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Sample records for fluorescens salmonella enteritidis

  1. Effectiveness of cleaning and sanitizing procedures in controlling the adherence of Pseudomonas fluorescens, Salmonella Enteritidis, and Staphylococcus aureus to domestic kitchen surfaces Eficiência dos procedimentos de limpeza e de sanitização no controle da adesão de Pseudomonas fluorescens, Salmonella Enteritidis e Staphylococcus aureus em superfícies usadas em cozinhas domésticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iara Dias Silva

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of cleaning and sanitizing procedures in controlling Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella Enteritidis, and Pseudomonasfluorescens adhered to granite and stainless steel was evaluated. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05 in the adherence of pure cultures of these microorganisms to stainless steel. The numbers of P. fluorescens and S. Enteritidis adhered to granite were greater (p 0.05 between the surfaces. However, a significant difference was observed (p A eficiência dos procedimentos de limpeza e sanitização no controle de Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella Enteritidis e Pseudomonasfluorescens aderidas em granito e aço inoxidável foi avaliada. Não houve diferença significativa (p > 0,05 na adesão destes microrganismos quando em cultura pura, em aço inoxidável. O número de células aderidas de P. fluorescens e S. Enteritidis foi maior (p 0,05 entre as superfícies. Entretanto, observou-se uma diferença (p < 0,05 entre as soluções sanitizantes utilizadas. Hipoclorito de sódio e ácido peracético apresentaram maior ação bactericida (p < 0,05 que o composto de amônia quaternária. Observou-se que S. aureus apresentou menor resistência à ação desses sanitizantes. Os resultados mostram a importância da adequada realização dos procedimentos de limpeza e sanitização para evitar a adesão bacteriana e formação de biofilme.

  2. Splenic abscess due to Salmonella enteritidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Çabadak

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Splenic abscess is a very rare complication of non-typhoidal Salmonella infections. We report a case of splenic abscess caused by Salmonella enteritidis. The patient is a 63-year-old woman with diabetes mellitus and underwent splenectomy. This case suggests that the patients with comorbities are at increased risk for invasive infections in non-typhoidal Salmonella infections.

  3. Diagnosis of Salmonella Enteritidis Infection in Broiler Chickens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diagnosis of Salmonella Enteritidis Infection in Broiler Chickens Using Elisa. ES Soliman, E Taha, WS Abdella, C KilPatrick, AN Wise, MAA Sobieh, PG Reddy. Abstract. The program for the eradication of Salmonella Enteritidis from chickens was based on bacteriological examination of breeding flocks. There is a great need ...

  4. 21 CFR 118.4 - Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention measures. 118.4 Section 118.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN....4 Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention measures. You must follow the SE prevention measures set...

  5. Increasing quinolone resistance in Salmonella enterica serotype enteritidis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølbak, K.; Gerner-Smidt, P.; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    2002-01-01

    Until recently, Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis has remained sensitive to most antibiotics. However, national surveillance data from Denmark show that quinolone resistance in S. Enteritidis has increased from 0.8% in 1995 to 8.5% in 2000. These data support concerns that the current use...... of quinolone in food animals leads to increasing resistance in S. Enteritidis and that action should be taken to limit such use....

  6. Increasing quinolone resistance in Salmonella enterica serotype enteritidis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølbak, K.; Gerner-Smidt, P.; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    2002-01-01

    Until recently, Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis has remained sensitive to most antibiotics. However, national surveillance data from Denmark show that quinolone resistance in S. Enteritidis has increased from 0.8% in 1995 to 8.5% in 2000. These data support concerns that the current use...

  7. Potential zoonotic pathways of Salmonella enteritidis in laying farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tras, Wael F; Tayel, Ahmed A; Samir, Ahmed

    2010-10-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis is a communicable zoonotic bacterium. The present investigation was done to evaluate the potential occurrence of Salmonella Enteritidis in laying hen farms and its contamination pathways. Samples were collected from 10 laying hen farms located in the Delta of Egypt. Cloacal swabs (n=300), eggshell swabs (n=400), and hand swabs from egg packagers (n=38) were collected. Pools of ovary and oviduct were obtained from 150 hens; all samples were examined for the presence of Salmonella Enteritidis. Results indicated that Salmonella Enteritidis may initially occupy in ovary, oviduct, and cloaca. The risk for eggshell contamination is highly impending from laying hen flocks infected with Salmonella Enteritidis with percentage of >30%. Farms having eggshell contamination percentage of >60% with Salmonella Enteritidis provided a high risk for packagers' hand contamination. Questionnaire of egg packagers specified that seven out of the eight smoker packagers suffered from repeated Salmonellosis. Thus, smoking during egg packing process could be considered as an exposure factor to contract the infection via hand-cigarette-mouth route.

  8. Salmonella Enteritidis experimental infection in chickens: Effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... most of the chickens by 2 weeks post-infection, highest group mean optical density values of 2.177 and. 0.984 were observed at 5 weeks for 108 and 104 cfu Salmonella Enteritidis infected groups, respectively. Chickens exposed to few Salmonella colonies during infection do not produce high IgG antibody ...

  9. 21 CFR 118.6 - Egg testing for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Egg testing for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE). 118.6... testing for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE). (a)(1) If the environmental test for pullets at 14 to 16 weeks of... requires that these eggs must be treated to achieve at least a 5-log destruction of Salmonella Enteritidis...

  10. Septic arthritis of the ankle due to Salmonella enteritidis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dineen, Patrick F

    2011-06-01

    Salmonella septic arthritis in healthy, immunocompetent patients is extremely rare. We present the case of a 70-year-old man who presented with a one-day history of painful swelling of his ankle from which was aspirated pus which subsequently grew Salmonella enteritidis. There was no history of trauma or symptoms consistent with Salmonella enterocolitis. Our patient recovered fully after two weeks on intravenous ceftriaxone and six weeks on oral ciprofloxacin. Salmonella is a notifiable disease in the European Union and the United States of America, and is associated with outbreaks as a result of food contamination. The nature of Salmonella arthritis and its appropriate management are outlined.

  11. Myonecrosis in the leg caused by Salmonella enteritidis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørring, S; Kolmos, H J; Klareskov, B

    1994-01-01

    Five weeks after an episode of gastroenteritis, a 65-year-old diabetic male developed an extensive myonecrosis, with gas production in the left leg caused by Salmonella enteritidis. The patient was treated with surgical revision and antibiotics. To our knowledge, this is the first case of myonecr......Five weeks after an episode of gastroenteritis, a 65-year-old diabetic male developed an extensive myonecrosis, with gas production in the left leg caused by Salmonella enteritidis. The patient was treated with surgical revision and antibiotics. To our knowledge, this is the first case...

  12. Atmospheric pressure plasma jet treatment of Salmonella Enteritidis inoculated eggshells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Maike; Wiacek, Claudia; Koethe, Martin; Braun, Peggy G

    2017-03-20

    Contamination of eggshells with Salmonella Enteritidis remains a food safety concern. In many cases human salmonellosis within the EU can be traced back to raw or undercooked eggs and egg products. Atmospheric pressure plasma is a novel decontamination method that can reduce a wide range of pathogens. The aim of this work was to evaluate the possibility of using an effective short time cold plasma treatment to inactivate Salmonella Enteritidis on the eggshell. Therefore, artificially contaminated eggshells were treated with an atmospheric pressure plasma jet under different experimental settings with various exposure times (15-300s), distances from the plasma jet nozzle to the eggshell surface (5, 8 or 12mm), feed gas compositions (Ar, Ar with 0.2, 0.5 or 1.0% O 2 ), gas flow rates (5 and 7slm) and different inoculations of Salmonella Enteritidis (10 1 -10 6 CFU/cm 2 ). Atmospheric pressure plasma could reduce Salmonella Enteritidis on eggshells significantly. Reduction factors ranged between 0.22 and 2.27 log CFU (colony-forming units). Exposure time and, particularly at 10 4 CFU/cm 2 inoculation, feed gas had a major impact on Salmonella reduction. Precisely, longer exposure times led to higher reductions and Ar as feed gas was more effective than ArO 2 mixtures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Isolation and Evaluation Virulence Factors of Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella enteritidis in Milk and Dairy Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Shaigan nia

    2014-06-01

    Conclusions: To our best knowledge the present study is the first prevalence report of Salmonella spp., Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium in raw sheep and goat samples in Iran. Consumption of pasteurized milk and dairy products can reduce the risk of salmonellosis.

  14. Diagnosis of Salmonella Enteritidis Infection in Broiler Chickens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The program for the eradication of Salmonella Enteritidis from chickens was based on bacteriological examination of breeding flocks. There is a great need for a specific and sensitive serological screening test. For that purpose, four different enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were developed. These included ...

  15. Method for the detection of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agron, Peter G. (Castro Valley, CA); Andersen, Gary L. (Berkeley, CA); Walker, Richard L. (Davis, CA)

    2008-10-28

    Described herein is the identification of a novel Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis locus that serves as a marker for DNA-based identification of this bacterium. In addition, three primer pairs derived from this locus that may be used in a nucleotide detection method to detect the presence of the bacterium are also disclosed herein.

  16. Salmonella Enteritidis em Aves: Retrospectiva no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva EN

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella Enteritidis (SE emergiu como um grande problema avícola e de saúde pública no Brasil a partir de 1993. Os estudos epidemiológicos, incluindo a fagotipagem e sonda complementar de rRNA, sugerem a entrada de SE no Brasil via importação de material genético avícola contaminado, provavelmente no final da década de 80. As taxas de crescimento da avicultura brasileira na década de 90 criaram condições favoráveis para a manutenção e proliferação da SE nos plantéis avícolas. Além disso, o uso indiscriminado de antibióticos em aves, particularmente as quinolonas, encorajou a manutenção de lotes positivos para SE. As cepas de SE isoladas de aves têm mostrado alta sensibilidade aos antibióticos de uso comum em avicultura, incluindo as quinolonas. Entretanto, o aumento da resistência antimicrobiana e multirresistência tem sido observado em cepas de origem humana. Os últimos levantamentos realizados no ano de 2001 continuam a mostrar que a SE em materiais avícolas é o principal sorovar responsável pelas infecções humanas. Embora as carcaças de frangos apresentem altas taxas de contaminação por SE, são os ovos e seus derivados - principalmente a maionese caseira - os principais responsáveis pelos surtos humanos. O uso de vacinas específicas em poedeiras e reprodutoras tem se mostrado uma ferramenta auxiliar no controle de SE. O procedimento mais indicado para o controle de SE na avicultura está na aquisição e produção de lotes livres do agente. As rações e matérias primas de origem animal parecem não ser tão importantes na perpetuação do problema de SE, porém, os roedores parecem ser reservatórios ambientais importantes de SE em granjas contaminadas.

  17. Adherence and pathogenesis of Salmonella enteritidis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslanzadeh, J; Paulissen, L J

    1990-01-01

    Adherence of many pathogenic organisms to the host cells has been associated with the presence of fimbriae. The exact role of these organelles in the adherence and pathogenesis of Salmonella enteritidis is not well established. Utilizing hemagglutination tests, S. enteritidis was shown to possess type 1 and type 3 fimbriae. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the isolated fimbriae showed that type 1 and 3 fimbriae of S. enteritidis had subunit M.r of 17 and 22 kDa, respectively. In vitro adherence assays suggested that S. enteritidis utilized type 1 fimbriae to adhere to human buccal and mouse small intestine epithelial cells. In addition, antibody produced against type 1 and type 3 fimbriae protected the mice from infection with a lethal dose of S. enteritidis. These results suggest that type 1 and possibly type 3 fimbriae are involved in the adherence and pathogenesis of S. enteritidis. The data further suggest that they may have a role in the adherence and pathogenesis of the other enteric organisms.

  18. 21 CFR 118.8 - Testing methodology for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Testing methodology for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE....8 Testing methodology for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE). (a) Testing of environmental samples for SE... Sampling and Detection of Salmonella in Poultry Houses,” April 2008, or an equivalent method in accuracy...

  19. Resistance of Salmonella enteritidis variety typhimurium to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norberg, A.N.; Maliska, C.

    1988-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiations to kill microrganisms responsible for food deterioration, and toxinfections is an example of peaceful use of nuclear energy. Food toxinfections are, amongus, produced mostly by Salmonella enteritidis var. typhimurium. Due to the pauncity of information on the resistance to gamma radiation of Salmonella enteritidis var. typhimurium this paper has the aim to define the 60-Cobalt gamma radiation lethal dose to these bacteria, in experimentally contaminated milk by samples recovered from our geographycal area. One hundred nineteen samples of milk containing about 150.000 bacteria per ml were irradiated with doses ranging from 100 to 1.100 Gy. Two samples of surving bacteria were again irradiated by doses up to 2.500 Gy. The bacteria not previously irradiated were killed by doses of 1.100 Gy. It was concluded that the 60-Cobalt gamma radiation minimal lethal dose to Salmonella enteritidis var. typhimurium is 1.200 Gy. The surviving strains to smaller doses than 1.200 Gy when re-irradiated prompt the forthcoming of more radio-resistant germs. (author) [pt

  20. Brote intrahospitalario de salmonelosis por salmonella enteritidis serotipo agona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Guzmán

    1984-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describe una epidemia de salmonelosis ocurrida en el servicio de Pediatría del Hospital Militar, la cual afectó a quince pacientes. Se concluye que fue una infección intrahospitalaria. Como agente etiológico fue plenamente identificado Salmonella enteritidis, serotipo agona con una gran multirresistencia a los antibióticos. Como origen posible del brote se demostró un portador sano, preparador de teteros en el servicio. Es, posiblemente, la primera vez que se informe Salmonella agona en nuestro país.

  1. Detection of egg yolk antibodies reflecting Salmonella enteritidis infections using a surface plasmon resonance biosensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, M.E.; Bouma, A.; Eerden, van E.; Landman, W.J.M.; Knapen, van F.; Stegeman, J.A.; Bergwerff, A.A.

    2006-01-01

    A surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor assay was developed on the basis of a lipopolysaccharide antigen of Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis (S. enterica serovar enteritidis) to detect egg yolk antibodies against S. enterica serovar enteritidis. This biosensor assay was compared to two

  2. Differential levels of cecal colonization by Salmonella Enteritidis in chickens triggers distinct immune kinome profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis are facultative intracellular bacteria that cause disease in numerous species. Salmonella-related infections originating from poultry and/or poultry products are a major cause of human foodborne illness, and S. Enteritidis is the leading cause worldwide. Des...

  3. 21 CFR 118.7 - Sampling methodology for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sampling methodology for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE). 118.7 Section 118.7 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN....7 Sampling methodology for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE). (a) Environmental sampling. An environmental...

  4. [Use of bacteriphages against Salmonella Enteritidis: a prevention tool].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Cristina; Marín, Clara; Catalá-Gregori, Pablo; Soriano, Jose Miguel

    2015-06-01

    Salmonellosis is a highly prevalent disease still searching for preventive tools to avoid contamination level priority public health. The in vitro effect of bacteriophages against Salmonella enteritidis was evaluated as a prevention tool. Two tests with three concentrations of bacteriophages were conducted against two strains of Salmonella Enteritidis inoculated in fresh faeces of laying hens. Each test had a positive control. Thus, four groups in each test were evaluated. Each experimental group included two replicates, and three plates were incubated per replicate. The concentrations tested were three: commercial solution (5 × 10(7) pfu/mL), and two dilutions (1/10 and 1/30). One of the strains tested was CECT 4300, a certified strain of Colección Española de Cultivo Tipo and the other a field isolated strain in a sacrificed hen farm. Both strains were inoculated at 1.3 × 10(5) cfu/g of faeces in each of the four groups. Isolation and identification of bacteria by ISO6579 was done at various times after inoculation: 1 minute, 24 hours and 7 days. In the first test, with certified strain, Salmonella was isolated in all groups at time 1 minute. After 24 hours, Salmonella was isolated in all groups except in one of the replicas treated with 1/10 dilution of bacteriophages, one of the other replica plate treated with 1/10 dilution, and two plates of the two replicas treated with the commercial solution. After 7 days, the bacteria were not isolated from any of the experimental groups. In the second test, with the field strain, Salmonella was isolated in all groups at time 1 minute. After 24 hours, Salmonella was isolated in all groups except in one of the replicas treated with 1/10 dilution of bacteriophages and the two replicas treated with the commercial solution. Salmonella was not isolated in any of the experimental groups at 7 days. The use of bacteriophages reduced Salmonella enteritidis isolates in faeces at 24 hours after the application, so it could be

  5. A rare agent of spondylodiscitis in adult patient: Salmonella enteritidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilgehan Aygen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella infections are a public health problem in Turkey,as all over the world. Salmonella spp. can causevery different infections such as gastroenteritis, typhoidparatyphoidfever, bacteremia, local metastatic infectionsand chronic carriage. Salmonella spondylodiscitis occursrarely in the adult population. In this case report, we havepresented a 66 years old female patient followed with thediagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis and treated with prednisolone.The patient had a new diagnosis of Salmonellaenteritidis and we aimed to discuss similar cases by theculture of lumbar empyema culture ampiciline, cefotaxime,trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin was revealedthe presence of resistant S.enteritidis. The patienthas received ciprofloxacin 2x200 mg per day for 3 weeksas intravenous. And patient was discharged with advice ofusing ciprofloxacin as per oral long three months.

  6. Food poisoning due to Salmonella Enteritidis--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Mamoru; Ago, Kazutoshi; Ago, Mihoko; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Takahito

    2009-04-01

    A male in his early seventies complained of abdominal pain and diarrhea at 7h after ingesting a small piece of gratin from a box lunch prepared by a caterer. He was admitted to a hospital, but died 37 h later. Dozens of people who had eaten the same box lunch also complained of diarrhea. All of them recovered after medical treatment. A later investigation demonstrated Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) in the gratin from the box lunch. An autopsy revealed very severe typhloenteritis with edema and submucosal hemorrhage. The digestive tract contained fluid contents without foodstuffs. Bacteriological examination revealed SE in the contents of the lower ileum and large intestine. Based on these findings, we concluded that the cause of death was food poisoning due to SE. In this case, ingesting only a small piece of contaminated food caused fatal food poisoning due to SE. These results emphasize the importance of prevention against food poisoning due to Salmonella, particularly SE.

  7. Evolution of antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella enteritidis (1972–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jermaine Khumalo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available With the extensive use of antibiotics in livestock production, surveillance revealed an increase in Salmonella resistance to the commonly used antimicrobials in veterinary and public health. This serious threat to health care is further exacerbated by the limited epidemiological information about the common zoonotic agent, Salmonella enteritidis, required to determine antibiotic therapy. The aim was to characterise the antimicrobial resistance patterns of S. enteritidis isolates across different timelines (1972–2005 with accompanying genetic changes being investigated. Thirty-seven stored S. enteritidis isolates were collected from the Central Veterinary Laboratory, Harare, with antimicrobial susceptibility determined against eight antibiotics. Plasmids were isolated to analyse any genetic variation. An overall significant increase in resistance (p < 0.05 to nalidixic acid (0% – 10%, ampicillin (14.3% – 50%, tetracycline (14.3% – 30% and erythromycin (71.4% – 100% was observed across the timeline. However, the highest rates of susceptibility were maintained for gentamicin, sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim, kanamycin and chloramphenicol. We report an increase in multidrug resistance (MDR of 14.2% – 50% with an increase in resistotypes and plasmid profiles across the timeline. Eleven plasmid profiles were obtained in the 37 isolates studied with a minority of isolates (21.6%, 8/37 harbouring a 54 kb plasmid, commonly serovar-specific. A concerning increase in antimicrobial resistance to commonly administered drugs was observed across the timeline. The surge in MDR is of great concern and implies the need for consistent antimicrobial stewardship. No correlation was observed between the plasmid and antibiotic profiles.

  8. Control of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in laying hens by inactivated Salmonella Enteritidis vaccines "Controle de Salmonella enterica sorovar Enteritidis em poedeiras comerciais com a utilização de vacinas inativadas"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveiro Caetano de Freitas Neto

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella Enteritidis is one of the agents that is responsible for outbreaks of human foodborne salmonellosis caused by Salmonella Enteritidis and is generally associated with the consumption of poultry products. Inactivated Salmonella Enteritidis cell vaccine is one of the available methods to control Salmonella Enteritidis in breeders and laying hens, however results in terms of efficacy vary. This vaccine has never been tested in Brazil, therefore, the present work was carried out to assess three commercial inactivated Salmonella Enteritidis vaccines allowed in Brazil. Four hundred white light variety commercial laying hens were obtained at one-day-of age. At eight weeks old, the birds were divided into four groups with one hundred animals each. Birds from three groups (V1, V2 and V3 received different intramuscular vaccines, followed by a booster dose at 16 weeks of age. Birds from another group (CG were not vaccinated. When the laying hens were 20, 25 and 31 weeks old, 13 from each group were transferred to another room and were challenged by inoculating 2 mL neat culture of Salmonella Enteritidis. On the second day after each challenge, the caecal contents, spleen, liver and ovary of three birds from each group were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella Enteritidis. Twice a week a cloacal swab of each bird was taken and all eggs laid were examined for the presence of Salmonella Enteritidis. After four consecutive negative cloacal swabs in all the groups, the birds were sacrificed so as to examine the liver, caecal contents and ovaries. Overall, the inactivated vaccine used in group V3 reduced Salmonella Enteritidis in the feces and eggs. A very small amount of Salmonella was found in the spleen, liver, ovary and caeca of the birds in the four groups during the whole experiment. In general, inactivated Salmonella Enteritidis vaccines was able to decrease the presence of Salmonella Enteritidis in the birds and in the eggs as well

  9. Efeitos da Salmonella Enteritidis experimentalmente inoculada na saúde gastrintestinal de perus Effects of experimentally inoculated Salmonella Enteritidis on the gastrointestinal health of turkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Yoko Tanikawa de Andrade

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos de Salmonella Enteritidis sobre a colonização e o desenvolvimento do trato intestinal, a conversão alimentar e o ganho de peso em perus. Um total de 135 perus de corte de 1 dia foi distribuído em três tratamentos: controle; perus oriundos de ovos inoculados com Salmonella Enteritidis via casca e perus desafiados com água de bebida com Salmonella Enteritidis. Aos 10, 20 e 28 dias, avaliaram-se as variáveis de desempenho e coletaram-se amostras para avaliação bacteriana, biometria e histomorfometria. Realizaram-se também, nos dias 1, 15 e 28 de idade, coletas de mecônio/excretas de todas as aves. A colonização intestinal aumentou durante a fase inicial quando Salmonella foi inoculada via casca. O intestino apresentou maior peso ao 1º, 10º e 28º dias quando Salmonella esteve presente, sem diferença no comprimento. Salmonella Enteritidis foi capaz de colonizar o trato intestinal, estabelecer infecção, reduzir o desempenho das aves e modificar as estruturas celulares do intestino. A contaminação da casca do ovo antes da incubação propiciou a ocorrência de infecções ao nascimento, e a frequência de isolamento de Salmonella Enteritidis persistiu até 28 dias de idade. A inoculação de Salmonella pela água de bebida gerou aves infectadas, porém com menor nível de infecção com o avançar da idade. O desempenho de aves inoculadas com Salmonella Enteritidis é menor e isso confirma potenciais prejuízos para a produção avícola.The effects of Salmonella Enteritidis on the colonization and development of the intestinal tract, feed conversion and weight gain were evaluated. A total of 135 day old turkeys were assigned to three treatments: control; turkeys from eggs inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis via shell and turkeys challenged with drinking water with Salmonella Enteritidis. At 10, 20 and 28 days, the performance variables were evaluated and samples were collected to perform bacterial

  10. Genomic Epidemiology of Salmonella enterica Serotype Enteritidis based on Population Structure of Prevalent Lineages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Xiangyu; Desai, Prerak T.; den Bakker, Henk C.

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis is one of the most commonly reported causes of human salmonellosis. Its low genetic diversity, measured by fingerprinting methods, has made subtyping a challenge. We used whole-genome sequencing to characterize 125 S. enterica Enteritidis and 3 S. enterica...

  11. Surtos de enfermidades transmitidas por alimentos causados por Salmonella Enteritidis Food borne disease outbreaks caused by Salmonella Enteritidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline T.M. Peresi

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: São descritos surtos de salmonelose notificados no período de julho de 1993 a junho de 1997 na região Noroeste do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, tendo em vista os vários surtos de veiculação alimentar ocasionados por Salmonella nessa região. MÉTODO: Foram obtidos 19 inquéritos epidemiológicos para análise de dados, 87 amostras de fezes e 38 amostras de alimentos, incluindo 12 de ovos para análise microbiológica. Cepas de Salmonella foram submetidas a sorotipagem, fagotipagem e teste de sensibilidade a 13 agentes antimicrobianos. RESULTADOS: Foram acometidas 906 pessoas com 295 hospitalizações. Cepas de Salmonella Enteritidis Fagotipo 4 foram isoladas de 80,5% das coproculturas, de todas amostras de alimentose de 41,7% dos ovos. Em 22 (95,7% surtos os a salmonela foi veiculada por alimentos contendo ovos crus ou semicrus. Os testes de sensibilidade a antimicrobianos revelaram sensibilidade à maioria das cepas. CONCLUSÕES: Considerando os resultados obtidos, torna-se necessária a implantação e intensificação de medidas de controle na produção e armazenamento dos ovos, além da orientação à população quanto aos riscos no consumo inadequado desse alimento.OBJECTIVE: It is to describe outbreaks of salmonellosis reported from July 1993 through June 1997 in the Northwest region of S. Paulo State, Brazil, one of the areas where several foodborne outbreaks of salmonellosis have been recently detected. METHOD: Data of 19 epidemiological investigations were analysed; 87 stool specimens and 38 food samples (including 12 of shell eggs were processed for microbiological analysis. Salmonella strains were identified by serotyping, phagetyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. RESULTS: There were 906 ill persons including 295 hospitalized patients. Phage type 4 (PT 4 Salmonella Enteritidis strains were isolated from 80.5% of stool samples, from all food samples and from 41.7% of eggs. Of the outbreaks, 95.7% were

  12. Produção e purificação de anticorpos policlonais para Salmonella Enteritidis (Enterobacteriaceae Production and purification of polyclonal antibodies for Salmonella Enteritidis (Enterobacteriaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Augusto Ono

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi produzir e purificar anticorpos policlonais específicos para Salmonella Enteritidis (Enterobacteriaceae. O anti-soro foi produzido em coelhos, empregando-se flagelina purificada. O título e a especificidade foram determinados através do ensaio imunoenzimático - ELISA e a purificação por cromatografia de afinidade com sepharose Proteína A. As suspensões bacterianas foram cultivadas em cinco diferentes meios de cultura (infusão de cérebro coração - BHI, caldo tripticase soja, caldo lactosado, caldo nutriente - CN e água peptonada. Observou-se que dependendo do meio o título do anti-soro pode variar e os melhores resultados foram obtidos com BHI e CN. O anti-soro foi específico para Salmonella Enteritidis, apresentando porcentagens de reações cruzadas com Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Infantis e Salmonella Newport de 16,0, 11,9 e 6,4%, respectivamente. Menores porcentagens foram obtidas com outras enterobactérias testadas. Esses resultados indicam a possibilidade da utilização desses anticorpos na padronização de ensaios imunológicos para a detecção de Salmonella EnteritidisThe purpose of this study was to produce and to purify specific polyclonal antibodies for Salmonella Enteritidis (Enterobacteriaceae. The anti-serum was raised in rabbits using purified flagelin. Anti-serum titer and specificity were determined by an immunoassay - ELISA and its purification was performed by sepharose protein A affinity chromatography. The bacteria suspensions were cultivated in five different media (brain heart infusion - BHI, tripticase soy broth, nutrient broth - NB, peptone water. Results have showed that anti-serum titers varied depending on which media type was used and BHI and NB media yielded the most significant results. The anti-serum produced was specific for Salmonella Enteritidis. Its cross-reactivity with Salmonella Thyphimurium, Salmonella Infantis and Salmonella Newport were 16.0, 11

  13. Occurrence of purulent arthritis broilers vertically infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, J-Y; Kang, M-S; An, B-K; Song, E-A; Kwon, J-H; Kwon, Y-K

    2010-10-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (Salmonella Enteritidis) has been associated with morbidity and mortality in broiler chickens worldwide. The present study described purulent arthritis of broilers infected with Salmonella Enteritidis and investigated antibiograms and genetic characteristics of Salmonella Enteritidis isolates from epidemiologically related properties such as a hatchery and breeder farm in an attempt to elucidate the source of contamination. Clinical disease and mortality were observed in the affected broiler flock. Mortality was 5.8% until 12 d of age. The birds typically showed lameness with moderately swollen hock joints and footpads. The most prevalent lesions were severely purulent arthritis with polyserositis. Histopathology revealed moderate to severe inflammation in the synovial membrane of leg joints and visceral organs. When the antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed against 7 isolates of Salmonella Enteritidis from broilers, and relevant hatchery and breeder farms by the disk diffusion method using 18 antimicrobial agents, isolates from broiler and breeder farms had the same antibiogram characterized by multiple drug resistance to ampicillin, ceftiofur, cephalothin, gentamycin, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, sulfisoxazole, and tetracycline, whereas isolates from the hatchery were differently resistant to only nalidixic acid. Through the genetic analysis with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis using the restriction enzyme XbaI, Salmonella Enteritidis isolates from both broiler and breeder farms also showed the same PFGE pattern compared with the hatchery isolates resistant to nalidixic acid. As a result, the same PFGE profiles and antibiogram patterns among isolates from broilers and breeder farms provided direct evidence of vertical Salmonella Enteritidis transmission from the contaminated breeder farm to commercial broiler.

  14. Practical considerations on surveillance of Salmonella serovars other than Enteritidis and Typhimurium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagenaar, J. A.; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Carrigue-Mas, J.

    2013-01-01

    Non-typhoid Salmonella serovars other than Salmonella enterica serovars S. Enteritidis (SE) and S. Typhimurium (ST) are isolated throughout the world with huge variations in prevalence. Besides the more generally occurring serovars, such as S. Infantis and S. Hadar, there are many examples of ser...

  15. Virulence and metabolic characteristics of Salmonella Enteritidis sefD variants in hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella Enteritidis is one of a few pathogenic Salmonella enterica serotypes that have SEF14 fimbriae encoded by the sef operon, which consists of 4 co-transcribed genes sefABCD that are regulated by sefR. To explore the function of sefD within the infection pathway resulting in egg contamination...

  16. Brote por Salmonella enteritidis en trabajadores de un hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chávez-de la Peña Ma. Eugenia

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Describir y determinar las causas de un brote de enfermedad gastrointestinal por Salmonella enteritidis, ocurrido en junio de 1998, entre el personal trabajador de la salud (TS que labora en un hospital de tercer nivel de atención, en la ciudad de México. Material y métodos. Se incluyó a todo aquel empleado que presentó diarrea o fiebre asociada a síntomas gastrointestinales, a partir del día 8 de junio de ese año, posterior a la ingestión de alimentos en el comedor del hospital (caso, y en aquellos asintomáticos (controles que ingirieron alimentos durante el mismo periodo y en el mismo lugar. Se les aplicó un cuestionario para conocer los alimentos ingeridos, se realizó hemocultivo a sujetos con fiebre mayor de 38 °C y coprocultivo a todos, incluido el personal de la cocina. En el análisis estadístico se utilizó razón de momios (RM, intervalos de confianza al 95% (IC 95%, ji cuadrada y valor de p= 0.05 para conocer la significancia estadística. Resultados: Desarrollaron síntomas 155 TS, y de éstos 129 completaron la encuesta; se encuestaron además 150 TS asintomáticos. Los síntomas más comunes fueron diarrea (85%, dolor abdominal (84%, cefalea (81.4%, náusea (78.3% y escalofríos (74.4%. Ocho hemocultivos fueron negativos; 59 casos (46% y seis controles (4% tuvieron coprocultivos positivos a Salmonella enteritidis. De los alimentos ingeridos, las tortas de carne capeadas con huevo (RM 19.39, IC 95% 9.09-41.4, la crema de mamey, así como el yogur fueron significativamente más frecuentes en casos que en controles. Los cultivos de los alimentos resultaron negativos. Conclusión. Muy probablemente este brote se debió a la ingestión de alimentos contaminados (tortas preparadas con huevo, papa y carne con insuficiente cocción. Este brote enfatiza la necesidad de mantener un programa de evaluación de la calidad de los alimentos en hospitales. El texto completo en inglés de este artículo está disponible en

  17. Intragastric immunization with recombinant Lactobacillus casei expressing flagellar antigen confers antibody-independent protective immunity against Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kajikawa, A.; Satoh, E.; Leer, R.J.; Yamamoto, S.; Igimi, S.

    2007-01-01

    A recombinant Lactobacillus casei expressing a flagellar antigen from Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis was constructed and evaluated as a mucosal vaccine. Intragastric immunization of the recombinant strain conferred protective immunity against Salmonella infection in mice. This immunization

  18. Validation of cooking methods using shell eggs inoculated with Salmonella serotypes Enteritidis and Heidelberg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, A L; Curtis, P A; Conner, D E; McKee, S R; Kerth, L K

    2008-08-01

    Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis has long been associated with eggs, and more recently, Salmonella enterica serotype Heidelberg has also become associated with eggs. This study was undertaken to determine whether Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Heidelberg are effectively eliminated from eggs by various cooking methods. Seven cooking methods were chosen--hard and soft cooked, scrambled, over easy, sunny-side up, poached, and free poached--and a pan insert and the free-flowing method were used. Shell eggs, purchased from a grocery store, were inoculated with Salmonella and cooked. The cooked eggs were analyzed by USDA-approved methods for Salmonella recovery. Findings indicated that existing cooking methods for the hard-cooked, soft-cooked, and poaching methods were safe. However, the same was not true for the current sunny-side-up, over-easy, and scrambled egg cooking methods.

  19. Reduction of Salmonella Enteritidis in the spleens of hens by bacterins that vary in fimbrial protein SefD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gene sefD is part of operon sefABCD, and it is required for production of the SEF14 fimbria by Salmonella Enteritidis. We compared strains that varied in SefD content for their ability to reduce recovery of Salmonella Enteritidis from the spleens of hens infected by parenteral challenge. The two bac...

  20. Egg white versus Salmonella Enteritidis! A harsh medium meets a resilient pathogen

    OpenAIRE

    Baron, Florence; Nau, Françoise; Guérin-Dubiard, Catherine; Bonnassie, Sylvie; Gautier, Michel; Andrews, Simon C.; Jan, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is the prevalent egg-product-related food-borne pathogen. The egg-contamination capacity of S. Enteritidis includes its exceptional survival capability within the harsh conditions provided by egg white. Egg white proteins, such as lysozyme and ovotransferrin, are well known to play important roles in defence against bacterial invaders. Indeed, several additional minor proteins and peptides have recently been found to play known or potential roles in pro...

  1. Visualization of gold and platinum nanoparticles interacting with Salmonella enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawosz, Ewa; Chwalibog, André; Szeliga, Jacek

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Rapid development of nanotechnology has recently brought significant attention to the extraordinary biological features of nanomaterials. The objective of the present ­investigation was to evaluate morphological characteristics of the assembles of gold and platinum nanoparticles (nano......-Au + Salmonella Enteritidis; nano-Au + Listeria monocytogenes; nano-Pt + Salmonella Enteritidis; nano-Pt + Listeria monocytogenes. Samples were inspected by transmission electron microscope. Results: Visualization of morphological interaction between nano-Au and Salmonella Enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes......, showed that nano-Au were aggregated within flagella or biofilm network and did not penetrate the bacterial cell. The analysis of morphological effects of interaction of nano-Pt with bacteria revealed that nano-Pt entered cells of Listeria monocytogenes and were removed from the cells. In the case...

  2. A hotel-based outbreak of Salmonella enterica subsp. Enterica serovar Enteritidis (Salmonella Enteritidis) in the United Kingdom, 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, N; Murphy, L; Smith, A; Copeland, D

    2007-03-01

    An outbreak of food-borne Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 occurred in Cumbria, in north-west England, in the summer of 2006. Fifteen people, all with positive stool samples, met the case definition; three of these were admitted to hospital, including one patient who died. Preliminary investigations suggested a link to a meal served at a local hotel. A case control study was implemented, together with microbiological and environmental investigations. Fifteen microbiologically confirmed cases and 27 unmatched controls were included in the study, controls being randomly selected from people who had eaten at the hotel on the same day. The epidemiological evidence indicated a very strong association between infection and consumption of tiramisu made with raw shell eggs, although none were available for microbiological investigation. These results are in line with other salmonellosis outbreaks that have been associated with the use of raw shell eggs in food manufacturing and production. This paper highlights the continuing need for a greater awareness by those who work in the food industry of the health risks associated with the consumption of raw shell eggs.

  3. Visualization of gold and platinum nanoparticles interacting with Salmonella Enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Sawosz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Ewa Sawosz1, André Chwalibog2, Jacek Szeliga3, Filip Sawosz2, Marta Grodzik1, Marlena Rupiewicz1, Tomasz Niemiec1, Katarzyna Kacprzyk11Division of Biotechnology and Biochemistry of Nutrition, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Warsaw, Poland; 2Department of Basic Animal and Veterinary Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; 3Division of Microbiology of Analytical Centre, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Warsaw, PolandPurpose: Rapid development of nanotechnology has recently brought significant attention to the extraordinary biological features of nanomaterials. The objective of the present ­investigation was to evaluate morphological characteristics of the assembles of gold and platinum nanoparticles (nano-Au and nano-Pt respectively, with Salmonella Enteritidis (Gram-negative and Listeria monocytogenes (Gram-positive, to reveal possibilities of constructing bacteria-nanoparticle vehicles.Methods: Hydrocolloids of nano-Au or nano-Pt were added to two bacteria suspensions in the following order: nano-Au + Salmonella Enteritidis; nano-Au + Listeria monocytogenes; nano-Pt + Salmonella Enteritidis; nano-Pt + Listeria monocytogenes. Samples were inspected by transmission electron microscope.Results: Visualization of morphological interaction between nano-Au and Salmonella Enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes, showed that nano-Au were aggregated within flagella or biofilm network and did not penetrate the bacterial cell. The analysis of morphological effects of interaction of nano-Pt with bacteria revealed that nano-Pt entered cells of Listeria monocytogenes and were removed from the cells. In the case of Salmonella Enteritidis, nano-Pt were seen inside bacteria cells, probably bound to DNA and partly left bacterial cells. After washing and centrifugation, some of the nano-Pt-DNA complexes were observed within Salmonella Enteritidis.Conclusion: The results indicate that the bacteria could be used as a vehicle to deliver nano

  4. Recurrent meningitis due to Salmonella enteritidis: A case report from Kashmir India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B A Fomda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent bacterial meningitis in children is potentially life-threatening and induces psychological trauma to the patients through repeated hospitalization. Here we report a case of recurrent meningitis in a one month old baby. The CSF and blood culture grew Salmonella enteritidis. Injection ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone were given for 3 weeks. Baby became symptomatically better and was afebrile at discharge. Twenty eight days after discharge baby got readmitted with complaints of fever and refusal of feeds. Blood and CSF culture again showed growth of Salmonella enteritidis. Physicians should be educated about the possibility of recurrence which may occur days or even weeks after apparent successful antibiotic treatment.

  5. Feed Supplementation with Red Seaweeds, Chondrus crispus and Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii, Reduce Salmonella Enteritidis in Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulshreshtha, Garima; Rathgeber, Bruce; MacIsaac, Janice; Boulianne, Martine; Brigitte, Lehoux; Stratton, Glenn; Thomas, Nikhil A; Critchley, Alan T; Hafting, Jeff; Prithiviraj, Balakrishnan

    2017-01-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis is vertically transmitted to eggs from laying hens through infected ovaries and oviducts. S. Enteritidis can also penetrate the eggshell from contaminated feces. Reducing S. Enteritidis in laying hens is vital to provide safer eggs and minimize the spread of salmonellosis to humans. Antibiotics have been widely used to control bacterial diseases in broilers and laying hens. However, there is a major concern that the use of antibiotics leads to the development of antibiotic resistance and adverse effects on microbiota of the treated birds. Thus, there is an interest in developing alternatives to antibiotics, such as dietary prebiotics. In the present study, feed supplemented with the red seaweeds: Chondrus crispus (CC) or Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii (SG), was offered to laying hens late in production to control S. Enteritidis. Diets contained one of the following; 2% or 4% Chondrus crispus (CC2, and CC4, respectively) or Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii (SG2 and SG4, respectively). Chlortetracycline was used in the positive control diet. During week-4, 48 birds were orally challenged with 2 × 10 9 CFU/mL of S. Enteritidis. Eggs and fecal samples were collected 1, 3, 5, and 7 days' post inoculation. Birds were euthanized and organs (ceca, ovary, liver, and spleen) were sampled and analyzed for the presence of S. Enteritidis, 7 days' post inoculation. Results showed that seaweed reduced the negative effect on body weight and egg production in S. Enteritidis-challenged laying hens. Analysis of fecal samples showed that the antibiotic (CTC) reduced S. Enteritidis in the intestinal tract and fecal samples, 3 days' post inoculation. Fecal samples from Chlortetracycline and CC4 supplemented birds tested negative for S. Enteritidis on days 5 and 7 post inoculation (lowest detection limit = 10 -1 ). S. Enteritidis colonization in the ceca was also significantly reduced in birds fed CC (4%) and Chlortetracycline. Blood serum profiles revealed that there were

  6. Feed Supplementation with Red Seaweeds, Chondrus crispus and Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii, Reduce Salmonella Enteritidis in Laying Hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulshreshtha, Garima; Rathgeber, Bruce; MacIsaac, Janice; Boulianne, Martine; Brigitte, Lehoux; Stratton, Glenn; Thomas, Nikhil A.; Critchley, Alan T.; Hafting, Jeff; Prithiviraj, Balakrishnan

    2017-01-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis is vertically transmitted to eggs from laying hens through infected ovaries and oviducts. S. Enteritidis can also penetrate the eggshell from contaminated feces. Reducing S. Enteritidis in laying hens is vital to provide safer eggs and minimize the spread of salmonellosis to humans. Antibiotics have been widely used to control bacterial diseases in broilers and laying hens. However, there is a major concern that the use of antibiotics leads to the development of antibiotic resistance and adverse effects on microbiota of the treated birds. Thus, there is an interest in developing alternatives to antibiotics, such as dietary prebiotics. In the present study, feed supplemented with the red seaweeds: Chondrus crispus (CC) or Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii (SG), was offered to laying hens late in production to control S. Enteritidis. Diets contained one of the following; 2% or 4% Chondrus crispus (CC2, and CC4, respectively) or Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii (SG2 and SG4, respectively). Chlortetracycline was used in the positive control diet. During week-4, 48 birds were orally challenged with 2 × 109 CFU/mL of S. Enteritidis. Eggs and fecal samples were collected 1, 3, 5, and 7 days’ post inoculation. Birds were euthanized and organs (ceca, ovary, liver, and spleen) were sampled and analyzed for the presence of S. Enteritidis, 7 days’ post inoculation. Results showed that seaweed reduced the negative effect on body weight and egg production in S. Enteritidis-challenged laying hens. Analysis of fecal samples showed that the antibiotic (CTC) reduced S. Enteritidis in the intestinal tract and fecal samples, 3 days’ post inoculation. Fecal samples from Chlortetracycline and CC4 supplemented birds tested negative for S. Enteritidis on days 5 and 7 post inoculation (lowest detection limit = 10-1). S. Enteritidis colonization in the ceca was also significantly reduced in birds fed CC (4%) and Chlortetracycline. Blood serum profiles revealed that there

  7. Evaluation of the respiratory route as a viable portal of entry for Salmonella in poultry via intratracheal challenge of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallapura, G; Morgan, M J; Pumford, N R; Bielke, L R; Wolfenden, A D; Faulkner, O B; Latorre, J D; Menconi, A; Hernandez-Velasco, X; Kuttappan, V A; Hargis, B M; Tellez, G

    2014-02-01

    Experimental and epidemiological evidence suggests that primary infection of Salmonella is by the oral-fecal route for poultry. However, the airborne transmission of Salmonella and similar enteric zoonotic pathogens has been historically neglected. Increasing evidence of Salmonella bioaerosol generation in production facilities and studies suggesting the vulnerabilities of the avian respiratory architecture together have indicated the possibility of the respiratory system being a potential portal of entry for Salmonella in poultry. Presently, we evaluated this hypothesis through intratracheal (IT) administration of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium, as separate challenges, in a total of 4 independent trials, followed by enumeration of cfu recovery in ceca-cecal tonsils and recovery incidence in liver and spleen. In all trials, both Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium, challenged IT colonized cecae to a similar or greater extent than oral administration at identical challenge levels. In most trials, chickens cultured for cfu enumeration from IT-challenged chicks at same dose as orally challenged, resulted in an increase of 1.5 log higher Salmonella Enteritidis from ceca-cecal tonsils and a much lower dose IT of Salmonella Enteritidis could colonize ceca to the same extent than a higher oral challenge. This trend of increased cecal colonization due to IT challenge was observed with all trails involving week-old birds (experiment 2 and 3), which are widely considered to be more difficult to infect via the oral route. Liver-spleen incidence data showed 33% of liver and spleen samples to be positive for Salmonella Enteritidis administered IT (10(6) cfu/chick), compared with 0% when administered orally (experiment 2, trial 1). Collectively, these data suggest that the respiratory tract may be a largely overlooked portal of entry for Salmonella infections in chickens.

  8. Evaluation of the respiratory route as a viable portal of entry for Salmonella in poultry via intratracheal challenge of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallapura, G.; Morgan, M. J.; Pumford, N. R.; Bielke, L. R.; Wolfenden, A. D.; Faulkner, O. B.; Latorre, J. D.; Menconi, A.; Hernandez-Velasco, X.; Kuttappan, V. A.; Hargis, B. M.; Tellez, G.

    2014-01-01

    Experimental and epidemiological evidence suggests that primary infection of Salmonella is by the oral-fecal route for poultry. However, the airborne transmission of Salmonella and similar enteric zoonotic pathogens has been historically neglected. Increasing evidence of Salmonella bioaerosol generation in production facilities and studies suggesting the vulnerabilities of the avian respiratory architecture together have indicated the possibility of the respiratory system being a potential portal of entry for Salmonella in poultry. Presently, we evaluated this hypothesis through intratracheal (IT) administration of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium, as separate challenges, in a total of 4 independent trials, followed by enumeration of cfu recovery in ceca-cecal tonsils and recovery incidence in liver and spleen. In all trials, both Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium, challenged IT colonized cecae to a similar or greater extent than oral administration at identical challenge levels. In most trials, chickens cultured for cfu enumeration from IT-challenged chicks at same dose as orally challenged, resulted in an increase of 1.5 log higher Salmonella Enteritidis from ceca-cecal tonsils and a much lower dose IT of Salmonella Enteritidis could colonize ceca to the same extent than a higher oral challenge. This trend of increased cecal colonization due to IT challenge was observed with all trails involving week-old birds (experiment 2 and 3), which are widely considered to be more difficult to infect via the oral route. Liver-spleen incidence data showed 33% of liver and spleen samples to be positive for Salmonella Enteritidis administered IT (106 cfu/chick), compared with 0% when administered orally (experiment 2, trial 1). Collectively, these data suggest that the respiratory tract may be a largely overlooked portal of entry for Salmonella infections in chickens. PMID:24570455

  9. Biofilm formation by Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium isolated from avian sources is partially related with their in vivo pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Karen Apellanis; Furian, Thales Quedi; de Souza, Sara Neves; Menezes, Rafaela; de Lima, Diane Alves; Fortes, Flávia Bornancini Borges; Salle, Carlos Tadeu Pippi; Moraes, Hamilton Luiz Souza; Nascimento, Vladimir Pinheiro

    2018-03-22

    Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium are among the most prevalent serotypes isolated from salmonellosis outbreaks and poultry. Salmonella spp. have the capacity to form biofilms on several surfaces, which can favour survival in hostile environments, such as slaughterhouses. Salmonella strains present differences in pathogenicity. However, there is little information regarding the pathogenicity of S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium isolated from avian sources and their relationship to biofilm production. The aim of this study was to use a novel pathogenicity index and a biofilm production assay to evaluate their relationships within these serotypes. In addition, we detected the presence of the spiA and agfA genes in these strains. Biofilm formation was investigated at two temperatures (37 °C and 28 °C) using microtiter plate assay, and the results were compared with the individual pathogenicity index of each strain. PCR was used to detect spiA and agfA, virulence genes associated with biofilm production. S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium strains were capable of producing biofilm at 37 °C and 28 °C. Sixty-two percent and 59.5% of S. Enteritidis and 73.8% and 46.2% of S. Typhimurium produced biofilm at 37 °C and 28 °C, respectively. Biofilm production at 37 °C was significantly higher in both serotypes. Only S. Enteritidis was capable of adhering strongly at both temperatures. Biofilm production was related to pathogenicity index only at 28 °C for S. Enteritidis. spiA and agfA were found in almost all strains and were not statistically associated with biofilm production. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Pyomyositis of the vastus medialis muscle associated with Salmonella enteritidis in a child

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minami, Koichi; Sakiyama, Michiyo; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Yoshikawa, Norishige [Department of Paediatrics, Wakayama Medical University School of Medicine, 811-1 Kimiidera, Wakayama 641-0012 (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    We describe a 23-month-old boy with pyomyositis of the vastus medialis muscle caused by Salmonella enteritidis. Such focal Salmonella infections are uncommon in soft tissue. It is noteworthy of this case that there were no antecedent signs of gastroenteritis and no underlying medical condition. MRI, in particular the fat-suppressed T2-weighted sequence, is helpful for establishing the diagnosis and differentiating pyomyositis from other pathological conditions. (orig.)

  11. Efficacy of jatropha curcas plant extract against the survival of salmonella enteritidis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: The use of plant-derived antimicrobials has shown to be effective at inhibiting microbial growth. Although Jatropha curcas is known to possess antimicrobial properties, its efficacy against Salmonella Enteritidis has not yet been investigated. Purpose: The purpose of this study was...

  12. Dynamic analysis of growth of Salmonella Enteritidis in liquid egg whites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) is a common foodborne pathogen associated with eggs and egg products. This research was conducted to study the kinetics of growth and survival of SE in liquid egg whites (LEW). A dynamic temperature profile that exposed SE to suboptimal temperatures and below the minimu...

  13. Removal of Salmonella Enteritidis from commercial† unpasteurized liquid egg white using pilot scale crossflow tangential microfiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effectiveness of a pilot-scale cross-flow microfiltration (MF) process for removal of Salmonella enteritidis from liquid egg white (LEW) was evaluated. To facilitate MF, 110 L of unpasteurized LEW from a local egg breaking plant was first wedge screened, homogenized and then diluted (1:2 w/w) w...

  14. Potential International Spread of Multidrug-Resistant Invasive Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodicio, M. Rosario; Guerra, Beatriz; Hopkins, Katie L.

    2012-01-01

    In developing countries, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis causes substantial illness and death, and drug resistance is increasing. Isolates from the United Kingdom containing virulence-resistance plasmids were characterized. They mainly caused invasive infections in adults linked to Africa. The common features in isolates from these continents indicate the role of human travel in their spread. PMID:22709653

  15. Brote por Salmonella enteritidis en una residencia de ancianos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yáñez Ortega Jose Luis

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: Se describe un brote de gastroenteritis por Salmonella Enteritidis, fagotipo 1, declarado en una residencia de ancianos de Burgos el 15 de noviembre de 1999. El objetivo de la investigación del brote ha sido determinar la fuente de infección, el mecanismo de transmisión y proponer las medidas adecuadas para evitar la recurrencia del problema. Métodos: Se ha realizado un estudio observacional de cohortes retrospectivo encuestando a 106 de un total de 119 residentes y a 9 trabajadores del centro. Se ha estimado el Riesgo Relativo de enfermar en función del consumo de diversos alimentos. Se ha utilizado la Regresión Logística para calcular las odds ratio ajustadas por edad, sexo y por el consumo de alimentos y vino. Se ha estudiado la concordancia del diagnóstico clínico frente al diagnóstico por coprocultivo mediante el índice de concordancia Kappa de Cohen. Resultados: Un total de 42 personas refirieron sintomatología (37 residentes y 5 empleados. La tasa de ataque clínico fue de 36,5 %. De 91 coprocultivos realizados (82 en residentes y 9 en empleados 45 resultaron positivos (41 en residentes y 4 en empleados. La Tasa de ataque de casos confirmados por coprocultivo fue de 49,5% en los investigados. La leche frita ha sido el alimento implicado epidemiológicamente con la aparición del brote: RR: 3,25 (IC95% 1,10-9,59. El efecto protector del vino (Odds Ratio: 0,68 no alcanzó significación estadística (p=0,36. El índice Kappa resultó 0,43 (p<0,001, lo que demuestra la escasa concordancia del diagnóstico clínico frente al diagnóstico mediante coprocultivo. Conclusiones: Existe evidencia epidemiológica de que el consumo de leche frita ha sido el mecanismo de transmisión de la infección, y la conservación a temperatura inadecuada del alimento ha sido el factor contribuyente determinante en la eclosión del brote. Esto demuestra que lo más idóneo para prevenir este tipo de brotes son las prácticas y h

  16. Predictive Modeling for the Growth of Salmonella Enteritidis in Chicken Juice by Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noviyanti, Fia; Hosotani, Yukie; Koseki, Shigenobu; Inatsu, Yasuhiro; Kawasaki, Susumu

    2018-04-02

    The goals of this study were to monitor the growth kinetics of Salmonella Enteritidis in chicken juice using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and to evaluate its efficacy by comparing the results with an experimental database. Salmonella Enteritidis was inoculated in chicken juice samples at an initial inoculum of 10 4 CFU/mL with inoculated samples incubated at six different temperatures (10, 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35°C). Sampling was carried out for 36 h to observe the growth of Salmonella Enteritidis. The total DNA was extracted from the samples, and the copy number of the Salmonella invasion gene (invA) was quantified by real-time PCR and converted to Salmonella Enteritidis cell concentration. Growth kinetics data were analyzed by the Baranyi and Roberts model to obtain growth parameters, whereas the Ratkowsky's square-root model was used to describe the effect of the interactions between growth parameters and temperature on the growth of Salmonella Enteritidis. The growth parameters of Salmonella Enteritidis obtained from an experiment conducted at a constant temperature were validated with growth data from chicken juice samples that were incubated under fluctuating temperature conditions between 5°C and 30°C for 30-min periods. A high correlation was observed between maximum growth rate (μ max ) and storage temperature, indicating that the real-time PCR-monitoring method provides a precise estimation of Salmonella Enteritidis growth in food material with a microbial flora. Moreover, the μ max data reflected data from microbial responses viewer database and ComBase. The results of this study suggested that real-time PCR monitoring provides a precise estimation of Salmonella Enteritidis growth in food materials with a background microbial flora.

  17. Effect of infectious bursal disease (IBD) vaccine on Salmonella Enteritidis infected chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafat, Nagah; Eladl, Abdelfattah H; Mahgoub, Hebatallah; El-Shafei, Reham A

    2017-06-22

    Chickens infected with both infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) and Salmonella had higher mortality. In this work, we investigated the effect of IBDV vaccine (modified live-virus bursal disease vaccine, Nobilis strain 228E®) on experimentally infected chickens with Salmonella Enteritidis (SE). Four experimental groups were included in this study, negative control group, 228E®group, 228E®+SE infected group, and SE infected group. Chickens were ocularly administrated 228E® at 12days of age and orally infected with S. Enteritidis at 13days of age. Sera, intestinal fluid, blood, cloacal swabs and tissue samples were collected at 1, 2 and 3weeks post vaccination (PV). The recorded mortalities were higher in the 228E®+SE infected group, compared to the SE infected group. The anti-S. Enteritidis serum antibody titer and the intestinal mucosal IgA level were higher in the SE infected group at 2 and 3weeks PV, compared to 228E®+SE infected group. S. Enteritidis fecal shedding and organ colonization were significantly higher in the 228E®+SE infected group than the SE infected group at 2 and 3weeks PV. The 228E®+SE group had significantly lower bursa to body weight ratios at 2 and 3weeks PV, as well as had higher bursal lesion scores than the SE infected group. IBDV vaccine depressed the specific-SE systemic and mucosal antibody responses, but did not affect the specific-SE cellular immune responses. Chickens administrated IBDV vaccine, followed by S. Enteritidis infection, could cause a significant effect on the bursa of Fabricius, resulting in failure of systemic and mucosal antibody responses to the S. Enteritidis and reduce the elimination and the clearance of S. Enteritidis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Critical role of glycogen synthase kinase-3ß in regulating the avian heterophil response to Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis

    Science.gov (United States)

    A microarray-assisted gene expression screen of chicken heterophils revealed glycogen synthase kinase-3ß (GSK-3ß), a multifunctional Ser/Thr kinase, to be consistently up-regulated 30-180 min following stimulation with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis). The present study was ...

  19. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Enteritidis Strains Implicated in Infections of Avian and Human Hosts

    KAUST Repository

    An, Ran

    2018-01-24

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis is a wide-host-range pathogen. Occasionally, it is involved in invasive infections, leading to a high mortality rate. Here, we present the draft genome sequences of four S Enteritidis strains obtained from human and avian hosts that had been involved in bacteremia, gastroenteritis, and primary infections.

  20. Antimicrobial activity of sweet basil and thyme against salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis in egg-based pasta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojiljković Jasmina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis is known as one of the most common pathogenic bacteria causing salmonellosis in humans. Raw materials of animal origin (eggs, chicken meat are frequent vectors that transmit this bacterium. Since eggs are used for the production of pasta, due to insufficient thermal treatment during pasta drying, they can be a potential risk to consumer health. Different essential oils of herbs can be used to reduce present pathogenic microorganisms. This paper compares a decrease in the number of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis (D ATCC 13076 and Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis isolated from outbreaks of salmonellosis in egg-based pasta under the influence of thyme and sweet basil essential oils. The results indicate that the utilized oils were more effective against the epidemic strain than the ATCC strain. In addition, thyme oil caused a more significant inhibition of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis during the production process.

  1. Cross-Contamination and Biofilm Formation by Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis on Various Cutting Boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Stéfani T A; Rossi, Bruna F; Bonsaglia, Erika C R; Castilho, Ivana G; Hernandes, Rodrigo T; Fernandes, Ary; Rall, Vera L M

    2018-02-01

    Cross-contamination is one of the main factors related to foodborne outbreaks. This study aimed to analyze the cross-contamination process of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis from poultry to cucumbers, on various cutting board surfaces (plastic, wood, and glass) before and after washing and in the presence and absence of biofilm. Thus, 10 strains of Salmonella Enteritidis were used to test cross-contamination from poultry to the cutting boards and from thereon to cucumbers. Moreover, these strains were evaluated as to their capacity to form biofilm on hydrophobic (wood and plastic) and hydrophilic materials (glass). We recovered the 10 isolates from all unwashed boards and from all cucumbers that had contacted them. After washing, the recovery ranged from 10% to 100%, depending on the board material. In the presence of biofilm, the recovery of salmonellae was 100%, even after washing. Biofilm formation occurred more on wood (60%) and plastic (40%) than glass (10%) boards, demonstrating that bacteria adhered more to a hydrophobic material. It was concluded that the cutting boards represent a critical point in cross-contamination, particularly in the presence of biofilm. Salmonella Enteritidis was able to form a biofilm on these three types of cutting boards but glass showed the least formation.

  2. Pulsed-field profile diversities of Salmonella Enteritidis, S. Infantis, and S. Corvallis in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Koichi; Noda, Tamie; Onozuka, Daisuke; Kimura, Hirokazu; Fujimoto, Shuji

    2017-01-01

    The diversity of pulsed-field profiles (PFPs) within non-typhoidal Salmonella subtypes influences epidemiological analyses of Salmonella outbreaks. Therefore, determining the PFP diversity of each Salmonella serovar is important when evaluating current circulating strains. This study examined the PFP diversity of three important public health Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovars, S. Enteritidis (n=177), S. Infantis (n=205), and S. Corvallis (n=90), using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Isolates were collected from several sources, primarily from chicken-derived samples, in the Kyushu-Okinawa region of Japan between 1989 and 2005. S. Enteritidis isolates displayed 51 distinct PFPs (E-PFPs), with 92 (52.0%) and 32 (18.1%) isolates displaying types E-PFP1 and E-PFP10, respectively. The 205 S. Infantis isolates showed 54 distinct PFPs (I-PFPs), with 87 (42.4%) and 36 (17.6%) isolates being I-PFP4 and I-PFP2, respectively. I-PFP18 was the dominant I-PFP of layer chicken isolates across a 5-year period. Fourteen distinct S. Corvallis PFPs were detected. Simpson’s index results for the genetic diversities of S. Enteritidis, S. Infantis, and S. Corvallis isolates were 0.70, 0.79, and 0.78, respectively. None of the E-PFPs or I-PFPs of layer chicken isolates overlapped with those of broiler chicken isolates, and the dominant clonal lines existed for >10 years. In conclusion, limited PFP diversities were detected amongst S. Enteritidis, S. Infantis, and S. Corvallis isolates of primarily chicken-derived origins in the Kyushu-Okinawa region of Japan. Therefore, it is important to take into account these limitations in PFP diversities in epidemiological analyses of Salmonella outbreaks. PMID:29071243

  3. Pulsed-field profile diversities of Salmonella Enteritidis, S. Infantis, and S. Corvallis in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Murakami

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of pulsed-field profiles (PFPs within non-typhoidal Salmonella subtypes influences epidemiological analyses of Salmonella outbreaks. Therefore, determining the PFP diversity of each Salmonella serovar is important when evaluating current circulating strains. This study examined the PFP diversity of three important public health Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovars, S. Enteritidis (n=177, S. Infantis (n=205, and S. Corvallis (n=90, using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Isolates were collected from several sources, primarily from chicken-derived samples, in the Kyushu-Okinawa region of Japan between 1989 and 2005. S. Enteritidis isolates displayed 51 distinct PFPs (E-PFPs, with 92 (52.0% and 32 (18.1% isolates displaying types EPFP1 and E-PFP10, respectively. The 205 S. Infantis isolates showed 54 distinct PFPs (I-PFPs, with 87 (42.4% and 36 (17.6% isolates being I-PFP4 and I-PFP2, respectively. I-PFP18 was the dominant I-PFP of layer chicken isolates across a 5-year period. Fourteen distinct S. Corvallis PFPs were detected. Simpson’s index results for the genetic diversities of S. Enteritidis, S. Infantis, and S. Corvallis isolates were 0.70, 0.79, and 0.78, respectively. None of the EPFPs or I-PFPs of layer chicken isolates overlapped with those of broiler chicken isolates, and the dominant clonal lines existed for >10 years. In conclusion, limited PFP diversities were detected amongst S. Enteritidis, S. Infantis, and S. Corvallis isolates of primarily chicken-derived origins in the Kyushu-Okinawa region of Japan. Therefore, it is important to take into account these limitations in PFP diversities in epidemiological analyses of Salmonella outbreaks.

  4. Establishment of probabilistic model for Salmonella Enteritidis growth and inactivation under acid and osmotic pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujiao Shi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The growth and survival characteristic of Salmonella Enteritidis under acidic and osmotic conditions were studied. Meanwhile, a probabilistic model based on the theory of cell division and mortality was established to predict the growth or inactivation of S. Enteritidis. The experimental results demonstrated that the growth curves of planktonic and detached cells showed a significant difference (p < 0.05 under four conditions, including pH5.0 + 0.0%NaCl, pH7.0 + 4.0%NaCl, pH6.0 + 4.0%NaCl, and pH5.0 + 4.0%NaCl. And the established primary and secondary models could describe the growth of S. enteritis well by estimating four mathematics evaluation indexes, including determination coefficient (R2, root mean square error (RMSE, accuracy factor (Af and bias factor (Bf. Moreover, sequential treatment of 15% NaCl stress followed by pH 4.5 stress was the best condition to inactivate S. Enteritidis in 10 h at 25 °C. The probabilistic model with Logistical or Weibullian form could also predict the inactivation of S. Enteritidis well, thus realize the unification of predictive model to some extent or generalization of inactivation model. Furthermore, the primary 4-parameter probabilistic model or generalized inactivation model had slightly higher applicability and reliability to describe the growth or inactivation of S. Enteritidis than Baranyi model or exponential inactivation model within the experimental range in this study. Keywords: Acid, Osmotic pressure, Salmonella Enteritidis, Probabilistic model, Unification, Generalization

  5. Preliminary Transcriptome Analysis of Mature Biofilm and Planktonic Cells of Salmonella Enteritidis Exposure to Acid Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Jia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella has emerged as a well-recognized food-borne pathogen, with many strains able to form biofilms and thus cause cross-contamination in food processing environments where acid-based disinfectants are widely encountered. In the present study, RNA sequencing was employed to establish complete transcriptome profiles of Salmonella Enteritidis in the forms of planktonic and biofilm-associated cells cultured in Tryptic Soytone Broth (TSB and acidic TSB (aTSB. The gene expression patterns of S. Enteritidis significantly differed between biofilm-associated and planktonic cells cultivated under the same conditions. The assembled transcriptome of S. Enteritidis in this study contained 5,442 assembled transcripts, including 3,877 differentially expressed genes (DEGs identified in biofilm and planktonic cells. These DEGs were enriched in terms such as regulation of biological process, metabolic process, macromolecular complex, binding and transferase activity, which may play crucial roles in the biofilm formation of S. Enteritidis cultivated in aTSB. Three significant pathways were observed to be enriched under acidic conditions: bacterial chemotaxis, porphyrin-chlorophyll metabolism and sulfur metabolism. In addition, 15 differentially expressed novel non-coding small RNAs (sRNAs were identified, and only one was found to be up-regulated in mature biofilms. This preliminary study of the S. Enteritidis transcriptome serves as a basis for future investigations examining the complex network systems that regulate Salmonella biofilm in acidic environments, which provide information on biofilm formation and acid stress interaction that may facilitate the development of novel disinfection procedures in the food processing industry.

  6. Evaluation of a Multiplex PCR Assay for the Identification of Salmonella Serovars Enteritidis and Typhimurium Using Retail and Abattoir Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunremi, Dele; Nadin-Davis, Susan; Dupras, Andrée Ann; Márquez, Imelda Gálvan; Omidi, Katayoun; Pope, Louise; Devenish, John; Burke, Teresa; Allain, Ray; Leclair, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    A multiplex PCR was developed to identify the two most common serovars of Salmonella causing foodborne illness in Canada, namely, serovars Enteritidis and Typhimurium. The PCR was designed to amplify DNA fragments from four Salmonella genes, namely, invA gene (211-bp fragment), iroB gene (309-bp fragment), Typhimurium STM 4497 (523-bp fragment), and Enteritidis SE147228 (612-bp fragment). In addition, a 1,026-bp ribosomal DNA (rDNA) fragment universally present in bacterial species was included in the assay as an internal control fragment. The detection rate of the PCR was 100% among Salmonella Enteritidis (n = 92) and Salmonella Typhimurium (n = 33) isolates. All tested Salmonella isolates (n = 194) were successfully identified based on the amplification of at least one Salmonella -specific DNA fragment. None of the four Salmonella DNA amplicons were detected in any of the non- Salmonella isolates (n = 126), indicating an exclusivity rate of 100%. When applied to crude extracts of 2,001 field isolates of Salmonella obtained during the course of a national microbiological baseline study in broiler chickens and chicken products sampled from abattoir and retail outlets, 163 isolates, or 8.1%, tested positive for Salmonella Enteritidis and another 80 isolates, or 4.0%, tested as Salmonella Typhimurium. All isolates identified by serological testing as Salmonella Enteritidis in the microbiological study were also identified by using the multiplex PCR. The new test can be used to identify or confirm pure isolates of the two serovars and is also amenable for integration into existing culture procedures for accurate detection of Salmonella colonies.

  7. FECAL EXCRETION OF Salmonella Enteritidis IN BROILER LINES ROSS AND ISA LABEL EXCREÇÃO FECAL de Salmonella Enteritidis EM DUAS LINHAGENS DE FRANGOS DE CORTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adson Santa Cruz Oliveira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The invasive capacity and persistence of this pathogen, crop and ceca in apparently healthy birds of two broiler lines raised without growth promoter antibiotics in ration and originated from eggs inoculated eggshell and in allantoidal cavity with Salmonella Enteritidis. Histological and bacteriological exams from cecal and crop were performed with one, seven, 14 and 21 days of age after hatch in broilers of fast and slow growing rate. Bacterio-logical exams were performed fecal excretion with one, eigth, 22 and 35 days. The Salmonella Enteritidis invaded and colonizated the gastrointestinal tract of the two lines tested, but the the infection reduced with age, and was more persistant in Ross broilers. The results were different for two lines. The pathogen was excreted from just one chick of ISA Label at 22 days of age and four Ross chicks until 35 days of age. In order, Salmonella was detected in 87.5% (14/16 and 38,1% (5/16 of ceca; in 81.2% (13/16 and 12.5% (2/16 of crops; in fast and slow growing rate lines, respectively. In apparent healthy organs, excepted the crop, an inflammatory process with predominance of macrophage and lymphocytes. The slow growing rate line was effective to eliminate bacteria in the organism.

    Key-words: Ceca, crop, fecal excretion, inflammation.

    Avaliaram-se, neste estudo, a capacidade inva-siva, a persistência e a freqüência de excreção fecal da Salmonella Enteritidis em aves aparentemente saudáveis de duas linhagens de frango de corte, criadas sem antibióticos promotores de crescimento na ração e oriundas de ovos inoculados na casca ou na cavidade alantóide com Salmonella Enteritidis fagotipo 4. Realizaram-se exames bacteriológicos das excretas com um, oito, 22 e 35 dias, e histológicos e bacteriológicos do inglúvio e ceco, com um, sete, quatorze e 21 dias pós-eclosão em frangos de crescimento rápido e lento. Salmonella

  8. Curcuma and Scutellaria plant extracts protect chickens against inflammation and Salmonella Enteritidis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varmuzova, Karolina; Matulova, Marta Elsheimer; Gerzova, Lenka; Cejkova, Darina; Gardan-Salmon, Delphine; Panhéleux, Marina; Robert, Fabrice; Sisak, Frantisek; Havlickova, Hana; Rychlik, Ivan

    2015-09-01

    After a ban on the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in farm animals in the European Union in 2006, an interest in alternative products with antibacterial or anti-inflammatory properties has increased. In this study, we therefore tested the effects of extracts from Curcuma longa and Scutellaria baicalensis used as feed additives against cecal inflammation induced by heat stress or Salmonella Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) infection in chickens. Curcuma extract alone was not enough to decrease gut inflammation induced by heat stress. However, a mixture of Curcuma and Scutellaria extracts used as feed additives decreased gut inflammation induced by heat or S. Enteritidis, decreased S. Enteritidis counts in the cecum but was of no negative effect on BW or humoral immune response. Using next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA we found out that supplementation of feed with the 2 plant extracts had no effect on microbiota diversity. However, if the plant extract supplementation was provided to the chickens infected with S. Enteritidis, Faecalibacterium, and Lactobacillus, both bacterial genera with known positive effects on gut health were positively selected. The supplementation of chicken feed with extracts from Curcuma and Scutelleria thus may be used in poultry production to effectively decrease gut inflammation and increase chicken performance. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  9. A questionnaire-based, retrospective field study of persistence of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium in Danish broiler houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gradel, K.O.; Rattenborg, Erik

    2003-01-01

    A questionnaire-based, retrospective field study was conducted in 78 Danish broiler houses (analytical units) on 42 farms. In spring 1997, all these broiler houses had been infected with Salmonella Enteritidis, phage type 8, and/or Salmonella Typhimurium, definitive-type 66, by day-old chicks del...... soap and water for washing hands in the anteroom, hygiene barriers when removing dead broilers, gravel alongside the broiler house, systematic checks of indoor rodent-bait depots, and combined surface and pulse-fogging disinfection....

  10. Overcrowding stress decreases macrophage activity and increases Salmonella Enteritidis invasion in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, A V S; Quinteiro-Filho, W M; Ribeiro, A; Ferraz-de-Paula, V; Pinheiro, M L; Baskeville, E; Akamine, A T; Astolfi-Ferreira, C S; Ferreira, A J P; Palermo-Neto, J

    2014-01-01

    Overcrowding stress is a reality in the poultry industry. Chickens exposed to long-term stressful situations present a reduction of welfare and immunosuppression. We designed this experiment to analyse the effects from overcrowding stress of 16 birds/m(2) on performance parameters, serum corticosterone levels, the relative weight of the bursa of Fabricius, plasma IgA and IgG levels, intestinal integrity, macrophage activity and experimental Salmonella Enteritidis invasion. The results of this study indicate that overcrowding stress decreased performance parameters, induced enteritis and decreased macrophage activity and the relative bursa weight in broiler chickens. When the chickens were similarly stressed and infected with Salmonella Enteritidis, there was an increase in feed conversion and a decrease in plasma IgG levels in the stressed and Salmonella-infected birds. We observed moderate enteritis throughout the duodenum of chickens stressed and infected with Salmonella. The overcrowding stress decreased the macrophage phagocytosis intensity and increased Salmonella Enteritidis counts in the livers of birds challenged with the pathogenic bacterium. Overcrowding stress via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis that is associated with an increase in corticosterone and enteritis might influence the quality of the intestinal immune barrier and the integrity of the small intestine. This effect allowed pathogenic bacteria to migrate through the intestinal mucosa, resulting in inflammatory infiltration and decreased nutrient absorption. The data strengthen the hypothesis that control of the welfare of chickens and avoidance of stress from overcrowding in poultry production are relevant factors for the maintenance of intestinal integrity, performance and decreased susceptibility to Salmonella infection.

  11. Survivability of Salmonella typhimurium L1388 and Salmonella enteritidis L1225 under stressful growth conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngwai YB

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In an earlier study with Salmonella typhimurium L1388 (ST and Salmonella enteritidis L1225 (SE isolated from diseased chickens, we found that SE formed more biofilm than ST on abiotic surfaces in a time-dependent manner. Since the ability of salmonellae to survive extreme environment is related to their virulence, the present study examined the survival of Salmonella typhimurium L1388 and Salmonella nteritidis L1225 under the usual stresses that salmonellae encounter during their life cycle. This is with a view to understanding the strains’ stress tolerance that could be used to explain their virulence. Incubation at 37oC for various time periods was done for: i stationary phase (SP cells at pH 2.6; ii log-phase (LP cells at pH 4.0; log-phase or stationary phase cells in broth containing iii hydrogen peroxide, iv sodium chloride and v ethanol; vi stationary phase cells in Hank’s balanced salt solution (single strength containing 10% human serum; and vii prolong stationary phase cells. Stationary phase cells were also incubated at 52oC for 15 min. Surviving cells at the various incubation times were counted on trypticase soy agar (TSA after appropriate dilution in saline and overnight incubation at 37oC. Growth iron-poor medium was determined by growing a single bacterial colony in Medium A with shaking at 37oC or 40oC for 24 h. Statistics was done by one-way analysis-of-variance (ANOVA at P = 0.05. Differences in the survival of ST and SE were insignificant (p>0.05 in acid pH at both pH 4.0 (p = 0.3783 and pH 2.6 (p = 0.4711; at high salinity for log-phase (p = 0.1416 and stationary phase (p = 0.1816 cells; in ethanol (p = 0.5984, human serum (p = 0.8139, prolonged stationary phase (p = 0.3506; and under heat (p = 0.5766. SE was significantly (p<0.05; p = 0.0031 more tolerant to oxidative-killing by hydrogen peroxide. Culturable growth of the ST and SE in an iron-poor medium A revealed insignificant differences at 37oC (p = 0.8381 but

  12. The SPR detection of Salmonella enteritidis in food using aptamers as recongnition elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, W. T.; Du, X. W.; Pan, M. F.; Wang, J. P.

    2017-09-01

    In this experiment, a fast, accurate, non-destructive, unmarked and simple-operation detection method for Salmonella enteritidis in food was established by the BI-3000 plasma resonance biosensor (SPR). This article establishes a method of using nucleic acid aptamer as immune recognition element in SPR which can be employed to detect Salmonella enteritidis in food for the first time. The experimental conditions were screened and the experimental scheme was validated and applied. The best flow rate was 5μL/min, the best concentration of the aptamers was 180mM, and the best regenerating solution was the 20mM NaOH. This method had almost no cross-reactivity. Besides, we established a standard curve of Salmonella enteritidis and SPR signal, with the detection limit of 2 cfu/mL. Finally, we tested the samples of chicken, pork, shrimp and fish purchased from supermarkets. The method has the advantages of short time, low detection limit and easy operation, which can be used for a large number of food samples.

  13. Sepsis for Salmonella enteritidis in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canas, Carlos Alberto; Ospina, Gustavo Adolfo; Ochoa, Maria Elena; Velez, Juan Diego

    2002-01-01

    We report a 28-year-old female with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), with multisystem involvement (central nervous system, kidney and hematological system), severe malnutrition, with therapy based in glucocorticoid. She developed sepsis by Salmonella enteritidis, organism isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage, blood and stools. She developed a pulmonary abscess and respiratory failure. She received ciprofloxacin with improving. Several weeks after, she died due to sepsis. We discuss about the relation of SLE and salmonella infections, the risk factors, and the association with morbidity and mortality

  14. Septic arthritis of the adult ankle joint secondary to Salmonella enteritidis: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Munigangaiah, Sudarshan

    2011-09-01

    Salmonella septic arthritis in healthy individuals is a rare phenomenon. However, septic arthritis of the native adult ankle joint in healthy patients has not been previously described in the published data. This is a case report of a 70-year-old farmer who presented with a 2-week history of a painful, swollen right ankle and an inability to bear weight. He had no history of ankle injury or any predisposing conditions. Joint aspirations were positive for Salmonella enteritidis that was successfully treated with right ankle arthrotomy and washout, along with a 6-week course of intravenous antibiotic therapy.

  15. Molecular detection assay of five Salmonella serotypes of public interest: Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Newport, Heidelberg, and Hadar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugarel, M; Tudor, A; Loneragan, G H; Nightingale, K K

    2017-03-01

    Foodborne illnesses due to Salmonella represent an important public-health concern worldwide. In the United States, a majority of Salmonella infections are associated with a small number of serotypes. Furthermore, some serotypes that are overrepresented among human disease are also associated with multi-drug resistance phenotypes. Rapid detection of serotypes of public-health concern might help reduce the burden of salmonellosis cases and limit exposure to multi-drug resistant Salmonella. We developed a two-step real-time PCR-based rapid method for the identification and detection of five Salmonella serotypes that are either overrepresented in human disease or frequently associated with multi-drug resistance, including serotypes Enteritidis, Typhimurium, Newport, Hadar, and Heidelberg. Two sets of four markers were developed to detect and differentiate the five serotypes. The first set of markers was developed as a screening step to detect the five serotypes; whereas, the second set was used to further distinguish serotypes Heidelberg, Newport and Hadar. The utilization of these markers on a two-step investigation strategy provides a diagnostic specificity of 97% for the detection of Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Heidelberg, Infantis, Newport and Hadar. The diagnostic sensitivity of the detection makers is >96%. The availability of this two-step rapid method will facilitate specific detection of Salmonella serotypes that contribute to a significant proportion of human disease and carry antimicrobial resistance. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Requirement for cobalamin by Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium, Pullorum, Gallinarum and Enteritidis during infection in chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Boldrin de Paiva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium synthesizes cobalamin (vitamin B12 only during anaerobiosis. Two percent of the S. Typhimurium genome is devoted to the synthesis and uptake of vitamin B12 and to B12-dependent reactions. To understand the requirement for cobalamin synthesis better, we constructed mutants of Salmonella serovars Enteritidis and Pullorum that are double-defective in cobalamin biosynthesis (ΔcobSΔcbiA. We compared the virulence of these mutants to that of their respective wild type strains and found no impairment in their ability to cause disease in chickens. We then assessed B12 production in these mutants and their respective wild type strains, as well as in S. Typhimurium ΔcobSΔcbiA, Salmonella Gallinarum ΔcobSΔcbiA, and their respective wild type strains. None of the mutants was able to produce detectable B12. B12 was detectable in S. Enteritidis, S. Pullorum and S. Typhimurium wild type strains but not in S. Gallinarum. In conclusion, the production of vitamin B12 in vitro differed across the tested Salmonella serotypes and the deletion of the cbiA and cobS genes resulted in different levels of alteration in the host parasite interaction according to Salmonella serotype tested.

  17. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis enterocolitis during late stages of gestation induces an adverse pregnancy outcome in the murine model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariángeles Noto Llana

    Full Text Available Foodborne diseases caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis are a significant health problem. Pregnancy, state of immunological tolerance, is a predisposing condition for the development of infections with intracellular pathogens. Salmonella species can cause pregnancy complications such as chorioamnionitis, transplacental fetal infection, pre term labor, abortions, neonatal and maternal septicemia. However, the specific mechanisms by which Salmonella infections trigger these alterations are not clear. In the present work, using a self-limiting enterocolitis murine model, we show that the ingestion of a low dose of S. Enteritidis at late stages of pregnancy (day 15 of gestation is sufficient to induce massive maternal infection. We found that Salmonella infection leads to 40% of pre term delivery, 33% of abortion and fetal growth restriction. Placental dysfunction during S. Enteritidis enterocolitis was confirmed through cellular infiltration and hypoxia markers (MPO activity and COX-1 and COX-2 expression, respectively. Apoptosis in placental tissue due to Salmonella infection was also evident at day 18 of gestation when investigated by morphometric procedure, DNA fragmentation and Fas/FasL expression. Also, the expression of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-17 and IL-10 was up regulated in response to Salmonella not only in placenta, but also in amniotic fluid and maternal serum. Altogether, our results demonstrate that S. Enteritidis enterocolitis during late stages of gestation causes detrimental effect on pregnancy outcome.

  18. A new repertoire of informations about the quorum sensing system in Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis PT4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Galvão, M E M; Leite, T D S; Ribon, A O B; Araújo, E F; Vanetti, M C D

    2015-04-27

    Salmonella spp are among the main causative agents of foodborne diseases. Some phenotypes associated with increased drug resistance and virulence are regulated by quorum sensing (QS). In the present study, the autoinducer (AI)-1- and -2-mediated QS mechanisms were characterized in Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis PT4 for the first time. Salmonella Enteritidis did not produce AI-1. Phylogenetic analysis of nucleotides encoding the SdiA protein, the response regulator of AI-1-mediated QS, and comparative alignment of its amino acids showed that the gene and protein are conserved within the same bacterial genus. Thus, bacteria of the same genus respond to the same AIs. However, this finding did not preclude the possibility that Salmonella Enteritidis might respond to AIs released from bacteria of a different genus, which might confer a competitive advantage to this pathogen. We found that the regulation of AI-2-mediated QS in Salmonella Enteritidis is similar to that in serovar Typhimurium. The elucidation of the AI-1- and AI-2-mediated QS mechanisms in Salmonella Enteritidis will contribute to the development of new control strategies for this pathogen by indicating new targets for antimicrobial drugs.

  19. Risks involved in the use of Enrofloxacin for Salmonella Enteritidis or Salmonella Heidelberg in commercial poultry

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    Eduardo Morales-Barrera

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the risks involved in the use of Enrofloxacin for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE or Salmonella Heidelberg (SH in commercial poultry and determine the effects of a probiotic as an antibiotic alternative. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the risks involved in the use of Enrofloxacin for SE or SH in commercial poultry. Exp 1 consisted of 2 trials. In each trial, chickens were assigned to one of three groups; control + SE challenged; Enrofloxacin 25 mg/kg + SE; Enrofloxacin 50 mg/kg + SE. Chickens received Enrofloxacin in the drinking water from days 1 to 5 of age. On day 6, all groups received fresh water without any treatment. All chickens were orally gavaged with 107 cfu/chick of SE at 7 days of age and euthanized on 8 days of age. In Exp 2, turkey poults were assigned to one of the three groups; control + SH; probiotic + SH; Enrofloxacin 50 mg/kg + SH. Poults received probiotic or Enrofloxacin in the drinking water from days 1 to 5 of age. On day 6, poults received fresh water without any treatment. Poults were orally gavaged with 107 cfu/poult of SH at 7 days of age. Poults were weighted and humanely killed 24 h post-SH challenge to evaluate serum concentration of FITC-D to evaluate intestinal permeability, metagenomics and SH infection. In both trials of Exp 1, chickens treated with Enrofloxacin were more susceptible to SE organ invasion and intestinal colonization when compared with control non-treated chickens (P < 0.05. In Exp 2, poults treated with 50 mg/kg of Enrofloxacin showed an increase in body weight, however, this group also showed an increase in SH susceptibility, intestinal permeability and lower proportion of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, but with control group had the highest proportion of Proteobacteria. In contrast, poults that received the probiotic had the highest proportion of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, but lowest Proteobacteria. The results of the present study

  20. Optical immunosensors for detection of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enteritidis from food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhunia, Arun K.; Geng, Tao; Lathrop, Amanda; Valadez, Angela; Morgan, Mark T.

    2004-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella are two major foodborne pathogens of significant concern. Two optical evanescent wave immunosensors were evaluated for detection: Antibody-coupled fiber-optic biosensor and a surface plasmon resonant (SPR) immunosensor. In the fiber-optic sensor, polyclonal antibodies for the test organisms were immobilized on polystyrene fiber wave -guides using streptavidin - biotin chemistry. Cyanine 5 -labeled monoclonal antibodies C11E9 (for L. monocytogenes) and SF-11 (for Salmonella Enteritidis) were used to generate a specific fluorescent signal. Signal acquisition was performed by launching a laser-light (635 nm) from an Analyte-2000. This immunosensor was able to detect 103 - 109 cfu/ml of L. monocytogenes or 106-109 cfu/ml of Salmonella Enteritidis and the assays were conducted at near real-time with results obtained within one hour of sampling. The assays were specific and showed signal even in the presence of other microorganisms such as E. coli, Enterococcus faecalis or Salmonella Typhimurium. In the SPR system, IAsys instrument (resonant mirror sensor) was used. Monoclonal antibody-C11E9 was directly immobilized onto a carboxylate cuvette. Whole Listeria cells at various concentrations did not yield any signal while surface protein extracts did. Crude protein extracts from L. monocytogenes and L. innocua had average binding responses of around 150 arc sec (0.25 ng/mm2), which was significantly different from L. grayi, L. ivanovii, or L. welshimeri with average responses of <48 arc sec. Both fiber-optic and SPR sensors show promise in near real-time detection of foodborne L. monocytogenes and Salmonella Enteritidis.

  1. Isolation of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marietto-Gonçalves, Guilherme Augusto; de Almeida, Sílvia Maria; de Lima, Edna Tereza; Okamoto, Adriano Sakai; Pinczowski, Pedro; Andreatti Filho, Raphael Lucio

    2010-03-01

    Avian salmonellosis is a disease caused by bacteria of the genus Salmonella that can cause three distinct diseases in birds: pullorum diseases, fowl typhoid, and paratyphoid infection. Various wildlife species are susceptible to infections by Salmonella, regardless of whether they live in captivity or freely in the wild. The present study verified the presence of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in three captive specimens of Amazona aestiva. The study involved a total of 103 birds undergoing rehabilitation to prepare for living in the wild, after having been captured from animal traffickers and delivered to the Centrofauna Project of the Floravida Institute in Sao Paulo, Brazil. This is the first report of Salmonella Enteritidis isolation in A. aestiva that originated from capture associated with animal trafficking; Salmonella was detected during the study by the serologic method of rapid serum agglutination on a plate with bacterial isolate. The antimicrobial profile exam of the isolated samples demonstrated sensitivity to ampicillin, cefaclor, ciprofloxacin, and cloranfenicol. The three samples also presented resistance to more than four antibiotics. The presence of the genes invA and spvC was verified by PCR technique and was associated with virulence and absence of class 1 integron, a gene related to antimicrobial resistance. The commercial antigen for pullorum disease was shown to be a useful tool for rapid detection in the screening of Salmonella of serogroup D1 in Psittaciformes. New studies on Salmonella carriage in birds involved in trafficking must be performed to better understand their participation in the epidemiologic cycle of salmonellosis in humans and other animals.

  2. Heat transfer models for predicting Salmonella enteritidis in shell eggs through supply chain distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almonacid, S; Simpson, R; Teixeira, A

    2007-11-01

    Egg and egg preparations are important vehicles for Salmonella enteritidis infections. The influence of time-temperature becomes important when the presence of this organism is found in commercial shell eggs. A computer-aided mathematical model was validated to estimate surface and interior temperature of shell eggs under variable ambient and refrigerated storage temperature. A risk assessment of S. enteritidis based on the use of this model, coupled with S. enteritidis kinetics, has already been reported in a companion paper published earlier in JFS. The model considered the actual geometry and composition of shell eggs and was solved by numerical techniques (finite differences and finite elements). Parameters of interest such as local (h) and global (U) heat transfer coefficient, thermal conductivity, and apparent volumetric specific heat were estimated by an inverse procedure from experimental temperature measurement. In order to assess the error in predicting microbial population growth, theoretical and experimental temperatures were applied to a S. enteritidis growth model taken from the literature. Errors between values of microbial population growth calculated from model predicted compared with experimentally measured temperatures were satisfactorily low: 1.1% and 0.8% for the finite difference and finite element model, respectively.

  3. Development of Recombinant Flagellar Antigens for Serological Detection of Salmonella enterica Serotypes Enteritidis, Hadar, Heidelberg, and Typhimurium in Poultry

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    Charles L. Hofacre

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and fast detection of harmful Salmonella is a major concern of food safety. Common Salmonella serotypes responsible for human associated foodborne outbreaks are S. Enteritidis, S. Hadar, S. Heidelberg, and S. Typhimurium are also commonly isolated from poultry. Serology is commonly used to monitor disease in poultry, therefore application of Salmonella serotype-specific test will have added value in Salmonella surveillance or monitoring vaccine efficacy. Recombinant flagellins were purified to be used as antigens in an ELISA. In this study, an ELISA was developed for the serological detection of S. Enteritidis. Once optimized, 500 ng of purified recombinant S. Enteritidis flagellin and a 1:64 dilution were determined to be optimal for testing sera. A negative baseline cutoff was calculated to be an optical density (OD of 0.35. All sera from birds with history of S. Enteritidis exposure tested positive and all sera from chickens with no exposure tested negative to this Salmonella serotype. Current ELISA for serological detection of Salmonella suffers from cross reactivity inherent in lipopolysaccharide (LPS or whole cell antigen based serological tests. This new ELISA eliminates common cross reactivity by focusing specifically on the flagellins of the Salmonella serotypes common in poultry and associated with foodborne outbreaks.

  4. Salmonella enteritidis and antibiotic resistance patterns: a study on 1950 children with diarrhea

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    Saeed Eshraghi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Salmonellosis is a bacterial gasteroenteritis caused by different serovars of Salmonella. In the recent years, Salmonella enterica subspecies. Enterica serovar enteritidis is a major cause of gastroenteritis and food poisoning in the worldwide.  Different genus of salmonella is increasingly being resistant to common antibiotics. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and the antibiotic resistance patterns of Salmonella enterica isolated from medical health centers in Tehran. "n"nMethods: In this descriptive cross- sectional study from April to December 2008, 1950 fecal specimens from children with diarrhea were cultivated to identify Salmonella enteritidis. We used Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI protocol to determine resistance patern of the isolates to 16 different antibiotics. "n"nResults: In this study, out of 26 isolates 14(54% were S. enteritidis, 2(8% S. para B, 6(23% S. para C, 3(11% S. arizonea and 1(4% S. para A. all of them were sensitive to ceftazidime, cephalexin, cefotaxime, ceftiraxone, ciprofloxacin, imipenem, meropenem, gentamicin and colistin sulfate. All of the isolates were resistant to nitrofurantoin whereas 71.4% of them were resistant to nalidixic acid

  5. Investigation of an outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis gastroenteritis associated with consumption of eggs in a restaurant chain in Maryland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, F Y; Morris, J G; Trump, D; Tilghman, D; Wood, P K; Jackman, N; Israel, E; Libonati, J P

    1988-10-01

    Salmonella enteritidis ser. enteritidis was isolated from patrons and employees of three restaurants in a restaurant chain in Maryland during August and September 1985. Isolates from all three restaurants had identical plasmid profiles; this profile was present in 13 of 40 randomly selected S. enteritidis isolates received by the Maryland state health department laboratory during a comparable time period. The outbreak in one restaurant resulted in at least 71 illnesses, with 17 persons known to have been hospitalized. Scrambled eggs served on a "breakfast bar" were implicated as the vehicle of transmission in this restaurant, with eggs a possible vehicle in another of the three restaurants. The data point out the risks associated with improper handling of eggs in food service establishments, provide further evidence for the observed association between S. enteritidis and eggs in the northeastern United States, and demonstrate the utility of plasmid analysis in investigation of outbreaks involving common Salmonella serotypes.

  6. Antibacterial activity of green coffee bean extract against Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enteritidis

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    Rosyidi D.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Green coffee has a high content of chlorogenic acid. Chlorogenic acid has been known to be useful for lowering blood sugar levels and has been widely used to lose weight. But the benefit of green coffee as an antibacterial has not been widely studied. The purpose of this study was to determine the antibacterial effect of green coffee on gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative (Salmonella enteritidis. The method used to test antibacterial activity of green coffee beans extract against bacteria S.aureus and S.enteritidis by disc diffusion method. Green coffee beans extract was divided into 4 concentration of 20%, 15%, 10%, 5%, negative control DMSO and positive control is gentamicin disk 10µg/disk and Identification of active ingredients found in green coffee beans extract using Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS method. The data obtained were analyzed using Two Way ANOVA test with confidence level p <0,05. Based on the data obtained and the results obtained the highest inhibitory zone in the treatment concentration of 20% is 26.20 mm, and the average of the lowest inhibition zone in the DMSO treatment of 6.00 mm. The average inhibition zone of green coffee extract activity against Staphylococcus aureus was 22.73 mm much higher than the activity of green coffee extract to Salmonella enteritidis of 16.67 mm.

  7. Ethanol adaptation induces direct protection and cross-protection against freezing stress in Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, S; Zhou, X; Shi, C; Shi, X

    2016-03-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (Salm. Enteritidis) encounters mild ethanol stress during its life cycle. However, adaptation to a stressful condition may affect bacterial resistance to subsequent stresses. Hence, this work was undertaken to investigate the influences of ethanol adaptation on stress tolerance of Salm. Enteritidis. Salmonella Enteritidis was subjected to different ethanol adaptation treatments (2·5-10% ethanol for 1 h). Cellular morphology and tolerance to subsequent environmental stresses (15% ethanol, -20°C, 4°C, 50°C and 10% NaCl) were evaluated. It was found that 10% was the maximum ethanol concentration that allowed growth of the target bacteria. Ethanol adaptation did not cause cell-surface damage in Salm. Enteritidis as revealed by membrane permeability measurements and electron micrograph analysis. Salmonella Enteritidis adapted with 2·5-10% ethanol displayed an enhanced resistance to a 15%-ethanol challenge compared with an unchallenged control. The maximum ethanol resistance was observed when ethanol concentration used for ethanol adaptation was increased to 5·0%. Additionally, pre-adaptation to 5·0% ethanol cross-protected Salm. Enteritidis against -20°C, but not against 4°C, 50°C or 10% NaCl. Ethanol adaptation provided Salm. Enteritidis direct protection from a high level ethanol challenge and cross-protection from freezing, but not other stresses tested (low temperature, high salinity or high temperature). The results are valuable in developing adequate and efficient control measures for Salm. Enteritidis in foods. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Heat tolerance of Salmonella enterica serovars Agona, Enteritidis, and Typhimurium in peanut butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shachar, Dina; Yaron, Sima

    2006-11-01

    Recent large foodborne outbreaks caused by Salmonella enterica serovars have been associated with consumption of foods with high fat content and reduced water activity, even though their ingredients usually undergo pasteurization. The present study was focused on the heat tolerance of Salmonella enterica serovars Agona, Enteritidis, and Typhimurium in peanut butter. The Salmonella serovars in the peanut butter were resistant to heat, and even at a temperature as high as 90 degrees C only 3.2-log reduction in CFU was observed. The obtained thermal inactivation curves were upwardly concave, indicating rapid death at the beginning (10 min) followed by lower death rates and an asymptotic tail. The curves fitted the nonlinear Weibull model with beta parameters pasteurization process cannot be improved significantly by longer treatment or higher temperatures.

  9. In vitro efficiency of disinfectants against salmonella enteritidis samples isolated from broiler carcasses

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    MO Cardoso

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The threat to public health represented by Salmonella is at least partially a consequence of its ecology in poultry hosts. Good manufacturing practices in the processing plant can reduce the contamination of poultry products, and critical control point principles are essential throughout the chain production. One procedure adopted in critical points control to prevent and to reduce Salmonella in farms and poultry products is the use of disinfectants. This study aimed at evaluating disinfectant efficiency against Salmonella enteritidis samples isolated from broiler carcasses in Rio Grande do Sul State between 1995 and 1996. The tested disinfectants were: phenol 1:256, quaternary ammonium 1:2500, glutaraldehyde 1:200, and iodine 1:500, with contact times of 5, 10, 15, and 20 in an in vitro test. .Phenolic compounds showed better results, iodine and glutaraldehyde showed intermediary results, and quaternary ammonium presented efficiency at all contact times evaluated in the in vitro test.

  10. Detection of Salmonella enteritidis Using a Miniature Optical Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, J R; Kim, G; Kothapalli, A; Morgan, M T; Ess, D

    2007-01-01

    The frequent outbreaks of foodborne illness demand rapid detection of foodborne pathogens. Unfortunately, conventional methods for pathogen detection and identification are labor-intensive and take days to complete. Biosensors have shown great potential for the rapid detection of foodborne pathogens. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors have been widely adapted as an analysis tool for the study of various biological binding reactions. SPR biosensors could detect antibody-antigen bindings on the sensor surface by measuring either a resonance angle or refractive index value. In this study, the feasibility of a miniature SPR sensor (Spreeta, TI, USA) for detection of Salmonella enteritidis has been evaluated. Anti-Salmonella antibodies were immobilized on the gold sensor surface by using neutravidin. Salmonella could be detected by the Spreeta biosensor at concentrations down to 10 5 cfu/ml

  11. Lipopolysaccharide-induced biliary factors enhance invasion of Salmonella enteritidis in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, A F; Moss, N D; Dai, Y; Smith, M S; Collins, A M; Jackson, G D

    2000-01-01

    In this study, the role of the hepatobiliary system in the early pathogenesis of Salmonella enteritidis infection was investigated in a rat model. Intravenous (i.v.) challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has previously been shown to enhance the translocation of normal gut flora. We first confirmed that LPS can similarly promote the invasion of S. enteritidis. Oral infection of outbred Australian Albino Wistar rats with 10(6) to 10(7) CFU of S. enteritidis led to widespread tissue invasion after days. If animals were similarly challenged after intravenous administration of S. enteritidis LPS (3 to 900 microg/kg of body weight), significant invasion of the livers and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) occurred within 24 h, with invasion of the liver increasing in a dose-dependent fashion (P < 0.01). If bile was prevented from reaching the intestine by bile duct ligation or cannulation, bacterial invasion of the liver and MLN was almost totally abrogated (P < 0.001). As i.v. challenge with LPS could induce the delivery of inflammatory mediators into the bile, biliary tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) concentrations were measured by bioassay. Biliary concentrations of TNF-alpha rose shortly after LPS challenge, peaked with a mean concentration of 27.0 ng/ml at around 1 h postchallenge, and returned to baseline levels (3.1 ng/ml) after 2.5 h. Although TNF-alpha cannot be directly implicated in the invasion process, we conclude that the invasiveness of the enteric pathogen S. enteritidis is enhanced by the presence of LPS in the blood and that this enhanced invasion is at least in part a consequence of the delivery of inflammatory mediators to the gastrointestinal tract by the hepatobiliary system.

  12. Molecular analysis of Salmonella enteritidis isolates from the Caribbean by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis

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    Abiodun Adesiyun

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, between 1987 and 1996 we analyzed Salmonella enteritidis isolates from gastroenteritis cases in four Caribbean countries: Barbados, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, and Trinidad and Tobago. We also determined the resistance of the isolates to 12 antimicrobial agents. Of the 129 isolates of S. enteritidis available for testing, DNA digested by XbaI revealed 13 distinctive PFGE patterns. The most prevalent XbaI PFGE patterns were group 1 (88 of 129 isolates, 68.2% and group 2 (26 of 129, 20.2%. The patterns found among S. enteritidis isolates correlated with the geographical origin of the isolates. Of the 28 isolates from Barbados, 20 of them (71.4% belonged to XbaI PFGE group 2, and of the 93 isolates from Trinidad and Tobago, 78 of them (83.9% belonged to group 1. SpeI digestion of S. enteritidis genome was not as discriminatory as XbaI. Overall, of the 129 isolates, 67 of them (51.9% exhibited resistance to one or more of the 12 antimicrobial agents that we tested. The prevalence of resistance was 53.8% for the S. enteritidis isolates tested from Trinidad and Tobago, 50.0% for those from Barbados, 28.6% for those from Saint Lucia, and 100.0% for one isolate from the island of Saint Kitts. Resistance was highest to triple sulfur (59 of 129 isolates, 45.7%, followed by furadantoin (10 of 129, 7.8%, ampicillin (7 of 129, 5.4%, and carbamycin (5 of 129, 3.9%.

  13. High Incubation Temperature and Threonine Dietary Level Improve Ileum Response Against Post-Hatch Salmonella Enteritidis Inoculation in Broiler Chicks.

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    Alexandre Lemos de Barros Moreira Filho

    Full Text Available This study assessed the effect of both embryonic thermal manipulation and dietary threonine level on the response of broilers inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis, considering bacterial counts in the cecal contents, intestinal morphology, mucin and heat shock protein 70 gene expression, body weight and weight gain. Thermal manipulation was used from 11 days of incubation until hatch, defining three treatments: standard (37.7°C, continuous high temperature (38.7°C and continuous low temperature (36.7°C. After hatch, chicks were distributed according to a 3x2+1 factorial arrangement (three temperatures and two threonine levels and one sham-inoculated control. At two days of age, all chicks were inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis, except for the sham-inoculated control group. There was no interaction between the factors on any analyses. High temperature during incubation was able to reduce colonization by Salmonella Enteritidis in the first days, reducing both Salmonella counts and the number of positive birds. It also increased mucin expression and decreased Hsp70 expression compared with other inoculated groups. High temperature during incubation and high threonine level act independently to reduce the negative effects associated to Salmonella Enteritidis infection on intestinal morphology and performance, with results similar to sham-inoculated birds. The findings open new perspectives for practical strategies towards the pre-harvest Salmonella control in the poultry industry.

  14. Establishment of a pathogenicity index in Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium strains inoculated in one-day-old broiler chicks

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    D.A. Lima

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium are responsible for causing huge economic loses in aviculture, as they lead young broiler chicks to develop clinical disease and thus increase mortality. Salmonella's pathogenicity is considered complex and multifactorial, demanding more studies that could elucidate the interaction between host and pathogen. The present study aims to evaluate the virulence of 130S. Enteritidis isolates and 70S. Typhimurium inoculated in one-day-old chicks through the establishment of a pathogenicity index. For each strain, 10 commercial chicks from the Cobb lineage were used. Then, 200µL of a solution containing 2x108 CFU of S. Enteritidis or S. Typhimurium were inoculated in the birds by intraperitoneal via. Mortality and presence of lesions such as aerosaculitis (A, perihepatitis (Ph, pericarditis (Pc, peritonitis (Pt, onfalitis (O and cellulitis (C were registered daily for seven days. From the second to the seventh day there was a proportional decrease in the punctuation of the time of death (TD for each day that the bird had survived. The pathogenicity index was calculated using the following formula: PI = (TD x 5 + A + Ph + Pc + Pt + O + C. The obtainment of the PI of each bacterial sample was achieved by calculating the rate of the ten inoculated birds. Based on the obtained results, it was possible to attribute the pathogenicity value for each strain, which enabled us to classify them in groups of low (27/200, intermediate (95/200 and high (78/200 pathogenicity. The utilization of standards like time of death and presence of septicemic lesions made it possible to determine the pathogenicity rate for each strain. Besides that, the proposed model has presented dramatic differences between the high, intermediate and low pathogenicity groups, which makes this mechanism useful for further classification of strains isolated in poultry farms.

  15. Antibiotic resistance in Salmonella Enteritidis isolated from broiler carcasses Resistência antimicrobiana em Salmonella Enteritidis isoladas de carcaças de frango

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    Martha Oliveira Cardoso

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Eighty Salmonella Enteritidis strains isolated from broiler carcasses between May 1995 and April 1996 in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, were tested for antibiotic susceptibility using the disk diffusion method. Resistance to colistin, novobiocin, erythromycin and tetracycline was observed in 100% of the isolates. The strains showed intermediate resistance at different levels to kanamycin (1.25%, enrofloxacin (3.75%, neomycin (3.75%, fosfomycin (20%, sulphonamides (86.25% and nitrofurantoin (90%. Resistance to ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, gentamicin, polymyxin B, sulphametrim and sulphazotrim was not found. Since resistance to antibiotics especially those introduced in the last decades, was detected, it is recommended that their use must be based on the results of resistance tests or minimum inhibitory concentration tests.Oitenta amostras de Salmonella Enteritidis isoladas de carcaças de frango no período entre maio de 1995 a abril de 1996 no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil foram testados para susceptibilidade antimicrobiana pelo método de antibiograma. O antibiograma das amostras apresentou 100% de resistência a colistina, novobiocina, eritromicina e tetraciclina. Tiveram resistência em diferentes níveis a canamicina (1,25%, enrofloxacina (3,75%, neomicina (3,75%, fosfomicina (20%, sulfonamida (86,25% e nitrofurantoína (90% e por outro lado não apresentaram resistência a ciprofloxacina, norfloxacina, gentamicina, polimixina B, sulfametrim e sulfazotrim. A constatação de resistência a antibióticos, inclusive àqueles introduzidos na última década, enfatiza a necessidade de uso responsável de antibióticos, e com base em antibiograma ou concentração inibitória mínima.

  16. Interdigitated microelectrode based impedance biosensor for detection of salmonella enteritidis in food samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, G [National Institute of Agricultural Engineering, 249 Seodun-dong, Suwon, Republic of Korea, 441-100 (Korea, Republic of); Morgan, M; Hahm, B K; Bhunia, A [Department of Food Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Mun, J H; Om, A S [Department of Food and Nutrient, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seoul, Republic of Korea, 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: giyoungkim@rda.go.kr

    2008-03-15

    Salmonella enteritidis outbreaks continue to occur, and S. enteritidis-related outbreaks from various food sources have increased public awareness of this pathogen. Conventional methods for pathogens detection and identification are labor-intensive and take days to complete. Some immunological rapid assays are developed, but these assays still require prolonged enrichment steps. Recently developed biosensors have shown great potential for the rapid detection of foodborne pathogens. To develop the biosensor, an interdigitated microelectrode (IME) was fabricated by using semiconductor fabrication process. Anti-Salmonella antibodies were immobilized based on avidin-biotin binding on the surface of the IME to form an active sensing layer. To increase the sensitivity of the sensor, three types of sensors that have different electrode gap sizes (2 {mu}m, 5 {mu}m, 10 {mu}m) were fabricated and tested. The impedimetric biosensor could detect 10{sup 3} CFU/mL of Salmonella in pork meat extract with an incubation time of 5 minutes. This method may provide a simple, rapid and sensitive method to detect foodborne pathogens.

  17. Presence of salmonella enteritidis in poultry products and its impact on public health Presencia de Salmonella serovariedad Enteritidis en productos de origen avícola y su repercusión en salud pública

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ramón Mantilla Anaya

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella serovar Enteritidis (Salmonella enterica, sub-species enterica serovar Enteritidis or Salmonella enteritidis, when it is artificially named as being a species (1, is one of the most common causes of human gastroenteritis in cases of food poisoning; some authors consider it to be the most important agent on a world-wide basis. Outbreaks are associated with the intake of different kinds of food, but poultry products are most commonly involved. This agent‘s transmission occurs as a consequence of inadequately cooked chicken and eggs or during cross-contamination with other food. Salmonella Enteritidis and other serovars which produce food poisoning in humans, occasionally cause clinical disease in poultry (avian parathyphosis or loss of weight-gain, and can generate asymptomatic carriers, which can contribute to the transmission (transovarial, during laying or storage. Globalisation, the open market and the poultry industry‘s growth have increased the intake and distribution of chicken, eggs and their subproducts and, therefore, the possibility of Salmonella spp transmission. Considering the public health importance of this agent, epidemiological studies contributing to the control and prevention of this zoonosis must be carried out. La salmonella serovariedad enteriditis (salmonella enterica subespecie enterica serovariedad Enteritidis, o Salmonella enteritidis cuando se la nombra artificialmente como especie (1 es una de las causas más comunes de gastroenteritis por intoxicación de origen alimentario en humanos, considera da por algunos autores como la más importante en todo el mundo. La presentación de brotes puede involucrar el consumo de diversos alimentos, pero los productos de origen avícola son los más frecuentemente implicados. La transmisión del microorganismo es consecuencia de la cocción inadecuada del pollo y los huevos o de la contaminación cruzada con otros alimentos. La Salmonella Enteritidis y otras

  18. Acid and low temperature treatments on Salmonella Enteritidis inoculated in pork and its subsequent survival in simulated gastric fluid

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    Simone Quintão Silva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the acid resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis in stored pork and in simulated gastric fluid (SGF. A culture of S. Enteritidis was subjected to acid treatment prior to inoculation into pork, stored under refrigeration at frozen temperatures and exposed to SGF. The S. Enteritidis CCS3 and ATCC 13076 strains previously subjected to acid treatment (at pH 4.0-5.0 were inoculated in pork and stored at 4°C and -18°C. Storage at 4ºC did not affect the populations of both S. Enteritidis strains. After 84 days at -18°C, the mean population of both CCS3 and ATCC strains were reduced by 0.8 and 1.5 log cycles, respectively. Prior acid treatment did not enhance the survival of both strains at low temperatures. After acid treatment and low temperature storage, S. Enteritidis ATCC 13076 lost culturability after being exposed to SGF for 10 minutes. In contrast, S. Enteritidis CCS3 was tolerant until three hours of SGF exposure. S. Enteritidis CCS3 submitted to pH 4.0 was more tolerant to SGF exposure than when submitted to pH 4.5, 5.0 and without acid treatment. Therefore, this study indicates that exposure to an acidic and cold environment during processing enhanced the ability of S. Enteritidis to survive in the gastric environment of the human stomach, possibly increasing the risk of a Salmonella infection after consumption of pork.

  19. Characterization of a foodborne outbreak caused by Salmonella Enteritidis in Aracaju, State of Sergipe, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Maria Regina Pires; Cabello, Pedro Hernan; Albuquerque-Junior, Ricardo Luiz Cavalcanti; Jain, Sona; Candido, Alexandre Luna

    2015-01-01

    In December 2001, an outbreak of foodborne gastroenteritis infected 114 of 161 people who ate at a restaurant in Aracaju, State of Sergipe, Brazil. The epidemiological and microbiological aspects of the outbreak were characterized. Potato salad made with homemade mayonnaise and stored at unsuitable temperatures was associated with increased risk of foodborne infection. Salmonella Enteritidis was isolated from the diarrheal stools of the hospitalized patients, and genotyping of the fecal samples generated identical randomly amplified polymorphic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) profiles. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first and the only record of a gastrointestinal outbreak in Sergipe.

  20. Genetic and phenotypic evidence of the Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis human-animal interface in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio eRetamal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis is a worldwide zoonotic agent that has been recognized as a very important food-borne bacterial pathogen, mainly associated with consumption of poultry products. The aim of this work was to determine genotypic and phenotypic evidence of S. Enteritidis transmission among seabirds, poultry and humans in Chile. Genotyping was performed using PCR-based virulotyping, pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST. Pathogenicity-associated phenotypes were determined with survival to free radicals, acidic pH, starvation, antimicrobial resistance, and survival within human dendritic cells. As result of PCR and PFGE assays, some isolates from the three hosts showed identical genotypic patterns, and through MLST it was determined that all of them belong to sequence type 11. Results of phenotypic assays showed diversity of survival capabilities among isolates. When results were analyzed according to bacterial host, statistical differences were identified in starvation and dendritic cells survival assays. In addition, isolates from seabirds showed the highest rates of resistance to gentamycin, tetracycline and ampicillin. Overall, the very close genetic and phenotypic traits shown by isolates from humans, poultry and seabirds suggest the inter-species transmission of S. Enteritidis bacteria between hosts, likely through anthropogenic environmental contamination that determines infection of seabirds with bacteria that are potentially pathogenic for other susceptible organism, including humans.

  1. Egg white versus Salmonella Enteritidis! A harsh medium meets a resilient pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Florence; Nau, Françoise; Guérin-Dubiard, Catherine; Bonnassie, Sylvie; Gautier, Michel; Andrews, Simon C; Jan, Sophie

    2016-02-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is the prevalent egg-product-related food-borne pathogen. The egg-contamination capacity of S. Enteritidis includes its exceptional survival capability within the harsh conditions provided by egg white. Egg white proteins, such as lysozyme and ovotransferrin, are well known to play important roles in defence against bacterial invaders. Indeed, several additional minor proteins and peptides have recently been found to play known or potential roles in protection against bacterial contamination. However, although such antibacterial proteins are well studied, little is known about their efficacy under the environmental conditions prevalent in egg white. Thus, the influence of factors such as temperature, alkalinity, nutrient restriction, viscosity and cooperative interactions on the activities of antibacterial proteins in egg white remains unclear. This review critically assesses the available evidence on the antimicrobial components of egg white. In addition, mechanisms employed by S. Enteritidis to resist egg white exposure are also considered along with various genetic studies that have shed light upon egg white resistance systems. We also consider how multiple, antibacterial proteins operate in association with specific environmental factors within egg white to generate a lethal protective cocktail that preserves sterility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Antagonistic activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA10 against Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis SE86 in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Scapin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is one of the main pathogens responsible for foodborne illness in Brazil. Probiotic bacteria can play a role in defense and recovery from enteropathogenic -infections. In this study, the ability of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA10 to colonise and exert anta-gonistic effects in the gastrointestinal tract was tested before and during experimental infection in conventional mice contaminated with S. Enteritidis (SE86. A dose of 0.1 mL containing 10(8 viable cells of SE86 and L. acidophilus LA10 was orally administered by gavage to mice. The experiment was divided into groups. As a negative control, Group 1 was administered only sterile saline solution. As a positive control, Group 2 was administered only SE86. Group 3 was first administered SE86, and after 10 days, treated with L. acidophilus LA10. Group 4 was first administered L. acidophilus LA10,and after 10 days, challenged with SE86.The results demonstrated that a significant number of SE86 cells were able to colonize the gastrointestinal tract of mice, specifically in the colon and ileum. L. acidophilus LA10 demonstrated an antagonistic effect against SE86, with better results observed for Group 3 over Group 4. Thus, L. acidophilus LA10 shows potential antagonistic effects against S. Enteritidis SE86, especially if administered after infection.

  3. Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis causing mixed infections in febrile children in Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García V

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Vanesa García,1 Inácio Mandomando,2,3 Joaquim Ruiz,4 Silvia Herrera-León,5 Pedro L Alonso,3,4 M Rosario Rodicio1 1Departamento de Biología Funcional, Área de Microbiología, Universidad de Oviedo, Oviedo, Spain; 2Centro de Investigação em Saúde de Manhiça, 3Instituto Nacional de Saúde, Ministério da Saúde, Maputo, Mozambique; 4ISGlobal, Barcelona Centre for International Health Research, Hospital Clínic, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, 5Centro Nacional de Microbiología, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda, Madrid, Spain Background and purpose: Invasive nontyphoidal salmonellosis, mostly caused by serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis of Salmonella enterica, has emerged as a major public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was the clinical and microbiological characterization of nontyphoidal salmonellosis episodes affecting febrile children in Mozambique. Patients and methods: The clinical records of the patients were evaluated, and S. enterica isolates were characterized with regard to serovar, phage type, antimicrobial resistance (phenotype/responsible genes, plasmid content, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and multilocus sequence typing. Results: Fifteen S. Typhimurium and 21 S. Enteritidis isolates were recovered from blood samples of 25 children, the majority with underlying risk factors. With regard to phage typing, most isolates were either untypeable or reacted but did not conform, revealing that a number of previously unrecognized patterns are circulating in Mozambique. Most isolates were multidrug-resistant, with nearly all of the responsible genes located on derivatives of serovar-specific virulence plasmids. ST313 and ST11 were the predominant sequence types associated with S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis, respectively, and the uncommon ST1479 was also detected in S. Enteritidis. A distinct XbaI fragment of ~350 kb was associated with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns of

  4. Emergence of Salmonella enteritidis outbreaks in broiler chickens in the Lebanon: epidemiological markers and competitive exclusion control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, E K; Jurdi, L H; Talhouk, R; Qatanani, M; Eid, A; Sakr, W; Bouljihad, M; Spasojevic, R

    1999-12-01

    This study investigates the first emergence of Salmonella Enteritidis outbreaks among chickens in the Lebanon and identifies the epidemiological markers of selected recovered Enteritidis strains. In addition, the authors evaluate a competitive exclusion approach to control infection in broiler chickens by Enteritidis organisms which possess the prevalent identified markers. The basic procedure in this investigation involved recording signs and lesions in eleven broiler chicken flocks on eleven farms, and culturing livers, spleens, and caeca of ten randomly selected birds per flock for Salmonella isolation and serotyping. Furthermore, culturing for Salmonella and serotyping was attempted from the livers, spleens, caeca and oviduct swabs of ten hens in four broiler breeder flocks which provided hatching eggs for the broilers under study. The identification of epidemiological markers in recovered S. Enteritidis included the determination of drug-resistance patterns and plasmid profiling. The competitive exclusion was evaluated by spraying the microflora on day-old broilers in the hatchery, followed by a controlled oral challenge at three days of age, with 2.85 x 10(5) colony-forming units of S. Enteritidis organisms per bird. Exclusion was evaluated by culturing for S. Enteritidis in anal swabs, spleens, livers, and caeca of individual challenged birds treated with the microflora and in untreated challenged birds. A total of 112 invasive S. Enteritidis strains were recovered on eleven farms from individual organs of broiler chickens with typical signs and lesions of salmonellosis. The prevalent resistance to drugs in such strains was to furaltadone and gentamycin, a marker identified in 93 strains (83%), recovered from nine out of eleven farms. The same resistance pattern was present in S. Enteritidis strains recovered from breeders on one out of four farms. The prevalent plasmid profile in nine S. Enteritidis organisms selected randomly from a pool of 93 strains (one

  5. Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus paracasei Attenuate Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Heidelberg and Salmonella Typhimurium Colonization and Virulence Gene Expression In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyyarikkandy, Muhammed Shafeekh; Amalaradjou, Mary Anne

    2017-11-09

    Salmonella Enteritidis (SE), Salmonella Typhimurium (ST), and Salmonella Heidelberg (SH) have been responsible for numerous outbreaks associated with the consumption of poultry meat and eggs. Salmonella colonization in chicken is characterized by initial attachment to the cecal epithelial cells (CEC) followed by dissemination to the liver, spleen, and oviduct. Since cecal colonization is critical to Salmonella transmission along the food chain continuum, reducing this intestinal association could potentially decrease poultry meat and egg contamination. Hence, this study investigated the efficacy of Lactobacillus delbreuckii sub species bulgaricus (NRRL B548; LD), Lactobacillus paracasei (DUP-13076; LP), and Lactobacillus rhamnosus (NRRL B442; LR) in reducing SE, ST, and SH colonization in CEC and survival in chicken macrophages. Additionally, their effect on expression of Salmonella virulence genes essential for cecal colonization and survival in macrophages was evaluated. All three probiotics significantly reduced Salmonella adhesion and invasion in CEC and survival in chicken macrophages ( p < 0.05). Further, the probiotic treatment led to a significant reduction in Salmonella virulence gene expression ( p < 0.05). Results of the study indicate that LD, LP, and LR could potentially be used to control SE, ST, and SH colonization in chicken. However, these observations warrant further in vivo validation.

  6. Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus paracasei Attenuate Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Heidelberg and Salmonella Typhimurium Colonization and Virulence Gene Expression In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Shafeekh Muyyarikkandy

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella Enteritidis (SE, Salmonella Typhimurium (ST, and Salmonella Heidelberg (SH have been responsible for numerous outbreaks associated with the consumption of poultry meat and eggs. Salmonella colonization in chicken is characterized by initial attachment to the cecal epithelial cells (CEC followed by dissemination to the liver, spleen, and oviduct. Since cecal colonization is critical to Salmonella transmission along the food chain continuum, reducing this intestinal association could potentially decrease poultry meat and egg contamination. Hence, this study investigated the efficacy of Lactobacillus delbreuckii sub species bulgaricus (NRRL B548; LD, Lactobacillus paracasei (DUP-13076; LP, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus (NRRL B442; LR in reducing SE, ST, and SH colonization in CEC and survival in chicken macrophages. Additionally, their effect on expression of Salmonella virulence genes essential for cecal colonization and survival in macrophages was evaluated. All three probiotics significantly reduced Salmonella adhesion and invasion in CEC and survival in chicken macrophages (p < 0.05. Further, the probiotic treatment led to a significant reduction in Salmonella virulence gene expression (p < 0.05. Results of the study indicate that LD, LP, and LR could potentially be used to control SE, ST, and SH colonization in chicken. However, these observations warrant further in vivo validation.

  7. Growth of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella Enteritidis during Preparation and Storage of Yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirone, K; Huberman, Y; Morsella, C; Méndez, L; Jorge, M; Paolicchi, F

    2013-12-16

    The purpose of this study was to determine the viability of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), Escherichia coli (E. coli), and Salmonella Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) during preparation and refrigerated storage of yogurt. Three yogurts were prepared using pasteurized commercial milk. Each yogurt was artificially contaminated with (1) MAP, (2) E. coli + S. Enteritidis, and (3) MAP + E. coli + S. Enteritidis. Samples were taken during and after the fermentation process until day 20 after inoculation. MAP was not detected during their preparation and short-term storage but was recuperated after starting at 180 min after inoculation storage. Live bacterial counts of E. coli, and S. Enteritidis increased during the first 24 hours, followed by a slight decrease towards the end of the study. In this study it was shown how MAP, E. coli, and S. Enteritidis resisted the acidic conditions generated during the preparation of yogurt and low storage temperatures. This work contributes to current knowledge regarding survival of MAP, E. coli, and S. Enteritidis during preparation and refrigerated storage of yogurt and emphasizes the need to improve hygiene measures to ensure the absence of these pathogenic microorganisms in dairy products.

  8. Genetic diversity and virulence genes of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Enteritidis isolated from meats and eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardsanei, Fatemeh; Soltan Dallal, Mohammad Mehdi; Douraghi, Masoumeh; Zahraei Salehi, Taghi; Mahmoodi, Mahmood; Memariani, Hamed; Nikkhahi, Farhad

    2017-06-01

    Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is one of the leading causes of food-borne gastroenteritis associated with the consumption of contaminated food products of animal origin. Little is known about the genetic diversity and virulence content of S. Enteritidis isolated from poultry meats and eggs in Iran. A total of 34 S. Enteritidis strains were collected from different food sources of animal origin in Tehran from May 2015 to July 2016. All of the S. Enteritidis strains were serotyped, antimicrobial susceptibility tested, and characterized for virulence genes. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was also applied for comparison of genetic relatedness. All of the strains harbored invA, hilA, ssrA, sefA, spvC, and sipA genes. A high prevalence of resistance against certain antibiotics such as cefuroxime (79.4%), nalidixic acid (47%), and ciprofloxacin (44.2%) was also observed. Regarding PFGE, S. Enteritidis strains from different sources showed considerable overlap, suggesting the lack of diversity among these isolates. Moreover, no correlation between virulence profiles or antibiotypes and PFGE clusters was observed. In conclusion, our study provided valuable information on virulence gene content, antibiotic resistance, and genetic diversity of S. Enteritidis isolated from food sources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comportamiento de peces dulceacuicolas en contacto con Salmonella enteritidis var. danysz, La Habana, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natividad Hernández

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó durante 6 meses el comportamiento de 13 especies de peces de la fauna dulceacuícola cubana, que fueron puestas en contacto con Salmonella enteritidis var danyz en concentración de 10 8 ufc/mL. En la evaluación se utilizaron los alevinos y juveniles procedentes de reservorios naturales, de la Estación de Guanímar y de Manpostón, ubicadas en Batabanó, Gaunímar, Guajaibón y La Lisa (Ciudad de la Habana. Antes de los ensayos, los peces fueron sometidos a 15 días de adaptación al cautiverio. Durante las evaluaciones, se registraron los parámetros fisicoquímicos del agua de los acuarios, detectándose incremento en los valores de nitritos y nitratos después de 48 horas de haberse colocado el inóculo. Se registraron los valores extremos de talla y peso de los peces, que comparados con el grupo control no evidenciaron diferencias significativas y al finalizar el ensayo todos los peces presentaron aspecto físico normal; por lo que se determinó que la dosis utilizada de Salmonella enteritidis var. danysz fue inocua para las diferentes especies de peces.

  10. Dam methylation is required for efficient biofilm production in Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aya Castañeda, María del Rosario; Sarnacki, Sebastián Hernán; Noto Llana, Mariángeles; López Guerra, Adriana Gabriela; Giacomodonato, Mónica Nancy; Cerquetti, María Cristina

    2015-01-16

    The ecological success of Salmonella enterica to survive in different environments is due, in part, to the ability to form biofilms, something which is especially important for food industry. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the involvement of Dam methylation in biofilm production in S. Enteritidis strains. The ability to generate biofilms was analyzed in wild type and dam mutant strains. In S. Enteritidis, the absence of Dam affected the capacity to develop pellicles at the air-liquid interface and reduced the ability to form biofilm on polystyrene surfaces. Curli and cellulose production, determined by Congo red and calcofluor assays, were affected in dam mutant strains. Relative quantitative real-time PCR experiments showed that the expression of csgD and csgA genes is reduced in mutants lacking dam gene with respect to the wild type strains, whereas transcript levels of bcsA are not affected in the absence of Dam. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the participation of Dam methylation on biofilm production in Enteritidis or any other serovar of S. enterica. Results presented here suggest that changes in gene expression required for biofilm production are finely regulated by Dam methylation. Thus, Dam methylation could modulate csgD expression and upregulate the expression of factors related with biofilm production, including curli and cellulose. This study contributes to the understanding of biofilm regulation in Salmonella spp. and to the design of new strategies to prevent food contamination and humans and animals infections. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Evaluation of viability-qPCR detection system on viable and dead Salmonella serovar Enteritidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbau-Piednoir, Elodie; Mahillon, Jacques; Pillyser, Julie; Coucke, Wim; Roosens, Nancy H; Botteldoorn, Nadine

    2014-08-01

    The propidium monoazide (PMA) coupled with PCR (viability PCR) is used in foodborne pathogen detection in order to detect only viable bacteria. Originally presented to fully remove the signal of dead bacteria, the limits of the viability PCR rapidly came out in the literature. In this study, the use of PMA in a viability-qPCR (v-qPCR) was assessed on viable and dead cells of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis. The PMA treatment protocol was modified (dark incubation duration, concentration of PMA) to evaluate if a complete negative signal of dead Salmonella was possible. However, none of these modifications was found to improve the removal of the remaining qPCR signal observed in the presence of dead bacteria. The present research also underlines that PMA may unexpectedly decrease the qPCR signal observed on living S. Enteritidis at low concentration. Finally, the use of S. Enteritidis cells killed by processes altering or not the cell-wall/membrane gives us a clue to answering the question about the non-total extinction of the signal of dead cells sample in the v-qPCR assay. Indeed, the data strongly indicate that the remaining qPCR signal observed in non-culturable cells does not only depend on the cell-wall/membrane integrity of the bacteria. According to these results, the authors suggest that for a rapid and reliable foodborne bacteria detection system, an enrichment followed by a qPCR analysis should be preferred to a v-qPCR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Emergence and clonal dissemination of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis causing salmonellosis in Mauritius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issack, Mohammad I.; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Hyytiae-Trees, Eija

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: For decades, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis has been among the most prevalent serovars reported worldwide. However, it was rarely encountered in Mauritius until 2007; since then the number of non-typhoidal Salmonella serogroup O:9 (including serovar Enteritidis) increased...... food specimens were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility testing and Multiple-Locus Variable-number tandem repeat Analysis (MLVA). Results: With the exception of a single isolate which demonstrated intermediate susceptibility to streptomycin, all isolates were pansusceptible to the 14...... or closely related to blood and exudate isolates, indicating that, besides gastroenteritis, the same strain caused invasive infections. Control of S. Enteritidis by poultry breeders would lower the financial burden associated with morbidity in humans caused by this organism in Mauritius....

  13. Direct construction of predictive models for describing growth Salmonella enteritidis in liquid eggs – a one-step approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to develop a new approach using a one-step approach to directly construct predictive models for describing the growth of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) in liquid egg white (LEW) and egg yolk (LEY). A five-strain cocktail of SE, induced to resist rifampicin at 100 mg/L, ...

  14. Antimicrobial Susceptibilities, Phage Types, and Molecular Characterization of Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis from Chickens and Chicken Meat in Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalender, H.; Sen, S.; Hasman, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Thirty-eight Salmonella Enteritidis isolates from chickens and chicken meat in Turkey were examined for antimicrobial susceptibility, XbaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns, phage types, plasmid profiles, and resistance genes. Seven different PFGE patterns were observed...

  15. Continuing multiplication of Salmonella Enteritidis strains in egg yolk during refrigeration at 7.2° C

    Science.gov (United States)

    The continuing attribution of human illness caused by Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) to the consumption of contaminated eggs has led to widespread implementation of risk reduction programs for commercial egg production. Prompt refrigeration of eggs to prevent bacterial multiplication to dangerously hig...

  16. Multiplication of Salmonella Enteritidis in egg yolks after inoculation outside, on, and inside vitelline membranes and storage at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prompt refrigeration to restrict bacterial growth is important for reducing egg-borne transmission of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE). The nutrient-rich yolk interior is a relatively infrequent location for initial SE deposition in eggs, but migration across the vitelline membrane can ...

  17. Effect of Enterococcus faecium EF 55 on morphometry and proliferative activity of intestinal mucosa in broilers infected with Salmonella Enteritidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ševčíková Zuzana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study aimed to investigate the effect of Enterococcus faecium EF55 on chickens, as well as its influence on proliferative activity of epithelial intestinal cells after infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis phage type 4 (SE PT4. Moreover, the length and area of duodenal and jejunal villi of the birds were examined.

  18. Multiplication in egg yolk and survival in egg albumen of genetically and phenotypically characterized Salmonella Enteritidis strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prompt refrigeration of eggs to prevent the multiplication of Salmonella Enteritidis to high levels during storage is an important practice for reducing the risk of egg-transmitted human illness. The efficacy of egg refrigeration for achieving this goal depends on the location of contamination, the ...

  19. Evaluation of a selected lactic acid bacteria-based probiotic on Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis colonization and intestinal permeability in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado-Rebolledo, Omar F; Delgado-Machuca, Jaime de Jesus; Macedo-Barragan, Rafael J; Garcia-Márquez, Luis J; Morales-Barrera, Jesus E; Latorre, Juan D; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Tellez, Guillermo

    2017-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of a lactic acid bacteria-based probiotic (FloraMax-B11 ® ) against Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis intestinal colonization and intestinal permeability in broiler chickens. Experiment 1 consisted of two independent trials. In each trial, day-old broiler chicks were assigned to one of two groups: control + S. Enteritidis or probiotic + S. Enteritidis. At 72 h post-S. Enteritidis challenge, haematology and caecal content were evaluated for S. Enteritidis colonization. In Experiment 2, day-old broiler chicks were assigned to one of four groups: negative control; probiotic; control + S. Enteritidis; or probiotic + S. Enteritidis. At 72 h post-S. Enteritidis challenge, chickens in all groups were given an oral gavage dose of fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-d). In both trials of Experiment 1, a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in colony-forming units/gram of S. Enteritidis in caecal content and a reduction in the incidence of S. Enteritidis enriched caecal samples were observed in probiotic + S. Enteritidis chickens. In addition, significant heterophilia and lymphopaenia were observed in control + S. Enteritidis chickens. In Experiment 2, a decrease in numbers of S. Enteritidis in caeca were observed in probiotic + S. Enteritidis chickens when compared to control + S. Enteritidis. Also, an increase in serum FITC-d concentration was detected in control + S. Enteritidis. These results suggest that early infection with S. Enteritidis can increase intestinal permeability, but the adverse effects can be prevented by the administration of the probiotic tested.

  20. Designing of primers for detection of salmonella typhimirium and enteritidis by heminested PCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben salem, Issam

    2007-01-01

    Salmonella are the main responsible agent for the frequent food borne gastrointestinal diseases. In Tunisia, this pathogen is considered one of the most important causes of toxiinfections and its detection using classical methods is laborious and requires a large amount of time for revelation. To solve this problem, we developed a rapid molecular technique for the detection of the invA virulence gene sequence which is found in the majority of Salmonella spp. This technique is a hemi nested PCR amplification using specific primers designed and by bioinformatics tools. The detection method consisted of pre-enrichment of the sample in buffered peptone water (BPW), followed by a total DNA extraction step prior to single tube hemi nested PCR amplification. This method was found highly specific and sensitive to detect low levels of salmonella typhimurium and salmonella enteritidis (1cfu/ 25g) in naturally contaminated spicy sausage (merguez) samples. These results can benefit the public health agencies concerning microbiological and quality aspects of the commercial and traditional merguez meat production in Tunisia. (Author)

  1. Studies on the effects of phosphine on Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis in culture medium and in black pepper (Piper nigrum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, M F P M; Rezende, A C B; Benato, E A; Valentini, S R T; Furlani, R P Z; Tfouni, S A V

    2011-04-01

    The effect of phosphine on Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis inoculated in culture medium and in black pepper grains (Piper nigrum), as well as on the reduction of the microbial load of the dried and moisturized product, was verified. The postfumigation effect was verified in inoculated samples with 0.92 and 0.97 water activity (a(w)) exposed to 6 g/m(3) phosphine for 72 h, dried to 0.67 a(w), and stored for 24, 48, and 72 h. No decreases were observed in Salmonella Enteritidis populations in culture medium when fumigant concentrations up to 6 g/m(3) were applied for 48 h at 35°C. However, the colonies showed reductions in size and atypical coloration as the phosphine concentration increased. No reduction in Salmonella counts occurred on the inoculated dried samples after fumigation. On the other hand, when phosphine at concentrations of 6 g/m(3) was applied on moisturized black pepper for 72 h, decreases in Salmonella counts of around 80% were observed. The counts of total aerobic mesophilic bacterium populations of the dried and moisturized black pepper were not affected by the fumigant treatment. The results of the postfumigation studies indicated that Salmonella Enteritidis was absent in the fumigated grains after drying and storage for 72 h, indicating a promising application for this technique. It was concluded that for Salmonella Enteritidis control, phosphine fumigation could be applied to black pepper grains before drying and the producers should rigidly follow good agricultural practices, mainly during the drying process, in order to avoid product recontamination. Additional work is needed to confirm the findings with more Salmonella serotypes and strains.

  2. Influence of ethanol adaptation on Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis survival in acidic environments and expression of acid tolerance-related genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) can encounter mild ethanol stress during its life cycle. However, adaptation to a stressful condition may affect bacterial resistance to subsequent stresses. Hence, this work was undertaken to investigate the influences of ethanol adapta...

  3. Excision of an unstable pathogenicity island in Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is induced during infection of phagocytic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania S Quiroz

    Full Text Available The availability of the complete genome sequence of several Salmonella enterica serovars has revealed the presence of unstable genetic elements in these bacteria, such as pathogenicity islands and prophages. This is the case of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis, a bacterium that causes gastroenteritis in humans and systemic infection in mice. The whole genome sequence analysis for S. Enteritidis unveiled the presence of several genetic regions that are absent in other Salmonella serovars. These regions have been denominated "regions of difference" (ROD. In this study we show that ROD21, one of such regions, behaves as an unstable pathogenicity island. We observed that ROD21 undergoes spontaneous excision by two independent recombination events, either under laboratory growth conditions or during infection of murine cells. Importantly, we also found that one type of excision occurred at higher rates when S. Enteritidis was residing inside murine phagocytic cells. These data suggest that ROD21 is an unstable pathogenicity island, whose frequency of excision depends on the environmental conditions found inside phagocytic cells.

  4. Excision of an unstable pathogenicity island in Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is induced during infection of phagocytic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Tania S; Nieto, Pamela A; Tobar, Hugo E; Salazar-Echegarai, Francisco J; Lizana, Rodrigo J; Quezada, Carolina P; Santiviago, Carlos A; Araya, Daniela V; Riedel, Claudia A; Kalergis, Alexis M; Bueno, Susan M

    2011-01-01

    The availability of the complete genome sequence of several Salmonella enterica serovars has revealed the presence of unstable genetic elements in these bacteria, such as pathogenicity islands and prophages. This is the case of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis), a bacterium that causes gastroenteritis in humans and systemic infection in mice. The whole genome sequence analysis for S. Enteritidis unveiled the presence of several genetic regions that are absent in other Salmonella serovars. These regions have been denominated "regions of difference" (ROD). In this study we show that ROD21, one of such regions, behaves as an unstable pathogenicity island. We observed that ROD21 undergoes spontaneous excision by two independent recombination events, either under laboratory growth conditions or during infection of murine cells. Importantly, we also found that one type of excision occurred at higher rates when S. Enteritidis was residing inside murine phagocytic cells. These data suggest that ROD21 is an unstable pathogenicity island, whose frequency of excision depends on the environmental conditions found inside phagocytic cells.

  5. Salmonella spp. in raw broiler parts: occurrence, antimicrobial resistance profile and phage typing of the Salmonella Enteritidis isolates Salmonella spp. em cortes de frango: ocorrência, resistência antimicrobiana e fagotipificação dos isolados de Salmonella Enteritidis

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    Aldemir Reginato Ribeiro

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the occurrence of Salmonellae in raw broiler parts and to determine the antimicrobial resistance profile of the isolated strains. Twenty-four (39.3% broiler parts samples were positive for Salmonella and twenty-five Salmonella strains were isolated, since two different serovars were detected in one single positive sample. Salmonella Enteritidis was the most prevalent serovar. Among Salmonella Enteritidis isolates, 95.2% belonged to Phage Type 4 (PT4 (20/21 and 4.8% to PT7 (1/21. Twenty-two (88% strains of Salmonella were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent, generating eight different resistance patterns. The S. Typhimurium (n: 1 and S. Hadar (n: 3 isolates presented multiple resistance. Three S. Enteritidis isolates were susceptible to all antimicrobials tested, two were resistant only to tetracycline. The high prevalence of Salmonella in the broiler parts strenghtens the importance of the use of good manufacturing practices (GMP, and HACCP. The results also emphasize the need for the responsible use of antimicrobials in animal production.Este trabalho foi conduzido para avaliar a ocorrência de Salmonella em cortes de frango e para determinar o perfil de resistência antimicrobiana das cepas isoladas. Vinte e quatro (39,3% cortes de frango foram positivas para Salmonella, tendo sido isoladas vinte e cinco cepas de Salmonella, uma vez que em uma amostra isolaram-se dois sorovares. Salmonella Enteritidis foi o sorovar prevalente. Entre as Salmonella Enteritidis isoladas, 95,2% pertencem ao Fagotipo 4 (PT4 (20/21 e 4,8% ao PT7 (1/21. Vinte e duas (88% cepas de Salmonella foram resistentes a pelo menos um agente antimicrobiano e oito diferentes padrões de resistência foram observados. S. Typhimurium (n:1 e S. Hadar (n: 3, apresentaram múltipla resistência. Três cepas de S. Enteritidis foram sensíveis a todos os antimicrobianos e duas resistentes somente a tetraciclina. A elevada ocorr

  6. Modelling survival of Salmonella Enteritidis during storage of yoghurt at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savran, Derya; Pérez-Rodríguez, Fernando; Kadir Halkman, A

    2018-04-20

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the behaviour of Salmonella Enteritidis during the storage of yoghurt at different temperatures (4, 12, 20, and 25 °C), and to develop mathematical models to predict the behaviour of this bacterium as a function of storage temperature. Results indicated that Salmonella was able to survive longer during storage when temperature was low (e.g. 304 h at 4 °C, 60 h at 25 °C). The Geeraerd model with log-decrease and tailing was selected as the most suitable model to describe survival. To evaluate the effect of storage temperature on kinetic parameters such as death rate (k max ) secondary models were developed. The k max was maximum at 25 °C and minimum at 4 °C with k max  = 0.28 and 0.039 h -1 , respectively. The residual population (N res ) ranged 0.5 and 1.8 log CFU/g but there was no temperature dependency of this parameter. A probabilistic example was conduced based on the developed model to assess the exposure to Salmonella by consumption of traditional Turkish yoghurt. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of ionization and nisin on the Bacillus strains and Salmonella Enteritidis inoculated Stearothermophilus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouzayen, Sarra

    2010-01-01

    The antimicrobial effect of nisin (at 1000UI/g), and irradiation (at 1, 3 and 5kGy), against the growth of Salmonella enteritidis (106 ufc/ml) and Bacillus Stearothermophilus (10 6 ufc/ml), inoculated in turkey salami, was studied during storage at 4 degree for 21 days. Treatment of turkey salami with nisin at 1000UI/g did not show any antimicrobial activity against S. Enteritidis with 6.7 pour cent and 0.8 pour cent of reduction after 0 and 21 days of storage respectively, and seems to be insufficient to inhibit B. Stearothermophilus with 23 pour cent and 21 pour cent of reduction after 0 and 21 days of storage respectively. Antimicrobial activities of irradiation were better and proportional to irradiation doses; it shows a reduction of 27 pour cent, 55 pour cent and 67 pour cent by D1, D2 and D3 respectively. The combination of nisin with irradiation at 5kGy showed stronger antimicrobial activities than those obtained by its combination with the first and the second irradiation dose.

  8. Allele distribution and genetic diversity of VNTR loci in Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis isolates from different sources

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    Bartkus Joanne M

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis is a zoonotic pathogen, which can be found in many sources including animals and the environment. However, little is known about the molecular relatedness among S. Enteritidis isolates from different sources. We have applied multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA to study the genetic diversity of S. Enteritidis isolates from human and non-human sources. Results We identified 38 unique MLVA types using nine VNTR loci markers for discrimination between 145 S. Enteritidis isolates from different sources including humans (n = 41, chickens (n = 45, and eggs (n = 40. There were 20 distinct MLVA types identified from human isolates, 17 distinct MLVA types from chicken isolates, and 5 from egg isolates. We compared allele distribution and frequency for each VNTR marker and measured allelic polymorphism within each VNTR locus of S. Enteritidis isolates from the sources using Nei's diversity index (D. Differences in allele distribution and frequency were detected in most loci of study isolates. Different genetic diversity for certain loci was identified in isolates from different sources. The average of genetic diversity (D was lower in egg isolates (0.16 compared to human (0.41 and chicken (0.30. However, for loci SE3, SE7, and SE9, human isolates showed significantly higher diversity than both chicken and egg isolates. Whereas for loci SE5 and SE10, chicken isolates had significantly higher diversity than both human and egg isolates. Minimum-spanning tree (MST comprised one major cluster, a minor cluster, and four clonal expansions. MLVA application enabled a cluster analysis by the MST of the S. Enteritidis isolates by sources, which allows a great insight into the genetic relatedness and the possible flow of these organisms between different reservoirs and humans. Conclusion Differences in allele distribution and genetic diversity of VNTR loci in S

  9. Determination of specific antibodies titre to salmonella enteritidis by elisa technique in several selected flocks of laying hens

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    Velhner Maja

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the antibody titre to Salmonella enteritidis (SE was examined by the ELISA method in two flocks of laying hens, where during routine bacteriological investigations Salmonellae was never isolated, and in one flock where Colysepticemia was diagnosed and Salmonella isolated accidentally. In the flocks were Salmonellae were not isolated, a titre with a high level of specific antibodies to SE was discovered (15 and 45%, while the flock with accidental findings of SE was poorly positive (5%. These results point to the necessity of introducing serological monitoring to SE so that the infection of salmonella may be discovered early and the prevalence in the flock determined, and also for the purpose of applying adequate measures that could reduce the possibility of secretion of SE through eggs.

  10. Multi-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis for outbreak studies of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis

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    Helmuth Reiner

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Enteritidis is known as an important and pathogenic clonal group which continues to cause worldwide sporadic cases and outbreaks in humans. Here a new multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA method is reported for highly-discriminative subtyping of Salmonella Enteritidis. Emphasis was given on the most predominant phage types PT4 and PT8. The method comprises multiplex PCR specifically amplifying repeated sequences from nine different loci followed by an automatic fragment size analysis using a multicolor capillary electrophoresis instrument. A total of 240 human, animal, food and environmental isolates of S. Enteritidis including 23 definite phage types were used for development and validation. Furthermore, the MLVA types were compared to the phage types of several isolates from two recent outbreaks to determine the concordance between both methods and to estimate their in vivo stability. The in vitro stability of the two MLVA types specifically for PT4 and PT8 strains were determined by multiple freeze-thaw cycles. Results Seventy-nine different MLVA types were identified in 240 S. Enteritidis strains. The Simpson's diversity index for the MLVA method was 0.919 and Nei diversity values for the nine VNTR loci ranged from 0.07 to 0.65. Twenty-four MLVA types could be assigned to 62 PT4 strains and 21 types to 81 PT8 strains. All outbreak isolates had an indistinguishable outbreak specific MLVA type. The in vitro stability experiments showed no changes of the MLVA type compared to the original isolate. Conclusion This MLVA method is useful to discriminate S. Enteritidis strains even within a single phage type. It is easy in use, fast, and cheap compared to other high-resolution molecular methods and therefore an important tool for surveillance and outbreak studies for S. Enteritidis.

  11. An outbreak of gastroenteritis caused by Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis traced to cream cakes

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    Kee Tai Goh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This paper describes the epidemiological, microbiological and environmental investigations conducted during an outbreak of Salmonella gastroenteritis in Singapore.Methods: A case-control study was undertaken to identify the vehicle of transmission. Microbiological testing was performed on faecal, food and environmental samples. Isolates of Salmonella were further characterized by phage typing and ribotyping.Results: There were 216 gastroenteritis cases reported from 20 November to 4 December 2007. The causative agent was identified as Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Enteritidis for 14 out of 20 cases tested. The vehicle of transmission was traced to cream cakes produced by a bakery and sold at its retail outlets (P < 0.001, OR = 143.00, 95% Cl = 27.23–759.10. More than two-thirds of the 40 Salmonella strains isolated from hospitalized cases, food samples and asymptomatic food handlers were of phage type 1; the others reacted but did not conform to any phage type. The phage types correlated well with their unique antibiograms. The ribotype patterns of 22 selected isolates tested were highly similar, indicating genetic relatedness. The dendrogram of the strains from the outbreak showed distinct clustering and correlation compared to the non-outbreak strains, confirming a common source of infection.Discussion: The cream cakes were likely contaminated by one of the ingredients used in the icing. Cross-contamination down the production line and subsequent storage of cakes at ambient temperatures for a prolonged period before consumption could have resulted in the outbreak.

  12. Preparation and evaluation of Salmonella Enteritidis antigen conjugated with nanogold for screening of poultry flocks

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    Hazem Mohammed Ibrahim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present work aimed to develop lateral flow immunochromatographic strip (ICS test for detection of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE specific antibodies in chicken sera. Materials and Methods: A rapid lateral flow immunochromatographic test (LFIT has been developed, in which SE Group D antigen labeled with the gold chloride molecules laid on the conjugate pad. Staphylococcus aureus protein A was used as capture antibody at the test line (T of a nitrocellulose (NC membrane and anti-SE antigen-specific rabbit antibodies were used as capture antibody at the control line (C of the NC strip in the lateral flow layout device. Results: Using the developed LFIT, the minimal amount of SE-specific antibodies that can be detected in chicken serum sample was 1427 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA unit/100 μl that was equal to 0.1 μg (Ab/100 μl sample. 100 suspected serum samples collected from a poultry flock were tested with the prepared SE-LFIT kits and the locally prepared stained Salmonella antigen, and the results were compared with those obtained from examination of these samples with Salmonella Group D antibody ELISA kit as the gold standard test. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the prepared SE-LFIT antigen kits were 94.4%, 90%, and 94%, respectively, while those obtained with stained Salmonella antigen were 88.8%, 90%, and 89%, respectively. Conclusion: The developed test is a simple field rapid test of high sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy that can improve and facilitates rapid field surveillance of salmonellosis among chickens.

  13. [Comparison of usefulness of lipopolysaccharides extracted by phenol and trichloroacetic acid from Salmonella Typhimurium and Enteritidis for serodiagnosis of salmonelosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastawicki, Waldemar; Rokosz, Natalia; Jagielski, Marek

    2011-01-01

    Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Enteritidis are the two predominant serogroups, responsible for about 80% of all human cases of salmonelosis in Poland. Therefore we compared the usefulness of lipopolysaccharides antigens extracted by phenol (Westphal method) and trichloroacetic acid (Boivine method) from Salmonella Typhimurium and Enteritidis in ELISA method for the determination of antibodies. We used one home - made LPS antigen and two others commercially available antigens from SIGMA - Aldrich. Our study showed that the presence of antibodies was found in 35 (74.5%) sera from 47 samples from patients with suspected salmonelosis. There was no significant statistical differences of frequency of appearance of antibodies to all three Salmonella antigens in sera from patients with salmonelosis and in sera from control group. This study showed that all three antigens are useful for determination of IgA, IgG, IgM antibodies for Salmonella serogroup B and D in routine serological diagnosis of salmonelosis. However, it should be considered possibility of cross-reaction between LPS antigen of Salmonella and antibodies to Yersinia enterocolitica which could be correlated with similarity between somatic antigens of these two pathogens.

  14. Surto alimentar por Salmonella Enteritidis no Noroeste do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Outbreak of Salmonella Enteritidis in northwest of S. Paulo State, Brazil

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    M. Kaku

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Em 1993 ocorreu um surto alimentar em escola, com 211 afetados. Os dados epidemiológicos levantados por entrevista de amostragem de afetados e não afetados mostraram que os sintomas predominantes foram diarréia, febre (77,7%, dor abdominal (67,7%, vômito (65,8%, calafrios (54,5% e cefaléia (44,5%. A mediana de incubação foi de 17 horas, com limites entre 3 e 29 horas. A duração da doença foi de 3 a 4 dias. O alimento consumido foi um tipo de patê, mistura de molho de maionese preparada com ovos crus com batata cozida, passado em pão. A análise de material biológico (3 coproculturas e de restos de alimentos revelou a presença do mesmo microrganismo, a Salmonella Enteritidis. No caso dos alimentos, o número encontrado desta bactéria por gramo de produto era compatível com a quantidade de células necessária para desencadear a doença (10(4e 10(5/g. O antibiograma de todas as cepas isoladas revelou o mesmo padrão de sensibilidade. As falhas no preparo do alimento relacionadas com o levantamento indicam a possibilidade de contaminação endógena dos ovos; contaminação cruzada - o surto afetou três períodos escolares, sendo que para cada um o alimento foi preparado em separado - e as condições de manutenção do alimento após preparo e até o consumo. A observação por uma semana seguida das 3 merendeiras envolvidas, através de coprocultura, não indicaram que as mesmas fossem portadoras assintomáticas desta bactéria ou que tivessem sido envolvidas no surto em questão.A foodborne outbreak which affected 211 persons occurred, in a School, in 1993. The epidemiological data obtained by interviewing the affected and non affected persons sampled showed as predominant symptoms: diarrhoea, fever (77.7%, abdominal cramps (67.7%, vomiting (65.8%, hot-and-cold sensations (54.5% and headache (44.5%. The median incubation period was of 17 hours, the limits being 3 and 29 hours. The disease period was of from 3 to 4 days. The food

  15. Prophylactic Bacteriophage Administration More Effective than Post-Infection Administration in Reducing Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis Shedding in Quail

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    Mosab Ahmadi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Infections caused by Salmonella bacteria, often through poultry products, are a serious public health issue. Because of drawbacks associated with antibiotic prophylaxis, alternative treatments are sought. Bacterial viruses (bacteriophages may provide an effective alternative, but concerns remain with respect to bacteriophage stability and effectiveness. To this end, we assessed the stability of a novel bacteriophage isolated from poultry excreta, siphovirus PSE, and its effectiveness in reducing Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis colonization in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we sought to determine how the timing (prophylactic or therapeutic and route (oral gavage or vent lip of PSE administration impacted its effectiveness. Here we report that significant quantities of viable PSE bacteriophages were recovered following exposure to high and low pH, high temperatures, and bile salts, testifying to its ability to survive extreme conditions. In addition, we found that ileal lactic acid bacteria and Streptococcus spp. counts increased, but colibacilli and total aerobe counts decreased, in quail receiving phage PSE through both oral gavage and vent lip routes. In other experiments, we assessed the efficiency of PSE administration, in both prophylactic and therapeutic contexts, via either oral gavage or vent lip administration, on S. Enteritidis colonization of quail cecal tonsils. Our results demonstrate that administration of PSE as a preventive agent could reduce the S. Enteritidis colonization more effectively than post-challenge administration. Furthermore, oral administration of PSE phage is a more effective prophylactic tool for reduction of S. Enteritidis shedding in poultry than is vent lip administration.

  16. Expression of cytokines in chicken peripheral mononuclear blood cells (PMBCs exposed to probiotic strains and Salmonella Enteritidis

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    Eva Husáková

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The mRNA expression of interleukin (IL-1β, LITAF, iNOS, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP1-ß, and K60 were examined in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMBCs. The PMBCs were isolated from the chicken blood and in vitro exposed to the probiotic strains E. faecium AL41, E. faecium H31, L. fermentum AD1, and infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE147. The PMBCs were evaluated for mRNA expression levels at 24 h and 48 h post infection (p.i. using the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. The level of expression of IL-1ß and MIP1-ß was upregulated (P S. Enteritidis + E. faecium AL41 group 48 h p.i. compared to 24 h p.i. Similarly, expression of LITAF was upregulated (P S. Enteritidis (SE group 48 h p.i. In PMBCs treated with E. faecium H31 and S. Enteritidis expression of IL-1ß (P P P E. faecium AL41 demonstrated the highest immunostimulatory effect on expression of selected cytokines by chicken PMBCs after Salmonella infection. It is supposed that the differences in cytokine induction within SE groups are related to lymphocytes isolated from different animals.

  17. Molecular characterization of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis isolates from food and human samples by serotyping, antimicrobial resistance, plasmid profiling, (GTG5-PCR and ERIC-PCR

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    F. Fardsanei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis has been a primary cause of human salmonellosis in many countries. The major objective of this study was to investigate genetic diversity among Salmonella Enteritidis strains from different origins (food and human by Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus (ERIC -PCR, as well as to assess their plasmid profiling and antimicrobial resistance. A total of 30 Salmonella Enteritidis isolates, 15 from food samples (chicken, lamb, beef and duck meats and 15 from clinical samples were collected in Tehran. Identification of isolates as Salmonella was confirmed by using conventional standard biochemical and serological tests. Multiplex-PCR was used for serotyping of isolates to identify Salmonella Enteritidis. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing to 16 agents founds drug resistance patterns among Salmonella Enteritidis isolates. No resistance was observed to cephalexin, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime and cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, imipenem or meropenem, chloramphenicol and gentamicin. The highest resistance (96.7% was observed to nitrofurantoin. Seven plasmid profiles (P1–P7 were detected, and a 68-kb plasmid was found in all isolates. Two different primers; ERIC and (GTG5 were used for genotyping, which each produced four profiles. The majority of clinical and food isolates fell into two separate common types (CTs with a similar percentage of 95% by ERIC-PCR. Using primer (GTG5, 29 isolates incorporated in three CTs with 70% of isolates showing a single banding pattern. Limited genetic diversity among human and food isolates of Salmonella Enteritidis may indicate that contaminated foods were possibly the source of human salmonellosis. These results confirmed that ERIC-PCR genotyping has limited discriminatory power for Salmonella Enteritidis of different origin.

  18. Immune Response of Chicken Gut to Natural Colonization by Gut Microflora and to Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis Infection ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Crhanova, Magdalena; Hradecka, Helena; Faldynova, Marcela; Matulova, Marta; Havlickova, Hana; Sisak, Frantisek; Rychlik, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    In commercial poultry production, there is a lack of natural flora providers since chickens are hatched in the clean environment of a hatchery. Events occurring soon after hatching are therefore of particular importance, and that is why we were interested in the development of the gut microbial community, the immune response to natural microbial colonization, and the response to Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis infection as a function of chicken age. The complexity of chicken gut micro...

  19. Thermal inactivation of Salmonella Enteritidis on chicken skin previously exposed to acidified Sodium chlorite or tri-sodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppasamy, K; Yadav, Ajit S; Saxena, Gaurav K

    2015-12-01

    Thermal inactivation of normal and starved cells of Salmonella Enteritidis on chicken skin previously exposed to different concentrations of acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) or tri-sodium phosphate (TSP) was investigated. Inoculated skin was pretreated with different concentration of ASC or TSP, packaged in bags, and then immersed in a circulating water bath at 60 to 68 °C. The recovery medium was Hektoen enteric agar. D-values, determined by linear regression, for normal cells on chicken skin, were 2.79, 1.17 and 0.53 min whereas D-values for starved cells were 4.15, 1.83 and 0.66 at 60, 64 and 68 °C, respectively. z-values for normal cells were 3.54 and for starved cells were 2.29. Pretreatment of Salmonella Enteritidis cells with 0 to 200 ppm of ASC or 0 to 1.0 % TSP resulted in lower D-values at all temperatures. Sensory results indicated no significance differences for control and treatments. Thus, results of this study indicated that pretreatment of chicken skin with ASC or TSP increased sensitivity of Salmonella Enteritidis to heat without affecting organoleptic quality of chicken meat.

  20. Brote por Salmonella enteritidis en trabajadores de un hospital An outbreak of Salmonella gastroenteritis among hospital workers

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    Ma. Eugenia Chávez-de la Peña

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Describir y determinar las causas de un brote de enfermedad gastrointestinal por Salmonella enteritidis, ocurrido en junio de 1998, entre el personal trabajador de la salud (TS que labora en un hospital de tercer nivel de atención, en la ciudad de México. Material y métodos. Se incluyó a todo aquel empleado que presentó diarrea o fiebre asociada a síntomas gastrointestinales, a partir del día 8 de junio de ese año, posterior a la ingestión de alimentos en el comedor del hospital (caso, y en aquellos asintomáticos (controles que ingirieron alimentos durante el mismo periodo y en el mismo lugar. Se les aplicó un cuestionario para conocer los alimentos ingeridos, se realizó hemocultivo a sujetos con fiebre mayor de 38 °C y coprocultivo a todos, incluido el personal de la cocina. En el análisis estadístico se utilizó razón de momios (RM, intervalos de confianza al 95% (IC 95%, ji cuadrada y valor de p= 0.05 para conocer la significancia estadística. Resultados: Desarrollaron síntomas 155 TS, y de éstos 129 completaron la encuesta; se encuestaron además 150 TS asintomáticos. Los síntomas más comunes fueron diarrea (85%, dolor abdominal (84%, cefalea (81.4%, náusea (78.3% y escalofríos (74.4%. Ocho hemocultivos fueron negativos; 59 casos (46% y seis controles (4% tuvieron coprocultivos positivos a Salmonella enteritidis. De los alimentos ingeridos, las tortas de carne capeadas con huevo (RM 19.39, IC 95% 9.09-41.4, la crema de mamey, así como el yogur fueron significativamente más frecuentes en casos que en controles. Los cultivos de los alimentos resultaron negativos. Conclusión. Muy probablemente este brote se debió a la ingestión de alimentos contaminados (tortas preparadas con huevo, papa y carne con insuficiente cocción. Este brote enfatiza la necesidad de mantener un programa de evaluación de la calidad de los alimentos en hospitales. El texto completo en inglés de este artículo está disponible en

  1. CLINICAL AND ANATOMOHISTOPATOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF TWO BROILER ORIGINATED FROM EXPERIMENTALLY INOCULATED EGGS WITH Salmonella Enteritidis FAGOTIPO 4 ASPECTOS CLÍNICOS E ANATOMOHISTOPATOLÓGICOS DE PINTOS DE CORTE ORIUNDOS DE OVOS INOCULADOS EXPERIMENTALMENTE COM Salmonella Enteritidis FAGOTIPO 4

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    Maria Auxiliadora Andrade

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available

    In order to evaluate the invasive capacity of Salmonella enterica sorovar Enteritidis phagotipe 4 of avian origin, in two broiler lines, two experiments were carried out. The experiment 1 was done with Ross line (fast growing rate and experiment 2 was done with ISA Label (slow growing rate. In two experiments the same 1.5 X 102 UFC/0,1mL de Salmonella Enteritidis phagotipe 4 was inoculated in egg through the eggshell or albume at the incubation to averiguate the clinical signs, the macro and microscopical lesions and mortality rate until three weeks of age. The Salmonella Enteritidis invaded and colonizated the gastrointestinal tract of the two lines tested general clinical signs allied to intestinal disfunction were more pronounced in Ross broilers. The mortality observed was 25.0% (15/60 in Ross and just 1.7% (1/60 ISA Label broilers during three weeks. Onphalitis, enteritis, pericarditis, perihepatitis constituted the main macroscopic lesions in Ross. At histological exam, inflamatory process observed with infiltrates of mononuclear cells with predominance of macrophage and lymphocytes in heart, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, ceca and liver. It is possible to conclude the gastrointestinal tract, invaded organs of both genetic lines, but ISA Label was resistant to infection compared to Ross lines.

    KEY WORDS: Chickens, colonization, infection, invasion, genetic resistance, organs.

    Desenvolveram-se dois experimentos para avaliar a capacidade invasiva e os efeitos da Salmonella enterica sorovar Enteritidis fagotipo 4 de origem aviária, inoculada in ovo de linhagens de frango de corte. O experimento 1 foi realizado com a linhagem Ross (crescimento rápido e o experimento 2 com a

  2. Influence of pH, temperature and storage condition on survival and growth of Salmonella Enteritidis in membrane processed liquid egg white

    Science.gov (United States)

    Study was conducted to establish the effects of variations in liquid egg pH and membrane processing temperature on the removal and growth of Salmonella Enteritidis in liquid egg white (LEW) filtered by microfiltration (MF) process. Storage condition variations influence on growth of Salmonella in th...

  3. Survival and growth of Salmonella Enteritidis in membrane processed liquid egg white with pH, temperature and storage conditions as controlling factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was undertaken to determine the effect of variation in solution pH and process temperature on the removal and regrowth of Salmonella Enteritidis in liquid egg white (LEW) by microfiltration (MF) membrane process. Influence of various storage conditions on growth of Salmonella in membrane sep...

  4. Gene expression response of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis phage type 8 to the subinhibitory concentrations of the plant-derived compounds,trans-cinnamaldehyde,and eugenol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 8 (PT8) is a major poultry-associated Salmonella strain implicated in foodborne outbreaks in the United States. We previously reported that two GRAS-status, plant-derived compounds, trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC) and eugenol (EG) significantly reduced S. Ent...

  5. Phenotypic and molecular detection of multi-drug resistant S a l m o n e l l a Enteritidis, S a l m o n e l l a Typhimurium and Salmonella species in retail raw beef and chicken

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    Roseline Ekiomado Uzeh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To detect Salmonella species and its’ serovars, Salmonella Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium in retail raw beef and chicken in Nigerian markets. Methods: A total of 100 samples, including 50 beef and 50 chicken were purchased from retailers in Lagos, Nigeria. Presence of Salmonella species and its’ serovars, Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium in the beef and chicken were assessed phenotypically and by PCR assay. Antibiotic susceptibility test of the isolates was done. Primers were from fliC and sefA genes of Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Enteritidis, respectively. Results: From PCR analysis, fliC gene (559 bp was amplified in one beef sample and was positive for S. Typhimurium while sefA gene (312 bp was amplified in one chicken and three beef samples and were positive for S. Enteritidis. In all, 1% of total meat had S. Typhimurium while 4% and 18% were contaminated with S. Enteritidis and Salmonella spp., respectively. For beef, 2% was contaminated with S. Typhimurium, 6% with S. Enteritidis and 26% with Salmonella spp. In chicken 2% was contaminated with S. Enteritidis, 12% with Salmonella spp. A total of 23 isolates were obtained by ERIC-PCR. All Salmonella spp. were 100% resistant to amoxicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanate. Strains of S. Enteritidis were also resistant to cotrimoxazole, nitrofurantoin, nalidixic acid, gentamycin and tetracycline. Conclusions: The presence of S. Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis and Salmonella spp. in retail raw beef and chicken and their multi-drug resistance is of health significance and great concern because the two serovars are commonly implicated in human salmonellosis.

  6. Brote de Salmonella Enteritidis resistente a ácido nalidíxico en Popayán, Cauca, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Díaz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Salmonella Enteritidis es reconocida a nivel mundial como uno de los principales agentes de infección gastrointestinal. Varios reportes indican la presencia de aislamientos con sensibilidad disminuida a la ciprofloxacina que puede conllevar a una respuesta retardada o al desarrollo de resistencia durante el tratamiento. Objetivo. Describir y caracterizar los aislamientos de Salmonella Enteritidis asociados a un brote de enfermedad transmitida por alimentos en Popayán, Cauca. Materiales y métodos. Se analizaron 10 aislamientos de Salmonella Enteritidis, nueve de pacientes y uno de alimentos (emparedado de pollo, por pruebas bioquímicas, serotipificación y sensibilidad antimicrobiana. La concentración inhibitoria mínima a la ciprofloxacina se determinó por E-test y el perfil genético de los aislamientos se evaluó por electroforesis en gel de campo pulsado (Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis, PFGE con las enzimas Xbal y Blnl. Resultados. En todos los aislamientos se identificó Salmonella Enteritidis con resistencia al ácido nalidíxico y sensibilidad disminuida a la ciprofloxaxina entre 0,25 y 0,5 µg/ml; todos fueron sensibles a los demás antimicrobianos ensayados. La PFGE agrupó los 10 aislamientos con la enzima Xbal en el patrón COIN11.JEG.X01.0038 y siete aislamientos se confirmaron con la enzima BlnI con el patrón COIN11.JEG.A26.0009. Conclusión. Se reporta por primera vez en Colombia un brote de Salmonella Enteritidis con resistencia al ácido nalidíxico y se confirma por análisis fenotípico y genotípico la asociación entre los aislamientos de los pacientes con el del emparedado de pollo como la fuente de infección.   doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v33i1.810

  7. A genome-wide screen identifies Salmonella Enteritidis lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis and the HtrA heat shock protein as crucial factors involved in egg white persistence at chicken body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspoet, R; Shearer, N; Appia-Ayme, C; Haesebrouck, F; Ducatelle, R; Thompson, A; Van Immerseel, F

    2014-05-01

    Eggs contaminated with Salmonella Enteritidis are an important source of human foodborne Salmonella infections. Salmonella Enteritidis is able to contaminate egg white during formation of the egg within the chicken oviduct, and it has developed strategies to withstand the antimicrobial properties of egg white to survive in this hostile environment. The mechanisms involved in the persistence of Salmonella Enteritidis in egg white are likely to be complex. To address this issue, a microarray-based transposon library screen was performed to identify genes necessary for survival of Salmonella Enteritidis in egg white at chicken body temperature. The majority of identified genes belonged to the lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis pathway. Additionally, we provide evidence that the serine protease/heat shock protein (HtrA) appears essential for the survival of Salmonella Enteritidis in egg white at chicken body temperature.

  8. Role of the sseK1 gene in the pathogenicity of Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yadong; Yu, Chuan; Ding, Ke; Zhang, Chunjie; Liao, Chengshui; Jia, Yanyan; Li, Jing; Cheng, Xiangchao

    2018-04-01

    Salmonella enteritidis is a common food-borne pathogen associated with consumption of contaminated poultry meat and eggs, which frequently causes gastroenteritis in humans. Salmonella secreted effector K1 (SseK1), as a translocated and secreted protein has been identified to be essential for the virulence of Salmonella typhimurium in host cells. However, the role of the sseK1 gene in the pathogenicity of S. enteritidis remain unclear. In this study, a sseK1 deletion mutant of S. enteritidis was constructed and its biological characteristics were examined. It was found that the sseK1 deletion mutant did not affect the growth, adherence and invasion of Salmonella enteritidis when compared to the wild-type S. enteritidis. However, the mutant showed decreased formation of biofilm and significantly reduced intracellular survival of bacteria in activated mouse peritoneal macrophages, as well as showed reduced pathogenicity to a murine model by increasing the lethal dose 50% (LD 50 ) value and decreasing the proliferation ratio of bacteria in vivo. Taken together, this study determined an important role for SseK1 in the pathogenicity of S. enteritidis in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Resistência antimicrobiana em Salmonella Enteritidis isoladas de amostras clínicas e ambientais de frangos de corte e matrizes pesadas Antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella Enteritidis isolated from clinical and environmental broiler chickens and breeders broiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Ribeiro

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella Enteritidis strains isolated from clinical and environmental poultry samples in the Southern Brazil during the years of 1999, 2000 and 2001 was evaluated. Among the 79 isolated samples, 64 (81% were resistant to at least one of the antimicrobial agents tested, showing 22 different resistance patterns. Tetracycline showed the highest percentage (64,5% of resistance among the antimicrobial agents used. Resistance to drugs at different levels was found as the following: ampicillin (1.2%, kanamycin (1.2%, ciprofloxacin (2.5%, enrofloxacin (8.8%, gentamicin (21.5%, streptomycin (20.2%, nitrofurantoin (26.6%, and nalidixic acid (30.4%. None of the S. Enteritidis strains were resistant to chloramphenicol, norfloxacin, and polimycin B. Among the 64 S. Enteritidis strains that showed resistance, 43 (67.2% were resistant to two or more antimicrobial agents. Twenty-one (32.8% strains were resistant to only one of the antimicrobial agents, 14 to tetracycline, three to nalidixic acid, three to nitrofurantoin, and one to gentamycin. These antimicrobial resistance levels suggest a high occurrence of tetracycline resistant S. Enteritidis strains and resistance to two or more antimicrobial agents.

  10. Salmonella meningitis and septicaemia in an non-immunocompromised adult, associated with a cluster of Salmonella Enteritidis PT 14b, Ireland, November 2009.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    OhAiseadha, C O

    2010-01-01

    We report a fatal case of meningitis caused by Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 14b in a middle-aged man who had no history or findings to suggest he was immunocompromised. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Salmonella meningitis in an adult in Ireland, and the first case of meningitis in an adult caused by phage type 14b. This case was associated with a nationwide cluster of salmonellosis which is still under investigation at the time of writing.

  11. Inoculation Protocols Influence the Thermal Resistance of Salmonella Enteritidis PT 30 in Fabricated Almond, Wheat, and Date Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limcharoenchat, Pichamon; Buchholz, Sarah E; James, Michael K; Hall, Nicole O; Ryser, Elliot T; Marks, Bradley P

    2018-04-01

    Inoculation methods in pathogen inactivation studies ideally represent conditions that might occur in real-world scenarios. Surface contamination in or on low-moisture foods affects Salmonella thermal resistance, which is critically important for process validation applications. The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of inoculation protocol on the thermal resistance of Salmonella Enteritidis PT 30 in fabricated low-moisture foods. Almond meal, almond butter, wheat meal, wheat flour, and date paste were inoculated via prefabrication and postfabrication protocols. In the prefabrication protocol, kernels and fruits were surface inoculated and equilibrated to a target water activity (a w ) (0.40 for almond and wheat products, 0.45 for date products) before fabricating meal, butter, flour, or paste and then reequilibrating the samples to the target a w . In the postfabrication protocol, meal, butter, flour, and paste were fabricated before inoculation and equilibration. All inoculated and equilibrated samples were subjected to isothermal treatment (80°C), pulled sequentially during processing, cooled, serially diluted, and plated to enumerate survivors. Log-linear and Weibull-type models were fit to the Salmonella survivor data and were compared via the corrected Akaike information criterion. Pre- and postfabrication protocols resulted in significant differences ( P < 0.05) in Salmonella thermal resistance in all products. Overall, the thermal resistance of Salmonella Enteritidis PT 30 in almond products was greater ( P < 0.05) than in wheat products, which was also greater ( P < 0.05) than in date paste. Additionally, Salmonella was more thermally resistant in almond products and date paste when inoculated pre- rather than postfabrication; however, the opposite was true for wheat products. These results indicate that the means of inoculation can significantly affect thermal resistance of Salmonella in low-moisture foods.

  12. Immunological evaluation of the intestinal mucosa of broiler chicks treated with Lactobacillus Spp. and challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AS Okamoto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at the antibody production by intestinal mucosa of broilers chicks were orally inoculated with Lactobacillus spp. at one and/or 21 days of age, and subsequently challenged with Salmonella enterica, subspecies enterica, serotype Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis. A total number of 288 drug-free broiler chicks was divided into 6 groups (groups A, B, C, D, E, and F, according to age at Lactobacillus spp. inoculation and SE challenge. The intestinal mucosa immune response was determined as the production of immunoglobulin A against S. Enteritidis, and evaluated by the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA technique in intestinal washing fluid. Groups treated with Lactobacillus spp. presented higher IgA production only when the chicks were challenged with S. Enteritidis at 21 days of age. Nevertheless, the expected stimulus for intestinal mucosa antibody production induced by Lactobacillus spp was observed in only some of the treated groups, demonstrating that the protocol utilized in the present experiment resulted in few beneficial effects for chicks, particularly during the first days of life.

  13. Assessing the impact of egg sweating on Salmonella Enteritidis penetration into shell eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradl, Janet A; Curtis, Patricia A; Jones, Deana R; Anderson, Kenneth E

    2017-07-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevalence in eggs is a major concern to the egg industry. Some research has shown that egg sweating can increase Salmonella penetration into egg contents when refrigerated eggs are moved to a warmer temperature. This occurs when eggs are tempered before wash, to minimize thermal cracks. The effect of egg sweating on SE penetration into shell eggs over a 6 week storage period at 4°C was assessed. A 2 × 2 factorial of SE inoculation and egg sweating was utilized. Treatments included (SES) nalidixic acid (NA)-resistant SE inoculated and sweated, (SENS) NA-resistant SE inoculated and not sweated, (NSES) buffered peptone water (BPW) inoculated and sweated, and (NSENS) BPW inoculated and not sweated. Eggs were inoculated with 108 SE. Eggs formed condensation for approximately 17 min in a 32°C incubator. Shell rinse, shell emulsion, and egg contents were sampled then enumerated and assessed for prevalence of SE over a 6 wk storage period at 4°C. After wk 1, the SENS shell rinse had higher SE counts (0.32 log10 CFU/mL) than the other 3 treatments, where no SE was enumerated. A significant week by treatment interaction was found for the shell rinse SE detection (P shell rinse, shell emulsion, or egg contents. The SENS shell rinses had significantly higher SE prevalence than the SES rinses in weeks 1 (100% vs. 34.3%), 2 (57.6% vs. 22.2%), and 3 (38.2% vs. 11.1%) (P shell emulsion across treatment or week (P < 0.05). The decreasing trend of SE prevalence obtained over the study period indicate that refrigeration is effective at inhibiting SE growth. These results indicate that egg sweating occurring under common US egg handling practices is not harmful to egg safety. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  14. Comparative analysis of virulence and resistance profiles of Salmonella Enteritidis isolates from poultry meat and foodborne outbreaks in northern Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaradat, Ziad W; Abedel Hafiz, Leena; Ababneh, Mustafa M; Ababneh, Qotaibah O; Al Mousa, Waseem; Al-Nabulsi, Anas; Osaili, Tareq M; Holley, Richard

    2014-07-01

    This study was conducted to isolate Salmonella Enteritidis from poultry samples and compare their virulence and antibiotic resistance profiles to S. Enteritidis isolated from outbreaks in northern Jordan. Two hundred presumptive isolates were obtained from 302 raw poultry samples and were subjected to further analysis and confirmation. A phylogenic tree based on 16S rRNA sequencing was constructed and selected isolates representing each cluster were further studied for their virulence in normal adult Swiss white mice. The most virulent strains were isolated from poultry samples and had an LD 50 of 1.55 × 10 (5) CFU, while some of the outbreak isolates were avirulent in mice. Antibiotic resistance profiling revealed that the isolates were resistant to seven of eight antibiotics screened with each isolate resistant to multiple antibiotics (from two to six). Of the poultry isolates, 100%, 88.9%, 77.8%, 66.7%, and 50% showed resistance to nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, ampicillin, cephalothin, and cefoperazone, respectively. Two outbreak isolates were sensitive to all tested antibiotics, while 71.4% were resistant to cefoperazone and only 28.6% showed resistance to nalidixic acid. Salmonella outbreak isolates were genetically related to poultry isolates as inferred from the 16S rRNA sequencing, yet were phenotypically different. Although outbreak strains were similar to poultry isolates, when tested in the mouse model, some of the outbreak isolates were highly virulent while others were avirulent. This might be due to a variation in susceptibility of the mouse to different S. Enteritidis isolates.

  15. Ground water as the source of an outbreak of Salmonella Enteritidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Kovačić

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In September 2014, an outbreak of gastroenteritis was reported to the Public Health Institute of Šibenik and Knin County in Croatia. The outbreak occurred in the County center of Šibenik, a town with 50,000 inhabitants, and it lasted for 12 days. An epidemiological investigation suggested a nearby water spring as the source of the outbreak. Due to the temporary closure of the public water supply system, the inhabitants started to use untreated water from a nearby spring. Microbiological analysis revealed that the outbreak was caused by Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis that was isolated from stool samples of the patients and ground water. The isolates were further analysed with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis using XbaI, which revealed an identical macrorestriction profile. Although 68 cases were reported, it was estimated that the actual number of affected persons was more than several hundred. In order to prevent further spread of disease, public advice was released immediately after the first epidemiological indication and a warning sign was placed at the incriminated water source, after microbiological confirmation. It is necessary to regularly monitor microbiological quality of ground water especially in urban areas and provide adequate education and awareness to the inhabitants regarding the risk of using untreated ground water.

  16. Salmonella enteritidis outbreak in a restaurant chain: the continuing challenges of prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vugia, D J; Mishu, B; Smith, M; Tavris, D R; Hickman-Brenner, F W; Tauxe, R V

    1993-02-01

    In 1990, a Salmonella enteritidis (SE) outbreak occurred in a restaurant chain in Pennsylvania. To determine its cause(s), we conducted a case-control study and a cohort study at one restaurant, and a survey of restaurants. Egg dishes were associated with illness (P = 0.03). Guests from one hotel eating at the restaurant had a diarrhoeal attack rate of 14%, 4.7-fold higher than among those not eating there (P = 0.04). There were no differences in egg handling between affected and unaffected restaurants. Eggs supplied to affected restaurants were medium grade AA eggs from a single farm, and were reportedly refrigerated during distribution. Human and hen SE isolates were phage type 8 and had similar plasmid profiles and antibiograms. We estimate the prevalence of infected eggs during the outbreak to be as high as 1 in 12. Typical restaurant egg-handling practices and refrigeration during distribution appear to be insufficient by themselves to prevent similar outbreaks.

  17. Promoting crystallisation of the Salmonella enteritidis fimbriae 14 pilin SefD using deuterium oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Bing; Garnett, James A.; Lee, Wei-chao; Lin, Jing; Salgado, Paula; Taylor, Jonathan; Xu, Yingqi; Lambert, Sebastian; Cota, Ernesto [Centre for Structural Biology and Division of Molecular Biosciences, Imperial College London, South Kensington, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Matthews, Steve, E-mail: s.j.matthews@imperial.ac.uk [Centre for Structural Biology and Division of Molecular Biosciences, Imperial College London, South Kensington, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The benefits of D{sub 2}O in screening for crystallisation was explored. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The crystal structures of the SefD pilin in both H{sub 2}O and D{sub 2}O reveal differences. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crystallisation improvements are explained by altered interactions in D{sub 2}O crystals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer D{sub 2}O is useful additive in sparse-matrix screening for crystallisation. -- Abstract: The use of heavy water (D{sub 2}O) as a solvent is commonplace in many spectroscopic techniques for the study of biological macromolecules. A significant deuterium isotope effect exists where hydrogen-bonding is important, such as in protein stability, dynamics and assembly. Here we illustrate the use of D{sub 2}O in additive screening for the production of reproducible diffraction-quality crystals for the Salmonella enteritidis fimbriae 14 (SEF14) putative tip adhesin, SefD.

  18. Effect of dietary supplementation of nitrocompounds on Salmonella colonization and ileal immune gene expression in laying hens challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Pratima; Cosby, D E; Cox, N A; Kim, W K

    2017-12-01

    Foodborne disease caused by Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) is one of the important public health and economic concerns. A study was conducted to determine the effect of supplementation with 2-nitroethanol (NE) and 2-nitropropanol (NP) on Salmonella recovery of internal organs as well as on the immune gene expression in the ileum of laying hens. Thirty-six White Leghorns were orally gavaged with nalidixic acid resistant Salmonella Enteritidis (SENR). Hens were housed individually in wire-laying cages and randomly assigned to six dietary treatments: T1 = SENR unchallenged (negative control), T2 = SENR challenged (positive control), T3 = SENR challenged + 100 ppm NE, T4 = SENR challenged + 200 ppm NE, T5 = SENR challenged + 100 ppm NP, and T6 = SENR challenged + 200 ppm NP. Hens were sampled at 7 days post inoculation (dpi). Ceca, liver with gall bladder (L/GB), and ovary samples were collected for bacteriology, and ileum samples were collected for analysis of immune gene expression. T3 and T6 significantly reduced (P nitrocompounds. Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines such as interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-1B, IL-6, toll-like receptors (TLR)-4, and IL-10 all were significantly upregulated (P nitrocompounds such as NE and NP can be used in the intervention strategy to reduce Salmonella infection in hens. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  19. Epidemiology and control of egg-associated Salmonella enteritidis in the United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, A; White, P; Guard-Petter, J; Schlosser, W; Gast, R; Ebel, E; Farrar, J; Gomez, T; Madden, J; Madison, M; McNamara, A M; Morales, R; Parham, D; Sparling, P; Sutherlin, W; Swerdlow, D

    1997-08-01

    The isolation rate for Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis (SE) in humans in the United States of America (USA) increased from 1,207 sporadic isolates identified in 1976 (0.6 isolates/100,000 population) to 10,201 identified in 1995 (4.0/100,000 population). The proportion of reported Salmonella isolates which were SE increased from 5% to 25% during the same time period. In 1990, 1994, and 1995, SE was the most commonly reported reported Salmonella serotype in the USA. Much of this increase has been associated with the consumption of contaminated shell eggs. An examination of the results of a United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) survey of spent hens at slaughter and unpasteurised liquid egg at breaker plants (liquid egg processors) in 1991 and 1995 reveals an increase in the prevalence of SE isolates overall and in most regions of the USA. SE phage type 4 (pt 4), the predominant SE phage type in other parts of the world, has emerged in the egg industry in the western USA concurrent with a sharp increase in the number of sporadic human SE pt 4 isolates in California and Utah. Research on the molecular structure and virulence of SE pt 4 isolates from the USA as compared with isolates from other parts of the world (human and poultry) should be a priority. A comparison of DNA from pt 4 isolates from the USA and Europe may provide information about the potential threat to public health and poultry in the USA from this phage type. Some regional success in the reduction of human illness as a result of SE control efforts is apparent. The Pennsylvania Egg Quality Assurance Program has shown progress in reducing SE infection in participating flocks. At a national level, however, neither the incidence of human illness due to SE nor the prevalence of SE in flocks and unpasteurised liquid eggs have decreased significantly, despite the implementation of the USDA 'trace back' regulation from 1990 to 1995, and intensified efforts to educate food handlers and to

  20. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes in mango (Mangifera indica L.) pulp: growth, survival and cross-contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penteado, Ana L; de Castro, M Fernanda P M; Rezende, Ana C B

    2014-10-01

    This study examined the ability of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes to grow or survive in mango pulp stored at -20°C, 4°C, 10°C and 25°C, as well as to cross-contaminate mangoes by means of a knife contaminated with different levels of these pathogens. At 25°C lag phase durations of 19 h and 7.2 h and generation times of 0.66 and 1.44 were obtained, respectively, for S. Enteritidis and L. monocytogenes. At 10°C only the growth of L. monocytogenes was observed. At 4°C both bacteria survived for 8 days. At -20°C S. Enteritidis was able to survive for 5 months while L. monocytogenes survived for 8 months. Cross-contamination was observed for knives contaminated with 10⁶, 10⁵ and 10⁴ CFU mL⁻¹ of S. Enteritidis and 10⁶ and 10⁵ CFU mL⁻¹ of L. monocytogenes. Both microorganisms can grow well in mango pulp at 25°C, thus lower temperatures for the maintenance of the pulps are crucial to avoid growth of these microorganisms. A refrigeration temperature of 10°C will avoid only the growth of S. Enteritidis. Thus good handling practices should be rigidly enforced to avoid any contamination as even at refrigeration and freezing temperatures survival of these pathogens may occur. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Correlation of conversion of Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis phage type 1, 4, or 6 to phage type 7 with loss of lipopolysaccharide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Madsen, M.

    1997-01-01

    Studies of pairs of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis isolates from different poultry flocks showed that phage type (PT) 7 may be derived from PT 1, 4, and 6. The conversion appeared to be associated with loss of lipopolysaccharide. It is concluded that PT 7 may be of little value as an epi......Studies of pairs of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis isolates from different poultry flocks showed that phage type (PT) 7 may be derived from PT 1, 4, and 6. The conversion appeared to be associated with loss of lipopolysaccharide. It is concluded that PT 7 may be of little value...

  2. Adjuvant effect of a probiotic fermented milk in the protection against Salmonella enteritidis serovar typhimurium infection: mechanisms involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Moreno De Leblanc, A; Maldonado Galdeano, C; Dogi, C A; Carmuega, E; Weill, R; Perdigón, G

    2010-01-01

    Probiotics may offer protection against Salmonella enteritidis serovar Typhimurium infection via different mechanisms. The aim of this study is to investigate, using mouse models, the effect of the administration of fermented milk containing the probiotic bacteria L. casei DN-114 001 in the protection against Salmonella enteritidis serovar Typhimurium when this product is administered continuously before and after infection or only post-infection. The adjuvant effect of this probiotic fermented milk (PFM) against S. Typhimurium was also evaluated in newborn mice, whose mothers received the PFM during the suckling period or their offspring after weaning. The results obtained showed that PFM administration after salmonella infection was useful to decrease the severity of the infection. The best effect was obtained with continuous PFM administration. In the newborn mice model, PFM administration to the newborn mice after weaning showed the best effect against the pathogen. PFM administration to the mother during the suckling period was beneficial against this enterophatogen when their offspring did not receive probiotics after weaning. Continuous PFM administration to adult mice (before and after infection) was important to maintain the intestinal barrier and the immune surveillance in optimal conditions to diminish the pathway of entrance of salmonella and the spread of this pathogen to deeper tissues. In the newborn mice model, it was observed that PFM administration to the offspring after weaning or their mother during the suckling period had a protective effect against salmonella infection, however, in the mice from mothers that received PFM during nursing which were fed with PFM after weaning, we found a down regulated immune maturity that was not protective against this infection.

  3. THE CHARACTERIZATION OF DANISH ISOLATES OF SALMONELLA-ENTERICA SEROVAR ENTERITIDIS BY PHAGE TYPING AND PLASMID PROFILING - 1980-1990

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, D. J.; Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Hansen, H. B.

    1994-01-01

    Plasmid profiling, phage typing and antimicrobial resistance typing have been carried out on 736 isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis collected in Denmark during the period 1980 to 1990. Strains originated from cases of human salmonellosis, broiler poultry flocks, layer poultry...... flocks, quarantined imported poultry, environmental samples from hatchery units, and from bovines. Phage type (PT) 1 was found to be the most common type among isolates of poultry origin (57.6%) followed by PT4 (28.8%). Isolates belonging to PT8 were found exclusively in imported birds. Phage typing...

  4. Increased production of the ether-lipid platelet-activating factor in intestinal epithelial cells infected by Salmonella enteritidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egea, Laia; Giménez, Rosa; Lúcia, David; Modolell, Ines; Badía, Josefa; Baldoma, Laura; Aguilar, Juan

    2008-05-01

    When exposed to enteric pathogens intestinal epithelial cells produce several cytokines and other proinflammatory mediators. To date there is no evidence that the ether-lipid platelet-activating factor (PAF) is one of these mediators. Our results revealed a significant increase in PAF production by human colonic tissue 4 h after infection by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) or Salmonella enteritidis. PAF is produced in the gut by cells of the immune system in response to bacterial infection. To determine whether the epithelial cells of colonic mucosa might also modulate PAF levels, we carried out PAF quantification and analysis of the enzymes involved in PAF synthesis in 5-day-old (undifferentiated) or 28-day-old (differentiated) Caco-2 cell cultures. Infection of undifferentiated Caco-2 cells with either bacterium had no effect on PAF levels, whereas in differentiated cells, infection by S. enteritidis increased PAF levels. Following infection by S. enteritidis, there were no changes in the activity of dithiothreitol-insensitive choline phosphotransferase. However, the enzymes of the remodeling pathway cytosolic phospholipase A(2), which catalyzes the formation of the PAF precursor lysoPAF, and lysoPAF acetyltransferase, are activated in the infected epithelial cells. This response is Ca(2+)-dependent.

  5. Intact but not denatured ovine serum immunoglobulins positively modulate mucosal immune mediators in the growing rat challenged with Salmonella enteritidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, Prabhu; Moughan, Paul J

    2013-09-28

    Immunoglobulins are major glycoproteins that modulate the immune response of gut-associated lymphoid tissue. In the present study, we sought to determine whether orally administered ovine serum immunoglobulins modulate selected indices of mucosal immune function and immune mediators in the growing rat challenged with Salmonella enteritidis. Rats were fed a casein-based basal control diet (BD; unchallenged). Three groups of rats were challenged orally with 1 x 10(7) viable S. enteritidis on day 15 of the study and were fed the BD, the BD containing freeze-dried ovine immunoglobulins (FDOI), or the BD containing autoclaved ovine immunoglobulins (AOI; negative control diet). The rats were randomly allocated to one of the four groups (n 15) and consumed their diet for 18 d. In all of the intestinal segments, the challenged rats fed either the BD or AOI diet produced higher (Pimmunoglobulin fraction positively modulated some selected indices of mucosal immune function and its mediators in growing rats challenged with S. enteritidis.

  6. Role of type 1 and type 3 fimbriae on the adherence and pathogenesis of Salmonella enteritidis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslanzadeh, J; Paulissen, L J

    1992-01-01

    Through hemagglutination tests two isogenic strains of Salmonella enteritidis were shown to possess type 1 fimbriae (strain V) and type 1 and type 3 fimbriae (strain A). The two strains bound to human buccal and mouse small intestine epithelial cells. Strain A attached to the epithelial cells more readily and in larger numbers in comparison to strain V. Adherence of both strains were sensitive to the presence of D-mannose and pretreatment of the epithelial cells with tannic acid did not promote D-mannose resistant type binding of strain A S. enteritidis to human buccal and mouse small intestine epithelial cells. Furthermore, results from LD50 study indicated that, when the tests were carried out through oral inoculation of the mice the highly fimbriated stain A appeared to be more virulent. However, when the tests were carried out through intraperitoneal inoculation strain V was more virulent. These results indicate that adherence is a major contributing factor to the virulence of S. enteritidis and both type 1 and type 3 fimbriae contribute to this phenomenon.

  7. Electronic network for monitoring travellers' diarrhoea and detection of an outbreak caused by Salmonella enteritidis among overseas travellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaka, K; Inouye, S; Okabe, N; Taniguchi, K; Izumiya, H; Watanabe, H; Matsumoto, Y; Yokota, T; Hashimoto, S; Sagara, H

    1999-12-01

    The Traveller's Diarrhoea Network, by which the Infectious Disease Surveillance Center is electronically connected with two major airport quarantine stations and three infectious disease hospitals, was launched in February 1988 in Japan. The data on travellers' diarrhoea detected is reported weekly by e-mail. Two clusters of infection among travellers returning from Italy were reported by two airport quarantine stations at the end of September 1998. A total of 12 salmonella isolates from 2 clusters were examined. All were identified as Salmonella enteritidis, phage type 4 and showed identical banding patterns on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. A case-control study showed that the scrambled eggs served at the hotel restaurant in Rome were the likely source of this outbreak. This outbreak could not have been detected promptly and investigated easily without the e-mail network. International exchange of data on travellers' diarrhoea is important for preventing and controlling food-borne illnesses infected abroad.

  8. Molecular clonality and antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis and Infantis from broilers in three Northern regions of Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahmani, Maral; Peighambari, Seyed Mostafa; Svendsen, Christina Aaby

    2013-01-01

    ) were resistant to tetracycline, spectinomycin, streptomycin, and sulfamethoxazole and harbored the associated resistance genes; tetA, dfrA14, aadA1, and sulI together with class 1 integrons. The isolates revealed highly similar PFGE patterns indicating clonal relatedness across different geographical......ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant Salmonella strains are frequently encountered problems worldwide with considerable increased occurrences in recent years. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence and frequency of antimicrobial resistance and associated resistance genes......, and characterized for antimicrobial resistance genes associated to the phenotype. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was applied for comparison of genetic relatedness.Two serovars were detected among the isolates; Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis (75%) and S. Enteritidis (25%). Thirty-four (94...

  9. A multipathogen selective enrichment broth for simultaneous growth of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yi-Gang; Wu, Hui; Liu, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Su-Long; Yang, Xiao-Quan; Xiao, Xing-Long

    2010-07-01

    A selective enrichment broth (SSL) was formulated to allow concurrent growth of 3 prominent food-borne pathogens: Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes. Nalidixic acid, lithium chloride, and potassium tellurite were added as the selective agents, while sodium pyruvate and mannitol were employed as the supplemented elements. In the individual growth trial, the target pathogens were capable of growing in SSL to as high as 7-8 log(10) colony-forming units (CFU)/mL after 24 h incubation at 37 degrees C when being inoculated at 50-100 CFU/mL. In the simultaneous growth trial, the 3 combined target pathogens showed similar growth rates. The results show that SSL could support the successful simultaneous enrichment of 3 pathogens; however, SSL inhibited the growth of nontarget bacteria. In the artificial contaminated raw beef and ready-to-eat chicken, a high recovery of these 3 target pathogens was obtained in SSL. Finally, Salmonella Enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus, and L. monocytogenes were detected from 710 suspicious food samples by SSL with real-time PCR, and no false-positive or -negative results were reported. In summary, SSL has been shown to be a suitable broth for the simultaneous detection of the 3 prominent food-borne pathogens by multipathogen detection on a single-assay platform.

  10. Drastic decrease of Salmonella Enteritidis isolated from humans in Belgium in 2005, shift in phage types and influence on foodborne outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    COLLARD, J. M.; BERTRAND, S.; DIERICK, K.; GODARD, C.; WILDEMAUWE, C.; VERMEERSCH, K.; DUCULOT, J.; VAN IMMERSEEL, F.; PASMANS, F.; IMBERECHTS, H.; QUINET, C.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY In Belgium, non-typhoidal salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis are the two most frequently reported foodborne illnesses. During 2005, a 71% decrease of Salmonella Enteritidis infections compared with the average annual number cases in the period 2000–2004 was recorded by the Belgian National Reference Centre for Salmonella and Shigella. After the peak of 1999, the total number of salmonellosis cases decreased gradually, with the exception of 2003 when an increase was again recorded due to the rise of isolates belonging to the serotype Enteritidis. PT4, the predominant phage type of serotype Enteriditis over recent years (except in 2003), became the second most prevalent phage type in 2005 after PT21. We present in this paper the epidemiology (incidence and trends) of human salmonellosis in Belgium and assess the role of the vaccination programme in layer flocks on the decline of the incidence of human salmonellosis and foodborne outbreaks due to S. Enteritidis. PMID:17645812

  11. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis brain abscess mimicking meningitis after surgery for glioblastoma multiforme: a case report and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Luciani, L?a; Dubourg, Gr?gory; Graillon, Thomas; Honnorat, Estelle; Lepidi, Hubert; Drancourt, Michel; Seng, Piseth; Stein, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Background Salmonella brain abscess associated with brain tumor is rare. Only 11 cases have been reported to date. Here we report a case of brain abscess caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis mimicking post-surgical meningitis in a patient with glioblastoma multiforme. Case presentation A 60-year-old Algerian woman was admitted through an emergency department for a 4-day history of headache, nausea and vomiting, and behavioral disorders. Surgery for cerebral tumor excision was per...

  12. Induction of CXC chemokine mRNA expression in chicken oviduct epithelial cells by Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis via the type three secretion system-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    The messenger-RNA (mRNA) expression of selected cytokines and chemokines in primary chicken oviduct epithelial cells (COEC) was determined following in vitro infection with wild type or type three secretion system (T3SS) mutant Salmonella enteritidis (SE) strains. All SE strains examined in this stu...

  13. FUNCTIONS EXERTED BY THE VIRULENCE ASSOCIATED TYPE THREE SECRETION SYSTEMS DURING SALMONELLA ENTERICA SEROVAR ENTERITIDIS INFECTION OF CHICKEN OVIDUCT EPITHELIAL CELLS AND MACROPHAGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella enterica serovar, Enteritidis (SE) infection of chicken is a major contributing factor to non-typhoidal salmonellosis. The roles of the type three secretion systems (T3SS-1 and T3SS-2) in the pathogenesis of SE infection of chickens are poorly understood. In this study, the functions exer...

  14. Comparison of Methods of Extracting Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis DNA from Environmental Substrates and Quantification of Organisms by Using a General Internal Procedural Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerks, M.M.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.; Zijlstra, C.; Donnikov, M.; Vos, de R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper compares five commercially available DNA extraction methods with respect to DNA extraction efficiency of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis from soil, manure, and compost and uses an Escherichia coli strain harboring a plasmid expressing green fluorescent protein as a general

  15. Mathematical modeling and validation of growth of Salmonella Enteritidis and background microorganisms in potato salad – one-step kinetic analysis and model development

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to examine the growth of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) in potato salad caused by cross-contamination and temperature abuse, and develop mathematical models to predict its growth. The growth of SE was investigated under constant temperature conditions (8, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, a...

  16. Effect of elevated incubation temperature (42 Degrees C) On the multiplication and rapid detection of Salmonella Enteritidis in Egg Contents Pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detecting internal contamination of eggs with Salmonella enteritidis is essential for identifying laying flocks that could threaten public health. The most commone strategy for such testing is to prepare pools of the contents of 10-20 eggs adn to then incubate these pools at 25-37 degrees C to allo...

  17. The epidemiology of travel-related Salmonella Enteritidis in Ontario, Canada, 2010–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tighe Mary-Kathryn

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increases in the number of salmonellosis cases due to Salmonella Enteritidis (SE in 2010 and 2011 prompted a public health investigation in Ontario, Canada. In this report, we describe the current epidemiology of travel-related (TR SE, compare demographics, symptoms and phage types (PTs of TR and domestically-acquired (DA cases, and estimate the odds of acquiring SE by region of the world visited. Methods All incident cases of culture confirmed SE in Ontario obtained from isolates and specimens submitted to public health laboratories were included in this study. Demographic and illness characteristics of TR and DA cases were compared. A national travel survey was used to provide estimates for the number of travellers to various destinations to approximate rates of SE in travellers. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of acquiring SE when travelling to various world regions. Results Overall, 51.9% of SE cases were TR during the study period. This ranged from 35.7% TR cases in the summer travel period to 65.1% TR cases in the winter travel period. Compared to DA cases, TR cases were older and were less likely to seek hospital care. For Ontario travellers, the adjusted odds of acquiring SE was the highest for the Caribbean (OR 37.29, 95% CI 17.87-77.82 when compared to Europe. Certain PTs were more commonly associated with travel (e.g., 1, 4, 5b, 7a, Atypical than with domestic infection. Of the TR cases, 88.9% were associated with travel to the Caribbean and Mexico region, of whom 90.1% reported staying on a resort. Within this region, there were distinct associations between PTs and countries. Conclusions There is a large burden of TR illness from SE in Ontario. Accurate classification of cases by travel history is important to better understand the source of infections. The findings emphasize the need to make travellers, especially to the Caribbean, and health professionals who provide advice to

  18. Generation of a gene cassette for genetically engineered Salmonella Enteritidis in the specific region of the sipC gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ghasemi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Salmonellosis is an infection caused by eating contaminated food with Salmonella, and it can occur in humans and other animals. Salmonella has acquired the ability to create the infection due to the presence of several virulence genes. One of the virulence genes of salmonella is sipC gene that coding the SipC protein. The aim of this study was creating the gene cassette to genetically engineered Salmonella enteritidis in the specific region of the sipC gene. Methods: In this study, after DNA extraction from Salmonella, the upstream and downstream regions of the sipC gene was amplified based on PCR method. The PCR products were cloned with T/A cloning method and they were inserted into the pGEM vector. In order to generate the final gene cassette, each of the upstream and downstream regions of the sipC gene was subcloned into the pET32 vector, and cloning accuracy was assessed by PCR and enzyme digestion methods. Results: Amplification of the 320 bp upstream and 206 bp downstream of sipC gene was successful by PCR method. T/A cloning of these fragments were caused the formation of two pGEM-up and pGEM-down recombinant vectors. Results that were confirmed the sub-cloning accuracy indicate the formation of the final pET32-up-down gene cassette. Conclusion: The generated gene cassette in this study was considered as a multi-purpose cassette that is able to specific gene manipulation of Salmonella sipC gene by homologous recombination matched. This gene cassette has the necessary potential for sipC gene deletion or insertion of any useful gene instead of sipC gene.

  19. Genomic Comparison of Non-Typhoidal Salmonella enterica Serovars Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Heidelberg, Hadar and Kentucky Isolates from Broiler Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanani, Akhilesh S; Block, Glenn; Dewar, Ken; Forgetta, Vincenzo; Topp, Edward; Beiko, Robert G; Diarra, Moussa S

    2015-01-01

    Non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica serovars, associated with different foods including poultry products, are important causes of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. The colonization of the chicken gut by S. enterica could result in the contamination of the environment and food chain. The aim of this study was to compare the genomes of 25 S. enterica serovars isolated from broiler chicken farms to assess their intra- and inter-genetic variability, with a focus on virulence and antibiotic resistance characteristics. The genomes of 25 S. enterica isolates covering five serovars (ten Typhimurium including three monophasic 4,[5],12:i:, four Enteritidis, three Hadar, four Heidelberg and four Kentucky) were sequenced. Most serovars were clustered in strongly supported phylogenetic clades, except for isolates of serovar Enteritidis that were scattered throughout the tree. Plasmids of varying sizes were detected in several isolates independently of serovars. Genes associated with the IncF plasmid and the IncI1 plasmid were identified in twelve and four isolates, respectively, while genes associated with the IncQ plasmid were found in one isolate. The presence of numerous genes associated with Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPIs) was also confirmed. Components of the type III and IV secretion systems (T3SS and T4SS) varied in different isolates, which could explain in part, differences of their pathogenicity in humans and/or persistence in broilers. Conserved clusters of genes in the T3SS were detected that could be used in designing effective strategies (diagnostic, vaccination or treatments) to combat Salmonella. Antibiotic resistance genes (CMY, aadA, ampC, florR, sul1, sulI, tetAB, and srtA) and class I integrons were detected in resistant isolates while all isolates carried multidrug efflux pump systems regardless of their antibiotic susceptibility profile. This study showed that the predominant Salmonella serovars in broiler chickens harbor genes encoding adhesins

  20. Phage type conversion in Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis caused by the introduction of a resistance plasmid of incompatibility group X (IncX)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, D. J.; Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Platt, D. J.

    1999-01-01

    The plasmid pOG670, a 54 kb, conjugative plasmid that specifies resistance to ampicillin and kanamycin and belonging to the incompatibility group X (IncX), was transferred into 10 isolates of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis belonging to 10 different phage types (PT1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 9, 9b, 10......, 6 and 13a respectively. The results indicate a different route for phage type conversion Enteritidis from others reported in the literature and, although IncX plasmids are not normally present in PT8 or PT13a, may suggest a possible mechanism/link connecting these phage types....

  1. Poultry body temperature contributes to invasion control through reduced expression of Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 genes in Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troxell, Bryan; Petri, Nicholas; Daron, Caitlyn; Pereira, Rafaela; Mendoza, Mary; Hassan, Hosni M; Koci, Matthew D

    2015-12-01

    Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) and Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) are foodborne pathogens, and outbreaks are often associated with poultry products. Chickens are typically asymptomatic when colonized by these serovars; however, the factors contributing to this observation are uncharacterized. Whereas symptomatic mammals have a body temperature between 37°C and 39°C, chickens have a body temperature of 41°C to 42°C. Here, in vivo experiments using chicks demonstrated that numbers of viable S. Typhimurium or S. Enteritidis bacteria within the liver and spleen organ sites were ≥4 orders of magnitude lower than those within the ceca. When similar doses of S. Typhimurium or S. Enteritidis were given to C3H/HeN mice, the ratio of the intestinal concentration to the liver/spleen concentration was 1:1. In the avian host, this suggested poor survival within these tissues or a reduced capacity to traverse the host epithelial layer and reach liver/spleen sites or both. Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1) promotes localization to liver/spleen tissues through invasion of the epithelial cell layer. Following in vitro growth at 42°C, SPI-1 genes sipC, invF, and hilA and the SPI-1 rtsA activator were downregulated compared to expression at 37°C. Overexpression of the hilA activators fur, fliZ, and hilD was capable of inducing hilA-lacZ at 37°C but not at 42°C despite the presence of similar levels of protein at the two temperatures. In contrast, overexpression of either hilC or rtsA was capable of inducing hilA and sipC at 42°C. These data indicate that physiological parameters of the poultry host, such as body temperature, have a role in modulating expression of virulence. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Effect of rapid product desiccation or hydration on thermal resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis PT 30 in wheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Danielle F; Marks, Bradley P

    2015-02-01

    Salmonella is able to survive in low-moisture environments and is known to be more heat resistant as product water activity (aw) decreases. However, it is unknown how rapidly the resistance changes if product aw is altered rapidly, as can occur in certain processes. Therefore, the objective was to determine the effect of rapid product desiccation or hydration on Salmonella thermal resistance. Two dynamic moisture treatments were compared with two static moisture treatments to determine the effect of time-at-moisture on the thermal resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis phage type 30 (PT 30) in wheat flour. After inoculation, two static moisture groups were equilibrated to 0.3 and 0.6 aw over 4 to 7 days, and two dynamic moisture groups then were rapidly (flour that was rapidly desiccated from 0.6 to 0.3 aw was statistically equivalent (P > 0.05) to the D80°C-value in flour previously equilibrated to 0.3 aw, but both were greater (P flour previously equilibrated to 0.6 aw. Similarly, the D80°C-value in flour rapidly hydrated from 0.3 to 0.6 aw was statistically equivalent (P > 0.05) to the D80°C-value in flour previously equilibrated to 0.6 aw, and both were less than the D80°C-value in flour previously equilibrated to 0.3 aw. Therefore, Salmonella in the rapidly desiccated flour (0.3 aw) was as thermally resistant as that which previously had been equilibrated to 0.3 aw, and Salmonella in the rapidly hydrated flour (0.6 aw) responded similarly to that in the flour previously equilibrated to 0.6 aw. These results suggest that the response period to new aw is negligible, which is critically important in applying thermal resistance data or parameters to industrial pasteurization validations.

  3. Effect of an Enterococcus faecium probiotic on specific IgA following live Salmonella Enteritidis vaccination of layer chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beirão, Breno C B; Ingberman, Max; Fávaro, Celso; Mesa, Dany; Bittencourt, Letícia C; Fascina, Vitor B; Caron, Luiz Felipe

    2018-03-14

    Probiotics and immunization are being widely adopted by the poultry industry with the goal of controlling Salmonella enterica. However, the interaction between these two management protocols has been sparsely studied. The present study aimed to understand the role of an Enterococcus faecium probiotic in the production of salmonella-specific IgA in layers immunized with a live vaccine. Four groups were used: 'Control' (no vaccine or probiotic); 'Probiotic' (which received an E. faecium product); 'Vaccine' (immunized with two doses of a live attenuated S. Enteritidis vaccine); and 'Vaccine + probiotic'. Faecal salmonella-specific IgA was analysed 7 and 20 days post-vaccination boost (PV). At 7 days PV the 'Vaccine' and 'Vaccine + probiotic' groups had similar IgA levels. However, at 20 days PV IgA levels were two times higher in the 'Vaccine + probiotic' group compared to the 'Vaccine' group. To understand the role of the intestinal microbiota in this finding, bacterial diversity in faeces was analysed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The improvement in IgA production in probiotic-treated animals was accompanied by marked changes in the faecal microbiome. Some of the main differences between the 'Vaccine' and 'Vaccine + probiotic' groups include reduction of Escherichia-Shigella and increases in Blautia, Anaerotruncus and Lactobacillus in the latter group. Although no direct causal link can be established from this study design, it is possible that the E. faecium probiotic induces improved antibody production following vaccination via modulation of the intestinal microbiota.

  4. MICROENCAPSULATION OF INDIGENOUS POULTRY LACTIC ACID BACTERIA PROBIOTIC ON THE COMPETITIVE EXCLUSION AGAINST Salmonella enteritidis AND Escherichia coli IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Sonia Indri Pradipta

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effect of microencapsulation of lactic acid bacteria (LAB probiotic isolated from chickens’ gastrointestinal tract on Salmonella enterica serotype enteritidis ATCC 13076 and Escherichia coli EPEC. Probiotic of LAB used were Streptococcus thermophilus strain Kp-2, Lactobacillus murinus strain Ar-3, and Pediococcus acidilactici strain Kd-6. Microencapsulation were conducted by spray drying with inlet/outlet temperatures of 160/80°C using maltodextrin and skim milk powder (20% w/v as coating materials. Competitive exclusion test was conducted in vitro using well diffusion method. Variable measured in this study was the clear zone observed. The data of clear zone among treatments were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA one way followed by Duncan multiple range test (DMRT; except the data of clear zone resulted by probiotic before and after microencapsulation that was analyzed using t-test. The result showed that the ability of each strain against pathogen was decreased after being encapsulated. S. thermophilus before and after microencapsulation had the same antagonistic ability against E. coli and S. enteritidis (P>0.05. Microencapsulation process with spray drying method decreased antagonistic ability of probiotic against pathogenic bacteria both in single and multi strain.

  5. Immune response of chicken gut to natural colonization by gut microflora and to Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crhanova, Magdalena; Hradecka, Helena; Faldynova, Marcela; Matulova, Marta; Havlickova, Hana; Sisak, Frantisek; Rychlik, Ivan

    2011-07-01

    In commercial poultry production, there is a lack of natural flora providers since chickens are hatched in the clean environment of a hatchery. Events occurring soon after hatching are therefore of particular importance, and that is why we were interested in the development of the gut microbial community, the immune response to natural microbial colonization, and the response to Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis infection as a function of chicken age. The complexity of chicken gut microbiota gradually increased from day 1 to day 19 of life and consisted of Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. For the first 3 days of life, chicken cecum was protected by increased expression of chicken β-defensins (i.e., gallinacins 1, 2, 4, and 6), expression of which dropped from day 4 of life. On the other hand, a transient increase in interleukin-8 (IL-8) and IL-17 expression could be observed in chicken cecum on day 4 of life, indicating physiological inflammation and maturation of the gut immune system. In agreement, the response of chickens infected with S. Enteritidis on days 1, 4, and 16 of life shifted from Th1 (characterized mainly by induction of gamma interferon [IFN-γ] and inducible nitric oxide synthase [iNOS]), observed in younger chickens, to Th17, observed in 16-day-old chickens (characterized mainly by IL-17 induction). Active modification of chicken gut microbiota in the future may accelerate or potentiate the maturation of the gut immune system and increase its resistance to infection with different pathogens.

  6. Abnormalities in liver enzyme levels during Salmonella enteritidis enterocolitis Alteraciones en los niveles séricos de enzimas hepáticos durante la enterocolitis por Salmonella enteritidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. González-Quintela

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the prevalence, associated factors, and time-course changes of abnormal liver enzyme serum levels in adult patients with Salmonella enteritidis enterocolitis. Methods: the clinical records of 104 patients (age range 15-86 years, 46.2% males admitted to hospital because of S. enteritidis enterocolitis were reviewed. The prevalence of abnormal liver enzyme levels was evaluated, as well as its possible relationship to data of systemic inflammatory response, severe sepsis, and bacteremia. In addition, time-course changes in serum levels of liver enzymes were studied in 16 cases with available follow-up after hospital discharge. Results: in patients without a pre-existing cause for liver enzyme abnormalities (n = 84, the prevalence of serum AST elevation was 23.0% (95% CI 15.4-34.5%, of serum ALT elevation was 17.9% (95% CI 0.6-20.0%, and of GGT elevation was 19.0% (95% CI 11.6-29.3%. The prevalence of abnormality for any of these enzymes (AST, ALT, or GGT was 35.7% (95% CI 25.7-46.8%. The prevalence of altered serum alkaline phosphatase was lower. Alteration in liver enzyme serum levels was moderate in the majority of cases, and was found in association with the presence of fever. Serum enzyme levels decreased during the convalescence period after hospital discharge. Conclusions: abnormalities in liver enzyme levels are frequent during severe enterocolitis due to S. enteritidis in adult patients. These abnormalities are moderate and self-limited.Objetivo: evaluar la prevalencia, los factores asociados y la evolución de las anormalidades en los niveles séricos de enzimas hepáticos en pacientes adultos con enterocolitis por S. enteritidis. Métodos: se revisaron los historiales de 104 pacientes (de edades comprendidas entre 15 y 86 años, 46,2% varones, ingresados en un hospital por enterocolitis aguda por S. enteritidis. Se evaluó la prevalencia de alteración en los niveles séricos de enzimas hepáticos y su asociaci

  7. Antimicrobial sensitivity and resistance of Salmonella Enteritidis isolated from natural samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavarao Thirtham

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To test the sensitivity of S. Enteritidis for selected antibiotics. Materials and Methods: S. Enteritidis isolates obtained from different samples of chicken, mutton, turkey meat, faecal and cloacal samples of poultry and turkey, eggs, water and feed were subjected for sensitivity and resistance to selected antibiotics like- Chloramphenicol (30μg, Gentamicin (10 μg, Nalidixic Acid (30 μg, Tetracycline (30 μg, Ciprofloxacin (5 μg, Amikacin (30 μg, Amoxicillin (25 μg, Ampicillin (10 μg, Streptomycin (10 μg and Sulfonamide (30 μg. Antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates was established by the disk diffusion assay with MH (Muller-Hinton agar in accordance with French National Antibiogram Committee Guidelines. Results: The sensitivity of S. Enteritidis was 100% for ciprofloxacin followed by chloramphenicol and amikacin (96%, gentamycin (90%, amoxicillin (82%, streptomycin (80%, tetracycline (76%, nalidixic acid (68%, ampicillin (58% and sulfonamide (10%. The resistance was highest for sulfonamide (76% followed by ampicillin (32%, nalidixic acid (30% and 6-20% for gentamycin, amoxicillin and tetracycline. Conclusion: S. Enteritidis isolates were more sensitive to ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, amikacin, gentamycin, streptomycin,amoxicillin and tetracyclines and less sensitive to sulfonamides. Higher resistance was observed with sulfonamide followed by ampicillin and nalidixic acid. [Vet World 2013; 6(4.000: 185-188

  8. Antimicrobial drug resistance and genetic properties of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis circulating in chicken farms in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Salem, Rakia; Abbassi, Mohamed S; García, Vanesa; García-Fierro, Raquel; Fernández, Javier; Kilani, Hajer; Jaouani, Imen; Khayeche, Monia; Messadi, Lilia; Rodicio, María R

    This study focused on 77 isolates of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis collected during 2009 to 2013 from healthy and sick chickens and environmental farm samples in Tunisia. Resistance to 14 antimicrobials and the encoding genes were analyzed. 66, 26, 6.5, 3.9 and 1.3% were pan-susceptible or showed resistance to nalidixic acid (Asp87 to Tyr and Asp87 to Asn substitutions in GyrA), ampicillin (bla TEM-1-like and bla SHV ), sulfonamides (sul1and sul3) and streptomycin (strB), respectively. A single isolate with intermediate susceptibility to ciprofloxacin was positive for qnrB, whereas qnrA, qnrS or aac(6')-Ib-cr were not detected. The virulotype of the isolates was established by testing ten virulence genes. The orgA, ssaQ, mgtC, siiD, sopB genes, located on Salmonella pathogenicity islands, and spvC of the serotype-specific virulence plasmid, were common to all isolates. In contrast, the prophage-associated sopE-1, sodC1 and gipA genes and the fimbrial bcfC gene were variably represented. All isolates except one contained the virulence plasmid, which appeared either alone or together with one or more additional plasmids. One isolate carried a single plasmid of ca. 90Kb which may be derived from the virulence plasmid (60Kb). Overall, seven resistotypes, six virulotypes and six plasmid profiles were identified. XbaI-PFGE revealed four related pulsotypes (X1-X4), with 80% of the isolates sharing the X1 pattern. The latter isolates exhibited different resistance, virulence and plasmid profiles, suggesting that mobile genetic elements, particularly prophages and plasmids, are of central importance for the evolution and adaptation of S. Enteritidis circulating in chicken farms in Tunisia. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis brain abscess mimicking meningitis after surgery for glioblastoma multiforme: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciani, Léa; Dubourg, Grégory; Graillon, Thomas; Honnorat, Estelle; Lepidi, Hubert; Drancourt, Michel; Seng, Piseth; Stein, Andreas

    2016-07-07

    Salmonella brain abscess associated with brain tumor is rare. Only 11 cases have been reported to date. Here we report a case of brain abscess caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis mimicking post-surgical meningitis in a patient with glioblastoma multiforme. A 60-year-old Algerian woman was admitted through an emergency department for a 4-day history of headache, nausea and vomiting, and behavioral disorders. Surgery for cerebral tumor excision was performed and histopathological analysis revealed glioblastoma multiforme. On the seventh day post-surgery, she presented a sudden neurological deterioration with a meningeal syndrome, confusion, and fever of 39.8°C. Her cerebrospinal fluid sample and blood cultures were positive for S. enterica Enteritidis. She was treated with ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin. On the 17th day post-surgery, she presented a new neurological disorder and purulent discharge from the surgical wound. Brain computed tomography revealed a large cerebral abscess located at the operative site. Surgical drainage of the abscess was performed and microbial cultures of surgical deep samples were positive for the same S. enterica Enteritidis isolate. She recovered and was discharged 6 weeks after admission. In this case report, a brain abscess was initially diagnosed as Salmonella post-surgical meningitis before the imaging diagnosis of the brain abscess. The diagnosis of brain abscess should be considered in all cases of non-typhoidal Salmonella meningitis after surgery for brain tumor. Surgical brain abscess drainage followed by prolonged antibiotic treatment remains a major therapeutic option.

  10. Effect of high pressure processing on the survival of Salmonella Enteritidis and shelf-life of chicken fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyri, Anthoula A; Papadopoulou, Olga S; Nisiotou, Aspasia; Tassou, Chrysoula C; Chorianopoulos, Nikos

    2018-04-01

    High pressure processing (HPP) is a preservation technology alternative to heat treatment that is mild for food, but effectively inactivates the spoilage microbiota and foodborne pathogens of several foods. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effect of HPP on Salmonella ser. Enteritidis, indigenous microbiota and shelf-life of chicken fillets. Chicken fillets were inoculated with S. Enteritidis at three different initial inocula (3, 5, 7 log CFU/g), packed under vacuum, treated or not with HPP (500 MPa/10 min) and stored at 4 and 12 °C. Total viable counts, S. Enteritidis, pseudomonads, Brochothrix thermosphacta, lactic acid bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae and yeasts/molds populations were determined in parallel with sensory analysis of non-inoculated samples. The HPP resulted in the reduction of the pathogen population below the detection limit of the enumeration method (0.48 log CFU/g), irrespective of the inoculum. During the shelf life of the HPP samples, the pathogens population remained below or near the detection limit of the enumeration method at both temperatures, except from the high inoculum case that an increase was observed at 12 °C. At the low inoculum level, the pathogen could not be detected with the enrichment method after the first storage days (2nd day for 4 °C and 0 day for 12 °C). The survival of Salmonella strains was assessed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis and it was shown that the survival of the different strains depended on the inoculum and storage temperature. Regarding the indigenous microbiota, Br. thermosphacta was reported for the first time to be the main spoilage microorganism that survived and dominated after the HPP. From the results it was evident that, HPP may enhance the safety and increase the shelf life (6 at 4 °C and 2 days at 12 °C) of chicken meat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Gene Expression Response of Salmonella enterica Serotype Enteritidis Phage Type 8 to Subinhibitory Concentrations of the Plant-Derived Compounds Trans-Cinnamaldehyde and Eugenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anup Kollanoor Johny

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background:Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 8 (PT8 is a major poultry-associated Salmonella strain implicated in foodborne outbreaks in the United States. We previously reported that two plant-derived compounds generally recognized as safe (GRAS, trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC, and eugenol (EG, significantly reduced S. Enteritidis colonization in broiler and layer chickens. To elucidate potential PT8 genes affected by TC and EG during colonization, a whole-genome microarray analysis of the bacterium treated with TC and EG was conducted.Results:S. Enteritidis PT8 was grown in Luria-Bertani broth at 37°C to an OD600 of ~0.5. Subinhibitory concentrations (SICs; concentration that does not inhibit bacterial growth of TC (0.01%; 0.75 mM or EG (0.04%; 2.46 mM were then added to the culture. S. Enteritidis PT8 RNA was extracted before and 30 min after TC or EG addition. Labeled cDNA from three replicate experiments was subsequently hybridized to a microarray of over 99% of S. Enteritidis PT4 genes, and the hybridization signals were quantified. The plant-derived compounds down-regulated (P < 0.005 expression of S. Enteritidis PT8 genes involved in flagellar motility, regulation of the Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1, and invasion of intestinal epithelial cells. TC and EG also suppressed transcription of genes encoding multiple transport systems and outer membrane proteins. Moreover, several metabolic and biosynthetic pathways in the pathogen were down-regulated during exposure to the plant-derived compounds. Both TC and EG stimulated the transcription of heat shock genes, such as dnaK, dnaJ, ibpB, and ibpA in S. Enteritidis PT8 (P < 0.005. The results obtained from microarray were validated using a quantitative real-time PCR.Conclusion: The plant-derived compounds TC and EG exert antimicrobial effects on S. Enteritidis PT8 by affecting multiple genes, including those associated with virulence, colonization, cell membrane composition, and transport

  12. Influence of ethanol adaptation on Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis survival in acidic environments and expression of acid tolerance-related genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shoukui; Cui, Yan; Qin, Xiaojie; Zhang, Fen; Shi, Chunlei; Paoli, George C; Shi, Xianming

    2018-06-01

    Cross-protection to environmental stresses by ethanol adaptation in Salmonella poses a great threat to food safety because it can undermine food processing interventions. The ability of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) to develop acid resistance following ethanol adaptation (5% ethanol for 1 h) was evaluated in this study. Ethanol-adapted S. Enteritidis mounted cross-tolerance to malic acid (a two-fold increase in minimum bactericidal concentration), but not to acetic, ascorbic, lactic, citric and hydrochloric acids. The population of S. Enteritidis in orange juice (pH 3.77) over a 48-h period was not significantly (p > 0.05) influenced by ethanol adaptation. However, an increased survival by 0.09-1.02 log CFU/ml was noted with ethanol-adapted cells of S. Enteritidis compared to non-adapted cells in apple juice (pH 3.57) stored at 25 °C (p < 0.05), but not at 4 °C. RT-qPCR revealed upregulation of two acid tolerance-related genes, rpoS (encoding σ S ) and SEN1564A (encoding an acid shock protein), following ethanol adaptation. The relative expression level of the acid resistance gene hdeB did not change. The resistance phenotypes and transcriptional profiles of S. Enteritidis suggest some involvement of rpoS and SEN1564A in the ethanol-induced acid tolerance mechanism. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Plasmidotipia y evaluación in vitro de la virulencia de cepas de Salmonella enteritidis de origen aviar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Darío Toro

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de caracterizar a nivel biológico y molecular cepas de Salmonella entérica, subespecie entérica serotipo Enteritidis (Salmonella enteritidis se obtuvieron y confirmaron bioquímica y serológicamente treinta cepas aisladas de aves clínicamente sanas. Las cepas fueron evaluadas mediante plasmidotipia y determinación de virulencia in vitro evaluando susceptibilidad antimicrobiana, actividad hemaglutinante manosa resistente y manosa sensible como indicativo de la presencia de adhesinas fimbriales y capacidad de sobrevivencia en el interior de macrófagos. La extracción de plásmidos se realizó por la técnica de lisis alcalina. Se obtuvieron perfiles de restricción con las enzimas PstI y SmaI. La susceptibilidad antimicrobiana se determinó por la prueba de difusión de disco en agar. La actividad hemaglutinante en presencia y en ausencia de manosa fue evaluada frente a glóbulos rojos de ave, bovino, equino, humano (A+ y ovino. La capacidad de sobrevivencia en el interior de macrófagos se determinó valorando la viabilidad de las cepas 24 horas después de la ingestión por macrófagos de línea de origen murino. Veintinueve cepas (96.6% mostraron un plasmido cuyo tamaño corresponde al plasmido de virulencia asociado a serotipo. Veintisiete cepas (90% mostraron dos o más plasmidos. Perfiles de restricción realizados con las enzimas Pst I y Sma I permitieron establecer una alta asociación entre las cepas. Se determinó resistencia a uno o más antimicrobianos en catorce cepas de S. enteritidis (46.6%, se observó resistencia a oxitetraciclina, sulfatrimetroprim, estreptomicina y cloranfenicol. Ninguna cepa mostró resistencia a gentamicina y kanamicina. Se detectó actividad hemaglutinante manosa sensible como indicativo de adhesinas fimbriales tipo I en once cepas (36.6% de las treinta evaluadas. La totalidad de las cepas sobrevivieron en el interior de macrófagos de línea J774A.1 y fueron viables 24 horas después de la

  14. 76 FR 81513 - Guidance for Industry: Prevention of Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ...] Guidance for Industry: Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production, Storage, and... ``Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production, Storage, and Transportation.'' The... final rule ``Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production, Storage, and...

  15. Genetic algorithm-artificial neural network and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system modeling of antibacterial activity of annatto dye on Salmonella enteritidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yolmeh, Mahmoud; Habibi Najafi, Mohammad B; Salehi, Fakhreddin

    2014-01-01

    Annatto is commonly used as a coloring agent in the food industry and has antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. In this study, genetic algorithm-artificial neural network (GA-ANN) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) models were used to predict the effect of annatto dye on Salmonella enteritidis in mayonnaise. The GA-ANN and ANFIS were fed with 3 inputs of annatto dye concentration (0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4%), storage temperature (4 and 25°C) and storage time (1-20 days) for prediction of S. enteritidis population. Both models were trained with experimental data. The results showed that the annatto dye was able to reduce of S. enteritidis and its effect was stronger at 25°C than 4°C. The developed GA-ANN, which included 8 hidden neurons, could predict S. enteritidis population with correlation coefficient of 0.999. The overall agreement between ANFIS predictions and experimental data was also very good (r=0.998). Sensitivity analysis results showed that storage temperature was the most sensitive factor for prediction of S. enteritidis population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Subtyping Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis isolates from different sources by using sequence typing based on virulence genes and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fenyun; Kariyawasam, Subhashinie; Jayarao, Bhushan M; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Gerner-Smidt, Peter; Ribot, Efrain M; Knabel, Stephen J; Dudley, Edward G

    2011-07-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis is a major cause of food-borne salmonellosis in the United States. Two major food vehicles for S. Enteritidis are contaminated eggs and chicken meat. Improved subtyping methods are needed to accurately track specific strains of S. Enteritidis related to human salmonellosis throughout the chicken and egg food system. A sequence typing scheme based on virulence genes (fimH and sseL) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs)-CRISPR-including multi-virulence-locus sequence typing (designated CRISPR-MVLST)-was used to characterize 35 human clinical isolates, 46 chicken isolates, 24 egg isolates, and 63 hen house environment isolates of S. Enteritidis. A total of 27 sequence types (STs) were identified among the 167 isolates. CRISPR-MVLST identified three persistent and predominate STs circulating among U.S. human clinical isolates and chicken, egg, and hen house environmental isolates in Pennsylvania, and an ST that was found only in eggs and humans. It also identified a potential environment-specific sequence type. Moreover, cluster analysis based on fimH and sseL identified a number of clusters, of which several were found in more than one outbreak, as well as 11 singletons. Further research is needed to determine if CRISPR-MVLST might help identify the ecological origins of S. Enteritidis strains that contaminate chickens and eggs.

  17. Competitive exclusion against Salmonella Enteritidis in layer chickens by yoghurt microbiota: impact on egg production, protection and yolk-antibody and cholesterol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayeb, I T; Nehme, P A; Jaber, L S; Barbour, E K

    2007-05-01

    This work aims at studying the impact of competitive exclusion of Salmonella serotype Enteritidis infection in layer chickens, by microbiota of fresh and dried-modified yoghurt, on egg production and weight, protection against infection, and on yolk-antibody and cholesterol levels. Four groups of 27-week-old layer chickens were included in this study. After an initial enrofloxacin treatment, groups 1 and 2 were administered fresh or dry yoghurt (respectively) for 14 days. Groups 1, 2 and 3 were challenged intraoesophageally with Salm. Enteritidis, on the sixth day of yoghurt administration, while group 4 was left unchallenged and without yoghurt administration. No significant difference in percent infectivity of visceral organs with Salm. Enteritidis was observed between the groups. The yoghurt administered groups showed an early significant antibody response in their yolk on the seventh day postchallenge (P egg production and weight. Finally, the egg yolk cholesterol concentration was higher in Salm. Enteritidis-challenged groups than that observed in the unchallenged group. The results point to the possible involvement of yoghurt administration in immunopotentiation and improvement of egg production and weight. These findings warrant further research that could improve immunity and production in layer chickens infected with Salm. Enteritidis.

  18. Contribution of the hdeB-like gene (SEN1493) to survival of Salmonella enterica enteritidis Nal(R) at pH 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joerger, Rolf D; Choi, Steven

    2015-04-01

    Periplasmic proteins are particularly vulnerable to denaturation upon entry into a highly acid environment. In Escherichia coli, a level of protection of these proteins is afforded by acid-inducible chaperonins encoded by hdeAB. In contrast, Salmonella enterica only harbors an hdeB-like gene and it is currently not known what function it plays in this genus. In the present study, the hdeB-like gene was deleted in Salmonella enterica Enteritidis Nal(R) and Salmonella enterica Kentucky 3795. When grown overnight in tryptic soy broth (TSB) medium buffered at pH 5.5 and then exposed to TSB pH 2 for 20 min, Enteritidis wild-type strain experienced a 0.5-log10 reduction in colony-forming units, whereas the deletion strain's surviving cells were reduced by 1.6 log10. No difference in survival was observed in the corresponding Salmonella enterica Kentucky 3795 strains treated the same way. Exposure of the strains to pH 2.5 or 3 resulted in the same log reduction regardless of the presence of the hdeB-like gene. When wild-type and deletion strains of both serovars were grown in medium buffered at pH 7 prior to exposure to the acidic pHs, no difference in survival with respect to serovar or presence/absence of the hdeB-like gene was found. Salmonella enterica Enteritidis Nal(R) carrying its own or the intragenic region upstream of the hdeB-like from Salmonella enterica Kentucky 3795 cloned in front of the gfp gene from pFPV25 showed maximum fluorescence when grown at pH 5.5, whereas the corresponding plasmid-carrying Salmonella enterica Kentucky strains did not exhibit fluorescence regardless of the pH of the growth medium. Therefore, the hdeB-like gene in Salmonella enterica Enteritidis, but not in Salmonella enterica Kentucky 3795, contributed to survival at pH 2 and its expression is responsive to the pH of the medium.

  19. A questionnaire-based, retrospective field study of persistence of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium in Danish broiler houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gradel, K.O.; Rattenborg, Erik

    2003-01-01

    with house status-but that were beyond the control of the farmer-were the salmonella type and the percentage of salmonella positive samples in the first crop. Factors which could be controlled by the farmer and which were associated with reduced prevalence of multiple-infection houses included antiseptic...

  20. Genotypic characterisation by PFGE of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis phage types 1, 4, 6, and 8 isolated from animal and human sources in three European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laconcha, I.; Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Rementeria, A.

    2000-01-01

    profile A10-A10-A1 was predominant and specific for this phage type. It is concluded that PFGE, in combination with phage typing, represents a suitable tool for the epidemiological typing of Salmonella Enteritidis strains which could be used for investigations or surveillance of the international spread......A total of 101 strains of Salmonella Enteritidis phage types (PT) 1, 4, 6, and 8 from Denmark, England and Spain were studied by PFGE to elucidate genetic relationships among strains isolated from animal, human and environmental sources between 1983 and 1997. Analysis with Xba I, Bin I and Spe I......, confirming the close relationship among these phage types and the protracted spread of a single clone over a large geographical area. In general, strains from Denmark showed more variation in their PFGE profiles than those from England and Spain. PT4 strains exhibited genetic homogeneity in the three...

  1. Designing a biochip following multiplex polymerase chain reaction for the detection of Salmonella serovars Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Infantis, Hadar, and Virchow in poultry products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Cheng Chiang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella-contaminated foods, especially poultry-derived foods (eggs, chicken meat, are the major source of salmonellosis. Not only in the European Union (EU, but also in the United States, Japan, and other countries, has salmonellosis been an issue of concern for food safety control agencies. In 2005, EU regulation 1003/2005 set a target for the control and reduction of five target Salmonella enterica serovars—S. Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis, S. Infantis, S. Hadar, and S. Virchow—in breeding flocks. Thus, a simple biochip for the rapid detection of any of these five Salmonella serovars in poultry products may be required. The objectives of this study were to design S. Virchow-specific primers and to develop a biochip for the simultaneous identification of all or any of these five Salmonella serovars in poultry and poultry products. Experimentally, we designed novel polymerase chain reaction (PCR primers for the specific detection of S. Virchow, S. Infantis, and S. Hadar. The specificity of all these primers and two known primer sets for S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis was then confirmed under the same PCR conditions using 57 target strains and 112 nontarget Salmonella strains as well as 103 non-Salmonella strains. Following multiplex PCR, strains of any of these five Salmonella serovars could be detected by a chromogenic biochip deployed with DNA probes specific to these five Salmonella serovars. In comparison with the multiplex PCR methods, the biochip assay could improve the detection limit of each of the Salmonella serovars from N×103 cfu/mL to N×102 cfu/mL sample in either the pure culture or the chicken meat samples. With an 8-hour enrichment step, the detection limit could reach up to N×100 cfu/mL.

  2. ZnO nanoparticles impose a panmetabolic toxic effect along with strong necrosis, inducing activation of the envelope stress response in Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidovic, Sinisa; Elder, Jeff; Medihala, Prabhakara; Lawrence, John R; Predicala, Bernardo; Zhang, Haixia; Korber, Darren R

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we tested the antimicrobial activity of three metal nanoparticles (NPs), ZnO, MgO, and CaO NPs, against Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in liquid medium and on solid surfaces. Out of the three tested metal NPs, ZnO NPs exhibited the most significant antimicrobial effect both in liquid medium and when embedded on solid surfaces. Therefore, we focused on revealing the mechanisms of surface-associated ZnO biocidal activity. Using the global proteome approach, we report that a great majority (79%) of the altered proteins in biofilms formed by Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis were downregulated, whereas a much smaller fraction (21%) of proteins were upregulated. Intriguingly, all downregulated proteins were enzymes involved in a wide range of the central metabolic pathways, including translation; amino acid biosynthetic pathways; nucleobase, nucleoside, and nucleotide biosynthetic processes; ATP synthesis-coupled proton transport; the pentose phosphate shunt; and carboxylic acid metabolic processes, indicating that ZnO NPs exert a panmetabolic toxic effect on this prokaryotic organism. In addition to their panmetabolic toxicity, ZnO NPs induced profound changes in cell envelope morphology, imposing additional necrotic effects and triggering the envelope stress response of Salmonella serovar Enteritidis. The envelope stress response effect activated periplasmic chaperones and proteases, transenvelope complexes, and regulators, thereby facilitating protection of this prokaryotic organism against ZnO NPs. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Effect of controlled atmosphere storage, modified atmosphere packaging and gaseous ozone treatment on the survival of Salmonella Enteritidis on cherry tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daş, Elif; Gürakan, G Candan; Bayindirli, Alev

    2006-08-01

    In recent years, outbreaks of infections associated with raw and minimally processed fruits and vegetables have been reported. The objective of this study was to analyse the growth/survival of Salmonella Enteritidis at spot-inoculated or stem-injected cherry tomatoes during passive modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), controlled atmosphere (CA) and to compare the results with those of air storage at 7 and 22 degrees C. During MAP, the gas composition equilibrated to 6% O2/4% CO2. CO2 level was maintained as 5% through the term of CA storage at 7 and 22 degrees C. The results demonstrate that S. Enteritidis can survive and/or grow during the storage of tomatoes depending on the location site of the pathogen on fruit, suspension cell density and storage temperature. During MAP, CA and air storage, S. Enteritidis with initial population of 7.0 log10 cfu/tomato survived on tomato surfaces with an approximate decrease of 4.0-5.0 log10 cfu/tomato in population within the storage period; however, in the case of initial population of 3.0 log10 cfu/tomato, cells died completely on day 4 during MAP storage and on day 6 during both CA and air storage. The death rate of S. Enteritidis on the surfaces of tomatoes that were stored in MAP was faster than that of stored in air and in CA. Storage temperature was effective on the survival of S. Enteritidis for the samples stored at ambient atmosphere; cells died completely on day 6 at 7 degrees C and on day 8 at 22 degrees C. Stem scars provided protective environments for Salmonella; an approximate increase of 1.0 log10 cfu/tomato in stem-scar population was observed during MAP, CA and air storage at 22 degrees C within the period of 20 days. Cells survived with no significant change in number at 7 degrees C. During the research, the effect of ozone treatment (5-30 mg/l ozone gas for 0-20 min) was also considered for surface sanitation before storage. Gaseous ozone treatment has bactericidal effect on S. Enteritidis, inoculated on

  4. Modulation of the main porcine enteric neuropeptides by a single low-dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)SalmonellaEnteritidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikołajczyk, Anita; Gonkowski, Sławomir; Złotkowska, Dagmara

    2017-01-01

    The present research was conducted to investigate the influence of a low, single dose of LPS, which does not result in any clinical symptoms of intoxication on the expression of selected neuropeptides within the intestines of the domestic pig. This experiment was conducted on immature female pigs of the Pitrain × Duroc breed (n = five per group). Seven days after the intravenous injection of 10 mL saline solution for control animals and 5 μg/kg b.w. (in 10 mL saline solution) LPS Salmonella Enteritidis for the experimental group, the excised segments of duodenum, jejunum, ileum, ileocecal valve, caecum, descending colon, transverse colon, ascending colon and rectum were prepared to extract the main enteric neuropeptides, including GAL, NPY, SOM, SP, VIP. The results of this research indicate that single low-dose LPS S. Enteritidis produced changes in the content of the selected neuropeptides of the porcine intestine. The most visible changes were observed in the transverse colon, where LPS induced the increase of GAL expression from 19.41 ± 7.121 to 92.92 ± 11.447 ng/g tissue. The exact functions of the substances studied and mechanisms of responses to LPS action depend on the sections of the intestines. The mechanisms of observed changes are not fully understood, but fluctuations in neuronal active substance levels may be connected with neurodegenerative and/or pro-inflammatory activity of LPS.

  5. Immune Response of Chicken Gut to Natural Colonization by Gut Microflora and to Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis Infection ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crhanova, Magdalena; Hradecka, Helena; Faldynova, Marcela; Matulova, Marta; Havlickova, Hana; Sisak, Frantisek; Rychlik, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    In commercial poultry production, there is a lack of natural flora providers since chickens are hatched in the clean environment of a hatchery. Events occurring soon after hatching are therefore of particular importance, and that is why we were interested in the development of the gut microbial community, the immune response to natural microbial colonization, and the response to Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis infection as a function of chicken age. The complexity of chicken gut microbiota gradually increased from day 1 to day 19 of life and consisted of Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. For the first 3 days of life, chicken cecum was protected by increased expression of chicken β-defensins (i.e., gallinacins 1, 2, 4, and 6), expression of which dropped from day 4 of life. On the other hand, a transient increase in interleukin-8 (IL-8) and IL-17 expression could be observed in chicken cecum on day 4 of life, indicating physiological inflammation and maturation of the gut immune system. In agreement, the response of chickens infected with S. Enteritidis on days 1, 4, and 16 of life shifted from Th1 (characterized mainly by induction of gamma interferon [IFN-γ] and inducible nitric oxide synthase [iNOS]), observed in younger chickens, to Th17, observed in 16-day-old chickens (characterized mainly by IL-17 induction). Active modification of chicken gut microbiota in the future may accelerate or potentiate the maturation of the gut immune system and increase its resistance to infection with different pathogens. PMID:21555397

  6. Effectiveness of superheated steam for inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 30, and Listeria monocytogenes on almonds and pistachios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Ga-Hee; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2016-03-02

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of superheated steam (SHS) on the inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis phage type (PT) 30 and Listeria monocytogenes on almonds and in-shell pistachios and to determine the effect of superheated steam heating on quality by measuring color and texture changes. Almonds and in-shell pistachios inoculated with four foodborne pathogens were treated with saturated steam (SS) at 100 °C and SHS at 125, 150, 175, and 200 °C for various times. Exposure of almonds and pistachios to SHS for 15 or 30s at 200 °C achieved >5l og reductions among all tested pathogens without causing significant changes in color values or texture parameters (P>0.05). For both almonds and pistachios, acid and peroxide values (PV) following SS and SHS treatment for up to 15s and 30s, respectively, were within the acceptable range (PVnuts industry by improving inactivation of foodborne pathogens on almonds and pistachios while simultaneously reducing processing time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. An outbreak of Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 34a infection associated with a Chinese restaurant in Suffolk, United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahgoub Hamid

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background On 30th July 2002, the Suffolk Communicable Disease Control Team received notifications of gastrointestinal illness due to Salmonella Enteritidis in subjects who had eaten food from a Chinese restaurant on 27th July. An Outbreak Control Team was formed resulting in extensive epidemiological, microbiological and environmental investigations. Methods Attempts were made to contact everybody who ate food from the restaurant on 27th July and a standard case definition was adopted. Using a pre-designed proforma information was gathered from both sick and well subjects. Food specific attack rates were calculated and two-tailed Fisher's exact test was used to test the difference between type of food consumed and the health status. Using a retrospective cohort design univariate Relative Risks and 95% Confidence Intervals were calculated for specific food items. Results Data was gathered on 52 people of whom 38 developed gastrointestinal symptoms; 16 male and 22 female. The mean age was 27 years. The mean incubation period was 30 hours with a range of 6 to 90 hours. Food attack rates were significantly higher for egg, special and chicken fried rice. Relative risk and the Confidence interval for these food items were 1.97 (1.11–3.48, 1.56 (1.23–1.97 and 1.48 (1.20–1.83 respectively. Interviews with the chef revealed that many eggs were used in the preparation of egg-fried rice, which was left at room temperature for seven hours and was used in the preparation of the other two rice dishes. Of the 31 submitted stool specimens 28 tested positive for S Enteritidis phage type 34a and one for S Enteritidis phage type 4. Conclusion In the absence of left over food available for microbiological examination, epidemiological investigation strongly suggested the eggs used in the preparation of the egg-fried rice as the vehicle for this outbreak. This investigation highlights the importance of safe practices in cooking and handling of eggs in

  8. Antimicrobial activity optimization of nisin, ascorbic acid and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid disodium salt (EDTA against Salmonella Enteritidis ATCC 13076 using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nongpanga Sangcharoen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Nisin is a commercial bacteriocin produced by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and widely used as a natural preservative in the food industry. However, while nisin alone cannot inhibit the growth of Gram-negative bacteria, it can in combination with a chelating agent or organic acid. This study combined nisin with some chelating agents, weak organic acids and their salts to inhibit Salmonella Enteritidis ATCC 13076. The combinations of nisin (2000 parts per million; ppm and ascorbic acid (2000 ppm or ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid disodium salt (EDTA; 7400 ppm showed significant inhibitory effects on the target strain. Due to regulatory limits, the second part of the study reduced the concentrations of nisin, ascorbic acid and EDTA to 500 ppm, 2000 ppm and 250 ppm, respectively. The mixture of nisin, ascorbic acid and EDTA showed the highest inhibitory effect with a reduction number of 3.41 log colony forming units (p < 0.05. To minimize the growth of S. Enteritidis ATCC 13076, central composite design and response surface methodology were applied to investigate the combined effect of nisin (0–500 ppm, ascorbic acid (0–2000 ppm, and EDTA (0–250 ppm on the target strain growth. Among the three factors, nisin had a higher antimicrobial effect than ascorbic acid or EDTA, while an increase in nisin resulted in a decrease in S. Enteritidis ATCC 13076 growth. The optimum concentration was 500 ppm nisin with 1515 ppm ascorbic acid and 250 ppm EDTA. Under these conditions, the growth of S. Enteritidis ATCC 13076 predicted by the model was 24.99%. Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, Ascorbic acid, Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid disodium salt (EDTA, Nisin, Salmonella enteritidis

  9. Cell invasion of poultry-associated Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis isolates is associated with pathogenicity, motility and proteins secreted by the type III secretion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Devendra H; Zhou, Xiaohui; Addwebi, Tarek; Davis, Margaret A; Orfe, Lisa; Call, Douglas R; Guard, Jean; Besser, Thomas E

    2011-05-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is a major cause of food-borne gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. Poultry and poultry products are considered the major vehicles of transmission to humans. Using cell invasiveness as a surrogate marker for pathogenicity, we tested the invasiveness of 53 poultry-associated isolates of S. Enteritidis in a well-differentiated intestinal epithelial cell model (Caco-2). The method allowed classification of the isolates into low (n = 7), medium (n = 18) and high (n = 30) invasiveness categories. Cell invasiveness of the isolates did not correlate with the presence of the virulence-associated gene spvB or the ability of the isolates to form biofilms. Testing of representative isolates with high and low invasiveness in a mouse model revealed that the former were more invasive in vivo and caused more and earlier mortalities, whereas the latter were significantly less invasive in vivo, causing few or no mortalities. Further characterization of representative isolates with low and high invasiveness showed that most of the isolates with low invasiveness had impaired motility and impaired secretion of either flagella-associated proteins (FlgK, FljB and FlgL) or type III secretion system (TTSS)-secreted proteins (SipA and SipD) encoded on Salmonella pathogenicity island-1. In addition, isolates with low invasiveness had impaired ability to invade and/or survive within chicken macrophages. These data suggest that not all isolates of S. Enteritidis recovered from poultry may be equally pathogenic, and that the pathogenicity of S. Enteritidis isolates is associated, in part, with both motility and secretion of TTSS effector proteins.

  10. Simultaneous Detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enteritidis, and Listeria monocytogenes at a Very Low Level Using Simultaneous Enrichment Broth and Multichannel SPR Biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoguang; Tsuji, Sachiko; Kitaoka, Hayato; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Tamai, Mitsuru; Honjoh, Ken-Ichi; Miyamoto, Takahisa

    2017-10-01

    Detection of foodborne pathogens at very low levels is still a challenge. A custom-built multichannel surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor and simultaneous enrichment broth (SEB) were used to develop a simultaneous detection method for 3 important foodborne pathogens, Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157:H7), Salmonella enteritidis, and Listeria monocytogenes, at a very low level. These 3 foodborne pathogens at a very low level (14, 6, and 28 CFU/25 g (mL) for O157:H7, S. enteritidis, and L. monocytogenes, respectively) were inoculated in SEB and incubated at 37 ˚C for 24 h. Sample prepared from the simultaneous enrichment culture was analyzed using the multichannel SPR biosensor and sensor chip immobilized with polyclonal antibodies specific to each of the target pathogens. O157:H7, S. enteritidis, and L. monocytogenes in chicken were detected simultaneously at an inoculum dose of 14, 6, and 28 CFU/25 g, respectively. Our method using a custom-built multichannel SPR biosensor and enrichment in SEB is expected as a rapid and simultaneous detection method for low levels of O157:H7, S. enteritidis, and L. monocytogenes in food. Our method is expected as a rapid and simultaneous detection method for pathogens at very low levels. It has great potential for safety control of food and microbiological detection applications. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  11. Rapid detection and specific differentiation of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Enteritidis, Typhimurium and its monophasic variant 4,[5],12:i:- by real-time multiplex PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurischat, Sven; Baumann, Beatrice; Martin, Annett; Malorny, Burkhard

    2015-01-16

    Salmonella enterica is one of the most common zoonotic pathogens worldwide causing clinical diseases in human and animal hosts. Targeting a reduction of Salmonella prevalence in poultry, the EU set up a microbiological criterion that demands the absence of S. enterica subsp. enterica serovars Enteritidis and Typhimurium including its monophasic variant with seroformula 4,[5],12:i:- in 25 g of poultry neck skin samples and fresh meat according to regulation (EU) no 1086/2011. We developed and in-house validated a method that detects and differentiates these Salmonella serovars based on a 5-plex real-time PCR assay within 24 h after sampling. The inclusivity and exclusivity were between 98 and 99% analysing 456 bacterial strains. Validation according to ISO 16140:2003 against the traditional cultural reference method ISO 6579:2002 was performed using 60 artificially contaminated and 31 presumably naturally contaminated chicken neck skin samples resulting in a relative accuracy of 100%. The detection probability reached 100% between 3 and 5 CFU/25 g sample. We were also able to assign rough and non-motile strains to S. enterica subsp. enterica serovars Enteritidis and Typhimurium. In conclusion, we provide diagnostic laboratories a fast and accurate method to monitor these Salmonella serovars in chicken neck skin samples. Other matrices could be easily adapted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Transcriptional profiling avian beta-defensins in chicken oviduct epithelial cells before and after infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey R Hartford

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE colonizes the ovary and oviduct of chickens without causing overt clinical signs which can lead to SE-contamination of the content and membrane of shell-eggs as well as hatchery eggs. The organism utilizes the Salmonella Pathogenicity Island-2 encoded type III secretion system (T3SS-2 to promote persistence in the oviduct of laying hens. In this study, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR was carried out to determine the expression profiles of 14 known avian beta defensins (AvBDs in primary chicken oviduct epithelial cells (COEC before and after infections with a wild type SE strain and T3SS mutant SE strains carrying an inactivated sipA or pipB gene. Results Based on the expression levels in uninfected COEC, AvBDs can be loosely grouped into three categories with AvBD4-5 and AvBD9-12 being constitutively expressed at high levels; AvBD1, AvBD3, and AvBD13-14 at moderate levels; and AvBD2 and AvBD6-8 at minimal levels. Infection with the wild type SE strain temporarily repressed certain highly expressed AvBDs and induced the expression of minimally expressed AvBDs. The pipB mutant, compared to the wild type strain, had reduced suppressive effect on the expression of highly expressed AvBDs. Moreover, the pipB mutant elicited significantly higher levels of the minimally expressed AvBDs than the wild type SE or the sipA mutant did. Conclusion Chicken oviduct epithelial cells express most of the known AvBD genes in response to SE infection. PipB, a T3SS-2 effector protein, plays a role in dampening the β-defensin arm of innate immunity during SE invasion of chicken oviduct epithelium.

  13. Transcriptional profiling avian beta-defensins in chicken oviduct epithelial cells before and after infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebers, Katie L; Zhang, C Yan; Zhang, M Zhenyu; Bailey, R Hartford; Zhang, Shuping

    2009-07-30

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) colonizes the ovary and oviduct of chickens without causing overt clinical signs which can lead to SE-contamination of the content and membrane of shell-eggs as well as hatchery eggs. The organism utilizes the Salmonella Pathogenicity Island-2 encoded type III secretion system (T3SS-2) to promote persistence in the oviduct of laying hens. In this study, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was carried out to determine the expression profiles of 14 known avian beta defensins (AvBDs) in primary chicken oviduct epithelial cells (COEC) before and after infections with a wild type SE strain and T3SS mutant SE strains carrying an inactivated sipA or pipB gene. Based on the expression levels in uninfected COEC, AvBDs can be loosely grouped into three categories with AvBD4-5 and AvBD9-12 being constitutively expressed at high levels; AvBD1, AvBD3, and AvBD13-14 at moderate levels; and AvBD2 and AvBD6-8 at minimal levels. Infection with the wild type SE strain temporarily repressed certain highly expressed AvBDs and induced the expression of minimally expressed AvBDs. The pipB mutant, compared to the wild type strain, had reduced suppressive effect on the expression of highly expressed AvBDs. Moreover, the pipB mutant elicited significantly higher levels of the minimally expressed AvBDs than the wild type SE or the sipA mutant did. Chicken oviduct epithelial cells express most of the known AvBD genes in response to SE infection. PipB, a T3SS-2 effector protein, plays a role in dampening the beta-defensin arm of innate immunity during SE invasion of chicken oviduct epithelium.

  14. Amelioration of the adverse effect of a gastrointestinal challenge with Salmonella enteritidis on weanling rats by a yogurt diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchins, A D; Wells, P; McDonough, F E; Wong, N P

    1985-01-01

    The response of yogurt-fed rats and the corresponding unfermented milk-fed rats to an infectious gastrointestinal challenge has been compared. After 1 (2 trials), 7 (4 trials), 14 and 21 (1 trial each) days on freeze-dried milk or yogurt diets, the rats were inoculated intra-gastrically by intubation per os with 4.5 X 10(10) +/- 0.7 colony forming units (mean +/- SEM) of Salmonella enteritidis. Challenged and control rats were monitored during the 3 weeks post-inoculation for viability, weight gain, feed consumption, and feed efficiency. In general, challenged yogurt-fed rats exhibited significantly superior weight gain and feed efficiency (but not feed consumption) values in week 1 post-infection, but the differences were not significant in week 2 post-infection. Sick milk- and yogurt-fed rats convalesced in week 3. Pooled mortality data indicated that yogurt-fed rats survived better than milk-fed rats. Yogurt did not prevent salmonellosis per se but significantly reduced the mortality and weight gain deceleration.

  15. Effect of operating conditions in production of diagnostic Salmonella Enteritidis O-antigen-specific monoclonal antibody in different bioreactor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyildiz-Tamis, Duygu; Nalbantsoy, Ayse; Elibol, Murat; Deliloglu-Gurhan, Saime Ismet

    2014-01-01

    In this study, different cultivation systems such as roller bottles (RB), 5-L stirred-tank bioreactor (STR), and disposable bioreactors were used to cultivate hybridoma for lab-scale production of Salmonella Enteritidis O-antigen-specific monoclonal antibody (MAb). Hybridoma cell line was cultivated in either serum-containing or serum-free medium (SFM) culture conditions. In STR, MAb production scaled up to 4 L, and production capabilities of the cells were also evaluated in different featured production systems. Moreover, the growth parameters of the cells in all production systems such as glucose consumption, lactate and ammonia production, and also MAb productivities were determined. Collected supernatants from the reactors were concentrated by a cross-flow filtration system. In conclusion, cells were not adapted to SFM in RB and STR. Therefore, less MAb titer in both STR and RB systems with SFM was observed compared to the cultures containing fetal bovine serum-supplemented medium. A higher MAb titer was gained in the membrane-aerated system compared to those in STR and RB. Although the highest MAb titer was obtained in the static membrane bioreactor system, the highest productivity was obtained in STR operated in semicontinuous mode with overlay aeration.

  16. Antimicrobial susceptibilities, phage types, and molecular characterization of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis from chickens and chicken meat in turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalender, Hakan; Sen, Selahattin; Hasman, Henrik; Hendriksen, Rene S; Aarestrup, Frank M

    2009-04-01

    Thirty-eight Salmonella Enteritidis isolates from chickens and chicken meat in Turkey were examined for antimicrobial susceptibility, XbaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns, phage types, plasmid profiles, and resistance genes. Seven different PFGE patterns were observed, with the most common accounting for 71% (X1). The most common phage type was PT4, followed by PT7, PT16, PT1, PT6, and PT35. Different phage types shared the same PFGE pattern. Twenty-one isolates were susceptible to all antimicrobial agents tested whereas eight were resistant to two or more antimicrobials. Six isolates were resistant to gentamicin, spectinomycin, streptomycin, and sulphamethoxazole and one of these in addition to nalidixic acid. Two isolates were resistant to ampicillin and nalidixic acid. An additional nine isolates were resistant to nalidixic acid only. All six streptomycin-resistant isolates had aadA located in an integron class 1 structure. Both ampicillin-resistant isolates had the bla(TEM) gene. Five different plasmid profiles were found among the isolates. Sixty-five percent of isolates contained a single plasmid with an approximate size of 55-60 kb. Plasmid profiling confirmed the PFGE pattern.

  17. [A multi-pathogen selective enrichment broth for simultaneous growth of Salmonella enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanyuan; Xiao, Xinglong; Yu, Yigang; Chen, Gu; Li, Xiaofeng; Tang, Yuqian; Wu, Hui

    2009-10-01

    A selective enrichment broth (SSL) was formulated to allow simultaneous growth of Salmonella enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogens. Suitable additive agents were selected by single factor experiment, the enrichment effect of the broth for the three pathogens were evaluated by conventional detection method and real-time PCR. A selective enrichment broth, SSL, was obtained by adding the selective agents, including nalidixic acid, lithium chloride, and potassium tellurite, in the basic broth, and sodium pyruvate and mannitol as the supplemented elements. Recovery of three target pathogens in SSL was obtained within 24 h of incubation at 37 degrees C, yielding cell dnesities of 10(7) - 10(8) CFU/mL. Meanwhile, SSL broth effectively inhibited the growth of non-target organisms. 710 samples were detected by SSL with real-time PCR, and there is no error report. SSL is demonstrated to be a promising new multiplex selective enrichment broth for simultaneous detection of the three most prominent foodborn pathogens by multipathogen detection on a single assay platform.

  18. Influence of the lipopolysaccharide structure of Salmonella enterica serovat Enteritidis on interactions with pig neutrophils

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matiašovič, J.; Štěpánová, H.; Volf, J.; Kubala, Lukáš; Ovesná, P.; Rychlík, I.; Faldyna, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 150, 1-2 (2011), s. 167-172 ISSN 0378-1135 Grant - others:GA MZe(CZ) QH81062 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : Salmonella * pig * lipopolysaccharide Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.327, year: 2011

  19. Draft Genome Sequences of 64 Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Enteritidis Isolates from Mice in US

    Science.gov (United States)

    A ciprofloxacin resistant (CipR) Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Kentucky ST198 has rapidly and extensively disseminated globally to become a major food-safety and public health concern. Here, we report a complete genome sequence of a CipR S. Kentucky ST198 strain PU131 isolated from a ...

  20. Development of classification models to detect Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium found in poultry carcass rinses by visible-near infrared hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Young Wook; Yoon, Seung Chul; Park, Bosoon; Hinton, Arthur; Windham, William R.; Lawrence, Kurt C.

    2013-05-01

    Salmonella is a major cause of foodborne disease outbreaks resulting from the consumption of contaminated food products in the United States. This paper reports the development of a hyperspectral imaging technique for detecting and differentiating two of the most common Salmonella serotypes, Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) and Salmonella Typhimurium (ST), from background microflora that are often found in poultry carcass rinse. Presumptive positive screening of colonies with a traditional direct plating method is a labor intensive and time consuming task. Thus, this paper is concerned with the detection of differences in spectral characteristics among the pure SE, ST, and background microflora grown on brilliant green sulfa (BGS) and xylose lysine tergitol 4 (XLT4) agar media with a spread plating technique. Visible near-infrared hyperspectral imaging, providing the spectral and spatial information unique to each microorganism, was utilized to differentiate SE and ST from the background microflora. A total of 10 classification models, including five machine learning algorithms, each without and with principal component analysis (PCA), were validated and compared to find the best model in classification accuracy. The five machine learning (classification) algorithms used in this study were Mahalanobis distance (MD), k-nearest neighbor (kNN), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA), and support vector machine (SVM). The average classification accuracy of all 10 models on a calibration (or training) set of the pure cultures on BGS agar plates was 98% (Kappa coefficient = 0.95) in determining the presence of SE and/or ST although it was difficult to differentiate between SE and ST. The average classification accuracy of all 10 models on a training set for ST detection on XLT4 agar was over 99% (Kappa coefficient = 0.99) although SE colonies on XLT4 agar were difficult to differentiate from background microflora. The average classification

  1. MHC haplotype and susceptibility to experimental infections (Salmonella Enteritidis, Pasteurella multocida or Ascaridia galli) in a commercial and an indigenous chicken breed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Torben Wilde; Labouriau, R.; Permin, A.

    2010-01-01

    In three independent experimental infection studies, the susceptibility and course of infection of three pathogens considered of importance in most poultry production systems, Ascaridia galli, Salmonella Enteritidis and Pasteurella multocida was compared in two chicken breeds, the indigenous....... Enteritidis than commercial Luong Phuong chickens. In contrast, the Ri chickens were more susceptible to P. multocida, although production parameters were more affected in the Luong Phuong chickens. Furthermore, it was shown that the individual variations observed in response to the infections were influenced...... MHC haplotypes were shown to be associated with high specific antibody response. Finally, one MHC haplotype was identified as being associated with pathological lesions and mortality in the P. multocida experiment. Although not statistically significant, our analysis suggested that this haplotype...

  2. Suitability of PCR fingerprinting, infrequent-restriction-site PCR, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, combined with computerized gel analysis, in library typing of Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garaizar, J.; Lopez-Molina, N.; Laconcha, I.

    2000-01-01

    Strains of Salmonella enterica (n = 212) of different serovars and phage types were used to establish a library typing computerized system for serovar Enteritidis on the basis of PCR fingerprinting, infrequent-restriction-site PCR (IRS-PCR), or pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The rate...... showed an intercenter reproducibility value of 93.3%. The high reproducibility of PFGE combined with the previously determined high discrimination directed its use for library typing. The use of PFGE with enzymes XbaI, BlnI, and SpeI for library typing of serovar Enteritidis was assessed with GelCompar 4.......0 software, Three computer libraries of PFGE DNA profiles were constructed, and their ability to recognize new DNA profiles was analyzed. The results obtained pointed out that the combination of PFGE with computerized analysis could be suitable in long-term epidemiological comparison and surveillance...

  3. 76 FR 41157 - Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Final Rule, Prevention of Salmonella...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ..., Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production, Storage, and Transportation... Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Final Rule, Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell... Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production, Storage, and Transportation'' (the final rule). The...

  4. Molecular and epidemiologic analysis of a county-wide outbreak caused by Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis traced to a bakery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Po-Liang; Hwang, In-Jane; Tung, Ya-Lina; Hwang, Shang-Jyh; Lin, Chun-Lu; Siu, LK

    2004-01-01

    Background An increase in the number of attendees due to acute gastroenteritis and fever was noted at one hospital emergency room in Taiwan over a seven-day period from July to August, 2001. Molecular and epidemiological surveys were performed to trace the possible source of infection. Methods An epidemiological investigation was undertaken to determine the cause of the outbreak. Stool and blood samples were collected according to standard protocols per Center for Disease Control, Taiwan. Typing of the Salmonella isolates from stool, blood, and food samples was performed with serotyping, antibiotypes, and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) following XbaI restriction enzyme digestion. Results Comparison of the number of patients with and without acute gastroenteritis (506 and 4467, respectively) during the six weeks before the outbreak week revealed a significant increase in the number of patients during the outbreak week (162 and 942, respectively) (relative risk (RR): 1.44, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.22–1.70, P value bakery and were distributed to six different traditional Chinese markets., Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) was isolated from the stool samples of 28 of 32 individuals and from a recalled bread sample. All S. Enteritidis isolates were of the same antibiogram. PFGE typing revealed that all except two of the clinical isolates and the bread isolates were of the same DNA macrorestriction pattern. Conclusions The egg-covered bread contaminated with S. Enteritidis was confirmed as the vehicle of infection. Alertness in the emergency room, surveillance by the microbiology laboratory, prompt and thorough investigation to trace the source of outbreaks, and institution of appropriate control measures provide effective control of community outbreaks. PMID:15541186

  5. Phage and MLVA typing of Salmonella enteritidis isolated from layers and humans in Belgium from 2000-2010, a period in which vaccination of laying hens was introduced.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewaele, I; Heyndrickx, M; Rasschaert, G; Bertrand, S; Wildemauwe, C; Wattiau, P; Imberechts, H; Herman, L; Ducatelle, R; Van Weyenberg, S; De Reu, K

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) obtained from humans and layer farms in Belgium collected during 2000-2010. Three periods were compared, namely (i) before implementation of vaccination (2000-2004), (ii) during voluntary vaccination (2005-2006) and (iii) during implementation of the national control program (NCP) for Salmonella including mandatory vaccination against S. Enteritidis (2007-2010). The characteristics compared across time periods were distributions of phage type and multiple-locus variable number tandem-repeat assay (MLVA). While PT4 and PT21 were predominantly isolated in Belgium in layers and humans before 2007, a significant reduction of those PTs was observed in both populations in the period 2007-2010. The relative proportion of PT4b, PT21c and PT6c was found to have increased considerably in the layer population since 2007. In the human population, PT8, PT1 and the group of 'other' PTs were more frequently isolated compared to the previous periods. When comparing the proportion of the predominant MLVA types Q2 and U2, no significant difference was found between the layer and human population in the three periods and between periods within each category (layer and human). A significant difference in isolate distribution among MLVA clusters I and II was found between human and layer isolates recovered during Period 3 and in the human population between Period 1 and 3. Results suggest that the association between S. Enteritidis in layers and the occurrence of the pathogen in humans changed since implementation of the NCP in 2007. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Combining Lactic Acid Spray with Near-Infrared Radiation Heating To Inactivate Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis on Almond and Pine Nut Kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jae-Won; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of near-infrared radiation (NIR) heating combined with lactic acid (LA) sprays for inactivating Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis on almond and pine nut kernels and to elucidate the mechanisms of the lethal effect of the NIR-LA combined treatment. Also, the effect of the combination treatment on product quality was determined. Separately prepared S. Enteritidis phage type (PT) 30 and non-PT 30 S. Enteritidis cocktails were inoculated onto almond and pine nut kernels, respectively, followed by treatments with NIR or 2% LA spray alone, NIR with distilled water spray (NIR-DW), and NIR with 2% LA spray (NIR-LA). Although surface temperatures of nuts treated with NIR were higher than those subjected to NIR-DW or NIR-LA treatment, more S. Enteritidis survived after NIR treatment alone. The effectiveness of NIR-DW and NIR-LA was similar, but significantly more sublethally injured cells were recovered from NIR-DW-treated samples. We confirmed that the enhanced bactericidal effect of the NIR-LA combination may not be attributable to cell membrane damage per se. NIR heat treatment might allow S. Enteritidis cells to become permeable to applied LA solution. The NIR-LA treatment (5 min) did not significantly (P > 0.05) cause changes in the lipid peroxidation parameters, total phenolic contents, color values, moisture contents, and sensory attributes of nut kernels. Given the results of the present study, NIR-LA treatment may be a potential intervention for controlling food-borne pathogens on nut kernel products. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Heterogeneity of type III secretion system (T3SS)-1-independent entry mechanisms used by Salmonella Enteritidis to invade different cell types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosselin, Manon; Abed, Nadia; Virlogeux-Payant, Isabelle; Bottreau, Elisabeth; Sizaret, Pierre-Yves; Velge, Philippe; Wiedemann, Agnès

    2011-03-01

    Salmonella causes a wide range of diseases from acute gastroenteritis to systemic typhoid fever, depending on the host. To invade non-phagocytic cells, Salmonella has developed different mechanisms. The main invasion system requires a type III secretion system (T3SS) known as T3SS-1, which promotes a Trigger entry mechanism. However, other invasion factors have recently been described in Salmonella, including Rck and PagN, which were not expressed under our bacterial culture conditions. Based on these observations, we used adhesion and invasion assays to analyse the respective roles of Salmonella Enteritidis T3SS-1-dependent and -independent invasion processes at different times of infection. Diverse cell lines and cell types were tested, including endothelial, epithelial and fibroblast cells. We demonstrated that cell susceptibility to the T3SS-1-independent entry differs by a factor of nine between the most and the least permissive cell lines tested. In addition, using scanning electron and confocal microscopy, we showed that T3SS-1-independent entry into cells was characterized by a Trigger-like alteration, as for the T3SS-1-dependent entry, and also by Zipper-like cellular alteration. Our results demonstrate for what is believed to be the first time that Salmonella can induce Trigger-like entry independently of T3SS-1 and can induce Zipper-like entry independently of Rck. Overall, these data open new avenues for discovering new invasion mechanisms in Salmonella.

  8. Risk factors for sporadic infection with Salmonella Enteritidis, Denmark, 1997-1999

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølbak, Kåre; Neimann, Jacob

    2002-01-01

    of buttermilk dessert (OR = 11.7), homemade ice cream (OR = 4.3), raw eggs (OR = 3.4), and eggs fried "sunny side up" (OR = 2.5). Among persons who had used eggs in the week before disease onset or interview, eggs from battery laying hens were associated with disease (white eggs: OR = 2.4, brown eggs: OR = 1......% of 467 controls had consumed eggs or dishes containing raw or undercooked eggs during the week before disease onset or interview, while 35% of cases and 19% of controls had incurred this exposure the day before onset or interview (OR = 2.2, 95% CI: 1.5, 3.1). Specific exposures included consumption.......9), whereas consumption of pasteurized eggs tended to be protective (OR = 0.3). The study confirmed that eggs are the principal source of S. Enteritidis in Denmark. This conclusion was reached through the use of an exposure time window that corresponds to the most relevant incubation period rather than...

  9. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis phage type 4 outbreak associated with eggs in a large prison, London 2009: an investigation using cohort and case/non-case study methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, A R; Ruggles, R; Young, Y; Clark, H; Reddell, P; Verlander, N Q; Arnold, A; Maguire, H

    2013-05-01

    In September 2009, an outbreak of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis affected 327 of 1419 inmates at a London prison. We applied a cohort design using aggregated data from the kitchen about portions of food distributed, aligned this with individual food histories from 124 cases (18 confirmed, 106 probable) and deduced the exposures of those remaining well. Results showed that prisoners eating egg cress rolls were 26 times more likely to be ill [risk ratio 25.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 15.5-42.8, Pprison settings.

  10. Efeito protetor da microbiota cecal congelada e liofilizada sobre a infecção experimental de frangos de corte por Salmonella enterica sorovar Enteritidis

    OpenAIRE

    Andreatti Filho R.L.; Crocci A.J.

    2002-01-01

    Estudaram-se os efeitos do tratamento de frangos de corte com microbiota cecal anaeróbia liofilizada (MCL) e congelada (MCC) sobre a infecção do trato digestivo das aves por Salmonella enterica sorovar Enteritidis. Foi usada microbiota intestinal sem prévia identificação bacteriana. A infecção foi persistente, em ordem, no ceco, inglúvio e duodeno. A infecção também foi autolimitante nos grupos tratados e no controle. Não ocorreu diferença entre o grupo-controle positivo e os tratados com MCL...

  11. Efeito da vacina contra coccidiose sobre a colonização de Salmonella enteritidis em frangos de corte tratados com microbiota cecal anaeróbia

    OpenAIRE

    Andreatti Filho,R.L.; Mestrinel Jr.,P.; Sampaio,H.M.; Crocci,A.J.

    1999-01-01

    Avaliou-se o efeito da vacina contra coccidiose sobre a habilidade da microbiota cecal anaeróbia (MCA), administrada por diferentes vias (aves tratadas), em proteger pintos de corte da colonização por Salmonella enteritidis (Se). Utilizaram-se 120 aves assim divididas: grupo A, pulverização de MCA em aves vacinadas contra coccidiose e desafiadas com Se, grupo B, inoculação endoesofágica de MCA em aves vacinadas e desafiadas, grupo C, MCA na água de bebida de aves vacinadas e desafiadas, grupo...

  12. Tipificación fágica de aislados de Salmonella enteritidis de muestras clínicas, alimentarias y avícolas en Chile Phage typing of Salmonella enteritidis isolates from clinical, food, and poultry samples in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Prat

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde 1994 Chile ha sido afectado por una extensa epidemia de infecciones por Salmonella enteritidis (S. enteritidis. Para conocer la diversidad de fuentes infectantes, el posible origen de la epidemia y las relaciones epidemiológicas entre aislados clínicos, alimentarios y avícolas, se realizó la tipificación fágica de 310 muestras de S. enteritidis de origen clínico recolectadas entre los años 1975 y 1996 junto con 47 aislados alimentarios obtenidos durante brotes de S. enteritidis y 27 cepas aisladas en estudios de vigilancia de establecimientos de avicultura. En total, en las muestras clínicas se identificaron 13 fagotipos, dos aislados no pudieron tipificarse y uno se consideró atípico. Los tipos fágicos que se identificaron con mayor frecuencia fueron el 1 (56,8% y el 4 (31,3%, seguidos de los tipos 8 (4,8% y 28 (1,9%. La presencia regional y temporal de estos fagotipos indica que ha habido cambios importantes en su distribución: en los primeros años de recolección solo se registraron los fagotipos 8 y 28, que desaparecieron hacia 1980 para reaparecer de forma aislada en 1996. A partir de la expansión paulatina de S. enteritidis que se inició en 1988, se empezaron a aislar en las zonas central y sur del país fagos del tipo 4, que no se habían encontrado anteriormente en Chile. En 1991 emergió como predominante en la zona norte el fagotipo 1, tampoco registrado previamente. En los aislados alimentarios se identificaron solamente los tipos 1 y 4, que fueron también los más comunes en los aislados avícolas. La tipificación fágica de S. enteritidis es de utilidad para orientar el análisis epidemiológico de las infecciones por este agente patológico.Since 1994 an extensive epidemic of infections with Salmonella enteritidis (S. enteritidis has affected Chile. In order to understand the diversity of infective sources, the possible origin of the epidemic, and the epidemiological relationships between clinical, food, and

  13. In Vitro Development of Ciprofloxacin Resistance of Salmonella enterica Serovars Typhimurium, Enteritidis, and Indiana Isolates from Food Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Hui; Zhang, Chuan-Zhen; Liu, Zhi-Jie; Gu, Xi-Xi; Li, Wan; Yang, Ling; Liu, Ya-Hong; Zeng, Zhen-Ling; Jiang, Hong-Xia

    2017-09-01

    Difference in the development of resistance may be associated with the epidemiological spread and drug resistance of different Salmonella enterica serovar strains. In the present study, three susceptible S. enterica serovars, Typhimurium (ST), Enteritidis (SE), and Indiana (SI) strains, were subjected to stepwise selection with increasing ciprofloxacin concentrations. The results indicated that the mutation frequencies of the SI group were 10 1 -10 4 higher and developed resistance to ciprofloxacin more rapidly compared with the ST and SE groups. Ciprofloxacin accumulation in the SI strain was also higher than the other two strains in the presence of an efflux pump inhibitor. The development of ciprofloxacin resistance was quite different among the three serovar strains. In SI, increasing AcrAB-TolC efflux pump expression and single or double mutations in gyrA with or without a single parC mutation (T57S) were found in the development of ciprofloxacin resistance. In SE, an increase in the AcrAB-TolC efflux pump regulatory gene ramA gradually decreased as resistant bacteria developed; then resistance resulted from gyrA D87G and gyrB E466D mutations and/or in other active efflux pumps besides AcrAB-TolC. For ST, ramA expression increased rapidly along with gyrA D87 N and/or gyrB S464F mutations. In conclusion, persistent use of ciprofloxacin may aggravate the resistance of different S. enterica serovars and prudent use of the fluoroquinolones is needed. The quicker resistance and higher mutation frequency of the SI isolates present a potential public health threat.

  14. Antimicrobial properties of lactic acid bacteria and yeast-LAB cultures isolated from traditional fermented milk against pathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mufandaedza, J; Viljoen, B C; Feresu, S B; Gadaga, T H

    2006-04-15

    The survival and growth of Escherichia coli 3339 and Salmonella enteritidis 949575 isolated from human clinical samples, in milk fermented with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeast strains previously isolated from Zimbabwean naturally fermented milk (NFM) was studied. The LAB starter cultures used were Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar. diacetylactis C1 alone (C1) or in combination with Candida kefyr 23 (C1/23), L. lactis subsp. lactis Lc261 alone (LC261) or in combination with C. kefyr 23 (Lc261/23). The growth of the same pathogens in milk fermented with a commercial DL culture (CH-N 22) and spontaneously fermented raw milk was also monitored. The C1 and C1/23 cultures significantly (Pfermentation, both E. coli 3339 and S. enteritidis 949575 counts were significantly (Pmilk. However, in naturally fermented milk and the DL cultured milk, both E. coli 3339 and S. enteritidis 949575 grew and reached high populations of about 9 and 8.8 log cfu ml(-1), respectively, after 18 h. When E. coli 3339 was inoculated into previously fermented milk, the viable counts were significantly (Pfermented NFM and the commercial DL- (CH-N 22) cultured milk. The C1 strain, therefore, offered the best protection against the pathogens. Its inhibitory effect was mainly related to fast acid production.

  15. APTES Functionalized Iron Oxide-Silver Magnetic Hetero-Nanocomposites for Selective Capture and Rapid Removal of Salmonella enteritidis from Aqueous Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trang, Vu Thi; Dinh, Ngo Xuan; Lan, Hoang; Tam, Le Thi; Huy, Tran Quang; Tuan, Pham Anh; Phan, Vu Ngoc; Le, Anh-Tuan

    2018-02-01

    Magnetic nanomaterials, as a promising platform for the fast and sensitive detection of bacterial pathogens, have attracted increasing interest from researchers in recent years. In this work, by utilizing a two-step synthetic technique consisting of co-precipitation and subsequent hydrothermal reaction, followed by functionalization steps with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) and the antibody against Salmonella enteritidis, antibody-conjugated Fe3O4-Ag@APTES hetero-nanocomposites were successfully prepared. Due to the specific antibody, the developed Fe3O4-Ag@APTES@SE-Ab conjugates are capable of selectively capturing S. enteritidis at a low concentration of about 101 CFU/mL. Moreover, the prepared magnetic conjugates also revealed that the S. enteritidis could be rapidly removed from water solution in 20 min by using an external magnetic field with a removal efficiency obtained of ˜ 91.36%. These results indicated that the Fe3O4-Ag@APTES@SE-Ab conjugates are promising for the rapid selective capture and removal of bacterial pathogens from aqueous environments, and can be used for improving the detection quality of pathogens in water samples using immunosensor-based diagnostic tests.

  16. Salmonella Enteritidis in the eggs of Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica - Temminck & Schlegel, 1849 fed diets with different calcium and phosphorus levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERi Katayama

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Several studies point out that eggs are the main cause of human salmonellosis, particularly when poorly processed or eaten raw. In addition of causing public health problems, the presence of Salmonella hinders international food trade, and therefore, it is a health barrier. There are several predisposing factors for the contamination of internal egg content by Salmonella spp, including eggshell quality, which is related to dietary calcium (Ca and phosphorus (P levels. In this study, eggs from Japanese quails fed diets containing two different Ca (2.0 or 3.5% or P (0.25 or 0.45% levels were evaluated. Three production phases were used in the experiment: starter, intermediate, and final. The presence of Salmonella Enteriditis in the eggshell and internal content in in the periods of 0, 24, 96, and 168 hours after the experimental contamination of the eggs by immersion in broth containing Salmonella Enteriditis. The bacterium was detected in decreasing numbers in the eggshell of eggs from all treatments and during all storage periods. No significant bacterial numbers were found in the internal egg content in none of the treatments during none of the production phases. Therefore, the evaluated Ca and P levels in the diet of Japanese quails did not result in higher or lower public health risk relative to the presence of Salmonella Enteritidis in the internal egg content.

  17. Global Gene-expression Analysis of the Response of Salmonella Enteritidis to Egg White Exposure Reveals Multiple Egg White-imposed Stress Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Baron

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chicken egg white protects the embryo from bacterial invaders by presenting an assortment of antagonistic activities that combine together to both kill and inhibit growth. The key features of the egg white anti-bacterial system are iron restriction, high pH, antibacterial peptides and proteins, and viscosity. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is the major pathogen responsible for egg-borne infection in humans, which is partly explained by its exceptional capacity for survival under the harsh conditions encountered within egg white. However, at temperatures up to 42°C, egg white exerts a much stronger bactericidal effect on S. Enteritidis than at lower temperatures, although the mechanism of egg white-induced killing is only partly understood. Here, for the first time, the impact of exposure of S. Enteritidis to egg white under bactericidal conditions (45°C is explored by global-expression analysis. A large-scale (18.7% of genome shift in transcription is revealed suggesting major changes in specific aspects of S. Enteritidis physiology: induction of egg white related stress-responses (envelope damage, exposure to heat and alkalinity, and translation shutdown; shift in energy metabolism from respiration to fermentation; and enhanced micronutrient provision (due to iron and biotin restriction. Little evidence of DNA damage or redox stress was obtained. Instead, data are consistent with envelope damage resulting in cell death by lysis. A surprise was the high degree of induction of hexonate/hexuronate utilization genes, despite no evidence indicating the presence of these substrates in egg white.

  18. Global Gene-expression Analysis of the Response ofSalmonellaEnteritidis to Egg White Exposure Reveals Multiple Egg White-imposed Stress Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Florence; Bonnassie, Sylvie; Alabdeh, Mariah; Cochet, Marie-Françoise; Nau, Françoise; Guérin-Dubiard, Catherine; Gautier, Michel; Andrews, Simon C; Jan, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    Chicken egg white protects the embryo from bacterial invaders by presenting an assortment of antagonistic activities that combine together to both kill and inhibit growth. The key features of the egg white anti-bacterial system are iron restriction, high pH, antibacterial peptides and proteins, and viscosity. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is the major pathogen responsible for egg-borne infection in humans, which is partly explained by its exceptional capacity for survival under the harsh conditions encountered within egg white. However, at temperatures up to 42°C, egg white exerts a much stronger bactericidal effect on S . Enteritidis than at lower temperatures, although the mechanism of egg white-induced killing is only partly understood. Here, for the first time, the impact of exposure of S . Enteritidis to egg white under bactericidal conditions (45°C) is explored by global-expression analysis. A large-scale (18.7% of genome) shift in transcription is revealed suggesting major changes in specific aspects of S . Enteritidis physiology: induction of egg white related stress-responses (envelope damage, exposure to heat and alkalinity, and translation shutdown); shift in energy metabolism from respiration to fermentation; and enhanced micronutrient provision (due to iron and biotin restriction). Little evidence of DNA damage or redox stress was obtained. Instead, data are consistent with envelope damage resulting in cell death by lysis. A surprise was the high degree of induction of hexonate/hexuronate utilization genes, despite no evidence indicating the presence of these substrates in egg white.

  19. Whole genome sequencing reveals an outbreak of Salmonella Enteritidis associated with reptile feeder mice in the United Kingdom, 2012-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanagarajah, Sanch; Waldram, Alison; Dolan, Gayle; Jenkins, Claire; Ashton, Philip M; Carrion Martin, Antonio Isidro; Davies, Robert; Frost, Andrew; Dallman, Timothy J; De Pinna, Elizabeth M; Hawker, Jeremy I; Grant, Kathie A; Elson, Richard

    2018-05-01

    Analysis of whole genome sequencing data uncovered a previously undetected outbreak of Salmonella Enteritidis that had been on-going for four years. Cases were resident in all countries of the United Kingdom and 40% of the cases were aged less than 11 years old. Initial investigations revealed that 30% of cases reported exposure to pet snakes. A case-control study was designed to test the hypothesis that exposure to reptiles or their feed were risk factors. A robust case-definition, based on the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) profile, increased the power of the analytical study. Following univariable and multivariable analysis, exposure to snakes was the only variable independently associated with infection (Odds ratio 810 95% CI (85-7715) p < 0.001). Isolates of S. Enteritidis belonging to the outbreak profile were recovered from reptile feeder mice sampled at the retail and wholesale level. Control measures included improved public health messaging at point of sale, press releases and engagement with public health and veterinary counterparts across Europe. Mice destined to be fed to reptiles are not regarded as pet food and are not routinely tested for pathogenic bacteria. Routine microbiological testing to ensure feeder mice are free from Salmonella is recommended. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Irradiation of liquid egg, frozen egg, powdered egg, egg yolk and white of egg: reducing the population of Salmonella enteritidis and sensory aspects and physico-chemical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehlich, Angela

    2004-01-01

    Eggs and their products have been incriminated in foodborne disease outbreaks due to Salmonella enteritidis contamination. Irradiation is a food preservation technology that could be applied to minimize the problem. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of irradiation in liquid and frozen egg as well as in powdered egg, egg yolk and egg white spiked with Salmonella enteritidis. Spiked samples of liquid egg, egg white and egg yolk were exposed to 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; 2,5; 3,0 kGy and spiked samples of frozen and powdered egg were exposed to 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; 2,5; 3,0; 3,5 e 4,0 kGy. Raw odour, cooked odour and taste of non inoculated and irradiated samples and non irradiated samples of egg and egg products were analysed by a trained penal. Viscosity and lipid oxidation (malonaldehyde concentration) were also determined. Doses of 2,0; 3,0; 3,5; 3,0 e 3,5 kGy reduced in 5 log the population of S. Enteritidis in liquid and frozen egg, powdered egg yolk, egg white and egg, respectively, with moderate alterations in relation to non irradiated samples detected by the trained penal. Viscosity and lipid oxidation in the powdered products, however, showed more intense alterations. Therefore, irradiation can be considered a feasible process for liquid and frozen egg while when applied to powdered products it should be considered the type of food product to which they will be added due to alterations in viscosity. (author)

  1. In ovo evaluation of FloraMax®-B11 on Marek´s disease HVT vaccine protective efficacy, hatchability, microbiota composition, morphometric analysis, and Salmonella Enteritidis infection in broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of in ovo administration of FloraMax®-B11 (FM) on Marek´s disease (MD) herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) vaccine protective efficacy, hatchability, microbiota composition, morphometric analysis and Salmonella enteritidis (SE) infection in chickens. I...

  2. Detection of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis using real time PCR, immunocapture assay, PNA FISH and standard culture methods in different types of food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, C; Cerqueira, L; Azevedo, N F; Vieira, M J

    2013-01-15

    Several methods for the rapid and specific detection of Salmonella in food samples have been described. Here, we compare 4 of those methods in terms of assay time, procedure complexity, detection limit, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy. Milk, eggs and mayonnaise samples were artificially contaminated with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis cell concentrations ranging from 1×10(-2) to 1×10(2) CFU per 25 g or ml of food. Samples were then pre-enriched and analyzed by either: i) real-time PCR, using the iQ-Check Salmonella kit; ii) immunocapture, using the RapidChek SELECT Salmonella; iii) a peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA FISH) method and iv) the traditional bacteriological method ISO 6579:2002. All methods were able to detect Salmonella in the different types of food matrixes and presented a similar detection level of 1CFU per 25 g or ml of food sample. The immunocapture and the PNA FISH methods proved to be very reliable, as their results were 100% in agreement with the ISO method. However, real-time PCR presented a significant number of false positives, which resulted in a specificity of 55.6% (CI 95%, 31.3-77.6) and an accuracy of 82.2% (CI 95%, 63.2-91.4) for this method. Sensitivity was 100% since no false negative results were observed. In conclusion, the implementation of these molecular techniques, mainly the immunocapture and PNA-FISH methods, provides a reliable and less time-consuming alternative for the detection of Salmonella spp. in food samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Heritability of susceptibility to Salmonella enteritidis infection in fowls and test of the role of the chromosome carrying the NRAMP1 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beaumont Catherine

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract 373 thirteen-week-old chicks issued from a commercial cross and 312 chickens from the L2 line were intravenously inoculated with 106 Salmonella enteritidis and the numbers of Salmonella in the spleen, liver and genital organs were assessed 3 days later. Heritabilities of the number of Salmonella were estimated at 0.02 ± 0.04 and 0.05 ± 0.05 in the liver; at 0.29 ± 0.07 and 0.10 ± 0.06 in the spleen; and at 0.16 ± 0.05 and 0.11 ± 0.08 in the genital organs, in the first and second experiments, respectively. The difference between the two experiments could result from sampling variations and from differences in the genetic structure of the two populations possibly including both heterosis and additive effects as well as their interaction in the first experiment. Genetic correlations between the number of bacteria in the genital organs and liver (0.56 ± 0.58 and 0.76 ± 0.32 in the first and second experiments, respectively and spleen (0.37 ± 0.24 and 0.79 ± 0.23 were positive. Moreover a significant within-sire effect of VIL1, a marker gene for NRAMP1, was observed in 117 progeny resulting from 25 informative matings. These results indicate that there are genetic differences in the resistance to visceral infection by S. enteritidis in these commercial egg-laying flocks, and suggest that these differences are at least partly due to genetic polymorphism in the NRAMP1 region.

  4. 75 FR 48973 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Prevention of Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ...] Draft Guidance for Industry: Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production... entitled ``Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production, Storage, and... on how to comply with certain provisions contained in FDA's final rule ``Prevention of Salmonella...

  5. Efeito protetor da microbiota cecal congelada e liofilizada sobre a infecção experimental de frangos de corte por Salmonella enterica sorovar Enteritidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreatti Filho R.L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se os efeitos do tratamento de frangos de corte com microbiota cecal anaeróbia liofilizada (MCL e congelada (MCC sobre a infecção do trato digestivo das aves por Salmonella enterica sorovar Enteritidis. Foi usada microbiota intestinal sem prévia identificação bacteriana. A infecção foi persistente, em ordem, no ceco, inglúvio e duodeno. A infecção também foi autolimitante nos grupos tratados e no controle. Não ocorreu diferença entre o grupo-controle positivo e os tratados com MCL ou MCC. Houve redução da colonização do ceco no período de 12 dias após o desafio nos grupos tratados com MCL e MCC, o que não ocorreu no grupo-controle positivo. Não houve variação entre os tratamentos com MCL e MCC quanto às características pesquisadas. A S. Enteritidis reduziu o ganho de peso médio nas aves inoculadas. Os tratamentos com MCL e MCC minimizaram a redução de peso nos grupos infectados.

  6. Phage type conversion in Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis caused by the introduction of a resistance plasmid of incompatibility group X (IncX)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, D. J.; Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Platt, D. J.

    1999-01-01

    The plasmid pOG670, a 54 kb, conjugative plasmid that specifies resistance to ampicillin and kanamycin and belonging to the incompatibility group X (IncX), was transferred into 10 isolates of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis belonging to 10 different phage types (PT1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 9, 9b, 10......, 11 and 13). Acquisition of the plasmid by these strains did not result in the loss of any resident plasmids but resulted in phage type conversion in 8 of the 10 strains (PT1, 2, 4, 8, 9, 9b, 10 and 11). The observed changes in phage type were found to result from the loss of sensitivity to 3...... of the 10 typing phages used (phages 3, 5 and 7). Where the conversion resulted in a change to a defined phage type, both the new and original PTs belonged to the same, previously described, evolutionary lines. Enteritidis PTs 1, 4 and 8, commonly associated with poultry world-wide, were converted to PTs 21...

  7. Controle da infecção por Salmonella Enteritidis em frangos de corte com ácidos orgânicos e mananoligossacarídeo

    OpenAIRE

    Bassan,Joana Darc Lopes; Flôres,Maristela Lovato; Antoniazzi,Taiane; Bianchi,Eloisa; Kuttel,Javier; Trindade,Michele Martins

    2008-01-01

    O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a ação de dois ácidos orgânicos (ácido fórmico e ácido propiônico) e de um mananoligossacarídeo (MOS) adicionados à dieta no controle da infecção intestinal por Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) em frangos de corte. Neste estudo de 39 dias, foram utilizadas 150 aves, de um dia de idade, da linhagem Cobb, lote misto, livre de SE, divididas em seis tratamentos (T) com 25 animais cada, em que: T1 (ausência de infecção), T2 (ácidos orgânicos e ausência de infecção), ...

  8. Spatial-temporal epidemiology of human Salmonella Enteritidis infections with major phage types (PTs 1, 4, 5b, 8, 13, and 13a) in Ontario, Canada, 2008-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Csaba; Pearl, David L; McEwen, Scott A; Sargeant, Jan M; Pollari, Frank; Guerin, Michele T

    2015-12-17

    In Ontario and Canada, the incidence of human Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) infections have increased steadily during the last decade. Our study evaluated the spatial and temporal epidemiology of the major phage types (PTs) of S. Enteritidis infections to aid public health practitioners design effective prevention and control programs. Data on S. Enteritidis infections between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2009 were obtained from Ontario's disease surveillance system. Salmonella Enteritidis infections with major phage types were classified by their annual health region-level incidence rates (IRs), monthly IRs, clinical symptoms, and exposure settings. A scan statistic was employed to detect retrospective phage type-specific spatial, temporal, and space-time clusters of S. Enteritidis infections. Space-time cluster cases' exposure settings were evaluated to identify common exposures. 1,336 cases were available for analysis. The six most frequently reported S. Enteritidis PTs were 8 (n = 398), 13a (n = 218), 13 (n = 198), 1 (n = 132), 5b (n = 83), and 4 (n = 76). Reported rates of S. Enteritidis infections with major phage types varied by health region and month. International travel and unknown exposure settings were the most frequently reported settings for PT 5b, 4, and 1 cases, whereas unknown exposure setting, private home, food premise, and international travel were the most frequently reported settings for PT 8, 13, and 13a cases. Diarrhea, abdominal pain, and fever were the most commonly reported clinical symptoms. A number of phage type-specific spatial, temporal, and space-time clusters were identified. Space-time clusters of PTs 1, 4, and 5b occurred mainly during the winter and spring months in the North West, North East, Eastern, Central East, and Central West regions. Space-time clusters of PTs 13 and 13a occurred at different times of the year in the Toronto region. Space-time clusters of PT 8

  9. Dam methylation participates in the regulation of PmrA/PmrB and RcsC/RcsD/RcsB two component regulatory systems in Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Hernán Sarnacki

    Full Text Available The absence of Dam in Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis causes a defect in lipopolysaccharide (LPS pattern associated to a reduced expression of wzz gene. Wzz is the chain length regulator of the LPS O-antigen. Here we investigated whether Dam regulates wzz gene expression through its two known regulators, PmrA and RcsB. Thus, the expression of rcsB and pmrA was monitored by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting using fusions with 3×FLAG tag in wild type (wt and dam strains of S. Enteritidis. Dam regulated the expression of both rcsB and pmrA genes; nevertheless, the defect in LPS pattern was only related to a diminished expression of RcsB. Interestingly, regulation of wzz in serovar Enteritidis differed from that reported earlier for serovar Typhimurium; RcsB induces wzz expression in both serovars, whereas PmrA induces wzz in S. Typhimurium but represses it in serovar Enteritidis. Moreover, we found that in S. Enteritidis there is an interaction between both wzz regulators: RcsB stimulates the expression of pmrA and PmrA represses the expression of rcsB. Our results would be an example of differential regulation of orthologous genes expression, providing differences in phenotypic traits between closely related bacterial serovars.

  10. New Diagnosis of AIDS Based on Salmonella enterica subsp. I (enterica Enteritidis (A Meningitis in a Previously Immunocompetent Adult in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C. Elton

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella meningitis is a rare manifestation of meningitis typically presenting in neonates and the elderly. This infection typically associates with foodborne outbreaks in developing nations and AIDS-endemic regions. We report a case of a 19-year-old male presenting with altered mental status after 3-day absence from work at a Wisconsin tourist area. He was febrile, tachycardic, and tachypneic with a GCS of 8. The patient was intubated and a presumptive diagnosis of meningitis was made. Treatment was initiated with ceftriaxone, vancomycin, acyclovir, dexamethasone, and fluid resuscitation. A lumbar puncture showed cloudy CSF with Gram negative rods. He was admitted to the ICU. CSF culture confirmed Salmonella enterica subsp. I (enterica Enteritidis (A. Based on this finding, a 4th-generation HIV antibody/p24 antigen test was sent. When this returned positive, a CD4 count was obtained and showed 3 cells/mm3, confirming AIDS. The patient ultimately received 38 days of ceftriaxone, was placed on elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide (Genvoya for HIV/AIDS, and was discharged neurologically intact after a 44-day admission.

  11. Use of random forest to estimate population attributable fractions from a case-control study of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, W; Vieira, A R; Hoekstra, R M; Griffin, P M; Cole, D

    2015-10-01

    To design effective food safety programmes we need to estimate how many sporadic foodborne illnesses are caused by specific food sources based on case-control studies. Logistic regression has substantive limitations for analysing structured questionnaire data with numerous exposures and missing values. We adapted random forest to analyse data of a case-control study of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis illness for source attribution. For estimation of summary population attributable fractions (PAFs) of exposures grouped into transmission routes, we devised a counterfactual estimator to predict reductions in illness associated with removing grouped exposures. For the purpose of comparison, we fitted the data using logistic regression models with stepwise forward and backward variable selection. Our results show that the forward and backward variable selection of logistic regression models were not consistent for parameter estimation, with different significant exposures identified. By contrast, the random forest model produced estimated PAFs of grouped exposures consistent in rank order with results obtained from outbreak data, with egg-related exposures having the highest estimated PAF (22·1%, 95% confidence interval 8·5-31·8). Random forest might be structurally more coherent and efficient than logistic regression models for attributing Salmonella illnesses to sources involving many causal pathways.

  12. The serologic response to Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium in experimentally infected chickens, followed by an indirect lipopolysaccharide enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and bacteriologic examinations through a one-year period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, M.N.; Feld, Niels Christian; Carstensen, B.

    2002-01-01

    uninfected as controls. The groups were monitored bacteriologically by examination of cloacal swabs and organs and serologically by examination of serum and egg yolk by a lipopolysaccharide enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay throughout the period. Within the first week, 100% of birds in both infected groups...... at the onset of egg production. For both S. typhimurium and S. enteritidis, positive bacteriologic cultures were obtained by sampling from internal organs at the end of the experiment, more than 1 yr from the time of infection. At the age of 6-7 wk, 50% of the chickens in the two infected groups showed...... a measurable serologic response in serum samples. The response persisted throughout the study in both serum and egg yell, samples. The inclusion of serologic methods is a valuable additional tool in the detection of salmonella in poultry, but serology should be used in conjunction with bacteriologic methods...

  13. Fate of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes during storage of fermented green table olives in brine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyri, Anthoula A; Lyra, Efstathia; Panagou, Efstathios Z; Tassou, Chrysoula C

    2013-10-01

    The survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes during the storage of fermented green table olives cv. Halkidiki in brine was studied in parallel with the evolution of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), yeasts and pH. The olives were previously fermented with a starter culture (a potential probiotic strain of Lactobacillus pentosus B281--starter process) or with the indigenous microbiota (control). After the end of fermentation, olives were placed in brine, inoculated with a cocktail of 5 strains of E. coli O157:H7, 5 strains of L. monocytogenes and 4 strains of S. Enteritidis, with a final concentration in the brine of ca. 7.0 log CFU/ml, and subsequently packaged in polyethylene pouches and stored at 20 °C. The population of E. coli O157:H7 reduced gradually and was detected in the brine until the 27th day of storage in both cases (i.e., starter and control process), and on olive fruits until the 19th and 16th days of storage in the starter and control process, respectively. S. Enteritidis population showed also a decrease and it was detected until the 21st day of storage in both brine and olive fruits in both cases. The population of L. monocytogenes declined during storage and it was detected until the 31st day of storage in both brine and olive fruits in both cases, showing a longer survival period in comparison to the other two studied pathogens. The presence of the potential probiotic starter did not affect the pathogen survival. The results demonstrated that even though the growth of the pathogenic strains was not supported, they may survive for a long period in a stressful environment of a fermented product with low pH value (4.2) and high salt concentration (6.0%). These results are a valuable contribution to risk assessment studies related to ready to eat foods in general. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Foodborne disease in our global village: a multinational investigation of an outbreak of Salmonella serotype Enteritidis phage type 4 infection in Puerto Vallarta, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shane, A L; Roels, T H; Goldoft, M; Herikstad, H; Angulo, F J

    2002-06-01

    In late 1996, a multinational investigation was launched following an outbreak of diarrheal illness that caused the disruption of an international scientific conference at a first-class hotel in Puerto Vallarta, Mexico. A questionnaire was mailed to all American and to selected international attendees. Additional copies of the questionnaire were provided for any family members who may have attended the conference. A case was defined as an illness with three or more loose stools during a 24-h period in a conference attendee or accompanying family member, with illness lasting 2 or more days and onset between 6 and 9 November 1996. Questionnaires were returned by 81% (232/288) of American attendees, 47% (18/38) of selected international attendees, and 25 family members; 30% (83/275) of respondents met the case definition. Ill persons resided in at least seven countries. Salmonella serotype Enteritidis phage type 4 was isolated from stool specimens from patients residing in Canada, the UK, and the USA. Attending a hotel banquet on 6 November was associated with illness; 42% (82/194) of banquet attendees became ill versus 3% (1/37) of non-attendees (relative risk (RR)515.6, 95% confidence interval (CI)52.3-108.9). The only banquet food item associated with illness was chili rellenos; 53% (58/109) of persons who ate chili rellenos were ill versus 22% (12/55) of those who did not (RR52.4, 95% CI51.4-4.1). Chili rellenos ingredients included shelled eggs and cheese; Salmonella was isolated from the leftover cheese but the isolate was not serotyped. Salmonella may be a cause of traveler's diarrhea and can result in outbreaks even among travelers who follow routine precautions (i.e. staying in a first-class hotel and eating hot foods). International collaboration in investigating similar outbreaks, including sharing subtyping results, will be necessary for long-term prevention. Global Salm-Surv, an international network of Salmonella reference laboratories coordinated by the

  15. Inativação termoquímica de Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus e Salmonella enterica Enteritidis por óleos essenciais

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    Alcilene de Abreu Pereira

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available O controle do crescimento microbiano tanto na indústria de alimentos quanto em ambientes hospitalares é de extrema importância. Entretanto, observa-se aumento da resistência dos microrganismos aos desinfetantes mais empregados, observando-se a necessidade de estudos com novos antimicrobianos. Assim, o objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana e a curva de morte termoquímica de soluções desinfetantes de óleos essenciais sobre Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus e Salmonella Enteritidis. Foram utilizados os óleos essenciais de Thymus vulgaris (tomilho, Elettaria cardamomum (cardamomo, Eugenia caryophyllus (cravo botão e Foeniculum vulgare dulce (funcho doce. As concentrações mínimas inibitórias foram determinadas utilizando-se a técnica de diluição em placas. As concentrações testadas foram de (%: 0,00; 0,25; 0,5; 1,0; 2,0; 2,5; 3,0; 3,5; 4,0; 4,5; e 5,0. Escherichia coli foi a única bactéria sensível a todos os óleos em concentrações abaixo de 5%. Cravo da índia não inibiu o crescimento de S. aureus nas concentrações testadas. Somente o óleo essencial de tomilho inibiu o crescimento de Salmonella Enteritidis. Observando-se as curvas de morte termoquímica de S. aureus, nota-se que a solução desinfetante contendo óleo essencial de tomilho foi a mais eficiente, tanto a 25 quanto a 40°C, sendo necessário apenas 10min. de contato para não serem mais detectadas células viáveis. A solução desinfetante contendo 0,25% de óleo essencial de tomilho, tanto a 25 quanto a 40°C, eliminou as células de S. Enteritidis após10min. de contato. Já pra E. coli , os melhores resultados foram obtidos com as soluções desinfetantes contendo óleos essenciais de funcho doce e cravo da índia a 25 e 40°C e tomilho a 40°C. Todos os tratamentos, exceto aqueles contendo óleo essencial de cardamomo, reduziram o número de células viáveis das bactérias testadas em pelo menos 5 ciclos log, sendo

  16. Characterization of Seven Outbreaks of Hemorrhagic Hepatopathy Syndrome in Commercial Pullets Following the Administration of a Salmonella Enteritidis Bacterin in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnaccini, S; Shivaprasad, H L; Cutler, G; Bland, M; Meng, X J; Kenney, S P; Bickford, A A; Cooper, G; Charlton, B; Sentíes-Cué, C G

    2016-03-01

    Between April 2013 and April 2015, seven flocks belonging to three different major commercial egg producers inCalifornia experienced a mild increase in mortality 2 to 3 wk after administration of Salmonella Enteritidis bacterins. Strains of chickens involved were H&N (flock A1, A2, B2, C1, C2, and C3) and Lohmann white (flock B1). Vaccination was administered individually through injection either in the breast muscles or subcutis in the legs between 11 and 18 wk of age in all flocks. Clinical signs ranged from inapparent to lameness, reluctance to walk, greenish diarrhea, and retching-like symptoms. The mortality ranged from 0.16% to 1.38% per week, with the highest peaks occurring usually 2 to 3 wk postvaccination, and then declined rapidly. Postmortem examinations revealed enlarged livers with disseminated hemorrhages and pale foci of necrosis. Also, severe extensive hemorrhages in the intestine, heart, and proventriculus were observed in a few birds. Various degrees of productive, exudative giant cell granulomatous myositis were observed invading deeply the muscles and subcutis at the site of vaccination. The myositis was always associated with optically empty vacuoles positive for neutral lipids by Oil Red O stain. Droplets of Oil Red O material were also noticed in the affected livers and intestines. Congo red stain highlighted the presence of amyloid in moderate to severe amounts in the breast muscles and moderate amounts in livers, spleens, and intestines. Salmonella antigens were detected in the injection sites and livers by immunohistochemical staining. No viruses or toxic substances were recovered from the liver, spleen, intestine, and pectoral muscles, and the few bacteria isolated were interpreted as secondary postmortem invaders. In addition, livers and bile tested for hepatitis E virus were negative by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction.

  17. Detection of CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes in the intestine of broiler chicks treated with Lactobacillus spp. and challenged with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis

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    JC Noujaim

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The expression of immune response as a leukocytic infiltrate by CD4+ and CD8+ cells in the epithelium and in the intestinal lamina propria of chicks fed Lactobacillus spp or cecal microflora (CM and experimentally challenged or not with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE was studied using immunohistochemistry. Three hundred and twenty day-of-hatch broiler chicks were divided into four groups of 80 birds each and orally received L. reuteri, L. salivarius, L. acidophilus, or CM. Each group was subdivided into four subgroups of 20 birds each, classified as follows: a subgroup did not receive any oral treatment (negative control, subgroup treated with L. spp or CM, subgroup treated with L. spp or CM and challenged with SE, and subgroup only challenged with SE (positive control. The results show that the oral treatment with L. reuteri, L. salivarius, L. acidophilus, or CM and challenge or not with SE stimulated bird immune response as determined by the leukocytic infiltrate by CD8+ lymphocytes followed by CD4+ in the epithelium and in the lamina propria of the duodenum, jejunum, and cecum of chicks up to 12 days of age. CD8+ lymphocyte number was significantly higher in the intestine of chicks receiving CM and challenged with SE. The duodenum, followed by the jejunum, were the segments in which the immune response, as shown by T, CD4+ and CD8+ cells, was stimulated with the greatest intensity.

  18. Comparative Analysis of Subtyping Methods against a Whole- Genome-Sequencing Standard for Salmonella enterica Serotype Enteritidis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    html . 4. Olson AB, Andrysiak AK, Tracz DM, Guard-Bouldin J, Demczuk W, Ng LK, Maki A, Jamieson F, Gilmour MW. 2007. Limited genetic diversity in...06. 33. Hyeon JY, Chon JW, Park JH, Kim MS, Oh YH, Choi IS, Seo KH. 2013. A comparison of subtyping methods for differentiating Salmonella en- terica

  19. Identification and characterization of salmonella serotypes using DNA spectral characteristics by fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Analysis of DNA samples of Salmonella serotypes (Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Infantis, Salmonella Heidelberg and Salmonella Kentucky) were performed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectrometer by placing directly in contact with a diamond attenua...

  20. Effectiveness of a novel spontaneous carvacrol nanoemulsion against Salmonella enterica Enteritidis and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on contaminated mung bean and alfalfa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Kyle S; Chang, Yuhua; McClements, David Julian; McLandsborough, Lynne

    2014-09-18

    Outbreaks of foodborne illness from consumption of sprouts have been linked to contaminated seeds prior to germination. Due to the long sprouting period at ambient temperatures and high humidity, germinating seeds contaminated with low pathogen levels (0.1logCFU/g) can result in sprouts with high numbers (≥10(8)CFU/g) of pathogens. Currently, the recommended treatment method involves soaking seeds in 20,000ppm (2%) calcium hypochlorite prior to germination. In this study, an alternative treatment involving soaking seeds in a carvacrol nanoemulsion was tested for its efficacy against Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Enteritidis (ATCC BAA-1045) or EGFP expressing E. coli O157:H7 (ATCC 42895) contaminated mung bean and alfalfa seeds. The antimicrobial treatment was performed by soaking inoculated seed batches in the spontaneous nanoemulsion (4000 or 8000ppm) for 30 or 60min. The spontaneous nanoemulsion was formed by titrating the oil phase (carvacrol and medium chain triglycerides) and water-soluble surfactant (Tween 80®) into sodium citrate buffer. Following treatment, the numbers of surviving cells were determined by suspending the seeds in TSB and performing plate counts and/or Most Probable Number (MPN) enumeration. Treated seeds were sprouted and tested for the presence of the appropriate pathogen. This treatment successfully inactivated low levels (2 and 3logCFU/g) of S. Enteritidis and E. coli on either seed types when soaked for either 30 or 60min at nanoemulsion concentrations corresponding to 4000 (0.4%) or 8000 (0.8%) ppm carvacrol. Inoculated alfalfa seeds treated with 4000ppm nanoemulsion, required a 60min treatment time to show a similar 2-3 log reduction. Complete inactivation was confirmed by germinating treated seeds and performing microbiological testing. Total sprout yield was not compromised by any of the tested treatments. These results show that carvacrol nanoemulsions may be an alternative antimicrobial treatment method for

  1. Acetic acid for broiler fed rations experimentally contaminated with “Salmonella Enteritidis” and “Salmonella Typhimurium” Ácido acético em rações de frangos de corte experimentalmente contaminadas com "Salmonella Enteritidis" e "Salmonella Typhimurium"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Silva Chaves

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was performed with 200 chicks at 1 day old . Fowls were allotted in a completely randomized design with five treatments and four replications of 10 chicks, each. Ration was based on corn-soybean, formulated according to nutritional requirements and without any animal by-product or conservatives. This ration was experimentally contaminated with Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium and treated with acetic acid in five different concentrations (0, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0% from eight to 21 days of age. Weight gain, feed intake and feed-to-gain ratio were evaluated and, simultaneously, the efficiency of acetic acid to reduce and/or eliminate, from experimental rations, the pathogen, at different supplementation levels . The presence of bacteria was evaluated from cloacal swabs and pool liver, heart and gall bladder of one fowl from each experimental replication. The acetic acid levels of 0.5%, 1.0% 1.5% and 2.0% influenced positively the weight gain and feed-to-gain ratio. When the Salmonella sp. recovering was analyzed in treated rations, the concentration of 1.5% acetic acid showed the highest reduction on bacterial contamination. Acetic acid at 1.5% concentration was effective to reduce Salmonella sp. contamination in ration, but not to eliminate concentrations.Foi conduzido um trabalho experimental, utilizando-se duzentos pintos com um dia de idade. As aves foram distribuídas ao acaso com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições de dez pintos, cada. Na ração, à base de milho e de farelo de soja, não foram empregados produtos de origem animal ou conservantes. A ração foi contaminada, experimentalmente, com Salmonella Enteritidis e Salmonella Typhimurium e tratada com ácido acético em cinco diferentes concentrações (0, 0,5%, 1,0%, 1,5% e 2,0%. No período de oito a vinte e um dias de idade, as aves foram avaliadas quanto ao ganho de peso, ao consumo de ração e à conversão alimentar, assim como a efici

  2. A dual mechanism involved in membrane and nucleic acid disruption of AvBD103b, a new avian defensin from the king penguin, against Salmonella enteritidis CVCC3377.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Da; Wang, Xiumin; Xi, Di; Mao, Ruoyu; Zhang, Yong; Guan, Qingfeng; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Jianhua

    2014-10-01

    The food-borne bacterial gastrointestinal infection is a serious public health threat. Defensins are evolutionarily conserved innate immune components with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity that do not easily induce resistance. AvBD103b, an avian defensin with potent activity against Salmonella enteritidis, was isolated from the stomach contents of the king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus). To elucidate further the antibacterial mechanism of AvBD103b, its effect on the S. enteritidis CVCC3377 cell membrane and intracellular DNA was researched. The cell surface hydrophobicity and a N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine uptake assay demonstrated that AvBD103b treatment increased the cell surface hydrophobicity and outer membrane permeability. Atomic absorption spectrometry, ultraviolet spectrophotometry, flow cytometry, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated that AvBD103b treatment can lead to the release of the cellular contents and cell death through damage of the membrane. DNA gel retardation and circular dichroism analysis demonstrated that AvBD103b interacted with DNA and intercalated into the DNA base pairs. A cell cycle assay demonstrated that AvBD103b affected cellular functions, such as DNA synthesis. Our results confirmed that AvBD103b exerts its antibacterial activity by damaging the cell membrane and interfering with intracellular DNA, ultimately causing cell death, and suggested that AvBD103b may be a promising candidate as an alternative to antibiotics against S. enteritidis.

  3. Sporadic salmonellosis in Lower Saxony, Germany, 2011-2013: raw ground pork consumption is associated with Salmonella Typhimurium infections and foreign travel with Salmonella Enteritidis infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettenbacher-Riefler, S; Ziehm, D; Kreienbrock, L; Campe, A; Pulz, M; Dreesman, J

    2015-10-01

    To investigate risk factors for sporadic salmonellosis, for each notified case four randomly selected population controls matched for age, sex and geographical region were interviewed via self-administered questionnaire. Conditional logistic regression analysis of 285 matched pairs revealed significant associations for raw ground pork consumption [odds ratio (OR) 6·0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·8-20·1], taking antacids (OR 5·8, 95% CI 1·4-24·5), eating meat outside the home (OR 5·7, 95% CI 2·2-14·6) and daily changing or cleaning of dishcloth (OR 2·1, 95% CI 1·2-3·9). Animal contact and ice cream consumption were negatively associated with salmonellosis (OR 0·5, 95% CI 0·2-1 and OR 0·3, 95% CI 0·1-0·6, respectively). S. Typhimurium infections were significantly associated with raw ground pork consumption (OR 16·7, 95% CI 1·4-194·4) and S. Enteritidis infections with having travelled abroad (OR 9·7, 95% CI 2·0-47·3). Raw egg consumption was not a risk factor, substantiating the success of recently implemented national control programmes in the poultry industry. Unexpectedly, hygienic behaviour was more frequently reported by cases, probably because they overestimated their hygiene precautions retrospectively. Although animal contact might enhance human immunocompetence, underreporting of salmonellosis by pet owners could have occurred. Eating raw pork products is the major risk factor for sporadic human S. Typhimurium infections in Lower Saxony.

  4. Utilização do yacon ( Smallanthus sonchifolius na proteção contra colonização intestinal de frangos de corte infectados por Salmonella Enteritidis

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    M.G.X. Oliveira

    Full Text Available RESUMO Os frutanos do tipo inulina são oligossacarídeos que favorecem a multiplicação de determinados gêneros bacterianos no intestino, promovendo um efeito prebiótico. Este trabalho avaliou o efeito da inulina extraída de raízes de yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius sobre a colonização intestinal de frangos de corte experimentalmente infectados por Salmonella Enteritidis. Sessenta frangos de corte com um dia de idade foram divididos em três grupos de tratamento, com duas repetições, criados até 21 dias. As aves do grupo yacon receberam 100mg de inulina/dia, via oral, por três dias consecutivos. No sétimo dia de vida, as aves tratadas e o controle positivo foram desafiados pela via oral com uma cultura de S. Enteritidis. Não foram observadas diferenças de desempenho zootécnico entre os grupos. O índice de infectividade das aves suplementadas com yacon foi menor até o sexto dia após o desafio, mas, ao término do experimento, foi superior ao controle positivo. Os dados deste trabalho demonstram que o uso da inulina nos três primeiros dias de vida promoveu uma redução da colonização intestinal dos frangos por Salmonella Enteritidis na primeira semana após o desafio. Novos estudos são necessários para determinar a dose e o tempo de tratamento ideal para um efeito protetor de maior duração.

  5. Ensaios de penetração de Salmonella Enteritidis em ovos de galinha com diferentes qualidades de casca, submetidos ou não a lavagem industrial e a duas temperaturas de armazenagem Penetration of Salmonella Enteritidis in chicken eggs, comparing different shell quality, industrial washing and temperature of storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.T. Pinto

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o comportamento da Salmonella Enteritidis quando em contato com a superfície de ovos de consumo, classificados de acordo com a qualidade da casca ou com tratamentos (lavados ou não, usando fezes de aves como veículo de contaminação, e armazenados a 8°C e 70% de umidade relativa ou a 30°C e 90% de umidade relativa. A 8°C, o microrganismo permaneceu viável na superfície dos ovos, ao longo do tempo, enquanto a 30°C foi possível identificar a sua inibição e até sua eliminação da superfície. A contaminação do conteúdo de ovos com defeito de casca foi mais frequente quando os ovos foram submetidos a temperaturas inadequadas de armazenagem (30°C.Salmonella Enteriditis behavior was studied when present on the surface of consume eggs, classified according to the shell quality or treatments (washed or not. Stools of fowls were used as a vehicle for contamination. The eggs were stored at 8°C and 70% relative humidity or at 30°C and 90% of relative humidity. At 8°C, the microorganism stayed viable on the surface of the eggs throughout the study, while at 30°C it was inhibited and eliminated from the egg shell. The contamination of content of the eggs with shell defect was more frequent when they were submitted to inappropriate temperatures of storage (30°C.

  6. Antimicrobial effect of the Tunisian Nana variety Punica granatum L. extracts against Salmonella enterica (serovars Kentucky and Enteritidis) isolated from chicken meat and phenolic composition of its peel extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wafa, Ben Ajmia; Makni, Mohamed; Ammar, Sonda; Khannous, Lamia; Hassana, Amal Ben; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Es-Safi, Nour Eddine; Gdoura, Radhouane

    2017-01-16

    Punica granatum L. is widely recognized for its potency against a broad spectrum of bacterial pathogens. The purpose of this study was to explore the inhibitory and the bactericidal activities of Punica granatum against Salmonella strains. The effect of extracts obtained from different parts (peels, seeds, juice and flowers) of pomegranate and using different solvents against Salmonella enterica serovars Kentucky and Enteritidis isolated from chicken meat was thus investigated. Salmonella strains were identified with the standard API-20E system and confirmed by real time PCR. The obtained results showed that the highest antibacterial activity against Salmonella strains was observed with the peels ethanolic extract giving MIC values ranging from 10.75 to 12.5mg/mL. The ethanolic extract of P. granatum Nana peels at 0.8 and 1.6mg/g significantly inhibited the growth of Salmonella Kentucky in chicken meat stored at 4°C. The phenolic composition of the ethanolic peel extract was explored by HPLC coupled to both DAD and ESI/TOF-MS detections. The obtained results allowed the detection of 21 phytochemical compounds among which various phenolic compounds have been identified on the basis of their UV and MS spectra as well as with literature data. Among the detected compounds, anthocyanins, ellagitannins, ellagic acid derivatives and flavanols were further characterized through MS-MS analysis. Our results showed thus that the Tunisian variety Nana pomegranate constitutes a good source of bioactive compounds with potent antimicrobial activity on the growth of Salmonella strains suggesting that the studied pomegranate cultivar could be a natural remedy to minimize the emergence of Salmonella enterica strains which is often involved in food borne illness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Sugar sulfates are not hydrolyzed by the acid-inducible sulfatase AslA from Salmonella enterica Enteritidis NalRand Kentucky 3795 at pH 5.5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Arpeeta; Joerger, Rolf D

    2017-08-01

    The open reading frames SEN0085 and SeKA_A4361, from Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis Nal R and serovar Kentucky 3795, respectively, corresponding to the acid-inducible sulfatase gene aslA from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, were previously suggested by microarray analysis to be differentially expressed under acid conditions. However, growth and enzyme activity tests in the present study demonstrated that both wild-type strains exhibited sulfatase activity with 4-nitrophenyl sulfate and 5-bromo-4-chloro-3 indolyl sulfate at pH 5.5. The acid sulfatase does not appear to be involved in sugar sulfate, tyrosine sulfate, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylglycol sulfate, heparin sulfate, or chondroitin sulfate hydrolysis at pH 5.5. Adhesion and invasion assays did not reveal differences between the serotypes and their corresponding aslA deletion mutants. Thus, the role and substrate(s) of AslA, a protein unique to salmonella and encoded in all sequenced Salmonella strains, remain elusive.

  8. Efeito da vacina contra coccidiose sobre a colonização de Salmonella enteritidis em frangos de corte tratados com microbiota cecal anaeróbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreatti Filho R.L.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da vacina contra coccidiose sobre a habilidade da microbiota cecal anaeróbia (MCA, administrada por diferentes vias (aves tratadas, em proteger pintos de corte da colonização por Salmonella enteritidis (Se. Utilizaram-se 120 aves assim divididas: grupo A, pulverização de MCA em aves vacinadas contra coccidiose e desafiadas com Se, grupo B, inoculação endoesofágica de MCA em aves vacinadas e desafiadas, grupo C, MCA na água de bebida de aves vacinadas e desafiadas, grupo D, aves não tratadas, vacinadas e desafiadas, grupo E, aves não tratadas, não vacinadas e desafiadas e, grupo F, aves não tratadas, não vacinadas e não desafiadas (controle negativo. Utilizaram-se como parâmetros a colonização do trato digestivo por Se e sua presença nas fezes, bem como o peso corporal das aves, avaliados aos dois, sete e 12 dias após o desafio. Nas aves tratadas com MCA, especialmente por meio de pulverização e inoculação endoesofágica, a colonização do ceco por Se e sua presença nas fezes foram menores, mostrando que a ação da MCA contra a colonização de ceco e excreção fecal não foi afetada pelo uso da vacina contra coccidiose em pintos de corte e que a associação MCA/vacina contra coccidiose pode ser utilizada sem que haja comprometimento na eficácia da MCA. Nos grupos que não receberam MCA, vacinados ou não contra coccidiose, houve aumento da colonização cecal, bem como excreção fecal da amostra desafio. O ceco foi o local de maior presença e persistência da Se. O resultado de administração de MCA pela água de bebida não foi tão eficiente, mas somente este tratamento resultou em peso corporal das aves significativamente superior ao das aves do grupo não tratado, não vacinado e desafiado, indicando que a presença de salmonelas paratifóides não interfere na produtividade de frangos de corte. Não se observou diferença no peso das aves dos grupos D (vacinados contra coccidiose e E (n

  9. Influence of milk product type and its initial contamination on the efficiency of different methods for detection of Salmonella Enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7

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    Boris Antunović

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates differences in efficacy of isolating pathogenic bacteria Salmonella Enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 between conventional cultivation (ISO method and immunomagnetic separation (IMS method related to the types of dairy products and initial numbers of bacteria. Different milk products (dairy pudding- vanilla or chocolate; a mixture of yoghurt and pudding; solid, liquid and fruit yoghurt; AB culture - with or without fruit; cheese spread were intentionally contaminated with different numbers (≈10 and ≈30 of live cells of the observed bacteria per mL. The obtained results showed that the classical ISO procedure still represents an equally adequate method for the detection of S. Enteritidis and L. monocytogenes in dairy products as well as the IMS method. However, the ISO method was found to be inefficient for determination of E. coli O157:H7 when the initial contamination was low (≈10 live cells per mL. In such cases, even the IMS method appeared to be inefficient when used for fermented dairy product analysis. Fermented dairy products in contrast to the non-fermented ones, still represent a challenge for the development of routine detection methods, especially for S. Enteritidis, whilst the detection of L. monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7 has improved by introducing the IMS method. The largest difference in the ability to detect bacteria in dairy product samples with reference to the initial number of bacteria by both methods was in the detection of E. coli O157:H7. The choice of broth (non-selective fluid broth vs. selective fluid broth did not matter in the in the detection of S. Enteritidis and L. monocytogenes by applying the IMS procedure. However, for the detection of E. coli O157:H7 the application of modified tripton-soya broth with novobiocin (mTSB+Nb has proved to be superior when compared to using the buffered peptone water (BPW. The presented results may be of importance as

  10. Antibacterial activity of nisin, oregano essential oil, EDTA, and their combination against Salmonella Enteritidis for application in mayonnaise | Avaliação de atividade antibacteriana de nisina, óleo essencial de orégano, EDTA e sua combinação contra Salmonella Enteritidis para aplicação na maionese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Passos Lima da Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella Enteritidis (SE is one of the most important serovars associated with Salmonella gastroenteritis outbreaks in Brazil. The use of natural antimicrobials can be an alternative method of SE control. The antimicrobial effect of two oregano essential oils (OEO1 and OEO2 at 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.5%, 1.0%, or 2.0%; nisin (Nisaplin® at 0, 6.25, 12.5, or 25 ppm; ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA at 0.0037%, 0.0056%, 0.0075%, 0.0110%, or 0.0150%; and their combination against SE in vitro was studied to be applied in mayonnaise and Russian salad made with the same mayonnaise during storage at 8º or 30ºC for 24 hours. OEO was very efficient against SE at all tested concentrations, while nisin and EDTA showed no effect against SE. Ten volatile components were identified in the two OEOs using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with electron impact ionization, with carvacrol being the major component of both samples. OEO2, containing p-cymene (15.95% and y-terpinene (6.90%, besides carvacrol (61.66%, resulted in larger inhibition zone than the other OEO (OEO1 don’t contains p-cymene or y-terpinene. Nisin in combination with OEO1 or OEO2 had an antagonistic effect at all concentrations. The presence of nisin caused a reduction in essential oil antimicrobial activity (p≤0.05. Sensory evaluation showed that consumers prefer 0.2% OEO in mayonnaise instead of 0.5% and 1.0% concentrations. Thus, OEO only, at a concentration of 0.2%, was applied in mayonnaise against SE. The Russian salad prepared with mayonnaise plus OEO at 0.2% (wt/wt caused a reduction of SE when compared with the salad prepared with mayonnaise without OEO. These results indicate that the use of OEO as a biopreservative (natural antimicrobial can enhance food safety, serving as an additional barrier in helping the Good Manufacturing Practices and the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point program, fundamental to food safety

  11. Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... linked to Rose Acre Farms shell eggs Are guinea pigs the right pet for your family? Find out ... Multistate Outbreak of Salmonella Infections Linked to Pet Guinea Pigs Multistate Outbreak of Salmonella Infections Linked to Kratom ...

  12. Evaluation of two loop-mediated isothermal amplification methods for the detection of Salmonella Enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes in artificially contaminated ready-to-eat fresh products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeliki Birmpa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effectiveness of two loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP assays was evaluated. Samples of romaine lettuce, strawberries, cherry tomatoes, green onions and sour berries were inoculated with known dilutions (100-108 CFU/g of produce of S. Enteritidis and L. monocytogenes. With LAMP assay, pathogens can be detected in less than 60 min. The limits of detection of S. Enteritidis and L. monocytogenes depended on the food sample tested and on the presence of enrichment step. After enrichment steps, all food samples were found positive even at low initial pathogen levels. The developed LAMP, assays, are expected to become a valuable, robust, innovative, powerful, cheap and fast monitoring tool, which can be extensively used for routine analysis, and screening of contaminated foods by the food industry and the Public Food Health Authorities.

  13. Interaction of Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella enteritidis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    2006-06-02

    Jun 2, 2006 ... glutaraldehyde-50 mM sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) for 2 h on ice. Subsequently, the ... or LB-XY broths, and biofilm formed in polystyrene tissue culture or PVC microtitre ... Polypropylene= 1.5-ml microcentrifuge tube; PS, Polystyrene= 24-well tissue culture plate (FALCON); PVC, Polyvinyl chloride= ...

  14. Investigation of an excess of Salmonella enteritidis phage type 14b and MLVA type 4-7-3-13-10-2-2 in Luxembourg, Belgium and Germany during 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossong, J; Ragimbeau, C; Schuh, J; Weicherding, P; Peetso, R; Wildemauwe, C; Imberechts, H; Rabsch, W; Bertrand, S

    2012-01-01

    We investigated an increase of human cases of Salmonella Enteritidis occurring from August until November 2010 in Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany involving an estimated three hundred laboratory confirmed cases. Molecular typing indicated that the increase in Luxembourg and Belgium was due a particular strain having phage type 14b, MLVA pattern 4-7-3-13-10-2-2 and fully susceptible to the Enternet panel of antibiotics. MLVA and phage typing were found to have similar discriminatory power on a collection of 40 Belgian and Luxembourg strains isolated during 2010. Epidemiological investigations in Luxembourg suggested eggs as a possible source for some cases, although supermarket eggs tested were negative. No other EU countries observed a substantial increase of cases, although three smaller outbreaks in Germany were also due to a strain with the same phage type and MLVA pattern. In 2010 the EU directive banning battery cages came into force in Germany followed by a dioxin food scare incident. Given that the EU Laying Hens Directive will come into force across all Member States in 2012, a closer monitoring of Salmonella contamination of imported eggs at retail and wholesale level is recommended.

  15. Visualisation of morphological interactionof diamond and silver nanoparticles with Salmonella enteritidis and Listeria Monocytogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawosz, Ewa; Chwalibog, André; Mitura, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    -Ag inside Listeria monocytogenes but smaller particles were placed inside Salmonella E. The ability of nano-D to attach to the flagella and the ability of nano-Ag to penetrate inside bacteria cells can be utilized to design nano-bacteria vehicles, being carriers for active substances attached...... showed harmful effects of both nanoparticles on bacteria morphology. The most spectacular effect of nano-D were strong links between nano-D packages and the flagella of Salmonella E. Nano-Ag were closely attached to Listeria monocytogenes but not to Salmonella E. There was no evidence of entering nano...

  16. Highly expressed amino acid biosynthesis genes revealed by global gene expression analysis of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis during growth in whole egg are not essential for this growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakociune, Dziuginta; Herrero-Fresno, Ana; Jelsbak, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    , di/oligopeptide transport system, biotin synthesis, ferrous iron transport system, and type III secretion system. Significant downregulation of 15 genes related to formate hydrogenlyase (FHL) and trehalose metabolism was observed. The results suggested that S. Enteritidis is starved for amino......-acids, biotin and iron when growing in egg. However, site specific mutation of amino acid biosynthesis genes asnA (17.3 fold upregulated), asnB (18.6 fold upregulated), asnA/asnB and, serA (12.0 fold upregulated) and gdhA (3.7 fold upregulated), did not result in growth attenuation, suggesting that biosynthesis...

  17. Detection and classification of salmonella serotypes using spectral signatures collected by fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spectral signatures of Salmonella serotypes namely Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Infantis, Salmonella Heidelberg and Salmonella Kentucky were collected using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). About 5-10 µL of Salmonella suspensions with concentrations of 1...

  18. Integrated combined effects of temperature, pH and sodium chloride concentration on biofilm formation by Salmonella enterica ser. Enteritidis and Typhimurium under low nutrient food-related conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliadis, Ioannis; Daskalopoulou, Aikaterini; Simões, Manuel; Giaouris, Efstathios

    2018-05-01

    Salmonella enterica is a major foodborne bacterial pathogen. This forms biofilms on surfaces and persists, depending on the strain and the environment. The integrative interaction of temperature (T; 13-39 °C), pH (5-8) and sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration (0.5-8.5%) on biofilm formation by two S. enterica strains (ser. Enteritidis and Typhimurium) was here evaluated under low nutrient conditions. This was achieved using response surface methodology to model the combined effect of each factor on the response, through mathematical quadratic fitting of the outcomes of a sequence of designed experiments. These last were executed by incubating stainless steel coupons carrying sessile bacteria, for 24 h, in 1:10 diluted tryptone soya broth, under 15 different combinations of three independent factors (T, pH and NaCl). For each strain, a second order polynomial model, describing the relationship between biofilm formation (log CFU/cm 2 ) and the factors (T, pH and NaCl), was developed using least square regression analysis. Both derived models predicted the combined influences of these factors on biofilm formation, with agreement between predictions and experimental observations (R 2  ≥ 0.96, P ≤ 0.0001). For both strains, the increase of NaCl content restricted their sessile growth, while under low salinity conditions (NaCl formation was favored as pH increased, regardless of T. Interestingly, under low salt content, and depending on the strain, biofilm formation was either favored or hindered by increasing T. Thus, 34.5 and 13 °C were the T predicted to maximize biofilm formation by strains Enteritidis and Typhimurium, respectively, something which was also experimentally verified. To sum, these models can predict the interactive influences of crucial food-related factors on biofilm growth of a significant foodborne pathogen towards the efforts to limit its persistence in food industry. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullinan, Milo; Clarke, Michael; Dallman, Tim; Peart, Steven; Wilson, Deborah; Weiand, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    Introduction. It is estimated up to 6 % of prosthetic vascular grafts become infected. Staphylococcus aureus is predominant in early infection and coagulase-negative staphylococci are predominant in late infections. Enterobacteriaceae cause 14-40 % of prosthetic vascular graft infections. This is, to our knowledge the first reported case of Salmonella gastroenteritis causing chronic prosthetic vascular graft infection (PVGI). Case presentation. A 57 years old lady presented with signs and symptoms of prosthetic vascular graft infection. Three years earlier, she had undergone a prosthetic axillo-femoral bypass graft for critical limb ischaemia. The infected prosthetic vascular graft was removed and Salmonella Typhimurium was isolated on culture. In the intervening period, Salmonella Typhimurium was isolated from a faecal specimen, collected during an episode of acute gastroenteritis. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) showed that the respective Salmonella Typhimurium isolates differed by only a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). Salmonella Typhimurium was not isolated on culture of a faecal specimen collected five days following cessation of antimicrobial therapy. Six months after removal of the prosthetic graft, the patient remains under follow-up for her peripheral vascular disease, which currently requires no further surgical intervention. Conclusion. This case has clear implications for the management of chronic PVGI. It is vital to collect high-quality surgical specimens for microbiological analysis and empirical choices of antibiotics are unlikely to cover all potential pathogens. It may also be prudent to enquire about a history of acute gastroenteritis when assessing patients presenting with chronic PVGI.

  20. 77 FR 50372 - Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Final Rule, Prevention of Salmonella...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ..., Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production, Storage, and Transportation... Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Final Rule, Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell... 33030), we issued a final rule requiring shell egg producers to implement measures to prevent Salmonella...

  1. Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Aimin; Tymoszuk, Piotr; Haschka, David; Heeke, Simon; Dichtl, Stefanie; Petzer, Verena; Seifert, Markus; Hilbe, Richard; Sopper, Sieghart; Talasz, Heribert; Bumann, Dirk; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia; Theurl, Igor; Zhang, Keying; Weiss, Guenter

    2017-09-05

    Zinc sequestration by macrophages is considered a crucial host defense strategy against infection with the intracellular bacterium Salmonella Typhimurium. However, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. In this study we found zinc to favor pathogen survival within macrophages. Salmonella -hosting macrophages contained higher free zinc levels than uninfected macrophages and cells that successfully eliminated bacteria, which was paralleled by impaired production of reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) species in bacteria-harboring cells. A profound, zinc-mediated inhibition of NF-κB p65 transcriptional activity affecting expression of the ROS- and RNS-forming enzymes phos47 and iNOS provided a mechanistic explanation for this phenomenon. Macrophages responded to infection by enhanced expression of zinc scavenging methallothioneins-1 and 2, whose genetic deletion caused a rise of free zinc levels, reduced ROS and RNS production and increased survival of Salmonella Our data suggest that Salmonella invasion of macrophages results in a bacteria-driven rise of intracellular zinc levels which weakens anti-microbial defense and the ability of macrophages to eradicate the pathogen. Thus, limitation of cytoplasmic zinc levels may help to control infection with intracellular bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Wu et al.

  2. Surveillance of Salmonella enteritidis in layer houses: a retrospective comparison of the Food and Drug Administration's egg safety rule (2010-2011) and the California Egg Quality Assurance Program (2007-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitesky, Maurice; Charlton, Bruce; Bland, Mark; Rolfe, Dan

    2013-03-01

    Between July 2007 and December 2011, 2660 environmental drag swab samples were collected in total from California layer flocks on behalf of the California Egg Quality Assurance Program (CEQAP), the egg safety rule (21 CFR Parts 16 and 118) of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), or both. The samples were processed by the California Animal Health and Food Safety Lab, and positive or negative results for Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) were recorded. This study retrospectively compares the differences between the FDA and CEQAP programs with respect to their SE environmental sampling surveillance results. To accomplish this comparison, two different CEQAP (new and old) data sets representing different SE environmental surveillance approaches in the life of the flock were compared against each other and against the FDA's SE environmental testing plan. Significant differences were noted between the CEQAP and FDA programs with respect to the prevalence of SE in the farm environment. Analyses of the prevalence of SE at different stages in the flock's life cycle (chick papers, preproduction, midproduction, postmolt, and premarket) found the highest prevalence of SE in premarket (11.9%), followed by postmolt (3.5%) and midproduction (3.4%), and there was a tie between chick papers and preproduction (2.1%). To assess the main effects of the presence of SE in the farm environment, backwards binary logistic regression was used. Of six independent variables examined (age of flock, year, season, owner, CEQAP membership, and analysis of pooled samples vs. individual swabs), only age of flock, owner, and year were determined to be significant factors in the final model. Although CEQAP membership and pooling vs. individuals swabs were not included in the final model, Pearson chi-square tests did show significantly higher odds of SE for non-CEQAP member farms and higher odds of SE in pooled samples vs. individual swabs.

  3. Tentative Colistin Epidemiological Cut-Off Value for Salmonella spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersø, Yvonne; Torpdahl, Mia; Zachariasen, Camilla

    2012-01-01

    . Interestingly, Salmonella Dublin and Salmonella Enteritidis belong to the same O-group (O:1, 9,12), suggesting that surface lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of the cell (O-antigen) play a role in colistin susceptibility. The epidemiological cut-off value of >2 mg/L for colistin suggested by European Committee...... on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) is placed inside the distribution for both Salmonella Dublin and Salmonella Enteritidis. All tested Salmonella Dublin isolates, regardless of MIC colistin value, had identical pmrA and pmrB sequences. Missense mutations were found only in pmrA in one Salmonella...

  4. Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juel, Helene B; Thomaides-Brears, Helena B; Darton, Thomas C; Jones, Claire; Jones, Elizabeth; Shrestha, Sonu; Sie, Rebecca; Eustace, Andrew; Galal, Ushma; Kurupati, Prathiba; Van, Tan T; Thieu, Nga T V; Baker, Stephen; Blohmke, Christoph J; Pollard, Andrew J

    2017-01-01

    Effective vaccines against Salmonella Typhi , a major cause of febrile illness in tropical regions, can have a significant effect as a disease control measure. Earlier work has shown that immunization with either of two Salmonella Typhi vaccines, licensed Ty21a or candidate M01ZH09, did not provide full immunity in a controlled human infection model. Here, we describe the human humoral immune responses to these oral vaccines and their functional role in protection after challenge with S . Typhi. Serum, obtained from healthy volunteers before and after vaccination with Ty21a or M01ZH09 or placebo and before and after oral challenge with wild-type S . Typhi, was assessed for bactericidal activity. Single-dose vaccination with M01ZH09 induced an increase in serum bactericidal antibodies ( p  = 0.001) while three doses of Ty21a did not. No association between bactericidal activity and protection against typhoid after challenge was seen in either vaccine arm. Bactericidal activity after vaccination correlated significantly with delayed disease onset ( p  = 0.013), lower bacterial burden ( p  = 0.006), and decreased disease severity scores ( p  = 0.021). Depletion of antibodies directed against lipopolysaccharide significantly reduced bactericidal activity ( p  = 0.009). We conclude that antibodies induced after ingestion of oral live-attenuated typhoid vaccines or after challenge with wild-type S . Typhi exhibit bactericidal activity. This bactericidal activity is mediated by anti-O:LPS antibodies and significantly reduces clinical symptoms but does not provide sterile immunity. This directs future vaccine studies toward other antigens or mechanisms of protection against typhoid.

  5. Inactivation of Salmonellae in Frozen Catfish by Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouchpramoon, Kovit; Amsiri, Jarurat

    2003-06-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on salmonellae viability in frozen catfish was investigated using fresh cut of catfish artificially contaminated with stationary phase cells of salmonellae, frozen at-18 οC and irradiated with does ranging from 0.0 to 2.4 kGy. The D 10 values for ten serovars of salmonellae ranged from 0.47 to 0.77 kGy. Salmonella Enteritidis was the most resistant serovars found in frozen catfish. Dosage at 2.5 kGy would be sufficient to kill 10 3 . 2 Salmonella Enteritidis that may occasionally present in frozen catfish

  6. Comportamento de células do sistema imune frente ao desafio com Salmonella Enteritidis em aves tratadas e não tratadas com ácidos orgânicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Flores

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A Salmonelose é uma importante zoonose, considerada a principal causa de infecções bacterianas, sendo associada ao consumo de produtos avícolas. Como alternativa de controle, ácidos orgânicos têm sido amplamente usados. No entanto, pouco se conhece sobre o estado imunológico de aves de produção, e uma avaliação deste status é necessária para proteger frente a enfermidades e para garantir à aplicação segura de agentes terapêuticos ou imunização profilática. Este trabalho teve como objetivo verificar o comportamento do sistema imunológico das aves previamente infectadas com Salmonella Enteritidis (SE tratadas com um composto de ácidos orgânicos em diferentes concentrações administrado via água e ração comparando com as aves infectadas e não tratadas. Foram inoculados 120 frangos de corte com 1mL de SE, via oral, na concentração de 1,0 x 108 UFC/mL, no 1º e 2º dia de idade, divididos em seis tratamentos com duas repetições, utilizando 200, 400, 500 e 1000ppm do ácido orgânico. Aos 35 dias de vida das aves, foram coletados, de todos os grupos, alíquotas de sangue de 3mL em tubo contendo EDTA para a avaliação das células imunes através de citometria de fluxo. Foram analisadas as porcentagens circulantes de células CD4+, CD8β+, MHC I+, MHC II+, TCRVβ1+, TCRVβ2+ e CD28+. Para análise microbiológica foram coletadas tonsilas cecais destas aves. Observou-se com esse estudo que os ácidos orgânicos nas dosagens 1000ppm na água e 500ppm na ração durante, dois e sete dias respectivamente antes do abate, foram eficazes na redução da infecção por SE em frangos de corte, comprovadas pelo método microbiológico e demonstradas através do comportamento das células do sistema imune. No presente estudo as aves infectadas apresentaram uma proporção menor de células T auxiliares circulantes quando comparadas às aves infectadas, mas tratadas com o AO ou com o grupo não infectado. A mesma tendência pode

  7. 76 FR 16425 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Testing for Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ...] Draft Guidance for Industry: Testing for Salmonella Species in Human Foods and Direct-Human-Contact... ``Testing for Salmonella Species in Human Foods and Direct-Human-Contact Animal Foods.'' The draft guidance... ``Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production, Storage, and Transportation.'' The...

  8. Quantitative comparison of intestinal invasion of zoonotic serotypes of Salmonella enterica in poultry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Søren; Christensen, J.P.; Chadfield, M.S.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the invasion of selected zoonotic Salmonella serotypes of poultry in an in vivo chicken intestinal loop model and also in vitro in epithelial cell cultures. Invasion was measured relative to a reference strain, Salmonella Typhimurium 4/74 invH201::Tnpho......A. Two serotypes demonstrated intracellular log(10) counts that differed significantly from all other serotypes tested: Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 being 1.5 log(10) colony forming units (CFU) ( 31-fold) higher, and Salmonella Tennessee being 0.7 log(10) CFU (fivefold) lower than the reference strain (P......, S. Enteritidis PT6, S. Enteritidis PT8, and Salmonella Berta. The serotypes Salmonella Hadar, Salmonella Virchow, S. 4,12: b:-, S. Typhimurium DT41, and Salmonella Infantis, most of which are considered horizontally transmitted, did not show significantly different intracellular counts from...

  9. 9 CFR 147.11 - Laboratory procedure recommended for the bacteriological examination of salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the bacteriological examination of salmonella. 147.11 Section 147.11 Animals and Animal Products... procedure recommended for the bacteriological examination of salmonella. (a) For egg- and meat-type chickens... 25 birds, and birds from Salmonella enteritidis (SE) positive environments should be cultured in...

  10. Effects of challenge dose on faecal shedding of Salmonella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experimental infection of chickens with Salmonella enteritidis is often achieved by oral inoculation of live bacteria to caged chickens. Less information is available on influence of amount of Salmonella a chicken is exposed to during infection on the proportion that is eventually eliminated in faeces. This study evaluated the ...

  11. A role for the non-canonical Wnt-ß-Catenin and TGF-ß signaling pathways in the induction of tolerance during the establishment of a Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis persistent cecal infection in chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica induce an early pro-inflammatory response in chickens. However, the response is short-lived, asymptomatic of disease, resulting in a persistent colonization of the ceca, and fecal shedding of bacteria. The underlying mechanisms that control this persistent infecti...

  12. Salmonella Growth and Deposition Inside Eggs: Implications for Refrigeration as a Control Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    A recent risk assessment for Salmonella Enteritidis contamination of eggs concluded that prompt refrigeration of freshly laid eggs was among the most promising disease mitigation strategies. ARS research has provided detailed information about the deposition, movement, and multiplication of Salmonel...

  13. Salmonella enterocolitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonellosis; Nontyphoidal salmonella; Food poisoning - salmonella; Gastroenteritis - salmonella ... Salmonella infection is one of the most common types of food poisoning . It occurs when you swallow ...

  14. Backyard Farms Represent a Source of Wide Host Range Salmonella Phages That Lysed the Most Common Salmonella Serovars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Dácil; Toledo, Viviana; Pillo, Francisca DI; Dueñas, Fernando; Tardone, Rodolfo; Hamilton-West, Christopher; Vongkamjan, Kitiya; Wiedmann, Martin; Switt, Andrea I Moreno

    2018-02-01

    The genus Salmonella has more than 2,600 serovars, and this trait is important when considering interventions for Salmonella control. Bacteriophages that are used for biocontrol must have an exclusively lytic cycle and the ability to lyse several Salmonella serovars under a wide range of environmental conditions. Salmonella phages were isolated and characterized from 34 backyard production systems (BPSs) with a history of Salmonella infections. BPSs were visited once, and cloacal or fecal samples were processed for phage isolation. Four hosts, Salmonella serovars Enteritidis, Heidelberg, Infantis, and Typhimurium, were used for phage isolation. The host range of the phages was later characterized with a panel of 23 Salmonella serovars (serovar diversity set) and 31 isolates obtained from the same farms (native set). Genetic relatedness for 10 phages with a wide host range was characterized by restriction fragment length polymorphism, and phages clustered based on the host range. We purified 63 phages, and 36 phage isolates were obtained on Salmonella Enteritidis, 16 on Salmonella Heidelberg, and 11 on Salmonella Infantis. Phages were classified in three clusters: (i) phages with a wide host range (cluster I), (ii) phages that lysed the most susceptible Salmonella serovars (serogroup D) and other isolates (cluster II), and (iii) phages that lysed only isolates of serogroup D (cluster III). The most susceptible Salmonella serovars were Enteritidis, Javiana, and Dublin. Seven of 34 farms yielded phages with a wide host range, and these phages had low levels of genetic relatedness. Our study showed an adaptation of the phages in the sampled BPSs to serogroup D Salmonella isolates and indicated that isolation of Salmonella phages with wide host range differs by farm. A better understanding of the factors driving the Salmonella phage host range could be useful when designing risk-based sampling strategies to obtain phages with a wide lytic host range for biocontrol

  15. [Rapid methods for the genus Salmonella bacteria detection in food and raw materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, D M; Sokolov, M S

    2013-01-01

    The article considers sanitary and epidemiological aspects and the impact of Salmonella food poisoning in Russia and abroad. The main characteristics of the agent (Salmonella enterica subsp. Enteritidis) are summarized. The main sources of human Salmonella infection are products of poultry and livestock (poultry, eggs, dairy products, meat products, etc.). Standard methods of identifying the causative agent, rapid (alternative) methods of analysis of Salmonella using differential diagnostic medium (MSRV, Salmosyst, XLT4-agar, agar-Rambach et al.), rapid tests Singlepath-Salmonella and PCR (food proof Salmonella) in real time were stated. Rapid tests provide is a substantial (at 24-48 h) reducing the time to identify Salmonella.

  16. Live attenuated vaccines for invasive Salmonella infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, Sharon M; Levine, Myron M

    2015-06-19

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi produces significant morbidity and mortality worldwide despite the fact that there are licensed Salmonella Typhi vaccines available. This is primarily due to the fact that these vaccines are not used in the countries that most need them. There is growing recognition that an effective invasive Salmonella vaccine formulation must also prevent infection due to other Salmonella serovars. We anticipate that a multivalent vaccine that targets the following serovars will be needed to control invasive Salmonella infections worldwide: Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Paratyphi A, Salmonella Paratyphi B (currently uncommon but may become dominant again), Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Choleraesuis (as well as other Group C Salmonella). Live attenuated vaccines are an attractive vaccine formulation for use in developing as well as developed countries. Here, we describe the methods of attenuation that have been used to date to create live attenuated Salmonella vaccines and provide an update on the progress that has been made on these vaccines. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Metabolic parameters linked by Phenotype MicroArray to acid resistance profiles of poultry-associated Salmonella enterica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenotype microarrays were analyzed for 51 datasets derived from Salmonella enterica. The top 4 serovars associated with poultry products and one associated with turkey, respectively Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Heidelberg, Infantis and Senftenberg, were represented. Datasets were clustered into two ...

  18. Salmonella er en sjælden årsag til meningitis hos nyfødte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lotte; Hoffmann, Thomas; Knudsen, Inge Jenny Dahl

    2013-01-01

    In developed countries, invasive disease caused by non typhoidal Salmonella spp. is rare. Here we present a Danish case of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) meningitis in an infant who had no underlying diseases. The child had had no known expositions, and the source...... of the infection was never identified. The chance of finding uncommon microorganisms as cause of invasive infections such as meningitis and the choice of initial empiric antimicrobial treatments is discussed....

  19. [Survival of Salmonella in spices and growth in cooked food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urabe, Yurie; Minai, Yuji; Haga, Minoru; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Ishiguro, Atsushi; Hara-Kudo, Yukiko

    2008-04-01

    Contamination of spices with pathogens has been reported worldwide, and Salmonella might result in foodborne infections. In this study, we investigated the survival of Salmonella in black pepper and red pepper, and the growth of the surviving Salmonella in cooked food. Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Weltevreden and Salmonella Senftenberg were inoculated into spices, and their survival during storage was examined. In black pepper, S. Enteritidis was no longer viable after storage for 28 days, but S. Weltevreden and S. Senftenberg remained viable. In red pepper, S. Weltevreden and S. Senftenberg survived for 28 days although S. Enteritidis was not viable after 7 days. Salmonella Weltevreden and Salmonella Senftenberg were inoculated into cooked food, and their survival during storage was determined. In potato salad, egg salad, namul and kimchi as cooked foods, both pathogens grew at 30 degrees C, but not at 10 degrees C. Our results indicate that cooked food should be stored at low temperature after addition of spices, such as black pepper and red pepper, following the cooking.

  20. Changes in population of S. enterica serotype Enteritidis in experimentally contaminated milk depending on temperature and acidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajić-Savić Nataša

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella bacteria are among the most frequent causes of food poisoning, and milk and milk products are food items through which these bacteria can be transmitted. More recent data indicate that the infective dose of Salmonella is very small - up to 101/g/ml food. The preservation of Salmonella in milk depends on the acidity, temperature and the duration of storage. The objective of the work was to examine the survival of Salmonella in milk depending on the changes of the total number of bacteria, pH and temperature. In the study, 0.1 ml of 24-hour bouillon culture of S. enteritidis was inoculated in raw collective milk (104 cfu/ml and in marketed pasteurized milk (102 cfu/ml each. The examined milk samples were maintained at room temperature and at a temperature of 7oC. At the beginning of the examinations, after 24h, 48h, 72h, after 7, 14 and 21 days, decimal solutions were made from the milk, and, following incubation, the number of S. enteritidis was determined (Rambach agar, the total number of bacteria (base for total number of bacteria by multiplying the number of grown colonies and the corresponding solution, and the milk pH was measured. There was a bigger reduction of S. enteritidis at room temperature because the pH value dropped more swiftly. The lowest pH at which S. enteritidis was isolated from experimentally contaminated milk was 3.88. The results of the examinations show that Salmonella can adapt to biochemical processes during milk acid fermentation of soft cheeses. No Salmonella bacteria were isolated from experimentally contaminated pasterurized milk at both maintenance temperatures after seven days of investigations.

  1. Resistance to antimicrobials drugs and control measures of Salmonella spp in the poultry industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velhner Maja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide prevalence of multiple resistant Salmonella spp is described. Clonally distributed Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 and Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 are among the most pathogenic strains for humans. Recently there have been reports on the prevalence of ST “like” monophasic 4(5,12:i strains in some countries. Vaccination strategy and antimicorbial agent therapy is also briefly discussed. Products of animal origin must be safe and without the risk of antimicrobial resistance. Subsequently, the good management practice at farm level and HACCP in feed factories are required to cope with salmonella infections. Poultry producers in developed countries have been motivated to participate in salmonella control programs, because of public awareness on safe food and risks in the food chain. Export of poultry and poultry products is more successful in the regions where Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium have been eradicated. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31071

  2. Evaluation of a serological Salmonella Mix-ELISA for poultry used in a national surveillance programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feld, Niels Christian; Ekeroth, Lars; Gradel, K.O.

    2000-01-01

    A Mix-ELISA using lipopolysaccharide antigens from Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis and Typhimurium? was evaluated using samples collected over time in the Danish salmonella surveillance programme for poultry. Serological samples (n = 42813) taken from broiler-breeder flocks after a year...

  3. Mathematical modeling of growth Salmonella and spoilage microorganisms in raw oysters

    Science.gov (United States)

    The main objective of this study was to develop primary and secondary models to describe the growth of Salmonella as well as background microorganisms in fresh shucked oysters. The cocktail of two Salmonella serotypes, S. Typhimurium (CICC22956) and S. Enteritidis (CICC21482), was inoculated to raw...

  4. Quantitative comparison of intestinal invasion of zoonotic serotypes of Salmonella enterica in poultry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Søren; Christensen, J.P.; Chadfield, M.S.

    2002-01-01

    A. Two serotypes demonstrated intracellular log(10) counts that differed significantly from all other serotypes tested: Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 being 1.5 log(10) colony forming units (CFU) ( 31-fold) higher, and Salmonella Tennessee being 0.7 log(10) CFU (fivefold) lower than the reference strain (P...

  5. 40 CFR 180.1114 - Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas syringae 742RS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas syringae 742RS; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance... Tolerances § 180.1114 Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas syringae...

  6. Identification by PCR of non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica serovars associated with invasive infections among febrile patients in Mali.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon M Tennant

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In sub-Saharan Africa, non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS are emerging as a prominent cause of invasive disease (bacteremia and focal infections such as meningitis in infants and young children. Importantly, including data from Mali, three serovars, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Dublin, account for the majority of non-typhoidal Salmonella isolated from these patients.We have extended a previously developed series of polymerase chain reactions (PCRs based on O serogrouping and H typing to identify Salmonella Typhimurium and variants (mostly I 4,[5],12:i:-, Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Dublin. We also designed primers to detect Salmonella Stanleyville, a serovar found in West Africa. Another PCR was used to differentiate diphasic Salmonella Typhimurium and monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium from other O serogroup B, H:i serovars. We used these PCRs to blind-test 327 Salmonella serogroup B and D isolates that were obtained from the blood cultures of febrile patients in Bamako, Mali.We have shown that when used in conjunction with our previously described O-serogrouping PCR, our PCRs are 100% sensitive and specific in identifying Salmonella Typhimurium and variants, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Dublin and Salmonella Stanleyville. When we attempted to differentiate 171 Salmonella Typhimurium (I 4,[ 5],12:i:1,2 strains from 52 monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium (I 4,[5],12:i:- strains, we were able to correctly identify 170 of the Salmonella Typhimurium and 51 of the Salmonella I 4,[5],12:i:- strains.We have described a simple yet effective PCR method to support surveillance of the incidence of invasive disease caused by NTS in developing countries.

  7. The first attempt of an active integrated laboratory‐based Salmonella surveillance programme in the north‐eastern region of Nigeria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raufu, I.; Bortolaia, Valeria; Svendsen, Christina Aaby

    2013-01-01

    of 17 tested antimicrobials, including ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid. Three S. Hadar isolates revealed reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin and susceptibility to nalidixic acid and harboured the plasmid‐mediated quinolone resistance gene qnrS1. Salmonella serovars Hadar, Enteritidis...

  8. PCR-RFLP Analysis of a fliC Gene Fragment in Avian Salmonella Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Ebrahimvandi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Salmonella are a genus of zoonotic bacteria of worldwide economic and health importance. Members of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica are mainly associated with warm-blooded vertebrates and are usually transmitted by ingestion of food or watercontaminated by infected feces. Objectives: The aim of this study was to apply a PCR-RFLP method based on the fliC gene to identify the serotypes of Salmonella isolates from Karaj, Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 Salmonella isolates were serotyped by specific antisera. For the PCR-RFLP method based on the fliC gene, extracted DNA was used as the template for amplifying the fliC gene (1500 bp using specific primers. PCR products were subjected to digestion using HhaI restriction endonuclease. Results: This study determined 30 serotypes as Salmonella durban (56.6%, Salmonella uno (23.3%, Salmonella enteritidis (3.3%, Salmonella tinda (3.3%, Salmonella mjimweme (3.3%, Salmonella Thompson (3.3%, Salmonella sIIO8 (3.3 % and Salmonella sIIO7 (3.3%. Observations indicated that HhaI is able to discriminate Salmonella tinda and Salmonella thompson, yet Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella durban and Salmonella mjimweme had the same pattern with this enzyme. Also Salmonella sIIO8, Salmonella sIIO7 and Salmonella uno showed the same pattern. Thus, regarding the size and the number of resulting fragments from this enzyme, four patterns were obtained for HhaI. Conclusion: A large number of Salmonella serotypes need to be analyzed by the PCR-RFLP method and different enzymes must be used to give reliable results.

  9. Consecutive salmonella outbreaks traced to the same bakery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, M. R.; Tromans, J. P.; Dexter, E. L.; Ribeiro, C. D.; Gardner, D.

    1996-01-01

    Two consecutive community outbreaks of Salmonella enteritidis phage type 4 (PT4) traced to the same bakery occurred in Cardiff, Wales during August-September 1992. In the first outbreak, illness was associated with eating custard slices (odds ratio 23.8, 95% confidence interval 6.5-94.4, P bakery. This incident illustrates the hazard of widespread environmental contamination with salmonella and the need for thorough environmental cleansing for any premises implicated in an outbreak of food poisoning. PMID:8620907

  10. Effects of challenge dose on faecal shedding of Salmonella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-04-06

    Apr 6, 2009 ... enteritidis infections has been reported worldwide (CDC,. 2000; Gast et al., .... Data analysis. Faecal samples with no detectable growths at all or that had colonies not typical of Salmonella and which did not agglutinate when reacted ... for different weeks post-infection were analysed via one-way analysis of ...

  11. Butyrate Specifically Down-Regulates Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 Gene Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Gantois, I.; Ducatelle, R.; Pasmans, F.; Haesebrouck, F.; Hautefort, I.; Thompson, A.; Hinton, J. C.; Van Immerseel, F.

    2006-01-01

    Invasion of intestinal epithelial cells by Salmonella enterica is decreased after exposure to butyric acid. To understand the molecular mechanisms of this phenomenon, a comparative transcriptomic analysis of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium grown in medium supplemented with butyrate was performed. We found that butyrate down-regulated the expression of 19 genes common to both serovars by a factor of twofold or more, and 17 of these genes loca...

  12. Identification of risk factors and causes of persistence of Salmonella Gallinarum in laying hens farms from Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presence of Salmonella Gallinarum (SG) was recently identified in brown egg layers in Colombia. During 2013, twenty isolates were analyzed using Intergenic Sequence Ribotyping. Eighteen (90%) were SG and two (10%) were Salmonella Enteritidis (SE). SG was isolated mainly from organs of sick birds...

  13. Web-based surveillance and global Salmonella distribution, 2000-2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galanis, E.; Wong, Danilo Lo Fo; Patrick, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    Salmonellae are a common cause of foodborne disease worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO) supports international foodborne disease surveillance through WHO Global Salm-Surv and other activities. WHO Global Salm-Surv members annually report the 15 most frequently isolated Salmonella...... serotypes to a Web-based country databank. We describe the global distribution of reported Salmonella serotypes from human and nonhuman sources from 2000 to 2002. Among human isolates, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis was the most common serotype, accounting for 65% of all isolates. Among nonhuman...... professionals to explore hypotheses related to the sources and distribution of salmonellae worldwide....

  14. Effect of the irradiation on Salmonella enteretidis var. typhimurium with gamma rays from 60Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maliska, C.; Norberg, A.N.; Norberg, J.B.M.; Santos Souza, R.C. dos; Silva Tavares, P.R. da

    1988-01-01

    The use of ionizinf radiation to the destruction of microrganisms responsible for food deterioration, and productive of feeding toxinfections constitute their usefulness for actually peaceful goals of nuclear energy. The feeding toxinfections are, among us, produced in their most part by Salmonella enteritidis var. typhimurim. One hundred nineteen samples of milk containing about 150.000 bacteria per ml, by means doses ranging from 100 to 1.100 gy, two samples of surviving bacteria were again irradiated by doses up to 2.5000 Gy. The bacteria not previously irradiated were throughly killed by means of doses of 1.100 Gy. Salmonella enteritidis var. typhimurium was inactivated by means of 1.200 and 1.900 Gy doses. It was concluded that 60-Cobalt gamma radiation minimal lethal dose to Salmonella enteritidis var. typhimurium is 1.200 Gy; the re-irradiation to the survivors prompts the forthcoming of more resistant germs. (author) [pt

  15. Optimization of rapid Salmonella enterica detection in liquid whole eggs by SYBR green I-based real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techathuvanan, Chayapa; D'Souza, Doris Helen

    2011-04-01

    Eggs and egg products have a high risk of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis contamination leading to gastroenteritis outbreaks in humans. Thus, a rapid screening tool for viable Salmonella Enteritidis cells in the egg industry is needed. Our objective was to rapidly and sensitively detect viable Salmonella Enteritidis from spiked liquid whole eggs (LWEs) within 24 h using SYBR green I-based real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the Salmonella specific invA gene along with an internal amplification control in a Bio-Rad iCycler. LWE was inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis and mixed with tetrathionate broth, and 100 μL of serially diluted portions in phosphate-buffered saline was plated on Xylose Lysine Tergitol 4 agar or 5 mL were used for RNA extraction by the TRIzol method immediately or after enrichment of 6, 12, or 16 h at 37 °C. The real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR assay was carried out using previously described Salmonella invA gene primers. Melt temperature analysis of the PCR product was included to determine specific invA amplification. Without enrichment, the assay detection limit was 10(7) colony forming units (CFU)/25 mL LWE. After enrichment for 6 and 12 h, Salmonella Enteritidis could be detected from LWE up to 10(4) and 10(2) CFU/25 mL, respectively. Improved Salmonella Enteritidis detection up to 10(0) CFU/25 mL was obtained after 16-h enrichment. Even with 16-h enrichment, the results could be still be obtained within 24 h, which is much faster than by traditional cultural detection that takes several days. Therefore, this assay appears suitable for routine detection of Salmonella enterica contamination by the egg industry to help prevent the transmission of egg-associated Salmonella outbreaks and timely recall of contaminated products. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  16. Effect of the Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 type III secretion system on Salmonella survival in activated chicken macrophage-like HD11 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L S Wisner

    Full Text Available In order to better identify the role of the Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI-2 type III secretion system (T3SS in chickens, we used the well-known gentamicin protection assay with activated HD11 cells. HD11 cells are a macrophage-like chicken cell line that can be stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA to exhibit more macrophage-like morphology and greater production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Activated HD11 cells were infected with a wild-type Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium strain, a SPI-2 mutant S. Typhimurium strain, a wild-type Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis strain, a SPI-2 mutant S. Enteritidis strain, or a non-pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli strain. SPI-2 mutant strains were found to survive as well as their parent strain at all time points post-uptake (PU by the HD11 cells, up to 24 h PU, while the E. coli strain was no longer recoverable by 3 h PU. We can conclude from these observations that the SPI-2 T3SS of S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis is not important for survival of Salmonella in the activated macrophage-like HD11 cell line, and that Salmonella must employ other mechanisms for survival in this environment, as E. coli is effectively eliminated.

  17. Vaccines against invasive Salmonella disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLennan, Calman A; Martin, Laura B; Micoli, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Though primarily enteric pathogens, Salmonellae are responsible for a considerable yet under-appreciated global burden of invasive disease. In South and South-East Asia, this manifests as enteric fever caused by serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A. In sub-Saharan Africa, a similar disease burden results from invasive nontyphoidal Salmonellae, principally serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis. The existing Ty21a live-attenuated and Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccines target S. Typhi and are not effective in young children where the burden of invasive Salmonella disease is highest. After years of lack of investment in new Salmonella vaccines, recent times have seen increased interest in the area led by emerging-market manufacturers, global health vaccine institutes and academic partners. New glycoconjugate vaccines against S. Typhi are becoming available with similar vaccines against other invasive serovars in development. With other new vaccines under investigation, including live-attenuated, protein-based and GMMA vaccines, now is an exciting time for the Salmonella vaccine field. PMID:24804797

  18. Engineering and Preclinical Evaluation of Attenuated Nontyphoidal Salmonella Strains Serving as Live Oral Vaccines and as Reagent Strains▿†

    OpenAIRE

    Tennant, Sharon M.; Wang, Jin-Yuan; Galen, James E.; Simon, Raphael; Pasetti, Marcela F.; Gat, Orit; Levine, Myron M.

    2011-01-01

    While nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) has long been recognized as a cause of self-limited gastroenteritis, it is becoming increasingly evident that multiple-antibiotic-resistant strains are also emerging as important causes of invasive bacteremia and focal infections, resulting in hospitalizations and deaths. We have constructed attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis strains that can serve as live oral vaccines and as “reagent strains” for...

  19. Do microbial interactions and cultivation media decrease the accuracy of Salmonella surveillance systems and outbreak investigations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Randall S; Mayer, Anne E; Hanson, Timothy E; Isaacson, Richard E

    2009-04-01

    Cultivation methods are commonly used in Salmonella surveillance systems and outbreak investigations, and consequently, conclusions about Salmonella evolution and transmission are highly dependent on the performance characteristics of these methods. Past studies have shown that Salmonella serotypes can exhibit different growth characteristics in the same enrichment and selective media. This could lead not only to biased conclusions about the dominant strain present in a sample with mixed Salmonella populations, but also to a low sensitivity for detecting a Salmonella strain in a sample with only a single strain present. The objective of this study was to determine whether cultivation media select preferentially for specific strains of Salmonella in heterogeneous cultures. In this study, four different Salmonella strains (one Salmonella Newport, two Salmonella Typhimurium, and one Salmonella Enteritidis) were competed in a broth-based experiment and a bovine fecal experiment with varied combinations and concentrations of each strain. In all experiments, the strain of Salmonella Newport was the most competitive, regardless of the starting concentration and cultivation protocol. One strain of Salmonella Typhimurium was rarely detected in competition, even when it was the only strain present in bovine feces. Overall, the probability of detecting a specific Salmonella strain had little to do with its starting concentration in the sample. The bias introduced by culture could be dramatically biasing Salmonella surveillance systems and hindering traceback investigations during Salmonella outbreaks. Future studies should focus on the microbiological explanations for this Salmonella interstrain variability, approaches for minimizing the bias, and estimations of the public health significance of this bias.

  20. Evaluation of different analysis and identification methods for Salmonella detection in surface drinking water sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Bing-Mu, E-mail: bmhsu@ccu.edu.tw [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Kuan-Hao; Huang, Shih-Wei [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi, Taiwan, ROC (China); Tseng, Kuo-Chih [Department of Internal Medicine, Buddhist Dalin Tzu Chi General Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan, ROC (China); Su, Ming-Jen [Department of Clinical Pathology, Buddhist Dalin Tzu Chi General Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Wei-Chen; Ji, Dar-Der [Research and Diagnostic Center, Centers for Disease Control, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Shih, Feng-Cheng; Chen, Jyh-Larng [Department of Environmental Engineering and Health, Yuanpei University of Science and Technology, HsinChu, Taiwan, ROC (China); Kao, Po-Min [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2011-09-15

    The standard method for detecting Salmonella generally analyzes food or fecal samples. Salmonella often occur in relatively low concentrations in environmental waters. Therefore, some form of concentration and proliferation may be needed. This study compares three Salmonella analysis methods and develops a new Salmonella detection procedure for use in environmental water samples. The new procedure for Salmonella detection include water concentration, nutrient broth enrichment, selection of Salmonella containing broth by PCR, isolation of Salmonella strains by selective culture plates, detection of possible Salmonella isolate by PCR, and biochemical testing. Serological assay and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) can be used to identify Salmonella serotype and genotype, respectively. This study analyzed 116 raw water samples taken from 18 water plants and belonging to 5 watersheds. Of these 116, 10 water samples (8.6%) taken from 7 water plants and belonging to 4 watersheds were positive for a Salmonella-specific polymerase chain reaction targeting the invA gene. Guided by serological assay results, this study identified 7 cultured Salmonella isolates as Salmonella enterica serovar: Alnaby, Enteritidis, Houten, Montevideo, Newport, Paratyphi B var. Java, and Victoria. These seven Salmonella serovars were identified in clinical cases for the same geographical areas, but only one of them was 100% homologous with clinical cases in the PFGE pattern. - Research highlights: {yields} A new Salmonella detecting procedure for environmental water is developed. {yields} Salmonella isolates are identified by serological assay and PFGE. {yields} A total of seven Salmonella serovars is isolated from environmental water.

  1. Evaluation of different analysis and identification methods for Salmonella detection in surface drinking water sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Bing-Mu; Huang, Kuan-Hao; Huang, Shih-Wei; Tseng, Kuo-Chih; Su, Ming-Jen; Lin, Wei-Chen; Ji, Dar-Der; Shih, Feng-Cheng; Chen, Jyh-Larng; Kao, Po-Min

    2011-01-01

    The standard method for detecting Salmonella generally analyzes food or fecal samples. Salmonella often occur in relatively low concentrations in environmental waters. Therefore, some form of concentration and proliferation may be needed. This study compares three Salmonella analysis methods and develops a new Salmonella detection procedure for use in environmental water samples. The new procedure for Salmonella detection include water concentration, nutrient broth enrichment, selection of Salmonella containing broth by PCR, isolation of Salmonella strains by selective culture plates, detection of possible Salmonella isolate by PCR, and biochemical testing. Serological assay and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) can be used to identify Salmonella serotype and genotype, respectively. This study analyzed 116 raw water samples taken from 18 water plants and belonging to 5 watersheds. Of these 116, 10 water samples (8.6%) taken from 7 water plants and belonging to 4 watersheds were positive for a Salmonella-specific polymerase chain reaction targeting the invA gene. Guided by serological assay results, this study identified 7 cultured Salmonella isolates as Salmonella enterica serovar: Alnaby, Enteritidis, Houten, Montevideo, Newport, Paratyphi B var. Java, and Victoria. These seven Salmonella serovars were identified in clinical cases for the same geographical areas, but only one of them was 100% homologous with clinical cases in the PFGE pattern. - Research highlights: → A new Salmonella detecting procedure for environmental water is developed. → Salmonella isolates are identified by serological assay and PFGE. → A total of seven Salmonella serovars is isolated from environmental water.

  2. Induction of Viable but Nonculturable Salmonella in Exponentially Grown Cells by Exposure to a Low-Humidity Environment and Their Resuscitation by Catalase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishige, Yuta; Koike, Atsushi; Tamura-Ueyama, Ai; Amano, Fumio

    2017-02-01

    Salmonella is a major cause of foodborne disease that sometimes occurs in massive outbreaks around the world. This pathogen is tolerant of low-humidity conditions. We previously described a method for induction of viable but nonculturable (VBNC) Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis by treatment with hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and subsequent resuscitation with 0.3 mM sodium pyruvate. Here, we report a new method for the induction of the VBNC state in Salmonella Enteritidis cells, one involving dehydration. Exposure of Salmonella Enteritidis cells to dehydration stress under poor nutritional conditions (0.9% [wt/vol] NaCl) and 10 to 20% relative humidity at room temperature decreased the presence of culturable population to 0.0067%, but respiratory and glucose uptake active populations were maintained at 0.46 and 1.12%, respectively, meaning that approximately 1% may have entered the VBNC state. Furthermore, these VBNC cells could be resuscitated to acquire culturability by incubation with catalase in M9 minimal medium without glucose in a manner dependent on the dose of catalase but not sodium pyruvate. These results suggest that a low-humidity environment could cause Salmonella Enteritidis cells to enter the VBNC state and the cells could then be resuscitated for growth by treatment with catalase, suggesting a potential risk of Salmonella Enteritidis to survive in low water activity foods in the VBNC state and to start regrowth for foodborne illness.

  3. Classification and structural analysis of live and dead salmonella cells using fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and principle component analysis (PCA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) was used to detect Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella enteritidis foodborne bacteria and distinguish between live and dead cells of both serotypes. Bacteria were loaded individually on the ZnSe Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) crystal surface and s...

  4. Growth of Pseudomonas fluorescens on Cassava Starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential of local strains of microorganism (Pseudomonas fluorescens) in polyhydroxbutyrate production was investigated in this study. This was with a view to establishing the capabilities of local strains of microorganisms on utilizing renewable and locally available substrates in polyhydroxybutyrate production.

  5. Characterization and identification of Pseudomonas fluorescens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crystal violet (CV), a recalcitrant molecule, used commonly as biological stain and commercial dye, was subjected to biodegradation in this study by Pseudomonas fluorescens NCIM 2100 and its biodegraded metabolic products were identified by UV, 1HNMR and IR Spectrophotometry. During degradation process CV dye ...

  6. Salmonella in California wildlife species: prevalence in rehabilitation centers and characterization of isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Woutrina A; Mazet, Jonna A K; Hirsh, Dwight C

    2002-09-01

    Fecal samples from 212 selected marine mammals, marine birds, and raptors were cultured for Salmonella spp. on arrival at rehabilitation centers in California from May 1999 through July 2000. Salmonella spp. were cultured from nine (4%) animals, and seven serotypes were isolated: Johannesberg, Montevideo, Newport, Ohio, Saint Paul, Enteritidis Group D, and 4,5,12:1 Monophasic. One western gull (Larus occidentalis) had two serotypes. Antibiotic susceptibilities and chromosomal fingerprints were evaluated for Salmonella isolates. Some isolates were resistant to gentamicin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, and ampicillin. Chromosomal fingerprints with XbaI and XhoI restriction enzymes differed between serotypes but not between individuals carrying the same serotype of Salmonella.

  7. Occurrence of Salmonella spp. in broiler chicken carcasses and their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Dalila Angélica Moliterno; Ribeiro, Aldemir Reginato; Vasconcelos, Ana Mércia Mendes; Santos, Sylnei Barros; Silva, Juliana Vital Domingos; de Andrade, Patrícia Lúcia Arruda; de Arruda Falcão, Lúcia Sadae Pereira da Costa

    2009-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the occurrence of Salmonellae in broiler chicken carcasses and to determine the antimicrobial resistance profile of the isolated strains. Twenty-five out of the 260 broiler chicken carcasses samples (9.6%) were positive for Salmonella. S. Enteritidis was the most frequent serovar. Nineteen Salmonella isolates were tested for antimicrobial resistance, and the results indicated that 94.7% were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent. Resistance to streptomycin (73.7%), nitrofurantoin (52.3%), tetracycline (31.6%), and nalidixic acid (21%) were the prevalent amongst Salmonella strains tested. PMID:24031401

  8. Effects of propolis from Brazil and Bulgaria on Salmonella serovars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. O. Orsi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis shows biological properties such as antibacterial action. This bee product has a complex chemical composition, which depends on the local flora where it is produced. Salmonella serovars are responsible for human diseases that range from localized gastroenteritis to systemic infections. The aim of the present study was to investigate the susceptibility of Salmonella strains, isolated from food and infectious processes, to the antibacterial action of Brazilian and Bulgarian propolis, as well as to determine the behavior of these bacteria, according to the incubation period, in medium plus propolis. Dilution of ethanolic extract of propolis in agar was the used method. Brazilian and Bulgarian propolis showed an antibacterial action against all Salmonella serovars. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC of propolis were similar, although they were collected in different geographic regions. Salmonella typhimurium, isolated from human infection, was more resistant to propolis than Salmonella enteritidis.

  9. Real-time monitoring of Salmonella enterica in free-range geese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Laurids Siig; Josefsen, Mathilde Hartmann; Pedersen, Karl

    2011-01-01

    Free-range geese were sampled longitudinally and Salmonella isolates characterized to reveal highly diverging colonization dynamics. One flock was intermittently colonized with one strain of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis from 2 weeks of age, while in another, S. enterica serovar Mbandaka...... appeared after 9 weeks, without dissemination but with multiple serovars appearing at later stages. ©American Society for Microbiology. All rights reserved....

  10. Interventions for control of Salmonella: clearance of microbial growth from rubber picker fingers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, J W; Yates, I E

    2009-06-01

    A study was conducted to determine if a surface material with antimicrobial properties combined with an effective disinfectant could achieve total clearance of bacterial contamination. Before beginning the project, new rubber picker fingers collected from 3 processing facilities were tested for endogenous microflora. Five species of bacteria common to soil and human handling were present: Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus cereus/thuringiensis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus hominis ssp. novobiosepticus, and Staphylococcus intermedius. In separate experiments, new (unused) rubber picker fingers from 3 manufacturers were exposed to broiler carcass rinses, and the kinetics of bacterial attachment to finger material was determined. Turbidity of the bacterial suspensions at varying dilutions containing picker finger sections was compared hourly with controls to evaluate inhibition. New rubber finger material from the 3 manufacturers significantly inhibited bacterial growth (P < 0.05), without the aid of antibacterial additives. We improved an assay for screening disinfectants against growth of pathogens and determined the activity of 5 disinfectant compounds. Two of the compounds were most effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella Enteritidis, and Escherichia coli, and one of the compounds was selected for further study with Salmonella Enteritidis. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the levels of Salmonella Enteritidis before and after treatment. The most effective compound was nontoxic and completely cleared Salmonella Enteritidis contamination from the rubber picker finger surface.

  11. Rapid and early detection of salmonella serotypes with hyperspectral microscope and multivariate data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to evaluate hyperspectral microscope images for early and rapid detection of Salmonella serotypes: S. Enteritidis, S. Heidelberg, S. Infantis, S. Kentucky, and S. Typhimurium at incubation times of 6, 8, 10, 12, and 24 hours. Images were collected by an acousto-optical tunab...

  12. STABILITY OF PLASMIDS IN 5 STRAINS OF SALMONELLA MAINTAINED IN STAB CULTURE AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, J. E.; Brown, D. J.; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    1994-01-01

    Four strains of Salmonella berta and one of Salm. enteritidis were stored as stab cultures in sugar-free agar at 5 degrees, 22 degrees and 30 degrees C and in 15% glycerol at -80 degrees C. The stability of the plasmid profiles in each of the strains was monitored over a period of 2.5 years. Plas...

  13. Disinfectant susceptibility of different Salmonella serotypes isolated from chicken and egg production chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, M; Lai, H; Deng, W; Zhou, K; Li, B; Liu, S; Fan, L; Wang, H; Zou, L

    2016-09-01

    The study aimed to serotype the Salmonella isolates recovered from chicken and egg production chains, and to investigate the disinfectant resistance phenotypes and genotypes of these isolates. The Salmonella isolates were serotyped, and the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of disinfectants were determined. Results showed that the Salmonella isolates recovered from both chains were diverse, and the serotypes in each part of the production chain and between the two production chains were significantly different. In the chicken production chain, 19 different serotypes were recovered, while only five serotypes were found in the egg production chain. The isolates showed a high susceptibility to didecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB) but a low susceptibility to benzalkonium chloride (BC), benzalkonium bromide (BAB) and chlorhexidine (CHX). Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium were more resistant to BC and BAB. The qacEΔ1 and qacF resistance genes were detected in 26·7 and 7·7% of the isolates respectively. The qacEΔ1 gene was frequently found in Salmonella Derby and Salm. Enteritidis (P < 0·05). Our findings indicated that Salmonella was commonly present in both chains, and could serve as a critical vector in spreading disinfectant resistance associated with different serotypes. This study first demonstrated disinfectant resistance phenotypes and genotypes of serotyped Salmonella. The study highlights the need for monitoring the disinfectant resistance varied in different Salmonella serotypes. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Survival of Salmonella in bathrooms and toilets in domestic homes following salmonellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, J; Bloomfield, S F

    2000-07-01

    The survival and environmental spread of Salmonella bacteria from domestic toilets was examined in homes, where a family member had recently suffered an attack of salmonellosis. In four out of six households tested, Salmonella bacteria persisted in the biofilm material found under the recess of the toilet bowl rim which was difficult to remove with household toilet cleaners. In two homes Salmonella bacteria became incorporated into the scaly biofilm adhering to the toilet bowl surface below the water line. Salmonella enteritidis persisted in one toilet for 4 weeks after the diarrhoea had stopped, despite the use of cleaning fluids. Salmonellas were not isolated from normally dry areas such as, the toilet seat, the flush handle and door handle. Toilet seeding experiments were set up with Salmonella enteritidis PT4 to mimic environmental conditions associated with acute diarrhoea. Flushing the toilet resulted in contamination of the toilet seat and the toilet seat lid. In one out of three seedings, Salmonella bacteria were also isolated from an air sample taken immediately after flushing, indicating that airborne spread of the organism could contaminate surfaces in the bathroom. In the seeded toilet Salmonella bacteria were isolated from the biofilm in the toilet bowl below the waterline for up to 50 d after seeding, and also on one occasion from the bowl water. The results suggest that during diarrhoeal illness, there is considerable risk of spread of Salmonella infection to other family members via the environment, including contaminated hands and surfaces in the toilet area.

  15. Strain-Specific Survival of Salmonella enterica in Peanut Oil, Peanut Shell, and Chia Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Karen; Wang, Siyun

    2016-03-01

    In North America, outbreaks of Salmonella have been linked to low-water activity (aw) foods, such as nuts and seeds. These outbreaks have implicated an assortment of Salmonella serotypes. Some Salmonella serotypes (e.g., Enteritidis and Typhimurium) cause high proportions of salmonellosis. Nevertheless, there has recently been an emergence of uncommon Salmonella serotypes and strains (e.g., Tennessee, Hartford, and Thompson) in low-aw foods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival characteristics of Salmonella serotypes Enteritidis, Typhimurium, Tennessee, Hartford, and Thompson in three low-aw food ingredients with varying aw: peanut oil (aw = 0.521 ± 0.003), peanut shell (aw = 0.321 ± 0.20), and chia seeds (aw = 0.585 ± 0.003). The survival of individual Salmonella strains on each food matrix was monitored for a maximum of 150 days by spreading the bacterial cells onto Luria-Bertani and/or xylose lysine deoxycholate agar. Overall, Salmonella survived for the longest periods of time in peanut oil (96 ± 8 days), followed by chia seeds (94 ± 46 days). The survival period was substantially reduced on the surface of peanut shell (42 ± 49 h), although PCR after 70 days of incubation revealed the presence of Salmonella cells. In addition, Salmonella exhibited a strain-specific response in the three low-aw foods tested. Salmonella Hartford was identified as highly persistent in all low-aw food matrices, whereas Salmonella Typhimurium was the least persistent. The current research emphasizes the adaptable nature of Salmonella to low-aw food ingredients. This may pose additional problems owing to the downstream production of various end products. Additionally, unique survival characteristics among Salmonella strains highlight the need for tailored mitigation strategies regarding high-risk Salmonella strains in the food industry.

  16. Salmonella osteomyelitis

    OpenAIRE

    Somsri Wiwanitkit; Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella infection can cause four predominant clinical syndromes: enteric fever, acute gastroenteritis, bacteraemia with or without metastatic infection, and the asymptomatic carrier state. Salmonella as an aetiological agent in osteomyelitis is essentially rare and salmonella osteomyelitis in itself is predominantly seen in patients with haemoglobinopathies such as sickle cell disease or thalassemia. There are very few cases reported in the literature in which salmonella osteomyelitis is s...

  17. Real-Time PCR Method for Detection of Salmonella spp. in Environmental Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasturi, Kuppuswamy N; Drgon, Tomas

    2017-07-15

    The methods currently used for detecting Salmonella in environmental samples require 2 days to produce results and have limited sensitivity. Here, we describe the development and validation of a real-time PCR Salmonella screening method that produces results in 18 to 24 h. Primers and probes specific to the gene invA , group D, and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis organisms were designed and evaluated for inclusivity and exclusivity using a panel of 329 Salmonella isolates representing 126 serovars and 22 non- Salmonella organisms. The invA - and group D-specific sets identified all the isolates accurately. The PCR method had 100% inclusivity and detected 1 to 2 copies of Salmonella DNA per reaction. Primers specific for Salmonella -differentiating fragment 1 (Sdf-1) in conjunction with the group D set had 100% inclusivity for 32 S Enteritidis isolates and 100% exclusivity for the 297 non-Enteritidis Salmonella isolates. Single-laboratory validation performed on 1,741 environmental samples demonstrated that the PCR method detected 55% more positives than the V itek i mmuno d iagnostic a ssay s ystem (VIDAS) method. The PCR results correlated well with the culture results, and the method did not report any false-negative results. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis documented excellent agreement between the results from the culture and PCR methods (area under the curve, 0.90; 95% confidence interval of 0.76 to 1.0) confirming the validity of the PCR method. IMPORTANCE This validated PCR method detects 55% more positives for Salmonella in half the time required for the reference method, VIDAS. The validated PCR method will help to strengthen public health efforts through rapid screening of Salmonella spp. in environmental samples.

  18. Salmonella: Salmonellosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löfström, Charlotta; Hansen, Trine; Maurischat, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella remains one of the most important zoonotic pathogenic bacteria and is the causative agents of salmonellosis. The aim of this article is to give an overview of Salmonella and salmonellosis, starting by describing the characteristics of the microorganism Salmonella, including biochemical...

  19. Effects of heat treatment on the radiosensitivity of Salmonellae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, E.H.; Yang, J.S.; Lee, S.R.

    1978-01-01

    When the food poisoning bacteria Salmonella enteritidis and S. typhimurium were treated with radiation (cobalt-60 γ-rays) and heat (10 minutes at 45 0 C or 50 0 C), their sterilizing effect was revealed differently depending on the order of treatments. Post-irradiation heating showed a synergistic effect whereas pre-irradiation heating revealed the opposite effect and the effects differed slightly with heating temperature. (author)

  20. Salmonella serotype distribution in the Dutch broiler supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asselt, E D; Thissen, J T N M; van der Fels-Klerx, H J

    2009-12-01

    Salmonella serotype distribution can give insight in contamination routes and persistence along a production chain. Therefore, it is important to determine not only Salmonella prevalence but also to specify the serotypes involved at the different stages of the supply chain. For this purpose, data from a national monitoring program in the Netherlands were used to estimate the serotype distribution and to determine whether this distribution differs for the available sampling points in the broiler supply chain. Data covered the period from 2002 to 2005, all slaughterhouses (n = 22), and the following 6 sampling points: departure from hatchery, arrival at the farm, departure from the farm, arrival at the slaughterhouse, departure from the slaughterhouse, and end of processing. Furthermore, retail data for 2005 were used for comparison with slaughterhouse data. The following serotypes were followed throughout the chain: Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Paratyphi B var. Java (Salmonella Java), Salmonella Infantis, Salmonella Virchow, and Salmonella Mbandaka. Results showed that serotype distribution varied significantly throughout the supply chain (P supply chain up to the retail phase.

  1. Bakteriaemi forårsaget af zoonotiske Salmonella-typer i Storkøbenhavn 1984-1988

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lester, Anne; Eriksen, N H; Nielsen, H

    1990-01-01

    The five departments of clinical microbiology in Greater Copenhagen have together carried out a retrospective review of bacteraemia caused by the zoonotic Salmonella serotypes in the period 1984-1988 in the municipalities of Copenhagen and Frederiksberg and in the County of Copenhagen. A gradual...... increase in frequency was observed from 11 cases in 1984 to 58 cases in 1988. The serotype most commonly isolated was Salmonella dublin followed by Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium. S. dublin was found to be more invasive and more virulent than the other serotypes. Predisposing factors...

  2. Inactivation of Salmonella on Eggshells by Chlorine Dioxide Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyobi; Yum, Bora; Yoon, Sung-Sik; Song, Kyoung-Ju; Kim, Jong-Rak; Myeong, Donghoon; Chang, Byungjoon; Choe, Nong-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Microbiological contamination of eggs should be prevented in the poultry industry, as poultry is one of the major reservoirs of human Salmonella. ClO2 gas has been reported to be an effective disinfectant in various industry fields, particularly the food industry. The aims of this study were to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of chlorine dioxide gas on two strains of Salmonella inoculated onto eggshells under various experimental conditions including concentrations, contact time, humidity, and percentage organic matter. As a result, it was shown that chlorine dioxide gas under wet conditions was more effective in inactivating Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Gallinarum compared to that under dry conditions independently of the presence of organic matter (yeast extract). Under wet conditions, a greater than 4 log reduction in bacterial populations was achieved after 30 min of exposure to ClO2 each at 20 ppm, 40 ppm, and 80 ppm against S. Enteritidis; 40 ppm and 80 ppm against S. Gallinarum. These results suggest that chlorine dioxide gas is an effective agent for controlling Salmonella, the most prevalent contaminant in the egg industry.

  3. Survey of Salmonella contamination in chicken layer farms in three Caribbean countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesiyun, Abiodun; Webb, Lloyd; Musai, Lisa; Louison, Bowen; Joseph, George; Stewart-Johnson, Alva; Samlal, Sannandan; Rodrigo, Shelly

    2014-09-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the demography, management, and production practices on layer chicken farms in Trinidad and Tobago, Grenada, and St. Lucia and the frequency of risk factors for Salmonella infection. The frequency of isolation of Salmonella from the layer farm environment, eggs, feeds, hatchery, and imported day-old chicks was determined using standard methods. Of the eight risk factors (farm size, age group of layers, source of day-old chicks, vaccination, sanitation practices, biosecurity measures, presence of pests, and previous disease outbreaks) for Salmonella infection investigated, farm size was the only risk factor significantly associated (P = 0.031) with the prevalence of Salmonella; 77.8% of large farms were positive for this pathogen compared with 33.3 and 26.1% of medium and small farms, respectively. The overall isolation rate of Salmonella from 35 layer farms was 40.0%. Salmonella was isolated at a significantly higher rate (P hatcheries, and airports in this country were negative. Salmonella Anatum, Salmonella group C, and Salmonella Kentucky were the predominant serotypes in Trinidad and Tobago, Grenada, and St. Lucia, respectively. Although Salmonella infections were found in layer birds sampled, table eggs appear to pose minimal risk to consumers. However, the detection of Salmonella -contaminated farm environments and feeds cannot be ignored. Only 2.9% of the isolates belonged to Salmonella Enteritidis, a finding that may reflect the impact of changes in farm management and poultry production in the region.

  4. Serotyping, PCR, phage-typing and antibiotic sensitivity testing of Salmonella serovars isolated from urban drinking water supply systems of Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhatta, D.R.; Bangtrakulnonth, A.; Tishyadhigama, P.

    2007-01-01

    . A total of 54 isolates identified to genus level by standard tests were subsequently confirmed by serotyping, phage typing and PCR detection of virulence genes (inv A and spv C). The predominant serotype was Salmonella Typhimurium, followed by Salm. Typhi, Salm. Paratyphi A and Salmonella Enteritidis....... Most of the Salm. Typhi isolates were E1 phage type followed by UVS4, A and UVS1. All isolates of Salm. Paratyphi A and Salm. Enteritidis were an untypable (UT) phage type. The majority of isolates were multi-drug resistant as revealed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique. Ceftriaxone resistant...

  5. Survey of the prevalence of Salmonella species on laying hen farms in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulaj, B; Çabeli, P; Goga, I; Taylor, N; Hess, C; Hess, M L

    2016-09-01

    A survey on the prevalence of Salmonella (S) species was carried out on 39 layer farms in Kosovo between April and September 2012. In total 367 samples, comprising feces, dust, eggs, and internal organs from dead birds, were investigated using bacteriological culture methods. Additionally, data on the location of the farm, the total number of birds on the farm, age of birds, and laying performance were collected. Salmonella were isolated from 38 samples obtained from 19 (49%) farms. The most common serovar identified was Salmonella enteritidis, found on 18 farms. The most common S. enteritidis phage type was PT29 followed by PT6, PT7, PT21, PT13a, PT8, PT14b, and PT4. One S. enteritidis isolate was not typable. Six farms had more than one phage type. Furthermore, serovar S. Bovismorbificans also was found in samples from 3 farms. Flock size or production stage was not associated with the probability of isolating Salmonella. The only flock factor found to be significantly associated was percent hen/day production: It was 2.8 times more likely to isolate Salmonella from flocks with production above 80% hen/day production compared to flocks producing at a lower level. Analysis of antimicrobial resistance patterns of 30 isolates revealed that all isolates were sensitive to gentamicin, ampicillin, sulphamethoxazole trimethoprim, and oxytetracycline, and 29 (97%) were sensitive to ciprofloxacin. All isolates showed intermediate resistance or were resistant to minocycline and cloxacillin. Twenty-six isolates (86%) had intermediate resistance to amoxicillin and 27 isolates (90%) were fully resistant to streptomycin. The present survey revealed a high prevalence of Salmonella enteritidis in layer flocks in Kosovo, indicating that table eggs have to be suspected as an important source of human salmone-llosis. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  6. Development of Real Time PCR Using Novel Genomic Target for Detection of Multiple Salmonella Serovars from Milk and Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: A highly sensitive and specific novel genomic and plasmid target-based PCR platform was developed to detect multiple Salmonella serovars (S. Heidelberg, S. Dublin, S. Hadar, S. Kentucky and S. Enteritidis). Through extensive genome mining of protein databases of these serovars and compar...

  7. Natural Anti-Gal and Salmonella-Specific Antibodies in Bile and Plasma of Hens Differing in Diet Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cotter, P.F.; Eerden, van E.

    2006-01-01

    Specific anti-Salmonella enteritidis (SE) and natural anti-¿-gal epitope (Gal¿1-3Galß-1-4GlcNAc-R; anti-Gal) antibodies were measured in plasma sample pools and individual bile specimens obtained from hens differing in diet efficiency. More SE somatic (O) and flagellar (H) antibodies were found in

  8. The Emergence of Reduced Ciprofloxacin Susceptibility in Salmonella enterica Causing Bloodstream Infections in Rural Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eibach, Daniel; Al-Emran, Hassan M; Dekker, Denise Myriam; Krumkamp, Ralf; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Cruz Espinoza, Ligia Maria; Ehmen, Christa; Boahen, Kennedy; Heisig, Peter; Im, Justin; Jaeger, Anna; von Kalckreuth, Vera; Pak, Gi Deok; Panzner, Ursula; Park, Se Eun; Reinhardt, Alexander; Sarpong, Nimako; Schütt-Gerowitt, Heidi; Wierzba, Thomas F; Marks, Florian; May, Jürgen

    2016-03-15

    Salmonella ranks among the leading causes of bloodstream infections in sub-Saharan Africa. Multidrug resistant typhoidal and nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) isolates have been previously identified in this region. However, resistance to ciprofloxacin has rarely been reported in West Africa. This study aims to assess susceptibility against ciprofloxacin in Salmonella causing invasive bloodstream infections among children in rural Ghana. From May 2007 until May 2012, children attending a rural district hospital in central Ghana were eligible for recruitment. Salmonella enterica isolated from blood cultures were assessed for ciprofloxacin susceptibility by Etest (susceptible minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] ≤ 0.06 µg/mL). The gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE genes were sequenced to identify mutations associated with changes in susceptibility to fluoroquinolones. Two hundred eighty-five Salmonella enterica isolates from 5211 blood cultures were most commonly identified as Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (n = 129 [45%]), Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (n = 89 [31%]), Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin (n = 20 [7%]), and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (n = 19 [7%]). All S. Typhi and S. Dublin were susceptible to ciprofloxacin. Reduced susceptibility (MIC >0.06 µg/mL) was found in 53% (10/19) of S. Enteritidis and in 2% (3/129) of S. Typhimurium isolates. Sequencing detected a single gyrB mutation (Glu466Asp) and a single gyrA mutation (Ser83Tyr) in all 3 S. Typhimurium isolates, while 9 of 10 S. Enteritidis harbored single gyrA mutations (Asp87Gly, Asp87Asn, or Asp87Tyr). No mutations were found in the parC and parE genes. Ciprofloxacin susceptibility in invasive NTS in rural Ghana is highly dependent on serotype. Although reduced ciprofloxacin susceptibility is low in S. Typhimurium, more than half of all S. Enteritidis isolates are affected. Healthcare practitioners in Ghana should be aware of potential treatment failure in patients with invasive

  9. Salmonella biofilms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castelijn, G.A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Biofilm formation by Salmonellaspp. is a problem in the food industry, since biofilms may act as a persistent source of product contamination. Therefore the aim of this study was to obtain more insight in the processes involved and the factors contributing to Salmonellabiofilm

  10. Prevalence of Salmonella isolates and antimicrobial resistance in poultry meat from South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ran-Hee; Cha, Se-Yeoun; Wei, Bai; Roh, Jae-Hee; Seo, Hye-Suk; Oh, Jae-Young; Jang, Hyung-Kwan

    2014-09-01

    Contamination of Salmonella was assessed in duck and chicken meat collected from supermarkets, traditional markets, internet shopping malls, and wholesale markets in Jeonlado, South Korea, in 2013. Salmonella contamination was found in 51.3% of duck meat samples and 3.7% of chicken meat samples. Salmonella contamination of duck meat samples differed by meat type, i.e., 69.8% of samples of whole ducks and 33.9% of samples of duck pieces. Six serotypes were identified from 64 Salmonella isolates in duck meat: Salmonella Typhimurium (37.5%), Salmonella Enteritidis (21.8%), Salmonella Stanley (3.1%), Salmonella Regent (1.6%), Salmonella Winterthur (3.1%), and Salmonella Westhampton (1.6%). All isolates were resistant to one or more antibiotics. Resistance to sulfisoxazole was most common (93.8% of isolates), followed by resistance to nalidixic acid (59.4%), ceftazidime (26.6%), and ampicillin (26.6%). To our knowledge, this study is the first to report Salmonella contamination in duck meat from Korea. Duck meat should be considered an important source of foodborne pathogens.

  11. EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ); Scientific Opinion on a quantitative estimation of the public health impact of setting a new target for the reduction of Salmonella in broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    , laying hens (eggs), pigs and turkeys respectively. Of the broiler-associated human salmonellosis cases, around 42% and 23% are estimated to be due to the serovars Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Infantis respectively, while other serovars individually contributed less than 5%. Different scenarios...... developed to provide quantitative estimates, which is based on the microbial-subtyping approach, considers 22 Member States, four animal-food sources of Salmonella (broilers, laying hens, pigs and turkeys) and 23 Salmonella serovars. The model (called the ‘Broiler Target Salmonella Attribution Model’ or BT...

  12. Synthetic Peptides Derived from Bovine Lactoferricin Exhibit Antimicrobial Activity against E. coli ATCC 11775, S. maltophilia ATCC 13636 and S. enteritidis ATCC 13076

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataly De Jesús Huertas Méndez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Linear, dimeric, tetrameric, and cyclic peptides derived from lactoferricin B–containing non-natural amino acids and the RWQWR motif were synthesized, purified, and characterized using RP-HPLC, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and circular dichroism. The antibacterial activity of peptides against Escherichia coli ATCC 11775, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia ATCC 13636, and Salmonella enteritidis ATCC 13076 was evaluated. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC were determined. The synthetic bovine lactoferricin exhibited antibacterial activity against E. coli ATCC 11775 and S. enteritidis ATCC 13076. The dimeric peptide (RRWQWR2K-Ahx exhibited the highest antibacterial activity against the tested bacterial strain. The monomeric, cyclic, tetrameric, and palindromic peptides containing the RWQWR motif exhibited high and specific activity against E. coli ATCC 11775. The results suggest that short peptides derived from lactoferricin B could be considered as potential candidates for the development of antibacterial agents against infections caused by E. coli.

  13. Synthetic Peptides Derived from Bovine Lactoferricin Exhibit Antimicrobial Activity against E. coli ATCC 11775, S. maltophilia ATCC 13636 and S. enteritidis ATCC 13076.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas Méndez, Nataly De Jesús; Vargas Casanova, Yerly; Gómez Chimbi, Anyelith Katherine; Hernández, Edith; Leal Castro, Aura Lucia; Melo Diaz, Javier Mauricio; Rivera Monroy, Zuly Jenny; García Castañeda, Javier Eduardo

    2017-03-12

    Linear, dimeric, tetrameric, and cyclic peptides derived from lactoferricin B-containing non-natural amino acids and the RWQWR motif were synthesized, purified, and characterized using RP-HPLC, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and circular dichroism. The antibacterial activity of peptides against Escherichia coli ATCC 11775, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia ATCC 13636, and Salmonella enteritidis ATCC 13076 was evaluated. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined. The synthetic bovine lactoferricin exhibited antibacterial activity against E. coli ATCC 11775 and S. enteritidis ATCC 13076. The dimeric peptide (RRWQWR)₂K-Ahx exhibited the highest antibacterial activity against the tested bacterial strain. The monomeric, cyclic, tetrameric, and palindromic peptides containing the RWQWR motif exhibited high and specific activity against E. coli ATCC 11775. The results suggest that short peptides derived from lactoferricin B could be considered as potential candidates for the development of antibacterial agents against infections caused by E. coli .

  14. SENSORY ASPECTS AND REDUCTION OF Salmonella IN IRRADIATED EGG POWDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Froehlich

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTEggs and their products have been implicated in food-borne disease outbreaks due to contamination with SalmonellaEnteritidis. Irradiation, as a food preservation technology, could minimize such contamination. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of irradiation in powdered egg yolk, egg white, and whole egg samples spiked with Salmonella Enteritidis. The powdered egg samples were exposed to doses of 0.5, 1.0, 1.0, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, or 4.0 kGy irradiation. Odors and tastes of raw and cooked non-inoculated, irradiated samples, and non-irradiated samples, were analyzed by a trained panel. A dose of 2.0 kGy resulted in slight to moderate changes in powdered egg yolk samples, compared to non-irradiated controls, while minimal differences were observed in powdered egg white samples. The dose of 3.5 kGy, when applied to samples of powdered egg white, resulted in taste and odor slightly stronger than the non-irradiated control. The maximum irradiation threshold before changes in flavor and odor occurred was 2.28 kGy, for powdered yolk and whole eggs, and 2.58 kGy, for powdered egg white. Those thresholds were enough to reduce S.Enteritidis to safe levels.

  15. Occurrence of Salmonella spp. in broiler chicken carcasses and their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents Ocorrência de Salmonella spp. em carcaças de frango e sua suscetibilidade a agentes antimicrobianos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalila Angélica Moliterno Duarte

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the occurrence of Salmonellae in broiler chicken carcasses and to determine the antimicrobial resistance profile of the isolated strains. Twenty-five out of the 260 broiler chicken carcasses samples (9.6% were positive for Salmonella. S. Enteritidis was the most frequent serovar. Nineteen Salmonella isolates were tested for antimicrobial resistance, and the results indicated that 94.7% were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent. Resistance to streptomycin (73.7%, nitrofurantoin (52.3%, tetracycline (31.6%, and nalidixic acid (21% were the prevalent amongst Salmonella strains tested.O presente estudo teve como objetivo verificar a ocorrência de Salmonellae em amostras de carcaças de frango e a suscetibilidade dos isolados a agentes antimicrobianos. Das 260 carcaças analisadas, 25 (9,6% foram positivas para Salmonella. Salmonella Enteritidis foi o sorovar predominante. Com relação à suscetibilidade a agentes antimicrobianos, 94,7% das cepas de Salmonella testadas, apresentaram resistência a um ou mais agentes antimicrobianos. Os perfís de resistência mais comumente observados entre os isolados foram a resistência à estreptomicina (73,7%, nitrofurantoína (52,3%, tetraciclina (31,6% e ácido nalidíxico (21%.

  16. Enumeration of Salmonellae in Table Eggs, Pasteurized Egg Products, and Egg-Containing Dishes by Using Quantitative Real-Time PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakočiūnė, Džiuginta; Pasquali, Frédérique; da Silva, Cristiana Soares

    2014-01-01

    PCR) was employed for enumeration of salmonellae in different matrices: table eggs, pasteurized egg products, and egg-containing dishes. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and S. enterica serovar Tennessee were used to artificially contaminate these matrices. The results showed a linear regression between...... of salmonellae in two egg-containing dishes, long egg and tiramisu, at abused refrigeration temperatures, and results indicated the growth of bacteria over a 1-week period. In conclusion, enrichment qPCR was shown to be reliable for enumeration of salmonellae in different egg products....

  17. Biosynthesis and regulation of cyclic lipopeptides in Pseudomonas fluorescens

    OpenAIRE

    Bruijn, de, I.

    2009-01-01

    Cyclic lipopeptides (CLPs) are surfactant and antibiotic metabolites produced by a variety of bacterial genera. For the genus Pseudomonas, many structurally different CLPs have been identified. CLPs play an important role in surface motility of Pseudomonas strains, but also in virulence and attachment/detachment to and from surfaces. In this Ph.D. thesis project, two new CLP biosynthesis clusters were identified in Pseudomonas fluorescens and fully sequenced. In P. fluorescens strain SBW2...

  18. The dynamics of Salmonella occurrence in commercial laying hen flocks throughout a laying period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, J.; Van Hoorebeke, S.; Hald, Birthe

    2011-01-01

    of a laying period. The total of 41 laying hen flocks*18 in Belgium, six in Denmark and 17 in Germany*were followed during an entire laying period. Samples taken from the empty cleaned and disinfected poultry houses were all negative for Salmonella. After hens arrived on the farms, five pooled faecal samples......, one pooled dust sample and 40 cloacal swabs (Belgium and Germany) or 40 swabs from fresh droppings (Denmark) were taken four times from 18 flocks, three times from 21 flocks and two times from two flocks in the course of the laying period. Ten flocks (two Belgian and eight German flocks) tested up...... to three times positive for Salmonella. Forty-three out of 50 positive samples contained Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 4 (29 isolates) or phage type 8 (14 isolates). The probability of subsequent Salmonella-positive findings increased significantly in Salmonella-positive flocks (PB0.05, odds ratio6...

  19. Uji Lapangan Formula Cair Pseudomonas fluorescens P60 terhadap Layu Fusarium pada Tanaman Tomat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loekas Soesanto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A research aimed at knowing 1 the effect of Pseudomonas fluorescens P60 in liquid formula on Fusarium wilt of tomato, 2 the effect of P. fluorescens P60 in the formula on tomato growth and yield, and 3 P. fluorescens P60 mechanisms on tomata was carried out at tomato field of Selomoyo Village, Kaliangkrik Subdistrict, Magelang Regency at altitude of 826 m above sea level. Randomized block design was used with seven treatments and four replicates. The treatments were control, with P. fluorescens P60 soaked for 15 min and without fungicide, pathogen without P. fluorescens P60 with fungicide (PBG1, pathogen with P. fluorescens P60 without fungicide, pathogen with pouring P. fluorescens P60 1, 3, and 5 times. Result indicated that application of formulated P. fluorescens P60 for 5 times decreased the disease intensity as high as 26.77%, and late population of the pathogen but increased P. fluorescens P60 as high as 4.54×1010 cfu ml-1. P. fluorescens P60 affected growth and yield of tomato. P. Fluorescens P60 induced tomato resistance by increasing qualitatively its phenolic compound content (saponin, tannin, glycoside.   Penelitian dengan tujuan untuk mengetahui: 1 pengaruh Pseudomonas fluorescens P60 dalam formula cair terhadap penyakit layu fusarium pada tanaman tomat, 2 pengaruh P. fluorescens P60 dalam formula cair terhadap pertumbuhan dan produksi tanaman tomat, dan 3 mekanisme P. fluorescens P60 pada tanaman tomat dilakukan di lahan Desa Selomoyo, Kecamatan Kaliangkrik, Kabupaten Magelang dengan ketinggian 826 m di atas permukaan laut. Penelitian menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK, dengan 7 perlakuan dan jumlah ulangan 4 kali, dan setiap unit terdiri atas 8 tanaman. Perlakuan tersebut meliputi kontrol; dengan P. fluorescens P60 rendam 15 menit dan tanpa fungisida; dengan patogen; tanpa P. fluorescens P60; dengan fungisida (PBG1; patogen, tanpa P. fluorescens P60, tanpa fungisida; patogen, dengan penyiraman P. fluorescens P60 1 kali

  20. Abscesso esplênico causado por Salmonella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno von Glen Herkenhoff

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relatar as características demográficas, clínicas, diagnóstica e terapêutica de pacientes com abscesso esplênico (AE causado por Salmonella. MÉTODO: Análise retrospectiva de dados de pacientes atendidos no Serviço de Cirurgia Geral e Aparelho Digestivo do Hospital Universitário Gaffrée-Guinle no período de janeiro de 2001 a dezembro de 2005, a estes se incluiu um caso tratado em outro hospital em época anterior. RESULTADOS: Dentre 4823 pacientes recentemente atendidos, dois apresentaram AE causado por Salmonella enteritidis, enquanto o caso mais antigo o agente responsável foi a Salmonella typhi. Todos eram homens, com idade média de 45 anos. Em nenhum deles foi identificada condição predisponente à formação do abscesso; os exames de imagem foram capazes de diagnosticar o AE. Todos foram tratados por esplenectomia e antibioticoterapia e evoluíram para cura. CONCLUSÕES: A Salmonella, apesar de infrequente, pode ser o agente causal do AE. Caracteristicamente os abscessos eram grandes e apresentavam material necrótico em seu interior. Nesta condição, a esplenectomia associada a antibioticoterapia mostrou-se eficaz no tratamento.

  1. Three Epidemics of Invasive Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella Bloodstream Infection in Blantyre, Malawi, 1998–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feasey, Nicholas A.; Masesa, Clemens; Jassi, Chikondi; Faragher, E. Brian; Mallewa, Jane; Mallewa, Macpherson; MacLennan, Calman A.; Msefula, Chisomo; Heyderman, Robert S.; Gordon, Melita A.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The Malawi Liverpool Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Programme (MLW) has routinely collected specimens for blood culture from febrile patients, and cerebrospinal fluid from patients with suspected meningitis, presenting to Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital (QECH), Blantyre, Malawi, since 1998. Methods. We present bloodstream infection (BSI) and meningitis surveillance data from 1998 to 2014. Automated blood culture, manual speciation, serotyping, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed at MLW. Population data for minimum-incidence estimates in urban Blantyre were drawn from published estimates. Results. Between 1998 and 2014, 167 028 blood cultures were taken from adult and pediatric medical patients presenting to QECH; Salmonella Typhi was isolated on 2054 occasions (1.2%) and nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovars were isolated 10 139 times (6.1%), of which 8017 (79.1%) were Salmonella Typhimurium and 1608 (15.8%) were Salmonella Enteritidis. There were 392 cases of NTS meningitis and 9 cases of Salmonella Typhi meningitis. There have been 3 epidemics of Salmonella BSI in Blantyre; Salmonella Enteritidis from 1999 to 2002, Salmonella Typhimurium from 2002 to 2008, and Salmonella Typhi, which began in 2011 and was ongoing in 2014. Multidrug resistance has emerged in all 3 serovars and is seen in the overwhelming majority of isolates, while resistance to third-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones is currently uncommon but has been identified. Conclusions. Invasive Salmonella disease in Malawi is dynamic and not clearly attributable to a single risk factor, although all 3 epidemics were associated with multidrug resistance. To inform nonvaccine and vaccine interventions, reservoirs of disease and modes of transmission require further investigation. PMID:26449953

  2. Three Epidemics of Invasive Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella Bloodstream Infection in Blantyre, Malawi, 1998-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feasey, Nicholas A; Masesa, Clemens; Jassi, Chikondi; Faragher, E Brian; Mallewa, Jane; Mallewa, Macpherson; MacLennan, Calman A; Msefula, Chisomo; Heyderman, Robert S; Gordon, Melita A

    2015-11-01

    The Malawi Liverpool Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Programme (MLW) has routinely collected specimens for blood culture from febrile patients, and cerebrospinal fluid from patients with suspected meningitis, presenting to Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital (QECH), Blantyre, Malawi, since 1998. We present bloodstream infection (BSI) and meningitis surveillance data from 1998 to 2014. Automated blood culture, manual speciation, serotyping, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed at MLW. Population data for minimum-incidence estimates in urban Blantyre were drawn from published estimates. Between 1998 and 2014, 167,028 blood cultures were taken from adult and pediatric medical patients presenting to QECH; Salmonella Typhi was isolated on 2054 occasions (1.2%) and nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovars were isolated 10,139 times (6.1%), of which 8017 (79.1%) were Salmonella Typhimurium and 1608 (15.8%) were Salmonella Enteritidis. There were 392 cases of NTS meningitis and 9 cases of Salmonella Typhi meningitis. There have been 3 epidemics of Salmonella BSI in Blantyre; Salmonella Enteritidis from 1999 to 2002, Salmonella Typhimurium from 2002 to 2008, and Salmonella Typhi, which began in 2011 and was ongoing in 2014. Multidrug resistance has emerged in all 3 serovars and is seen in the overwhelming majority of isolates, while resistance to third-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones is currently uncommon but has been identified. Invasive Salmonella disease in Malawi is dynamic and not clearly attributable to a single risk factor, although all 3 epidemics were associated with multidrug resistance. To inform nonvaccine and vaccine interventions, reservoirs of disease and modes of transmission require further investigation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  3. Antimicrobial resistance in zoonotic nontyphoidal Salmonella: an alarming trend?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, G B; Schwarz, S

    2016-12-01

    Zoonotic bacteria of the genus Salmonella have acquired various antimicrobial resistance properties over the years. The corresponding resistance genes are commonly located on plasmids, transposons, gene cassettes, or variants of the Salmonella Genomic Islands SGI1 and SGI2. Human infections by nontyphoidal Salmonella isolates mainly result from ingestion of contaminated food. The two predominantly found Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovars in the USA and in Europe are S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium. Many other nontyphoidal Salmonella serovars have been implicated in foodborne Salmonella outbreaks. Summary reports of the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of nontyphoidal Salmonella isolates over time suggest a moderate to low level of antimicrobial resistance and multidrug-resistance. However, serovar-specific analyses showed in part a steady state, a continuous decline, or a recent increase in resistance to certain antimicrobial agents. Resistance to critically important antimicrobial agents, e.g. third-generation cephalosporins and (fluoro)quinolones is part of many monitoring programmes and the corresponding results confirm that extended-spectrum β-lactamases are still rarely found in nontyphoidal Salmonella serovars, whereas resistance to (fluoro)quinolones is prevalent at variable frequencies among different serovars from humans and animals in different countries. Although it is likely that nontyphoidal Salmonella isolates from animals represent a reservoir for resistance determinants, it is mostly unknown where and when Salmonella isolates acquired resistance properties and which exchange processes have happened since then. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Distribution and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Foodborne Salmonella Serovars in Eight Provinces in China from 2007 to 2012 (Except 2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yin; Cao, Chenyang; Alali, Walid Q; Cui, Shenghui; Li, Fengqin; Zhu, Jianghui; Wang, Xin; Meng, Jianghong; Yang, Baowei

    2017-07-01

    One thousand four hundred ninety-one Salmonella isolates recovered from retail foods including chicken, beef, fish, pork, dumplings, and cold dishes in China in 2007, 2008, 2010, 2011, and 2012 were analyzed for distribution of serotype and antimicrobial susceptibility. A total of 129 Salmonella serotypes were detected among 1491 isolates. Salmonella Enteritidis (21.5%), Typhimurium (11.0%), Indiana (10.8%), Thompson (5.4%), Derby (5.1%), Agona (3.8%), and Shubra (3.0%) were the seven most important serotypes in 1491 isolates. For antibiotic susceptibility, except 16 (1.1%) isolates were susceptible to all tested antibiotics, 131 (8.8%) resisted 1-2 and 1344 (90.1%) resisted three or more antibiotics. One thousand forty-six (70.2%) of 1491 Salmonella isolates were identified as multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates, which could resist three or more categories of antibiotics. Resistance to sulfisoxazole (78.1%) was most common among the tested Salmonella, followed by tetracycline (70.6%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (68.0%), and nalidixic acid (63.4%). Resistances to amikacin (20.0%), levofloxacin (18.7%), gatifloxacin (17.9%), ceftriaxone (17.7%), and cefoxitin (13.2%) were less frequently detected. Resistance to fluoroquinolones was most common among Salmonella Shubra and Indiana isolates, while resistance to cephalosporins was frequently detected among Salmonella Thompson isolates. The results highlighted the diversity of Salmonella serotypes and the high prevalence of Salmonella MDR isolates in China. Compared with Salmonella Enteritidis and Typhimurium isolates, the higher fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins resistance rates of some individual serotypes (Salmonella Shubra, Indiana, and Thompson) also provided more information for further study related to fluoroquinolones or cephalosporin-resistant Salmonella.

  5. [Evaluation of PremiTest Salmonella kit for identification of not-typable by conventional methods Salmonella].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madajczak, Grzegorz; Szych, Jolanta

    2010-01-01

    Despite the downward trend, Salmonella is still one of the most important bacterial intestinal infections agents. For example, in 2007 y. in Poland over 14 thousands human salmonelosis cases were notified, in 2008 y.--over 10 thousands. Among all Salmonella isolated from human source, most common (more then 80%) are two serotypes--S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium, but every year the number of non-typable (because of the lack I or II phase flagellar antigens, autoagglutinative or non-motility properties) Salmonella is growing. This work describes the results of the evaluation of commercially available kit PremiTest Salmonella (DSM, Netherlands), which uses the microarray hybridization in ArrayTube, for serological identification of non-typable Salmonella strains. All 37 researched strains were submitted to the Department of Bacteriology in 2007-2008 y, were reidentified according to standard operating procedures and serotyped by slide agglutination for somatic and flagellar antigens if it was possible. All strains were tested using the PremiTest Salmonella Kit, according to manufacturer instructions. In 21 cases (56%) full identification were achieved, in 5 cases (14%) additional tests were required for precise identification (Salmonella Choleraesuis or Paratyphi C, what was detailed using examination of additional biochemical features), 5 strains (14%) achieved an incomplete identification (three of them--S. diarizonae were confirmed in National Reference Laboratory for Salmonella) and 6 cases (16%) were not identified at all. The total number of recognized strains is 30 (81%). The results of present studies show, that PremiTest Salmonella Kit is useful for non-typable Salmonella identification.

  6. Effect of X-ray treatments on salmonella enterica and spoilage bacteria on skin-on chicken breast fillets and shell eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to determine the efficacy of X-ray irradiation on the inactivation of a 3- strain mixture of Salmonella enterica (S. Enteritidis E190-88, S. Typhimurium ATCC 14028, and S. Montevideo ATCC 8387) using an RS 2400 X-ray system on chicken breast fillets and shell eggs a...

  7. Study of Salmonella Typhimurium infection in laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil eChousalkar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Members of Salmonella enterica are frequently involved in egg and egg product related human food poisoning outbreaks worldwide. In Australia, Salmonella Typhimurium is frequently involved in egg and egg product related foodborne illness and Salmonella Mbandaka has also been found to be a contaminant of the layer farm environment. The ability possessed by Salmonella Enteritidis to colonise reproductive organs and contaminate developing eggs has been well described. However, there are few studies investigating this ability for Salmonella Typhimurium. The hypothesis of this study was that the Salmonella Typhimurium can colonise the gut for a prolonged period of time and that horizontal infection through feces is the main route of egg contamination. At 14 weeks of age hens were orally infected with either S. Typhimurium PT 9 or S. Typhimurium PT 9 and Salmonella Mbandaka. Salmonella shedding in feces and eggs was monitored for 15 weeks post infection. Egg shell surface and internal contents of eggs laid by infected hens were cultured independently for detection of Salmonella spp. The mean Salmonella load in feces ranged from 1.54 to 63.35 and 0.31 to 98.38 most probable number/g (MPN/g in the S. Typhimurium and S. Typhimurium + S. Mbandaka group respectively. No correlation was found between mean fecal Salmonella load and frequency of egg shell contamination. Egg shell contamination was higher in S. Typhimurium + S. Mbandaka infected group (7.2% Typhimurium, 14.1% Mbandaka compared to birds infected with S. Typhimurium (5.66% however, co-infection had no significant impact on egg contamination by S. Typhimurium. Throughout the study Salmonella was not recovered from internal contents of eggs laid by hens. Salmonella was isolated from different segments of oviduct of hens from both the groups, however pathology was not observed on microscopic examination. This study investigated Salmonella shedding for up to 15 weeks p.i which is a longer period of

  8. Bacteriophage cocktail for biocontrol of Salmonella in dried pet food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyse, Serena; Hanna, Leigh Farris; Woolston, Joelle; Sulakvelidze, Alexander; Charbonneau, Duane

    2015-01-01

    Human salmonellosis has been associated with contaminated pet foods and treats. Therefore, there is interest in identifying novel approaches for reducing the risk of Salmonella contamination within pet food manufacturing environments. The use of lytic bacteriophages shows promise as a safe and effective way to mitigate Salmonella contamination in various food products. Bacteriophages are safe, natural, highly targeted antibacterial agents that specifically kill bacteria and can be targeted to kill food pathogens without affecting other microbiota. In this study, we show that a cocktail containing six bacteriophages had a broadspectrum activity in vitro against a library of 930 Salmonella enterica strains representing 44 known serovars. The cocktail was effective against 95% of the strains in this tested library. In liquid culture dose-ranging experiments, bacteriophage cocktail concentrations of ≥10(8) PFU/ml inactivated more than 90% of the Salmonella population (10(1) to 10(3) CFU/ml). Dried pet food inoculated with a mixture containing equal proportions of Salmonella serovars Enteritidis (ATCC 4931), Montevideo (ATCC 8387), Senftenberg (ATCC 8400), and Typhimurium (ATCC 13311) and then surface treated with the six-bacteriophage cocktail (≥2.5 ± 1.5 × 10(6) PFU/g) achieved a greater than 1-log (P food that tested positive for Salmonella. Our results indicate that bacteriophage biocontrol of S. enterica in dried pet food is technically feasible.

  9. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES: SENSITIVITY OF DIFFERENT SALMONELLA SEROVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen eLosasso

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella spp. is one of the main causes of foodborne illnesses in humans worldwide. Consequently, great interest exists in reducing its impact on human health by lowering its prevalence in the food chain. Antimicrobial formulations in the form of nanoparticles exert bactericidal action due to their enhanced reactivity resultant from their high surface/volume ratio. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs are known to be highly toxic to Gram-negative and Gram-positive microorganisms, including multidrug resistant bacteria. However, few data concerning their success against different Salmonella serovars are available. Aims of the present study were to test the antimicrobial effectiveness of AgNPs, against Salmonella Enteritidis, Hadar and Senftenberg, and to investigate the causes of their different survival abilities from a molecular point of view.Results showed an immediate, time-limited and serovar-dependent reduction of bacterial viability. In the case of S. Senftenberg, the reduction in numbers was observed for up to 4 h of incubation in the presence of 200 mg/L of AgNPs; on the contrary, S. Enteritidis and S. Hadar resulted to be inhibited for up to 48 h. RT-PCR experiments demonstrated the constitutive expression of the plasmidic silver resistance determinant (SilB by S. Senftenberg, thus suggesting the importance of a cautious use of AgNPs.

  10. Lethality and Developmental Delay of Drosophila melanogaster Following Ingestion of Selected Pseudomonas fluorescens Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pseudomonas fluorescens secretes antimicrobial compounds that promote plant health and provide protection from pathogens. We used a non-invasive feeding assay to study the toxicity of P. fluorescens strains Pf0-1, SBW25, and Pf-5 to Drosophila melanogaster. The three strains of P. fluorescens varie...

  11. Refining the LPS-Antigen in Salmonella Antibody Elisa for Poultry Enhanced Specificity without Impairing Sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Klara Tølbøl; Lind, Peter; Klausen, Joan

    2014-01-01

    In the Danish serological surveillance for Salmonella in poultry (serum and egg yolk) a mix-ELISA is used, based on S. typhimurium and S. enteritidis antigens (Feld et al., 2000). When we evaluated results of the test retrospectively, over the years an unacceptably large fraction of seropositive...... findings could not be confirmed by the subsequent confirmatory bacteriological sampling in the herd. Therefore we tried to enhance specificity of the ELISA, without losing sensitivity, by refining the antigens used....

  12. Local transfer of delayed-type hypersensitivity after Salmonella infection in mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Attridge, S R; Kotlarski, I

    1985-01-01

    An adoptive local transfer system has been used to study the mediators of delayed-type hypersensitivity induced in mice by infection with Salmonella enteritidis 11RX. The cells which transfer this state of hypersensitivity to untreated recipients are nonadherent T lymphocytes with the surface phenotype Lyt 1+2-, and successful transfer requires compatibility at the I-A subregion of the H-2 complex. In these and other respects these cells are indistinguishable from those previously found to be...

  13. Epidemiological data on food poisonings in Japan focused on Salmonella, 1998-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyofuku, H

    2008-09-01

    In Japan, the numbers and cases of food poisonings must be reported as required by the Food Sanitation Law. This paper focuses on Salmonella, one of the leading food-borne pathogens in Japan, and it analyses the reported food poisoning data to assess the nature of Salmonella-associated food-borne disease. Obviously, these data do not exactly reflect the burden of food-borne illness associated with Salmonella; however, trends in Salmonella food poisoning and implicated foods could be identified for the purpose of setting priorities to mitigate the risk of food-borne salmonellosis. Summary information of Salmonella food poisoning investigation reports submitted by health departments of all prefectures and major cities between January 1998 and December 2004 was analysed. Both the number of reports and the cases of Salmonella food poisoning decreased drastically from 1999 (831 Salmonella food poisoning reports with 11,877 cases) to 2001 (265 reports with 7011 cases), increased in 2002, and then decreased again in 2003 and 2004 (231 reports with 3793 cases in 2004). About 80% of the Salmonella food poisoning reports and cases were associated with Salmonella enteritidis throughout the study period. Food vehicles were identified in 17-25% of the Salmonella food poisoning reports. Between 1998 and 2002, 45-60% of the Salmonella food poisoning cases were associated with eggs; however, the percentage dropped to 24.2% in 2003. The number of Salmonella food poisoning reports associated with beef, pork and poultry meat, and raw vegetables, which have been frequently reported in other countries, were very limited. Among the identified locations of disease break outs, 30-49% occurred in restaurant settings and the percentage of cases in restaurants increased during the study period. Thirteen to 41% of the Salmonella food poisoning cases occurred within the home, and the percentage declined. Phage types 1 and 4 were the predominant S. enteritidis isolated in 1998 and 1999; however

  14. Lack of the PGA exopolysaccharide in Salmonella as an adaptive trait for survival in the host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maite Echeverz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Many bacteria build biofilm matrices using a conserved exopolysaccharide named PGA or PNAG (poly-β-1,6-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. Interestingly, while E. coli and other members of the family Enterobacteriaceae encode the pgaABCD operon responsible for PGA synthesis, Salmonella lacks it. The evolutionary force driving this difference remains to be determined. Here, we report that Salmonella lost the pgaABCD operon after the divergence of Salmonella and Citrobacter clades, and previous to the diversification of the currently sequenced Salmonella strains. Reconstitution of the PGA machinery endows Salmonella with the capacity to produce PGA in a cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP dependent manner. Outside the host, the PGA polysaccharide does not seem to provide any significant benefit to Salmonella: resistance against chlorine treatment, ultraviolet light irradiation, heavy metal stress and phage infection remained the same as in a strain producing cellulose, the main biofilm exopolysaccharide naturally produced by Salmonella. In contrast, PGA production proved to be deleterious to Salmonella survival inside the host, since it increased susceptibility to bile salts and oxidative stress, and hindered the capacity of S. Enteritidis to survive inside macrophages and to colonize extraintestinal organs, including the gallbladder. Altogether, our observations indicate that PGA is an antivirulence factor whose loss may have been a necessary event during Salmonella speciation to permit survival inside the host.

  15. Outbreak-associated Salmonella enterica serotypes and food Commodities, United States, 1998-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Brendan R; Griffin, Patricia M; Cole, Dana; Walsh, Kelly A; Chai, Shua J

    2013-08-01

    Salmonella enterica infections are transmitted not only by animal-derived foods but also by vegetables, fruits, and other plant products. To clarify links between Salmonella serotypes and specific foods, we examined the diversity and predominance of food commodities implicated in outbreaks of salmonellosis during 1998-2008. More than 80% of outbreaks caused by serotypes Enteritidis, Heidelberg, and Hadar were attributed to eggs or poultry, whereas >50% of outbreaks caused by serotypes Javiana, Litchfield, Mbandaka, Muenchen, Poona, and Senftenberg were attributed to plant commodities. Serotypes Typhimurium and Newport were associated with a wide variety of food commodities. Knowledge about these associations can help guide outbreak investigations and control measures.

  16. Outbreak-associated Salmonella enterica Serotypes and Food Commodities, United States, 1998–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Patricia M.; Cole, Dana; Walsh, Kelly A.; Chai, Shua J.

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella enterica infections are transmitted not only by animal-derived foods but also by vegetables, fruits, and other plant products. To clarify links between Salmonella serotypes and specific foods, we examined the diversity and predominance of food commodities implicated in outbreaks of salmonellosis during 1998–2008. More than 80% of outbreaks caused by serotypes Enteritidis, Heidelberg, and Hadar were attributed to eggs or poultry, whereas >50% of outbreaks caused by serotypes Javiana, Litchfield, Mbandaka, Muenchen, Poona, and Senftenberg were attributed to plant commodities. Serotypes Typhimurium and Newport were associated with a wide variety of food commodities. Knowledge about these associations can help guide outbreak investigations and control measures. PMID:23876503

  17. Effect of vaccinating breeder chickens with a killed Salmonella vaccine on Salmonella prevalences and loads in breeder and broiler chicken flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghaus, R D; Thayer, S G; Maurer, J J; Hofacre, C L

    2011-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of vaccination of breeder chickens on Salmonella prevalences and loads in breeder and broiler chicken flocks. Chickens housed on six commercial breeder farms were vaccinated with a killed Salmonella vaccine containing Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, and Salmonella Kentucky. Unvaccinated breeders placed on six additional farms served as controls. Eggs from vaccinated and unvaccinated breeder flocks were kept separately in the hatchery, and the resulting chicks were used to populate 58 commercial broiler flock houses by using a pair-matched design. Vaccinated breeder flocks had significantly higher Salmonella-specific antibody titers than did the unvaccinated breeder flocks, although they did not differ significantly with respect to environmental Salmonella prevalences or loads. Broiler flocks that were the progeny of vaccinated breeders had significantly lower Salmonella prevalences and loads than broiler flocks that were the progeny of unvaccinated breeders. After adjusting for sample type and clustering at the farm level, the odds of detecting Salmonella in samples collected from broiler flocks originating from vaccinated breeders were 62% lower (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 0.38 [0.21, 0.68]) than in flocks from unvaccinated breeders. In addition, the mean load of culture-positive samples was lower in broilers from vaccinated breeders by 0.30 log most probable number per sample (95% confidence interval of -0.51, -0.09; P = 0.004), corresponding to a 50% decrease in Salmonella loads. In summary, vaccination of broiler breeder pullets increased humoral immunity in the breeders and reduced Salmonella prevalences and loads in their broiler progeny, but did not significantly decrease Salmonella in the breeder farm environment.

  18. Production of enterotoxin by Salmonella exposed to X rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szulc, M.; Pliszka, A.; Peconek, J.

    1982-01-01

    The influence of irradiation on enterotoxin production by Salmonella enteritidis and S. typhimurium was evaluated using skin test elaborated by Tschaepe and others. The strains examined appeared to be equally sensitive to X rays. A dose of 100 Gy decreased the number of bacterial cells at approx. 10 D 10 and 200 Gy at 2-3 D 10 . Irradiation with 100 and 200 Gy of X rays did not influence enterotoxin production by microorganisms which were resistant to the process of irradiation. (author)

  19. Increased colon cancer risk after severe Salmonella infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapo Mughini-Gras

    Full Text Available Colon cancer constitutes one of the most frequent malignancies. Previous studies showed that Salmonella manipulates host cell signaling pathways and that Salmonella Typhimurium infection facilitates colon cancer development in genetically predisposed mice. This epidemiological study examined whether severe Salmonella infection, usually acquired from contaminated food, is associated with increased colon cancer risk in humans.We performed a nationwide registry-based study to assess colon cancer risk after diagnosed Salmonella infection. National infectious disease surveillance records (1999-2015 for Dutch residents aged ≥20 years when diagnosed with salmonellosis (n = 14,264 were linked to the Netherlands Cancer Registry. Salmonella-infected patients were laboratory-confirmed under medical consultation after 1-2 weeks of illness. These datasets also contained information on Salmonella serovar and type of infection. Colon cancer risk (overall and per colon subsite among patients with a diagnosed Salmonella infection was compared with expected colon cancer risk in the general population. Data from the nationwide registry of histo- and cytopathology (PALGA and Statistics Netherlands (CBS allowed assessing potential effects of age, gender, latency, socioeconomic status, genetic predisposition, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, and tumor features. We found that compared to the general population, colon cancer risk was significantly increased (standardized incidence ratio [SIR] 1.54; 95%CI 1.09-2.10 among patients with Salmonella infection diagnosed <60 years of age. Such increased risk concerned specifically the ascending/transverse colon (SIR 2.12; 95%CI 1.38-3.09 after S. Enteritidis infection (SIR 2.97; 95%CI 1.73-4.76. Salmonellosis occurred more frequently among colon cancer patients with pre-infectious IBD, a known risk factor for colon cancer. Colon tumors of patients with a history of Salmonella infection were mostly of low grade

  20. Increased colon cancer risk after severe Salmonella infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooij, Sofie; Neefjes-Borst, E. Andra; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Neefjes, Jacques

    2018-01-01

    Background Colon cancer constitutes one of the most frequent malignancies. Previous studies showed that Salmonella manipulates host cell signaling pathways and that Salmonella Typhimurium infection facilitates colon cancer development in genetically predisposed mice. This epidemiological study examined whether severe Salmonella infection, usually acquired from contaminated food, is associated with increased colon cancer risk in humans. Methods and findings We performed a nationwide registry-based study to assess colon cancer risk after diagnosed Salmonella infection. National infectious disease surveillance records (1999–2015) for Dutch residents aged ≥20 years when diagnosed with salmonellosis (n = 14,264) were linked to the Netherlands Cancer Registry. Salmonella-infected patients were laboratory-confirmed under medical consultation after 1–2 weeks of illness. These datasets also contained information on Salmonella serovar and type of infection. Colon cancer risk (overall and per colon subsite) among patients with a diagnosed Salmonella infection was compared with expected colon cancer risk in the general population. Data from the nationwide registry of histo- and cytopathology (PALGA) and Statistics Netherlands (CBS) allowed assessing potential effects of age, gender, latency, socioeconomic status, genetic predisposition, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and tumor features. We found that compared to the general population, colon cancer risk was significantly increased (standardized incidence ratio [SIR] 1.54; 95%CI 1.09–2.10) among patients with Salmonella infection diagnosed transverse colon (SIR 2.12; 95%CI 1.38–3.09) after S. Enteritidis infection (SIR 2.97; 95%CI 1.73–4.76). Salmonellosis occurred more frequently among colon cancer patients with pre-infectious IBD, a known risk factor for colon cancer. Colon tumors of patients with a history of Salmonella infection were mostly of low grade. Conclusions Patients diagnosed with severe

  1. Genetic Diversity in Salmonella Isolates from Ducks and their Environments in Penang, Malaysia using Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Adzitey 1, Gulam Rusul Rahmat Ali2*, Nurul Huda2 and Rosma Ahmad3

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 107 Salmonella isolates (37 S. typhimurium, 26 S. hadar, 15 S. enteritidis, 15 S. braenderup, and 14 S. albany isolated from ducks and their environments in Penang, Malaysia were typed using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC to determine their genetic diversity. Analysis of the Salmonella strains by ERIC produced DNA fingerprints of different sizes for differentiation purposes. The DNA fingerprints or band sizes ranged from 14-8300bp for S. Typhimurium, 146-6593bp for S. hadar, 15-4929bp for S. enteritidis, 14-5142bp for S. braenderup and 7-5712bp for S. albany. Cluster analysis at a coefficient of 0.85 grouped the Salmonella strains into various clusters and singletons. S. typhimurium were grouped into 10 clusters and 6 singletons, S. Hadar were grouped into 3 clusters and 18 singletons, S. enteritidis were grouped into 3 clusters and 7 singletons, S. braenderup were grouped into 4 clusters and 7 singletons, and S. albany were grouped into 3 clusters and 7 singletons with discriminatory index (D ranging from 0.92-0.98. ERIC proved to be a useful typing tool for determining the genetic diversity of the duck Salmonella strains.

  2. Effect of Propionibacterium freudenreichii on Salmonella multiplication, motility, and association with avian epithelial cells1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    V T Nair, Divek; Kollanoor-Johny, A

    2017-05-01

    We investigated the effects of a probiotic bacterium, Propionibacterium freudenreichii, on Salmonella multiplication, motility, and association to and invasion of avian epithelial cells in vitro. Two subspecies of P. freudenreichii (P. freudenreichii subsp. freudenreichii and P. freudenreichii subsp. shermanii) were tested against 3 Salmonella serotypes in poultry, namely, S. Enteritidis, S. Typhimurium, and S. Heidelberg, using co-culture-, motility, multiplication, cell association, and invasion assays. Both strains of P. freudenreichii were effective in reducing or inhibiting multiplication of all 3 Salmonella serotypes in co-culture and turkey cecal contents (P ≤ 0.05). P. freudenreichii significantly reduced Salmonella motility (P ≤ 0.05). Cell culture studies revealed that P. freudenreichii associated with the avian epithelial cells effectively and reduced S. Enteritidis, S. Heidelberg, and S. Typhimurium cell association in the range of 1.0 to 1.6 log10 CFU/mL, and invasion in the range of 1.3 to 1.5 log10 CFU/mL (P ≤ 0.05), respectively. Our current in vitro results indicate the potential of P. freudenreichii against Salmonella in poultry. Follow-up in vivo studies are underway to evaluate this possibility. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  3. Characterization and Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella Typhimurium Isolates from Clinically Diseased Pigs in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sang-Ik; Kim, Jong Wan; Chae, Myeongju; Jung, Ji-A; So, Byungjae; Kim, Bumseok; Kim, Ha-Young

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of Salmonella enterica serovar and antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella Typhimurium isolates from clinically diseased pigs collected from 2008 to 2014 in Korea. Isolates were also characterized according to the presence of antimicrobial resistance genes and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns. Among 94 Salmonella isolates, 81 (86.2%) were identified as being of the Salmonella Typhimurium serotype, followed by Salmonella Derby (6 of 94, 6.4%), Salmonella 4,[5],12:i:- (4 of 94, 4.3%), Salmonella Enteritidis (2 of 94, 2.1%), and Salmonella Brandenburg (1 of 94, 1.1%). The majority of Salmonella Typhimurium isolates were resistant to tetracycline (92.6%), followed by streptomycin (88.9%) and ampicillin (80.2%). Overall, 96.3% of Salmonella Typhimurium isolates showed multidrug-resistant phenotypes and commonly harbored the resistance genes bla TEM (64.9%), flo (32.8%), aadA (55.3%), strA (58.5%), strB (58.5%), sulII (53.2%), and tetA (61.7%). The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of 45 Salmonella Typhimurium isolates from individual farms revealed 27 distinct patterns that formed one major and two minor clusters in the dendrogram analysis, suggesting that most of the isolates (91.1%) from diseased pigs were genetically related. These findings can assist veterinarians in the selection of appropriate antimicrobial agents to combat Salmonella Typhimurium infections in pigs. Furthermore, they highlight the importance of continuous surveillance of antimicrobial resistance and genetic status in Salmonella Typhimurium for the detection of emerging resistance trends.

  4. Caracterização de sorotipos em linhagens do gênero Salmonella isoladas de diferentes afecções em animais domésticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio G. Ribeiro

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram caracterizados os sorotipos, o perfil de sensibilidade microbiana e os achados clínico-epidemiológicos em 53 linhagens do gênero Salmonella isoladas de 41 cães, nove equinos e três bovinos, acometidos por diferentes manifestações clínicas entre 1997 e 2007. Salmonella Typhimurium (45,3%, Salmonella enterica (22,6%, Salmonella Enteritidis (7,5%, Salmonella enterica subsp enterica 4,5,12i (5,7%, Salmonella Newport (5,7%, Salmonella Dublin (3,8%, Salmonella Agona (3,8%, Salmonella Glostrup (3,8%, Salmonella Saintpaul (1,8% foram os sorotipos encontrados. Ciprofloxacina (100,0%, norfloxacina (100,0% e gentamicina (100,0% foram os antimicrobianos mais efetivos, enquanto a maior resistência das linhagens foi observada para ceftiofur (28,5% e florfenicol (7,0%. As linhagens foram isoladas de animais com enterite, infecção do trato urinário, septicemia, piometra, pneumonia e conjuntivite. Ressalta-se para o predomínio do sorovar Typhimurium nas diferentes manifestações da salmonelose nos animais. Destaca-se, também, a identificação de sorotipos nos animais que também são observados em casos de salmonelose em humanosThe serotype characterization, antimicrobial susceptibility profile, and clinical-epidemiological findings were evaluated in 53 Salmonella spp. strains isolated from 41 dogs, nine horses and three cattle presenting different clinical manifestations between 1997 at 2007. Salmonella Typhimurium (45.3%, Salmonella enterica (22.6%, Salmonella Enteritidis (7.5%, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica 4,5,12i (5.7%, Salmonella Newport (5.7%, Salmonella Dublin (3.8%, Salmonella Agona (3.8%, Salmonella Glostrup (3.8%, Salmonella Saintpaul (1.8% were the more common serotypes. Ciprofloxacin (100.0%, norfloxacin (100.0% and gentamicin (100.0% were more effective drugs while resistance of isolates was observed to ceftiofur (28.5% and florfenicol (7.0%. The strains were isolated from animals with enteritis, urinary tract infections

  5. Pseudomonas fluorescens' view of the periodic table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workentine, Matthew L; Harrison, Joe J; Stenroos, Pernilla U; Ceri, Howard; Turner, Raymond J

    2008-01-01

    Growth in a biofilm modulates microbial metal susceptibility, sometimes increasing the ability of microorganisms to withstand toxic metal species by several orders of magnitude. In this study, a high-throughput metal toxicity screen was initiated with the aim of correlating biological toxicity data in planktonic and biofilm cells to the physiochemical properties of metal ions. To this end, Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 was grown in the Calgary Biofilm Device (CBD) and biofilms and planktonic cells of this microorganism were exposed to gradient arrays of different metal ions. These arrays included 44 different metals with representative compounds that spanned every group of the periodic table (except for the halogens and noble gases). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) values were obtained after exposing the biofilms to metal ions for 4 h. Using these values, metal ion toxicity was correlated to the following ion-specific physicochemical parameters: standard reduction-oxidation potential, electronegativity, the solubility product of the corresponding metal-sulfide complex, the Pearson softness index, electron density and the covalent index. When the ions were grouped according to outer shell electron structure, we found that heavy metal ions gave the strongest correlations to these parameters and were more toxic on average than the other classes of the ions. Correlations were different for biofilms than for planktonic cells, indicating that chemical mechanisms of metal ion toxicity differ between the two modes of growth. We suggest that biofilms can specifically counter the toxic effects of certain physicochemical parameters, which may contribute to the increased ability of biofilms to withstand metal toxicity.

  6. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella isolates from the broiler chicken industry in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarr, C; Mitchell, W R; Carlson, H C; Fish, N A

    1977-01-01

    Antibacterial drug resistance among 219 salmonella isolates recovered during 1974 from poultry and poultry environments at the various production stages of broiler chickens in three integrated Ontario companies are recorded. All isolates were susceptible to ampicillin, trimethroprim-sulfamethoxazole complex, furazolidone, cephaloridine and amoxicillin. A relative increase in resistance to tetracycline and streptomycin with an accompanying decrease in resistance to triple sulfa compound was recorded when compared to a previous investigation of avian salmonella isolates in Ontario. The percentage and patterns of antimicrobial resistance were comparable at the various stages of production. Resistance to tetracycline and streptomycin was the most common pattern found among both Salmonella typhimurium and other serotypes. A notably high prevalence of resistance was found among Salmonella enteritidis isolates including some isolates with R factors for chloramphenicol resistance. This latter finding is of particular concern because of the high prevalence of this serotype in poultry and in human salmonellosis. PMID:318909

  7. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella isolated from a poultry farm and processing plant environment in the state of Kuwait

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Zenki, Sameer; Al-Nasser, Affaf; Al-Safar, AbdulAmir

    2007-01-01

    rates of 10%, 1.5%, 0.7%, 0.2%, 13.5%, and 12.6% for hatching eggs, litter, feed, drinkers, bird rinse and ceca, respectively. No Salmonella were detected in any of the paper liner, water, or air samples. Out of 360 samples collected from the processing plant, the overall percentage prevalence...... the farm included hatching eggs, paper liners, litter, feed, water, drinkers, air, bird rinse, and ceca. While samples collected from the processing plant included carcass rinse and ceca. Out of 2882 samples collected from the farm, the overall percentage prevalence of Salmonella was 5.4% with prevalence...... of Salmonella was 4.7% with prevalence rates of 6.1% and 3.3% for carcass rinse and ceca samples, respectively. Salmonella Enteritidis was the most prevalent serotype. All of the isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic and 10 different resistance profiles were found among 173 isolates of Salmonella...

  8. SALMONELLA SPECIES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    (Ngozi and Onyenekwe, 2003; Edward and Ewing,. 2003). Conclusion and Recommendations. The children in the older age bracket of 20-24 months were found to be most susceptible to salmonellosis. The risk of infection reduces in lower age group. The. Salmonella typhimurium remains the prominent causative agent in ...

  9. Serovars of Salmonella from captive reptiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Lassen-Nielsen, Anne Marie; Nordentoft, Steen

    2009-01-01

    The distribution on serovars of 60 Salmonella isolates from reptiles kept in captivity in Denmark during the period 1995–2006 was investigated. The isolates were all recovered from clinical specimens submitted to the National Veterinary Institute. A majority of the samples were from reptiles...... in zoological gardens or similar, while a minor number was from reptiles kept in private homes. A total of 43 serovars were detected, most of them being what is usually called exotic serotypes, and many not having a trivial name, while a few isolates belonged to well-known human pathogenic serovars, such as S....... Enteritidis, S. Typhimurium, S. Bovismorbificans. One isolate was rough and two were non-typeable. Isolates from turtles belonged to the subspecies enterica, while many isolates from both sauria and snakes belonged to other subspecies. The findings underline the potential zoonotic risk by handling reptiles...

  10. Reduction of Salmonella on chicken breast fillets stored under aerobic or modified atmosphere packaging by the application of lytic bacteriophage preparation SalmoFreshTM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, Anuraj T; Nannapaneni, Rama; Kiess, Aaron; Sharma, Chander Shekhar

    2016-03-01

    The present study evaluated the efficacy of recently approved Salmonella lytic bacteriophage preparation (SalmoFresh™) in reducing Salmonella on chicken breast fillets, as a surface and dip application. The effectiveness of phage in combination with modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and the ability of phage preparation in reducing Salmonella on chicken breast fillets at room temperature was also evaluated. Chicken breast fillets inoculated with a cocktail of Salmonella Typhimurium, S. Heidelberg, and S. Enteritidis were treated with bacteriophage (10(9) PFU/mL) as either a dip or surface treatment. The dip-treated samples were stored at 4°C aerobically and the surface-treated samples were stored under aerobic and MAP conditions (95% CO2/5% O2) at 4°C for 7 d. Immersion of Salmonella-inoculated chicken breast fillets in bacteriophage solution reduced Salmonella (P modified atmosphere conditions. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  11. Development of a paper-based lateral flow immunoassay for simultaneous detection of lipopolysaccharides of Salmonella serovars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Florian; Weber, Patricia; Vogler, Julian; Hecht, Lars; Dietzel, Andreas; Gauglitz, Günter

    2018-01-01

    Lateral flow type detection is becoming interesting not only in regions with a poor medical infrastructure but also for practitioners in day-to-day clinical work or for veterinary control in case of possible epidemics. In this work, we describe the first steps of development of a multi-channel strip with potential internal calibration of multiparametric and colorimetric lateral flow assays for the simultaneous detection of the lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium) and Salmonella enteritidis (S. enteritidis). We structured four channels in the nitrocellulose membrane with a Yb:KGW solid-state femtosecond laser ("cold" ablation process) to form distinct tracks of porous material and used gold nanoparticles for the labeling of the antibodies. In addition, calibration curves of the spot intensities of both serovars are presented, and it was shown that no cross reactivity between the different capture antibodies and LPS occurred. Finally, we detected LPS of both Salmonella serovars simultaneously. The color changes (spot intensities of the reaction zones) were evaluated using the open-source image-processing program ImageJ. Graphical abstract Multiparametric testing, strip A was tested with LPS S. enteritidis ( c=0.01 g/L) and LPS S.typhimurium ( c=0.0001 g/L), strip B with LPS S. enteritidis ( c=0.001 g/L) and LPS S. typhimurium ( c=0.001g/L) and strip C with LPS S. enteritidis (c=0.0001 g/L) and LPS S. typhimurium ( c=0.01 g/L), and read-out.

  12. Detection of Pseudomonas fluorescens from broth, water and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Loop mediated isothermal amplification is rapid, highly sensitive and specifically developed method for detection of bacterial infections. AprX gene for alkaline metalloprotease of Pseudomonas fluorescens was used to design four primers and loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) conditions were standardized for ...

  13. Detection of Pseudomonas fluorescens from broth, water and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sonal

    2015-04-08

    Apr 8, 2015 ... Full Length Research Paper. Detection of Pseudomonas fluorescens from broth, water and infected tissues by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method. Pooja Saharan, Joginder S. Duhan and Suresh K. Gahlawat*. Department of Biotechnology, Chaudhary Devi Lal University, Sirsa-125 055, ...

  14. Adaptive synonymous mutations in an experimentally evolved Pseudomonas fluorescens population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bailey, Susan; Hinz, Aaron; Kassen, Rees

    2014-01-01

    in an experimentally evolved population of Pseudomonas fluorescens. We show experimentally that these mutations increase fitness by an amount comparable to non-synonymous mutations and that the fitness increases stem from increased gene expression. These results provide unequivocal evidence that synonymous mutations...

  15. Salmonella spp. in patients suffering from enteric fever and food poisoning in Thamar city, Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, R R; Alghalibi, S M; Saeedsaleh, M G

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella remains a public health concern around the world, including Yemen although data on its incidence are few. This study determined the incidence of Salmonella infection in 250 enteric fever and 210 food poisoning cases attending Thamar general hospital and Dar Alshafaa medical clinic in 2008. In total, 773 clinical specimens were taken: 250 blood, 187 urine and 336 stool samples. Of the patients with enteric fever and food poisoning, 16.4% and 15.2% respectively were infected with Salmonella. The serovars isolated were: Salmonella Typhi (45.6%), Salmonella Enteritidis (24.4%), Salmonella Paratyphi B (14.4%), Salmonella Typhimurium (13.3%) and Salmonella Paratyphi A (2.2%). The distribution of somatic groups was: D (70%), B (727.7%)) and A (2.2%). None of the isolates was resistant to ciprofloxacin, sparfloxacin, ceftriaxone or moxifloxacin, while 71.1% were resistant to co-trimoxazole, 62.2% to gentamicin, 56.6% to ampicillin and 35.5% to nalidixic acid.

  16. [Biochemical and serological characterization Salmonella from retail meats in Guangdong Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaojuan; Wu, Qingping; Zhang, Jumei; Dong, Xiaohui; Liu, Shengrong

    2013-07-01

    Salmonella isolates from meat in Guangdong Province were characterized to determine their phenotype and serotype, to investigate contamination status of meats by Salmonella and provide scientific basis for detection and further control. 209 meat samples were detected according to methods GB 4789.4--2010 National food safety standard Food microbiological examination: Salmonella. The API 20E system was used to identify isolates. Serotyping of Salmonella isolates was performed by slide agglutination method using antisera to Salmonella. According to the detection results of 209 meat samples, forty-six Salmonella strains were isolated from 42 meat samples, the positive rate was 20. 10%. The majority of positive samples were fresh meat, 69.23% in duck, 37.14% in chicken, 20.00% in beef and 16.67% in pock. The strains identified as Salmonella by the API 20E were distributed in 7 profile numbers with two of them being predominant (6704752 and 6704552). The most common serotypes were Derby (21.74%), Typhimurium (10.87%), Enteritidis (8.70%), Tshiongwe (8.70%), Indiana (8.70%), Weltevreden (8.70%). Salmonella present in retail meats were common and phenotypically diverse in Guangdong Province.

  17. Isolation, characterization, and application of bacteriophages for Salmonella spp. biocontrol in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albino, Luiz A A; Rostagno, Marcos H; Húngaro, Humberto M; Mendonça, Regina C S

    2014-08-01

    Foodborne illness due to Salmonella-contaminated pork products is an important public health problem, causing significant economic losses worldwide. The use of bacteriophages is a potential intervention tool that has attracted interest for the control of foodborne pathogens. The objective of this study was to detect the presence of Salmonella in commercial pig farms and to isolate specific autochthonous bacteriophages against Salmonella Typhimurium, to characterize them and to evaluate their lytic capacity against Salmonella Typhimurium in vivo and in vitro. Salmonella was isolated on 50% (4/8) of the farms, with serotype Typhimurium being the most prevalent, detected in 48.2% of samples (13/27). The isolated Salmonella Typhimurium bacteriophages belong to the Podoviridae family, were active against serotypes Abony, Enteritidis, Typhi, and Typhimurium, but not against serotypes Arizonae, Cholerasuis, Gallinarum, and Pullorum. In in vitro tests, bacteriophage at 10(7) PFU/mL and 10(9) PFU/mL significantly reduced (pbacteriophages, Salmonella was identified in 93.3% (28/30) of the fecal samples from the pigs inoculated with 10(6) CFU/mL, and only in 56.6% (17/30) after the treatment consisting of oral administration of the pool of the bacteriophages after the fasting period, simulating a common preslaughter practice. These results indicate that the pool of bacteriophages administered was capable of reducing the colonization of Salmonella in pigs.

  18. Genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter and Salmonella strains isolated from decoys and raptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado-Tarifa, E; Torralbo, A; Borge, C; Cerdà-Cuéllar, M; Ayats, T; Carbonero, A; García-Bocanegra, I

    2016-10-01

    Infections caused by thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. are the leading causes of human gastroenteritis worldwide. Wild birds can act as reservoirs of both pathogens. A survey was carried out to determine the prevalence, genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of thermotolerant Campylobacter and Salmonella in waterfowl used as decoys and wild raptors in Andalusia (Southern Spain). The overall prevalence detected for Campylobacter was 5.9% (18/306; CI95%: 3.25-8.52) in decoys and 2.3% (9/387; CI95%: 0.82-3.83) in wild raptors. Isolates were identified as C. jejuni, C. coli and C. lari in both bird groups. Salmonella was isolated in 3.3% (10/306; CI95%: 2.3-4.3) and 4.6% (18/394; CI95%: 3.5-5.6) of the decoys and raptors, respectively. Salmonella Enteritidis and Typhimurium were the most frequently identified serovars, although Salmonella serovars Anatum, Bredeney, London and Mikawasima were also isolated. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of isolates showed higher genetic diversity within Campylobacter species compared to Salmonella serovars. Campylobacter isolates showed resistance to gentamicin, ciprofloxacin and tetracycline, while resistance to erythromycin and tetracycline was found in Salmonella isolates. The results indicate that both decoys and raptors can act as natural carriers of Campylobacter and Salmonella in Spain, which may have important implications for public and animal health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Antibiotic susceptibility of Salmonella spp.: a comparison of two surveys with a 5 years interval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Mijović

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella infections are one of the major global public health problems. During the last decade, antibiotic resistance and multiresistance of Salmonella spp. have increased a great deal, especially in developing countries with an increased and indiscriminate use of antibiotics in the treatment of humans and animals. This study aims to investigate and compare antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Salmonella during 2005 and 2010.A total of 186 Salmonella strain during 2005 and 140 Salmonella strain during 2010 were isolated from stool specimens using standard methods. The isolates were confirmed as Salmonella by using a battery of biochemical reactions. Specific antisera were used for serologic characterization of Salmonella strain. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by standard disk diffusion method using ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxasole, ceftriaxon, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin.One hundred eighty (96.8% of 186 isolated Salmonella strains in 2005, and 133 (95% of 140 isolated Salmonella strain in 2010 are recognized as Salmonella Enteritidis. Sensitivity of Salmonella isolates during 2005 and 2010 were 91.9% and 92.9% to ampicillin, 95.7% and 97.1% to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxasole, 99.5% and 100% to chloramphenicol, 99.5% and 100% to ciprofloxacin, 98.9% and 97.1% to ceftriaxon, 73.1% and 95.7% to nalidixic acid, respectively.Sensitivity of Salmonella isolates to all tested antimicrobial agents except to ceftriaxon was been slightly improved over testing period. Resistance rate to ceftriaxon was higher in 2010 than in 2005, and this fact deserves attention. Significantly increase susceptibility rate to nalidixic acid was observed between the two surveys

  20. Biocide tolerance in Salmonella from meats in Southern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Antonio Marin; Burgos, M Jose Grande; Márquez, M Luisa Fernández; Aguayo, M Carmen López; Pulido, Rubén Pérez; del Árbol, Julia Toledo; Gálvez, Antonio; López, Rosario Lucas

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella serovars sampled from meat products in Southern Spain (Andalucía) during the period 2002-2007 were analyzed in this study. The serovars most frequently detected (in order) were Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Derby, Anatum and Rissen. Isolates (n = 43) were tested for sensitivity to biocides, including the quaternary ammonium compounds benzalkonium chloride (BC), cetrimide (CT) and hexadecylpyridinium chloride (HDP), and the bisphenols triclosan (TC) and hexachlorophene (CF). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for the quaternary ammonium compounds was in the range of 25 to 50 mg/L for most isolates, although a few isolates required much higher concentrations, up to 250 mg/L. Bisphenols showed higher inhibitory activity, with a MIC of 2.5 to 25 mg/L. A few isolates showed a "non-wildtype" MIC for TC of up to 250 mg/L. These results indicate a low incidence of tolerance towards quaternary ammonium compounds and triclosan among Salmonella from meats and meat products.

  1. Population dynamics and antimicrobial resistance of the most prevalent poultry-associated Salmonella serotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Devendra H; Paul, Narayan C; Sischo, Willium C; Crespo, Rocio; Guard, Jean

    2017-03-01

    Salmonella spp. is the most predominant bacterial cause of foodborne gastroenteritis in humans. Due to the risk of human infection associated with poultry products and the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance, Salmonella also poses a significant challenge to commercial poultry production. During the last decade (2002 to 2012), the 12 most prevalent poultry-associated Salmonella serotypes (MPPSTs) were frequently and consistently isolated from poultry products in the United States. These MPPSTs and their percent prevalence in poultry products include Kentucky (4%), Enteritidis (2%) Heidelberg (2%), Typhimurium (2%), S. I 4,[5],12:i:- (0.31%), Montevideo (0.20%), Infantis (0.16%) Schwarzengrund (0.15%), Hadar (0.15%), Mbandaka (0.13%), Thompson (0.12%), and Senftenberg (0.04%). All MPPSTs except Kentucky are among the top 30 clinically significant serotypes that cause human illnesses in the United States. However with the exception of a few widely studied serotypes such as S. Enteritidis and Typhimurium, the ecology and epidemiology of the majority of MPPSTs still remain poorly investigated. Published data from the United States suggests that MPPSTs such as Heidelberg, Typhimurium, Kentucky, and Sentfenberg are more likely to be multi-drug resistant (MDR, ≥3 antimicobial classes) whereas Enteritidis, Montevideo, Schwarzengrund, Hadar, Infantis, Thompson, and Mbandaka are generally pan-susceptible or display resistance to fewer antimicobials. In contrast, the majority of MPPSTs isolated globally have been reported to display MDR phenotype. There also appears to be an international spread of a few MDR serotypes including Kentucky, Schwarzengrund, Hadar, Thomson, Sentfenberg, and Enteritidis, which may pose significant challenges to the public health. The current knowledge gaps on the ecology, epidemiology, and antimicrobial resistance of MPPSTs are discussed. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  2. Salmonella biofilms

    OpenAIRE

    Castelijn, G.A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Biofilm formation by Salmonellaspp. is a problem in the food industry, since biofilms may act as a persistent source of product contamination. Therefore the aim of this study was to obtain more insight in the processes involved and the factors contributing to Salmonellabiofilm formation. A collection of SalmonellaTyphimurium clinical, outbreak-related and retail product isolates, was used to determine biofilm formation capacity and to identify cellular parameters contributing to surface colon...

  3. Salmonella typhi

    OpenAIRE

    Mochammad, Hatta

    2008-01-01

    This manuscript could use as research on infectious diseases Multi-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis differentiated 297 Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi blood culture isolates from Makassar in 76 genotypes and a single unique S. Typhi genotype was isolated from the cholecystectomy specimens of four patients with cholelithiasis. The high diversity in S. Typhi genotypes circulating in Makassar indicates that the number of carriers could be very large, which may complicat...

  4. Investigations of multiresistance to antibiotics and chemotherapeutics and extended spectrum beta: Lactamase effect (ESBL test in strains E.coli and salmonella originating from domestic animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mišić Dušan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of multiresistance to the effects of antibiotics and chemotherapeutics and extended spectrum beta-lactamase were examined in 45 strains of E. coli and 35 strains of Salmonella. The strains of E. coli originated from several species of domestic animals: dogs, cats, poultry, and cattle, and 30 strains of Salmonella originated from poultry, 4 strains from cattle, and 1 strain from swine. The presence of the following serovarieties was established using serological examinations: Salmonella Enteritidis 17 strains, Salmonella Gallinarum 1 strain, Salmonella Hartford 5 strains, Salmonella Anatum 1 strain, Salmonella Typhimurium 4 strains, Salmonella Agona 1 strain, Salmonella Infantis 1 strain, Salmonella Thompson var. Berlin 1 strain, Salmonella Tennessee 1 strain, Salmonella Senftenberg 1 strain, Salmonella Glostrup 1 strain, and Salmonella Hadar 1 strain. In the examinations of the listed strains we used antibiogram discs of ampicillin, amoxicillin with clavulanic acid, cephalexin, cephtriaxon, cephotaxim, cephtazidime, aztreonam, gentamycin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, cyprofloxacine, and a combination of sulphamethoxasole and trimethoprim. The lowest prevalence of multiresistance in E. Coli strains to 3 or more antibiotics was established in dogs 20%, and the highest in 60% strains originating from swine. In 62.88% strains of Salmonella we established sensitivity to all applied antibiotics. Resistance was also established in a small number of the examined strains to ampicillin (11 strains, to tetracycline (5 strains, to amoxicillin with clavulanic acid (5 strains, to sulphamethoxasole with trimethoprim (5 strains, to gentamycin (3 strains, and to cloramphenicol (1 strain. Of all the examined strains of Salmonella, 6 strains originating from poultry exhibited multiresistence. The presence of extended spectrum beta-lactamase effects examined using the ESBL test, was not established in strains of E. coli and Salmonella strains.

  5. Investigations of sensitivity to antibiotics of salmonella strain species originating from poultry from different epizootiological areas

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    Stošić Zorica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 1666 samples were examined, of which 512 samples of parenchymatous organs of dead or deliberately sacrtificed animals, 60 samples of non-hatched fertilized eggs, 202 samples of feces, 652 samples of cloacal smears, 221 samples of smears from walls of maintenance objects, incubator stations, and transport vehicles, 19 samples of beddings and shavings. The samples originated from poultry farms and which were taken to a laboratory immediately on sampling and sown the same day. A total of 104 strains of Salmonella were isolated: 94 strains from samples of parenchymatous organs of dead chicks, 1 strain from non-hatched eggs, 3 strains from feces samples, 1 strain from samples of cloacal smears, 4 strains from samples of surface smears of maintenance objects and transport vehicles, and 1 strain from samples of beddings and shavings. Serological typization established the presence of the following serovarieties: Salmonella Enteritidis 79 strains, Salmonella Hartford 17 strains, Salmonella Typohimurium 5 strains, Salmonella Mbandaka 2 strains, and Salmonella Glostrup 1 strain. We examined the sensitivity of Salmonella strains to ampicillin, amoxicillin, gentamycin, streptomycin, neomycin, enrofloxacine, norfloxacine, flumequin, erythromycin, lincospectin, colistin, fluorphenicol, and a combination of sulphamethoxasole and trimethoprim. In S. Enteritidis strains, no resistence was established to colistin, fluorphenicol and sulphamethoxasole+trimethoprim, in fact, the sensitivity to these antibiotics and chemotherapeutics was 100%. Prevalence resitence of 0.96%, in only one strain, was established for enrofloxacine. A high prevalence resistence of 33.6% was established for neomycin, while prevalence resistence of 3.86% was established for the related aminoglycozide antibiotic gentamycin. The highest prevalence resistance in S.Hartford strains was established for erythromycin, 15.38%, and streptomycin, 7.6%. Resistence of S. Tyohimurium was

  6. Differential induction of total IgE by two Salmonella enterica serotypes

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    Zhanna eKtsoyan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to establish how the inflammation caused by infection with two different Salmonella enterica serotypes, S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis, may lead to the predisposition to allergy as measured by total IgE level in the blood. Infection by S. Typhimurium did not affect the systemic IgE concentration while in S. Enteritidis-infected patients there was a significant 3.5-fold increase. This effect was especially profound in patients >4 years old, with up to the eight-fold increase above the norm. The degree of dysbiosis in these two infections measured with the comparative counts of cultivated bacteria showed an inverse relationship with the IgE concentration. Earlier we reported the elevated level of IL-17 in patients infected by S. Enteritidis. In the current study a significant correlation was found between the concentrations of IL-17 and IgE suggesting a possible role played by this cytokine in triggering the production of IgE in response to S. Enteritidis infection.

  7. Are Salmonella-Induced Gastroenteritis Neglected in Developing Countries? Feedback from Microbiological Investigations in N'Djamena Hospitals, Chad.

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    Djim-Adjim Tabo

    Full Text Available Salmonella is considered to be one of the main pathogens causing human gastroenteritis worldwide. Looking for Salmonella in Africa in patients suffering from gastroenteritis is rather unusual, and the use of antibiotics is not subject to any regulation. This study intends for stressing the possible prominent importance of Salmonella in digestive diseases in Africa as well as identifying antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella isolates from faeces samples of human origin. All samples were collected from five N'Djamena hospitals, from patients suffering from diarrhoea. The collecting was undertaken over two periods of six months each: from August 2010 to January 2011 and from September 2011 to February 2012. Salmonella isolates were obtained by standard cultivation and serotyping methods. A total of 43 Salmonella isolates were identified, belonging to 21 different serovars. The most prevalent serovar was Salmonella Stanleyville (n = 7, followed by S. Anatum (n = 4 and S. Kottbus (n = 3. The other serovars were under-represented. The majority of these isolates were susceptible to all antibiotics tested (CLSI Standards, except two S. Enteritidis isolates that exhibited resistance to fluoroquinolones. The different serovars and antibiotic resistance profiles that were observed highlight the substantial diversity of Salmonella in N'Djamena, Chad. Roughly, one out of ten patients who consulted for gastroenteritis was shedding Salmonella spp. and none of them would have been diagnosed outside the context of this research program. This study may encourage local clinicians to explore more often salmonellosis suspicion in their daily practice.

  8. Characterization of Salmonella spp. isolated from an integrated broiler chicken operation in Korea.

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    Lee, Young Ju; Kim, Hyun Jung; Park, Cheong Kyu; Kim, Ki Seuk; Bae, Dong Hwa; Kang, Min Su; Cho, Jae Keun; Kim, Ae Ran; Kim, Jong Wan; Kim, Byoung Han

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the biological and genetic characterization of persistent Salmonella isolates in an integrated broiler chicken operation, in an attempt to elucidate the source of contamination. From the breeder farm, the hatchery, the broiler farm and the chicken slaughter house of an integrated broiler chicken operation, a total of 6 serotypes were observed. Although S. Heidelberg was not detected in the broiler farm, it was consistently found in the breeder farm, the hatchery and the chicken slaughter house. Also, S. Enteritidis and S. Senftenberg were found in the hatchery and the chicken slaughter house, and the hatchery and the broiler farm, respectively. S. Gallinarum and S. Blockley were found only in the broiler farm, and S. Virchow was only recovered in the chicken slaughter house. Isolated S. Heidelberg, S. Enteritidis and S. Senftenberg strains were divided into 3, 5 and 7 types, respectively, on the basis of all properties. Especially, S. Senftenberg isolates, divided into four types by their antimicrobial resistance patterns, were all obviously the XbaI PFGE pattern. Also, four S. Enteritidis isolates resistant to nalidixic acid showed a difference in phage type and PFGE pattern. Such a different pattern was shown despite Salmonella isolates originating from an integrated broiler operation, suggesting that further epidemiological studies on many integrated chicken companies in Korea are needed.

  9. Exponentially Increased Thermal Resistance of Salmonella spp. and Enterococcus faecium at Reduced Water Activity.

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    Liu, Shuxiang; Tang, Juming; Tadapaneni, Ravi Kiran; Yang, Ren; Zhu, Mei-Jun

    2018-04-15

    Salmonella spp. exhibit prolonged survivability and high tolerance to heat in low-moisture foods. The reported thermal resistance parameters of Salmonella spp. in low-moisture foods appear to be unpredictable due to various unknown factors. We report here that temperature-dependent water activity (a w, treatment temperature ) plays an important role in the sharply increased thermal resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis PT 30 and its potential surrogate Enterococcus faecium NRRL B-2354. In our study, silicon dioxide granules, as carriers, were separately inoculated with these two microorganisms and were heated at 80°C with controlled relative humidity between 18 and 72% (resulting in corresponding a w,80°C values for bacteria between 0.18 and 0.72) in custom-designed test cells. The inactivation kinetics of both microorganisms fitted a log-linear model ( R 2 , 0.83 to 0.97). Reductions in the a w,80°C values of bacterial cells exponentially increased the D 80°C (the time needed to achieve a 1-log reduction in a bacterial population at 80°C) values for S Enteritidis and E. faecium on silicon dioxide. The log-linear relationship between the D 80°C values for each strain in silicon dioxide and its a w,80°C values was also verified for organic wheat flour. E. faecium showed consistently higher D 80°C values than S Enteritidis over the a w,80°C range tested. The estimated z aw (the change in a w,80°C needed to change D 80°C by 1 log) values of S Enteritidis and E. faecium were 0.31 and 0.28, respectively. This study provides insight into the interpretation of Salmonella thermal resistance that could guide the development and validation of thermal processing of low-moisture foods. IMPORTANCE In this paper, we established that the thermal resistance of the pathogen S Enteritidis and its surrogate Enterococcus faecium , as reflected by D values at 80°C, increases sharply with decreasing relative humidity in the environment. The log

  10. Prophage Integrase Typing Is a Useful Indicator of Genomic Diversity in Salmonella enterica

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    Colavecchio, Anna; D’Souza, Yasmin; Tompkins, Elizabeth; Jeukens, Julie; Freschi, Luca; Emond-Rheault, Jean-Guillaume; Kukavica-Ibrulj, Irena; Boyle, Brian; Bekal, Sadjia; Tamber, Sandeep; Levesque, Roger C.; Goodridge, Lawrence D.

    2017-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is a bacterial species that is a major cause of illness in humans and food-producing animals. S. enterica exhibits considerable inter-serovar diversity, as evidenced by the large number of host adapted serovars that have been identified. The development of methods to assess genome diversity in S. enterica will help to further define the limits of diversity in this foodborne pathogen. Thus, we evaluated a PCR assay, which targets prophage integrase genes, as a rapid method to investigate S. enterica genome diversity. To evaluate the PCR prophage integrase assay, 49 isolates of S. enterica were selected, including 19 clinical isolates from clonal serovars (Enteritidis and Heidelberg) that commonly cause human illness, and 30 isolates from food-associated Salmonella serovars that rarely cause human illness. The number of integrase genes identified by the PCR assay was compared to the number of integrase genes within intact prophages identified by whole genome sequencing and phage finding program PHASTER. The PCR assay identified a total of 147 prophage integrase genes within the 49 S. enterica genomes (79 integrase genes in the food-associated Salmonella isolates, 50 integrase genes in S. Enteritidis, and 18 integrase genes in S. Heidelberg). In comparison, whole genome sequencing and PHASTER identified a total of 75 prophage integrase genes within 102 intact prophages in the 49 S. enterica genomes (44 integrase genes in the food-associated Salmonella isolates, 21 integrase genes in S. Enteritidis, and 9 integrase genes in S. Heidelberg). Collectively, both the PCR assay and PHASTER identified the presence of a large diversity of prophage integrase genes in the food-associated isolates compared to the clinical isolates, thus indicating a high degree of diversity in the food-associated isolates, and confirming the clonal nature of S. Enteritidis and S. Heidelberg. Moreover, PHASTER revealed a diversity of 29 different types of prophages and 23

  11. Serovariedades y patrones de susceptibilidad a los antimicrobianos de cepas de Salmonella aisladas de alimentos en Cuba Serotypes and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Salmonella strains isolated from food in Cuba

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    Yamila Puig Peña

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describen los serotipos de 178 cepas de Salmonella enterica aisladas de alimentos en diferentes regiones de Cuba entre enero de 2008 y diciembre de 2009, y el patrón de susceptibilidad a los antimicrobianos de 100 aislados seleccionados mediante muestreo por estratos. Se identificaron 20 serovariedades de Salmonella entre las que predominaron S. Enteritidis (23%; S. Agona (13,5% y S. London (11,2%. Del total, 75% de las cepas fueron resistentes o presentaron resistencia intermedia a al menos uno de los fármacos probados, en el siguiente orden, según su frecuencia: tetraciclina (70,7%; ampicilina (22,7% y ácido nalidíxico (14,7%. Se identificaron 10 patrones de resistencia diferentes y predominaron las cepas resistentes o conresistencia intermedia a un fármaco (89,3%. Tres cepas (S. Infantis, S. Derby y S. Enteritidis fueron multirresistentes y una, de S. Enteritidis, dio un resultado no sensible al ácido nalidíxico y la ciprofloxacina. Se destaca la necesidad de extremar la vigilancia sanitaria integrada en el país para el control de la salmonelosis.The serotypes of 178 isolates of Salmonella enterica taken from food in different regions of Cuba between January 2008 and December 2009 were identified, and the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of 100 selected isolates was determined by strata sampling. A total of 20 Salmonella serotypes were identified, with a predominance of S. Enteritidis (23%, S. Agona (13.5%, and S. London (11.2%. Of all the strains, 75% were resistant or presented intermediate resistance to at least one of the drugs tested, in the following order: tetracycline (70.7%, ampicillin (22.7%, and nalidixic acid (14.7%. Ten different resistance patterns were identified. The most frequent patterns corresponded to strains that were either drugresistant or had intermediate resistance (89.3%. Three strains (identified as S. Infantis, S. Derby, and S. Enteritidis were multiresistant, and one of them, S. Enteritidis, was

  12. Laboratory monitoring of bacterial gastroenteric pathogens Salmonella and Shigella in Shanghai, China 2006-2012.

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    Zhang, J; Wang, F; Jin, H; Hu, J; Yuan, Z; Shi, W; Yang, X; Meng, J; Xu, X

    2015-02-01

    In 2006 we initiated an enhanced laboratory-based surveillance of Salmonella and Shigella infections in Shanghai, China. A total of 4483 Salmonella and 2226 Shigella isolates were recovered from stool specimens by 2012. In 80 identified Salmonella serovars, Enteritidis (34·5%) and Typhimurium (26·2%) were the most common. Shigella (S.) sonnei accounted for 63·9% of human Shigella infections over the same time period, and replaced S. flexneri to become the primary cause of shigellosis since 2010. Overall, a high level of antimicrobial resistance was observed in Salmonella and Shigella, particularly to nalidixic acid, ampicillin, and tetracycline. Ciprofloxacin resistance was common in Salmonella Typhimurium (21·0%) and S. flexneri (37·6%). The cephalosporin resistance in both pathogens also increased over the years, ranging from 3·4% to 7·0% in Salmonella, and from 10·4% to 28·6% in Shigella. Resistance to multiple antimicrobials was also identified in a large number of the isolates. This study provides insight into the distribution of Salmonella and Shigella in diarrhoeal diseases.

  13. Detection of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium from Avians Using Multiplex-PCR

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    Alireza Talebi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and S.enterica serovar Enteritidis are the most frequently isolated serovars from food-borne diseases throughout the world. According to their antigenic profiles, salmonella shows different disease syndromes and host specificities. It is necessary and important to discriminate salmonella serovars from each other in order to ensure that each pathogen and its epidemiology are correctly recognized. Many PCR-based methods have been developed to identify salmonella serovars. The objective of present study was to identify S. Typhimurium in avians from different regions including: North, Northwest and capital city (Tehran of Iran. Also in this research, the quality of CHROMagar™ Salmonella medium (CAS medium in veterinary medicine was evaluated. The results of present study showed that out of 1870 intestine samples, fifty two S. Typhimurium including broiler (n=13, layer (n=12, duck (n=5, goose (n=5, sparrow (n=8, canary (n=3, pigeon (n=5 and African grey parrot (n=1 were identified using serotyping as well as multiplex-PCR. In conclusion, important measures must be taken on prevention and propagation of S. Typhimurium among avians. CHROMagar™ Salmonella medium has high levels of sensitivity and specificity and reduced the time to final identification of salmonella spp. in comparison with biochemical tests.

  14. Molecular characterization of Salmonella strains in individuals with acute diarrhea syndrome in the State of Sucre, Venezuela.

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    Rodulfo, Hectorina; De Donato, Marcos; Luiggi, Jesús; Michelli, Elvia; Millán, Adriana; Michelli, Miriam

    2012-06-01

    In Venezuela, acute diarrheic syndrome (ADS) is a primary cause of morbi-mortality, often involving the Salmonella genus. Salmonella infections are associated with acute gastroenteritis, one of the most common alimentary intoxications, and caused by the consumption of contaminated water and food, especially meat. Conventional and molecular methods were used to detect Salmonella strains from 330 fecal samples from individuals of different ages and both sexes with ADS. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for the molecular characterization of Salmonella, using invA, sefA, and fliC genes for the identification of this genus and the serotypes Enteritidis and Typhimurium, respectively. The highest frequency of individuals with ADS was found in children 0-2 years old (39.4%), and the overall frequency of positive coprocultures was 76.9%. A total of 14 (4.2%) strains were biochemically and immunologically identified as Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica, of which 7 were classified as belonging to the Enteritidis serotype, 4 to the Typhimurium serotype, and 3 to other serotypes. The S. enterica strains were distributed more frequently in the age groups 3-4 and 9-10 years old. The molecular characterization method used proved to be highly specific for the typing of S. enterica strains using DNA extracted from both the isolated colonies and selective enrichment broths directly inoculated with fecal samples, thus representing a complementary tool for the detection and identification of ADS-causing bacteria.

  15. Prevalence and Diversity of Salmonella Serotypes in Ecuadorian Broilers at Slaughter Age.

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    Christian Vinueza-Burgos

    Full Text Available Salmonella is frequently found in poultry and represent an important source for human gastrointestinal infections worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, genotypes and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella serotypes in broilers from Ecuador. Caeca content from 388 at random selected broiler batches were collected in 6 slaughterhouses during 1 year and analyzed by the ISO 6579/Amd1 protocol for the isolation for Salmonella. Isolates were serotyped and genotypic variation was acceded by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. MIC values for sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, ampicillin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, tetracycline, streptomycin, trimethropim, chloramphenicol, colistin, florfenicol, kanamycin and nalidixic acid were obtained. Presence of blaCTX-M, blaTEM, blaSHV and blaCMY; and mcr-1 plasmid genes was investigated in resistant strains to cefotaxime and colistin respectively. Prevalence at batch level was 16.0%. The most common serotype was S. Infantis (83.9% followed by S. Enteritidis (14.5% and S. Corvallis (1.6%. The pulsed field gel electrophoresis analysis showed that S. Corvallis, S. Enteritidis and S. Infantis isolates belonged to 1, 2 and 12 genotypes respectively. S. Infantis isolates showed high resistance rates to 12 antibiotics ranging from 57.7% (kanamycin up to 98.1% (nalidixic acid and sulfamethoxazole. All S. Enteritidis isolates showed resistance to colistin. High multiresistant patterns were found for all the serotypes. The blaCTX-M gene was present in 33 S. Infantis isolates while mcr-1 was negative in 10 colistin resistant isolates. This study provides the first set of scientific data on prevalence and multidrug-resistant Salmonella coming from commercial poultry in Ecuador.

  16. Prevalence and Diversity of Salmonella Serotypes in Ecuadorian Broilers at Slaughter Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevallos, María; Ron-Garrido, Lenin; Bertrand, Sophie; De Zutter, Lieven

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella is frequently found in poultry and represent an important source for human gastrointestinal infections worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, genotypes and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella serotypes in broilers from Ecuador. Caeca content from 388 at random selected broiler batches were collected in 6 slaughterhouses during 1 year and analyzed by the ISO 6579/Amd1 protocol for the isolation for Salmonella. Isolates were serotyped and genotypic variation was acceded by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. MIC values for sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, ampicillin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, tetracycline, streptomycin, trimethropim, chloramphenicol, colistin, florfenicol, kanamycin and nalidixic acid were obtained. Presence of blaCTX-M, blaTEM, blaSHV and blaCMY; and mcr-1 plasmid genes was investigated in resistant strains to cefotaxime and colistin respectively. Prevalence at batch level was 16.0%. The most common serotype was S. Infantis (83.9%) followed by S. Enteritidis (14.5%) and S. Corvallis (1.6%). The pulsed field gel electrophoresis analysis showed that S. Corvallis, S. Enteritidis and S. Infantis isolates belonged to 1, 2 and 12 genotypes respectively. S. Infantis isolates showed high resistance rates to 12 antibiotics ranging from 57.7% (kanamycin) up to 98.1% (nalidixic acid and sulfamethoxazole). All S. Enteritidis isolates showed resistance to colistin. High multiresistant patterns were found for all the serotypes. The blaCTX-M gene was present in 33 S. Infantis isolates while mcr-1 was negative in 10 colistin resistant isolates. This study provides the first set of scientific data on prevalence and multidrug-resistant Salmonella coming from commercial poultry in Ecuador. PMID:27414038

  17. Genome Sequence of the Biocontrol Strain Pseudomonas fluorescens F113

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    Redondo-Nieto, Miguel; Barret, Matthieu; Morrisey, John P.; Germaine, Kieran; Martínez-Granero, Francisco; Barahona, Emma; Navazo, Ana; Sánchez-Contreras, María; Moynihan, Jennifer A.; Giddens, Stephen R.; Coppoolse, Eric R.; Muriel, Candela; Stiekema, Willem J.; Rainey, Paul B.; Dowling, David; O'Gara, Fergal; Martín, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens F113 is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) that has biocontrol activity against fungal plant pathogens and is a model for rhizosphere colonization. Here, we present its complete genome sequence, which shows that besides a core genome very similar to those of other strains sequenced within this species, F113 possesses a wide array of genes encoding specialized functions for thriving in the rhizosphere and interacting with eukaryotic organisms. PMID:22328765

  18. Effect of Pseudomonas fluorescens on Buried Steel Pipeline Corrosion.

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    Spark, Amy J; Law, David W; Ward, Liam P; Cole, Ivan S; Best, Adam S

    2017-08-01

    Buried steel infrastructure can be a source of iron ions for bacterial species, leading to microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC). Localized corrosion of pipelines due to MIC is one of the key failure mechanisms of buried steel pipelines. In order to better understand the mechanisms of localized corrosion in soil, semisolid agar has been developed as an analogue for soil. Here, Pseudomonas fluorescens has been introduced to the system to understand how bacteria interact with steel. Through electrochemical testing including open circuit potentials, potentiodynamic scans, anodic potential holds, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy it has been shown that P. fluorescens increases the rate of corrosion. Time for oxide and biofilms to develop was shown to not impact on the rate of corrosion but did alter the consistency of biofilm present and the viability of P. fluorescens following electrochemical testing. The proposed mechanism for increased corrosion rates of carbon steel involves the interactions of pyoverdine with the steel, preventing the formation of a cohesive passive layer, after initial cell attachment, followed by the formation of a metal concentration gradient on the steel surface.

  19. Child morbidity of salmonellosis and the level of resistance of clinical isolates of salmonella to antibacterial preparations in saint Petersburg

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    N. V. Gonchar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to study the dynamics of the incidence of salmonellosis children in St. Petersburg and phenotypic resistance of clinical isolates of S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium to antibiotics in recent years. Materials and methods. The incidence of salmonellosis children studied according to the report for the first nine months of Rospotrebnadzor in 2013–2014. Incidence of salmonellosis in the structure of bacterial intestinal infections caused by pathogens in children hospitalized in the Department of intestinal infections in 2013–2014, studied according to annual reports. Antibiotic sensitivity was studied 86 Salmonella isolates (S. Enteritidis strain 64 and strain 22 S. Typhimurium, isolated from patients in children 2010–2014. Used the method of serial microdilution broth. Salmonella isolates were divided into sensitive, resistant, intermediate sensitivity to antibiotics. The Results. Analysis of the incidence of salmonellosis children of St. Petersburg has revealed its decline in 2014 (109.2 compared to 2013 (123,9 but relatively long-term average level was an increase in incidence (107,6. In the structure of salmonellosis in children prevailed salmonellosis Group D. In hospitalized children in the structure of bacterial intestinal infections detected Excess of share of salmonellosis in 2014 (36,9±3,4% compared to 2013 (24,5±2,4%; p <0,01. A reduction in the frequency sensitivity of S. Enteritidis to ampicillin, cefepime, ceftazidime and chloramphenicol. Compared to S. Enteritidis S. Typhimurium isolates were more resistant to ceftazidime and ampicillin, but more sensitive to ciprofloxacin. Conclusion. Morbidity of salmonellosis in recent years characterized by a relatively long-term average increase of the level. In the structure of salmonellosis in children prevailed salmonellosis Group D. There was a reduction of sensitivity S. Enteritidis isolates to cephalosporins new generations, and S. Typhimurium isolates

  20. A Comparison of Non-Typhoidal Salmonella from Humans and Food Animals Using Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns

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    Sandt, Carol H.; Fedorka-Cray, Paula J.; Tewari, Deepanker; Ostroff, Stephen; Joyce, Kevin; M’ikanatha, Nkuchia M.

    2013-01-01

    Salmonellosis is one of the most important foodborne diseases affecting humans. To characterize the relationship between Salmonella causing human infections and their food animal reservoirs, we compared pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of non-typhoidal Salmonella isolated from ill humans in Pennsylvania and from food animals before retail. Human clinical isolates were received from 2005 through 2011 during routine public health operations in Pennsylvania. Isolates from cattle, chickens, swine and turkeys were recovered during the same period from federally inspected slaughter and processing facilities in the northeastern United States. We found that subtyping Salmonella isolates by PFGE revealed differences in antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and, for human Salmonella, differences in sources and invasiveness that were not evident from serotyping alone. Sixteen of the 20 most common human Salmonella PFGE patterns were identified in Salmonella recovered from food animals. The most common human Salmonella PFGE pattern, Enteritidis pattern JEGX01.0004 (JEGX01.0003ARS), was associated with more cases of invasive salmonellosis than all other patterns. In food animals, this pattern was almost exclusively (99%) found in Salmonella recovered from chickens and was present in poultry meat in every year of the study. Enteritidis pattern JEGX01.0004 (JEGX01.0003ARS) was associated with susceptibility to all antimicrobial agents tested in 94.7% of human and 97.2% of food animal Salmonella isolates. In contrast, multidrug resistance (resistance to three or more classes of antimicrobial agents) was observed in five PFGE patterns. Typhimurium patterns JPXX01.0003 (JPXX01.0003 ARS) and JPXX01.0018 (JPXX01.0002 ARS), considered together, were associated with resistance to five or more classes of antimicrobial agents: ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfonamides and tetracycline (ACSSuT), in 92% of human and 80% of food

  1. Wild fauna as a carrier of Salmonella in Reunion Island: Impact on pig farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, Claire; Parama Atiana, Laura; Lagadec, Erwan; Le Minter, Gildas; Denis, Martine; Cardinale, Eric

    2016-06-01

    Salmonellosis is an economic burden to the livestock industry in Reunion Island. In this study, we wanted to improve our understanding of Salmonella epidemiology by studying the wild fauna of Reunion Island. We assessed Salmonella diversity in small non-flying mammals, birds and cockroaches in order to evaluate their potential role in the epidemiology of Salmonella. A total of 268 samples were collected from cockroaches, small mammals and birds. The bacteriological analyses revealed that 11.7% of non-flying mammals and 25% of cockroaches tested were Salmonella infected; two wild bird species were also detected positive. The 128 Salmonella isolates were distributed in fifteen serotypes and the most predominant were S. 4,[5],12:i:- (21.9% of positive samples) followed by S. Enteritidis (15.6%), S. Typhimurium (15.6%), S. Infantis (12.5%) and S. Weltevreden (12.5%). A total of 27 XbaI profiles were identified using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Comparison of these Salmonella strains with our collection of Salmonella isolated from pigs and pig farm environments at the same period revealed 14 strains in common between wild fauna and pigs, especially for cockroaches. Our results suggest that wild fauna of Reunion Island could be infected by strains of Salmonella also isolated from pigs or pig environment. They may play a role in both persistence and spreading of Salmonella and therefore, could be a source of infection in pig farms. Pest control against cockroaches could be a helpful tool in the reduction of Salmonella infection of pigs, limiting contacts between wild fauna and both pigs and pig environment. Special attention should be paid to S. 4,[5],12:i:- since it was predominant in Reunion Island's wild fauna and pigs and was the third most frequently reported serotype in human salmonellosis in Europe. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella isolated from meat and meat products in Algiers (Algeria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezali, Lynda; Hamdi, Taha Mossadak

    2012-06-01

    This study was conducted in order to estimate the proportion of raw meat and processed meat products contaminated by Salmonella in the region of Algiers, Algeria, to identify serovars and to determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns of isolates. Out of the total 314 samples (144 of raw red meat and meat products, 128 of raw poultry meat and poultry products, and 42 of processed meat products) collected from various retail outlets, 61 (19.43%) were tested positive for Salmonella. The most significant occurrences were recorded for the categories of red meat (23.61%, n=34) and poultry (17.97%, n=23). Among the 64 isolates recovered, 21 different serovars were identified and two strains were nontypable. The most prevalent serovars were Salmonella Anatum (14.6%, n=9), Salmonella Altona (12.50%, n=8), Salmonella Corvallis (7.81%, n=5), Salmonella Enteritidis (7.81%, n=5), and Salmonella Typhimurium (7.81%, n=5). Sixty-two Salmonella isolates were tested for their susceptibility to 32 selected antimicrobial agents. Fifty-six (90.32%) isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial, of which 20 (32.26%) showed multidrug resistance. Resistance to sulphonamides (87.10%, n=54) was the most common. Resistance rates were lower to nalidixic acid (16.13%, n=10), streptomycin (16.13%, n=10), and tetracycline (12.90%, n=8), while resistance to pefloxacin was estimated at 4.84% (n=3). Fourteen different resistance patterns were observed. The "ACSSuT" pentaresistance pattern was observed in three of the Salmonella Typhimurium strains. The obtained results show that these foodstuffs are a potential source of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella for human infections.

  3. Diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella enterica isolates from surface water in Southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baoguang; Vellidis, George; Liu, Huanli; Jay-Russell, Michele; Zhao, Shaohua; Hu, Zonglin; Wright, Anita; Elkins, Christopher A

    2014-10-01

    A study of prevalence, diversity, and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella enterica in surface water in the southeastern United States was conducted. A new scheme was developed for recovery of Salmonella from irrigation pond water and compared with the FDA's Bacteriological Analytical Manual (8th ed., 2014) (BAM) method. Fifty-one isolates were recovered from 10 irrigation ponds in produce farms over a 2-year period; nine Salmonella serovars were identified by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis, and the major serovar was Salmonella enterica serovar Newport (S. Newport, n = 29), followed by S. enterica serovar Enteritidis (n = 6), S. enterica serovar Muenchen (n = 4), S. enterica serovar Javiana (n = 3), S. enterica serovar Thompson (n = 2), and other serovars. It is noteworthy that the PulseNet patterns of some of the isolates were identical to those of the strains that were associated with the S. Thompson outbreaks in 2010, 2012, and 2013, S. Enteritidis outbreaks in 2011 and 2013, and an S. Javiana outbreak in 2012. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing confirmed 16 S. Newport isolates of the multidrug resistant-AmpC (MDR-AmpC) phenotype, which exhibited resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline (ACSSuT), and to the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd generations of cephalosporins (cephalothin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, and ceftriaxone). Moreover, the S. Newport MDR-AmpC isolates had a PFGE pattern indistinguishable from the patterns of the isolates from clinical settings. These findings suggest that the irrigation water may be a potential source of contamination of Salmonella in fresh produce. The new Salmonella isolation scheme significantly increased recovery efficiency from 21.2 (36/170) to 29.4% (50/170) (P = 0.0002) and streamlined the turnaround time from 5 to 9 days with the BAM method to 4 days and thus may facilitate microbiological analysis of environmental water. Copyright © 2014, American Society for

  4. Consumer method to control Salmonella and Listeria species in shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Genevieve; Janes, Marlene; Lampila, Lucina; Supan, John

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the current consumer method of boiling shrimp until floating and pink in color is adequate for destroying Listeria and Salmonella. Shrimp samples were submerged in bacterial suspensions of Listeria and Salmonella for 30 min and allowed to air dry for 1 h under a biosafety cabinet. Color parameters were then measured with a spectrophotometer programmed with the CIELAB system. Twenty-four shrimp samples were divided into groups (days 0, 1, or 2) and stored at 4°C. The samples were treated by placing them in boiling water (100°C) on days 0, 1, and 2. The shrimp were immediately removed from the boiling water once they floated to the surface, and color parameters were measured. Bacterial counts were determined, and the log CFU per gram was calculated. The effect of sodium tripolyphosphate on the color change of cooked shrimp also was determined. Initial bacterial counts on shrimp after air drying were 5.31 ± 0.14 log CFU/g for Salmonella Enteritidis, 5.24 ± 0.31 log CFU/g for Salmonella Infantis, 5.40 ± 0.16 log CFU/g for Salmonella Typhimurium, 3.91 + 0.11 log CFU/g for Listeria innocua, 4.45 ± 0.11 log CFU/g for Listeria monocytogenes (1/2a), and 3.70 ± 0.22 log CFU/g for Listeria welshimeri. On days 0, 1, and 2, all bacterial counts were reduced to nondetectable levels for shrimp samples that floated. The average time for shrimp to float was 96 ± 8 s. The bacterial counts remained at nondetectable levels (Listeria and Salmonella contamination, but color change is not a good indication of reduction of these pathogens because of the wide natural color variation.

  5. In vitro characterization and in vivo properties of Salmonellae lytic bacteriophages isolated from free-range layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Fiorentin

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Occurrence of food poisoning related to Salmonella-contaminated eggs and chicken meat has been frequent in humans. Salmonella Enteritidis (SE and Salmonella Typhimurium (ST are included among the most important paratyphoid salmonellae associated with chicken meat and eggs. Elimination of Salmonella at the pre-harvest stage can play a significant role in preventing the introduction of this pathogen into the food chain and consequently in the reduction of food poisoning in humans. Bactericidal bacteriophages may provide a natural, nontoxic, feasible and non-expensive component of the multi-factorial approach for a pre-harvest control of Salmonella in poultry. Five bacteriophages lytic for SE PT4 and ST were obtained from 107 samples of feces of free-range layers in Brazil. All bacteriophages were characterized in vitro and in vivo, showing head and tail morphology and dsDNA as nucleic acids. Results of "in vivo" studies suggested that bacteriophages do not remain in Salmonella-free birds longer than one day, whereas they multiply in Salmonella-infected birds for longer periods. Besides, selection for phage-resistant SE PT4 did not seem to occur in the short term. Isolated bacteriophages will be investigated for their potential for pre-harvest biocontrol of SE PT4 in poultry.

  6. Use of a bacteriophage cocktail to control Salmonella in food and the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spricigo, Denis Augusto; Bardina, Carlota; Cortés, Pilar; Llagostera, Montserrat

    2013-07-15

    The use of lytic bacteriophages for the biocontrol of food-borne pathogens in food and in the food industry is gaining increasing acceptance. In this study, the effectiveness of a bacteriophage cocktail composed of three different lytic bacteriophages (UAB_Phi 20, UAB_Phi78, and UAB_Phi87) was determined in four different food matrices (pig skin, chicken breasts, fresh eggs, and packaged lettuce) experimentally contaminated with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and S. enterica serovar Enteritidis. A significant bacterial reduction (>4 and 2 log/cm(2) for S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis, respectively; p≤0.005) was obtained in pig skin sprayed with the bacteriophage cocktail and then incubated at 33 °C for 6h. Significant decreases in the concentration of S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis were also measured in chicken breasts dipped for 5 min in a solution containing the bacteriophage cocktail and then refrigerated at 4 °C for 7 days (2.2 and 0.9 log10 cfu/g, respectively; p≤0.0001) as well as in lettuce similarly treated for 60 min at room temperature (3.9 and 2.2 log10 cfu/g, respectively; p≤0.005). However, only a minor reduction of the bacterial concentration (0.9 log10 cfu/cm(2) of S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium; p≤0.005) was achieved in fresh eggs sprayed with the bacteriophage cocktail and then incubated at 25 °C for 2 h. These results show the potential effectiveness of this bacteriophage cocktail as a biocontrol agent of Salmonella in several food matrices under conditions similar to those used in their production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Production and caracterization of monoclonal antibodies for the detection of Salmonella enterica in chicken meat Produção e caracterização de anticorpos monoclonais para a detecção de Salmonella enterica em carne de frango

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa dos Santos Schneid

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A panel of 13 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs that react against outer membrane proteins of Salmonella Enteritidis was obtained. Two MAbs were classified as IgM, six were IgG2a, three were IgG3 and one was of the IgG2b isotype. The reactivity of the MAbs against different serovars of Salmonella enterica and other bacteria was investigated using an indirect ELISA. Five MAbs reacted only against Salmonella Enteritidis. Two MAbs presented crossed reactions with thermo-extracted antigens of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacter freundii and Enterobacter aerogenes. MAb 424H presented wide spectrum of reactivity, detecting antigens of Salmonella belonging to serogroups B, C, D, E and G. The detection limit of different serovars of Salmonella in a indirect ELISA with MAb 424H varied from 1.0 x 10(4 CFU/mL for Salmonella London to 1.4 x 10(6 CFU/mL for Salmonella Gallinarum and Salmonella Typhimurium. Evaluation of the performance of the ELISA with MAb 424H in the detection of Salmonella in samples of chicken meat artificially contaminated revealed that the ELISA was able to detect all serovars after sample enrichment using two levels of contamination. Samples of chicken meat not artificially contaminated analysed in parallel were negative for Salmonella in both the conventional and the ELISA methods.Foi obtido um painel de 13 anticorpos monoclonais que reagem com proteínas de membrana externa de Salmonella Enteritidis. Dois MAbs foram classificados como IgM, 6 foram do isotipo IgG2a, três foram do isotipo IgG3 e um do isotipo IgG2b. A reatividade dos anticorpos monoclonais (MAbs com diferentes sorovares de Salmonella e outras bactérias foi investigada através de um ELISA indireto. Cinco MAbs reagiram apenas com Salmonella Enteritidis. Dois MAbs apresentaram reação cruzada com antígenos termoextraídos de Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacter freundii e Enterobacter aerogenes. O MAb 424H apresentou amplo espectro de reatividade, detectando antígenos de

  8. Contaminação por Salmonella spp. em uma cadeia de produção de ovos de uma integração de postura comercial Salmonella contamination in an egg production chain of a laying hens integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.B.M. Kottwitz

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of ISA BROWN layer hens by Salmonella spp. and serotyping of the isolated strains were performed in 30 farms. Salmonella detection was done from feces and cloaca swabs. Eggs produced in the farms contaminated by Salmonella spp. were analyzed by culturing the shell rinsing and egg yolk. Salmonella spp. was isolated in eight (23.0% farms, but was not detected from eggs. S. Enteritidis, which is the most prevalent sorotype associated to human salmonelosis in Paraná State, was not isolated either from birds or eggs analyzed. The sorotypes isolated were Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica (0:3.10 (67.0%, Mbandaka (11.0%, Infantis (11.0%, and Newport (11.0%.

  9. Comparative performance of three sampling techniques to detect airborne [i]Salmonella[/i] species in poultry farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Adell

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sampling techniques to detect airborne [i]Salmonella[/i] species (spp. in two pilot scale broiler houses were compared. Broilers were inoculated at seven days of age with a marked strain of [i]Salmonella[/i] enteritidis. The rearing cycle lasted 42 days during the summer. Airborne [i]Salmonella[/i] spp. were sampled weekly using impaction, gravitational settling, and impingement techniques. Additionally, [i]Salmonella[/i] spp. were sampled on feeders, drinkers, walls, and in the litter. Environmental conditions (temperature, relative humidity, and airborne particulate matter (PM concentration were monitored during the rearing cycle. The presence of [i]Salmonella[/i] spp. was determined by culture-dependent and molecular methods. No cultivable [i]Salmonella[/i] spp. were recovered from the poultry houses’ surfaces, the litter, or the air before inoculation. After inoculation, cultivable [i]Salmonella[/i] spp. were recovered from the surfaces and in the litter. Airborne cultivable [i]Salmonella[/i] spp. Were detected using impaction and gravitational settling one or two weeks after the detection of [i]Salmonella[/i] spp. in the litter. No cultivable [i]Salmonella[/i] spp. were recovered using impingement based on culture-dependent techniques. At low airborne concentrations, the use of impingement for the quantification or detection of cultivable airborne Salmonella spp. is not recommended. In these cases, a combination of culture-dependent and culture-independent methods is recommended. These data are valuable to improve current measures to control the transmission of pathogens in livestock environments and for optimising the sampling and detection of airborne[i] Salmonella[/i] spp. in practical conditions.

  10. 40 CFR 180.1200 - Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25; temporary exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1200 Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25; temporary... established for residues of the microbial pesticide, pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25 when used on peas...

  11. Engineering and preclinical evaluation of attenuated nontyphoidal Salmonella strains serving as live oral vaccines and as reagent strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, Sharon M; Wang, Jin-Yuan; Galen, James E; Simon, Raphael; Pasetti, Marcela F; Gat, Orit; Levine, Myron M

    2011-10-01

    While nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) has long been recognized as a cause of self-limited gastroenteritis, it is becoming increasingly evident that multiple-antibiotic-resistant strains are also emerging as important causes of invasive bacteremia and focal infections, resulting in hospitalizations and deaths. We have constructed attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis strains that can serve as live oral vaccines and as "reagent strains" for subunit vaccine production in a safe and economical manner. Prototype attenuated vaccine strains CVD 1921 and CVD 1941, derived from the invasive wild-type strains S. Typhimurium I77 and S. Enteritidis R11, respectively, were constructed by deleting guaBA, encoding guanine biosynthesis, and clpP, encoding a master protease regulator. The clpP mutation resulted in a hyperflagellation phenotype. An additional deletion in fliD yielded reagent strains CVD 1923 and CVD 1943, respectively, which export flagellin monomers. Oral 50% lethal dose (LD₅₀) analyses showed that the NTS vaccine strains were all highly attenuated in mice. Oral immunization with CVD 1921 or CVD 1923 protected mice against lethal challenge with wild-type S. Typhimurium I77. Immunization with CVD 1941 but not CVD 1943 protected mice against lethal infection with S. Enteritidis R11. Immune responses induced by these strains included high levels of serum IgG anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and anti-flagellum antibodies, with titers increasing progressively during the immunization schedule. Since S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis are the most common NTS serovars associated with invasive disease, these findings can pave the way for development of a highly effective, broad-spectrum vaccine against invasive NTS.

  12. Engineering and Preclinical Evaluation of Attenuated Nontyphoidal Salmonella Strains Serving as Live Oral Vaccines and as Reagent Strains▿†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, Sharon M.; Wang, Jin-Yuan; Galen, James E.; Simon, Raphael; Pasetti, Marcela F.; Gat, Orit; Levine, Myron M.

    2011-01-01

    While nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) has long been recognized as a cause of self-limited gastroenteritis, it is becoming increasingly evident that multiple-antibiotic-resistant strains are also emerging as important causes of invasive bacteremia and focal infections, resulting in hospitalizations and deaths. We have constructed attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis strains that can serve as live oral vaccines and as “reagent strains” for subunit vaccine production in a safe and economical manner. Prototype attenuated vaccine strains CVD 1921 and CVD 1941, derived from the invasive wild-type strains S. Typhimurium I77 and S. Enteritidis R11, respectively, were constructed by deleting guaBA, encoding guanine biosynthesis, and clpP, encoding a master protease regulator. The clpP mutation resulted in a hyperflagellation phenotype. An additional deletion in fliD yielded reagent strains CVD 1923 and CVD 1943, respectively, which export flagellin monomers. Oral 50% lethal dose (LD50) analyses showed that the NTS vaccine strains were all highly attenuated in mice. Oral immunization with CVD 1921 or CVD 1923 protected mice against lethal challenge with wild-type S. Typhimurium I77. Immunization with CVD 1941 but not CVD 1943 protected mice against lethal infection with S. Enteritidis R11. Immune responses induced by these strains included high levels of serum IgG anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and anti-flagellum antibodies, with titers increasing progressively during the immunization schedule. Since S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis are the most common NTS serovars associated with invasive disease, these findings can pave the way for development of a highly effective, broad-spectrum vaccine against invasive NTS. PMID:21807911

  13. Effects of cysteine on growth, protease production, and catalase activity of Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    OpenAIRE

    Himelbloom, B H; Hassan, H M

    1986-01-01

    Cysteine inhibits growth of and protease production by Pseudomonas fluorescens NC3. Catalase activity in P. fluorescens NC3 was increased by cysteine. The addition of exogenous hydrogen peroxide did not increase catalase activity, thus suggesting a role for the endogenous generation of hydrogen peroxide via the autoxidation of cysteine.

  14. Three Strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens Exhibit Differential Toxicity Against Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens were tested for toxicity to Drosophila melanogaster in an insect feeding assay. Insect eggs were placed on the surface of a non-nutritive agar plate supplemented with a food source that was non-inoculated or inoculated with P. fluorescens Pf0-1, SBW25, or Pf-...

  15. 21 CFR 118.5 - Environmental testing for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... you divert eggs to treatment as defined in § 118.3 for the life of the flock in that poultry house... the life of the flock in that poultry house. Results of egg testing, when conducted, must be available... perform environmental testing for SE (as described in §§ 118.7 and 118.8) in a poultry house when any...

  16. Visualisation of morphological interactionof diamond and silver nanoparticles with Salmonella enteritidis and Listeria Monocytogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawosz, Ewa; Chwalibog, André; Mitura, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    monocytogenes (G+), to reveal possibilities of constructing nanoparticle-bacteria vehicles. Diamond nanoparticles (nano-D) were produced by the detonation method. Hydrocolloids of silver nanoparticles (nano-Ag) were produced by electric non-explosive patented method. Hydrocolloids of nanoparticles (200 microl...

  17. Removal of Salmonella enteritidis from unpasteurized liquid egg white using a cross flow microfiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liquid egg white (LEW) is typically pasteurized to prevent common foodborne illnesses such as salmonellosis; however, heat pasteurization does not eliminate all pathogenic or spoilage microbes. In this study, a novel intervention technology based on cross-flow microfiltration (MF) was evaluated for ...

  18. Efecto de microorganismos probióticos sobre el crecimiento de salmonella enteritidis var. Typhimurium

    OpenAIRE

    GONZÁLEZ MARTÍNEZ, BLANCA EDELIA; JIMÉNEZ SALAS, ZACARÍAS; HEREDIA ROJAS, NORMA LAURA; VILLARREAL TREVIÑO, LICET; GARCÍA DÍAZ, GRACIELA; GÓMEZ TREVIÑO, MARIVEL

    2006-01-01

    Los probióticos son complementos o alimentos que contienen microorganismos viables que afectan benéficamente al huésped a través de diferentes efectos en el tracto intestinal. Una estrategia para que estos efectos lleguen a mayor cantidad de personas es producir más alimentos que los contengan. En este trabajo se demostró que el queso fresco es un vehículo efectivo de probióticos, ya que sobreviven sin alterar las propiedades organolépticas. Además, se demostró que ...

  19. Differential protein expression in chicken macrophages and heterophils in vivo following infection with Salmonella Enteritidis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sekelova, Z.; Štěpánová, H.; Polanský, O.; Varmužová, K.; Faldynová, M.; Fedr, Radek; Rychlík, I.; Vlasatiková, L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 48, JUN2017 (2017), č. článku 35. ISSN 0928-4249 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : endoplasmic-reticulum stress * messenger-rna expression * quantitative proteomics * internal control Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 2.798, year: 2016

  20. Risk factors for sporadic infection with Salmonella Enteritidis, Denmark, 1997-1999

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølbak, Kåre; Neimann, Jacob

    2002-01-01

    of buttermilk dessert (OR = 11.7), homemade ice cream (OR = 4.3), raw eggs (OR = 3.4), and eggs fried "sunny side up" (OR = 2.5). Among persons who had used eggs in the week before disease onset or interview, eggs from battery laying hens were associated with disease (white eggs: OR = 2.4, brown eggs: OR = 1...

  1. Characterization of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis isolates recovered from blood and stool specimens in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Rene S.; Hyytia-Trees, Eija; Pulsrikarn, Chaiwat

    2012-01-01

    The increased percentage of bloodstream infections as described in the 2009 observational study could not be attributed to a single clone. Future efforts should focus on assessing the immune status of bacteriaemic patients and identifying prevention and control measures, including attribution stu...

  2. 75 FR 18849 - Small Entity Compliance Guide: Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ..., Rockville, MD 20852. Submit written requests for single copies of the SECG to the Division of Plant and Dairy Food Safety/Office of Food Safety, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-315), Food... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Nancy S. Bufano, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-315), Food...

  3. Salmonella Infections - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Salmonella Infections URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Salmonella Infections - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features ...

  4. Salmonella Diagnosis and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FDA) USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service Follow Salmonella RSS Diagnosis and Treatment Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir How Can Salmonella Infections Be Diagnosed? Diagnosing salmonellosis requires testing a ...

  5. [Antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella spp isolated animal food for human consumption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada, Adriana; Reginatto, Gabriel A; Ruiz Español, Ayelen; Colantonio, Lisandro D; Burrone, María Soledad

    2016-03-01

    To analyze all information available on antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella species isolated from foods of animal origin that are used for human consumption in Latin America. A systematic review of observational epidemiological studies conducted in Latin America between 2003 and 2014 was carried out using the PubMed and LILACS databases. Studies conducted as part of analyses of outbreaks or cases of human infection were not included. Three reviewers independently participated in the study selection. Additionally, the studies included underwent quality assessment. A total of 25 studies met the inclusion criteria. The studies included were conducted in Brazil, Mexico, Colombia, Argentina, and Venezuela. Salmonella spp. isolates were obtained mainly from animal-based foods derived from cattle, swine, and poultry, revealing that Salmonella typhimurium and S. enteritidis were the most frequently isolated serotypes (17 and 11 studies, respectively). In 23 studies, Salmonella spp. showed resistance to more than one antibiotic, including nalidixic acid, streptomycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, and cephalosporins. Salmonella spp. isolates obtained mainly from animal-based foods for human consumption in the countries analyzed often show resistance to several antibiotics. It is important that more countries in Latin America carry out and publish studies on Salmonella spp. resistance in order to establish and monitor adequate control strategies.

  6. Prevalence of Salmonella and E. coli in neonatal diarrheic calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.R. El-Seedy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal calf diarrhea remains one of the most important problems faced by livestock, causing great economic losses. This study investigated the prevalence of Salmonella and Escherichia coli, especially enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC, in diarrheic calves. Fecal samples were collected from 127 diarrheic calves up to 3 months of age at 12 farms from different governorates in Egypt. 119 bacterial isolates (93.7% were recovered and the prevalences of Salmonella and E. coli in diarrheic calves were 18.1% and 75.6%, respectively. Serotyping of Salmonella isolates revealed that S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium were the most prevalent serotypes, representing 60.9% and 30.4%, respectively, while S. Dublin was 8.7%. Serogrouping of E. coli isolates showed that 10 O-serogroups were obtained where O26 and O103 were the most prevalent (17.7% of each. Salmonella serotypes showed positive results with PCR test using oligonucleotide primer amplifying 521 bp fragment of invA gene of Salmonella while 70% of E. coli serogroups possessed ETEC virulent gene (K99. The in-vitro antibiotic sensitivity test indicated that Salmonella serotypes showed high sensitivity against enrofloxacin, spectinomycin and neomycin while E. coli isolates showed high sensitivities against marbofloxacin, spectinomycin and neomycin only.

  7. Seabirds (Laridae) as a source of Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp. and antimicrobial resistance in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moré, Elisabet; Ayats, Teresa; Ryan, Peter G; Naicker, Preneshni R; Keddy, Karen H; Gaglio, Davide; Witteveen, Minke; Cerdà-Cuéllar, Marta

    2017-10-01

    Zoonotic thermophilic Campylobacter and nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica are a major cause of foodborne human gastroenteritis worldwide. There is little information about reservoirs of these zoonotic agents in Africa. Thus, chicks of kelp gulls (Larus dominicanus, n = 129) and greater crested terns (Thalasseus bergii, n = 100) were studied at five colonies on the Western Cape coast (South Africa) during summer 2013/2014. Campylobacter spp. occurrence was 14.0% (CI 95% : 9.9-19.3), with C. jejuni the most frequently isolated species, whilst that of Salmonella was 27.5% (CI 95% : 21.9-33.9) overall, with a higher prevalence in gulls (43.0%, CI 95% : 34.8-52.4) than terns (7.0%, CI 95% : 3.1-14.4). Among the 16 different S. enterica serovars found, Anatum, Enteritidis and Hadar were the most frequent. The same or highly similar pulsed-field gel electrophoresis genotype was found in some Salmonella isolates from seabirds and humans presenting with salmonellosis in Cape Town hospitals. Both Campylobacter and Salmonella isolates exhibited antimicrobial resistance to several agents, including critically important antimicrobials (quinolones, tetracyclines and β-lactams) and multidrug resistance in Salmonella serovars from kelp gulls. Our results highlight the importance of seabirds as reservoirs of Campylobacter and Salmonella resistant strains and their role in the maintenance and transmission of these bacteria in the environment, with implications for public health. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Comparative genomics of Pseudomonas fluorescens subclade III strains from human lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scales, Brittan S; Erb-Downward, John R; Huffnagle, Ian M; LiPuma, John J; Huffnagle, Gary B

    2015-12-07

    While the taxonomy and genomics of environmental strains from the P. fluorescens species-complex has been reported, little is known about P. fluorescens strains from clinical samples. In this report, we provide the first genomic analysis of P. fluorescens strains in which human vs. environmental isolates are compared. Seven P. fluorescens strains were isolated from respiratory samples from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. The clinical strains could grow at a higher temperature (>34 °C) than has been reported for environmental strains. Draft genomes were generated for all of the clinical strains, and multi-locus sequence analysis placed them within subclade III of the P. fluorescens species-complex. All strains encoded type- II, -III, -IV, and -VI secretion systems, as well as the widespread colonization island (WCI). This is the first description of a WCI in P. fluorescens strains. All strains also encoded a complete I2/PfiT locus and showed evidence of horizontal gene transfer. The clinical strains were found to differ from the environmental strains in the number of genes involved in metal resistance, which may be a possible adaptation to chronic antibiotic exposure in the CF lung. This is the largest comparative genomics analysis of P. fluorescens subclade III strains to date and includes the first clinical isolates. At a global level, the clinical P. fluorescens subclade III strains were largely indistinguishable from environmental P. fluorescens subclade III strains, supporting the idea that identifying strains as 'environmental' vs 'clinical' is not a phenotypic trait. Rather, strains within P. fluorescens subclade III will colonize and persist in any niche that provides the requirements necessary for growth.

  9. 78 FR 42526 - Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ...] Salmonella Contamination of Dry Dog Food; Withdrawal of Compliance Policy Guide AGENCY: Food and Drug... the withdrawal of the compliance policy guide (CPG) entitled ``Sec. 690.700 Salmonella Contamination... entitled ``Sec. 690.700 Salmonella Contamination of Dry Dog Food (CPG 690.700)'' on October 1, 1980. CPG...

  10. Genomic and Genetic Diversity within the Pseudomonas fluorescens Complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Garrido-Sanz

    Full Text Available The Pseudomonas fluorescens complex includes Pseudomonas strains that have been taxonomically assigned to more than fifty different species, many of which have been described as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR with potential applications in biocontrol and biofertilization. So far the phylogeny of this complex has been analyzed according to phenotypic traits, 16S rDNA, MLSA and inferred by whole-genome analysis. However, since most of the type strains have not been fully sequenced and new species are frequently described, correlation between taxonomy and phylogenomic analysis is missing. In recent years, the genomes of a large number of strains have been sequenced, showing important genomic heterogeneity and providing information suitable for genomic studies that are important to understand the genomic and genetic diversity shown by strains of this complex. Based on MLSA and several whole-genome sequence-based analyses of 93 sequenced strains, we have divided the P. fluorescens complex into eight phylogenomic groups that agree with previous works based on type strains. Digital DDH (dDDH identified 69 species and 75 subspecies within the 93 genomes. The eight groups corresponded to clustering with a threshold of 31.8% dDDH, in full agreement with our MLSA. The Average Nucleotide Identity (ANI approach showed inconsistencies regarding the assignment to species and to the eight groups. The small core genome of 1,334 CDSs and the large pan-genome of 30,848 CDSs, show the large diversity and genetic heterogeneity of the P. fluorescens complex. However, a low number of strains were enough to explain most of the CDSs diversity at core and strain-specific genomic fractions. Finally, the identification and analysis of group-specific genome and the screening for distinctive characters revealed a phylogenomic distribution of traits among the groups that provided insights into biocontrol and bioremediation applications as well as their role as

  11. Factors Affecting Zebra Mussel Kill by the Bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2004-02-24

    The specific purpose of this research project was to identify factors that affect zebra mussel kill by the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. Test results obtained during this three-year project identified the following key variables as affecting mussel kill: treatment concentration, treatment duration, mussel siphoning activity, dissolved oxygen concentration, water temperature, and naturally suspended particle load. Using this latter information, the project culminated in a series of pipe tests which achieved high mussel kill inside power plants under once-through conditions using service water in artificial pipes.

  12. The Antibiofilm Effect of Ginkgo biloba Extract Against Salmonella and Listeria Isolates from Poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan; Park, Keun Cheol; Choi, Beom Geun; Park, Jin Hwa; Yoon, Ki Sun

    2016-05-01

    Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. are common foodborne pathogens in poultry and have caused a large number of outbreaks worldwide. Biofilm formation is common in the food industry and is also a mechanism of antimicrobial resistance. The aim of this work was to investigate the antimicrobial effect and mechanism of Ginkgo biloba extract against the biofilm formation of Salmonella and Listeria isolates from poultry at retail markets. Bacteria detection, isolation, and enumeration were carried out on 27 chicken and 29 ducks at retail markets. The effects of temperature and G. biloba extract against biofilm formation of Salmonella and Listeria isolates were measured using the crystal violet assay and swimming and swarming motilities. The monitoring results of Salmonella and Listeria in 56 poultry carcasses at retail markets in Korea showed that the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in poultry was low (5.4%), but the prevalence of Listeria spp (78.6%) was high. L. innocua was the predominant serotype (80%) in the isolated Listeria species. Temperature, strain, and surface affected the biofilm formation of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. L. innocua showed the best biofilm formation ability on a 96-well plate, while Salmonella Enteritidis formed the most biofilm on a glass slide. Biofilm formation abilities of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. were increased with the increase of temperature. G. biloba extract at 75 μg/mL significantly inhibited biofilm formation of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp (p Listeria, but not L. monocytogenes. The findings of this study provided the basis for the application of G. biloba extract as a food additive to promote the quality and safety of poultry products.

  13. Observations on the distribution and control of Salmonella in commercial duck hatcheries in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, F; Birch, C; Davies, R H

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella infection causes a significant number of cases of gastroenteritis and more serious illnesses in people in the UK and EU. The serovars Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium are most frequently associated with foodborne illness in Europe. Whilst control programmes exist to monitor these serovars in the chicken and turkey sectors, no regulatory programme is currently in place for the duck sector. A voluntary industry scheme (Duck Assurance Scheme) was launched in the UK in 2010. Hatcheries act as focal points of Salmonella contamination, in particular if Salmonella-contaminated eggs from positive breeding farms enter the hatchery. Five duck hatcheries were visited in this study and four were positive for Salmonella. S. Typhimurium DT8 and S. Indiana were isolated from hatchery 1 and S. Typhimurium DT41 and S. Senftenberg were isolated from hatchery 3. S. Kottbus, S. Bovismorbificans and S. Senftenberg were isolated from hatchery 2 and S. Kedougou was isolated from hatchery 4. Advice on the control/elimination of Salmonella was provided at each visit and a longitudinal study was undertaken to monitor its effectiveness. Extensive sampling was carried out in the hatcheries visited and the tray wash area and waste/external areas had the highest probability of being contaminated. The hatcher area was also found to be a primary focus of contamination. Improvements of farm and hatchery biosecurity standards have resulted in a reduction of hatchery contamination in this study and in previous investigations. Hatcheries 1 and 5 were cleared of Salmonella, demonstrating that elimination of Salmonella contamination from duck hatcheries is achievable.

  14. Sublingual vaccination with sonicated Salmonella proteins and mucosal adjuvant induces mucosal and systemic immunity and protects mice from lethal enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ching-Feng; Wu, Tzee-Chung; Wu, Chia-Chao; Lee, Chin-Cheng; Lo, Wen-Tsung; Hwang, Kwei-Shuai; Hsu, Mu-Ling; Peng, Ho-Jen

    2011-07-01

    Salmonella enteritidis is one of the most common pathogens of enteritis. Most experimental vaccines against Salmonella infection have been applied through injections. This is a new trial to explore the effect of sublingual administration of Salmonella vaccines on systemic and mucosal immunity. Adult BALB/c mice were sublingually vaccinated with sonicated Salmonella proteins (SSP) alone, or plus adjuvant CpG DNA (CpG) or cholera toxin (CT). They were boosted 2 weeks later. Saliva specific secretory IgA (SIgA) antibody responses were significantly stimulated in the mice vaccinated with SSP only or together with CpG or CT. Whereas the mice sublingually vaccinated with SSP and CpG had higher spleen cell IFN-γ production and serum specific IgG2a antibody responses, those receiving SSP and CT showed enhanced spleen cell IL-4, IL-5 and IL-6 production, and serum specific IgG1 antibody responses. After oral challenge with live S. enteritidis, the same strain of the source of SSP, immune protection in those sublingually vaccinated with SSP and CpG or CT was found to prevent intestinal necrosis and to render a higher survival rate. In conclusion, sublingual vaccination together with mucosal adjuvant CpG or CT is a simple but effective way against enteric bacterial pathogens. © 2011 The Authors. APMIS © 2011 APMIS.

  15. Differential Killing of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi by Antibodies Targeting Vi and Lipopolysaccharide O:9 Antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Peter J.; O’Shaughnessy, Colette M.; Siggins, Matthew K.; Bobat, Saeeda; Kingsley, Robert A.; Goulding, David A.; Crump, John A.; Reyburn, Hugh; Micoli, Francesca; Dougan, Gordon; Cunningham, Adam F.; MacLennan, Calman A.

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi expresses a capsule of Vi polysaccharide, while most Salmonella serovars, including S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium, do not. Both S. Typhi and S. Enteritidis express the lipopolysaccharide O:9 antigen, yet there is little evidence of cross-protection from anti-O:9 antibodies. Vaccines based on Vi polysaccharide have efficacy against typhoid fever, indicating that antibodies against Vi confer protection. Here we investigate the role of Vi capsule and antibodies against Vi and O:9 in antibody-dependent complement- and phagocyte-mediated killing of Salmonella. Using isogenic Vi-expressing and non-Vi-expressing derivatives of S. Typhi and S. Typhimurium, we show that S. Typhi is inherently more sensitive to serum and blood than S. Typhimurium. Vi expression confers increased resistance to both complement- and phagocyte-mediated modalities of antibody-dependent killing in human blood. The Vi capsule is associated with reduced C3 and C5b-9 deposition, and decreased overall antibody binding to S. Typhi. However, purified human anti-Vi antibodies in the presence of complement are able to kill Vi-expressing Salmonella, while killing by anti-O:9 antibodies is inversely related to Vi expression. Human serum depleted of antibodies to antigens other than Vi retains the ability to kill Vi-expressing bacteria. Our findings support a protective role for Vi capsule in preventing complement and phagocyte killing of Salmonella that can be overcome by specific anti-Vi antibodies, but only to a limited extent by anti-O:9 antibodies. PMID:26741681

  16. Differential Killing of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi by Antibodies Targeting Vi and Lipopolysaccharide O:9 Antigen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Hart

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi expresses a capsule of Vi polysaccharide, while most Salmonella serovars, including S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium, do not. Both S. Typhi and S. Enteritidis express the lipopolysaccharide O:9 antigen, yet there is little evidence of cross-protection from anti-O:9 antibodies. Vaccines based on Vi polysaccharide have efficacy against typhoid fever, indicating that antibodies against Vi confer protection. Here we investigate the role of Vi capsule and antibodies against Vi and O:9 in antibody-dependent complement- and phagocyte-mediated killing of Salmonella. Using isogenic Vi-expressing and non-Vi-expressing derivatives of S. Typhi and S. Typhimurium, we show that S. Typhi is inherently more sensitive to serum and blood than S. Typhimurium. Vi expression confers increased resistance to both complement- and phagocyte-mediated modalities of antibody-dependent killing in human blood. The Vi capsule is associated with reduced C3 and C5b-9 deposition, and decreased overall antibody binding to S. Typhi. However, purified human anti-Vi antibodies in the presence of complement are able to kill Vi-expressing Salmonella, while killing by anti-O:9 antibodies is inversely related to Vi expression. Human serum depleted of antibodies to antigens other than Vi retains the ability to kill Vi-expressing bacteria. Our findings support a protective role for Vi capsule in preventing complement and phagocyte killing of Salmonella that can be overcome by specific anti-Vi antibodies, but only to a limited extent by anti-O:9 antibodies.

  17. Differential Killing of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi by Antibodies Targeting Vi and Lipopolysaccharide O:9 Antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Peter J; O'Shaughnessy, Colette M; Siggins, Matthew K; Bobat, Saeeda; Kingsley, Robert A; Goulding, David A; Crump, John A; Reyburn, Hugh; Micoli, Francesca; Dougan, Gordon; Cunningham, Adam F; MacLennan, Calman A

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi expresses a capsule of Vi polysaccharide, while most Salmonella serovars, including S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium, do not. Both S. Typhi and S. Enteritidis express the lipopolysaccharide O:9 antigen, yet there is little evidence of cross-protection from anti-O:9 antibodies. Vaccines based on Vi polysaccharide have efficacy against typhoid fever, indicating that antibodies against Vi confer protection. Here we investigate the role of Vi capsule and antibodies against Vi and O:9 in antibody-dependent complement- and phagocyte-mediated killing of Salmonella. Using isogenic Vi-expressing and non-Vi-expressing derivatives of S. Typhi and S. Typhimurium, we show that S. Typhi is inherently more sensitive to serum and blood than S. Typhimurium. Vi expression confers increased resistance to both complement- and phagocyte-mediated modalities of antibody-dependent killing in human blood. The Vi capsule is associated with reduced C3 and C5b-9 deposition, and decreased overall antibody binding to S. Typhi. However, purified human anti-Vi antibodies in the presence of complement are able to kill Vi-expressing Salmonella, while killing by anti-O:9 antibodies is inversely related to Vi expression. Human serum depleted of antibodies to antigens other than Vi retains the ability to kill Vi-expressing bacteria. Our findings support a protective role for Vi capsule in preventing complement and phagocyte killing of Salmonella that can be overcome by specific anti-Vi antibodies, but only to a limited extent by anti-O:9 antibodies.

  18. Multi-drug resistant non-typhoidal Salmonella associated with invasive disease in western Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Akullian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS is a leading cause of bloodstream infections in Africa, but the various contributions of host susceptibility versus unique pathogen virulence factors are unclear. We used data from a population-based surveillance platform (population ~25,000 between 2007-2014 and NTS genome-sequencing to compare host and pathogen-specific factors between individuals presenting with NTS bacteremia and those presenting with NTS diarrhea. Salmonella Typhimurium ST313 and Salmonella Enteritidis ST11 were the most common isolates. Multi-drug resistant strains of NTS were more commonly isolated from patients presenting with NTS bacteremia compared to NTS diarrhea. This relationship was observed in patients under age five [aOR = 15.16, 95% CI (2.84-81.05, P = 0.001], in patients five years and older, [aOR = 6.70 95% CI (2.25-19.89, P = 0.001], in HIV-uninfected patients, [aOR = 21.61, 95% CI (2.53-185.0, P = 0.005], and in patients infected with Salmonella serogroup B [aOR = 5.96, 95% CI (2.28-15.56, P < 0.001] and serogroup D [aOR = 14.15, 95% CI (1.10-182.7, P = 0.042]. Thus, multi-drug-resistant NTS was strongly associated with bacteremia compared to diarrhea among children and adults. This association was seen in HIV-uninfected individuals infected with either S. Typhimurium or S. Enteritidis. Risk of developing bacteremia from NTS infection may be driven by virulence properties of the Salmonella pathogen.

  19. Impact of storm runoff on Salmonella and Escherichia coli prevalence in irrigation ponds of fresh produce farms in southern Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, C S; Tertuliano, M; Rajeev, S; Vellidis, G; Levy, K

    2018-03-01

    To examine Salmonella and Escherichia coli in storm runoff and irrigation ponds used by fresh produce growers, and compare Salmonella serovars with those found in cases of human salmonellosis. We collected water before and after rain events at two irrigation ponds on farms in southern Georgia, USA, and collected storm runoff/storm flow within the contributing watershed of each pond. Salmonella and E. coli concentrations were higher in ponds after rain events by an average of 0·46 (P human illness in the study region in the same year. However, several serovars most commonly associated with human illness in the study region (e.g. Javiana, Enteritidis, and Montevideo) were not found in any water samples. Salmonella and E. coli concentrations in irrigation ponds were higher, on average, after rain events, but concentrations of Salmonella were low, and the ponds met FDA water quality standards based on E. coli. Some similarities and notable differences were found between Salmonella serovars in water samples and in cases of human illness. This study directly examined storm runoff/storm flow into irrigation ponds and quantified increases in Salmonella and E. coli following rain events, with potential implications for irrigation pond management as well as human health. © 2018 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Inactivation of salmonella in biofilms and on chicken cages and preharvest poultry by levulinic Acid and sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tong; Zhao, Ping; Cannon, Jennifer L; Doyle, Michael P

    2011-12-01

    Surface contamination (skin and feathers) of broilers with Salmonella occurs primarily during growth and transportation. Immediately after transporting chickens, chicken cage doors were sprayed with a foam containing 3% levulinic acid plus 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Samples were collected for Salmonella assay after 45 min. Salmonella on cage doors was reduced from 19% (19 of 100 doors) before treatment to 1% (1 of 100 doors) after treatment, coliform counts were reduced from 6 to 8 to 2 to 4 log CFU/9 cm(2), and aerobic plate counts were reduced from 7 to 9 to 4 to 6 log CFU/9 cm(2). Whole chicken carcasses with feathers were inoculated with 10(8) CFU of Salmonella Enteritidis, soaked for 5 min at 21°C in 72 liters of a treatment or control solution, and assayed for Salmonella. Salmonella counts on chickens treated with water were 6.8 to 8.5 log CFU/9 cm(2), those treated with 50 ppm of calcium hypochlorite were 7.6 to 8.9 log CFU/9 cm(2), and those treated with 3% levulinic acid plus 2% SDS were 4-log reduction). Results of biofilm studies on surfaces of various materials revealed that a 3% levulinic acid plus 2% SDS treatment used as either a foam or liquid for 10 min effectively reduced Salmonella populations by 5 and >6 log CFU/cm(2), respectively.

  1. Isolation and identification of Salmonella spp. in drinking water, streams, and swine wastewater by molecular techniques in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, C.; Hsu, B.; Shen, T.; Tseng, S.; Tsai, J.; Huang, K.; Kao, P.; Chen, J.

    2013-12-01

    Salmonella spp. is a common water-borne pathogens and its genus comprises more than 2,500 serotypes. Major pathogenic genotypes which cause typhoid fever, enteritis and other intestinal-type diseases are S. Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis, S. Stanley, S. Agona, S.Albany, S. Schwarzengrund, S. Newport, S. Choleraesuis, and S. Derby. Hence, the identification of the serotypes of Salmonella spp. is important. In the present study, the analytical procedures include direct concentration method, non-selective pre-enrichment method and selective enrichment method of Salmonella spp.. Both selective enrichment method and cultured bacteria were detected with specific primers of Salmonella spp. by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). At last, the serotypes of Salmonella were confirmed by using MLST (multilocus sequence typing) with aroC, dnaN, hemD, hisD, purE, sucA, thrA housekeeping genes to identify the strains of positive samples. This study contains 121 samples from three different types of water sources including the drinking water (51), streams (45), and swine wastewater (25). Thirteen samples with positive invA gene are separated from culture method. The strains of these positive samples which identified from MLST method are S. Albany, S. Typhimurium, S. Newport, S. Bareilly, and S. Derby. Some of the serotypes, S. Albany, S. Typhimurium and S. Newport, are highly pathogenic which correlated to human diarrhea. In our results, MLST is a useful method to identify the strains of Salmonella spp.. Keywords: Salmonella, PCR, MLST.

  2. Boolean models of biosurfactants production in Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Richard

    Full Text Available Cyclolipopeptides (CLPs are biosurfactants produced by numerous Pseudomonas fluorescens strains. CLP production is known to be regulated at least by the GacA/GacS two-component pathway, but the full regulatory network is yet largely unknown. In the clinical strain MFN1032, CLP production is abolished by a mutation in the phospholipase C gene (plcC and not restored by plcC complementation. Their production is also subject to phenotypic variation. We used a modelling approach with Boolean networks, which takes into account all these observations concerning CLP production without any assumption on the topology of the considered network. Intensive computation yielded numerous models that satisfy these properties. All models minimizing the number of components point to a bistability in CLP production, which requires the presence of a yet unknown key self-inducible regulator. Furthermore, all suggest that a set of yet unexplained phenotypic variants might also be due to this epigenetic switch. The simplest of these Boolean networks was used to propose a biological regulatory network for CLP production. This modelling approach has allowed a possible regulation to be unravelled and an unusual behaviour of CLP production in P. fluorescens to be explained.

  3. Combined inoculation of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Trichoderma harzianum for enhancing plant growth of vanilla (Vanilla planifolia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandheep, A R; Asok, A K; Jisha, M S

    2013-06-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate the plant growth promoting efficiency of combined inoculation of rhizobacteria on Vanilla plants. Based on the in vitro performance of indigenous Trichoderma spp. and Pseudomonas spp., four effective antagonists were selected and screened under greenhouse experiment for their growth enhancement potential. The maximum percentage of growth enhancement were observed in the combination of Trichoderma harzianum with Pseudomonas fluorescens treatment followed by Pseudomonas fluorescens, Trichoderma harzianum, Pseudomonas putida and Trichoderma virens, respectively in decreasing order. Combined inoculation of Trichoderma harzianum and Pseudomonas fluorescens registered the maximum length of vine (82.88 cm), highest number of leaves (26.67/plant), recorded the highest fresh weight of shoots (61.54 g plant(-1)), fresh weight of roots (4.46 g plant(-1)) and dry weight of shoot (4.56 g plant(-1)) where as the highest dry weight of roots (2.0806 g plant(-1)) were achieved with treatments of Pseudomonas fluorescens. Among the inoculated strains, combined inoculation of Trichoderma harzianum and Pseudomonas fluorescens recorded the maximum nitrogen uptake (61.28 mg plant(-1)) followed by the combined inoculation of Trichoderma harzianum (std) and Pseudomonas fluorescens (std) (55.03 mg plant(-1)) and the highest phosphorus uptake (38.80 mg plant(-1)) was recorded in dual inoculation of Trichoderma harzianum and Pseudomonas fluorescens.

  4. Antimicrobial Resistance of Enteric Salmonella in Bangui, Central African Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Diamant Mossoro-Kpinde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The number of Salmonella isolated from clinical samples that are resistant to multiple antibiotics has increased worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of resistant Salmonella enterica isolated in Bangui. Methods. All enteric Salmonella strains isolated from patients in 2008 were identified and serotyped, and the phenotypes of resistance were determined by using the disk diffusion method. Nine resistance-associated genes, blaTEM, blaOXA, blaSHV, tetA, aadA1, catA1, dhfrA1, sul I, and sul II, were sought by genic amplification in seven S.e. Typhimurium strains. Results. The 94 strains isolated consisted of 47 S.e. Typhimurium (50%, 21 S.e. Stanleyville (22%, 18 S.e. Enteritidis (19%, 4 S.e. Dublin (4%, 4 S.e. Hadar (4%, and 1 S.e. Papuana (1%. Twenty-five (28% were multiresistant, including 20 of the Typhimurium serovar (80%. Two main phenotypes of resistance were found: four antibiotics (56% and to five antibiotics (40%. One S.e. Typhimurium isolate produced an extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL. Only seven strains of S.e. Typhimurium could be amplified genically. Only phenotypic resistance to tetracycline and aminosides was found. Conclusion. S. Typhimurium is the predominant serovar of enteric S. enterica and is the most widely resistant. The search for resistance genes showed heterogeneity of the circulating strains.

  5. Scientific Opinion on a quantitative estimation of the public health impact of setting a new target for the reduction of Salmonella in laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Nørrung, Birgit; Chriél, Mariann

    Public health risks of Salmonella infection in laying hens (Gallus gallus) can be associated with exposure through four different pathways: internally contaminated table eggs, externally contaminated table eggs, egg products and meat from spent hens. In relation to eggs, Salmonella Enteritidis...... contamination. Fresh meat from spent laying hens might carry a higher prevalence of Salmonella than meat from broiler flocks, in particular if sourced from Salmonella-positive flocks. The quantification of under-ascertainment and underreporting of human salmonellosis cases, improving knowledge on within...... is by far the serovar most frequently associated with human illness, and exposure through eggs that are internally contaminated with this serovar has a higher public health significance than exposure to externally contaminated eggs. A mathematical model, using reported field data from two EU Member States...

  6. ANOMALOUS BLUE COLOURING OF MOZZARELLA CHEESE INTENTIONALLY CONTAMINATED WITH PIGMENT PRODUCING STRAINS OF PSEUDOMONAS FLUORESCENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sechi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In summer 2010 a large outbreak of anomalous blue coloration of mozzarella cheese was recorded in Italy and some northern European countries. Official laboratory analysis and health authorities linked the outbreak to the contamination of processing water with strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens, although several expert raised the question of how to unequivocally link the blue coloring to the presence of the micro-organism. In an attempt to set-up a method to determine whether a given Pseudomonas spp. strain is responsible of the defect, an in vitro system for the evaluation of blue colouring of mozzarella cheese intentionally contaminated with strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens. was developed The system is aimed to ascertain whether P. fluorescens strains, isolated from mozzarella cheese with anomalous blue coloration, are able to reproduce the blue coloration under controlled experimental condition. 96 trials of experimental inoculation of mozzarella cheese in different preservation liquids, were conducted using various suspension of Pseudomonas spp. (P. fluorescens ATCC 13525, P. fluorescens CFBP 3150, one P. fluorescens field strain isolated from blue-colored mozzarella cheese and P. aeruginosa ATCC 10145 as positive control at different concentrations and incubated at different temperatures. Growth curve of all Pseudomonas spp. strains tested demonstrated that after three days of incubation the concentration was generally higher than 106 CFU/g of mozzarella cheese incubated in Tryptic Soy Broth (TSB, and higher than 105 CFU/g of mozzarella cheese incubated in preservation liquid. All mozzarella cheeses inoculated with the field strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens showed the characteristic anomalous blue coloration, which is often associated with Pseudomonas fluorescens contamination of water used during mozzarella cheesemaking. With the proposed system, which enabled a considerable amount of samples to be analysed under controlled experimental

  7. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella spp. strains isolated from Layer Hens in Campania Region from 2000 to 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Fioretti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Scopo del presente lavoro è stato quello di testare la sensibilità antibiotica di 60 ceppi di Salmonella (S. enteritidis, S. typhimurium, S. gallinarum isolati da galline ovaiole nel periodo compreso tra il 2000 e il 2003. S. gallinarum mostrava resistenza nei confronti di ciprofloxacina ed enrofloxacina (rispettivamente 15% e 23%, al contrario di S. enteritidis e S. typhimurium che manifestavano una completa sensibilità. Tutti i sierotipi valutati presentavano alte percentuali di resistenza nei confronti di neomicina, gentamicina e ossitetraciclina. Nei confronti dei sulfamidici i ceppi testati presentavano resistenza nulla. Tali risultati suggeriscono un uso più moderato e mirato degli antibiotici negli allevamenti in modo da ridurre la selezione e diffusione di ceppi multiresistenti.

  8. Occurrence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella spp. isolated from food other than meat in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Mąka

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objectives. Antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic bacteria can result in therapy failure, increased hospitalization, and increased risk of death. In Poland, [i]Salmonella[/i] spp. is a major bacterial agent of food poisoning. The majority of studies on antimicrobial resistance in [i]Salmonella[/i] spp. isolates from food have focused on meat products as the source of this pathogen. In comparison, this study examines the antimicrobial susceptibility of [i]Salmonella[/i] spp. isolated from retail food products other than meat in Poland. Materials and Methods. A collection of 122 [i]Salmonella[/i] spp. isolates were isolated in Poland in 2008–2012 from foods other than meat: confectionery products, eggs, fruits, vegetables, spices and others. The resistance of these isolates to 19 antimicrobial agents was tested using the disc diffusion method. Results. [i]Salmonella[/i] Enteritidis was the most frequently identified serotype (84.4% of all tested isolates. In total, 42.6% of the [i]Salmonella[/i] spp. isolates were resistant to antibiotics. The highest frequencies of resistance were observed in isolates from 2009 (60.0% and 2012 (59.5%. Antibiotic resistance was most prevalent among [i]Salmonella[/i] spp. isolated from egg-containing food samples (68.0%. Resistance to nalidixic acid was most common and was observed in 35.2% of all tested isolates. The isolates were less frequently resistant to sulphonamides (6.6%, ampicillin (4.9%, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (2.5% and to streptomycin, cefoxitin, gentamicin and tetracycline (1.6%. Only one isolate showed resistance to chloramphenicol. Four isolates displayed multiresistance. Conclusions. Although, the level of resistance and multiresistance of [i]Salmonella[/i] spp. isolates from non-meat foods was lower than in those from meat products, the presence of these resistant bacteria poses a real threat to the health of consumers.

  9. [Prevalence of Salmonella sp. in foods in Tamaulipas, Mexico, during 2005].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles-Hernández, Glennda Lucia; Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo; Hernández-Romano, Jesús

    2007-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of Salmonella sp. in foods obtained from Tamaulipas sanitary jurisdictions during 2005. Several kinds of foods were taken from the State of Tamaulipas from January to December 2005, which were analyzed in the Public Health State Laboratory of Tamaulipas. If the food fulfilled with the acceptance criteria, it was analyzed looking for Salmonella sp. in agreement with NOM-114-SSA1-1994. Positive foods were sent to the National Institute of Epidemiological Reference and Diagnostic (INDRE) to determine Salmonella species and serovariety. Data were collected in a database and analyzed using chi2 and Fisher's exact test in STATA 8.2 software. 24 of 1300 analyzed foods were positives to Salmonella sp. (1.9%, CI 95% 1.2-2.7). By sanitary jurisdiction, Victoria showed the highest prevalence of positive results (3.9%). When the analysis was carried out by "north jurisdictions" versus "south jurisdictions", south jurisdictions showed a high prevalence of Salmonella in foods (0.9% vs. 2.5%, p 0.05). The most common bacterial species was Salmonella enterica, serovariety enteritidis, which was found in 58.3% (n=14) of positive foods. The jurisdictions with the highest prevalence of Salmonella in foods were identified. Terrestrial foods showed more Salmonella contamination. The results show that thanks to epidemiologic surveillance it is possible to identify potential sources of salmonelosis outbreaks. A bigger research effort it is necessary to extent the epidemiologic surveillance activities and their results, by one side toward the kind of foods initially identified as "high risk foods", and by other side, to other regions of Mexico in order to know the distribution of this pathogen and establish adequate preventive measures.

  10. Reduction of Salmonella on chicken meat and chicken skin by combined or sequential application of lytic bacteriophage with chemical antimicrobials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, Anuraj T; Nannapaneni, Rama; Kiess, Aaron; Sharma, Chander Shekhar

    2015-08-17

    The effectiveness of recently approved Salmonella lytic bacteriophage preparation (SalmoFresh™) in reducing Salmonella in vitro and on chicken breast fillets was examined in combination with lauric arginate (LAE) or cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC). In another experiment, a sequential spray application of this bacteriophage (phage) solution on Salmonella inoculated chicken skin after a 20s dip in chemical antimicrobials (LAE, CPC, peracetic acid, or chlorine) was also examined in reducing Salmonella counts on chicken skin. The application of phage in combination with CPC or LAE reduced S. Typhimurium, S. Heidelberg, and S. Enteritidis up to 5 log units in vitro at 4 °C. On chicken breast fillets, phage in combination with CPC or LAE resulted in significant (p<0.05) reductions of Salmonella ranging from 0.5 to 1.3 log CFU/g as compared to control up to 7 days of refrigerated storage. When phage was applied sequentially with chemical antimicrobials, all the treatments resulted in significant reductions of Salmonella. The application of chlorine (30 ppm) and PAA (400 ppm) followed by phage spray (10(9)PFU/ml) resulted in highest Salmonella reductions of 1.6-1.7 and 2.2-2.5l og CFU/cm(2), respectively. In conclusion, the surface applications of phage in combination with LAE or CPC significantly reduced Salmonella counts on chicken breast fillets. However, higher reductions in Salmonella counts were achieved on chicken skin by the sequential application of chemical antimicrobials followed by phage spray. The sequential application of chlorine, PAA, and phage can provide additional hurdles to reduce Salmonella on fresh poultry carcasses or cut up parts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Fast DNA Serotyping and Antimicrobial Resistance Gene Determination of Salmonella enterica with an Oligonucleotide Microarray-Based Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Sascha D.; Ziegler, Albrecht; Methner, Ulrich; Slickers, Peter; Keiling, Silke; Monecke, Stefan; Ehricht, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    Salmonellosis caused by Salmonella (S.) belongs to the most prevalent food-borne zoonotic diseases throughout the world. Therefore, serotype identification for all culture-confirmed cases of Salmonella infection is important for epidemiological purposes. As a standard, the traditional culture method (ISO 6579:2002) is used to identify Salmonella. Classical serotyping takes 4–5 days to be completed, it is labor-intensive, expensive and more than 250 non-standardized sera are necessary to characterize more than 2,500 Salmonella serovars currently known. These technical difficulties could be overcome with modern molecular methods. We developed a microarray based serogenotyping assay for the most prevalent Salmonella serovars in Europe and North America. The current assay version could theoretically discriminate 28 O-antigens and 86 H-antigens. Additionally, we included 77 targets analyzing antimicrobial resistance genes. The Salmonella assay was evaluated with a set of 168 reference strains representing 132 serovars previously serotyped by conventional agglutination through various reference centers. 117 of 132 (81%) tested serovars showed an unique microarray pattern. 15 of 132 serovars generated a pattern which was shared by multiple serovars (e.g., S. ser. Enteritidis and S. ser. Nitra). These shared patterns mainly resulted from the high similarity of the genotypes of serogroup A and D1. Using patterns of the known reference strains, a database was build which represents the basis of a new PatternMatch software that can serotype unknown Salmonella isolates automatically. After assay verification, the Salmonella serogenotyping assay was used to identify a field panel of 105 Salmonella isolates. All were identified as Salmonella and 93 of 105 isolates (88.6%) were typed in full concordance with conventional serotyping. This microarray based assay is a powerful tool for serogenotyping. PMID:23056321

  12. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella in chicken carcasses at retail in 15 Brazilian cities Prevalencia y resistencia a los antimicrobianos de Salmonella en pollos congelados de venta al por menor en 15 ciudades del Brasil

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    Marcelo Augusto Nunes Medeiros

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella spp. in frozen chicken carcasses at retail from 15 Brazilian cities. METHODS: A descriptive study of data from the Brazilian National Program for Monitoring the Prevalence of Bacterial Resistance in Chicken (PREBAF was conducted from September 2004 to July 2006. The program collected chicken carcasses in 15 state capitals of Brazil in the five geographic regions of the country. Standardized methodologies were used to isolate Salmonella­spp. and identify serotypes. The minimal inhibitory concentration method was used to test resistance to 18 antimicrobials. RESULTS: In 2 679 carcasses examined, the prevalence of Salmonella spp. was 2.7% (range 0.0%-8.9%. São Paulo State produced 50.6% of positive samples. Eighteen serotypes were identified. The most frequently occurring were Salmonella Enteritidis (48.8%, Salmonella Infantis (7.6%, Salmonella Typhimurium (7.2%, and Salmonella Heidelberg (6.4%. All 250 strains tested were resistant to one or more antibiotics, and 133 (53.2% were multidrug resistant (≥ 3 classes. S. Heidelberg was resistant to ceftriaxone (75.0% and to ceftiofur(43.8%. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of Salmonella spp. found in this study was relatively low. However, there were a high proportion of multidrug-resistant strains, including third-generation cephalosporins used to treat invasive salmonellosis. The results confirm the relevanceof the PREBAF program. It is recommended that PREBAF be improved, including a timely data analysis. A review of permitted limits for Salmonella spp. in retail chicken in Brazil is also needed.OBJETIVO: Describir la prevalencia y la resistencia a los antibióticos de Salmonella spp. en canales de pollo congeladas de venta al por menor en 15 ciudades del Brasil. MÉTODOS: Entre septiembre del 2004 y julio del 2006 se llevó a cabo un estudio descriptivo de los datos del Programa Nacional Brasileño de Vigilancia de la

  13. Survival of Salmonella spp. in minced meat packaged under vacuum and modified atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjević, Jasna; Bošković, Marija; Starčević, Marija; Ivanović, Jelena; Karabasil, Nedjeljko; Dimitrijević, Mirjana; Lazić, Ivana Branković; Baltić, Milan Ž

    2018-02-12

    The effect of different modified atmosphere packaging regimes on the behavior of Salmonella spp. on minced meat was studied. Minced meat was experimentally contaminated with a Salmonella spp. cocktail (S. Enteritidis, S. Typhimurium, S. Infantis and S. Arizonae), packaged under vacuum or modified atmosphere with initial headspaces containing 20%O 2 /50%CO 2 /30%N 2 and 20%O 2 /30%CO 2 /50%N 2 ) and stored at 3±1°C for 12 days. Samples were analyzed for Salmonella spp., viable and lactic acid bacteria count every third day. Salmonella spp. counts decreased during storage in all packaging types, with reductions of about 1.5logCFU/g. A significant difference (pmodified atmospheres, although there was no significant difference in Salmonella spp. count between meat packaged in 50%CO 2 , and meat packaged in 30%CO 2 . At the end of the study, there were significant differences (pmodified atmosphere, and the lowest counts were noted in meat packaged in modified atmosphere with 50%CO 2 . Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Genomics of Salmonella phage ΦStp1: candidate bacteriophage for biocontrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sritha, K S; Bhat, Sarita G

    2018-04-01

    Multidrug-resistant Salmonella causing Salmonellosis is a food-borne pathogen and hence a public health hazard. Alternatives to antibiotics, such as phages, are possible solutions to this increasing drug resistance. In this context, several Salmonella phages were isolated and characterized. This paper describes the physiochemical and whole genome characterization of one such bacteriophage, ΦStp1, which efficiently infects serovars Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium. Morphological observations by transmission electron microscopy and phylogenetic analysis using terminase gene classified ΦStp1 to family Siphoviridae, closely resembling 'T5 like phage' morpho-types. With a maximum adsorption time of 50 min, ΦStp1 latent period was 30 min with 37 phages/cell burst size. ΦStp1 draft genome sequenced by shotgun method comprised 112,149 bp in 3 contigs with 37.99% GC content, 168 predicted ORFs, and 15 tRNAs. Genes involved in host shut down, DNA replication, regulation, nucleotide metabolism, lysis, and morphogenesis were also noted. The study not only provided an insight into the characteristics of phage genome, but also information about proteins encoded by bacteriophages, therefore contributing to understanding phage diversity. Sequence analysis also proved the absence of virulence and lysogeny-related genes, which only went to confirm ΦStp1 as a promising therapeutic agent against Salmonella infections.

  15. Salmonella in the pork production chain and its impact on human health in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonardi, S

    2017-06-01

    Salmonella spp. comprise the second most common food-borne pathogens in the European Union (EU). The role of pigs as carriers of Salmonella has been intensively studied both on farm and at slaughter. Salmonella infection in pigs may cause fever, diarrhoea, prostration and mortality. However, most infected pigs remain healthy carriers, and those infected at the end of the fattening period could pose a threat to human health. Contamination of pig carcasses can occur on the slaughter line, and it is linked to cross-contamination from other carcasses and the presence of Salmonella in the environment. Therefore, Salmonella serovars present on pig carcasses can be different from those detected in the same bathes on the farm. In recent years, S. Typhimurium, S. Derby and S. serotype 4,[5],12:i:- (a monophasic variant of S. Typhimurium) have been the most common serovars to be detected in pigs in EU countries, but S. Rissen, S. Infantis, S. Enteritidis and S. Brandenburg have also been reported. In humans, several cases of salmonellosis have been linked to the consumption of raw or undercooked pork and pork products. Among the main serovars of porcine origin detected in confirmed human cases, S. Typhimurium, the monophasic variant S. 4,[5],12:i:- and S. Derby are certainly the most important.

  16. Assessment of Consumer Exposure to Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., and Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Meat Products at Retail in the City of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristori, Christiane Asturiano; Rowlands, Ruth Estela Gravato; Martins, Cecília Geraldes; Barbosa, Maria Luisa; Dos Santos, Luis Fernando; Jakabi, Miyoko; de Melo Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy

    2017-08-01

    Meat products may be vehicles of bacterial pathogens to humans, and Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are the most relevant. The aim of this study was to generate data on prevalence of these three pathogens in 552 samples of meat products (hot dogs, pork sausages, raw ground beef, and raw chicken legs) sold at retail in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Salmonella spp. was detected in 5.8% (32/552) of samples, comprising pork sausages 62.5% (20/32) and chicken legs 37.5% (12/32). The counts of Salmonella spp. were low, ranging from Salmonella Typhimurium (28.1%), Salmonella I 4,[5],12:i:- (15.6%), Salmonella Enteritidis (12.5%), Salmonella Derby, and Salmonella Brandenburg (9.4%). Campylobacter spp. was detected in 33 samples (6.0%), comprising chicken legs (82%) and ground beef (18%). All samples were negative for STEC. These results suggest that meat products when subjected to inadequate cooking and/or cross-contamination with other products ready for consumption can lead to occurrence of outbreaks, highlighting the risks associated with them.

  17. Promotion of plant growth by Pseudomonas fluorescens strain SS101 via novel volatile organic compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, Yong-Soon; Dutta, Swarnalee; Ann, Mina; Raaijmakers, Jos M.; Park, Kyungseok

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) play key roles in modulating plant growth and induced systemic resistance (ISR) to pathogens. Despite their significance, the physiological functions of the specific VOCs produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens

  18. Control of Fusarium verticillioides, cause of ear rot of maize, by Pseudomonas fluorescens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nayaka, Siddaiah Chandra; Shankar, Akarere C. Udaya; Reddy, Munagala S.

    2009-01-01

    and the formulations, in comparison with the control, increased plant growth and vigour as measured by seed germination, seedling vigour, plant height, 1000 seed weight and yield. P. fluorescens pure culture used as seed treatment and as spray treatment enhanced the growth parameters and reduced the incidence of F...... elicited considerable attention over the past decade owing to their association with animal disease syndromes. Hence, the present study was conducted to evaluate ecofriendly approaches by using a maize rhizosphere isolate of Pseudomonas fluorescens (Trev.) Mig. and its formulation to control ear rot....... The field trials included both seed treatment and foliar spray. For all the experiments, P. fluorescens was formulated using corn starch, wheat bran and talc powder. In each case there were three different treatments of P. fluorescens, a non-treated control and chemical control. RESULTS: Pure culture...

  19. Metabolic and transcriptomic changes induced in Arabidopsis by the rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens SS101

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mortel, van de J.E.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Dekkers, E.; Pineda, A.; Guillod, L.; Bouwmeester, K.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Dicke, M.; Raaijmakers, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Systemic resistance induced in plants by nonpathogenic rhizobacteria is typically effective against multiple pathogens. Here, we show that root-colonizing Pseudomonas fluorescens strain SS101 (Pf.SS101) enhanced resistance in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) against several bacterial pathogens,

  20. Discovery of new regulatory genes of lipopeptide biosynthesis in Pseudomonas fluorescens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, C.; Aundy, K.; Mortel, van de J.E.; Raaijmakers, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens SS101 produces the cyclic lipopeptide massetolide with diverse functions in antimicrobial activity, motility, and biofilm formation. To understand how massetolide biosynthesis is genetically regulated in SS101, c. 8000 random plasposon mutants were screened for reduced or

  1. Salmonellae in health foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomason, B M; Cherry, W B; Dodd, D J

    1977-11-01

    Various health food products of different brands were purchased from stores in the metropolitan Atlanta area. These foods were examined for the presence of salmonellae by fluorescent-antibody and cultural methods. Included in the study were tablets of alfalfa, parsley, kelp, wheat bran, enzyme, bone meal, and vitamins. Beef liver powder and tablets and granola cereal were also studied. Salmonella minnesota, Salmonella anatum, and Salmonella derby were isolated from two of three lots of beef liver powder from one manufacturer. All other products were negative.

  2. Bioreporter pseudomonas fluorescens HK44 immobilized in a silica matrix

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    Trogl J.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The bioluminescent bioreporter Pseudomonas fluorescens HK44, the whole cell bacterial biosensor that responds to naphthalene and its metabolites via the production of visible light, was immobilized into a silica matrix by the sol-gel technique. The bioluminescence intensities were measured in the maximum of the bioluminescence band at X = 500 nm. The immobilized cells (>105 cells per g silica matrix produced light after induction by salicylate (cone. > 10 g/l, naphthalene and aminobenzoic acid. The bioluminescence intensities induced by 2,3-dihydroxynaphthalene 3-hydroxybenzoic acid and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid were comparable to a negative control. The cells in the silica layers on glass slides produced light in response to the presence of an inductor at least 8 months after immobilization, and >50 induction cycles. The results showed that these test slides could be used as assays for the multiple determination of water pollution.

  3. Salmonella enterica in imported and domestic day-old turkey poults in Egypt: repertoire of virulence genes and their antimicrobial resistance profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, K M; Marouf, S H; Erfan, A M; AlAtfeehy, N

    2014-12-01

    Globalisation and international trade facilitate the rapid spread and transmission of foodborne pathogens. This study was designed to determine the serovars, distribution of virulence genes (invA, avrA, ssaQ, mgtC, siiD, sopB, gipA, sodC1, sopE1, spvC, bcfC) and antibiotic resistance profiles in salmonellae recovered from imported and domestic day-old turkey poults in Egypt. The prevalence of salmonellae in the imported poults was 4% (6/150): S. Enteritidis was the most frequent isolate (1.3%; 2/150), followed by Typhimurium, Virchow, Larochelle and a non-typeable strain, each with 0.7% (1/150) prevalence. The prevalence of salmonellae in the domestic poults was < 2% (2/150) and serotyping indicated a prevalence of 1.3% (1/150) for both Typhimurium and Altona. In polymerase chain reaction screening, the genes invA, sopB and bcfC were detected in all the Enteritidis, Typhimurium, Virchow, Larochelle, Altona and non-typeable isolates (100%); the gene gipA was absent from all isolates. Carriage of invA, sopB and bcfC among the Enteritidis, Typhimurium, Virchow, Larochelle, Altona and non-typeable isolates was associated with a core pattern of resistance to three antibiotics: streptomycin, nalidixic acid and chloramphenicol. The detection of S. Enteritidis, Typhimurium, Virchow, Larochelle, and Altona in turkey poults has important implications because these serovars are a significant cause of foodborne illness and enteric fever in humans.

  4. blaCTX-M-I group extended spectrum beta lactamase-producing Salmonella typhi from hospitalized patients in Lagos, Nigeria

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    Akinyemi KO

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Kabiru O Akinyemi,1 Bamidele A Iwalokun,2 Olajide O Alafe,1 Sulaiman A Mudashiru,1 Christopher Fakorede,11Department of Microbiology, Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos, Nigeria; 2Biochemistry and Nutrition Division, Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, Yaba, Lagos, NigeriaPurpose: The global spread of blaCTX-M-I extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL-producing Salmonella spp. remains a major threat to treatment and control. Evidence of emergence and spread of this marker are lacking in Nigeria. This study investigated blaCTX-M-I ESBL production among Salmonella isolates from hospitalized patients.Methods: Patients (158 total made up of two groups were evaluated. Group A was composed of 135 patients with persistent pyrexia and group B was composed of 23 gastroenteritis patients and their stool samples. Samples were cultured, and isolates were identified and were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing by standard methods. Isolates were further screened for ESBL production, blaCTX-M-I genes and transferability by double disk synergy test, plasmid extraction, polymerase chain reaction, and conjugation experiment.Results: Thirty-five (25.9% Salmonella isolates were identified from group A, of which 74.3% were S. typhi, 22.9% were S. paratyphi and two (5.7% were invasive non-typhoidal S. enteritidis. Nine Plasmodium falciparum infections were recorded, four of which were identified as co-infections with typhoidal Salmonella. Only two (8.7% S. enteritidis samples were obtained from group B (P>0.05. A total of 24 isolates were ESBL-positive, eliciting resistance to five to seven antibiotics, and were multiple-drug resistant. ESBL production due to the blaCTX-M-I gene cluster was detected in eleven (45.8% Salmonella isolates. Nine (81.8% of the eleven blaCTX-M-I ESBL producers were S. typhi and two (18.2% isolates were S. enteritidis. Four of nine S. typhi blaCTX-M-I ESBL-producing strains harbored 23 kb self-transmissible plasmid that was co

  5. Pseudomonas fluorescens alters epithelial permeability and translocates across Caco-2/TC7 intestinal cells

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    Madi Amar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pseudomonas fluorescens has long been considered as a psychrotrophic microorganism. Recently, we have shown that clinical strains of P. fluorescens (biovar 1 are able to adapt at a growth temperature of 37°C or above and induce a specific inflammatory response. Interestingly, a highly specific antigen of P. fluorescens, I2, is detected in the serum of patients with Crohn's disease but the possible role of this bacterium in the disease has not yet been explored. In the present study, we examined the ability of a psychrotrophic and a clinical strain of P. fluorescens to modulate the permeability of a Caco-2/TC7 intestinal epithelial model, reorganize the actin cytoskeleton, invade the target cells and translocate across the epithelium. The behaviour of these two strains was compared to that of the well known opportunistic pathogen P. aeruginosa PAO1. Results Both strains of P. fluorescens were found to decrease the transepithelial resistance (TER of Caco-2/TC7 differentiated monolayers. This was associated with an increase in paracellular permeability and F-actin m