve the commercially available electrical power supply to meet the operational needs of the lamps. Thus, the deuterium lamps drifted by about 3% over a period of 100 h at all wavelengths except at 250 nm, where the ageing increased to 4.5%. A liquid nitrogen trap has been developed which can be installed between the vacuum system and the lamp. This reduced to about 2% the decrease of the window's transmission during the first hour of operation, caused by the deposition of oil from the vacuum system

  4. Development and commercialisation of rechargeable wooden LED lamps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Schultz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this project was to work with local staff at Kathmandu Alternative Power and Energy Group to commercialise a product which would generate recurring income for the organisation, to enable staff to learn the process of commercialisation and to provide employment and skills in the local community. Rechargeable Light Emitting Diode (LED lamps were deemed suitable for these aims, as they are a simple product, yet one that is urgently required in Nepal due to the prevalence of ‘load-shedding’ – scheduled electrical blackouts. After reviewing the market, it was found that it would be impossible to compete with the price of cheap imported Chinese rechargeable LED lamps, so an alternative approach was taken. This involved sourcing wooden off-cuts from a local furniture factory and transforming them into attractive desk lamps, with the target market being affluent Nepalis, ex-pats living in Nepal and tourists. Successful initial sales were achieved through a Kathmandu-based ex-pat email group, hotel-markets and souvenir stores. KAPEG staff have continued the project, producing variations on the initial design including Himalayan rock salt lamps, employing local people to manufacture lamps and selling them at markets in Kathmandu. Staffing and marketing challenges remain to ensure the lamp manufacture and sales continue.

  5. Intelligent Automatic Right-Left Sign Lamp Based on Brain Signal Recognition System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winda, A.; Sofyan; Sthevany; Vincent, R. S.

    2017-12-01

    Comfort as a part of the human factor, plays important roles in nowadays advanced automotive technology. Many of the current technologies go in the direction of automotive driver assistance features. However, many of the driver assistance features still require physical movement by human to enable the features. In this work, the proposed method is used in order to make certain feature to be functioning without any physical movement, instead human just need to think about it in their mind. In this work, brain signal is recorded and processed in order to be used as input to the recognition system. Right-Left sign lamp based on the brain signal recognition system can potentially replace the button or switch of the specific device in order to make the lamp work. The system then will decide whether the signal is ‘Right’ or ‘Left’. The decision of the Right-Left side of brain signal recognition will be sent to a processing board in order to activate the automotive relay, which will be used to activate the sign lamp. Furthermore, the intelligent system approach is used to develop authorized model based on the brain signal. Particularly Support Vector Machines (SVMs)-based classification system is used in the proposed system to recognize the Left-Right of the brain signal. Experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed intelligent Automatic brain signal-based Right-Left sign lamp access control system. The signal is processed by Linear Prediction Coefficient (LPC) and Support Vector Machines (SVMs), and the resulting experiment shows the training and testing accuracy of 100% and 80%, respectively.

  6. 340nm UV LED excitation in time-resolved fluorescence system for europium-based immunoassays detection

    OpenAIRE

    Rodenko, Olga; Fodgaard, Henrik; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Pedersen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    In immunoassay analyzers for in-vitro diagnostics, Xenon flash lamps have been widely used as excitation light sources. Recent advancements in UV LED technology and its advantages over the flash lamps such as smaller footprint, better wall-plug efficiency, narrow emission spectrum, and no significant afterglow, have made them attractive light sources for gated detection systems. In this paper, we report on the implementation of a 340 nm UV LED based time-resolved fluorescence system based on ...

  7. Lysosome-Associated Membrane Proteins (LAMP Maintain Pancreatic Acinar Cell Homeostasis: LAMP-2–Deficient Mice Develop PancreatitisSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Mareninova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: The pathogenic mechanism of pancreatitis is poorly understood. Recent evidence implicates defective autophagy in pancreatitis responses; however, the pathways mediating impaired autophagy in pancreas remain largely unknown. Here, we investigate the role of lysosome associated membrane proteins (LAMPs in pancreatitis. Methods: We analyzed changes in LAMPs in experimental models and human pancreatitis, and the underlying mechanisms: LAMP deglycosylation and degradation. LAMP cleavage by cathepsin B (CatB was analyzed by mass spectrometry. We used mice deficient in LAMP-2 to assess its role in pancreatitis. Results: Pancreatic levels of LAMP-1 and LAMP-2 greatly decrease across various pancreatitis models and in human disease. Pancreatitis does not trigger the LAMPs’ bulk deglycosylation but induces their degradation via CatB-mediated cleavage of the LAMP molecule close to the boundary between luminal and transmembrane domains. LAMP-2 null mice spontaneously develop pancreatitis that begins with acinar cell vacuolization due to impaired autophagic flux, and progresses to severe pancreas damage characterized by trypsinogen activation, macrophage-driven inflammation, and acinar cell death. LAMP-2 deficiency causes a decrease in pancreatic digestive enzymes content, and stimulates the basal and inhibits cholecystokinin-induced amylase secretion by acinar cells. The effects of LAMP-2 knockout and acute cerulein pancreatitis overlap, which corroborates the pathogenic role of LAMP decrease in experimental pancreatitis models. Conclusions: The results indicate a critical role for LAMPs, particularly LAMP-2, in maintaining pancreatic acinar cell homeostasis and provide evidence that defective lysosomal function, resulting in impaired autophagy, leads to pancreatitis. Mice with LAMP-2 deficiency present a novel genetic model of human pancreatitis caused by lysosomal/autophagic dysfunction. Keywords: Amylase Secretion, Autophagy

  8. Fluorescent lighting with aluminum nitride phosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherepy, Nerine J.; Payne, Stephen A.; Seeley, Zachary M.; Srivastava, Alok M.

    2016-05-10

    A fluorescent lamp includes a glass envelope; at least two electrodes connected to the glass envelope; mercury vapor and an inert gas within the glass envelope; and a phosphor within the glass envelope, wherein the phosphor blend includes aluminum nitride. The phosphor may be a wurtzite (hexagonal) crystalline structure Al.sub.(1-x)M.sub.xN phosphor, where M may be drawn from beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, zinc, scandium, yttrium, lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, ytterbium, bismuth, manganese, silicon, germanium, tin, boron, or gallium is synthesized to include dopants to control its luminescence under ultraviolet excitation. The disclosed Al.sub.(1-x)M.sub.xN:Mn phosphor provides bright orange-red emission, comparable in efficiency and spectrum to that of the standard orange-red phosphor used in fluorescent lighting, Y.sub.2O.sub.3:Eu. Furthermore, it offers excellent lumen maintenance in a fluorescent lamp, and does not utilize "critical rare earths," minimizing sensitivity to fluctuating market prices for the rare earth elements.

  9. 10 CFR Appendix R to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring Average Lamp Efficacy (LE), Color Rendering Index (CRI), and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (LE), Color Rendering Index (CRI), and Correlated Color Temperature (CCT) of Electric Lamps R Appendix R to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App. R Appendix R to Subpart B of Part...

  10. Exploration of the Visual System: Part 2: In Vivo Analysis Methods: Virtual-Reality Optomotor System, Fundus Examination, and Fluorescent Angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelli, Fabienne; Escher, Pascal; Schorderet, Daniel F

    2012-09-01

    The mouse has emerged as an animal model for many diseases. At IRO, we have used this animal to understand the development of many eye diseases and treatment of some of them. Precise evaluation of vision is a prerequisite for both these approaches. In this unit we describe three ways to measure vision: testing the optokinetic response, and evaluating the fundus by direct observation and by fluorescent angiography. Curr. Protoc. Mouse Biol. 2:207-218 © 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  11. Comparison of direct and alternating current vacuum ultraviolet lamps in atmospheric pressure photoionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaikkinen, Anu; Haapala, Markus; Kersten, Hendrik; Benter, Thorsten; Kostiainen, Risto; Kauppila, Tiina J

    2012-02-07

    A direct current induced vacuum ultraviolet (dc-VUV) krypton discharge lamp and an alternating current, radio frequency (rf) induced VUV lamp that are essentially similar to lamps in commercial atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) ion sources were compared. The emission distributions along the diameter of the lamp exit window were measured, and they showed that the beam of the rf lamp is much wider than that of the dc lamp. Thus, the rf lamp has larger efficient ionization area, and it also emits more photons than the dc lamp. The ionization efficiencies of the lamps were compared using identical spray geometries with both lamps in microchip APPI mass spectrometry (μAPPI-MS) and desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization-mass spectrometry (DAPPI-MS). A comprehensive view on the ionization was gained by studying six different μAPPI solvent compositions, five DAPPI spray solvents, and completely solvent-free DAPPI. The observed reactant ions for each solvent composition were very similar with both lamps except for toluene, which showed a higher amount of solvent originating oxidation products with the rf lamp than with the dc lamp in μAPPI. Moreover, the same analyte ions were detected with both lamps, and thus, the ionization mechanisms with both lamps are similar. The rf lamp showed a higher ionization efficiency than the dc lamp in all experiments. The difference between the lamp ionization efficiencies was greatest when high ionization energy (IE) solvent compositions (IEs above 10 eV), i.e., hexane, methanol, and methanol/water, (1:1 v:v) were used. The higher ionization efficiency of the rf lamp is likely due to the larger area of high intensity light emission, and the resulting larger efficient ionization area and higher amount of photons emitted. These result in higher solvent reactant ion production, which in turn enables more efficient analyte ion production. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  12. A project for recovering mercury from fluorescent tubes from schools in the Grand Erie District School Board

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-10-15

    Mercury is a persistent, toxic substance that poses a serious threat to the environment and human health. Mercury compounds can be carried hundreds of kilometers once airborne and inhaling mercury vapours or ingesting mercury can cause serious injury or death. In Canada, mercury is regularly found in thousands of products such as fluorescent lamps, thermostats, fever thermometers and button batteries, as well as a variety of industrial applications. This report discussed a project that was undertaken by the Recycling Council of Ontario (RCO) that targeted schools, within the Grand Erie District School Board (GEDSB), to pilot a program over a period of 3 months to track, collect and recycle sufficient number of fluorescent tubes. The purpose was to successfully divert 2200 mgs of mercury that may otherwise be destined for landfill. The primary objective of the pilot project was to establish an operating system to collect and recycle fluorescent tube lighting and develop recycling guidelines for the GEDSB that would be transferable to other school districts. The report discussed why fluorescent lamp recycling was needed and outlined the project partners. One recycling partner's recycling process, Fluorescent Lamp Recyclers (FLR) was described. The report also discussed regulations affecting the handling and disposal of fluorescent lamps in Ontario. GEDSB's, RCO's and FLR's responsibilities in the project were outlined. The methodology and florescent lamp collection process were described. The report also presented the collection schedule and results. It was concluded that with very little effort, significant amounts of fluorescent lamps could be diverted, preventing mercury from entering landfills. refs., tabs., figs., appendices.

  13. Regulation of HIV-Gag Expression and Targeting to the Endolysosomal/Secretory Pathway by the Luminal Domain of Lysosomal-Associated Membrane Protein (LAMP-1) Enhance Gag-Specific Immune Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Carolina Gonçalves de Oliveira; Rigato, Paula Ordonhez; Gonçalves, Jorge Luiz Santos; Sato, Maria Notomi; Maciel, Milton; Peçanha, Ligia Maria Torres; August, J. Thomas; de Azevedo Marques, Ernesto Torres; de Arruda, Luciana Barros

    2014-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that a DNA vaccine encoding HIV-p55gag in association with the lysosomal associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1) elicited a greater Gag-specific immune response, in comparison to a DNA encoding the native gag. In vitro studies have also demonstrated that LAMP/Gag was highly expressed and was present in MHCII containing compartments in transfected cells. In this study, the mechanisms involved in these processes and the relative contributions of the increased expression and altered traffic for the enhanced immune response were addressed. Cells transfected with plasmid DNA constructs containing p55gag attached to truncated sequences of LAMP-1 showed that the increased expression of gag mRNA required p55gag in frame with at least 741 bp of the LAMP-1 luminal domain. LAMP luminal domain also showed to be essential for Gag traffic through lysosomes and, in this case, the whole sequence was required. Further analysis of the trafficking pathway of the intact LAMP/Gag chimera demonstrated that it was secreted, at least in part, associated with exosome-like vesicles. Immunization of mice with LAMP/gag chimeric plasmids demonstrated that high expression level alone can induce a substantial transient antibody response, but targeting of the antigen to the endolysosomal/secretory pathways was required for establishment of cellular and memory response. The intact LAMP/gag construct induced polyfunctional CD4+ T cell response, which presence at the time of immunization was required for CD8+ T cell priming. LAMP-mediated targeting to endolysosomal/secretory pathway is an important new mechanistic element in LAMP-mediated enhanced immunity with applications to the development of novel anti-HIV vaccines and to general vaccinology field. PMID:24932692

  14. Physics of mercury-free high-pressure discharge lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Born, M

    2002-01-01

    This paper gives a summary of recent results about the replacement of mercury in high-pressure discharge lamps by metallic zinc. Actually, this topic is of high relevance for the lighting industry due to the need of more environmentally friendly products. The work presented here is supported by the German government under contract no 13N8072 and 13N8264. Due to upcoming European legislations which are expected for the year 2003, the replacement of mercury in lighting products is a high priority task. For example, mercury-free headlight discharge lamps are requested by the automotive industry. Pure zinc/argon discharges as well as lamps including zinc or mercury and metal halide additives are investigated. Experimental data are compared with model calculations of the energy balance involving the transport of heat and radiation. Since the excitation energies of relevant zinc transitions are lower than for mercury, axis temperatures of pure zinc lamps are about 300 K below the value of mercury arcs. In addition, the thermal conductivity of zinc including the contribution of radiation diffusion is larger than compared to mercury. From lamp voltage measurements it is found that the cross section for elastical electron scattering by zinc atoms is about the same than for mercury. When adding metal halides to a pure zinc discharge with argon as a starting gas, i.e. NaI, TlI, DyI 3 , axis temperatures decrease to about 5100 K due to strong radiation cooling. In order to obtain sufficiently large lamp voltages, wall temperatures of more than 1300 K are adjusted by means of polycrystalline aluminaoxide (Al 2 O 3 ) as a wall material. Electric field strengths of 6.0 and 8.6 V mm -1 are measured for metal halide lamps containing zinc or mercury, respectively. The light technical data of the discharges are very close, since mercury and zinc do not contribute significantly to the radiation in the visible range. Efficacies of up to 93 and 100 lm W -1 are found in metal halide

  15. Selective gettering of hydrogen in high pressure metal iodide lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuus, G.

    1976-01-01

    One of the main problems in the manufacture of high pressure gas discharge lamps is the elimination of gaseous impurities from their arc tubes. Long degassing processes of all the lamp components are necessary in order to produce lamps with a low ignition voltage and good maintenance of the radiation properties. The investigation described deals with a selective getter place in the arc tube which can replace the long degassing process. The getter consists of a piece of yttrium encapsulated in thin tantalum foil. By this way it is possible to use the gettering action of tantalum and yttrium without having reaction between the metal iodide of the arc tube and yttrium. Yttrium is used because this metal can adsorb a large quantity of hydrogen even at a temperature of 1000 0 C. Hydrogen forms the main gaseous impurity in the high pressure metal iodide lamp. For this reason the adsorption properties like adsorption rate and capacity of the tantalum--yttrium getter for hydrogen are examined, and the results obtained from lamp experiments are given

  16. Fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Michael J; Smith, Ian; Parker, Ian; Bootman, Martin D

    2014-10-01

    Fluorescence microscopy is a major tool with which to monitor cell physiology. Although the concepts of fluorescence and its optical separation using filters remain similar, microscope design varies with the aim of increasing image contrast and spatial resolution. The basics of wide-field microscopy are outlined to emphasize the selection, advantages, and correct use of laser scanning confocal microscopy, two-photon microscopy, scanning disk confocal microscopy, total internal reflection, and super-resolution microscopy. In addition, the principles of how these microscopes form images are reviewed to appreciate their capabilities, limitations, and constraints for operation. © 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  17. A comparative study of fluorescent and LED lighting in industrial facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdahci PhD, C.; Akin BSc, H. C.; Cekic Msc, O.

    2018-05-01

    Industrial facilities have always been in search for reducing outgoings and minimizing energy consumption. Rapid developments in lighting technology require more energy efficient solutions not only for industries but also for many sectors and for households. Addition of solid-state technology has brought LED lamps into play and with LED lamp usage, efficacy level has reached its current values. Lighting systems which uses fluorescent and LED lamps have become the prior choice for many industrial facilities. This paper presents a comparative study about fluorescent and LED based indoor lighting systems for a warehouse building in an industrial facility in terms of lighting distribution values, colour rendering, power consumption, energy efficiency and visual comfort. Both scenarios have been modelled and simulated by using Relux and photometric data for the luminaires have been gathered by conducting tests and measurements in an accredited laboratory.

  18. The kinetics of colour change in textiles and fibres treated with detergent solutions. Part I-Colour perception and fluorescence microscopy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Was-Gubala, Jolanta

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess colour changes that occur in several types of commonly available textiles as a result of the long-term effects of various popularly used laundry detergents. A 14 day experiment was conducted using blue, red and grey/black cotton, wool, acrylic and polyester textiles. Colour changes were evaluated through the visual comparison of the colour of the textile samples against that of the untreated (control) material. The kinetics of the changes in the colour of the fibres were monitored using fluorescence microscopy (UV excitation filter). The conclusions include an assessment of the observed changes from a fibre analysis expert's point of view, as well as that of an average user/consumer of the products involved.

  19. A review of reagents for fluorescence microscopy of cellular compartments and structures, Part III: reagents for actin, tubulin, cellular membranes, and whole cell and cytoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgore, Jason A; Dolman, Nick J; Davidson, Michael W

    2014-01-02

    Non-antibody commercial fluorescent reagents for imaging of cytoskeletal structures have been limited primarily to tubulin and actin, with the main factor in choice based mainly on whether cells are live or fixed and permeabilized. A wider range of options exist for cell membrane dyes, and the choice of reagent primarily depends on the preferred localization in the cell (i.e., all membranes or only the plasma membrane) and usage (i.e., whether the protocol involves fixation and permeabilization). For whole-cell or cytoplasmic imaging, the choice of reagent is determined mostly by the length of time that the cells need to be visualized (hours or days) and by fixation status. Presented here is a discussion on choosing commercially available reagents for these cellular structures, with an emphasis on use for microscopic imaging, with a featured reagent for each structure, a recommended protocol, troubleshooting guide, and example image. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  20. A review of reagents for fluorescence microscopy of cellular compartments and structures, part I: BacMam labeling and reagents for vesicular structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolman, Nick J; Kilgore, Jason A; Davidson, Michael W

    2013-07-01

    Fluorescent labeling of vesicular structures in cultured cells, particularly for live cells, can be challenging for a number of reasons. The first challenge is to identify a reagent that will be specific enough where some structures have a number of potential reagents and others very few options. The emergence of BacMam constructs has allowed more easy-to-use choices. Presented here is a discussion of BacMam constructs as well as a review of commercially-available reagents for labeling vesicular structures in cells, including endosomes, peroxisomes, lysosomes, and autophagosomes, complete with a featured reagent for each structure, recommended protocol, troubleshooting guide, and example image. © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  1. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 3, Water heaters, pool heaters, direct heating equipment, and mobile home furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    This is Volume 3 in a series of documents on energy efficiency of consumer products. This volume discusses energy efficiency of water heaters. Water heaters are defined by NAECA as products that utilize oil, gas, or electricity to heat potable water for use outside the heater upon demand. These are major appliances, which use a large portion (18% on average) of total energy consumed per household (1). They differ from most other appliances in that they are usually installed in obscure locations as part of the plumbing and are ignored until they fail. Residential water heaters are capable of heating water up to 180{degrees}F, although the setpoints are usually set lower.

  2. The Effects of Lamp Spectral Distribution on Sky Glow over Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    overhead sky glow as a function of distance up to 300 km, from a variety of lamp types, including common gas discharge lamps and several types of LED...distance up to 300 km, from a variety of lamp types, in- cluding common gas discharge lamps and several types of LED lamps . We conclude for both...MAR 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Effects of Lamp Spectral Distribution on Sky Glow

  3. Slit lamps and lenses: a potential source of nosocomial infections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolewska, Bianka; Buhl, Michael; Liese, Jan; Ziemssen, Focke

    2018-01-30

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the bacterial contamination level of contact surfaces on slit lamps and the grip areas of lenses. Within unannounced audits, two regions of the slit lamps (headrest and joystick), indirect ophthalmoscopy devices, and ultrasound probes were obtained with rayon-tipped swab. Non-contact lenses used for indirect fundoscopy were pressed on RODAC (Replicate Organism Detection and Counting) plates. One hundred and eighty-one surfaces were sampled. The total number of colony-forming units was assessed and bacterial species were identified. Spa-typing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed from Staphylococcus aureus isolates. Among the total bacterial isolates from ophthalmological equipment (lenses: 51 of 78, slit lamps: 43 of 88, ophthalmoscopy helmets: 3 of 8, ultrasound probes: 2 of 7), coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) was most frequently found, followed by Micrococcus spp. (lenses vs. slit lamps: P lenses (76%) was significantly higher than that of slit lamps (54%) (P lenses from residents vs. from consultants (78% vs. 35%, P = 0.01). A total of seven different spa-types of S. aureus were isolated. No correlation was found between S. aureus contamination of different ophthalmological equipments (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, ρ = 0.04, P = 0.75). Methicillin-resistant S. aureus was not detected. Bacterial species of the normal skin flora were isolated from the ophthalmological equipment. The bacterial contamination of the portable devices was significantly higher than that of slit lamps. Therefore, proper hygiene of the mobile instruments should be monitored in order to prevent transmission of bacteria in residents and consultants.

  4. Investigating antennas as ignition aid for automotive HID lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergner, A; Engelhardt, M; Bienholz, S; Ruhrmann, C; Hoebing, T; Groeger, S; Mentel, J; Awakowicz, P

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the ignition of mercury-free high-intensity discharge (HID) lamps for car headlights. Due to safety reasons, these lamps need to have a fast run-up phase which is ensured, amongst other things, by a high Xe pressure of roughly 15 bar (cold) in the discharge vessel. The high Xe pressure causes an increased ignition voltage compared with former mercury-containing automotive HID lamps or low-pressure lamps used for general-lighting applications. The increase in ignition voltage can be limited if the electric field in front of the electrodes is raised by an uplifting of the electrical conductivity along the outer wall of the inner bulb either by a conductive layer on its surface or by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) within the outer bulb. This paper considers on the one hand conventional antennas deposited by physical vapour deposition (PVD) and on the other hand a combination of these antennas with a DBD within the outer-bulb operated in 100 mbar Ar as ignition aids. In both cases the antenna potential and antenna width are varied. Additionally, the effects of antenna thickness and antenna material are investigated. The ignition voltage, ignition current and light emission during ignition are measured on a nanosecond timescale. Furthermore, for the very first time, the ignition process is recorded in four consecutive intensified charge-coupled device images using a high-speed camera system with a time resolution in the range of nanoseconds. It was found that antennas strongly reduce the ignition voltage of automotive HID lamps. Active antennas reduce the ignition voltage significantly more than passive antennas, proportional to the conductance of the antenna. Combining conventional antennas with an outer-bulb discharge reduces the ignition voltage from 19 kV without any ignition aid to the intrinsic ignition voltage of the lamp below 10 kV, in the best case. (paper)

  5. A new Cassegrain calibration lamp unit for the Blanco Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Points, S. D.; James, D. J.; Tighe, R.; Montané, A.; David, N.; Martínez, M.

    2016-08-01

    The f/8 RC-Cassegrain Focus of the Blanco Telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, hosts two new instruments: COSMOS, a multi-object spectrograph in the visible wavelength range (350 - 1030nm), and ARCoIRIS, a NIR cross-dispersed spectrograph featuring 6 spectral orders spanning 0.8 - 2.45μm. Here we describe a calibration lamp unit designed to deliver the required illumination at the telescope focal plane for both instruments. These requirements are: (1) an f/8 beam of light covering a spot of 92mm diameter (or 10 arcmin) for a wavelength range of 0.35μm through 2.5μm and (2) no saturation of flat-field calibrations for the minimal exposure times permitted by each instrument, and (3) few saturated spectral lines when using the wavelength calibration lamps for the instruments. To meet these requirements this unit contains an adjustable quartz halogen lamp for flat-field calibrations, and one hollow cathode lamp and four penray lamps for wavelength calibrations. The wavelength calibration lamps are selected to provide optimal spectral coverage for the instrument mounted and can be used individually or in sets. The device designed is based on an 8-inch diameter integrating sphere, the output of which is optimized to match the f/8 calibration input delivery system which is a refractive system based on fused-silica lenses. We describe the optical design, the opto-mechanical design, the electronic control and give results of the performance of the system.

  6. An Experimental Study of the Fluorescence Spectrum of Cesium Atoms in the Presence of a Buffer Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davydov, V. G.; Kulyasov, V. N.

    2018-01-01

    A direct experiment is performed to determine the quantum efficiency of a cesium fluorescence filter. The fluorescence spectra of cesium atoms are recorded under excitation of the upper states of the second resonance doublet with a Bell-Bloom cesium lamp. Introduction of different noble gases into the cell with cesium leads to the appearance of additional fluorescence photons. It is found that a fluorescence filter based on atomic cesium vapor with addition of helium in the working cell has the highest efficiency and response rate of all known fluorescence filters based on alkali-metal atomic vapors.

  7. Electrophoresis microchip with integrated waveguides for simultaneous native UV fluorescence and absorbance detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohlsson, Pelle Daniel; Sala, Olga Ordeig; Mogensen, Klaus Bo

    2009-01-01

    Simultaneous label-free detection of UV absorbance and native UV-excited fluorescence in an electrophoresis microchip is presented. UV transparent integrated waveguides launch light at a wavelength of 254 nm from a mercury lamp along the length of a 1-mm. long detection cell. Transmitted UV light...

  8. TELEGRAPHS TO INCANDESCENT LAMPS: A SEQUENTIAL PROCESS OF INNOVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence J. Malone

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines a sequential process of technological innovation in the emergence of the electrical industry in the United States from 1830 to 1880. Successive inventions that realize the commercial possibilities of electricity provided the foundation for an industry where technical knowledge, invention and diffusion were ultimately consolidated within the managerial structure of new firms. The genesis of the industry is traced, sequentially, through the development of the telegraph, arc light and incandescent lamp. Exploring the origins of the telegraph and incandescent lamp reveals a process where a series of inventions and firms result from successful efforts touse scientific principles to create new commodities and markets.

  9. Very high efficacy electrodeless high intensity discharge lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Peter D.

    1987-01-01

    An electrodeless arc lamp comprises an outer jacket hermetically sealing and thermally protecting an arc tube inside which has an upwardly convex bottom center section. The absence of chemically reactive electrode material makes it possible to use metal halides other than iodides. The tube contains chlorides, bromides or a mixture thereof of scandium and sodium in a nearly equimolar relationship in addition to mercury and an inert gas. Good color balance can be obtained at reduced reservoir temperature and with less power loss. Reduction in wall temperature makes it possible to attain longer lamp life.

  10. Inventing around Edison’s Incandescent Lamp Patent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Katznelson, Ron D.

    ’s ‘898 patent. Third, by analysis of forward citation to these patents we show that regardless of these inventions’ commercial viability in the incandescent lamp market, some became important prior art for new technological fields and some laid the groundwork for the later successful substitute...... for Edison’s carbon filament. Fourthly, we show that the recent view that Edison’s patent gave the patent holder General Electric (GE) a dominant position in the incandescent lamp market is incorrect: we show that besides commercially-successful invention around the claims of this patent, data for GE...

  11. Inventing around Edison’s incandescent lamp patent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Ron D, Katznelson

    ’s ‘898 patent. Third, by analysis of forward citation to these patents we show that regardless of these inventions’ commercial viability in the incandescent lamp market, some became important prior art for new technological fields and some laid the groundwork for the later successful substitute...... for Edison’s carbon filament. Fourthly, we show that the recent view that Edison’s patent gave the patent holder General Electric (GE) a dominant position in the incandescent lamp market is incorrect: we show that besides commercially-successful invention around the claims of this patent, data for GE...

  12. Physical aspects of mercury-free high pressure discharge lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Born, M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper gives a summary of recent results about the replacement of mercury in high pressure discharge lamps by metallic zinc. Actually, this topic is of high relevance for the lighting industry due to the need of more environmentally friendly products. The work presented here is supported by the German government under contract no. 13N8072. Pure zinc/argon discharges as well as lamps including zinc or mercury and metal halide additives are investigated. Experimental data are compared with model calculations of the energy balance involving the transport of heat and radiation. Since the excitation energies of relevant zinc transistions are lower than for mercury, axis temperatures of pure zinc lamps are about 300 K below the value of mercury arcs. In addition, the thermal conductivity of zinc including the contribution of radiation diffusion is larger than compared to mercury. From lamp voltage measurements it is found that the cross section for elastical electron scattering by zinc atoms is about the same as for mercury. When adding metal halides to a pure zinc discharge with argon as a starting gas, i.e. NaI, TlI, DyI3, axis temperatures decrease to about 5100 K due to strong radiation cooling. In order to obtain sufficiently large lamp voltages, wall temperatures of more than 1300 K are adjusted by means of polycrystalline aluminaoxide (Al2O3) as a wall material. Electrical field strenghts of 6.0 V/mm and 8.6 V/mm are measured for metal halide lamps containing zinc or mercury, respectively. The light technical data of the discharges are very close, since mercury and zinc do not contribute significantly to the radiation in the visible range. Efficacies of up to 93 lm/W and 100 lm/W are found in metal halide lamps with zinc and mercury, respectively. Consequently, zinc turns out to be an attractive replacer for mercury in this type of lamp not only from an environmental point of view

  13. Compact whole-body fluorescent imaging of nude mice bearing EGFP expressing tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanping; Xiong, Tao; Chu, Jun; Yu, Li; Zeng, Shaoqun; Luo, Qingming

    2005-01-01

    Issue of tumor has been a hotspot of current medicine. It is important for tumor research to detect tumors bearing in animal models easily, fast, repetitively and noninvasivly. Many researchers have paid their increasing interests on the detecting. Some contrast agents, such as green fluorescent protein (GFP) and Discosoma red fluorescent protein (Dsred) were applied to enhance image quality. Three main kinds of imaging scheme were adopted to visualize fluorescent protein expressing tumors in vivo. These schemes based on fluorescence stereo microscope, cooled charge-coupled-device (CCD) or camera as imaging set, and laser or mercury lamp as excitation light source. Fluorescence stereo microscope, laser and cooled CCD are expensive to many institutes. The authors set up an inexpensive compact whole-body fluorescent imaging tool, which consisted of a Kodak digital camera (model DC290), fluorescence filters(B and G2;HB Optical, Shenyang, Liaoning, P.R. China) and a mercury 50-W lamp power supply (U-LH50HG;Olympus Optical, Japan) as excitation light source. The EGFP was excited directly by mercury lamp with D455/70 nm band-pass filter and fluorescence was recorded by digital camera with 520nm long-pass filter. By this easy operation tool, the authors imaged, in real time, fluorescent tumors growing in live mice. The imaging system is external and noninvasive. For half a year our experiments suggested the imaging scheme was feasible. Whole-body fluorescence optical imaging for fluorescent expressing tumors in nude mouse is an ideal tool for antitumor, antimetastatic, and antiangiogenesis drug screening.

  14. Hybrid phosphorescence and fluorescence native spectroscopy for breast cancer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimova, Alexandra; Katz, A; Sriramoju, Vidyasagar; Budansky, Yuri; Bykov, Alexei A; Zeylikovich, Roman; Alfano, R R

    2007-01-01

    Fluorescence and phosphorescence measurements are performed on normal and malignant ex vivo human breast tissues using UV LED and xenon lamp excitation. Tryptophan (trp) phosphorescence intensity is higher in both normal glandular and adipose tissue when compared to malignant tissue. An algorithm based on the ratio of trp fluorescence intensity at 345 nm to phosphorescence intensity at 500 nm is successfully used to separate normal from malignant tissue types. Normal specimens consistently exhibited a low I(345)I(500) ratio (15). The ratio analysis correlates well with histopathology. Intensity ratio maps with a spatial resolution of 0.5 mm are generated in which local regions of malignancy could be identified.

  15. Rapid detection of Piper yellow mottle virus and Cucumber mosaic virus infecting black pepper (Piper nigrum) by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, A I; Siljo, A; Deeshma, K P

    2013-10-01

    The loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for Piper yellow mottle virus and the reverse transcription (RT) LAMP assay for Cucumber mosaic virus each consisted of a set of five primers designed against the conserved sequences in the viral genome. Both RNA and DNA isolated from black pepper were used as a template for the assay. The results were assessed visually by checking turbidity, green fluorescence and pellet formation in the reaction tube and also by gel electrophoresis. The assay successfully detected both viruses in infected plants whereas no cross-reactions were recorded with healthy plants. Optimum conditions for successful amplification were determined in terms of the concentrations of magnesium sulphate and betaine, temperature, and duration. The detection limit for both LAMP and RT-LAMP was up to 100 times that for conventional PCR and up to one-hundredth of that for real-time PCR. The optimal conditions arrived at were validated by testing field samples of infected vines of three species from different regions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Application of X-ray fluorescence measurements to some problems in occupational health. Part of a coordinated programme on application of nuclear-related techniques in occupational health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budnar, M.

    1985-04-01

    This research involved the use of proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) for occupational health studies of workers exposed to lead and various other toxic elements. Workplace monitoring was conducted by collection and analysis of air filter samples using a cascade impactor to separate the aerosols according to particle size. Biological monitoring was conducted by collection and analysis of blood and urine. The biological measurements were supplemented by the use of AAS and also by various biochemical tests. Preliminary work was also done to set up an in vivo X-ray fluorescence method for determining lead in the finger bone of exposed workers. The most important outcome of this work was to demonstrate that aerosol concentrations of lead in a lead battery factory were significantly elevated over normal background levels (even as compared with a welding factory). Although mostly lower than the maximum permissible concentrations for occupationally exposed people, this kind of exposure was apparently sufficient to cause significant changes in various biochemical parameters, and thus might be a cause for concern. Low correlations between blood-lead and aerosol-lead indicate that workplace monitoring is not always a reliable guide to individual exposure, and that it should therefore be supplemented by biological monitoring of high risk groups

  17. LAVA: An Open-Source Approach To Designing LAMP (Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification DNA Signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardner Shea N

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We developed an extendable open-source Loop-mediated isothermal AMPlification (LAMP signature design program called LAVA (LAMP Assay Versatile Analysis. LAVA was created in response to limitations of existing LAMP signature programs. Results LAVA identifies combinations of six primer regions for basic LAMP signatures, or combinations of eight primer regions for LAMP signatures with loop primers, which can be used as LAMP signatures. The identified primers are conserved among target organism sequences. Primer combinations are optimized based on lengths, melting temperatures, and spacing among primer sites. We compare LAMP signature candidates for Staphylococcus aureus created both by LAVA and by PrimerExplorer. We also include signatures from a sample run targeting all strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Conclusions We have designed and demonstrated new software for identifying signature candidates appropriate for LAMP assays. The software is available for download at http://lava-dna.googlecode.com/.

  18. Influence of electrode, buffer gas and control gear on metal halide lamp performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamouri, A; Naruka, A; Sulcs, J; Varanasi, C V; Brumleve, T R

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the influence of electrode composition, buffer gas fill pressure and control gear on the performance of metal halide lamps is investigated. It is shown that pure tungsten electrodes improve lumen maintenance and reduce voltage rise over lamp life. An optimum buffer gas fill pressure condition is discovered which allows for reduced electrode erosion during lamp starting as well as under normal operating conditions. Use of electronic control gear is shown to improve the performance of metal halide lamps

  19. Lysosome associated membrane proteins maintain pancreatic acinar cell homeostasis: LAMP-2 deficient mice develop pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareninova, Olga A; Sendler, Matthias; Malla, Sudarshan Ravi; Yakubov, Iskandar; French, Samuel W; Tokhtaeva, Elmira; Vagin, Olga; Oorschot, Viola; Lüllmann-Rauch, Renate; Blanz, Judith; Dawson, David; Klumperman, Judith; Lerch, Markus M; Mayerle, Julia; Gukovsky, Ilya; Gukovskaya, Anna S

    2015-11-01

    The pathogenic mechanism of pancreatitis is poorly understood. Recent evidence implicates defective autophagy in pancreatitis responses; however, the pathways mediating impaired autophagy in pancreas remain largely unknown. Here, we investigate the role of lysosome associated membrane proteins (LAMPs) in pancreatitis. We analyzed changes in LAMPs in experimental models and human pancreatitis, and the underlying mechanisms: LAMP de-glycosylation and degradation. LAMP cleavage by cathepsin B (CatB) was analyzed by mass spectrometry. We used mice deficient in LAMP-2 to assess its role in pancreatitis. Pancreatic levels of LAMP-1 and LAMP-2 greatly decrease across various pancreatitis models and in human disease. Pancreatitis does not trigger LAMPs' bulk de-glycosylation, but induces their degradation via CatB-mediated cleavage of LAMP molecule close to the boundary between luminal and transmembrane domains. LAMP-2 null mice spontaneously develop pancreatitis that begins with acinar cell vacuolization due to impaired autophagic flux, and progresses to severe pancreas damage characterized by trypsinogen activation, macrophage-driven inflammation, and acinar cell death. LAMP-2 deficiency causes a decrease in pancreatic digestive enzymes content, stimulates the basal and inhibits CCK-induced amylase secretion by acinar cells. The effects of LAMP-2 knockout and acute cerulein pancreatitis overlap, which corroborates the pathogenic role of LAMP decrease in experimental pancreatitis models. The results indicate a critical role for LAMPs, particularly LAMP-2, in maintaining pancreatic acinar cell homeostasis, and provide evidence that defective lysosomal function, resulting in impaired autophagy, leads to pancreatitis. Mice with LAMP-2 deficiency present a novel genetic model of human pancreatitis caused by lysosomal/autophagic dysfunction.

  20. Breast cancer: in vitro measurements of native fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, Wolfgang; Bohle, Rainer M.; Dreyer, Thomas; Haas, Sabine; Wallenfels, Heike; Schwemmle, Konrad; Schill, Wolf-Bernhard

    1996-12-01

    Unfixed, HE stained cryosections of breast tissue obtained from 67 patients during surgery were illuminated with 395 - 440 nm and their fluorescence response as well as the 2- dimensional fluorophore distribution were measured. The histological evaluation of the same cryosection, illuminated as usual with a transmitted light obtained from a halogen lamp, revealed 9 patients with healthy tissue, 11 with benign epithelial hyperplasia, 4 with ductal carcinoma in situ, 35 with invasive ductal carcinoma, 7 with invasive lobular carcinoma, and one with invasive tubular carcinoma. A comparison between the fluorescence and the HE images shows that both match very nicely and that the fluorescence images are also characteristic for the different pathological condition of the biopsy sample. Moreover, benign tumors e.g. fibroadenomas, exhibit a fluorescence response different from cancer and healthy tissue.

  1. Keeleuuendusest sündis diplomilavastus / Anu Lamp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lamp, Anu, 1958-

    2006-01-01

    24. märtsil esietendus teatris NO99 lavakunstikooli 22. lennu viimane diplomilavastus "Keeleuuenduse lõpmatu kurv". Lavastaja Anu Lamp räägib, kuidas sündis ja kuidas materjal Johannes Aaviku keeleuuendusest lavale jõudis

  2. Direct-current converter for gas-discharge lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutus, P.

    1980-01-01

    Metal/halide and similar gas-discharge lamps are powered from low-voltage dc source using small efficient converter. Converter is useful whenever 60-cycle ac power is not available or where space and weight allocations are limited. Possible applications are offshore platforms, mobile homes, and emergency lighting. Design innovations give supply high reliability and efficiency up to 75 percent.

  3. Thomson scattering measurements on an atmospheric Ar dc discharge lamp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Xiao-Yan; Redwitz, M.; Kieft, E.R.; Sande, van de M.J.; Mullen, van der J.J.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Thomson scattering (TS) experiments have been performed in the region near the electrodes of a dc powered model lamp filled with 1-2 bar argon gas. In order to suppress the false stray light and Rayleigh scattered photons, a triple grating spectrograph was used. In this way the electron density and

  4. Nonlinear behavior in high-intensity discharge lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Bernd; Schwieger, Joerg; Wolff, Marcus; Manders, Freddy; Suijker, Jos

    2016-06-01

    The light flicker problem of high intensity discharge lamps is studied numerically and experimentally. It is shown that in some respects the systems behave very similar to the forced Duffing oscillator with a softening spring. In particular, the jump phenomenon and hysteresis are observed in the simulations and in the experiments.

  5. Anu Lamp õpetab presidendile kõnekunsti peensusi / Kadri Paas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paas, Kadri, 1982-

    2007-01-01

    Näitleja Anu Lamp õpetab president Toomas Hendrik Ilvesele kaheksa akadeemilise tunni jooksul kõnelemisoskust. Vt. samas: Martti Kass. Presidendi hiiglaslik vastuvõtutelk võtab ilmet. Tartus hakati Vanemuise teatri külje alla hiigeltelki püstitama. Telgis surub president Toomas Hendrik Ilves 24. veebruaril 2007 kutsutud külaliste kätt

  6. Modeling of Kr-Xe discharge of excimer lamp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belasri A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the numerical simulation of Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD for Kr-Xe excilamp. The model of the discharge consists of three main modules: a plasma chemistry module, a circuit module and a Boltzmann equation module. The results predict the optimal operating conditions and describe the electrical and chemical properties of the KrXe* excimer lamp.

  7. CALiPER Special Summary Report: Retail Replacement Lamp Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-04-01

    CALiPER testing has evaluated many products for commercial lighting markets and found some excellent performers. However, many of these are not available on the retail market. This special testing was undertaken to identify and test solid-state lighting (SSL) replacement lamp products that are available to the general public through retail stores and websites.

  8. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) based detection of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-05-07

    May 7, 2014 ... 2 months for growing in a culture. Therefore, to control .... The LAMP reaction is carried out in a 25 µL reaction mixture containing ..... J. Fish Dis. 32(6):491-497. Goto M, Honda E, Ogura A, Nomoto A, Hanaki K (2009). Colorimetric detection of loop-mediated isothermal amplification reaction by using hydroxy ...

  9. Application of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-05-23

    May 23, 2011 ... evaluate the RIME - LAMP for the detection of T. evansi in naturally infected camels in Sudan. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Study design. Cross sectional ... from each camel using 5 ml disposable syringe. Three drops of the fresh collected blood were immediately placed in FTA card. (Whatman classic ...

  10. 21 CFR 878.4630 - Ultraviolet lamp for dermatologic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ultraviolet lamp for dermatologic disorders. 878.4630 Section 878.4630 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... disorders is a device (including a fixture) intended to provide ultraviolet radiation of the body to...

  11. LOOP mediated isothermal AMPlification (LAMP) in diagnosis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We collected a quantity of 35 serum samples of HIVpositive patients and a number of 107 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of patients who had shown symptoms of meningitis. We designed target specific primers for PCR and LAMP techniques to trace C. neoformans and C. gattii. From the total 142 clinical specimens, five ...

  12. Nonlinear behavior in high-intensity discharge lamps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumann, Bernd; Schwieger, Joerg; Wolff, Marcus; Manders, Freddy; Suijker, Jos

    2016-01-01

    The light flicker problem of high intensity discharge lamps is studied numerically and experimentally. It is shown that in some respects the systems behave very similar to the forced Duffing oscillator with a softening spring. In particular, the jump phenomenon and hysteresis are observed in the

  13. Harmonics Study of Common Low Wattage LED Lamps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Dragoş Deaconu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents experimental data on Light Emitting Diode (LED lamps of low wattage that are commonly found both in commercial and residential applications. A comparison with the existing regulations is performed. The measurements are performed using power and energy quality analyzer intended also for avionic and military systems.

  14. Evaluation on Glare from Vehicle Lamps and Effectiveness of Road Components as Glare Barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangkuto, R.A.; Paripurna, A.; Soelami, F.X.N.

    2009-01-01

    Vehicle lamps are vital components which are required to ensure the driver’s safety, particularly at nighttime. However, vehicle lamps may cause glare which can reduce visibility and create discomfort. The objectives of this research are to evaluate glare from car headlamp and motorcycle lamps; and

  15. On the square arc voltage waveform model in magnetic discharge lamp studies

    OpenAIRE

    Molina, Julio; Sainz Sapera, Luis; Mesas García, Juan José

    2011-01-01

    The current number of magnetic and electronic ballast discharge lamps in power distribution systems is increasing because they perform better than incandescent lamps. This paper studies the magnetic discharge lamp modeling. In particular, the arc voltage waveform is analyzed and the limitations of the square waveform model are revealed from experimental measurements.

  16. BAD-LAMP defines a subset of early endocytic organelles in subpopulations of cortical projection neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Alexandre; Tiveron, Marie-Catherine; Defays, Axel; Beclin, Christophe; Camosseto, Voahirana; Gatti, Evelina; Cremer, Harold; Pierre, Philippe

    2007-01-15

    The brain-associated LAMP-like molecule (BAD-LAMP) is a new member of the family of lysosome associated membrane proteins (LAMPs). In contrast to other LAMPs, which show a widespread expression, BAD-LAMP expression in mice is confined to the postnatal brain and therein to neuronal subpopulations in layers II/III and V of the neocortex. Onset of expression strictly parallels cortical synaptogenesis. In cortical neurons, the protein is found in defined clustered vesicles, which accumulate along neurites where it localizes with phosphorylated epitopes of neurofilament H. In primary neurons, BAD-LAMP is endocytosed, but is not found in classical lysosomal/endosomal compartments. Modification of BAD-LAMP by addition of GFP revealed a cryptic lysosomal retention motif, suggesting that the cytoplasmic tail of BAD-LAMP is actively interacting with, or modified by, molecules that promote its sorting away from lysosomes. Analysis of BAD-LAMP endocytosis in transfected HeLa cells provided evidence that the protein recycles to the plasma membrane through a dynamin/AP2-dependent mechanism. Thus, BAD-LAMP is an unconventional LAMP-like molecule and defines a new endocytic compartment in specific subtypes of cortical projection neurons. The striking correlation between the appearance of BAD-LAMP and cortical synatogenesis points towards a physiological role of this vesicular determinant for neuronal function.

  17. Axial segregation in high intensity discharge lamps measured by laser absorption spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flikweert, A.J.; Nimalasuriya, T.; Groothuis, C.H.J.M.; Kroesen, G.M.W.; Stoffels, W.W.

    2005-01-01

    High intensity discharge lamps have a high efficiency. These lamps contain rare-earth additives (in our case dysprosium iodide) which radiate very efficiently. A problem is color separation in the lamp because of axial segregation of the rare-earth additives, caused by diffusion and convection. Here

  18. 77 FR 21038 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Light-Emitting Diode Lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-09

    ... available most commonly in the market. If the LED lamp is not rated for 120 volts, DOE proposes that it..., are available in the market. If such lamps are available, DOE requests comment about whether such... lamp to determine the rated lifetime and the final method in Table III.1 test the LED source to...

  19. The effect of operating lamps on the protected area of a unidirectional down flow (UDF) system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Traversari, A.A.L.; Bottenheft, C.; Louman, R.; Heumen, S.P.M. van; Böggeman, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Operating lamps are often seen as the most disruptive factors within the protective area in the operating theater (OT). The effect of the operation lamps (with different shapes) should be demonstrated in an OT by trial, since research on the effects of the lamps is still limited.

  20. 30 CFR 75.518-2 - Incandescent lamps, overload and short circuit protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incandescent lamps, overload and short circuit...-General § 75.518-2 Incandescent lamps, overload and short circuit protection. Incandescent lamps installed... or direct current feeder circuits, need not be provided with separate short circuit or overload...

  1. Transport phenomena in metal-halide lamps : a poly-diagnostic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nimalasuriya, T.

    2007-01-01

    Worldwide about 20% of all electricity is used for lighting. It is therefore of great interest to develop a lamp that has high e±cacy, good colour rendering and long lifetime. The metal-halide lamp is a gas discharge lamp that meets all these demands. Unfortunately there are still issues with this

  2. 21 CFR 1040.30 - High-intensity mercury vapor discharge lamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... use. (4) Outer envelope means the lamp element, usually glass, surrounding a high-pressure arc... than a few minutes unless adequate shielding or other safety precautions are used. Lamps that will... unless adequate shielding or other safety precautions are used. Lamps that will automatically extinguish...

  3. Automatic Lamp and Fan Control Based on Microcontroller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyaningrum, V. T.; Pramudita, Y. D.

    2018-01-01

    In general, automation can be described as a process following pre-determined sequential steps with a little or without any human exertion. Automation is provided with the use of various sensors suitable to observe the production processes, actuators and different techniques and devices. In this research, the automation system developed is an automatic lamp and an automatic fan on the smart home. Both of these systems will be processed using an Arduino Mega 2560 microcontroller. A microcontroller is used to obtain values of physical conditions through sensors connected to it. In the automatic lamp system required sensors to detect the light of the LDR (Light Dependent Resistor) sensor. While the automatic fan system required sensors to detect the temperature of the DHT11 sensor. In tests that have been done lamps and fans can work properly. The lamp can turn on automatically when the light begins to darken, and the lamp can also turn off automatically when the light begins to bright again. In addition, it can concluded also that the readings of LDR sensors are placed outside the room is different from the readings of LDR sensors placed in the room. This is because the light intensity received by the existing LDR sensor in the room is blocked by the wall of the house or by other objects. Then for the fan, it can also turn on automatically when the temperature is greater than 25°C, and the fan speed can also be adjusted. The fan may also turn off automatically when the temperature is less than equal to 25°C.

  4. Cutaneous porphyrins exhibit anti-stokes fluorescence that is detectable in sebum (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Giselle; Zeng, Haishan; Zhao, Jianhua; Wu, Zhenguo; Al Jasser, Mohammed; Lui, Harvey; Mclean, David I.

    2016-02-01

    Porphyrins produced by Propionibacterium acnes represent the principal fluorophore associated with acne, and appear as orange-red luminescence under the Wood's lamp. Assessment of acne based on Wood's lamp (UV) or visible light illumination is limited by photon penetration depth and has limited sensitivity for earlier stage lesions. Inducing fluorescence with near infrared (NIR) excitation may provide an alternative way to assess porphyrin-related skin disorders. We discovered that under 785 nm CW laser excitation PpIX powder exhibits fluorescence emission in the shorter wavelength range of 600-715 nm with an intensity that is linearly dependent on the excitation power. We attribute this shorter wavelength emission to anti-Stokes fluorescence. Similar anti-Stokes fluorescence was also detected focally in all skin-derived samples containing porphyrins. Regular (Stokes) fluorescence was present under UV and visible light excitation on ex vivo nasal skin and sebum from uninflamed acne, but not on nose surface smears or sebum from inflamed acne. Co-registered CW laser-excited anti-Stokes fluorescence and fs laser-excited multi-photon fluorescence images of PpIX powder showed similar features. In the skin samples because of the anti-Stokes effect, the NIR-induced fluorescence was presumably specific for porphyrins since there appeared to be no anti-Stokes emission signals from other typical skin fluorophores such as lipids, keratins and collagen. Anti-Stokes fluorescence under NIR CW excitation is more sensitive and specific for porphyrin detection than UV- or visible light-excited regular fluorescence and fs laser-excited multi-photon fluorescence. This approach also has higher image contrast compared to NIR fs laser-based multi-photon fluorescence imaging. The anti-Stokes fluorescence of porphyrins within sebum could potentially be applied to detecting and targeting acne lesions for treatment via fluorescence image guidance.

  5. The growth and flowering of Hyacinthus orientalis L. Forced in pots under fluorescent light of different colours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Śmigielska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Three hyacinth cultivars were forced under fluorescent lamps which emitted white, blue, green, yellow and red light. The plants started flowering in the first decade of February. The forcing period for two cultivars, ‘Anna Marie’ and ‘Blue Star’, was shortest under lamps emitting red light. The cultivar ‘White Pearl’ flowered equally early under lamps emitting red, white and blue light. The impact of light colour (wavelength on the leaf greenness index (SPAD was demonstrated. The photosynthetic activity of leaves was dependent on the cultivar. It was related both to the net rate of photosynthesis and the photosynthetic efficiency. Specific leaf area (SLA also depended on the cultivar. The level of SLA was related to the rate of photosynthesis and its efficiency. SLA was highest in all cultivars under green and yellow colour light. The chlorophyll content in the fresh and dry weight of leaves was highest under yellow light lamps.

  6. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3.2: Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED A Lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-12-31

    This CALiPER report examines lumen depreciation and color shift of 17 different A lamps in steady-state conditions (15 LED, 1 CFL, 1 halogen). The goal of this investigation was to examine the long-term performance of complete LED lamps relative to benchmark halogen and CFL lamps—in this case, A lamps emitting approximately 800 lumens operated continuously at a relatively high ambient temperature of 45°C.

  7. 76 FR 20089 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    ... discussed the following major issues at the public meeting: the pros and cons of various efficiency metrics... of Energy, Building Technologies Program, Mailstop EE-2J, 1000 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington... copies. 4. Hand Delivery/Courier: Ms. Brenda Edwards, U.S. Department of Energy, Building Technologies...

  8. 75 FR 14319 - Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts: Public Meeting and Availability of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... analyses. DOE is publishing this document to announce the availability of the preliminary technical support... and addresses the comments DOE received. III. Summary of the Analyses DOE conducted in-depth technical... the shipments analysis, which contributes to the NIA. DOE has begun some preliminary work on the...

  9. Removal of dyes using immobilized titanium dioxide illuminated by fluorescent lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainal, Zulkarnain; Hui, Lee Kong; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin; Abdullah, Abdul Halim; Ramli, Irmawati

    2005-01-01

    The photodegradation of various dyes in aqueous solution was studied. Experiments were carried out using glass coated titanium dioxide thin film as photocatalyst. Photodegradation processes of methylene blue (MB), methyl orange (MO), indigo carmine (IC), chicago sky blue 6B (CSB), and mixed dye (MD, mixture of the four mentioned single dye) were reported. As each photodegradation system is pH dependent, the photodegradation experiment was carried out in each dye photodegradation reactive pH range at ∼28 deg C. The dyes removal efficiency was studied and compared using UV-vis spectrophotometer analysis. The total removal of each dye was: methylene blue (90.3%), methyl orange (98.5%), indigo carmine (92.4%), chicago sky blue 6B (60.3%), and mixed dyes (70.1%), respectively. The characteristic of the photocatalyst was investigated using X-ray diffractometer (XRD). The amount of each dye intermediate produced in the photodegradation process was also determined with the help of total organic carbon (TOC) analysis

  10. 76 FR 52892 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ... data DOE used in support of the NOPR and DOE's approach to accounting for measurement variation and... considering accounting for measurement (specifically lab-to-lab) variation as a separate adjustment to... Power Approximations IV. Accounting for Variation and Compliance Certification Procedures A. Compliance...

  11. Characterization of Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) Radiation for the Development of a Fluorescent Lamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatun, Hasina; Sharma, A. K.; Barhai, P. K.

    2011-01-01

    A negative unipolar pulsed voltage is applied to study internal electrical parameters of the xenon filled dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) sources. The VUV radiation emitted from these sources is characterized by means of the photoluminescence intensity of the red phosphor pellet. The red phosphor converts the VUV radiation into visible radiation and the emission spectra include a peak at 619.56 nm. The emission characteristics of the red phosphor are analyzed in terms of the pressure-distance (pd), rise time and frequency of the pulsed voltage waveform. The emission intensity measured at different operational conditions confirms that the formation and decay of the xenon excimer, Xe 2 *, increase with the increase in reduced electric field, E/N. After exceeding certain limits of E/N, the intensity of Xe 2 * decreases rapidly. (plasma technology)

  12. 78 FR 36574 - Certain Dimmable Compact Fluorescent Lamps and Products Containing Same; Termination as to Three...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... arguments to the ALJ)? In the context of an electronic circuit, does the construction of ``integrated into... pages 26-32) supports a construction of ``integrated into'' in which the boosting circuit uses... (``ULA''); and Golden U Lighting Manufacturing (Shenzhen) of Shenzhen, China (``Golden U''). Claim 9 of...

  13. 76 FR 25211 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    ...-government procurement policies that specify high efficiency ballasts. (CA IOUs, No. 19 at p. 2; NRDC, No. 21... luminous efficiency (BLE), which is measured directly using electrical measurements instead of the photometric measurements employed in the test procedure at Appendix Q. The calculation of BLE includes a...

  14. On the application of CaF2:Eu and SrF2:Eu phosphors in LED based phototherapy lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsare, P. D.; Moharil, S. V.; Joshi, C. P.; Omanwar, S. K.

    2013-06-01

    In the last few years the interest of scientific community has been increased towards solid state lighting based on LEDs because of their superior advantages over the conventional fluorescent lamps. As the GaN based LEDs are easily available efforts of the researchers are now on making the new phosphors which are excitable in the near UV region (360-400nm) for solid state lighting. This paper reports the photoluminescence characteristics of CaF2:Eu and SrF2:Eu phosphor prepared by wet chemical method. The violet emission of these phosphors with near UV excitation can be useful in making a phototherapy lamp based on LEDs for treating various skin diseases like acne vulgaris and hyperbilirubinemia.

  15. Flash-lamp-crystallized polycrystalline silicon films with high hydrogen concentration formed from Cat-CVD a-Si films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohdaira, Keisuke; Tomura, Naohito; Ishii, Shohei; Matsumura, Hideki

    2011-01-01

    We investigate residual forms of hydrogen (H) atoms such as bonding configuration in poly-crystalline silicon (poly-Si) films formed by the flash-lamp-induced crystallization of catalytic chemical vapor deposited (Cat-CVD) a-Si films. Raman spectroscopy reveals that at least part of H atoms in flash-lamp-crystallized (FLC) poly-Si films form Si-H 2 bonds as well as Si-H bonds with Si atoms even using Si-H-rich Cat-CVD a-Si films, which indicates the rearrangement of H atoms during crystallization. The peak desorption temperature during thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) is as high as 900 o C, similar to the reported value for bulk poly-Si.

  16. Evaluation of the reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) as a screening method for the detection of influenza viruses in the fecal materials of water birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Hiromi; Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Endo, Mayumi; Motoshima, Masayuki; Yoshino, Fumi; Yamamoto, Naoki; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Soejima, Takahiro; Senba, Syouhei; Kanda, Hidetoshi; Kida, Hiroshi

    2011-06-01

    Migratory water birds are a natural reservoir for influenza A viruses. Viruses replicate in the intestines of ducks and are shed with the fecal materials. Virus isolation from collected fecal materials, therefore, is an integral part of the surveillance of avian influenza in water birds. In the present study, reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) was assessed for its usefulness in detecting the RNA of influenza A viruses in fecal materials. It was found that, RT-LAMP specifically and sensitively detects the matrix gene of influenza A viruses. Influenza A viruses were isolated from the fecal materials in which viral RNA were detected by RT-LAMP in 35 min. The present findings indicate that RT-LAMP is useful as a high throughput screening method for field samples prior to virus isolation, allowing the processing of hundreds of samples per day.

  17. Ladies without lamps: nurses in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Shahaduz

    2009-03-01

    In this article, I explore the experiences and concerns of Bangladeshi nurses. I have based this on a larger ethnographic study that was conducted in a ward of a government teaching hospital in Bangladesh. The study shows how the values and norms of Bangladeshi society have shaped the life of Bangladeshi nurses, that they do scarcely any nursing work, and that they suffer from various negative social images. I argue, through this article, that the role, image, and concerns of Bangladeshi nurses have changed dramatically from the ideal image of nursing, and are dissimilar from the ways nursing is practiced in many other parts of the world.

  18. 340nm UV LED excitation in time-resolved fluorescence system for europium-based immunoassays detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodenko, Olga; Fodgaard, Henrik; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2017-01-01

    In immunoassay analyzers for in-vitro diagnostics, Xenon flash lamps have been widely used as excitation light sources. Recent advancements in UV LED technology and its advantages over the flash lamps such as smaller footprint, better wall-plug efficiency, narrow emission spectrum......, and no significant afterglow, have made them attractive light sources for gated detection systems. In this paper, we report on the implementation of a 340 nm UV LED based time-resolved fluorescence system based on europium chelate as a fluorescent marker. The system performance was tested with the immunoassay based...... on the cardiac marker, TnI. The same signal-to-noise ratio as for the flash lamp based system was obtained, operating the LED below specified maximum current. The background counts of the system and its main contributors were measured and analyzed. The background of the system of the LED based unit was improved...

  19. Metal halide arc discharge lamp having short arc length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzeroll, Martin E. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A metal halide arc discharge lamp includes a sealed light-transmissive outer jacket, a light-transmissive shroud located within the outer jacket and an arc tube assembly located within the shroud. The arc tube assembly includes an arc tube, electrodes mounted within the arc tube and a fill material for supporting an arc discharge. The electrodes have a spacing such that an electric field in a range of about 60 to 95 volts per centimeter is established between the electrodes. The diameter of the arc tube and the spacing of the electrodes are selected to provide an arc having an arc diameter to arc length ratio in a range of about 1.6 to 1.8. The fill material includes mercury, sodium iodide, scandium tri-iodide and a rare gas, and may include lithium iodide. The lamp exhibits a high color rendering index, high lumen output and high color temperature.

  20. Retroactive effects of energy-saving lamps; Netzrueckwirkungen von Energiesparlampen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duerrenberger, G. [Forschungsstiftung Mobilkommunikation c/o ETH Zuerich (Switzerland); Klaus, G. [Maxwave AG, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2009-11-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the repercussions on the power supply network that are caused by energy-saving lamps (ESL). These effects result from the operation of the lamps' electronic ballasts which operate at high frequencies. The most noticeable network repercussions that are caused by the rapid current variations in the ESL are discussed, as are ways of considerably reducing them. As for effects on the grid, the authors state that it is not to be expected that any problematic mains feedback will result in practice, particularly not in the well-dimensioned Swiss electricity grid. The methods used in the analysis and the detailed results obtained are presented in tabular and graphical form and discussed.

  1. Environmental friendly high efficient light source plasma lamp - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courret, G.; Calame, L. [Haute Ecole d' ingenierie et de gestion du canton de Vaud, Institut de micro et nano techniques, Yverdon-les-Bains (Switzerland); Meyer, A. [Solaronix SA, Aubonne (Switzerland)

    2007-07-01

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at work done on the development of a sulphur-based plasma lamp. In 2007, the capability of a new modulator has been explored. The most important results are discussed. With the production of a 1.2 cm{sup 3} bulb, the way towards the production of a 100 W lamp has been opened. The authors comment that modulation by impulses increases the luminous efficiency in comparison to modulation using a continuous sinusoidal wave. The report deals with the history of the project, the development of the new modulator, the use of rotational effects and the optimisation of the amount of active substances - tellurium and selenium - in the bulb. The electromagnetic coupling system used is described and discussed.

  2. Flash lamp annealing of ion implanted boron profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieser, E.; Syhre, H.; Ruedenauer, F.G.; Steiger, W.

    1983-05-01

    The diffusion behaviour of ion implanted boron profiles (5x10E15 B/cm 2 , 50keV) in silicon at 800 0 C and 900 0 C has been compared for samples with and without foregoing flahs - lamp annealing of the radiation damage. The observed differences are discussed with respect to mechanisms of diffusion inhibition in the high concentration region. (Author) [de

  3. Photometric characterization of LED's for optimal design of interior lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, O.; Guerra, H.; Leon, V.; Torres, A. W.; Castannon, H.; Camas, J.

    2012-01-01

    The Tuxtla Gutierrez Technology Institute, and the Innovaluz of Mexico S A of C V company have joined forces to develop LED lighting technology in Chiapas, Mexico. We performed a comprehensive study of power savings for a household using this luminary. The main results of the Lighting are presented exclusively for the ILIGPL153BF24W model, as well as the design features of a functional lamp. (Author)

  4. Numerical Analysis of Thermo Hydraulic Conditions in Car Fog Lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramšak, M.; Žunič, Z.; Škerget, L.; Jurejevčič, T.

    2009-08-01

    In the article a coupled heat transfer in the solid and fluid inside of a car fog lamp is presented using CFD software CFX [1]. All three basic principles of heat transfer are dealt with: conduction, convection and radiation. Two different approaches to radiation modeling are compared. Laminar and turbulent flow modeling are compared since computed Rayleight number indicates transitional flow regime. Results are in good agreement with the measurements.

  5. LAM Pilot Study with Imatinib Mesylate (LAMP-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0132 TITLE: LAM Pilot Study with Imatinib Mesylate (LAMP-1) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Charlie Strange, MD...regarding imatinib mesylate (imatinib) in the treatment of Lymphangioleiomyomatosis ( LAM ) sufficient to power and design a phase 3 imatinib vs. placebo...clinical trial. The hypothesis is that imatinib will be equivalent to rapamycin in short term efficacy and safety. Currently, most LAM patients are

  6. Laser-induced fluorescence for medical diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson Engels, S.

    1989-12-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence as a tool for tissue diagnostics is discussed. Both spectrally and time-resolved fluorescence signals are studied to optimize the demarcation of diseased lesions from normal tissue. The presentation is focused on two fields of application: the identification of malignant tumours and atherosclerotic plaques. Tissue autofluorescence as well as fluorescence from administered drugs have been utilized in diseased tissue diagnosis. The fluorescence criterion for tissue diagnosis is, as far as possible, chosen to be independent of unknown fluorescence parameters, which are not correlated to the type of tissue investigated. Both a dependence on biological parameters, such as light absorption in blood, and instrumental characteristics, such as excitation pulse fluctuations and detection geometry, can be minimized. Several chemical compounds have been studied in animal experiments after intraveneous injection to verify their capacity as malignant tumour marking drugs under laser excitation and fluorescence detection. Another objective of these studies was to improve our understanding of the mechanism and chemistry behind the retention of the various drugs in tissue. The properties of a chemical which maximize its selective retention in tumours are discussed. In order to utilize this diagnostic modality, three different clinically adapted sets of instrumentation have been developed and are presented. Two of the systems are nitrogen-laser-based fluorosensors; one is a point-monitoring system with full spectral resolution and the other one is an imaging system with up to four simultaneously recorded images in different spectral bands. The third system is a low-cost point-monitoring mercury-lamp-based fluoroscence emission as well as reflection characteristics of tissue. (author)

  7. Simulation of pulsed dielectric barrier discharge xenon excimer lamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, E A; Kudryavtsev, A A; Arslanbekov, R R; Kolobov, V I

    2004-01-01

    Recently, it has been shown that the efficiency of excimer lamps can be drastically increased in a pulsed regime. A one-dimensional simulation of pulsed excimer lamps has been performed by Carman and Mildren (2003 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 36 19) (C and M). However, some computational results of the work of C and M are questionable and need to be revisited. In this paper, a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in xenon has been simulated for operating conditions similar to those of C and M to better understand plasma dynamics in a pulsed regime. Our simulation results differ considerably from the computational results of C and M. Although these differences do not affect profoundly the plasma macro parameters measured in the C and M experiments, they offer a better understanding of plasma dynamics in pulsed DBDs and form a solid foundation for computational optimization of excimer lamps. It was found that the dynamics of breakdown and the current pulse depend significantly on the initial densities of species after a previous pulse, and so it is important to accurately simulate the plasma evolution in both the afterglow and active stages. It seems possible to modify the power deposition in the plasma by varying external discharge parameters such as the amplitude and the rise time of the applied voltage, and to modify the plasma composition by changing the pulse repetition rate and plasma decay in the afterglow stage

  8. Phototoxic effects of commercial photographic flash lamp on rat eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Makoto; Shinoda, Kei; Ohde, Hisao; Tezuka, Keiji; Hida, Tetsuo

    2006-11-01

    To determine whether exposure of the cornea and retina of rats to flashes from a commercial photographic flash lamp is phototoxic. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 10, 100, or 1,000 flashes of the OPTICAM 16M photographic flash lamp (Fujikoeki, Japan) placed 0.1, 1, or 3 m from the eyes. Corneal damage was assessed by a fluorescein staining score, and the retinal damage by eletroretinography (ERG) and histology before and 24 h after exposure. Exposure of the eyes to 1,000 flashes at 0.1 m increased the fluorescein staining score significantly (P = 0.009, the Mann-Whitney test). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the cornea showed a detachment of the epithelial cells from the surface after this exposure. The amplitude of the a-wave was decreased significantly by 23.0% (P = 0.026) of the amplitude before the exposure, and the b-wave by 19.7% (P = 0.0478) following 1,000 flashes at 0.1 m but not by the other exposures. TUNEL-positive cells were present in the outer nuclear layer only after the extreme exposure, but no significant decrease in retinal thickness was seen under any condition. The fluorescein staining score and ERGs recovered to control levels within 1 week. Light exposure to a photographic flash lamp does not induce damage to the cornea and retina except when they are exposed to 1,000 flashes at 0.1 m.

  9. User manual for SPLASH (Single Panel Lamp and Shroud Helper).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Marvin Elwood

    2006-02-01

    The radiant heat test facility develops test sets providing well-characterized thermal environments, often representing fires. Many of the components and procedures have become standardized to such an extent that the development of a specialized design tool to determine optimal configurations for radiant heat experiments was appropriate. SPLASH (Single Panel Lamp and Shroud Helper) is that tool. SPLASH is implemented as a user-friendly, Windows-based program that allows a designer to describe a test setup in terms of parameters such as number of lamps, power, position, and separation distance. This document is a user manual for that software. Any incidental descriptions of theory are only for the purpose of defining the model inputs. The theory for the underlying model is described in SAND2005-2947 (Ref. [1]). SPLASH provides a graphical user interface to define lamp panel and shroud designs parametrically, solves the resulting radiation enclosure problem for up to 2500 surfaces, and provides post-processing to facilitate understanding and documentation of analyzed designs.

  10. Graphene oxide based fluorescence resonance energy transfer and loop-mediated isothermal amplification for white spot syndrome virus detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waiwijit, U; Phokaratkul, D; Kampeera, J; Lomas, T; Wisitsoraat, A; Kiatpathomchai, W; Tuantranont, A

    2015-10-20

    Graphene oxide (GO) is attractived for biological or medical applications due to its unique electrical, physical, optical and biological properties. In particular, GO can adsorb DNA via π-π stacking or non-covalent interactions, leading to fluorescence quenching phenomenon applicable for bio-molecular detection. In this work, a new method for white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)-DNA detection is developed based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) combined with fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between GO and fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled probe (FITC-probe). The fluorescence quenching efficiency of FITC-probe was found to increase with increasing GO concentration and reached 98.7% at a GO concentration of 50 μg/ml. The fluorescence intensity of FITC-probe was recovered after hybridization with WSSV LAMP product with an optimal hybridization time of 10 min and increased accordingly with increasing amount of LAMP products. The detection limit was estimated to be as low as 10 copies of WSSV plasmid DNA or 0.6 fg of the total DNA extracted from shrimp infected with WSSV. In addition, no cross reaction was observed with other common shrimp viral pathogens. Therefore, the GO-FRET-LAMP technique is promising for fast, sensitive and specific detection of DNAs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. LRO Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) Far-UV Investigations of Lunar Composition, Porosity, and Space Weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retherford, K. D.; Greathouse, T. K.; Mandt, K. E.; Gladstone, R.; Hendrix, A.; Cahill, J. T.; Liu, Y.; Grava, C.; Hurley, D.; Egan, A.; Kaufmann, D. E.; Raut, U.; Byron, B. D.; Magana, L. O.; Stickle, A. M.; Wyrick, D. Y.; Pryor, W. R.

    2017-12-01

    Far ultraviolet reflectance measurements of the Moon, icy satellites, comets, and asteroids have proven surprisingly useful for advancing our understanding of planetary surfaces. This new appreciation for planetary far-UV imaging spectroscopy is provided in large part thanks to nearly a decade of investigations with the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP). LAMP has demonstrated an innovative nightside observing technique, putting a new light on permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) and other features on the Moon. Dayside far-UV albedo maps complement the nightside data, enabling comparisons of direct and hemispheric (diffuse) illumination derived albedos. We'll discuss the strengths of the far-UV reflectance imaging spectroscopy technique with respect to several new LAMP results. Detections of water frost and hydration signatures near 165 nm, for example, provide constraints on composition that complement infrared spectroscopy, visible imaging, neutron spectroscopy, radar, and other techniques. LRO's polar orbit and high data downlink capabilities enable searches for diurnal variations in spectral signals. At far-UV wavelengths a relatively blue spectral slope is diagnostic of space weathering, which is opposite of the spectral reddening indicator of maturity at wavelengths longward of 180 nm. By utilizing natural diffuse illumination sources on the nightside the far-UV technique is able to identify relative increases in porosity within the PSRs, and provides an additional tool for determining relative surface ages. On October 6, 2016 LAMP enacted a new, more sensitive dayside operating mode that expands its ability to search for diurnally varying hydration signals associated with different regions and features.

  12. A Simple Strategy in Avulsion Flap Injury: Prediction of Flap Viability Using Wood's Lamp Illumination and Resurfacing with a Full-thickness Skin Graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyoseob; Han, Dae Hee; Lee, Il Jae; Park, Myong Chul

    2014-03-01

    Extensive degloving injuries of the extremities usually result in necrosis of the flap, necessitating comprehensive skin grafting. Provided there is a sufficient tool to evaluate flap viability, full-thickness skin can be used from a nonviable avulsed flap. We used a Wood's lamp to determine the viability of avulsed flaps in the operation field after intravenous injection of fluorescein dye. We experienced 13 cases during 16 months. Fifteen minutes after the intravenous injection of fluorescein dye, the avulsed skin flaps were examined and non-fluorescent areas were marked under Wood's lamp illumination. The marked area was defatted for full-thickness skin grafting. The fluorescent areas were sutured directly without tension. The non-fluorescent areas were covered by defatted skin. Several days later, there was soft tissue necrosis within the flap area. We measured necrotic area and revised the flap. Among all the cases, necrotic area was 21.3% of the total avulsed area. However, if we exclude three cases, one of a carelessly managed patient and two cases of the flaps were inappropriately applied, good results were obtained, with a necrotic area of only 8.4%. Eight patients needed split-thickness skin grafts, and heel pad reconstruction was performed with free flap. A full-thickness skin graft from an avulsed flap is a good method for addressing aesthetic concerns without producing donor site morbidity. Fluorescein dye is a useful, simple, and cost-effective tool for evaluating flap viability. Avulsed flap injuries can be managed well with Wood's lamp illumination and a full-thickness skin graft.

  13. A Simple Strategy in Avulsion Flap Injury: Prediction of Flap Viability Using Wood's Lamp Illumination and Resurfacing with a Full-thickness Skin Graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoseob Lim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Extensive degloving injuries of the extremities usually result in necrosis of the flap, necessitating comprehensive skin grafting. Provided there is a sufficient tool to evaluate flap viability, full-thickness skin can be used from a nonviable avulsed flap. We used a Wood's lamp to determine the viability of avulsed flaps in the operation field after intravenous injection of fluorescein dye. Methods We experienced 13 cases during 16 months. Fifteen minutes after the intravenous injection of fluorescein dye, the avulsed skin flaps were examined and non-fluorescent areas were marked under Wood's lamp illumination. The marked area was defatted for full-thickness skin grafting. The fluorescent areas were sutured directly without tension. The non-fluorescent areas were covered by defatted skin. Several days later, there was soft tissue necrosis within the flap area. We measured necrotic area and revised the flap. Results Among all the cases, necrotic area was 21.3% of the total avulsed area. However, if we exclude three cases, one of a carelessly managed patient and two cases of the flaps were inappropriately applied, good results were obtained, with a necrotic area of only 8.4%. Eight patients needed split-thickness skin grafts, and heel pad reconstruction was performed with free flap. Conclusions A full-thickness skin graft from an avulsed flap is a good method for addressing aesthetic concerns without producing donor site morbidity. Fluorescein dye is a useful, simple, and cost-effective tool for evaluating flap viability. Avulsed flap injuries can be managed well with Wood's lamp illumination and a full-thickness skin graft.

  14. Efficacy of fluorescence diagnosis for pleural tumors with alasens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Pikin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of efficacy of thoracoscopy-assisted fluorescence diagnosis with Alasens is described in the article. The results of fluorescence diagnosis in 27 patients with suspicion on pleral tumor are represented. Before thoracoscopy-assisted fluorescence diagnosis in 21 patients according to radiological studies there was a fluid in pleural ca, in 19 patients of them tumor cells were found by cytological study of pleural fluid, in 10 patients differential diagnosis was performed between mesothelioma and adenogenic cancer. For fluorescence diagnosis fluorescence system by company Кarl Storz and xenon lamp with set of light filters was used: fluorescence study was performed by excitation at wavelength 380–460 nm. 3 h before investigation the patient received alasens per os in dose of 30 mg/kg body weight in 100 ml of water. For routine thoracoscopy tumor lesions were determined in 20 (87.0% patients, other 3 (13.0% patients had no tumors. In the group of patients with tumor lesions determined by routine thoracoscopy the fluorescence during fluorescence study was registered in all lesions determined in white light, besides this 24 additional foci of fluorescence were noticed, according to morphological study 21 of them had tumor nature, 3 lesions were inflammatory. In 1 of 3 patients with no lesion in white light there was one focus of fluorescence, morphological study proved the metastasis of adenocarcinoma in this area. According to morphological study of pleural biopsy specimens the true-positive results for fluorescence thoracoscopy accounted for 82, false-negative – 10, true-negative – 23, false-positive – 3. The sensitivity of the method was 89,1%, the specificity – 88,4%, the diagnostic accuracy – 88,9%. 

  15. Fluorescent lighting system of modified fast starting system; Sistema de alumbrado fluorescente de arranque rapido modificado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza E, Ernesto J [Manufacturera De Reactores, S. A., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    This paper puts into perspective the possible energy saving in using hybrid ballasts for the operation of fast starting lamps. It presents in summarized form some fundamentals of the fluorescent lamps operation, as well as the fast starting modified systems. Also the results of field operation are shown, as well as the effects on the useful life of the lamp T12 as well as the T8. [Espanol] Este trabajo pone en perspectiva el ahorro de energia posible, al emplear balastros hibridos para operar lamparas de arranque rapido. Presenta en forma resumida algunos fundamentos de la operacion de lamparas fluorescentes, asi como de los sistemas de arranque rapido modificado. Se muestran tambien resultados de operacion de campo, asi como los efectos sobre la vida util de las lamparas, tanto T12 como T8.

  16. Fluorescent lighting system of modified fast starting system; Sistema de alumbrado fluorescente de arranque rapido modificado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza E, Ernesto J. [Manufacturera De Reactores, S. A., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    This paper puts into perspective the possible energy saving in using hybrid ballasts for the operation of fast starting lamps. It presents in summarized form some fundamentals of the fluorescent lamps operation, as well as the fast starting modified systems. Also the results of field operation are shown, as well as the effects on the useful life of the lamp T12 as well as the T8. [Espanol] Este trabajo pone en perspectiva el ahorro de energia posible, al emplear balastros hibridos para operar lamparas de arranque rapido. Presenta en forma resumida algunos fundamentos de la operacion de lamparas fluorescentes, asi como de los sistemas de arranque rapido modificado. Se muestran tambien resultados de operacion de campo, asi como los efectos sobre la vida util de las lamparas, tanto T12 como T8.

  17. A new LED lamp for the collection of nocturnal Lepidoptera and a spectral comparison of light-trapping lamps

    OpenAIRE

    Brehm, Gunnar

    2017-01-01

    Most nocturnal Lepidoptera can be attracted to artificial light sources, particularly to those that emit a high proportion of ultraviolet radiation. Here, I describe a newly developed LED lamp set for the use in the field that is lightweight, handy, robust, and energy efficient. The emitted electromagnetic spectrum corresponds to the peak sensitivity in most Lepidoptera eye receptors (ultraviolet, blue and green). Power LEDs with peaks at 368 nm (ultraviolet), 450 nm (blue), 530 nm (green), a...

  18. Atomic fluorescence spectrometry with the inductively coupled plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omenetto, N.; Winefordner, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    Atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS) is based on the radiational activation of atoms and ions produced in a suitable atomizer (ionizer) and the subsequent measurement of the resulting radiational deactivation, called fluorescence. Atomic fluorescence spectrometry has been of considerable interest to researchers in atomic spectrometry because of its use for both analytical and diagnostic purposes. Unfortunately, the analytical applications of AFS have suffered from the lack of commercial instrumentation until the recent marketing of the Baird multiple-element, hollow cathode lamp-excited inductively coupled plasma system. This chapter is concerned strictly with the use of the inductively coupled plasma (ICP) as a cell and as a source for AFS. Many of the major references concerning the ICP in analytical AFS are categorized in Table 9.1, along with several reviews and diagnostical studies. For more detailed discussions of the fundamental aspects of AFS, the reader is referred to previous reviews

  19. Observation of vapor pressure enhancement of rare-earth metal-halide salts in the temperature range relevant to metal-halide lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curry, J. J.; Henins, A.; Hardis, J. E. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Estupinan, E. G. [Osram Sylvania Inc., Beverly, Massachusetts 01915 (United States); Lapatovich, W. P. [Independent Consultant, 51 Pye Brook Lane, Boxford, Massachusetts 01921 (United States); Shastri, S. D. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2012-02-20

    Total vapor-phase densities of Dy in equilibrium with a DyI{sub 3}/InI condensate and Tm in equilibrium with a TmI{sub 3}/TlI condensate have been measured for temperatures between 900 K and 1400 K. The measurements show strong enhancements in rare-earth vapor densities compared to vapors in equilibrium with the pure rare-earth metal-halides. The measurements were made with x-ray induced fluorescence on the sector 1-ID beam line at the Advanced Photon Source. The temperature range and salt mixtures are relevant to the operation of metal-halide high-intensity discharge lamps.

  20. Urine sample used for detection of toxoplasma gondii infection by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xin; Pan, Chang-Wang; Li, Ya-Fei; Wang, Han; Tan, Feng

    2012-02-01

    In this study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was established to detect Toxoplasma gondii DNA in mice infected with T. gondii PRU strain. This LAMP assay was based on the sequence of highly repetitive B1 gene. The detection limit of T. gondii LAMP assay was 1 pg of T. gondii DNA, which was evaluated using 10-fold serially diluted DNA of cultured parasites. The LAMP assay was also highly specific for T. gondii and able to detect T. gondii DNA in urine of mice treated with dexamethasone at 90 day post infection (p.i.), although this assay could not detect the DNA in mice urine 2-6 days p.i. These results demonstrated that LAMP is effective for evaluation of therapy effectiveness for T. gondii infection. The established LAMP assay may represent a useful and practical tool for the routine diagnosis and therapeutic evaluation of human toxoplasmosis.

  1. The incandescent lamps in Mexico; are they really a beneficial technology?; Las lamparas incandescentes en Mexico: son realmente una tecnologia benefica?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez Rivero, A. G. [Genertek, S.A. de C.V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    The versatility of the incandescent lamps has originated a sustained increment of its population all over the world. Because of its characteristics they continue being irreplaceable in numberless applications, that go from the movies up to the medicine. Nevertheless the greatest population are represented by the incandescent lamps A-19 with the well-known negative effects to the environment and the economy caused by the electric power generation by conventional methods. No doubt about it, the best option to substitute them are the compact fluorescent lamps (CFL), but the economical barriers, the market and the performance do not permit its massive application in Mexico. In this paper a proposal is set forth that might bring high benefits with a minimum investment and rapid implementation. [Espanol] La versatilidad de las lamparas incandescentes ha causado un incremento sostenido de su poblacion en todo el mundo. Dadas sus caracteristicas continua siendo insustituible en un sinnumero de aplicaciones, que van desde el cine hasta la medicina. Sin embargo, la mayor poblacion la representan las ineficientes lamparas incandescentes A19 con los consabidos efectos negativos en el medio ambiente y la economia, causados por la generacion de energia electrica por medios convencionales. Sin duda, la mejor opcion para sustituirlas son las lamparas compacto fluorescentes (LCF), pero las barreras economicas, de mercado y de desempeno no permiten su aplicacion masiva en Mexico. En este trabajo se hace una propuesta que puede permitir grandes beneficios con minima inversion y rapida implementacion.

  2. The incandescent lamps in Mexico; are they really a beneficial technology?; Las lamparas incandescentes en Mexico: son realmente una tecnologia benefica?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez Rivero, A G [Genertek, S.A. de C.V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    The versatility of the incandescent lamps has originated a sustained increment of its population all over the world. Because of its characteristics they continue being irreplaceable in numberless applications, that go from the movies up to the medicine. Nevertheless the greatest population are represented by the incandescent lamps A-19 with the well-known negative effects to the environment and the economy caused by the electric power generation by conventional methods. No doubt about it, the best option to substitute them are the compact fluorescent lamps (CFL), but the economical barriers, the market and the performance do not permit its massive application in Mexico. In this paper a proposal is set forth that might bring high benefits with a minimum investment and rapid implementation. [Espanol] La versatilidad de las lamparas incandescentes ha causado un incremento sostenido de su poblacion en todo el mundo. Dadas sus caracteristicas continua siendo insustituible en un sinnumero de aplicaciones, que van desde el cine hasta la medicina. Sin embargo, la mayor poblacion la representan las ineficientes lamparas incandescentes A19 con los consabidos efectos negativos en el medio ambiente y la economia, causados por la generacion de energia electrica por medios convencionales. Sin duda, la mejor opcion para sustituirlas son las lamparas compacto fluorescentes (LCF), pero las barreras economicas, de mercado y de desempeno no permiten su aplicacion masiva en Mexico. En este trabajo se hace una propuesta que puede permitir grandes beneficios con minima inversion y rapida implementacion.

  3. A Single-Stage LED Tube Lamp Driver with Power-Factor Corrections and Soft Switching for Energy-Saving Indoor Lighting Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-An Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a single-stage alternating current (AC/direct current (DC light-emitting diode (LED tube lamp driver for energy-saving indoor lighting applications; this driver features power-factor corrections and soft switching, and also integrates a dual buck-boost converter with coupled inductors and a half-bridge series resonant converter cascaded with a bridge rectifier into a single-stage power-conversion topology. The features of the presented driver are high efficiency (>91%, satisfying power factor (PF > 0.96, low input-current total-harmonic distortion (THD < 10%, low output voltage ripple factor (<7.5%, low output current ripple factor (<8%, and zero-voltage switching (ZVS obtained on both power switches. Operational principles are described in detail, and experimental results obtained from an 18 W-rated LED tube lamp for T8/T10 fluorescent lamp replacements with input utility-line voltages ranging from 100 V to 120 V have demonstrated the functionality of the presented driver suitable for indoor lighting applications.

  4. Low pressure arc discharge lamp apparatus with magnetic field generating means

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.; Maya, Jakob

    1987-01-01

    A low-pressure arc discharge apparatus having a magnetic field generating means for increasing the output of a discharge lamp is disclosed. The magnetic field generating means, which in one embodiment includes a plurality of permanent magnets, is disposed along the lamp for applying a constant transverse magnetic field over at least a portion of the positive discharge column produced in the arc discharge lamp operating at an ambient temperature greater than about 25.degree. C.

  5. Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED PAR38 Lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royer, Michael P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The lumen depreciation and color shift of 38 different lamps (32 LED, 2 CFL, 1 ceramic metal halide [CMH], 3 halogen) were monitored in a specially developed automated long-term test apparatus (ALTA2) for nearly 14,000 hours. Five samples of each lamp model were tested, with measurements recorded on a weekly basis. The lamps were operated continuously at a target ambient temperature between 44°C and 45°C.

  6. High-frequency electrode less lamps for application in atomic absorption analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavare, Z.; Revalde, G.; Skudra, A.; Ganeev, A.; Sholupov, S.

    2004-01-01

    Authors measured and optimised main characteristic of different EDL-s, interesting for their use in atomic absorption spectroscopy: working time, main spectral line intensities and spectral widths, as well as limits of detection for respective elements. In the experiment spectrometer MGA-915 was used. In the table the ultimate limits of detection (LOD) are compered for HF ED lamps and HJC lamps. LOD for HF EDL lamps are 1.5 - 8 times lower than ones for HCL-s

  7. Low pressure arc discharge lamp apparatus with magnetic field generating means

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.; Maya, J.

    1987-10-06

    A low-pressure arc discharge apparatus having a magnetic field generating means for increasing the output of a discharge lamp is disclosed. The magnetic field generating means, which in one embodiment includes a plurality of permanent magnets, is disposed along the lamp for applying a constant transverse magnetic field over at least a portion of the positive discharge column produced in the arc discharge lamp operating at an ambient temperature greater than about 25 C. 3 figs.

  8. CALiPER Report 22.1: Photoelectric Performance of LED MR16 Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-08-31

    This report looks at the photoelectric performance of the same set of lamps assessed in Report 22, using commercially available transformers and dimmers as well as laboratory power supplies providing either AC or DC. The investigation explores several issues related to the testing and use of MR16 lamps in lighting systems and examines the range of performance that is possible for a given lamp model, based on the system to which it is connected.

  9. Monte Carlo treatment of resonance-radiation imprisonment in fluorescent lamps—revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James B.

    2016-12-01

    We reported in 1985 a Monte Carlo treatment of the imprisonment of the 253.7 nm resonance radiation from mercury in the mercury-argon discharge of fluorescent lamps. The calculated spectra of the emitted radiation were found in good agreement with measured spectra. The addition of the isotope mercury-196 to natural mercury was found, also in agreement with experiments, to increase lamp efficiency. In this paper we report the extension of the earlier work with increased accuracy, analysis of photon exit-time distributions, recycling of energy released in quenching, analysis of dynamic similarity for different lamp sizes, variation of Mrozowski transfer rates, prediction and analysis of the hyperfine ultra-violet spectra, and optimization of tailored mercury isotope mixtures for increased lamp efficiency. The spectra were found insensitive to the extent of quenching and recycling. The optimized mixtures were found to increase efficiencies by as much as 5% for several lamp configurations. Optimization without increasing the mercury-196 fraction was found to increase efficiencies by nearly 1% for several configurations.

  10. Monte Carlo treatment of resonance-radiation imprisonment in fluorescent lamps—revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, James B

    2016-01-01

    We reported in 1985 a Monte Carlo treatment of the imprisonment of the 253.7 nm resonance radiation from mercury in the mercury–argon discharge of fluorescent lamps. The calculated spectra of the emitted radiation were found in good agreement with measured spectra. The addition of the isotope mercury-196 to natural mercury was found, also in agreement with experiments, to increase lamp efficiency. In this paper we report the extension of the earlier work with increased accuracy, analysis of photon exit-time distributions, recycling of energy released in quenching, analysis of dynamic similarity for different lamp sizes, variation of Mrozowski transfer rates, prediction and analysis of the hyperfine ultra-violet spectra, and optimization of tailored mercury isotope mixtures for increased lamp efficiency. The spectra were found insensitive to the extent of quenching and recycling. The optimized mixtures were found to increase efficiencies by as much as 5% for several lamp configurations. Optimization without increasing the mercury-196 fraction was found to increase efficiencies by nearly 1% for several configurations. (paper)

  11. Application of an antenna excited high pressure microwave discharge to compact discharge lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kando, M; Fukaya, T; Ohishi, Y; Mizojiri, T; Morimoto, Y; Shido, M; Serita, T

    2008-01-01

    A novel type of high pressure microwave discharge has been investigated to feed the microwave power at the centre of the compact high pressure discharge lamps using the antenna effect. This method of microwave discharge is named as the antenna excited microwave discharge (AEMD). The 2.45 GHz microwave of around 50 W from the solid state microwave generator can sustain a stable plasma column in the small gap between a couple of antennas fitted on the compact lamp filled with discharge gases at a pressure higher than atmosphere. The AEMD has been applied to a compact metal halide lamp and an extremely high pressure mercury discharge lamp. As a result, the metal halide lamp showed high luminous efficacy of around 130 lm W -1 . The excellent lamp properties obtained here can be explained by the low heating loss at the antennas and the lamp wall. The profiles of the microwave electric field in the lamp and the microwave launcher have been numerically calculated to consider the microwave power supply into the lamp

  12. BAD-LAMP controls TLR9 trafficking and signalling in human plasmacytoid dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combes, Alexis; Camosseto, Voahirana; N'Guessan, Prudence; Argüello, Rafael J; Mussard, Julie; Caux, Christophe; Bendriss-Vermare, Nathalie; Pierre, Philippe; Gatti, Evelina

    2017-10-13

    Toll-like receptors (TLR) are essential components of the innate immune system. Several accessory proteins, such as UNC93B1, are required for transport and activation of nucleic acid sensing Toll-like receptors in endosomes. Here, we show that BAD-LAMP (LAMP5) controls TLR9 trafficking to LAMP1 + late endosomes in human plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC), leading to NF-κB activation and TNF production upon DNA detection. An inducible VAMP3 +/ LAMP2 +/ LAMP1 - endolysosome compartment exists in pDCs from which TLR9 activation triggers type I interferon expression. BAD-LAMP-silencing enhances TLR9 retention in this compartment and consequent downstream signalling events. Conversely, sustained BAD-LAMP expression in pDCs contributes to their lack of type I interferon production after exposure to a TGF-β-positive microenvironment or isolation from human breast tumours. Hence, BAD-LAMP limits interferon expression in pDCs indirectly, by promoting TLR9 sorting to late endosome compartments at steady state and in response to immunomodulatory cues.TLR9 is highly expressed by plasmacytoid dendritic cells and detects nucleic acids, but to discriminate between host and microbial nucleic acids TLR9 is sorted into different endosomal compartments. Here the authors show that BAD-LAMP limits type 1 interferon responses by sorting TLR9 to late endosomal compartments.

  13. There are Many Kinds and Brands of TL Lamp and Ballast Transformer in the Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koes-Indrakoesoema; Yayan-Andryanto

    2006-01-01

    However, there is still a problem of how to determining the power factor (cos φ) for one of brand of lamp. Lamps with low power factor will consume relatively high reactive power, hence the active power that can be utilized decreases. One of the effort that can be done to improve the level of the lamp's power factor is to install a suitable capacitor with the lamp. The values of the lamp's power factor of a certain brand of lamp will be different if the lamp is connected with different brand of ballast transformer. Therefore, the value of the capacitor that have to be installed to the lamp also must be different depend on the brand of the transformer. This experiment using 2 (two) TL lamp i.e Chiyoda 40 Watt and Philip 36 Watt which has been installed with capacitor 3.6 μF and combination of ballast transformer Philips, National and Siemens and shows that increase the power factor until 0.95. (author)

  14. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) shield for Arduino DNA detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velders, Aldrik H; Schoen, Cor; Saggiomo, Vittorio

    2018-02-01

    Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) of DNA is gaining relevance as a method to detect nucleic acids, as it is easier, faster, and more powerful than conventional Polymerase Chain Reaction. However, LAMP is still mostly used in laboratory settings, because of the lack of a cheap and easy, one-button device that can perform LAMP experiments. Here we show how to build and program an Arduino shield for a LAMP and detection of DNA. The here described Arduino Shield is cheap, easy to assemble, to program and use, it is battery operated and the detection of DNA is done by naked-eye so that it can be used in field.

  15. Estimation of mercury amount in the components of spent U-type lamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Seung-Whee

    2017-05-01

    Spent U-type lamps are strongly encouraged to be separately managed in Korea, because U-type lamps are categorized as a household waste and thereby could not be managed properly. Determination of mercury amount in the components of U-type lamp, such as plastics, glass tube and phosphor powder from 3 U-type lamp manufacturers (A, B and C), is carried out to estimate the mercury content in spent U-type lamps. Regardless of lamp manufacturers, the portion of mercury in phosphor powder was higher than 90%, but that in plastics and others was less than 1%. At an air flow rate of 1.0 L/min, the range of the initial mercury concentration in vapor phase for U-type lamp was between 849 and 2076 µg/m 3 from 3 companies. The estimated mercury amount in vapor phase of U-type lamp was in the range from 0.206 mg for company A to 0.593 mg for company B. And the portion of mercury in vapor phase in the total amount of mercury was estimated in the range from 3.0% for company A to 6.7% for company B. Hence, it is desirable to get rid of mercury from phosphor powder in order to perform U-type lamps recycling.

  16. Identification of ochratoxin A producing Aspergillus carbonarius and A. niger clade isolated from grapes using the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storari, M; von Rohr, R; Pertot, I; Gessler, C; Broggini, G A L

    2013-04-01

    To develop two assays based on the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) of DNA for the quick and specific identification of Aspergillus carbonarius and ochratoxigenic strains of the Aspergillus niger clade isolated from grapes. Two sets of primers were designed based on the polyketide synthase genes involved or putatively involved in ochratoxin A (OTA) biosynthesis in A. carbonarius and A. niger clade. Hydroxynaphthol blue was used as indirect method to indicate DNA amplification. The limit of detection of both assays was comparable to that of a PCR reaction. Specificities of the reactions were tested using DNA from different black aspergilli isolated from grapes. The two LAMP assays were then used to identify A. carbonarius and ochratoxigenic A. niger and A. awamori grown in pure cultures without a prior DNA extraction. The two LAMP assays permitted to quickly and specifically identify DNA from OTA-producing black aspergilli, as well as isolates grown in pure culture. Monitoring vineyards for the presence of OTA-producing strains is part of the measures to minimize the occurrence of OTA in grape products. The two LAMP assays developed here could be potentially used to speed the screening process of vineyards for the presence of OTA-producing black aspergilli. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Use of germicidal lamps in the disinfection of sanitary wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Bilotta

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the efficiency of germicidal lamps in the tertiary treatment of sewage to control pathogens. The performance of the photochemical reactor used in the tests was monitored by microbiological analyses to quantify E. coli (bacteria indicator, C. perfringens (protozoa indicator, coliphages (virus indicator. The experiments were performed with effluent from an UASB reactor installed at the WTP- USP São Carlos campus subjected to an aerated submerged biological filter and a photochemical reactor with radiation UV at 254 nm. The results showed that the indicators coliphages and E. coli showed the least resistance to UV radiation reaching removal from 1.70 to 3.90 log and 1.60 to 5.20 log, respectively. On the other hand, the indicator C. perfringens was more resistant to the effect of germicidal lamps reaching values between 0.0 (no inactivation and 1.30 log. For SST concentrations greater than 100.0 mg.L-1, the effect of the germicidal lamps became less pronounced. However, in practice it was possible to notice significant results in tests with TSS concentrations of 135.0 mg.L-1. The experimental approach proved the usefulness of the combined method for inactivating pathogens commonly found in domestic sewage. Besides meeting the standards established by the Brazilian regulation, the final effluent is in agreement with the guidelines defined by WHO. This allows the reuse of the final effluent for unrestricted irrigation, although complementary examination must be performed.

  18. Colour-rendition properties of solid-state lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zukauskas, A; Vaicekauskas, R; Shur, M S

    2010-01-01

    The applicability of colour-quality metrics to solid-state light sources is validated and the results of the assessment of colour-rendition characteristics of various lamps are presented. The standard colour-rendering index metric or a refined colour-quality scale metric fails to distinguish between two principle colour-rendition properties of illumination: the ability to render object colours with high fidelity and the ability to increase chromatic contrast, especially when the spectra of light sources contain a few narrow-band electroluminescence components. Supplementing these metrics by the known figures of merit that measure the gamut area of a small number of test colour samples does not completely resolve this issue. In contrast, the statistical approach, which is based on sorting a very large number of test colour samples in respect of just-perceivable colour distortions of several kinds, offers a comprehensive assessment of colour-rendition properties of solid-state light sources. In particular, two statistical indices, colour-fidelity index (CFI) and colour-saturation index (CSI), which are the relative numbers of object colours rendered with high fidelity and increased saturation, respectively, are sufficient to reveal and assess three distinct types of solid-state light sources. These are (i) high-fidelity lamps, which cover the entire spectrum with the spectral components present in the wavelength ranges of both 530-610 nm and beyond 610 nm (e.g. trichromatic warm white phosphor-converted (pc) light-emitting diodes (LEDs), red-amber-green-blue LED clusters, complementary clusters of white and coloured LEDs); (ii) colour-saturating lamps, which lack power in the 530-610 nm wavelength range (e.g. red-green-blue or red-cyan-blue LED clusters) and (iii) colour-dulling lamps, which lack power for wavelengths longer than 610 nm (dichromatic daylight pc LEDs and amber-green-blue LED clusters). Owing to a single statistical format, CSI and CFI can be used for

  19. SEM investigation of incandescent lamp mantle structure on durability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerneke, D.; Lang, C.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The incandescent mantle as used on pressure and non-pressure liquid fuel lamps has been in use for over 100 years. What remains unexplained is the way in which the resistance to mechanical shock and the decline in tensile strength with usage is experienced. It has been suggested that to improve durability it is necessary to continuously burn a new mantle for the first two to three hours. The known factors in mantle durability and mechanical strength are chemical composition and fabric weave. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of burning time and temperature on thorium oxide mantles. The operating temperature of mantles on a range of kerosene pressure lamps was measured and found to be between 800 and 1100 deg C. Heat treatments of thorium based Coleman mantles were carried out in a laboratory furnace within these ranges of temperatures for periods ranging from 2 minutes to 2 hours. The mantles were then viewed in a LEO S440 analytical SEM. Results at 800 deg C show a distinct change in surface morphology with increasing exposure time. At the shorter times (2-5 minutes) the surface was relatively smooth. With increased time periods (15 - 120 minutes) the surface was observed to have a large lumpy structure. At 1100 deg C the difference in surface morphology was not apparent between the shortest and longest times. The surface appears much smoother and no lumpy structure was observed. This suggests that when a mantle is operated at the higher temperature of 1100 deg C the structure of the Thorium oxide is quickly transformed into the known stronger amorphous form. This is taken as the observed smooth structure seen in the SEM images of the 1100 deg C samples. Thus the mantle is expected to be more resistant to mechanical shock and have increased durability. Practical field test results confirm these observations. The mantle on a lamp that is operating efficiently, burns brightly, will far outlast a mantle on an inefficient lamp which bums

  20. Colour-rendition properties of solid-state lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zukauskas, A [Institute of Applied Research, Vilnius University, Sauletekio al. 9, bldg. III, Vilnius, LT-10222 (Lithuania); Vaicekauskas, R [Department of Computer Science, Vilnius University, Naugarduko g. 24, Vilnius, LT-03225 (Lithuania); Shur, M S, E-mail: arturas.zukauskas@ff.vu.l [Department of Electrical, Computer, and System Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)

    2010-09-08

    The applicability of colour-quality metrics to solid-state light sources is validated and the results of the assessment of colour-rendition characteristics of various lamps are presented. The standard colour-rendering index metric or a refined colour-quality scale metric fails to distinguish between two principle colour-rendition properties of illumination: the ability to render object colours with high fidelity and the ability to increase chromatic contrast, especially when the spectra of light sources contain a few narrow-band electroluminescence components. Supplementing these metrics by the known figures of merit that measure the gamut area of a small number of test colour samples does not completely resolve this issue. In contrast, the statistical approach, which is based on sorting a very large number of test colour samples in respect of just-perceivable colour distortions of several kinds, offers a comprehensive assessment of colour-rendition properties of solid-state light sources. In particular, two statistical indices, colour-fidelity index (CFI) and colour-saturation index (CSI), which are the relative numbers of object colours rendered with high fidelity and increased saturation, respectively, are sufficient to reveal and assess three distinct types of solid-state light sources. These are (i) high-fidelity lamps, which cover the entire spectrum with the spectral components present in the wavelength ranges of both 530-610 nm and beyond 610 nm (e.g. trichromatic warm white phosphor-converted (pc) light-emitting diodes (LEDs), red-amber-green-blue LED clusters, complementary clusters of white and coloured LEDs); (ii) colour-saturating lamps, which lack power in the 530-610 nm wavelength range (e.g. red-green-blue or red-cyan-blue LED clusters) and (iii) colour-dulling lamps, which lack power for wavelengths longer than 610 nm (dichromatic daylight pc LEDs and amber-green-blue LED clusters). Owing to a single statistical format, CSI and CFI can be used for

  1. Glow discharge lamp: a light source for optical emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishwanathan, K.S.; Srinivasan, V.; Nalini, S.; Mahalingam, T.R.

    1990-01-01

    A glow discharge lamp based on a modified version of the Grimm design has been fabricated. Its utility as a radiation source for optical emmission spectrography by standardising a method for the analysis of low alloy steels using a set of certified standards from DMRL, Hyderabad, has been demonstrated. A model has been proposed where the sputtering rates of different metals have been correlated with their heats of sublimation, metallic radii and densities. Sputtering rates of ten different metals obtained from literature have been used to test this model, and the correlation appears to be excellent. (author). 19 re fs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Status quo of ceramic material for metal halide discharge lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappen, Theo G M M

    2005-01-01

    Polycrystalline alumina is an excellent ceramic material for use as the envelope for metal halide discharge lamps. Although this material was introduced in the mid-1960s, and is thus already known for several decades, recent years have seen considerable effort aimed at further development of these ceramic envelope materials. Developments are not only in the field of ceramic shaping technologies, but are also concentrated on the material properties of the ceramic material itself. Optical, mechanical as well as the chemical properties of the ceramic envelope are strongly controlled by the shape as well as the microstructure of the ceramics used

  3. Ratiometric fluorescent nanosensor based on carbon dots for the detection of mercury ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yusha; Mei, Jing; Bai, Jianliang; Chen, Xu; Ren, Lili

    2018-05-01

    A novel ratiometric fluorescent nanosensor based on carbon dots has been synthesized via bonding rhodamine B hydrazide to the carbon dots surface by an amide reaction. The ratiometric fluorescent nanosensor showed only a single blue fluorescence emission around 450 nm. While, as mercury ion was added, due to the open-ring of rhodamine moiety bonded on the CDs surface, the orange emission of the open-ring rhodamine would increase obviously according to the concentration of mercury ion, resulting in the distinguishable dual emissions at 450 nm and 575 nm under a single 360 excitation wavelength. Meanwhile, the ratiometric fluorescent nanosensor based on carbon dots we prepared is more sensitive to qualitative and semi-quantitative detection of mercury ion in the range of 0–100 μM, because fluorescence changes gradually from blue to orange emission under 365 nm lamp with the increasing of mercury ion in the tested solution.

  4. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study RRL3.2 Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED A lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royer, Michael P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McCullough, Jeffrey J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tucker, Joseph C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The lumen depreciation and color shift of 17 different A lamps (15 LED, 1 CFL, 1 halogen) was monitored in the automated long-term test apparatus (ALTA) for more than 7,500 hours. Ten samples of each lamp model were tested, with measurements recorded on a weekly basis. The lamps were operated continuously at an ambient temperature of 45°C (-1°C). Importantly, the steady-state test conditions were not optimized for inducing catastrophic failure for any of the lamp technologies—to which thermal cycling is a strong contributor— and are not typical of normal use patterns—which usually include off periods where the lamp cools down. Further, the test conditions differ from those used in standardized long-term test methods (i.e., IES LM-80, IES LM-84), so the results should not be directly compared. On the other hand, the test conditions are similar to those used by ENERGY STAR (when elevated temperature testing is called for). Likewise, the conditions and assumptions used by manufacturers to generated lifetime claims may vary; the CALiPER long-term data is informative, but cannot necessarily be used to discredit manufacturer claims. The test method used for this investigation should be interpreted as one more focused on the long-term effects of elevated temperature operation, at an ambient temperature that is not uncommon in luminaires. On average, the lumen maintenance of the LED lamps monitored in the ALTA was better than benchmark lamps, but there was considerable variation from lamp model to lamp model. While three lamp models had average lumen maintenance above 99% at the end of the study period, two products had average lumen maintenance below 65%, constituting a parametric failure. These two products, along with a third, also exhibited substantial color shift, another form of parametric failure. While none of the LED lamps exhibited catastrophic failure—and all of the benchmarks did—the early degradation of performance is concerning, especially with a

  5. Gluing for Raman lidar systems using the lamp mapping technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Monique; Venable, Demetrius; Whiteman, David N

    2014-12-20

    In the context of combined analog and photon counting (PC) data acquisition in a Lidar system, glue coefficients are defined as constants used for converting an analog signal into a virtual PC signal. The coefficients are typically calculated using Lidar profile data taken under clear, nighttime conditions since, in the presence of clouds or high solar background, it is difficult to obtain accurate glue coefficients from Lidar backscattered data. Here we introduce a new method in which we use the lamp mapping technique (LMT) to determine glue coefficients in a manner that does not require atmospheric profiles to be acquired and permits accurate glue coefficients to be calculated when adequate Lidar profile data are not available. The LMT involves scanning a halogen lamp over the aperture of a Lidar receiver telescope such that the optical efficiency of the entire detection system is characterized. The studies shown here involve two Raman lidar systems; the first from Howard University and the second from NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. The glue coefficients determined using the LMT and the Lidar backscattered method agreed within 1.2% for the water vapor channel and within 2.5% for the nitrogen channel for both Lidar systems. We believe this to be the first instance of the use of laboratory techniques for determining the glue coefficients for Lidar data analysis.

  6. Changing lamp type and position to improve lighting quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anizar; Syahputri, K.; Sari, RM; Rizkya, I.; Hardianti, DA

    2018-03-01

    This study investigates the lighting quality on the production floor in a cigarette paper industry by measuring illumination level and luminance. Cigarette paper inspection is performed manually by operators, and the criteria of defects are the cigarette paper has a hole, is rough and dirty. Operators complain that the room is pretty dark, which makes them unable to see clearly the cigarette paper defect. The government of Indonesia Health Ministerial Decree No 1405 The Year 2002 states that illumination level for continuous manual labor is 200 lux. Illumination level is measured for four days at 08.00, 10.00, 12.30, and 14.00 o’clock with 4 in 1 environmental meter. From the measurement result, it is found that using 7 LED lamps of 60 Watts can produce average illumination level of 70 lux. Low illuminance is caused by illumination level that does not meet the need 0f 569.759 lumen. Alternatives that can be used to increase lumen number are changing lamp type and position. One of the possibilities is using 24 LED of 138 Watts set 5.7 meters apart from one another can meet this demand. Another is using 5 LED of 150 Watts installed above the field of work.

  7. Technical and economic feasibility of the use of discharge lamps in replacement of filament for induction of photoperiod in chrysanthemum seedlings production; Viabilidade tecnico-economica do uso de lampadas de descarga em substituicao as de filamento para inducao de fotoperiodo na producao de mudas de crisantemos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Luiz A.; David, Eduardo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola], E-mail: rossi@feagri.unicamp.br; Pagliardi, Odail [Faculdade Municipal Prof. Franco Montoro (FMPFM), Mogi Guacu, SP (Brazil); Sarubbi, Juliana [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (CESNORS/UFSM), Palmeira das Missoes, RS (Brazil). Centro de Educacao Superior Norte-RS

    2010-07-01

    Due to its physiological characteristics, the seedlings of chrysanthemums require supplemental light to prevent bud formation, that is done at night. This article examines the technical and economic valuation to replace the current technology of artificial lighting used by producers (incandescent bulbs) for the purpose of inducing photoperiod in a protected environment for cutting-discharge lamps, with the goal of reducing the consumption electricity used in the process. The analysis showed that the integrated compact fluorescent yellow lamp 23W is the technically and economically feasible for such replacement. (author)

  8. Physical and fluorescence data collected using moored buoy casts as part of the IDOE/POLYMODE (International Decade of Ocean Exploration / combination of USSR POLYGON project and US MODE) from 07 December 1975 to 03 January 1977 (NODC Accession 7700569)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical and fluorescence data were collected using moored buoy from May 4, 1975 to December 18, 1975. Data were submitted by Massachusetts Institute of Technology;...

  9. Using Fluorescent Viruses for Detecting Bacteria in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabacco, Mary Beth; Qian, Xiaohua; Russo, Jaimie A.

    2009-01-01

    A method of detecting water-borne pathogenic bacteria is based partly on established molecular-recognition and fluorescent-labeling concepts, according to which bacteria of a species of interest are labeled with fluorescent reporter molecules and the bacteria can then be detected by fluorescence spectroscopy. The novelty of the present method lies in the use of bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria) to deliver the fluorescent reporter molecules to the bacteria of the species of interest.

  10. Effect of capacitor loss on discharging characteristics of xenon flash lamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chu; Lin Dejiang; Xu Chunmei; Shen Hongbin; Chen Xiaohan

    2012-01-01

    The effect of storage capacitor's loss on the discharging characteristics of the xenon flash lamp was studied, and the xenon flash lamp discharging circuit was analyzed and improved. The capacitor can be equivalent to a series of an ideal capacitor and loss resistance. The improved formula of the xenon lamp discharging characteristics was given when actual capacitance loss is not zero, and the xenon lamp discharging current and discharging power are calculated and analyzed in detail with the increase of the capacitor loss. The results show that the increase of loss will lead to the decrease of xenon lamp discharging current and peak power and the xenon lamp flash time, and influence laser pumping efficiency. The loss will also lead to the capacitor inverse charging in LC discharging circuit; this will influence normal working of the capacitor and decrease the lift of the xenon lamp. The actual energy storage capacitor charging and discharging experiments show that the increase of capacitor loss will lead to the decrease of xenon lamp light-emitting waveform peak, shortening of the flash time and increase of the electrode sputter, thus verity, the reasonableness of theoretical analysis. In addition, the experiments show that environmental factors have very significant impact on the increase of the storage capacitor loss. (authors)

  11. [Study on the discharge properties of xeon flash lamp and experimental measurement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, You-Quan; Miao, Pei-Liang; He, Feng; Gu, Jian; Zhai, Rui-Wei

    2014-07-01

    The Xenon flash lamp is a new type of light source for analytical instrument. The present paper analyzed the discharge process of xenon flash lamp, presented the discharge test system, and conducted experimental measurement of the voltage, current and optical pulse signal in the process of discharge. The results show that in the preliminary discharge, the free electron concentration was at a low level, so the energy was at a low level, then following the gas discharge, numerous free electrons formed in the lamp, resultin in the increase in the concentration of free electrons, therefore discharge current rised rapidly and voltage reduced. The lamp released photons to generate light pulse in the moment of ionic recombination, The pulse xenon lamp light energy output and spectral characteristic is related to electron energy in recombination and combination level of xenon, if the input energy and the energy consumption of the xenon lamp is inconsistent, it will lead to repeated capacitor charging and discharging and produce oscillation waveform. This paper is very useful for understanding the process of xenon lamp discharge, optimizing the driver circuit and the production of xenon flash lamp.

  12. Regulated-current dc power supply for gaseous-discharge lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, W.; Huguenin, D.

    1970-01-01

    Controlled current source having a high output resistance feeds continuous-flow hydrogen lamps in vacuum-ultraviolet photometric equipment. The power supply, also used with low-pressure sealed lamps, has a short recovery time and smooth regulation without overshoot.

  13. Time resolved Thomson scattering measurements on a high pressure mercury lamp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de N.; Zhu, Xiao-Yan; Kieft, E.R.; Mullen, van der J.J.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Time resolved Thomson scattering (TS) measurements have been performed on an ac driven high pressure mercury lamp. For this high intensity discharge (HID) lamp, TS is coherent and a coherent fitting routine, including rotational Raman calibration, was used to determine ne and Te from the measured

  14. Analysis of compact and portable goniospectrometer system for test of LED lamps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam-Hansen, Carsten; Amdemeskel, Mekbib Wubishet; Thorseth, Anders

    2015-01-01

    measurements in a near-field goniophotometer. A collection of six different types of directional and non-directional integrated LED lamps with three samples of each were used as test devices. It is shown that the main uncertainty comes from the inadequate thermal stabilisation of the LED lamps. With pre...

  15. The results of nocturnal visual surveys are influenced by lamp properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardner, B.; Savidge, J.A.; Rodda, G.H.; Reed, R.N.; Adams, A.A.Y.

    2009-01-01

    We conducted standardized visual searches at night for brown treesnakes (Boiga irregularis) and geckos, where we alternated between spotlight and floodlight lamps. Floodlights rendered us 25% more snakes and 71% more geckos than did spotlights. We show data on searcher variability and discuss what might affect the relative benefit of different lamp types. ?? 2009 Brill Academic Publishers.

  16. The evolving price of household LED lamps: Recent trends and historical comparisons for the US market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerke, Brian F.; Ngo, Allison T.; Alstone, Andrea L.; Fisseha, Kibret S.

    2014-10-14

    In recent years, household LED light bulbs (LED A lamps) have undergone a dramatic price decline. Since late 2011, we have been collecting data, on a weekly basis, for retail offerings of LED A lamps on the Internet. The resulting data set allows us to track the recent price decline in detail. LED A lamp prices declined roughly exponentially with time in 2011-2014, with decline rates of 28percent to 44percent per year depending on lumen output, and with higher-lumen lamps exhibiting more rapid price declines. By combining the Internet price data with publicly available lamp shipments indices for the US market, it is also possible to correlate LED A lamp prices against cumulative production, yielding an experience curve for LED A lamps. In 2012-2013, LED A lamp prices declined by 20-25percent for each doubling in cumulative shipments. Similar analysis of historical data for other lighting technologies reveals that LED prices have fallen significantly more rapidly with cumulative production than did their technological predecessors, which exhibited a historical decline of 14-15percent per doubling of production.

  17. A survey of infrared continuum versus line radiation from metal halide lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, M; Herd, M T; Lawler, J E

    2008-01-01

    Near-infrared radiation (near-IR) losses from the arcs of six commercial metal halide high intensity discharge (MH-HID) lamps with various power levels and with both Na/Sc and rare earth doses were surveyed in this paper. A radiometrically calibrated Fourier transform infrared spectrometer was used. Lamps with rare earth doses have appreciably better color rendering indices (CRIs) than lamps with Na/Sc doses. The ratios of near-IR continuum emission over near-IR line emission from these six lamps were compared. The near-IR continuum dominates near-IR losses from lamps with rare earth doses and the continuum is significant, but not dominant, from lamps with Na/Sc doses. There was no strong dependence of this ratio on input power or color temperature (T c ). Total near-IR losses were estimated using absolutely calibrated, horizontal irradiance measurements. Estimated total near-IR losses were correlated with CRI. The lamps with rare earth doses yield the best CRIs, but have appreciably higher near-IR losses due primarily to continuum processes. One of these rare earth MH-HID lamps was used in a more detailed study of the microscopic physics of the continuum mechanism (Herd M T and Lawler E 2007 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 40 3386)

  18. Impact of asymmetric lamp positioning on the performance of a closed-conduit UV reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tipu Sultan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Computational fluid dynamics (CFD analyses for the performance improvement of a closed-conduit ultraviolet (UV reactor were performed by changing the lamp positions from symmetric to asymmetric. The asymmetric lamp positioning can be useful for UV reactor design and optimization. This goal was achieved by incorporating the two performance factors, namely reduction equivalent dose (RED and system dose performance. Four cases were carried out for asymmetric lamp positioning within the UV reactor chamber and each case consisted of four UV lamps that were simulated once symmetrically and four times asymmetrically. The results of the four asymmetric cases were compared with the symmetric one. Moreover, these results were evaluated by using CFD simulations of a closed-conduit UV reactor. The fluence rate model, UVCalc3D was employed to validate the simulations results. The simulation results provide detailed information about the dose distribution, pathogen track modeling and RED. The RED value was increased by approximately 15% by using UVCalc3D fluence rate model. Additionally, the asymmetric lamp positioning of the UV lamps had more than 50% of the pathogens received a better and a higher UV dose than in the symmetric case. Consequently, the system dose performance was improved by asymmetric lamp positioning. It was concluded that the performance parameters (higher RED and system dose performance were improved by using asymmetric lamp positioning.

  19. 30 CFR 75.1719-4 - Mining machines, cap lamps; requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mining machines, cap lamps; requirements. 75... Mining machines, cap lamps; requirements. (a) Paint used on exterior surfaces of mining machines shall... frames or reflecting tape shall be installed on each end of mining machines, except that continuous...

  20. 49 CFR 571.108, Nt. - Standard No. 108; Lamps, reflective devices, and associated equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... subparagraph (f) of this paragraph, and after cooling to room ambient temperature, a test specimen shall show....4Except for multifunction school activity buses, each school bus shall be equipped with a system of either: (a) Four red signal lamps designed to conform to SAE Standard J887, School Bus Red Signal Lamps, July...

  1. CALiPER Report 20.3: Robustness of LED PAR38 Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poplawski, Michael E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Royer, Michael P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Brown, Charles C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Three samples of 40 of the Series 20 PAR38 lamps underwent multi-stress testing, whereby samples were subjected to increasing levels of simultaneous thermal, humidity, electrical, and vibrational stress. The results do not explicitly predict expected lifetime or reliability, but they can be compared with one another, as well as with benchmark conventional products, to assess the relative robustness of the product designs. On average, the 32 LED lamp models tested were substantially more robust than the conventional benchmark lamps. As with other performance attributes, however, there was great variability in the robustness and design maturity of the LED lamps. Several LED lamp samples failed within the first one or two levels of the ten-level stress plan, while all three samples of some lamp models completed all ten levels. One potential area of improvement is design maturity, given that more than 25% of the lamp models demonstrated a difference in failure level for the three samples that was greater than or equal to the maximum for the benchmarks. At the same time, the fact that nearly 75% of the lamp models exhibited better design maturity than the benchmarks is noteworthy, given the relative stage of development for the technology.

  2. A model for additive transport in metal halide lamps containing mercury and dysprosium tri-iodide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beks, M.L.; Haverlag, M.; Mullen, van der J.J.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    The distribution of additives in a metal halide lamp is examined through numerical modelling. A model for a lamp containing sodium iodide additives has been modified to study a discharge containing dysprosium tri-iodide salts. To study the complex chemistry the method of Gibbs minimization is used

  3. Humphrey Davy and the Safety Lamp: The Use of Metal Gauze as a Flame Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Allan

    2015-01-01

    The "safety lamp" invented by Humphrey Davy in 1815 utilised the cooling effect of metal gauze to prevent the flame of a candle or oil lamp (essential for illumination in mines) from passing through such a screen. It is therefore rendered unable to ignite any potentially explosive mixture of air and methane in the atmosphere surrounding…

  4. 49 CFR 234.253 - Flashing light units and lamp voltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flashing light units and lamp voltage. 234.253... Maintenance, Inspection, and Testing Inspections and Tests § 234.253 Flashing light units and lamp voltage. (a... voltage shall be tested when installed and at least once every 12 months thereafter. (c) Each flashing...

  5. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) shield for Arduino DNA detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velders, Aldrik H.; Schoen, Cor; Saggiomo, Vittorio

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) of DNA is gaining relevance as a method to detect nucleic acids, as it is easier, faster, and more powerful than conventional Polymerase Chain Reaction. However, LAMP is still mostly used in laboratory settings, because of the lack of a cheap

  6. Reviews in fluorescence 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Geddes, Chris D

    2011-01-01

    ""Reviews in Fluorescence 2010"", the seventh volume of the book serial from Springer, serves as a comprehensive collection of current trends and emerging hot topics in the field of fluorescence and closely related disciplines. It summarizes the year's progress in fluorescence and its applications, with authoritative analytical reviews specialized enough to be attractive to professional researchers, yet also appealing to the wider audience of scientists in related disciplines of fluorescence. ""Reviews in Fluorescence"" offers an essential reference material for any lab working in the fluoresc

  7. Principles of fluorescence techniques

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence techniques are being used and applied increasingly in academics and industry. The Principles of Fluorescence Techniques course will outline the basic concepts of fluorescence techniques and the successful utilization of the currently available commercial instrumentation. The course is designed for students who utilize fluorescence techniques and instrumentation and for researchers and industrial scientists who wish to deepen their knowledge of fluorescence applications. Key scientists in the field will deliver theoretical lectures. The lectures will be complemented by the direct utilization of steady-state and lifetime fluorescence instrumentation and confocal microscopy for FLIM and FRET applications provided by leading companies.

  8. Hyper-spectral modulation fluorescent imaging using double acousto-optical tunable filter based on TeO2-crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaytsev, Kirill I; Perchik, Alexey V; Chernomyrdin, Nikita V; Yurchenko, Stanislav O; Kudrin, Konstantin G; Reshetov, Igor V

    2015-01-01

    We have proposed a method for hyper-spectral fluorescent imaging based on acousto-optical filtering. The object of interest was pumped using ultraviolet radiation of mercury lamp equipped with monochromatic excitation filter with the window of transparency centered at 365 nm. Double TeO 2 -based acousto-optical filter, tunable in range from 430 to 780 nm and having 2 nm bandwidth of spectral transparency, was used in order to detect quasimonochromatic images of object fluorescence. Modulating of ultraviolet pump intensity was used in order to reduce an impact of non-fluorescent background on the sample fluorescent imaging. The technique for signal-to-noise ratio improvement, based on fluorescence intensity estimation via digital processing of modulated video sequence of fluorescent object, was introduced. We have implemented the proposed technique for the test sample studying and we have discussed its possible applications

  9. Mercury-free high pressure discharge lamps dominated by molecular radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaening, M; Hitzschke, L; Berger, M [Research Europe, OSRAM GmbH, Werner-von-Siemens Strasse 6, 86159 Augsburg (Germany); Schalk, B [Vitec Group Videocom Division, Erfurter Strasse 16, 85386 Eching (Germany); Franke, St; Methling, R, E-mail: m.kaening@osram.de [INP, Leibniz-Institut fuer Plasmaforschung und Technologie e. V., Felix-Hausdorff-Strasse 2, 17489 Greifswald (Germany)

    2011-06-08

    High intensity discharge (HID) lamps dominated by molecular radiation offer a very promising alternative for use in future light sources. They are able to deliver competitive efficacies of about 110 lm W{sup -1} and higher, excellent colour rendering index above 90 and a correlated colour temperature in the 3000-4000 K region at the operating point near the Planckian locus. Moreover, these lamps are opening up the possibility of dimming. Due to the fact that they are able to omit mercury they are environmentally friendly. The emission spectra generated by these HID lamps differ significantly from those of conventional lamps. The reason for this is the dominance of molecular radiation processes. In comparison with conventional HID lamps atomic contributions are usually rather small. In the present case they amount to less than about 10% of the total intensity in the visible range.

  10. High-efficiency dielectric barrier Xe discharge lamp: theoretical and experimental investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beleznai, Sz; Mihajlik, G; Agod, A; Maros, I; Juhasz, R; Nemeth, Zs; Jakab, L; Richter, P

    2006-01-01

    A dielectric barrier Xe discharge lamp producing vacuum-ultraviolet radiation with high efficiency was investigated theoretically and experimentally. The cylindrical glass body of the lamp is equipped with thin strips of metal electrodes applied to diametrically opposite sides of the outer surface. We performed a simulation of discharge plasma properties based on one-dimensional fluid dynamics and also assessed the lamp characteristics experimentally. Simulation and experimental results are analysed and compared in terms of voltage and current characteristics, power input and discharge efficiency. Using the proposed lamp geometry and fast rise-time short square pulses of the driving voltage, an intrinsic discharge efficiency around 56% was predicted by simulation, and more than 60 lm W -1 lamp efficacy (for radiation converted into visible green light by phosphor coating) was demonstrated experimentally

  11. Mercury-free high pressure discharge lamps dominated by molecular radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaening, M; Hitzschke, L; Berger, M; Schalk, B; Franke, St; Methling, R

    2011-01-01

    High intensity discharge (HID) lamps dominated by molecular radiation offer a very promising alternative for use in future light sources. They are able to deliver competitive efficacies of about 110 lm W -1 and higher, excellent colour rendering index above 90 and a correlated colour temperature in the 3000-4000 K region at the operating point near the Planckian locus. Moreover, these lamps are opening up the possibility of dimming. Due to the fact that they are able to omit mercury they are environmentally friendly. The emission spectra generated by these HID lamps differ significantly from those of conventional lamps. The reason for this is the dominance of molecular radiation processes. In comparison with conventional HID lamps atomic contributions are usually rather small. In the present case they amount to less than about 10% of the total intensity in the visible range.

  12. 308-nm excimer lamp for the treatment of alopecia areata: Clinical trial on 16 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Ohtsuki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alopecia areata (AA is considered as a T-cell mediated autoimmune disorder. The 308-nm excimer laser is thought to be capable of inducing T-cell apoptosis in vitro, suggesting that the 308-nm excimer lamp (not laser might be effective for the treatment of AA. We examined the effectiveness of the 308-nm excimer lamp for treating AA. Materials and Methods: We treated 16 patients with single AA and multiple AA (MAA. The lesions were irradiated with a 308-nm excimer lamp at 2-week intervals. Results: Hair regrowth was observed in 14 patients. Among them, 10 patients showed more than 50% hair re-growth. Our results suggested that the 308-nm excimer lamp system is effective and safe for the treatment of single AA and MAA. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the 308-nm excimer lamp is a good therapeutic alternative without serious side effect for treating AA.

  13. Ultraviolet radiation and blue-light emissions from spotlights incorporating tungsten halogen lamps

    CERN Document Server

    MacKinlay, Alistair F; Whillock, M J

    1989-01-01

    This report summarises measurements of the ultraviolet radiation and blue-light emissions from eleven 'desk-top' tungsten halogen (quartz) lamps and one 'floor-standing' tungsten halogen (quartz) lamp available in the UK. Values of occupational hazard weighted and erythemally weighted ultraviolet radiation irradiance and measurements and relevant calculations of blue-light hazards are presented. It is concluded that the safety design of some desk-top tungsten halogen lamps is inadequate to prevent unnecessary exposure of the skin to potentially harmful ultraviolet radiation. It is recommended that all tungsten halogen lamps should have sufficient filtration to reduce their ultraviolet emissions to an acceptably low level. As long as the comfort aversion responses of the eye are respected, direct viewing of the lamps examined should not constitute a retinal hazard.

  14. Ultraviolet radiation and blue-light emissions from spotlights incorporating tungsten halogen lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinlay, A.F.; Whillock, M.J.; Meulemans, C.C.E.

    1989-07-01

    This report summarises measurements of the ultraviolet radiation and blue-light emissions from eleven 'desk-top' tungsten halogen (quartz) lamps and one 'floor-standing' tungsten halogen (quartz) lamp available in the UK. Values of occupational hazard weighted and erythemally weighted ultraviolet radiation irradiance and measurements and relevant calculations of blue-light hazards are presented. It is concluded that the safety design of some desk-top tungsten halogen lamps is inadequate to prevent unnecessary exposure of the skin to potentially harmful ultraviolet radiation. It is recommended that all tungsten halogen lamps should have sufficient filtration to reduce their ultraviolet emissions to an acceptably low level. As long as the comfort aversion responses of the eye are respected, direct viewing of the lamps examined should not constitute a retinal hazard. (author)

  15. The injury and cumulative effects on human skin by UV exposure from artificial fluorescence emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yan; Liu, Wei; Niu, TianHui; Dai, CaiHong; Li, Xiaoxin; Cui, Caijuan; Zhao, Xinyan; E, Yaping; Lu, Hui

    2014-01-01

    The injury and cumulative effects of UV emission from fluorescence lamp were studied. UV intensity from fluorescence lamp was measured, and human skin samples (hips, 10 volunteers) were exposed to low-dose UV irradiation (three times per week for 13 consecutive weeks). Three groups were examined: control group without UV radiation; low-dose group with a cumulative dose of 50 J cm(-2) which was equivalent to irradiation of the face during indoor work for 1.5 years; and high-dose group with 1000 J cm(-2) cumulative dose equivalent to irradiation of the face during outdoor activities for 1 year. Specific indicators were measured before and after UVA irradiation. The findings showed that extending the low-dose UVA exposure decreased the skin moisture content and increased the transepidermal water loss as well as induced skin color changes (decreased L* value, increased M index). Furthermore, irradiated skin showed an increased thickness of cuticle and epidermis, skin edema, light color and unclear staining collagen fibers in the dermis, and elastic fiber fragmentation. In addition, MMP-1, p53 and SIRT1 expression was also increased. Long-term exposure of low-dose UVA radiation enhanced skin photoaging. The safety of the fluorescent lamp needs our attention. © 2014 The American Society of Photobiology.

  16. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the diagnosis of fasciolosis in sheep and its application under field conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Mart?nez-Valladares, Mar?a; Rojo-V?zquez, Francisco Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Background Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a very specific, efficient, and rapid gene amplification procedure in which the reaction can run at a constant temperature. In the current study we have developed a LAMP assay to improve the diagnosis of Fasciola spp. in the faeces of sheep. Findings After the optimisation of the LAMP assay we have shown similar results between this technique and the standard PCR using the outer primers of the LAMP reaction. In both cases the limit o...

  17. Evaluation of an inductively-coupled plasma with an extended-sleeve torch as an atomization cell for laser-excited fluorescence spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosinski, M A; Uchida, H; Winefordner, J D

    1983-05-01

    An inductively-coupled plasma (ICP) with an extended-sleeve torch has been evaluated as an atomization cell for laser-excited fluorescence spectrometry. Limits of detection for 20 lines are given. The detection power is almost equivalent to that obtained by excitation with a hollow-cathode lamp. Interelement effects and spectral interferences are discussed.

  18. Reviews in fluorescence 2008

    CERN Document Server

    Geddes, Chris D

    2010-01-01

    This volume serves as a comprehensive collection of current trends and emerging hot topics in the field of fluorescence spectroscopy. It summarizes the year's progress in fluorescence and its applications as well as includes authoritative analytical reviews.

  19. Fluorescent optical position sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2005-11-15

    A fluorescent optical position sensor and method of operation. A small excitation source side-pumps a localized region of fluorescence at an unknown position along a fluorescent waveguide. As the fluorescent light travels down the waveguide, the intensity of fluorescent light decreases due to absorption. By measuring with one (or two) photodetectors the attenuated intensity of fluorescent light emitted from one (or both) ends of the waveguide, the position of the excitation source relative to the waveguide can be determined by comparing the measured light intensity to a calibrated response curve or mathematical model. Alternatively, excitation light can be pumped into an end of the waveguide, which generates an exponentially-decaying continuous source of fluorescent light along the length of the waveguide. The position of a photodetector oriented to view the side of the waveguide can be uniquely determined by measuring the intensity of the fluorescent light emitted radially at that location.

  20. A portable UV-fluorescence multispectral imaging system for the analysis of painted surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comelli, Daniela; Valentini, Gianluca; Nevin, Austin; Farina, Andrea; Toniolo, Lucia; Cubeddu, Rinaldo

    2008-08-01

    A portable fluorescence multispectral imaging system was developed and has been used for the analysis of artistic surfaces. The imaging apparatus exploits two UV lamps for fluorescence excitation and a liquid crystal tunable filter coupled to a low-noise charge coupled device as the image detector. The main features of the system are critically presented, outlining the assets, drawbacks, and practical considerations of portability. A multivariate statistical treatment of spectral data is further considered. Finally, the in situ analysis with the new apparatus of recently restored Renaissance wall paintings is presented.