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Sample records for fluorescence thermometry diagnostics

  1. LED-induced fluorescence diagnostics for turbine and combustion engine thermometry

    Allison, S.W.

    2001-01-01

    Fluorescence from phosphor coatings is the basis of an established technique for measuring temperature in a wide variety of turbine and combustion engine applications. Example surfaces include blades, vanes, combustors, intake valves, pistons, and rotors. Many situations that are remote and noncontact require the high intensity of a laser to illuminate the phosphor, especially if the surface is moving. Thermometric resolutions of 0.1 C are obtainable, and some laboratory versions of these systems have been calibrated against NIST standards to even higher precision. To improve the measurement signal-to-noise ratio, synchronous detection timing has been used to repeatedly interrogate the same blade in a high speed rotating turbine. High spatial resolution can be obtained by tightly focusing the interrogation beam in measurements of static surfaces, and by precise differential timing of the laser pulses on rotating surfaces. We report here the use of blue light emitting diodes (LEDs) as a n illumination source for producing useable fluorescence from phosphors for temperature measurements. An LED can excite most of the same phosphors used to cover the temperature range from 8 to 1400 C. The advantages of using LEDs are obvious in terms of size, power requirements, space requirements and cost. There can also be advantages associated with very long operating lifetimes, wide range of available colors, and their broader emission bandwidths as compared to laser diodes. Temperature may be inferred either from phase or time-decay determinations

  2. Study on two-color planar laser induced fluorescence thermometry

    Li Shaodan; Tan Sichao; Gao Puzhen; Lin Yuansheng

    2014-01-01

    Many of the convection heat transfer process are involved in the research of nuclear reactor thermal hydraulics. To experimentally determine the variation of the temperature field in those processes is important for the design and safety operation of the nuclear reactor. The application of the two-color planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) in the measurements of fluid temperature distribution is discussed in the paper. The laser dyes used here is rhodamine B (RhB) with negative temperature coefficient and fluorescein 27 (F127) with positive temperature coefficient. The beam of the laser light is adjusted to laser sheet by using the lens group. The fluid with dyes is excited by this laser sheet in a specific plane and temperature dependent fluorescence is released. The temperature field of the plane can be determined through the intensity information. Some technical aspects encountered in the application of the two-laser PLIF are discussed in the paper, such as the spectra characteristic of the dyes and the separation of the spectra. The calibration temperature is higher than the water saturation temperature (at atmosphere pressure). (authors)

  3. Laser induced fluorescence thermometry (LIF-T) as a non-invasive temperature measurement technique for thermal hydraulic experiments

    Strack, J.; Leung, K.; Walker, A., E-mail: strackj@mcmaster.ca [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) is an experimental technique whereby a scalar field in a fluid system is measured optically from the fluorescence intensity of a tracer dye following excitation by laser light. For laser induced fluorescence thermometry (LIF-T), a temperature sensitive dye is used. Through the use of a temperature sensitive tracer dye, sheet laser optics, optical filters, and photography, a 2D temperature field can be measured non-invasively. An experiment to test the viability of using LIF-T for macroscopic thermal hydraulic experiments was developed and tested. A reference calibration curve to relate fluorescence measurements to temperature is presented. (author)

  4. Fluorescent Molecular Rotor-in-Paraffin Waxes for Thermometry and Biometric Identification.

    Jin, Young-Jae; Dogra, Rubal; Cheong, In Woo; Kwak, Giseop

    2015-07-08

    Novel thermoresponsive sensor systems consisting of a molecular rotor (MR) and paraffin wax (PW) were developed for various thermometric and biometric identification applications. Polydiphenylacetylenes (PDPAs) coupled with long alkyl chains were used as MRs, and PWs of hydrocarbons having 16-20 carbons were utilized as phase-change materials. The PDPAs were successfully dissolved in the molten PWs and did not act as an impurity that prevents phase transition of the PWs. These PDPA-in-PW hybrids had almost the same enthalpies and phase-transition temperatures as the corresponding pure PWs. The hybrids exhibited highly reversible fluorescence (FL) changes at the critical temperatures during phase transition of the PWs. These hybrids were impregnated into common filter paper in the molten state by absorption or were encapsulated into urea resin to enhance their mechanical integrity and cyclic stability during repeated use. The wax papers could be utilized in highly advanced applications including FL image writing/erasing, an array-type thermo-indicator, and fingerprint/palmprint identification. The present findings should facilitate the development of novel fluorescent sensor systems for biometric identification and are potentially applicable for biological and biomedical thermometry.

  5. All Fiber-Coupled OH Planar Laser-Induced-Fluorescence (OH-PLIF)-Based Two-Dimensional Thermometry.

    Hsu, Paul S; Jiang, Naibo; Patnaik, Anil K; Katta, Vish; Roy, Sukesh; Gord, James R

    2018-04-01

    Two-color, planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF)-based two-dimensional (2D) thermometry techniques for reacting flows, which are typically developed in the laboratory conditions, face a stiff challenge in their practical implementation in harsh environments such as combustion rigs. In addition to limited optical access, the critical experimental conditions (i.e., uncontrolled humidity, vibration, and large thermal gradients) often restrict sensitive laser system operation and cause difficulties maintaining beam-overlap. Thus, an all fiber-coupled, two-color OH-PLIF system has been developed, employing two long optical fibers allowing isolation of the laser and signal-collection systems. Two OH-excitation laser beams (∼283 nm and ∼286 nm) are delivered through a common 6 m long, 400 µm core, deep ultraviolet (UV)-enhanced multimode fiber. The fluorescence signal (∼310 nm) is collected by a 3 m long, UV-grade imaging fiber. Proof-of-principle temperature measurements are demonstrated in atmospheric pressure, near adiabatic, CH 4 /O 2 /N 2 jet flames. The effects of the excitation pulse interval on fiber transmission are investigated. The proof-of-principle measurements show significant promise for thermometry in harsh environments such as gas turbine engine tests.

  6. Fluorescence spectroscopy for medical and environmental diagnostics

    Johansson, Jonas.

    1993-09-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy can be used for diagnostics in medical and environmental applications. The many aspects of fluorescence emission are utilized to enhance the accuracy of the diagnosis. A fluorescence detection system, based on nitrogen laser or dye laser excitation and optical multichannel detection, was constructed, and fluorescence spectra from human malignant tumours of various origins, were recorded. Tumour demarcation was observed using exogenous chromophores, as well as the endogenous tissue fluorescence. In particular, δ-amino levulinic acid was found to provide very good tumour demarcation. A multi-colour imaging system capable of simultaneous recording of four fluorescence images at selected wavelengths, was developed. Examples of processed images, based on the four sub-images, are shown for malignant tumours. In addition, data from photodynamic treatment of human malignant tumours are presented. Autofluorescence spectra from excised pieces of human atherosclerotic aorta and atherosclerotic coronary segment were found to be different from those of non-diseased vessels. Furthermore, fluorescence decay curves from atherosclerotic samples were found to differ from those of non-diseased samples. It is concluded that both spectral and temporal information should be utilized to enhance the demarcation. Methods for obtaining fluorescence data free from interference from blood, with applications to in vivo laser angioplasty of atherosclerosis, are discussed. The optical multichannel system and the multi-colour imaging system were integrated with a remote sensing system, originally used for environmental measurements, to obtain fluorescence spectra as well as fluorescence images of plants at a distance of up to 100 m. The fluorescence data from plants subject to environmental stress or senescent plants were found to differ from those obtained from healthy vegetation. 359 refs

  7. Two-color planar laser-induced fluorescence thermometry in aqueous solutions

    Robinson, G. Andrew; Lucht, Robert P.; Laurendeau, Normand M.

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate a two-color planar laser-induced fluorescence technique for obtaining two-dimensional temperature images in water. For this method, a pulsed Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm excites a solution of temperature-sensitive rhodamine 560 and temperature-insensitive sulforhodamine 640. The resulting emissions are optically separated through filters and detected via a charged-couple device (CCD) camera system. A ratio of the two images yields temperature images independent of incident irradiance. An uncertainty in temperature of ±1.4 deg. C is established at the 95% confidence interval

  8. Laser-induced fluorescence for medical diagnostics

    Andersson Engels, S.

    1989-12-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence as a tool for tissue diagnostics is discussed. Both spectrally and time-resolved fluorescence signals are studied to optimize the demarcation of diseased lesions from normal tissue. The presentation is focused on two fields of application: the identification of malignant tumours and atherosclerotic plaques. Tissue autofluorescence as well as fluorescence from administered drugs have been utilized in diseased tissue diagnosis. The fluorescence criterion for tissue diagnosis is, as far as possible, chosen to be independent of unknown fluorescence parameters, which are not correlated to the type of tissue investigated. Both a dependence on biological parameters, such as light absorption in blood, and instrumental characteristics, such as excitation pulse fluctuations and detection geometry, can be minimized. Several chemical compounds have been studied in animal experiments after intraveneous injection to verify their capacity as malignant tumour marking drugs under laser excitation and fluorescence detection. Another objective of these studies was to improve our understanding of the mechanism and chemistry behind the retention of the various drugs in tissue. The properties of a chemical which maximize its selective retention in tumours are discussed. In order to utilize this diagnostic modality, three different clinically adapted sets of instrumentation have been developed and are presented. Two of the systems are nitrogen-laser-based fluorosensors; one is a point-monitoring system with full spectral resolution and the other one is an imaging system with up to four simultaneously recorded images in different spectral bands. The third system is a low-cost point-monitoring mercury-lamp-based fluoroscence emission as well as reflection characteristics of tissue. (author)

  9. Development of a 2D temperature measurement technique for combustion diagnostics using 2-line atomic fluorescence

    Engstroem, Johan

    2001-01-01

    The present thesis is concerned with the development and application of a novel planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) technique for temperature measurements in a variety of combusting flows. Accurate measurement of temperature is an essential task in combustion diagnostics, since temperature is one of the most fundamental quantities for the characterization of combustion processes. The technique is based on two-line atomic fluorescence (TLAF) from small quantities of atomic indium (In) seeded into the fuel. It has been developed from small-scale experiments in laboratory flames to the point where practical combustion systems can be studied. The technique is conceptually simple and reveals temperature information in the post-flame regions. The viability of the technique has been tested in three extreme measurement situations: in spark ignition engine combustion, in ultra-lean combustion situations such as lean burning aero-engine concepts and, finally, in fuel-rich combustion. TLAF was successfully applied in an optical Sl engine using isooctane as fuel. The wide temperature sensitivity, 700 - 3000 K, of the technique using indium atoms allowed measurements over the entire combustion cycle in the engine to be performed. In applications in lean combustion a potential problem caused by the strong oxidation processes of indium atoms was encountered. This limits measurement times due to deposits of absorbing indium oxide on measurement windows. The seeding requirement is a disadvantage of the technique and can be a limitation in some applications. The results from experiments performed in sooting flames are very promising for thermometry measurements in such environments. Absorption by hydrocarbons and other native species was found to be negligible. Since low laser energies and low seeding concentrations could be used, the technique did not, unlike most other incoherent optical thermometry techniques, suffer interferences from LII of soot particles or LIF from PAH

  10. Tracking Lithium Ions via Widefield Fluorescence Microscopy for Battery Diagnostics.

    Padilla, Nicolas A; Rea, Morgan T; Foy, Michael; Upadhyay, Sunil P; Desrochers, Kyle A; Derus, Tyler; Knapper, Kassandra A; Hunter, Nathanael H; Wood, Sharla; Hinton, Daniel A; Cavell, Andrew C; Masias, Alvaro G; Goldsmith, Randall H

    2017-07-28

    Direct tracking of lithium ions with time and spatial resolution can provide an important diagnostic tool for understanding mechanisms in lithium ion batteries. A fluorescent indicator of lithium ions, 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)naphthoxazole, was synthesized and used for real-time tracking of lithium ions via widefield fluorescence microscopy. The fluorophore can be excited with visible light and was shown to enable quantitative determination of the lithium ion diffusion constant in a microfluidic model system for a plasticized polymer electrolyte lithium battery. The use of widefield fluorescence microscopy for in situ tracking of lithium ions in batteries is discussed.

  11. Investigation of bearing inner ring-cage thermal characteristics based on CdTe quantum dots fluorescence thermometry

    Yan, Ke; Yan, Bei; Li, Ben Q.; Hong, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel method for bearing inner ring/cage thermal monitoring was first presented. • Temperature rise of bearing inner ring in real work condition was obtained. • The rotation speed (6000 r/min) measured here is much higher than all the existing methods. - Abstract: A novel wireless temperature sensor and non-intrusive temperature measurement method for bearing monitoring were proposed in this paper, based on spectrum parameter analysis of CdTe quantum dots films. The CdTe QDs were synthesized and were used in constructing of a sensor film by means of Layer-by-layer Electrostatic Self-assembly method. The fluorescence spectrum properties of the sensor were characterized. At rotation speed 5000–6000 r/min, bearing cage and inner ring temperature were presented first in this paper by the CdTe QDs sensor. The results were verified by theoretical analysis and by thermocouples, with an error typically below 10% or smaller. Compared to the traditional outer ring monitoring, the measurement and monitoring of bearing rolling elements is of very importance, especially at high rotation speed.

  12. Auto fluorescence of intervertebral disc tissue: a new diagnostic tool.

    Hoell, T; Huschak, G; Beier, A; Hüttmann, G; Minkus, Y; Holzhausen, H J; Meisel, H J

    2006-08-01

    The paper reports on auto fluorescence phenomena of inter-vertebral human discs. It systematically investigates the auto fluorescence effects of ex vivo disc specimen and reports on surgical cases to demonstrate the potential value of the new method. The paper offers biologic explanations of the phenomenon and discusses the potential value of the UV auto fluorescence technique as a diagnostic tool. Intra- and postoperative observations are made by a surgical microscope with an integrated UV light source. Quantitative measurements were carried out using a photon counter and a spectrometer ex vivo. The auto fluorescence phenomenon allows the differentiation of traumatized and degenerated disc tissue intraoperatively in some cases, it allows the differentiation of bony and collagen endplate in cervical disc surgery. The source of the auto fluorescent light emission are amino acids of the collagen molecules. The proteoglycan components and the liquid components of the disc do not show relevant auto fluorescence. Emission wavelength of disc material is equivalent to color perception. It differs due to different collagen composition of the intervertebral disc components from yellow-green to blue-green and can be visualized in situ by naked eye.UV-auto fluorescence of inter-vertebral discs is a new clinical tool that has the potential to differentiate disc material from the anatomical surrounding, to distinguish between different fractions of the disc and to give information on the quality and status of the disc material. Since the technology has just emerged, it needs further investigations to quantify the clinical observations reported in this paper.

  13. Filter-fluorescer diagnostic system for the National Ignition Facility

    McDonald, J.W.; Kauffman, R.L.; Celeste, J.R.; Rhodes, M.A.; Lee, F.D.; Suter, L.J.; Lee, A.P.; Foster, J.M.; Slark, G.

    2004-01-01

    An early filter-fluorescer diagnostic system is being fielded at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to measure the amount of hard x rays (20< hν<150 keV) generated in laser fusion experiments. From these measurements we hope to quantify the number of hot electrons produced in laser fusion experiments. The measurement of hot electron production is important for ignition experiments because these electrons can preheat the fuel capsule. Hot electrons can also be employed in experimentation by preheating hydrodynamic packages or by driving plasmas out of equilibrium. The experimental apparatus, data collection, analysis and calibration issues are discussed. Expected data signal levels are predicted and discussed

  14. Fluorescent diagnostics of epithelial neoplasms of different colon parts.

    Korneva, Yulia S; Dorosevich, Alexander E; Maryakhina, Valeriya S

    2017-10-01

    Changes in the biochemical composition of the tissue during colon cancer progression usually precede morphological changes registered by light microscopy. These changes are very sensitive and may be used for diagnostics in difficult cases, when it is impossible to obtain sufficient amount of material during colonoscopy. The aim of the study is analysis of spectral characteristics of sporadic adenomas and tumors in different parts of colon for improving tumors diagnostics in disputable cases. The spectra of fluorescence excitation of histological sections from 78 patients with colon cancer (adenocarcinoma) and colonic adenomas of different localizations were measured. The spectra of fluorescence excitation of all types of adenomas as well as adenocarcinoma have two maxima at 260/270 nm and at 330/340 nm. The first maximum is primarily defined by tryptophan and phenylalanin containing peptides, one of them is glucagon. The second maximum is mainly defined by collagen in stroma. Progression of precancer lesions to advanced cancer leads to increase of NADH concentration impacting on the second maximum of spectra. However, spectra of all types of the investigated lesions have peculiarities depending on localization. At odds to the previous data about similarities between distal colon and rectum, our results demonstrate similar spectra for proximal colon and rectum due to some similarities in morphological and, as a consequence, biochemical composition. Tumor can be detected by spectral techniques on histological slides even if the specimen contains very few tumorous cells in stroma. Biochemical changes and their similarities for precancer lesions and advanced colon cancer have described. Peculiarities of spectral data for different parts of colon may change the previous opinion about similar mechanisms of cancerogenesis for distal colon and rectum. Moreover, investigation of tissue specimen obtained for histological examination and containing lack of malignant

  15. Initial operation of the LEDA beam-induced fluorescence diagnostic

    Kamperschroer, James H.; Gurd, Pamela A.; Martinez, Derwin G.; Gilpatrick, J. Douglas; Shurter, R. Bradford; Stettler, Matthew W.; Madsen, David W.; O'Hara, James F.; Sage, Joan; Schaefer, Timothy L.

    2000-01-01

    A diagnostic based on beam-induced fluorescence has been developed and used to examine the expanded beam in the High-Energy Beam Transport (HEBT) section of the Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA). The system consists of a camera, a gas injector, a spectrometer, and a control system. Gas is injected to provide a medium for the beam to excite, the camera captures the resulting image of the fluorescing gas, and the spectrometer measures the spectrum of the emitted light. EPICS was used to control the camera and acquire and store images. Data analysis is presently being performed offline. A Kodak DCS420m professional CCD camera is the primary component of the optical system. InterScience, Inc. modified the camera with the addition of a gain of 4000 image intensifier, thereby producing an intensified camera with a sensitivity of ∼0.5 milli-lux. Light is gathered with a 1 '' format, 16-160 mm, Computar zoom lens. This lens is attached to the camera via a Century Precision Optics relay lens. Images obtained using only hydrogen from the beam stop exhibited features not yet understood. Images with good signal-to-noise ratio were obtained with the injection of sufficient nitrogen to raise the HEBT pressure to 2-8x10 -6 torr. Two strong nitrogen lines, believed to be of the first negative group of N 2 + , were identified at 391 and 428 nm

  16. The motional stark effect with laser-induced fluorescence diagnostic

    Foley, E. L.; Levinton, F. M.

    2010-05-01

    The motional Stark effect (MSE) diagnostic is the worldwide standard technique for internal magnetic field pitch angle measurements in magnetized plasmas. Traditionally, it is based on using polarimetry to measure the polarization direction of light emitted from a hydrogenic species in a neutral beam. As the beam passes through the magnetized plasma at a high velocity, in its rest frame it perceives a Lorentz electric field. This field causes the H-alpha emission to be split and polarized. A new technique under development adds laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) to a diagnostic neutral beam (DNB) for an MSE measurement that will enable radially resolved magnetic field magnitude as well as pitch angle measurements in even low-field (experiments. An MSE-LIF system will be installed on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. It will enable reconstructions of the plasma pressure, q-profile and current as well as, in conjunction with the existing MSE system, measurements of radial electric fields.

  17. Laser Induced Fluorescence Diagnostic for the Plasma Couette Experiment

    Katz, Noam; Skiff, Fred; Collins, Cami; Weisberg, Dave; Wallace, John; Clark, Mike; Garot, Kristine; Forest, Cary

    2010-11-01

    The Plasma Couette Experiment (PCX) at U. Wisconsin-Madison consists of a rotating high-beta plasma and is well-suited to the study of flow-driven, astrophysically-relevant plasma phenomena. PCX confinement relies on alternating rings of 1kG permanent magnets and the rotation is driven by electrode rings, interspersed between the magnets, which provide an azimuthal ExB. I will discuss the development of a laser-induced fluorescence diagnostic (LIF) to characterize the ion distribution function of argon plasmas in PCX. The LIF system--which will be scanned radially--will be used to calibrate internal Mach probes, as well as to measure the time-resolved velocity profile, ion temperature and density non-perturbatively. These diagnostics will be applied to study the magneto-rotational instability in a plasma, as well as the buoyancy instability thought to be involved in producing the solar magnetic field. This work is supported by NSF and DOE.

  18. A fusion-spliced near-field optical fiber probe using photonic crystal fiber for nanoscale thermometry based on fluorescence-lifetime measurement of quantum dots.

    Fujii, Takuro; Taguchi, Yoshihiro; Saiki, Toshiharu; Nagasaka, Yuji

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a novel nanoscale temperature-measurement method using fluorescence in the near-field called fluorescence near-field optics thermal nanoscopy (Fluor-NOTN). Fluor-NOTN enables the temperature distributions of nanoscale materials to be measured in vivo/in situ. The proposed method measures temperature by detecting the temperature dependent fluorescence lifetimes of Cd/Se quantum dots (QDs). For a high-sensitivity temperature measurement, the auto-fluorescence generated from a fiber probe should be reduced. In order to decrease the noise, we have fabricated a novel near-field optical-fiber probe by fusion-splicing a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) and a conventional single-mode fiber (SMF). The validity of the novel fiber probe was assessed experimentally by evaluating the auto-fluorescence spectra of the PCF. Due to the decrease of auto-fluorescence, a six- to ten-fold increase of S/N in the near-field fluorescence lifetime detection was achieved with the newly fabricated fusion-spliced near-field optical fiber probe. Additionally, the near-field fluorescence lifetime of the quantum dots was successfully measured by the fabricated fusion-spliced near-field optical fiber probe at room temperature, and was estimated to be 10.0 ns.

  19. Primary Tunnel Junction Thermometry

    Pekola, Jukka P.; Holmqvist, Tommy; Meschke, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    We describe the concept and experimental demonstration of primary thermometry based on a four-probe measurement of a single tunnel junction embedded within four arrays of junctions. We show that in this configuration random sample specific and environment-related errors can be avoided. This method relates temperature directly to Boltzmann constant, which will form the basis of the definition of temperature and realization of official temperature scales in the future

  20. Laser-Induced Fluorescence diagnostic of barium ion plasmas in the Paul Trap Simulator Experiment

    Chung, Moses; Gilson, Erik P.; Davidson, Ronald C.; Efthimion, Philip C.; Majeski, Richard; Startsev, Edward A.

    2005-01-01

    The Paul Trap Simulator Experiment (PTSX) is a cylindrical Paul trap whose purpose is to simulate the nonlinear dynamics of intense charged particle beam propagation in alternating-gradient magnetic transport systems. To investigate the ion plasma microstate in PTSX, including the ion density profile and the ion velocity distribution function, a laser-induced fluorescence diagnostic system is being developed as a nondestructive diagnostic. Instead of cesium, which has been used in the initial phase of the PTSX experiment, barium has been selected as the preferred ion for the laser-induced fluorescence diagnostic. A feasibility study of the laser-induced fluorescence diagnostic using barium ions is presented with the characterization of a tunable dye laser. The installation of the barium ion source and the development of the laser-induced fluorescence diagnostic system are also discussed

  1. Laser beam alignment and profilometry using diagnostic fluorescent safety mirrors

    Lizotte, Todd E.

    2011-03-01

    There are a wide range of laser beam delivery systems in use for various purposes; including industrial and medical applications. Virtually all such beam delivery systems for practical purposes employ optical systems comprised of mirrors and lenses to shape, focus and guide the laser beam down to the material being processed. The goal of the laser beam delivery is to set the optimum parameters and to "fold" the beam path to reduce the mechanical length of the optical system, thereby allowing a physically compact system. In many cases, even a compact system can incorporate upwards of six mirrors and a comparable number of lenses all needing alignment so they are collinear. One of the major requirements for use of such systems in industry is a method of safe alignment. The alignment process requires that the aligner determine where the beam strikes each element. The aligner should also preferably be able to determine the shape or pattern of the laser beam at that point and its relative power. These alignments are further compounded in that the laser beams generated are not visible to the unaided human eye. Such beams are also often of relatively high power levels, and are thereby a significant hazard to the eyes of the aligner. Obvious an invisible beam makes it nearly impossible to align laser system without some form of optical assistance. The predominant method of visually aligning the laser beam delivery is the use of thermal paper, paper cards or fluorescing card material. The use of paper products which have limited power handling capability or coated plastics can produce significant debris and contaminants within the beam line that ultimately damage the optics. The use of the cards can also create significant laser light scatter jeopardizing the safety of the person aligning the system. This paper covers a new safety mirror design for use with at various UV and Near IR wavelengths (193 nm to 1064 nm) within laser beam delivery systems and how its use can

  2. Eosin fluorescence: A diagnostic tool for quantification of liver injury.

    Ali, Hamid; Ali, Safdar; Mazhar, Maryam; Ali, Amjad; Jahan, Azra; Ali, Abid

    2017-09-01

    Hepatitis is one of the most common life threatening diseases. The diagnosis is mainly based on biochemical analysis such as liver function test. However, histopathological evaluation of liver serves far better for more accurate final diagnosis. The goal of our study was to evaluate the eosin fluorescence pattern in CCl 4 -induced liver injury model compared with normal and different treatment groups. For this purpose, liver tissues were stained with H/E and examined under bright field microscope but the fluorescence microscopy of H/E stained slides provided an interesting fluorescence pattern and was quite helpful in identifying different structures. Interesting fluorescence patterns were obtained with FITC, Texas Red and Dual channel filter cubes that were quite helpful in identifying different morphological features of the liver. During the course of hepatic injury, liver cells undergo necrosis, apoptosis and overall cellular microenvironment is altered due to the modification of proteins and other intracellular molecules. Intensified eosin fluorescence was observed around the central vein of injured liver compared to normal indicating enhanced binding of eosin to the more exposed amino acid residues. To conclude, eosin fluorescence pattern varies with the health status of a tissue and can be used further for the diagnosis and quantification of severity of various liver diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Accurate thermometry based on the red and green fluorescence intensity ratio in NaYF4: Yb, Er nanocrystals for bioapplication.

    Liu, Lixin; Qin, Feng; Lv, Tianquan; Zhang, Zhiguo; Cao, Wenwu

    2016-10-15

    A biological temperature measurement method based on the fluorescence intensity ratio (FIR) was developed to reduce uncertainty. The upconversion luminescence of NaYF4:Yb, Er nanocrystals was studied as a function of temperature around the physiologically relevant range of 300-330 K. We found that the green-green FIR Fe and red-green FIR (I660/I540) varied linearly as temperature increased. The thermometric uncertainties using the two FIRs were discussed and were determined to be almost constant at 0.6 and 0.09 K for green-green and red-green, respectively. The lower thermometric uncertainty comes from the intense signal-to-noise ratio of the measured FIRs owing to their comparable fluorescence intensities.

  4. FLUORESCENT DIAGNOSTICS OF MALIGNANT SKIN TUMORS WITH CHLORIN SERIES PHOTOSENSITIZERS

    E. V. Yaroslavtseva-Isaeva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article shows possibilities in fluorescence imaging of malignant skin tumors with chlorin series photosensitizers (PS photolon and fotoditazin. The regularities of photosensitizer accumulation from the data of local fluorescence spectroscopy depending on the PS and its dose, the clinical picture and the histological form of the malignant skin neoplasm is investigated. It is shown that the level and selectivity of PS accumulation in the tumor focus depends on the PS dose. In studies on 10 patients with basal cell skin cancer after the introduction of fotoditazin at a dose less than 1 mg/kg, fluorescent contrast between tumor and healthy tissue varied between 1.3 and 9.5, the average was 2.8±0.3; for patients who had the administered fotoditazin dose of 1 mg/kg, fluorescent contrast was 2.9±0.4, varying from 1.4 to 5. In a study with 127 patients after the introduction of photolon in the dose of 0.7-1 mg/kg, the average value of the fluorescence intensity in relative units in the intact skin was 6.9±0.3 (min 4.6, max 12.2, at a dose of 1.1 to 1.4 mg/kg – 8.0±0.3 (min 4.6, max 12.5, at a dose of 1.5-2 mg/kg – 9.9±0.7 (min 5.7, max 20.3. It is also shown that fluorescence intensity of malignant neoplasm of the skin with the same dose of the photosensitizer depends on the neoplasm’s clinical and histological forms. So, 3 hours after the introduction of photolon at a dose of 1.3 mg/kg the average fluorescent contrast in the surface type of skin cancer was 2.7±0.5, in the nodal form – 2.3±0.2, in erosive-ulcerative form – 3.6±0.3. In patients with nodular form of squamous skin cancer after the introduction of photolon at a dose of 1.3 mg/kg fluorescent contrast was significantly higher (p<0.05 (average of 2.8±0.2 than in the nodular form of basal cell carcinoma after the introduction of photolon at the same dose (average of 2.1±0.2.

  5. Development of Laser-Induced Fluorescence Diagnostic for the Paul Trap Simulator Experiment

    Chung, Moses; Efthimion, Philip; Gilson, Erik P; Majeski, Richard; Startsev, Edward

    2005-01-01

    The Paul Trap Simulator Experiment (PTSX) is a cylindrical Paul trap whose purpose is to simulate the nonlinear dynamics of intense charged particle beam propagation in alternating-gradient magnetic transport systems. For the in-situ measurement of the transverse ion density profile in the PTSX device, which is essential for the study of beam mismatch and halo particle production, a laser-induced fluorescence diagnostic system is being developed. Instead of cesium, which has been used in the initial phase of the PTSX experiment, barium has been selected as the preferred ion for the laser-induced fluorescence diagnostic. The installation of the barium ion source and the characterization of the tunable dye laser system are discussed. The design of the collection optics with an intensified CCD camera system is also discussed. Finally, initial test results using the laser-induced fluorescence diagnostic will be presented.

  6. An image fiber based fluorescent probe with associated signal processing scheme for biomedical diagnostics

    Vaishakh, M; Murukeshan, V M; Seah, L K

    2008-01-01

    A dual-modality image fiber based fluorescent probe that can be used for depth sensitive imaging and suppression of fluorescent emissions with nanosecond lifetime difference is proposed and illustrated in this paper. The system can give high optical sectioning and employs an algorithm for obtaining phase sensitive images. The system can find main application in in vivo biomedical diagnostics for detecting biochemical changes for distinguishing malignant tissue from healthy tissue

  7. CMOS Time-Resolved, Contact, and Multispectral Fluorescence Imaging for DNA Molecular Diagnostics

    Nan Guo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Instrumental limitations such as bulkiness and high cost prevent the fluorescence technique from becoming ubiquitous for point-of-care deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA detection and other in-field molecular diagnostics applications. The complimentary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS technology, as benefited from process scaling, provides several advanced capabilities such as high integration density, high-resolution signal processing, and low power consumption, enabling sensitive, integrated, and low-cost fluorescence analytical platforms. In this paper, CMOS time-resolved, contact, and multispectral imaging are reviewed. Recently reported CMOS fluorescence analysis microsystem prototypes are surveyed to highlight the present state of the art.

  8. Application of aluminum phthalocyanine nanoparticles for fluorescent diagnostics in dentistry and skin autotransplantology.

    Vasilchenko, Sergey Yu; Volkova, Anna I; Ryabova, Anastasiya V; Loschenov, Victor B; Konov, Vitaly I; Mamedov, Adil A; Kuzmin, Sergey G; Lukyanets, Evgeniy A

    2010-06-01

    This paper deals with the possibility of application of aluminum phthalocyanine (AlPc) nanoparticles in clinical practice. AlPc fluoresces in the molecular form but in the form of nanoparticles it does not. Separation of molecules from an AlPc nanoparticle and therefore the appearance of fluorescence occurs under the effect of a number of biochemo-physical factors. Owing to this feature the application of AlPc nanoparticles followed by the measurement of fluorescence spectra is proposed as a diagnostics method. It was shown that after AlPc nanoparticle application on a tooth surface the fluorescence intensity in the enamel microdamage area is 2-3 times higher than that in the normal enamel area. The appearance of fluorescence after application of AlPc nanoparticles on skin autografts testifies to the presence of inflammation. (c) 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Smartphone-Based Fluorescent Diagnostic System for Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Viruses

    Yeo, Seon-Ju; Choi, Kyunghan; Cuc, Bui Thi; Hong, Nguyen Ngoc; Bao, Duong Tuan; Ngoc, Nguyen Minh; Le, Mai Quynh; Hang, Nguyen Le Khanh; Thach, Nguyen Co; Mallik, Shyam Kumar; Kim, Hak Sung; Chong, Chom-Kyu; Choi, Hak Soo; Sung, Haan Woo; Yu, Kyoungsik

    2016-01-01

    Field diagnostic tools for avian influenza (AI) are indispensable for the prevention and controlled management of highly pathogenic AI-related diseases. More accurate, faster and networked on-site monitoring is demanded to detect such AI viruses with high sensitivity as well as to maintain up-to-date information about their geographical transmission. In this work, we assessed the clinical and field-level performance of a smartphone-based fluorescent diagnostic device with an efficient reflect...

  10. Endoscopic fluorescent diagnostics and PDT of early malignancies of lung and esophagus

    Sokolov, Victor V.; Chissov, Valery I.; Trakhtenberg, A. K.; Mamontov, A. S.; Frank, George A.; Filonenko, E. V.; Telegina, L. V.; Gladunov, V. K.; Belous, T. A.; Aristarkhova, E. I.; Zharkova, Natalia N.; Smirnov, V. V.; Kozlov, Dmitrij N.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper the results of fluorescence diagnostics and photodynamic therapy of early stage malignancies of lung (17 patients) and esophagus (8 patients) are presented. 13 patients had multiple primary tumors. As photosensitizers the new drugs Photoheme and Photosense were used. Complete remission was obtained in 92%. The patients are followed up without relapses to 2,5 years.

  11. Diagnostic Implications of the Reactivity of Fluorescence Tracers

    Sick, V; Westbrook, C

    2008-07-14

    Measurements of fuel concentration distributions with planar laser induced fluorescence of tracer molecules that are added to a base fuel are commonly used in combustion research and development. It usually is assumed that the tracer concentration follows the parent fuel concentration if physical properties such as those determining evaporation are matched. As an example to address this general issue a computational study of combustion of biacetyl/iso-octane mixtures was performed to investigate how well the concentration of biacetyl represents the concentration of iso-octane. For premixed mixture conditions with flame propagation the spatial concentration profiles of the two species in the flame front are separated by 110 {micro}m at 1 bar and by 11 {micro}m at 10 bar. For practical applications this spatial separation is insignificantly small. However, for conditions that mimic ignition and combustion in diesel and HCCI-like operation the differences in tracer and fuel concentration can be significant, exceeding hundreds of percent. At low initial temperature biacetyl was found to be more stable whereas at higher temperature (>1000K) iso-octane is more stable. Similar findings were obtained for a multi-component fuel comprised of iso-octane, n-heptane, methylcyclohexane, and toluene. It may be assumed that similar differences can exist for other tracer/fuel combinations. Caution has therefore to be applied when interpreting PLIF measurements in homogeneous reaction conditions such as in HCCI engine studies.

  12. Tissue classification and diagnostics using a fiber probe for combined Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy

    Cicchi, Riccardo; Anand, Suresh; Crisci, Alfonso; Giordano, Flavio; Rossari, Susanna; De Giorgi, Vincenzo; Maio, Vincenza; Massi, Daniela; Nesi, Gabriella; Buccoliero, Anna Maria; Guerrini, Renzo; Pimpinelli, Nicola; Pavone, Francesco S.

    2015-07-01

    Two different optical fiber probes for combined Raman and fluorescence spectroscopic measurements were designed, developed and used for tissue diagnostics. Two visible laser diodes were used for fluorescence spectroscopy, whereas a laser diode emitting in the NIR was used for Raman spectroscopy. The two probes were based on fiber bundles with a central multimode optical fiber, used for delivering light to the tissue, and 24 surrounding optical fibers for signal collection. Both fluorescence and Raman spectra were acquired using the same detection unit, based on a cooled CCD camera, connected to a spectrograph. The two probes were successfully employed for diagnostic purposes on various tissues in a good agreement with common routine histology. This study included skin, brain and bladder tissues and in particular the classification of: malignant melanoma against melanocytic lesions and healthy skin; urothelial carcinoma against healthy bladder mucosa; brain tumor against dysplastic brain tissue. The diagnostic capabilities were determined using a cross-validation method with a leave-one-out approach, finding very high sensitivity and specificity for all the examined tissues. The obtained results demonstrated that the multimodal approach is crucial for improving diagnostic capabilities. The system presented here can improve diagnostic capabilities on a broad range of tissues and has the potential of being used for endoscopic inspections in the near future.

  13. Diagnostics of MCF plasmas using Lyman-α fluorescence excited by one or two photons

    Voslamber, D.

    1998-11-01

    Laser-induced Lyman-α fluorescence of the hydrogen isotopes is investigated with regard to diagnostic applications in magnetically confined fusion plasmas. A formal analysis is presented for two excitation schemes: one-photon and Doppler-free two-photon excitation. The analysis includes estimates of the expected experimental errors arising from the photon noise and from the sensitivity of the observed fluorescence signals to variations of the plasma and laser parameters. Both excitation schemes are suitable primarily for application in the plasma edge, but even in the plasma bulk of large machines they can still be applied in combination with a diagnostic neutral beam. The two-photon excitation scheme is particularly attractive because it involves absorption spectra that are resolved within the Doppler width. This implies a large diagnostic potential and in particular offers a way to measure the deuterium-tritium fuel mix in fusion reactors. (author)

  14. Fluorescence-Raman Dual Modal Endoscopic System for Multiplexed Molecular Diagnostics

    Jeong, Sinyoung; Kim, Yong-Il; Kang, Homan; Kim, Gunsung; Cha, Myeong Geun; Chang, Hyejin; Jung, Kyung Oh; Kim, Young-Hwa; Jun, Bong-Hyun; Hwang, Do Won; Lee, Yun-Sang; Youn, Hyewon; Lee, Yoon-Sik; Kang, Keon Wook; Lee, Dong Soo; Jeong, Dae Hong

    2015-03-01

    Optical endoscopic imaging, which was recently equipped with bioluminescence, fluorescence, and Raman scattering, allows minimally invasive real-time detection of pathologies on the surface of hollow organs. To characterize pathologic lesions in a multiplexed way, we developed a dual modal fluorescence-Raman endomicroscopic system (FRES), which used fluorescence and surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoprobes (F-SERS dots). Real-time, in vivo, and multiple target detection of a specific cancer was successful, based on the fast imaging capability of fluorescence signals and the multiplex capability of simultaneously detected SERS signals using an optical fiber bundle for intraoperative endoscopic system. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) on the breast cancer xenografts in a mouse orthotopic model were successfully detected in a multiplexed way, illustrating the potential of FRES as a molecular diagnostic instrument that enables real-time tumor characterization of receptors during routine endoscopic procedures.

  15. Diagnostic accuracy of fluorescence microlymphography for detecting limb lymphedema.

    Keo, H H; Husmann, M; Groechenig, E; Willenberg, T; Gretener, S B

    2015-04-01

    Fluorescence microlymphography (FML) is a minimally invasive technique for visualization of the cutaneous lymphatic network. The aim of the study was to assess the accuracy and safety of FML in patients with unilateral lymphedema. This was a cross sectional study. Patients with unilateral leg swelling were assessed and compared with the unaffected contralateral limb. FML was performed in all index legs and the contralateral leg by injecting 0.1 mL of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled dextran intradermally in both limbs at the same level. The most prominent swelling of the affected limb was the anatomical reference. The spread of the dye in the lymphatic capillaries of the skin was measured in all dimensions by epiluminator intravital microscopy and the maximum dye spread value 10 min after injection was used for statistical analysis. The contralateral leg served as control. Test accuracy and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to assess threshold values that best predict lymphedema. Between March 2008 and February 2014 seventy patients with unilateral chronic leg swelling were clinically diagnosed with lymphedema. The median age was 45 (IQR 27-56) years. Of those, 46 (65.7%) were female and 71.4% had primary and 28.6% secondary lymphedema. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratio, and positive and negative predictive value were 94.3%, 78.6%, 4.40, 0.07, 81.5%, and 93.2% for the 12 mm cut off level and 91.4%, 85.7%, 6.40, 0.10, 86.5%, and 90.9% for the 14 mm cut off level, respectively. The area under the ROC curve was 0.89 (95% CI: 0.83-0.95). No major adverse events were observed. FML is an almost atraumatic and safe technique for detecting lymphedema in patients with leg swelling. In this series the greatest accuracy was observed at a cut off level of ≥14 mm maximum spread. Copyright © 2015 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Artificial neural networks for processing fluorescence spectroscopy data in skin cancer diagnostics

    Lenhardt, L; Zeković, I; Dramićanin, T; Dramićanin, M D

    2013-01-01

    Over the years various optical spectroscopic techniques have been widely used as diagnostic tools in the discrimination of many types of malignant diseases. Recently, synchronous fluorescent spectroscopy (SFS) coupled with chemometrics has been applied in cancer diagnostics. The SFS method involves simultaneous scanning of both emission and excitation wavelengths while keeping the interval of wavelengths (constant-wavelength mode) or frequencies (constant-energy mode) between them constant. This method is fast, relatively inexpensive, sensitive and non-invasive. Total synchronous fluorescence spectra of normal skin, nevus and melanoma samples were used as input for training of artificial neural networks. Two different types of artificial neural networks were trained, the self-organizing map and the feed-forward neural network. Histopathology results of investigated skin samples were used as the gold standard for network output. Based on the obtained classification success rate of neural networks, we concluded that both networks provided high sensitivity with classification errors between 2 and 4%. (paper)

  17. Quantified light-induced fluorescence, review of a diagnostic tool in prevention of oral disease

    de Josselin de Jong, Elbert; Higham, Susan M.; Smith, Philip W.; van Daelen, Catherina J.; van der Veen, Monique H.

    2009-05-01

    Diagnostic methods for the use in preventive dentistry are being developed continuously. Few of these find their way into general practice. Although the general trend in medicine is to focus on disease prevention and early diagnostics, in dentistry this is still not the case. Nevertheless, in dental research some of these methods seem to be promising for near future use by the general dental professional. In this paper an overview is given of a method called quantitative light-induced fluorescence or (QLF) in which visible and harmless light excites the teeth in the patient's mouth to produce fluorescent images, which can be stored on disk and computer analyzed. White spots (early dental caries) are detected and quantified as well as bacterial metabolites on and in the teeth. An overview of research to validate the technique and modeling to further the understanding of the technique by Monte Carlo simulation is given and it is shown that the fluorescence phenomena can be described by the simulation model in a qualitative way. A model describing the visibility of red fluorescence from within the dental tissue is added, as this was still lacking in current literature. An overview is given of the clinical images made with the system and of the extensive research which has been done. The QLF™ technology has been shown to be of importance when used in clinical trials with respect to the testing of toothpastes and preventive treatments. It is expected that the QLF™ technology will soon find its way into the general dental practice.

  18. Evaluation of the Acridine Orange Fluorescence Technique and the Indirect Fluorescent Antibody as Diagnostic Tests for Tropical Theileriosis

    Mahmoud

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the use of acridine orange fluorescence technique on blood slides as a rapid diagnostic test for tropical theileriosis in comparison with the Giemsa-stained thin blood film technique. Also the indirect fluorescent antibody test has been employed for the serodiagnosis of tropical theileriosis. The study was carried out on 62 young and 48 adult Friesian cattle suffering from clinical tropical theileriosis in Qassim Region, Central Saudi Arabia, during the period from August 2006 to July 2008. For control, blood samples were also obtained from 25 young and 25 adult, clinically healthy, Friesian cattle, selected at random from different dairy farms in Qassim Region. Thin blood films were fixed with methanol and stained with Giemsa and acridine orange and were examined by two independent microbiologists. There was 100% correlation in the interpretation of slides stained with Giemsa and acridine orange both with respect to positivity and negativity, between the two microbiologists. It is concluded that if facilities are available acridine orange is a valuable alternative for screening tropical theileriosis. The method may also have potential value in the diagnosis of Theileria parva, which causes East Coast fever, and also other Theileria species. Results of the present study also showed that IFA test was not found sufficiently sensitive and specific as has been reported earlier. [Vet. World 2011; 4(8.000: 341-344

  19. Smartphone-Based Fluorescent Diagnostic System for Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Viruses.

    Yeo, Seon-Ju; Choi, Kyunghan; Cuc, Bui Thi; Hong, Nguyen Ngoc; Bao, Duong Tuan; Ngoc, Nguyen Minh; Le, Mai Quynh; Hang, Nguyen Le Khanh; Thach, Nguyen Co; Mallik, Shyam Kumar; Kim, Hak Sung; Chong, Chom-Kyu; Choi, Hak Soo; Sung, Haan Woo; Yu, Kyoungsik; Park, Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Field diagnostic tools for avian influenza (AI) are indispensable for the prevention and controlled management of highly pathogenic AI-related diseases. More accurate, faster and networked on-site monitoring is demanded to detect such AI viruses with high sensitivity as well as to maintain up-to-date information about their geographical transmission. In this work, we assessed the clinical and field-level performance of a smartphone-based fluorescent diagnostic device with an efficient reflective light collection module using a coumarin-derived dendrimer-based fluorescent lateral flow immunoassay. By application of an optimized bioconjugate, a smartphone-based diagnostic device had a two-fold higher detectability as compared to that of the table-top fluorescence strip reader for three different AI subtypes (H5N3, H7N1, and H9N2). Additionally, in a clinical study of H5N1-confirmed patients, the smartphone-based diagnostic device showed a sensitivity of 96.55% (28/29) [95% confidence interval (CI): 82.24 to 99.91] and a specificity of 98.55% (68/69) (95% CI: 92.19 to 99.96). The measurement results from the distributed individual smartphones were wirelessly transmitted via short messaging service and collected by a centralized database system for further information processing and data mining. Smartphone-based diagnosis provided highly sensitive measurement results for H5N1 detection within 15 minutes. Because of its high sensitivity, portability and automatic reporting feature, the proposed device will enable agile identification of patients and efficient control of AI dissemination.

  20. Smartphone-Based Fluorescent Diagnostic System for Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Viruses

    Yeo, Seon-Ju; Choi, Kyunghan; Cuc, Bui Thi; Hong, Nguyen Ngoc; Bao, Duong Tuan; Ngoc, Nguyen Minh; Le, Mai Quynh; Hang, Nguyen Le Khanh; Thach, Nguyen Co; Mallik, Shyam Kumar; Kim, Hak Sung; Chong, Chom-Kyu; Choi, Hak Soo; Sung, Haan Woo; Yu, Kyoungsik; Park, Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Field diagnostic tools for avian influenza (AI) are indispensable for the prevention and controlled management of highly pathogenic AI-related diseases. More accurate, faster and networked on-site monitoring is demanded to detect such AI viruses with high sensitivity as well as to maintain up-to-date information about their geographical transmission. In this work, we assessed the clinical and field-level performance of a smartphone-based fluorescent diagnostic device with an efficient reflective light collection module using a coumarin-derived dendrimer-based fluorescent lateral flow immunoassay. By application of an optimized bioconjugate, a smartphone-based diagnostic device had a two-fold higher detectability as compared to that of the table-top fluorescence strip reader for three different AI subtypes (H5N3, H7N1, and H9N2). Additionally, in a clinical study of H5N1-confirmed patients, the smartphone-based diagnostic device showed a sensitivity of 96.55% (28/29) [95% confidence interval (CI): 82.24 to 99.91] and a specificity of 98.55% (68/69) (95% CI: 92.19 to 99.96). The measurement results from the distributed individual smartphones were wirelessly transmitted via short messaging service and collected by a centralized database system for further information processing and data mining. Smartphone-based diagnosis provided highly sensitive measurement results for H5N1 detection within 15 minutes. Because of its high sensitivity, portability and automatic reporting feature, the proposed device will enable agile identification of patients and efficient control of AI dissemination. PMID:26877781

  1. Carbon nano-onions as fluorescent on/off modulated nanoprobes for diagnostics

    Stefania Lettieri

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Multishell fullerenes, known as carbon nano-onions (CNOs, have emerged as a platform for bioimaging because of their cell-penetration properties and minimal systemic toxicity. Here, we describe the covalent functionalization of CNOs with a π-extended distyryl-substituted boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY dye with on/off modulated fluorescence emission activated by an acidic environment. The switching properties are linked to the photoinduced electron transfer (PET characteristics of the dimethylamino functionalities attached to the BODIPY core. The on/off emission of the fluorescent CNOs is fast and reversible both in solution and in vitro, making this nanomaterial suitable as pH-dependent probes for diagnostic applications.

  2. Survey, applications, and prospects of Johnson noise thermometry

    Blalock, T.V.; Shepard, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    Significant progress in the field of Johnson noise thermometry has occurred since the 1971 survey of Kamper. This paper will review the foundation work of Johnson noise thermometry, survey the basic methods which do not utilize quantum devices for noise thermometry for industrial temperatures, and present some applications of noise thermometry in temperature scale metrology and process temperature instrumentation. 35 references

  3. Synergy Effect of Combining Fluorescence and Mid Infrared Fiber Spectroscopy for Kidney Tumor Diagnostics

    Andrey Bogomolov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Matching pairs of tumor and non-tumor kidney tissue samples of four patients were investigated ex vivo using a combination of two methods, attenuated total reflection mid infrared spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy, through respectively prepared and adjusted fiber probes. In order to increase the data information content, the measurements on tissue samples in both methods were performed in the same 31 preselected positions. Multivariate data analysis revealed a synergic effect of combining the two methods for the diagnostics of kidney tumor compared to individual techniques.

  4. Single-cell photoacoustic thermometry

    Gao, Liang; Wang, Lidai; Li, Chiye; Liu, Yan; Ke, Haixin; Zhang, Chi

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. A novel photoacoustic thermometric method is presented for simultaneously imaging cells and sensing their temperature. With three-seconds-per-frame imaging speed, a temperature resolution of 0.2°C was achieved in a photo-thermal cell heating experiment. Compared to other approaches, the photoacoustic thermometric method has the advantage of not requiring custom-developed temperature-sensitive biosensors. This feature should facilitate the conversion of single-cell thermometry into a routine lab tool and make it accessible to a much broader biological research community. PMID:23377004

  5. Optical diagnostic of breast cancer using Raman, polarimetric and fluorescence spectroscopy

    Anwar, Shahzad; Firdous, Shamaraz; Rehman, Aziz-ul; Nawaz, Muhammed

    2015-04-01

    We presented the optical diagnostic of normal and cancerous human breast tissues using Raman, polarimetric and fluorescence spectroscopic techniques. Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death among women worldwide. Optical diagnostics of cancer offered early intervention and the greatest chance of cure. Spectroscopic data were collected from freshly excised surgical specimens of normal tissues with Raman bands at 800, 1171 and 1530 cm-1 arising mainly by lipids, nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates and amino acids. For breast cancer, Raman bands are observed at 1070, 1211, 1495, 1583 and 1650 cm-1. Results demonstrate that the spectra of normal tissue are dominated by lipids and amino acids. Polarization decomposition of the Mueller matrix and confocal microscopic fluorescence provides detailed description of cancerous tissue and distinguishes between the normal and malignant one. Based on these findings, we successfully differentiate normal and malignant breast tissues at an early stage of disease. There is a need to develop a new tool for noninvasive, real-time diagnosis of tissue abnormalities and a test procedure for detecting breast cancer at an early stage.

  6. Ultrasonic thermometry system for measuring very high temperatures in reactor safety experiments

    Carlson, G.A.; Sullivan, W.H.; Plein, H.G.; Kerley, T.M.

    1979-06-01

    Ultrasonic thermometry has many potential applications in reactor safety experiments, where extremely high temperatures and lack of visual access may preclude the use of conventional diagnostics. This report details ultrasonic thermometry requirements for one such experiment, the molten fuel pool experiment. Sensors, transducers, and signal processing electronics are described in detail. Axial heat transfer in the sensors is modelled and found acceptably small. Measurement errors, calculations of their effect, and ways to minimize them are given. A rotating sensor concept is discussed which holds promise of alleviating sticking problems at high temperature. Applications of ultrasonic thermometry to three in-core experiments are described. In them, five 10-mm-length sensor elements were used to measure axial temperatures in a UO 2 or UO 2 -steel system fission-heated to about 2860 0 C

  7. Development of laser-induced fluorescence for precombustion diagnostics in spark-ignition engines

    Neij, H.

    1998-11-01

    ) - was investigated with respect to optical properties relevant to laser-based combustion diagnostics, by flame emission, optical absorption, laser-induced fluorescence, spontaneous Raman scattering, and rotational CARS. The potential for LIF detection of water vapor in combustion processes was evaluated. Water molecules were excited in a two-photon process at 248 nm yielding fluorescence around 400-500 nm. Spectrally interfering species at flame conditions were identified as hot O{sub 2}, and laser-generated C{sub 2} and N{sub 2}{sup +}. The detection limit for two-dimensional single-shot detection of water vapor at atmospheric conditions was estimated to 0.2%. Extrapolations to flame conditions were presented. A pressure-dependent process was identified, which decreased the signal intensity, broadened the linewidths, and degraded the spectral-excitation feature as the ambient pressure was increased. Two-photon water vapor LIF was applied to a research engine for residual gas visualization. The accuracy and precision of both two-dimensional and spatially averaged data were discussed. The LIF data was used to explain the engine behavior on a cycle-by-cycle basis. A significant correlation was identified between the combustion event and the spatially averaged water signal around the spark gap at the time of ignition 181 refs, 26 figs, 7 tabs

  8. Development of the Megahertz Planar Laser-induced Fluorescence Diagnostic for Plasma Turbulence Visualization

    Kuritsyn, Aleksey; Levinton, Fred M.

    2004-01-01

    A megahertz LIF-based diagnostic system for measuring ion density fluctuations in two spatial dimensions is described. Well resolved spatial and temporal 2D images of turbulent structures will be useful in understanding ion turbulence in magnetically confined plasmas which is a key factor in the performance of fusion experimental devices. A sheet beam of a megahertz repetition rate tunable Alexandrite laser is used to excite ion emission from argon plasma. The fluorescence emitted from the plane of the laser beam is detected with a narrow band interference filter and intensified ultra-fast CCD camera providing 2D images of relative ion density fluctuations every microsecond. It is expected that the edge plasma on fusion devices will be accessible to this technique

  9. Diagnostic and Prognostic Utility of Fluorescence In situ Hybridization (FISH) Analysis in Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

    Gonzales, Patrick R; Mikhail, Fady M

    2017-12-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a hematologic neoplasia consisting of incompletely differentiated hematopoietic cells of the myeloid lineage that proliferate in the bone marrow, blood, and/or other tissues. Clinical implementation of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in cytogenetic laboratories allows for high-resolution analysis of recurrent structural chromosomal rearrangements specific to AML, especially in AML with normal karyotypes, which comprises approximately 33-50% of AML-positive specimens. Here, we review the use of several FISH probe strategies in the diagnosis of AML. We also review the standards and guidelines currently in place for use by clinical cytogenetic laboratories in the evaluation of AML. Updated standards and guidelines from the WHO, ACMG, and NCCN have further defined clinically significant, recurring cytogenetic anomalies in AML that are detectable by FISH. FISH continues to be a powerful technique in the diagnosis of AML, with higher resolution than conventional cytogenetic analysis, rapid turnaround time, and a considerable diagnostic and prognostic utility.

  10. Single-contact tunneling thermometry

    Maksymovych, Petro

    2016-02-23

    A single-contact tunneling thermometry circuit includes a tunnel junction formed between two objects. Junction temperature gradient information is determined based on a mathematical relationship between a target alternating voltage applied across the junction and the junction temperature gradient. Total voltage measured across the junction indicates the magnitude of the target alternating voltage. A thermal gradient is induced across the junction. A reference thermovoltage is measured when zero alternating voltage is applied across the junction. An increasing alternating voltage is applied while measuring a thermovoltage component and a DC rectification voltage component created by the applied alternating voltage. The target alternating voltage is reached when the thermovoltage is nullified or doubled by the DC rectification voltage depending on the sign of the reference thermovoltage. Thermoelectric current and current measurements may be utilized in place of the thermovoltage and voltage measurements. The system may be automated with a feedback loop.

  11. UV laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy and laser Doppler flowmetry in the diagnostics of alopecia

    Skomorokha, Diana P.; Pigoreva, Yulia N.; Salmin, Vladimir V.

    2016-04-01

    Development of optical biopsy methods has a great interest for medical diagnostics. In clinical and experimental studies it is very important to analyze blood circulation quickly and accurately, thereby laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) is widely used. UV laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (UV LIFS) is express highly sensitive and widely-spread method with no destructive impact, high excitation selectivity and the possibility to use in highly scattering media. The goal of this work was to assess a correlation of UV laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy and laser Doppler flowmetry parameters, and a possibility to identify or to differentiate various types of pathological changes in tissues according to their autofluorescence spectra. Three groups of patients with diffuse (symptomatic) alopecia, androgenic alopecia, and focal alopecia have been tested. Each groups consisted of not less than 20 persons. The measurements have been done in the parietal and occipital regions of the sculls. We used the original automated spectrofluorimeter to record autofluorescence spectra, and standard laser Doppler flowmeter BLF-21 (Transonic Systems, Inc., USA) to analyze the basal levels of blood circulation. Our results show that UV LIFS accurately distinguishes the zones with different types of alopecia. We found high correlation of the basal levels of blood circulation and the integrated intensity of autofluorescence in the affected tissue.

  12. The diagnostic capability of laser induced fluorescence in the characterization of excised breast tissues

    Galmed, A. H.; Elshemey, Wael M.

    2017-08-01

    Differentiating between normal, benign and malignant excised breast tissues is one of the major worldwide challenges that need a quantitative, fast and reliable technique in order to avoid personal errors in diagnosis. Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) is a promising technique that has been applied for the characterization of biological tissues including breast tissue. Unfortunately, only few studies have adopted a quantitative approach that can be directly applied for breast tissue characterization. This work provides a quantitative means for such characterization via introduction of several LIF characterization parameters and determining the diagnostic accuracy of each parameter in the differentiation between normal, benign and malignant excised breast tissues. Extensive analysis on 41 lyophilized breast samples using scatter diagrams, cut-off values, diagnostic indices and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, shows that some spectral parameters (peak height and area under the peak) are superior for characterization of normal, benign and malignant breast tissues with high sensitivity (up to 0.91), specificity (up to 0.91) and accuracy ranking (highly accurate).

  13. Consolidated Laser-Induced Fluorescence Diagnostic Systems for the NASA Ames Arc Jet Facilities

    Grinstead, Jay; Wilder, Michael C.; Porter, Barry; Brown, Jeff; Yeung, Dickson; Battazzo, Steve; Brubaker, Tim

    2016-01-01

    The spectroscopic diagnostic technique of two photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence (TALIF) of atomic species for non-intrusive arc jet flow property measurement was first implemented at NASA Ames in the mid-1990s. Use of TALIF expanded at NASA Ames and to NASA Johnsons arc jet facility in the late 2000s. In 2013-2014, NASA combined the agency's large-scale arc jet test capabilities at NASA Ames. Concurrent with that effort, the agency also sponsored a project to establish two comprehensive LIF diagnostic systems for the Aerodynamic Heating Facility (AHF) and Interaction Heating Facility (IHF) arc jets. The scope of the project enabled further engineering development of the existing IHF LIF system as well as the complete reconstruction of the original AHF LIF system. The updated LIF systems are identical in design and capability. They represent the culmination of over 20 years of development experience in transitioning a specialized laboratory research tool into a measurement system for large-scale, high-demand test facilities. This paper documents the overall system design from measurement requirements to implementation. Representative data from the redeveloped AHF and IHF LIF systems are also presented.

  14. Fluorescence imaging as a diagnostic of M-band x-ray drive condition in hohlraum with fluorescent Si targets

    Li, Qi; Hu, Zhimin; Yao, Li; Huang, Chengwu; Yuan, Zheng; Zhao, Yang; Xiong, Gang; Qing, Bo; Lv, Min; Zhu, Tuo; Deng, Bo; Li, Jin; Wei, Minxi; Zhan, Xiayu; Li, Jun; Yang, Yimeng; Su, Chunxiao; Yang, Guohong; Zhang, Jiyan; Li, Sanwei

    2017-01-01

    Fluorescence imaging of surrogate Si-doped CH targets has been used to provide a measurement for drive condition of high-energy x-ray (i.e. M-band x-ray) drive symmetry upon the capsule in hohlraum on Shenguang-II laser facility. A series of experiments dedicated to the study of photo-pumping and fluorescence effect in Si-plasma are presented. To investigate the feasibility of fluorescence imaging in Si-plasma, an silicon plasma in Si-foil target is pre-formed at ground state by the soft x-ray from a half-hohlraum, which is then photo-pumped by the K-shell lines from a spatially distinct laser-produced Si-plasma. The resonant Si photon pump is used to improve the fluorescence signal and cause visible image in the Si-foil. Preliminary fluorescence imaging of Si-ball target is performed in both Si-doped and pure Au hohlraum. The usual capsule at the center of the hohlraum is replaced with a solid Si-doped CH-ball (Si-ball). Since the fluorescence is proportional to the photon pump upon the Si-plasma, high-energy x-ray drive symmetry is equal to the fluorescence distribution of the Si-ball. (paper)

  15. Compact point-detection fluorescence spectroscopy system for quantifying intrinsic fluorescence redox ratio in brain cancer diagnostics

    Liu, Quan; Grant, Gerald; Li, Jianjun; Zhang, Yan; Hu, Fangyao; Li, Shuqin; Wilson, Christy; Chen, Kui; Bigner, Darell; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2011-03-01

    We report the development of a compact point-detection fluorescence spectroscopy system and two data analysis methods to quantify the intrinsic fluorescence redox ratio and diagnose brain cancer in an orthotopic brain tumor rat model. Our system employs one compact cw diode laser (407 nm) to excite two primary endogenous fluorophores, reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, and flavin adenine dinucleotide. The spectra were first analyzed using a spectral filtering modulation method developed previously to derive the intrinsic fluorescence redox ratio, which has the advantages of insensitivty to optical coupling and rapid data acquisition and analysis. This method represents a convenient and rapid alternative for achieving intrinsic fluorescence-based redox measurements as compared to those complicated model-based methods. It is worth noting that the method can also extract total hemoglobin concentration at the same time but only if the emission path length of fluorescence light, which depends on the illumination and collection geometry of the optical probe, is long enough so that the effect of absorption on fluorescence intensity due to hemoglobin is significant. Then a multivariate method was used to statistically classify normal tissues and tumors. Although the first method offers quantitative tissue metabolism information, the second method provides high overall classification accuracy. The two methods provide complementary capabilities for understanding cancer development and noninvasively diagnosing brain cancer. The results of our study suggest that this portable system can be potentially used to demarcate the elusive boundary between a brain tumor and the surrounding normal tissue during surgical resection.

  16. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH as a diagnostic tool for Williams-Beuren syndrome

    Deise Helena de Souza

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH with commercial probes covering the elastin gene (ELN was used to determine the frequency of the 7q11.23 deletion in 18 children clinically diagnosed with Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS. A de novo deletion was detected in 15 of the children (83%. Diagnostic investigation for WBS started late in childhood (median = 5.8 years. All the children showed facial features typical of the syndrome, mental retardation and developmental delay. Over-friendliness was observed in the majority of cases. Clinodactyly of the 5th finger (n = 13, cardiovascular disease (n = 9, loquacity (n = 9, low birthweight (n = 8, and failure to thrive (n = 9 were observed only in those children with the deletion. Respiratory problems (n = 9, though not previously reported in the literature, was a common finding in the group studied. Our results confirmed that FISH is useful in identifying 7q11.23 deletions in cases of WBS. Clinical manifestations were more evident in the deletion-positive children.

  17. Fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy for warm dense matter studies and ICF plasma diagnostics

    Hansen, S. B.; Harding, E. C.; Knapp, P. F.; Gomez, M. R.; Nagayama, T.; Bailey, J. E.

    2018-05-01

    The burning core of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) plasma produces bright x-rays at stagnation that can directly diagnose core conditions essential for comparison to simulations and understanding fusion yields. These x-rays also backlight the surrounding shell of warm, dense matter, whose properties are critical to understanding the efficacy of the inertial confinement and global morphology. We show that the absorption and fluorescence spectra of mid-Z impurities or dopants in the warm dense shell can reveal the optical depth, temperature, and density of the shell and help constrain models of warm, dense matter. This is illustrated by the example of a high-resolution spectrum collected from an ICF plasma with a beryllium shell containing native iron impurities. Analysis of the iron K-edge provides model-independent diagnostics of the shell density (2.3 × 1024 e/cm3) and temperature (10 eV), while a 12-eV red shift in Kβ and 5-eV blue shift in the K-edge discriminate among models of warm dense matter: Both shifts are well described by a self-consistent field model based on density functional theory but are not fully consistent with isolated-atom models using ad-hoc density effects.

  18. Multisegment one-step RT-PCR fluorescent labeling of influenza A virus genome for use in diagnostic microarray applications

    Vasin, A V; Plotnikova, M A; Klotchenko, S A; Elpaeva, E A; Komissarov, A B; Egorov, V V; Kiselev, O I [Research Institute of Influenza of the Ministry of Health and Social Development of the Russian Federation, 15/17 Prof. Popova St., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Sandybaev, N T; Chervyakova, O V; Strochkov, V M; Taylakova, E T; Koshemetov, J K; Mamadaliev, S M, E-mail: vasin@influenza.spb.ru [Research Institute for Biological Safety Problems of the RK NBC/SC ME and S RK, Gvardeiskiy (Kazakhstan)

    2011-04-01

    Microarray technology is one of the most challenging methods of influenza A virus subtyping, which is based on the antigenic properties of viral surface glycoproteins - hemagglutinin and neuraminidase. On the example of biochip for detection of influenza A/H5N1 virus we showed the possibility of using multisegment RTPCR method for amplification of fluorescently labeled cDNA of all possible influenza A virus subtypes with a single pair of primers in influenza diagnostic microarrays.

  19. Ultraviolet-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy can be used as a diagnostic tool for gamma irradiation detection in vivo.

    K-Abdelhalim, Mohamed Anwar; Moussa, Sherif A-Abdelmottaleb

    2016-09-01

    The spectroscopic properties can indicate important features about the nature and severity of the disease. However, no earlier studies have been used the spectroscopic properties as a diagnostic tool for radiation detection. This study was aimed to use ultraviolet-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool for gamma irradiation detection in rats in vivo. Adult male rats were exposed to 25, 50, 75 and 100 Gray as single dose, using Cobalt-60 (Co-60) source with a dose rate of 0.883 centi Gray/sec (cGy/s). Ultraviolet and fluorescence spectroscopy of rat's blood serum were measured. After gamma irradiation of rats in vivo, the blood serum absorbance peaks for 25, 50, 75 and 100 Gray (Gy) decreased and shifted towards the ultra violet wavelength. A maximal change in fluorescence intensity of blood serum at 350 nm was obtained when exciting light at 194 nm after irradiation. The fluorescence intensity also decreased with the dose. The highest radiation gamma dose might be accompanied with the highest oxidative stress. This study suggests that at the above mentioned gamma radiation doses, the blood is highly fragmented; with low aggregation at 25 Gy and with high aggregation at 50-100 Gy.

  20. Laser diagnostics in combustion. Elastic scattering and picosecond laser-induced fluorescence

    Ossler, Frederik

    1999-05-01

    .01 and 10 bar. The effective lifetimes generally decrease with temperature and increase with pressure and in different ways for the two substances which gives implications of their use to combustion related studies. The fluorescence emission from gas phase aromatic hydrocarbons has been studied at elevated temperatures and at atmospheric pressure for different concentrations of oxygen (0-10%). Picosecond laser radiation at 266 nm was used for the excitation. The lifetimes for most of the substances decreased between one and two orders of magnitude when the temperature was increased between 400 and 1200 K. The dependence of the lifetimes on temperature and oxygen concentration indicate that the relaxation dynamics is determined by sequences and the density of vibrational states. The results give also some implications to combustion related diagnostics 170 refs, 30 figs, 2 tabs

  1. High Repetition Rate Thermometry System And Method

    Chrystie, Robin

    2015-05-14

    A system and method for rapid thermometry using intrapulse spectroscopy can include a laser for propagating pulses of electromagnetic radiation to a region. Each of the pulses can be chirped. The pulses from the region can be detected. An intrapulse absorbance spectrum can be determined from the pulses. An instantaneous temperature of the region based on the intrapulse absorbance spectrum can be determined.

  2. High Repetition Rate Thermometry System And Method

    Chrystie, Robin; Farooq, Aamir

    2015-01-01

    A system and method for rapid thermometry using intrapulse spectroscopy can include a laser for propagating pulses of electromagnetic radiation to a region. Each of the pulses can be chirped. The pulses from the region can be detected. An intrapulse absorbance spectrum can be determined from the pulses. An instantaneous temperature of the region based on the intrapulse absorbance spectrum can be determined.

  3. Hyper-filter-fluorescer spectrometer for fusion x-ray diagnostics

    Wang, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    The filter-fluorescer spectrometer (FFS) is a powerful tool for measuring x-ray spectrum from high fluence x-ray sources. However, this technique is limited to energies less than 120 keV, because there are no practical absorption edges available above this energy. In this paper, we present a new method of utilizing the filter-fluorescer system for x-ray spectral measurement above 120 keV. The new apparatus is called hyper-filter-fluorescer spectrometer

  4. Application of ultrasonic thermometry in LMFBR safety research

    Carlson, G.A.; Sullivan, W.H.; Plein, H.G.

    1977-01-01

    Ultrasonic thermometry has many potential applications in reactor safety research, where extremely high temperatures and lack of visual access may preclude the use of conventional diagnostics. An application (the in-core molten fuel pool experiment) will be described in which thoriated tungsten ultrasonic thermometers were used to measure temperatures in UO 2 to incipient melt (2860 0 ). Each thermometer included five sensor elements 10 mm long, providing five temperatures within the UO 2 at various axial locations. The 10 mm spatial resolution is about five times better than previous applications of the technique. Temperature resolution of +-10 0 C was indicated by calibration data. Besides providing temperature data approximately 1000 0 C higher than were obtained with thermocouples, the thermometer yielded valuable axial temperature profile data. Details of the sensors, exciting coils, and signal conditioning electronics will be given

  5. Measurements with magnetic field in the National Spherical Torus Experiment using the motional Stark effect with laser induced fluorescence diagnostic

    Foley, E. L.; Levinton, F. M. [Nova Photonics, Inc., Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    The motional Stark effect with laser-induced fluorescence diagnostic (MSE-LIF) has been installed and tested on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. The MSE-LIF diagnostic will be capable of measuring radially resolved profiles of magnetic field magnitude or pitch angle in NSTX plasmas. The system includes a diagnostic neutral hydrogen beam and a laser which excites the n = 2 to n = 3 transition. A viewing system has been implemented which will support up to 38 channels from the plasma edge to past the magnetic axis. First measurements of MSE-LIF signals in the presence of small applied magnetic fields in neutral gas are reported.

  6. Measurements with magnetic field in the National Spherical Torus Experiment using the motional Stark effect with laser induced fluorescence diagnostic

    Foley, E. L.; Levinton, F. M.

    2013-04-01

    The motional Stark effect with laser-induced fluorescence diagnostic (MSE-LIF) has been installed and tested on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. The MSE-LIF diagnostic will be capable of measuring radially resolved profiles of magnetic field magnitude or pitch angle in NSTX plasmas. The system includes a diagnostic neutral hydrogen beam and a laser which excites the n = 2 to n = 3 transition. A viewing system has been implemented which will support up to 38 channels from the plasma edge to past the magnetic axis. First measurements of MSE-LIF signals in the presence of small applied magnetic fields in neutral gas are reported.

  7. Dispersive X-ray fluorescence applications in energy in environmental problems diagnostic

    Odino, R.; Souto, B.; Roca, S.; Campomar, W.

    1994-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence energy was used to detect the grade of contamination due to a Portland cement factory. X-ray fluorescence was used to determine the incidence of a Portland cement plant in the quality of air in its surroundings. Many contaminants (Cu, Pb, Ni, Br) do not come from the Portland cement industry but other industries in the zone

  8. Luminescence thermometry with Eu{sup 3+} doped GdAlO{sub 3}

    Lojpur, Vesna, E-mail: vesna.lojpur@yahoo.com; Ćulubrk, Sanja; Medić, Mina; Dramicanin, Miroslav

    2016-02-15

    Eu{sup 3+} doped GdAlO{sub 3} powder synthesized by solid state reaction was investigated for application in luminescence thermometry. Phase composition of material was confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction analysis. The photoluminescence emission spectra were collected under excitation of 399 nm, while elevating the temperature of the sample from the room temperature to 793 K. Emissions from {sup 5}D{sub 1}→{sup 7}F{sub 1} and {sup 5}D{sub 0}→{sup 7}F{sub 2} characteristic transitions of Eu{sup 3+} ions are selected for the temperature-dependence study using the fluorescence intensity ratio method. Emission decay curves measured at the strongest emission peak centered at 614 nm were recorded in a same temperature range. Data analysis showed that thermometry by fluorescence intensity ratio method can be used over the temperature region 293–793 K with the maximal relative sensitivity of 2.96% K{sup −1} (at 293 K). Temporal dependence of emission (lifetime) provides temperature sensing from 620 to 793 K with the maximal relative sensitivity of 2.28% K{sup −1}. - Highlights: • GdAlO{sub 3}: 4 at% of Eu{sup 3+} can be used for luminescence thermometry in the 293–793 K range. • Combined FIR and lifetime thermometry provide >0.5% K{sup −1} relative sensitivity. • Temperature dependence of lifetime is well described energy gap law model.

  9. In vivo quantification of fluorescent molecular markers in real-time by ratio Imaging for diagnostic screening and image-guided surgery

    Bogaards, A.; Sterenborg, H. J. C. M.; Trachtenberg, J.; Wilson, B. C.; Lilge, L.

    2007-01-01

    Future applications of "molecular diagnostic screening" and "molecular image-guided surgery" will demand images of molecular markers with high resolution and high throughput (similar to >= 30 frames/second). MRI, SPECT, PET, optical fluorescence tomography, hyper-spectral fluorescence imaging, and

  10. Fast thermometry for superconducting rf cavity testing

    Orris, Darryl; Bellantoni, Leo; Carcagno, Ruben H.; Edwards, Helen; Harms, Elvin Robert; Khabiboulline, Timergali N.; Kotelnikov, Sergey; Makulski, Andrzej; Nehring, Roger; Pischalnikov, Yuriy; Fermilab

    2007-01-01

    Fast readout of strategically placed low heat capacity thermometry can provide valuable information of Superconducting RF (SRF) cavity performance. Such a system has proven very effective for the development and testing of new cavity designs. Recently, several resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) were installed in key regions of interest on a new 9 cell 3.9 GHz SRF cavity with integrated HOM design at FNAL. A data acquisition system was developed to read out these sensors with enough time and temperature resolution to measure temperature changes on the cavity due to heat generated from multipacting or quenching within power pulses. The design and performance of the fast thermometry system will be discussed along with results from tests of the 9 cell 3.9GHz SRF cavity

  11. Fast thermometry for superconducting rf cavity testing

    Orris, Darryl; Bellantoni, Leo; Carcagno, Ruben H.; Edwards, Helen; Harms, Elvin Robert; Khabiboulline, Timergali N.; Kotelnikov, Sergey; Makulski, Andrzej; Nehring, Roger; Pischalnikov, Yuriy; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    Fast readout of strategically placed low heat capacity thermometry can provide valuable information of Superconducting RF (SRF) cavity performance. Such a system has proven very effective for the development and testing of new cavity designs. Recently, several resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) were installed in key regions of interest on a new 9 cell 3.9 GHz SRF cavity with integrated HOM design at FNAL. A data acquisition system was developed to read out these sensors with enough time and temperature resolution to measure temperature changes on the cavity due to heat generated from multipacting or quenching within power pulses. The design and performance of the fast thermometry system will be discussed along with results from tests of the 9 cell 3.9GHz SRF cavity.

  12. Signal processing method for Johnson noise thermometry

    Hwang, I. G.; Moon, B. S.; Kinser, Rpger

    2003-01-01

    The development of Johnson Noise Thermometry requires a high sensitive preamplifier circuit to pick up the temperature-related noise on the sensing element. However, the random noise generated in this amplification circuit causes a significant erroneous influence to the measurement. This paper describes signal processing mechanism of the Johnson Noise Thermometry system which is underway of development in collaboration between KAERI and ORNL. It adopts two identical amplifier channels and utilizes a digital signal processing technique to remove the independent noise of each channel. The CPSD(Cross Power Spectral Density) function is used to cancel the independent noise and the differentiation of narrow or single frequency peak from the CPSD data separates the common mode electromagnetic interference noise

  13. A laser-spectroscopy complex for fluorescent diagnostics and photodynamic therapy of age-related macula degeneration

    Shevchik, S. A.; Meerovich, Gennadii A.; Budzinskaya, M. V.; Ermakova, N. A.; Kharnas, Sergey S.; Loschenov, Victor B.

    2004-06-01

    A laser-spectroscopy complex was developed for fluorescent diagnostics and photodynamic therapy of age related macula degeneration using the Russian photosensitizer Photosense. The complex is based on slit lamp which was additionally equipped with an optical adapter, and the video adapter allows to combine the procedure of photodynamic therapy and the control of its carrying in the frame work of one procedure. The sensitivity and spatial resolution of the complex were investigated using a special test object. The availability of the developed complex and Photosense itself was examined on experimental animals.

  14. Quantified light-induced fluorescence, review of a diagnostic tool in prevention of oral disease

    de Josselin de Jong, E.; Higham, S.M.; Smith, P.W.; van Daelen, C.J.; van der Veen, M.H.

    2009-01-01

    Diagnostic methods for the use in preventive dentistry are being developed continuously. Few of these find their way into general practice. Although the general trend in medicine is to focus on disease prevention and early diagnostics, in dentistry this is still not the case. Nevertheless, in dental

  15. Diagnostic imaging of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia based on hematoxylin and eosin fluorescence.

    Castellanos, Mario R; Szerszen, Anita; Gundry, Stephen; Pirog, Edyta C; Maiman, Mitchell; Rajupet, Sritha; Gomez, John Paul; Davidov, Adi; Debata, Priya Ranjan; Banerjee, Probal; Fata, Jimmie E

    2015-07-25

    Pathological classification of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) is problematic as it relies on subjective criteria. We developed an imaging method that uses spectroscopy to assess the fluorescent intensity of cervical biopsies derived directly from hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained tissues. Archived H&E slides were identified containing normal cervical tissue, CIN I, and CIN III cases, from a Community Hospital and an Academic Medical Center. Cases were obtained by consensus review of at least 2 senior pathologists. Images from H&E slides were captured first with bright field illumination and then with fluorescent illumination. We used a Zeiss Axio Observer Z1 microscope and an AxioVision 4.6.3-AP1 camera at excitation wavelength of 450-490 nm with emission captured at 515-565 nm. The 32-bit grayscale fluorescence images were used for image analysis. We reviewed 108 slides: 46 normal, 33 CIN I and 29 CIN III. Fluorescent intensity increased progressively in normal epithelial tissue as cells matured and advanced from the basal to superficial regions of the epithelium. In CIN I cases this change was less prominent as compared to normal. In high grade CIN lesions, there was a slight or no increase in fluorescent intensity. All groups examined were statistically different. Presently, there are no markers to help in classification of CIN I-III lesions. Our imaging method may complement standard H&E pathological review and provide objective criteria to support the CIN diagnosis.

  16. Noncontact thermometry via laser pumped, thermographic phosphors: Characterization of systematic errors and industrial applications

    Gillies, G.T.; Dowell, L.J.; Lutz, W.N.; Allison, S.W.; Cates, M.R.; Noel, B.W.; Franks, L.A.; Borella, H.M.

    1987-10-01

    There are a growing number of industrial measurement situations that call for a high precision, noncontact method of thermometry. Our collaboration has been successful in developing one such method based on the laser-induced fluorescence of rare-earth-doped ceramic phosphors like Y 2 O 3 :Eu. In this paper, we summarize the results of characterization studies aimed at identifying the sources of systematic error in a laboratory-grade version of the method. We then go on to present data from measurements made in the afterburner plume of a jet turbine and inside an operating permanent magnet motor. 12 refs., 6 figs

  17. Diagnostics of Susabi-nori (Porphyra Yezoensis) by Laser-Induced Fluorescence Method

    Okamoto, Tamotsu; Nakamura, Yuki; Takahashi, Kunio; Kaneko, Shohei; Shimada, Yuji

    Susabi-nori (Porphyra yezoensis) was diagnosed by means of laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) method. Fluorescence peaks located at approximately 580, 660, 685 and 720 nm were observed in the LIF spectra of Susabi-nori. In the spectrum of the sample infected with the red rot disease, the intensity of 580 nm peak was relatively high as compared with that of the control sample. On the other hand, the intensities of 580 nm and 660 nm peaks drastically decreased by the influence of the chytrid disease. Furthermore, the intensity of the 580 nm peak increased by dipping into fresh water. These results indicate that LIF spectra of Susabi-nori are affected by the diseases and the stress of fresh water and that the diseases and the stress of Susabi-nori can be diagnosed by the LIF method.

  18. Quinoline Fluorescent Probes for Zinc - from Diagnostic to Therapeutic Molecules in Treating Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    Czaplinska, Barbara; Spaczynska, Ewelina; Musiol, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Fluorescent compounds had gained strong attention due to their wide and appealing applications. Microscopic techniques and visualization are good examples among others. Introduction of fluorescent dyes into microbiology opens the possibility to observe tissues, organisms or organelle with exceptional sensitivity and resolution. Probes for detection of biologically relevant metals as zinc, iron or copper seems to be particularly important for drug design and pharmaceutical sciences. Quinoline derivatives are well known for their good metal affinity and wide spectrum of biological activity. In this regard, molecular sensors built on this scaffold may be useful not only as analytical but also as therapeutic agents. In the present review, application of quinoline moiety in designing of novel fluorescent probes for zinc is presented and discussed. Zinc cations are relevant for vast majority of processes and recently attract a great deal of attention for their role in neurodegenerative diseases. Compounds interacting with Zn2+ may be used for early diagnosis of such disorders, for example the Alzheimer disease. Quinoline-based zinc probes may exert some beneficial role in organism acting as theranostic agents. First preliminary drugs for Alzheimer therapy that are based on quinoline moiety are good example of this trend. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Surface Thermometry of Energetic Materials by Laser-Induced Fluorescence

    1989-09-01

    at 34 yttrium- aluminum -garnet (Dy:YAG). The simplified energy diagram of Dy:YAG is shown in Fig. 1. Absorbed laser light (at 355 nrm) can 5 excite the...the thermometric technique on a surface similar to that of an energetic material, a thermal-setting plastic supplied by Buehler, Ltd., was employed...temperature over the temperature range of interest. The rare-earth ion dysprosium (Dy) doped into a yttrium- aluminum -garnet (YAG) crystal was I determined

  20. Fluorescently tagged iminoalditol glycosidase inhibitors as novel biological probes and diagnostics

    Lundt, Inge; Steiner, Andreas J.; Stütz, Arnold E.

    2006-01-01

    1,5-Dideoxy-1,5-imino-D-glucitol, the corresponding D-manno and L-ido epimers as well as the powerful b-glucosidase inhibitor isofagomine were N-alkylated with di-, tri-, as well as tetraethylene glycol derived straight chain spacer arms by a set of simple standard procedures. The terminal functi...... functional groups of the spacer arms, primary amines, were employed to introduce fluorescent dansyl moieties. Resulting derivatives showed glycosidase inhibitory activities comparable to those of the parent compounds....

  1. Laser fluorescent diagnostics of a plasma of combustion products with an alkali additive

    Mokhov, A.V.; Nefedov, A.P.

    1993-01-01

    Methods of laser fluorescent determination of sodium atom and hydroxyl molecule (impurity fire component) concentration are described. A method of wide-band detection is presented in detail. A monochromator, its transmission band allowing one to detect all rotational lines of hydroxyl electron-vibrational transition, is used as wide-bond filter. High efficiency of using the methods described in studying the combustion chemistry, kinetics of sodium atom compound production in combustion product plasma and pre-electrode processes is demonstrated. 95 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs

  2. Setting-up of the Laser Induced Fluorescence diagnostic. Measurements of Cr density in a neon glow discharge

    Tafalla, D.; Cal, E. de la; Tabares, F. L.

    1994-01-01

    A plasma diagnostic based on the Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) technique has been set up in the Fusion Division at the CIEMAT. In a preliminary experiment, the density of sputtered chromium atoms produced in a neon glow discharge was measured. Firstly, the laser beam was characterized by calibration of its wavelength, bandwidth and energy profile and Rayleigh scattering in N2 was used for the optical system calibration. An absolute density of Cr atoms of n ∼ 5x10 cm was obtained in discharges at 100 mA and pressure of 15 mTorr and a linear dependence of the LIF signal us. current was found. These values are in agreement with those expected from the tabulated sputtering yields and the thermalization and diffusion of the sputtered atoms into the Ne plasma. (Author) 19 refs

  3. Setting-up of the Laser Induced Fluorescence diagnostic. Measurements of Cr density in a neon glow discharge

    Tafalla, D.; Cal, E. de la; Tabares, F.L.

    1994-01-01

    A plasma diagnostic based on the Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) technique has been set up in the Fusion Division at the CIEMAT. In a preliminary experiment, The density of sputtered chromium atoms produced in a neon glow discharge was measured. Firstly, the laser beam was characterized by calibration of its wavelength bandwidth and energy profile and Rayleigh scattering in N 2 was used for the optical system calibration. An absolute density of Cr atoms of n= 5x10''9 cm''-3 was obtained in discharges at 100 mA and pressure of 15 mTorr and a linear dependence of the LIF signal US. current was found. These values are in agreement with those expected from the tabulated sputtering yields and the thermalization and diffusion of the sputtered atoms into the Ne plasma

  4. Fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy for warm dense matter studies and ICF plasma diagnostics

    Hansen, Stephanie

    2017-10-01

    The burning core of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) plasma at stagnation is surrounded by a shell of warm, dense matter whose properties are difficult both to model (due to a complex interplay of thermal, degeneracy, and strong coupling effects) and to diagnose (due to low emissivity and high opacity). We demonstrate a promising technique to study the warm dense shells of ICF plasmas based on the fluorescence emission of dopants or impurities in the shell material. This emission, which is driven by x-rays produced in the hot core, exhibits signature changes in response to compression and heating. High-resolution measurements of absorption and fluorescence features can refine our understanding of the electronic structure of material under high compression, improve our models of density-driven phenomena such as ionization potential depression and plasma polarization shifts, and help diagnose shell density, temperature, mass distribution, and residual motion in ICF plasmas at stagnation. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-mission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia, LLC., a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-NA-0003525. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science Early Career Research Program, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences under FWP-14-017426.

  5. Design considerations for highly effective fluorescence excitation and detection optical systems for molecular diagnostics

    Kasper, Axel; Van Hille, Herbert; Kuk, Sola

    2018-02-01

    Modern instruments for molecular diagnostics are continuously optimized for diagnostic accuracy, versatility and throughput. The latest progress in LED technology together with tailored optics solutions allows developing highly efficient photonics engines perfectly adapted to the sample under test. Super-bright chip-on-board LED light sources are a key component for such instruments providing maximum luminous intensities in a multitude of narrow spectral bands. In particular the combination of white LEDs with other narrow band LEDs allows achieving optimum efficiency outperforming traditional Xenon light sources in terms of energy consumption, heat dissipation in the system, and switching time between spectral channels. Maximum sensitivity of the diagnostic system can only be achieved with an optimized optics system for the illumination and imaging of the sample. The illumination beam path must be designed for optimum homogeneity across the field while precisely limiting the angular distribution of the excitation light. This is a necessity for avoiding spill-over to the detection beam path and guaranteeing the efficiency of the spectral filtering. The imaging optics must combine high spatial resolution, high light collection efficiency and optimized suppression of excitation light for good signal-to-noise ratio. In order to achieve minimum cross-talk between individual wells in the sample, the optics design must also consider the generation of stray light and the formation of ghost images. We discuss what parameters and limitations have to be considered in an integrated system design approach covering the full path from the light source to the detector.

  6. Rapid Chemometric X-Ray Fluorescence approaches for spectral Diagnostics of Cancer utilizing Tissue Trace Metals and Speciation profiles

    Okonda, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectroscopy is an analytical method for identification and quantification of elements in materials by measurement of their spectral energy and intensity. EDXRFS spectroscopic technique involves simultaneous non-invasive acquisition of both fluorescence and scatter spectra from samples for quantitative determination of trace elemental content in complex matrix materials. The objective is develop a chemometric-aided EDXRFS method for rapid diagnosis of cancer and its severity (staging) based on analysis of trace elements (Cu, Zn, Fe, Se and Mn), their speciation and multivariate alterations of the elements in cancerous body tissue samples as cancer biomarkers. The quest for early diagnosis of cancer is based on the fact that early intervention translates to higher survival rate and better quality of life. Chemometric aided EDXRFS cancer diagnostic model has been evaluated as a direct and rapid superior alternative for the traditional quantitative methods used in XRF such as FP method. PCA results of cultured samples indicate that it is possible to characterize cancer at early and late stage of development based on trace elemental profiles

  7. Diagnostics

    Donné, A.J.H.; Costley, A.E.; Barnsley, R.

    2007-01-01

    of the measurements—time and spatial resolutions, etc—will in some cases be more stringent. Many of the measurements will be used in the real time control of the plasma driving a requirement for very high reliability in the systems (diagnostics) that provide the measurements. The implementation of diagnostic systems...... on ITER is a substantial challenge. Because of the harsh environment (high levels of neutron and gamma fluxes, neutron heating, particle bombardment) diagnostic system selection and design has to cope with a range of phenomena not previously encountered in diagnostic design. Extensive design and R......&D is needed to prepare the systems. In some cases the environmental difficulties are so severe that new diagnostic techniques are required. The starting point in the development of diagnostics for ITER is to define the measurement requirements and develop their justification. It is necessary to include all...

  8. Nanometer scale thermometry in a living cell

    Kucsko, G.; Maurer, P. C.; Yao, N. Y.; Kubo, M.; Noh, H. J.; Lo, P. K.; Park, H.; Lukin, M. D.

    2014-01-01

    Sensitive probing of temperature variations on nanometer scales represents an outstanding challenge in many areas of modern science and technology1. In particular, a thermometer capable of sub-degree temperature resolution over a large range of temperatures as well as integration within a living system could provide a powerful new tool for many areas of biological, physical and chemical research; possibilities range from the temperature-induced control of gene expression2–5 and tumor metabolism6 to the cell-selective treatment of disease7,8 and the study of heat dissipation in integrated circuits1. By combining local light-induced heat sources with sensitive nanoscale thermometry, it may also be possible to engineer biological processes at the sub-cellular level2–5. Here, we demonstrate a new approach to nanoscale thermometry that utilizes coherent manipulation of the electronic spin associated with nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color centers in diamond. We show the ability to detect temperature variations down to 1.8 mK (sensitivity of 9mK/Hz) in an ultra-pure bulk diamond sample. Using NV centers in diamond nanocrystals (nanodiamonds, NDs), we directly measure the local thermal environment at length scales down to 200 nm. Finally, by introducing both nanodiamonds and gold nanoparticles into a single human embryonic fibroblast, we demonstrate temperature-gradient control and mapping at the sub-cellular level, enabling unique potential applications in life sciences. PMID:23903748

  9. Velocity navigator for motion compensated thermometry.

    Maier, Florian; Krafft, Axel J; Yung, Joshua P; Stafford, R Jason; Elliott, Andrew; Dillmann, Rüdiger; Semmler, Wolfhard; Bock, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Proton resonance frequency shift thermometry is sensitive to breathing motion that leads to incorrect phase differences. In this work, a novel velocity-sensitive navigator technique for triggering MR thermometry image acquisition is presented. A segmented echo planar imaging pulse sequence was modified for velocity-triggered temperature mapping. Trigger events were generated when the estimated velocity value was less than 0.2 cm/s during the slowdown phase in parallel to the velocity-encoding direction. To remove remaining high-frequency spikes from pulsation in real time, a Kalman filter was applied to the velocity navigator data. A phantom experiment with heating and an initial volunteer experiment without heating were performed to show the applicability of this technique. Additionally, a breath-hold experiment was conducted for comparison. A temperature rise of ΔT = +37.3°C was seen in the phantom experiment, and a root mean square error (RMSE) outside the heated region of 2.3°C could be obtained for periodic motion. In the volunteer experiment, a RMSE of 2.7°C/2.9°C (triggered vs. breath hold) was measured. A novel velocity navigator with Kalman filter postprocessing in real time significantly improves the temperature accuracy over non-triggered acquisitions and suggests being comparable to a breath-held acquisition. The proposed technique might be clinically applied for monitoring of thermal ablations in abdominal organs.

  10. MR thermometry for monitoring tumor ablation

    Senneville, Baudouin D. de; Quesson, Bruno; Dragonu, Iulius; Moonen, Chrit T.W.; Mougenot, Charles; Grenier, Nicolas

    2007-01-01

    Local thermal therapies are increasingly used in the clinic for tissue ablation. During energy deposition, the actual tissue temperature is difficult to estimate since physiological processes may modify local heat conduction and energy absorption. Blood flow may increase during temperature increase and thus change heat conduction. In order to improve the therapeutic efficiency and the safety of the intervention, mapping of temperature and thermal dose appear to offer the best strategy to optimize such interventions and to provide therapy endpoints. MRI can be used to monitor local temperature changes during thermal therapies. On-line availability of dynamic temperature mapping allows prediction of tissue death during the intervention based on semi-empirical thermal dose calculations. Much progress has been made recently in MR thermometry research, and some applications are appearing in the clinic. In this paper, the principles of MRI temperature mapping are described with special emphasis on methods employing the temperature dependency of the water proton resonance frequency. Then, the prospects and requirements for widespread applications of MR thermometry in the clinic are evaluated. (orig.)

  11. Fluorescence In situ Hybridization: Cell-Based Genetic Diagnostic and Research Applications.

    Cui, Chenghua; Shu, Wei; Li, Peining

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a macromolecule recognition technology based on the complementary nature of DNA or DNA/RNA double strands. Selected DNA strands incorporated with fluorophore-coupled nucleotides can be used as probes to hybridize onto the complementary sequences in tested cells and tissues and then visualized through a fluorescence microscope or an imaging system. This technology was initially developed as a physical mapping tool to delineate genes within chromosomes. Its high analytical resolution to a single gene level and high sensitivity and specificity enabled an immediate application for genetic diagnosis of constitutional common aneuploidies, microdeletion/microduplication syndromes, and subtelomeric rearrangements. FISH tests using panels of gene-specific probes for somatic recurrent losses, gains, and translocations have been routinely applied for hematologic and solid tumors and are one of the fastest-growing areas in cancer diagnosis. FISH has also been used to detect infectious microbias and parasites like malaria in human blood cells. Recent advances in FISH technology involve various methods for improving probe labeling efficiency and the use of super resolution imaging systems for direct visualization of intra-nuclear chromosomal organization and profiling of RNA transcription in single cells. Cas9-mediated FISH (CASFISH) allowed in situ labeling of repetitive sequences and single-copy sequences without the disruption of nuclear genomic organization in fixed or living cells. Using oligopaint-FISH and super-resolution imaging enabled in situ visualization of chromosome haplotypes from differentially specified single-nucleotide polymorphism loci. Single molecule RNA FISH (smRNA-FISH) using combinatorial labeling or sequential barcoding by multiple round of hybridization were applied to measure mRNA expression of multiple genes within single cells. Research applications of these single molecule single cells DNA and RNA FISH

  12. Fluorescence In situ Hybridization: Cell-Based Genetic Diagnostic and Research Applications

    Chenghua Cui

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH is a macromolecule recognition technology based on the complementary nature of DNA or DNA/RNA double strands. Selected DNA strands incorporated with fluorophore-coupled nucleotides can be used as probes to hybridize onto the complementary sequences in tested cells and tissues and then visualized through a fluorescence microscope or an imaging system. This technology was initially developed as a physical mapping tool to delineate genes within chromosomes. Its high analytical resolution to a single gene level and high sensitivity and specificity enabled an immediate application for genetic diagnosis of constitutional common aneuploidies, microdeletion/microduplication syndromes and subtelomeric rearrangements. FISH tests using panels of gene-specific probes for somatic recurrent losses, gains and translocations have been routinely applied for hematologic and solid tumors and are one of the fastest-growing areas in cancer diagnosis. FISH has also been used to detect infectious microbials and parasites like malaria in human blood cells. Recent advances in FISH technology involve various methods for improving probe labeling efficiency and the use of super resolution imaging systems for direct visualization of intra-nuclear chromosomal organization and profiling of RNA transcription in single cells. Cas9-mediated FISH (CASFISH allowed in situ labeling of repetitive sequences and single-copy sequences without the disruption of nuclear genomic organization in fixed or living cells. Using oligopaint-FISH and super-resolution imaging enabled in situ visualization of chromosome haplotypes from differentially specified single-nucleotide polymorphism loci. Single molecule RNA FISH (smRNA-FISH using combinatorial labeling or sequential barcoding by multiple round of hybridization were applied to measure mRNA expression of multiple genes within single cells. Research applications of these single molecule single cells

  13. A two photon absorption laser induced fluorescence diagnostic for fusion plasmas

    Magee, R. M.; Galante, M. E.; McCarren, D.; Scime, E. E. [Physics Department, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); Boivin, R. L.; Brooks, N. H.; Groebner, R. J.; Hill, D. N. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92121 (United States); Porter, G. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    The quality of plasma produced in a magnetic confinement fusion device is influenced to a large extent by the neutral gas surrounding the plasma. The plasma is fueled by the ionization of neutrals, and charge exchange interactions between edge neutrals and plasma ions are a sink of energy and momentum. Here we describe a diagnostic capable of measuring the spatial distribution of neutral gas in a magnetically confined fusion plasma. A high intensity (5 MW/cm{sup 2}), narrow bandwidth (0.1 cm{sup -1}) laser is injected into a hydrogen plasma to excite the Lyman {beta} transition via the simultaneous absorption of two 205 nm photons. The absorption rate, determined by measurement of subsequent Balmer {alpha} emission, is proportional to the number of particles with a given velocity. Calibration is performed in situ by filling the chamber to a known pressure of neutral krypton and exciting a transition close in wavelength to that used in hydrogen. We present details of the calibration procedure, including a technique for identifying saturation broadening, measurements of the neutral density profile in a hydrogen helicon plasma, and discuss the application of the diagnostic to plasmas in the DIII-D tokamak.

  14. A two photon absorption laser induced fluorescence diagnostic for fusion plasmas.

    Magee, R M; Galante, M E; McCarren, D; Scime, E E; Boivin, R L; Brooks, N H; Groebner, R J; Hill, D N; Porter, G D

    2012-10-01

    The quality of plasma produced in a magnetic confinement fusion device is influenced to a large extent by the neutral gas surrounding the plasma. The plasma is fueled by the ionization of neutrals, and charge exchange interactions between edge neutrals and plasma ions are a sink of energy and momentum. Here we describe a diagnostic capable of measuring the spatial distribution of neutral gas in a magnetically confined fusion plasma. A high intensity (5 MW/cm(2)), narrow bandwidth (0.1 cm(-1)) laser is injected into a hydrogen plasma to excite the Lyman β transition via the simultaneous absorption of two 205 nm photons. The absorption rate, determined by measurement of subsequent Balmer α emission, is proportional to the number of particles with a given velocity. Calibration is performed in situ by filling the chamber to a known pressure of neutral krypton and exciting a transition close in wavelength to that used in hydrogen. We present details of the calibration procedure, including a technique for identifying saturation broadening, measurements of the neutral density profile in a hydrogen helicon plasma, and discuss the application of the diagnostic to plasmas in the DIII-D tokamak.

  15. Pulsed Blue and Ultraviolet Laser System for Fluorescence Diagnostics based on Nonlinear Frequency Conversion

    Cheng, Haynes Pak Hay

    The motivation for the current thesis work is to build a compact, efficient, pulsed, diode-pumped solid-state (DPSS) laser at 340 nm to be used for autofluorescence imaging and related cancer diagnostic experiments. By exciting endogenous fluorophores in the UV spectrum, autofluorescence imaging...... ns. Comparing this to the 9 ns relative jitter achieved in the passive system shows the performance penalty incurred in using the passive approach. Lastly, practical applications of compact semiconductor and DPSS lasers in the blue and UV spectral region are presented. A CW tapered diode at 808 nm...... applied to other wavelengths; specifically, those in the blue and UV spectral region. Using the passive synchronization technique and the optimization procedure reported for quasi-three-level lasers, a new generation of high peak power, pulsed, blue and UV laser light sources could be realized....

  16. Radioisotope induced energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence - a diagnostic tool in clinical science

    Joseph, Daisy

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) - an ideal technique for detecting trace elements in drugs have been used for analyzing drugs marked as Zn supplements (Jasad Bhasm) used for growth in children and Ayurvedic medicines containing toxic elements such as Arsenic (As) and Mercury (Hg). Folklore medicines obtained as plants extracts from Manipur plants were also analyzed for their composition. Zn supplements (Jasad Bhasm) manufactured by various manufacturers were analyzed for their trace elements besides Zn and were compared with laboratory preparations. Similarly the Ayurvedic medicines from different companies were analyzed for their metal composition. All samples in powder form were pelletized and analyzed using an X-ray spectrometer consisting of a Cd 109 radioisotope source, Si (Li) detector of resolution 170 eV at 5.9 KeV Mn X-ray, preamplifier, amplifier and a PC based multichannel analyzer. Varying amounts of trace elements were detected in Jasad Bhasm and interesting results (As and Hg) were seen in the Ayurvedic medicines in addition to other trace elements such as K,Ca,Fe,Cu and Zn. In Manipur plant extracts Sr was predominantly seen in most samples. Their levels of toxicity and significance to human health and diseases will be discussed in the remaining sections of the paper

  17. First results of the delayed fluorescence velocimetry as applied to diesel spray diagnostics

    Megahed, M.; Roosen, P.

    1993-08-01

    One of the main parameters governing diesel spray formation is the fuel's velocity just beneath the nozzle. The high density of the injected liquid within the first few millimeters under the injector prohibits accurate measurements of this velocity. The liquid's velocity in this region has been mainly measured using intrusive methods and has been numerically calculated without considering the complex flow fields in the nozzle. A new optical method based on laser induced delayed fluorescence allowing the measurement of the fuel's velocity close to the nozzle is reported. The results are accurate to about 14% and represent the velocities of heavy oils within the first 2 - 5 mm beneath the nozzle. The development of the velocity over the injection period showed a drastic deceleration of the fuel within the first 3 mm beneath the nozzle. This is assumed to be due to the complex interaction of cavitation in the injection hole and pressure waves in the injection system which causes the start of atomization in the nozzle hole.

  18. Noncontact surface thermometry for microsystems: LDRD final report.

    Abel, Mark (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Beecham, Thomas (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Graham, Samuel (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Kearney, Sean Patrick; Serrano, Justin Raymond; Phinney, Leslie Mary

    2006-10-01

    We describe a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) effort to develop and apply laser-based thermometry diagnostics for obtaining spatially resolved temperature maps on working microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). The goal of the effort was to cultivate diagnostic approaches that could adequately resolve the extremely fine MEMS device features, required no modifications to MEMS device design, and which did not perturb the delicate operation of these extremely small devices. Two optical diagnostics were used in this study: microscale Raman spectroscopy and microscale thermoreflectance. Both methods use a low-energy, nonperturbing probe laser beam, whose arbitrary wavelength can be selected for a diffraction-limited focus that meets the need for micron-scale spatial resolution. Raman is exploited most frequently, as this technique provides a simple and unambiguous measure of the absolute device temperature for most any MEMS semiconductor or insulator material under steady state operation. Temperatures are obtained from the spectral position and width of readily isolated peaks in the measured Raman spectra with a maximum uncertainty near {+-}10 K and a spatial resolution of about 1 micron. Application of the Raman technique is demonstrated for V-shaped and flexure-style polycrystalline silicon electrothermal actuators, and for a GaN high-electron-mobility transistor. The potential of the Raman technique for simultaneous measurement of temperature and in-plane stress in silicon MEMS is also demonstrated and future Raman-variant diagnostics for ultra spatio-temporal resolution probing are discussed. Microscale thermoreflectance has been developed as a complement for the primary Raman diagnostic. Thermoreflectance exploits the small-but-measurable temperature dependence of surface optical reflectivity for diagnostic purposes. The temperature-dependent reflectance behavior of bulk silicon, SUMMiT-V polycrystalline silicon films and metal surfaces is

  19. Survey on Johnson noise thermometry for temperature instrumentation

    Hwang, I. K.; Kim, Y. K.; Kim, J. S.; Moon, B. S.

    2002-01-01

    Johnson Noise Thermometry is an drift-free temperature measurement method which is able to maintain the best accuracy without calibration for a long period. Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs) and Thermocouples used widely in power plants have the drift problem which causes a measurement error. Despite the advantage of Johnson Noise thermometry, it has not been used because it is very sensitive to electromagnetic noise and environment. It also requires more complicated signal processing methods. This paper presents the characteristics of Johnson Noise thermometry and various implementation method proposed over the past decades time period. The key factor in development of a noise thermometer is how to extract the tiny noise signal from the sensor and discriminate out the unnecessary noise interference from the environments. The new digital technology of fast signal processing skill will useful to challenge the existing problems fir commercialization of noise thermometry

  20. A Comparison of Surface Infrared with Rectal Thermometry in Dogs.

    Omóbòwálé, T O; Ogunro, B N; Odigie, E A; Otuh, P I; Olugasa, B O

    2017-12-30

    Accurate determination of temperature is crucial in the diagnosis of febrile conditions. Although fewer techniques have proven as useful and reliable a predictor of core body temperature as the rectal thermometry, the process of obtaining the rectal temperature could be stressful in dogs. The infrared thermometry is a noncontact device used for measuring body temperature, with advantages which include speed, convenience, and reduced stress to the animals and reduced occupational risks to the animal handler. Therefore, there is the need to assess the consistency and agreement between non-contact infrared thermometry and traditional rectal thermometry in body temperature estimation. This study compared and assessed the sensitivity of non-contact infrared thermometer used on the forehead and nasal regions respectively with that of a rectal thermometer in dogs for body temperature estimation. One hundred and thirty (130) dogs presented for veterinary attention at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital (VTH), University of Ibadan, Nigeria were enrolled in this study during August to September 2014, irrespective of sex, age, breed or health status. Temperatures of dogs presented at the clinic were obtained using both multiple non-contact infrared thermometric measures obtained in the nasal and frontal head regions; and by rectal temperature. A multivariate cross-matrix analysis was used to assess the difference in measurements between the rectal thermometry and non-contact infrared thermometry. Descriptive statistics was used to compare variation and trend regularity of the nasal and fore-head infrared thermometry. A logistic regression of the difference in measurements was computed at 95% confidence interval and P<0.05. The mean difference revealed that the rectal temperature was 5.330C higher than the non-contact infrared forehead-based temperature and 7.570C higher than nasal-based temperature measurements respectively. The Bland-Altman (B-A) plot showed that the 95% limits

  1. Electronic thermometry in tunable tunnel junction

    Maksymovych, Petro

    2016-03-15

    A tunable tunnel junction thermometry circuit includes a variable width tunnel junction between a test object and a probe. The junction width is varied and a change in thermovoltage across the junction with respect to the change in distance across the junction is determined. Also, a change in biased current with respect to a change in distance across the junction is determined. A temperature gradient across the junction is determined based on a mathematical relationship between the temperature gradient, the change in thermovoltage with respect to distance and the change in biased current with respect to distance. Thermovoltage may be measured by nullifying a thermoelectric tunneling current with an applied voltage supply level. A piezoelectric actuator may modulate the probe, and thus the junction width, to vary thermovoltage and biased current across the junction. Lock-in amplifiers measure the derivatives of the thermovoltage and biased current modulated by varying junction width.

  2. Refractiry metal monocrystals in high temperature thermometry

    Kuritnyk, I.P.

    1988-01-01

    The regularities of changes in thermoelectric properties of refractory metals in a wide temperature range (300-2300 K) depending on their structural state and impurities, are generalized. It is found that the main reasons for changes in thermo-e.m.f. of refractory metals during their operation in various media are diffusion processes and local microvoltages appearing in nonhomogeneous thermoelectrodes. It is shown that microstructure formation and control of impurities in thermometric materials permit to improve considerably the metrologic parameters of thermal transformers. Tungsten and molybdenum with monocrystalline structure with their high stability of properties, easy to manufacture and opening new possibilities in high-temperature contact measurement are used in thermometry for the first time

  3. Noise thermometry - a new temperature measuring method

    Brixy, H.; Hecker, R.; Rittinghaus, K.F.

    1975-01-01

    The thermal Johnson-Niquist noise is the basis of noise thermometry. This temperature measuring method is, e.g., of interest insofar as the noise thermometer gives absolute values as a primary thermometer and is in principle extensively independent of environmental influences and material properties. The resistance values of the measuring probe are about 10 Ohm to a few kOhm. The demands of electronics are high, the self-noise of the measuring apparatus must be as small as possible; a comparative measuring method is advantageous. 1 to 2,500 K are given as a possible temperature range. An accuracy of 0.1% could be achieved in laboratory measurements. Temperature measurements to be used in operation in a few nuclear reactors are mentioned. (HP/LH) [de

  4. Using In-vivo Fluorescence Imaging in Personalized Cancer Diagnostics and Therapy, an Image and Treat Paradigm

    Ardeshirpour, Yasaman; Chernomordik, Victor; Capala, Jacek; Hassan, Moinuddin; Zielinsky, Rafal; Griffiths, Gary; Achilefu, Samuel; Smith, Paul; Gandjbakhckhe, Amir

    2013-01-01

    The major goal in developing drugs targeting specific tumor receptors, such as Monoclonal AntiBodies (MAB), is to make a drug compound that targets selectively the cancer-causing biomarkers, inhibits their functionality, and/or delivers the toxin specifically to the malignant cells. Recent advances in MABs show that their efficacy depends strongly on characterization of tumor biomarkers. Therefore, one of the main tasks in cancer diagnostics and treatment is to develop non-invasive in-vivo imaging techniques for detection of cancer biomarkers and monitoring their down regulation during the treatment. Such methods can potentially result in a new imaging and treatment paradigm for cancer therapy. In this article we have reviewed fluorescence imaging approaches, including those developed in our group, to detect and monitor Human Epidermal Growth Factor 2 (HER2) receptors before and during therapy. Transition of these techniques from the bench to bedside is the ultimate goal of our project. Similar approaches can be used potentially for characterization of other cancer related cell biomarkers. PMID:22066595

  5. NIR-Cyanine Dye Linker: a Promising Candidate for Isochronic Fluorescence Imaging in Molecular Cancer Diagnostics and Therapy Monitoring.

    Komljenovic, Dorde; Wiessler, Manfred; Waldeck, Waldemar; Ehemann, Volker; Pipkorn, Ruediger; Schrenk, Hans-Hermann; Debus, Jürgen; Braun, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Personalized anti-cancer medicine is boosted by the recent development of molecular diagnostics and molecularly targeted drugs requiring rapid and efficient ligation routes. Here, we present a novel approach to synthetize a conjugate able to act simultaneously as an imaging and as a chemotherapeutic agent by coupling functional peptides employing solid phase peptide synthesis technologies. Development and the first synthesis of a fluorescent dye with similarity in the polymethine part of the Cy7 molecule whose indolenine-N residues were substituted with a propylene linker are described. Methylating agent temozolomide is functionalized with a tetrazine as a diene component whereas Cy7-cell penetrating peptide conjugate acts as a dienophilic reaction partner for the inverse Diels-Alder click chemistry-mediated ligation route yielding a theranostic conjugate, 3-mercapto-propionic-cyclohexenyl-Cy7-bis-temozolomide-bromide-cell penetrating peptide. Synthesis route described here may facilitate targeted delivery of the therapeutic compound to achieve sufficient local concentrations at the target site or tissue. Its versatility allows a choice of adequate imaging tags applicable in e.g. PET, SPECT, CT, near-infrared imaging, and therapeutic substances including cytotoxic agents. Imaging tags and therapeutics may be simultaneously bound to the conjugate applying click chemistry. Theranostic compound presented here offers a solid basis for a further improvement of cancer management in a precise, patient-specific manner.

  6. Rapid detection of chromosome rearrangement in medical diagnostic X-ray workers by using fluorescence in situ hybridization and study on dose estimation

    Wang Zhiquan; Sun Yuanming; Li Jin

    1998-01-01

    Objective: Biological doses were estimated for medical diagnostic X-ray workers. Methods: Chromosome rearrangements in X-ray workers were analysed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with composite whole chromosome paintings number 4 and number 7. Results: The frequency of translocation in medical diagnostic X-ray workers was much higher than that in control group (P<0.01). The biological doses to individual X-ray workers were calculated by their translocation frequency. The translocation frequencies of both FISH and G-banding were in good agreement. Conclusion: The biological doses to X-ray workers are estimated by FISH first when their dosimetry records are not documented

  7. Polymer coated fiber Bragg grating thermometry for microwave hyperthermia.

    Saxena, Indu Fiesler; Hui, Kaleo; Astrahan, Melvin

    2010-09-01

    Measuring tissue temperature distribution during electromagnetically induced hyperthermia (HT) is challenging. High resistance thermistors with nonmetallic leads have been used successfully in commercial HT systems for about three decades. The single 1 mm thick temperature sensing element is mechanically moved to measure tissue temperature distributions. By employing a single thermometry probe containing a fixed linear sensor array temperature, distributions during therapy can be measured with greater ease. While the first attempts to use fiber Bragg grating (FBG) technology to obtain multiple temperature points along a single fiber have been reported, improvement in the detection system's stability were needed for clinical applications. The FBG temperature sensing system described here has a very high temporal stability detection system and an order of magnitude faster readout than commercial systems. It is shown to be suitable for multiple point fiber thermometry during microwave hyperthermia when compared to conventional mechanically scanning probe HT thermometry. A polymer coated fiber Bragg grating (PFBG) technology is described that provides a number of FBG thermometry locations along the length of a single optical fiber. The PFBG probe developed is tested under simulated microwave hyperthermia treatment to a tissue equivalent phantom. Two temperature probes, the multiple PFBG sensor and the Bowman probe, placed symmetrically with respect to a microwave antenna in a tissue phantom are subjected to microwave hyperthermia. Measurements are made at start of HT and 85 min later, when a 6 degrees C increase in temperature is registered by both probes, as is typical in clinical HT therapy. The optical fiber multipoint thermometry probe performs highly stable, real-time thermometry updating each multipoint thermometry scan over a 5 cm length every 2 s. Bowman probe measurements are acquired simultaneously for comparison. In addition, the PFBG sensor's detection

  8. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization and Immunohistochemistry as Diagnostic Methods for ALK Positive Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients

    Martinez, Pablo; Hernández-Losa, Javier; Cedrés, Susana; Castellví, Josep; Martinez-Marti, Alex; Tallada, Natalia; Murtra-Garrell, Nuria; Navarro-Mendivill, Alejandro; Rodriguez-Freixinos, Victor; Canela, Mercedes; Ramon y Cajal, Santiago; Felip, Enriqueta

    2013-01-01

    Background Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) positivity represents a novel molecular target in a subset of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancers (NSCLC). We explore Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) and Immunohistochemistry (IHC) as diagnostic methods for ALK positive patients and to describe its prevalence and outcomes in a population of NSCLC patients. Methods NSCLC patients previously screened for Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) at our institution were selected. ALK positive patients were identified by FISH and the value of IHC (D5F3) was explored. Results ninety-nine patients were identified. Median age was 61.5 years (range 35–83), all were caucasians, eighty percent were adenocarcinomas, fifty-one percent were male and thirty-eight percent were current smokers. Seven (7.1%) patients were ALK positive by FISH, thirteen (13.1%) were EGFR mutant, and 65 (65.6%) were negative/Wild Type (WT) for both ALK and EGFR. ALK positivity and EGFR mutations were mutually exclusive. ALK positive patients tend to be younger than EGFR mutated or wt patients. ALK positive patients were predominantly never smokers (71.4%) and adenocarcinoma (71.4%). ALK positive and EGFR mutant patients have a better outcome than negative/WT. All patients with ALK FISH negative tumours were negative for ALK IHC. Out of 6 patients positive for ALK FISH with more tissue available, 5 were positive for ALK IHC and 1 negative. Conclusions ALK positive patients represent 7.1% of a population of selected NSCLC. ALK positive patients have different clinical features and a better outcome than EGFR WT and ALK negative patients. IHC is a promising method for detecting ALK positive NSCLC patients. PMID:23359795

  9. High temperature measurement by noise thermometry

    Decreton, M.C.

    1982-06-01

    Noise thermometry has received a lot of attention for measurements of temperatures in the high range around 1000-2000 deg. K. For these measurements, laboratory type experiments have been mostly performed. These have shown the interest of the technique when long term stability, high precision and insensibility to external conditions are concerned. This is particularly true for measurements in nuclear reactors where important drifts due to irradiation effects are experienced with other measurement techniques, as thermocouple for instance. Industrial noise thermometer experiments have not been performed extensively up to now. The subject of the present study is the development of a 1800 deg. K noise thermometer for nuclear applications. The measurement method is based on a generalized noise power approach. The rms noise voltage (Vsub(s)) and noise current (Isub(s)) are successively measured on the resistive sensor. The same quantities are also measured on a dummy short circuited probe (Vsub(d) and Isub(d)). The temperature is then deduced from these measured values by the following formula: cTsub(s) = (Vsub(s) 2 - Vsub(d) 2 )(Vsub(s)/Isub(s) - Vsub(d)/Isub(d)) - 1 , where c is a constant and Tsub(s) the absolute temperature of the sensor. This approach has the particular advantage of greatly reducing the sensibility to environmental perturbations on the leads and to the influence of amplifier noise sources. It also eliminates the necessity of resistance measurement and keeps the electronic circuits as simple as possible

  10. A thermocouple thermometry system for ultrasound hyperthermia

    Ozarka, M.; Gharakhani, A.; Magin, R.; Cain, C.

    1984-01-01

    A thermometry system designed to be used in the treatment of cancer by ultrasound hyperthermia is described. The system monitors tumor temperatures using 16 type T (copper-constantan) thermocouples and is controlled by a 12 MHz Intel 8031 microcomputer. An analog circuit board contains the thermocouple amplifiers, an analog multiplexer, scaling circuitry, and an analog to digital converter. A digital board contains the Intel 8031, program memory, data memory, as well as circuitry for control and data communications. Communication with the hyperthermia system control computer is serially by RS-232 with selectable baud rate. Since the thermocouple amplifiers may have slight differences in gain and offset, a calibrated offset is added to a lookup table value to obtain the proper display temperature to within +- 0.1 0 C. The calibration routine, implemented in software, loads a nonvolatile random access memory chip with the proper offset values based on the outputs of each thermocouple channel at known temperatures which bracket a range of interest

  11. Ultrasonic thermometry for nuclear power plants

    Saravana Kumar, S.; Arunraj, A.L.R.; Swaminathan, K.

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasonic transducer provides a method of measurement of temperature in industrial tanks and boilers containing different liquids with varied salt content. This method is used to measure the average temperature continuously where other traditional methods available do not offer. Traditional methods used for temperature measurement like infrared thermometers, thermocouples, measures temperature at a single location. Numerous thermocouples are to be fixed at various part of the boiler in order to measure the temperature of the entire boiler, which incurs high cost. Reliability of the system decreases, with increasing number of thermocouples. When they fail at a point, the time incurred in finding the faulty part or faulty thermocouple is high. Ultrasonic transducer provides continuous measurement for all different characteristic liquids with higher accuracy and lesser response time. Fault location and clearance time is also less in ultrasonic measurement method, since only a couple of transducers used for the entire boiler structure. Additionally ultrasonic thermometry along support measuring electronic system can be built of low cost. (author)

  12. Fast and sensitive medical diagnostic protocol based on integrating circular current lines for magnetic washing and optical detection of fluorescent magnetic nanobeads

    Jaiyam Sharma

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs are increasingly being used as ‘magnetic labels’ in medical diagnostics. Practical applications of MNPs necessitate reducing their non-specific interactions with sensor surfaces that result in noise in measurements. Here we describe the design and implementation of a sensing platform that incorporates circular shaped current lines that reduce non-specific binding by enabling the “magnetic washing” of loosely attached MNPs attached to the senor surface. Generating magnetic fields by passing electrical currents through the circular shaped current lines enabled the capture and collection of fluorescent MNPs that was more efficient and effective than straight current lines reported to-date. The use of fluorescent MNPs allows their optical detection rather than with widely used magnetoresistive sensors. As a result our approach is not affected by magnetic noise due to the flow of currents. Our design is expected to improve the speed, accuracy, and sensitivity of MNPs based medical diagnostics. Keywords: Biosensors, Magnetic beads, Fluorescent magnetic nanoparticles, Lab on chip, Point of care testing

  13. Selective detection of Co2+ by fluorescent nano probe: Diagnostic approach for analysis of environmental samples and biological activities

    Mahajan, Prasad G.; Dige, Nilam C.; Desai, Netaji K.; Patil, Shivajirao R.; Kondalkar, Vijay V.; Hong, Seong-Karp; Lee, Ki Hwan

    2018-06-01

    Nowadays scientist over the world are engaging to put forth improved methods to detect metal ion in an aqueous medium based on fluorescence studies. A simple, selective and sensitive method was proposed for detection of Co2+ ion using fluorescent organic nanoparticles. We synthesized a fluorescent small molecule viz. 4,4‧-{benzene-1,4-diylbis-[(Z)methylylidenenitrilo]}dibenzoic acid (BMBA) to explore its suitability as sensor for Co2+ ion and biocompatibility in form of nanoparticles. Fluorescence nanoparticles (BMBANPs) prepared by simple reprecipitation method. Aggregation induced enhanced emission of BMBANPs exhibits the narrower particle size of 68 nm and sphere shape morphology. The selective fluorescence quenching was observed by addition of Co2+ and does not affected by presence of other coexisting ion solutions. The photo-physical properties, viz. UV-absorption, fluorescence emission, and lifetime measurements are in support of ligand-metal interaction followed by static fluorescence quenching phenomenon in emission of BMBANPs. Finally, we develop a simple analytical method for selective and sensitive determination of Co2+ ion in environmental samples. The cell culture E. coli, Bacillus sps., and M. tuberculosis H37RV strain in the vicinity of BMBANPs indicates virtuous anti-bacterial and anti-tuberculosis activity which is of additional novel application shown by prepared nanoparticles.

  14. Co-C and Pd-C Eutectic Fixed Points for Radiation Thermometry and Thermocouple Thermometry

    Wang, L.

    2017-12-01

    Two Co-C and Pd-C eutectic fixed point cells for both radiation thermometry and thermocouple thermometry were constructed at NMC. This paper describes details of the cell design, materials used, and fabrication of the cells. The melting curves of the Co-C and Pd-C cells were measured with a reference radiation thermometer realized in both a single-zone furnace and a three-zone furnace in order to investigate furnace effect. The transition temperatures in terms of ITS-90 were determined to be 1324.18 {°}C and 1491.61 {°}C with the corresponding combined standard uncertainty of 0.44 {°}C and 0.31 {°}C for Co-C and Pd-C, respectively, taking into account of the differences of two different types of furnaces used. The determined ITS-90 temperatures are also compared with that of INRIM cells obtained using the same reference radiation thermometer and the same furnaces with the same settings during a previous bilateral comparison exercise (Battuello et al. in Int J Thermophys 35:535-546, 2014). The agreements are within k=1 uncertainty for Co-C cell and k = 2 uncertainty for Pd-C cell. Shapes of the plateaus of NMC cells and INRIM cells are compared too and furnace effects are analyzed as well. The melting curves of the Co-C and Pd-C cells realized in the single-zone furnace are also measured by a Pt/Pd thermocouple, and the preliminary results are presented as well.

  15. Toluene laser-induced fluorescence imaging of compressible flows in an expansion tube

    Miller, V. A.; Gamba, M.; Mungal, M. G.; Hanson, R. K.; Mohri, K.; Schulz, C.

    2011-11-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) imaging using toluene as a tracer molecule has been developed for high-speed, low-to-moderate enthalpy conditions in the Stanford 6-inch Expansion Tube. The approach is demonstrated on three canonical compressible flow configurations: (i) supersonic flow over a 20° wedge, (ii) around a cylinder, and (iii) a supersonic boundary layer. Under constant-pressure conditions, toluene LIF offers unique sensitivity to temperature and can therefore be used as an accurate thermometry diagnostic for supersonic flows; on the other hand, for variable-pressure flow fields (e.g., flow around a blunt body), toluene LIF imaging is demonstrated to be an effective flow visualization tool. The three configurations selected demonstrate the diagnostic in these two capacities. For all configurations considered in the study, toluene (0.6% by volume) is seeded into a nitrogen freestream at a Mach number ~ 2.2, T ~ 500K, and p ~ 1.5 bar. A frequency-quadrupled pulsed Nd:YAG laser is used to excite the tracer, and the resulting fluorescence is captured by an ICCD camera. Synthetic fluorescence signals from CFD solutions of each case have been computed and compare favorably to measured signals. Sponsored by DoE PSAAP at Stanford University.

  16. Comparison of Microchip Transponder and Noncontact Infrared Thermometry with Rectal Thermometry in Domestic Swine (Sus scrofa domestica)

    Jara, Amanda L; Hanson, Jarod M; Gabbard, Jon D; Johnson, Scott K; Register, Emery T; He, Biao

    2016-01-01

    During disease outbreaks, core temperature is a useful health metric in swine, due to the presence of pyrexia especially during the acute phase of infection. Despite technologic advances in other facets of swine production and health management, rectal thermometry continues to be the ‘gold standard’ for measuring core body temperature. However, for various reasons, collecting rectal temperatures can be difficult and unsafe depending on the housing modality. In addition, the delay between insertion of the rectal thermometer and obtaining a reading can affect measurement accuracy, especially when the pig requires physical restraint. Clearly safer, faster, and more accurate and precise temperature acquisition methods that necessitate minimal or no handling of swine are needed. We therefore compared rectal thermometers, subcutaneous microchips, and an inexpensive handheld infrared thermometer by measuring the core body temperature of 24 male castrated piglets at random intervals over a 5-wk period. The core body temperature (mean ± 1 SD) was 39.3 ± 0.5 °C by rectal thermometry, 39.0 ± 0.7 °C by microchip transponder, and 34.3 ± 1.0 °C by infrared thermometry; these 3 values differed significantly. Although the readings obtain by using infrared thermometry were numerically lower than those from the other methods, it is arguably the safest method for assessing the core temperature of swine and showed strong relative correlation with rectal temperature. PMID:27657715

  17. Improving the Sensitivity and Functionality of Mobile Webcam-Based Fluorescence Detectors for Point-of-Care Diagnostics in Global Health

    Rasooly, Reuven; Bruck, Hugh Alan; Balsam, Joshua; Prickril, Ben; Ossandon, Miguel; Rasooly, Avraham

    2016-01-01

    Resource-poor countries and regions require effective, low-cost diagnostic devices for accurate identification and diagnosis of health conditions. Optical detection technologies used for many types of biological and clinical analysis can play a significant role in addressing this need, but must be sufficiently affordable and portable for use in global health settings. Most current clinical optical imaging technologies are accurate and sensitive, but also expensive and difficult to adapt for use in these settings. These challenges can be mitigated by taking advantage of affordable consumer electronics mobile devices such as webcams, mobile phones, charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras, lasers, and LEDs. Low-cost, portable multi-wavelength fluorescence plate readers have been developed for many applications including detection of microbial toxins such as C. Botulinum A neurotoxin, Shiga toxin, and S. aureus enterotoxin B (SEB), and flow cytometry has been used to detect very low cell concentrations. However, the relatively low sensitivities of these devices limit their clinical utility. We have developed several approaches to improve their sensitivity presented here for webcam based fluorescence detectors, including (1) image stacking to improve signal-to-noise ratios; (2) lasers to enable fluorescence excitation for flow cytometry; and (3) streak imaging to capture the trajectory of a single cell, enabling imaging sensors with high noise levels to detect rare cell events. These approaches can also help to overcome some of the limitations of other low-cost optical detection technologies such as CCD or phone-based detectors (like high noise levels or low sensitivities), and provide for their use in low-cost medical diagnostics in resource-poor settings. PMID:27196933

  18. Improving the Sensitivity and Functionality of Mobile Webcam-Based Fluorescence Detectors for Point-of-Care Diagnostics in Global Health

    Reuven Rasooly

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Resource-poor countries and regions require effective, low-cost diagnostic devices for accurate identification and diagnosis of health conditions. Optical detection technologies used for many types of biological and clinical analysis can play a significant role in addressing this need, but must be sufficiently affordable and portable for use in global health settings. Most current clinical optical imaging technologies are accurate and sensitive, but also expensive and difficult to adapt for use in these settings. These challenges can be mitigated by taking advantage of affordable consumer electronics mobile devices such as webcams, mobile phones, charge-coupled device (CCD cameras, lasers, and LEDs. Low-cost, portable multi-wavelength fluorescence plate readers have been developed for many applications including detection of microbial toxins such as C. Botulinum A neurotoxin, Shiga toxin, and S. aureus enterotoxin B (SEB, and flow cytometry has been used to detect very low cell concentrations. However, the relatively low sensitivities of these devices limit their clinical utility. We have developed several approaches to improve their sensitivity presented here for webcam based fluorescence detectors, including (1 image stacking to improve signal-to-noise ratios; (2 lasers to enable fluorescence excitation for flow cytometry; and (3 streak imaging to capture the trajectory of a single cell, enabling imaging sensors with high noise levels to detect rare cell events. These approaches can also help to overcome some of the limitations of other low-cost optical detection technologies such as CCD or phone-based detectors (like high noise levels or low sensitivities, and provide for their use in low-cost medical diagnostics in resource-poor settings.

  19. Investigation of uncertainty components in Coulomb blockade thermometry

    Hahtela, O. M.; Heinonen, M.; Manninen, A.; Meschke, M.; Savin, A.; Pekola, J. P.; Gunnarsson, D.; Prunnila, M.; Penttilä, J. S.; Roschier, L.

    2013-01-01

    Coulomb blockade thermometry (CBT) has proven to be a feasible method for primary thermometry in every day laboratory use at cryogenic temperatures from ca. 10 mK to a few tens of kelvins. The operation of CBT is based on single electron charging effects in normal metal tunnel junctions. In this paper, we discuss the typical error sources and uncertainty components that limit the present absolute accuracy of the CBT measurements to the level of about 1 % in the optimum temperature range. Identifying the influence of different uncertainty sources is a good starting point for improving the measurement accuracy to the level that would allow the CBT to be more widely used in high-precision low temperature metrological applications and for realizing thermodynamic temperature in accordance to the upcoming new definition of kelvin

  20. Investigation of uncertainty components in Coulomb blockade thermometry

    Hahtela, O. M.; Heinonen, M.; Manninen, A. [MIKES Centre for Metrology and Accreditation, Tekniikantie 1, 02150 Espoo (Finland); Meschke, M.; Savin, A.; Pekola, J. P. [Low Temperature Laboratory, Aalto University, Tietotie 3, 02150 Espoo (Finland); Gunnarsson, D.; Prunnila, M. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Tietotie 3, 02150 Espoo (Finland); Penttilä, J. S.; Roschier, L. [Aivon Oy, Tietotie 3, 02150 Espoo (Finland)

    2013-09-11

    Coulomb blockade thermometry (CBT) has proven to be a feasible method for primary thermometry in every day laboratory use at cryogenic temperatures from ca. 10 mK to a few tens of kelvins. The operation of CBT is based on single electron charging effects in normal metal tunnel junctions. In this paper, we discuss the typical error sources and uncertainty components that limit the present absolute accuracy of the CBT measurements to the level of about 1 % in the optimum temperature range. Identifying the influence of different uncertainty sources is a good starting point for improving the measurement accuracy to the level that would allow the CBT to be more widely used in high-precision low temperature metrological applications and for realizing thermodynamic temperature in accordance to the upcoming new definition of kelvin.

  1. Live-cell thermometry with nitrogen vacancy centers in nanodiamonds

    Jayakumar, Harishankar; Fedder, Helmut; Chen, Andrew; Yang, Liudi; Li, Chenghai; Wrachtrup, Joerg; Wang, Sihong; Meriles, Carlos

    The ability to measure temperature is typically affected by a tradeoff between sensitivity and spatial resolution. Good thermometers tend to be bulky systems and hence are ill-suited for thermal sensing with high spatial localization. Conversely, the signal resulting from nanoscale temperature probes is often impacted by noise to a level where the measurement precision becomes poor. Adding to the microscopist toolbox, the nitrogen vacancy (NV) center in diamond has recently emerged as a promising platform for high-sensitivity nanoscale thermometry. Of particular interest are applications in living cells because diamond nanocrystals are biocompatible and can be chemically functionalized to target specific organelles. Here we report progress on the ability to probe and compare temperature within and between living cells using nanodiamond-hosted NV thermometry. We focus our study on cancerous cells, where atypical metabolic pathways arguably lead to changes in the way a cell generates heat, and thus on its temperature profile.

  2. Thermometry of ultracold atoms by electromagnetically induced transparency

    Peters, Thorsten; Wittrock, Benjamin; Blatt, Frank; Halfmann, Thomas; Yatsenko, Leonid P.

    2012-06-01

    We report on systematic numerical and experimental investigations of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) to determine temperatures in an ultracold atomic gas. The technique relies on the strong dependence of EIT on atomic motion (i.e., Doppler shifts), when the relevant atomic transitions are driven with counterpropagating probe and control laser beams. Electromagnetically induced transparency permits thermometry with satisfactory precision over a large temperature range, which can be addressed by the appropriate choice of Rabi frequency in the control beam. In contrast to time-of-flight techniques, thermometry by EIT is fast and nondestructive, i.e., essentially it does not affect the ultracold medium. In an experimental demonstration we apply both EIT and time-of-flight measurements to determine temperatures along different symmetry axes of an anisotropic ultracold gas. As an interesting feature we find that the temperatures in the anisotropic atom cloud vary in different directions.

  3. The repeatability of three diagnostic methods (visual using ICDAS II, laser fluorescence, and radiographic) for early caries detection

    Sukmasari, S.; Lestari, W.; Ko, B. B.; Noh, Z.; Asmail, N.; Yaacob, N.

    2017-08-01

    Newly introduced ICDAS II as a visual method, laser fluorescence as another technique that have ability to quantify early mineral loss of tooth structure and intra oral radiograph, are methods can be used in the clinic. To provide standardization for comprehensive caries management at an early stage, all methods supposed to be tested between users. The objective of this research is to evaluate the repeatability of each system. It is a comparative cross sectional study using 100 extracted permanent teeth without obvious cavitation (premolar & molar) that were collected and stored in thymol solution. The teeth were embedded on the wax block and labeled with numbers. All 5 surfaces were examined by 5 examiners using visual (ICDAS II), laser fluorescence (LF) and radiographic examination. The data were then analyzed to measure intra and inter examiner repeatability using Cronbach’s alpha and inter-item correlation matrix. Intra-examiner repeatability for all examiners was >0.7. Chronbach’s a value for inter-examiner repeatability for ICDAS II was >0.8 on 3 surfaces except on buccal and lingual. LF exhibit repeatability of >0.8 on all surfaces. Radiograph shows a low value of inter examiner repeatability (students for inter-item correlation while the 2nd and 3rd reading of LF displays the best agreement. ICDAS II score favors more non-invasive treatment compared to LF. ICDAS II showed good repeatability except on buccal and lingual surfaces. In line with some of the previous study, ICDAS II is applicable for caries detection in daily clinical basis. Laser fluorescence exhibits the highest repeatability while the radiograph showed weak inter-examiner repeatability. Treatment decisions of ICDAS II propose more preventive treatment for early caries lesions compared to laser fluorescence.

  4. Thermometry system development for thermoradiotherapy of deep-seated tumours

    Fadeev, A. M.; Ivanov, S. M.; Perelstein, E. A.; Polozov, S. M.

    2017-12-01

    Therapeutic hyperthermia (including RF hyperthermia) in combination with radiotherapy (called thermoradiotherapy) is one of widely used contemporary cancer treatment methods. The independent electron linac and RF system or their combinations are necessary for effective therapy. Whole-body hyperthermia is used for treatment of metastatic cancer that was spread throughout the body, regional one is used for treatment of part of the body (for instance leg or abdominal cavity). Local hyperthermia with characteristic size of heating volume of 20-100 mm permits to heat tumour without overheating of healthy tissues. The thermometry of deep suited tissues during the hyperthermia process is an important and complex task. Invasive methods as thermistors, optical sensors or thermo-couples can not be widely used because all of them are able to transport tumor cells to the healthy region of the patient body. Distant methods of the temperature measurement such, as radiothermometry and acoustic thermometry can not be used for tissues seated deeper than 5-7 cm. One of possible ways to solve the problem of temperature measurement of the deep suited tissues is discussed in this article: it was proposed to use the same electrodes for RF hyperthermia and thermometry. As known electrodynamics characteristics of tissues are sufficiently depends on temperature. It was proposed to use this effect for active radiothermometry in local hyperthermia. Two opposite RF dipoles can be used as generator and receiver of pick-up signal.

  5. Design, construction, and validation of a rotary multifunctional intravascular diagnostic catheter combining multispectral fluorescence lifetime imaging and intravascular ultrasound.

    Bec, Julien; Xie, Hongtao; Yankelevich, Diego R; Zhou, Feifei; Sun, Yang; Ghata, Narugopal; Aldredge, Ralph; Marcu, Laura

    2012-10-01

    We report the development and validation of an intravascular rotary catheter for bimodal interrogation of arterial pathologies. This is based on a point-spectroscopy scanning time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy technique enabling reconstruction of fluorescence lifetime images (FLIm) and providing information on arterial intima composition and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) providing information on arterial wall morphology. The catheter design allows for independent rotation of the ultrasonic and optical channels within an 8 Fr outer diameter catheter sheath and integrates a low volume flushing channel for blood removal in the optical pathways. In the current configuration, the two channels consist of (a) a standard 3 Fr IVUS catheter with single element transducer (40 MHz) and (b) a side-viewing fiber optic (400 μm core). Experiments conducted in tissue phantoms showed the ability of the catheter to operate in an intraluminal setting and to generate coregistered FLIm and IVUS in one pull-back scan. Current results demonstrate the feasibility of the catheter for simultaneous bimodal interrogation of arterial lumen and for generation of robust fluorescence lifetime data under IVUS guidance. These results facilitate further development of a FLIm-IVUS technique for intravascular diagnosis of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases including vulnerable plaques.

  6. Innovative signal processing for Johnson Noise thermometry

    Ezell, N. Dianne Bull [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Britton, Jr, Charles L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Roberts, Michael [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-07-01

    This report summarizes the newly developed algorithm that subtracted the Electromagnetic Interference (EMI). The EMI performance is very important to this measurement because any interference in the form on pickup from external signal sources from such as fluorescent lighting ballasts, motors, etc. can skew the measurement. Two methods of removing EMI were developed and tested at various locations. This report also summarizes the testing performed at different facilities outside Oak Ridge National Laboratory using both EMI removal techniques. The first EMI removal technique reviewed in previous milestone reports and therefore this report will detail the second method.

  7. A bench-top K X-ray fluorescence system for quantitative measurement of gold nanoparticles for biological sample diagnostics

    Ricketts, K., E-mail: k.ricketts@ucl.ac.uk [Division of Surgery and Interventional Sciences, University College London, Royal Free Campus, Rowland Hill Street, London NW3 2PF (United Kingdom); Guazzoni, C.; Castoldi, A. [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria Politecnico di Milano and INFN, Sezione di Milano P.za Leonardo da Vinci, 32-20133 Milano (Italy); Royle, G. [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, Malet Place Engineering Building, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-21

    Gold nanoparticles can be targeted to biomarkers to give functional information on a range of tumour characteristics. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) techniques offer potential quantitative measurement of the distribution of such heavy metal nanoparticles. Biologists are developing 3D tissue engineered cellular models on the centimetre scale to optimise targeting techniques of nanoparticles to a range of tumour characteristics. Here we present a high energy bench-top K-X-ray fluorescence system designed for sensitivity to bulk measurement of gold nanoparticle concentration for intended use in such thick biological samples. Previous work has demonstrated use of a L-XRF system in measuring gold concentrations but being a low energy technique it is restricted to thin samples or superficial tumours. The presented system comprised a high purity germanium detector and filtered tungsten X-ray source, capable of quantitative measurement of gold nanoparticle concentration of thicker samples. The developed system achieved a measured detection limit of between 0.2 and 0.6 mgAu/ml, meeting specifications of biologists and being approximately one order of magnitude better than the detection limit of alternative K-XRF nanoparticle detection techniques. The scatter-corrected K-XRF signal of gold was linear with GNP concentrations down to the detection limit, thus demonstrating potential in GNP concentration quantification. The K-XRF system demonstrated between 5 and 9 times less sensitivity than a previous L-XRF bench-top system, due to a fundamental limitation of lower photoelectric interaction probabilities at higher K-edge energies. Importantly, the K-XRF technique is however less affected by overlying thickness, and so offers future potential in interrogating thick biological samples.

  8. The diagnostic accuracy of a laser fluorescence device and digital radiography in detecting approximal caries lesions in posterior permanent teeth: an in vivo study.

    Menem, R; Barngkgei, I; Beiruti, N; Al Haffar, I; Joury, Easter

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this in vivo study was to test the diagnostic accuracy of a pen-type laser fluorescence (LFpen) device in detecting approximal caries lesions, in posterior permanent teeth, at the cavitation and non-cavitation thresholds, and compare it with that of digital bitewing radiography. Thirty patients (aged 18-37), who attended the Faculty of Dentistry at Damascus University for a dental examination, were consecutively screened. Ninety approximal surfaces of posterior permanent teeth without frank cavitations, enamel hypoplasia or restorations were selected and examined using the LFpen (DIAGNOdent pen) and digital bitewing radiography. The reference standard was the visual-tactile inspection, after performing temporary tooth separation, using orthodontic rubber rings, placed for 7 days. The status of included approximal surfaces was recorded as intact/sound, with white/brown spots or cavitated. One trained examiner performed all examinations. There were statistically significant differences in LFpen readings between the three types of approximal surface status (P 16 and 8 at the cavitation and non-cavitation thresholds respectively. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy (measured by the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve) were 100, 85 and 95 and 92, 90 and 95% at the cavitation and non-cavitation thresholds respectively. The intra-class correlation coefficient for intra-examiner reliability was 0.95. The diagnostic accuracy of the LFpen was significantly higher than that of digital bitewing radiography (P < 0.001). The LFpen's diagnostic performance was accurate and significantly better than digital bitewing radiography in detecting approximal caries lesions, in posterior permanent teeth.

  9. Synthesis of Er(III)/Yb(III)-doped BiF3 upconversion nanoparticles for use in optical thermometry.

    Du, Peng; Yu, Jae Su

    2018-03-23

    The authors describe an ethylene glycol assisted precipitation method for synthesis of Er(III)/Yb(III)-doped BiF 3 nanoparticles (NPs) at room temperature. Under 980-nm light irradiation, the NPs emit upconversion (UC) emission of Er(III) ions as a result of a two-photon absorption process. The temperature-dependent green emissions (peaking at 525 and 545 nm) are used to establish an unambiguous relationship between the ratio of fluorescence intensities and temperature. The NPs have a maximum sensitivity of 6.5 × 10 -3  K -1 at 619 K and can be applied over the 291-691 K temperature range. The results indicate that these NPs are a promising candidate for optical thermometry. Graphical abstract Schematic of the room-temperature preparation of Er(III)/Yb(III)-doped BiF 3 nanoparticles with strongly temperature-dependent upconversion emission.

  10. Strategy for thermometry via Tm³⁺-doped NaYF₄ core-shell nanoparticles.

    Zhou, Shaoshuai; Jiang, Guicheng; Li, Xinyue; Jiang, Sha; Wei, Xiantao; Chen, Yonghu; Yin, Min; Duan, Changkui

    2014-12-01

    Optical thermometers usually make use of the fluorescence intensity ratio of two thermally coupled energy levels, with the relative sensitivity constrained by the limited energy gap. Here we develop a strategy by using the upconversion (UC) emissions originating from two multiplets with opposite temperature dependences to achieve higher relative temperature sensitivity. We show that the intensity ratio of the two UC emissions, ³F(2,3) and ¹G₄, of Tm³⁺ in β-NaYF₄:20%Yb³⁺, 0.5%Tm³⁺/NaYF₄:1%Pr³⁺ core-shell nanoparticles under 980 nm laser excitation exhibits high relative temperature sensitivity between 350 and 510 K, with a maximum of 1.53%  K⁻¹ at 417 K. This demonstrates the validity of the strategy, and that the studied material has the potential for high-performance optical thermometry.

  11. Vortex Thermometry for Turbulent Two-Dimensional Fluids.

    Groszek, Andrew J; Davis, Matthew J; Paganin, David M; Helmerson, Kristian; Simula, Tapio P

    2018-01-19

    We introduce a new method of statistical analysis to characterize the dynamics of turbulent fluids in two dimensions. We establish that, in equilibrium, the vortex distributions can be uniquely connected to the temperature of the vortex gas, and we apply this vortex thermometry to characterize simulations of decaying superfluid turbulence. We confirm the hypothesis of vortex evaporative heating leading to Onsager vortices proposed in Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 165302 (2014)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.113.165302, and we find previously unidentified vortex power-law distributions that emerge from the dynamics.

  12. Noise Thermometry with Two Weakly Coupled Bose-Einstein Condensates

    Gati, Rudolf; Hemmerling, Boerge; Foelling, Jonas; Albiez, Michael; Oberthaler, Markus K.

    2006-01-01

    Here we report on the experimental investigation of thermally induced fluctuations of the relative phase between two Bose-Einstein condensates which are coupled via tunneling. The experimental control over the coupling strength and the temperature of the thermal background allows for the quantitative analysis of the phase fluctuations. Furthermore, we demonstrate the application of these measurements for thermometry in a regime where standard methods fail. With this we confirm that the heat capacity of an ideal Bose gas deviates from that of a classical gas as predicted by the third law of thermodynamics

  13. Noise thermometry with two weakly coupled Bose-Einstein condensates.

    Gati, Rudolf; Hemmerling, Börge; Fölling, Jonas; Albiez, Michael; Oberthaler, Markus K

    2006-04-07

    Here we report on the experimental investigation of thermally induced fluctuations of the relative phase between two Bose-Einstein condensates which are coupled via tunneling. The experimental control over the coupling strength and the temperature of the thermal background allows for the quantitative analysis of the phase fluctuations. Furthermore, we demonstrate the application of these measurements for thermometry in a regime where standard methods fail. With this we confirm that the heat capacity of an ideal Bose gas deviates from that of a classical gas as predicted by the third law of thermodynamics.

  14. Fluorescence Imaging of Streptococcus pneumoniae with the Helix pomatia agglutinin (HPA As a Potential, Rapid Diagnostic Tool

    Mirian Domenech

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common human pathogen and a major causal agent of life-threatening infections that can either be respiratory or non-respiratory. It is well known that the Helix pomatia (edible snail agglutinin (HPA lectin shows specificity for terminal αGalNAc residues present, among other locations, in the Forssman pentasaccharide (αGalNAc1→3βGalNAc1→3αGal1→4βGal1→4βGlc. Based on experiments involving choline-independent mutants and different growth conditions, we propose here that HPA recognizes the αGalNAc terminal residues of the cell wall teichoic and lipoteichoic acids of S. pneumoniae. In addition, experimental evidence showing that pneumococci can be specifically labeled with HPA when growing as planktonic cultures as well as in mixed biofilms of S. pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae has been obtained. It should be underlined that pneumococci were HPA-labeled despite of the presence of a capsule. Although some non-pneumococcal species also bind the agglutinin, HPA-binding combined with fluorescence microscopy constitutes a suitable tool for identifying S. pneumoniae and, if used in conjunction with Gram staining and/or other suitable technique like antigen detection, it may potentially facilitate a fast and accurate diagnosis of pneumococcal infections.

  15. Fiber Optic Based Thermometry System for Superconducting RF Cavities

    Kochergin, Vladimir [Microxact Inc.

    2013-05-06

    Thermometry is recognized as the best technique to identify and characterize losses in SRF cavities. The most widely used and reliable apparatus for temperature mapping at cryogenic temperatures is based on carbon resistors (RTDs). The use of this technology on multi-cell cavities is inconvenient due to the very large number of sensors required to obtain sufficient spatial resolution. Recent developments make feasible the use of multiplexible fiber optic sensors for highly distributed temperature measurements. However, sensitivity of multiplexible cryogenic temperature sensors was found extending only to 12K at best and thus was not sufficient for SRF cavity thermometry. During the course of the project the team of MicroXact, JLab and Virginia Tech developed and demonstrated the multiplexible fiber optic sensor with adequate response below 20K. The demonstrated temperature resolution is by at least a factor of 60 better than that of the best multiplexible fiber optic temperature sensors reported to date. The clear path toward at least 10times better temperature resolution is shown. The first to date temperature distribution measurements with ~2.5mm spatial resolution was done with fiber optic sensors at 2K to4K temperatures. The repeatability and accuracy of the sensors were verified only at 183K, but at this temperature both parameters significantly exceeded the state of the art. The results of this work are expected to find a wide range of applications, since the results are enabling the whole new testing capabilities, not accessible before.

  16. FLUORESCENCE DIAGNOSIS FOR RECURRENT BLADDER CANCER

    R. V. Ulyanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical case of successful use of local fluorescence spectroscopy combined with fluorescence imaging during cystoscopy for diagnosis of recurrent bladder cancer is represented in the article. Histological study of fluorescent foci confirmed tumor growth (urothelial carcinoma in all areas with high levels of diagnostic parameter. In the fluorescent focus with low diagnostic parameter inflammation was detected.

  17. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization for MDM2 Amplification as a Routine Ancillary Diagnostic Tool for Suspected Well-Differentiated and Dedifferentiated Liposarcomas: Experience at a Tertiary Center

    Khin Thway

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The assessment of MDM2 gene amplification by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH has become a routine ancillary tool for diagnosing atypical lipomatous tumor (ALT/well-differentiated liposarcoma and dedifferentiated liposarcoma (WDL/DDL in specialist sarcoma units. We describe our experience of its utility at our tertiary institute. Methods. All routine histology samples in which MDM2 amplification was assessed with FISH over a 2-year period were included, and FISH results were correlated with clinical and histologic findings. Results. 365 samples from 347 patients had FISH for MDM2 gene amplification. 170 were positive (i.e., showed MDM2 gene amplification, 192 were negative, and 3 were technically unsatisfactory. There were 122 histologically benign cases showing a histology:FISH concordance rate of 92.6%, 142 WDL/DDL (concordance 96.5%, and 34 cases histologically equivocal for WDL (concordance 50%. Of 64 spindle cell/pleomorphic neoplasms (in which DDL was a differential diagnosis, 21.9% showed MDM2 amplification. Of the cases with discrepant histology and FISH, all but 3 had diagnoses amended following FISH results. For discrepancies of benign histology but positive FISH, lesions were on average larger, more frequently in “classical” (intra-abdominal or inguinal sites for WDL/DDL and more frequently core biopsies. Discrepancies of malignant histology but negative FISH were smaller, less frequently in “classical” sites but again more frequently core biopsies. Conclusions. FISH has a high correlation rate with histology for cases with firm histologic diagnoses of lipoma or WDL/DDL. It is a useful ancillary diagnostic tool in histologically equivocal cases, particularly in WDL lacking significant histologic atypia or DDL without corresponding WDL component, especially in larger tumors, those from intra-abdominal or inguinal sites or core biopsies. There is a significant group of well-differentiated adipocytic neoplasms

  18. Diagnostic performances of the fluorescent spot test for G6PD deficiency in newborns along the Thailand-Myanmar border: A cohort study.

    Thielemans, Laurence; Gornsawun, Gornpan; Hanboonkunupakarn, Borimas; Paw, Moo Kho; Porn, Pen; Moo, Paw Khu; Van Overmeire, Bart; Proux, Stephane; Nosten, François; McGready, Rose; Carrara, Verena I; Bancone, Germana

    2018-01-01

    Background: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is an inherited enzymatic disorder associated with severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and acute haemolysis after exposure to certain drugs or infections. The disorder can be diagnosed phenotypically with a fluorescent spot test (FST), which is a simple test that requires training and basic laboratory equipment. This study aimed to assess the diagnostic performances of the FST used on umbilical cord blood by locally-trained staff and to compare test results of the neonates at birth with the results after one month of age. Methods : We conducted a cohort study on newborns at the Shoklo Malaria Research Unit, along the Thai-Myanmar border between January 2015 and May 2016. The FST was performed at birth on the umbilical cord blood by locally-trained staff and quality controlled by specialised technicians at the central laboratory. The FST was repeated after one month of age. Genotyping for common local G6PD mutations was carried out for all discrepant results. Results: FST was performed on 1521 umbilical cord blood samples. Quality control and genotyping revealed 10 misdiagnoses. After quality control, 10.7% of the males (84/786) and 1.2% of the females (9/735) were phenotypically G6PD deficient at birth. The FST repeated at one month of age or later diagnosed 8 additional G6PD deficient infants who were phenotypically normal at birth. Conclusions : This study shows the short-comings of the G6PD FST in neonatal routine screening and highlights the importance of training and quality control. A more conservative interpretation of the FST in male newborns could increase the diagnostic performances. Quantitative point-of-care tests might show higher sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of G6PD deficiency on umbilical cord blood and should be investigated.

  19. Diagnostic performances of the fluorescent spot test for G6PD deficiency in newborns along the Thailand-Myanmar border: A cohort study [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Laurence Thielemans

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency is an inherited enzymatic disorder associated with severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and acute haemolysis after exposure to certain drugs or infections. The disorder can be diagnosed phenotypically with a fluorescent spot test (FST, which is a simple test that requires training and basic laboratory equipment. This study aimed to assess the diagnostic performances of the FST used on umbilical cord blood by locally-trained staff and to compare test results of the neonates at birth with the results after one month of age. Methods: We conducted a cohort study on newborns at the Shoklo Malaria Research Unit, along the Thai-Myanmar border between January 2015 and May 2016. The FST was performed at birth on the umbilical cord blood by locally-trained staff and quality controlled by specialised technicians at the central laboratory. The FST was repeated after one month of age. Genotyping for common local G6PD mutations was carried out for all discrepant results. Results: FST was performed on 1521 umbilical cord blood samples. Quality control and genotyping revealed 10 misdiagnoses. After quality control, 10.7% of the males (84/786 and 1.2% of the females (9/735 were phenotypically G6PD deficient at birth. The FST repeated at one month of age or later diagnosed 8 additional G6PD deficient infants who were phenotypically normal at birth. Conclusions: This study shows the short-comings of the G6PD FST in neonatal routine screening and highlights the importance of training and quality control. A more conservative interpretation of the FST in male newborns could increase the diagnostic performances. Quantitative point-of-care tests might show higher sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of G6PD deficiency on umbilical cord blood and should be investigated.

  20. CW Laser radar for combustion diagnostics

    Malmqvist Elin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A CW-laser radar system developed for combustion diagnostics is described. The system is based on triangulation to attain range information. A portable system has been constructed and here we show some result from measurements in various flames, for example Rayleigh scattering thermometry and monitoring of particle distributions with high temporal and spatial resolution. The concept can equally well be based on pulsed lasers, allowing suppression of background emission through gated detection.

  1. Development of a quantum dot mediated thermometry for minimally invasive thermal therapy

    Hanson, Willard L.

    Thermally-related, minimally invasive therapies are designed to treat tumors while minimizing damage to the surrounding tissues. Adjacent tissues become susceptible to thermal injury to ensure the cancer is completely destroyed. Destroying tumor cells, while minimizing collateral damage to the surrounding tissue, requires the capacity to control and monitor tissue temperatures both spatially and temporally. Current devices measure the tumor's tissue temperature at a specific location leaving the majority unmonitored. A point-wise application can not substantiate complete tumor destruction. This type of surgery would be more effective if volumetric tissue temperature measurement were available. On this premise, the feasibility of a quantum dot (QD) assembly to measure the tissue temperature volumetrically was tested in the experiments described in this dissertation. QDs are fluorescence semiconductor nanoparticles having various superior optical properties. This new QD-mediated thermometry is capable of monitoring the thermal features of tissues non-invasively by measuring the aggregate fluorescence intensity of the QDs accumulated at the target tissues prior to and during the surgical procedure. Thus, such a modality would allow evaluation of tissue destruction by measuring the fluorescence intensity of the QD as a function of temperature. The present study also quantified the photoluminescence intensity and attenuation of the QD as a function of depth and wavelength using a tissue phantom. A prototype system was developed to measure the illumination through a tissue phantom as a proof of concept of the feasibility of a noninvasive thermal therapy. This prototype includes experimental hardware, software and working methods to perform image acquisition, and data reduction strategic to quantify the intensity and transport characteristics of the QD. The significance of this work is that real-time volumetric temperature information will prove a more robust tool for use

  2. Primary gas thermometry by means of laser-absorption spectroscopy: Determination of the Boltzmann constant

    Casa, G.; Castrillo, A.; Galzerano, G.; Wehr, R.; Merlone, A.; Di Serafino, D.; Laporta, P.; Gianfrani, L.

    2008-01-01

    We report on a new optical implementation of primary gas thermometry based on laser absorption spectrometry in the near infrared. The method consists in retrieving the Doppler broadening from highly accurate observations of the line shape of the R(12) $\

  3. Sub-picowatt/kelvin resistive thermometry for probing nanoscale thermal transport.

    Zheng, Jianlin; Wingert, Matthew C; Dechaumphai, Edward; Chen, Renkun

    2013-11-01

    Advanced instrumentation in thermometry holds the key for experimentally probing fundamental heat transfer physics. However, instrumentation with simultaneously high thermometry resolution and low parasitic heat conduction is still not available today. Here we report a resistive thermometry scheme with ~50 μK temperature resolution and ~0.25 pW/K thermal conductance resolution, which is achieved through schemes using both modulated heating and common mode noise rejection. The suspended devices used herein have been specifically designed to possess short thermal time constants and minimal attenuation effects associated with the modulated heating current. Furthermore, we have systematically characterized the parasitic background heat conductance, which is shown to be significantly reduced using the new device design and can be effectively eliminated using a "canceling" scheme. Our results pave the way for probing fundamental nanoscale thermal transport processes using a general scheme based on resistive thermometry.

  4. Trade-off between information and disturbance in qubit thermometry

    Seveso, Luigi; Paris, Matteo G. A.

    2018-03-01

    We address the trade-off between information and disturbance in qubit thermometry from the perspective of quantum estimation theory. Given a quantum measurement, we quantify information via the Fisher information of the measurement and disturbance via four different figures of merit, which capture different aspects (statistical, thermodynamical, geometrical) of the trade-off. For each disturbance measure, the efficient measurements, i.e., the measurements that introduce a disturbance not greater than any other measurement extracting the same amount of information, are determined explicitly. The family of efficient measurements varies with the choice of the disturbance measure. On the other hand, commutativity between the elements of the probability operator-valued measure (POVM) and the equilibrium state of the thermometer is a necessary condition for efficiency with respect to any figure of disturbance.

  5. Effect of frost on phosphorescence for thermographic phosphor thermometry

    Kim, Dong; Kim, Mirae; Kim, Kyung Chun

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we analyzed phosphorescence lifetime and its accuracy by growing frost for thermographic phosphor thermometry in a low-temperature environment. Mg4FGeO6:Mn particles were coated on an aluminum plate and excited with a UV-LED to obtain phosphorescence signals. The surface temperature was maintained at  -20, -15, -10 °C, and the phosphorescence signal was acquired as the frost grew for 3700 s. The lifetime was calculated and compared with the calibration curve under no-frost conditions. The error of the measured lifetime was within 0.7% of that in the no-frost conditions. A 2D surface temperature profile of the target plate was successfully obtained with the frost formation.

  6. Zirconium metal-water oxidation kinetics. I. Thermometry

    Cathcart, J.V.; McElroy, D.L.; Pawel, R.E.; Perkins, R.A.; Williams, R.K.; Yurek, G.J.

    1976-02-01

    A description is given of the thermometry techniques used in the Zirconium Metal--Water Oxidation Kinetics Program. Temperature measurements in the range 900 to 1500 0 C are made in three experimental systems: two oxidation apparatuses and the annealing furnace used in a corollary study of the diffusion of oxygen in β-Zircaloy. Carefully calibrated Pt vs Pt--10 percent Rh thermocouples are employed in all three apparatuses, while a Pt--6 percent Rh vs Pt-- 30 percent Rh thermocouple and an optical pyrometer are used in addition in the annealing furnace. Features of the experimental systems pertaining to thermocouple installation, temperature control, emf measurements, etc. are described, and potential temperature-measurement error sources are discussed in detail. The accuracy of the temperature measurements is analyzed

  7. Magnon and phonon thermometry with inelastic light scattering

    Olsson, Kevin S.; An, Kyongmo; Li, Xiaoqin

    2018-04-01

    Spin caloritronics investigates the interplay between the transport of spin and heat. In the spin Seebeck effect, a thermal gradient across a magnetic material generates a spin current. A temperature difference between the energy carriers of the spin and lattice subsystems, namely the magnons and phonons, is necessary for such thermal nonequilibrium generation of spin current. Inelastic light scattering is a powerful method that can resolve the individual temperatures of magnons and phonons. In this review, we discuss the thermometry capabilities of inelastic light scattering for measuring optical and acoustic phonons, as well as magnons. A scattering spectrum offers three temperature sensitive parameters: frequency shift, linewidth, and integrated intensity. We discuss the temperatures measured via each of these parameters for both phonon and magnons. Finally, we discuss inelastic light scattering experiments that have examined the magnon and phonon temperatures in thermal nonequilibrium which are particularly relevant to spin caloritronic phenomena.

  8. Development of high frequency and wide bandwidth Johnson noise thermometry

    Crossno, Jesse; Liu, Xiaomeng; Kim, Philip; Ohki, Thomas A.; Fong, Kin Chung

    2015-01-01

    We develop a high frequency, wide bandwidth radiometer operating at room temperature, which augments the traditional technique of Johnson noise thermometry for nanoscale thermal transport studies. Employing low noise amplifiers and an analog multiplier operating at 2 GHz, auto- and cross-correlated Johnson noise measurements are performed in the temperature range of 3 to 300 K, achieving a sensitivity of 5.5 mK (110 ppm) in 1 s of integration time. This setup allows us to measure the thermal conductance of a boron nitride encapsulated monolayer graphene device over a wide temperature range. Our data show a high power law (T ∼ 4) deviation from the Wiedemann-Franz law above T ∼ 100 K

  9. Raman Thermometry Measurements of Free Evaporation from Liquid Water Droplets

    Smith, Jared D.; Cappa, Christopher D.; Drisdell, Walter S.; Cohen, Ronald C.; Saykally, Richard J.

    2006-01-01

    Recent theoretical and experimental studies of evaporation have suggested that on average, molecules in the higher-energy tail of the Boltzmann distribution are more readily transferred into the vapor during evaporation. To test these conclusions, the evaporative cooling rates of a droplet train of liquid water injected into vacuum have been studied via Raman thermometry. The resulting cooling rates are fit to an evaporative cooling model based on Knudsen's maximum rate of evaporation, in which we explicitly account for surface cooling. We have determined that the value of the evaporation coefficient (γ e ) of liquid water is 0.62 ± 0.09, confirming that a rate-limiting barrier impedes the evaporation rate. Such insight will facilitate the formulation of a microscopic mechanism for the evaporation of liquid water

  10. User's Manual: Routines for Radiative Heat Transfer and Thermometry

    Risch, Timothy K.

    2016-01-01

    Determining the intensity and spectral distribution of radiation emanating from a heated surface has applications in many areas of science and engineering. Areas of research in which the quantification of spectral radiation is used routinely include thermal radiation heat transfer, infrared signature analysis, and radiation thermometry. In the analysis of radiation, it is helpful to be able to predict the radiative intensity and the spectral distribution of the emitted energy. Presented in this report is a set of routines written in Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, Washington) and incorporating functions specific to Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, Washington) that are useful for predicting the radiative behavior of heated surfaces. These routines include functions for calculating quantities of primary importance to engineers and scientists. In addition, the routines also provide the capability to use such information to determine surface temperatures from spectral intensities and for calculating the sensitivity of the surface temperature measurements to unknowns in the input parameters.

  11. Digital particle image thermometry/velocimetry: a review

    Dabiri, Dana [University of Washington, Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Digital particle image thermometry/velocimetry (DPIT/V) is a relatively new methodology that allows for measurements of simultaneous temperature and velocity within a two-dimensional domain, using thermochromic liquid crystal tracer particles as the temperature and velocity sensors. Extensive research has been carried out over recent years that have allowed the methodology and its implementation to grow and evolve. While there have been several reviews on the topic of liquid crystal thermometry (Moffat in Exp Therm Fluid Sci 3:14-32, 1990; Baughn in Int J Heat Fluid Flow 16:365-375, 1995; Roberts and East in J Spacecr Rockets 33:761-768, 1996; Wozniak et al. in Appl Sci Res 56:145-156, 1996; Behle et al. in Appl Sci Res 56:113-143, 1996; Stasiek in Heat Mass Transf 33:27-39, 1997; Stasiek and Kowalewski in Opto Electron Rev 10:1-10, 2002; Stasiek et al. in Opt Laser Technol 38:243-256, 2006; Smith et al. in Exp Fluids 30:190-201, 2001; Kowalewski et al. in Springer handbook of experimental fluid mechanics, 1st edn. Springer, Berlin, pp 487-561, 2007), the focus of the present review is to provide a relevant discussion of liquid crystals pertinent to DPIT/V. This includes a background on liquid crystals and color theory, a discussion of experimental setup parameters, a description of the methodology's most recent advances and processing methods affecting temperature measurements, and finally an explanation of its various implementations and applications. (orig.)

  12. Diagnostics of Carbon Nanotube Formation in a Laser Produced Plume: An Investigation of the Metal Catalyst by Laser Ablation Atomic Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    deBoer, Gary; Scott, Carl

    2003-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes, elongated molecular tubes with diameters of nanometers and lengths in microns, hold great promise for material science. Hopes for super strong light-weight material to be used in spacecraft design is the driving force behind nanotube work at JSC. The molecular nature of these materials requires the appropriate tools for investigation of their structure, properties, and formation. The mechanism of nanotube formation is of particular interest because it may hold keys to controlling the formation of different types of nanotubes and allow them to be produced in much greater quantities at less cost than is currently available. This summer's work involved the interpretation of data taken last summer and analyzed over the academic year. The work involved diagnostic studies of carbon nanotube formation processes occurring in a laser-produced plume. Laser ablation of metal doped graphite to produce a plasma plume in which carbon nanotubes self assemble is one method of making carbon nanotube. The laser ablation method is amenable to applying the techniques of laser spectroscopy, a powerful tool for probing the energies and dynamics of atomic and molecular species. The experimental work performed last summer involved probing one of the metal catalysts, nickel, by laser induced fluorescence. The nickel atom was studied as a function of oven temperature, probe laser wavelength, time after ablation, and position in the laser produced plume. This data along with previously obtained data on carbon was analyzed over the academic year. Interpretations of the data were developed this summer along with discussions of future work. The temperature of the oven in which the target is ablated greatly influences the amount of material ablated and the propagation of the plume. The ablation conditions and the time scale of atomic and molecular lifetimes suggest that initial ablation of the metal doped carbon target results in atomic and small molecular species. The metal

  13. NRC Microwave Refractive Index Gas Thermometry Implementation Between 24.5 K and 84 K

    Rourke, P. M. C.

    2017-07-01

    The implementation of microwave refractive index gas thermometry at the National Research Council between 24.5 K and 84 K is reported. A new gas-handling system for accurate control and measurement of experimental gas pressure has been constructed, and primary thermometry measurements have been taken using a quasi-spherical copper resonator and helium gas at temperatures corresponding to three defining fixed points of the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90). These measurements indicate differences between the thermodynamic temperature T and ITS-90 temperature T_{90} of ( T - T_{90} ) = -0.60 ± 0.56 mK at T_{90} = 24.5561 K, ( T - T_{90} ) = -2.0 ± 1.3 mK at T_{90} = 54.3584 K, and ( T - T_{90} ) = -4.0 ± 2.9 mK at T_{90} = 83.8058 K. The present results at T_{90} = 24.5561 K and T_{90} = 83.8058 K agree with previously reported measurements from other primary thermometry techniques of acoustic gas thermometry and dielectric constant gas thermometry, and the result at T_{90} = 54.3584 K provides new information in a temperature region where there is a gap in other recent data sets.

  14. Thermometry in dielectrophoresis chips for contact-free cell handling

    Jaeger, M S; Mueller, T; Schnelle, T

    2007-01-01

    Cell biology applications, protocols in immunology and stem cell research, require that individual cells are handled under strict control of their contacts to other cells or synthetic surfaces. Dielectrophoresis (DEP) in microfluidic chips is an established technique to investigate, group, wash, cultivate and sort cells contact-free under physiological conditions: microelectrode octode cages, versatile dielectrophoretic elements energized with radio frequency electric fields, stably trap single cells or cellular aggregates. For medical applications and cell cultivation, possible side effects of the dielectrophoretic manipulation, such as membrane polarization and Joule heating, have to be quantified. Therefore, we characterized the electric field-induced warming in dielectrophoretic cages using ohmic resistance measurements, fluorometry, liquid crystal beads, infra-red thermography and bubble size thermometry. We compare the results of these techniques with respect to the influences of voltage, electric conductivity of buffer, frequency, cage size and electrode surface. We conclude that in the culture medium thermal effects may be neglected if low voltages and an electric field-reducing phase pattern are used. Our experimental results provide explicit values for estimating the thermal effect on dielectrophoretically caged cells and show that Joule heating is best minimized by optimizing the cage geometry and reducing the buffer conductivity. The results may additionally serve to evaluate and improve theoretical predictions on field-induced effects. Based on present-day chip processing possibilities, DEP is well suited for the manipulation of cells

  15. Structural disorder of graphite and implications for graphite thermometry

    Kirilova, Martina; Toy, Virginia; Rooney, Jeremy S.; Giorgetti, Carolina; Gordon, Keith C.; Collettini, Cristiano; Takeshita, Toru

    2018-02-01

    Graphitization, or the progressive maturation of carbonaceous material, is considered an irreversible process. Thus, the degree of graphite crystallinity, or its structural order, has been calibrated as an indicator of the peak metamorphic temperatures experienced by the host rocks. However, discrepancies between temperatures indicated by graphite crystallinity versus other thermometers have been documented in deformed rocks. To examine the possibility of mechanical modifications of graphite structure and the potential impacts on graphite thermometry, we performed laboratory deformation experiments. We sheared highly crystalline graphite powder at normal stresses of 5 and 25 megapascal (MPa) and aseismic velocities of 1, 10 and 100 µm s-1. The degree of structural order both in the starting and resulting materials was analyzed by Raman microspectroscopy. Our results demonstrate structural disorder of graphite, manifested as changes in the Raman spectra. Microstructural observations show that brittle processes caused the documented mechanical modifications of the aggregate graphite crystallinity. We conclude that the calibrated graphite thermometer is ambiguous in active tectonic settings.

  16. Structural disorder of graphite and implications for graphite thermometry

    M. Kirilova

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Graphitization, or the progressive maturation of carbonaceous material, is considered an irreversible process. Thus, the degree of graphite crystallinity, or its structural order, has been calibrated as an indicator of the peak metamorphic temperatures experienced by the host rocks. However, discrepancies between temperatures indicated by graphite crystallinity versus other thermometers have been documented in deformed rocks. To examine the possibility of mechanical modifications of graphite structure and the potential impacts on graphite thermometry, we performed laboratory deformation experiments. We sheared highly crystalline graphite powder at normal stresses of 5 and 25  megapascal (MPa and aseismic velocities of 1, 10 and 100 µm s−1. The degree of structural order both in the starting and resulting materials was analyzed by Raman microspectroscopy. Our results demonstrate structural disorder of graphite, manifested as changes in the Raman spectra. Microstructural observations show that brittle processes caused the documented mechanical modifications of the aggregate graphite crystallinity. We conclude that the calibrated graphite thermometer is ambiguous in active tectonic settings.

  17. Elimination of noise peak for signal processing in Johnson noise thermometry development

    Hwang, I. G.; Moon, B. S.; Jeong, J. E.; Jeo, Y. H.; Kisner, Roger A.

    2003-01-01

    The internal and external noise is the most considering obstacle in development of Johnson Noise Thermometry system. This paper addresses an external noise elimination issue of the Johnson Noise Thermometry system which is underway of development in collaboration between KAERI and ORNL. Although internal random noise is canceled by Cross Power Spectral Density function, a continuous wave penetrating into the electronic circuit is eliminated by the difference of peaks between Johnson signal and external noise. The elimination logic using standard deviation of CPSD and energy leakage problem in discrete CPSD function are discussed in this paper

  18. Study of the functional state of peripheral vessels in fingers of rheumatological patients by means of laser Doppler flowmetry and cutaneous thermometry measurements

    Zherebtsova, Angelina I.; Zherebtsov, Evgeny A.; Dunaev, Andrey V.; Podmasteryev, Konstantin V.; Pilipenko, Olga V.; Krupatkin, Alexander I.; Khakhicheva, Lyudmila S.; Muradyan, Vadim F.

    2016-04-01

    Vasospastic disorders are a common class of rheumatic disease. These include syndromes such as vegetative dystonia, Raynaud's syndrome, vibration disease and rheumatoid arthritis among others. The aim of this work is to develop an original method of diagnosing the functional state of peripheral vessels of the fingers, based on the simultaneous recording of LDF- and thermograms during the occlusion test, for determining vascular disorders of rheumatological patients. A diagnostic method was developed for assessing the functional state of the peripheral vessels of fingers, based on carrying out occlusion test in a thermally stabilized environment, with simultaneous recording of signals of laser Doppler flowmetry and skin thermometry. To verify the diagnostic value of the proposed method, a series of experiments were carried out on 41 rheumatological patients: 5 male and 36 females (average age 56.0+/-12.2 years). The most common diagnoses in the patient group were rheumatoid arthritis, arthrosis, gout and systemic lupus erythematosus. The laser analyser of blood microcirculation "LAKK-02" (SPE "LAZMA" Ltd, Russia) and a custom developed multi-channel thermometry device for low inertia thermometry were used for experimental measurements. The measurements of cutaneous temperature and the index of microcirculation were performed on the distal phalanx of the third finger of the right hand. Occlusion tests were performed with water baths at 25 and 42 °C and a tonometer cuff with a pressure of 200-220 mmHg for 3 min on the upper arm. The results of experimental studies are presented and interpreted. These data indicate a violation of the blood supply regulation in the form of a pronounced tendency towards microvascular vasoconstriction in the fingers. Thus, the response displaying a tendency toward angiospasm among patients in the rheumatological diseases profile group was observed mainly in the most severe cases (49 % of this group). The prospects of the developed

  19. CT thermometry for cone-beam CT guided ablation

    DeStefano, Zachary; Abi-Jaoudeh, Nadine; Li, Ming; Wood, Bradford J.; Summers, Ronald M.; Yao, Jianhua

    2016-03-01

    Monitoring temperature during a cone-beam CT (CBCT) guided ablation procedure is important for prevention of over-treatment and under-treatment. In order to accomplish ideal temperature monitoring, a thermometry map must be generated. Previously, this was attempted using CBCT scans of a pig shoulder undergoing ablation.1 We are extending this work by using CBCT scans of real patients and incorporating more processing steps. We register the scans before comparing them due to the movement and deformation of organs. We then automatically locate the needle tip and the ablation zone. We employ a robust change metric due to image noise and artifacts. This change metric takes windows around each pixel and uses an equation inspired by Time Delay Analysis to calculate the error between windows with the assumption that there is an ideal spatial offset. Once the change map is generated, we correlate change data with measured temperature data at the key points in the region. This allows us to transform our change map into a thermal map. This thermal map is then able to provide an estimate as to the size and temperature of the ablation zone. We evaluated our procedure on a data set of 12 patients who had a total of 24 ablation procedures performed. We were able to generate reasonable thermal maps with varying degrees of accuracy. The average error ranged from 2.7 to 16.2 degrees Celsius. In addition to providing estimates of the size of the ablation zone for surgical guidance, 3D visualizations of the ablation zone and needle are also produced.

  20. Thermometry, calorimetry, and mean body temperature during heat stress.

    Kenny, Glen P; Jay, Ollie

    2013-10-01

    Heat balance in humans is maintained at near constant levels through the adjustment of physiological mechanisms that attain a balance between the heat produced within the body and the heat lost to the environment. Heat balance is easily disturbed during changes in metabolic heat production due to physical activity and/or exposure to a warmer environment. Under such conditions, elevations of skin blood flow and sweating occur via a hypothalamic negative feedback loop to maintain an enhanced rate of dry and evaporative heat loss. Body heat storage and changes in core temperature are a direct result of a thermal imbalance between the rate of heat production and the rate of total heat dissipation to the surrounding environment. The derivation of the change in body heat content is of fundamental importance to the physiologist assessing the exposure of the human body to environmental conditions that result in thermal imbalance. It is generally accepted that the concurrent measurement of the total heat generated by the body and the total heat dissipated to the ambient environment is the most accurate means whereby the change in body heat content can be attained. However, in the absence of calorimetric methods, thermometry is often used to estimate the change in body heat content. This review examines heat exchange during challenges to heat balance associated with progressive elevations in environmental heat load and metabolic rate during exercise. Further, we evaluate the physiological responses associated with heat stress and discuss the thermal and nonthermal influences on the body's ability to dissipate heat from a heat balance perspective.

  1. Transrectal ultrasound applicator for prostate heating monitored using MRI thermometry

    Smith, Nadine Barrie; Buchanan, Mark T.; Hynynen, Kullervo

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: For potential localized hyperthermia treatment of tumors within the prostate, an ultrasound applicator consisting entirely of nonmagnetic materials for use with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been developed and tested on muscle tissue ex vivo and in vivo. Methods and Materials: A partial-cylindrical intracavitary transducer consisting of 16 elements in a 4 x 4 pattern was constructed. It produced a radially propagating acoustic pressure field. Each element of this array (1.5 x 0.75 cm), operating at 1.5 MHz, could be separately powered to produce a desired energy deposition pattern within a target volume. Spatial and temporal temperature elevations were determined using the temperature-dependent proton resonant frequency (PRF) shift and phase subtraction of MR images acquired during ultrasonic heating. Four rabbits were exposed to the ultrasound to raise the local tissue temperature to 45 deg. C for 25 minutes. Six experiments compared thermocouple temperature results to PRF shift temperature results. Results: The tests showed that the multi-element ultrasound applicator was MRI-compatible and allowed imaging during sonication. The induced temperature distribution could be controlled by monitoring the RF power to each transducer element. Therapeutic temperature elevations were easily achieved in vivo at power levels that were about 16% of the maximum system power. From the six thermocouple experiments, comparison between the thermocouple temperature and the PRF temperature yielded an average error of 0.34 ± 0.36 deg. C. Conclusions: The MRI-compatible intracavitary applicator and driving system was able to control the ultrasound field and temperature pattern in vivo. MRI thermometry using the PRF shift can provide adequate temperature accuracy and stability for controlling the temperature distribution

  2. Synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of a fluorescent pyrrole derivative containing electron acceptor and donor groups

    Almeida, A. K. A.; Monteiro, M. P.; Dias, J. M. M.; Omena, L.; da Silva, A. J. C.; Tonholo, J.; Mortimer, R. J.; Navarro, M.; Jacinto, C.; Ribeiro, A. S.; de Oliveira, I. N.

    2014-07-01

    The synthesis and fluorescence characterization of a new pyrrole derivative (PyPDG) containing the electron donor-acceptor dansyl substituent is reported. The effects of temperature and solvent polarity on the steady-state fluorescence of this compound are investigated. Our results show that PyPDG exhibits desirable fluorescent properties which makes it a promising candidate to be used as the photoactive material in optical thermometry and thermography applications. Further, the electrochemical and emission properties of polymeric films obtained from the oxidation polymerization of PyPDG are also analyzed.

  3. Ultraviolet-Visible and Fluorescence Spectroscopy Techniques Are Important Diagnostic Tools during the Progression of Atherosclerosis: Diet Zinc Supplementation Retarded or Delayed Atherosclerosis

    Abdelhalim, Mohamed Anwar K.; Moussa, Sherif A. Abdelmottaleb; AL-Mohy, Yanallah Hussain

    2013-01-01

    Background. In this study, we examined whether UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy techniques detect the progression of atherosclerosis in serum of rabbits fed on high-cholesterol diet (HCD) and HCD supplemented with zinc (HCD + Zn) compared with the control. Methods. The control rabbits group was fed on 100 g/day of normal diet. The HCD group was fed on Purina Certified Rabbit Chow supplemented with 1.0% cholesterol plus 1.0% olive oil (100 g/day) for the same period. The HCD + Zn group was fed on normal Purina Certified Rabbit Chow plus 1.0% cholesterol and 1.0% olive oil supplemented with 470 ppm Zn for the same feeding period. UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy and biochemistry in Rabbit's blood serum and blood hematology were measured in Rabbit's blood. Results. We found that the fluorescent peak of HCD shifted toward UV-visible wavelength compared with the control using fluorescent excitation of serum at 192 nm. In addition, they showed that supplementation of zinc (350 ppm) restored the fluorescent peak closely to the control. By using UV-visible spectroscopy approach, we found that the peak absorbance of HCD (about 280 nm) was higher than that of control and that zinc supplementation seemed to decrease the absorbance. Conclusions. This study demonstrates that ultraviolet-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy techniques can be applied as noninvasive techniques on a sample blood serum for diagnosing or detecting the progression of atherosclerosis. The Zn supplementation to rabbits fed on HCD delays or retards the progression of atherosclerosis. Inducing anemia in rabbits fed on HCD delays the progression of atherosclerosis. PMID:24350281

  4. A new technique for direct traceability of contact thermometry Co-C eutectic cells to the ITS-90

    Failleau, G.; Deuzé, T.; Bourson, F.; Briaudeau, S.; Sadli, M. [Laboratoire Commun de Métrologie LNE-Cnam, 61 rue du Landy 93210 La Plaine Saint Denis (France)

    2013-09-11

    The eutectic Co-C melting point is a promising system to serve as a thermometric fixed-point in the temperature range above 1084.62 °C (copper freezing point). During the last decade, LNE-Cnam has developed and characterized some fixed-point devices, based on eutectic Co-C alloy, for applications to contact and radiation thermometry. Above 962 °C, the ITS-90 is realized by radiation thermometry by the extrapolation from a Ag, Au or Cu fixed point using the Planck law for radiation. So the only way for assigning a temperature in the scale to a Co-C cell (∼1324 °C) is by radiation thermometry. An indirect method is commonly used to assign a temperature to a high-temperature fixed point (HTFP) cell designed for contact thermometry is to fill a pyrometric cell with the same mixture as the contact thermometry cell. In this case, the temperature assigned to the pyrometric cell is attributed to the contact cell. This paper describes a direct method allowing the determination of the melting temperature realized by a 'contact thermometry' Co-C cell by comparison to a 'radiation thermometry' Co-C cell whose melting temperature was assigned in accordance to the scale by extrapolation from the Cu point. In addition, the same Co-C cell is studied with a standard Pt/Pd thermocouple.

  5. Double-staining chromogenic in situ hybridization as a useful alternative to split-signal fluorescence in situ hybridization in lymphoma diagnostics

    van Rijk, A.; Svenstroup-Poulsen, T.; Jones, M.

    2010-01-01

    within the reach of every pathology laboratory. Design and Methods Our study was initiated to determine the consistency between chromogenic in situ hybridization and fluorescence in situ hybridization, both using split-signal probes developed for the detection of chromosomal breaks. Five hundred...... and actual signal were compared to the original fluorescence hybridization results. In addition, hematoxylin background staining intensity and signal intensity of the double-staining chromogenic in situ hybridization procedure were analyzed. Results With respect to the presence or absence of chromosomal...

  6. The study on cytogenetic analysis and dosimetry reconstruction for medical diagnostic X-ray workers using G-banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization

    Li Jin; Wang Qin; Tang Weisheng; Sun Yuanming; Wang Zhiquan

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the dose of medical diagnostic X-ray workers. Methods: The chromosome aberrations were analyzed by G-banding or FISH in medical diagnostic X-ray workers with different calendar years of entry. Results: The biological doses estimated by the two methods were in agreement with the doses evaluated by physical methods. Conclusion: G-banding and FISH are effective ways to analyse the chromosome translocations

  7. Noninvasive MRI thermometry with the proton resonance frequency (PRF) method: in vivo results in human muscle

    De Poorter, J; De Wagter, C; De Deene, Y

    1995-01-01

    The noninvasive thermometry method is based on the temperature dependence of the proton resonance frequency (PRF). High-quality temperature images can be obtained from phase information of standard gradient-echo sequences with an accuracy of 0.2 degrees C in phantoms. This work was focused on the...

  8. Infrared thermometry of water-stressed crops - emerging methods and technologies

    Infrared thermometry has shown potential to quantify water stress in crop canopy. This presentation will outline the limited irrigation experiments by the USDA-ARS in northern Colorado, which is used for a framework to evaluate canopy temperature. Recent methods have been introduced that may be accu...

  9. A self-reference PRF-shift MR thermometry method utilizing the phase gradient

    Langley, Jason; Potter, William; Phipps, Corey; Zhao Qun; Huang Feng

    2011-01-01

    In magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, the most widely used and accurate method for measuring temperature is based on the shift in proton resonance frequency (PRF). However, inter-scan motion and bulk magnetic field shifts can lead to inaccurate temperature measurements in the PRF-shift MR thermometry method. The self-reference PRF-shift MR thermometry method was introduced to overcome such problems by deriving a reference image from the heated or treated image, and approximates the reference phase map with low-order polynomial functions. In this note, a new approach is presented to calculate the baseline phase map in self-reference PRF-shift MR thermometry. The proposed method utilizes the phase gradient to remove the phase unwrapping step inherent to other self-reference PRF-shift MR thermometry methods. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated using numerical simulations with temperature distributions following a two-dimensional Gaussian function as well as phantom and in vivo experimental data sets. The results from both the numerical simulations and experimental data show that the proposed method is a promising technique for measuring temperature. (note)

  10. Ratiometric luminescence thermometry with different combinations of emissions from Eu3+ doped Gd2Ti2O7 nanoparticles

    Lojpur, Vesna; Ćulubrk, Sanja; Dramićanin, Miroslav D.

    2016-01-01

    Herein, Eu 3+ doped Gd 2 Ti 2 O 7 nanoparticles were tested for application in ratiometric luminescence thermometry. It is shown that two combinations of emissions: one that uses two emissions of Eu 3+ ions and one that uses one emission of Eu 3+ ions and trap emission of Gd 2 Ti 2 O 7 provide thermometry over the 303–423 K temperature range with relative sensitivities between 0.14% K −1 and 0.95% K −1 . Thermometry based on two Eu 3+ emissions from 5 D 0 to 5 D 1 levels has a higher relative sensitivity, but lower absolute sensitivity than thermometry based on one Eu 3+ emission and trap emission of Gd 2 Ti 2 O 7 . The tested material is prepared by Pechini-type polymerized complex route and is composed of agglomerated nanoparticles of ~30–50 nm in size with pure-phase cubic structure (space group Fd-3m) as evidenced from electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction measurements. - Highlights: • Eu 3+ doped Gd 2 Ti 2 O 7 nanoparticles can serve as probes for luminescence thermometry. • Gd 2 Ti 2 O 7 trap emission is an excellent internal standard for luminescence thermometry. • Temperature is measured over 303–423 K range with sensitivity ranging 0.14–0.95% K −1 .

  11. Ultrasonic Thermometry for In-Pile Temperature Detection

    Daw, J.E.; Rempe, J.L.; Wilkins, S.C.

    2002-01-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory has recently initiated a new effort to evaluate the viability of using ultrasonic thermometry technology as an improved sensor for detecting temperature during irradiation testing. Ultrasonic thermometers (UTs) work on the principle that the speed at which sound travels through a material (acoustic velocity) is dependant on the temperature of the material. By introducing an acoustic pulse to the sensor and measuring the time delay of echoes, temperature may be derived. UTs have several advantages over other sensor types. UTs can be made very small, as the sensor consists only of a small diameter rod which may or may not require a sheath. Measurements may be made near the melting point of the sensor material, as no electrical insulation is required; and shunting effects are avoided. Most attractive, however, is the ability to introduce acoustic discontinuities to the sensor, as this enables temperature measurements at several points along the sensor length (allowing temperature profiling with a single sensor). A typical multi-sensor UT system, with key components identified, is shown in Figure 1. As indicated in this figure, a narrow ultrasonic pulse is generated in a magnetostrictive rod by an excitation coil. The ultrasonic pulse propagates to the sensor wire, where a fraction of the pulse energy is reflected at each discontinuity (notches or diameter change). Each reflected pulse is received by the excitation coil, transformed into an electrical signal, amplified and evaluated in a start/stop counter system. The time interval between two adjacent echoes is evaluated and compared to a calibration curve to give the average temperature in the corresponding sensor segment. When a number of notches are available on the wire sensor, the various measurements give access to a temperature profile along the probe. UTs have been used successfully for several applications; however, several problems have limited the success of these sensors. For

  12. Development and exploitation of optical diagnoses based on radicals fluorescence. Application to automotive engines; Developpement et exploitation de diagnostics optiques bases sur la fluorescence de radicaux. Application aux moteurs automobiles

    Auge, M.

    2005-12-15

    During this PhD, we have developed an optical technique based on radicals fluorescence. The objective was to obtain more information on combustion phenomena. We first have applied the OH and HCHO PLIF technique simultaneously in laminar premixed counter-flow flames under pressure. With this technique, we have obtained the local heat release rate of the flame and an estimation of the laminar flame speed and the thickness of the flame for different fuels and pressure. We have then applied this technique on a Diesel fuel jet in combustion placed in a high pressure cell to understand the different phenomena occurring. Then PLIF at 355 nm was applied in direct and indirect injection spark ignition engine to detect the unburned. We have demonstrated the high potential of the technique used during this PhD to obtain local heat release rate of a flame. We have also progressed in our comprehension of the phenomena occurring during the combustion processes. (author)

  13. Setting-up of the Laser Induced Fluorescence diagnostic. Measurements of Cr density in a neon glow discharge; Puesta a punto del diagnstico de fluorescencia inducida por laser. Medidas de densidad de Cr en Glow discharg de Neon

    Tafalla, D.; Cal, E. de la; Tabares, F. L.

    1994-07-01

    A plasma diagnostic based on the Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) technique has been set up in the Fusion Division at the CIEMAT. In a preliminary experiment, the density of sputtered chromium atoms produced in a neon glow discharge was measured. Firstly, the laser beam was characterized by calibration of its wavelength, bandwidth and energy profile and Rayleigh scattering in N2 was used for the optical system calibration. An absolute density of Cr atoms of n {approx} 5x10 cm was obtained in discharges at 100 mA and pressure of 15 mTorr and a linear dependence of the LIF signal us. current was found. These values are in agreement with those expected from the tabulated sputtering yields and the thermalization and diffusion of the sputtered atoms into the Ne plasma. (Author) 19 refs.

  14. MR thermometry for laser-induced thermotherapy at 1.5 tesla; MR-Thermometrie bei 1,5 Tesla zur thermischen Ablation mittels laserinduzierter Thermotherapie

    Meister, D.; Huebner, F.; Mack, M.; Vogl, T.J. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie

    2007-05-15

    Purpose: Evaluation of thermometry with fast MR sequences for laser-induced interstitial laser therapy (LITT) and verification of the thermometric results with a fiber-optic thermometer. Method and Materials: In vitro experiments were conducted using an agarose gel mixture and pig liver lobes. MR-guided LITT was performed using a laser power between 3 and 15?watts. Thermometry was performed using longitudinal relaxation time T1 and proton resonance frequency shift (PRF) methods under acquisition of amplitude and phase shift images. PRF was measured with a fast spoiled GRE sequence. Four different sequences were used for T1 thermometry: gradient echo (GE), TrueFISP (TRUFI), Saturation Recovery Turbo-FLASH (SRTF) and Inversion Recovery Turbo-FLASH (IRTF) sequences. The temperature was controlled using a fiber-optic Luxtron device and correlated with the MR temperature. The range of applied and monitored temperatures exceeded 80 degrees Celsius. Results: The temperature dependence showed a good linear relationship up to 60 degrees Celsius. Calibration experiments for the T1 method delivered coefficients of determination from 0.977 to 0.997 for agarose and from 0.958 to 0.995 for the pig liver samples. The IRTF sequence had the highest temperature sensitivity (agarose 0.99, liver 1.19). During LITT the TRUE-FISP sequence exhibited a strong nonlinear relationship. R{sup 2} of this sequence was 0.809 in the agarose experiments. The average temperature errors when heated up to 80 degrees Celsius were 3.86 - 11.38 degrees Celsius for Agarose gel and 5.7 - 12.16 degrees Celsius for the liver tissue. SRTF and IRTF sequences exhibited the most linear relationship with temperature but were more dependent on tissue differences. (orig.)

  15. Fluorescence and Spectral Imaging

    Ralph S. DaCosta

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Early identification of dysplasia remains a critical goal for diagnostic endoscopy since early discovery directly improves patient survival because it allows endoscopic or surgical intervention with disease localized without lymph node involvement. Clinical studies have successfully used tissue autofluorescence with conventional white light endoscopy and biopsy for detecting adenomatous colonic polyps, differentiating benign hyperplastic from adenomas with acceptable sensitivity and specificity. In Barrett's esophagus, the detection of dysplasia remains problematic because of background inflammation, whereas in the squamous esophagus, autofluorescence imaging appears to be more dependable. Point fluorescence spectroscopy, although playing a crucial role in the pioneering mechanistic development of fluorescence endoscopic imaging, does not seem to have a current function in endoscopy because of its nontargeted sampling and suboptimal sensitivity and specificity. Other point spectroscopic modalities, such as Raman spectroscopy and elastic light scattering, continue to be evaluated in clinical studies, but still suffer the significant disadvantages of being random and nonimaging. A recent addition to the fluorescence endoscopic imaging arsenal is the use of confocal fluorescence endomicroscopy, which provides real-time optical biopsy for the first time. To improve detection of dysplasia in the gastrointestinal tract, a new and exciting development has been the use of exogenous fluorescence contrast probes that specifically target a variety of disease-related cellular biomarkers using conventional fluorescent dyes and novel potent fluorescent nanocrystals (i.e., quantum dots. This is an area of great promise, but still in its infancy, and preclinical studies are currently under way.

  16. Progress in diagnostic techniques for SC [superconducting] cavities

    Reece, C.E.

    1988-01-01

    Despite the very real progress that has been made, the routine performance of superconducting cavities still falls far short of both the theoretical expectations and the performance of afew exceptional examples. It is the task of systematically applied diagnostic techniques to reveal additional information concerning the response of superconducting surfaces to applied RF fields. In this paper we will direct our attention to discussions of recent developments in diagnostic techniqeus, such as thermometry in superfluid helium, and scanning laser acoustic microscopy. 18 refs., 12 figs

  17. Body temperature measurement in mice during acute illness: implantable temperature transponder versus surface infrared thermometry.

    Mei, Jie; Riedel, Nico; Grittner, Ulrike; Endres, Matthias; Banneke, Stefanie; Emmrich, Julius Valentin

    2018-02-23

    Body temperature is a valuable parameter in determining the wellbeing of laboratory animals. However, using body temperature to refine humane endpoints during acute illness generally lacks comprehensiveness and exposes to inter-observer bias. Here we compared two methods to assess body temperature in mice, namely implanted radio frequency identification (RFID) temperature transponders (method 1) to non-contact infrared thermometry (method 2) in 435 mice for up to 7 days during normothermia and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin-induced hypothermia. There was excellent agreement between core and surface temperature as determined by method 1 and 2, respectively, whereas the intra- and inter-subject variation was higher for method 2. Nevertheless, using machine learning algorithms to determine temperature-based endpoints both methods had excellent accuracy in predicting death as an outcome event. Therefore, less expensive and cumbersome non-contact infrared thermometry can serve as a reliable alternative for implantable transponder-based systems for hypothermic responses, although requiring standardization between experimenters.

  18. Feasibility of Johnson Noise Thermometry based on Digital Signal Processing Techniques

    Hwang, In Koo; Kim, Yang Mo

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an implementation strategy of noise thermometry based on a digital signal processing technique and demonstrates its feasibilities. A key factor in its development is how to extract the small thermal noise signal from other noises, for example, random noise from amplifiers and continuous electromagnetic interference from the environment. The proposed system consists of two identical amplifiers and uses a cross correlation function to cancel the random noise of the amplifiers. Then, the external interference noises are eliminated by discriminating the difference in the peaks between the thermal signal and external noise. The gain of the amplifiers is estimated by injecting an already known pilot signal. The experimental simulation results of signal processing methods have demonstrated that the proposed approach is an effective method in eliminating an external noise signal and performing gain correction for development of the thermometry

  19. New strategies invonving upconverting nanoparticles for determining moderate temperatures by luminescence thermometry

    Savchuk, Ol.A. [Física i Cristallografia de Materials i Nanomaterials (FiCMA-FiCNA) and EMaS, Universitat Rovira i Virgili (URV), c/Marcellí Domingo s/n E-43007, Tarragona (Spain); Carvajal, J.J., E-mail: joanjosep.carvajal@urv.cat [Física i Cristallografia de Materials i Nanomaterials (FiCMA-FiCNA) and EMaS, Universitat Rovira i Virgili (URV), c/Marcellí Domingo s/n E-43007, Tarragona (Spain); Pujol, M.C.; Massons, J. [Física i Cristallografia de Materials i Nanomaterials (FiCMA-FiCNA) and EMaS, Universitat Rovira i Virgili (URV), c/Marcellí Domingo s/n E-43007, Tarragona (Spain); Haro-González, P. [Fluorescence Imaging Group, Departamento de Física de Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, C/Francisco Tomás y Valiente 7, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Martínez, O.; Jiménez, J. [GdS-Optronlab, Departamento Física Materia Condensada, Universidad de Valladolid, Edificio I+D, Paseo de Belén 11, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Aguiló, M.; Díaz, F. [Física i Cristallografia de Materials i Nanomaterials (FiCMA-FiCNA) and EMaS, Universitat Rovira i Virgili (URV), c/Marcellí Domingo s/n E-43007, Tarragona (Spain)

    2016-01-15

    Here we analyze alternative luminescence thermometry techniques to FIR, such as intensity ratio luminescence thermometry between the emission arising from two electronic levels that are not necessarily thermally coupled, but that show different evolutions with temperature, and lifetime luminescence nanothermometry in (Ho,Tm,Yb):KLu(WO{sub 4}){sub 2} and (Er,Yb):NaY{sub 2}F{sub 5}O nanoparticles. (Ho,Tm,Yb):KLu(WO{sub 4}){sub 2} nanoparticles exhibited a maximum relative sensitivity of 0.61% K{sup −1}, similar to that achievable in Er-doped systems, which are the upconverting systems presenting the highest sensitivity. From another side, (Er,Yb):NaY{sub 2}F{sub 5}O nanocrystals show great potentiality as thermal sensors at the nanoscale for moderate temperatures due to the incorporation of additional non-radiative relaxation mechanisms that shorten the emission lifetime generated by the oxygen present in the structure when compared to (Er,Yb):NaYF{sub 4} nanoparticles exhibiting the highest upconversion efficiency. We used those nanoparticles for ex-vivo temperature determination by laser induced heating in chicken breast using lifetime-based thermometry. The results obtained indicate that these techniques might constitute alternatives to FIR with potential applications for the determination of moderate temperatures, with sensitivities comparable to those that can be achieved by FIR or even higher. - Highlights: • Other nanothermometry techniques than FIR proposed with upconversion nanoparticles. • Energy transfer between different lanthanide ions can be used for thermometry. • Lifetime measurements can constitute also a tool for temperature determination.

  20. Feasibility of computed tomography based thermometry during interstitial laser heating in bovine liver

    Pandeya, G.D.; Klaessens, J.H.G.M.; Greuter, M.J.W.; Oudkerk, M.; Schmidt, B.; Flohr, T.; Hillegersberg, R. van

    2011-01-01

    To assess the feasibility of computed tomography (CT) based thermometry during interstitial laser heating in the bovine liver. Four freshly exercised cylindrical blocks of bovine tissue were heated using a continuous laser of Nd:YAG (wavelength: 1064 nm, active length: 30 mm, power: 10-30 W). All tissues were imaged at least once before and 7 times during laser heating using CT and temperatures were simultaneously measured with 5 calibrated thermal sensors. The dependency of the average CT numbers as a function of temperature was analysed with regression analysis and a CT thermal sensitivity was derived. During laser heating, the growing hypodense area was observed around the laser source and that area showed an increase as a function of time. The formation of hypodense area was caused by declining in CT numbers at increasing temperatures. The regression analysis showed an inverse linear dependency between temperature and average CT number with -0.65 ± 0.048 HU/ C (R 2 = 0.75) for the range of 18-85 C in bovine liver. The non-invasive CT based thermometry during interstitial laser heating is feasible in the bovine liver. CT based thermometry could be further developed and may be of potential use during clinical LITT of the liver. (orig.)

  1. Progress in Noise Thermometry at 505 K and 693 K Using Quantized Voltage Noise Ratio Spectra

    Tew, W. L.; Benz, S. P.; Dresselhaus, P. D.; Coakley, K. J.; Rogalla, H.; White, D. R.; Labenski, J. R.

    2010-09-01

    Technical advances and new results in noise thermometry at temperatures near the tin freezing point and the zinc freezing point using a quantized voltage noise source (QVNS) are reported. The temperatures are derived by comparing the power spectral density of QVNS synthesized noise with that of Johnson noise from a known resistance at both 505 K and 693 K. Reference noise is digitally synthesized so that the average power spectra of the QVNS match those of the thermal noise, resulting in ratios of power spectra close to unity in the low-frequency limit. Three-parameter models are used to account for differences in impedance-related time constants in the spectra. Direct comparison of noise temperatures to the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) is achieved in a comparison furnace with standard platinum resistance thermometers. The observed noise temperatures determined by operating the noise thermometer in both absolute and relative modes, and related statistics together with estimated uncertainties are reported. The relative noise thermometry results are combined with results from other thermodynamic determinations at temperatures near the tin freezing point to calculate a value of T - T 90 = +4(18) mK for temperatures near the zinc freezing point. These latest results achieve a lower uncertainty than that of our earlier efforts. The present value of T - T 90 is compared to other published determinations from noise thermometry and other methods.

  2. Fluorescence spectroscopy

    Bagatolli, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy is a powerful experimental tool used by scientists from many disciplines. During the last decades there have been important developments on distinct fluorescence methods, particularly those related to the study of biological phenomena. This chapter discusses the foundati......Fluorescence spectroscopy is a powerful experimental tool used by scientists from many disciplines. During the last decades there have been important developments on distinct fluorescence methods, particularly those related to the study of biological phenomena. This chapter discusses...

  3. High-temperature measurement techniques for the application in photometry, radiometry and thermometry

    Hartmann, Juergen

    2009-01-01

    Well characterised sources of thermal radiation are essential for photometry, radiometry, and thermometry. They serve as reference radiators for the calibration of detectors and radiance sources. Thermal radiation sources are advantageous for this purpose compared to other radiance sources such as lamps or LEDs because they possess a continuous spectrum of the emitted spectral radiance, which, for blackbody sources, can be calculated analytically using Planck's law of radiation. For application in thermometry, blackbody sources starting from temperatures near absolute zero to temperatures up to 3000 deg. C are needed for the calibration of radiation thermometers. For application in photometry and radiometry high intensity sources of radiation in the visible and UV region of the optical spectrum were required. This latter requirement is met by blackbody sources at temperatures well above 2000 deg. C. An ideal reference source should always emit the same amount of radiation at any time of use. This is realised by fixed-point radiators. Such radiators are based on a phase transition of a substance, at high temperatures the melting and freezing points of metals. However, current metal fixed-points are limited to relatively low temperatures. In the present work innovative techniques necessary for research into high-temperature thermal radiation sources are developed and thoroughly described. Starting with variable temperature blackbody sources the techniques required are: Precise apertures determination and detailed characterisation of the applied optical detectors. The described techniques are then used to undertake research into the development of high-temperature fixed-points above the copper fixed-point for application in photometry, radiometry, and thermometry. Applying these sophisticated techniques it was shown that these new high-temperature fixed-points are reproducible and repeatable to better than 100 mK at temperatures up to nearly 3200 K. Finally, a forward

  4. A Geant4-based Simulation to Evaluate the Feasibility of Using Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF) in Determining Atomic Compositions of Body Tissue in Cancer Diagnostics and Irradiation

    Gilbo, Yekaterina; Wijesooriya, Krishni; Liyanage, Nilanga

    2017-01-01

    Customarily applied in homeland security for identifying concealed explosives and chemical weapons, NRF (Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence) may have high potential in determining atomic compositions of body tissue. High energy photons incident on a target excite the target nuclei causing characteristic re-emission of resonance photons. As the nuclei of each isotope have well-defined excitation energies, NRF uniquely indicates the isotopic content of the target. NRF radiation corresponding to nuclear isotopes present in the human body is emitted during radiotherapy based on Bremsstrahlung photons generated in a linear electron accelerator. We have developed a Geant4 simulation in order to help assess NRF capabilities in detecting, mapping, and characterizing tumors. We have imported a digital phantom into the simulation using anatomical data linked to known chemical compositions of various tissues. Work is ongoing to implement the University of Virginia's cancer center treatment setup and patient geometry, and to collect and analyze the simulation's physics quantities to evaluate the potential of NRF for medical imaging applications. Preliminary results will be presented.

  5. Diagnostic utility of NCOA2 fluorescence in situ hybridization and Stat6 immunohistochemistry staining for soft tissue angiofibroma and morphologically similar fibrovascular tumors.

    Sugita, Shintaro; Aoyama, Tomoyuki; Kondo, Kei; Keira, Yoshiko; Ogino, Jiro; Nakanishi, Katsuya; Kaya, Mitsunori; Emori, Makoto; Tsukahara, Tomohide; Nakajima, Hisaya; Takagi, Masayuki; Hasegawa, Tadashi

    2014-08-01

    Soft tissue angiofibroma (STA), a recently suggested new histologic entity, is a benign fibrovascular soft tissue tumor composed of bland spindle-shaped tumor cells with abundant collagenous to myxoid stroma and branching small vessels. The lesion has a characteristic AHRR-NCOA2 fusion gene derived from chromosomal translocation of t(5;8)(p15;q13). However, morphologically similar tumors containing abundant fibrovascular and myxoid stroma can complicate diagnosis. We designed an original DNA probe for detecting NCOA2 split signals on fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and estimated its utility with 20 fibrovascular tumors: 4 each of STAs, solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs), and cellular angiofibromas and 3 each of low-grade myxofibrosarcomas, myxoid liposarcomas, and low-grade fibromyxoid sarcomas. We also performed FISH for 13q14 deletion and immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, retinoblastoma protein, and MUC-4 expression. Furthermore, IHC for Stat6 was conducted in the 20 cases analyzed by FISH and in an additional 26 SFTs. We found moderate to strong nuclear Stat6 expression in all SFTs but no expression in the other tumors. Both estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor expressions were observed in STAs, SFTs, and cellular angiofibromas. Expression of retinoblastoma protein was found in less than 10% of cells in all tumor types except myxoid liposarcoma. The low-grade fibromyxoid sarcomas were strongly positive for MUC-4. All STAs showed NCOA2 split signals on FISH. All tumors, regardless of histologic type, had 13q14 deletion. The NCOA2 FISH technique is a practical method for confirming STA diagnosis. The combination of NCOA2 FISH and Stat6 IHC proved effective for the differential diagnosis of STA, even when using small biopsy specimens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Fluorescence optical imaging and musculoskeletal ultrasonography in juvenile idiopathic polyarticular disease before and during antirheumatic treatment - a multicenter non-interventional diagnostic evaluation.

    Klein, Ariane; Just, Georg Werner; Werner, Stephanie Gabriele; Oommen, Prasad T; Minden, Kirsten; Becker, Ingrid; Langer, Hans-Eckhard; Klee, Dirk; Horneff, Gerd

    2017-06-30

    Valid detection of inflamed joints is essential for correct classification, therapeutic decisions, prognosis and assessment of treatment efficacy in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Fluorescence optical imaging (FOI) enables visualization of inflammation in arthritis of finger and hand joints and might be used for monitoring. A 24-week observational study in polyarticular JIA patients newly starting treatment with methotrexate or an approved biologic was performed in three centers. Patients were evaluated clinically, by gray-scale ultrasonography (GSUS), power-Doppler ultrasonography (PDUS) and FOI at baseline, week 12 and week 24. Of 37 patients enrolled, 24 patients started methotrexate and 13 patients a biologic for the first time (etanercept n = 11, adalimumab and tocilizumab n = 1 each). Mean JADAS 10 decreased significantly from 17.7 at baseline to 12.2 and 7.2 at week 12 and 24 respectively. PedACR 30/50/70/100 response rates at week 24 were 85%/73%/50%/27%. The total number of clinically active joints in hand and fingers at baseline/week 12/week 24 was 262 (23.6%)/162 (16.4%)/162 (9.0%). By GSUS, at baseline/week 12/week 24, 192 (19.4%)/135 (16.1%)/83 (11.5%) joints showed effusions and 186 (18.8%)/107 (12.7%)/69 (9.6%) showed synovial thickening, and by PDUS 68 (6.9%)/15 (1.8%)/36 (5%) joints showed hyperperfusion. Any sign of arthritis was detected by US in a total of 243 joints (24.5%) at baseline, 161 joints (19.2%) at week 12 and 123 joints (17%) at week 24. By FOI at baseline/week 12/week 24, 430 (38.7%)/280 (29.2%)/215 (27.6%) showed a signal enhancement in at least one phase. Summarizing all three points of time, the highest numbers of signals were detected by FOI with 32% of joints, especially in phase 2, while by US 20.7% and by clinical examination 17.5% of joints were active. A high number of joints (21.1%) had FOI signals but were inactive by clinical examination. A total 20.1% of joints with signals in FOI did not show effusion

  7. Influence of geometric and material properties on artifacts generated by interventional MRI devices: Relevance to PRF-shift thermometry

    Tatebe, Ken, E-mail: Ken.Tatebe@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, Texas 75390 (United States); Ramsay, Elizabeth; Kazem, Mohammad; Peikari, Hamed [Physical Sciences, Sunnybrook Research Institute, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N3M5 (Canada); Mougenot, Charles [Philips Healthcare, 281 Hillmount Road, Markham, Ontario L6C 2S3 (Canada); Bronskill, Michael [Physical Sciences, Sunnybrook Research Institute, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N3M5, Canada and Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G2M9 (Canada); Chopra, Rajiv [Department of Radiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, Texas 75390 (United States); Advanced Imaging Research Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, Texas 75390 (United States); Physical Sciences, Sunnybrook Research Institute, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N3M5 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G2M9 (Canada)

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is capable of providing valuable real-time feedback during medical procedures, partly due to the excellent soft-tissue contrast available. Several technical hurdles still exist to seamless integration of medical devices with MRI due to incompatibility of most conventional devices with this imaging modality. In this study, the effect of local perturbations in the magnetic field caused by the magnetization of medical devices was examined using finite element analysis modeling. As an example, the influence of the geometric and material characteristics of a transurethral high-intensity ultrasound applicator on temperature measurements using proton resonance frequency (PRF)-shift thermometry was investigated. Methods: The effect of local perturbations in the magnetic field, caused by the magnetization of medical device components, was examined using finite element analysis modeling. The thermometry artifact generated by a transurethral ultrasound applicator was simulated, and these results were validated against analytic models and scans of an applicator in a phantom. Several parameters were then varied to identify which most strongly impacted the level of simulated thermometry artifact, which varies as the applicator moves over the course of an ablative high-intensity ultrasound treatment. Results: Key design parameters identified as having a strong influence on the magnitude of thermometry artifact included the susceptibility of materials and their volume. The location of components was also important, particularly when positioned to maximize symmetry of the device. Finally, the location of component edges and the inclination of the device relative to the magnetic field were also found to be important factors. Conclusions: Previous design strategies to minimize thermometry artifact were validated, and novel design strategies were identified that substantially reduce PRF-shift thermometry artifacts for a variety of device

  8. Influence of geometric and material properties on artifacts generated by interventional MRI devices: Relevance to PRF-shift thermometry

    Tatebe, Ken; Ramsay, Elizabeth; Kazem, Mohammad; Peikari, Hamed; Mougenot, Charles; Bronskill, Michael; Chopra, Rajiv

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is capable of providing valuable real-time feedback during medical procedures, partly due to the excellent soft-tissue contrast available. Several technical hurdles still exist to seamless integration of medical devices with MRI due to incompatibility of most conventional devices with this imaging modality. In this study, the effect of local perturbations in the magnetic field caused by the magnetization of medical devices was examined using finite element analysis modeling. As an example, the influence of the geometric and material characteristics of a transurethral high-intensity ultrasound applicator on temperature measurements using proton resonance frequency (PRF)-shift thermometry was investigated. Methods: The effect of local perturbations in the magnetic field, caused by the magnetization of medical device components, was examined using finite element analysis modeling. The thermometry artifact generated by a transurethral ultrasound applicator was simulated, and these results were validated against analytic models and scans of an applicator in a phantom. Several parameters were then varied to identify which most strongly impacted the level of simulated thermometry artifact, which varies as the applicator moves over the course of an ablative high-intensity ultrasound treatment. Results: Key design parameters identified as having a strong influence on the magnitude of thermometry artifact included the susceptibility of materials and their volume. The location of components was also important, particularly when positioned to maximize symmetry of the device. Finally, the location of component edges and the inclination of the device relative to the magnetic field were also found to be important factors. Conclusions: Previous design strategies to minimize thermometry artifact were validated, and novel design strategies were identified that substantially reduce PRF-shift thermometry artifacts for a variety of device

  9. Implementation of foot thermometry plus mHealth to prevent diabetic foot ulcers: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Lazo-Porras, Maria; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Sacksteder, Katherine A; Gilman, Robert H; Malaga, German; Armstrong, David G; Miranda, J Jaime

    2016-04-19

    Diabetic foot neuropathy (DFN) is one of the most important complications of diabetes mellitus; its early diagnosis and intervention can prevent foot ulcers and the need for amputation. Thermometry, measuring the temperature of the feet, is a promising emerging modality for diabetic foot ulcer prevention. However, patient compliance with at-home monitoring is concerning. Delivering messages to remind patients to perform thermometry and foot care might be helpful to guarantee regular foot monitoring. This trial was designed to compare the incidence of diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) between participants who receive thermometry alone and those who receive thermometry as well as mHealth (SMS and voice messaging) over a year-long study period. This is an evaluator-blinded, randomized, 12-month trial. Individuals with a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus, aged between 18-80 years, having a present dorsalis pedis pulse in both feet, are in risk group 2 or 3 using the diabetic foot risk classification system (as specified by the International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot), have an operating cell phone or a caregiver with an operating cell phone, and have the ability to provide informed consent will be eligible to participate in the study. Recruitment will be performed in diabetes outpatient clinics at two Ministry of Health tertiary hospitals in Lima, Peru. participants in both groups will receive education about foot care at the beginning of the study and they will be provided with a thermometry device (TempStat™). TempStat™ is a tool that captures a thermal image of the feet, which, depending on the temperature of the feet, shows different colors. In this study, if a participant notes a single yellow image or variance between one foot and the contralateral foot, they will be prompted to notify a nurse to evaluate their activity within the previous 2 weeks and make appropriate recommendations. In addition to thermometry, participants in the intervention arm

  10. Measurement of body temperature in normothermic and febrile rats: Limitations of using rectal thermometry.

    Dangarembizi, Rachael; Erlwanger, Kennedy H; Mitchell, Duncan; Hetem, Robyn S; Madziva, Michael T; Harden, Lois M

    2017-10-01

    Stress-induced hyperthermia following rectal thermometry is reported in normothermic rats, but appears to be muted or even absent in febrile rats. We therefore investigated whether the use of rectal thermometry affects the accuracy of temperature responses recorded in normothermic and febrile rats. Using intra-abdominally implanted temperature-sensitive radiotelemeters we measured the temperature response to rectal temperature measurement in male Sprague Dawley rats (~200g) injected subcutaneously with Brewer's yeast (20ml/kg of a 20% Brewer's yeast solution=4000mg/kg) or saline (20ml/kg of 0.9% saline). Rats had been pre-exposed to, or were naive to rectal temperature measurement before the injection. The first rectal temperature measurement was taken in the plateau phase of the fever (18h after injection) and at hourly intervals thereafter. In normothermic rats, rectal temperature measurement was associated with an increase in abdominal temperature (0.66±0.27°C) that had a rapid onset (5-10min), peaked at 15-20min and lasted for 35-50min. The hyperthermic response to rectal temperature measurement was absent in febrile rats. Exposure to rectal temperature measurement on two previous occasions did not reduce the hyperthermia. There was a significant positive linear association between temperatures recorded using the two methods, but the agreement interval identified that rectal temperature measured with a thermocouple probe could either be 0.7°C greater or 0.5°C lower than abdominal temperature measured with radiotelemeter. Thus, due to stress-induced hyperthermia, rectal thermometry does not ensure accurate recording of body temperature in short-spaced, intermittent intervals in normothermic and febrile rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Robust adaptive extended Kalman filtering for real time MR-thermometry guided HIFU interventions.

    Roujol, Sébastien; de Senneville, Baudouin Denis; Hey, Silke; Moonen, Chrit; Ries, Mario

    2012-03-01

    Real time magnetic resonance (MR) thermometry is gaining clinical importance for monitoring and guiding high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablations of tumorous tissue. The temperature information can be employed to adjust the position and the power of the HIFU system in real time and to determine the therapy endpoint. The requirement to resolve both physiological motion of mobile organs and the rapid temperature variations induced by state-of-the-art high-power HIFU systems require fast MRI-acquisition schemes, which are generally hampered by low signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). This directly limits the precision of real time MR-thermometry and thus in many cases the feasibility of sophisticated control algorithms. To overcome these limitations, temporal filtering of the temperature has been suggested in the past, which has generally an adverse impact on the accuracy and latency of the filtered data. Here, we propose a novel filter that aims to improve the precision of MR-thermometry while monitoring and adapting its impact on the accuracy. For this, an adaptive extended Kalman filter using a model describing the heat transfer for acoustic heating in biological tissues was employed together with an additional outlier rejection to address the problem of sparse artifacted temperature points. The filter was compared to an efficient matched FIR filter and outperformed the latter in all tested cases. The filter was first evaluated on simulated data and provided in the worst case (with an approximate configuration of the model) a substantial improvement of the accuracy by a factor 3 and 15 during heat up and cool down periods, respectively. The robustness of the filter was then evaluated during HIFU experiments on a phantom and in vivo in porcine kidney. The presence of strong temperature artifacts did not affect the thermal dose measurement using our filter whereas a high measurement variation of 70% was observed with the FIR filter.

  12. Kalman Filtered Bio Heat Transfer Model Based Self-adaptive Hybrid Magnetic Resonance Thermometry.

    Zhang, Yuxin; Chen, Shuo; Deng, Kexin; Chen, Bingyao; Wei, Xing; Yang, Jiafei; Wang, Shi; Ying, Kui

    2017-01-01

    To develop a self-adaptive and fast thermometry method by combining the original hybrid magnetic resonance thermometry method and the bio heat transfer equation (BHTE) model. The proposed Kalman filtered Bio Heat Transfer Model Based Self-adaptive Hybrid Magnetic Resonance Thermometry, abbreviated as KalBHT hybrid method, introduced the BHTE model to synthesize a window on the regularization term of the hybrid algorithm, which leads to a self-adaptive regularization both spatially and temporally with change of temperature. Further, to decrease the sensitivity to accuracy of the BHTE model, Kalman filter is utilized to update the window at each iteration time. To investigate the effect of the proposed model, computer heating simulation, phantom microwave heating experiment and dynamic in-vivo model validation of liver and thoracic tumor were conducted in this study. The heating simulation indicates that the KalBHT hybrid algorithm achieves more accurate results without adjusting λ to a proper value in comparison to the hybrid algorithm. The results of the phantom heating experiment illustrate that the proposed model is able to follow temperature changes in the presence of motion and the temperature estimated also shows less noise in the background and surrounding the hot spot. The dynamic in-vivo model validation with heating simulation demonstrates that the proposed model has a higher convergence rate, more robustness to susceptibility problem surrounding the hot spot and more accuracy of temperature estimation. In the healthy liver experiment with heating simulation, the RMSE of the hot spot of the proposed model is reduced to about 50% compared to the RMSE of the original hybrid model and the convergence time becomes only about one fifth of the hybrid model. The proposed model is able to improve the accuracy of the original hybrid algorithm and accelerate the convergence rate of MR temperature estimation.

  13. Fluorescence detection of dental calculus

    Gonchukov, S.; Biryukova, T.; Sukhinina, A.; Vdovin, Yu

    2010-11-01

    This work is devoted to the optimization of fluorescence dental calculus diagnostics in optical spectrum. The optimal wavelengths for fluorescence excitation and registration are determined. Two spectral ranges 620 - 645 nm and 340 - 370 nm are the most convenient for supra- and subgingival calculus determination. The simple implementation of differential method free from the necessity of spectrometer using was investigated. Calculus detection reliability in the case of simple implementation is higher than in the case of spectra analysis at optimal wavelengths. The use of modulated excitation light and narrowband detection of informative signal allows us to decrease essentially its diagnostic intensity even in comparison with intensity of the low level laser dental therapy.

  14. Primary Gas Thermometry by Means of Laser-Absorption Spectroscopy: Determination of the Boltzmann Constant

    Casa, G.; Castrillo, A.; Galzerano, G.; Wehr, R.; Merlone, A.; Di Serafino, D.; Laporta, P.; Gianfrani, L.

    2008-01-01

    We report on a new optical implementation of primary gas thermometry based on laser-absorption spectrometry in the near infrared. The method consists in retrieving the Doppler broadening from highly accurate observations of the line shape of the R(12) ν 1 +2ν 2 0 +ν 3 transition in CO 2 gas at thermodynamic equilibrium. Doppler width measurements as a function of gas temperature, ranging between the triple point of water and the gallium melting point, allowed for a spectroscopic determination of the Boltzmann constant with a relative accuracy of ∼1.6x10 -4

  15. Primary Gas Thermometry by Means of Laser-Absorption Spectroscopy: Determination of the Boltzmann Constant

    Casa, G.; Castrillo, A.; Galzerano, G.; Wehr, R.; Merlone, A.; di Serafino, D.; Laporta, P.; Gianfrani, L.

    2008-05-01

    We report on a new optical implementation of primary gas thermometry based on laser-absorption spectrometry in the near infrared. The method consists in retrieving the Doppler broadening from highly accurate observations of the line shape of the R(12) ν1+2ν20+ν3 transition in CO2 gas at thermodynamic equilibrium. Doppler width measurements as a function of gas temperature, ranging between the triple point of water and the gallium melting point, allowed for a spectroscopic determination of the Boltzmann constant with a relative accuracy of ˜1.6×10-4.

  16. All-Optical Nanoscale Thermometry using Silicon-Vacancy Centers in Diamond

    Nguyen, Christian; Evans, Ruffin; Sipahigil, Alp; Bhaskar, Mihir; Sukachev, Denis; Lukin, Mikhail

    2017-04-01

    Accurate thermometry at the nanoscale is a difficult challenge, but building such a thermometer would be a powerful tool for discovering and understanding new processes in biology, chemistry and physics. Applications include cell-selective treatment of disease, engineering of more efficient integrated circuits, or even the development of new chemical and biological reactions. In this work, we study how the bulk properties of the Silicon Vacancy center (SiV) in diamond depend on temperature, and use them to measure temperature with 100mK accuracy. Using SiVs in 200 nm nanodiamonds, we measure the temperature with 100 nm spatial resolution over a 10 μm area.

  17. Two-dimensional thermometry by using neutron resonance absorption spectrometer DOG

    Kamiyama, T.; Noda, H.; Kiyanagi, Y.; Ikeda, S.

    2001-01-01

    We applied the neutron resonance absorption spectroscopy to thermometry of a bulk object. The measurement was done by using the neutron resonance absorption spectrometer, DOG, installed at KENS, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization Neutron Source, which enables us to investigate effective temperature of a particular element by analyzing line width of resonance absorption spectrum. The effective temperature becomes consistence with the sample temperature above room temperature. For the analysis we applied the computed tomography method to reconstruct the temperature distribution on the object cross section. The results and the calculated distribution by the heat conducting equation are well agreed on the temperature difference inside the object. (author)

  18. A new method of liquid crystal thermometry excluding human color sensation

    Kunugi, Tomoaki; Akino, Norio; Ueda, Masaharu.

    1987-01-01

    Some choresteric liquid crystals can be used as a thermometer because of their color changes with varying temperatures. However, it is impossible to employ human color sensation for precise quantitative evaluation of temperature from their color. Therefore, a new method of liquid crystal thermometry is developed using narrow band optical filters and an image processor to exclude the employment of human color sensation. Relations between filter wavelength and temperature were determined by calibration tests. Two dimensional temperature distributions on a heated plate were successfully measured by the present method. (author)

  19. Cryogenic engineering and thermometry for an in-core apparatus

    Clark, D.D.; Spern, S.A.; Atwood, A.G.; Ouellet, C.G.; Decker, F.H.

    1996-01-01

    During the design, construction, and testing of the final model of the cold neutron source for the cold neutron beam facility of the Cornell TRIGA reactor, several interesting cryogenic and thermometric problems were encountered. This paper summarizes some of those problems and their solutions. The goal is to maintain an aluminum chamber containing 110cm 3 of mesitylene at 30 K or below in the presence of radiation fields of 1 x 10 12 thermal n/cm 2 · s, 3.8 x 10 10 fast n/cm 2 · s, and 1.4 x 10 3 rad/s of gamma rays known to exist at 500 kW within the beam port 17 cm from the core edge. Cooling is accomplished by conduction through a 1.85-cm-diam, 261-cm-long copper rod connecting the chamber to a two-stage Gifford-McMahon cryorefrigerator located outside the reactor bulk shield. It is desirable to measure the temperatures of the chamber, the refrigerator, and a number of other system components for monitoring and diagnostic purposes. The principal concerns are the heat loads and radiation effects caused by the nuclear radiation

  20. Advances in optical thermometry for the ITER divertor

    Lott, F. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul lez Durance (France)], E-mail: fraser.lott@gmail.com; Netchaieff, A. [Laboratoire National de Metrologie et d' Essais (LNE), ZA de Trappes-Elancourt, 29 avenue Roger Hennequin, 78197 TRAPPES Cedex (France); Escourbiac, F. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul lez Durance (France); Jouvelot, J.-L.; Constans, S. [AREVA NP, Centre Technique-FE200, Porte Magenta BP 181, 71205 Le Creusot (France); Hernandez, D. [Procedes, Materiaux et Energie Solaire (PROMES), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), B.P. 5, 66125 Font-Romeu Cedex (France)

    2010-01-15

    Thermography will be an important diagnostic on the ITER tokamak, but the inclusion of reflective materials such as tungsten in the design for ITER's first wall and divertor region presents problems for optical temperature measurement. The ongoing testing of ITER plasma facing components (PFCs) provides an excellent opportunity to resolve such problems. This has focused on the variation of PFC emissivity with temperature and time, as well as environmental influence on thermography. The sensitivity of these systems to ambient temperature, due primarily to modification of the transmission of the optical path, has been established and minimised. The accuracy of the system is then sufficient to measure the variation of emissivity in heated material samples, by comparing its front-face luminance measured with an infrared camera to the temperature given by an implanted thermocouple. Measurements on both tungsten and carbon fibre composite are in broad agreement with theory, and thus give the material's function of emissivity with temperature at the start of its life. To determine its evolution, a bicolour pyroreflectometer was then installed. This uses two lasers to measure the reflectivity in addition to the luminance at two wavelengths, and thus the true temperature can be calculated. This was validated against the instrumented sample, then used along with the camera to observe an ITER mock-up during {approx}50,000 s of 5 MW/m{sup 2} testing. Emissivity was seen to vary little in the 500 deg. C region. Higher temperature tests are ongoing.

  1. Laser-aided plasma diagnostics

    Donne, A. J. H.; Barth, C. J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper will focus on two types of laser-aided diagnostics: Thomson scattering and laser-induced fluorescence. Thomson scattering is a very powerful diagnostic, which is applied at nearly every magnetic confinement device. Depending on the experimental conditions different plasma parameters can

  2. Measurement of Two-Phase Flow and Heat Transfer Parameters using Infrared Thermometry

    Kim, Tae-Hoon; Kommer, Eric; Dessiatoun, Serguei; Kim, Jungho

    2012-01-01

    A novel technique to measure heat transfer and liquid film thickness distributions over relatively large areas for two-phase flow and heat transfer phenomena using infrared (IR)thermometry is described. IR thermometry is an established technology that can be used to measure temperatures when optical access to the surface is available in the wavelengths of interest. In this work, a midwave IR camera (3.6-5.1 microns) is used to determine the temperature distribution within a multilayer consisting of a silicon substrate coated with a thin insulator. Since silicon is largely transparent to IR radiation, the temperature of the inner and outer walls of the multilayer can be measured by coating selected areas with a thin, IR opaque film. If the fluid used is also partially transparent to IR, the flow can be visualized and the liquid film thickness can be measured. The theoretical basis for the technique is given along with a description of the test apparatus and data reduction procedure. The technique is demonstrated by determining the heat transfer coefficient distributions produced by droplet evaporation and flow boiling heat transfer.

  3. Multiwavelength Thermometry at High Temperature: Why It is Advantageous to Work in the Ultraviolet

    Girard, F.; Battuello, M.; Florio, M.

    2014-07-01

    In principle, multiwavelength radiation thermometry allows one to correctly measure the temperature of surfaces of unknown and varying surface emissivity. Unfortunately, none of the practical realizations proposed in the past proved to be sufficiently reliable because of a strong influence of the errors arising from incorrect modeling of the emissivity and of the limited number of operating wavelengths. The use of array detectors allows a high degree of flexibility both in terms of number and spectral position of the working wavelength bands. In the case of applications at high temperatures, i.e., near 2000 C or above, an analysis of the theoretical measuring principles of multiwavelength thermometry, suggests the opportunity of investigating the possible advantages in extending the operating wavelengths toward the ultraviolet region. To this purpose, a simulation program was developed which allows investigation of the effect of different influencing parameters. This paper presents a brief theoretical introduction and practical analysis of the method. The best choices are derived in terms of the different influencing parameters and data relative to the simulation of both real materials and fictitious emissivity curves and have been studied and analyzed with different emissivity models to check the robustness of the method.

  4. Combined tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy and monochromatic radiation thermometry in ammonium dinitramide-based thruster

    Zeng, Hui; Ou, Dongbin; Chen, Lianzhong; Li, Fei; Yu, Xilong

    2018-02-01

    Nonintrusive temperature measurements for a real ammonium dinitramide (ADN)-based thruster by using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy and monochromatic radiation thermometry are proposed. The ADN-based thruster represents a promising future space propulsion employing green, nontoxic propellant. Temperature measurements in the chamber enable quantitative thermal analysis for the thruster, providing access to evaluate thermal properties of the thruster and optimize thruster design. A laser-based sensor measures temperature of combustion gas in the chamber, while a monochromatic thermometry system based on thermal radiation is utilized to monitor inner wall temperature in the chamber. Additional temperature measurements of the outer wall temperature are conducted on the injector, catalyst bed, and combustion chamber of the thruster by using thermocouple, respectively. An experimental ADN thruster is redesigned with optimizing catalyst bed length of 14 mm and steady-state firing tests are conducted under various feed pressures over the range from 5 to 12 bar at a typical ignition temperature of 200°C. A threshold of feed pressure higher than 8 bar is required for the thruster's normal operation and upstream movement of the heat release zone is revealed in the combustion chamber out of temperature evolution in the chamber.

  5. Evidence of hemispheric specialization in marmosets (Callithrix penicillata using tympanic membrane thermometry

    C. Tomaz

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have employed tympanic thermometry to assess lateralization of cognitive and emotional functions in primates. However, no studies using this technique have investigated the possibility of hemispheric specialization in New World monkeys. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate tympanic membrane (TM temperature asymmetries and their possible correlation with stress responses in marmosets (Callithrix penicillata. Infrared TM thermometry was completed bilaterally in 24 animals (14 males and 10 females during a stressful situation of capture and restraint. There were no significant differences between gender. A significant negative correlation was observed between TM temperature of the right ear and the number of captures (r = -0.633; P<0.001. Subjects with a more frequent previous history of captures (5 to 9 captures; N = 11 showed lower TM temperature when compared to those with fewer previous captures (1 to 4 captures; N = 13. No differences were observed for the left TM temperature. These results suggest that under intense emotional challenge (capture and restraint there is a stronger activation of the neural structures situated in the right brain hemisphere. Taken together, the data reveal for the first time evidence of hemispheric specialization in emotional physiological processing in a New World monkey.

  6. Practical acoustic thermometry with twin-tube and single-tube sensors

    De Podesta, M.; Sutton, G.; Edwards, G.; Stanger, L.; Preece, H. [National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-01

    Accurate measurement of high temperatures in a nuclear environment presents unique challenges. All secondary techniques inevitably drift because the thermometric materials in thermocouples and resistance sensors are sensitive not just to temperature, but also their own chemical and physical composition. The solution is to use primary methods that rely on fundamental links between measurable physical properties and temperature. In the nuclear field the best known technique is the measurement of Johnson Noise in a resistor (See Paper 80 at this conference). In this paper we describe the measurement of temperature in terms of the speed of sound in a gas confined in a tube - an acoustic waveguide. Acoustic thermometry is the most accurate technique of primary thermometry ever devised with the best uncertainty of measurement below 0.001 C. In contrast, the acoustic technique described in this work has a much larger uncertainty, approximately 1 deg. C. But the cost and ease of use are improved by several orders of magnitude, making implementation eminently practical. We first describe the basic construction and method of operation of thermometers using twin-tubes and single tubes. We then present results using a twin-tube design showing that showing long term stability (i.e. no detectable drift) at 700 deg. C over periods of several weeks. We then outline how the technique may be developed for different nuclear applications. (authors)

  7. Johnson Noise Thermometry in the range 505 K to 933 K

    Tew, Weston; Labenski, John; Nam, Sae Woo; Benz, Samuel; Dresselhaus, Paul; Martinis, John

    2006-03-01

    The International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) is an artifact-based temperature scale, T90, designed to approximate thermodynamic temperature T. The thermodynamic errors of the ITS-90, characterized as the value of T-T90, only recently have been quantified by primary thermodynamic methods. Johnson Noise Thermometry (JNT) is a primary method which can be applied over wide temperature ranges, and NIST is currently using JNT to determine T-T90 in the range 505 K to 933 K, overlapping both acoustic gas-based and radiation-based thermometry. Advances in digital electronics have now made the computationally intensive processing required for JNT viable using noise voltage correlation in the frequency domain. We have also optimized the design of the 5-wire JNT temperature probes to minimize electromagnetic interference and transmission line effects. Statistical uncertainties under 50 μK/K are achievable using relatively modest bandwidths of ˜100 kHz. The NIST JNT system will provide critical data for T-T90 linking together the highly accurate acoustic gas-based data at lower temperatures with the higher-temperature radiation-based data, forming the basis for a new International Temperature Scale with greatly improved thermodynamic accuracy.

  8. MR guidance and thermometry of percutaneous laser disc decompression in open MRI: an initial clinical investigation

    Streitparth, Florian; Walter, Thula; Bucourt, Maximilian de; Freyhardt, Patrick; Maurer, Martin; Renz, Diane; Gebauer, Bernhard; Hamm, Bernd; Teichgraeber, Ulf K.M. [Charite, Humboldt-University Medical School, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Hartwig, Tony; Putzier, Michael; Strube, Patrick [Charite, Humboldt-University, Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Berlin (Germany); Bretschneider, Tina [University of Magdeburg, Department of Radiology, Magdeburg (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    To assess the feasibility, safety and efficacy of real-time MR guidance and thermometry of percutaneous laser disc decompression (PLDD). Twenty-four discs in 22 patients with chronic low-back and radicular pain were treated by PLDD using open 1.0-T magnetic-resonance imaging (MRI). A fluoroscopic proton-density-weighted turbo spin-echo (PDw TSE) sequence was used to position the laser fibre. Non-spoiled gradient-echo (GRE) sequences were employed for real-time thermal monitoring based on proton resonance frequency (PRF). Radicular pain was assessed over 6 months with a numerical rating scale (NRS). PLDD was technically successful in all cases, with adequate image quality for laser positioning. The PRF-based real-time temperature monitoring was found to be feasible in practice. After 6 months, 21 % reported complete remission of radicular pain, 63 % at least great pain relief and 74 % at least mild relief. We found a significant decrease in the NRS score between the pre-intervention and the 6-month follow-up assessment (P < 0.001). No major complications occurred; the single adverse event recorded, moderate motor impairment, resolved. Real-time MR guidance and PRF-based thermometry of PLDD in the lumbar spine under open 1.0-T MRI appears feasible, safe and effective and may pave the way to more precise operating procedures. (orig.)

  9. MR guidance and thermometry of percutaneous laser disc decompression in open MRI: an initial clinical investigation

    Streitparth, Florian; Walter, Thula; Bucourt, Maximilian de; Freyhardt, Patrick; Maurer, Martin; Renz, Diane; Gebauer, Bernhard; Hamm, Bernd; Teichgraeber, Ulf K.M.; Hartwig, Tony; Putzier, Michael; Strube, Patrick; Bretschneider, Tina

    2013-01-01

    To assess the feasibility, safety and efficacy of real-time MR guidance and thermometry of percutaneous laser disc decompression (PLDD). Twenty-four discs in 22 patients with chronic low-back and radicular pain were treated by PLDD using open 1.0-T magnetic-resonance imaging (MRI). A fluoroscopic proton-density-weighted turbo spin-echo (PDw TSE) sequence was used to position the laser fibre. Non-spoiled gradient-echo (GRE) sequences were employed for real-time thermal monitoring based on proton resonance frequency (PRF). Radicular pain was assessed over 6 months with a numerical rating scale (NRS). PLDD was technically successful in all cases, with adequate image quality for laser positioning. The PRF-based real-time temperature monitoring was found to be feasible in practice. After 6 months, 21 % reported complete remission of radicular pain, 63 % at least great pain relief and 74 % at least mild relief. We found a significant decrease in the NRS score between the pre-intervention and the 6-month follow-up assessment (P < 0.001). No major complications occurred; the single adverse event recorded, moderate motor impairment, resolved. Real-time MR guidance and PRF-based thermometry of PLDD in the lumbar spine under open 1.0-T MRI appears feasible, safe and effective and may pave the way to more precise operating procedures. (orig.)

  10. Le diagnostic anténatal de la trisomie 21 par l'hybridation in situ en fluorescence (FISH): à propos des premiers tests réalisés au Maroc

    Lamzouri, Afaf; Natiq, Abdelhafid; Tajir, Mariam; Sendid, Mohamed; Sefiani, Abdelaziz

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Le but de cette étude était de présenter les premiers résultats de diagnostic anténatal de la trisomie 21 par la technique d'hybridation in situ en fluorescence (FISH) au Maroc et discuter son intérêt dans le diagnostic rapide de cette aneuploïdie. Méthodes Ce travail a été réalisé chez 23 femmes avec des grossesses à haut risque de trisomie 21. La moyenne d’âge des gestantes étaient de 37,43 ans avec des extrêmes de 21 et 43 ans. Toutes étaient musulmanes mariées, mariage légitimé par la Charia, dont trois mariages consanguins, sauf une originaire de la République Démocratique du Congo qui était chrétienne et concubine. La majorité des femmes étaient fonctionnaires et avaient un niveau de scolarisation moyen à élevé. Toutes les patientes ont bénéficié d'une consultation de génétique médicale au cours de laquelle il leur a été donné des informations sur la technique, son intérêt et ses limites. Il s'agit de femmes enceintes qui avaient soit un âge maternel élevé ou des signes d'appel échographiques et/ ou biochimiques. Une des patientes était porteuse d'une translocation robertsonienne t(14;21) équilibrée. Une amniocentèse a été réalisée chez toutes les gestantes et aucun avortement n'a était induit par ce geste invasif. L’âge gestationnel moyen à la première consultation était de 14 semaines d'aménorrhée (SA) et à l'amniocentèse était de 16 SA et 5 jours. L'analyse FISH a été réalisée, après consentement des couples, sur des cellules non cultivées à partir des échantillons de liquides amniotiques, en utilisant des sondes spécifiques du chromosome 21. Résultats Parmi les 23 patientes qui ont bénéficiées d'un diagnostic anténatal de la trisomie 21 par la technique FISH, nous avons pu rassurer 21 d'entre elles, et nous avons détecté deux cas de trisomie 21 fœtal. Conclusion La technique FISH permet un diagnostic anténatal rapide, en moins de 48h, de la trisomie 21 sur

  11. Nine New Fluorescent Probes

    Lin, Tsung-I.; Jovanovic, Misa V.; Dowben, Robert M.

    1989-06-01

    Absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic studies are reported here for nine new fluorescent probes recently synthesized in our laboratories: four pyrene derivatives with substituents of (i) 1,3-diacetoxy-6,8-dichlorosulfonyl, (ii) 1,3-dihydroxy-6,8-disodiumsulfonate, (iii) 1,3-disodiumsulfonate, and (iv) l-ethoxy-3,6,8-trisodiumsulfonate groups, and five [7-julolidino] coumarin derivatives with substituents of (v) 3-carboxylate-4-methyl, (vi) 3- methylcarboxylate, (vii) 3-acetate-4-methyl, (viii) 3-propionate-4-methyl, and (ix) 3-sulfonate-4-methyl groups. Pyrene compounds i and ii and coumarin compounds v and vi exhibit interesting absorbance and fluorescence properties: their absorption maxima are red shifted compared to the parent compound to the blue-green region, and the band width broadens considerably. All four blue-absorbing dyes fluoresce intensely in the green region, and the two pyrene compounds emit at such long wavelengths without formation of excimers. The fluorescence properties of these compounds are quite environment-sensitive: considerable spectral shifts and fluorescence intensity changes have been observed in the pH range from 3 to 10 and in a wide variety of polar and hydrophobic solvents with vastly different dielectric constants. The high extinction and fluorescence quantum yield of these probes make them ideal fluorescent labeling reagents for proteins, antibodies, nucleic acids, and cellular organelles. The pH and hydrophobicity-dependent fluorescence changes can be utilized as optical pH and/or hydrophobicity indicators for mapping environmental difference in various cellular components in a single cell. Since all nine probes absorb in the UV, but emit at different wavelengths in the visible, these two groups of compounds offer an advantage of utilizing a single monochromatic light source (e.g., a nitrogen laser) to achieve multi-wavelength detection for flow cytometry application. As a first step to explore potential application in

  12. Fluorescence lifetime based bioassays

    Meyer-Almes, Franz-Josef

    2017-12-01

    Fluorescence lifetime (FLT) is a robust intrinsic property and material constant of fluorescent matter. Measuring this important physical indicator has evolved from a laboratory curiosity to a powerful and established technique for a variety of applications in drug discovery, medical diagnostics and basic biological research. This distinct trend was mainly driven by improved and meanwhile affordable laser and detection instrumentation on the one hand, and the development of suitable FLT probes and biological assays on the other. In this process two essential working approaches emerged. The first one is primarily focused on high throughput applications employing biochemical in vitro assays with no requirement for high spatial resolution. The second even more dynamic trend is the significant expansion of assay methods combining highly time and spatially resolved fluorescence data by fluorescence lifetime imaging. The latter approach is currently pursued to enable not only the investigation of immortal tumor cell lines, but also specific tissues or even organs in living animals. This review tries to give an actual overview about the current status of FLT based bioassays and the wide range of application opportunities in biomedical and life science areas. In addition, future trends of FLT technologies will be discussed.

  13. 21 CFR 872.1745 - Laser fluorescence caries detection device.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Laser fluorescence caries detection device. 872... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1745 Laser fluorescence caries detection device. (a) Identification. A laser fluorescence caries detection device is a laser, a...

  14. Real-time control of focused ultrasound heating based on rapid MR thermometry.

    Vimeux, F C; De Zwart, J A; Palussiére, J; Fawaz, R; Delalande, C; Canioni, P; Grenier, N; Moonen, C T

    1999-03-01

    Real-time control of the heating procedure is essential for hyperthermia applications of focused ultrasound (FUS). The objective of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of MRI-controlled FUS. An automatic control system was developed using a dedicated interface between the MR system control computer and the FUS wave generator. Two algorithms were used to regulate FUS power to maintain the focal point temperature at a desired level. Automatic control of FUS power level was demonstrated ex vivo at three target temperature levels (increase of 5 degrees C, 10 degrees C, and 30 degrees C above room temperature) during 30-minute hyperthermic periods. Preliminary in vivo results on rat leg muscle confirm that necrosis estimate, calculated on-line during FUS sonication, allows prediction of tissue damage. CONCLUSIONS. The feasibility of fully automatic FUS control based on MRI thermometry has been demonstrated.

  15. A high-resolution mK-calorimeter applying SQUID-thermometry

    Reifenberger, Andreas; Leps, Norman; Fleischmann, Andreas; Pies, Christian; Enss, Christian; Klingeler, Ruediger [Kirchhoff-Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Heidelberg, INF 227,69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    A new calorimeter for measuring single-crystalline samples of mg-size at ultra-low temperatures is described. Thermometry is done by means of a paramagnetic sensor material (Er-doped Au) in a low magnetic field. A temperature change results in a magnetization change which can be read out as change in magnetic flux by a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). This enables measurements in a wide temperature range (theoretically from 1 mK-1 K) with very high sensitivities. The bolometric design exhibits low addenda heat capacity and allows measurements of heat capacities from nJ/K to {mu}J/K by means of a temperature-relaxation method. The performance of the device is compared to a commercially available Quantum Design calorimeter in elsewise unchanged experimental settings in the temperature range from 15 mK to 500 mK.

  16. Fluorescence microscopy.

    Sanderson, Michael J; Smith, Ian; Parker, Ian; Bootman, Martin D

    2014-10-01

    Fluorescence microscopy is a major tool with which to monitor cell physiology. Although the concepts of fluorescence and its optical separation using filters remain similar, microscope design varies with the aim of increasing image contrast and spatial resolution. The basics of wide-field microscopy are outlined to emphasize the selection, advantages, and correct use of laser scanning confocal microscopy, two-photon microscopy, scanning disk confocal microscopy, total internal reflection, and super-resolution microscopy. In addition, the principles of how these microscopes form images are reviewed to appreciate their capabilities, limitations, and constraints for operation. © 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  17. Plasmonics Enhanced Smartphone Fluorescence Microscopy

    Wei, Qingshan; Acuna, Guillermo; Kim, Seungkyeum; Vietz, Carolin; Tseng, Derek; Chae, Jongjae; Shir, Daniel; Luo, Wei; Tinnefeld, Philip; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2017-01-01

    Smartphone fluorescence microscopy has various applications in point-of-care (POC) testing and diagnostics, ranging from e.g., quantification of immunoassays, detection of microorganisms, to sensing of viruses. An important need in smartphone-based microscopy and sensing techniques is to improve the detection sensitivity to enable quantification of extremely low concentrations of target molecules. Here, we demonstrate a general strategy to enhance the detection sensitivity of a smartphone-based fluorescence microscope by using surface-enhanced fluorescence (SEF) created by a thin metal-film. In this plasmonic design, the samples are placed on a silver-coated glass slide with a thin spacer, and excited by a laser-diode from the backside through a glass hemisphere, generating surface plasmon polaritons. We optimized this mobile SEF system by tuning the metal-film thickness, spacer distance, excitation angle and polarization, and achieved ~10-fold enhancement in fluorescence intensity compared to a bare glass substrate, which enabled us to image single fluorescent particles as small as 50 nm in diameter and single quantum-dots. Furthermore, we quantified the detection limit of this platform by using DNA origami-based brightness standards, demonstrating that ~80 fluorophores per diffraction-limited spot can be readily detected by our mobile microscope, which opens up new opportunities for POC diagnostics and sensing applications in resource-limited-settings.

  18. Plasmonics Enhanced Smartphone Fluorescence Microscopy

    Wei, Qingshan

    2017-05-12

    Smartphone fluorescence microscopy has various applications in point-of-care (POC) testing and diagnostics, ranging from e.g., quantification of immunoassays, detection of microorganisms, to sensing of viruses. An important need in smartphone-based microscopy and sensing techniques is to improve the detection sensitivity to enable quantification of extremely low concentrations of target molecules. Here, we demonstrate a general strategy to enhance the detection sensitivity of a smartphone-based fluorescence microscope by using surface-enhanced fluorescence (SEF) created by a thin metal-film. In this plasmonic design, the samples are placed on a silver-coated glass slide with a thin spacer, and excited by a laser-diode from the backside through a glass hemisphere, generating surface plasmon polaritons. We optimized this mobile SEF system by tuning the metal-film thickness, spacer distance, excitation angle and polarization, and achieved ~10-fold enhancement in fluorescence intensity compared to a bare glass substrate, which enabled us to image single fluorescent particles as small as 50 nm in diameter and single quantum-dots. Furthermore, we quantified the detection limit of this platform by using DNA origami-based brightness standards, demonstrating that ~80 fluorophores per diffraction-limited spot can be readily detected by our mobile microscope, which opens up new opportunities for POC diagnostics and sensing applications in resource-limited-settings.

  19. Low-temperature thermometry. Use of a gas thermometer as a calibration standard between 4 and 300 K

    Combarieu, A. de

    1978-01-01

    A constant volume gas thermometer was built to calibrate the various secondary thermometers used at low temperature. This gas thermometer is placed in a cryostat where any stable temperature between 4 and 300 K may be obtained. After some words about low temperature thermometry, the gas thermometer and its auxiliary equipment are described briefly; the corrections to be applied to the results are given and the article ends with a table showing the values obtained [fr

  20. Pulmonary carcinoma. Diagnostic and bronchoscopic treatment

    Caballero Duran, Hugo

    1997-01-01

    A historical recount of the bronchoscopy is made, from its beginnings 100 years ago, in a same way some techniques of diagnostic and treatment are mentioned, as the laser, fluorescence, cryotherapy, etc

  1. [Cytology in uropathological diagnostics].

    Gaisa, N T; Lindemann-Docter, K

    2015-11-01

    Cytology in uropathological diagnostics is mainly performed for oncological purposes. The assessment of malignancy by urothelial cell morphology is therefore decisive; however, cytology is only sensitive enough to detect high-grade tumor cells and the different low-grade tumors cannot be reliably diagnosed. Thus, the four-tier classification system of cytological findings (i.e. negative, atypical cells but significance uncertain, suspicious and positive) refers to high-grade tumor cells only. Furthermore, for valid cytological diagnostics not only the cytological specimen but also clinical information on cystoscopy findings and, if applicable, a biopsy should be evaluated together. In difficult differential diagnostic settings, e.g. differentiation between reactive versus neoplastic atypia or difficult to access lesions in the upper urinary tract, additional fluorescence in situ hybridization of cytological preparations might be helpful. At the moment there are no indications for further immunocytology or additional biomarker tests.

  2. Genetically encoded ratiometric fluorescent thermometer with wide range and rapid response.

    Masahiro Nakano

    Full Text Available Temperature is a fundamental physical parameter that plays an important role in biological reactions and events. Although thermometers developed previously have been used to investigate several important phenomena, such as heterogeneous temperature distribution in a single living cell and heat generation in mitochondria, the development of a thermometer with a sensitivity over a wide temperature range and rapid response is still desired to quantify temperature change in not only homeotherms but also poikilotherms from the cellular level to in vivo. To overcome the weaknesses of the conventional thermometers, such as a limitation of applicable species and a low temporal resolution, owing to the narrow temperature range of sensitivity and the thermometry method, respectively, we developed a genetically encoded ratiometric fluorescent temperature indicator, gTEMP, by using two fluorescent proteins with different temperature sensitivities. Our thermometric method enabled a fast tracking of the temperature change with a time resolution of 50 ms. We used this method to observe the spatiotemporal temperature change between the cytoplasm and nucleus in cells, and quantified thermogenesis from the mitochondria matrix in a single living cell after stimulation with carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone, which was an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation. Moreover, exploiting the wide temperature range of sensitivity from 5°C to 50°C of gTEMP, we monitored the temperature in a living medaka embryo for 15 hours and showed the feasibility of in vivo thermometry in various living species.

  3. Fluorescence detection of dental calculus

    Gonchukov, S; Sukhinina, A; Vdovin, Yu; Biryukova, T

    2010-01-01

    This work is devoted to the optimization of fluorescence dental calculus diagnostics in optical spectrum. The optimal wavelengths for fluorescence excitation and registration are determined. Two spectral ranges 620 – 645 nm and 340 – 370 nm are the most convenient for supra- and subgingival calculus determination. The simple implementation of differential method free from the necessity of spectrometer using was investigated. Calculus detection reliability in the case of simple implementation is higher than in the case of spectra analysis at optimal wavelengths. The use of modulated excitation light and narrowband detection of informative signal allows us to decrease essentially its diagnostic intensity even in comparison with intensity of the low level laser dental therapy

  4. Rayleigh-based, multi-element coral thermometry: A biomineralization approach to developing climate proxies

    Gaetani, G.A.; Cohen, A.L.; Wang, Z.; Crusius, John

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a new approach to coral thermometry that deconvolves the influence of water temperature on skeleton composition from that of “vital effects”, and has the potential to provide estimates of growth temperatures that are accurate to within a few tenths of a degree Celsius from both tropical and cold-water corals. Our results provide support for a physico-chemical model of coral biomineralization, and imply that Mg2+ substitutes directly for Ca2+ in biogenic aragonite. Recent studies have identified Rayleigh fractionation as an important influence on the elemental composition of coral skeletons. Daily, seasonal and interannual variations in the amount of aragonite precipitated by corals from each “batch” of calcifying fluid can explain why the temperature dependencies of elemental ratios in coral skeleton differ from those of abiogenic aragonites, and are highly variable among individual corals. On the basis of this new insight into the origin of “vital effects” in coral skeleton, we developed a Rayleigh-based, multi-element approach to coral thermometry. Temperature is resolved from the Rayleigh fractionation signal by combining information from multiple element ratios (e.g., Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca, Ba/Ca) to produce a mathematically over-constrained system of Rayleigh equations. Unlike conventional coral thermometers, this approach does not rely on an initial calibration of coral skeletal composition to an instrumental temperature record. Rather, considering coral skeletogenesis as a biologically mediated, physico-chemical process provides a means to extract temperature information from the skeleton composition using the Rayleigh equation and a set of experimentally determined partition coefficients. Because this approach is based on a quantitative understanding of the mechanism that produces the “vital effect” it should be possible to apply it both across scleractinian species and to corals growing in vastly different environments. Where

  5. Three-dimensional fluorescence lifetime tomography

    Godavarty, Anuradha; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.; Eppstein, Margaret J.

    2005-01-01

    Near-infrared fluorescence tomography using molecularly targeted lifetime-sensitive, fluorescent contrast agents have applications for early-stage cancer diagnostics. Yet, although the measurement of fluorescent lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) is extensively used in microscopy and spectroscopy applications, demonstration of fluorescence lifetime tomography for medical imaging is limited to two-dimensional studies. Herein, the feasibility of three-dimensional fluorescence-lifetime tomography on clinically relevant phantom volumes is established, using (i) a gain-modulated intensified charge coupled device (CCD) and modulated laser diode imaging system, (ii) two fluorescent contrast agents, e.g., Indocyanine green and 3-3'-Diethylthiatricarbocyanine iodide differing in their fluorescence lifetime by 0.62 ns, and (iii) a two stage approximate extended Kalman filter reconstruction algorithm. Fluorescence measurements of phase and amplitude were acquired on the phantom surface under different target to background fluorescence absorption (70:1, 100:1) and fluorescence lifetime (1:1, 2.1:1) contrasts at target depths of 1.4-2 cm. The Bayesian tomography algorithm was employed to obtain three-dimensional images of lifetime and absorption owing to the fluorophores

  6. Method for analyzing passive silicon carbide thermometry with a continuous dilatometer to determine irradiation temperature

    Campbell, Anne A.; Porter, Wallace D.; Katoh, Yutai; Snead, Lance L.

    2016-03-01

    Silicon carbide is used as a passive post-irradiation temperature monitor because the irradiation defects will anneal out above the irradiation temperature. The irradiation temperature is determined by measuring a property change after isochronal annealing, i.e., lattice spacing, dimensions, electrical resistivity, thermal diffusivity, or bulk density. However, such methods are time-consuming since the steps involved must be performed in a serial manner. This work presents the use of thermal expansion from continuous dilatometry to calculate the SiC irradiation temperature, which is an automated process requiring minimal setup time. Analysis software was written that performs the calculations to obtain the irradiation temperature and removes possible user-introduced error while standardizing the analysis. This method has been compared to an electrical resistivity and isochronal annealing investigation, and the results revealed agreement of the calculated temperatures. These results show that dilatometry is a reliable and less time-intensive process for determining irradiation temperature from passive SiC thermometry.

  7. A Ratiometric Method for Johnson Noise Thermometry Using a Quantized Voltage Noise Source

    Nam, S. W.; Benz, S. P.; Martinis, J. M.; Dresselhaus, P.; Tew, W. L.; White, D. R.

    2003-09-01

    Johnson Noise Thermometry (JNT) involves the measurement of the statistical variance of a fluctuating voltage across a resistor in thermal equilibrium. Modern digital techniques make it now possible to perform many functions required for JNT in highly efficient and predictable ways. We describe the operational characteristics of a prototype JNT system which uses digital signal processing for filtering, real-time spectral cross-correlation for noise power measurement, and a digitally synthesized Quantized Voltage Noise Source (QVNS) as an AC voltage reference. The QVNS emulates noise with a constant spectral density that is stable, programmable, and calculable in terms of known parameters using digital synthesis techniques. Changes in analog gain are accounted for by alternating the inputs between the Johnson noise sensor and the QVNS. The Johnson noise power at a known temperature is first balanced with a synthesized noise power from the QVNS. The process is then repeated by balancing the noise power from the same resistor at an unknown temperature. When the two noise power ratios are combined, a thermodynamic temperature is derived using the ratio of the two QVNS spectral densities. We present preliminary results where the ratio between the gallium triple point and the water triple point is used to demonstrate the accuracy of the measurement system with a standard uncertainty of 0.04 %.

  8. Infrared thermometry and the crop water stress index. II. Sampling procedures and interpretation

    Gardner, B. R. [BP Research, Cleveland, OH (United States); Nielsen, D. C.; Shock, C. C.

    1992-10-15

    Infrared thermometry can be a valuable research and production tool for detecting and quantifying water stress in plants, as shown by a large volume of published research. Users of infrared thermometers (IRT) should be aware of the many equipment, environmental, and plant factors influencing canopy temperature measured by an IRT. The purpose of this paper is to describe factors influencing measured plant temperature, outline sampling procedures that will produce reliable Crop Water Stress Index (CWSI) values, and offer interpretations of CWSI and plant temperatures relative to crop production and other water stress parameters by reviewing previously conducted research. Factors that are considered are IRT condition, configuration, and position; psychrometer location; wind speed; solar radiation; time of day; leaf area and orientation; and appropriate non-water-stressed baseline equation. Standard sampling and CWSI calculation procedures are proposed. Use of CWSI with crops varying in type of response to water stress is described. Previously conducted research on plant temperatures or CWSI is tabulated by crop and water stress parameters measured. The paper provides valuable information to assist interested users of IRTs in making reliable water stress measurements. (author)

  9. Infrared thermometry and the crop water stress index. II. Sampling procedures and interpretation

    Gardner, B.R.; Nielsen, D.C.; Shock, C.C.

    1992-01-01

    Infrared thermometry can be a valuable research and production tool for detecting and quantifying water stress in plants, as shown by a large volume of published research. Users of infrared thermometers (IRT) should be aware of the many equipment, environmental, and plant factors influencing canopy temperature measured by an IRT. The purpose of this paper is to describe factors influencing measured plant temperature, outline sampling procedures that will produce reliable Crop Water Stress Index (CWSI) values, and offer interpretations of CWSI and plant temperatures relative to crop production and other water stress parameters by reviewing previously conducted research. Factors that are considered are IRT condition, configuration, and position; psychrometer location; wind speed; solar radiation; time of day; leaf area and orientation; and appropriate non-water-stressed baseline equation. Standard sampling and CWSI calculation procedures are proposed. Use of CWSI with crops varying in type of response to water stress is described. Previously conducted research on plant temperatures or CWSI is tabulated by crop and water stress parameters measured. The paper provides valuable information to assist interested users of IRTs in making reliable water stress measurements. (author)

  10. Measurement and Analysis of the Temperature Gradient of Blackbody Cavities, for Use in Radiation Thermometry

    De Lucas, Javier; Segovia, José Juan

    2018-05-01

    Blackbody cavities are the standard radiation sources widely used in the fields of radiometry and radiation thermometry. Its effective emissivity and uncertainty depend to a large extent on the temperature gradient. An experimental procedure based on the radiometric method for measuring the gradient is followed. Results are applied to particular blackbody configurations where gradients can be thermometrically estimated by contact thermometers and where the relationship between both basic methods can be established. The proposed procedure may be applied to commercial blackbodies if they are modified allowing secondary contact temperature measurement. In addition, the established systematic may be incorporated as part of the actions for quality assurance in routine calibrations of radiation thermometers, by using the secondary contact temperature measurement for detecting departures from the real radiometrically obtained gradient and the effect on the uncertainty. On the other hand, a theoretical model is proposed to evaluate the effect of temperature variations on effective emissivity and associated uncertainty. This model is based on a gradient sample chosen following plausible criteria. The model is consistent with the Monte Carlo method for calculating the uncertainty of effective emissivity and complements others published in the literature where uncertainty is calculated taking into account only geometrical variables and intrinsic emissivity. The mathematical model and experimental procedure are applied and validated using a commercial type three-zone furnace, with a blackbody cavity modified to enable a secondary contact temperature measurement, in the range between 400 °C and 1000 °C.

  11. Thermometry of levitated nanoparticles in a hybrid electro-optical trap

    Aranas, E. B.; Fonseca, P. Z. G.; Barker, P. F.; Monteiro, T. S.

    2017-03-01

    There have been recent rapid developments in stable trapping of levitated nanoparticles in high vacuum. Cooling of nanoparticles, from phonon occupancies of 107 down to ≃ 100{--}1000 phonons, have already been achieved by several groups. Prospects for quantum ground-state cooling seem extremely promising. Cavity-cooling without added stabilisation by feedback cooling remains challenging, but trapping at high vacuum in a cavity is now possible through the addition of a Paul trap. However, the Paul trap has been found to qualitatively modify the cavity output spectrum, with the latter acquiring an atypical ‘split-sideband’ structure, of different form from the displacement spectrum, and which depends on N, the optical well at which the particle localises. In the present work we investigate the N-dependence of the dynamics, in particular with respect to thermometry: we show that in strong cooling regions N≳ 100, the temperature may still be reliably inferred from the cavity output spectra. We also explain the N-dependence of the mechanical frequencies and optomechanical coupling showing that these may be accurately estimated. We present a simple ‘fast-cavity’ model for the cavity output and test all our findings against full numerical solutions of the nonlinear stochastic equations of motion for the system.

  12. Scour Monitoring System for Subsea Pipeline Based on Active Thermometry: Numerical and Experimental Studies

    Jun Du

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A scour monitoring system for subsea pipeline based on active thermometry is proposed in this paper. The temperature reading of the proposed system is based on a distributed Brillouin optical fiber sensing technique. A thermal cable acts as the main component of the system, which consists of a heating belt, armored optical fibers and heat-shrinkable tubes which run parallel to the pipeline. The scour-induced free span can be monitored through different heat transfer behaviors of in-water and in-sediment scenarios during heating and cooling processes. Two sets of experiments, including exposing different lengths of the upper surface of the pipeline to water and creating free spans of various lengths, were carried out in laboratory. In both cases, the scour condition was immediately detected by the proposed monitoring system, which confirmed the system is robust and very sensitive. Numerical study of the method was also investigated by using the finite element method (FEM with ANSYS, resulting in reasonable agreement with the test data. This brand new system provides a promising, low cost, highly precise and flexible approach for scour monitoring of subsea pipelines.

  13. Flame thermometry using laser-induced-grating spectroscopy of nitric oxide

    Luers, Andrew; Salhlberg, Anna-Lena; Hochgreb, Simone; Ewart, Paul

    2018-03-01

    A systematic study of laser-induced thermal-grating scattering (LITGS) using nitric oxide as an absorbing species is presented as a means of thermometry in air-fed combustion. The relative contributions to the scattered signal from degenerate four-wave mixing, DFWM, and from laser-induced thermal-grating scattering, LITGS, are studied in the time domain for NO in N2 buffer gas up to 4 bar, using a pulsed laser system to excite the (0,0) γ-bands of NO at 226.21 nm. LITGS signals from combustion-generated NO in a laminar, pre-mixed CH4/O2/N2 flame on an in-house constructed slot burner were used to derive temperature values as a function of O2 concentration and position in the flame at 1 and 2.5 bar total pressure. Temperature values consistent with the calculated adiabatic flame temperature were derived from averaged LITGS signals over 50-100 single shots at 10 Hz repetition rate in the range 1600-2400 K with a pressure-dependent uncertainty of ± 1.8% at 1 bar to ± 1.4% at 2.5 bar. Based on observed signal-to-noise ratios, the minimum detectable concentration of NO in the flame is estimated to be 80 ppm for a 5 s measurement time at 10 Hz repetition rate.

  14. Planar measurements of spray-induced wall cooling using phosphor thermometry

    Dragomirov, Plamen; Mendieta, Aldo; Abram, Christopher; Fond, Benoît; Beyrau, Frank

    2018-03-01

    The wall cooling induced by spray impingement is investigated using phosphor thermometry. Thin coatings of zinc oxide (ZnO) phosphor were applied with a transparent chemical binder onto a steel surface. Instantaneous spatially resolved temperatures were determined using the spectral intensity ratio method directly after the injection of UV-grade hexane onto the surface using a commercial gasoline injector. The investigations showed that 2D temperature measurements with high spatial and shot-to-shot precision of, respectively, 0.5 and 0.6 K can be achieved, allowing the accurate resolution of the cooling induced by the spray. The presence of a liquid film over the phosphor coating during measurements showed no noticeable influence on the measured temperatures. However, in some cases a change in the intensity ratio at the spray impingement area, in the form of a permanent "stain", could be observed after multiple injections. The formation of this stain was less likely with increasing annealing time of the coating as well as lower plate operating temperatures during the injection experiments. Finally, the experimental results indicate a noticeable influence of the thickness of the phosphor coating on the measured spray-induced wall cooling history. Hence, for quantitative analysis, a compromise between coating thickness and measurement accuracy needs to be considered for similar applications where the heat transfer rates are very high.

  15. Evaluation of phase sensitive detection method and Si avalanche photodiode for radiation thermometry

    Hobbs, M J; Tan, C H; Willmott, J R

    2013-01-01

    We report the evaluation of Si avalanche photodiodes (APDs) for use in radiation thermometry as an alternative to Si photodiodes. We compared their performance when operated under phase sensitive detection (PSD), where the signal is modulated, and direct detection (DD) methods. A Si APD was compared with a Si photodiode with reference black body temperatures of 275 to 600°C, in terms of the mean output voltage and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), measured at different APD gain values. We found that using both PSD and DD methods, the high internal gain of the Si APD achieved a lower minimum detection temperature in order to satisfy a specific minimum output voltage of the detector-preamplifier combination employed. The use of PSD over DD for the Si APD allowed for improved performance of the thermometer, with a lower minimum measurable temperature, as well as improvement in the SNR. For instance we found that at 350°C, the Si APD biased at 150 V using PSD can provide ∼ 88 times enhancement in the system SNR over that of a Si photodiode using DD. A corresponding temperature error of ±0.05°C was achieved using the APD with PSD compared to an error of ±2.75°C measured using the Si photodiode with DD.

  16. Sensitivity Modulation of Upconverting Thermometry through Engineering Phonon Energy of a Matrix.

    Suo, Hao; Guo, Chongfeng; Zheng, Jiming; Zhou, Bo; Ma, Chonggeng; Zhao, Xiaoqi; Li, Ting; Guo, Ping; Goldys, Ewa M

    2016-11-09

    Investigation of the unclear influential factors to thermal sensing capability is the only way to achieve highly sensitive thermometry, which is greatly needed to meet the growing demand for potential sensing applications. Here, the effect from the phonon energy of a matrix on the sensitivity of upconversion (UC) microthermometers is elaborately discussed using a controllable method. Uniform truncated octahedral YF 3 :Er 3+ /Yb 3+ microcrystals were prepared by a hydrothermal approach, and phase transformation from YF 3 to YOF and Y 2 O 3 with nearly unchanged morphology and size was successfully realized by controlling the annealing temperature. The phonon energies of blank matrixes were determined by FT-IR spectra and Raman scattering. Upon 980 nm excitation, phonon energy-dependent UC emitting color was finely tuned from green to yellow for three samples, and the mechanisms were proposed. Thermal sensing behaviors based on the TCLs ( 2 H 11/2 / 4 S 3/2 ) were evaluated, and the sensitivities gradually grew with the increase in the matrix's phonon energy. According to chemical bond theory and first-principle calculations, the most intrinsic factors associated with thermometric ability were qualitatively demonstrated through analyzing the inner relation between the phonon energy and bond covalency. The exciting results provide guiding insights into employing appropriate host materials with desired thermometric ability while offering the possibility of highly accurate measurement of temperature.

  17. Radiation thermometry - non-contact temperature measurements; Strahlungsthermometrie - Temperaturen beruehrungslos messen

    Hollandt, J. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig (Germany). Fachbereich Hochtemperatur- und Vakuumphysik; Hartmann, J. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe Hochtemperaturskala; Gutschwager, B. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe Infrarot-Strahlungsthermometrie; Struss, O. [HEITRONICS Infrarot Messtechnik GmbH (Germany)

    2007-09-15

    The temperature is one of the measurands most frequently determined, as it decisively influences physical, chemical and biological processes. To be able to evaluate, optimize, repeat and compare industrial procedures, temperatures must be measured with sufficient accuracy and worldwide uniformity. This is done with the aid of the regulations and instructions of the international temperature scale. Today, non-contact measurements of surface temperatures can be performed without problems with radiation thermometers over a temperature range from -100 C up to 3000 C. Compared to contacting measurements, radiation-thermometric temperature measurement offers a series of advantages. Radiation thermometers react very fast and the measurement is not influenced by heat supply or dissipation. This allows objects to be measured which move very fast, are energized or may experience fast temperature changes. Consequently, radiation thermometry is increasingly used for the monitoring and control of thermal processes, for maintenance and in building services engineering. The present contribution shall inform of the fundamentals of radiation-thermometric temperature measurement as well as of the construction and popular types of radiation thermometers. It will be explained how exact and worldwide uniform temperature measurement is guaranteed via the international temperature scale and the calibration of radiation thermometers. The emissivity of surfaces which is important in practical temperature measurements and some examples of industrial applications of radiation thermometers will be described. (orig.)

  18. Radiation thermometry - non-contact temperature measurements; Strahlungsthermometrie - Temperaturen beruehrungslos messen

    Hollandt, J.; Hartmann, J.; Gutschwager, B. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Berlin (Germany); Struss, O. [HEITRONICS Infrarot Messtechnik GmbH, Wiesbaden (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The temperature is one of the measurands most frequently determined, as it decisively influences physical, chemical and biological processes. To be able to evaluate, optimize, repeat and compare industrial procedures, temperatures must be measured with sufficient accuracy and worldwide uniformity. This is done with the aid of the regulations and instructions of the international temperature scale. Today, non-contact measurements of surface temperatures can be performed without problems with radiation thermometers over a temperature range from -100 C up to 3000 C. Compared to contacting measurements, radiation-thermometric temperature measurement offers a series of advantages. Radiation thermometers react very fast and the measurement is not influenced by heat supply or dissipation. This allows objects to be measured which move very fast, are energized or may experience fast temperature changes. Consequently, radiation thermometry is increasingly used for the monitoring and control of thermal processes, for maintenance and in building services engineering. The present contribution shall inform of the fundamentals of radiation-thermometric temperature measurement as well as of the construction and popular types of radiation thermometers. It will be explained how exact and worldwide uniform temperature measurement is guaranteed via the international temperature scale and the calibration of radiation thermometers. The emissivity of surfaces which is important in practical temperature measurements and some examples of industrial applications of radiation thermometers will be described. (orig.)

  19. Measurement of the Boltzmann constant by Johnson noise thermometry using a superconducting integrated circuit

    Urano, C.; Yamazawa, K.; Kaneko, N.-H.

    2017-12-01

    We report on our measurement of the Boltzmann constant by Johnson noise thermometry (JNT) using an integrated quantum voltage noise source (IQVNS) that is fully implemented with superconducting integrated circuit technology. The IQVNS generates calculable pseudo white noise voltages to calibrate the JNT system. The thermal noise of a sensing resistor placed at the temperature of the triple point of water was measured precisely by the IQVNS-based JNT. We accumulated data of more than 429 200 s in total (over 6 d) and used the Akaike information criterion to estimate the fitting frequency range for the quadratic model to calculate the Boltzmann constant. Upon detailed evaluation of the uncertainty components, the experimentally obtained Boltzmann constant was k=1.380 6436× {{10}-23} J K-1 with a relative combined uncertainty of 10.22× {{10}-6} . The value of k is relatively -3.56× {{10}-6} lower than the CODATA 2014 value (Mohr et al 2016 Rev. Mod. Phys. 88 035009).

  20. Digital signal processing for the Johnson noise thermometry: a time series analysis of the Johnson noise

    Moon, Byung Soo; Hwang, In Koo; Chung, Chong Eun; Kwon, Kee Choon; David, E. H.; Kisner, R.A.

    2004-06-01

    In this report, we first proved that a random signal obtained by taking the sum of a set of signal frequency signals generates a continuous Markov process. We used this random signal to simulate the Johnson noise and verified that the Johnson noise thermometry can be used to improve the measurements of the reactor coolant temperature within an accuracy of below 0.14%. Secondly, by using this random signal we determined the optimal sampling rate when the frequency band of the Johnson noise signal is given. Also the results of our examination on how good the linearity of the Johnson noise is and how large the relative error of the temperature could become when the temperature increases are described. Thirdly, the results of our analysis on a set of the Johnson noise signal blocks taken from a simple electric circuit are described. We showed that the properties of the continuous Markov process are satisfied even when some channel noises are present. Finally, we describe the algorithm we devised to handle the problem of the time lag in the long-term average or the moving average in a transient state. The algorithm is based on the Haar wavelet and is to estimate the transient temperature that has much smaller time delay. We have shown that the algorithm can track the transient temperature successfully

  1. Improving Agricultural Water Resources Management Using Ground-based Infrared Thermometry

    Taghvaeian, S.

    2014-12-01

    Irrigated agriculture is the largest user of freshwater resources in arid/semi-arid parts of the world. Meeting rapidly growing demands in food, feed, fiber, and fuel while minimizing environmental pollution under a changing climate requires significant improvements in agricultural water management and irrigation scheduling. Although recent advances in remote sensing techniques and hydrological modeling has provided valuable information on agricultural water resources and their management, real improvements will only occur if farmers, the decision makers on the ground, are provided with simple, affordable, and practical tools to schedule irrigation events. This presentation reviews efforts in developing methods based on ground-based infrared thermometry and thermography for day-to-day management of irrigation systems. The results of research studies conducted in Colorado and Oklahoma show that ground-based remote sensing methods can be used effectively in quantifying water stress and consequently triggering irrigation events. Crop water use estimates based on stress indices have also showed to be in good agreement with estimates based on other methods (e.g. surface energy balance, root zone soil water balance, etc.). Major challenges toward the adoption of this approach by agricultural producers include the reduced accuracy under cloudy and humid conditions and its inability to forecast irrigation date, which is a critical knowledge since many irrigators need to decide about irrigations a few days in advance.

  2. Estimation of wetland evapotranspiration in northern New York using infrared thermometry

    Hwang, K.; Chandler, D. G.

    2016-12-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is an important component of the water budget and often regarded as a major water loss. In freshwater wetlands, cumulative annual ET can equal precipitation under well-watered conditions. Wetland ET is therefore an important control on contaminant and nutrient transport. Yet, quantification of wetland ET is challenged by complex surface characteristics, diverse plant species and density, and variations in wetland shape and size. As handheld infrared (IR) cameras have become available, studies exploiting the new technology have increased, especially in agriculture and hydrology. The benefits of IR cameras include (1) high spatial resolution, (2) high sample rates, (3) real-time imaging, (4) a constant viewing geometry, and (5) no need for atmosphere and cloud corrections. Compared with traditional methods, infrared thermometer is capable of monitoring at the scale of a small pond or localized plant community. This enables finer scale survey of heterogeneous land surfaces rather than strict dependence on atmospheric variables. Despite this potential, there has been a limited number of studies of ET and drought stress with IR cameras. In this study, the infrared thermometry-based method was applied to estimate ET over wetland plant species in St. Lawrence River Valley, NY. The results are evaluated with traditional methods to test applicability over multiple vegetation species in a same area.

  3. Infrared thermometry and the crop water stress index. I. History, theory, and baselines

    Gardner, B.R.; Nielsen, D.C.; Shock, C.C.

    1992-01-01

    Development of portable infrared thermometers and the definition of the Crop Water Stress Index (CWSI) have led to widespread interest in infrared thermometry to monitor water stress and schedule irrigations. But the CWSI concept is still new and poorly understood by many. The purpose of this paper is to review the definition of CWSI, and the determination and interpretation of the non-water-stressed baselines used to compute CWSI. The non-water-stressed baseline equation normalizes the canopy minus air temperature differential for variations in vapor pressure deficit. Non-water-stressed baselines can be determined empirically from measurements of canopy and air temperatures and vapor pressure deficit, made diurnally on a single day, or at a single time of day over many days, on well-watered plants. The value of the maximum canopy minus air temperature differential under maximum water stress should also be determined empirically. Causes for CWSI values falling outside of the defined 0 to 10 unit range are reviewed. Non-water-stressed baselines may shift with plant growth stage. Effective use of CWSI is dependent on understanding the definition of CWSI, and the proper determination and use of non-water-stressed baselines. (author)

  4. Potential for improved radiation thermometry measurement uncertainty through implementing a primary scale in an industrial laboratory

    Willmott, Jon R.; Lowe, David; Broughton, Mick; White, Ben S.; Machin, Graham

    2016-09-01

    A primary temperature scale requires realising a unit in terms of its definition. For high temperature radiation thermometry in terms of the International Temperature Scale of 1990 this means extrapolating from the signal measured at the freezing temperature of gold, silver or copper using Planck’s radiation law. The difficulty in doing this means that primary scales above 1000 °C require specialist equipment and careful characterisation in order to achieve the extrapolation with sufficient accuracy. As such, maintenance of the scale at high temperatures is usually only practicable for National Metrology Institutes, and calibration laboratories have to rely on a scale calibrated against transfer standards. At lower temperatures it is practicable for an industrial calibration laboratory to have its own primary temperature scale, which reduces the number of steps between the primary scale and end user. Proposed changes to the SI that will introduce internationally accepted high temperature reference standards might make it practicable to have a primary high temperature scale in a calibration laboratory. In this study such a scale was established by calibrating radiation thermometers directly to high temperature reference standards. The possible reduction in uncertainty to an end user as a result of the reduced calibration chain was evaluated.

  5. Microchip transponder thermometry for monitoring core body temperature of antelope during capture.

    Rey, Benjamin; Fuller, Andrea; Hetem, Robyn S; Lease, Hilary M; Mitchell, Duncan; Meyer, Leith C R

    2016-01-01

    Hyperthermia is described as the major cause of morbidity and mortality associated with capture, immobilization and restraint of wild animals. Therefore, accurately determining the core body temperature of wild animals during capture is crucial for monitoring hyperthermia and the efficacy of cooling procedures. We investigated if microchip thermometry can accurately reflect core body temperature changes during capture and cooling interventions in the springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis), a medium-sized antelope. Subcutaneous temperature measured with a temperature-sensitive microchip was a weak predictor of core body temperature measured by temperature-sensitive data loggers in the abdominal cavity (R(2)=0.32, bias >2 °C). Temperature-sensitive microchips in the gluteus muscle, however, provided an accurate estimate of core body temperature (R(2)=0.76, bias=0.012 °C). Microchips inserted into muscle therefore provide a convenient and accurate method to measure body temperature continuously in captured antelope, allowing detection of hyperthermia and the efficacy of cooling procedures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Multispectral system for medical fluorescence imaging

    Andersson, P.S.; Montan, S.; Svanberg, S.

    1987-01-01

    The principles of a powerful multicolor imaging system for tissue fluorescence diagnostics are discussed. Four individually spectrally filtered images are formed on a matrix detector by means of a split-mirror arrangement. The four images are processed in a computer, pixel by pixel, by means of mathematical operations, leading to an optimized contrast image, which enhances a selected feature. The system is being developed primarily for medical fluorescence imaging, but has wide applications in fluorescence, reflectance, and transmission monitoring related to a wide range of industrial and environmental problems. The system operation is described for the case of linear imaging on a diode array detector. Laser-induced fluorescence is used for cancer tumor and arteriosclerotic plaque demarcation using the contrast enhancement capabilities of this imaging system. Further examples of applications include fluorescing minerals and flames

  7. Observation and correction of transient cavitation-induced PRFS thermometry artifacts during radiofrequency ablation, using simultaneous ultrasound/MR imaging.

    Viallon, Magalie; Terraz, Sylvain; Roland, Joerg; Dumont, Erik; Becker, Christoph D; Salomir, Rares

    2010-04-01

    MR thermometry based on the proton resonance frequency shift (PRFS) is the most commonly used method for the monitoring of thermal therapies. As the chemical shift of water protons is temperature dependent, the local temperature variation (relative to an initial baseline) may be calculated from time-dependent phase changes in gradient-echo (GRE) MR images. Dynamic phase shift in GRE images is also produced by time-dependent changes in the magnetic bulk susceptibility of tissue. Gas bubbles (known as "white cavitation") are frequently visualized near the RF electrode in ultrasonography-guided radio frequency ablation (RFA). This study aimed to investigate RFA-induced cavitation's effects by using simultaneous ultrasonography and MRI, to both visualize the cavitation and quantify the subsequent magnetic susceptibility-mediated errors in concurrent PRFS MR-thermometry (MRT) as well as to propose a first-order correction for the latter errors. RF heating in saline gels and in ex vivo tissues was performed with MR-compatible bipolar and monopolar electrodes inside a 1.5 T MR clinical scanner. Ultrasonography simultaneous to PRFS MRT was achieved using a MR-compatible phased-array ultrasonic transducer. PRFS MRT was performed interleaved in three orthogonal planes and compared to measurements from fluoroptic sensors, under low and, respectively, high RFA power levels. Control experiments were performed to isolate the main source of errors in standard PRFS thermometry. Ultrasonography, MRI and digital camera pictures clearly demonstrated generation of bubbles every time when operating the radio frequency equipment at therapeutic powers (> or = 30 W). Simultaneous bimodal (ultrasonography and MRI) monitoring of high power RF heating demonstrated a correlation between the onset of the PRFS-thermometry errors and the appearance of bubbles around the applicator. In an ex vivo study using a bipolar RF electrode under low power level (5 W), the MR measured temperature curves

  8. Multispectral optical tweezers for molecular diagnostics of single biological cells

    Butler, Corey; Fardad, Shima; Sincore, Alex; Vangheluwe, Marie; Baudelet, Matthieu; Richardson, Martin

    2012-03-01

    Optical trapping of single biological cells has become an established technique for controlling and studying fundamental behavior of single cells with their environment without having "many-body" interference. The development of such an instrument for optical diagnostics (including Raman and fluorescence for molecular diagnostics) via laser spectroscopy with either the "trapping" beam or secondary beams is still in progress. This paper shows the development of modular multi-spectral imaging optical tweezers combining Raman and Fluorescence diagnostics of biological cells.

  9. Application of structured illumination to gas phase thermometry using thermographic phosphor particles: a study for averaged imaging

    Zentgraf, Florian; Stephan, Michael; Berrocal, Edouard; Albert, Barbara; Böhm, Benjamin; Dreizler, Andreas

    2017-07-01

    Structured laser illumination planar imaging (SLIPI) is combined with gas phase thermometry measurements using thermographic phosphor (TGP) particles. The technique is applied to a heated jet surrounded by a coflow which is operated at ambient temperature. The respective air flows are seeded with a powder of BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+ (BAM) which is used as temperature-sensitive gas phase tracer. Upon pulsed excitation in the ultraviolet spectral range, the temperature is extracted based on the two-color ratio method combined with SLIPI. The main advantage of applying the SLIPI approach to phosphor thermometry is the reduction of particle-to-particle multiple light scattering and diffuse wall reflections, yielding a more robust calibration procedure as well as improving the measurement accuracy, precision, and sensitivity. For demonstration, this paper focuses on sample-averaged measurements of temperature fields in a jet-in-coflow configuration. Using the conventional approach, which in contrast to SLIPI is based on imaging with an unmodulated laser light sheet, we show that for the present setup typically 40% of the recorded signal is affected by the contribution of multiply scattered photons. At locations close to walls even up to 75% of the apparent signal is due to diffuse reflection and wall luminescence of BAM sticking at the surface. Those contributions lead to erroneous temperature fields. Using SLIPI, an unbiased two-color ratio field is recovered allowing for two-dimensional mean temperature reconstructions which exhibit a more realistic physical behavior. This is in contrast to results deduced by the conventional approach. Furthermore, using the SLIPI approach it is shown that the temperature sensitivity is enhanced by a factor of up to 2 at 270 °C. Finally, an outlook towards instantaneous SLIPI phosphorescence thermometry is provided.

  10. Combined passive acoustic mapping and magnetic resonance thermometry for monitoring phase-shift nanoemulsion enhanced focused ultrasound therapy

    Crake, Calum; Meral, F. Can; Burgess, Mark T.; Papademetriou, Iason T.; McDannold, Nathan J.; Porter, Tyrone M.

    2017-08-01

    Focused ultrasound (FUS) has the potential to enable precise, image-guided noninvasive surgery for the treatment of cancer in which tumors are identified and destroyed in a single integrated procedure. However, success of the method in highly vascular organs has been limited due to heat losses to perfusion, requiring development of techniques to locally enhance energy absorption and heating. In addition, FUS procedures are conventionally monitored using MRI, which provides excellent anatomical images and can map temperature, but is not capable of capturing the full gamut of available data such as the acoustic emissions generated during this inherently acoustically-driven procedure. Here, we employed phase-shift nanoemulsions (PSNE) embedded in tissue phantoms to promote cavitation and hence temperature rise induced by FUS. In addition, we incorporated passive acoustic mapping (PAM) alongside simultaneous MR thermometry in order to visualize both acoustic emissions and temperature rise, within the bore of a full scale clinical MRI scanner. Focal cavitation of PSNE could be resolved using PAM and resulted in accelerated heating and increased the maximum elevated temperature measured via MR thermometry compared to experiments without nanoemulsions. Over time, the simultaneously acquired acoustic and temperature maps show translation of the focus of activity towards the FUS transducer, and the magnitude of the increase in cavitation and focal shift both increased with nanoemulsion concentration. PAM results were well correlated with MRI thermometry and demonstrated greater sensitivity, with the ability to detect cavitation before enhanced heating was observed. The results suggest that PSNE could be beneficial for enhancement of thermal focused ultrasound therapies and that PAM could be a critical tool for monitoring this process.

  11. Magnetic Resonance–Guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Hyperthermia for Recurrent Rectal Cancer: MR Thermometry Evaluation and Preclinical Validation

    Chu, William, E-mail: William.Chu@sunnybrook.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre and the University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Physical Sciences, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Staruch, Robert M. [Clinical Sites Research Program, Philips Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States); Pichardo, Samuel [Thunder Bay Regional Research Institute, Thunder Bay, Ontario (Canada); Physics and Electrical Engineering, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, Ontario (Canada); Tillander, Matti; Köhler, Max O. [MR Therapy, Philips Healthcare, Vantaa (Finland); Huang, Yuexi [Physical Sciences, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Ylihautala, Mika [MR Therapy, Philips Healthcare, Vantaa (Finland); McGuffin, Merrylee [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre and the University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Czarnota, Gregory [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre and the University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Physical Sciences, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Hynynen, Kullervo [Physical Sciences, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of magnetic resonance–guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) mild hyperthermia in deep tissue targets for enhancing radiation therapy and chemotherapy in the context of recurrent rectal cancer. A preclinical study was performed to evaluate the safety and performance of MR-HIFU mild hyperthermia. A prospective imaging study was performed in volunteers with rectal cancer to evaluate MR thermometry quality near the rectum and accessibility of rectal tumors using MR-HIFU. Methods and Materials: Mild hyperthermia was performed in pig thigh (9 sonications, 6 pigs) using a clinical MR-HIFU system. Targets near the rectal wall and deep thigh were evaluated. Thermal maps obtained in 6 planes every 3.2 seconds were used to control sonications in 18-mm diameter treatment regions at temperatures of 42°C to 42.5°C for 10 to 60 minutes. Volunteer imaging-only studies to assess the quality of MR thermometry (without heating) were approved by the institutional research ethics board. Anatomic and MR thermometry images were acquired in consenting volunteers with rectal cancer. In 3 of 6 study participants, rectal filling with saline was used to reduce motion-related MR thermometry artifacts near the tumor. Results: In pigs, mean target temperature matched the desired hyperthermia temperature within 0.2°C; temporal standard deviation ≤0.5°C. With optimized control thresholds, no undesired tissue damage was observed. In human volunteers, MR temperature measurements had adequate precision and stability, especially when rectal filling was used to reduce bowel motion. Conclusions: In pigs, MR-HIFU can safely deliver mild hyperthermia (41°C-43°C) to a targeted volume for 30 minutes. In humans, careful patient selection and preparation will enable adequate targeting for recurrent rectal cancers and sufficient MR temperature mapping stability to control mild hyperthermia. These results enable human trials of MR-HIFU hyperthermia.

  12. Global rainbow thermometry assessed by Airy and Lorenz-Mie theories and compared with phase Doppler anemometry.

    van Beeck, Jeronimus Petrus Antonius Johannes; Grosges, Thomas; De Giorgi, Maria Grazia

    2003-07-01

    Global rainbow thermometry (GRT) measures the mean size and temperature of an ensemble of spray droplets. The domain of validity of the Airy theory for this technique is established through comparison with Lorenz-Mie theory. The temperature derivation from the inflection points of the Airy rainbow pattern appears to be independent of the type of spray dispersion. Measurements in a water spray are reported. The mean diameter obtained from the rainbow pattern lies between the arithmetic and the Sauter mean diameters measured by phase Doppler anemometry. The temperature measurement by GRT is shown to be accurate within a few degrees Celsius.

  13. Magnetic Resonance–Guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Hyperthermia for Recurrent Rectal Cancer: MR Thermometry Evaluation and Preclinical Validation

    Chu, William; Staruch, Robert M.; Pichardo, Samuel; Tillander, Matti; Köhler, Max O.; Huang, Yuexi; Ylihautala, Mika; McGuffin, Merrylee; Czarnota, Gregory; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of magnetic resonance–guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) mild hyperthermia in deep tissue targets for enhancing radiation therapy and chemotherapy in the context of recurrent rectal cancer. A preclinical study was performed to evaluate the safety and performance of MR-HIFU mild hyperthermia. A prospective imaging study was performed in volunteers with rectal cancer to evaluate MR thermometry quality near the rectum and accessibility of rectal tumors using MR-HIFU. Methods and Materials: Mild hyperthermia was performed in pig thigh (9 sonications, 6 pigs) using a clinical MR-HIFU system. Targets near the rectal wall and deep thigh were evaluated. Thermal maps obtained in 6 planes every 3.2 seconds were used to control sonications in 18-mm diameter treatment regions at temperatures of 42°C to 42.5°C for 10 to 60 minutes. Volunteer imaging-only studies to assess the quality of MR thermometry (without heating) were approved by the institutional research ethics board. Anatomic and MR thermometry images were acquired in consenting volunteers with rectal cancer. In 3 of 6 study participants, rectal filling with saline was used to reduce motion-related MR thermometry artifacts near the tumor. Results: In pigs, mean target temperature matched the desired hyperthermia temperature within 0.2°C; temporal standard deviation ≤0.5°C. With optimized control thresholds, no undesired tissue damage was observed. In human volunteers, MR temperature measurements had adequate precision and stability, especially when rectal filling was used to reduce bowel motion. Conclusions: In pigs, MR-HIFU can safely deliver mild hyperthermia (41°C-43°C) to a targeted volume for 30 minutes. In humans, careful patient selection and preparation will enable adequate targeting for recurrent rectal cancers and sufficient MR temperature mapping stability to control mild hyperthermia. These results enable human trials of MR-HIFU hyperthermia.

  14. Estimates of Eastern Equatorial Pacific Sea Surface Temperatures During the Pliocene From Carbonate 'Clumped Isotope' Thermometry

    Thiagarajan, N.; Tripati, A.; Eiler, J.

    2007-12-01

    fine fraction of 5.6 Ma sediments show calcification temperatures of 20.4°C ± 2.3°C and seawater δ18O values of -1.4‰ ± 0.6‰. G. sacculifer (with sac) and mixed coccoliths from 1.4 Ma sediments yield calcification temperatures of 22.3°C ± 2.5°C and seawater δ18O values of 1.7‰ ± 0.7‰, and 19.4°C ± 1.8°C and seawater δ18O values of 0.4‰ ± 0.5‰, respectively. Our preliminary findings are consistent with the 'dynamical ocean thermostat' model. [1] Clement, A., et al., 1996, An Ocean Dynamical Thermostat, J. of Clim., 9, 2190-2196. [2] Cane, M., et al., 1997, Twentieth-Century Sea Surface Temperature Trends, Science, 957-960. [3] Fedorov, A., et al., 2006, The Pliocene Paradox (Mechanisms for a permanent El Nino), Science, 312, 1437-1443. [4] Rickaby, R. and Halloran, P., 2005, Cool La Nina during the warmth of the Pliocene?, Science, 307, 1948-1953. [5] Wara, M., et al. ,2005, Permanent El Nino-like conditions during the Pliocene Warm Period, Science, 309, 758-761. [6] Ghosh, P., et al., 2006, 13C-18O bonds in carbonate minerals: A new kind of paleothermometer, GCA, 70, 1439-1456. [7] Eiler, J. and Tripati, A., 2007, 'Clumped isotope' thermometry in benthic foraminifera and ostracods: A novel tool for reconstructing deep-ocean temperatures. Fall AGU. [8] Tripati, A., et al. 2007, 'Carbonate `clumped isotope' thermometry in planktonic foraminifera and coccoliths. Fall AGU.

  15. Sampling strategies for subsampled segmented EPI PRF thermometry in MR guided high intensity focused ultrasound

    Odéen, Henrik; Todd, Nick; Diakite, Mahamadou; Minalga, Emilee; Payne, Allison; Parker, Dennis L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate k-space subsampling strategies to achieve fast, large field-of-view (FOV) temperature monitoring using segmented echo planar imaging (EPI) proton resonance frequency shift thermometry for MR guided high intensity focused ultrasound (MRgHIFU) applications. Methods: Five different k-space sampling approaches were investigated, varying sample spacing (equally vs nonequally spaced within the echo train), sampling density (variable sampling density in zero, one, and two dimensions), and utilizing sequential or centric sampling. Three of the schemes utilized sequential sampling with the sampling density varied in zero, one, and two dimensions, to investigate sampling the k-space center more frequently. Two of the schemes utilized centric sampling to acquire the k-space center with a longer echo time for improved phase measurements, and vary the sampling density in zero and two dimensions, respectively. Phantom experiments and a theoretical point spread function analysis were performed to investigate their performance. Variable density sampling in zero and two dimensions was also implemented in a non-EPI GRE pulse sequence for comparison. All subsampled data were reconstructed with a previously described temporally constrained reconstruction (TCR) algorithm. Results: The accuracy of each sampling strategy in measuring the temperature rise in the HIFU focal spot was measured in terms of the root-mean-square-error (RMSE) compared to fully sampled “truth.” For the schemes utilizing sequential sampling, the accuracy was found to improve with the dimensionality of the variable density sampling, giving values of 0.65 °C, 0.49 °C, and 0.35 °C for density variation in zero, one, and two dimensions, respectively. The schemes utilizing centric sampling were found to underestimate the temperature rise, with RMSE values of 1.05 °C and 1.31 °C, for variable density sampling in zero and two dimensions, respectively. Similar subsampling schemes

  16. Reconstruction of limnology and microbialite formation conditions from carbonate clumped isotope thermometry.

    Petryshyn, V A; Lim, D; Laval, B L; Brady, A; Slater, G; Tripati, A K

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative tools for deciphering the environment of microbialite formation are relatively limited. For example, the oxygen isotope carbonate-water geothermometer requires assumptions about the isotopic composition of the water of formation. We explored the utility of using 'clumped' isotope thermometry as a tool to study the temperatures of microbialite formation. We studied microbialites recovered from water depths of 10-55 m in Pavilion Lake, and 10-25 m in Kelly Lake, spanning the thermocline in both lakes. We determined the temperature of carbonate growth and the (18)O/(16)O ratio of the waters that microbialites grew in. Results were then compared to current limnological data from the lakes to reconstruct the history of microbialite formation. Modern microbialites collected at shallow depths (11.7 m) in both lakes yield clumped isotope-based temperatures of formation that are within error of summer water temperatures, suggesting that clumped isotope analyses may be used to reconstruct past climates and to probe the environments in which microbialites formed. The deepest microbialites (21.7-55 m) were recovered from below the present-day thermoclines in both lakes and yield radioisotope ages indicating they primarily formed earlier in the Holocene. During this time, pollen data and our reconstructed water (18)O/(16)O ratios indicate a period of aridity, with lower lake levels. At present, there is a close association between both photosynthetic and heterotrophic communities, and carbonate precipitation/microbialite formation, with biosignatures of photosynthetic influences on carbonate detected in microbialites from the photic zone and above the thermocline (i.e., depths of generally <20 m). Given the deeper microbialites are receiving <1% of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), it is likely these microbialites primarily formed when lower lake levels resulted in microbialites being located higher in the photic zone, in warm surface waters. © 2014 John

  17. Optimising the Number of Replicate- Versus Standard Measurements for Carbonate Clumped Isotope Thermometry

    Kocken, I.; Ziegler, M.

    2017-12-01

    Clumped isotope measurements on carbonates are a quickly developing and promising palaeothermometry proxy1-3. Developments in the field have brought down the necessary sample amount and improved the precision and accuracy of the measurements. The developments have included inter-laboratory comparison and the introduction of an absolute reference frame4, determination of acid fractionation effects5, correction for the pressure baseline6, as well as improved temperature calibrations2, and most recently new approaches to improve efficiency in terms of sample gas usage7. However, a large-scale application of clumped isotope thermometry is still hampered by required large sample amounts, but also the time-consuming analysis. In general, a lot of time is goes into the measurement of standards. Here we present a study on the optimal ratio between standard- and sample measurements using the Kiel Carbonate Device method. We also consider the optimal initial signal intensity. We analyse ETH-standard measurements from several months to determine the measurement regime with the highest precision and optimised measurement time management.References 1. Eiler, J. M. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 262, 309-327 (2007).2. Kelson, J. R., et al. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 197, 104-131 (2017).3. Kele, S. et al. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 168, 172-192 (2015).4. Dennis, K. J. et al. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 75, 7117-7131 (2011).5. Müller, I. A. et al. Chem. Geol. 449, 1-14 (2017).6. Meckler, A. N. et al. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 28, 1705-1715 (2014).7. Hu, B. et al. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 28, 1413-1425 (2014).

  18. Temperature evolution and the oxygen isotope composition of Phanerozoic oceans from carbonate clumped isotope thermometry

    Henkes, Gregory A.; Passey, Benjamin H.; Grossman, Ethan L.; Shenton, Brock J.; Yancey, Thomas E.; Pérez-Huerta, Alberto

    2018-05-01

    Surface temperature is among the most important parameters describing planetary climate and habitability, and yet there remains considerable debate about the temperature evolution of the Earth's oceans during the Phanerozoic Eon (541 million years ago to present), the time during which complex metazoan life radiated on Earth. Here we critically assess the emerging record of Phanerozoic ocean temperatures based on carbonate clumped isotope thermometry of fossil brachiopod and mollusk shells, and we present new data that fill important gaps in the Late Paleozoic record. We evaluate and reject the hypothesis that solid-state reordering of 13C-18O bonds has destroyed the primary clumped isotope temperature signal of most fossils during sedimentary burial at elevated temperatures. The resulting Phanerozoic record, which shows a general coupling between tropical seawater temperatures and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels since the Paleozoic, indicates that tropical temperatures during the icehouse climate of the Carboniferous period were broadly similar to present (∼25-30 °C), and suggests that benthic metazoans were able to thrive at temperatures of 35-40 °C during intervals of the early and possibly the latest Paleozoic when CO2 levels were likely 5-10× higher than present-day values. Equally important, there is no resolvable trend in seawater oxygen isotope ratios (δ18 O) over the past ∼500 million years, indicating that the average temperature of oxygen exchange between seawater and the oceanic crust has been high (∼270 °C) since at least the early Paleozoic, which points to mid-ocean ridges as the dominant locus of water-rock interaction over the past half-billion years.

  19. Methodology of hot nucleus calorimetry and thermometry produced by nuclear reactions around Fermi energies; Methodologie de la calorimetrie et de la thermometrie des noyaux chauds formes lors de collisions nucleaires aux energies de Fermi

    Vient, E

    2006-12-15

    This work deals with the calorimetry and thermometry of hot nuclei produced in collisions Xe + Sn between 25 and 100 MeV/u. The apparatus for hot nucleus physical characterization is the 4{pi} detector array Indra. This study was made by using the event generators Gemini, Simon and Hipse and a data-processing filter simulating the complete operation of the multi-detector. The first chapter presents the different ways of producing hot nuclei. In the second and third chapters, the author presents a critical methodological study of calorimetry and thermometry applied to hot nuclei, different methods are reviewed, their accuracy and application range are assessed. All the calorimetry methods rely on the assumption that we are able to discriminate decay products of the hot nucleus from evaporated particles. In the fourth chapter, the author gives some ways of improving calorimetry characterization of the hot nucleus. An alternative method of calorimetry is proposed in the fifth chapter, this method is based on the experimental determination of an evaporation probability that is deduced from the physical characteristics of the particles present in a restricted domain of the space of velocities.

  20. Molecular Diagnostics

    Choe, Hyonmin; Deirmengian, Carl A.; Hickok, Noreen J.; Morrison, Tiffany N.; Tuan, Rocky S.

    2015-01-01

    Orthopaedic infections are complex conditions that require immediate diagnosis and accurate identification of the causative organisms to facilitate appropriate management. Conventional methodologies for diagnosis of these infections sometimes lack accuracy or sufficient rapidity. Current molecular diagnostics are an emerging area of bench-to-bedside research in orthopaedic infections. Examples of promising molecular diagnostics include measurement of a specific biomarker in the synovial fluid...

  1. Fluorescence confocal microscopy for pathologists.

    Ragazzi, Moira; Piana, Simonetta; Longo, Caterina; Castagnetti, Fabio; Foroni, Monica; Ferrari, Guglielmo; Gardini, Giorgio; Pellacani, Giovanni

    2014-03-01

    Confocal microscopy is a non-invasive method of optical imaging that may provide microscopic images of untreated tissue that correspond almost perfectly to hematoxylin- and eosin-stained slides. Nowadays, following two confocal imaging systems are available: (1) reflectance confocal microscopy, based on the natural differences in refractive indices of subcellular structures within the tissues; (2) fluorescence confocal microscopy, based on the use of fluorochromes, such as acridine orange, to increase the contrast epithelium-stroma. In clinical practice to date, confocal microscopy has been used with the goal of obviating the need for excision biopsies, thereby reducing the need for pathological examination. The aim of our study was to test fluorescence confocal microscopy on different types of surgical specimens, specifically breast, lymph node, thyroid, and colon. The confocal images were correlated to the corresponding histological sections in order to provide a morphologic parallel and to highlight current limitations and possible applications of this technology for surgical pathology practice. As a result, neoplastic tissues were easily distinguishable from normal structures and reactive processes such as fibrosis; the use of fluorescence enhanced contrast and image quality in confocal microscopy without compromising final histologic evaluation. Finally, the fluorescence confocal microscopy images of the adipose tissue were as accurate as those of conventional histology and were devoid of the frozen-section-related artefacts that can compromise intraoperative evaluation. Despite some limitations mainly related to black/white images, which require training in imaging interpretation, this study confirms that fluorescence confocal microscopy may represent an alternative to frozen sections in the assessment of margin status in selected settings or when the conservation of the specimen is crucial. This is the first study to employ fluorescent confocal microscopy on

  2. Problems of fluorescent imaging and its solution using nanofluorophores. Part I: Advantages of fluorescent nanoparticles over conventional organic fluorophores

    Zhelev, Z.; Hadjidekov, G.; Zlateva, G.; Spasov, L.; Bakalova, R.

    2011-01-01

    The application of fluorescence in deep-tissue imaging is rapidly expanding in fast several years. The progress in fluorescent molecular probes and fluorescent imaging techniques gives an opportunity to detect single cells and even molecules in live organisms. The highly sensitive and high-speed fluorescent molecular sensors and detection devices allow the application of fluorescence in functional imaging. With development of novel bright fluorophores based on nano-technologies and fluorescence scanners with high spatial and temporal resolution, the fluorescent imaging has a potential to become an alternative of the other non-invasive imaging techniques as magnetic resonance imaging, positron-emission tomography, X-ray, computing tomography. This review outlines the current status and future trends of fluorescent nanoparticles - quantum dots (QDs), as a new generation of fluorophores in experimental and pre-clinical fluorescent imaging diagnostic. Part 1 focuses on the advantages of quantum dots over conventional organic fluorophores and defines the major requirements to the 'perfect' fluorophore for fluorescent deep-tissue imaging diagnostic. The analysis is based on the limitations of fluorescent imaging in vivo and overcome by using quantum dots

  3. Energy dissipation mechanism revealed by spatially resolved Raman thermometry of graphene/hexagonal boron nitride heterostructure devices

    Kim, Daehee; Kim, Hanul; Yun, Wan Soo; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Rho, Heesuk; Bae, Myung-Ho

    2018-04-01

    Understanding the energy transport by charge carriers and phonons in two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals heterostructures is essential for the development of future energy-efficient 2D nanoelectronics. Here, we performed in situ spatially resolved Raman thermometry on an electrically biased graphene channel and its hBN substrate to study the energy dissipation mechanism in graphene/hBN heterostructures. By comparing the temperature profile along the biased graphene channel with that along the hBN substrate, we found that the thermal boundary resistance between the graphene and hBN was in the range of (1-2) ~ × 10-7 m2 K W-1 from ~100 °C to the onset of graphene break-down at ~600 °C in air. Consideration of an electro-thermal transport model together with the Raman thermometry conducted in air showed that a doping effect occurred under a strong electric field played a crucial role in the energy dissipation of the graphene/hBN device up to T ~ 600 °C.

  4. A fundamental numerical analysis for noninvasive thermometry integrated in a heating applicator based on the reentrant cavity

    Ohwada, Hiroshi; Ishihara, Yasutoshi

    2010-01-01

    To improve the efficacy of hyperthermia treatment, a novel method of noninvasive measurement of body temperature change is proposed. The proposed technology, thermometry, is based on changes in the electromagnetic field distribution inside the heating applicator with temperature changes and the temperature dependence of the dielectric constant. In addition, an image of the temperature change distribution inside a body is reconstructed by applying a computed tomography (CT) algorithm. The proposed thermometry method can serve as a possible noninvasive method to monitor the temperature change distribution inside the body without the use of enormous thermometers such as in the case of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Furthermore, this temperature monitoring method can be easily combined with a heating applicator based on a cavity resonator, and the novel integrated treatment system can possibly be used to treat cancer effectively while noninvasively monitoring the heating effect. In this paper, the phase change distributions of the electromagnetic field with temperature changes are simulated by numerical analysis using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. Moreover, to estimate the phase change distributions inside a target body, the phase change distributions with temperature changes are reconstructed by a filtered back-projection. In addition, the reconstruction accuracy of the converted temperature change distribution from the phase change is evaluated. (author)

  5. Development and applications of laser spectroscopic techniques related to combustion diagnostics

    Alden, Marcus

    2006-01-01

    Thanks to features as non-intrusiveness combined with high spatial and temporal resolution, various laser diagnostic techniques have during the last decades become of utmost importance for characterization of combustion related phenomena. In the following presentation some further development of the techniques will be highlighted aiming at a) surface temperatures using Thermographic Phosphors, TP, b) species specific, spatially and temporally resolved detection of species absorbing in the IR spectral region using polarization spectroscopy and Laser-induced fluorescence, and finally c) high speed visualization using a special designed laser system in combination with a framing camera. In terms of surface thermometry, Thermographic Phosphors have been used for many years for temperature measurements on solid surfaces. We have during the last years further developed and applied this technique for temperature measurements on burning surfaces and on materials going through phase shifts, e.g. pyrolysis and droplets. The basic principle behind this technique is to apply micron size particles to the surface of interest. By exciting the TP with a short pulse UV laser (ns), the phosphorescence will exhibit a behaviour where the spectral emission as well as the temporal decay are dependent on the temperature. It is thus possible to measure the temperature both in one and two dimensions. The presentation will include basic description of the technique as well as various applications, e.g in fire science, IC engines and gasturbines. Several of the species of interest for combustion/flow diagnostics exhibit a molecular structure which inhibits the use of conventional laser-induced fluorescence for spatially and spectrally resolved measurements. We have during the last years investigated the use of excitation and detection in the infrared region of the spectrum. Here, it is possible to detect both carbonmono/dioxide, water as well as species specific hydrocarbons. The techniques

  6. Handheld Fluorescence Microscopy based Flow Analyzer.

    Saxena, Manish; Jayakumar, Nitin; Gorthi, Sai Siva

    2016-03-01

    Fluorescence microscopy has the intrinsic advantages of favourable contrast characteristics and high degree of specificity. Consequently, it has been a mainstay in modern biological inquiry and clinical diagnostics. Despite its reliable nature, fluorescence based clinical microscopy and diagnostics is a manual, labour intensive and time consuming procedure. The article outlines a cost-effective, high throughput alternative to conventional fluorescence imaging techniques. With system level integration of custom-designed microfluidics and optics, we demonstrate fluorescence microscopy based imaging flow analyzer. Using this system we have imaged more than 2900 FITC labeled fluorescent beads per minute. This demonstrates high-throughput characteristics of our flow analyzer in comparison to conventional fluorescence microscopy. The issue of motion blur at high flow rates limits the achievable throughput in image based flow analyzers. Here we address the issue by computationally deblurring the images and show that this restores the morphological features otherwise affected by motion blur. By further optimizing concentration of the sample solution and flow speeds, along with imaging multiple channels simultaneously, the system is capable of providing throughput of about 480 beads per second.

  7. Completion of Level 4 Milestone M4AT-15OR2301039 for the Johnson Noise Thermometry for Drift-free Temperature Measurements Work Package AT-15OR230103

    Britton Jr, Charles L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-14

    This memorandum constitutes our September 2015 level 4 milestone for the project entitled “Johnson Noise Thermometry for Drift-free Temperature Measurements” and satisfies the Milestone/Activity (Conclude HFIR field demonstration of JNT prototype). The progress summary describes the work performed to complete the subject milestone.

  8. Quality of MR thermometry during palliative MR-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) treatment of bone metastases

    Lam, Mie K; Huisman, Merel; Nijenhuis, Robbert J; van den Bosch, Maurice; Viergever, Max A; Moonen, Chrit Tw; Bartels, LW

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance (MR)-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound has emerged as a clinical option for palliative treatment of painful bone metastases, with MR thermometry (MRT) used for treatment monitoring. In this study, the general image quality of the MRT was assessed in terms of

  9. Intrinsic fluorescence of protein in turbid media using empirical relation based on Monte Carlo lookup table

    Einstein, Gnanatheepam; Udayakumar, Kanniyappan; Aruna, Prakasarao; Ganesan, Singaravelu

    2017-03-01

    Fluorescence of Protein has been widely used in diagnostic oncology for characterizing cellular metabolism. However, the intensity of fluorescence emission is affected due to the absorbers and scatterers in tissue, which may lead to error in estimating exact protein content in tissue. Extraction of intrinsic fluorescence from measured fluorescence has been achieved by different methods. Among them, Monte Carlo based method yields the highest accuracy for extracting intrinsic fluorescence. In this work, we have attempted to generate a lookup table for Monte Carlo simulation of fluorescence emission by protein. Furthermore, we fitted the generated lookup table using an empirical relation. The empirical relation between measured and intrinsic fluorescence is validated using tissue phantom experiments. The proposed relation can be used for estimating intrinsic fluorescence of protein for real-time diagnostic applications and thereby improving the clinical interpretation of fluorescence spectroscopic data.

  10. Sensitivity Analysis and Requirements for Temporally and Spatially Resolved Thermometry Using Neutron Resonance Spectroscopy

    Fernandez, Juan Carlos [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Barnes, Cris William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mocko, Michael Jeffrey [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zavorka, Lukas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-31

    This report is intended to examine the use of neutron resonance spectroscopy (NRS) to make time- dependent and spatially-resolved temperature measurements of materials in extreme conditions. Specifically, the sensitivities of the temperature estimate on neutron-beam and diagnostic parameters is examined. Based on that examination, requirements are set on a pulsed neutron-source and diagnostics to make a meaningful measurement.

  11. Companion diagnostics

    Jørgensen, Jan Trøst; Hersom, Maria

    2016-01-01

    of disease mechanisms, things are slowly changing. Within the last few years, we have seen an increasing number of predictive biomarker assays being developed to guide the use of targeted cancer drugs. This type of assay is called companion diagnostics and is developed in parallel to the drug using the drug-diagnostic...... co-development model. The development of companion diagnostics is a relatively new discipline and in this review, different aspects will be discussed including clinical and regulatory issues. Furthermore, examples of drugs, such as the ALK and PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors, that have been approved recently....... Despite having discussed personalized medicine for more than a decade, we still see that most drug prescriptions for severe chronic diseases are largely based on 'trial and error' and not on solid biomarker data. However, with the advance of molecular diagnostics and a subsequent increased understanding...

  12. Plasma Diagnostics

    Zaveryaev, V [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); others, and

    2012-09-15

    The success in achieving peaceful fusion power depends on the ability to control a high temperature plasma, which is an object with unique properties, possibly the most complicated object created by humans. Over years of fusion research a new branch of science has been created, namely plasma diagnostics, which involves knowledge of almost all fields of physics, from electromagnetism to nuclear physics, and up-to-date progress in engineering and technology (materials, electronics, mathematical methods of data treatment). Historically, work on controlled fusion started with pulsed systems and accordingly the methods of plasma parameter measurement were first developed for short lived and dense plasmas. Magnetically confined hot plasmas require the creation of special experimental techniques for diagnostics. The diagnostic set is the most scientifically intensive part of a plasma device. During many years of research operation some scientific tasks have been solved while new ones arose. New tasks often require significant changes in the diagnostic system, which is thus a very flexible part of plasma machines. Diagnostic systems are designed to solve several tasks. As an example here are the diagnostic tasks for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor - ITER: (1) Measurements for machine protection and basic control; (2) Measurements for advanced control; (3) Additional measurements for performance evaluation and physics. Every new plasma machine is a further step along the path to the main goal - controlled fusion - and nobody knows in advance what new phenomena will be met on the way. So in the planning of diagnostic construction we should keep in mind further system upgrading to meet possible new scientific and technical challenges. (author)

  13. Reviews in fluorescence 2010

    Geddes, Chris D

    2011-01-01

    ""Reviews in Fluorescence 2010"", the seventh volume of the book serial from Springer, serves as a comprehensive collection of current trends and emerging hot topics in the field of fluorescence and closely related disciplines. It summarizes the year's progress in fluorescence and its applications, with authoritative analytical reviews specialized enough to be attractive to professional researchers, yet also appealing to the wider audience of scientists in related disciplines of fluorescence. ""Reviews in Fluorescence"" offers an essential reference material for any lab working in the fluoresc

  14. Principles of fluorescence techniques

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence techniques are being used and applied increasingly in academics and industry. The Principles of Fluorescence Techniques course will outline the basic concepts of fluorescence techniques and the successful utilization of the currently available commercial instrumentation. The course is designed for students who utilize fluorescence techniques and instrumentation and for researchers and industrial scientists who wish to deepen their knowledge of fluorescence applications. Key scientists in the field will deliver theoretical lectures. The lectures will be complemented by the direct utilization of steady-state and lifetime fluorescence instrumentation and confocal microscopy for FLIM and FRET applications provided by leading companies.

  15. Short Pulsed Laser Methods for Velocimetry and Thermometry in High Enthalpy Facilities, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A suite of laser-based diagnostics is proposed to measure velocity and temperature simultaneously using unseeded techniques in high enthalpy flows relevant to...

  16. Short Pulsed Laser Methods for Velocimetry and Thermometry in High Enthalpy Facilities, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A suite of pulsed laser diagnostics is proposed for studying aspects of planetary entry and Earth atmospheric reentry in arc jets. For example, dissociation of...

  17. Diagnostic development

    Barnett, C.F.; Brisson, D.A.; Greco, S.E.

    1978-01-01

    During the past year the far-infrared or submillimeter diagnostic research program resulted in three major developments: (1) an optically pumped 0.385-μm D 2 O-laser oscillator-amplifier system was operated at a power level of 1 MW with a line width of less than 50 MHz; (2) a conical Pyrex submillimeter laser beam dump with a retention efficiency greater than 10 4 was developed for the ion temperature Thompson scattering experiment; and (3) a new diagnostic technique was developed that makes use of the Faraday rotation of a modulated submillimeter laser beam to determine plasma current profile. Measurements of the asymmetric distortion of the H/sub α/ (6563 A) spectral line profile show that the effective toroidal drift velocity, dv/sub two vertical bars i/dT/sub i/, may be used as an indicator of plasma quality and as a complement to other ion temperature diagnostics

  18. Design and test of component circuits of an integrated quantum voltage noise source for Johnson noise thermometry

    Yamada, Takahiro; Maezawa, Masaaki; Urano, Chiharu

    2015-11-01

    We present design and testing of a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) and a variable pulse number multiplier (VPNM) which are digital circuit subsystems in an integrated quantum voltage noise source for Jonson noise thermometry. Well-defined, calculable pseudo-random patterns of single flux quantum pulses are synthesized with the PRNG and multiplied digitally with the VPNM. The circuit implementation on rapid single flux quantum technology required practical circuit scales and bias currents, 279 junctions and 33 mA for the PRNG, and 1677 junctions and 218 mA for the VPNM. We confirmed the circuit operation with sufficiently wide margins, 80-120%, with respect to the designed bias currents.

  19. Fiber-Optic Magnetometry and Thermometry Using Optically Detected Magnetic Resonance With Nitrogen-Vacancy Centers in Diamond

    Blakley, Sean Michael

    Nitrogen--vacancy diamond (NVD) quantum sensors are an emerging technology that has shown great promise in areas like high-resolution thermometry and magnetometry. Optical fibers provide attractive new application paradigms for NVD technology. A detailed description of the fabrication processes associated with the development of novel fiber-optic NVD probes are presented in this work. The demonstrated probes are tested on paradigmatic model systems designed to ascertain their suitability for use in challenging biological environments. Methods employing optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) are used to accurately measure and map temperature distributions of small objects and to demonstrate emergent temperature-dependent phenomena in genetically modified living organisms. These methods are also used to create detailed high resolution spatial maps of both magnetic scalar and magnetic vector field distributions of spatially localized weak field features in the presence of a noisy, high-field background.

  20. Design and thermometry of an intracavitary microwave applicator suitable for treatment of some vaginal and rectal cancers

    Li, D.J.; Luk, K.H.; Jiang, H.B.; Chou, C.K.; Hwang, G.Z.

    1984-01-01

    The construction of a modified coaxial cable as an intracavitary microwave applicator suitable for use in some vaginal and rectal cancers is presented. Thermometry is performed for microwave frequencies of 300, 400, 650, and 915 MHz. Temperature profiles in tissue phantoms were obtained with Vitek 101 temperature probes and thermography, and the data were compared with those obtained in dogs. The temperature profiles are dependent on the frequency of the microwaves and the insertion depth of the applicator. In addition, a lucite cylindrical spacer external to the applicator also altered the heating pattern. Therefore, with proper combinations of frequency, insertion depth, and spacer, the applicator can be used for heating tumors in some clinical situations. Two patients were treated with this intracavitary microwave applicator in conjunction with interstitial radiation therapy. Tolerance to such combined therapy was satisfactory in these preliminary trial treatments

  1. Design of a high speed, high resolution thermometry system for 1.5 GHz superconducting radio frequency cavities

    Knobloch, Jens; Muller, Henry; Padamsee, Hasan

    1994-11-01

    Presented in this paper are the description and the test results of a new stationary thermometry system used to map the temperature of the outer surface of 1.5 GHz superconducting single-cell cavities during operation at 1.6 K. The system comprises 764 removable carbon thermometers whose signals are multiplexed and scanned by a Macintosh computer. A complete temperature map can be obtained in as little as 0.1 s at a temperature resolution of about 0.2 mK. Alternatively, it has been demonstrated that if the acquisition time is increased to several seconds, then a temperature resolution on the order of 30 μK is possible. To our knowledge, these are the fastest acquisition times so far achieved with L-band cavities at these resolutions.

  2. Design of an optical thermal sensor for proton exchange membrane fuel cell temperature measurement using phosphor thermometry

    Inman, Kristopher; Wang, Xia; Sangeorzan, Brian

    Internal temperatures in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell govern the ionic conductivities of the polymer electrolyte, influence the reaction rate at the electrodes, and control the water vapor pressure inside the cell. It is vital to fully understand thermal behavior in a PEM fuel cell if performance and durability are to be optimized. The objective of this research was to design, construct, and implement thermal sensors based on the principles of the lifetime-decay method of phosphor thermometry to measure temperatures inside a PEM fuel cell. Five sensors were designed and calibrated with a maximum uncertainty of ±0.6 °C. Using these sensors, surface temperatures were measured on the cathode gas diffusion layer of a 25 cm 2 PEM fuel cell. The test results demonstrate the utility of the optical temperature sensor design and provide insight into the thermal behavior found in a PEM fuel cell.

  3. Reviews in fluorescence 2008

    Geddes, Chris D

    2010-01-01

    This volume serves as a comprehensive collection of current trends and emerging hot topics in the field of fluorescence spectroscopy. It summarizes the year's progress in fluorescence and its applications as well as includes authoritative analytical reviews.

  4. Fluorescent optical position sensor

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2005-11-15

    A fluorescent optical position sensor and method of operation. A small excitation source side-pumps a localized region of fluorescence at an unknown position along a fluorescent waveguide. As the fluorescent light travels down the waveguide, the intensity of fluorescent light decreases due to absorption. By measuring with one (or two) photodetectors the attenuated intensity of fluorescent light emitted from one (or both) ends of the waveguide, the position of the excitation source relative to the waveguide can be determined by comparing the measured light intensity to a calibrated response curve or mathematical model. Alternatively, excitation light can be pumped into an end of the waveguide, which generates an exponentially-decaying continuous source of fluorescent light along the length of the waveguide. The position of a photodetector oriented to view the side of the waveguide can be uniquely determined by measuring the intensity of the fluorescent light emitted radially at that location.

  5. A Determination of the Ratio of the Zinc Freezing Point to the Tin Freezing Point by Noise Thermometry

    Labenski, J. R.; Tew, W. L.; Benz, S. P.; Nam, S. W.; Dresselhaus, P.

    2008-02-01

    A Johnson-noise thermometer (JNT) has been used with a quantized voltage noise source (QVNS), as a calculable reference to determine the ratio of temperatures near the Zn freezing point to those near the Sn freezing point. The temperatures are derived in a series of separate measurements comparing the synthesized noise power from the QVNS with that of Johnson noise from a known resistance. The synthesized noise power is digitally programed to match the thermal noise powers at both temperatures and provides the principle means of scaling the temperatures. This produces a relatively flat spectrum for the ratio of spectral noise densities, which is close to unity in the low-frequency limit. The data are analyzed as relative spectral ratios over the 4.8 to 450 kHz range averaged over a 3.2 kHz bandwidth. A three-parameter model is used to account for differences in time constants that are inherently temperature dependent. A drift effect of approximately -6 μK·K-1 per day is observed in the results, and an empirical correction is applied to yield a relative difference in temperature ratios of -11.5 ± 43 μK·K-1 with respect to the ratio of temperatures assigned on the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90). When these noise thermometry results are combined with results from acoustic gas thermometry at temperatures near the Sn freezing point, a value of T - T 90 = 7 ± 30 mK for the Zn freezing point is derived.

  6. Safe biodegradable fluorescent particles

    Martin, Sue I [Berkeley, CA; Fergenson, David P [Alamo, CA; Srivastava, Abneesh [Santa Clara, CA; Bogan, Michael J [Dublin, CA; Riot, Vincent J [Oakland, CA; Frank, Matthias [Oakland, CA

    2010-08-24

    A human-safe fluorescence particle that can be used for fluorescence detection instruments or act as a safe simulant for mimicking the fluorescence properties of microorganisms. The particle comprises a non-biological carrier and natural fluorophores encapsulated in the non-biological carrier. By doping biodegradable-polymer drug delivery microspheres with natural or synthetic fluorophores, the desired fluorescence can be attained or biological organisms can be simulated without the associated risks and logistical difficulties of live microorganisms.

  7. Quantum Dots for Molecular Diagnostics of Tumors

    Zdobnova, T.A.; Lebedenko, E.N.; Deyev, S.М.

    2011-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are a new class of fluorophores with unique physical and chemical properties, which allow to appreciably expand the possibilities for the current methods of fluorescent imaging and optical diagnostics. Here we discuss the prospects of QD application for molecular diagnostics of tumors ranging from cancer-specific marker detection on microplates to non-invasive tumor imaging in vivo. We also point out the essential problems that require resolution in order to c...

  8. Optimization of fluorescent proteins

    Bindels, D.S.; Goedhart, J.; Hink, M.A.; van Weeren, L.; Joosen, L.; Gadella (jr.), T.W.J.; Engelborghs, Y.; Visser, A.J.W.G.

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, fluorescent protein (FP) variants have been engineered to fluoresce in all different colors; to display photoswitchable, or photochromic, behavior; or to show yet other beneficial properties that enable or enhance a still growing set of new fluorescence spectroscopy and microcopy

  9. Diagnostic dilemma

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Dobrovolny, Robert; Nazarenko, Irina

    2011-01-01

    Fabry disease, an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder, results from the deficient activity of a-galactosidase A (a-Gal A). In affected males, the clinical diagnosis is confirmed by the markedly decreased a-Gal A activity. However, in female heterozygotes, the a-Gal A activity can range from low t...... on enzyme replacement therapy. Thus, gene dosage analyses can detect large deletions (>50bp) in suspect heterozygotes for X-linked and autosomal dominant diseases that are "sequencing cryptic," resolving molecular diagnostic dilemmas....... to normal due to random X-chromosomal inactivation, and diagnostic confirmation requires identification of the family's a-Gal A gene mutation. In a young female who had occasional acroparesthesias, corneal opacities, and 15 to 50% of the lower limit of normal leukocyte a-Gal A activity, a-Gal A sequencing...... in two expert laboratories did not identify a confirmatory mutation, presenting a diagnostic dilemma. A renal biopsy proved diagnostic and renewed efforts to detect an a-Gal A mutation. Subsequent gene dosage analyses identified a large a-Gal A deletion confirming her heterozygosity, and she was started...

  10. Feasibility Study on the Development of 2-channel Embedded Infrared Fiber-optic Sensor for Thermometry of Secondary Water System in Nuclear Power Plant

    Yoo, W. J.; Jang, K. W.; Seo, J. K.; Moon, J.; Han, K. T.; Lee, B.; Park, B. G.

    2011-01-01

    Any warm object by measuring the emitted infrared (IR) radiation. The radiometers using infrared optical fibers are based on the relationship between the temperature of a heat source and the quality and the quantity of an IR radiation. To measure physical properties including a temperature, optical fiber-based sensor has many advantages, such as small size, low cost, high resolution, remote sensing and immunity to electromagnetic radiation over conventional electrical sensors. In this study, we carried out the feasibility study on the development of an embedded IR fiber-optic sensor for thermometry of the secondary water system in a nuclear power plant. The 2-channel embedded fiberoptic temperature sensor was fabricated using two identical IR optical fibers for accurate thermometry without complicated calibration processes. To decide accurate temperature of the water, we measured the difference between the IR radiations emitted from the two temperature sensing probes according to the temperature variation of the water

  11. Protein nanomedicines for cancer diagnostics and therapy

    Nair, Shantikumar

    2012-01-01

    New results and applications of the work on anti-cancer therapy using nanomedicines at the Amrita Centre for Nanosciences are presented. Proteins have been selected as having good potential for clinical translation and are excellent carriers for drugs, provide good release kinetics and are also amenable for fluorescent tagging with multiple functionalities for diagnostic purposes. (author)

  12. Atomic-fluorescence spectrophotometry

    Bakhturova, N.F.; Yudelevich, I.G.

    1975-01-01

    Atomic-fluorescence spectrophotometry, a comparatively new method for the analysis of trace quantities, has developed rapidly in the past ten years. Theoretical and experimental studies by many workers have shown that atomic-fluorescence spectrophotometry (AFS) is capable of achieving a better limit than atomic absorption for a large number of elements. The present review examines briefly the principles of atomic-fluorescence spectrophotometry and the types of fluorescent transition. The excitation sources, flame and nonflame atomizers, used in AFS are described. The limits of detection achieved up to the present, using flame and nonflame methods of atomization are given

  13. Fluorescence of irradiated hydrocarbons

    Gulis, I.G.; Evdokimenko, V.M.; Lapkovskij, M.P.; Petrov, P.T.; Gulis, I.M.; Markevich, S.V.

    1977-01-01

    A visible fluorescence has been found out in γ-irradiated aqueous of carbohydrates. Two bands have been distinguished in fluorescence spectra of the irradiated solution of dextran: a short-wave band lambdasub(max)=140 nm (where lambda is a wave length) at lambdasub(β)=380 nm and a long-wave band with lambdasub(max)=540 nm at lambdasub(β)=430 nm. A similar form of the spectrum has been obtained for irradiated solutions of starch, amylopectin, lowmolecular glucose. It has been concluded that a macromolecule of polysaccharides includes fluorescent centres. A relation between fluorescence and α-oxiketon groups formed under irradiation has been pointed out

  14. Quantitative MR thermometry based on phase-drift correction PRF shift method at 0.35 T.

    Chen, Yuping; Ge, Mengke; Ali, Rizwan; Jiang, Hejun; Huang, Xiaoyan; Qiu, Bensheng

    2018-04-10

    Noninvasive magnetic resonance thermometry (MRT) at low-field using proton resonance frequency shift (PRFS) is a promising technique for monitoring ablation temperature, since low-field MR scanners with open-configuration are more suitable for interventional procedures than closed systems. In this study, phase-drift correction PRFS with first-order polynomial fitting method was proposed to investigate the feasibility and accuracy of quantitative MR thermography during hyperthermia procedures in a 0.35 T open MR scanner. Unheated phantom and ex vivo porcine liver experiments were performed to evaluate the optimal polynomial order for phase-drift correction PRFS. The temperature estimation approach was tested in brain temperature experiments of three healthy volunteers at room temperature, and in ex vivo porcine liver microwave ablation experiments. The output power of the microwave generator was set at 40 W for 330 s. In the unheated experiments, the temperature root mean square error (RMSE) in the inner region of interest was calculated to assess the best-fitting order for polynomial fit. For ablation experiments, relative temperature difference profile measured by the phase-drift correction PRFS was compared with the temperature changes recorded by fiber optic temperature probe around the microwave ablation antenna within the target thermal region. The phase-drift correction PRFS using first-order polynomial fitting could achieve the smallest temperature RMSE in unheated phantom, ex vivo porcine liver and in vivo human brain experiments. In the ex vivo porcine liver microwave ablation procedure, the temperature error between MRT and fiber optic probe of all but six temperature points were less than 2 °C. Overall, the RMSE of all temperature points was 1.49 °C. Both in vivo and ex vivo experiments showed that MR thermometry based on the phase-drift correction PRFS with first-order polynomial fitting could be applied to monitor temperature changes during

  15. Thyroid diagnostics

    Scriba, P C; Boerner, W; Emrich, S; Gutekunst, R; Herrmann, J; Horn, K; Klett, M; Krueskemper, H L; Pfannenstiel, P; Pickardt, C R

    1985-03-01

    None of the in-vitro and in-vivo methods listed permits on unambiguous diagnosis when applied alone, owing to the fact that similar or even identical findings are obtained for various individual parameters in different thyroid diseases. Further, especially the in-vitro tests are also subject to extrathyroidal effects which may mask the typical findings. The limited and varying specificity and sensitivity of the tests applied, as well as the falsification of results caused by the patients' idiosyncracies and the methodology, make it necessary to interpret and evaluate the in-vivo and in-vitro findings only if the clinical situation (anamnesis and physical examination) is known. For maximum diagnostic quality of the tests, the initial probability of the assumed type of thyroid disease must be increased (formulation of the clinical problem). The concepts of exclusion diagnosis and identification must be distinguished as well as the diagnosis of functional disturbances on the one hand and of thyroid diseases on the other. Both of this requires a qualified, specific and detailed anamnesis and examination procedure, and the clinical examination remains the obligatory basis of clinical diagnostics. In case of inexplicable discrepancies between the clinical manifestations and the findings obtained with specific methods, or between the findings obtained with a specific method, the patient should be referred to an expert institution, or the expert institution should be consulted.

  16. Thyroid diagnostics

    Scriba, P.C.; Boerner, W.; Emrich, S.; Gutekunst, R.; Herrmann, J.; Horn, K.; Klett, M.; Krueskemper, H.L.; Pfannenstiel, P.; Pickardt, C.R.; Reiners, C.; Reinwein, D.; Schleusener, H.

    1985-01-01

    None of the in-vitro and in-vivo methods listed permits on unambiguous diagnosis when applied alone, owing to the fact that similar or even identical findings are obtained for various individual parameters in different thyroid diseases. Further, especially the in-vitro tests are also subject to extrathyroidal effects which may mask the typical findings. The limited and varying specificity and sensitivity of the tests applied, as well as the falsification of results caused by the patients' idiosyncracies and the methodology, make it necessary to interpret and evaluate the in-vivo and in-vitro findings only if the clinical situation (anamnesis and physical examination) is known. For maximum diagnostic quality of the tests, the initial probability of the assumed type of thyroid disease must be increased (formulation of the clinical problem). The concepts of exclusion diagnosis and identification must be distinguished as well as the diagnosis of functional disturbances on the one hand and of thyroid diseases on the other. Both of this requires a qualified, specific and detailed anamnesis and examination procedure, and the clinical examination remains the obligatory basis of clinical diagnostics. In case of inexplicable discrepancies between the clinical manifestations and the findings obtained with specific methods, or between the findings obtained with a specific method, the patient should be referred to an expert institution, or the expert institution should be consulted. (orig./MG) [de

  17. Ambient diagnostics

    Cai, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Part I. FundamentalsIntroductionWhat is Ambient Diagnostics?Diagnostic ModelsMultimedia IntelligenceCrowd SourcingSoft SensorsScience of SimplicityPersonal DiagnosesBasic AlgorithmsBasic ToolsSummaryProblemsTransformationEarly Discoveries of Heartbeat PatternsTransforms, Features, and AttributesSequential FeaturesSpatiotemporal FeaturesShape FeaturesImagery FeaturesFrequency Domain FeaturesMulti-Resolution FeaturesSummaryProblemsPattern RecognitionSimilarities and DistancesClustering MethodsClassification MethodsClassifier Accuracy MeasuresSummaryProblemsPart II. Multimedia IntelligenceSound RecognitionMicrophone AppsModern Acoustic Transducers (Microphones)Frequency Response CharacteristicsDigital Audio File FormatsHeart Sound SensingLung Sound SensingSnore MeterSpectrogram (STFT)Ambient Sound AnalysisSound RecognitionRecognizing Asthma SoundPeak ShiftFeature CompressionRegroupingNoise IssuesFuture ApplicationsSummaryProblemsColor SensorsColor SensingHuman Color VisionColor SensorsColor Matching ExperimentsC...

  18. Diagnostic accuracy of organ electrodermal diagnostics | Szopinski ...

    Objective. To estimate the diagnostic accuracy as well as the scope of utilisation of a new bio-electronic method of organ diagnostics. Design. Double-blind comparative study of the diagnostic results obtained by means of organ electrodermal diagnostics (OED) and clinical diagnoses, as a criterion standard. Setting.

  19. SNS Diagnostics

    Shea, T.J.; Cameron, P.; Doolittle, L.; Power, J.

    2000-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Project is a collaborative effort to build the next generation neutron science facility at Oak Ridge, TN. The facility will deliver a 2 MW proton beam to a liquid mercury target. Neutrons from this target will be moderated and sent to several state-of-the-art instruments. Six national laboratories are involved in SNS construction. Berkeley (LBNL) will build the front end that produces a 2.5 MeV, 52 mA H-beam. Los Alamos (LANL) is responsible for the 1 GeV linac with a superconducting section provided by Thomas Jefferson (JLab). Brookhaven (BNL) is building the transfer lines and accumulator ring. Oak Ridge (ORNL) and Argonne (ANL) have responsibility for the target and instruments. All activities are coordinated by the SNS project office at Oak Ridge. The high beam power, a desired availability of 95%, and an aggressive commissioning schedule lead to some interesting challenges in beam diagnostics

  20. Membranes and Fluorescence microscopy

    Bagatolli, Luis

    2009-01-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy-based techniques using conventional fluorimeters have been extensively applied since the late 1960s to study different aspects of membrane-related phenomena, i.e., mainly relating to lipid-lipid and lipid-protein (peptide) interactions. Even though fluorescence...

  1. Multimodal fluorescence imaging spectroscopy

    Stopel, Martijn H W; Blum, Christian; Subramaniam, Vinod; Engelborghs, Yves; Visser, Anthonie J.W.G.

    2014-01-01

    Multimodal fluorescence imaging is a versatile method that has a wide application range from biological studies to materials science. Typical observables in multimodal fluorescence imaging are intensity, lifetime, excitation, and emission spectra which are recorded at chosen locations at the sample.

  2. Emerging applications of fluorescence spectroscopy in medical microbiology field.

    Shahzad, Aamir; Köhler, Gottfried; Knapp, Martin; Gaubitzer, Erwin; Puchinger, Martin; Edetsberger, Michael

    2009-11-26

    There are many diagnostic techniques and methods available for diagnosis of medically important microorganisms like bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. But, almost all these techniques and methods have some limitations or inconvenience. Most of these techniques are laborious, time consuming and with chances of false positive or false negative results. It warrants the need of a diagnostic technique which can overcome these limitations and problems. At present, there is emerging trend to use Fluorescence spectroscopy as a diagnostic as well as research tool in many fields of medical sciences. Here, we will critically discuss research studies which propose that Fluorescence spectroscopy may be an excellent diagnostic as well as excellent research tool in medical microbiology field with high sensitivity and specificity.

  3. Emerging applications of fluorescence spectroscopy in medical microbiology field

    Gaubitzer Erwin

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There are many diagnostic techniques and methods available for diagnosis of medically important microorganisms like bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. But, almost all these techniques and methods have some limitations or inconvenience. Most of these techniques are laborious, time consuming and with chances of false positive or false negative results. It warrants the need of a diagnostic technique which can overcome these limitations and problems. At present, there is emerging trend to use Fluorescence spectroscopy as a diagnostic as well as research tool in many fields of medical sciences. Here, we will critically discuss research studies which propose that Fluorescence spectroscopy may be an excellent diagnostic as well as excellent research tool in medical microbiology field with high sensitivity and specificity.

  4. Metal Carbon Eutectics to Extend the Use of the Fixed-Point Technique in Precision IR Thermometry

    Battuello, M.; Girard, F.; Florio, M.

    2008-06-01

    The high-temperature extension of the fixed-point technique for primary calibration of precision infrared (IR) thermometers was investigated both through mathematical simulations and laboratory investigations. Simulations were performed with Co C (1,324°C) and Pd C (1, 492°C) eutectic fixed points, and a precision IR thermometer was calibrated from the In point (156.5985°C) up to the Co C point. Mathematical simulations suggested the possibility of directly deriving the transition temperature of the Co C and Pd C points by extrapolating the calibration derived from fixed-point measurements from In to the Cu point. Both temperatures, as a result of the low uncertainty associated with the In Cu calibration and the high number of fixed points involved in the calibration process, can be derived with an uncertainty of 0.11°C for Co C and 0.18°C for Pd C. A transition temperature of 1,324.3°C for Co C was determined from the experimental verification, a value higher than, but compatible with, the one proposed by the thermometry community for inclusion as a secondary reference point for ITS-90 dissemination, i.e., 1,324.0°C.

  5. Design and test of component circuits of an integrated quantum voltage noise source for Johnson noise thermometry

    Yamada, Takahiro; Maezawa, Masaaki; Urano, Chiharu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We demonstrated RSFQ digital components of a new quantum voltage noise source. • A pseudo-random number generator and variable pulse number multiplier are designed. • Fabrication process is based on four Nb wiring layers and Nb/AlOx/Nb junctions. • The circuits successfully operated with wide dc bias current margins, 80–120%. - Abstract: We present design and testing of a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) and a variable pulse number multiplier (VPNM) which are digital circuit subsystems in an integrated quantum voltage noise source for Jonson noise thermometry. Well-defined, calculable pseudo-random patterns of single flux quantum pulses are synthesized with the PRNG and multiplied digitally with the VPNM. The circuit implementation on rapid single flux quantum technology required practical circuit scales and bias currents, 279 junctions and 33 mA for the PRNG, and 1677 junctions and 218 mA for the VPNM. We confirmed the circuit operation with sufficiently wide margins, 80–120%, with respect to the designed bias currents.

  6. Design and test of component circuits of an integrated quantum voltage noise source for Johnson noise thermometry

    Yamada, Takahiro, E-mail: yamada-takahiro@aist.go.jp [Nanoelectronics Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Central 2, Umezono 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Maezawa, Masaaki [Nanoelectronics Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Central 2, Umezono 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Urano, Chiharu [National Metrology Institute of Japan, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Central 3, Umezono 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8563 (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • We demonstrated RSFQ digital components of a new quantum voltage noise source. • A pseudo-random number generator and variable pulse number multiplier are designed. • Fabrication process is based on four Nb wiring layers and Nb/AlOx/Nb junctions. • The circuits successfully operated with wide dc bias current margins, 80–120%. - Abstract: We present design and testing of a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) and a variable pulse number multiplier (VPNM) which are digital circuit subsystems in an integrated quantum voltage noise source for Jonson noise thermometry. Well-defined, calculable pseudo-random patterns of single flux quantum pulses are synthesized with the PRNG and multiplied digitally with the VPNM. The circuit implementation on rapid single flux quantum technology required practical circuit scales and bias currents, 279 junctions and 33 mA for the PRNG, and 1677 junctions and 218 mA for the VPNM. We confirmed the circuit operation with sufficiently wide margins, 80–120%, with respect to the designed bias currents.

  7. Examination of the suitability of noise thermometry for precise in situ calibration of thermocouples in technical processes

    Fechner, H.

    1988-12-01

    The aim was to determine the achievable accuracy of the noise thermometer developed at the KFA in the range from 0 to 1000 0 C under laboratory conditions. Precision noise temperature measurements at fixed temperature points (triple point of water, freezing point of zinc and silver) were carried out. The fixed point technique and the conventional precision resistance thermometry, which is required to operate the fixed points, were established in accordance with the requirements of accurate (and thus longer lasting) noise temperature measurements. The analysis of all possible sources of error ensured that all systematic or random errors were in the range of a few 10 -5 . The further developed KFA noise thermometers, which can be used under industrial conditions, achieve under laboratory conditions a measuring error of about ±2.5 10 -4 - relative to the thermodynamic temperature scale - in the temperature range from 273.16 K (0.01 0 C) to 1234.894 K (961.744 0 C). Assuming that the individual measured values display a normal distribution, the noise measurements at the zinc and silver point are combined to a mean value, it becomes apparent that the average noise temperatures only deviate by +2 10 -5 (zinc) or +4 10 -5 (silver) from the respective thermodynamic temperature. (orig./HP) [de

  8. A thermal monitoring sheet with low influence from adjacent waterbolus for tissue surface thermometry during clinical hyperthermia.

    Arunachalam, Kavitha; Maccarini, Paolo F; Stauffer, Paul R

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents a complete thermal analysis of a novel conformal surface thermometer design with directional sensitivity for real-time temperature monitoring during hyperthermia treatments of large superficial cancer. The thermal monitoring sheet (TMS) discussed in this paper consists of a 2-D array of fiberoptic sensors embedded between two layers of flexible, low-loss, and thermally conductive printed circuit board (PCB) film. Heat transfer across all interfaces from the tissue surface through multiple layers of insulating dielectrics surrounding the small buried temperature sensor and into an adjacent temperature-regulated water coupling bolus was studied using 3-D thermal simulation software. Theoretical analyses were carried out to identify the most effective differential TMS probe configuration possible with commercially available flexible PCB materials and to compare their thermal responses with omnidirectional probes commonly used in clinical hyperthermia. A TMS sensor design that employs 0.0508-mm Kapton MTB and 0.2032-mm Kapton HN flexible polyimide films is proposed for tissue surface thermometry with low influence from the adjacent waterbolus. Comparison of the thermal simulations with clinical probes indicates the new differential TMS probe design to outperform in terms of both transient response and steady-state accuracy in selectively reading the tissue surface temperature, while decreasing the overall thermal barrier of the probe between the coupling waterbolus and tissue surface.

  9. Cooling Effectiveness Measurements for Air Film Cooling of Thermal Barrier Coated Surfaces in a Burner Rig Environment Using Phosphor Thermometry

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Shyam, Vikram; Wroblewski, Adam C.; Zhu, Dongming; Cuy, Michael D.; Wolfe, Douglas E.

    2016-01-01

    While the effects of thermal barrier coating (TBC) thermal protection and air film cooling effectiveness are usually studied separately, their contributions to combined cooling effectiveness are interdependent and are not simply additive. Therefore, combined cooling effectiveness must be measured to achieve an optimum balance between TBC thermal protection and air film cooling. In this investigation, surface temperature mapping was performed using recently developed Cr-doped GdAlO3 phosphor thermometry. Measurements were performed in the NASA GRC Mach 0.3 burner rig on a TBC-coated plate using a scaled up cooling hole geometry where both the mainstream hot gas temperature and the blowing ratio were varied. Procedures for surface temperature and cooling effectiveness mapping of the air film-cooled TBC-coated surface are described. Applications are also shown for an engine component in both the burner rig test environment as well as an engine afterburner environment. The effects of thermal background radiation and flame chemiluminescence on the measurements are investigated, and advantages of this method over infrared thermography as well as the limitations of this method for studying air film cooling are discussed.

  10. Effects of moderate pump and Stokes chirp on chirped-probe pulse femtosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering thermometry

    Gu, Mingming

    2018-01-08

    The effects of moderate levels of chirp in the pump and Stokes pulses on chirped-probe-pulse femtosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CPP fs CARS) were investigated. The frequency chirp in the pump and Stokes pulses was introduced by placing SF11 glass disks with thicknesses of 10 mm or 20 mm in the optical path for these beams. The magnitude of the chirp in the probe beam was much greater and was induced by placing a 30-cm rod of SF10 glass in the beam path. The temperature measurements were performed in hydrogen/air non-premixed flames stabilized on a Hencken burner at equivalence ratios of 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, and 1.0. We performed measurements with no disks in pump and Stokes beam paths, and then with disks of 10 mm and 20 mm placed in both beam paths. The spectrum of the nonresonant background four-wave mixing signal narrowed considerably with increasing pump and Stokes chirp, while the resonant CARS signal was relatively unaffected. Consequently, the interference of the nonresonant background with the resonant CARS signal in the frequency-spread dephasing region of the spectrum was minimized. The increased rate of decay of the resonant CARS signal with increasing temperature was thus readily apparent. We have started to analyze the CPP fs CARS thermometry data and initial results indicate improved accuracy and precision are obtained due to moderate chirp in the pump and Stokes laser pulses.

  11. Diagnostic thoracoscopy

    Plavec Goran

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic thoracoscopy in patients with pleural effusion of unclear origin mostly provides the correct diagnosis. Results from published reports of previous researches are not uniform. In 47 male and 20 female patients with pleural effusion of unknown etiology, after receiving negative results obtained from cytological finding of pleural effusion and percutaneous needle biopsy, thoracoscopy with biopsy of one or both pleurae was performed. Procedure was done in local anesthesia using Stortz rigid thoracoscope. In 37 patients with malignant disease (primary or metastatic diagnosis was confirmed histopathologically in 31 patient (81.12%. In 27 patients with inflammatory pleural disease diagnosis was confirmed histopathologically in 22 patients (81.4%. Among 11 patients with specific pleural effusions, tuberculosis was confirmed in 10 (90.91%. Normal finding in cases of spontaneous pneumothorax and pulmonary embolism was taken as a positive result. Total number of positive findings was 55 (82.10%. In one patient, the third spontaneous pneumothorax was the indication for thoracoscopy, and after numerous bullae were seen during the procedure, talcum powder pleurodesis was done. In four patients low intensity subcutaneous emphysema occurred one day after thoracoscopy. It can be concluded that thoracoscopy in local anesthesia out of the operating room is good and practical method for solving the unclear pleural effusions, with neglectable rate of complications.

  12. Mitigation diagnostics

    Hall, S.T.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that experience in the remediation of schools and other large buildings has shown the importance of the effects of both the location of geologic sources and HVAC-induced distribution of indoor radon. In general, elevated radon in areas of schools with evenly distributed HVAC pressures are correlated with maximum soil radon emanations. However, strong or unequal HVAC effects can redistribute indoor radon to areas away from the direct source. Effective remediation required a complete understanding of both contributions. In some schools, highest indoor radon levels were located near large return ducts and were attributed to proximity to negative HVAC pressure. Successful sub-slab depressurization systems were installed, however, in rooms with lower indoor but greatest sub-slab radon levels, closest to the source. This shows the inadequacy of using indoor radon levels alone as a basis for remediation. Wings of two other schools with radon problems have equivalent window fan coil units in rooms of equal size and no central HVAC system. Highest indoor radon levels correlated well with highest sub-slab radon levels due to the equivalent effects of the window units. Diagnostic tests in other schools have revealed: blockwall radon transport to upper floors; high blockwall radon adjacent to sub-slab sources; and elevated indoor radon over crawlspace being drawn upward by HVAC-induced negative pressure, determined from indoor to outdoor micromanometer measurements

  13. Fluorescent discharge lamp

    Mukai, E.; Otsuka, H.; Nomi, K.; Honmo, I.

    1982-01-01

    A rapidly illuminating fluorescent lamp 1,200 mm long and 32.5 mm in diameter with an interior conducting strip which is compatible with conventional fixtures and ballasts is described. The fluorescent lamp is composed of a linear glass tube, electrodes sealed at both ends, mercury and raregas sealed in the glass tube, a fluorescent substance clad on the inner walls of the glass tube, and a clad conducting strip extending the entire length of the glass tube in the axial direction on the inner surface of the tube.

  14. Highly thermostable fluorescent proteins

    Bradbury, Andrew M [Santa Fe, NM; Waldo, Geoffrey S [Santa Fe, NM; Kiss, Csaba [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-03-22

    Thermostable fluorescent proteins (TSFPs), methods for generating these and other stability-enhanced proteins, polynucleotides encoding such proteins, and assays and method for using the TSFPs and TSFP-encoding nucleic acid molecules are provided. The TSFPs of the invention show extremely enhanced levels of stability and thermotolerance. In one case, for example, a TSFP of the invention is so stable it can be heated to 99.degree. C. for short periods of time without denaturing, and retains 85% of its fluorescence when heated to 80.degree. C. for several minutes. The invention also provides a method for generating stability-enhanced variants of a protein, including but not limited to fluorescent proteins.

  15. Reviews in fluorescence 2007

    Lakowicz, Joseph R; Geddes, Chris D

    2009-01-01

    This fourth volume in the Springer series summarizes the year's progress in fluorescence, with authoritative analytical reviews specialized enough for professional researchers, yet also appealing to a wider audience of scientists in related fields.

  16. Introduction to fluorescence

    Jameson, David M

    2014-01-01

    "An essential contribution to educating scientists in the principles of fluorescence. It will also be an important addition to the libraries of practitioners applying the principles of molecular fluorescence."-Ken Jacobson, Kenan Distinguished Professor of Cell Biology and Physiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill"An exquisite compendium of fluorescence and its applications in biochemistry enriched by a very exciting historical perspective. This book will become a standard text for graduate students and other scientists."-Drs. Zygmunt (Karol) Gryczynski and Ignacy Gryczynski, University of North Texas Health Science Center"… truly a masterwork, combining clarity, precision, and good humor. The reader, novice or expert, will be pleased with the text and will not stop reading. It is a formidable account of the fluorescence field, which has impacted the life sciences so considerably in the last 60 years."-Jerson L. Silva, M.D., Ph.D., Professor and Director, National Institute of Science and Tech...

  17. Endogenous synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) of basal cell carcinoma-initial study

    Borisova, E.; Zhelyazkova, Al.; Keremedchiev, M.; Penkov, N.; Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, O.; Avramov, L.

    2016-01-01

    The human skin is a complex, multilayered and inhomogeneous organ with spatially varying optical properties. Analysis of cutaneous fluorescence spectra could be a very complicated task; therefore researchers apply complex mathematical tools for data evaluation, or try to find some specific approaches, that would simplify the spectral analysis. Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) allows improving the spectral resolution, which could be useful for the biological tissue fluorescence characterization and could increase the tumour detection diagnostic accuracy.

  18. Time-Resolved Synchronous Fluorescence for Biomedical Diagnosis

    Zhang, Xiaofeng; Fales, Andrew; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2015-01-01

    This article presents our most recent advances in synchronous fluorescence (SF) methodology for biomedical diagnostics. The SF method is characterized by simultaneously scanning both the excitation and emission wavelengths while keeping a constant wavelength interval between them. Compared to conventional fluorescence spectroscopy, the SF method simplifies the emission spectrum while enabling greater selectivity, and has been successfully used to detect subtle differences in the fluorescence emission signatures of biochemical species in cells and tissues. The SF method can be used in imaging to analyze dysplastic cells in vitro and tissue in vivo. Based on the SF method, here we demonstrate the feasibility of a time-resolved synchronous fluorescence (TRSF) method, which incorporates the intrinsic fluorescent decay characteristics of the fluorophores. Our prototype TRSF system has clearly shown its advantage in spectro-temporal separation of the fluorophores that were otherwise difficult to spectrally separate in SF spectroscopy. We envision that our previously-tested SF imaging and the newly-developed TRSF methods will combine their proven diagnostic potentials in cancer diagnosis to further improve the efficacy of SF-based biomedical diagnostics. PMID:26404289

  19. Fluorescence (Multiwave) Confocal Microscopy.

    Welzel, J; Kästle, Raphaela; Sattler, Elke C

    2016-10-01

    In addition to reflectance confocal microscopy, multiwave confocal microscopes with different laser wavelengths in combination with exogenous fluorophores allow fluorescence mode confocal microscopy in vivo and ex vivo. Fluorescence mode confocal microscopy improves the contrast between the epithelium and the surrounding soft tissue and allows the depiction of certain structures, like epithelial tumors, nerves, and glands. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Monte Carlo simulation of zinc protoporphyrin fluorescence in the retina

    Chen, Xiaoyan; Lane, Stephen

    2010-02-01

    We have used Monte Carlo simulation of autofluorescence in the retina to determine that noninvasive detection of nutritional iron deficiency is possible. Nutritional iron deficiency (which leads to iron deficiency anemia) affects more than 2 billion people worldwide, and there is an urgent need for a simple, noninvasive diagnostic test. Zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) is a fluorescent compound that accumulates in red blood cells and is used as a biomarker for nutritional iron deficiency. We developed a computational model of the eye, using parameters that were identified either by literature search, or by direct experimental measurement to test the possibility of detecting ZPP non-invasively in retina. By incorporating fluorescence into Steven Jacques' original code for multi-layered tissue, we performed Monte Carlo simulation of fluorescence in the retina and determined that if the beam is not focused on a blood vessel in a neural retina layer or if part of light is hitting the vessel, ZPP fluorescence will be 10-200 times higher than background lipofuscin fluorescence coming from the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) layer directly below. In addition we found that if the light can be focused entirely onto a blood vessel in the neural retina layer, the fluorescence signal comes only from ZPP. The fluorescence from layers below in this second situation does not contribute to the signal. Therefore, the possibility that a device could potentially be built and detect ZPP fluorescence in retina looks very promising.

  1. Detrital rutile geochemistry and thermometry from the Dabie orogen: Implications for source-sediment links in a UHPM terrane

    Liu, Lei; Xiao, Yilin; Wörner, G.; Kronz, A.; Simon, K.; Hou, Zhenhui

    2014-08-01

    This study explores the potential of detrital rutile geochemistry and thermometry as a provenance tracer in rocks from the Central Dabie ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic (UHPM) zone in east-central China that formed during Triassic continental collision. Trace element data of 176 detrital rutile grains selected from local river sediments and 91 rutile grains from distinct bedrocks in the Shuanghe and Bixiling areas, obtained by both electron microprobe (EMP) and in situ LA-ICP-MS analyses, suggest that geochemical compositions and thermometry of detrital rutiles are comparable to those from their potential source rocks. After certification of the Cr-Nb discrimination method for the Central Dabie UHPM zone, we show that 29% of the detrital rutiles in the Shuanghe area were derived from metamafic sources whereas in the Bixiling area that it is up to 76%. Furthermore, the proportion of distinct types of detrital rutiles combined with modal abundances of rutile in metapelites and metamafic bedrocks can be used to estimate the proportion of different source lithologies. Based on this method the proportion of mafic source rocks was estimated to ∼10% at Shuanghe and >60% at Bixiling, respectively, which is consistent with the proportions of eclogite (the major rutile-bearing metamafic rock) distribution in the field. Therefore, the investigation of detrital rutiles is a potential way to evaluate the proportion of metamafic rocks and even to prospect for metamafic bodies in UHPM terranes. Zr-in-rutile temperatures were calculated at different pressures and compared with temperatures derived from rock-in rutiles and garnet-clinopyroxene Fe-Mg thermometers. Temperatures calculated for detrital rutiles range from 606 °C to 707 °C and 566 °C to 752 °C in Shuanghe and Bixiling, respectively, at P = 3 GPa with an average temperatures of ca. 630 °C for both areas. These temperature averages and ranges are similar to those calculated for rutiles from surrounding source rocks

  2. Laser-induced fluorescence of oral mucosa cancer

    Jaliashvili, Z. V.; Medoidze, T. D.; Melikishvili, Z. G.; Gogilashvili, K. T.

    2017-10-01

    The laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectra have been measured for cancer-infused and control mice mucosa tissues. It was established that there is quite a difference between their LIF spectral shapes. These spectral shapes are used to express the diagnostic of different states of tissues: from normal to cancer.

  3. Fluorescence Image Segmentation by using Digitally Reconstructed Fluorescence Images

    Blumer, Clemens; Vivien, Cyprien; Oertner, Thomas G; Vetter, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    In biological experiments fluorescence imaging is used to image living and stimulated neurons. But the analysis of fluorescence images is a difficult task. It is not possible to conclude the shape of an object from fluorescence images alone. Therefore, it is not feasible to get good manual segmented nor ground truth data from fluorescence images. Supervised learning approaches are not possible without training data. To overcome this issues we propose to synthesize fluorescence images and call...

  4. Direct in situ thermometry: Variations in reciprocal-lattice vectors and challenges with the Debye–Waller effect

    Cremons, Daniel R.; Flannigan, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Conventional in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) enables the atomic-scale study of dynamic materials processes on millisecond time scales. Specimen holders capable of being heated to over 1000 °C have provided insight into myriad processes, including nanoscale thermal transport, structural phase transitions, and catalytic reactions. In order for such studies to be accurate and precise, direct determination of the specimen temperature – rather than the heating-element temperature – is critical. Further, such methods should be versatile in that any temperature across a wide range may be measured, irrespective of single-indicator properties specific to the specimen (e.g., first-order phase transition, melting point, etc.). Here, we describe a rigorous approach to direct, in situ thermometry of TEM specimens that exploits lattice thermal expansion and the resultant decrease in diffraction-vector magnitude in reciprocal space. Via sub-pixel measurement of reciprocal-lattice-vector magnitudes, picometer increases in lattice parameters are measured over a continuous temperature range and compared to those expected from the coefficient of thermal expansion. Statistical treatment of several experimental trials conducted on nanostructured aluminum thin films shows excellent agreement with both theory and (indirect) measurement of the in situ heating holder. Additionally, we illustrate how uncontrolled, thermally-induced variation in single-crystal orientation leads to modulation of the excitation error and, therefore, the Bragg-spot intensities resulting in a convolution of heating and tilting effects, thus complicating temperature determination via the Debye–Waller effect. - Highlights: • A method for direct in situ determination of specimen temperature is described. • Specimen temperature is determined via reciprocal-lattice-vector contraction. • Statistical treatment agrees with the in situ heating-holder thermocouple reading. • Thermally

  5. Exploring the potential of clumped isotope thermometry on coccolith-rich sediments as a sea surface temperature proxy

    Drury, Anna Joy; John, Cédric M.

    2016-10-01

    Understanding past changes in sea surface temperatures (SSTs) is crucial; however, existing proxies for reconstructing past SSTs are hindered by unknown ancient seawater composition (foraminiferal Mg/Ca and δ18O) or reflect subsurface temperatures (TEX86) or have a limited applicable temperature range (U37k'). We examine clumped isotope (Δ47) thermometry to fossil coccolith-rich material as an SST proxy, as clumped isotopes are independent of original seawater composition and applicable to a wide temperature range and coccolithophores are widespread and dissolution resistant. The Δ47-derived temperatures from 63 μm fraction removes most nonmixed layer components; however, the Δ47-derived temperatures display an unexpected slight decreasing trend with decreasing size fraction. This unexpected trend could partly arise because larger coccoliths (5-12 μm) are removed during the size fraction separation process. The c1 and <63 μm c2 Δ47-derived temperatures are comparable to concurrent U37k' SSTs. The <20, <10, and 2-5 μm c2 Δ47-derived temperatures are consistently cooler than expected. The Δ47-U37k' temperature offset is probably caused by abiotic/diagenetic calcite present in the c2 2-5 μm fraction (˜53% by area), which potentially precipitated at bottom water temperatures of ˜6°C. Our results indicate that clumped isotopes on coccolith-rich sediment fractions have potential as an SST proxy, particularly in tropical regions, providing that careful investigation of the appropriate size fraction for the region and time scale is undertaken.

  6. Efficacy of fluorescence diagnosis for pleural tumors with alasens

    O. V. Pikin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of efficacy of thoracoscopy-assisted fluorescence diagnosis with Alasens is described in the article. The results of fluorescence diagnosis in 27 patients with suspicion on pleral tumor are represented. Before thoracoscopy-assisted fluorescence diagnosis in 21 patients according to radiological studies there was a fluid in pleural ca, in 19 patients of them tumor cells were found by cytological study of pleural fluid, in 10 patients differential diagnosis was performed between mesothelioma and adenogenic cancer. For fluorescence diagnosis fluorescence system by company Кarl Storz and xenon lamp with set of light filters was used: fluorescence study was performed by excitation at wavelength 380–460 nm. 3 h before investigation the patient received alasens per os in dose of 30 mg/kg body weight in 100 ml of water. For routine thoracoscopy tumor lesions were determined in 20 (87.0% patients, other 3 (13.0% patients had no tumors. In the group of patients with tumor lesions determined by routine thoracoscopy the fluorescence during fluorescence study was registered in all lesions determined in white light, besides this 24 additional foci of fluorescence were noticed, according to morphological study 21 of them had tumor nature, 3 lesions were inflammatory. In 1 of 3 patients with no lesion in white light there was one focus of fluorescence, morphological study proved the metastasis of adenocarcinoma in this area. According to morphological study of pleural biopsy specimens the true-positive results for fluorescence thoracoscopy accounted for 82, false-negative – 10, true-negative – 23, false-positive – 3. The sensitivity of the method was 89,1%, the specificity – 88,4%, the diagnostic accuracy – 88,9%. 

  7. Quantum Dots for Molecular Diagnostics of Tumors

    Zdobnova, T.A.; Lebedenko, E.N.; Deyev, S.М.

    2011-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are a new class of fluorophores with unique physical and chemical properties, which allow to appreciably expand the possibilities for the current methods of fluorescent imaging and optical diagnostics. Here we discuss the prospects of QD application for molecular diagnostics of tumors ranging from cancer-specific marker detection on microplates to non-invasive tumor imagingin vivo. We also point out the essential problems that require resolution in order to clinically promote QD, and we indicate innovative approaches to oncology which are implementable using QD. PMID:22649672

  8. Atomic fluorescence spectrometry with the inductively coupled plasma

    Omenetto, N.; Winefordner, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    Atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS) is based on the radiational activation of atoms and ions produced in a suitable atomizer (ionizer) and the subsequent measurement of the resulting radiational deactivation, called fluorescence. Atomic fluorescence spectrometry has been of considerable interest to researchers in atomic spectrometry because of its use for both analytical and diagnostic purposes. Unfortunately, the analytical applications of AFS have suffered from the lack of commercial instrumentation until the recent marketing of the Baird multiple-element, hollow cathode lamp-excited inductively coupled plasma system. This chapter is concerned strictly with the use of the inductively coupled plasma (ICP) as a cell and as a source for AFS. Many of the major references concerning the ICP in analytical AFS are categorized in Table 9.1, along with several reviews and diagnostical studies. For more detailed discussions of the fundamental aspects of AFS, the reader is referred to previous reviews

  9. Endogenous and exogenous fluorescence of gastrointestinal tumors: initial clinical observations

    Borisova, Ekaterina; Plamenova, Lilia; Keremedchiev, Momchil; Vladimirov, Borislav; Avramov, Latchezar

    2013-03-01

    The limitations of standard endoscopy for detection and evaluation of cancerous changes in gastrointestinal tract (GIT) are significant challenge and initiate development of new diagnostic modalities. Therefore many spectral and optical techniques are applied recently into the clinical practice for obtaining qualitatively and quantitatively new data from gastrointestinal neoplasia with different level of clinical applicability and diagnostic success. One of the most promising approaches is fluorescence detection using naturally existing fluorescent molecules or added fluorescent markers. Deltaaminolevulinic acid / protoporphyrin IX is applied for exogenous fluorescent tumor detection in the upper part of gastrointestinal tract. The 5-ALA is administered per os six hours before measurements at dose 20mg/kg weight. Highpower light-emitting diode at 405 nm is used as a source and the excitation light is passed through the light-guide of standard video-endoscopic system to obtain 2-D visualization. Both kinds of spectra - autofluorescence signals and protoporphyrin IX signal are recorded and stored using a fiber-optic microspectrometer, as in endoscopy instrumental channel a fiber is applied to return information about fluorescence signals. In such way 1-D detection and 2-D visualization of the lesions' fluorescence are received. The results from in vivo detection show significant differentiation between normal and abnormal tissues in 1-D spectroscopic regime, but only moderate discrimination in 2-D imaging.

  10. Lectures in plasma diagnostics

    Hutchinson, I.H.

    1990-06-01

    This paper discusses the following topics on plasma diagnostics: Electric probes in flowing and magnetized plasmas; Electron cyclotron emission absorption; Magnetic diagnostics; Spectroscopy; and Thomson Scattering

  11. Diagnostics of peripheric plasma in thermonuclear devices

    Vojtsenya, V.S.; Tereshin, V.I.

    1986-01-01

    Review of basic methods, applied or developed for peripheral plasma diagnostics is given, including electric probes of various types, collecting probes for studying impurity ion and main plasma component characteristics, spectroscopic and corpuscular-optical methods, laser fluorescence spectroscopy, mass-spectrometry, heavy ion and atom (lithium and hydrogen) beam methods. Ranges of plasma parameters their measurements being provided by the methods indicated are presented

  12. Stoke's and anti-Stoke's characteristics of anaerobic and aerobic bacterias at excitation of fluorescence by low-intensity red light: I. Research of anaerobic bacterias

    Masychev, Victor I.; Alexandrov, Michail T.

    2000-04-01

    Biopsy or photo dynamic therapy of tumors are usually investigated by fluorescent diagnostics methods. Information on modified method of fluorescence diagnostics of inflammatory diseases is represented in this research. Anaerobic micro organisms are often the cause of these pathological processes. These micro organisms also accompany disbiotic processes in intestines.

  13. Sensitivity of in vivo X-ray fluorescence determination of skeletal lead stores

    Sokas, R.K.; Besarab, A.; McDiarmid, M.A.; Shapiro, I.M.; Bloch, P.

    1990-01-01

    Eighteen patients with known past occupational lead exposure underwent parenteral diagnostic chelation with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and x-ray fluorescent determination of in vivo skeletal lead stores at the distal styloid process of the ulna and at the temporal base bone using a cobalt 57 source and measuring lead Ka x-rays. X-ray fluorescent lead measurements in both locations correlated with results of diagnostic chelation. Using a post-chelation urinary excretion of greater than 600 micrograms lead/24 h as the definition of high-lead stores, sensitivity of x-ray fluorescence at the wrist and temple was 56% and 39%, respectively

  14. Design, Construction, and Initial Test of High Spatial Resolution Thermometry Arrays for Detection of Surface Temperature Profiles on SRF Cavities in Super Fluid Helium

    Ari Palczewski, Rongli Geng, Grigory Eremeev

    2011-07-01

    We designed and built two high resolution (0.6-0.55mm special resolution [1.1-1.2mm separation]) thermometry arrays prototypes out of the Allen Bradley 90-120 ohm 1/8 watt resistor to measure surface temperature profiles on SRF cavities. One array was designed to be physically flexible and conform to any location on a SRF cavity; the other was modeled after the common G-10/stycast 2850 thermometer and designed to fit on the equator of an ILC (Tesla 1.3GHz) SRF cavity. We will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each array and their construction. In addition we will present a case study of the arrays performance on a real SRF cavity TB9NR001. TB9NR001 presented a unique opportunity to test the performance of each array as it contained a dual (4mm separation) cat eye defect which conventional methods such as OST (Oscillating Superleak second-sound Transducers) and full coverage thermometry mapping were unable to distinguish between. We will discuss the new arrays ability to distinguish between the two defects and their preheating performance.

  15. Oxygen isotope thermometry of quartz-Al2SiO5veins in high-grade metamorphic rocks on Naxos island (Greece)

    Putlitz, Benita; Valley, John; Matthews, Alan; Katzir, Yaron

    2002-04-01

    Diffusion models predict that peak metamorphic temperatures are best recorded by the oxygen isotope fractionation between minerals in a bi-mineralic rock in which a refractory accessory mineral with slow oxygen diffusion rate is modally minor to a mineral with a faster diffusion rate. This premise is demonstrated for high-grade metamorphism on the island of Naxos, Greece, where quartz-kyanite oxygen isotope thermometry from veins in high-grade metamorphic pelites gives temperatures of 635-690 °C. These temperatures are in excellent agreement with independent thermometry for the regional M2 peak metamorphic conditions and show that the vein minerals isotopically equilibrated at the peak of metamorphism. Quartz-sillimanite fractionations in the same veins give similar temperatures (680+/-35 °C) and suggest that the veins grew near to the kyanite-sillimanite boundary, corresponding to pressures of 6.5 to 7.5 kbar for temperatures of 635-685 °C. By contrast, quartz-kyanite and quartz-biotite pairs in the host rocks yield lower temperature estimates than the veins (590-600 and 350-550 °C, respectively). These lower apparent temperatures are also predicted from calculations of diffusional resetting in the polyphase host-rock system. The data demonstrate that bimineralic vein assemblages can be used as accurate thermometers in high-temperature rocks whereas retrograde exchange remains a major problem in many polymineralic rocks.

  16. S - and N-alkylating agents diminish the fluorescence of fluorescent dye-stained DNA.

    Giesche, Robert; John, Harald; Kehe, Kai; Schmidt, Annette; Popp, Tanja; Balzuweit, Frank; Thiermann, Horst; Gudermann, Thomas; Steinritz, Dirk

    2017-01-25

    Sulfur mustard (SM), a chemical warfare agent, causes DNA alkylation, which is believed to be the main cause of its toxicity. SM DNA adducts are commonly used to verify exposure to this vesicant. However, the required analytical state-of-the-art mass-spectrometry methods are complex, use delicate instruments, are not mobile, and require laboratory infrastructure that is most likely not available in conflict zones. Attempts have thus been made to develop rapid detection methods that can be used in the field. The analysis of SM DNA adducts (HETE-G) by immunodetection is a convenient and suitable method. For a diagnostic assessment, HETE-G levels must be determined in relation to the total DNA in the sample. Total DNA can be easily visualized by the use of fluorescent DNA dyes. This study examines whether SM and related compounds affect total DNA staining, an issue that has not been investigated before. After pure DNA was extracted from human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells), DNA was exposed to different S- and N-alkylating agents. Our experiments revealed a significant, dose-dependent decrease in the fluorescence signal of fluorescent dye-stained DNA after exposure to alkylating agents. After mass spectrometry and additional fluorescence measurements ruled out covalent modifications of ethidium bromide (EthBr) by SM, we assumed that DNA crosslinks caused DNA condensation and thereby impaired access of the fluorescent dyes to the DNA. DNA digestion by restriction enzymes restored fluorescence, a fact that strengthened our hypothesis. However, monofunctional agents, which are unable to crosslink DNA, also decreased the fluorescence signal. In subsequent experiments, we demonstrated that protons produced during DNA alkylation caused a pH decrease that was found responsible for the reduction in fluorescence. The use of an appropriate buffer system eliminated the adverse effect of alkylating agents on DNA staining with fluorescent dyes. An appropriate buffer system is thus

  17. Fluorescent IgG fusion proteins made in E. coli

    Luria, Yael; Raichlin, Dina; Benhar, Itai

    2012-01-01

    Antibodies are among the most powerful tools in biological and biomedical research and are presently the fastest growing category of new bio-pharmaceutics. The most common format of antibody applied for therapeutic, diagnostic and analytical purposes is the IgG format. For medical applications, recombinant IgGs are made in cultured mammalian cells in a process that is too expensive to be considered for producing antibodies for diagnostic and analytical purposes. Therefore, for such purposes, mouse monoclonal antibodies or polyclonal sera from immunized animals are used. While looking for an easier and more rapid way to prepare full-length IgGs for therapeutic purposes, we recently developed and reported an expression and purification protocol for full-length IgGs, and IgG-based fusion proteins in E. coli, called “Inclonals.” By applying the Inclonals technology, we could generate full-length IgGs that are genetically fused to toxins. The aim of the study described herein was to evaluate the possibility of applying the “Inclonals” technology for preparing IgG-fluorophore fusion proteins. We found that IgG fused to the green fluorescent proteins enhanced GFP (EGFP) while maintaining functionality in binding, lost most of its fluorescence during the refolding process. In contrast, we found that green fluorescent Superfolder GFP (SFGFP)-fused IgG and red fluorescent mCherry-fused IgG were functional in antigen binding and maintained fluorescence intensity. In addition, we found that we can link several SFGFPs in tandem to each IgG, with fluorescence intensity increasing accordingly. Fluorescent IgGs made in E. coli may become attractive alternatives to monoclonal or polyclonal fluorescent antibodies derived from animals. PMID:22531449

  18. Nanosecond fluorescence spectroscopy

    Leskovar, B.

    1985-03-01

    This article is a summary of a short course lecture given in conjunction with the 1984 Nuclear Science Symposium. Measuring systems for nanosecond fluorescence spectroscopy using single-photon counting techniques are presented. These involve systems based on relaxation-type spark gap light pulser and synchronously pumped mode-locked dye lasers. Furthermore, typical characteristics and optimization of operating conditions of the critical components responsible for the system time resolution are discussed. A short comparison of the most important deconvolution methods for numerical analysis of experimental data is given particularly with respect to the signal-to-noise ratio of the fluorescence signal. 22 refs., 8 figs

  19. Fluorescence uranium determination

    Fernandez Cellini, R.; Crus Castillo, F. de la; Barrera Pinero, R.

    1960-01-01

    An equipment for analysis of uranium by fluorescence was developed in order to determine it at such a low concentration that it can not be determined by the most sensible analytical methods. this new fluorimeter was adapted to measure the fluorescence emitted by the phosphorus sodium fluoride-sodium carbonate-potasium carbonate-uranyl, being excited by ultraviolet light of 3,650 A the intensity of the light emitted was measure with a photomultiplicator RCA 5819 and the adequate electronic equipment. (Author) 19 refs

  20. Microbubble embedded with upconversion nanoparticles as a bimodal contrast agent for fluorescence and ultrasound imaging

    Jin, Birui; Lin, Min; You, Minli; Xu, Feng; Lu, Tianjian; Zong, Yujin; Wan, Mingxi; Duan, Zhenfeng

    2015-01-01

    Bimodal imaging offers additional imaging signal thus finds wide spread application in clinical diagnostic imaging. Fluorescence/ultrasound bimodal imaging contrast agent using fluorescent dyes or quantum dots for fluorescence signal has emerged as a promising method, which however requires visible light or UV irradiation resulting in photobleaching, photoblinking, auto-fluorescence and limited tissue penetration depth. To surmount these problems, we developed a novel bimodal contrast agent using layer-by-layer assembly of upconversion nanoparticles onto the surface of microbubbles. The resulting microbubbles with average size of 2 μm provide enhanced ultrasound echo for ultrasound imaging and upconversion emission upon near infrared irradiation for fluorescence imaging. The developed bimodal contrast agent holds great potential to be applied in ultrasound target technique for targeted diseases diagnostics and therapy. (paper)

  1. Fluorescence cystoscopy in patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer

    I. G. Rusakov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main challenge of treating non-muscle invasive bladder cancer is multifocal tumors. Current methods of diagnosis are failed to detect all superficial flat tumor lesions in bladder mucosa. The use of fluorescence imaging with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA allows to improve the sensibility of routine cystoscopy, but low specificity decreases its diagnostic accuracy. The method of fluorescence imaging combined with local fluorescence spectroscopy developed in P.A. Herzen MCRI has been shown to increase the specificity from 71% to 84%. Thus, local fluorescence spectroscopy in visible fluorescence of 5-ALA-induced protoporphyrin allows to perform guided biopsy and decrease the rate of diagnostic mistakes. 

  2. Detection of hepatocarcinoma in rats by integration of the fluorescence spectrum: Experimental model

    Marcassa, J. C.; Ferreira, J.; Zucoloto, S.; Castro E Silva, O., Jr.; Marcassa, L. G.; Bagnato, V. S.

    2006-05-01

    The incorporation of spectroscopic techniques into diagnostic procedures may greatly improve the chances for precise diagnostics. One promising technique is fluorescence spectroscopy, which has recently been used to detect many different types of diseases. In this work, we use laser-induced tissue fluorescence to detect hepatocarcinoma in rats using excitation light at wavelengths of 443 and 532 nm. Hepatocarcinoma was induced chemically in Wistar rats. The collected fluorescence spectrum ranges from the excitation wavelength up to 850 nm. A mathematical procedure carried out on the spectrum determines a figure of merit value, which allows the detection of hepatocarcinoma. The figure of merit involves a procedure which evaluates the ratio between the backscattered excitation wavelength and the broad emission fluorescence band. We demonstrate that a normalization allowed by integration of the fluorescence spectra is a simple operation that may allow the detection of hepatocarcinoma.

  3. Diagnostic reasoning strategies and diagnostic success.

    Coderre, S; Mandin, H; Harasym, P H; Fick, G H

    2003-08-01

    Cognitive psychology research supports the notion that experts use mental frameworks or "schemes", both to organize knowledge in memory and to solve clinical problems. The central purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between problem-solving strategies and the likelihood of diagnostic success. Think-aloud protocols were collected to determine the diagnostic reasoning used by experts and non-experts when attempting to diagnose clinical presentations in gastroenterology. Using logistic regression analysis, the study found that there is a relationship between diagnostic reasoning strategy and the likelihood of diagnostic success. Compared to hypothetico-deductive reasoning, the odds of diagnostic success were significantly greater when subjects used the diagnostic strategies of pattern recognition and scheme-inductive reasoning. Two other factors emerged as independent determinants of diagnostic success: expertise and clinical presentation. Not surprisingly, experts outperformed novices, while the content area of the clinical cases in each of the four clinical presentations demonstrated varying degrees of difficulty and thus diagnostic success. These findings have significant implications for medical educators. It supports the introduction of "schemes" as a means of enhancing memory organization and improving diagnostic success.

  4. Monitoring by fluorescence measurements

    Malcolme-Lawes, D.J.; Gifford, L.A.

    1981-01-01

    A fluorimetric detector is described in which the fluorescence excitation source may be 3 H, 14 C, 35 S, 147 Pm or 63 Ni. Such a detector can be adapted for use with flowing liquid systems especially liquid chromatography systems. (U.K.)

  5. Fluorescent Lamp Replacement Study

    2017-07-01

    not be cited for purposes of advertisement. DISPOSITION INSTRUCTIONS: Destroy this document when no longer needed. Do not return to the... recycling , and can be disposed safely in a landfill. (2) LEDs offer reduced maintenance costs and fewer bulb replacements, significantly reducing... recycling . Several fixtures, ballasts and energy efficient fluorescent bulbs that were determined to be in pristine condition were returned to ATC

  6. Statistical filtering in fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

    Macháň, Radek; Kapusta, Peter; Hof, Martin

    Roč. 406 , č. 20 (2014), s. 4797-4813 ISSN 1618-2642 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP208/12/G016 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Filtered fluorescence correlation spectroscopy * Fluorescence lifetime correlation spectroscopy * Fluorescence spectral correlation spectroscopy Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.436, year: 2014

  7. Who's who in fluorescence 2008

    Geddes, Chris D

    2008-01-01

    The Journal of Fluorescence's sixth Who's Who directory publishes the names, contact details, specialty keywords, and a brief description of scientists employing fluorescence methodology and instrumentation in their working lives. This is a unique reference.

  8. The effects of visual fluorescence marking induced by 5-aminolevulinic acid for endoscopic diagnosis of urinary bladder cancer

    Daniltchenko, Dmitri I.; Koenig, Frank; Schnorr, Dietmar; Valdman, Alexander; Al-Shukri, Salman; Loening, Stefan A.

    2003-10-01

    During cystoscopy procedure, fluorescence diagnostics induced by 5-ALA improves visual detection of the bladder cancer. Macroscopic ALA-fluorescence allows visualizing of small flat tumors, carcinoma in situ, true neoplasm margins and dysplasias of the bladder. Following ALA instillation, cystoscopy has been performed under both standard and blue light illumination. Totally, 153 biopsies have been carried out at 53 patients with suspicion of bladder cancer. The results were compared to ALA-fluorescence data. In 13% of the patients, bladder cancer and dysplasia were found out in addition, due to red fluorescence. The sensitivity and specificity of ALA-fluorescence technique aggregated 96% and 52% respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of 5-ALA-fluorescent detection exceeded standard endoscopy under white light on 20%. The new method does not exclude a false positive and a false negative fluorescent luminescence. The ALA-based fluorescence detection system enhances the diagnosis of malignant/dysplastic bladder lesions significantly.

  9. In vivo study of the human skin by the method of laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy

    Borisova, E.; Avramov, L.

    2000-01-01

    The goals of this study are to perform a preliminary evaluation of the diagnostic potential of noninvasive laser-induced auto-fluorescence spectroscopy (LIAFS) for human skin and optimize of detection and diagnosis of hollow organs and skin. In recent years, there has been growing interest in the use of laser-induced fluorescence to discriminate disease from normal surrounding tissue. The most fluorescence studies have used exogenous fluorophores of this discrimination. The laser-induced auto-fluorescence which is used for diagnosis of tissues in the human body avoids administration of any drugs. In this study a technique for optical biopsy of in vivo human skin is presented. The auto-fluorescence characterization of tissue relies on different spectral properties of tissues. It was demonstrated a differentiation between normal skin and skin with vitiligo. Two main endogenous fluorophores in the human skin account for most of the cellular auto-fluorescence for excitation wavelength 337 nm reduced from of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and collagen. The auto-fluorescence spectrum of human skin depend on main internal absorbers which are blood and melanin. In this study was described the effect caused by blood and melanin content on the shape of the auto-fluorescence spectrum of human skin. Human skin fluorescence spectrum might provide dermatologists with important information and such investigations are successfully used now in skin disease diagnostics, in investigation of the environmental factor impact or for evaluation of treatment efficiency. (authors)

  10. A fluorescence sedimentation assay for dsDNA antibodies

    Duus, K; Draborg, A H; Güven, E

    2017-01-01

    The Farr assay is a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for dsDNA antibodies, based on antibody precipitation using ammonium sulphate and quantification using radio-labelled dsDNA. The RIA-Farr assay offers outstanding clinical specificity and sensitivity for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) compared to other...... on precipitation with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and fluorescence of EvaGreen intercalated in dsDNA as detection principle. As dsDNA antibodies are quantified using fluorescence, the disadvantages of working with radioactivity are eliminated. The Fluoro-Farr assay was developed and validated, and the diagnostic...

  11. Instantaneous temperature field measurements using planar laser-induced fluorescence.

    Seitzman, J M; Kychakoff, G; Hanson, R K

    1985-09-01

    A single-pulse, laser-induced-fluorescence diagnostic for the measurement of two-dimensional temperature fields in combustion flows is described. The method uses sheet illumination from a tunable laser to excite planar laserinduced fluorescence in a stable tracer molecule, seeded at constant mole fraction into the flow field. The temporal resolution of this technique is determined by the laser pulse length. Experimental results are presented for a rodstabilized, premixed methane-air flame, using the Q(1) (22) line of the nitric oxide A(2) Sigma(+) (v = 0) ? X(2)II((1/2))(v = 0) transition (lambda approximately 225.6 nm).

  12. Synthesis and Fluorescence Spectra of Triazolylcoumarin Fluorescent Dyes

    PENG Xian-fu; LI Hong-qi

    2009-01-01

    Much attention is devoted to fluorescent dyes especially those with potential in versatile applications. Reactions under "click" conditions between nonfluorescent 3 - azidocoumarins and terminal alkynes produced 3 -(1, 2, 3- triazol- 1 - yl)cournarins, a novel type of fluorescent dyes with intense fluorescence. The structures of the new coumarins were characterized by 1H NMR, MS, and IR spectra. Fluorescence spectra measurement demonstrated excellent fluorescence performance of the triazolylcoumarins and this click reaction is a promising candidate for bioconjugation and bioimaging applications since both azide and alkynes are quite inert to biological systems.

  13. Fluorescence spectroscopy of dental calculus

    Bakhmutov, D; Gonchukov, S; Sukhinina, A

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the fluorescence properties of dental calculus in comparison with the properties of adjacent unaffected tooth structure using both lasers and LEDs in the UV-visible range for fluorescence excitation. The influence of calculus color on the informative signal is demonstrated. The optimal spectral bands of excitation and registration of the fluorescence are determined

  14. Fluorescence spectroscopy of dental calculus

    Bakhmutov, D.; Gonchukov, S.; Sukhinina, A.

    2010-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the fluorescence properties of dental calculus in comparison with the properties of adjacent unaffected tooth structure using both lasers and LEDs in the UV-visible range for fluorescence excitation. The influence of calculus color on the informative signal is demonstrated. The optimal spectral bands of excitation and registration of the fluorescence are determined.

  15. Fluorescence Imaging Reveals Surface Contamination

    Schirato, Richard; Polichar, Raulf

    1992-01-01

    In technique to detect surface contamination, object inspected illuminated by ultraviolet light to make contaminants fluoresce; low-light-level video camera views fluorescence. Image-processing techniques quantify distribution of contaminants. If fluorescence of material expected to contaminate surface is not intense, tagged with low concentration of dye.

  16. Who's who in fluorescence 2005

    Geddes, Chris D

    2006-01-01

    The Journal of Fluorescence's third Who's Who directory publishes the names, contact details, specialty keywords, photographs, and a brief description of scientists employing fluorescence methodology and instrumentation in their working livesThe directory provides company contact details with a brief list of fluorescence-related products.

  17. Evaluation of a new fluorescent reagent, fluorescent brightener 85, for the diagnosis of suspected onychomycosis compared with potassium hydroxide.

    Yue, Xueping; Wang, Aiping; Wang, Hongwei; Li, Qing; Yue, Xiuling

    2018-04-01

    Onychomycosis is a common fungal infection in dermatology clinics. The commonly used diagnostic method, potassium hydroxide (KOH) direct microscopy, does not have a high-positive detection rate. Therefore, a new diagnostic method is needed to confirm onychomycosis. The objective of this research was to use fluorescent brightener 85 (FB 85), a new fluorescent reagent for fungi detection, and to evaluate this new method based on the diagnostic positive rate, accuracy and efficiency in suspected onychomycosis compared with the KOH method. Subungual debris was collected from clinically suspected onychomycosis cases and divided into two parts. The parts were examined by FB 85 and 10% KOH solution, respectively. In total, 108 patients with suspected onychomycosis were recruited. The positive rates of FB 85 and KOH were 88.9% and 55.6%, respectively. The patients showed significant statistical differences (P < .001). Compared with the KOH method, the FB 85 fluorescent method was an accurate and efficient method with a higher positive rate. This method could increase the diagnostic accuracy and efficiency of onychomycosis detection. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy (FFS)

    Tetin, Sergey

    2012-01-01

    This new volume of Methods in Enzymology continues the legacy of this premier serial with quality chapters authored by leaders in the field. This volume covers fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy and includes chapters on such topics as Förster resonance energy transfer (fret) with fluctuation algorithms, protein corona on nanoparticles by FCS, and FFS approaches to the study of receptors in live cells. Continues the legacy of this premier serial with quality chapters authored by leaders in the field Covers fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy Contains chapters on such topics as Förster resonance energy transfer (fret) with fluctuation algorithms, protein corona on nanoparticles by FCS, and FFS approaches to the study of receptors in live cells.

  19. Fluorescent quantification of melanin.

    Fernandes, Bruno; Matamá, Teresa; Guimarães, Diana; Gomes, Andreia; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2016-11-01

    Melanin quantification is reportedly performed by absorption spectroscopy, commonly at 405 nm. Here, we propose the implementation of fluorescence spectroscopy for melanin assessment. In a typical in vitro assay to assess melanin production in response to an external stimulus, absorption spectroscopy clearly overvalues melanin content. This method is also incapable of distinguishing non-melanotic/amelanotic control cells from those that are actually capable of performing melanogenesis. Therefore, fluorescence spectroscopy is the best method for melanin quantification as it proved to be highly specific and accurate, detecting even small variations in the synthesis of melanin. This method can also be applied to the quantification of melanin in more complex biological matrices like zebrafish embryos and human hair. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Procedures in diagnostic radiology

    Doyle, T.; Hare, W.S.C.; Thomson, K.; Tess, B.

    1989-01-01

    This book outlines the various procedures necessary for the successful practice of diagnostic radiology. Topics covered are: general principles, imaging of the urinary and gastrointestinal tracts, vascular radiology, arthrography, and miscellaneous diagnostic radiologic procedures

  1. Diagnostic Algorithm Benchmarking

    Poll, Scott

    2011-01-01

    A poster for the NASA Aviation Safety Program Annual Technical Meeting. It describes empirical benchmarking on diagnostic algorithms using data from the ADAPT Electrical Power System testbed and a diagnostic software framework.

  2. Highly sensitive C-reactive protein (CRP) assay using metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF)

    Zhang, Yi; Keegan, Gemma L.; Stranik, Ondrej; Brennan-Fournet, Margaret E.; McDonagh, Colette

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence has been extensively employed in the area of diagnostic immunoassays. A significant enhancement of fluorescence can be achieved when noble metal nanoparticles are placed in close proximity to fluorophores. This effect, referred to as metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF), has the potential to produce immunoassays with a high sensitivity and a low limit of detection (LOD). In this study, we investigate the fluorescence enhancement effect of two different nanoparticle systems, large spherical silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and gold edge-coated triangular silver nanoplates, and both systems were evaluated for MEF. The extinction properties and electric field enhancement of both systems were modeled, and the optimum system, spherical AgNPs, was used in a sandwich immunoassay for human C-reactive protein with a red fluorescent dye label. A significant enhancement in the fluorescence was observed, which corresponded to an LOD improvement of ∼19-fold compared to a control assay without AgNPs

  3. Highly sensitive C-reactive protein (CRP) assay using metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF)

    Zhang, Yi; Keegan, Gemma L., E-mail: gemmakeegan@gmail.com [Dublin City University, School of Physical Sciences, Biomedical Diagnostics Institute (Ireland); Stranik, Ondrej [Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology, Department of NanoBiophotonics (Germany); Brennan-Fournet, Margaret E. [CMP-EMSE, MOC, Department of Bioelectronics, Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines (France); McDonagh, Colette [Dublin City University, School of Physical Sciences, Biomedical Diagnostics Institute (Ireland)

    2015-07-15

    Fluorescence has been extensively employed in the area of diagnostic immunoassays. A significant enhancement of fluorescence can be achieved when noble metal nanoparticles are placed in close proximity to fluorophores. This effect, referred to as metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF), has the potential to produce immunoassays with a high sensitivity and a low limit of detection (LOD). In this study, we investigate the fluorescence enhancement effect of two different nanoparticle systems, large spherical silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and gold edge-coated triangular silver nanoplates, and both systems were evaluated for MEF. The extinction properties and electric field enhancement of both systems were modeled, and the optimum system, spherical AgNPs, was used in a sandwich immunoassay for human C-reactive protein with a red fluorescent dye label. A significant enhancement in the fluorescence was observed, which corresponded to an LOD improvement of ∼19-fold compared to a control assay without AgNPs.

  4. Fluorescent nanodiamond for biomedicine

    Milos Nesladek

    2014-01-01

    NV centers in diamond have gained strong interest as a novel tool for quantum information processing, quantum computing and quantum photonics. These applications are based on fluorescent and spin properties of NV-centres. However, in some conditions NV- can lose an electron and turn to NV0. The occupation of NV0 and NV- charge states depend on the position of their ground states with respect to the Fermi level and the mechanism of the charge transfer. Interestingly, that the charge switch has important implications on applications of fluorescent nanodiamond (fND) to nano-biology and nano-medicine. fND can be used for bio-marking and bio-tracking but also for the monitoring of targeted delivery to the cells. In this presentation we review the current state-of-the art for using fND particles for fluorescent bio imaging in cells and discuss the charge transfer and its luminescence stability by using ultra high sensitive spectroscopy methods to study the NV0 and NV- state occupation. (author)

  5. Veterinary Molecular Diagnostics

    Roest, H.I.J.; Engelsma, M.Y.; Weesendorp, E.; Bossers, A.; Elbers, A.R.W.

    2017-01-01

    In veterinary molecular diagnostics, samples originating from animals are tested. Developments in the farm animals sector and in our societal attitude towards pet animals have resulted in an increased demand for fast and reliable diagnostic techniques. Molecular diagnostics perfectly matches this

  6. A new experimental apparatus for emissivity measurements of steel and the application of multi-wavelength thermometry to continuous casting billets

    Wang, Peng; Hu, Zhenwei; Xie, Zhi; Yan, Ming

    2018-05-01

    An experimental apparatus has been designed for measuring the emissivity of a steel surface in both vacuum and oxidation atmosphere. The sample is heated with the method of electromagnetic induction in order to ensure the temperature uniformity. The radiance emitted from a sample is measured using a fiber-optic Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. Using this unique apparatus, we investigated the spectral (2-6 μm) and directional (0°-86°) emissivity of stainless steel 304 with different degrees of surface oxidation at temperatures ranging from 800 to 1100 °C. The experimental results show that the emissivity increases slightly with increasing temperature, which accords with the Hagen-Rubens relation. The emissivity increases rapidly at the initial stage of oxidation, but gradually reaches to a constant value after 20 min. In addition, the directional emissivity has a maximum value at the measuring angle of about 75°. The maximum uncertainty of emissivity is only 3.0% over all the measuring ranges, indicating that this experimental apparatus has a high reliability. In order to measure the surface temperature of casting billets based on multi-wavelength thermometry, the bivariate emissivity function with the two variables, wavelength and temperature, is determined. Temperature measurement results based on our technique are compared with those from common dual-wavelength radiation thermometry. Our approach reduces the measured temperature fluctuation from ±20.7 °C to ±2.8 °C and reflects the temperature variation with the changes of production parameters in real time.

  7. Clumped Isotope Thermometry Reveals Variations in Soil Carbonate Seasonal Biases Over >4 km of Relief in the Semi-Arid Andes of Central Chile

    Burgener, L. K.; Huntington, K. W.; Hoke, G. D.; Schauer, A. J.; Ringham, M. C.; Latorre Hidalgo, C.; Díaz, F.

    2015-12-01

    The application of carbonate clumped isotope thermometry to soil carbonates has the potential to shed new light on questions regarding terrestrial paleoclimate. In order to better utilize this paleoclimate tool, outstanding questions regarding seasonal biases in soil carbonate formation and the relationship between soil carbonate formation temperatures (T(Δ47)) and surface temperatures must be resolved. We address these questions by comparing C, O, and clumped isotope data from Holocene/modern soil carbonates to modern meteorological data. The data were collected along a 170 km transect with >4 km of relief in central Chile (~30°S). Previous studies have suggested that soil carbonates should record a warm season bias and form in isotopic equilibrium with soil water and soil CO2. We identify two discrete climate zones separated by the local winter snow line (~3200 m). Below this boundary, precipitation falls as rain and soil carbonate T(Δ47) values at depths >40 cm resemble summer soil temperatures; at higher elevations, precipitation falls as snow and T(Δ47) values resemble mean annual soil temperatures. Soil carbonates from the highest sample site (4700 m), which is devoid of vegetation and located near perennial snow fields, yield anomalous δ18O, δ13C, and T(Δ47) values, indicative of kinetic isotope effects that we attribute to cryogenic carbonate formation. Our results suggest that soil carbonates from depths temperature and precipitation, and should not be used as paleotemperature proxies. These findings (1) highlight the role of soil moisture in modulating soil carbonate formation and the resulting T(Δ47) values, (2) underscore the importance of understanding past soil moisture conditions when attempting to reconstruct paleotemperatures using carbonate clumped isotope thermometry, and (3) suggest that soil carbonates from high elevation or high latitude sites may form under non-equilibrium conditions.

  8. Single-Shot, Volumetrically Illuminated, Three-Dimensional, Tomographic Laser-Induced-Fluorescence Imaging in a Gaseous Free Jet

    2016-04-28

    Single-shot, volumetrically illuminated, three- dimensional, tomographic laser-induced- fluorescence imaging in a gaseous free jet Benjamin R. Halls...acquisition; (110.6955) Tomographic imaging ; (110.6960) Tomography; (280.2490) Flow diagnostics; (300.2530) Fluorescence , laser-induced...84 (1983). 2. I. van Cruyningen, A. Lozano, and R. K. Hanson, “Quantitative imaging of concentration by planar laser-induced fluorescence ,” Exp

  9. Oxygen isotope study of the Long Valley magma system, California: isotope thermometry and convection in large silicic magma bodies

    Bindeman, Ilya; Valley, John

    2002-07-01

    Products of voluminous pyroclastic eruptions with eruptive draw-down of several kilometers provide a snap-shot view of batholith-scale magma chambers, and quench pre-eruptive isotopic fractionations (i.e., temperatures) between minerals. We report analyses of oxygen isotope ratio in individual quartz phenocrysts and concentrates of magnetite, pyroxene, and zircon from individual pumice clasts of ignimbrite and fall units of caldera-forming 0.76 Ma Bishop Tuff (BT), pre-caldera Glass Mountain (2.1-0.78 Ma), and post-caldera rhyolites (0.65-0.04 Ma) to characterize the long-lived, batholith-scale magma chamber beneath Long Valley Caldera in California. Values of δ18O show a subtle 1‰ decrease from the oldest Glass Mountain lavas to the youngest post-caldera rhyolites. Older Glass Mountain lavas exhibit larger ( 1‰) variability of δ18O(quartz). The youngest domes of Glass Mountain are similar to BT in δ18O(quartz) values and reflect convective homogenization during formation of BT magma chamber surrounded by extremely heterogeneous country rocks (ranging from 2 to +29‰). Oxygen isotope thermometry of BT confirms a temperature gradient between "Late" (815 °C) and "Early" (715 °C) BT. The δ18O(quartz) values of "Early" and "Late" BT are +8.33 and 8.21‰, consistent with a constant δ18O(melt)=7.8+/-0.1‰ and 100 °C temperature difference. Zircon-melt saturation equilibria gives a similar temperature range. Values of δ18O(quartz) for different stratigraphic units of BT, and in pumice clasts ranging in pre-eruptive depths from 6 to 11 km (based on melt inclusions), and document vertical and lateral homogeneity of δ18O(melt). Worldwide, five other large-volume rhyolites, Lava Creek, Lower Bandelier, Fish Canyon, Cerro Galan, and Toba, exhibit equal δ18O(melt) values of earlier and later erupted portions in each of the these climactic caldera-forming eruptions. We interpret the large-scale δ18O homogeneity of BT and other large magma chambers as evidence

  10. Laser-induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy for applications in chemical sensing and optical refrigeration

    Kumi Barimah, Eric

    limit of detection for ClO4, was determined to be 14.7 +/- 0.5 wt%/wt for the given experimental conditions. In the second part of this research, the temperature-dependent absorption and emission properties of Tm doped KPb2Cl5 (KPC) and KPb2Br5 (KPB) were evaluated for applications in laser cooling. A Tm doped Y3Al5O12 (YAG) crystal was also included for comparative studies. Under laser pumping, all crystals exhibited broad IR fluorescence at room temperature with a mean fluorescence wavelength of ˜1.82 mum and bandwidth of 0.14 mum (FWHM) for Tm:KPC/KPB and ˜1.79 mum for Tm:YAG. Initial experiments on laser-induced heating/cooling were performed using a combined IR imaging and fluorescence thermometry setup. Employing a continuous-wave laser operating at 1.907 mum, Tm: KPC and Tm: KPB crystals revealed a very small heat load resulting in temperature increase of ˜ 0.3 ( +/- 0.1)°C. The heat loading in Tm:YAG was signicantly larger and resulted in a temperature increase of ˜0.9 (+/-0.1)°C. The results derived from IR imaging were also conrmed by the fluorescence thermometry experiments, which showed only minimal changes in the FIR intensity ratio of the green Er3+ fluorescence lines from Er:KPC.

  11. Thermometry in 3He

    Richardson, R.C.

    1977-01-01

    Some of the methods used in measuring the temperatures of the transitions in 3 He are reviewed. Although noise thermometers, γ-ray anisotropy thermometers and even Pt NMR thermometers are satisfactory for furnishing temperature standards, they are not satisfactory secondary thermometers. The susceptibility of CMN and various 3 He properties make more precise and quicker thermometric indications. (Auth.)

  12. Thermometry for the LHC

    Buhler, S.; Junquera, T.; Thermeau, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    The LHC project will use about 8000 thermometers to control the temperature of magnets. These thermometers will be operated at a temperature ranging from 1.6 K to 300 K and their calibration should be better than 0.25%. A small cryogenic thermometer calibration facility has been designed and tested. To select the cryogenic temperature sensors, an irradiation program is being performed to expose at high neutron fluences (>10 15 n/cm 2 ) the following thermometers: carbon resistors, Ge, thin film, RhFe and Pt. The resistance shifts under radiation of the different sensors at liquid helium are presented. (authors)

  13. Fluorescence spectroscopy of gastrointestinal tumors using δ-ALA

    Borisova, E. G.; Vladimirov, B. G.; Angelov, I. G.; Avramov, L. A.

    2007-03-01

    In the recent study delta-aminolevulinic acid/Protoporphyrin IX (δ-ALA/PpIX) is used as fluorescent marker for dysplasia and tumor detection in esophagus and stomach. The δ-ALA is administered per os six hours before measurements at dose 20mg/kg weight. High-power light-emitting diode at 405 nm is used as an excitation source. Special opto-mechanical device is built to use the light guide of standard video-endoscopic system (Olimpus Corp.). Through endoscopic instrumental channel a fiber is applied to return information about fluorescence to microspectrometer (USB4000, OceanOptics Inc.). The fluorescence detected from tumor sites has very complex spectral origins. It consists of autofluorescence, fluorescence from exogenous fluorophores and re-absorption from the chromophores accumulated in the tissue investigated. Mucosa autofluorescence lies at 450-600 nm region. The fluorescence of PpIX is clearly pronounced at the 630-710 nm region. Deep minima in the tumor fluorescence signals are observed in the region 540-575 nm, related to hemoglobin re-absorption. Such high hemoglobin content is an indication of the tumors neovascularisation and it is clearly pronounced in all dysplastic and tumor sites investigated. The lack of fluorescence peaks in the red spectral area for normal mucosa is an indication for selective accumulation of δ-ALA/PpIX only in abnormal sites and gives high contrast when lesion borders are determined from clinicians during video observation in the process of diagnostic procedure. Very good correlation between fluorescence signals and histology examination results of the lesions investigated is achieved.

  14. A novel portable fluorescence detection system for microfluidic card

    Shen, B; Xie, Y; Irawan, R

    2008-01-01

    Fluorescence based sensors are widely used in the field of biochemistry and medicine due to their high sensitivity and accuracy. But the cost and time required for each sample to be tested is high. If the diagnostic tools could be miniaturized, made simple to use and much less expensive, and readily available at the point of need such as emergency diagnosis, millions of people would be benefited from it. In this paper, we design a prototype of portable fluorescence detection system based on Fluorescence Filter Block and DAQ card which can emulate signal collection and processing functionalities. After the introduction of system structure and functional modules, we use a resolution approximation method to investigate the system performance. The evaluation shows that our prototype system has the sensitivity of 0.01 mMol/L (333.306 μg/mL) which meets most of the medical requirements.

  15. Exciplex Fluorescence Systems for Two-Phase Visualization.

    Kim, J.-U.; Golding, B.; Schock, H. J.; Nocera, D. G.; Keller, P.

    1996-03-01

    We report the development of diagnostic chemical systems for vapor-liquid visualization based on an exciplex (excited state complex) formed between dimethyl- or diethyl-substituted aniline and trimethyl-substituted naphthalenes. Quantum yields of individual monomers were measured and the exciplex emission spectra as well as fluorescence quenching mechanisms were analyzed. Quenching occurs by both static and dynamic mechanisms. Among the many formulations investigated in this study, a system consisting of 7% 1,4,6-trimethylnaphthalene (1,4,6-TMN) and 5% N,N-dimethylaniline (DMA) in 88% isooctane exciplex was found to be useful for the laser- induced fluorescence technique. The technique is expected to find application in observing mixture formation in diesel or spark ignition engines with spectrally well-separated fluorescence images obtained from the monomer and exciplex constituents dissolved in the gasoline fuel. *Supported by NSF MRSEC DMR-9400417 and the Center for Fundamental Materials Research.

  16. Using microencapsulated fluorescent dyes for simultaneous measurement of temperature and velocity fields

    Vogt, J; Stephan, P

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a novel particle image thermometry method based on microcapsules filled with a fluorescent dye solution is described. The microcapsules consist of a liquid core of hexadecane in which the dye is dissolved and a solid polymer shell. The combination of a temperature-sensitive dye (Pyrromethene 597-8C9) and a dye showing a relatively smaller temperature sensitivity (Pyrromethene 567) in hexadecane makes application of the ratiometric LIF possible. This is necessary to compensate for fluctuations of the illuminating pulsed Nd:YAG laser (532 nm) as well as the different particle sizes. The applicability of this measurement technique is demonstrated for a cubic test cell (10 × 10 × 10 mm 3 ) with flow and temperature fields driven by natural convection and a capillary tube (1.16 mm inner diameter) inducing a temperature gradient and a Hagen–Poiseuille velocity profile. For the first case, a light sheet illumination is used making two optical accesses necessary. In the second case an inverted microscope is used, so only one optical access is needed and a volume illumination is applied. The technique facilitates high-resolution measurements (first case: 79 × 79 μm 2 ; second case: 8 × 8 μm 2 ). Although the measurement uncertainty is high compared to LIF measurements with dissolved dyes, temperature fields can be reproduced very well, and the experimental results are in good agreement with numerical computations. (paper)

  17. Fluorescent microthermographic imaging

    Barton, D.L.

    1993-09-01

    In the early days of microelectronics, design rules and feature sizes were large enough that sub-micron spatial resolution was not needed. Infrared or IR thermal techniques were available that calculated the object`s temperature from infrared emission. There is a fundamental spatial resolution limitation dependent on the wavelengths of light being used in the image formation process. As the integrated circuit feature sizes began to shrink toward the one micron level, the limitations imposed on IR thermal systems became more pronounced. Something else was needed to overcome this limitation. Liquid crystals have been used with great success, but they lack the temperature measurement capabilities of other techniques. The fluorescent microthermographic imaging technique (FMI) was developed to meet this need. This technique offers better than 0.01{degrees}C temperature resolution and is diffraction limited to 0.3 {mu}m spatial resolution. While the temperature resolution is comparable to that available on IR systems, the spatial resolution is much better. The FMI technique provides better spatial resolution by using a temperature dependent fluorescent film that emits light at 612 nm instead of the 1.5 {mu}m to 12 {mu}m range used by IR techniques. This tutorial starts with a review of blackbody radiation physics, the process by which all heated objects emit radiation to their surroundings, in order to understand the sources of information that are available to characterize an object`s surface temperature. The processes used in infrared thermal imaging are then detailed to point out the limitations of the technique but also to contrast it with the FMI process. The FMI technique is then described in detail, starting with the fluorescent film physics and ending with a series of examples of past applications of FMI.

  18. Kr II laser-induced fluorescence for measuring plasma acceleration.

    Hargus, W A; Azarnia, G M; Nakles, M R

    2012-10-01

    We present the application of laser-induced fluorescence of singly ionized krypton as a diagnostic technique for quantifying the electrostatic acceleration within the discharge of a laboratory cross-field plasma accelerator also known as a Hall effect thruster, which has heritage as spacecraft propulsion. The 728.98 nm Kr II transition from the metastable 5d(4)D(7/2) to the 5p(4)P(5/2)(∘) state was used for the measurement of laser-induced fluorescence within the plasma discharge. From these measurements, it is possible to measure velocity as krypton ions are accelerated from near rest to approximately 21 km/s (190 eV). Ion temperature and the ion velocity distributions may also be extracted from the fluorescence data since available hyperfine splitting data allow for the Kr II 5d(4)D(7/2)-5p(4)P(5/2)(∘) transition lineshape to be modeled. From the analysis, the fluorescence lineshape appears to be a reasonable estimate for the relatively broad ion velocity distributions. However, due to an apparent overlap of the ion creation and acceleration regions within the discharge, the distributed velocity distributions increase ion temperature determination uncertainty significantly. Using the most probable ion velocity as a representative, or characteristic, measure of the ion acceleration, overall propellant energy deposition, and effective electric fields may be calculated. With this diagnostic technique, it is possible to nonintrusively characterize the ion acceleration both within the discharge and in the plume.

  19. Frequency domain fluorescence diffuse tomography of small animals

    Orlova, Anna G.; Turchin, Ilya V.; Kamensky, Vladislav A.; Plehanov, Vladimir I.; Balalaeva, Irina V.; Sergeeva, Ekaterina A.; Shirmanova, Marina V.; Kleshnin, Michail S.

    2007-05-01

    Fluorescent compounds for selective cancer cell marking are used for development of novel medical diagnostic methods, investigation of the influence of external factors on tumor growth, regress and metastasis. Only special tools for turbid media imaging, such as optical diffusion tomography permit noninvasive monitoring of fluorescent-labeled tumor alterations deep in animal tissue. In this work, the results of preliminary experiments utilizing frequency-domain fluorescent diffusion tomography (FD FDT) experimental setup in small animal are presented. Low-frequency modulated light (1 kHz) from Nd:YAG laser with second harmonic generation at the wavelength of 532 nm was used in the setup. The transilluminative planar configuration was used in the setup. A series of model experiments has been conducted and show good agreement between theoretical and experimental fluorescence intensity. Models of deep tumors were created by two methods: (1) glass capsules containing fluorophore solution were inserted into esophagus of small animals to simulate marked tumors; (2) a suspension of transfected HEΚ293-Turbo-RFP cells was subcutaneously injected to small animal. The conducted experiments have shown that FD FDT allows one to detect the presence of labeled tumor cells in small animals, to determine the volume of an experimental tumor, to perform 3D tumor reconstruction, as well as to conduct monitoring investigations. The obtained results demonstrate the potential capability of the FD FDT method for noninvasive whole-body imaging in cancer studies, diagnostics and therapy.

  20. The role of fluorescence diagnosis in clinical practice

    Sieroń A

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aleksander Sieroń,1 Karolina Sieroń-Stołtny,1 Aleksandra Kawczyk-Krupka,1 Wojciech Latos,1 Sebastian Kwiatek,1 Dariusz Straszak,1 Andrzej M Bugaj1,2 1Clinical Department of Internal Diseases, Angiology and Physical Medicine, Center for Laser Diagnostics and Therapy, Silesian Medical University, Bytom, 2College of Health, Beauty Care and Education, Poznan, Poland Abstract: Fluorescence diagnosis is a fast, easy, noninvasive, selective, and sensitive diagnostic tool for estimation of treatment results in oncology. In clinical practice the use of photodynamic diagnosis is focused on five targets: detection for prevention of malignant transformation precancerous changes, detection of neoplasmatic tissue in the early stages for fast removal, prevention of expansion and detection of recurrence of the cancer, monitoring therapy, and the possibility of excluding neoplasmatic disease. In this article, selected applications of fluorescence diagnosis at the Center for Laser Diagnostics and Therapy in Bytom, Poland, for each of these targets are presented. Keywords: autofluorescence, cancer, fluorescence, imaging, photodynamic diagnosis, photodynamic therapy 

  1. Time-resolved fluorescence monitoring of cholesterol in peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    Martinakova, Z.; Horilova, J.; Lajdova, I.; Marcek Chorvatova, A.

    2014-12-01

    Precise evaluation of intracellular cholesterol distribution is crucial for improving diagnostics of diseased states associated with cholesterol alteration. Time-resolved fluorescence techniques are tested for non-invasive investigation of cholesterol in living cells. Fluorescent probe NBD attached to cholesterol was employed to evaluate cholesterol distribution in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) isolated from the human blood. Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM) was successfully applied to simultaneously monitor the spatial distribution and the timeresolved characteristics of the NBD-cholesterol fluorescence in PBMC. Gathered data are the first step in the development of a new perspective non-invasive diagnostic method for evaluation of cholesterol modifications in diseases associated with disorders of lipid metabolism.

  2. A fluorescence scanning electron microscope

    Kanemaru, Takaaki; Hirata, Kazuho; Takasu, Shin-ichi; Isobe, Shin-ichiro; Mizuki, Keiji; Mataka, Shuntaro; Nakamura, Kei-ichiro

    2009-01-01

    Fluorescence techniques are widely used in biological research to examine molecular localization, while electron microscopy can provide unique ultrastructural information. To date, correlative images from both fluorescence and electron microscopy have been obtained separately using two different instruments, i.e. a fluorescence microscope (FM) and an electron microscope (EM). In the current study, a scanning electron microscope (SEM) (JEOL JXA8600 M) was combined with a fluorescence digital camera microscope unit and this hybrid instrument was named a fluorescence SEM (FL-SEM). In the labeling of FL-SEM samples, both Fluolid, which is an organic EL dye, and Alexa Fluor, were employed. We successfully demonstrated that the FL-SEM is a simple and practical tool for correlative fluorescence and electron microscopy.

  3. Development of a fluorescent cryocooler

    Edwards, B.C.; Buchwald, M.I.; Epstein, R.I.; Gosnell, T.R.; Mungan, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    Recent work at Los Alamos National Laboratory has demonstrated the physical principles for a new type of solid-state cryocooler based on anti-Stokes fluorescence. Design studies indicate that a vibration-free, low-mass ''fluorescent cryocooler'' could operate for years with efficiencies and cooling powers comparable to current commercial systems. This paper presents concepts for a fluorescent cryocooler, design considerations and expected performance

  4. Fluorescence of ceramic color standards

    Koo, Annette; Clare, John F.; Nield, Kathryn M.; Deadman, Andrew; Usadi, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Fluorescence has been found in color standards available for use in calibration and verification of color measuring instruments. The fluorescence is excited at wavelengths below about 600 nm and emitted above 700 nm, within the response range of silicon photodiodes, but at the edge of the response of most photomultipliers and outside the range commonly scanned in commercial colorimeters. The degree of fluorescence on two of a set of 12 glossy ceramic tiles is enough to introduce significant error when those tiles have been calibrated in one mode of measurement and are used in another. We report the nature of the fluorescence and the implications for color measurement.

  5. Video profile monitor diagnostic system for GTA

    Sandovil, D.P.; Garcia, R.C.; Gilpatrick, J.D.; Johnson, K.F.; Shinas, M.A.; Wright, R.; Yuan, V.; Zander, M.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a video diagnostic system used to measure the beam profile and position of the Ground Test Accelerator 2.5 MeV H - ion beam as it exits the intermediate matching section. Inelastic collisions between H - ions and residual nitrogen in the vacuum chamber cause the nitrogen to fluoresce. The resulting light is captured through transport optics by an intensified CCD camera and is digitized. Real-time beam profile images are displayed and stored for detailed analysis. Analyzed data showing resolutions for both position and profile measurements will also be presented. (Author) 5 refs., 7 figs

  6. Video profile monitor diagnostic system for GTA

    Sandoval, D.P.; Garcia, R.C.; Gilpatrick, J.D.; Johnson, K.F.; Shinas, M.A.; Wright, R.; Yuan, V.; Zander, M.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a video diagnostic system used to measure the beam profile and position of the Ground Test Accelerator 2.5-MeV H - ion beam as it exits the intermediate matching section. Inelastic collisions between H-ions and residual nitrogen to fluoresce. The resulting light is captured through transport optics by an intensified CCD camera and is digitized. Real-time beam-profile images are displayed and stored for detailed analysis. Analyzed data showing resolutions for both position and profile measurements will also be presented

  7. Multi-color fluorescent DNA analysis in an integrated optofluidic lab on a chip

    Dongre, C.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Sorting and sizing of DNA molecules within the human genome project has enabled the genetic mapping of various illnesses. Furthermore by employing tiny lab-on-a-chip device, integrated DNA sequencing and genetic diagnostics have become feasible. We present the combination of capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence for optofluidic integration toward an on-chip bio-analysis tool. Integrated optical fluorescence excitation allows for a high spatial resolution (12 μm) ...

  8. Diagnostic Development on NSTX

    A.L. Roquemore; D. Johnson; R. Kaita; et al

    1999-01-01

    Diagnostics are described which are currently installed or under active development for the newly commissioned NSTX device. The low aspect ratio (R/a less than or equal to 1.3) and low toroidal field (0.1-0.3T) used in this device dictate adaptations in many standard diagnostic techniques. Technical summaries of each diagnostic are given, and adaptations, where significant, are highlighted

  9. TFTR diagnostic vacuum controller

    Olsen, D.; Persons, R.

    1981-01-01

    The TFTR diagnostic vacuum controller (DVC) provides in conjunction with the Central Instrumentation Control and Data Acquisition System (CICADA), control and monitoring for the pumps, valves and gauges associated with each individual diagnostic vacuum system. There will be approximately 50 systems on TFTR. Two standard versions of the controller (A and B) wil be provided in order to meet the requirements of two diagnostic manifold arrangements. All pump and valve sequencing, as well as protection features, will be implemented by the controller

  10. Advanced Light Source beam diagnostics systems

    Hinkson, J.

    1993-10-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), a third-generation synchrotron light source, has been recently commissioned. Beam diagnostics were very important to the success of the operation. Each diagnostic system is described in this paper along with detailed discussion of its performance. Some of the systems have been in operation for two years. Others, in the storage ring, have not yet been fully commissioned. These systems were, however, working well enough to provide the essential information needed to store beam. The devices described in this paper include wall current monitors, a beam charge monitor, a 50 ohm Faraday cup, DC current transformers, broad-hand striplines, fluorescence screens, beam collimators and scrapers, and beam position monitors. Also, the means by which waveforms are digitized and displayed in the control room is discussed

  11. Spectroscopy and optical diagnostics for gases

    Hanson, Ronald K; Goldenstein, Christopher S

    2016-01-01

    This text provides an introduction to the science that governs the interaction of light and matter (in the gas phase). It provides readers with the basic knowledge to exploit the light-matter interaction to develop quantitative tools for gas analysis (i.e. optical diagnostics) and understand and interpret the results of spectroscopic measurements. The authors pair the basics of gas‐phase spectroscopy with coverage of key optical diagnostic techniques utilized by practicing engineers and scientists to measure fundamental flow‐field properties. The text is organized to cover three sub‐topics of gas‐phase spectroscopy: (1) spectral line positions, (2) spectral line strengths, and (3) spectral lineshapes by way of absorption, emission, and scattering interactions. The latter part of the book describes optical measurement techniques and equipment. Key subspecialties include laser induced fluorescence, tunable laser absorption spectroscopy, and wavelength modulation spectroscopy. It is ideal for students an...

  12. [Fluorescence control of dental calculus removal].

    Bakhmutov, D N; Gonchukov, S A; Lonkina, T V; Sukhinina, A V

    2012-01-01

    The main condition of periodontitis prevention is the full calculus removal from the teeth surface. This procedure should be fulfilled without harming adjacent unaffected tooth tissues. Nevertheless the problem of sensitive and precise estimating of tooth-calculus interface exists and potential risk of hard tissue damage remains. In the frames of this work it was shown that fluorescence diagnostics during calculus removal can be successfully used for precise detection of tooth-calculus interface. In so doing the simple implementation of this method free from the necessity of spectrometer using can be employed. Such a simple implementation of calculus detection set-up can be aggregated with the devices of calculus removing (as ultrasonic or laser devices).

  13. Smart phone based bacterial detection using bio functionalized fluorescent nanoparticles

    Rajendran, Vinoth Kumar; Bakthavathsalam, Padmavathy; Ali, Baquir Mohammed Jaffar

    2014-01-01

    We are describing immunochromatographic test strips with smart phone-based fluorescence readout. They are intended for use in the detection of the foodborne bacterial pathogens Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157. Silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) were doped with FITC and Ru(bpy), conjugated to the respective antibodies, and then used in a conventional lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA). Fluorescence was recorded by inserting the nitrocellulose strip into a smart phone-based fluorimeter consisting of a light weight (40 g) optical module containing an LED light source, a fluorescence filter set and a lens attached to the integrated camera of the cell phone in order to acquire high-resolution fluorescence images. The images were analysed by exploiting the quick image processing application of the cell phone and enable the detection of pathogens within few minutes. This LFIA is capable of detecting pathogens in concentrations as low as 10 5 cfu mL −1 directly from test samples without pre-enrichment. The detection is one order of magnitude better compared to gold nanoparticle-based LFIAs under similar condition. The successful combination of fluorescent nanoparticle-based pathogen detection by LFIAs with a smart phone-based detection platform has resulted in a portable device with improved diagnosis features and having potential application in diagnostics and environmental monitoring. (author)

  14. Fluorescent imaging of cancerous tissues for targeted surgery

    Bu, Lihong; Shen, Baozhong; Cheng, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    To maximize tumor excision and minimize collateral damage is the primary goal of cancer surgery. Emerging molecular imaging techniques have to “image-guided surgery” developing into “molecular imaging-guided surgery”, which is termed “targeted surgery” in this review. Consequently, the precision of surgery can be advanced from tissue-scale to molecule-scale, enabling “targeted surgery” to be a component of “targeted therapy”. Evidence from numerous experimental and clinical studies has demonstrated significant benefits of fluorescent imaging in targeted surgery with preoperative molecular diagnostic screening. Fluorescent imaging can help to improve intraoperative staging and enable more radical cytoreduction, detect obscure tumor lesions in special organs, highlight tumor margins, better map lymph node metastases, and identify important normal structures intraoperatively. Though limited tissue penetration of fluorescent imaging and tumor heterogeneity are two major hurdles for current targeted surgery, multimodality imaging and multiplex imaging may provide potential solutions to overcome these issues, respectively. Moreover, though many fluorescent imaging techniques and probes have been investigated, targeted surgery remains at a proof-of-principle stage. The impact of fluorescent imaging on cancer surgery will likely be realized through persistent interdisciplinary amalgamation of research in diverse fields. PMID:25064553

  15. Fluorescent Biosensors Based on Single-Molecule Counting.

    Ma, Fei; Li, Ying; Tang, Bo; Zhang, Chun-Yang

    2016-09-20

    Biosensors for highly sensitive, selective, and rapid quantification of specific biomolecules make great contributions to biomedical research, especially molecular diagnostics. However, conventional methods for biomolecular assays often suffer from insufficient sensitivity and poor specificity. In some case (e.g., early disease diagnostics), the concentration of target biomolecules is too low to be detected by these routine approaches, and cumbersome procedures are needed to improve the detection sensitivity. Therefore, there is an urgent need for rapid and ultrasensitive analytical tools. In this respect, single-molecule fluorescence approaches may well satisfy the requirement and hold promising potential for the development of ultrasensitive biosensors. Encouragingly, owing to the advances in single-molecule microscopy and spectroscopy over past decades, the detection of single fluorescent molecule comes true, greatly boosting the development of highly sensitive biosensors. By in vitro/in vivo labeling of target biomolecules with proper fluorescent tags, the quantification of certain biomolecule at the single-molecule level is achieved. In comparison with conventional ensemble measurements, single-molecule detection-based analytical methods possess the advantages of ultrahigh sensitivity, good selectivity, rapid analysis time, and low sample consumption. Consequently, single-molecule detection may be potentially employed as an ideal analytical approach to quantify low-abundant biomolecules with rapidity and simplicity. In this Account, we will summarize our efforts for developing a series of ultrasensitive biosensors based on single-molecule counting. Single-molecule counting is a member of single-molecule detection technologies and may be used as a very simple and ultrasensitive method to quantify target molecules by simply counting the individual fluorescent bursts. In the fluorescent sensors, the signals of target biomolecules may be translated to the

  16. Fluorescence spectroscopy for the detection of potentially malignant disorders of the oral cavity: analysis of 30 cases

    Francisco, A L N; Correr, W R; Kurachi, C; Azevedo, L H; Galletta, V K; Pinto, C A L; Kowalski, L P

    2014-01-01

    Oral cancer is a major health problem worldwide and although early diagnosis of potentially malignant and malignant diseases is associated with better treatment results, a large number of cancers are initially misdiagnosed, with unfortunate consequences for long-term survival. Fluorescence spectroscopy is a noninvasive modality of diagnostic approach using induced fluorescence emission in tumors that can improve diagnostic accuracy. The objective of this study was to determine the ability to discriminate between normal oral mucosa and potentially malignant disorders by fluorescence spectroscopy. Fluorescence investigation under 408 and 532 nm excitation wavelengths was performed on 60 subjects, 30 with potentially malignant disorders and 30 volunteers with normal mucosa. Data was analyzed to correlate fluorescence patterns with clinical and histopathological diagnostics. Fluorescence spectroscopy used as a point measurement technique resulted in a great variety of spectral information. In a qualitative analysis of the fluorescence spectral characteristics of each type of injury evaluated, it was possible to discriminate between normal and abnormal oral mucosa. The results show the potential use of fluorescence spectroscopy for an improved discrimination of oral disorders. (paper)

  17. Fluorescence based molecular in vivo imaging

    Ebert, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    Molecular imaging represents a modern research area that allows the in vivo study of molecular biological process kinetics using appropriate probes and visualization methods. This methodology may be defined- apart from the contrast media injection - as non-abrasive. In order to reach an in vivo molecular process imaging as accurate as possible the effects of the used probes on the biological should not be too large. The contrast media as important part of the molecular imaging can significantly contribute to the understanding of molecular processes and to the development of tailored diagnostics and therapy. Since more than 15 years PTB is developing optic imaging systems that may be used for fluorescence based visualization of tissue phantoms, small animal models and the localization of tumors and their predecessors, and for the early recognition of inflammatory processes in clinical trials. Cellular changes occur during many diseases, thus the molecular imaging might be of importance for the early diagnosis of chronic inflammatory diseases. Fluorescent dyes can be used as unspecific or also as specific contrast media, which allow enhanced detection sensitivity

  18. Fluorescing macerals from wood precursors

    Stout, S A; Bensley, D F

    1987-01-01

    A preliminary investigation into the origin of wood-derived macerals has established the existence of autofluorescent maceral precursors in the secondary xylem of swamp-inhabiting plant species. The optical character and fluorescent properties of microtomed thin-sections of modern woods from the Florida Everglades and Okefenokee Swamp, Georgia are compared to the character and properties of their peatified equivalents from various Everglades and Okefenokee peat horizons and their lignitic equivalents from the Brandon lignite of Vermont and the Trail Ridge lignitic peat from northern Florida. The inherent fluorescence of woody cell walls is believed to be caused by lignin though other cell wall components may contribute. The fluorescence spectra for several wood and cell types had a ..gamma../sub m//sub a//sub x/ of 452 nm and Q value of 0.00. The color as observed in blue light and the spectral geometry as measured in UV light of peatified and lignitic woody cell walls (potential textinites) may change progressively during early coalification. Cell wall-derived maceral material is shown to maintain its fluorescing properties after being converted to a structureless material, perhaps a corpohuminite or humodetrinite precursor. Fluorescing xylem cell contents, such as condensed tannins or essential oils, can maintain the fluorescent character through early coalification. Xylem cell walls and xylem cell contents are shown to provide fluorescing progenitor materials which would not require subsequent infusion with 'lipid' materials to account for their fluorescence as phytoclast material or as macerals in coal. 35 references.

  19. Assessing Photosynthesis by Fluorescence Imaging

    Saura, Pedro; Quiles, Maria Jose

    2011-01-01

    This practical paper describes a novel fluorescence imaging experiment to study the three processes of photochemistry, fluorescence and thermal energy dissipation, which compete during the dissipation of excitation energy in photosynthesis. The technique represents a non-invasive tool for revealing and understanding the spatial heterogeneity in…

  20. Psychologists' diagnostic processes during a diagnostic interview

    Groenier, Marleen; Beerthuis, Vos R.J.; Pieters, Julius Marie; Witteman, C.L.M.; Witteman, Cilia L.M.; Swinkels, Jan A.

    2011-01-01

    In mental health care, psychologists assess clients’ complaints, analyze underlying problems, and identify causes for these problems, to make treatment decisions. We present a study on psychologists’ diagnostic processes, in which a mixed-method approach was employed. We aimed to identify a common

  1. Smart optical probes for near-infrared fluorescence imaging of Alzheimer's disease pathology

    Raymond, Scott B.; Bacskai, Brian J.; Skoch, Jesse; Hills, Ivory D.; Swager, Timothy M.; Nesterov, Evgueni E.

    2008-01-01

    Near-infrared fluorescent probes for amyloid-beta (Aβ) are an exciting option for molecular imaging in Alzheimer's disease research and may translate to clinical diagnostics. However, Aβ-targeted optical probes often suffer from poor specificity and slow clearance from the brain. We are designing smart optical probes that emit characteristic fluorescence signal only when bound to Aβ. We synthesized a family of dyes and tested Aβ-binding sensitivity with fluorescence spectroscopy and tissue-staining. Select compounds exhibited Aβ-dependent changes in fluorescence quantum yield, lifetime, and emission spectra that may be imaged microscopically or in vivo using new lifetime and spectral fluorescence imaging techniques. Smart optical probes that turn on when bound to Aβ will improve amyloid detection and may enable quantitative molecular imaging in vivo. (orig.)

  2. Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy

    Gustavsson, Thomas; Mialocq, Jean-Claude

    2007-01-01

    This article addresses the evolution in time of light emitted by a molecular system after a brief photo-excitation. The authors first describe fluorescence from a photo-physical point of view and discuss the characterization of the excited state. Then, they explain some basic notions related to fluorescence characterization (lifetime and decays, quantum efficiency, so on). They present the different experimental methods and techniques currently used to study time-resolved fluorescence. They discuss basic notions of time resolution and spectral reconstruction. They briefly present some conventional methods: intensified Ccd cameras, photo-multipliers and photodiodes associated with a fast oscilloscope, and phase modulation. Other methods and techniques are more precisely presented: time-correlated single photon counting (principle, examples, and fluorescence lifetime imagery), streak camera (principle, examples), and optical methods like the Kerr optical effect (principle and examples) and fluorescence up-conversion (principle and theoretical considerations, examples of application)

  3. Diagnostic nerve ultrasonography

    Baeumer, T.; Grimm, A.; Schelle, T.

    2017-01-01

    For the diagnostics of nerve lesions an imaging method is necessary to visualize peripheral nerves and their surrounding structures for an etiological classification. Clinical neurological and electrophysiological investigations provide functional information about nerve lesions. The information provided by a standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination is inadequate for peripheral nerve diagnostics; however, MRI neurography is suitable but on the other hand a resource and time-consuming method. Using ultrasonography for peripheral nerve diagnostics. With ultrasonography reliable diagnostics of entrapment neuropathies and traumatic nerve lesions are possible. The use of ultrasonography for neuropathies shows that a differentiation between different forms is possible. Nerve ultrasonography is an established diagnostic tool. In addition to the clinical examination and clinical electrophysiology, structural information can be obtained, which results in a clear improvement in the diagnostics. Ultrasonography has become an integral part of the diagnostic work-up of peripheral nerve lesions in neurophysiological departments. Nerve ultrasonography is recommended for the diagnostic work-up of peripheral nerve lesions in addition to clinical and electrophysiological investigations. It should be used in the clinical work-up of entrapment neuropathies, traumatic nerve lesions and spacy-occupying lesions of nerves. (orig.) [de

  4. Ongoing experiments: diagnostics requirements

    Dickerman, C.E.

    1976-01-01

    The paper reviews the fuel motion diagnostics needs for ongoing LMFBR safety experiments over approximately the next five years, with the discussion centered on TREAT. Brief comments on the direction in which clad motion diagnostics requirements are expected to develop are also presented

  5. Clinical diagnostic ultrasound

    Barnett, E.; Morley, P.

    1986-01-01

    This textbook on diagnostic ultrasound covers the main systems, with emphasis being placed on the clinical application of diagnostic ultrasound in everyday practice. It provides not only a textbook for postgraduates (particularly FRCR candidates), but also a reference work for practitioners of clinical ultrasound and clinicians generally

  6. Gearbox vibration diagnostic analyzer

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the Gearbox Vibration Diagnostic Analyzer installed in the NASA Lewis Research Center's 500 HP Helicopter Transmission Test Stand to monitor gearbox testing. The vibration of the gearbox is analyzed using diagnostic algorithms to calculate a parameter indicating damaged components.

  7. Pathological diagnosis of bladder cancer by image analysis of hypericin induced fluorescence cystoscopic images

    Kah, James C. Y.; Olivo, Malini C.; Lau, Weber K. O.; Sheppard, Colin J. R.

    2005-08-01

    Photodynamic diagnosis of bladder carcinoma based on hypericin fluorescence cystoscopy has shown to have a higher degree of sensitivity for the detection of flat bladder carcinoma compared to white light cystoscopy. The potential of the photosensitizer hypericin-induced fluorescence in performing non-invasive optical biopsy to grade bladder cancer in vivo using fluorescence cystoscopic image analysis without surgical resection for tissue biopsy is investigated in this study. The correlation between tissue fluorescence and histopathology of diseased tissue was explored and a diagnostic algorithm based on fluorescence image analysis was developed to classify the bladder cancer without surgical resection for tissue biopsy. Preliminary results suggest a correlation between tissue fluorescence and bladder cancer grade. By combining both the red-to-blue and red-to-green intensity ratios into a 2D scatter plot yields an average sensitivity and specificity of around 70% and 85% respectively for pathological cancer grading of the three different grades of bladder cancer. Therefore, the diagnostic algorithm based on colorimetric intensity ratio analysis of hypericin fluorescence cystoscopic images developed in this preliminary study shows promising potential to optically diagnose and grade bladder cancer in vivo.

  8. Whispering Gallery Mode Spectroscopy as a Diagnostic for Dusty Plasmas

    Thieme, G.; Basner, R.; Ehlbeck, J.; Roepcke, J.; Maurer, H.; Kersten, H.; Davies, P. B.

    2008-01-01

    Whispering-gallery-mode spectroscopy is being assessed as a diagnostic method for the characterisation of size and chemical composition of spherical particles levitated in a plasma. With a pulsed laser whispering gallery modes (cavity resonances) are excited in individual microspheres leading to enhanced Raman scattering or fluorescence at characteristic wavelengths. This method can be used to gain specific information from the particle surface and is thus of great interest for the characterisation of layers deposited on microparticles, e.g. in molecular plasmas. We present investigations of different microparticles in air and results from fluorescent particles levitated in an Argon rf plasma.

  9. Single Molecule Spectroscopy of Fluorescent Proteins

    Blum, Christian; Subramaniam, Vinod

    2009-01-01

    The discovery and use of fluorescent proteins has revolutionized cellular biology. Despite the widespread use of visible fluorescent proteins as reporters and sensors in cellular environments the versatile photophysics of fluorescent proteins is still subject to intense research. Understanding the

  10. Fluorescent multiplex cell flow systems and methods

    Merzaban, Jasmeen; Abuelela, Ayman F.; Mohammad, Amal Jehad

    2017-01-01

    scanning system emits multiple electromagnetic wavelengths simultaneously it cause multiple fluorescent labels having different excitation wavelength maximums to fluoresce. The system can simultaneously capture real-time fluorescence images from at least

  11. Multi-color fluorescent DNA analysis in an integrated optofluidic lab-on-a-chip

    Dongre, C.; van Weerd, J.; van Weeghel, R.; Martinez-Vazquez, R.; Osellame, R.; Cerullo, G.; Besselink, G.A.J.; van den Vlekkert, H.H.; Hoekstra, Hugo; Pollnau, Markus

    2010-01-01

    Sorting and sizing of DNA molecules within the human genome project has enabled the genetic mapping of various illnesses. By employing tiny lab-on-a-chip devices for such DNA analysis, integrated DNA sequencing and genetic diagnostics have become feasible. However, such diagnostic chips typically lack integrated sensing capability. We address this issue by combining microfluidic capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection resulting in optofluidic integration towards an...

  12. Quantitative optical diagnostics in pathology recognition and monitoring of tissue reaction to PDT

    Kirillin, Mikhail; Shakhova, Maria; Meller, Alina; Sapunov, Dmitry; Agrba, Pavel; Khilov, Alexander; Pasukhin, Mikhail; Kondratieva, Olga; Chikalova, Ksenia; Motovilova, Tatiana; Sergeeva, Ekaterina; Turchin, Ilya; Shakhova, Natalia

    2017-07-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is currently actively introduced into clinical practice. Besides diagnostics, it can be efficiently employed for treatment monitoring allowing for timely correction of the treatment procedure. In monitoring of photodynamic therapy (PDT) traditionally employed fluorescence imaging (FI) can benefit from complementary use of OCT. Additional diagnostic efficiency can be derived from numerical processing of optical diagnostics data providing more information compared to visual evaluation. In this paper we report on application of OCT together with numerical processing for clinical diagnostic in gynecology and otolaryngology, for monitoring of PDT in otolaryngology and on OCT and FI applications in clinical and aesthetic dermatology. Image numerical processing and quantification provides increase in diagnostic accuracy. Keywords: optical coherence tomography, fluorescence imaging, photod

  13. Fluorescent standards for photodynamic therapy

    Belko, N.; Kavalenka, S.; Samtsov, M.

    2016-08-01

    Photodynamic therapy is an evolving technique for treatment of various oncological diseases. This method employs photosensitizers - species that lead to death of tumor cells after the photoactivation. For further development and novel applications of photodynamic therapy new photosensitizers are required. After synthesis of a new photosensitizer it is important to know its concentration in different biological tissues after its administration and distribution. The concentration is frequently measured by the extraction method, which has some disadvantages, e.g. it requires many biological test subjects that are euthanized during the measurement. We propose to measure the photosensitizer concentration in tissue by its fluorescence. For this purpose fluorescent standards were developed. The standards are robust and simple to produce; their fluorescence signal does not change with time. The fluorescence intensity of fluorescent standards seems to depend linearly on the dye concentration. A set of standards thus allow the calibration of a spectrometer. Finally, the photosensitizer concentration can be determined by the fluorescence intensity after comparing the corresponding spectrum with spectra of the set of fluorescent standards. A biological test subject is not euthanized during this kind of experiment. We hope this more humane technique can be used in future instead of the extraction method.

  14. Diagnostics on Z (invited)

    Nash, T. J.; Derzon, M. S.; Chandler, G. A.; Fehl, D. L.; Leeper, R. J.; Porter, J. L.; Spielman, R. B.; Ruiz, C.; Cooper, G.; McGurn, J.

    2001-01-01

    The 100 ns, 20 MA pinch-driver Z is surrounded by an extensive set of diagnostics. There are nine radial lines of sight set at 12 o above horizontal and each of these may be equipped with up to five diagnostic ports. Instruments routinely fielded viewing the pinch from the side with these ports include x-ray diode arrays, photoconducting detector arrays, bolometers, transmission grating spectrometers, time-resolved x-ray pinhole cameras, x-ray crystal spectrometers, calorimeters, silicon photodiodes, and neutron detectors. A diagnostic package fielded on axis for viewing internal pinch radiation consists of nine lines of sight. This package accommodates virtually the same diagnostics as the radial ports. Other diagnostics not fielded on the axial or radial ports include current B-dot monitors, filtered x-ray scintillators coupled by fiber optics to streak cameras, streaked visible spectroscopy, velocity interferometric system for any reflector, bremsstrahlung cameras, and active shock breakout measurement of hohlraum temperature. The data acquisition system is capable of recording up to 500 channels and the data from each shot is available on the Internet. A major new diagnostic presently under construction is the BEAMLET backlighter. We will briefly describe each of these diagnostics and present some of the highest-quality data from them

  15. Cable Diagnostic Focused Initiative

    Hartlein, R.A.; Hampton, R.N.

    2010-12-30

    This report summarizes an extensive effort made to understand how to effectively use the various diagnostic technologies to establish the condition of medium voltage underground cable circuits. These circuits make up an extensive portion of the electric delivery infrastructure in the United States. Much of this infrastructure is old and experiencing unacceptable failure rates. By deploying efficient diagnostic testing programs, electric utilities can replace or repair circuits that are about to fail, providing an optimal approach to improving electric system reliability. This is an intrinsically complex topic. Underground cable systems are not homogeneous. Cable circuits often contain multiple branches with different cable designs and a range of insulation materials. In addition, each insulation material ages differently as a function of time, temperature and operating environment. To complicate matters further, there are a wide variety of diagnostic technologies available for assessing the condition of cable circuits with a diversity of claims about the effectiveness of each approach. As a result, the benefits of deploying cable diagnostic testing programs have been difficult to establish, leading many utilities to avoid the their use altogether. This project was designed to help address these issues. The information provided is the result of a collaborative effort between Georgia Tech NEETRAC staff, Georgia Tech academic faculty, electric utility industry participants, as well as cable system diagnostic testing service providers and test equipment providers. Report topics include: •How cable systems age and fail, •The various technologies available for detecting potential failure sites, •The advantages and disadvantages of different diagnostic technologies, •Different approaches for utilities to employ cable system diagnostics. The primary deliverables of this project are this report, a Cable Diagnostic Handbook (a subset of this report) and an online

  16. Fluorescence molecular tomography in the presence of background fluorescence

    Soubret, Antoine; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2006-01-01

    Fluorescence molecular tomography is an emerging imaging technique that resolves the bio-distribution of engineered fluorescent probes developed for in vivo reporting of specific cellular and sub-cellular targets. The method can detect fluorochromes in picomole amounts or less, imaged through entire animals, but the detection sensitivity and imaging performance drop in the presence of background, non-specific fluorescence. In this study, we carried out a theoretical and an experimental investigation on the effect of background fluorescence on the measured signal and on the tomographic reconstruction. We further examined the performance of three subtraction methods based on physical models of photon propagation, using experimental data on phantoms and small animals. We show that the data pre-processing with subtraction schemes can improve image quality and quantification when non-specific background florescence is present

  17. Plasma diagnostic reflectometry

    Cohen, B.I.; Afeyan, B.B.; Garrison, J.C.; Kaiser, T.B.; Luhmann, N.C. Jr.; Domier, C.W.; Chou, A.E.; Baang, S.

    1996-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies of plasma diagnostic reflectometry have been undertaken as a collaborative research project between the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the University of California Department of Applied Science Plasma Diagnostics Group under the auspices of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program at LLNL. Theoretical analyses have explored the basic principles of reflectometry to understand its limitations, to address specific gaps in the understanding of reflectometry measurements in laboratory experiments, and to explore extensions of reflectometry such as ultra-short-pulse reflectometry. The theory has supported basic laboratory reflectometry experiments where reflectometry measurements can be corroborated by independent diagnostic measurements

  18. Survey of Water and Ammonia in Nearby Galaxies (SWAN): Resolved Ammonia Thermometry and Water and Methanol Masers in IC 342, NGC 6946, and NGC 2146

    Gorski, Mark; Ott, Jürgen; Rand, Richard; Meier, David S.; Momjian, Emmanuel; Schinnerer, Eva

    2018-04-01

    The Survey of Water and Ammonia in Nearby galaxies (SWAN) studies atomic and molecular species across the nuclei of four star-forming galaxies: NGC 253, IC 342, NGC 6946, and NGC 2146. As part of this survey, we present Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array molecular line observations of three galaxies: IC 342, NGC 6946, and NGC 2146. NGC 253 is covered in a previous paper. These galaxies were chosen to span an order of magnitude in star formation rates and to select a variety of galaxy types. We target the metastable transitions of ammonia NH3(1, 1) to (5, 5), the 22 GHz water (H2O) (616–523) transition, and the 36.1 GHz methanol (CH3OH) (4‑1–30) transition. We use the NH3 metastable lines to perform thermometry of the dense molecular gas. We show evidence for uniform heating across the central kiloparsec of IC 342 with two temperature components for the molecular gas, similar to NGC 253, of 27 and 308 K, and that the dense molecular gas in NGC 2146 has a temperature 36 GHz CH3OH masers in IC 342 and NGC 6946. For the four external galaxies the total CH3OH luminosity in each galaxy suggests a correlation with galactic star formation rate, whereas the morphology of the emission is similar to that of HNCO, a weak shock tracer.

  19. Simplified modeling of liquid sodium medium with temperature and velocity gradient using real thermal-hydraulic data. Application to ultrasonic thermometry in sodium fast reactor

    Massacret, N.; Jeannot, J. P. [DEN/DTN/STPA/LIET, CEA Cadarache, Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Moysan, J.; Ploix, M. A.; Corneloup, G. [Aix-Marseille Univ, LMA UPR 7051 CNRS, site LCND, 13625 Aix-en-Provence (France)

    2013-01-25

    In the framework of the French R and D program for the Generation IV reactors and specifically for the sodium cooled fast reactors (SFR), studies are carried out on innovative instrumentation methods in order to improve safety and to simplify the monitoring of fundamental physical parameters during reactor operation. The aim of the present work is to develop an acoustic thermometry method to follow up the sodium temperature at the outlet of subassemblies. The medium is a turbulent flow of liquid sodium at 550 Degree-Sign C with temperature inhomogeneities. To understand the effect of disturbance created by this medium, numerical simulations are proposed. A ray tracing code has been developed with Matlab Copyright-Sign in order to predict acoustic paths in this medium. This complex medium is accurately described by thermal-hydraulic data which are issued from a simulation of a real experiment in Japan. The analysis of these results allows understanding the effects of medium inhomogeneities on the further thermometric acoustic measurement.

  20. Multi-gradient echo MR thermometry for monitoring of the near-field area during MR-guided high intensity focused ultrasound heating.

    Lam, Mie K; de Greef, Martijn; Bouwman, Job G; Moonen, Chrit T W; Viergever, Max A; Bartels, Lambertus W

    2015-10-07

    The multi-gradient echo MR thermometry (MGE MRT) method is proposed to use at the interface of the muscle and fat layers found in the abdominal wall, to monitor MR-HIFU heating. As MGE MRT uses fat as a reference, it is field-drift corrected. Relative temperature maps were reconstructed by subtracting absolute temperature maps. Because the absolute temperature maps are reconstructed of individual scans, MGE MRT provides the flexibility of interleaved mapping of temperature changes between two arbitrary time points. The method's performance was assessed in an ex vivo water bath experiment. An ex vivo HIFU experiment was performed to show the method's ability to monitor heating of consecutive HIFU sonications and to estimate cooling time constants, in the presence of field drift. The interleaved use between scans of a clinical protocol was demonstrated in vivo in a patient during a clinical uterine fibroid treatment. The relative temperature measurements were accurate (mean absolute error 0.3 °C) and provided excellent visualization of the heating of consecutive HIFU sonications. Maps were reconstructed of estimated cooling time constants and mean ROI values could be well explained by the applied heating pattern. Heating upon HIFU sonication and subsequent cooling could be observed in the in vivo demonstration.

  1. Equipment for radiation diagnostics

    Tschunt, E.; Platz, W.

    1976-01-01

    The invention relates to an improvement of the line type of the plotter in an X-ray diagnostics apparatus enabling the production of distinguishable recordings by means of a single plot type. The construction is described explicitly. (UWI) [de

  2. National Convective Weather Diagnostic

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current convective hazards identified by the National Convective Weather Detection algorithm. The National Convective Weather Diagnostic (NCWD) is an automatically...

  3. Diagnostic radiology: I

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This chapter describes the historic development of diagnostic equipment for radiology. The problems associated with fluoroscope design are detailed and the current uses of updated technology, particularly digitization, are considered. Numerous historical photographs are included. 13 refs

  4. Prenatal Genetic Diagnostic Tests

    ... are available for many inherited disorders. The main disadvantage is that diagnostic testing carries a very small ... chromosomes, arranged in order of size. Microarray: A technology that examines all of a person’s genes to ...

  5. Molecular diagnostics of periodontitis

    Izabela Korona-Głowniak; Radosław Siwiec; Marcin Berger; Anna Malm; Jolanta Szymańska

    2017-01-01

    The microorganisms that form dental plaque are the main cause of periodontitis. Their identification and the understanding of the complex relationships and interactions that involve these microorganisms, environmental factors and the host’s health status enable improvement in diagnostics and targeted therapy in patients with periodontitis. To this end, molecular diagnostics techniques (both techniques based on the polymerase chain reaction and those involving nucleic acid analysis via hybridi...

  6. Fluorescence diagnosis of pre-invasive cervical pathology

    I. P. Aminodova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of local fluorescence spectroscopy in 185 women with underlying and pre-invasive disease of cervix and high-risk HPV infection are represented. Fluorescence study was performed 2h after intravenous injection of fotoditazin in a dose of 1 mg/kg (wavelength 636.5 nm. Accumulation of the photosensitizer was estimated by diagnostic parameter (DP value, calculated as mean value of fluorescence scaled to each type of tissue. For normal tissues DP accounted for 0.6±0.4, showing accumulation of the photosensitizer. According to the study the medication did not also accumulate in retention cysts (DP 0.3±0.1, explaining low efficiency of photodynamic therapy for this pathology. The accumulation of fotoditazin depends significantly on type of pathologic tissue. In patients with inflammation, leukoplakia and CIN I accumulation of the photosensitizer in pathologic foci was negligible: DP accounted for 1.7±0.2, 1.8±0.2 and 2.1±0.3, respectively. In sites of endometriosis and CIN II DP was significantly higher and accounted for 8.3±2.1 and 14.1±4.1, respectively. The greatest accumulation of the photosensitizer was registered in sites of CIN III, squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Though DP value for these pathologies had almost no difference and accounted for 23.1±4.7, 22.7±1.8 and 23.3±1.4, respectively. For fluorescence diagnosis of severe dysplasia in 48% of patients borders of fluorescence regions were beyond lesions detected for extended colposcopy with additional areas of fluorescence. Targeted biopsy of these regions proved pathology in all patients: CIN II, CIN III, mild dysplasia or CIS. Thus, local spectroscopy allows to diagnosis multifocal lesions on cervix, to define correctly borders of lesion and consider excisional biopsy in-time.  

  7. Instructive for disposal of fluorescent

    Salazar Vargas, Gerlin

    2014-01-01

    An instructive is established for the management system of waste fluorescent lamps, ensuring the storage, collection, transportation, and final disposal. The lamp is changed by an official of the Seccion de Matenimiento Construccion of the Oficina de Servicios Generales or is produced with the support of an official of the unit. The fluorescent should be deposited in stock of materials of the building maintenance section or unit specified with the help of a staff and in appropriate conditions. The fluorescent lamp is transported according to the guidelines in the manual. A responsible company is contracted by la Vicerrectoria de Administracion of the Universidad de Costa Rica dedicated to the transport and proper handling of fluorescent lamps [es

  8. ANTAGONISTIC POTENTIAL OF FLUORESCENT Pseudomonas ...

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    GROWTH OF TOMATO CHALLENGED WITH PHTOPATHOGENS ... This study focused on the antagonistic potential of fluorescent Pseudomonas in vitro, and its inoculation effect on growth .... the 5 days old culture in starch agar with Lugol's.

  9. A label-free, fluorescence based assay for microarray

    Niu, Sanjun

    DNA chip technology has drawn tremendous attention since it emerged in the mid 90's as a method that expedites gene sequencing by over 100-fold. DNA chip, also called DNA microarray, is a combinatorial technology in which different single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) molecules of known sequences are immobilized at specific spots. The immobilized ssDNA strands are called probes. In application, the chip is exposed to a solution containing ssDNA of unknown sequence, called targets, which are labeled with fluorescent dyes. Due to specific molecular recognition among the base pairs in the DNA, the binding or hybridization occurs only when the probe and target sequences are complementary. The nucleotide sequence of the target is determined by imaging the fluorescence from the spots. The uncertainty of background in signal detection and statistical error in data analysis, primarily due to the error in the DNA amplification process and statistical distribution of the tags in the target DNA, have become the fundamental barriers in bringing the technology into application for clinical diagnostics. Furthermore, the dye and tagging process are expensive, making the cost of DNA chips inhibitive for clinical testing. These limitations and challenges make it difficult to implement DNA chip methods as a diagnostic tool in a pathology laboratory. The objective of this dissertation research is to provide an alternative approach that will address the above challenges. In this research, a label-free assay is designed and studied. Polystyrene (PS), a commonly used polymeric material, serves as the fluorescence agent. Probe ssDNA is covalently immobilized on polystyrene thin film that is supported by a reflecting substrate. When this chip is exposed to excitation light, fluorescence light intensity from PS is detected as the signal. Since the optical constants and conformations of ssDNA and dsDNA (double stranded DNA) are different, the measured fluorescence from PS changes for the same

  10. Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory supports graduate instruction in optics, optical and laser diagnostics and electro-optics. The optics laboratory provides...

  11. X-ray fluorescence holography

    Hayashi, K; Takahashi, Y

    2003-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence holography (XFH) is a new structural analysis method of determining a 3D atomic arrangement around fluorescing atoms. We developed an XFH apparatus using advanced X-ray techniques and succeeded in obtaining high-quality hologram data. Furthermore, we introduced applications to the structural analysis of a thin film and the environment around dopants and, discussed the quantitative analysis of local lattice distortion. (author)

  12. Two-photon excited fluorescence microscopy application for ex vivo investigation of ocular fundus samples

    Peters, Sven; Hammer, Martin; Schweitzer, Dietrich

    2011-07-01

    Two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) imaging of ocular tissue has recently become a promising tool in ophthalmology for diagnostic and research purposes. The feasibility and the advantages of TPEF imaging, namely deeper tissue penetration and improved high-resolution imaging of microstructures, have been demonstrated lately using human ocular samples. The autofluorescence properties of endogenous fluorophores in ocular fundus tissue are well known from spectrophotometric analysis. But fluorophores, especially when it comes to fluorescence lifetime, typically display a dependence of their fluorescence properties on local environmental parameters. Hence, a more detailed investigation of ocular fundus autofluorescence ideally in vivo is of utmost interest. The aim of this study is to determine space-resolved the stationary and time-resolved fluorescence properties of endogenous fluorophores in ex vivo porcine ocular fundus samples by means of two-photon excited fluorescence spectrum and lifetime imaging microscopy (FSIM/FLIM). By our first results, we characterized the autofluorescence of individual anatomical structures of porcine retina samples excited at 760 nm. The fluorescence properties of almost all investigated retinal layers are relatively homogenous. But as previously unknown, ganglion cell bodies show a significantly shorter fluorescence lifetime compared to the adjacent mueller cells. Since all retinal layers exhibit bi-exponential autofluorescence decays, we were able to achieve a more precise characterization of fluorescence properties of endogenous fluorophores compared to a present in vivo FLIM approach by confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (cSLO).

  13. Synthesis and characterization of near IR fluorescent albumin nanoparticles for optical detection of colon cancer

    Cohen, Sarit; Pellach, Michal [Department of Chemistry, Bar-Ilan Institute of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel); Kam, Yossi [Institute for Drug Research, School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, P.O. Box 12065, Jerusalem 91120 (Israel); Grinberg, Igor; Corem-Salkmon, Enav [Department of Chemistry, Bar-Ilan Institute of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel); Rubinstein, Abraham [Institute for Drug Research, School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, P.O. Box 12065, Jerusalem 91120 (Israel); Margel, Shlomo, E-mail: shlomo.margel@mail.biu.ac.il [Department of Chemistry, Bar-Ilan Institute of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel)

    2013-03-01

    Near IR (NIR) fluorescent human serum albumin (HSA) nanoparticles hold great promise as contrast agents for tumor diagnosis. HSA nanoparticles are considered to be biocompatible, non-toxic and non-immunogenic. In addition, NIR fluorescence properties of these nanoparticles are important for in vivo tumor diagnostics, with low autofluorescence and relatively deep penetration of NIR irradiation due to low absorption of biomatrices. The present study describes the synthesis of new NIR fluorescent HSA nanoparticles, by entrapment of a NIR fluorescent dye within the HSA nanoparticles, which also significantly increases the photostability of the dye. Tumor-targeting ligands such as peanut agglutinin (PNA) and anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibodies (anti-CEA) were covalently conjugated to the NIR fluorescent albumin nanoparticles, increasing the potential fluorescent signal in tumors with upregulated corresponding receptors. Specific colon tumor detection by the NIR fluorescent HSA nanoparticles was demonstrated in a chicken embryo model and a rat model. In future work we also plan to encapsulate cancer drugs such as doxorubicin within the NIR fluorescent HSA nanoparticles for both colon cancer imaging and therapy. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Near IR human serum albumin nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanoparticles were shown to be physically and chemically stable and photostable. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tumor-targeting ligands were covalently conjugated to the nanoparticles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Specific colon cancer tumor detection was demonstrated in chicken-embryo and rat models.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of near IR fluorescent albumin nanoparticles for optical detection of colon cancer

    Cohen, Sarit; Pellach, Michal; Kam, Yossi; Grinberg, Igor; Corem-Salkmon, Enav; Rubinstein, Abraham; Margel, Shlomo

    2013-01-01

    Near IR (NIR) fluorescent human serum albumin (HSA) nanoparticles hold great promise as contrast agents for tumor diagnosis. HSA nanoparticles are considered to be biocompatible, non-toxic and non-immunogenic. In addition, NIR fluorescence properties of these nanoparticles are important for in vivo tumor diagnostics, with low autofluorescence and relatively deep penetration of NIR irradiation due to low absorption of biomatrices. The present study describes the synthesis of new NIR fluorescent HSA nanoparticles, by entrapment of a NIR fluorescent dye within the HSA nanoparticles, which also significantly increases the photostability of the dye. Tumor-targeting ligands such as peanut agglutinin (PNA) and anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibodies (anti-CEA) were covalently conjugated to the NIR fluorescent albumin nanoparticles, increasing the potential fluorescent signal in tumors with upregulated corresponding receptors. Specific colon tumor detection by the NIR fluorescent HSA nanoparticles was demonstrated in a chicken embryo model and a rat model. In future work we also plan to encapsulate cancer drugs such as doxorubicin within the NIR fluorescent HSA nanoparticles for both colon cancer imaging and therapy. - Highlights: ► Near IR human serum albumin nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized. ► Nanoparticles were shown to be physically and chemically stable and photostable. ► Tumor-targeting ligands were covalently conjugated to the nanoparticles. ► Specific colon cancer tumor detection was demonstrated in chicken-embryo and rat models.

  15. Non-Intrusive Optical Diagnostic Methods for Flowfield Characterization

    Tabibi, Bagher M.; Terrell, Charles A.; Spraggins, Darrell; Lee, Ja. H.; Weinstein, Leonard M.

    1997-01-01

    Non-intrusive optical diagnostic techniques such as Electron Beam Fluorescence (EBF), Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF), and Focusing Schlieren (FS) have been setup for high-speed flow characterization and large flowfield visualization, respectively. Fluorescence emission from the First Negative band of N2(+) with the (0,0) vibration transition (at lambda =391.44 nm) was obtained using the EBF technique and a quenching rate of N2(+)* molecules by argon gas was reported. A very high sensitivity FS system was built and applied in the High-Speed Flow Generator (HFG) at NASA LaRC. A LIF system is available at the Advanced Propulsion Laboratory (APL) on campus and a plume exhaust velocity measurement, measuring the Doppler shift from lambda = 728.7 nm of argon gas, is under way.

  16. Fluorescent Nanodiamonds in Biomedical Applications.

    Mitura, Katarzyna Anna; Włodarczyk, Elżbieta

    2018-04-18

    Nanoparticles have an extended surface and a large surface area, which is the ratio of the size of the surfacearea to the volume. A functionalized surface can give rise to more modifications and therefore allows this nanomaterial to have new properties. Fluorescent molecules contain fluorophore, which is capable of being excited via the absorption of light energy at a specific wavelength and subsequently emitting radiation energy of a longer wavelength. A chemically modified surface of nanodiamond (ND; by carboxylation) demonstrated biocompatibility with DNA, cytochrome C, and antigens. In turn, fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs) belong to a group of new nanomaterials. Their surface can be modified by joining functional groups such as carboxyl, hydroxyl, or amino, after which they can be employed as a fluorescence agent. Their fluorescent properties result from defects in the crystal lattice. FNDs reach dimensions of 4-100 nm, have attributes such as photostability, long fluorescence lifetimes (10 ns), and fluorescence emission between 600 and 700 nm. They are also nontoxic, chemically inert, biocompatible, and environmentally harmless. The main purpose of this article was to present the medical applications of various types of modified NDs.

  17. Fluorescence detection of esophageal neoplasia

    Borisova, E.; Vladimirov, B.; Avramov, L.

    2008-06-01

    White-light endoscopy is well-established and wide used modality. However, despite the many technological advances that have been occurred, conventional endoscopy is suboptimal and usually detects advanced stage lesions. The limitations of standard endoscopy initiate development of spectroscopic techniques, additional to standard endoscopic equipment. One of the most sensitive approaches is fluorescence spectroscopy of gastrointestinal mucosa for neoplasia detection. In the recent study delta-aminolevulinic acid/Protoporphyrin IX (5-ALA/PpIX) is used as fluorescent marker for dysplasia and tumor detection in esophagus. The 5-ALA is administered per os six hours before measurements at dose 20 mg/kg weight. Excitation source has max of emission at 405 nm and light is delivered by the standard light guide of the endoscopic equipment. Through endoscopic instrumental channel a fiber is applied to return information about fluorescence to microspectrometer. Spectral features observed during endoscopic investigations could be distinct as the next regions: 450-630 nm region, where tissue autofluorescence is observed; 630-710 nm region, where fluorescence of PpIX is clearly pronounced; 530-580 nm region, where minima in the autofluorescence signal are observed, related to reabsorption of blood. The lack of fluorescence peaks in the red spectral area for normal mucosa is an indication for selective accumulation of 5-ALA/PpIX only in abnormal sites Very good correlation between fluorescence signals and histology examination of the lesions investigated is achieved.

  18. Fluorescence spectroscopy for throat cancer detection using human saliva

    Kumar, Pavan; Singh, Ashutosh; Zaffar, Mohammad; Pradhan, Asima

    2018-02-01

    Throat precancer detection using fluorescence from human saliva is reported here. It may be noted that accessing the throat for investigation is cumbersome and use of saliva as a diagnostic medium may ease the process. The study has been conducted on three groups of patients: oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), dysplasia, and normal (control). An in-house developed compact set-up has been used for fluorescence measurements. The compact system consist of a 375 nm laser diode, collimating lens, long pass filter, fibers, and cuvette holder. Major and minor bands of flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and porphyrin are observed in the spectra. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis has been used to evaluate the diagnostic performance. Area under the spectra has been chosen for discrimination among the groups and is able to differentiate OSCC to normal, dysplasia to normal, and OSCC to dysplasia with sensitivities 100% (48/48), 92% (32/35), 77% (37/48), and specificities 96% (50/52), 96% (50/52), 89% (31/35) with the accuracy of 98%, 94% and 82% respectively. Sensitivity and specificity, when differentiating OSCC to normal and dysplasia to normal, are significantly large, which indicates that human saliva may be an excellent diagnostic medium for early detection of throat cancer.

  19. New diagnostic technology and hidden pits and fissures caries

    Fabrizio Guerra; Marta Mazur; Francesca Rinaldo; Denise Corridore; Daniele Salvi; Debora Pasqualotto; Gianna Maria Nardi; Livia Ottolenghi

    2015-01-01

    The accuracy in pits and fissures caries detection is of paramount importance in dental caries primary and secondary prevention. A combination of visual examination and probing is currently the mainstay of occlusal caries diagnosis. Unfortunately, these types of inspection alone may leave a certain number of pit and fissure caries undetected. The Vista Cam iX fluorescence camera (Durr Dental, Bietigheim-Bissingen, Germany) is a novel dental diagnostic tool for quantitative assessment of denta...

  20. INTEGRATED APPLICATION OF OPTICAL DIAGNOSTIC METHODS IN ULCERATIVE COLITIS

    E. V. Velikanov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Our results suggest that the combined use of optical coherent tomography (OCT and fluorescence diagnosis helps to refine the nature and boundaries of the pathological process in the tissue of the colon in ulcerative colitis. Studies have shown that an integrated optical diagnostics allows us to differentiate lesions respectively to histology and to decide on the need for biopsy and venue. This method is most appropriate in cases difficult for diagnosis. 

  1. Ultrashort laser-pulse diagnostics for detection of ordering within an ion beam

    Calabrese, R.; Guidi, V.; Lenisa, P.; Mariotti, E.

    1996-01-01

    A novel diagnostic method to detect ordering within one-dimensional ion beams in a storage ring is presented. The ions are simultaneously excited by a ultrashort pulsed laser (≅1 ps) at two different locations along the beam and fluorescence is detected by a group of four photomultipliers. Correlation in fluorescence signals is a firm indication that the ion beam has an ordered structure. (orig.)

  2. Quantitative high dynamic range beam profiling for fluorescence microscopy

    Mitchell, T. J.; Saunter, C. D.; O’Nions, W.; Girkin, J. M.; Love, G. D.

    2014-01-01

    Modern developmental biology relies on optically sectioning fluorescence microscope techniques to produce non-destructive in vivo images of developing specimens at high resolution in three dimensions. As optimal performance of these techniques is reliant on the three-dimensional (3D) intensity profile of the illumination employed, the ability to directly record and analyze these profiles is of great use to the fluorescence microscopist or instrument builder. Though excitation beam profiles can be measured indirectly using a sample of fluorescent beads and recording the emission along the microscope detection path, we demonstrate an alternative approach where a miniature camera sensor is used directly within the illumination beam. Measurements taken using our approach are solely concerned with the illumination optics as the detection optics are not involved. We present a miniature beam profiling device and high dynamic range flux reconstruction algorithm that together are capable of accurately reproducing quantitative 3D flux maps over a large focal volume. Performance of this beam profiling system is verified within an optical test bench and demonstrated for fluorescence microscopy by profiling the low NA illumination beam of a single plane illumination microscope. The generality and success of this approach showcases a widely flexible beam amplitude diagnostic tool for use within the life sciences

  3. Optical thermometry based on green upconversion emission in Er3+/Yb3+ codoped BaGdF5 glass ceramics

    Wu, Ting; Zhao, Shilong; Lei, Ruoshan; Huang, Lihui; Xu, Shiqing

    2018-02-01

    Er3+/Yb3+ codoped BaGdF5 glass ceramics have been prepared and used to develop a portable all-fiber temperature sensor based on fluorescence intensity ratio technique. XRD and TEM results affirm the generation of BaGdF5 nanocrystals in the borosilicate glass. Eu3+ ions are used as spectral probe to investigate external environment around rare earth (RE) ions. Intense green upconversion emissions from Er3+ ions are detected in the BaGdF5 glass ceramics and their intensity are enhanced about three orders of magnitude after heat treatment, which is attributed to the enrichment of RE ions in the BaGdF5 phase. Based on green upconversion emission from Er3+ ions, the temperature sensing property of the portable all-fiber temperature sensor is studied. The maximum absolute sensitivity is 15.5 × 10-4 K-1 at 567 K and the relative sensitivity is 1.28% K-1 at 298 K, respectively.

  4. Challenges for Plasma Diagnostic in a Next Step Device (FIRE)

    Young, Kenneth M.

    2002-01-01

    The physics program of any next-step tokamak such as FIRE [Fusion Ignition Research Experiment] sets demands for plasma measurement which are at least as comprehensive as on present tokamaks, with the additional capabilities needed for control of the plasma and for understanding the effects of the alpha-particles. The diagnostic instrumentation must be able to provide the fine spatial and temporal resolution required for the advanced tokamak plasma scenarios. It must also be able to overcome the effects of neutron- and gamma-induced electrical noise in ceramic components or detectors, and fluorescence and absorption in optical components. There are practical engineering issues of minimizing radiation streaming while providing essential diagnostic access to the plasma. Many diagnostics will require components at or close to the first wall, e.g., ceramics and MI cable for magnetic diagnostics and mirrors for optical diagnostics; these components must be mounted to operate, and survive, i n fluxes which require special material selection. A better set of diagnostics of alpha-particles than that available for the TFTR [Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor] is essential; it must be qualified well before moving into D-T [deuterim-tritium] experiments. A start has been made to assessing the potential implementation of key diagnostics for the FIRE device. The present status is described

  5. Vanishing "tattoo" multisensor for biomedical diagnostics

    Moczko, E.; Meglinski, I.; Piletsky, S.

    2008-02-01

    Currently, precise non-invasive diagnostics systems for the real-time multi detection and monitoring of physiological parameters and chemical analytes in the human body are urgently required by clinicians, physiologists and bio-medical researchers. We have developed a novel cost effective smart 'vanishing tattoo' (similar to temporary child's tattoos) consisting of environmental-sensitive dyes. Painlessly impregnated into the skin the smart tattoo is capable of generating optical/fluorescence changes (absorbance, transmission, reflectance, emission and/or luminescence within UV, VIS or NIR regions) in response to physical or chemical changes. These changes allow the identification of colour pattern changes similar to bar-code scanning. Such a system allows an easy, cheap and robust comprehensive detection of various parameters and analytes in a small volume of sample (e.g. variations in pH, temperature, ionic strength, solvent polarity, presence of redox species, surfactants, oxygen). These smart tattoos have possible applications in monitoring the progress of disease and transcutaneous drug delivery. The potential of this highly innovative diagnostic tool is wide and diverse and can impact on routine clinical diagnostics, general therapeutic management, skin care and cosmetic products testing as well as fundamental physiological investigations.

  6. Development of fluorescent methods for DNA methyltransferase assay

    Li, Yueying; Zou, Xiaoran; Ma, Fei; Tang, Bo; Zhang, Chun-yang

    2017-03-01

    DNA methylation modified by DNA methyltransferase (MTase) plays an important role in regulating gene transcription, cell growth and proliferation. The aberrant DNA MTase activity may lead to a variety of human diseases including cancers. Therefore, accurate and sensitive detection of DNA MTase activity is crucial to biomedical research, clinical diagnostics and therapy. However, conventional DNA MTase assays often suffer from labor-intensive operations and time-consuming procedures. Alternatively, fluorescent methods have significant advantages of simplicity and high sensitivity, and have been widely applied for DNA MTase assay. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in the development of fluorescent methods for DNA MTase assay. These emerging methods include amplification-free and the amplification-assisted assays. Moreover, we discuss the challenges and future directions of this area.

  7. Fast and accurate automated cell boundary determination for fluorescence microscopy

    Arce, Stephen Hugo; Wu, Pei-Hsun; Tseng, Yiider

    2013-07-01

    Detailed measurement of cell phenotype information from digital fluorescence images has the potential to greatly advance biomedicine in various disciplines such as patient diagnostics or drug screening. Yet, the complexity of cell conformations presents a major barrier preventing effective determination of cell boundaries, and introduces measurement error that propagates throughout subsequent assessment of cellular parameters and statistical analysis. State-of-the-art image segmentation techniques that require user-interaction, prolonged computation time and specialized training cannot adequately provide the support for high content platforms, which often sacrifice resolution to foster the speedy collection of massive amounts of cellular data. This work introduces a strategy that allows us to rapidly obtain accurate cell boundaries from digital fluorescent images in an automated format. Hence, this new method has broad applicability to promote biotechnology.

  8. LHD neutron diagnostics

    Isobe, M.; Ogawa, K.; Kobuchi, T.

    2015-01-01

    The Large Helical Device (LHD) project will step into a next stage, i.e. experiment by using deuterium gases after two years of preparation. A comprehensive set of neutron and γ-ray diagnostics is going to be installed on the LHD towards extension of energetic-particle (EP) physics research in heliotron plasmas. Conceptual design of fusion products diagnostics for the LHD was made in late 1990s. After conclusion of agreements for the LHD deuterium experiment with local government bodies, development of FPs diagnostics has begun lately. Because there are a lot of tasks to do, all Japan fusion neutron and γ-ray diagnostics team has been organized in the collaboration framework of National Institute for Fusion Science. FPs diagnostics system on the LHD will consist of 1) wide dynamic range neutron flux monitor (NFM), 2) neutron activation system (NAS), 3) vertical neutron camera (VNC). In addition to these, we are developing a directional scintillating fiber detector, an artificial diamond detector and a γ-ray scintillation detector for confinement study of MeV ions. A neutron energy spectrometer prototype is also being developed and tested in KSTAR. In this paper, roles of NFM, NAS and VNC and current status of implementation onto the LHD are briefly described. (author)

  9. Pitfalls in diagnostic radiology

    Peh, Wilfred C.G. (ed.) [Khoo Teck Puat Hospital (Singapore). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    2015-04-01

    Only textbook to focus primarily on the topic of pitfalls in diagnostic radiology. Highlights the pitfalls in a comprehensive and systematic manner. Written by experts in different imaging modalities and subspecialties from reputable centers across the world. The practice of diagnostic radiology has become increasingly complex, with the use of numerous imaging modalities and division into many subspecialty areas. It is becoming ever more difficult for subspecialist radiologists, general radiologists, and residents to keep up with the advances that are occurring year on year, and this is particularly true for less familiar topics. Failure to appreciate imaging pitfalls often leads to diagnostic error and misinterpretation, and potential medicolegal problems. Diagnostic errors may be due to various factors such as inadequate imaging technique, imaging artifacts, failure to recognize normal structures or variants, lack of correlation with clinical and other imaging findings, and poor training or inexperience. Many, if not most, of these factors are potentially recognizable, preventable, or correctable. This textbook, written by experts from reputable centers across the world, systematically and comprehensively highlights the pitfalls that may occur in diagnostic radiology. Both pitfalls specific to different modalities and techniques and those specific to particular organ systems are described with the help of numerous high-quality illustrations. Recognition of these pitfalls is crucial in helping the practicing radiologist to achieve a more accurate diagnosis.

  10. Pitfalls in diagnostic radiology

    Peh, Wilfred C.G.

    2015-01-01

    Only textbook to focus primarily on the topic of pitfalls in diagnostic radiology. Highlights the pitfalls in a comprehensive and systematic manner. Written by experts in different imaging modalities and subspecialties from reputable centers across the world. The practice of diagnostic radiology has become increasingly complex, with the use of numerous imaging modalities and division into many subspecialty areas. It is becoming ever more difficult for subspecialist radiologists, general radiologists, and residents to keep up with the advances that are occurring year on year, and this is particularly true for less familiar topics. Failure to appreciate imaging pitfalls often leads to diagnostic error and misinterpretation, and potential medicolegal problems. Diagnostic errors may be due to various factors such as inadequate imaging technique, imaging artifacts, failure to recognize normal structures or variants, lack of correlation with clinical and other imaging findings, and poor training or inexperience. Many, if not most, of these factors are potentially recognizable, preventable, or correctable. This textbook, written by experts from reputable centers across the world, systematically and comprehensively highlights the pitfalls that may occur in diagnostic radiology. Both pitfalls specific to different modalities and techniques and those specific to particular organ systems are described with the help of numerous high-quality illustrations. Recognition of these pitfalls is crucial in helping the practicing radiologist to achieve a more accurate diagnosis.

  11. Common Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Applications in Cytology.

    Savic, Spasenija; Bubendorf, Lukas

    2016-12-01

    - Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a well-established method for detection of genomic aberrations in diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive marker testing. - To review common applications of FISH in cytology. - The published literature was reviewed. - Cytology is particularly well suited for all kinds of FISH applications, which is highlighted in respiratory tract cytology with an increasing demand for predictive FISH testing in lung cancer. Fluorescence in situ hybridization is the gold standard for detection of predictive anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene (ALK) rearrangements, and the same evaluation criteria as in histology apply to cytology. Several other gene rearrangements, including ROS proto-oncogene 1 receptor tyrosine kinase (ROS1), are becoming clinically important and share the same underlining cytogenetic mechanisms with ALK. MET amplification is one of the most common mechanisms of acquired resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors and can be targeted by crizotinib. As genomic aberrations are a hallmark of malignant cells, FISH is a valuable objective ancillary diagnostic tool. In urinary tract cytology, atypical urothelial cells equivocal for malignancy are a common diagnostic dilemma and multitarget FISH can help clarify such cells. Diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma remains one of the most challenging fields in effusion cytology, and ancillary FISH is useful in establishing the diagnosis. Fluorescence in situ hybridization is a morphology-based technique, and the prerequisite for reliable FISH results is a targeted evaluation of the cells in question (eg, cancer or atypical cells). Cytopathologists and cytotechnicians should therefore be involved in molecular testing in order to select the best material and to provide their morphologic expertise.

  12. Solid-liquid equilibrium data acquisitions for paraffin systems through thermometry and thermodynamic modeling with modified UNIFAC; Obtencao de dados de equilibrio solido-liquido para sistemas parafinicos via termometria e modelagem termodinamica com UNIFAC modificado

    Barbosa Junior, Wellington; Queiroga, Renan Nobrega Gadelha; Nascimento, Mairon Antonio Hosannah do; Souza, Carlson Pereira de; Chiavone-Filho, Osvaldo [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Quimica]. E-mail: wbjunior@eq.ufrn.br

    2003-07-01

    In the petroleum industry a great problem found is the formation of solids during the production, transport and the storage, which are mainly paraffins. It was mainly used the thermometry for determination of paraffin formation, or the solubility of paraffin in the other hydrocarbon solvent as function of the composition. The gas chromatography was used to determine if the system light hydrocarbon and paraffin form solid solution, applying a simplified analytical method with thermostatized filtration and glass syringe. The experimental data obtained was used with the aid of the modified UNIFAC model for representing both the liquid and solid solution phases in equilibrium. (author)

  13. Significance of Zr-in-Rutile Thermometry for Deducing the Decompression P–T Path of a Garnet–Clinopyroxene Granulite in the Moldanubian Zone of the Bohemian Massif

    Usuki, T.; Iizuka, Y.; Hirajima, T.; Svojtka, Martin; Lee, H.-Y.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 6 (2017), s. 1173-1198 ISSN 0022-3530 Grant - others:Program interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M100131203 Program:Program interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Bohemian Massif * P–T path * Zr-in-rutile thermometry * high-pressure granulite * continental collision * garnet–clinopyroxene barometry Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Geology Impact factor: 3.280, year: 2016

  14. Polychromatic holographic plasma diagnostics

    Zhiglinskij, A.G.; Morozov, A.O.

    1992-01-01

    Review of holographic interferometry properties is performed and advantages of this method by plasma diagnostics are indicated. Main results obtained by the method of holographic interferometry in studies of various-type plasmas are considered. Special attention is paid to multiwave plasma diagnostics, the necessity of which is related as a rule to multicomponent composition of plasma. The eight laser and gas-discharge sources and holographic schemes, which make it possible to realize plasma polychromatic and holographic interferometry, are considered. The advantages of the method are demonstrated by examples of polychromatic holographic diagnostics of arc discharge and discharge in a hollow cathode. Review of theoretical works determining the applicability area of resonance polychromatic interferometry is carried out

  15. Reversed field pinch diagnostics

    Weber, P.G.

    1986-01-01

    The Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) is a toroidal, axisymmetric magnetic confinement configuration characterized by a magnetic field configuration in which the toroidal magnetic field is of similar strength to the poloidal field, and is reversed at the edge compared to the center. The RFP routinely operates at high beta, and is a strong candidate for a compact fusion device. Relevant attributes of the configuration will be presented, together with an overview of present and planned experiments and their diagnostics. RFP diagnostics are in many ways similar to those of other magnetic confinement devices (such as tokamaks); these lectures will point out pertinent differences, and will present some diagnostics which provide special insights into unique attributes of the RFP

  16. Metabolomics for laboratory diagnostics.

    Bujak, Renata; Struck-Lewicka, Wiktoria; Markuszewski, Michał J; Kaliszan, Roman

    2015-09-10

    Metabolomics is an emerging approach in a systems biology field. Due to continuous development in advanced analytical techniques and in bioinformatics, metabolomics has been extensively applied as a novel, holistic diagnostic tool in clinical and biomedical studies. Metabolome's measurement, as a chemical reflection of a current phenotype of a particular biological system, is nowadays frequently implemented to understand pathophysiological processes involved in disease progression as well as to search for new diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers of various organism's disorders. In this review, we discussed the research strategies and analytical platforms commonly applied in the metabolomics studies. The applications of the metabolomics in laboratory diagnostics in the last 5 years were also reviewed according to the type of biological sample used in the metabolome's analysis. We also discussed some limitations and further improvements which should be considered taking in mind potential applications of metabolomic research and practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Corpuscular plasma diagnostics

    Afrosimov, V.; Petrov, M.

    1984-01-01

    An elementary explanation is presented of the physical principles and important methods of corpuscular plasma diagnostics. The invaluable role of corpuscular methods for measuring the hot plasma ion component in thermonuclear facilities, especially hydrogen ions in tokamaks, is emphasized. All corpuscular methods employ analysis of fast neutral atoms and therefore the mechanism of their creation inside a hot plasma is explained first. The ammount of information obtainable from spectra of fast neutrals is discussed. Multichannel analyzers developed at the FTI A.F. Ioffe in Leningrad are described in detail. Classical passive corpuscular diagnostics are examined as are active methods using artifitial beams of hydrogen atoms. The method used for obtaining local values of ion temperature and density is explained. Corpuscular spectroscopic diagnostics and its application for measuring impurities is mentioned. (J.U.)

  18. ORION laser target diagnostics

    Bentley, C. D.; Edwards, R. D.; Andrew, J. E.; James, S. F.; Gardner, M. D.; Comley, A. J.; Vaughan, K.; Horsfield, C. J.; Rubery, M. S.; Rothman, S. D.; Daykin, S.; Masoero, S. J.; Palmer, J. B.; Meadowcroft, A. L.; Williams, B. M.; Gumbrell, E. T.; Fyrth, J. D.; Brown, C. R. D.; Hill, M. P.; Oades, K.

    2012-01-01

    The ORION laser facility is one of the UK's premier laser facilities which became operational at AWE in 2010. Its primary mission is one of stockpile stewardship, ORION will extend the UK's experimental plasma physics capability to the high temperature, high density regime relevant to Atomic Weapons Establishment's (AWE) program. The ORION laser combines ten laser beams operating in the ns regime with two sub ps short pulse chirped pulse amplification beams. This gives the UK a unique combined long pulse/short pulse laser capability which is not only available to AWE personnel but also gives access to our international partners and visiting UK academia. The ORION laser facility is equipped with a comprehensive suite of some 45 diagnostics covering optical, particle, and x-ray diagnostics all able to image the laser target interaction point. This paper focuses on a small selection of these diagnostics.

  19. ORION laser target diagnostics.

    Bentley, C D; Edwards, R D; Andrew, J E; James, S F; Gardner, M D; Comley, A J; Vaughan, K; Horsfield, C J; Rubery, M S; Rothman, S D; Daykin, S; Masoero, S J; Palmer, J B; Meadowcroft, A L; Williams, B M; Gumbrell, E T; Fyrth, J D; Brown, C R D; Hill, M P; Oades, K; Wright, M J; Hood, B A; Kemshall, P

    2012-10-01

    The ORION laser facility is one of the UK's premier laser facilities which became operational at AWE in 2010. Its primary mission is one of stockpile stewardship, ORION will extend the UK's experimental plasma physics capability to the high temperature, high density regime relevant to Atomic Weapons Establishment's (AWE) program. The ORION laser combines ten laser beams operating in the ns regime with two sub ps short pulse chirped pulse amplification beams. This gives the UK a unique combined long pulse/short pulse laser capability which is not only available to AWE personnel but also gives access to our international partners and visiting UK academia. The ORION laser facility is equipped with a comprehensive suite of some 45 diagnostics covering optical, particle, and x-ray diagnostics all able to image the laser target interaction point. This paper focuses on a small selection of these diagnostics.

  20. Nova diagnostics summary

    Slivinsky, V.W.; Drake, R.P.

    1985-01-01

    The authors intend that Nova be the best diagnosed ICF research facility in operation today. The authors experience in providing advanced diagnostics for previous laser systems will be extended at Nova, and will be challenged by the development of new instrumentation to diagnose the more advanced targets made possible by this powerful laser. Previous experience has shown that to understand target performance, the authors must have as complete a set of diagnostics as possible. The Nova diagnostics are divided into two sets: the basic set required for the initial Nova experiments and the more advanced set for later, generally more complex, experiments. The basic set will be operational for the first Nova shots; it was a Nova line item funded with Nova construction money. This basic set is presented in a table

  1. Angiography - interventional diagnostic applications

    Schild, H.

    1994-01-01

    The angiography system is very different from the other systems used in diagnostic radiology. The invasivity of angiography requires special, high standards in theoretical and practical training and experience both of beginners and experienced personnel. This textbook fully meets the demand for in-depth and exhaustive information, as it presents: - The fundamentals and techniques of angiography, the vascular anatomy, and many hints and tips of great help in practice. - A comprehensive survey of diagnostic problems and examination approaches, including neuro-angiography, with 221 reproductions of original angiographs, and additional schematic representations. - A special chapter devoted to indication and relevant techniques for the major vascular interventional examinations. - A great number of tables explain at a glance standard examination techniques, indications and diagnostic criteria. (orig./CB) [de

  2. Fluorescence and phosphorescence of rutin

    Bondarev, Stanislav L., E-mail: bondarev@imaph.bas-net.by [Minsk State Higher Radioengineering College, 220005 Minsk (Belarus); Knyukshto, Valeri N. [B.I. Stepanov Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, 220072 Minsk (Belarus)

    2013-10-15

    Rutin is one of the most promising flavonoid from a pharmacological and biochemical point of view. Here we have explored its spectroscopic and photophysical properties at room temperature and 77 K using steady-state absorption-luminescence methods and pulse spectroscopy equipment. By excitation into the absorption band 1 of rutin in methanol at room temperature the normal Stokes' shifted fluorescence with a maximum at 415 nm and quantum yield of 2×10{sup −4} was revealed. However, by excitation into the bands 2 and 3 any emission wasn’t observed. At 77 K in ethanol glass we have observed fluorescence at 410 nm and phosphorescence at 540 nm for the first time. As a result the adequate energetic scheme including the lowest electronic excited singlet at 26000 cm{sup −1} and triplet at 19600 cm{sup −1} states was proposed. -- Highlights: • Rutin fluorescence and phosphorescence at 77 K were revealed for the first time. • Room temperature fluorescence is determined by maximum at 415 nm and yield of 2×10{sup −4}. • Violation of Vavilov–Kasha rule by excitation into the absorption bands 2 and 3. • Fluorescence and phosphorescence in rutin are caused by the allowed π, π{sup (⁎)} transitions.

  3. Experimental Development and Demonstration of Ultrasonic Measurement Diagnostics for Sodium Fast Reactor Thermal-hydraulics

    Tokuhiro, Akira; Jones, Byron

    2013-09-13

    This research project will address some of the principal technology issues related to sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFR), primarily the development and demonstration of ultrasonic measurement diagnostics linked to effective thermal convective sensing under normatl and off-normal conditions. Sodium is well-suited as a heat transfer medium for the SFR. However, because it is chemically reactive and optically opaque, it presents engineering accessibility constraints relative to operations and maintenance (O&M) and in-service inspection (ISI) technologies that are currently used for light water reactors. Thus, there are limited sensing options for conducting thermohydraulic measurements under normal conditions and off-normal events (maintenance, unanticipated events). Acoustic methods, primarily ultrasonics, are a key measurement technology with applications in non-destructive testing, component imaging, thermometry, and velocimetry. THis project would have yielded a better quantitative and qualitative understanding of the thermohydraulic condition of solium under varied flow conditions. THe scope of work will evaluate and demonstrate ultrasonic technologies and define instrumentation options for the SFR.

  4. Fluorescence Spectrum and Decay Measurement for Hsil VS Normal Cytology Differentiation in Liquid Pap Smear Supernatant

    Vaitkuviene, A.; Gegzna, V.; Juodkazis, S.; Jursenas, S.; Miasojedovas, S.; Kurtinaitiene, R.; Rimiene, J.; Vaitkus, J.

    2009-06-01

    Cervical smear material contains endo and exocervical cells, mucus and inflammative, immune cells in cases of pathology. Just not destroyed keratinocytes lay on the glass for microscopy. Liquid cytology supernatant apart other diagnostics could be used for photodiagnostic. The spectroscopic parameters suitable for Normal and HSIL cytology groups supernatant differentiation are demonstrated. The dried liquid PAP supernatant fractions—sediment and liquid were investigated. Excitation and emission matrices (EEM), supernatant fluorescence decay measured under 280 nm diode short pulse excitation and fluorescence spectroscopy by excitation with 355 nm laser light were analyzed. The differences between Normal and HSIL groups were statistically proven in the certain spectral regions. Fluorescence decay peculiarities show spectral regions consisting of few fluorophores. Obtained results on fluorescence differences in Normal and HSIL groups' supernatant shows the potency of photodiagnosis application in cervical screening.

  5. Automatic enhancement of skin fluorescence localization due to refractive index matching

    Churmakov, Dmitry Y.; Meglinski, Igor V.; Piletsky, Sergey A.; Greenhalgh, Douglas A.

    2004-07-01

    Fluorescence diagnostic techniques are notable amongst many other optical methods, as they offer high sensitivity and non-invasive measurements of tissue properties. However, a combination of multiple scattering and physical heterogeneity of biological tissues hampers the interpretation of the fluorescence measurements. The analyses of the spatial distribution of endogenous and exogenous fluorophores excitations within tissues and their contribution to the detected signal localization are essential for many applications. We have developed a novel Monte Carlo technique that gives a graphical perception of how the excitation and fluorescence detected signal are localized in tissues. Our model takes into account spatial distribution of fluorophores and their quantum yields. We demonstrate that matching of the refractive indices of ambient medium and topical skin layer improves spatial localization of the detected fluorescence signal within the tissue. This result is consistent with the recent conclusion that administering biocompatible agents results in higher image contrast.

  6. Recent Progress in Synthesis and Functionalization of Multimodal Fluorescent-Magnetic Nanoparticles for Biological Applications

    Raquel Serrano García

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a great interest in the development of new nanomaterials for multimodal imaging applications in biology and medicine. Multimodal fluorescent-magnetic based nanomaterials deserve particular attention as they can be used as diagnostic and drug delivery tools, which could facilitate the diagnosis and treatment of cancer and many other diseases. This review focuses on the recent developments of magnetic-fluorescent nanocomposites and their biomedical applications. The recent advances in synthetic strategies and approaches for the preparation of fluorescent-magnetic nanocomposites are presented. The main biomedical uses of multimodal fluorescent-magnetic nanomaterials, including biological imaging, cancer therapy and drug delivery, are discussed, and prospects of this field are outlined.

  7. Pure rotational CARS thermometry studies of low-temperature oxidation kinetics in air and ethene-air nanosecond pulse discharge plasmas

    Zuzeek, Yvette; Choi, Inchul; Uddi, Mruthunjaya; Adamovich, Igor V; Lempert, Walter R

    2010-01-01

    Pure rotational CARS thermometry is used to study low-temperature plasma assisted fuel oxidation kinetics in a repetitive nanosecond pulse discharge in ethene-air at stoichiometric and fuel lean conditions at 40 Torr pressure. Air and fuel-air mixtures are excited by a burst of high-voltage nanosecond pulses (peak voltage, 20 kV; pulse duration, ∼ 25 ns) at a 40 kHz pulse repetition rate and a burst repetition rate of 10 Hz. The number of pulses in the burst is varied from a few pulses to a few hundred pulses. The results are compared with the previously developed hydrocarbon-air plasma chemistry model, modified to incorporate non-empirical scaling of the nanosecond discharge pulse energy coupled to the plasma with number density, as well as one-dimensional conduction heat transfer. Experimental time-resolved temperature, determined as a function of the number of pulses in the burst, is found to agree well with the model predictions. The results demonstrate that the heating rate in fuel-air plasmas is much faster compared with air plasmas, primarily due to energy release in exothermic reactions of fuel with O atoms generated by the plasma. It is found that the initial heating rate in fuel-air plasmas is controlled by the rate of radical (primarily O atoms) generation and is nearly independent of the equivalence ratio. At long burst durations, the heating rate in lean fuel air-mixtures is significantly reduced when all fuel is oxidized.

  8. Beam Instrumentation and Diagnostics

    Strehl, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This treatise covers all aspects of the design and the daily operations of a beam diagnostic system for a large particle accelerator. A very interdisciplinary field, it involves contributions from physicists, electrical and mechanical engineers and computer experts alike so as to satisfy the ever-increasing demands for beam parameter variability for a vast range of operation modi and particles. The author draws upon 40 years of research and work, most of them spent as the head of the beam diagnostics group at GSI. He has illustrated the more theoretical aspects with many real-life examples that will provide beam instrumentation designers with ideas and tools for their work.

  9. Diagnostic Imaging Workshop

    Sociedad Argentina de Fisica Medica

    2012-01-01

    The American Association of Physicist in Medicine (AAPM), the International Organization for Medical Physics (IOMP) and the Argentina Society of Medical Physics (SAFIM) was organized the Diagnostic Imaging Workshop 2012, in the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina. This workshop was an oriented training and scientific exchange between professionals and technicians who work in medical physics, especially in the areas of diagnostic imaging, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy, with special emphasis on the use of multimodal imaging for radiation treatment, planning as well of quality assurance associates.

  10. Intradermal indocyanine green for in vivo fluorescence laser scanning microscopy of human skin: a pilot study.

    Constanze Jonak

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In clinical diagnostics, as well as in routine dermatology, the increased need for non-invasive diagnosis is currently satisfied by reflectance laser scanning microscopy. However, this technique has some limitations as it relies solely on differences in the reflection properties of epidermal and dermal structures. To date, the superior method of fluorescence laser scanning microscopy is not generally applied in dermatology and predominantly restricted to fluorescein as fluorescent tracer, which has a number of limitations. Therefore, we searched for an alternative fluorophore matching a novel skin imaging device to advance this promising diagnostic approach. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a Vivascope®-1500 Multilaser microscope, we found that the fluorophore Indocyanine-Green (ICG is well suited as a fluorescent marker for skin imaging in vivo after intradermal injection. ICG is one of few fluorescent dyes approved for use in humans. Its fluorescence properties are compatible with the application of a near-infrared laser, which penetrates deeper into the tissue than the standard 488 nm laser for fluorescein. ICG-fluorescence turned out to be much more stable than fluorescein in vivo, persisting for more than 48 hours without significant photobleaching whereas fluorescein fades within 2 hours. The well-defined intercellular staining pattern of ICG allows automated cell-recognition algorithms, which we accomplished with the free software CellProfiler, providing the possibility of quantitative high-content imaging. Furthermore, we demonstrate the superiority of ICG-based fluorescence microscopy for selected skin pathologies, including dermal nevi, irritant contact dermatitis and necrotic skin. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results introduce a novel in vivo skin imaging technique using ICG, which delivers a stable intercellular fluorescence signal ideal for morphological assessment down to sub-cellular detail. The application of

  11. Engineering of near IR fluorescent albumin nanoparticles for in vivo detection of colon cancer

    Cohen Sarit

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of near-infrared (NIR fluorescence imaging techniques has gained great interest for early detection of cancer because water and other intrinsic biomolecules display negligible absorption or autofluorescence in this region. Novel fluorescent nanoparticles with potential to improve neoplasm detection sensitivity may prove to be a valuable tool in early detection of colon tumors. Methods The present study describes the synthesis and use of NIR fluorescent albumin nanoparticles as a diagnostic tool for detection of colon cancer. These fluorescent nanoparticles were prepared by a precipitation process of human serum albumin (HSA in aqueous solution in the presence of a carboxylic acid derivative of the NIR dye IR-783 (CANIR. Tumor-targeting ligands such as peanut agglutinin (PNA, anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibodies (anti-CEA and tumor associated glycoprotein-72 monoclonal antibodies (anti-TAG-72 were covalently conjugated to the albumin nanoparticles via the surface carboxylate groups by using the carbodiimide activation method. Results and discussion Leakage of the encapsulated dye into PBS containing 4% HSA or human bowel juice was not detected. This study also demonstrates that the encapsulation of the NIR fluorescent dye within the HSA nanoparticles reduces the photobleaching of the dye significantly. Specific colon tumor detection in a mouse model was demonstrated for PNA, anti-CEA and anti-TAG-72 conjugated NIR fluorescent HSA nanoparticles. These bioactive NIR fluorescent albumin nanoparticles also detected invisible tumors that were revealed as pathological only subsequent to histological analysis. Conclusions These results may suggest a significant advantage of NIR fluorescence imaging using NIR fluorescent nanoparticles over regular colonoscopy. In future work we plan to broaden this study by encapsulating cancer drugs, such as paclitaxel and doxorubicin, within these biodegradable NIR fluorescent HSA

  12. Engineering of near IR fluorescent albumin nanoparticles for in vivo detection of colon cancer.

    Cohen, Sarit; Margel, Shlomo

    2012-08-14

    The use of near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging techniques has gained great interest for early detection of cancer because water and other intrinsic biomolecules display negligible absorption or autofluorescence in this region. Novel fluorescent nanoparticles with potential to improve neoplasm detection sensitivity may prove to be a valuable tool in early detection of colon tumors. The present study describes the synthesis and use of NIR fluorescent albumin nanoparticles as a diagnostic tool for detection of colon cancer. These fluorescent nanoparticles were prepared by a precipitation process of human serum albumin (HSA) in aqueous solution in the presence of a carboxylic acid derivative of the NIR dye IR-783 (CANIR). Tumor-targeting ligands such as peanut agglutinin (PNA), anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibodies (anti-CEA) and tumor associated glycoprotein-72 monoclonal antibodies (anti-TAG-72) were covalently conjugated to the albumin nanoparticles via the surface carboxylate groups by using the carbodiimide activation method. Leakage of the encapsulated dye into PBS containing 4% HSA or human bowel juice was not detected. This study also demonstrates that the encapsulation of the NIR fluorescent dye within the HSA nanoparticles reduces the photobleaching of the dye significantly. Specific colon tumor detection in a mouse model was demonstrated for PNA, anti-CEA and anti-TAG-72 conjugated NIR fluorescent HSA nanoparticles. These bioactive NIR fluorescent albumin nanoparticles also detected invisible tumors that were revealed as pathological only subsequent to histological analysis. These results may suggest a significant advantage of NIR fluorescence imaging using NIR fluorescent nanoparticles over regular colonoscopy. In future work we plan to broaden this study by encapsulating cancer drugs, such as paclitaxel and doxorubicin, within these biodegradable NIR fluorescent HSA nanoparticles, in order to use them for both detection as well as therapy of colon

  13. Clinical application of fluorescence in situ hybridization for prenatal diagnosis

    Shu-fang JIANG

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To establish and optimize the procedures of fluorescence in situ hybridization(FISH), and evaluate its clinical value in rapid prenatal diagnosis of fetal numerical abnormality of chromosomes 21, 18, 13, X, Y. Methods Amniotic fluid or fetal blood was sampled by routine invasive procedures. After the amniotic fluid cells or fetal blood cells were separated and sequentially processed with hypotonic solution, fixation solution, smear and high temperature, they were hybridized in situ with two panels of specific fluorescence probes to detect numerical abnormality of chromosomes 21, 18, 13, X, Y. All the samples were also cultured and analyzed for their karyotype by conventional methods. Results When it was used as a diagnostic criterion of chromosomal number that the fluorescence signals were observed in ≥90% cells, GLP 13/GLP 21 probe panel showed 2 green/2 red fluorescence signals and CSP18/CSP X/CSP Y probe panel showed 2 blue/2 yellow (female or 2 blue/1 yellow/1 red fluorescence signals (male under normal condition. The test reports of all 196 cases were sent out in 72-96 hours, and 7 cases of Down syndrome, 2 cases of trisomy 18 and 1 case of sex chromosomal numerical abnormality were detected, which were accordant with karyotype analysis results reported one month later. Conclusions FISH has potential for clinical application, and is applicable to rapid prenatal diagnosis of fetal numerical abnormality of chromosomes 21, 18, 13, X, Y. The rapid FISH, together with conventional karyotyping, offer a valuable means for prenatal diagnosis of fetal aneuploidies.

  14. Electron beam diagnostics study

    Garganne, P.

    1989-08-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a study on beam diagnostics, using carbon wire scanners and optical transition radiation (DTR) monitors. The main consideration consists in the material selection, taking their thermal properties and their effect on the beam into account [fr

  15. Molecular Beacons in Diagnostics

    Tyagi, Sanjay; Kramer, Fred Russell

    2012-01-01

    Recent technical advances have begun to realize the potential of molecular beacons to test for diverse infections in clinical diagnostic laboratories. These include the ability to test for, and quantify, multiple pathogens in the same clinical sample, and to detect antibiotic resistant strains within hours. The design principles of molecular beacons have also spawned a variety of allied technologies.

  16. Diagnostic radiation and pregnancy

    Collins, L.; Fitzgerald, P.

    1983-01-01

    Accidental irradiation of the embryo or fetus in the first trimester is a problem which will occasionally occur. The value of a proper estimation of the radiation dose is emphasised. Very rarely does a single diagnostic procedure result in a uterine dose as high as 50 mGy. An accidental irradiation should rarely be cause for termination of a pregnancy

  17. Diagnostic imaging of craniopharyngioma

    Gradzki, J.; Nowak, S.; Paprzycki, W.

    1993-01-01

    40 patients have been examined with operational and histological confirmation of craniopharyngioma. CT image and X-ray plane of skull were performed in case all of these patients. TMR was conformed to examine 4 patients. X-ray planes was compared to CT. CT permits tumor cyst detection. The efficacy of mentioned above diagnostic techniques was compared with surgical findings. (author)

  18. Diagnostics for induction accelerators

    Fessenden, T.J.

    1996-04-01

    The induction accelerator was conceived by N. C. Christofilos and first realized as the Astron accelerator that operated at LLNL from the early 1960's to the end of 1975. This accelerator generated electron beams at energies near 6 MeV with typical currents of 600 Amperes in 400 ns pulses. The Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) built at Livermore's Site 300 produced 10,000 Ampere beams with pulse widths of 70 ns at energies approaching 50 MeV. Several other electron and ion induction accelerators have been fabricated at LLNL and LBNL. This paper reviews the principal diagnostics developed through efforts by scientists at both laboratories for measuring the current, position, energy, and emittance of beams generated by these high current, short pulse accelerators. Many of these diagnostics are closely related to those developed for other accelerators. However, the very fast and intense current pulses often require special diagnostic techniques and considerations. The physics and design of the more unique diagnostics developed for electron induction accelerators are presented and discussed in detail

  19. Diagnostic studies in amyloidosis

    Hazenberg, Bouke Pier Cornelis

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis two diagnostic techniques are studied in amyloidosis. Systemic amyloidosis is characterized by deposition of amyloid fibrils (tiny fibres) throughout the body resulting in damage of vital organs. Amyloid can be detected in a tissue specimen stained with Congo red: red-stained amyloid

  20. 1968 Prototype Diagnostic Test.

    Veterans Administration Hospital, Bedford, MA.

    This true-false diagnostic test was used for pretesting of employees at a Veterans Administration Hospital. The test is comprised of 20 items. An alternate test--Classification Questionnaire--was used for testing after remedial training. (For related document, see TM 002 334.) (DB)

  1. Diagnostics for induction accelerators

    Fessenden, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    The induction accelerator was conceived by N. C. Christofilos and first realized as the Astron accelerator that operated at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) from the early 1960s to the end of 1975. This accelerator generated electron beams at energies near 6 MeV with typical currents of 600 Amperes in 400-ns pulses. The Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) built at Livermore close-quote s Site 300 produced 10,000-Ampere beams with pulse widths of 70 ns at energies approaching 50 MeV. Several other electron and ion induction accelerators have been fabricated at LLNL and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). This paper reviews the principal diagnostics developed through efforts by scientists at both laboratories for measuring the current, position, energy, and emittance of beams generated by these high-current, short-pulse accelerators. Many of these diagnostics are closely related to those developed for other accelerators. However, the very fast and intense current pulses often require special diagnostic techniques and considerations. The physics and design of the more unique diagnostics developed for electron induction accelerators are presented and discussed in detail. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  2. It's diagnostics, stupid.

    Bernards, René

    2010-04-02

    To stem the spiraling cost of cancer treatment, a concerted effort is urgently needed to develop molecular diagnostics to better identify the patients that respond to expensive targeted therapies. Opportunities and obstacles in the development of such drug response biomarkers are discussed here. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Diagnostics for pellet experiments

    Johnson, R.R.

    1978-01-01

    The target diagnostics which are being used and planned in current laser driven ICF Experiments are described. Most of these diagnostics can be easily applied to future ion-beam fusion experiments. The status of laser fusion diagnostics has been much improved in the last 5 years and further improvements can be expected and should be available when the first ICF experiments using ion beams are performed. As an example, x-ray temporal and spatial resolutions are now approximately 5 psec and 3 μm, which is approximately a factor of 4 better than the resolution reported in the first implosion experiments. As one plans ahead for ion-beam fusion experiments it should be emphasized that high yield experiments are easier to diagnose provided adequate shielding is employed. However, in the event that the first high yield experiments fail it will be necessary to have diagnostics available to determine where the problems lie. In laser fusion it is interesting to note that higher laser powers are required now for breakeven experiments than first anticipated, mainly because some aspects of the laser-interaction physics were not recognized until the experiments were carefully diagnosed. Thus as has been pointed out, it may be necessary to increase the energy of the ion-beam driver to enable us to do breakeven experiments with high confidence

  4. Flowfield modeling and diagnostics

    Gupta, A.K.; Lilley, D.G.

    1985-01-01

    This textbook is devoted solely to flowfield modeling and diagnostics; their practical use, recent and current research, and projected developments and trends. It provides an account of the use of a broad range of techniques in industrial and research practice, both with and without combustion. Application ideas are complemented by details about experimental and modeling techniques

  5. Serbia : Systematic Country Diagnostic

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    This Systematic Country Diagnostic (SCD) aims to identify the major constraints on and opportunities for sustaining poverty reduction and shared prosperity in Serbia. The SCD serves as the analytic foundation on which the World Bank Group and the Government of Serbia will define a new Country Partnership Framework for FY2016 to FY2020. It is based on the best possible analysis, drawing on ...

  6. Diagnostic and interventional radiology

    Vogl, Thomas J. [Klinikum der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Reith, Wolfgang [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie; Rummeny, Ernst J. (ed.) [Technische Univ. Muenchen Klinikum rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie

    2016-08-01

    This exceptional book covers all aspects of diagnostic and interventional radiology within one volume, at a level appropriate for the specialist. From the basics through diagnosis to intervention: the reader will find a complete overview of all areas of radiology. The clear, uniform structure, with chapters organized according to organ system, facilitates the rapid retrieval of information. Features include: Presentation of the normal radiological anatomy Classification of the different imaging procedures according to their diagnostic relevance Imaging diagnosis with many reference images Precise description of the interventional options The inclusion of many instructive aids will be of particular value to novices in decision making: Important take home messages and summaries of key radiological findings smooth the path through the jungle of facts Numerous tables on differential diagnosis and typical findings in the most common diseases offer a rapid overview and orientation Diagnostic flow charts outline the sequence of diagnostic evaluation All standard procedures within the field of interventional radiology are presented in a clinically relevant and readily understandable way, with an abundance of illustrations. This is a textbook, atlas, and reference in one: with more than 2500 images for comparison with the reader's own findings. This comprehensive and totally up-to-date book provides a superb overview of everything that the radiology specialist of today needs to know.

  7. Label free selective detection of estriol using graphene oxide-based fluorescence sensor

    Kushwaha, H. S.; Sao, Reshma; Vaish, Rahul

    2014-07-01

    Water-soluble and fluorescent Graphene oxide (GO) is biocompatible, easy, and economical to synthesize. Interestingly, GO is also capable of quenching fluorescence. On the basis of its fluorescence and quenching abilities, GO has been reported to serve as an energy acceptor in a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) sensor. GO-based FRET biosensors have been widely reported for sensing of proteins, nucleic acid, ATP (Adenosine triphosphate), etc. GO complexes with fluorescent dyes and enzymes have been used to sense metal ions. Graphene derivatives have been used for sensing endocrine-disrupting chemicals like bisphenols and chlorophenols with high sensitivity and good reproducibility. On this basis, a novel GO based fluorescent sensor has been successfully designed to detect estriol with remarkable selectivity and sensitivity. Estriol is one of the three estrogens in women and is considered to be medically important. Estriol content of maternal urine or plasma acts as an important screening marker for estimating foetal growth and development. In addition, estriol is also used as diagnostic marker for diseases like breast cancer, osteoporosis, neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases, insulin resistance, lupus erythematosus, endometriosis, etc. In this present study, we report for the first time a rapid, sensitive with detection limit of 1.3 nM, selective and highly biocompatible method for label free detection of estriol under physiological conditions using fluorescence assay.

  8. Detecting Kerogen as a Biosignature Using Colocated UV Time-Gated Raman and Fluorescence Spectroscopy.

    Shkolyar, Svetlana; Eshelman, Evan J; Farmer, Jack D; Hamilton, David; Daly, Michael G; Youngbull, Cody

    2018-04-01

    The Mars 2020 mission will analyze samples in situ and identify any that could have preserved biosignatures in ancient habitable environments for later return to Earth. Highest priority targeted samples include aqueously formed sedimentary lithologies. On Earth, such lithologies can contain fossil biosignatures as aromatic carbon (kerogen). In this study, we analyzed nonextracted kerogen in a diverse suite of natural, complex samples using colocated UV excitation (266 nm) time-gated (UV-TG) Raman and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopies. We interrogated kerogen and its host matrix in samples to (1) explore the capabilities of UV-TG Raman and fluorescence spectroscopies for detecting kerogen in high-priority targets in the search for possible biosignatures on Mars; (2) assess the effectiveness of time gating and UV laser wavelength in reducing fluorescence in Raman spectra; and (3) identify sample-specific issues that could challenge rover-based identifications of kerogen using UV-TG Raman spectroscopy. We found that ungated UV Raman spectroscopy is suited to identify diagnostic kerogen Raman bands without interfering fluorescence and that UV fluorescence spectroscopy is suited to identify kerogen. These results highlight the value of combining colocated Raman and fluorescence spectroscopies, similar to those obtainable by SHERLOC on Mars 2020, to strengthen the confidence of kerogen detection as a potential biosignature in complex natural samples. Key Words: Raman spectroscopy-Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy-Mars Sample Return-Mars 2020 mission-Kerogen-Biosignatures. Astrobiology 18, 431-453.

  9. Noninvasive control of the transport function of fluorescent coloured liposomal nanoparticles

    Stelmashchuk, O.; Zherebtsov, E.; Zherebtsova, A.; Kuznetsova, E.; Vinokurov, A.; Dunaev, A.; Mamoshin, A.; Snimshchikova, I.; Borsukov, A.; Bykov, A.; Meglinski, I.

    2017-06-01

    The use of liposomal nanoparticles with an incorporated active substance is an innovative and promising approach to diagnostics and therapy. The application of liposomal nanoparticle-based drugs allows for targeted localized delivery, overcomes the natural barriers within the body effectively, and minimizes possible side effects. Liposomes are able to contain a variety of ingredients with practically no limitations to their chemical composition, chemical properties, or size of constituent molecules. This study evaluated the ability to control the passage of fluorescent dye-filled liposomes through the intestinal mucosal barrier after oral administration. For this purpose, the increase in transcutaneous registered fluorescence from tetrabromofluorescein dye was recorded and analysed. Fluorescence intensity was measured at the proximal end of the tail of an animal model after oral administration of the liposomes. Measurements were taken at the excitation wavelengths of 365 and 450 nm. The fluorescence intensity in the group treated with the fluorescent contrast agent encapsulated in liposomal particles increased 140% of the initial level, but in the group treated with pure contrast agent, the increase in detected fluorescence intensity did not exceed 110%. Mice that received empty liposomes as well as the control group did not demonstrate statistically significant changes in fluorescence intensity. A potential application of our results is an express laser optical method of monitoring the transport of orally administered liposomal particles. The results can be used to help create new optical tools for use in the development of new drugs and in high-throughput screening used during their testing.

  10. Visualization of subcapsular hepatic malignancy by indocyanine-green fluorescence imaging during laparoscopic hepatectomy.

    Kudo, Hiroki; Ishizawa, Takeaki; Tani, Keigo; Harada, Nobuhiro; Ichida, Akihiko; Shimizu, Atsushi; Kaneko, Junichi; Aoki, Taku; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Sugawara, Yasuhiko; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2014-08-01

    Although laparoscopic hepatectomy has increasingly been used to treat cancers in the liver, the accuracy of intraoperative diagnosis may be inferior to that of open surgery because the ability to visualize and palpate the liver surface during laparoscopy is relatively limited. Fluorescence imaging has the potential to provide a simple compensatory diagnostic tool for identification of cancers in the liver during laparoscopic hepatectomy. In 17 patients who were to undergo laparoscopic hepatectomy, 0.5 mg/kg body weight of indocyanine green (ICG) was administered intravenously within the 2 weeks prior to surgery. Intraoperatively, a laparoscopic fluorescence imaging system obtained fluorescence images of its surfaces during mobilization of the liver. In all, 16 hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) and 16 liver metastases (LMs) were resected. Of these, laparoscopic ICG fluorescence imaging identified 12 HCCs (75%) and 11 LMs (69%) on the liver surfaces distributed over Couinaud's segments 1-8, including the 17 tumors that had not been identified by visual inspections of normal color images. The 23 tumors that were identified by fluorescence imaging were located closer to the liver surfaces than another nine tumors that were not identified by fluorescence imaging (median [range] depth 1 [0-5] vs. 11 [8-30] mm; p fluorescence imaging enables real-time identification of subcapsular liver cancers, thus facilitating estimation of the required extent of hepatic mobilization and determination of the location of an appropriate hepatic transection line.

  11. Biomolecule-to-fluorescent-color encoder: modulation of fluorescence emission via DNA structural changes

    Nishimura, Takahiro; Ogura, Yusuke; Yamada, Kenji; Ohno, Yuko; Tanida, Jun

    2014-01-01

    A biomolecule-to-fluorescent-color (B/F) encoder for optical readout of biomolecular information is proposed. In the B/F encoder, a set of fluorescence wavelengths and their intensity levels are used for coding of a biomolecular signal. A hybridization chain reaction of hairpin DNAs labeled with fluorescent reporters was performed to generate the fluorescence color codes. The fluorescence is modulated via fluorescence resonance energy transfer, which is controlled by DNA structural changes. The results demonstrate that fluorescent color codes can be configured based on two wavelengths and five intensities using the B/F encoder, and the assigned codes can be retrieved via fluorescence measurements. PMID:25071950

  12. Fast infectious diseases diagnostics based on microfluidic biochip system

    Qin Huang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Molecular diagnostics is one of the most important tools currently in use for clinical pathogen detection due to its high sensitivity, specificity, and low consume of sample and reagent is keyword to low cost molecular diagnostics. In this paper, a sensitive DNA isothermal amplification method for fast clinical infectious diseases diagnostics at aM concentrations of DNA was developed using a polycarbonate (PC microfluidic chip. A portable confocal optical fluorescence detector was specifically developed for the microfluidic chip that was capable of highly sensitive real-time detection of amplified products for sequence-specific molecular identification near the optical diffraction limit with low background. The molecular diagnostics of Listeria monocytogenes with nucleic acid extracted from stool samples was performed at a minimum DNA template concentration of 3.65aM, and a detection limit of less than five copies of genomic DNA. Contrast to the general polymerase chain reaction (PCR at eppendorf (EP tube, the detection time in our developed method was reduced from 1.5h to 45min for multi-target parallel detection, the consume of sample and reagent was dropped from 25μL to 1.45μL. This novel microfluidic chip system and method can be used to develop a micro total analysis system as a clinically relevant pathogen molecular diagnostics method via the amplification of targets, with potential applications in biotechnology, medicine, and clinical molecular diagnostics.

  13. Tune-Based Halo Diagnostics

    Cameron, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Tune-based halo diagnostics can be divided into two categories -- diagnostics for halo prevention, and diagnostics for halo measurement. Diagnostics for halo prevention are standard fare in accumulators, synchrotrons, and storage rings, and again can be divided into two categories -- diagnostics to measure the tune distribution (primarily to avoid resonances), and diagnostics to identify instabilities (which will not be discussed here). These diagnostic systems include kicked (coherent) tune measurement, phase-locked loop (PLL) tune measurement, Schottky tune measurement, beam transfer function (BTF) measurements, and measurement of transverse quadrupole mode envelope oscillations. We refer briefly to tune diagnostics used at RHIC and intended for the SNS, and then present experimental results. Tune-based diagnostics for halo measurement (as opposed to prevention) are considerably more difficult. We present one brief example of tune-based halo measurement

  14. Miniaturized integration of a fluorescence microscope

    Ghosh, Kunal K.; Burns, Laurie D.; Cocker, Eric D.; Nimmerjahn, Axel; Ziv, Yaniv; Gamal, Abbas El; Schnitzer, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    The light microscope is traditionally an instrument of substantial size and expense. Its miniaturized integration would enable many new applications based on mass-producible, tiny microscopes. Key prospective usages include brain imaging in behaving animals towards relating cellular dynamics to animal behavior. Here we introduce a miniature (1.9 g) integrated fluorescence microscope made from mass-producible parts, including semiconductor light source and sensor. This device enables high-speed cellular-level imaging across ∼0.5 mm2 areas in active mice. This capability allowed concurrent tracking of Ca2+ spiking in >200 Purkinje neurons across nine cerebellar microzones. During mouse locomotion, individual microzones exhibited large-scale, synchronized Ca2+ spiking. This is a mesoscopic neural dynamic missed by prior techniques for studying the brain at other length scales. Overall, the integrated microscope is a potentially transformative technology that permits distribution to many animals and enables diverse usages, such as portable diagnostics or microscope arrays for large-scale screens. PMID:21909102

  15. Creating Panoramic Images for Bladder Fluorescence Endoscopy

    A. Behrens

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The medical diagnostic analysis and therapy of urinary bladder cancer based on endoscopes are state of the art in urological medicine. Due to the limited field of view of endoscopes, the physician can examine only a small part of the whole operating field at once. This constraint makes visual control and navigation difficult, especially in hollow organs. A panoramic image, covering a larger field of view, can overcome this difficulty. Directly motivated by a physician we developed an image mosaicing algorithm for endoscopic bladder fluorescence video sequences. In this paper, we present an approach which is capable of stitching single endoscopic video images to a combined panoramic image. Based on SIFT features we estimate a 2-D homography for each image pair, using an affine model and an iterative model-fitting algorithm. We then apply the stitching process and perform a mutual linear interpolation. Our panoramic image results show a correct stitching and lead to a better overview and understanding of the operation field. 

  16. Laser induced fluorescence in atmospheric pressure discharges

    Dilecce, G; De Benedictis, S; Martini, L M; Tosi, P; Scotoni, M

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers an outline of laser induced fluorescence (LIF) diagnostics and practical recommendations for its use in atmospheric pressure discharges. LIF principles, technical requirements and rationalization of experimental outcomes by modelling are addressed. Important issues that are particularly relevant to small scale, spatially inhomogeneous discharges, like plasma-jets, are emphasized. For the first time, all collision processes and the spatial non-homogeneity of the laser beam are together accounted for in the LIF model. Saturation characteristics are discussed and used for the assessment of model parameters. A calibration procedure is discussed and implemented. Gas temperature measurements by LIF are also addressed. The whole description of the technique is given, without loss of generality, through the example of its application to the OH radical. Notes on other diatomic radicals, CH, NO and CN, are given along the paper. Some results in a RF plasma-jet are presented as an example of application in a discharge system where all the concepts developed in the paper are applied. (paper)

  17. Fluorescent Nanoprobes Dedicated to in Vivo Imaging: From Preclinical Validations to Clinical Translation

    Isabelle Texier

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available With the fast development, in the last ten years, of a large choice of set-ups dedicated to routine in vivo measurements in rodents, fluorescence imaging techniques are becoming essential tools in preclinical studies. Human clinical uses for diagnostic and image-guided surgery are also emerging. In comparison to low-molecular weight organic dyes, the use of fluorescent nanoprobes can improve both the signal sensitivity (better in vivo optical properties and the fluorescence biodistribution (passive “nano” uptake in tumours for instance. A wide range of fluorescent nanoprobes have been designed and tested in preclinical studies for the last few years. They will be reviewed and discussed considering the obstacles that need to be overcome for their potential everyday use in clinics. The conjugation of fluorescence imaging with the benefits of nanotechnology should open the way to new medical applications in the near future.

  18. Beyond Diagnostic Accuracy: The Clinical Utility of Diagnostic Tests

    Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Reitsma, Johannes B.; Linnet, Kristian; Moons, Karel G. M.

    2012-01-01

    Like any other medical technology or intervention, diagnostic tests should be thoroughly evaluated before their introduction into daily practice. Increasingly, decision makers, physicians, and other users of diagnostic tests request more than simple measures of a test's analytical or technical

  19. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    Vries, J.L. de.

    1976-01-01

    The seventh edition of Philips' Review of Literature on x-ray fluorescence spectrometry starts with a list of conference proceedings on the subject, organised by the Philips organisation at regular intervals in various European countries. It is followed by a list of bulletins. The bibliography is subdivided according to spectra, equipment, applications and absorption analysis

  20. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    Ray, N.B.

    1977-01-01

    The principle, instrument and procedure of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry are described. It is a rapid, simple and sensitive method for the trace analysis of elements from sodium to uranium in powder, liquid or metal samples. (M.G.B.)