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Sample records for fluorescence technique application

  1. Confocal fluorescence techniques in industrial application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggeling, Christian; Gall, Karsten; Palo, Kaupo; Kask, Peet; Brand, Leif

    2003-06-01

    The FCS+plus family of evaluation tools for confocal fluorescence spectroscopy, which was developed during recent years, offers a comprehensive view to a series of fluorescence properties. Originating in fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and using similar experimental equipment, a system of signal processing methods such as fluorescence intensity distribution analysis (FIDA) was created to analyze in detail the fluctuation behavior of fluorescent particles within a small area of detection. Giving simultaneous access to molecular parameters like concentration, translational and rotational diffusion, molecular brightness, and multicolor coincidence, this portfolio was enhanced by more traditional techniques of fluorescence lifetime as well as time-resolved anisotropy determination. The cornerstones of the FCS+plus methodology will be shortly described. The inhibition of a phosphatase enzyme activity gives a comprehensive industrial application that demonstrates FCS+plus' versatility and its potential for pharmaceutical drug discovery.

  2. Principles of fluorescence techniques

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence techniques are being used and applied increasingly in academics and industry. The Principles of Fluorescence Techniques course will outline the basic concepts of fluorescence techniques and the successful utilization of the currently available commercial instrumentation. The course is designed for students who utilize fluorescence techniques and instrumentation and for researchers and industrial scientists who wish to deepen their knowledge of fluorescence applications. Key scientists in the field will deliver theoretical lectures. The lectures will be complemented by the direct utilization of steady-state and lifetime fluorescence instrumentation and confocal microscopy for FLIM and FRET applications provided by leading companies.

  3. Application of X-ray fluorescence analytical techniques in phytoremediation and plant biology studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Necemer, Marijan; Kump, Peter; Scancar, Janez; Jacimovic, Radojko; Simcic, Jurij; Pelicon, Primoz; Budnar, Milos; Jeran, Zvonka; Pongrac, Paula; Regvar, Marjana; Vogel-Mikus, Katarina

    2008-01-01

    Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that employs the use of higher plants for the clean-up of contaminated environments. Progress in the field is however handicapped by limited knowledge of the biological processes involved in plant metal uptake, translocation, tolerance and plant-microbe-soil interactions; therefore a better understanding of the basic biological mechanisms involved in plant/microbe/soil/contaminant interactions would allow further optimization of phytoremediation technologies. In view of the needs of global environmental protection, it is important that in phytoremediation and plant biology studies the analytical procedures for elemental determination in plant tissues and soil should be fast and cheap, with simple sample preparation, and of adequate accuracy and reproducibility. The aim of this study was therefore to present the main characteristics, sample preparation protocols and applications of X-ray fluorescence-based analytical techniques (energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry-EDXRF, total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry-TXRF and micro-proton induced X-ray emission-micro-PIXE). Element concentrations in plant leaves from metal polluted and non-polluted sites, as well as standard reference materials, were analyzed by the mentioned techniques, and additionally by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The results were compared and critically evaluated in order to assess the performance and capability of X-ray fluorescence-based techniques in phytoremediation and plant biology studies. It is the EDXRF, which is recommended as suitable to be used in the analyses of a large number of samples, because it is multi-elemental, requires only simple preparation of sample material, and it is analytically comparable to the most frequently used instrumental chemical techniques. The TXRF is compatible to FAAS in sample preparation, but relative to AAS it is fast, sensitive and

  4. Fluorescent microangiography is a novel and widely applicable technique for delineating the renal microvasculature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Advani

    Full Text Available Rarefaction of the renal microvasculature correlates with declining kidney function. However, current technologies commonly used for its evaluation are limited by their reliance on endothelial cell antigen expression and assessment in two dimensions. We set out to establish a widely applicable and unbiased optical sectioning method to enable three dimensional imaging and reconstruction of the renal microvessels based on their luminal filling. The kidneys of subtotally nephrectomized (SNx rats and their sham-operated counterparts were subjected to either routine two-dimensional immunohistochemistry or the novel technique of fluorescent microangiography (FMA. The latter was achieved by perfusion of the kidney with an agarose suspension of fluorescent polystyrene microspheres followed by optical sectioning of 200 µm thick cross-sections using a confocal microscope. The fluorescent microangiography method enabled the three-dimensional reconstruction of virtual microvascular casts and confirmed a reduction in both glomerular and peritubular capillary density in the kidneys of SNx rats, despite an overall increase in glomerular volume. FMA is an uncomplicated technique for evaluating the renal microvasculature that circumvents many of the limitations imposed by conventional analysis of two-dimensional tissue sections.

  5. Preparation and application of new fluorescein-labeled fumonisins B1 in fluorescence polarization analysis technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: To prepare a new fluorescent tracer against common mycotoxins such as fumonisin B1 in order to replace 6-(4,6-Dichlorotriazinyl) aminofluorescein (6-DTAF), an expensive marker, and to develop a technique for quick detection of fumonisin B1 based on the principle of fluorescence polarizati...

  6. Applications of the X-ray fluorescence technique to medical dynamic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magrini, A.; Cesareo, R.; Salmi, M.; Gigante, G.E.

    1978-01-01

    The energy dispersive X ray fluorescence technique (XRF) was employed to follow the evolution of the concentration of stable tracers for diagnostic purposes. A simple and relatively inexpensive XRF system, based on the use of a small sealed-off radioisotopic source and a proportional gas counter, was utilized in the study of human blood platelet survival 'in vitro', rabbit platelet survival 'in vivo' and in clearance studies of the human knee joint 'in vivo'. The survival curves of human and rabbit platelets were determined employing stable Rubidium as a tracer. The clearance rate of a stable Iodinate compound from the synovial cavity was measured in normal and pathological conditions. Results obtained suggest that the method can be usefully employed to monitor the course of disease and to establish the efficacy of treatment

  7. Application of Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) Technique for the Detection of Genetic Aberration in Medical Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratan, Zubair Ahmed; Zaman, Sojib Bin; Haidere, Mohammad Faisal; Runa, Nusrat Jahan; Akter, Nasrin

    2017-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a macromolecule recognition technique, which is considered as a new advent in the field of cytology. Initially, it was developed as a physical mapping tool to delineate genes within chromosomes. The accuracy and versatility of FISH were subsequently capitalized upon in biological and medical research. This visually appealing technique provides an intermediate degree of resolution between DNA analysis and chromosomal investigations. FISH consists of a hybridizing DNA probe, which can be labeled directly or indirectly. In the case of direct labeling, fluorescent nucleotides are used, while indirect labeling is incorporated with reporter molecules that are subsequently detected by fluorescent antibodies or other affinity molecules. FISH is applied to detect genetic abnormalities that include different characteristic gene fusions or the presence of an abnormal number of chromosomes in a cell or loss of a chromosomal region or a whole chromosome. It is also applied in different research applications, such as gene mapping or the identification of novel oncogenes. This article reviews the concept of FISH, its application, and its advantages in medical science.  PMID:28690958

  8. Applications of synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence technique in materials science-possibilities at INDUS-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, Manoj K.

    2016-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy has seen remarkable progress over the last few decades. Numerous applications in basic and applied sciences demonstrate its importance. Various advantages of XRF technique have motivated us to construct a microfocus XRF beamline (BL-16) on Indus-2 national synchrotron radiation facility. The BL-16 beamline offers a wide range of usages - both from research laboratories and industries; and for researchers working in diverse fields. Apart from the fields of pure sciences like physics and chemistry, the beamline provides an attractive platform to exercise material science applications, interdisciplinary applied sciences like medical, forensic and environmental studies etc. In addition to micro-XRF characterization, BL-16 beamline allows a user to perform studies using other advanced synchrotron based experimental methodologies, viz; grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence (GIXRF) analysis, chemical speciation, near-edge absorption spectroscopy and X-ray reflectivity studies of thin layered materials etc. The combined XRR-GIXRF analysis feature of the BL-16 beamline offers a novel capability to perform GIXRF assisted depth resolved X-ray studies to investigate chemical state and electronic structure of the thin nano-structured materials. The design aspects and various salient features of the BL-16 beamline X-ray reflectometer will be presented along with the measured performance. (author)

  9. Application of the Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence technique to trace elements determination in tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, T.; Lartigue, J.; Zarazua, G.; Avila-Perez, P.; Navarrete, M.; Tejeda, S.

    2008-01-01

    Many studies have identified an important number of toxic elements along with organic carcinogen molecules and radioactive isotopes in tobacco. In this work we have analyzed by Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence 9 brands of cigarettes being manufactured and distributed in the Mexican market. Two National Institute of Standards and Technology standards and a blank were equally treated at the same time. Results show the presence of some toxic elements such as Pb and Ni. These results are compared with available data for some foreign brands, while their implications for health are discussed. It can be confirmed that the Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence method provides precise (reproducible) and accuracy (trueness) data for 15 elements concentration in tobacco samples

  10. Application of the Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence technique to trace elements determination in tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, T.; Lartigue, J.; Zarazua, G.; Avila-Perez, P.; Navarrete, M.; Tejeda, S.

    2008-12-01

    Many studies have identified an important number of toxic elements along with organic carcinogen molecules and radioactive isotopes in tobacco. In this work we have analyzed by Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence 9 brands of cigarettes being manufactured and distributed in the Mexican market. Two National Institute of Standards and Technology standards and a blank were equally treated at the same time. Results show the presence of some toxic elements such as Pb and Ni. These results are compared with available data for some foreign brands, while their implications for health are discussed. It can be confirmed that the Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence method provides precise (reproducible) and accuracy (trueness) data for 15 elements concentration in tobacco samples.

  11. Application of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescent technique in the pollution study of water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Htun, Kyi

    1993-03-01

    The abundance of major trace elements in water in the surface well, tube well, lake and river were measured. The technique outlined here is very useful in the study of the pollution of environmental radioactivity. For the above measurements the Si(Li) X-ray detection system was used in conjunction with a personal computer

  12. Application of Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) Technique for the Detection of Genetic Aberration in Medical Science

    OpenAIRE

    Ratan, Zubair Ahmed; Zaman, Sojib Bin; Mehta, Varshil; Haidere, Mohammad Faisal; Runa, Nusrat Jahan; Akter, Nasrin

    2017-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a macromolecule recognition technique, which is considered as a new advent in the field of cytology.?Initially, it was developed as a physical mapping tool to delineate genes within chromosomes. The accuracy and versatility of FISH were subsequently capitalized upon in biological and medical research. This visually appealing technique provides an intermediate degree of resolution between DNA analysis and chromosomal investigations. FISH consists of...

  13. Multispectral fluorescence imaging techniques for nondestructive food safety inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moon S.; Lefcourt, Alan M.; Chen, Yud-Ren

    2004-03-01

    The use of spectral sensing has gained acceptance as a rapid means for nondestructive inspection of postharvest food produce. Current technologies generally use color or a single wavelength camera technology. The applicability and sensitivity of these techniques can be expanded through the use of multiple wavelengths. Reflectance in the Vis/NIR is the prevalent spectral technique. Fluorescence, compared to reflectance, is regarded as a more sensitive technique due to its dynamic responses to subtle changes in biological entities. Our laboratory has been exploring fluorescence as a potential means for detection of quality and wholesomeness of food products. Applications of fluorescence sensing require an understanding of the spectral characteristics emanating from constituents and potential contaminants. A number of factors affecting fluorescence emission characteristics are discussed. Because of relatively low fluorescence quantum yield from biological samples, a system with a powerful pulse light source such as a laser coupled with a gated detection device is used to harvest fluorescence, in the presence of ambient light. Several fluorescence sensor platforms developed in our laboratory, including hyperspectral imaging, and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and steady-state fluorescence imaging systems with multispectral capabilities are presented. We demonstrate the potential uses of recently developed fluorescence imaging platforms in food safety inspection of apples contaminated with animal feces.

  14. Application of fluorescence in situ hybridization technique in the diagnosis of acute promyelocytic leukemia with abnormal immunophenotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Leilei; Sun Xuemei; Chen Junhao; Zhang Le

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the utilization of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique in the diagnosis of acute promyelocytic leukemia(APL) with abnormal immunophenotype, flow cytometry was used to detect the immunophenotype of mononuclear cells in APL patients and PML/RARα fusion gene was detected by FISH. The mononuclear cells of several APL patients showed abnormal immunophenotype: CD13 + , CD33 + , CD34 - , HLA-DR + and PML/RARα fusion gene was also detected, which was different from the regular result of APL: HLA- DR - , PML/RARα + . Therefore, the detection of immunophenotype in APL patients should not be regarded as the sole accurate target for diagnosing leukemia. FISH ,associated with traditional FAB classification, is a simple, rapid, accurate and direct method. It can be used to help confirm the diagnosis, to guide the formulation of a reasonable chemotherapy scheme and to supervise the efficacy of the treatment in patients with leukemia. (authors)

  15. Quantitative in vivo elemental analysis using X-ray fluorescence and scattering techniques. Applications to cadmium, lead and bone mineral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Ulf.

    1994-05-01

    The X-ray fluorescence technique for in vivo determination of cadmium concentration in the human body has been considerably improved so that the minimum concentration now is 10 μg/g for a skin-organ distance of 50 mm and a measurement time of 30 minutes. The technique has been used for measurements of cadmium in the kidney cortex of 60 non-occupationally exposed persons, showing twice the concentration (26±9 μg/g) in a sub-group of frequent tobacco smokers compared with a group of non-smokers (10±11 μg/g). Concentrations of lead in the skeleton of 112 persons have been measured at three bone sites (finger bone, tibia, heel bone) using in vivo XRF techniques either based on Co-57 or Cd-109 sources. There was a good correlation between lead levels at the three bone sites as well as to cumulative exposure index. However, the association between the amount of chelatable lead and measured bone lead levels was poor. The retention of lead in the skeleton of 14 retired workers, now studied for up to 18 years after retirement, shows a half-time of 16 years. 43 refs

  16. Spatial and temporal single-cell volume estimation by a fluorescence imaging technique with application to astrocytes in primary culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatibi, Siamak; Allansson, Louise; Gustavsson, Tomas; Blomstrand, Fredrik; Hansson, Elisabeth; Olsson, Torsten

    1999-05-01

    Cell volume changes are often associated with important physiological and pathological processes in the cell. These changes may be the means by which the cell interacts with its surrounding. Astroglial cells change their volume and shape under several circumstances that affect the central nervous system. Following an incidence of brain damage, such as a stroke or a traumatic brain injury, one of the first events seen is swelling of the astroglial cells. In order to study this and other similar phenomena, it is desirable to develop technical instrumentation and analysis methods capable of detecting and characterizing dynamic cell shape changes in a quantitative and robust way. We have developed a technique to monitor and to quantify the spatial and temporal volume changes in a single cell in primary culture. The technique is based on two- and three-dimensional fluorescence imaging. The temporal information is obtained from a sequence of microscope images, which are analyzed in real time. The spatial data is collected in a sequence of images from the microscope, which is automatically focused up and down through the specimen. The analysis of spatial data is performed off-line and consists of photobleaching compensation, focus restoration, filtering, segmentation and spatial volume estimation.

  17. Fluorescent Nanodiamonds in Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitura, Katarzyna Anna; Włodarczyk, Elżbieta

    2018-04-18

    Nanoparticles have an extended surface and a large surface area, which is the ratio of the size of the surfacearea to the volume. A functionalized surface can give rise to more modifications and therefore allows this nanomaterial to have new properties. Fluorescent molecules contain fluorophore, which is capable of being excited via the absorption of light energy at a specific wavelength and subsequently emitting radiation energy of a longer wavelength. A chemically modified surface of nanodiamond (ND; by carboxylation) demonstrated biocompatibility with DNA, cytochrome C, and antigens. In turn, fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs) belong to a group of new nanomaterials. Their surface can be modified by joining functional groups such as carboxyl, hydroxyl, or amino, after which they can be employed as a fluorescence agent. Their fluorescent properties result from defects in the crystal lattice. FNDs reach dimensions of 4-100 nm, have attributes such as photostability, long fluorescence lifetimes (10 ns), and fluorescence emission between 600 and 700 nm. They are also nontoxic, chemically inert, biocompatible, and environmentally harmless. The main purpose of this article was to present the medical applications of various types of modified NDs.

  18. Application of cell-surface engineering for visualization of yeast in bread dough: development of a fluorescent bio-imaging technique in the mixing process of dough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Tatsuro; Shiraga, Seizaburo; Araki, Tetsuya; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi; Yamada, Masaharu; Takeya, Koji; Sagara, Yasuyuki

    2009-07-01

    Cell-surface engineering (Ueda et al., 2000) has been applied to develop a novel technique to visualize yeast in bread dough. Enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was bonded to the surface of yeast cells, and 0.5% EGFP yeasts were mixed into the dough samples at four different mixing stages. The samples were placed on a cryostat at -30 degrees C and sliced at 10 microm. The sliced samples were observed at an excitation wavelength of 480 nm and a fluorescent wavelength of 520 nm. The results indicated that the combination of the EGFP-displayed yeasts, rapid freezing, and cryo-sectioning made it possible to visualize 2-D distribution of yeast in bread dough to the extent that the EGFP yeasts could be clearly distinguished from the auto-fluorescent background of bread dough.

  19. DNA nanotechnology and fluorescence applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichthaerle, Thomas; Strauss, Maximilian T; Schueder, Florian; Woehrstein, Johannes B; Jungmann, Ralf

    2016-06-01

    Structural DNA nanotechnology allow researchers to use the unique molecular recognition properties of DNA strands to construct nanoscale objects with almost arbitrary complexity in two and three dimensions. Abstracted as molecular breadboards, DNA nanostructures enable nanometer-precise placement of guest molecules such as proteins, fluorophores, or nanoparticles. These assemblies can be used to study biological phenomena with unprecedented control over number, spacing, and molecular identity. Here, we give a general introduction to structural DNA nanotechnology and more specifically discuss applications of DNA nanostructures in the field of fluorescence and plasmonics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Uranium speciation in biofilms studies by laser fluorescence techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, Thuro; Grossmann, Kay; Baumann, Nils

    2010-01-01

    Biofilms may immobilize toxic heavy metals in the environment and thereby influence their migration behaviour. The mechanisms of these processes are currently not understood, because the complexity of such biofilms creates many discrete geochemical microenvironments which may differ from the surrounding bulk solution in their bacterial diversity, their prevailing geochemical properties, e.g. pH and dissolved oxygen concentration, the presence of organic molecules, e.g. metabolites, and many more, all of which may affect metal speciation. To obtain such information, which is necessary for performance assessment studies or the development of new cost-effective strategies for cleaning waste waters, it is very important to develop new non-invasive methods applicable to study the interactions of metals within biofilm systems. Laser fluorescence techniques have some superior features, above all very high sensitivity for fluorescent heavy metals. An approach combining confocal laser scanning microscopy and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy for study of the interactions of biofilms with uranium is presented. It was found that coupling these techniques furnishes a promising tool for in-situ non-invasive study of fluorescent heavy metals within biofilm systems. Information on uranium speciation and uranium redox states can be obtained.

  1. Particle Image Velocimetry Applications of Fluorescent Dye-Doped Particles

    OpenAIRE

    Petrosky, Brian Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Laser flare can often be a major issue in particle image velocimetry (PIV) involving solid boundaries in a flow or a gas-liquid interface. The use of fluorescent light from dye-doped particles has been demonstrated in water applications, but reproducing the technique in an airflow is more difficult due to particle size constraints and safety concerns. The following thesis is formatted in a hybrid manuscript style, including a full paper presenting the applications of fluorescent Kiton R...

  2. The application of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH technique for studying the microbial communities in intestinal tissues of white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supamattaya, K.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence in situ hybridization technique is very useful for the evaluation of microbial communities in various environments. It is possible to apply this technique to study the intestinal microflora in white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei. Different fixatives and storage temperature were tested in this technique. It was found that fixation with 10% buffered formalin for 12 hours and changed to 70% ethanol shown positive results when compared to the fixation with Davidson's fixative or RF fixative. The best signaling was obtainedfrom the samples which were stored in -20ºC. By using the DNA probe targeted to the Eubacteria domain (EUB338 probe, 5′-GCT GCC TCC CGT AGG AGT-3′ labeled with fluorescein as a hybridizing probe, it was found that most intestinal microflora were aggregated with the intestinal contents, or dispersed in the lumen. There was not evidence of the attachment of the microflora with the intestinal epithelium in this study.

  3. Pollution detection using the spectral fluorescent signatures (SFS technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Del Carmen Martín

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This work has been developed in the Applied Physics Department at the University of Vigo within the line of research based on the treatment of the degraded water by pollutants through the use of microalgae, reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases through the absorption of CO2 in the process and the reuse of biomass as biofuel. Remote sensing techniques have contributed to a great extent to the development of oil pollution monitoring systems. However, the available detection methods, mainly designed for spaceborne and airborne long distance inspection, are too expensive and complex to be used in an operational way by relatively unskilled personnel. In the framework of DEOSOM project (European AMPERA project, an innovative water monitoring method was proposed, in two steps: early oil spill detection using a portable shipborne laser-induced fluorescence LIDAR (LIF/LIDAR, and analysis of suspicious water samples in laboratory using the Spectral Fluorescent Signature (SFS technique. This work is focused on the second technique. This system aims to optimize the production of microalgae for biofuel and contaminant cleaning applications and was developed and tested in photo-bioreactors in the University of Vigo within the EnerBioAlgae project (SUDOE. In this project, the SFS technique was used as a diagnostic tool employing the fluorescence analyzer INSTANT-SCREENER M53UVC. The Spectral Fluorescence Signature technique (SFS is based on compounds fluorescence properties. The fluorescence intensity of a sample is measured at different excitation and emission wavelengths to produce a 3-dimensional fluorescence matrix, which can also be presented as a 2-dimensional color image where the color shows the intensity of the fluorescence. These matrices offer qualitative and quantitative information, since they can be useful for the identification of different substances from their characteristic excitation and emission spectra of fluorescence. They also

  4. Application of X-ray fluorescence measurements to some problems in occupational health. Part of a coordinated programme on application of nuclear-related techniques in occupational health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budnar, M.

    1985-04-01

    This research involved the use of proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) for occupational health studies of workers exposed to lead and various other toxic elements. Workplace monitoring was conducted by collection and analysis of air filter samples using a cascade impactor to separate the aerosols according to particle size. Biological monitoring was conducted by collection and analysis of blood and urine. The biological measurements were supplemented by the use of AAS and also by various biochemical tests. Preliminary work was also done to set up an in vivo X-ray fluorescence method for determining lead in the finger bone of exposed workers. The most important outcome of this work was to demonstrate that aerosol concentrations of lead in a lead battery factory were significantly elevated over normal background levels (even as compared with a welding factory). Although mostly lower than the maximum permissible concentrations for occupationally exposed people, this kind of exposure was apparently sufficient to cause significant changes in various biochemical parameters, and thus might be a cause for concern. Low correlations between blood-lead and aerosol-lead indicate that workplace monitoring is not always a reliable guide to individual exposure, and that it should therefore be supplemented by biological monitoring of high risk groups

  5. Fluorescent Probes and Fluorescence (Microscopy Techniques — Illuminating Biological and Biomedical Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor P. C. Drummen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence, the absorption and re-emission of photons with longer wavelengths, is one of those amazing phenomena of Nature. Its discovery and utilization had, and still has, a major impact on biological and biomedical research, since it enables researchers not just to visualize normal physiological processes with high temporal and spatial resolution, to detect multiple signals concomitantly, to track single molecules in vivo, to replace radioactive assays when possible, but also to shed light on many pathobiological processes underpinning disease states, which would otherwise not be possible. Compounds that exhibit fluorescence are commonly called fluorochromes or fluorophores and one of these fluorescent molecules in particular has significantly enabled life science research to gain new insights in virtually all its sub-disciplines: Green Fluorescent Protein. Because fluorescent proteins are synthesized in vivo, integration of fluorescent detection methods into the biological system via genetic techniques now became feasible. Currently fluorescent proteins are available that virtually span the whole electromagnetic spectrum. Concomitantly, fluorescence imaging techniques were developed, and often progress in one field fueled innovation in the other. Impressively, the properties of fluorescence were utilized to develop new assays and imaging modalities, ranging from energy transfer to image molecular interactions to imaging beyond the diffraction limit with super-resolution microscopy. Here, an overview is provided of recent developments in both fluorescence imaging and fluorochrome engineering, which together constitute the “fluorescence toolbox” in life science research.

  6. Advanced of X-ray fluorescence logging technique in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Sichun; Ge Liangquan; Lai Wanchang; Yang Qiang

    2010-01-01

    The paper discuses principle of X-ray fluorescence logging, and introduces advanced of X-ray fluorescence logging technique in China. By 2009, third generation XRF logging instrument has been developed in China, and good logging result has been obtained in Lala copper mine. (authors)

  7. Skin fluorescence model based on the Monte Carlo technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churmakov, Dmitry Y.; Meglinski, Igor V.; Piletsky, Sergey A.; Greenhalgh, Douglas A.

    2003-10-01

    The novel Monte Carlo technique of simulation of spatial fluorescence distribution within the human skin is presented. The computational model of skin takes into account spatial distribution of fluorophores following the collagen fibers packing, whereas in epidermis and stratum corneum the distribution of fluorophores assumed to be homogeneous. The results of simulation suggest that distribution of auto-fluorescence is significantly suppressed in the NIR spectral region, while fluorescence of sensor layer embedded in epidermis is localized at the adjusted depth. The model is also able to simulate the skin fluorescence spectra.

  8. Application of a simple column-switching ion chromatography technique for removal of matrix interferences and sensitive fluorescence determination of acidic compounds (pharmaceutical drugs) in complex samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Nadeem; Subhani, Qamar; Wang, Fenglian; Guo, Dandan; Zhao, Qiming; Wu, Shuchao; Zhu, Yan

    2017-09-15

    This work illustrates the introduction of a simple, rugged and flexible column-switching ion chromatography (IC) technique for an automated on-line QuEChERS extracted samples extracts washing followed by sensitive fluorescence (FLD) determination of five acidic pharmaceutical drugs namely; clofibric acid (CLO), ibuprofen (IBU), aspirin (ASP), naproxen (NAP) and flurobrofen (FLU) in three complex samples (spinach, apple and hospital sewage sludge). An old anion exchange column IonPac ® AS11-HC was utilized as a pre-treatment column for on-line washing of inorganic and organic interferences followed by isocratic separation of five acidic drugs with another anion exchange IonPac ® AS12A analytical column by exploiting the column-switching technique. This novel method exhibited good linearity with correlation coefficients (r 2 ) for all drugs were in the range 0.976-0.996. The limit of detection and quantification of all five acidic drugs were in the range 0.024μg/kg to 8.70μg/kg and 0.082μg/kg to 0.029mg/kg, respectively, and better recoveries in the range 81.17-112.5% with percentage relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 17.8% were obtained. This on-line sample pre-treatment method showed minimum matrix effect in the range of 0.87-1.25 except for aspirin. This simple rugged and flexible column-switching system required only 28min for maximum elimination of matrices and interferences in three complex samples extracts, isocratic separation of five acidic drugs and for the continuous regeneration of pre-treatment column prior to every subsequent analysis. Finally, this simple automated IC system was appeared so rugged and flexible, which can eliminate and wash out most of interference, impurities and matrices in complex samples, simply by adjusting the NaOH and acetonitrile concentration in washing mobile phase with maximum recoveries of acidic analytes of interest. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Particle Image Velocimetry Applications Using Fluorescent Dye-Doped Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosky, Brian J.; Maisto, Pietro; Lowe, K. Todd; Andre, Matthieu A.; Bardet, Philippe M.; Tiemsin, Patsy I.; Wohl, Christopher J.; Danehy, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Polystyrene latex sphere particles are widely used to seed flows for velocimetry techniques such as Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV). These particles may be doped with fluorescent dyes such that signals spectrally shifted from the incident laser wavelength may be detected via Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF). An attractive application of the LIF signal is achieving velocimetry in the presence of strong interference from laser scatter, opening up new research possibilities very near solid surfaces or at liquid/gas interfaces. Additionally, LIF signals can be used to tag different fluid streams to study mixing. While fluorescence-based PIV has been performed by many researchers for particles dispersed in water flows, the current work is among the first in applying the technique to micron-scale particles dispersed in a gas. A key requirement for such an application is addressing potential health hazards from fluorescent dyes; successful doping of Kiton Red 620 (KR620) has enabled the use of this relatively safe dye for fluorescence PIV for the first time. In this paper, basic applications proving the concept of PIV using the LIF signal from KR620-doped particles are exhibited for a free jet and a twophase flow apparatus. Results indicate that while the fluorescence PIV techniques are roughly 2 orders of magnitude weaker than Mie scattering, they provide a viable method for obtaining data in flow regions previously inaccessible via standard PIV. These techniques have the potential to also complement Mie scattering signals, for example in multi-stream and/or multi-phase experiments.

  10. Applications of fluorescence techniques to the study of uranium in homogeneous and heterogeneous environments: hydrolysis and photo-reduction reactions on titanium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliet, Veronique

    1996-01-01

    This thesis describes the use of Time-Resolved Fluorescence to characterise the spectroscopy of hydroxo-complexes of hexavalent Uranium, and to study photochemical reactions involving these species at mineral/water interfaces. The instrumentation used comprised of either an excimer laser coupled to an optical multichannel analyser OMA or a Nd-YAG laser coupled to a stroboscopic photomultiplier. The hydrolysis of Uranium at a constant temperature of 25 deg. C, has been studied in the pH ranges 0-5 and 9-12. Deconvolution of spectra and fluorescence decay curves for Uranium yielded individual fluorescence spectra and decay times for uranyl UO 2 2+ and its hydroxo-complexes UO 2 OH + , (UO 2 )2(OH) 2 2+ , (UO 2 ) 3 (OH) 5 + et UO 2 (OH) 3 - . The comparison of fluorescence efficiencies for the various species showed that the complex (UO 2 )2(OH) 2 2+ is up to 85 times more fluorescent than uranyl, depending on the emission wavelength. Further, investigations of fluorescence decays as a function of temperature in the pH range 0-6, yielded activation energies for the various Uranium hydroxo species. The knowledge gained in homogeneous media served in the study of the photochemical behaviour of Uranium in suspensions of the semi-conductor mineral, TiO 2 . After UV-light absorption, charge carriers formed at the mineral surface were found to reduce hexavalent Uranium to the tetravalent oxidation state. Time-Resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy has been used to monitor the kinetics of the oxidation state change. A reaction mechanism is proposed on the basis of results obtained by studying the kinetics of the process at different values of pH The role of humic substances on the heterogeneous redox reaction has also been examined. (author) [fr

  11. Oligothiophenes as Fluorescent Markers for Biological Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Manetto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes some of our results on the application of oligothiophenes as fluorescent markers for biological studies. The oligomers of thiophene, widely known for their semiconductor properties in organic electronics, are also fluorescent compounds characterized by chemical and optical stability, high absorbance and quantum yield. Their fluorescent emission can be easily modulated via organic synthesis by changing the number of thiophene rings and the nature of side-chains. This review shows how oligothiophenes can be derivatized with active groups such as phosphoramidite, N-hydroxysuccinimidyl and 4-sulfotetrafluorophenyl esters, isothiocyanate and azide by which the (biomolecules of interest can be covalently bound. This paper also describes how molecules such as oligonucleotides, proteins and even nanoparticles, tagged with oligothiophenes, can be used in experiments ranging from hybridization studies to imaging of fixed and living cells. Finally, a few multilabeling experiments are described.

  12. Alternate gram staining technique using a fluorescent lectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizemore, R K; Caldwell, J J; Kendrick, A S

    1990-01-01

    Fluorescence-labeled wheat germ agglutinin binds specifically to N-acetylglucosamine in the outer peptidoglycan layer of gram-positive bacteria. The peptidoglycan layer of gram-negative bacteria is covered by a membrane and is not labeled by the lectin. By exploiting this phenomenon, an alternative Gram staining technique has been developed. Images PMID:1697149

  13. Highly fluorescent and superparamagnetic nanosystem for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Mariana P.; E Cabral Filho, Paulo; Silva, Camila M. C. M.; Oliveira, Rita M.; Geraldes, Carlos F. G. C.; Castro, M. Margarida C. A.; Costa, Benilde F. O.; Henriques, Marta S. C.; Paixão, José A.; Carvalho, Luiz B., Jr.; Santos, Beate S.; Hallwass, Fernando; Fontes, Adriana; Pereira, Giovannia A. L.

    2017-07-01

    This work reports on highly fluorescent and superparamagnetic bimodal nanoparticles (BNPs) obtained by a simple and efficient method as probes for fluorescence analysis and/or contrast agents for MRI. These promising BNPs with small dimensions (ca. 17 nm) consist of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) covalently bound with CdTe quantum dots (ca. 3 nm). The chemical structure of the magnetic part of BNPs is predominantly magnetite, with minor goethite and maghemite contributions, as shown by Mössbauer spectroscopy, which is compatible with the x-ray diffraction data. Their size evaluation by different techniques showed that the SPION derivatization process, in order to produce the BNPs, does not lead to a large size increase. The BNPs saturation magnetization, when corrected for the organic content of the sample, is ca. 68 emu g-1, which is only slightly reduced relative to the bare nanoparticles. This indicates that the SPION surface functionalization does not change considerably the magnetic properties. The BNP aqueous suspensions presented stability, high fluorescence, high relaxivity ratio (r 2/r 1 equal to 25) and labeled efficiently HeLa cells as can be seen by fluorescence analysis. These BNP properties point to their applications as fluorescent probes as well as negative T 2-weighted MRI contrast agents. Moreover, their potential magnetic response could also be used for fast bioseparation applications.

  14. Techniques for Wireless Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Gaaloul, Fakhreddine

    2012-05-01

    Switching techniques have been first proposed as a spacial diversity techniques. These techniques have been shown to reduce considerably the processing load while letting multi-antenna systems achieve a specific target performance. In this thesis, we take a different look at the switching schemes by implementing them for different other wireless applications. More specifically, this thesis consists of three main parts, where the first part considers a multiuser environment and an adaptive scheduling algorithm based on the switching with post-selection scheme for statistically independent but non-identically distributed channel conditions. The performance of this switched based scheduler is investigated and a multitude of performance metrics are presented. In a second part, we propose and analyze the performance of three switched-based algorithms for interference reduction in the downlink of over-loaded femtocells. For instance, performance metrics are derived in closed-form and these metrics are used to compare these three proposed schemes. Finally in a third part, a switch based opportunistic channel access scheme is proposed for a cognitive radio system and its performance is analyzed in terms of two new proposed metrics namely the average cognitive radio access and the waiting time duration.

  15. Impurity monitoring by laser-induced fluorescence techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelbwachs, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy can provide a highly sensitive and selective means of detecting atomic and ionic impurities. Because the photodetector can be physically isolated from the laser-excited region, these techniques can be applied to monitoring in hostile environments. The basic concepts behind fluorescence detection are reviewed. Saturated optical excitation is shown to maximize impurity atom emission yield while mitigating effects of laser intensity fluctuations upon absolute density calibration. Monitoring in high- and low-pressure monitoring environments is compared. Methods to improve detection sensitivity by luminescence background suppression are presented

  16. Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Technique based Prevalence of Surra in Equines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahsan Nadeem, Asim Aslam*, Zafar Iqbal Chaudhary, Kamran Ashraf1, Khalid Saeed1, Nisar Ahmad1, Ishtiaq Ahmed and Habib ur Rehman2

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This project was carried out to find the prevalence of trypanosomiasis in equine in District Gujranwala by using indirect fluorescent antibody technique and thin smear method. Blood samples were collected from a total of 200 horses and donkeys of different ages and either sex. Duplicate thin blood smears were prepared from each sample and remaining blood samples were centrifuged to separate the serum. Smears from each animal were processed for giemsa staining and indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT. Giemsa stained smears revealed Trypanosome infection in 4/200 (2.0% samples and IFAT in 12/200 (6.0% animals.

  17. Mesh adaptation technique for Fourier-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soloviev, Vadim Y.

    2006-01-01

    A novel adaptive mesh technique in the Fourier domain is introduced for problems in fluorescence lifetime imaging. A dynamical adaptation of the three-dimensional scheme based on the finite volume formulation reduces computational time and balances the ill-posed nature of the inverse problem. Light propagation in the medium is modeled by the telegraph equation, while the lifetime reconstruction algorithm is derived from the Fredholm integral equation of the first kind. Stability and computational efficiency of the method are demonstrated by image reconstruction of two spherical fluorescent objects embedded in a tissue phantom

  18. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and related techniques an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Margui, Eva

    2013-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) is a well-established analytical technique for qualitative and quantitative elemental analysis of a wide variety of routine quality control and research samples. Among its many desirable features, it delivers true multi-element character analysis, acceptable speed and economy, easy of automation, and the capacity to analyze solid samples. This remarkable contribution to this field provides a comprehensive and up-to-date account of basic principles, recent developments, instrumentation, sample preparation procedures, and applications of XRF analysis. If you are a professional in materials science, analytic chemistry, or physics, you will benefit from not only the review of basics, but also the newly developed technologies with XRF. Those recent technological advances, including the design of low-power micro- focus tubes and novel X-ray optics and detectors, have made it possible to extend XRF to the analysis of low-Z elements and to obtain 2D or 3D information on a microme...

  19. Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence for Safeguards Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludewigt, Bernhard A; Quiter, Brian J; Ambers, Scott D

    2011-02-04

    In nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) measurements, resonances are excited by an external photon beam leading to the emission of {gamma} rays with specific energies that are characteristic of the emitting isotope. The promise of NRF as a non-destructive analysis technique (NDA) in safeguards applications lies in its potential to directly quantify a specific isotope in an assay target without the need for unfolding the combined responses of several fissile isotopes as often required by other NDA methods. The use of NRF for detection of sensitive nuclear materials and other contraband has been researched in the past. In the safeguards applications considered here one has to go beyond mere detection and precisely quantify the isotopic content, a challenge that is discussed throughout this report. Basic NRF measurement methods, instrumentation, and the analytical calculation of NRF signal strengths are described in Section 2. Well understood modeling and simulation tools are needed for assessing the potential of NRF for safeguards and for designing measurement systems. All our simulations were performed with the radiation transport code MCNPX, a code that is widely used in the safeguards community. Our initial studies showed that MCNPX grossly underestimated the elastically scattered background at backwards angles due to an incorrect treatment of Rayleigh scattering. While new, corrected calculations based on ENDF form factors showed much better agreement with experimental data for the elastic scattering of photons on an uranium target, the elastic backscatter is still not rigorously treated. Photonuclear scattering processes (nuclear Thomson, Delbruck and Giant Dipole Resonance scattering), which are expected to play an important role at higher energies, are not yet included. These missing elastic scattering contributions were studied and their importance evaluated evaluated against data found in the literature as discussed in Section 3. A transmission experiment

  20. Intrinsic Tryptophan Fluorescence in the Detection and Analysis of Proteins: A Focus on Förster Resonance Energy Transfer Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar B. T. Ghisaidoobe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available F resonance energy transfer (FRET occurs when the distance between a donor fluorophore and an acceptor is within 10 nm, and its application often necessitates fluorescent labeling of biological targets. However, covalent modification of biomolecules can inadvertently give rise to conformational and/or functional changes. This review describes the application of intrinsic protein fluorescence, predominantly derived from tryptophan (\\(\\uplambda_{\\textsc{ex}}\\sim\\ nm, \\(\\uplambda_{\\textsc{em}}\\sim\\ 350 nm, in protein-related research and mainly focuses on label-free FRET techniques. In terms of wavelength and intensity, tryptophan fluorescence is strongly influenced by its (or the proteinlocal environment, which, in addition to fluorescence quenching, has been applied to study protein conformational changes. Intrinsic F resonance energy transfer (iFRET, a recently developed technique, utilizes the intrinsic fluorescence of tryptophan in conjunction with target-specific fluorescent probes as FRET donors and acceptors, respectively, for real time detection of native proteins.

  1. Measuring techniques for Compton, Rayleigh and fluorescence cross-sections excited by keV photons. Potential use for various applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Donepudi V.; Takeda, Tohoru; Itai, Yuji [University of Tsukuba, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Akatsuka, Takao [Yamagata University, Faculty of Engineering, Yonezawa, Yamagata (Japan); Seltzer, Stephen M.; Hubbell, John H. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Ionizing Radiation Division, Photon and Charged Particle Data Center, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Cesareo, Roberto; Brunetti, Antonio [Universita di Sassari, Istituto di Matematica e Fisica, Sassari (Italy); Gigante, Giovanni E. [Universita di Rome, Dipartimento di Fisica, ' La Sapienza' , Roma (Italy)

    2002-08-01

    Compton, Rayleigh and fluorescence cross-sections for low, medium and high Z atoms are measured at low photon energies (<100 keV) using an X-ray tube with secondary target. A new approach is developed to estimate the solid angle approximation and geometrical efficiency for a system with experimental arrangement using X-ray tube and secondary target as excitation source. Using this arrangement basic interaction cross-section measurements are performed in vacuum and reasonable monochromacy is achieved. Our motivation is mainly based on fundamental radiation interactions and radiology in mind. The present X-ray system considering the geometrical effects of the measuring system is more advantageous as far as the reduction of incoherently scattered background and improvement of monochromacy is concerned. The variation of the solid angle is studied by changing the radius and length of the collimators towards and away from the source and sample. From these values the variation of the solid angle and geometrical efficiency is deduced and the optimum value is used for the experimental work. The experimental system is very simple in design, compact and economical. Experimental results based on these systems are compared with theoretical estimates and good agreement is observed in between them. (author)

  2. European Space Agency's Fluorescence Explorer Mission: Concept and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, G.; Moreno, J. F.; Goulas, Y.; Huth, A.; Middleton, E.; Miglietta, F.; Nedbal, L.; Rascher, U.; Verhoef, W.; Drusch, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Fluorescence Explorer (FLEX) is a dedicated satellite for the detection and measurement of solar-induced fluorescence (SIF). It is one of two candidate missions currently under evaluation by ESA for deployment in its Earth Explorer 8 program, with Phase A/B1 assessments now underway. FLEX is planned as a tandem mission with ESA's core mission Sentinel-3, and would carry an instrument, FLORIS, optimized for discrimination of the fluorescence signal in terrestrial vegetation. The FLEX mission would be the first to be focussed upon optimization of SIF detection in terrestrial vegetation, and using finer spatial resolution than is available with current satellites. It would open up a novel avenue for monitoring photosynthetic function from space, with diverse potential applications. Plant photosynthetic tissues absorbing sunlight in the wavebands of photosynthetically active radiation (400 to 700 nm) emit fluorescence in the form of red and far-red light. This signal confers a small but measurable contribution to apparent reflectance spectra, and with appropriate analysis it may be detected and quantified. Over the last 15-20 years, techniques for SIF detection have progressed from contact or near-contact methods using single leaves to remote techniques using airborne sensors and towers over plant canopies. Ongoing developments in instrumentation, atmospheric correction procedures, signal extraction techniques, and utilization of the SIF signal itself are all critical aspects of progress in this area. The FLEX mission would crystallize developments to date into a state-of-the-art pioneering mission targeting actual photosynthetic function. This compares to existing methods which address only potential function. Thus, FLEX could serve to provide real-time data on vegetation health and stress status, and inputs for parameterization of photosynthetic models (e.g. with measures of light-use efficiency). SIF might be correlated or modelled to photosynthetic rates or

  3. Remote sensing of chlorophyll a fluorescence of vegetation canopies. 1. Near and far field measurement techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecchi, G.; Mazzinghi, P.; Pantani, L.; Valentini, R.; Tirelli, D.; De Angelis, P.

    1994-01-01

    This article presents instruments and techniques, used in several vegetation monitoring experiments. Simultaneous monitoring was performed with different approaches, including fluorescence lidar and passive remote sensing, leaf level reflectance, and laser fluorimetry, and compared with physiological measurements. Most of the instrumentation described was designed and built for this application. Experiments were carried out in the laboratory and in the field, to investigate the relationship between chlorophyll fluorescence spectra and plant ecophysiology. Remote sensing, spectroscopy, and ecophysiology data were then collected by an intensive research team, joining different experiences and working in national and international projects

  4. Time-Resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy for Characterization of Dendritic Polymer Nanoparticles and Applications in Nanomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Boreham

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The emerging field of nanomedicine provides new approaches for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, for symptom relief and for monitoring of disease progression. One route of realizing this approach is through carefully constructed nanoparticles. Due to the small size inherent to the nanoparticles a proper characterization is not trivial. This review highlights the application of time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM for the analysis of nanoparticles, covering aspects ranging from molecular properties to particle detection in tissue samples. The latter technique is particularly important as FLIM allows for distinguishing of target molecules from the autofluorescent background and, due to the environmental sensitivity of the fluorescence lifetime, also offers insights into the local environment of the nanoparticle or its interactions with other biomolecules. Thus, these techniques offer highly suitable tools in the fields of particle development, such as organic chemistry, and in the fields of particle application, such as in experimental dermatology or pharmaceutical research.

  5. Time-Resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy for Characterization of Dendritic Polymer Nanoparticles and Applications in Nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boreham, Alexander; Brodwolf, Robert; Walker, Karolina; Haag, Rainer; Alexiev, Ulrike

    2016-12-24

    The emerging field of nanomedicine provides new approaches for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, for symptom relief and for monitoring of disease progression. One route of realizing this approach is through carefully constructed nanoparticles. Due to the small size inherent to the nanoparticles a proper characterization is not trivial. This review highlights the application of time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) for the analysis of nanoparticles, covering aspects ranging from molecular properties to particle detection in tissue samples. The latter technique is particularly important as FLIM allows for distinguishing of target molecules from the autofluorescent background and, due to the environmental sensitivity of the fluorescence lifetime, also offers insights into the local environment of the nanoparticle or its interactions with other biomolecules. Thus, these techniques offer highly suitable tools in the fields of particle development, such as organic chemistry, and in the fields of particle application, such as in experimental dermatology or pharmaceutical research.

  6. Investigation of Pink Tourmalines by X-ray Fluorescent Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sangariyavanich, A.; Na Songkhla, S.; Pimjum, S.

    1998-01-01

    X-ray fluorescent technique has been employed in the study of trace elements in six samples of gamma irradiated pink tourmalines, namely, red-pink (rubellite), light-pink, orange-pink, brownish orange-pink, purple red and purple orange-pink. The analysis of their characteristic X-ray indicated the existence of manganese in all samples. Trace amounts of iron, zinc, lead, bismuth or gallium were also investigated in certain samples. Since these elements were not present in red-pink tourmaline, therefore, we believed that manganese is the major cause of pink color in tourmaline while other elements produce various types of pink color

  7. Commercial Applications of X Ray Spectrometric Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegrzynek, D.

    2013-01-01

    In the 21st century, the X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique is widely used in process control, industrial applications and for routine elemental analysis. The technique has a multielement capability capable of detecting elements with Z ≥ 10, with a few instruments capable of detecting also elements with Z ≥ 5. It is characterized by a non-destructive analysis process and relatively good detection limits, typically one part per million, for a wide range of elements. The first commercial XRF instruments were introduced to the market about 50 years ago. They were the wavelength dispersive X ray fluorescence (WDXRF) spectrometers utilizing Bragg’s law and reflection on crystal lattices for sequential elemental analysis of sample composition. The advances made in radiation detector technology, especially the introduction of semiconductor detectors, improvements in signal processing electronics, availability and exponential growth of personal computer market led to invention of energy dispersive X ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique. The EDXRF is more cost effective as compared to WDXRF. It also allows for designing compact instruments. Such instruments can be easily tailored to the needs of different customers, integrated with industrial installations, and also miniaturized for the purpose of in-situ applications. The versatility of the technique has been confirmed in a spectacular way by using the XRF and X-ray spectrometric techniques, among few others, during the NASA and ESA missions in search for the evidence of life and presence of water on the surface of Mars. The XRF technique has achieved its strong position within the atomic spectroscopy group of analytical techniques not only due to its versatility but also due to relatively low running costs, as compared to the commonly used methods, e.g., atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) or inductively coupled plasma atomic emission/mass spectrometry (ICP-AES/MS). Presently, the XRF technique together with X ray

  8. Commercial Applications of X Ray Spectrometric Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegrzynek, D., E-mail: D.Wedgrznek@iaea.org [International Atomic Energy Agency, The IAEA Laboratories, Seibersdorf, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-07-15

    In the 21st century, the X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique is widely used in process control, industrial applications and for routine elemental analysis. The technique has a multielement capability capable of detecting elements with Z {>=} 10, with a few instruments capable of detecting also elements with Z {>=} 5. It is characterized by a non-destructive analysis process and relatively good detection limits, typically one part per million, for a wide range of elements. The first commercial XRF instruments were introduced to the market about 50 years ago. They were the wavelength dispersive X ray fluorescence (WDXRF) spectrometers utilizing Bragg's law and reflection on crystal lattices for sequential elemental analysis of sample composition. The advances made in radiation detector technology, especially the introduction of semiconductor detectors, improvements in signal processing electronics, availability and exponential growth of personal computer market led to invention of energy dispersive X ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique. The EDXRF is more cost effective as compared to WDXRF. It also allows for designing compact instruments. Such instruments can be easily tailored to the needs of different customers, integrated with industrial installations, and also miniaturized for the purpose of in-situ applications. The versatility of the technique has been confirmed in a spectacular way by using the XRF and X-ray spectrometric techniques, among few others, during the NASA and ESA missions in search for the evidence of life and presence of water on the surface of Mars. The XRF technique has achieved its strong position within the atomic spectroscopy group of analytical techniques not only due to its versatility but also due to relatively low running costs, as compared to the commonly used methods, e.g., atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) or inductively coupled plasma atomic emission/mass spectrometry (ICP-AES/MS). Presently, the XRF technique together with X ray

  9. ELECTROSPRAY, TECHNIQUE AND APPLICATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BRUINS, AP

    Electrospray makes use of ions present in electrically charged droplets in an aerosol. The generation of an aerosol by electrospray has already been published by Zeleny in 1917. The feasibility of electrospray as an ionization technique was demonstrated by Fenn and coworkers, and by a group of

  10. Aquatic Organic Matter Fluorescence - from phenomenon to application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Darren

    2014-05-01

    The use of fluorescence to quantify and characterise aquatic organic matter in river, ocean, ground water and drinking and waste waters has come along way since its discovery as a phenomenon in the early 20th century. For example, there are over 100 papers published each year in international peer reviewed journals, an order of magnitude increase since a decade ago (see Figure taken from ISI database from 1989 to 2007 for publications in the fields of river water and waste water). Since then it has been extensively used as a research tool since the 1990's by scientists and is currently used for a wide variety of applications within a number of sectors. Universities, organisations and companies that research into aquatic organic matter have either recently readily use appropriate fluorescence based techniques and instrumentation. In industry and government, the technology is being taken up by environmental regulators and water and wastewater companies. This keynote presentation will give an overview of aquatic organic matter fluorescence from its conception as a phenomenon through to its current use in a variety of emerging applications within the sectors concerned with understanding, managing and monitoring the aquatic environment. About the Speaker Darren Reynolds pioneered the use of fluorescence spectroscopy for the analysis of wastewaters in the 1990's. He currently leads a research group within the Centre for Research in Biosciences and sits on the Scientific Advisory Board for the Institute of Bio-Sensing Technology at the University of the West of England, Bristol. He is a multidisciplinary scientist concerned with the development of technology platforms for applications in the fields of environment/agri-food and health. His current research interests include the development of optical technologies and techniques for environmental and biological sensing and bio-prospecting applications. He is currently involved in the development and use of synthetic biology

  11. Development of a 2D temperature measurement technique for combustion diagnostics using 2-line atomic fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engstroem, Johan

    2001-01-01

    The present thesis is concerned with the development and application of a novel planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) technique for temperature measurements in a variety of combusting flows. Accurate measurement of temperature is an essential task in combustion diagnostics, since temperature is one of the most fundamental quantities for the characterization of combustion processes. The technique is based on two-line atomic fluorescence (TLAF) from small quantities of atomic indium (In) seeded into the fuel. It has been developed from small-scale experiments in laboratory flames to the point where practical combustion systems can be studied. The technique is conceptually simple and reveals temperature information in the post-flame regions. The viability of the technique has been tested in three extreme measurement situations: in spark ignition engine combustion, in ultra-lean combustion situations such as lean burning aero-engine concepts and, finally, in fuel-rich combustion. TLAF was successfully applied in an optical Sl engine using isooctane as fuel. The wide temperature sensitivity, 700 - 3000 K, of the technique using indium atoms allowed measurements over the entire combustion cycle in the engine to be performed. In applications in lean combustion a potential problem caused by the strong oxidation processes of indium atoms was encountered. This limits measurement times due to deposits of absorbing indium oxide on measurement windows. The seeding requirement is a disadvantage of the technique and can be a limitation in some applications. The results from experiments performed in sooting flames are very promising for thermometry measurements in such environments. Absorption by hydrocarbons and other native species was found to be negligible. Since low laser energies and low seeding concentrations could be used, the technique did not, unlike most other incoherent optical thermometry techniques, suffer interferences from LII of soot particles or LIF from PAH

  12. Fluorescence properties of human teeth and dental calculus for clinical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong-Keun

    2015-04-01

    Fluorescent emission of human teeth and dental calculus is important for the esthetic rehabilitation of teeth, diagnosis of dental caries, and detection of dental calculus. The purposes of this review were to summarize the fluorescence and phosphorescence of human teeth by ambient ultraviolet (UV) light, to investigate the clinically relevant fluorescence measurement methods in dentistry, and to review the fluorescence of teeth and dental calculus by specific wavelength light. Dentine was three times more phosphorescent than enamel. When exposed to light sources containing UV components, the fluorescence of human teeth gives them the quality of vitality, and fluorescent emission with a peak of 440 nm is observed. Esthetic restorative materials should have fluorescence properties similar to those of natural teeth. Based on the fluorescence of teeth and restorative materials as determined with a spectrophotometer, a fluorescence parameter was defined. As to the fluorescence spectra by a specific wavelength, varied wavelengths were investigated for clinical applications, and several methods for the diagnosis of dental caries and the detection of dental calculus were developed. Since fluorescent properties of dental hard tissues have been used and would be expanded in diverse fields of clinical practice, these properties should be investigated further, embracing newly developed optical techniques.

  13. Laser induced fluorescence technique for detecting organic matter in East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng; Wang, Tianyu; Pan, Delu; Huang, Haiqing

    2017-10-01

    A laser induced fluorescence (LIF) technique for fast diagnosing chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in water is discussed. We have developed a new field-portable laser fluorometer for rapid fluorescence measurements. In addtion, the fluorescence spectral characteristics of fluorescent constituents (e.g., CDOM, chlorophyll-a) were analyzed with a spectral deconvolution method of bi-Gaussian peak function. In situ measurements by the LIF technique compared well with values measured by conventional spectrophotometer method in laboratory. A significant correlation (R2 = 0.93) was observed between fluorescence by the technique and absorption by laboratory spectrophotometer. Influence of temperature variation on LIF measurement was investigated in lab and a temperature coefficient was deduced for fluorescence correction. Distributions of CDOM fluorescence measured using this technique in the East China Sea coast were presented. The in situ result demonstrated the utility of the LIF technique for rapid detecting dissolved organic matter.

  14. Topics: in vivo measurement of thyroidal iodine content by x-ray fluorescent technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamura, Keiko

    1979-01-01

    Thyroidal iodine content gives useful informations in the fields of physiology, clinical medicine, health physics etc. Iodine content has been determined mainly for resected thyroids. Recently, x-ray fluorescent analysis has been extended as the in vivo technique first in the clinical medicine. Exciting sources used for the analysis of the thyroid are Am-241 or x-ray tube. Am-241 has a half-life of 438 years and emits #betta#-ray of 60 keV. Thyroid can be imaged by fluorescent scan utilizing strong (10 - 15 Ci) Am-241 source. Examination time is about 15 min and the radiation dose to the gland is about 15 - 60 mrad. Iodine content is determined by static fluorescent technique equipped with weaker source of less than 1 Ci. Thyroidal iodine content in normal subjects were analysed by this technique and the results were in good accordance with those obtained by in vitro analysis. Difference in the thyroidal iodine content between the Japanese population and other countries is not clear. Application to the pathological cases has provided many findings about the iodine content and its distribution which could not be obtained by in vitro analysis. This in vivo technique can be safely performed for infants and for pregnancies, and the relatively compact size of this apparatus could be widely used in the study of health physics and environmental problems. (author)

  15. Fluorescence spectroscopy and multi-way techniques. PARAFAC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murphy, Kathleen R.; Stedmon, Colin A.; Graeber, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    PARAllel FACtor analysis (PARAFAC) is increasingly used to decompose fluorescence excitation emission matrices (EEMs) into their underlying chemical components. In the ideal case where fluorescence conforms to Beers Law, this process can lead to the mathematical identification and quantification...

  16. Application of fluorescent-and radioactive tracers in Sedimentalogy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alencar, L.M.L. de.

    1981-01-01

    The development of techniques of sediment labelling, creating the possibility of using fluorescent and radioactive tracers not yet applied in Brazil, in the area of sedimentology, is studied. (A.R.H.) [pt

  17. Fluorescence lifetime assays: current advances and applications in drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritz, Stephan; Doering, Klaus; Woelcke, Julian; Hassiepen, Ulrich

    2011-06-01

    Fluorescence lifetime assays complement the portfolio of established assay formats available in drug discovery, particularly with the recent advances in microplate readers and the commercial availability of novel fluorescent labels. Fluorescence lifetime assists in lowering complexity of compound screening assays, affording a modular, toolbox-like approach to assay development and yielding robust homogeneous assays. To date, materials and procedures have been reported for biochemical assays on proteases, as well as on protein kinases and phosphatases. This article gives an overview of two assay families, distinguished by the origin of the fluorescence signal modulation. The pharmaceutical industry demands techniques with a robust, integrated compound profiling process and short turnaround times. Fluorescence lifetime assays have already helped the drug discovery field, in this sense, by enhancing productivity during the hit-to-lead and lead optimization phases. Future work will focus on covering other biochemical molecular modifications by investigating the detailed photo-physical mechanisms underlying the fluorescence signal.

  18. Waveguide evanescent field fluorescence microscopy & its application in cell biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, Abdollah

    There are many powerful microscopy technologies available for the investigation of bulk materials as well as for thin film samples. Nevertheless, for imaging an interface, especially live cells on a substrate and ultra thin-films, only Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy is available. This TIRF microscopy allows imaging without interference of the bulk. Various approaches are employed in fluorescence microscopy applications to restrict the excitation and detection of fluorophores to a thin region of the specimen. Elimination of background fluorescence from outside the focal plane can dramatically improve the signal-to-noise ratio, and consequently, the spatial resolution of the features or events of interest. TIRF microscopy is an evanescent field based microscopy. In this method, fluorescent dyes are only excited within an evanescent field: roughly within 100 nm above a glass coverslip. This will allow imaging surface and interfacial issues of the glass coverslip and an adjacent material. Waveguide evanescent field fluorescence (WEFF) microscopy is a new development for imaging cell-substrate interactions in real time and in vitro. It is an alternative to TIRF microscopy. In this method the light is coupled into a waveguide via an optical grating. The coupled light propagates as a waveguide mode and exhibits an evanescent field on top of the waveguide. This can be used as a surface-bound illumination source to excite fluorophores. This evanescent field serves as an extremely powerful tool for quality control of thin films, to study cell-substrate contacts, and investigating the effect of external agents and drugs on the cell-substrate interaction in real time and in vitro. This new method has been established and optimized to minimize non-uniformity, scattering and photo bleaching issues. Visualizing and quantifying of the cell-substrates and solid thin films have been carried out by WEFF microscopy. The images of the cell-substrate interface

  19. Modified Hyperbranched Polymers for Fluorescence Sensing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    sensors. The HBPs transported the fluorescent groups to the fiber mat surface where they interacted with mercury (Hg(II)) or cytochrome c as the analyte...coworkers (27, 28) have employed fluorescence quenching using a binol-based dendrimer sensor, which exhibited differential sensitivity to enantiomeric...based sensors using HBP-based fluorophores was demonstrated in this report. Low concentrations of fluorophore were transported to the surface of

  20. Common Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Applications in Cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, Spasenija; Bubendorf, Lukas

    2016-12-01

    - Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a well-established method for detection of genomic aberrations in diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive marker testing. - To review common applications of FISH in cytology. - The published literature was reviewed. - Cytology is particularly well suited for all kinds of FISH applications, which is highlighted in respiratory tract cytology with an increasing demand for predictive FISH testing in lung cancer. Fluorescence in situ hybridization is the gold standard for detection of predictive anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene (ALK) rearrangements, and the same evaluation criteria as in histology apply to cytology. Several other gene rearrangements, including ROS proto-oncogene 1 receptor tyrosine kinase (ROS1), are becoming clinically important and share the same underlining cytogenetic mechanisms with ALK. MET amplification is one of the most common mechanisms of acquired resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors and can be targeted by crizotinib. As genomic aberrations are a hallmark of malignant cells, FISH is a valuable objective ancillary diagnostic tool. In urinary tract cytology, atypical urothelial cells equivocal for malignancy are a common diagnostic dilemma and multitarget FISH can help clarify such cells. Diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma remains one of the most challenging fields in effusion cytology, and ancillary FISH is useful in establishing the diagnosis. Fluorescence in situ hybridization is a morphology-based technique, and the prerequisite for reliable FISH results is a targeted evaluation of the cells in question (eg, cancer or atypical cells). Cytopathologists and cytotechnicians should therefore be involved in molecular testing in order to select the best material and to provide their morphologic expertise.

  1. Spatial and temporal superresolution concepts to study plasma membrane organization by single molecule fluorescence techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruprecht, V.

    2010-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy techniques are currently among the most important experimental tools to study cellular processes. Ultra-sensitive detection devices nowadays allow for measuring even individual farnesylacetate labeled target molecules with nanometer spatial accuracy and millisecond time resolution. The emergence of single molecule fluorescence techniques especially contributed to the field of membrane biology and provided basic knowledge on structural and dynamic features of the cellular plasma membrane. However, we are still confronted with a rather fragmentary understanding of the complex architecture and functional interrelations of membrane constituents. In this thesis new concepts in one- and dual-color single molecule fluorescence techniques are presented that allow for addressing organization principles and interaction dynamics in the live cell plasma membrane. Two complementary experimental strategies are described which differ in their detection principle: single molecule fluorescence imaging and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. The presented methods are discussed in terms of their implementation, accuracy, quantitative and statistical data analysis, as well as live cell applications. State-of-the-art dual color single molecule imaging is introduced as the most direct experimental approach to study interaction dynamics between differently labeled target molecules. New analytical estimates for robust data analysis are presented that facilitate quantitative recording and identification of co localizations in dual color single molecule images. A novel dual color illumination scheme is further described that profoundly extends the current range and sensitivity of conventional dual color single molecule experiments. The method enables working at high surface densities of fluorescent molecules - a feature typically incommensurable with single molecule imaging - and is especially suited for the detection of rare interactions by tracking co localized

  2. Clinical applications of in vivo fluorescence confocal laser scanning microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chilhwan; Park, Sangyong; Kim, Junhyung; Ha, Seunghan; Park, Gyuman; Lee, Gunwoo; Lee, Onseok; Chun, Byungseon; Gweon, Daegab

    2008-02-01

    Living skin for basic and clinical research can be evaluated by Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope (CLSM) non-invasively. CLSM imaging system can achieve skin image its native state either "in vivo" or "fresh biopsy (ex vivo)" without fixation, sectioning and staining that is necessary for routine histology. This study examines the potential fluorescent CLSM with a various exogenous fluorescent contrast agent, to provide with more resolution images in skin. In addition, in vivo fluorescent CLSM researchers will be extended a range of potential clinical application. The prototype of our CLSM system has been developed by Prof. Gweon's group. The operating parameters are composed of some units, such as illuminated wavelength 488 nm, argon illumination power up to 20mW on the skin, objective lens, 0.9NA oil immersion, axial resolution 1.0μm, field of view 200μm x 100μm (lateral resolution , 0.3μm). In human volunteer, fluorescein sodium was administrated topically and intradermally. Animal studies were done in GFP transgenic mouse, IRC mouse and pig skin. For imaging of animal skin, fluorescein sodium, acridine orange, and curcumine were used for fluorescein contrast agent. We also used the GFP transgenic mouse for fluorescein CLSM imaging. In intact skin, absorption of fluorescein sodium by individual corneocyte and hair. Intradermal administrated the fluorescein sodium, distinct outline of keratinocyte cell border could be seen. Curcumin is a yellow food dye that has similar fluorescent properties to fluorescein sodium. Acridin Orange can be highlight nuclei in viable keratinocyte. In vivo CLSM of transgenic GFP mouse enable on in vivo, high resolution view of GFP expressing skin tissue. GFP signals are brightest in corneocyte, kertinocyte, hair and eccrine gland. In intact skin, absorption of fluorescein sodium by individual corneocyte and hair. Intradermal administrated the fluorescein sodium, distinct outline of keratinocyte cell border could be seen. In

  3. Novel radar techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Klemm, Richard; Lombardo, Pierfrancesco; Nickel, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Novel Radar Techniques and Applications presents the state-of-the-art in advanced radar, with emphasis on ongoing novel research and development and contributions from an international team of leading radar experts. This volume covers: Real aperture array radar; Imaging radar and Passive and multistatic radar.

  4. Novel radar techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Klemm, Richard; Koch, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Novel Radar Techniques and Applications presents the state-of-the-art in advanced radar, with emphasis on ongoing novel research and development and contributions from an international team of leading radar experts. This volume covers: Waveform diversity and cognitive radar and Target tracking and data fusion.

  5. Romanian medieval earring analysis by X-ray fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Therese, Laurent; Guillot, Philippe; Muja, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Several instrumental techniques of elemental analysis are now used for the characterization of archaeological materials. The combination between archaeological and analytical information can provide significant knowledge on the constituting material origin, heritage authentication and restoration, provenance, migration, social interaction and exchange. Surface mapping techniques such as X-Ray Fluorescence have become a powerful tool for obtaining qualitative and semi-quantitative information about the chemical composition of cultural heritage materials, including metallic archaeological objects. In this study, the material comes from the Middle Age cemetery of Feldioara (Romania). The excavation of the site located between the evangelical church and the parsonage led to the discovery of several funeral artifacts in 18 graves among a total of 127 excavated. Even if the inventory was quite poor, some of the objects helped in establishing the chronology. Six anonymous Hungarian denarii (silver coins) were attributed to Geza II (1141-1161) and Stefan III (1162-1172), placing the cemetery in the second half of the XII century. This period was also confirmed by three loop shaped earrings with the end in 'S' form (one small and two large earrings). The small earring was found during the excavation in grave number 86, while the two others were discovered together in grave number 113. The anthropological study shown that skeletons excavated from graves 86 and 113 belonged respectively to a child (1 individual, medium level preservation, 9 months +/- 3 months) and to an adult (1 individual). In this work, elemental mapping were obtained by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique from Jobin Yvon Horiba XGT-5000 instrument offering detailed elemental images with a spatial resolution of 100μm. The analysis revealed that the earrings were composed of copper, zinc and tin as major elements. Minor elements were also determined. The comparison between the two large earrings

  6. Romanian medieval earring analysis by X-ray fluorescence technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Therese, Laurent; Guillot, Philippe, E-mail: philippe.guillot@univ-jfc.fr [Laboratoire Diagnostics des Plasmas, CUFR J.F.C, Albi (France); Muja, Cristina [Laboratoire Diagnostics des Plasmas, CUFR J.F.C, Albi (France); Faculty of Biology, University of Bucharest (Romania); Vasile Parvan Institute of Archaeology, Bucharest, (Romania)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Several instrumental techniques of elemental analysis are now used for the characterization of archaeological materials. The combination between archaeological and analytical information can provide significant knowledge on the constituting material origin, heritage authentication and restoration, provenance, migration, social interaction and exchange. Surface mapping techniques such as X-Ray Fluorescence have become a powerful tool for obtaining qualitative and semi-quantitative information about the chemical composition of cultural heritage materials, including metallic archaeological objects. In this study, the material comes from the Middle Age cemetery of Feldioara (Romania). The excavation of the site located between the evangelical church and the parsonage led to the discovery of several funeral artifacts in 18 graves among a total of 127 excavated. Even if the inventory was quite poor, some of the objects helped in establishing the chronology. Six anonymous Hungarian denarii (silver coins) were attributed to Geza II (1141-1161) and Stefan III (1162-1172), placing the cemetery in the second half of the XII century. This period was also confirmed by three loop shaped earrings with the end in 'S' form (one small and two large earrings). The small earring was found during the excavation in grave number 86, while the two others were discovered together in grave number 113. The anthropological study shown that skeletons excavated from graves 86 and 113 belonged respectively to a child (1 individual, medium level preservation, 9 months +/- 3 months) and to an adult (1 individual). In this work, elemental mapping were obtained by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique from Jobin Yvon Horiba XGT-5000 instrument offering detailed elemental images with a spatial resolution of 100{mu}m. The analysis revealed that the earrings were composed of copper, zinc and tin as major elements. Minor elements were also determined. The comparison between the two

  7. Multifunctional Magnetic-fluorescent Nanocomposites for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakovich Yury

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractNanotechnology is a fast-growing area, involving the fabrication and use of nano-sized materials and devices. Various nanocomposite materials play a number of important roles in modern science and technology. Magnetic and fluorescent inorganic nanoparticles are of particular importance due to their broad range of potential applications. It is expected that the combination of magnetic and fluorescent properties in one nanocomposite would enable the engineering of unique multifunctional nanoscale devices, which could be manipulated using external magnetic fields. The aim of this review is to present an overview of bimodal “two-in-one” magnetic-fluorescent nanocomposite materials which combine both magnetic and fluorescent properties in one entity, in particular those with potential applications in biotechnology and nanomedicine. There is a great necessity for the development of these multifunctional nanocomposites, but there are some difficulties and challenges to overcome in their fabrication such as quenching of the fluorescent entity by the magnetic core. Fluorescent-magnetic nanocomposites include a variety of materials including silica-based, dye-functionalised magnetic nanoparticles and quantum dots-magnetic nanoparticle composites. The classification and main synthesis strategies, along with approaches for the fabrication of fluorescent-magnetic nanocomposites, are considered. The current and potential biomedical uses, including biological imaging, cell tracking, magnetic bioseparation, nanomedicine and bio- and chemo-sensoring, of magnetic-fluorescent nanocomposites are also discussed.

  8. Corrections of residual fluorescence distortions for a glancing-emergence-angle x-ray-absorption technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewe, D.L.; Pease, D.M.; Budnick, J.I.

    1994-01-01

    Distortions appear in x-ray-absorption spectra obtained by monitoring the fluorescence from thick samples with concentrated absorbing species. The glancing-emergence-angle technique for obtaining spectra from this type of sample eliminates distortions from the measured spectra by monitoring the fluorescence leaving the sample at a small angle relative to the sample surface. This technique is limited by the small signal available from the inherently limited detector solid angle. In addition, no precise estimate of the required restriction on maximum emergent angle θ max has been available. We have calculated residual extended x-ray-absorption fine structure distortions as a function of θ max , and performed experimental tests of the calculations. These calculations provide a means to estimate the required detector geometry for negligible distortions, or alternatively, allow the use of a larger θ max , increasing the available signal, with the remaining residual distortions removed by application of the calculations. The calculations are also applicable to other detector geometries, and account for detectors subtending a large solid angle by an integration over the subtended angle. This represents an improvement over previous calculations. The application to more general detector configurations is also discussed

  9. Fluorescent compounds for plastic scintillation applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pla-Dalmau, A.; Bross, A.D.

    1994-04-01

    Several 2-(2'-hydroxyphenyl)benzothiazole, -benzoxazole, and -benzimidazole derivatives have been prepared. Transmittance, fluorescence, light yield, and decay time characteristics of these compounds have been studied in a polystyrene matrix and evaluated for use in plastic scintillation detectors. Radiation damage studies utilizing a 60 C source have also been performed

  10. Integration of novel low-cost colorimetric, laser photometric, and visual fluorescent techniques for rapid identification of falsified medicines in resource-poor areas: application to artemether-lumefantrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Michael D; Hostetler, Dana M; Nettey, Henry; Swamidoss, Isabel; Ranieri, Nicola; Newton, Paul N

    2015-06-01

    The availability of falsified antimalarial drugs can be reduced with effective drug regulatory agencies and proper enforcement. Fundamental to these agencies taking action, rapid identification must be made as soon as they appear in the market place. Since falsified antimalarials occur mostly in developing countries, performing drug analysis presents itself with unique challenges. A fundamental factor in choosing a useful technique is affordability and simplicity. Therefore, we suggest a three-tiered drug evaluation strategy for identifying a falsified drug in resource-poor areas. Tier I is a simple comparison of a tablet's weight and dimensions with official specifications. Tier II uses inexpensive photometric devices (laser and fluorescence) to evaluate a tablet. Suspicious samples from Tier I and II assessments are then subjected to a colorimetric assay for active ingredients identification and quantification. In this article, we evaluate a novel colorimetric assay for the simultaneous assessment of both lumefantrine and artemether in co-formulated Coartem™ tablets, and integrate the method with two novel, low-cost, fluorescence and laser photometric devices. Image analysis software is used for the assessments. Although artemether-lumefantrine is used as an example, the strategy may be adapted to other medicines. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  11. X-ray Fluorescence Holography: Principles, Apparatus, and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kouichi; Korecki, Pawel

    2018-06-01

    X-ray fluorescence holography (XFH) is an atomic structure determination technique that combines the capabilities of X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. It provides a unique means of gaining fully three-dimensional information about the local atomic structure and lattice site positions of selected elements inside compound samples. In this work, we discuss experimental and theoretical aspects that are essential for the efficient recording and analysis of X-ray fluorescence holograms and review the most recent advances in XFH. We describe experiments performed with brilliant synchrotron radiation as well as with tabletop setups that employ conventional X-ray tubes.

  12. APPLICATION OF MODULATED CHLOROPHYLL FLUORESCENCE AND MODULATED CHLOROPHYLL FLUORESCENCE IMAGING IN STUDYING ENVIRONMENTAL STRESSES EFFECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Guidi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophyll (Chl a fluorescence is a widely used tool to monitor the photosynthetic process in plants subjected to environmental stresses.this review reports the theoretical bases of Chl fluorescence, and the significance of the most important Chl fluorescence parameters. it also reportshow these parameters can be utilised to estimate changes in photosystem ii (PSII photochemistry, linear electron flux and energy dissipationmechanisms. the relation between actual PSII photochemistry and CO2 assimilation is discussed, as is the role of photochemical andnon-photochemical quenching in inducing changes in PSII activity. the application of Chl fluorescence imaging to study heterogeneity on leaflamina is also considered. this review summarises only some of the results obtained by this methodology to study the effects of differentenvironmental stresses, namely water and nutrients availability, pollutants, temperature and salinity.

  13. Fluorescence technique application of X-ray in labeling with Mn, Sr and Cu, of the parasitoid and host: Muscidifuax uniraptor Kogan and Legner, 1970 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) and Musca domestica L., 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itepan, Natanael Marcio

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this work was to develop the methodology of the labeling adult of Musca domestica and Muscidifurax uniraptor using the elements Mn, Sr and Cu with the use of x-ray fluorescence. This work was carried out in the Laboratory of Biological Control of House Flies, 'Eduardo Hiroshi Mizumoto', of the 'Entomology, Phytopatology and Zoology Department of the College of Agriculture 'Luiz de Queiroz' ESALQ/USP), and the Division of Methods the Development and Nuclear Analytics Techniques, of CENA/USP, Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil. The larvae was removed to the labeled diet with increasing level of the elements Mn, Sr and Cu. The levels tested for all element were: 0 (control); 0,25; 0,50; 1,00; 2,00; 4,00; 8,00; 16,00; 32,00 and 64,00 mg/gr of diet. Labeled pupae with 1,00 to 4,00 (Mn) and 1,00 (Sr and Cu) mg/gr of diet were tested for the pupal parasitoid M. uniraptor. The concentration quantity of the chemical elements was realized by the Analytical Technique denominated (EDXRF) energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence. Concentrations of 2,00 (Mn) and 1,00 (Sr) supplemented to the diet of M. domestica were sufficient for the adult insect labeled, however, not affecting its life expectancy. Pupae originated from the larvae of M. domestica treated with dose of 2,00 (Mn) and 1,00 (Sr and Cu) mg supplemented to the diet, and used as hosts of the parasitoid M. uniraptor, affected the viability of the immature phase and did not label the adults. (author)

  14. Fluorescent magnetic nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chekina, Nataliya; Horák, Daniel; Jendelová, Pavla; Trchová, Miroslava; Beneš, Milan J.; Hrubý, Martin; Herynek, V.; Turnovcová, Karolína; Syková, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 21 (2011), s. 7630-7639 ISSN 0959-9428 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7E09109; GA ČR GA203/09/1242; GA AV ČR KAN201110651; GA AV ČR KAN200200651 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505; CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : magnetic * fluorescent * stem cells Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 5.968, year: 2011

  15. High resolution x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy - a new technique for site- and spin-selectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xin

    1996-12-01

    X-ray spectroscopy has long been used to elucidate electronic and structural information of molecules. One of the weaknesses of x-ray absorption is its sensitivity to all of the atoms of a particular element in a sample. Through out this thesis, a new technique for enhancing the site- and spin-selectivity of the x-ray absorption has been developed. By high resolution fluorescence detection, the chemical sensitivity of K emission spectra can be used to identify oxidation and spin states; it can also be used to facilitate site-selective X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) and site-selective Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS). The spin polarization in K fluorescence could be used to generate spin selective XANES or spin-polarized EXAFS, which provides a new measure of the spin density, or the nature of magnetic neighboring atoms. Finally, dramatic line-sharpening effects by the combination of absorption and emission processes allow observation of structure that is normally unobservable. All these unique characters can enormously simplify a complex x-ray spectrum. Applications of this novel technique have generated information from various transition-metal model compounds to metalloproteins. The absorption and emission spectra by high resolution fluorescence detection are interdependent. The ligand field multiplet model has been used for the analysis of Kα and Kβ emission spectra. First demonstration on different chemical states of Fe compounds has shown the applicability of site selectivity and spin polarization. Different interatomic distances of the same element in different chemical forms have been detected using site-selective EXAFS

  16. X-ray fluorescence beamline at LNLS: components and some associated techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, CArlos A.; Radtke, Martin; Perez, Carlos; Tolentino, Helio; Vicentin, Flavio; Sanchez, Hector Jorge; Perez, Roberto D.

    1997-01-01

    Full text. In this work a general description of the Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) and the X-Ray Fluorescence Microprobe (XRFM) is presented. Components, equipment and experimental stations for the x-ray fluorescence beamline are described, regarding to the techniques mentioned above. Results from the simulations of a pair bended mirrors in a Kirkpatrick-Baez configuration, are shown. The simulations were performed with Shadow program. (author)

  17. Multimedia watermarking techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kirovski, Darko

    2006-01-01

    Intellectual property owners must continually exploit new ways of reproducing, distributing, and marketing their products. However, the threat of piracy looms as a major problem with digital distribution and storage technologies. Multimedia Watermarking Techniques and Applications covers all current and future trends in the design of modern systems that use watermarking to protect multimedia content. Containing the works of contributing authors who are worldwide experts in the field, this volume is intended for researchers and practitioners, as well as for those who want a broad understanding

  18. Peripheral Atherectomy: Applications and Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittleider, Derek; Russell, Erich

    2016-06-01

    Peripheral atherectomy is a class of procedures that is rapidly increasing in volume. Multiple classes of devices exist, and newer variants are added to the market annually. The devices see wide application for de novo lesions, in-stent restenosis, and adjunctive therapy for drug-coated balloons. The body of evidence supporting atherectomy is less robust than for many other peripheral therapies. The frequency and severity of complications from atherectomy can be significant compared with angioplasty and stenting, and familiarity with preventative and bailout techniques is essential for the interventionalist. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Neutron radiography, techniques and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanus, J.C.

    1987-10-01

    After describing the principles of the ''in pool'' and ''dry'' installations, techniques used in neutron radiography are reviewed. Use of converter foils with silver halide films for the direct and transfer methods is described. Advantages of the use of nitrocellulose film for radiographying radioactive objects are discussed. Dynamic imaging is shortly reviewed. Standardization in the field of neutron radiography (ASTM and Euratom Neutron Radiography Working Group) is described. The paper reviews main fields of use of neutron radiography. Possibilities of use of neutron radiography at research reactors in various scientific, industrial and other fields are mentioned. Examples are given of application of neutron radiography in industry and the nuclear field. (author)

  20. Raman Imaging Techniques and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Raman imaging has long been used to probe the chemical nature of a sample, providing information on molecular orientation, symmetry and structure with sub-micron spatial resolution. Recent technical developments have pushed the limits of micro-Raman microscopy, enabling the acquisition of Raman spectra with unprecedented speed, and opening a pathway to fast chemical imaging for many applications from material science and semiconductors to pharmaceutical drug development and cell biology, and even art and forensic science. The promise of tip-enhanced raman spectroscopy (TERS) and near-field techniques is pushing the envelope even further by breaking the limit of diffraction and enabling nano-Raman microscopy.

  1. Detection of fecal residue on poultry carcasses by laser induced fluorescence imaging techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential use of laser-induced fluorescence imaging techniques was investigated for the detection of diluted fecal matters from various parts of the digestive tract, including colon, ceca, small intestine, and duodenum, on poultry carcasses. One of the challenges for using fluorescence imaging f...

  2. Emerging biomedical applications of time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakowicz, Joseph R.; Szmacinski, Henryk; Koen, Peter A.

    1994-07-01

    Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy is presently regarded as a research tool in biochemistry, biophysics, and chemical physics. Advances in laser technology, the development of long-wavelength probes, and the use of lifetime-based methods are resulting in the rapid migration of time-resolved fluorescence to the clinical chemistry lab, to the patient's bedside, to flow cytometers, to the doctor's office, and even to home health care. Additionally, time-resolved imaging is now a reality in fluorescence microscopy, and will provide chemical imaging of a variety of intracellular analytes and/or cellular phenomena. In this overview paper we attempt to describe some of the opportunities available using chemical sensing based on fluorescence lifetimes, and to predict those applications of lifetime-based sensing which are most likely in the near future.

  3. Chlorophyll fluorescence analysis: a guide to good practice and understanding some new applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murchie, E H; Lawson, T

    2013-10-01

    Chlorophyll fluorescence is a non-invasive measurement of photosystem II (PSII) activity and is a commonly used technique in plant physiology. The sensitivity of PSII activity to abiotic and biotic factors has made this a key technique not only for understanding the photosynthetic mechanisms but also as a broader indicator of how plants respond to environmental change. This, along with low cost and ease of collecting data, has resulted in the appearance of a large array of instrument types for measurement and calculated parameters which can be bewildering for the new user. Moreover, its accessibility can lead to misuse and misinterpretation when the underlying photosynthetic processes are not fully appreciated. This review is timely because it sits at a point of renewed interest in chlorophyll fluorescence where fast measurements of photosynthetic performance are now required for crop improvement purposes. Here we help the researcher make choices in terms of protocols using the equipment and expertise available, especially for field measurements. We start with a basic overview of the principles of fluorescence analysis and provide advice on best practice for taking pulse amplitude-modulated measurements. We also discuss a number of emerging techniques for contemporary crop and ecology research, where we see continual development and application of analytical techniques to meet the new challenges that have arisen in recent years. We end the review by briefly discussing the emerging area of monitoring fluorescence, chlorophyll fluorescence imaging, field phenotyping, and remote sensing of crops for yield and biomass enhancement.

  4. Emerging applications of fluorescence spectroscopy in medical microbiology field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Aamir; Köhler, Gottfried; Knapp, Martin; Gaubitzer, Erwin; Puchinger, Martin; Edetsberger, Michael

    2009-11-26

    There are many diagnostic techniques and methods available for diagnosis of medically important microorganisms like bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. But, almost all these techniques and methods have some limitations or inconvenience. Most of these techniques are laborious, time consuming and with chances of false positive or false negative results. It warrants the need of a diagnostic technique which can overcome these limitations and problems. At present, there is emerging trend to use Fluorescence spectroscopy as a diagnostic as well as research tool in many fields of medical sciences. Here, we will critically discuss research studies which propose that Fluorescence spectroscopy may be an excellent diagnostic as well as excellent research tool in medical microbiology field with high sensitivity and specificity.

  5. Emerging applications of fluorescence spectroscopy in medical microbiology field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaubitzer Erwin

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There are many diagnostic techniques and methods available for diagnosis of medically important microorganisms like bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. But, almost all these techniques and methods have some limitations or inconvenience. Most of these techniques are laborious, time consuming and with chances of false positive or false negative results. It warrants the need of a diagnostic technique which can overcome these limitations and problems. At present, there is emerging trend to use Fluorescence spectroscopy as a diagnostic as well as research tool in many fields of medical sciences. Here, we will critically discuss research studies which propose that Fluorescence spectroscopy may be an excellent diagnostic as well as excellent research tool in medical microbiology field with high sensitivity and specificity.

  6. A new technique for the deposition of standard solutions in total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF) using pico-droplets generated by inkjet printers and its applicability for aerosol analysis with SR-TXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fittschen, U.E.A.; Hauschild, S.; Amberger, M.A.; Lammel, G.; Streli, C.; Foerster, S.; Wobrauschek, P.; Jokubonis, C.; Pepponi, G.; Falkenberg, G.; Broekaert, J.A.C.

    2006-01-01

    A new technique for the deposition of standard solutions on particulate aerosol samples using pico-droplets for elemental determinations with total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF) is described. It enables short analysis times without influencing the sample structure and avoids time consuming scanning of the sample with the exciting beam in SR-TXRF analysis. Droplets of picoliter volume (∼ 5-130 pL) were generated with commercially available and slightly modified inkjet printers operated with popular image processing software. The size of the dried droplets on surfaces of different polarity namely silicone coated and untreated quartz reflectors, was determined for five different printer types and ten different cartridge types. The results show that droplets generated by inkjet printers are between 50 and 200 μm in diameter (corresponding to volumes of 5 to 130 pL) depending on the cartridge type, which is smaller than the width of the synchrotron beam used in the experiments (< 1 mm at an energy of 17 keV at the beamline L at HASYLAB, Hamburg). The precision of the printing of a certain amount of a single element standard solution was found to be comparable to aliquoting with micropipettes in TXRF, where for 2.5 ng of cobalt relative standard deviations of 12% are found. However, it could be shown that the printing of simple patterns is possible, which is important when structured samples have to be analysed

  7. Online observation of emulsion polymerization by fluorescence technique

    CERN Document Server

    Rudschuck, S; Fuhrmann, J

    1999-01-01

    An online observation of local polarity via fluorescence spectroscopy was used to study the formation and growth of polymer particles during an emulsifier-free heterogeneous polymerization. The reaction mixture consisted of styrene dispersed in water and the polymerization was initiated by a macro-initiator (hydrolyzed propene-maleic acid copolymer with t-butyl perester groups). Pyrenyl probes were attached to the backbone of the initiator to analyze the heterogeneous reaction. The experimental results allow a clear distinction of different time regions during the heterogeneous polymerization. Information about the heating period, the latex formation, the particle growth and the final stage of the polymerization process (gel point) were obtained. (11 refs).

  8. Genetic barcoding with fluorescent proteins for multiplexed applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smurthwaite, Cameron A; Williams, Wesley; Fetsko, Alexandra; Abbadessa, Darin; Stolp, Zachary D; Reed, Connor W; Dharmawan, Andre; Wolkowicz, Roland

    2015-04-14

    Fluorescent proteins, fluorescent dyes and fluorophores in general have revolutionized the field of molecular cell biology. In particular, the discovery of fluorescent proteins and their genes have enabled the engineering of protein fusions for localization, the analysis of transcriptional activation and translation of proteins of interest, or the general tracking of individual cells and cell populations. The use of fluorescent protein genes in combination with retroviral technology has further allowed the expression of these proteins in mammalian cells in a stable and reliable manner. Shown here is how one can utilize these genes to give cells within a population of cells their own biosignature. As the biosignature is achieved with retroviral technology, cells are barcoded 'indefinitely'. As such, they can be individually tracked within a mixture of barcoded cells and utilized in more complex biological applications. The tracking of distinct populations in a mixture of cells is ideal for multiplexed applications such as discovery of drugs against a multitude of targets or the activation profile of different promoters. The protocol describes how to elegantly develop and amplify barcoded mammalian cells with distinct genetic fluorescent markers, and how to use several markers at once or one marker at different intensities. Finally, the protocol describes how the cells can be further utilized in combination with cell-based assays to increase the power of analysis through multiplexing.

  9. Flow Cytometric Applicability of Fluorescent Vitality Probes on Phytoplankton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peperzak, L.; Brussaard, C.P.D.

    2011-01-01

    The applicability of six fluorescent probes (four esterase probes: acetoxymethyl ester of Calcein [Calcein-AM], 5-chloromethylfluorescein diacetate [CMFDA], fluorescein diacetate [FDA], and 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate [H(2)DCFDA]; and two membrane probes: bis-(1,3-dibutylbarbituric acid)

  10. Possibilities of radioisotopic fluorescence analysis application in copper industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parus, J.; Kierzek, J.

    1983-01-01

    The main applications of X-ray fluorescence analysis in copper industry such as: copper ores and other materials from flotation analysis, lead and silver determination in blister copper, analysis of metallurgic dusts and copper base alloys analysis are presented. (A.S.)

  11. Nuclear Medicine and Application of Nuclear Techniques in Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiharto, Kunto

    1996-01-01

    The use of nuclear techniques medicine covers not only nuclear medicine and radiology in strict sense but also determination of body mineral content by neutron activation analysis and x-ray fluorescence technique either in vitro or in vivo, application of radioisotopes as tracers in pharmacology and biochemistry, etc. This paper describes the ideal tracer in nuclear medicine, functional and morphological imaging, clinical aspect and radiation protection in nuclear medicine. Nuclear technique offers facilities and chances related to research activities and services in medicine. The development of diagnostic as well as therapeutic methods using monoclonal antibodies labeled with radioisotope will undoubtedly play an important role in the disease control

  12. A library for X-ray-matter interaction cross sections for X-ray fluorescence applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunetti, A. [Istituto di Matematica e Fisica, Universita di Sassari, via Vienna 2, 07100 Sassari (Italy) and INFN, Sezione di Cagliari (Italy)]. E-mail: brunetti@uniss.it; Sanchez del Rio, M. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Golosio, B. [INFN, Sezione di Cagliari (Italy); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Simionovici, A. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Laboratoire de Sciences de la Terre, Ecole Normale Superieure, Lyon, F-69364 (France); Somogyi, A. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France)

    2004-10-08

    Quantitative estimate of elemental composition by spectroscopic and imaging techniques using X-ray fluorescence requires the availability of accurate data of X-ray interaction with matter. Although a wide number of computer codes and data sets are reported in literature, none of them is presented in the form of freely available library functions which can be easily included in software applications for X-ray fluorescence. This work presents a compilation of data sets from different published works and an xraylib interface in the form of callable functions. Although the target applications are on X-ray fluorescence, cross sections of interactions like photoionization, coherent scattering and Compton scattering, as well as form factors and anomalous scattering functions, are also available.

  13. Physical aspects of quantitative particles analysis by X-ray fluorescence and electron microprobe techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markowicz, A.

    1986-01-01

    The aim of this work is to present both physical fundamentals and recent advances in quantitative particles analysis by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and electron microprobe (EPXMA) techniques. A method of correction for the particle-size effect in XRF analysis is described and theoretically evaluated. New atomic number- and absorption correction procedures in EPXMA of individual particles are proposed. The applicability of these two correction methods is evaluated for a wide range of elemental composition, X-ray energy and sample thickness. Also, a theoretical model for composition and thickness dependence of Bremsstrahlung background generated in multielement bulk specimens as well as thin films and particles are presented and experimantally evaluated. Finally, the limitations and further possible improvements in quantitative particles analysis by XFR and EPXMA are discussed. 109 refs. (author)

  14. Fluorescence-based biosensors from concepts to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, May C

    2013-01-01

    One of the major challenges of modern biology and medicine consists in finding means to visualize biomolecules in their natural environment with the greatest level of accuracy, so as to gain insight into their properties and behaviour in a physiological and pathological setting. This has been achieved thanks to the design of novel imaging agents, in particular to fluorescent biosensors. Fluorescence Biosensors comprise a large set of tools which are useful for fundamental purposes as well as for applications in biomedicine, drug discovery and biotechnology. These tools have been designed a

  15. Rotational multispectral fluorescence lifetime imaging and intravascular ultrasound: bimodal system for intravascular applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dinglong; Bec, Julien; Yankelevich, Diego R.; Gorpas, Dimitris; Fatakdawala, Hussain; Marcu, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. We report the development and validation of a hybrid intravascular diagnostic system combining multispectral fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIm) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) for cardiovascular imaging applications. A prototype FLIm system based on fluorescence pulse sampling technique providing information on artery biochemical composition was integrated with a commercial IVUS system providing information on artery morphology. A customized 3-Fr bimodal catheter combining a rotational side-view fiberoptic and a 40-MHz IVUS transducer was constructed for sequential helical scanning (rotation and pullback) of tubular structures. Validation of this bimodal approach was conducted in pig heart coronary arteries. Spatial resolution, fluorescence detection efficiency, pulse broadening effect, and lifetime measurement variability of the FLIm system were systematically evaluated. Current results show that this system is capable of temporarily resolving the fluorescence emission simultaneously in multiple spectral channels in a single pullback sequence. Accurate measurements of fluorescence decay characteristics from arterial segments can be obtained rapidly (e.g., 20 mm in 5 s), and accurate co-registration of fluorescence and ultrasound features can be achieved. The current finding demonstrates the compatibility of FLIm instrumentation with in vivo clinical investigations and its potential to complement conventional IVUS during catheterization procedures. PMID:24898604

  16. [Progress in transgenic fish techniques and application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xing; Tian, Yuan-Yuan; Gao, Feng-Ying

    2011-05-01

    Transgenic technique provides a new way for fish breeding. Stable lines of growth hormone gene transfer carps, salmon and tilapia, as well as fluorescence protein gene transfer zebra fish and white cloud mountain minnow have been produced. The fast growth characteristic of GH gene transgenic fish will be of great importance to promote aquaculture production and economic efficiency. This paper summarized the progress in transgenic fish research and ecological assessments. Microinjection is still the most common used method, but often resulted in multi-site and multi-copies integration. Co-injection of transposon or meganuclease will greatly improve the efficiency of gene transfer and integration. "All fish" gene or "auto gene" should be considered to produce transgenic fish in order to eliminate misgiving on food safety and to benefit expression of the transferred gene. Environmental risk is the biggest obstacle for transgenic fish to be commercially applied. Data indicates that transgenic fish have inferior fitness compared with the traditional domestic fish. However, be-cause of the genotype-by-environment effects, it is difficult to extrapolate simple phenotypes to the complex ecological interactions that occur in nature based on the ecological consequences of the transgenic fish determined in the laboratory. It is critical to establish highly naturalized environments for acquiring reliable data that can be used to evaluate the environ-mental risk. Efficacious physical and biological containment strategies remain to be crucial approaches to ensure the safe application of transgenic fish technology.

  17. Design, synthesis and application of novel fluorescent nucleosides

    OpenAIRE

    Greco, Nicholas Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Nucleic acids, the biomolecules of life, have demanded the attention of chemists and biologists for greater than a century. The ability to investigate, in detail, the structure, function and the interplay between the two has driven the development of novel approaches for the investigation of these concepts. Fluorescence spectroscopy, a technique that protein chemists have utilized for many years due to the inherent favorable photophysical properties of select naturally occurring amino acids, ...

  18. Comparison between energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and other nuclear analytical techniques in mineral exploration and mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, C.G.; Packer, T.W.; Wormald, M.R.

    1979-01-01

    At the present time there is an increasing awareness of the value and need for in-situ analytical methods throughout the general area of mineral exploration and mining. Of the alternative techniques, the measurement of natural gamma radiation is well established for uranium exploration and it is now being developed for sea-bed and lake-bed surveying. Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence equipment is becoming more generally accepted, especially for mine control. Neutron techniques, for so long used routinely in oil well logging, are now being developed for a wide range of applications in all aspects of exploration and mining. It is believed that these techniques will result in major applications in the future. The present paper compares the principal characteristics of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and neutron techniques in particular, with special emphasis being given to those factors which affect the accuracy of analytical content; such as elemental resolution, matrix effects, material heterogeneity and neutron transport. A generalised comparison between the techniques is difficult to achieve because of the different nature of radiation interactions, but a range of applications is described and these show the complementary nature of the methods and point to the areas for more active development in the future. (author)

  19. Applicability of statistical process control techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schippers, W.A.J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper concerns the application of Process Control Techniques (PCTs) for the improvement of the technical performance of discrete production processes. Successful applications of these techniques, such as Statistical Process Control Techniques (SPC), can be found in the literature. However, some

  20. Mapping air pollution. Application of nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parr, R.M.; Stone, S.F.; Zeisler, R.

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear techniques have important applications in the study of air pollution and many of its components. However, it is in the study of airborne particulate matter (APM) that nuclear analytical techniques find many of their most important applications. This article focuses on those applications, and on the work of the IAEA in this important field of study. 2 figs

  1. Analysis of photoisomerizable dyes using laser absorption and fluorescence techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchowicz, R.; Di Paolo, R.E.; Scaffardi, L.; Tocho, J.O.

    1992-01-01

    The attention of the present report has been directed mainly to the description of laser-based techniques developed in order to obtain kinetic and spectroscopic properties of polymethine cyanine dyes in solution. Special attention was dedicated to photoisomerizable molecules where the absorption spectra of both isomers are strongly overlapped. As an example, measurements of two different dyes of laser technological interest, DTCI and DODCI were performed. The developed methods provide a complete quantitative description of photophysical processes. (author). 14 refs, 6 figs

  2. Clinical application of fluorescence in situ hybridization for prenatal diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-fang JIANG

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To establish and optimize the procedures of fluorescence in situ hybridization(FISH), and evaluate its clinical value in rapid prenatal diagnosis of fetal numerical abnormality of chromosomes 21, 18, 13, X, Y. Methods Amniotic fluid or fetal blood was sampled by routine invasive procedures. After the amniotic fluid cells or fetal blood cells were separated and sequentially processed with hypotonic solution, fixation solution, smear and high temperature, they were hybridized in situ with two panels of specific fluorescence probes to detect numerical abnormality of chromosomes 21, 18, 13, X, Y. All the samples were also cultured and analyzed for their karyotype by conventional methods. Results When it was used as a diagnostic criterion of chromosomal number that the fluorescence signals were observed in ≥90% cells, GLP 13/GLP 21 probe panel showed 2 green/2 red fluorescence signals and CSP18/CSP X/CSP Y probe panel showed 2 blue/2 yellow (female or 2 blue/1 yellow/1 red fluorescence signals (male under normal condition. The test reports of all 196 cases were sent out in 72-96 hours, and 7 cases of Down syndrome, 2 cases of trisomy 18 and 1 case of sex chromosomal numerical abnormality were detected, which were accordant with karyotype analysis results reported one month later. Conclusions FISH has potential for clinical application, and is applicable to rapid prenatal diagnosis of fetal numerical abnormality of chromosomes 21, 18, 13, X, Y. The rapid FISH, together with conventional karyotyping, offer a valuable means for prenatal diagnosis of fetal aneuploidies.

  3. Innovative fluorescence detection technique for metals in cestode ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recent work in the field of parasitology has drawn attention to the application of parasites as pollution-accumulation indicators, particularly cestodes. A discrepancy in metal concentrations within cestode posterior and anterior tissue has led researchers to attribute this phenomenon to metals binding to the shells of their ...

  4. Fluorescence hyperspectral imaging technique for foreign substance detection on fresh-cut lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Changyeun; Kim, Giyoung; Kim, Moon S; Lim, Jongguk; Cho, Hyunjeong; Barnaby, Jinyoung Yang; Cho, Byoung-Kwan

    2017-09-01

    Non-destructive methods based on fluorescence hyperspectral imaging (HSI) techniques were developed to detect worms on fresh-cut lettuce. The optimal wavebands for detecting the worms were investigated using the one-way ANOVA and correlation analyses. The worm detection imaging algorithms, RSI-I (492-626)/492 , provided a prediction accuracy of 99.0%. The fluorescence HSI techniques indicated that the spectral images with a pixel size of 1 × 1 mm had the best classification accuracy for worms. The overall results demonstrate that fluorescence HSI techniques have the potential to detect worms on fresh-cut lettuce. In the future, we will focus on developing a multi-spectral imaging system to detect foreign substances such as worms, slugs and earthworms on fresh-cut lettuce. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Synthesis of Amphiphilic Hyperbranched AIE-active Fluorescent Organic Nanoparticles and Their Application in Biological Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Qiulan; Wang, Ke; Xu, Dazhuang; Liu, Meiying; Wan, Qing; Huang, Hongye; Liang, Shangdong; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Wei, Yen

    2016-02-01

    Aggregation-induced emission (AIE) dyes have recently attracted much attention for biomedical applications for their remarkable AIE properties. However, the hydrophobic nature of AIE dyes made them difficult to be dispersed in physiological solution and problematic for biomedical application directly. Great efforts have been made to overcome this problem, and different strategies for preparation of water dispersible AIE based nanoprobes had been explored previously. However, a facile and effective strategy is still highly desirable and of great importance for the biomedical applications of AIE dye based on nanoprobes. In this work, the fabrication of amphiphilic hyperbranched fluorescent organic nanoparticles with a core-shell structure based on an AIE dye [tetraphenylethene acrylate (TPE-O-E)] and a hyperbranched polyamino compound [polyethylene imine (PEI)] through Michael addition reaction is described for the first time. The AIE dye as well as the final product PEI-TPE-O-E was characterized in detail by a number of techniques. To test their biomedical application potential, the cell viability as well as cell imaging properties of the PEI-TPE-O-E was also examined. The results showed that the PEI-TPE-O-E organic nanoparticles presented high water dispersiblity, ultrabright fluroerescence, low cytotoxicity and excellent biocompatibility, making them promising for biological imaging and gene delivery applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Industrial application of nuclear techniques in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easey, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    The applications of nuclear techniques in Australia was reviewed - the work has been to aid: mining and mineral sector, the manufacturing, chemical and petroleum industries, hydrology and sedimentology

  7. [Evaluation of Medical Instruments Cleaning Effect of Fluorescence Detection Technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Nan; Shen, Yue; Li, Zhen; Li, Huijuan; Zhou, Chaoqun

    2016-01-01

    To compare the cleaning effect of automatic cleaning machine and manual cleaning on coupling type surgical instruments. A total of 32 cleaned medical instruments were randomly sampled from medical institutions in Putuo District medical institutions disinfection supply center. Hygiena System SUREII ATP was used to monitor the ATP value, and the cleaning effect was evaluated. The surface ATP values of the medical instrument of manual cleaning were higher than that of the automatic cleaning machine. Coupling type surgical instruments has better cleaning effect of automatic cleaning machine before disinfection, the application is recommended.

  8. Industrial applications of nuclear techniques in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalik, J.St.

    1981-01-01

    Application of radioisotope techniques in a number of Polish industries was reviewed. Studies on the usage of radiotracer as an evaluation method for technological processes were carried out and the advantages of such application were discussed

  9. Implementation of the Fluorescent in Situ Hybridization technique in the Faculty of Medicine, UdelaR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cairus

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Cytogenetic Laboratory of the Faculty of Medicine processes, on average, 300 annual samples of public and private healthcare centers by conventional cytogenetics. It is essential to implement new techniques to improve the quality of the service offered. The purpose of this work was to implement the Fluorescent in situ Hybridization technique (FISH. An observational, cross-sectional, analytical study was performed. Peripheral blood samples from patients with sex chromosomopathies diagnosed by conventional cytogenetics were analyzed. Fluorescent in situ hybridization technique was applied, comparing results with FISH and with conventional cytogenetics. The percentage of mosaicism detected by conventional cytogenetics and Fluorescent in situ Hybridization was studied: 24 samples were analyzed; 19 presented numerical alterations, 3 structural and 2 both. Numerical alterations were Turner syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome, XXX syndrome and XYY syndrome. Concordance in diagnoses was found for both techniques. For Turner syndrome, 8 of 12 samples corresponded to mosaicism, and there were no significant differences between conventional cytogenetics and the technique studied (p0.05. Klinefelter syndrome and XYY were both presented in a non-mosaic karyotype. For XXX syndrome, a normal line (46, XX was observed in three of the samples, in a percentage close to the cut off. From this research, it will be possible to implement Fluorescent in situ Hybridization in this service, to extend it to other pathologies and to enable the training of human resources; consolidating this laboratory as a national academic reference center.

  10. Generally Applicable Transformation Protocols for Fluorescent Nanodiamond Internalization into Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemelaar, Simon R; van der Laan, Kiran J; Hinterding, Sophie R; Koot, Manon V; Ellermann, Else; Perona-Martinez, Felipe P; Roig, David; Hommelet, Severin; Novarina, Daniele; Takahashi, Hiroki; Chang, Michael; Schirhagl, Romana

    2017-07-19

    Fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs) are promising nanoprobes, owing to their stable and magnetosensitive fluorescence. Therefore they can probe properties as magnetic resonances, pressure, temperature or strain. The unprecedented sensitivity of diamond defects can detect the faint magnetic resonance of a single electron or even a few nuclear spins. However, these sensitivities are only achieved if the diamond probe is close to the molecules that need to be detected. In order to utilize its full potential for biological applications, the diamond particle has to enter the cell. Some model systems, like HeLa cells, readily ingest particles. However, most cells do not show this behavior. In this article we show for the first time generally applicable methods, which are able to transport fluorescent nanodiamonds into cells with a thick cell wall. Yeast cells, in particular Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are a favored model organism to study intracellular processes including aging on a cellular level. In order to introduce FNDs in these cells, we evaluated electrical transformation and conditions of chemical permeabilization for uptake efficiency and viability. 5% DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide) in combination with optimized chemical transformation mix leads to high uptake efficiency in combination with low impact on cell biology. We have evaluated all steps in the procedure.

  11. Evaluation of the Acridine Orange Fluorescence Technique and the Indirect Fluorescent Antibody as Diagnostic Tests for Tropical Theileriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the use of acridine orange fluorescence technique on blood slides as a rapid diagnostic test for tropical theileriosis in comparison with the Giemsa-stained thin blood film technique. Also the indirect fluorescent antibody test has been employed for the serodiagnosis of tropical theileriosis. The study was carried out on 62 young and 48 adult Friesian cattle suffering from clinical tropical theileriosis in Qassim Region, Central Saudi Arabia, during the period from August 2006 to July 2008. For control, blood samples were also obtained from 25 young and 25 adult, clinically healthy, Friesian cattle, selected at random from different dairy farms in Qassim Region. Thin blood films were fixed with methanol and stained with Giemsa and acridine orange and were examined by two independent microbiologists. There was 100% correlation in the interpretation of slides stained with Giemsa and acridine orange both with respect to positivity and negativity, between the two microbiologists. It is concluded that if facilities are available acridine orange is a valuable alternative for screening tropical theileriosis. The method may also have potential value in the diagnosis of Theileria parva, which causes East Coast fever, and also other Theileria species. Results of the present study also showed that IFA test was not found sufficiently sensitive and specific as has been reported earlier. [Vet. World 2011; 4(8.000: 341-344

  12. Parallel scan hyperspectral fluorescence imaging system and biomedical application for microarrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhiyi; Ma Suihua; Liu Le; Guo Jihua; He Yonghong; Ji Yanhong

    2011-01-01

    Microarray research offers great potential for analysis of gene expression profile and leads to greatly improved experimental throughput. A number of instruments have been reported for microarray detection, such as chemiluminescence, surface plasmon resonance, and fluorescence markers. Fluorescence imaging is popular for the readout of microarrays. In this paper we develop a quasi-confocal, multichannel parallel scan hyperspectral fluorescence imaging system for microarray research. Hyperspectral imaging records the entire emission spectrum for every voxel within the imaged area in contrast to recording only fluorescence intensities of filter-based scanners. Coupled with data analysis, the recorded spectral information allows for quantitative identification of the contributions of multiple, spectrally overlapping fluorescent dyes and elimination of unwanted artifacts. The mechanism of quasi-confocal imaging provides a high signal-to-noise ratio, and parallel scan makes this approach a high throughput technique for microarray analysis. This system is improved with a specifically designed spectrometer which can offer a spectral resolution of 0.2 nm, and operates with spatial resolutions ranging from 2 to 30 μm . Finally, the application of the system is demonstrated by reading out microarrays for identification of bacteria.

  13. ELECTRICAL TECHNIQUES FOR ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisdorf, Robert J.

    1985-01-01

    Surface electrical geophysical methods have been used in such engineering applications as locating and delineating shallow gravel deposits, depth to bedrock, faults, clay zones, and other geological phenomena. Other engineering applications include determining water quality, tracing ground water contaminant plumes and locating dam seepages. Various methods and electrode arrays are employed to solve particular geological problems. The sensitivity of a particular method or electrode array depends upon the physics on which the method is based, the array geometry, the electrical contrast between the target and host materials, and the depth to the target. Each of the available electrical methods has its own particular advantages and applications which the paper discusses.

  14. Technique for Increasing the Selectivity of the Method of Laser Fragmentation/Laser-Induced Fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrovnikov, S. M.; Gorlov, E. V.; Zharkov, V. I.

    2018-05-01

    A technique for increasing the selectivity of the method of detecting high-energy materials (HEMs) based on laser fragmentation of HEM molecules with subsequent laser excitation of fluorescence of the characteristic NO fragments from the first vibrational level of the ground state is suggested.

  15. Fluorescence hyperspectral imaging technique for the foreign substance detection on fresh-cut lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nondestructive methods based on fluorescence hyperspectral imaging (HSI) techniques were developed in order to detect worms on fresh-cut lettuce. The optimal wavebands for detecting worms on fresh-cut lettuce were investigated using the one-way ANOVA analysis and correlation analysis. The worm detec...

  16. Comparative analysis of toxic elements in snuff by analytical techniques of X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza, Mario; Olivera, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Six samples of different commercial brands of cigarettes expended in the Peruvian market have been analyzed along with two IAEA certified reference material using the technique of X-ray fluorescence energy dispersive. The results obtained in the study showed the presence of toxic metals such as Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn.

  17. Rapid analysis of molybdenum contents in molybdenum master alloys by X-ray fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tongkong, P.

    1985-01-01

    Determination of molybdenum contents in molybdenum master alloy had been performed using energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDX) technique where analysis were made via standard additions and calibration curves. Comparison of EDX technique with other analyzing techniques, i.e., wavelength dispersive x-ray fluorescence, neutron activation analysis and inductive coupled plasma spectrometry, showed consistency in the results. This technique was found to yield reliable results when molybdenum contents in master alloys were in the range of 13 to 50 percent using HPGe detector or proportional counter. When the required error was set at 1%, the minimum analyzing time was found to be 30 and 60 seconds for Fe-Mo master alloys with molybdenum content of 13.54 and 49.09 percent respectively. For Al-Mo master alloys, the minimum times required were 120 and 300 seconds with molybdenum content of 15.22 and 47.26 percent respectively

  18. Fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy in multiple-scattering environments: an application to biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerussi, Albert E.; Gratton, Enrico; Fantini, Sergio

    1999-07-01

    Over the past few years, there has been significant research activity devoted to the application of fluorescence spectroscopy to strongly scattering media, where photons propagate diffusely. Much of this activity focused on fluorescence as a source of contrast enhancement in optical tomography. Our efforts have emphasized the quantitative recovery of fluorescence parameters for spectroscopy. Using a frequency-domain diffusion-based model, we have successfully recovered the lifetime, the absolute quantum yield, the fluorophore concentration, and the emission spectrum of the fluorophore, as well as the absorption and the reduced scattering coefficients at the emission wavelength of the medium in different measurements. In this contribution, we present a sensitive monitor of the binding between ethidium bromide and bovine cells in fresh milk. The spectroscopic contrast was the approximately tenfold increase in the ethidium bromide lifetime upon binding to DNA. The measurement clearly demonstrated that we could quantitatively measure the density of cells in the milk, which is an application vital to the tremendous economic burden of bovine subclinical mastitis detection. Furthermore, we may in principle use the spirit of this technique as a quantitative monitor of the binding of fluorescent drugs inside tissues. This is a first step towards lifetime spectroscopy in tissues.

  19. Application of total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    terest because of the increased awareness about environmental pollution and human health as some ... The presence of heavy elements indicates .... technique applicable to metals and nonmetals equally, both metals and nonmetals present.

  20. Two-dimensional fluorescence lifetime correlation spectroscopy. 2. Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kunihiko; Tahara, Tahei

    2013-10-03

    In the preceding article, we introduced the theoretical framework of two-dimensional fluorescence lifetime correlation spectroscopy (2D FLCS). In this article, we report the experimental implementation of 2D FLCS. In this method, two-dimensional emission-delay correlation maps are constructed from the photon data obtained with the time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC), and then they are converted to 2D lifetime correlation maps by the inverse Laplace transform. We develop a numerical method to realize reliable transformation, employing the maximum entropy method (MEM). We apply the developed actual 2D FLCS to two real systems, a dye mixture and a DNA hairpin. For the dye mixture, we show that 2D FLCS is experimentally feasible and that it can identify different species in an inhomogeneous sample without any prior knowledge. The application to the DNA hairpin demonstrates that 2D FLCS can disclose microsecond spontaneous dynamics of biological molecules in a visually comprehensible manner, through identifying species as unique lifetime distributions. A FRET pair is attached to the both ends of the DNA hairpin, and the different structures of the DNA hairpin are distinguished as different fluorescence lifetimes in 2D FLCS. By constructing the 2D correlation maps of the fluorescence lifetime of the FRET donor, the equilibrium dynamics between the open and the closed forms of the DNA hairpin is clearly observed as the appearance of the cross peaks between the corresponding fluorescence lifetimes. This equilibrium dynamics of the DNA hairpin is clearly separated from the acceptor-missing DNA that appears as an isolated diagonal peak in the 2D maps. The present study clearly shows that newly developed 2D FLCS can disclose spontaneous structural dynamics of biological molecules with microsecond time resolution.

  1. Exciton-controlled fluorescence: application to hybridization-sensitive fluorescent DNA probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Akimitsu; Ikeda, Shuji; Kubota, Takeshi; Yuki, Mizue; Yanagisawa, Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    A hybridization-sensitive fluorescent probe has been designed for nucleic acid detection, using the concept of fluorescence quenching caused by the intramolecular excitonic interaction of fluorescence dyes. We synthesized a doubly thiazole orange-labeled nucleotide showing high fluorescence intensity for a hybrid with the target nucleic acid and effective quenching for the single-stranded state. This exciton-controlled fluorescent probe was applied to living HeLa cells using microinjection to visualize intracellular mRNA localization. Immediately after injection of the probe into the cell, fluorescence was observed from the probe hybridizing with the target RNA. This fluorescence rapidly decreased upon addition of a competitor DNA. Multicoloring of this probe resulted in the simple simultaneous detection of plural target nucleic acid sequences. This probe realized a large, rapid, reversible change in fluorescence intensity in sensitive response to the amount of target nucleic acid, and facilitated spatiotemporal monitoring of the behavior of intracellular RNA.

  2. Determination of Ca/P molar ratio in hydroxyapatite (HA) by X-ray fluorescence technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scapin, Marcos A.; Guilhen, Sabine N.; Cotrim, Marycel E.B.; Pires, Maria Ap. F., E-mail: mascapin@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is a mineral composed of calcium phosphate employed for endodontics, restorative dentistry and other applications in orthopedics and prosthesis. Additionally, this biomaterial is an inexpensive but efficient adsorbent for the removal of heavy metals and other unwanted species of contaminated liquid effluents. This is especially interesting when low-cost effective remediation is required. A Ca / P molar ratio of 1.667 is consistent with the theoretical Ca / P ratio for calcium hydroxyapatite with a compositional formula of Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2}, which properties are well discussed in the literature. The aim of this work was to implement and validate a methodology for simultaneous determination of major and minor constituents in the hydroxyapatite (HA) as well as providing the Ca / P molar ratio. To accomplish these achievements, wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (WDXRF) was applied. This is a non-destructive technique that requires no chemical treatment, enabling fast chemical analysis in a wide variety of samples, with no hazardous waste being generated as a result of the process of determination. A standard reference material from NIST (SRM 1400 – Bone Ash) was used to validate the methodology for the determination of magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, iron, zinc, strontium and the Ca / P ratio in HA samples by WDXRF. The Z-score test was applied as a statistical tool and showed that the calculated values were of less than 1.8 for all the measured analytes. (author)

  3. Determination of Ca/P molar ratio in hydroxyapatite (HA) by X-ray fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scapin, Marcos A.; Guilhen, Sabine N.; Cotrim, Marycel E.B.; Pires, Maria Ap. F.

    2015-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is a mineral composed of calcium phosphate employed for endodontics, restorative dentistry and other applications in orthopedics and prosthesis. Additionally, this biomaterial is an inexpensive but efficient adsorbent for the removal of heavy metals and other unwanted species of contaminated liquid effluents. This is especially interesting when low-cost effective remediation is required. A Ca / P molar ratio of 1.667 is consistent with the theoretical Ca / P ratio for calcium hydroxyapatite with a compositional formula of Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 , which properties are well discussed in the literature. The aim of this work was to implement and validate a methodology for simultaneous determination of major and minor constituents in the hydroxyapatite (HA) as well as providing the Ca / P molar ratio. To accomplish these achievements, wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (WDXRF) was applied. This is a non-destructive technique that requires no chemical treatment, enabling fast chemical analysis in a wide variety of samples, with no hazardous waste being generated as a result of the process of determination. A standard reference material from NIST (SRM 1400 – Bone Ash) was used to validate the methodology for the determination of magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, iron, zinc, strontium and the Ca / P ratio in HA samples by WDXRF. The Z-score test was applied as a statistical tool and showed that the calculated values were of less than 1.8 for all the measured analytes. (author)

  4. A new Technique for ultrafast velocity distribution measurements of atomic species by post-ionization laser induced fluorescence (PILIF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabares, F.L.

    1992-01-01

    A new method for single shot velocity distribution measurement of metallic impurities of relevance for studies involving continuous sources, such as limiter experiments in fusion devices or sputtering experiments, based in the combination of Resonant Enhanced Multiphoton Ionization (REMPI) and Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) is proposed. High ionization yield and good time resolution are expected according to the numerical simulation of the experiment that has been run for several atomic species. Other possible applications of REMPI to plasma edge physics and to conventional techniques for velocity distribution measurements are briefly addressed. (author)

  5. A new technique for ultrafast velocity distribution measurements of atomic species by post-ionization laser induced fluorescent (PILIF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabares, F.L.

    1992-01-01

    A new method for single shot velocity distribution measurement of metallic impurities of relevance for studies involving continuous sources, such as limiter experiments in fusion devices or sputtering experiments, based in the combination of Resonant Enhanced Multiphoton ionization (REMPI) and Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) is proposed. High ionization yield and good time resolution are expected according to the numerical simulation of the experiment that has been run for several atomic species. Other possible applications of REMPI to plasma edge physics and to conventional techniques for velocity distribution measurements are briefly addressed. (Author) 8 refs

  6. A new technique for ultrafast velocity distribution measurements of atomic species by post-ionization laser induced fluorescent (PILIF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabares, F.L.

    1992-07-01

    A new method for single shot velocity distribution measurement of metallic impurities of relevance for studies involving continuous sources, such as limiter experiments in fusion devices or sputtering experiments, based in the combination of Resonant Enhanced Multiphoton ionization (REMPI) and Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) is proposed. High ionization yield and good time resolution are expected according to the numerical simulation of the experiment that has been run for several atomic species. Other possible applications of REMPI to plasma edge physics and to conventional techniques for velocity distribution measurements are briefly addressed. (Author) 8 refs.

  7. Applications of the phased array technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erhard, A.; Schenk, G.; Hauser, Th.; Voelz, U.

    1999-01-01

    The application of the phased array technique was limited to heavy and thick wall components as present in the nuclear industry. With the improvement of the equipment and probes other application areas are now open for the phased array technique, e.g. the inspection of the turbine blade root, weld inspection in a wall thickness range between 12 and 40 mm, inspection of aircraft components, inspection of spot welds or inspection of concretes. The aim of the use of phased array techniques has not been changed related to the first applications, i.e. the adaptation of the sound beam to the geometry by steering the angel of incidence or the skewing angle as well as the focussing of sound fields. Due to the fact, that the new applications of the phased array techniques in some cases don't leave the laboratories for the time being, the examples of this contribution will focus applications with practical background. (orig.)

  8. New applications using phased array techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erhard, A.; Schenk, G.; Hauser, Th.; Voelz, U.

    2001-01-01

    In general, the application of phased array techniques used to be limited to heavy components with large wall thicknesses, such as those in the nuclear power industry. With the improvement of the phased array equipment, including phased array search units, other application areas are now accessible for the phased array inspection technique, e.g. the inspection of turbine blade roots, weld inspection with a wall thickness ranging from 12 to 40 mm, inspection of aircraft components, inspection of spot welds and the inspection of concrete building components. The objective for the use of phased array techniques has not significantly changed since their first application, e.g. instant adjustment of the sound beam to the geometry of the test object by steering incidence angle, skew angle and/or sound field focusing. Because some new phased array technique applications are still in the experimental (laboratory) stage, this article will focus on some examples for practical, real-weld applications

  9. Micro manufacturing techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Ruxu; Li, Zifu

    2013-01-01

    Micro/meso-scale manufacturing has been developed in research fields of machining, forming, materials and others, but its potential to industries are yet to be fully realized. The theme of the current volume was to build a bridge joining academic research and industrial needs in micro manufacturing. Among the 12 papers selected for publication are three keynote addresses onmicro and desktop factories for micro/meso-scale manufacturing applicationsand future visions, tissue cutting mechanics and applications for needlecore biopsy and guidance, and micro-texturing onto amorphous carbonmaterials

  10. Performability Modelling Tools, Evaluation Techniques and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    1990-01-01

    This thesis deals with three aspects of quantitative evaluation of fault-tolerant and distributed computer and communication systems: performability evaluation techniques, performability modelling tools, and performability modelling applications. Performability modelling is a relatively new

  11. TV content analysis techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kompatsiaris, Yiannis

    2012-01-01

    The rapid advancement of digital multimedia technologies has not only revolutionized the production and distribution of audiovisual content, but also created the need to efficiently analyze TV programs to enable applications for content managers and consumers. Leaving no stone unturned, TV Content Analysis: Techniques and Applications provides a detailed exploration of TV program analysis techniques. Leading researchers and academics from around the world supply scientifically sound treatment of recent developments across the related subject areas--including systems, architectures, algorithms,

  12. Energetic electron processes fluorescence effects for structured nanoparticles X-ray analysis and nuclear medicine applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taborda, A.; Desbrée, A. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PRP-HOM/SDI/LEDI, BP-17, 31, Avenue de la Division Leclerc, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Carvalho, A. [IEQUALTECS, Lda, Rua Dr. Francisco Sá Carneiro, 36, 2500-065 S. Gregório CLD (Portugal); Chaves, P.C. [C" 2TN, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, EN10 km 139.7, 2685-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Reis, M.A., E-mail: mareis@ctn.tecnico.ulisboa.pt [IEQUALTECS, Lda, Rua Dr. Francisco Sá Carneiro, 36, 2500-065 S. Gregório CLD (Portugal); C" 2TN, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, EN10 km 139.7, 2685-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal)

    2016-08-15

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles are widely used as contrast agents for nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and can be modified for improved imaging or to become tissue-specific or even protein-specific. The knowledge of their detailed elemental composition characterisation and potential use in nuclear medicine applications, is, therefore, an important issue. X-ray fluorescence techniques such as particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) or X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), can be used for elemental characterisation even in problematic situations where very little sample volume is available. Still, the fluorescence coefficient of Fe is such that, during the decay of the inner-shell ionised atomic structure, keV Auger electrons are produced in excess to X-rays. Since cross-sections for ionisation induced by keV electrons, for low atomic number atoms, are of the order of 10{sup 3} barn, care should be taken to account for possible fluorescence effects caused by Auger electrons, which may lead to the wrong quantification of elements having atomic number lower than the atomic number of Fe. Furthermore, the same electron processes will occur in iron oxide nanoparticles containing {sup 57}Co, which may be used for nuclear medicine therapy purposes. In the present work, simple approximation algorithms are proposed for the quantitative description of radiative and non-radiative processes associated with Auger electrons cascades. The effects on analytical processes and nuclear medicine applications are quantified for the case of iron oxide nanoparticles, by calculating both electron fluorescence emissions and energy deposition on cell tissues where the nanoparticles may be embedded.

  13. Time-Domain Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Techniques Suitable for Solid-State Imaging Sensor Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert K. Henderson

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We have successfully demonstrated video-rate CMOS single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD-based cameras for fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM by applying innovative FLIM algorithms. We also review and compare several time-domain techniques and solid-state FLIM systems, and adapt the proposed algorithms for massive CMOS SPAD-based arrays and hardware implementations. The theoretical error equations are derived and their performances are demonstrated on the data obtained from 0.13 μm CMOS SPAD arrays and the multiple-decay data obtained from scanning PMT systems. In vivo two photon fluorescence lifetime imaging data of FITC-albumin labeled vasculature of a P22 rat carcinosarcoma (BD9 rat window chamber are used to test how different algorithms perform on bi-decay data. The proposed techniques are capable of producing lifetime images with enough contrast.

  14. Determination of cesium and selenium in cultivated mushrooms using radionuclide X-ray fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racz, L.; Bumbalova, A.; Harangozo, M.; Toelgyessy, J.; Tomecek, O.

    2000-01-01

    Cesium and selenium intake of cultivated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus), with these elements previously added to culture medium, has been examined from the viewpoint of health- and environmental protection. The process of measuring has been carried out by the radionuclide X-ray fluorescence technique. Treatments of the elementary substance with Se salt appears to influence the Se content of the mushrooms to a significant extent. Cs intake is of considerable importance, as this element is accumulated by mushrooms. (author)

  15. Evaluation of a fluorescent lectin-based staining technique for some acidophilic mining bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fife, D.J.; Bruhn, D.F.; Miller, K.S.; Stoner, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    A fluorescence-labeled wheat germ agglutinin staining technique was modified and found to be effective for staining gram-positive, acidophilic mining bacteria. Bacteria identified by others as being gram positive through 16S rRNA sequence analyses, yet clustering near the divergence of that group, stained weakly. Gram-negative bacteria did not stain. Background staining of environmental samples was negligible, and pyrite and soil particles in the samples did not interfere with the staining procedure

  16. Energy dispersion X-ray fluorescence techniques in water pollution analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holynska, B.

    1980-01-01

    Advantages and limitations of energy dispersion X-ray fluorescence methods for analysis of pollutants in water are discussed. The necessary equipment for X-ray measurement of insoluble and dissolved trace metals in water is described. Different techniques of enrichment of trace metals are presented: ion exchange on selective Chelex-100 exchanger, precipitation with chelating agents DDTC and APDC, and adsorption on activated carbon. Some results obtained using different preconcentration methods for trace metals determination in different waters are presented. (author)

  17. Economics on nuclear techniques application in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Masao

    1979-01-01

    The economics of the application of nuclear techniques to industry is discussed. Nuclear techniques were applied to gauging (physical measurement), analysis, a radioactive tracer method, electrolytic dissociation, and radiography and were found to be very economical. They can be applied to manufacturing, mining, oceano-engineering, environmental engineering, and construction, all of which have a great influence on economics. However, because the application of a radioactive tracer technique does not have a direct influence on economics, it is difficult to estimate how beneficial it is. The cost-benefit ratio method recommended by IAEA was used for economical calculations. Examples of calculations made in gauging and analysis are given. (Ueda, J.)

  18. A Micro Fluorescent Activated Cell Sorter for Astrobiology Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Donald W.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2009-01-01

    A micro-scale Fluorescent Activated Cell Sorter (microFACS) for astrobiology applications is under development. This device is designed to have a footprint of 7 cm x 7 cm x 4 cm and allow live-dead counts and sorting of cells that have fluorescent characteristics from staining. The FACS system takes advantage of microfluidics to create a cell sorter that can fit in the palm of the hand. A micron-scale channel allows cells to pass by a blue diode which causes emission of marker-expressed cells which are detected by a filtered photodetector. A small microcontroller then counts cells and operates high speed valves to select which chamber the cell is collected in (a collection chamber or a waste chamber). Cells with the expressed characteristic will be collected in the collection chamber. This system has been built and is currently being tested. We are also designing a system with integrated MEMS-based pumps and valves for a small and compact unit to fly on small satellite-based biology experiments.

  19. Application of combined micro-proton-induced X-ray emission and micro-synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence techniques for the characterization of impact materials around Barringer Meteor Crater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uzonyi, I. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Department of Electrostatic Accelerators, H-4026 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/C (Hungary)]. E-mail: uzonyi@atomki.hu; Szoeor, Gy. [Department of Mineralogy and Geology, University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen, Egyetem ter 1 (Hungary); Vekemans, B. [Department of Chemistry, University of Antwerpen (UIA) Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Vincze, L. [Department of Chemistry, University of Antwerpen (UIA) Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Rozsa, P. [Department of Mineralogy and Geology, University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen, Egyetem ter 1 (Hungary); Szabo, Gy. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Department of Electrostatic Accelerators, H-4026 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/C (Hungary); Somogyi, A. [ID22, ESRF, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Adams, F. [Department of Chemistry, University of Antwerpen (UIA) Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Kiss, A.Z. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Department of Electrostatic Accelerators, H-4026 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/C (Hungary)

    2004-10-08

    A combined micro-PIXE and micro-SRXRF method has been used for the characterization of impact materials collected at the well-known Barringer Meteor Crater. Elemental maps were recorded and concentrations were determined by micro-PIXE method for the major constituents of samples. Micro-SRXRF technique was used for the complementary measurement of medium and high atomic number elements, especially the siderophilic ones. Altogether, approximately 40 elements were analyzed. These results elucidate many steps of the formation mechanism of the various impact-metamorphosed objects.

  20. Characterization of Developer Application Methods Used in Fluorescent Penetrant Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasche, L. J. H.; Lopez, R.; Eisenmann, D.

    2006-03-01

    Fluorescent penetrant inspection (FPI) is the most widely used inspection method for aviation components seeing use for production as well as an inservice inspection applications. FPI is a multiple step process requiring attention to the process parameters for each step in order to enable a successful inspection. A multiyear program is underway to evaluate the most important factors affecting the performance of FPI, to determine whether existing industry specifications adequately address control of the process parameters, and to provide the needed engineering data to the public domain. The final step prior to the inspection is the application of developer with typical aviation inspections involving the use of dry powder (form d) usually applied using either a pressure wand or dust storm chamber. Results from several typical dust storm chambers and wand applications have shown less than optimal performance. Measurements of indication brightness and recording of the UVA image, and in some cases, formal probability of detection (POD) studies were used to assess the developer application methods. Key conclusions and initial recommendations are provided.

  1. Generally Applicable Transformation Protocols for Fluorescent Nanodiamond Internalization into Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemelaar, Simon R; van der Laan, Kiran J; Hinterding, Sophie R; Koot, Manon V; Ellermann, Else; Perona-Martinez, Felipe P; Roig, David; Hommelet, Severin; Novarina, Daniele; Takahashi, Hiroki; Chang, Michael; Schirhagl, Romana

    2017-01-01

    Fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs) are promising nanoprobes, owing to their stable and magnetosensitive fluorescence. Therefore they can probe properties as magnetic resonances, pressure, temperature or strain. The unprecedented sensitivity of diamond defects can detect the faint magnetic resonance of

  2. Optical rangefinding applications using communications modulation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, William D.; Morcom, Christopher John

    2010-10-01

    A novel range detection technique combines optical pulse modulation patterns with signal cross-correlation to produce an accurate range estimate from low power signals. The cross-correlation peak is analyzed by a post-processing algorithm such that the phase delay is proportional to the range to target. This technique produces a stable range estimate from noisy signals. The advantage is higher accuracy obtained with relatively low optical power transmitted. The technique is useful for low cost, low power and low mass sensors suitable for tactical use. The signal coding technique allows applications including IFF and battlefield identification systems.

  3. Preparation and characterization of alginate based-fluorescent magnetic nanoparticles for fluorescence/magnetic resonance multimodal imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yong-Su; Choi, Kee-Bong; Lim, Hyungjun; Lee, Sunghwi; Lee, Jae-Jong

    2018-06-01

    Simple and versatile methodologies have been reported that customize the surface of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles and impart additional fluorescence capabilities to these contrast agents. Herein, we present the rational design, synthesis, characterization, and biological applications of a new magnetic-based fluorescent probe. The dual modality imaging protocol was developed by labeling fluorophore with alginate natural polymers that have excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability, and using gelification method to form nanocomposites containing SPIO. The formation of alginate-based fluorescent magnetic (AFM) nanoparticles was observed in spherical and elliptical forms with a diameter of less than 500 nm by a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The fluorescent wavelength band in the range of 560 nm was also confirmed in the UV–visible spectrophotometer. In this study, we demonstrate that the multi-tasking design of AFM nanoparticles provides an ideal platform for building balanced dual-image probes of magnetic resonance imaging and optical imaging.

  4. A Planar-Fluorescence Imaging Technique for Studying Droplet-Turbulence Interactions in Vaporizing Sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santavicca, Dom A.; Coy, E.

    1990-01-01

    Droplet turbulence interactions directly affect the vaporization and dispersion of droplets in liquid sprays and therefore play a major role in fuel oxidizer mixing in liquid fueled combustion systems. Proper characterization of droplet turbulence interactions in vaporizing sprays require measurement of droplet size velocity and size temperature correlations. A planar, fluorescence imaging technique is described which is being developed for simultaneously measuring the size, velocity, and temperature of individual droplets in vaporizing sprays. Preliminary droplet size velocity correlation measurements made with this technique are presented. These measurements are also compared to and show very good agreement with measurements made in the same spray using a phase Doppler particle analyzer.

  5. Detection of illicit drugs with the technique of spectral fluorescence signatures (SFS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poryvkina, Larisa; Babichenko, Sergey

    2010-10-01

    The SFS technology has already proved its analytical capabilities in a variety of industrial and environmental tasks. Recently it has been introduced for forensic applications. The key features of the SFS method - measuring a 3-dimensional spectrum of fluorescence of the sample (intensity versus excitation and emission wavelengths) with following recognition of specific spectral patterns of SFS responsible for individual drugs - provide an effective tool for the analysis of untreated seized samples, without any separation of the substance of interest from its mixture with accompanying cutting agents and diluents as a preparatory step. In such approach the chemical analysis of the sample is substituted by the analysis of SFS matrix visualized as an optical image. The SFS technology of drug detection is realized by NarTest® NTX2000 analyzer, compact device intended to measure suspicious samples in liquid, solid and powder forms. It simplifies the detection process due to fully automated procedures of SFS measuring and integrated expert system for recognition of spectral patterns. Presently the expert system of NTX2000 is able to detect marijuana, cocaine, heroin, MDMA, amphetamine and methamphetamine with the detection limit down to 5% of the drug concentration in various mixtures. The numerous tests with street samples confirmed that the use of SFS method provides reliable results with high sensitivity and selectivity for identification of drugs of abuse. More than 3000 street samples of the aforesaid drugs were analyzed with NTX2000 during validation process, and the correspondence of SFS results and conclusions of standard forensic analyses with GC/MS techniques was in 99.4% cases.

  6. Nuclear analytical techniques and their application to environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieser, K.H.

    1986-01-01

    A survey is given on nuclear analytical techniques and their application to environmental samples. Measurement of the inherent radioactivity of elements or radionuclides allows determination of natural radioelements (e.g. Ra), man-made radioelements (e.g. Pu) and radionuclides in the environment. Activation analysis, in particular instrumental neutron activation analysis, is a very reliable and sensitive method for determination of a great number of trace elements in environmental samples, because the most abundant main constituents are not activated. Tracer techniques are very useful for studies of the behaviour and of chemical reactions of trace elements and compounds in the environment. Radioactive sources are mainly applied for excitation of characteristic X-rays (X-ray fluorescence analysis). (author)

  7. A very thin light sheet technique used to investigate meniscus shapes by laser induced fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper a light sheet technique is described to accurately (50 μm) measure meniscus profiles in film formation problems. The use of a slit to create the thin (0.1 mm) laser sheet makes the technique easy to implement, and allows tunable sheet thickness. The low light intensity obtained through the slit is compensated by the induced fluorescence of the tested fluid, which provides good picture contrast. After video recording through a microscope, the actual meniscus is recovered by image processing and proper calibration. The efficiency of the technique is demonstrated on a coating flow experiment. Due to its good accuracy and ease of use, this technique is expected to provide useful quantitative information about meniscus problems, in particular for the validation of computational fluid dynamics CFD solutions of coating flows. (author)

  8. Investigation of three flavonoids binding to bovine serum albumin using molecular fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi Shuyun; Yan Lili; Pang Bo; Wang Yu

    2012-01-01

    The three flavonoids including naringenin, hesperetin and apigenin binding to bovine serum albumin (BSA) at pH 7.4 was studied by fluorescence quenching, synchronous fluorescence and UV-vis absorption spectroscopic techniques. The results obtained revealed that naringenin, hesperetin and apigenin strongly quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA. The Stern-Volmer curves suggested that these quenching processes were all static quenching processes. At 291 K, the value and the order of the binding constant were K A n aringenin) =4.08x10 4 A(hesperetin) =5.40x10 4 ∼K A(apigenin) =5.32x10 4 L mol -1 . The main binding force between the flavonoid and BSA was hydrophobic and electrostatic force. According to the Foerster theory of non-radiation energy transfer, the binding distances (r 0 ) were obtained as 3.36, 3.47 and 3.30 nm for naringenin-BSA, hesperetin-BSA and apigenin-BSA, respectively. The effect of some common ions such as Fe 3+ , Cu 2+ , Mg 2+ , Mn 2+ , Zn 2+ and Ca 2+ on the binding was also studied in detail. The competition binding was also performed. The apparent binding constant (K' A ) obtained suggested that one flavonoid had an obvious effect on the binding of another flavonoid to protein when they coexisted in BSA solution. - Highlights: → Quenchings of BSA fluorescence by the flavonoids was all static quenchings. → Synchronous fluorescence was applied to study the structural change of BSA. → Binding constant, binding site and binding force were determined. → Competition binding experiments were performed. → One flavonoid had an obvious effect on the binding of another one to BSA.

  9. Phase equilibria basic principles, applications, experimental techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Reisman, Arnold

    2013-01-01

    Phase Equilibria: Basic Principles, Applications, Experimental Techniques presents an analytical treatment in the study of the theories and principles of phase equilibria. The book is organized to afford a deep and thorough understanding of such subjects as the method of species model systems; condensed phase-vapor phase equilibria and vapor transport reactions; zone refining techniques; and nonstoichiometry. Physicists, physical chemists, engineers, and materials scientists will find the book a good reference material.

  10. Industrial applications of radioisotope techniques in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalik, J.St.

    1985-01-01

    A general review of applications of radioisotope techniques in the Polish industry for about 25 years is given. The radiotracer methods used in metallurgy, hydrometallurgy, glass industry, oil and petroleum industries, in material testing and in other industries are described. Neutron activation analysis methods as well as nuclear gauges for industry (thickness meters, density meters, conveyer belt weigher, acid concentration meters and others) are also presented. The economic advantages of industrial applications of radioisotope techniques are described too. 42 refs., 43 figs., 11 tabs. (author)

  11. Techniques and applications of path integration

    CERN Document Server

    Schulman, L S

    2005-01-01

    A book of techniques and applications, this text defines the path integral and illustrates its uses by example. It is suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students in physics; its sole prerequisite is a first course in quantum mechanics. For applications requiring specialized knowledge, the author supplies background material.The first part of the book develops the techniques of path integration. Topics include probability amplitudes for paths and the correspondence limit for the path integral; vector potentials; the Ito integral and gauge transformations; free particle and quadra

  12. Immobilization Techniques for Microarray: Challenges and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Balasaheb Nimse

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The highly programmable positioning of molecules (biomolecules, nanoparticles, nanobeads, nanocomposites materials on surfaces has potential applications in the fields of biosensors, biomolecular electronics, and nanodevices. However, the conventional techniques including self-assembled monolayers fail to position the molecules on the nanometer scale to produce highly organized monolayers on the surface. The present article elaborates different techniques for the immobilization of the biomolecules on the surface to produce microarrays and their diagnostic applications. The advantages and the drawbacks of various methods are compared. This article also sheds light on the applications of the different technologies for the detection and discrimination of viral/bacterial genotypes and the detection of the biomarkers. A brief survey with 115 references covering the last 10 years on the biological applications of microarrays in various fields is also provided.

  13. Digital Holographic Microscopy Principles, Techniques, and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Myung K

    2011-01-01

    Digital holography is an emerging field of new paradigm in general imaging applications. By replacing the photochemical procedures with electronic imaging and having a direct numerical access to the complex optical field, a wide range of new imaging capabilities become available, many of them difficult or infeasible in conventional holography. An increasing number of researchers—not only in optical physics and optical engineering, but also in diverse applications areas such as microbiology, medicine, marine science, particle analysis, microelectromechanics, and metrology—are realizing and exploiting the new capabilities of digital holography. Digital Holographic Microscopy: Principles, Techniques, and Applications, by Dr. Myung K. Kim, is intended to provide a brief but consistent introduction to the principles of digital holography as well as to give an organized overview of the large number of techniques and applications being developed. This will also shed some light on the range of possibilities for f...

  14. Laser induced fluorescence thermometry (LIF-T) as a non-invasive temperature measurement technique for thermal hydraulic experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strack, J.; Leung, K.; Walker, A., E-mail: strackj@mcmaster.ca [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) is an experimental technique whereby a scalar field in a fluid system is measured optically from the fluorescence intensity of a tracer dye following excitation by laser light. For laser induced fluorescence thermometry (LIF-T), a temperature sensitive dye is used. Through the use of a temperature sensitive tracer dye, sheet laser optics, optical filters, and photography, a 2D temperature field can be measured non-invasively. An experiment to test the viability of using LIF-T for macroscopic thermal hydraulic experiments was developed and tested. A reference calibration curve to relate fluorescence measurements to temperature is presented. (author)

  15. FLOW CYTOMETRIC APPLICABILITY OF FLUORESCENT VITALITY PROBES ON PHYTOPLANKTON1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peperzak, Louis; Brussaard, Corina P D

    2011-06-01

    The applicability of six fluorescent probes (four esterase probes: acetoxymethyl ester of Calcein [Calcein-AM], 5-chloromethylfluorescein diacetate [CMFDA], fluorescein diacetate [FDA], and 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate [H 2 DCFDA]; and two membrane probes: bis-(1,3-dibutylbarbituric acid) trimethine oxonol [DiBAC 4 (3)] and SYTOX-Green) as vitality stains was tested on live and killed cells of 40 phytoplankton strains in exponential and stationary growth phases, belonging to 12 classes and consisting of four cold-water, 26 temperate, and four warm-water species. The combined live/dead ratios of all six probes indicated significant differences between the 12 plankton classes (P live/dead ratios of FDA and CMFDA were not significantly different from each other, and both performed better than Calcein-AM and H 2 DCFDA (P live/dead ratios) among all six probes belonged to nine genera from six classes of phytoplankton. In conclusion, FDA, CMFDA, DIBAC 4 (3), and SYTOX-Green represent a wide choice of vitality probes in the study of phytoplankton ecology, applicable in many species from different algal classes, originating from different regions and at different stages of growth. © 2011 Phycological Society of America.

  16. Applications of optical fiber to the remote fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jang Soo; Kim, Duck Hueon; Lee, Soo Ho

    1992-12-01

    The laser fluorometer developed in 1987 has been used in real circumstances for trace uranium analysis. And, we have been trying to improve the instrument to be able to apply in analytical circumstances of remote measurement using optical fiber. The N 2 laser beam and the resulting fluorescence light could be successfully transmitted through a quartz-made optical fiber. The wavelength resolution and the fluorescence decay time resolution induced by pulsed N 2 laser were used to the uranium fluorescence analyses. The fluorescence of uranium in nitric acid medium was measured successfully using the system. The fluorescence signal was analysed using simplex method which is useful to deconvolute the mixed signals. An analytical method using thermal lens effect was developed. The method will be a complementary one for the fluorescence measurement. (Author)

  17. Basic design of on-line analyzer for sheet paper using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rony Djokorayono; Ahmad Suntoro; Ikhsan Shobari; Usep Setia Gunawan

    2016-01-01

    Basic design of on-line analyzer for sheet paper using X-ray fluorescence technique has been carried out. Compared with sampling technique, this X-ray fluorescence technique has some advantages in term of analysis accuracy and time. The design activities performed including the establishment of design requirements, functional requirements, technical requirements, technical specification, detection sub-system design, data acquisition sub-system design, and operator computer console design. This program will use silicon drift or CdTe X-ray detector to detect X-ray fluorescence emitted by elements in sheet paper due to X-ray interaction of a X-ray source, 55 Fe (Ferro-55).This basic design of on-line analyzer for sheet paper using X-ray fluorescence technique should be followed up with the development of detailed design, prototype construction, and field testing. (author)

  18. Plasmon enhanced silver quantum cluster fluorescence for biochemical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernard, S.; Kutter, J.P.; Mogensen, Klaus Bo

    2014-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy of individual silver quantum clusters on the surface of silver nanoparticles reveals strong photoactivated emission under blue light excitation [1-4]. In this work, silver nanoparticles are produced by annealing silver thin films deposited on a glass substrate and silver q...... purposes. It was found, that in presence of a strong nucleophile (such as CN-), silver quantum clusters are dissolved into non-fluorescing AgCN complexes, resulting in a fast and observable decrease of the fluorescent signal....

  19. Identification Of Natural Dyes On Archaeological Textile Objects Using Laser Induced Fluorescent Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Kareem, O.; Eltokhy, A.; Harith, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the use of Laser Fluorescent as a non-destructive technique for identification of natural dyes on archaeological textile objects. In this study wool textile samples were dyed with 10 natural dyes such as cochineal, cutch, henna, indigo, Lac, madder, safflower, saffron, sumac and turmeric. These dyes common present on archaeological textile objects to be used as standard dyed textile samples. These selected natural dyes will be used as known references that can be used a guide to identify unknown archaeological dyes. The dyed textile samples were investigated with laser radiation in different wavelengths to detect the best wavelengths for identification each dye. This study confirms that Laser Florescent is very useful and a rapid technique can be used as a non-destructive technique for identification of natural dyes on archaeological textile objects. The results obtained with this study can be a guide for all conservators in identification of natural organic dyes on archaeological textile objects.

  20. Identification Of Natural Dyes On Archaeological Textile Objects Using Laser Induced Fluorescent Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Kareem, O.; Eltokhy, A.; Harith, M. A.

    2011-09-01

    This study aims to evaluate the use of Laser Fluorescent as a non-destructive technique for identification of natural dyes on archaeological textile objects. In this study wool textile samples were dyed with 10 natural dyes such as cochineal, cutch, henna, indigo, Lac, madder, safflower, saffron, sumac and turmeric. These dyes common present on archaeological textile objects to be used as standard dyed textile samples. These selected natural dyes will be used as known references that can be used a guide to identify unknown archaeological dyes. The dyed textile samples were investigated with laser radiation in different wavelengths to detect the best wavelengths for identification each dye. This study confirms that Laser Florescent is very useful and a rapid technique can be used as a non-destructive technique for identification of natural dyes on archaeological textile objects. The results obtained with this study can be a guide for all conservators in identification of natural organic dyes on archaeological textile objects.

  1. A method of measuring gold nanoparticle concentrations by x-ray fluorescence for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Di; Li Yuhua; Wong, Molly D.; Liu Hong [Center for Bioengineering and School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Purpose: This paper reports a technique that enables the quantitative determination of the concentration of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) through the accurate detection of their fluorescence radiation in the diagnostic x-ray spectrum. Methods: Experimentally, x-ray fluorescence spectra of 1.9 and 15 nm GNP solutions are measured using an x-ray spectrometer, individually and within chicken breast tissue samples. An optimal combination of excitation and emission filters is determined to segregate the fluorescence spectra at 66.99 and 68.80 keV from the background scattering. A roadmap method is developed that subtracts the scattered radiation (acquired before the insertion of GNP solutions) from the signal radiation acquired after the GNP solutions are inserted. Results: The methods effectively minimize the background scattering in the spectrum measurements, showing linear relationships between GNP solutions from 0.1% to 10% weight concentration and from 0.1% to 1.0% weight concentration inside a chicken breast tissue sample. Conclusions: The investigation demonstrated the potential of imaging gold nanoparticles quantitatively in vivo for in-tissue studies, but future studies will be needed to investigate the ability to apply this method to clinical applications.

  2. Application of computer technique in SMCAMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Deming

    2001-01-01

    A series of applications of computer technique in SMCAMS physics design and magnetic field measurement is described, including digital calculation of electric-magnetic field, beam dynamics, calculation of beam injection and extraction, and mapping and shaping of the magnetic field

  3. Technique of sample preparation for analysis of gasoline and lubricating oils by X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila P, P.

    1990-03-01

    The X-ray fluorescence laboratory of the National Institute of Nuclear Research when not having a technique for the analysis of oils it has intended, with this work, to develop a preparation technique for the analysis of the metals of Pb, Cr, Ni, V and Mo in gasolines and oils, by means of the spectrometry by X-ray fluorescence analysis. The obtained results, its will be of great utility for the one mentioned laboratory. (Author)

  4. Applications of Modern Analysis Techniques in Searching back Ancient Art Ceramic Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Quang Liem

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This report highlights the promising applications of modern analysis techniques such as Scanning Electron Microsopy, X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering spectroscopy, and thermal expansion measurement in searching back the ancient art ceramics technologies.

  5. Elemental Characterization of minerals in Chenopodium quinoa grains by the X-ray fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivera de Lescano, Paula; Nieto Aco, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    In order to characterize by the technique of X-ray fluorescence energy dispersive quinoa grain for human consumption, 8 samples of different trademarks of quinoa, which are distributed in the local market were analyzed; together one reference materials certified by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was analyzed. The results show the presence of elements such as K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb and Sr, the same as compared to data reported in various studies in neighboring countries like Ecuador, Chile and Bolivia. (authors).

  6. Measurements of low density, high velocity flow by electron beam fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soga, Takeo; Takanishi, Masaya; Yasuhara, Michiru

    1981-01-01

    A low density chamber with an electron gun system was made for the measurements of low density, high velocity (high Mach number) flow. This apparatus is a continuous running facility. The number density and the rotational temperature in the underexpanding free jet of nitrogen were measured along the axis of the jet by the electron beam fluorescence technique. The measurements were carried out from the vicinity of the exit of the jet to far downstream of the first Mach disk. Rotational nonequilibrium phenomena were observed in the hypersonic flow field as well as in the shock wave (Mach disk). (author)

  7. Soft computing techniques in engineering applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhong, Baojiang

    2014-01-01

    The Soft Computing techniques, which are based on the information processing of biological systems are now massively used in the area of pattern recognition, making prediction & planning, as well as acting on the environment. Ideally speaking, soft computing is not a subject of homogeneous concepts and techniques; rather, it is an amalgamation of distinct methods that confirms to its guiding principle. At present, the main aim of soft computing is to exploit the tolerance for imprecision and uncertainty to achieve tractability, robustness and low solutions cost. The principal constituents of soft computing techniques are probabilistic reasoning, fuzzy logic, neuro-computing, genetic algorithms, belief networks, chaotic systems, as well as learning theory. This book covers contributions from various authors to demonstrate the use of soft computing techniques in various applications of engineering.  

  8. Presence of Fluorescent Carbon Nanoparticles in Baked Lamb: Their Properties and Potential Application for Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haitao; Xie, Yisha; Liu, Shan; Cong, Shuang; Song, Yukun; Xu, Xianbing; Tan, Mingqian

    2017-08-30

    The presence of nanoparticles in food has drawn much attention in recent years. Fluorescent carbon nanoparticles are a new class of nanostructures; however, the distribution and physicochemical properties of such nanoparticles in food remain unclear. Herein, the presence of fluorescent carbon nanoparticles in baked lamb was confirmed, and their physicochemical properties were investigated. The fluorescent carbon nanoparticles from baked lamb emit strong blue fluorescence under ultraviolet light with a 10% fluorescent quantum yield. The nanoparticles are roughly spherical in appearance with a diameter of around 2.0 nm. Hydroxyl, amino, and carboxyl groups exist on the surface of nanoparticles. In addition, the nanoparticles could serve as a fluorescence sensor for glucose detection through an oxidation-reduction reaction. This work is the first report on fluorescent carbon nanoparticles present in baked lamb, which provides valuable insight into the physicochemical properties of such nanoparticles and their potential application in sensors.

  9. Recent trends in total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for biological applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szoboszlai, Norbert; Polgari, Zsofia; Mihucz, Victor G.; Zaray, Gyula

    2009-01-01

    This review is focused on the application of total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometry in the field of biological research. In the last decade, most papers were published by authors who applied laboratory-scale TXRF equipments. The application of synchrotron radiation as excitation source (SR-TXRF) shows a slowly increasing tendency. In the cited papers the micro-, trace and multielement capability of these TXRF techniques was demonstrated in the clinical and medical laboratory practice, as well as in various plant physiological studies. For speciation of elements in biological matrices, the TXRF was used as element specific detector following an off-line separation step (e.g., thin layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography), however, these off-line methods are not competitive with the on-line coupled HPLC-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

  10. Combined application of dynamic light scattering imaging and fluorescence intravital microscopy in vascular biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalchenko, V; Harmelin, A; Ziv, K; Addadi, Y; Madar-Balakirski, N; Neeman, M; Meglinski, I

    2010-01-01

    The dynamic light scattering imaging (DLSI) system combined with the conventional fluorescence intravital microscope (FIM) has been applied for the examination of blood and lymph vessels in the mouse ear in vivo. While the CCD camera can be shared by both techniques the combined application of DLSI and FIM allows rapid switching between the modalities. In current study temporal speckles fluctuations are used for rendering blood vessels structure and monitoring blood perfusion with the higher spatial resolution, whereas FIM provides the images of lymphatic vessels. The results clearly demonstrate that combined application of DLSI and FIM approaches provides synchronic in vivo images of blood and lymph vessels with higher contrast and specificity. The use of this new dual-modal diagnostic system is particularly important and has a great potential to significantly expand the capabilities of vascular diagnostics providing synchronic in vivo images of blood and lymph vessels

  11. Application of aluminum phthalocyanine nanoparticles for fluorescent diagnostics in dentistry and skin autotransplantology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilchenko, Sergey Yu; Volkova, Anna I; Ryabova, Anastasiya V; Loschenov, Victor B; Konov, Vitaly I; Mamedov, Adil A; Kuzmin, Sergey G; Lukyanets, Evgeniy A

    2010-06-01

    This paper deals with the possibility of application of aluminum phthalocyanine (AlPc) nanoparticles in clinical practice. AlPc fluoresces in the molecular form but in the form of nanoparticles it does not. Separation of molecules from an AlPc nanoparticle and therefore the appearance of fluorescence occurs under the effect of a number of biochemo-physical factors. Owing to this feature the application of AlPc nanoparticles followed by the measurement of fluorescence spectra is proposed as a diagnostics method. It was shown that after AlPc nanoparticle application on a tooth surface the fluorescence intensity in the enamel microdamage area is 2-3 times higher than that in the normal enamel area. The appearance of fluorescence after application of AlPc nanoparticles on skin autografts testifies to the presence of inflammation. (c) 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Application of silver nanoparticles in the detection of SYBR Green I by surface enhanced Raman and surface-enhanced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Wu, Jian; Wang, Chunyan; Zhang, Tian; Chen, Tao

    2018-05-01

    Silver nanomaterials have remarkable application in biomedical detection due to their unique surface plasmon resonance (SPR) characteristics. It can be used for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and surface-enhanced fluorescence (SEF). Current research elaborates a technique for improvement of SYBR Green I detection obtained from surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and surface-enhanced fluorescence (SEF) by silver nanoparticles with the average size about 70 nm. Primarily, SYBR Green I is an important fluorescent dye used in polymerase chain reaction (PCR). It is found that both Raman and fluorescence can be used for detection of this dye. Furthermore, the enhanced efficiency of the Raman and fluorescence by SERS and SEF is observed in this study, the enhancement factor for Raman signals is 3.2 × 103, and the fluorescence intensity bincreased two times by SEF. The quantitative detection of SYBR Green I by SERS and SEF can be achieved. The present work can be used to improve the detection of SYBR Green I by SERS and SEF. It would also be employed for high-sensitive detection of other materials in the future.

  13. Using Quenching to Detect Corrosion on Sculptural Metalwork: A Real-World Application of Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensen, Cory; Clare, Tami Lasseter; Barbera, Jack

    2018-01-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy experiments are a frequently taught as part of upper-division teaching laboratories. To expose undergraduate students to an applied fluorescence technique, a corrosion detection method, using quenching, was adapted from authentic research for an instrumental analysis laboratory. In the experiment, students acquire…

  14. Development and applications of microanalytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cholewa, M.

    2005-05-01

    The development of new analytical techniques is an essential part of our everyday life and is dictated by strong progress in modern science and technology. Both these areas require more precise information about materials and processes involved. Due to these requirements we have been observing a rapid growth in the development of techniques that require both a high spatial resolution and high sensitivity. Modern analytical techniques provide an important interface between science and applications. The works presented in this habilitation thesis span the period of almost 20 years. During this time the author has been leading the development and applications of several new analytical and micro analytical techniques which have been documented in this thesis. This development has required development of ideas, strong leadership, organisational skills, organisation of funds and groups to carry out the necessary work. In chapter 3 the use of the PIXE and XANES techniques described an investigation of permeability for selected elements inside cells. It was important to develop new protocols for sample preparation and analysis and a large number of cells were necessary in order to obtain meaningful data. This development was closely associated with work presented in chapter 4 where the role of sample damage under the MeV ion beam bombardment was investigated. At that time we were the leading group in the world to perform such studies. Chapter 5 describes development of new analytical techniques and its possible applications. Development of the SIHF has been probably the most demanding and difficult project and was described in chapter 6 and it was closely related with development of a diamond detector described in chapter 7. A great part of these works were performed by the author at the Micro Analytical Research Centre (MARC) in the School of Physics at the University of Melbourne in Australia. However, some works were performed at GSI in Germany and BNL in USA. (author)

  15. Nonlinear excitation fluorescence microscopy: source considerations for biological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wokosin, David L.

    2008-02-01

    Ultra-short-pulse solid-state laser sources have improved contrast within fluorescence imaging and also opened new windows of investigation in biological imaging applications. Additionally, the pulsed illumination enables harmonic scattering microscopy which yields intrinsic structure, symmetry and contrast from viable embryos, cells and tissues. Numerous human diseases are being investigated by the combination of (more) intact dynamic tissue imaging of cellular function with gene-targeted specificity and electrophysiology context. The major limitation to more widespread use of multi-photon microscopy has been the complete system cost and added complexity above and beyond commercial camera and confocal systems. The current status of all-solid-state ultrafast lasers as excitation sources will be reviewed since these lasers offer tremendous potential for affordable, reliable, "turnkey" multiphoton imaging systems. This effort highlights the single box laser systems currently commercially available, with defined suggestions for the ranges for individual laser parameters as derived from a biological and fluorophore limited perspective. The standard two-photon dose is defined by 800nm, 10mW, 200fs, and 80Mhz - at the sample plane for tissue culture cells, i.e. after the full scanning microscope system. Selected application-derived excitation wavelengths are well represented by 700nm, 780nm, ~830nm, ~960nm, 1050nm, and 1250nm. Many of the one-box lasers have fixed or very limited excitation wavelengths available, so the lasers will be lumped near 780nm, 800nm, 900nm, 1050nm, and 1250nm. The following laser parameter ranges are discussed: average power from 200mW to 2W, pulse duration from 70fs to 700fs, pulse repetition rate from 20MHz to 200MHz, with the laser output linearly polarized with an extinction ratio at least 100:1.

  16. Application of fluorescent and vibration spectroscopy for septic serum human albumin structure deformation during pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyubin, A.; Konstantinova, E.; Slezhkin, V.; Matveeva, K.; Samusev, I.; Bryukhanov, V.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper we perform results of conformational analysis of septic human serum albumin (HSA) carried out by Raman spectroscopy (RS), infrared (IR) spectroscopy and fluorescent spectroscopy. The main vibrational groups were identified and analyzed for septic HSA and its health control. Comparison between Raman and IR results were done. Fluorescent spectral changes of Trp-214 group were analyzed. Application of Raman, IR spectroscopy, fluorescent spectroscopy for conformational changes study of HSA during pathology were shown.

  17. Development of image analysis for graphite pore-structure determination using fluorescence techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephen, W.J.; Bowden, E.A.T.; Wickham, A.J.

    1983-03-01

    The use of image analysis to assess the pore structure of graphite has been developed to the point at which it may be considered available for routine use. A definitive pore structure in terms of the geometry-independent ''characteristic pore dimension'' is derived from the computer analysis of polished specimens whose open-pore structure has been impregnated with bismuth or a fluorescent epoxy resin, with the very small pores identified separately by mercury porosimetry as in the past. The pore-size distributions obtained from these combined techniques have been used successfully to predict the corrosion rates of nine graphites, of widely differing pore structure, in a variety of gas compositions and, indirectly, to confirm appropriate mean ranges and rate constants for the reaction of the oxidising species in these gas mixtures. The development of the fluorescent-impregnant technique is discussed in detail and its use is justified in preference to ''traditional'' methods. Further possible refinements are discussed, including the eventual aim of obtaining a computer prediction of the future oxidation behaviour of the graphite directly from the image analyser. (author)

  18. Applications of nuclear techniques and research 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The application of nuclear techniques, i.e. those techniques where use is made of isotopes and radiation, continues to contribute to progress in science, technology, agriculture, industry and medicine. Nuclear applications found their way into the IAEA's activities from the very beginning, and their promotion constitutes today a substantial fraction of the IAEA's Technical Co-operation and Research Contract Programmes. The 1990 selection is opened by a review of the role and function of the IAEA's Research Contract Programme, which is one of the Agency's most effective tools for promoting and developing nuclear applications. Applications in agriculture are covered in two articles dealing respectively with issues affecting the acceptance of food irradiation by governments, the food industry and consumers and with the use of radiation to induce plant mutation, a practical tool available to plant breeders in their effort to develop better quality crops. The following article deals with a typical nuclear application in medicine, i.e. the use of radionuclides in the diagnosis of lung diseases and in investigations related to the respiratory function. The use of environmental isotopes to assess the energy potential of geothermal fields is the next subject, a good example of nuclear methods applied to the evaluation of natural resources. The 1990 review concludes with a presentation prepared by the Third World Academy of Sciences on magnetic fusion research activity in the developing countries and its connection with the IAEA's own fusion programme

  19. Emerging wireless networks concepts, techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Makaya, Christian

    2011-01-01

    An authoritative collection of research papers and surveys, Emerging Wireless Networks: Concepts, Techniques, and Applications explores recent developments in next-generation wireless networks (NGWNs) and mobile broadband networks technologies, including 4G (LTE, WiMAX), 3G (UMTS, HSPA), WiFi, mobile ad hoc networks, mesh networks, and wireless sensor networks. Focusing on improving the performance of wireless networks and provisioning better quality of service and quality of experience for users, it reports on the standards of different emerging wireless networks, applications, and service fr

  20. Laser induced fluorescence of biochemical for UV LIDAR application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, L; Sharma, R C; Razdan, A K; Maini, A K

    2014-05-01

    Laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy in the ultraviolet regime has been used for the detection of biochemical through a fiber coupled CCD detector from a distance of 2 m. The effect of concentration and laser excitation energy on the fluorescence spectra of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) has been investigated. The signature fluorescence peak of NADH was centred about 460 nm. At lower concentration Raman peak centred at 405 nm was also observed. The origin of this peak has been discussed. Detection limit with the proposed set up is found to be 1 ppm.

  1. Synthesis and Sensing Applications of Fluorescent 3-Cinnamoyl Coumarins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Yadav

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We have synthesized two novel fluorescent 3-(4-diethylaminocinnamoyl coumarins that exhibit fluorescence quenching upon exposure to a nerve agent simulant, diethylchlorophosphate (DCP, providing a basis for rapid and sensitive DCP chemosensing. Furthermore, these coumarin derivatives display two-photon fluorescence upon illumination with near-infrared laser pulses and their two-photon (TP absorption cross-section was evaluated. The potential for TP bio-imaging of these compounds was investigated by their cellular uptake in HeLa cells by TP confocal microscopy.

  2. Determination of metals in air samples using X-Ray fluorescence associated the APDC preconcentration technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nardes, Raysa C.; Santos, Ramon S.; Sanches, Francis A.C.R.A.; Gama Filho, Hamilton S.; Oliveira, Davi F.; Anjos, Marcelino J., E-mail: rc.nardes@gmail.com, E-mail: ramonziosp@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: francissanches@gmail.com, E-mail: hamiltongamafilho@hotmail.com, E-mail: davi.oliveira@uerj.br, E-mail: marcelin@uerj.br [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica. Departamento de Fisica Aplicada e Termodinamica

    2015-07-01

    Air pollution has become one of the leading quality degradation factors of life for people in large urban centers. Studies indicate that the suspended particulate matter in the atmosphere is directly associated with risks to public health, in addition, it can cause damage to fauna, flora and public / cultural patrimonies. The inhalable particulate materials can cause the emergence and / or worsening of chronic diseases related to respiratory system and other diseases, such as reduced physical strength. In this study, we propose a new method to measure the concentration of total suspended particulate matter (TSP) in the air using an impinger as an air cleaning apparatus, preconcentration with APDC and Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence technique (TXRF) to analyze the heavy metals present in the air. The samples were collected from five random points in the city of Rio de Janeiro/Brazil. Analyses of TXRF were performed at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS). The technique proved viable because it was able to detect five important metallic elements to environmental studies: Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn. This technique presented substantial efficiency in determining the elementary concentration of air pollutants, in addition to low cost. It can be concluded that the metals analysis technique in air samples using an impinger as sample collection instrument associated with a complexing agent (APDC) was viable because it is a low-cost technique, moreover, it was possible the detection of five important metal elements in environmental studies associated with industrial emissions and urban traffic. (author)

  3. Determination of metals in air samples using X-Ray fluorescence associated the APDC preconcentration technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nardes, Raysa C.; Santos, Ramon S.; Sanches, Francis A.C.R.A.; Gama Filho, Hamilton S.; Oliveira, Davi F.; Anjos, Marcelino J.

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution has become one of the leading quality degradation factors of life for people in large urban centers. Studies indicate that the suspended particulate matter in the atmosphere is directly associated with risks to public health, in addition, it can cause damage to fauna, flora and public / cultural patrimonies. The inhalable particulate materials can cause the emergence and / or worsening of chronic diseases related to respiratory system and other diseases, such as reduced physical strength. In this study, we propose a new method to measure the concentration of total suspended particulate matter (TSP) in the air using an impinger as an air cleaning apparatus, preconcentration with APDC and Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence technique (TXRF) to analyze the heavy metals present in the air. The samples were collected from five random points in the city of Rio de Janeiro/Brazil. Analyses of TXRF were performed at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS). The technique proved viable because it was able to detect five important metallic elements to environmental studies: Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn. This technique presented substantial efficiency in determining the elementary concentration of air pollutants, in addition to low cost. It can be concluded that the metals analysis technique in air samples using an impinger as sample collection instrument associated with a complexing agent (APDC) was viable because it is a low-cost technique, moreover, it was possible the detection of five important metal elements in environmental studies associated with industrial emissions and urban traffic. (author)

  4. Industrial radiography techniques and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wamorkar, R.R.

    1981-01-01

    Various aspects of industrial radiography are discussed. These include: radiation sources, geometrical unsharpness of image, radiation attenuation in the specimen, radiation effect of film, types of film, intensifying screens, exposure time calculations, source to film distance and sensivitity. Radiography techniques for examination of welded joints on flat plate and pipes or cylindrical objects, and castings are indicated. Applications of radiography in various industries are mentioned. (M.G.B.)

  5. The application of nuclear and nuclear-related techniques for environmental pollution studies in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Mong Sinh

    1992-01-01

    The applicability of neutron activation analysis, X-ray fluorescence and other related techniques to environmental samples from Viet Nam has been investigated. Results show that multielemental analysis of environmental samples and the determination of heavy metal pollution in the environment is best performed by a combination of techniques. Preliminary results of studying the environmental pollution associated with solid wastes are reported. 4 refs, 5 figs, 17 tabs

  6. Applications of nuclear techniques for in vivo body composition studies at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.; Ellis, K.J.; Vartsky, D.; Vaswani, A.N.; Wielopolski, L.

    1986-01-01

    The development and clinical application of a number of nuclear techniques for studying body composition is described. These techniques include delayed neutron activation for the analysis of calcium, phsophorus, sodium and chlorine and prompt-gamma activation for the measurement of nitrogen and cadmium. In addition, the measurement of in vivo iron by nuclear resonance scattering and lead by x-ray fluorescence is described. (author)

  7. Advanced flow MRI: emerging techniques and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markl, M.; Schnell, S.; Wu, C.; Bollache, E.; Jarvis, K.; Barker, A.J.; Robinson, J.D.; Rigsby, C.K.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques provide non-invasive and non-ionising methods for the highly accurate anatomical depiction of the heart and vessels throughout the cardiac cycle. In addition, the intrinsic sensitivity of MRI to motion offers the unique ability to acquire spatially registered blood flow simultaneously with the morphological data, within a single measurement. In clinical routine, flow MRI is typically accomplished using methods that resolve two spatial dimensions in individual planes and encode the time-resolved velocity in one principal direction, typically oriented perpendicular to the two-dimensional (2D) section. This review describes recently developed advanced MRI flow techniques, which allow for more comprehensive evaluation of blood flow characteristics, such as real-time flow imaging, 2D multiple-venc phase contrast MRI, four-dimensional (4D) flow MRI, quantification of complex haemodynamic properties, and highly accelerated flow imaging. Emerging techniques and novel applications are explored. In addition, applications of these new techniques for the improved evaluation of cardiovascular (aorta, pulmonary arteries, congenital heart disease, atrial fibrillation, coronary arteries) as well as cerebrovascular disease (intra-cranial arteries and veins) are presented.

  8. Applications of neutron activation analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonah, S. A.

    2000-07-01

    The technique was developed as far back as 1936 by G. Hevesy and H. Levy for the analysis of Dy using an isotopic source. Approximately 40 elements can be analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INNA) technique with neutrons from a nuclear reactor. By applying radiochemical separation, the number of elements that can be analysed may be increased to almost 70. Compared with other analytical methods used in environmental and industrial research, NAA has some unique features. These are multi-element capability, rapidity, reproducibility of results, complementarity to other methods, freedom from analytical blank and independency of chemical state of elements. There are several types of neutron sources namely: nuclear reactors, accelerator-based and radioisotope-based sources, but nuclear reactors with high fluxes of neutrons from the fission of 235 U give the most intense irradiation, and hence the highest available sensitivities for NAA. In this paper, the applications of NAA of socio-economic importance are discussed. The benefits of using NAA and related nuclear techniques for on-line applications in industrial process control are highlighted. A brief description of the NAA set-ups at CERT is enumerated. Finally, NAA is compared with other leading analytical techniques

  9. Fluorescence Lifetime Correlation Spectroscopy (FLCS): Concepts, Applications and Outlook

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kapusta, Peter; Macháň, Radek; Benda, A.; Hof, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 10 (2012), s. 12890-12910 E-ISSN 1422-0067 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP208/12/G016 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) * time correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) * fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (FCCS) Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.464, year: 2012

  10. Application of fluorescent dyes for some problems of bioelectromagnetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babich, Danylo; Kylsky, Alexandr; Pobiedina, Valentina; Yakunov, Andrey

    2016-04-01

    Fluorescent organic dyes solutions are used for non-contact measurement of the millimeter wave absorption in liquids simulating biological tissue. There is still not any certain idea of the physical mechanism describing this process despite the widespread technology of microwave radiation in the food industry, biotechnology and medicine. For creating adequate physical model one requires an accurate command of knowledge concerning to the relation between millimeter waves and irradiated object. There were three H-bonded liquids selected as the samples with different coefficients of absorption in the millimeter range like water (strong absorption), glycerol (medium absorption) and ethylene glycol (light absorption). The measurements showed that the greatest response to the action of microwaves occurs for glycerol solutions: R6G (building-up luminescence) and RC (fading luminescence). For aqueous solutions the signal is lower due to lower quantum efficiency of luminescence, and for ethylene glycol — due to the low absorption of microwaves. In the area of exposure a local increase of temperature was estimated. For aqueous solutions of both dyes the maximum temperature increase is about 7° C caused with millimeter waves absorption, which coincides with the direct radio physical measurements and confirmed by theoretical calculations. However, for glycerol solution R6G temperature equivalent for building-up luminescence is around 9° C, and for the solution of ethylene glycol it's about 15°. It is assumed the possibility of non-thermal effect of microwaves on the different processes and substances. The application of this non-contact temperature sensing is a simple and novel method to detect temperature change in small biological objects.

  11. FLEX (Fluorescence Explorer mission: Observation fluorescence as a new remote sensing technique to study the global terrestrial vegetation state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Moreno

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available FLEX (Fluorescence EXplorer is a candidate for the 8th ESA’s Earth Explorer mission. Is the first space mission specifically designed for the estimation of vegetation fluorescence on a global scale. The mission is proposed to fly in tandem with the future ESA´s Sentinel-3 satellite. It is foreseen that the information obtained by Sentinel-3 will be supplemented with that provided by FLORIS (Fluorescence Imaging Spectrometer onboard FLEX. FLORIS will measure the radiance between 500 and 800 nm with a bandwidth between 0.1 nm and 2 nm, providing images with a 150 km swath and 300 m pixel size. This information will allow a detailed monitoring of vegetation dynamics, by improving the methods for the estimation of classical biophysical parameters, and by introducing a new one: fluorescence. This paper presents the current status of FLEX mission in A/B1 phase and the different ongoing studies, campaigns and projects carried out in support of the FLEX mission.

  12. A Technique to Define Extrahepatic Biliary Anatomy Using Robotic Near-Infrared Fluorescent Cholangiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maker, Ajay V; Kunda, Nicholas

    2017-11-01

    Bile duct injury is a rare but serious complication of minimally invasive cholecystectomy. Traditionally, intraoperative cholangiogram has been used in difficult cases to help delineate anatomical structures, however, new imaging modalities are currently available to aid in the identification of extrahepatic biliary anatomy, including near-infrared fluorescent cholangiography (NIFC) using indocyanine green (ICG).1-5 The objective of the study was to evaluate if this technique may aid in safe dissection to obtain the critical view. Thirty-five consecutive multiport robotic cholecystectomies using NIFC with ICG were performed using the da Vinci Firefly Fluorescence Imaging System. All patients received 2.5 mg ICG intravenously at the time of intubation, followed by patient positioning, draping, and establishment of pneumoperitoneum. No structures were divided until the critical view of safety was achieved. Real-time toggling between NIFC and bright-light illumination was utilized throughout the case to define the extrahepatic biliary anatomy. ICG was successfully administered to all patients without complication, and in all cases the extrahepatic biliary anatomy was able to be identified in real-time 3D. All procedures were completed without biliary injury, conversion to an open procedure, or need for traditional cholangiography to obtain the critical view. Specific examples of cases where x-ray cholangiography or conversion to open was avoided and NIFC aided in safe dissection leading to the critical view are demonstrated, including (1) evaluation for aberrant biliary anatomy, (2) confirmation of non-biliary structures, and (3) use in cases where the infundibulum is fused to the common bile duct. NIFC using ICG is demonstrated as a useful technique to rapidly identify and aid in the visualization of extrahepatic biliary anatomy. Techniques that selectively utilize this technology specifically in difficult cases where the anatomy is unclear are demonstrated in order

  13. Identification of scleractinian coral recruits using fluorescent censusing and DNA barcoding techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Min Hsu

    Full Text Available The identification of coral recruits has been problematic due to a lack of definitive morphological characters being available for higher taxonomic resolution. In this study, we tested whether fluorescent detection of coral recruits used in combinations of different DNA-barcoding markers (cytochrome oxidase I gene [COI], open reading frame [ORF], and nuclear Pax-C intron [PaxC] could be useful for increasing the resolution of coral spat identification in ecological studies. One hundred and fifty settlement plates were emplaced at nine sites on the fringing reefs of Kenting National Park in southern Taiwan between April 2011 and September 2012. A total of 248 living coral spats and juveniles (with basal areas ranging from 0.21 to 134.57 mm(2 were detected on the plates with the aid of fluorescent light and collected for molecular analyses. Using the COI DNA barcoding technique, 90.3% (224/248 of coral spats were successfully identified into six genera, including Acropora, Isopora, Montipora, Pocillopora, Porites, and Pavona. PaxC further separated I. cuneata and I. palifera of Isopora from Acropora, and ORF successfully identified the species of Pocillopora (except P. meandrina and P. eydouxi. Moreover, other cnidarian species such as actinarians, zoanthids, and Millepora species were visually found using fluorescence and identified by COI DNA barcoding. This combination of existing approaches greatly improved the taxonomic resolution of early coral life stages, which to date has been mainly limited to the family level based on skeletal identification. Overall, this study suggests important improvements for the identification of coral recruits in ecological studies.

  14. Identification of scleractinian coral recruits using fluorescent censusing and DNA barcoding techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chia-Min; de Palmas, Stéphane; Kuo, Chao-Yang; Denis, Vianney; Chen, Chaolun Allen

    2014-01-01

    The identification of coral recruits has been problematic due to a lack of definitive morphological characters being available for higher taxonomic resolution. In this study, we tested whether fluorescent detection of coral recruits used in combinations of different DNA-barcoding markers (cytochrome oxidase I gene [COI], open reading frame [ORF], and nuclear Pax-C intron [PaxC]) could be useful for increasing the resolution of coral spat identification in ecological studies. One hundred and fifty settlement plates were emplaced at nine sites on the fringing reefs of Kenting National Park in southern Taiwan between April 2011 and September 2012. A total of 248 living coral spats and juveniles (with basal areas ranging from 0.21 to 134.57 mm(2)) were detected on the plates with the aid of fluorescent light and collected for molecular analyses. Using the COI DNA barcoding technique, 90.3% (224/248) of coral spats were successfully identified into six genera, including Acropora, Isopora, Montipora, Pocillopora, Porites, and Pavona. PaxC further separated I. cuneata and I. palifera of Isopora from Acropora, and ORF successfully identified the species of Pocillopora (except P. meandrina and P. eydouxi). Moreover, other cnidarian species such as actinarians, zoanthids, and Millepora species were visually found using fluorescence and identified by COI DNA barcoding. This combination of existing approaches greatly improved the taxonomic resolution of early coral life stages, which to date has been mainly limited to the family level based on skeletal identification. Overall, this study suggests important improvements for the identification of coral recruits in ecological studies.

  15. Analyses of archaeological pottery samples using X-ray fluorescence technique for provenance study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamilarasu, S.; Swain, K.K.; Singhal, R.K; Reddy, A.V.R.; Acharya, R.; Velraj, G.

    2015-01-01

    Archaeological artifacts reveal information on past human activities, artifact preparation technology, art and possible trade. Ceramics are the most stable and abundant material in archaeological context. Pottery is the most abundant tracers in all archaeological excavations. Compared to major elements, elements present at trace concentrations levels are source specific and they maintain same concentration levels in source clay as well as finished products e.g., fired clay potteries. As it is difficult to find out exact source or origin, provenance study is carried out first to establish whether objects under study are from the same or different sources/origin. Various analytical techniques like instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), Ion beam analysis (IBA) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) have been used for obtaining elemental concentrations in archaeological potteries. Portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF) spectrometry provides a non-destructive means for elemental characterization of a wide range of archaeological materials. Ten archaeological pottery samples were collected from Kottapuram, Kerala under the supervision of archaeological survey of India. Portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF) spectrometry using a handheld Olympus Innov-X Delta XRF device, ACD BARC, has been used for chemical characterization of the pottery samples. The instrument is equipped with the Delta Rhodium (Rh) anode X-Ray tube and uses a Silicon Drift Detector (resolution <200 eV at 5.95 keV Mn Kα X-ray). NIST 2781 SRM was analyzed for quality control purpose. Ten elements namely Fe, Ti, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Pb, Zr, Mo and Se were chosen for cluster analysis and their concentration values were utilized for multivariate statistical analysis using WinSTAT 9.0

  16. Synthesis and bio-applications of targeted magnetic-fluorescent composite nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Hui; Tong, Ruijie; Song, Yanling; Xiong, Fang; Li, Jiman; Wang, Shichao; Fu, Huihui; Wen, Jirui; Li, Dongze; Zeng, Ye; Zhao, Zhiwei; Wu, Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic-fluorescent nanoparticles have a tremendous potential in biology. As the benefits of these materials gained recognition, increasing attention has been given to the conjugation of magnetic-fluorescent nanoparticles with targeting ligands. The magnetic and fluorescent properties of nanoparticles offer several functionalities, including imaging, separation, and visualization, while the presence of a targeting ligand allows for selective cell and tissue targeting. In this review, methods for the synthesis of targeted magnetic-fluorescent nanoparticles are explored, and recent applications of these nanocomposites to the detection and separation of biomolecules, fluorescent and magnetic resonance imaging, and cancer diagnosis and treatment will be summarized. As these materials are further optimized, targeted magnetic-fluorescent nanoparticles hold great promise for the diagnosis and treatment of some diseases.

  17. Synthesis and bio-applications of targeted magnetic-fluorescent composite nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hui; Tong, Ruijie; Song, Yanling; Xiong, Fang; Li, Jiman; Wang, Shichao; Fu, Huihui; Wen, Jirui; Li, Dongze; Zeng, Ye; Zhao, Zhiwei; Wu, Jiang

    2017-04-01

    Magnetic-fluorescent nanoparticles have a tremendous potential in biology. As the benefits of these materials gained recognition, increasing attention has been given to the conjugation of magnetic-fluorescent nanoparticles with targeting ligands. The magnetic and fluorescent properties of nanoparticles offer several functionalities, including imaging, separation, and visualization, while the presence of a targeting ligand allows for selective cell and tissue targeting. In this review, methods for the synthesis of targeted magnetic-fluorescent nanoparticles are explored, and recent applications of these nanocomposites to the detection and separation of biomolecules, fluorescent and magnetic resonance imaging, and cancer diagnosis and treatment will be summarized. As these materials are further optimized, targeted magnetic-fluorescent nanoparticles hold great promise for the diagnosis and treatment of some diseases.

  18. Synthesis and bio-applications of targeted magnetic-fluorescent composite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Hui; Tong, Ruijie [Sichuan University, West China Medical Center (China); Song, Yanling [Shenyang University of Chemical Technology, College of Pharmaceutical and Biological Engineering (China); Xiong, Fang [Sichuan University, West China College of Stomatology (China); Li, Jiman [Sichuan Cancer Hospital, Pathology Department (China); Wang, Shichao; Fu, Huihui; Wen, Jirui; Li, Dongze; Zeng, Ye; Zhao, Zhiwei, E-mail: zzw2002400@126.com; Wu, Jiang, E-mail: jw@scu.edu.cn [Sichuan University, West China Medical Center (China)

    2017-04-15

    Magnetic-fluorescent nanoparticles have a tremendous potential in biology. As the benefits of these materials gained recognition, increasing attention has been given to the conjugation of magnetic-fluorescent nanoparticles with targeting ligands. The magnetic and fluorescent properties of nanoparticles offer several functionalities, including imaging, separation, and visualization, while the presence of a targeting ligand allows for selective cell and tissue targeting. In this review, methods for the synthesis of targeted magnetic-fluorescent nanoparticles are explored, and recent applications of these nanocomposites to the detection and separation of biomolecules, fluorescent and magnetic resonance imaging, and cancer diagnosis and treatment will be summarized. As these materials are further optimized, targeted magnetic-fluorescent nanoparticles hold great promise for the diagnosis and treatment of some diseases.

  19. Principles, Techniques, and Applications of Tissue Microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Lawrence A.; Kartalov, Emil P.; Shibata, Darryl; Taylor, Clive

    2011-01-01

    The principle of tissue microfluidics and its resultant techniques has been applied to cell analysis. Building microfluidics to suit a particular tissue sample would allow the rapid, reliable, inexpensive, highly parallelized, selective extraction of chosen regions of tissue for purposes of further biochemical analysis. Furthermore, the applicability of the techniques ranges beyond the described pathology application. For example, they would also allow the posing and successful answering of new sets of questions in many areas of fundamental research. The proposed integration of microfluidic techniques and tissue slice samples is called "tissue microfluidics" because it molds the microfluidic architectures in accordance with each particular structure of each specific tissue sample. Thus, microfluidics can be built around the tissues, following the tissue structure, or alternatively, the microfluidics can be adapted to the specific geometry of particular tissues. By contrast, the traditional approach is that microfluidic devices are structured in accordance with engineering considerations, while the biological components in applied devices are forced to comply with these engineering presets.

  20. Study of uranium contamination of ground water in Punjab using X-ray fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alrakabi, Muhanad; Singh, Gurjeet; Bhalla, Atul; Kumar, Sunil; Kumar, Sanjeev; Rai, Bimal; Singh, N.; Shahi, J.S.; Mehta, D.; Srivastava, Alok

    2010-01-01

    A number of reports have appeared in public media about uranium ingestion being a possible cause for cancer and increased birth rate abnormalities among children in the Malwa region of Punjab state in India. These reports link problems like cancer and Autism, with the presence of uranium in the ground waters of Malwa region. The concentration of uranium in drinking water from sources as varied as ground water, canal water supply and reverse osmosis system have been investigated using X-ray fluorescence technique. Samples from the thermal power plants in the regions and nearby ground waters were also analyzed to identify the source of contamination. The samples were collected with assistance of the officials from the Government of Punjab. More than half a litre of each of the water samples was dried at 60 deg-80 deg in an oven. Residue was collected using larger quantities of water samples in case of RO water samples. The elemental analysis of the residue was carried out using the Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer consisting of an 42 Mo-anode X-ray tube (Panalytical, 2.5 kW) as an excitation source and a Si(Li) detector. A combination of selective absorbers of 30 Zn, 38 Sr, and 39 Y was used in the incident beam for improving the detection limit for Uranium by reducing the background and removing the 42 Mo K X-rays. The detection limit in ppb/litre depends upon the amount of residue

  1. Identification of bacteria used for microbial enhanced oil recovery process by fluorescence in situ hybridization technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, K.; Tanaka, S.; Otsuka, M. [Kansai Research Institute, Kyoto (Japan). Lifescience Lab.; Yonebayashi, H. [Japan National Oil Corp., Chiba (Japan). Tech. Research Center; Enomoto, H. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Geoscience and Tech.

    2000-01-01

    A fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique using 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes was developed for rapid detection of microorganisms for use in the microbial enhancement of oil recovery (MEOR) process. Two microorganisms, Enterobacter cloacae TRC-322 and Bacillus licheniformis TRC-18-2-a, were selected from a collection of Enterobacter sp. and Bacillus sp. which were screened in previous studies as candidate microorganisms for injection, and were used for this experiment. Oligonucleotide probes, design based on specific sequences in the 16S rRNA gene were labeled with either fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), or 6-car-boxy-X-rhodamine (ROX), and were allowed to hybridize with fixed cells of the two microorganisms noted above. The fluorescence signal emitted from each microorganism cells could clearly be detected by an epifluorescence microscope. Moreover, E. cloacae TRC-322 and B, licheniformis TRC-18-2-a, suspended in actual reservoir brine, including inorganic salts, oil and aboriginal cells of the reservoir brine, could be detected directly by this hybridization method, without the need for cultivation and isolation. (author)

  2. Development of optical techniques for chemical engineering applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamadie, F.; Charton, S.; Langlard, M. de; Ouattara, M.; Sentis, M. [CEA, Centre de Marcoule, DEN,DTEC,SGCS, F-30207 Marcoule (France)

    2016-07-01

    The design of separation processes for nuclear spend fuel treatment, dedicated to either research studies or industrial applications, is currently based on a phenomenological approach, relying on Computational Fluid Dynamics, and complemented by validation tests performed at small-scale. Indeed, most of the steps of the Purex process involve multiphasic flows (dissolution, leaching, liquid-liquid extraction, precipitation, filtration, etc.). Therefore an accurate knowledge of the dispersed phase properties is required in order to assess their coupling with the flow features, to predict the process performance and efficiency and to achieve size reduction or extrapolation. Hence, the measurements of particulate flows properties, and especially the particles (or drops or bubbles) size distribution, concentration (i.e. hold-up) and velocity has become a growing issue. Relevant techniques for measuring these flow properties are multiple, from the high-speed video acquisition coupled to image processing to the laser-induced fluorescence, including the particle imaging velocimetry or interferometric techniques (digital in-line holography, rainbow refractometry, etc.). In this communication, different techniques developed at CEA Marcoule for the characterization of multiphase flows, will be introduced. The strong interaction with computational fluid dynamics, in the scope of a multi-scale approach, will be discussed through typical results of gas-liquid, liquid-liquid and solid-liquid flows possibly encountered in nuclear fuel reprocessing process. (authors)

  3. Application of fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging in the detection of a photosensitizer in photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Lixin; Zhao, Huimin; Zhang, Zhiguo; Cao, Wenwu

    2017-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is currently an advanced optical technology in medical applications. However, the application of PDT is limited by the detection of photosensitizers. This work focuses on the application of fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging in the detection of an effective photosenzitizer, hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether (HMME). Optical properties of HMME were measured and analyzed based on its absorption and fluorescence spectra. The production mechanism of its fluorescence emission was analyzed. The detection device for HMME based on fluorescence spectroscopy was designed. Ratiometric method was applied to eliminate the influence of intensity change of excitation sources, fluctuates of excitation sources and photo detectors, and background emissions. The detection limit of this device is 6 μg/L, and it was successfully applied to the diagnosis of the metabolism of HMME in the esophageal cancer cells. To overcome the limitation of the point measurement using fluorescence spectroscopy, a two-dimensional (2D) fluorescence imaging system was established. The algorithm of the 2D fluorescence imaging system is deduced according to the fluorescence ratiometric method using bandpass filters. The method of multiple pixel point addition (MPPA) was used to eliminate fluctuates of signals. Using the method of MPPA, SNR was improved by about 30 times. The detection limit of this imaging system is 1.9 μg/L. Our systems can be used in the detection of porphyrins to improve the PDT effect.

  4. Novel fabrication of fluorescent silk utilized in biotechnological and medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Wook; Lee, Ok Joo; Kim, Seong-Wan; Ki, Chang Seok; Chao, Janet Ren; Yoo, Hyojong; Yoon, Sung-Il; Lee, Jeong Eun; Park, Ye Ri; Kweon, HaeYong; Lee, Kwang Gill; Kaplan, David L; Park, Chan Hum

    2015-11-01

    Silk fibroin (SF) is a natural polymer widely used and studied for diverse applications in the biomedical field. Recently, genetically modified silks, particularly fluorescent SF fibers, were reported to have been produced from transgenic silkworms. However, they are currently limited to textile manufacturing. To expand the use of transgenic silkworms for biomedical applications, a solution form of fluorescent SF needed to be developed. Here, we describe a novel method of preparing a fluorescent SF solution and demonstrate long-term fluorescent function up to one year after subcutaneous insertion. We also show that fluorescent SF labeled p53 antibodies clearly identify HeLa cells, indicating the applicability of fluorescent SF to cancer detection and bio-imaging. Furthermore, we demonstrate the intraoperative use of fluorescent SF in an animal model to detect a small esophageal perforation (0.5 mm). This study suggests how fluorescent SF biomaterials can be applied in biotechnology and clinical medicine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Kerosene detection using laser induced fluorescence imaging for aeronautical engines application; Detection du kerozene par imagerie de fluorescence induite par laser, pour application sur foyer aeronautique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranger, Ph.

    2004-10-15

    The new concepts of aeronautical engines, developed to follow the evolution of the European standards of pollution, are generally based on an improvement of the processes of liquid fuel injection and mixture in the combustion chamber. There is currently no model mature enough to work without experimental validation. The purpose of this thesis is to assess the possibility of measuring the kerosene (Jet A1) vapour distribution by PLIF (Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence). That measurement technique must quantitatively image the instantaneous concentrations fields of the vaporized fuel in a spray. The implementation of such a technique needs an experimental spectroscopic study, which was realized on the vapour of fuel. First of all, this study allowed us to determine the properties of the kerosene fluorescence spectrum versus physical parameters such as temperature, pressure or gas mixture composition, especially in presence of oxygen molecules. Then, it was shown that the fluorescence spectrum of the fuel could be reproduce in all physical conditions by a single mixture of four aromatics. Their photophysical properties were also analyzed. Following this spectroscopic study, a phenomenological model for the fluorescence of the gaseous fuel was set up. This model led us to a protocol for an optical diagnostic on this fuel vapour. An experiment was set up to test the implementation and the limits of this technique in simple laboratory conditions. This experiment confirmed that this is indeed a promising technique for the diagnostic of the fuel vapour in aeronautical engine. (author)

  6. Mechanistic background and clinical applications of indocyanine green fluorescence imaging of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizawa, Takeaki; Masuda, Koichi; Urano, Yasuteru; Kawaguchi, Yoshikuni; Satou, Shouichi; Kaneko, Junichi; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Shibahara, Junji; Fukayama, Masashi; Tsuji, Shingo; Midorikawa, Yutaka; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2014-02-01

    Although clinical applications of intraoperative fluorescence imaging of liver cancer using indocyanine green (ICG) have begun, the mechanistic background of ICG accumulation in the cancerous tissues remains unclear. In 170 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HCC), the liver surfaces and resected specimens were intraoperatively examined by using a near-infrared fluorescence imaging system after preoperative administration of ICG (0.5 mg/kg i.v.). Microscopic examinations, gene expression profile analysis, and immunohistochemical staining were performed for HCCs, which showed ICG fluorescence in the cancerous tissues (cancerous-type fluorescence), and HCCs showed fluorescence only in the surrounding non-cancerous liver parenchyma (rim-type fluorescence). ICG fluorescence imaging enabled identification of 273 of 276 (99%) HCCs in the resected specimens. HCCs showed that cancerous-type fluorescence was associated with higher cancer cell differentiation as compared with rim-type HCCs (P Fluorescence microscopy identified the presence of ICG in the canalicular side of the cancer cell cytoplasm, and pseudoglands of the HCCs showed a cancerous-type fluorescence pattern. The ratio of the gene and protein expression levels in the cancerous to non-cancerous tissues for Na(+)/taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) and organic anion-transporting polypeptide 8 (OATP8), which are associated with portal uptake of ICG by hepatocytes that tended to be higher in the HCCs that showed cancerous-type fluorescence than in those that showed rim-type fluorescence. Preserved portal uptake of ICG in differentiated HCC cells by NTCP and OATP8 with concomitant biliary excretion disorders causes accumulation of ICG in the cancerous tissues after preoperative intravenous administration. This enables highly sensitive identification of HCC by intraoperative ICG fluorescence imaging.

  7. Synthesis and Application of Polymeric Fluorescent Compounds Based on Coumarin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guojun Liu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a multifunctional yellowing inhibitor was synthesized by the Pechmann method. In order to obtain the target compound, 7-hydroxy-4-methyl coumarin was prepared by using the raw materials of resorcinol and ethyl acetoacetate, with toluene-p-sulfonic acid as the catalyst. New polymeric fluorescent compounds were synthesized by connecting the 7-hydroxy-4-methyl coumarin, the hindered amine light stabilizer 4-amion-2,2,6,6-tetramentylniperidine, and a series of polyethylene glycol segments into the same molecule with cyanuric chloride as a bridge. The structures of the synthesized molecules were confirmed by FT-IR, 1H NMR, and elemental analysis. The luminescent properties of the fluorescent compounds were studied by UV-vis spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy. The integration effect between the fluorescent compounds and paper was tested by a scanning electron microscope. The light stability effect on the paper sheet was tested using an ultraviolet aging apparatus. The results indicate that the polymeric fluorescent compounds had a positive effect on the light stability of the high-yield pulp.

  8. Applications of optical fiber to remote laser fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Shin, Jang Soo; Lee, Sang Mock; Kim, Jeong Moog; Kim, Duk Heon; Hong, Seok Kyung

    1991-12-01

    Fluorescence analysis using time-resolved laser fluorimetry has been used for trace uranium analysis because this method shows high sensitivity and low detection limit and is less matrix dependent than any other fluorimetric measurement. By this time, the uranium analyses in the solution of reprocessing process or high radioactive area have been primarily analyzed by sampling of the solution, but recently, a study on a remote uranium fluorescence analysis using optical fiber has been setting out based on the development of an optical fiber with radiation resistivity and of an advanced laser excitation source. Laser fluorimetry developed by our laboratory for trace uranium analyses in uranium handling process or in urine samples of workers in a nuclear facility has been used in our institute since 1988. A development of the system for remote control of uranium fluorescence analysis will be expected to contribute to an on-line uranium concentration monitoring in the cooling water of reconversion stream. In this report, we summarize the information related to fluorescence analyses and remote fluorescence monitoring methods established by foreign countries and our laboratory. We also present a future research direction for remote on-line monitoring of uranium in conversion or reconversion process. (Author)

  9. Advances in Spiropyrans/Spirooxazines and Applications Based on Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET with Fluorescent Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Xia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the following were reviewed: (1 the structure of spiropyrans and spirooxazines (two kinds of spiro compounds under external stimuli and (2 the construction and applications of composite systems based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET with fluorescent materials. When treated with different stimuli (light, acids and bases, solvents, metal ions, temperature, redox potential, and so on, spiropyrans/spirooxazines undergo transformations between the ring-closed form (SP, the ring-opened merocyanine (MC form, and the protonated ring-opened form (MCH. This is due to the breakage of the spiro C–O bond and the protonation of MC, along with a color change. Various novel, multifunctional materials based on photochromic spiropyrans and spirooxazines have been successfully developed because of the vastly differently physiochemical properties posssed by the SP, MC and MCH forms. Among the three different structural forms, the MC form has been studied most extensively. The MC form not only gives complexes with various inorganic particles, biological molecules, and organic chemicals but also acts as the energy acceptor (of energy from fluorescent molecules during energy transfer processes that take place under proper conditions. Furthermore, spiropyran and spirooxazine compounds exhibit reversible physicochemical property changes under proper stimuli; this provides more advantages compared with other photochromic compounds. Additionally, the molecular structures of spiropyrans and spirooxazines can be easily modified and extended, so better compounds can be obtained to expand the scope of already known applications. Described in detail are: (1 the structural properties of spiropyrans and spirooxazines and related photochromic mechanisms; (2 composite systems based on spiropyrans and spirooxazines, and (3 fluorescent materials which have potential applications in sensing, probing, and a variety of optical elements.

  10. Interactive data visualization foundations, techniques, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ward, Matthew; Keim, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Visualization is the process of representing data, information, and knowledge in a visual form to support the tasks of exploration, confirmation, presentation, and understanding. This book is designed as a textbook for students, researchers, analysts, professionals, and designers of visualization techniques, tools, and systems. It covers the full spectrum of the field, including mathematical and analytical aspects, ranging from its foundations to human visual perception; from coded algorithms for different types of data, information and tasks to the design and evaluation of new visualization techniques. Sample programs are provided as starting points for building one's own visualization tools. Numerous data sets have been made available that highlight different application areas and allow readers to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of different visualization methods. Exercises, programming projects, and related readings are given for each chapter. The book concludes with an examination of several existin...

  11. Determination of low concentrations of thorium in granites using X-ray fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigematsu, H.M.; Sato, I.M.; Iyer, S.S.

    1981-03-01

    An analytical method for the accurate determination of low concentrations of thorium in rocks using X-ray fluorescence technique, was developed. A tungsten tube was utilized for the production of X-rays. The samples were prepared in the form of double layer pressed pellets using boric acid as a binding agent. The concentration of thorium was determined by measuring the intensity of the characteristic first order Th L α line. The calibration was carried out with USGS rock standards AGV-1, GSP-1 and G-2. Seven granite rocks samples from Granite Mountains of Wyoming, USA, supplied by Dr. Stuckless. Also were analysed. The results obtained were compared with values obtained in others laboratories using different analytical methods. The analyses show that the thorium is concentrated in accessory minerals and presented a non-uniform distribution, making sampling an important factor in the analysis of thorium. A discussion of the precision and accuracy of the method is presented. (Author) [pt

  12. A highly flexible polymerization technique to prepare fluorescent nanospheres for trace ammonia detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waich, K.; Sandholzer, M.; Mayr, T.; Slugovc, C.; Klimant, I.

    2010-01-01

    The preparation of pH-sensitive nanospheres by emulsion polymerization for the detection of trace levels of ammonia is described. A fluorescent, polymerizable xanthene dye was copolymerized with styrene, crosslinkers and further copolymers aimed at enhancing the sensitivity to obtain materials for sensing of ammonia. A half-seeded technique was used to obtain stable emulsions of the monomers which were cured to obtain nanospheres with covalently attached active components. The nanospheres were embedded in a silicon matrix and the sensor films obtained were investigated regarding their response to ammonia at concentrations between 25 and 1,000 ppb. Sensors containing polystyrene nanospheres crosslinked with divinylbenzene showed the best performance in ammonia measurements exhibiting detection limits (LODs) of less than 25 ppb ammonia.

  13. Determination of photophysical parameters of cyanines using different techniques. Application to DODCI (3-3' dietiloxacarbocyanine iodide)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchowicz, R.; Scaffardi, L.; Di Paolo, R.E.; Tocho, J.O.

    1990-01-01

    A number of fluorescence and absorption techniques were developed for the determination of photo-physical parameters of photo-isomerizable cyanines. The application of these techniques, such as saturated fluorescence, double excitation fluorescence and temperature dependent absorption, to the specific case of 3-3' dietiloxadicarbocyanine iodide (DODCI), allowed the particular study of photo-isomer's exited state along with its decay processes. Fluorescence efficiency and the mean life of the photo-isomer as a function of temperature were obtained. The activation energy and the pre-exponential factor for the non-radioactive decay processes were determined. For the first time, the fluorescence spectrum of the transient isomer form was registered free of the emission of the normal species. (Author). 6 refs., 9 figs

  14. Detection of Biomass in New York City Aerosols: Light Scattering and Optical Fluorescence Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebauer, M.; Alimova, A.; Katz, A.; Xu, M.; Rudolph, E.; Steiner, J.; Alfano, R. R.

    2005-12-01

    Optical spectroscopy is an ideal method for detecting bacteria and spores in real time. Optical fluorescence spectroscopy examination of New York City aerosols is used to quantify the mass of bacteria spores present in air masses collected at 14 liters/minute onto silica fiber filters, and on silica fiber ribbons using an Environmental Beta Attenuation Monitor manufactured by MetOne Instruments configured for the PM2.5 fraction. Dipicolinic acid (DPA), a molecule found primarily in bacterial spores, is the most characteristic component of spores in trial experiments on over 200 collected aerosol samples. DPA is extracted from the spores using a heat bath and chelated with Terbium. The DPA:Tb is detected by measuring its characteristic fluorescence with emission bands at 490, 545 and 585 nm for 270 nm excitation. Light scattering also measures the size distribution for a number of a variety of bacteria - Bacillus subtilis (rod shaped), Staphylococcus aureus (spherical) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (short rods) establishing that optical techniques satisfactorily distinguish populations based on their variable morphology. Size and morphology are obtained by applying a variation of the Gaussian Ray Approximation theory of anomalous diffraction theory to an analysis of the transmission spectra in the range of 0.4 to 1.0 microns. In test experiments, the refractive index of the inner spore core of Bacillus subtilis decreases from 1.51 to 1.39 while the spore radius enlarges from 0.38 to 0.6 micrometers. Optical determinations are verified by oil-immersion techniques and by scanning electron microscope measurements. Characterization of spores, germinating spore materials, and bacteria is considered vital to tracing bacteria in the environment, for the development of life-detection systems for planetary exploration, monitoring pathogens in environmental systems, and for the preparation of anti-terrorism strategies.

  15. Applications Of Binary Image Analysis Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropf, H.; Enderle, E.; Kammerer, H. P.

    1983-10-01

    After discussing the conditions where binary image analysis techniques can be used, three new applications of the fast binary image analysis system S.A.M. (Sensorsystem for Automation and Measurement) are reported: (1) The human view direction is measured at TV frame rate while the subject's head is free movable. (2) Industrial parts hanging on a moving conveyor are classified prior to spray painting by robot. (3) In automotive wheel assembly, the eccentricity of the wheel is minimized by turning the tyre relative to the rim in order to balance the eccentricity of the components.

  16. Multimedia encryption and authentication techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Furht, Borko

    2006-01-01

    Intellectual property owners must continually exploit new ways of reproducing, distributing, and marketing their products. However, the threat of piracy looms as a major problem with digital distribution and storage technologies. Multimedia Encryption and Authentication Techniques and Applications covers current and future trends in the design of modern systems that use encryption and authentication to protect multimedia content. Containing the works of contributing authors who are worldwide experts in their fields, this volume is intended for researchers and practitioners, as well as for thos

  17. Non-scanning x-ray fluorescence microscope: application to real time micro-imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, K.; Eba, H.

    2000-01-01

    So far, x-ray fluorescence (XRF) micro-imaging has been performed by a 2D positional scan of a sample against a collimated beam. Obtaining information on specific elements in a nondestructive manner is an attractive prospect for many scientific applications. Furthermore, a synchrotron micro-beam can enhance the spatial resolution down to 0.1 μm. However, the total measuring time becomes quite long (a few hours to a half day), since one needs a number of scanning points in order to obtain a high-quality image. It is possible to obtain an x-ray image with 1 M pixels and with 20 μm resolution in a very short time of 20 sec - 3 min using a non-scanning XRF microscope, which is based on completely different concept. In the present report, we discuss the application of this technique to real time micro-imaging. The experiments were carried out at BL-4A, Photon Factory, Tsukuba, Japan. We employed a grazing-incidence arrangement to make primary x-rays illuminate the whole sample surface. We adopted parallel-beam optics and extremely-close-geometry in order to detect x-ray fluorescence with a CCD camera. The selective-excitation capability of tunable monochromatic synchrotron radiation is a feasible method for distinguishing the elements of interest. One can obtain an image of each element by differentiating the images obtained above and below the absorption edges of interest. The growth of metallic dendrites from a solution dropped on a substrate was studied successfully. Several different growth patterns, corresponding to concentration and other conditions for diffusion, were observed as x-ray images. Since the present technique requires only 40 sec for each shot, it is possible to record a growing process through repeated exposures like a movie. The authors would like to thank Prof. A. Iida (Photon Factory) for his valuable comments. (author)

  18. Limitations on the use of the planar laser induced exciplex fluorescence technique in diesel sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.M. Desantes; J.V. Pastor; J.M. Pastor; J.E. Julia [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Valencia (Spain). CMT Motores Termicos

    2005-12-01

    The Planar Laser Induced Exciplex Fluorescence (PLIEF) technique is widely used to visualize and measure the fuel concentration fields in both liquid and vapor phases of DI Diesel sprays. However, the real limitations of the PLIEF technique in Diesel sprays and the accuracy of the results obtained are still a source of controversy. In this work, a complete methodology for maximum penetration and fuel concentration measurements in evaporating conditions in Diesel sprays has been developed and the reliability of the results obtained has been investigated. The methodology includes new procedures for measuring both liquid and vapor phases, adapting, when necessary, correlations available in the literature for calibration. An experimental matrix of nine test points with different injection pressures and combustion chamber densities has been performed. A critical analysis of the different error sources for proper quantification is made. Results have shown that macroscopic features can be accurately determined using the PLIEF technique, but for fuel concentration measurements special considerations have to be taken into account, particularly in the regions where liquid and vapor coexist. 37 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. High energy heavy ions: techniques and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, J.R.

    1985-04-01

    Pioneering work at the Bevalac has given significant insight into the field of relativistic heavy ions, both in the development of techniques for acceleration and delivery of these beams as well as in many novel areas of applications. This paper will outline our experiences at the Bevalac; ion sources, low velocity acceleration, matching to the synchrotron booster, and beam delivery. Applications discussed will include the observation of new effects in central nuclear collisions, production of beams of exotic short-lived (down to 1 μsec) isotopes through peripheral nuclear collisions, atomic physics with hydrogen-like uranium ions, effects of heavy ''cosmic rays'' on satellite equipment, and an ongoing cancer radiotherapy program with heavy ions. 39 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  20. Application of X-ray fluorescence analysis in environmental research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kliment, V.; Kliman, J.; Turzo, I.

    1978-01-01

    A description is presented of the X-ray fluorescence analysis principles and of its possibilities in the study of environmental pollution impact. Experiments with X-ray fluorescence analysis using 241-Am and a Ge(Li) semiconductor detector are discussed. The reproducibility of determinations in dependence on the sample preparation and the evaluation of peak surfaces of characteristic radiation is shown. The dependence of the peak surface on the elemental contents in the sample was linear. Detection limits of the investigated elements ranged in tenths of μg for 300 s measurement. (author)

  1. Fluorescent antibody application in bioremediation procedures at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brigmon, R.L.; Richardson, B.S.; Franck, M.M.

    1997-01-01

    Direct Fluorescent Antibodies (DFA) and Most Probable Number (MPN) techniques are currently being employed at the Savannah River Site to monitor methanotrophic bacteria for the bioremediation of trichloroethylene (TCE) in field studies. Direct Fluorescent Antibodies were developed against various methanotrophic bacteria isolated from SRS as well as methanotrophic bacteria acquired from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). DFA's are anticipated to be more efficient for monitoring methanotroph activity than MPN's because of shorter processing time, lower cost, and the direct nature of the assay. The DFA method is a direct technique, in that samples are processed immediately and can be enumerated within an hour. The MPN method is indirect, since samples must be cultured for 6-8 weeks before measuring methane consumption and carbon dioxide production. Indirect methods are not highly selective and have limited application. The greatest advantage of a faster assay, is that bioremediation procedures utilizing methanotrophic bacteria could be amended. These amendments would be based on environmental monitoring with results in real time (1 hour). The elimination of the MPN technique and the use of DFA's will save significantly on both materials and labor. The data obtained from the DFA's and MPN's were statistically compared to each other and to total bacterial counts (AODC). The statistical analysis used was Analysis of Variants (ANOVA). Using this analysis, groundwater samples were found to be not significantly different; whereas soil were significantly different. These methods were employed on soil samples from the Southern Sector and ground water samples from the TCE-contaminated Sanitary Landfill at SRS. Acridine Orange Direct Counts were compared to show relative differences between total bacterial and methanotroph population

  2. Monitoring of petroleum hydrocarbon pollution in surface waters by a direct comparison of fluorescence spectroscopy and remote sensing techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Domenico, L.; Crisafi, E. (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Messina (Italy). Thalassografic Inst.); Magazzu, G. (Lecce Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Biology); Puglisi, A. (Mediterranean Oceanological Centre (CEOM), Palermo (Italy)); La Rosa, A. (Air-Survey, Italy s.r.l., Catania (Italy))

    1994-10-01

    Oil pollution levels were estimated using simultaneous acquisition of data from remote sensing by helicopter and fluorescence spectroscopy on surface samples. Laboratory quantitative analysis of hydrocarbons was used to calibrate remotely sensed data. The data were treated using a computer to generate a colour-coded map not attainable with conventional methods representing seawater pollution. Results were in good agreement and indicated that remotely sensed data together with those achieved by fluorescence spectroscopy are applicable for monitoring hydrocarbon pollution. (author)

  3. Monitoring of petroleum hydrocarbon pollution in surface waters by a direct comparison of fluorescence spectroscopy and remote sensing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Domenico, L.; Crisafi, E.; La Rosa, A.

    1994-01-01

    Oil pollution levels were estimated using simultaneous acquisition of data from remote sensing by helicopter and fluorescence spectroscopy on surface samples. Laboratory quantitative analysis of hydrocarbons was used to calibrate remotely sensed data. The data were treated using a computer to generate a colour-coded map not attainable with conventional methods representing seawater pollution. Results were in good agreement and indicated that remotely sensed data together with those achieved by fluorescence spectroscopy are applicable for monitoring hydrocarbon pollution. (author)

  4. Fluorescence detection, enumeration and characterization of single circulating cells in vivo: technology, applications and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Carolin; Patil, Roshani; Lin, Charles P.; Niedre, Mark

    2018-01-01

    There are many diseases and biological processes that involve circulating cells in the bloodstream, such as cancer metastasis, immunology, reproductive medicine, and stem cell therapies. This has driven significant interest in new technologies for the study of circulating cells in small animal research models and clinically. Most currently used methods require drawing and enriching blood samples from the body, but these suffer from a number of limitations. In contrast, ‘in vivo flow cytometry’ (IVFC) refers to set of technologies that allow study of cells directly in the bloodstream of the organism in vivo. In recent years the IVFC field has grown significantly and new techniques have been developed, including fluorescence microscopy, multi-photon, photo-acoustic, and diffuse fluorescence IVFC. In this paper we review recent technical advances in IVFC, with emphasis on instrumentation, contrast mechanisms, and detection sensitivity. We also describe key applications in biomedical research, including cancer research and immunology. Last, we discuss future directions for IVFC, as well as prospects for broader adoption by the biomedical research community and translation to humans clinically.

  5. A 0.18 μm CMOS fluorescent detector system for bio-sensing application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Liu; Guoping, Chen; Zhiliang, Hong

    2009-01-01

    A CMOS fluorescent detector system for biological experiment is presented. This system integrates a CMOS compatible photodiode, a capacitive trans-impedance amplifier (CTIA), and a 12 bit pipelined analog-to-digital converter (ADC), and is implemented in a 0.18 μm standard CMOS process. Some special techniques, such as a 'contact imaging' detecting method, pseudo-differential architecture, dummy photodiodes, and a T-type reset switch, are adopted to achieve low-level sensing application. Experiment results show that the Nwell/Psub photodiode with CTIA pixel achieves a sensitivity of 0.1 A/W at 515 nm and a dark current of 300 fA with 300 mV reverse biased voltage. The maximum differential and integral nonlinearity of the designed ADC are 0.8 LSB and 3 LSB, respectively. With an integrating time of 50 ms, this system is sensitive to the fluorescence emitted by the fluorescein solution with concentration as low as 20 ng/mL and can generate 7 fA photocurrent. This chip occupies 3 mm2 and consumes 37 mW.

  6. A 0.18 μm CMOS fluorescent detector system for bio-sensing application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Nan; Chen Guoping; Hong Zhiliang

    2009-01-01

    A CMOS fluorescent detector system for biological experiment is presented. This system integrates a CMOS compatible photodiode, a capacitive trans-impedance amplifier (CTIA), and a 12 bit pipelined analog-to-digital converter (ADC), and is implemented in a 0.18 μm standard CMOS process. Some special techniques, such as a 'contact imaging' detecting method, pseudo-differential architecture, dummy photodiodes, and a T-type reset switch, are adopted to achieve low-level sensing application. Experiment results show that the Nwell/Psub photodiode with CTIA pixel achieves a sensitivity of 0.1 A/W at 515 nm and a dark current of 300 fA with 300 mV reverse biased voltage. The maximum differential and integral nonlinearity of the designed ADC are 0.8 LSB and 3 LSB, respectively. With an integrating time of 50 ms, this system is sensitive to the fluorescence emitted by the fluorescein solution with concentration as low as 20 ng/mL and can generate 7 fA photocurrent. This chip occupies 3 mm 2 and consumes 37 mW.

  7. Enhancing cell and gene therapy manufacture through the application of advanced fluorescent optical sensors (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Richard P; Chauhan, Veeren M

    2017-12-15

    Cell and gene therapies (CGTs) are examples of future therapeutics that can be used to cure or alleviate the symptoms of disease, by repairing damaged tissue or reprogramming defective genetic information. However, despite the recent advancements in clinical trial outcomes, the path to wide-scale adoption of CGTs remains challenging, such that the emergence of a "blockbuster" therapy has so far proved elusive. Manufacturing solutions for these therapies require the application of scalable and replicable cell manufacturing techniques, which differ markedly from the existing pharmaceutical incumbent. Attempts to adopt this pharmaceutical model for CGT manufacture have largely proved unsuccessful. The most significant challenges facing CGT manufacturing are process analytical testing and quality control. These procedures would greatly benefit from improved sensory technologies that allow direct measurement of critical quality attributes, such as pH, oxygen, lactate and glucose. In turn, this would make manufacturing more robust, replicable and standardized. In this review, the present-day state and prospects of CGT manufacturing are discussed. In particular, the authors highlight the role of fluorescent optical sensors, focusing on their strengths and weaknesses, for CGT manufacture. The review concludes by discussing how the integration of CGT manufacture and fluorescent optical sensors could augment future bioprocessing approaches.

  8. Spatially resolved data on sediment transport: 1) field application examining fluorescent soil particle movement from tillage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinton, John; Hardy, Robert; Pates, Jacqueline; James, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Understanding where sediment originates from and where it travels to, in what quantities and at which rate is at the heart of many questions surrounding sediment transport. Progress towards unravelling these questions and deepening our understanding has come from a wide range of approaches, including laboratory and field experiments conducted at a variety of scales. In seeking to understand the connectivity of sources and sinks of sediment scientists have spent considerable energy in developing tracing technologies. These have included numerous studies that have relied on the chemical properties of the soil and sediment to establish source-sink connectivity, and the use of 137Ceasium, from radioactive fall-out, to map sediment redistribution. More recently there has been an upsurge in interest in the use of artificially applied soil tracers, including rare earth element oxides and magnetic minerals. However all these tracing methods have a significant drawback: they rely on the collection of samples to assess their concentration. This means that their spatial distribution cannot easily be established in situ and that the environment that is being studied is damaged by the sampling process; nor can data be collected in real time which allows a dynamic understanding of erosion and transport processes to be developed. Here we report on the field application of a fluorescent sand sized tracer at the hillslope scale during a tillage erosion experiment. Here we trialled both intensity based and particle counting methodologies for tracer enumeration. After simulating seven years of tillage on a hillslope we were able to precisely determine the distribution of the fluorescent tracer and also its incorporation and distribution within the soil profile. Single grains of tracer could be found over 35 m from the insertion point. In a second abstract we report on an application that combines novel fluorescent videography techniques with custom image processing to trace the

  9. Clinical application of photodynamic medicine technology using light-emitting fluorescence imaging based on a specialized luminous source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namikawa, Tsutomu; Fujisawa, Kazune; Munekage, Eri; Iwabu, Jun; Uemura, Sunao; Tsujii, Shigehiro; Maeda, Hiromichi; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Fukuhara, Hideo; Inoue, Keiji; Sato, Takayuki; Kobayashi, Michiya; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2018-04-04

    The natural amino acid 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is a protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) precursor and a new-generation photosensitive substance that accumulates specifically in cancer cells. When indocyanine green (ICG) is irradiated with near-infrared (NIR) light, it shifts to a higher energy state and emits infrared light with a longer wavelength than the irradiated NIR light. Photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) using ALA and ICG-based NIR fluorescence imaging has emerged as a new diagnostic technique. Specifically, in laparoscopic examinations for serosa-invading advanced gastric cancer, peritoneal metastases could be detected by ALA-PDD, but not by conventional visible-light imaging. The HyperEye Medical System (HEMS) can visualize ICG fluorescence as color images simultaneously projected with visible light in real time. This ICG fluorescence method is widely applicable, including for intraoperative identification of sentinel lymph nodes, visualization of blood vessels in organ resection, and blood flow evaluation during surgery. Fluorescence navigation by ALA-PDD and NIR using ICG imaging provides good visualization and detection of the target lesions that is not possible with the naked eye. We propose that this technique should be used in fundamental research on the relationship among cellular dynamics, metabolic enzymes, and tumor tissues, and to evaluate clinical efficacy and safety in multicenter cooperative clinical trials.

  10. Acoustic emission technique and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Ichiya; Sasaki, Soji

    1976-01-01

    Acoustic emission technique is described. The characteristics of acoustic emission signal, measurement techniques, and its application are explained. The acoustic signals are grouped into continuous and burst types. The continuous signal is due to plastic deformation, and the burst type is due to the generation and growth of cracks. The latter can be used for the identification of the position of cracks. The frequency of the acoustic emission is in the range from several tens of KHz to two MHz. Piezoelectric ceramics are used as the oscillators of sensors. The dynamic behavior of acoustic emission can be observed with a two-channel acoustic emission measuring apparatus. Multi-channel method was developed at Hitachi, Ltd., and is used for large structures. General computer identification method and simple zone identification method are explained. Noise elimination is important for the measurement, and the methods were studied. Examples of application are the observation of acoustic emission in the plastic deformation of steel, the tensile test of large welded material with natural defects, and others. The method will be used for the diagnosis and observation of large structures, the test and quality control of products. (Kato, T.)

  11. Multispectral fluorescence imaging technique for discrimination of cucumber (Cucumis Sativus) seed viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we developed a nondestructive method for discriminating viable cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seeds based on hyperspectral fluorescence imaging. The fluorescence spectra of cucumber seeds in the 420–700 nm range were extracted from hyperspectral fluorescence images obtained using 365 nm u...

  12. Characterization of nanostructures in the live cell plasma membrane utilizing advanced single molecule fluorescence techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brameshuber, M.

    2009-01-01

    lipid-lipid or protein-lipid interactions, protein-protein interactions play of mayor role for the regulation of cell metabolism and function. In this thesis I further characterized the interaction between human CD4, the major co-receptor in T cell activation, and human Lck, the protein tyrosine kinase essential for early T cell signaling using an ultra-sensitive fluorescence-based method. Interaction dynamics were studied in detail by performing photobleaching experiments and single molecule brightness analysis. This enabled a combined mobility and stoichiometry analysis of Lck-molecules interacting with the captured CD4 protein. In the last part of my thesis I present a single molecule fluorescence study using a variant of an oxidized phospholipid - which is known to induce apoptosis - to probe the structure of the cellular plasmamembrane. The cells were illuminated using a recently introduced technique which utilizes a highly inclined and laminated optical sheet (HILO) to reduce background signal arising from intracellular fluorophores or from cellular autofluorescence. Our data demonstrate the relevance of plasma membrane properties for uptake of oxidized phospholipids, and indicate a novel indirect mechanism for the control of endocytosis. (author) [de

  13. Modern trends: analytical chemistry - techniques and application to biodetection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khurshid, S.J.

    1993-01-01

    Microorganism isolated from specimens are usually identified by conventional bacterial identification procedures of morphological evaluation and cultural techniques. These complex methods of studying organisms are extremely tedious and time consuming. This causes serious problems by delaying the decision concerning the presence of pathogens and therefore the adequate drug therapy. Frequently, the decision about the presence of pathogens has to be made prior to the results of microbiological tests. In order to overcome these conditions, workers explored new instrumental methods for characterization, rapid acquisition, high reproducibility, computer aided data recording and interpretation of microorganisms. This article brief reviews application of these modern instrumental approaches such as Infrared Spectroscopy (IR), Gas Chromatography (GC), Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Bioluminescence, Chemiluminescence, FLow Cytometry, Micro calorimetry, GC-MASS Spectrometry, Electrical Impedance, Bio sensors and Radiometry. These techniques have increased the capacity of doing basic research with a major impact on both the clinical laboratories and industry. The radiometric procedure is being used for research and biological quality control of radiopharmaceuticals in our laboratory at PINSTECH. (author)

  14. The Positively Charged Hyperbranched Polymers with Tunable Fluorescence and the Cell Imaging Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hengchang; Qin, Yanfang; Yang, Zenming; Yang, Manyi; Ma, Yucheng; Yin, Pei; Yang, Yuan; Wang, Tao; Lei, Ziqiang; Yao, Xiaoqiang

    2018-04-25

    Fluorescence-tunable materials are becoming increasingly attractive for their potential application in optics, electronics, and biomedical technology. Herein, a multi-color molecular pixel system is realized using simple copolymerization method. Bleeding both of complementary colors from blue and yellow fluorescence segments, reproduced a serious multicolor fluorescence materials. Interestingly, the emission colors of the polymers can be fine-tuned in solid state, solution phase, and in hydrogel state. More importantly, the positive fluorescent polymers exhibited cell-membrane permeable ability, and were found to accumulate on the cell nucleus, exhibiting remarkable selectivity to give bright fluorescence. The DNA/RNA selectivity experiments in vitro and in vivo verified that [tris(4-(pyridin-4-yl)phenyl)amine]-[1,8-dibromooctane] (TPPA-DBO) has prominent selectivity to DNA over RNA inside cells.

  15. Fluorescent carbon dots and nanodiamonds for biological imaging: preparation, application, pharmacokinetics and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia-Hui; Yang, Sheng-Tao; Chen, Xin-Xin; Wang, Haifang

    2012-10-01

    The rapid advancement of nanotechnology has brought us some new types of fluorescent probes, which are indispensable for bioimaging in life sciences. Because of their innate biocompatibility, good resistance against photobleaching, long fluorescence lifetime and wide fluorescence spectral region, fluorescent carbon quantum dots (C-Dots) and nanosized diamonds (nanodiamonds, NDs) are gradually evolving into promising reagents for bioimaging. In this review, we summarize the recent achievements in fluorescent C-Dots and NDs with emphases on their preparation, properties, imaging application, pharmacokinetics and toxicity. Perspectives on further investigations and opportunities to develop C-Dots and NDs into the safer and more sensitive imaging probes for both living cells and animal models are discussed.

  16. Study of uranium contamination of ground water in Punjab using X-ray fluorescence technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alrakabi, Muhanad; Singh, Gurjeet; Bhalla, Atul; Kumar, Sunil; Kumar, Sanjeev; Rai, Bimal; Singh, N; Shahi, J S; Mehta, D [Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh (India); Srivastava, Alok [Department of Chemistry, Panjab University, Chandigarh (India)

    2010-07-01

    A number of reports have appeared in public media about uranium ingestion being a possible cause for cancer and increased birth rate abnormalities among children in the Malwa region of Punjab state in India. These reports link problems like cancer and Autism, with the presence of uranium in the ground waters of Malwa region. The concentration of uranium in drinking water from sources as varied as ground water, canal water supply and reverse osmosis system have been investigated using X-ray fluorescence technique. Samples from the thermal power plants in the regions and nearby ground waters were also analyzed to identify the source of contamination. The samples were collected with assistance of the officials from the Government of Punjab. More than half a litre of each of the water samples was dried at 60 deg-80 deg in an oven. Residue was collected using larger quantities of water samples in case of RO water samples. The elemental analysis of the residue was carried out using the Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer consisting of an {sup 42}Mo-anode X-ray tube (Panalytical, 2.5 kW) as an excitation source and a Si(Li) detector. A combination of selective absorbers of {sup 30}Zn, {sup 38}Sr, and {sup 39}Y was used in the incident beam for improving the detection limit for Uranium by reducing the background and removing the {sup 42}Mo K X-rays. The detection limit in ppb/litre depends upon the amount of residue

  17. Laser/fluorescent dye flow visualization technique developed for system component thermal hydraulic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oras, J.J.; Kasza, K.E.

    1988-01-01

    A novel laser flow visualization technique is presented together with examples of its use in visualizing complex flow patterns and plans for its further development. This technique has been successfully used to study (1) the flow in a horizontal pipe subject to temperature transients, to view the formation and breakup of thermally stratified flow and to determine instantaneous velocity distributions in the same flow at various axial locations; (2) the discharge of a stratified pipe flow into a plenum exhibiting a periodic vortex pattern; and (3) the thermal-buoyancy-induced flow channeling on the shell side of a heat exchanger with glass tubes and shell. This application of the technique to heat exchangers is unique. The flow patterns deep within a large tube bundle can be studied under steady or transient conditions. This laser flow visualization technique constitutes a very powerful tool for studying single or multiphase flows in complex thermal system components

  18. Comparison of fluorescence-enhancing reagents and optimization of laser fluorimetric technique for the determination of dissolved uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceren Kuetahyali; Joaquin Cobos; Rondinella, V.V.

    2011-01-01

    Results from tests aimed at optimizing an instrumental procedure for the direct and fast determination of uranium in solution by laser fluorescence are presented. A comparison of sample fluorescence measured using different fluorescence enhancing reagents was performed: sodium pyrophosphate, orthophosphoric acid, sulphuric acid and a commercially available fluorescence enhancer were tested for the determination of uranium. From the experimental results, 0.01 M Na 4 P 2 O 7 x 10H 2 O showed the best performance. Effects of reagent pH, different matrices, different concentrations of dissolved Th, and sample volume were investigated. Applications of the improved procedure for the determination of uranium in samples arising from UO 2 -based high level nuclear waste dissolution studies are described. (author)

  19. Additive manufacturing techniques and their biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujing Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Additive manufacturing (AM, also known as three-dimensional (3D printing, is gaining increasing attention in medical fields, especially in dental and implant areas. Because AM technologies have many advantages in comparison with traditional technologies, such as the ability to manufacture patient-specific complex components, high material utilization, support of tissue growth, and a unique customized service for individual patients, AM is considered to have a large potential market in medical fields. This brief review presents the recent progress of 3D-printed biomedical materials for bone applications, mainly for metallic materials, including multifunctional alloys with high strength and low Young’s modulus, shape memory alloys, and their 3D fabrication by AM technologies. It describes the potential of 3D printing techniques in precision medicine and community health.

  20. Radiolabelled blood elements techniques and clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    Over the past few years, in nuclear medicine, the diagnostic applications of radiolabelled blood elements in general, and of radiolabelled white blood cells in particular, have become increasingly popular. This is primarily due to the introduction of lipid soluble 111 In-oxine as an agent, which not only is an excellent and a reliable tracer for blood cells but also enables the investigators to study the in vivo cell kinetics and map the localization of labelled cells by external gamma scintigraphy. The tracer has the modest half life of 67 hours and decays with the emission of two gamma photons (173 and 247 keV) in high abundance. This technique has provided a powerful tool to study the in vivo cell kinetics in health and localize abnormal lesions in diseases which invoke intense focal cellular concentration

  1. Radiolabelled blood elements techniques and clinical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakur, M L

    1993-12-31

    Over the past few years, in nuclear medicine, the diagnostic applications of radiolabelled blood elements in general, and of radiolabelled white blood cells in particular, have become increasingly popular. This is primarily due to the introduction of lipid soluble {sup 111}In-oxine as an agent, which not only is an excellent and a reliable tracer for blood cells but also enables the investigators to study the in vivo cell kinetics and map the localization of labelled cells by external gamma scintigraphy. The tracer has the modest half life of 67 hours and decays with the emission of two gamma photons (173 and 247 keV) in high abundance. This technique has provided a powerful tool to study the in vivo cell kinetics in health and localize abnormal lesions in diseases which invoke intense focal cellular concentration 5 figs, 2 tabs

  2. Neutron activation analysis technique and X-ray fluorescence in bovine liver sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maihara, V.A.; Favaro, D.I.T.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Sato, I.M.; Salvador, V.L.

    2002-01-01

    Many analytical techniques have been used in food and diet analysis in order to determine a great number of nutritional elements, ranging from percentage to ng g -1 , with high sensitivity and accuracy. Instrumental Neutron activation Analysis (INAA) has been employed to certificate many trace elements in biological reference materials. More recently, the X-Ray Fluorescence (FRX-WD) has been also used to determine some essential elements in food samples. The INAA has been applied in nutrition studies in our laboratory at IPEN since the 80 s. For the development of analytical methodologies the use of the reference materials with the same characteristics of the sample analyzed is essential. Several Brazilian laboratories do not have conditions to use these materials due their high cost.In this paper preliminary results of commercial bovine liver sample analyses obtained by INAA and WD-XRF methods are presented. This sample was prepared to be a Brazilian candidate of reference material for a group of laboratories participating in a research project sponsored by FAPESP. The concentrations of some elements like Cl, K, Na, P, S and trace elements Br, Ca, Co, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Rb, Se and Zn were determined by INAA and WD-XFR. For validation methodology of both techniques, NIST SRM 1577b Bovine Liver reference material was analyzed and the detection limits were calculated. The concentrations of elements determined by both analytical techniques were compared by using the Student's t-test and for Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, Rn and Zn the results do show no statistical difference for 95% significance level. (author)

  3. Neutron radiographic techniques, facilities and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanus, J.C.

    1984-08-01

    This is a collection of three papers, written for presentation on two international conferences. The first paper: ''Neutron radiography. Techniques and facilities'', written by J.P. Barton of N-Ray Engineering Co. La Jolla, CA., USA and J.C. Domanus was presented at the International Symposium on the Use and Development of Low and Medium Flux Research Reactors at the Massachusets Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass., USA, 16-19 October 1983. The second paper: ''Neutron radiography with the DR-1 reactor at Risoe National Laboratory'', written by J.C. Domanus, was presented at the same Symposium. The third paper: ''Defects in nuclear fuel revealed by neutron radiography'', written by J.C. Domanus is accepted for presentation on 18 October 1984 to the 3rd European Conference on Nondestructive Testing, Florence, Italy, 15-18 October 1984. While the first paper describes the principles of neutron radiographic techniques and facilities, the second one describes an example of such facility and the third gives an example of application of neutron radiography in the field of nuclear fuel. (author)

  4. Background Characterization Techniques For Pattern Recognition Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noah, Meg A.; Noah, Paul V.; Schroeder, John W.; Kessler, Bernard V.; Chernick, Julian A.

    1989-08-01

    The Department of Defense has a requirement to investigate technologies for the detection of air and ground vehicles in a clutter environment. The use of autonomous systems using infrared, visible, and millimeter wave detectors has the potential to meet DOD's needs. In general, however, the hard-ware technology (large detector arrays with high sensitivity) has outpaced the development of processing techniques and software. In a complex background scene the "problem" is as much one of clutter rejection as it is target detection. The work described in this paper has investigated a new, and innovative, methodology for background clutter characterization, target detection and target identification. The approach uses multivariate statistical analysis to evaluate a set of image metrics applied to infrared cloud imagery and terrain clutter scenes. The techniques are applied to two distinct problems: the characterization of atmospheric water vapor cloud scenes for the Navy's Infrared Search and Track (IRST) applications to support the Infrared Modeling Measurement and Analysis Program (IRAMMP); and the detection of ground vehicles for the Army's Autonomous Homing Munitions (AHM) problems. This work was sponsored under two separate Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) programs by the Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), White Oak MD, and the Army Material Systems Analysis Activity at Aberdeen Proving Ground MD. The software described in this paper will be available from the respective contract technical representatives.

  5. E12 sheet plastination: Techniques and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottone, Nicolas Ernesto; Baptista, Carlos A C; Latorre, Rafael; Bianchi, Homero Felipe; Del Sol, Mariano; Fuentes, Ramon

    2017-10-30

    Plastination is an anatomical technique that consists of replacing the liquids and fat of specimens by reactive polymers through forced impregnation in a vacuum. These are then polymerized to achieve the final result. E12 sheet plastination involves epoxy resin impregnation of thin (2-4 mm) and ultra-thin (SciELO databases, and manual searches. After searching, 616 records were found using the online and manual searches (MEDLINE, n: 207; EMBASE, n: 346; SciELO, n: 44; Manual search: 23). Finally, 96 records were included in this review (after duplicates and articles unrelated to the subject were excluded). The aim of this work was to review the E12 sheet plastination technique, searching for articles concerning views of it, identifying the different variants implemented by researchers since its creation by Gunther von Hagens, and to identify its applications from teaching and research in anatomy to morphological sciences. Clin. Anat., 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. MR urography: examination techniques and clinical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolte-Ernsting, C.C.A.; Adam, G.B.; Guenther, R.W. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik

    2001-03-01

    Modern MR urography is performed on the basis of two different imaging strategies, which can be used complementarily to cover almost all aspects in the diagnosis of upper urinary tract diseases. The first technique utilizes unenhanced, heavily T2-weighted pulse sequences to obtain static-fluid images of the urinary tract. T2-weighted MR urograms have proved to be excellent in the visualization of the markedly dilated urinary tract, even if the renal excretory function is quiescent. Static-fluid MR urography is less suitable for imaging of disorders that occur in the nondilated collecting system. The second MR urography technique is analogous to the methodology of conventional intravenous pyelography and is, therefore, designated as excretory MR urography. For this purpose, a non-nephrotoxic gadolinium chelate is intravenously administered and after its renal excretion, the gadolinium-enhanced urine is visualized using fast T1-weighted gradient-echo sequences. The combination of gadolinium and low-dose furosemide (5-10 mg) is the key for achieving a uniform distribution of the contrast material inside the entire urinary tract and, secondly, to avoid high endoluminal gadolinium concentrations, which cause signal loss of the urine due to T2{sup *} effects. Gadolinium excretory MR urography allows to obtain high-quality images of both nondilated and obstructed urinary tracts in patients with normal or moderately impaired renal function. This article reviews the principles of T2- and T1-weighted MR urography in detail and informs how to use these techniques safely in potential clinical applications such as chronic urolithiasis, intrinsic and extrinsic tumor diseases, and congenital anomalies. Magnetic resonance urography performed in combination with standard MR imaging offers a potential to reduce the need for invasive retrograde pyelography. Although the economic aspect is still problematic, it is obvious that MR urography will continue to increase its role in

  7. Application of X-ray emission techniques for monitoring environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernasconi, G.; Danesi, P.R.; Dargie, M.; Haselberger, N.; Markowicz, A.; Tajani, A.

    1997-01-01

    X-ray emission techniques are versatile and powerful methods used for multielement non-destructive analysis. They include X-ray fluorescence (XRF), particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE), scanning electron microscopy combined with X-ray spectrometry and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Since many years the IAEA has utilised and promoted these techniques for the analysis of environmental, biological and geological samples. In this paper recent progress at our laboratory in selected aspects related to the application of X-ray emission techniques is briefly overviewed. (authors)

  8. Hard x-ray phase contrastmicroscopy - techniques and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzner, Christian

    In 1918, Einstein provided the first description of the nature of the refractive index for X-rays, showing that phase contrast effects are significant. A century later, most x-ray microscopy and nearly all medical imaging remains based on absorption contrast, even though phase contrast offers orders of magnitude improvements in contrast and reduced radiation exposure at multi-keV x-ray energies. The work presented is concerned with developing practical and quantitative methods of phase contrast for x-ray microscopy. A theoretical framework for imaging in phase contrast is put forward; this is used to obtain quantitative images in a scanning microscope using a segmented detector, and to correct for artifacts in a commercial phase contrast x-ray nano-tomography system. The principle of reciprocity between scanning and full-field microscopes is then used to arrive at a novel solution: Zernike contrast in a scanning microscope. These approaches are compared on a theoretical and experimental basis in direct connection with applications using multi-keV x-ray microscopes at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. Phase contrast provides the best means to image mass and ultrastructure of light elements that mainly constitute biological matter, while stimulated x-ray fluorescence provides high sensitivity for studies of the distribution of heavier trace elements, such as metals. These approaches are combined in a complementary way to yield quantitative maps of elemental concentration from 2D images, with elements placed in their ultrastructural context. The combination of x-ray fluorescence and phase contrast poses an ideal match for routine, high resolution tomographic imaging of biological samples in the future. The presented techniques and demonstration experiments will help pave the way for this development.

  9. Development of an absolute x-ray fluorescence technique and high accuracy analytical methods for the determination of metals in catalytic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaBrecque, J.J.; Parker, W.C.

    1982-09-01

    A technique to produce characteristic x-rays by direct beta excitation for x-ray fluorescence analysis is presented. This is carried out by the introduction of 100 uCi of Pm-147 or Ni-63 to a small sample, which is placed directly in the window of a modified Si(Li) semiconductor. Corrected intensities are only given at 300 seconds for synthetic standards oscillating within the range 22 3 was used, to which the radioisotope was directly added. Preliminary results of the determination of eleven different radionuclides by means of an elementary x-ray analysis by using a new analytical technique, are discussed. In this technique the radioisotope and the sample are directly mixed, then this source-sample in the detector window and is protected from contamination with a thin plastic film. Future and possible applications of this technique are presented

  10. Recent Progress in Synthesis and Functionalization of Multimodal Fluorescent-Magnetic Nanoparticles for Biological Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Serrano García

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a great interest in the development of new nanomaterials for multimodal imaging applications in biology and medicine. Multimodal fluorescent-magnetic based nanomaterials deserve particular attention as they can be used as diagnostic and drug delivery tools, which could facilitate the diagnosis and treatment of cancer and many other diseases. This review focuses on the recent developments of magnetic-fluorescent nanocomposites and their biomedical applications. The recent advances in synthetic strategies and approaches for the preparation of fluorescent-magnetic nanocomposites are presented. The main biomedical uses of multimodal fluorescent-magnetic nanomaterials, including biological imaging, cancer therapy and drug delivery, are discussed, and prospects of this field are outlined.

  11. Fluorescence In situ Hybridization: Cell-Based Genetic Diagnostic and Research Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Chenghua; Shu, Wei; Li, Peining

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a macromolecule recognition technology based on the complementary nature of DNA or DNA/RNA double strands. Selected DNA strands incorporated with fluorophore-coupled nucleotides can be used as probes to hybridize onto the complementary sequences in tested cells and tissues and then visualized through a fluorescence microscope or an imaging system. This technology was initially developed as a physical mapping tool to delineate genes within chromosomes. Its high analytical resolution to a single gene level and high sensitivity and specificity enabled an immediate application for genetic diagnosis of constitutional common aneuploidies, microdeletion/microduplication syndromes, and subtelomeric rearrangements. FISH tests using panels of gene-specific probes for somatic recurrent losses, gains, and translocations have been routinely applied for hematologic and solid tumors and are one of the fastest-growing areas in cancer diagnosis. FISH has also been used to detect infectious microbias and parasites like malaria in human blood cells. Recent advances in FISH technology involve various methods for improving probe labeling efficiency and the use of super resolution imaging systems for direct visualization of intra-nuclear chromosomal organization and profiling of RNA transcription in single cells. Cas9-mediated FISH (CASFISH) allowed in situ labeling of repetitive sequences and single-copy sequences without the disruption of nuclear genomic organization in fixed or living cells. Using oligopaint-FISH and super-resolution imaging enabled in situ visualization of chromosome haplotypes from differentially specified single-nucleotide polymorphism loci. Single molecule RNA FISH (smRNA-FISH) using combinatorial labeling or sequential barcoding by multiple round of hybridization were applied to measure mRNA expression of multiple genes within single cells. Research applications of these single molecule single cells DNA and RNA FISH

  12. Fluorescence In situ Hybridization: Cell-Based Genetic Diagnostic and Research Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenghua Cui

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH is a macromolecule recognition technology based on the complementary nature of DNA or DNA/RNA double strands. Selected DNA strands incorporated with fluorophore-coupled nucleotides can be used as probes to hybridize onto the complementary sequences in tested cells and tissues and then visualized through a fluorescence microscope or an imaging system. This technology was initially developed as a physical mapping tool to delineate genes within chromosomes. Its high analytical resolution to a single gene level and high sensitivity and specificity enabled an immediate application for genetic diagnosis of constitutional common aneuploidies, microdeletion/microduplication syndromes and subtelomeric rearrangements. FISH tests using panels of gene-specific probes for somatic recurrent losses, gains and translocations have been routinely applied for hematologic and solid tumors and are one of the fastest-growing areas in cancer diagnosis. FISH has also been used to detect infectious microbials and parasites like malaria in human blood cells. Recent advances in FISH technology involve various methods for improving probe labeling efficiency and the use of super resolution imaging systems for direct visualization of intra-nuclear chromosomal organization and profiling of RNA transcription in single cells. Cas9-mediated FISH (CASFISH allowed in situ labeling of repetitive sequences and single-copy sequences without the disruption of nuclear genomic organization in fixed or living cells. Using oligopaint-FISH and super-resolution imaging enabled in situ visualization of chromosome haplotypes from differentially specified single-nucleotide polymorphism loci. Single molecule RNA FISH (smRNA-FISH using combinatorial labeling or sequential barcoding by multiple round of hybridization were applied to measure mRNA expression of multiple genes within single cells. Research applications of these single molecule single cells

  13. Fluorescent Bisphosphonate and Carboxyphosphonate Probes: A Versatile Imaging Toolkit for Applications in Bone Biology and Biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shuting; Błażewska, Katarzyna M; Kadina, Anastasia P; Kashemirov, Boris A; Duan, Xuchen; Triffitt, James T; Dunford, James E; Russell, R Graham G; Ebetino, Frank H; Roelofs, Anke J; Coxon, Fraser P; Lundy, Mark W; McKenna, Charles E

    2016-02-17

    A bone imaging toolkit of 21 fluorescent probes with variable spectroscopic properties, bone mineral binding affinities, and antiprenylation activities has been created, including a novel linking strategy. The linking chemistry allows attachment of a diverse selection of dyes fluorescent in the visible to near-infrared range to any of the three clinically important heterocyclic bisphosphonate bone drugs (risedronate, zoledronate, and minodronate or their analogues). The resultant suite of conjugates offers multiple options to "mix and match" parent drug structure, fluorescence emission wavelength, relative bone affinity, and presence or absence of antiprenylation activity, for bone-related imaging applications.

  14. Recent applications of nuclear track emulsion technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarubin, P. I., E-mail: zarubin@lhe.jinr.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Veksler and Baldin Laboratory of High Energy Physics (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    A survey of recent results obtained using the nuclear track emulsion (NTE) technique in low energy applications is given. NTE irradiation with 60 MeV {sup 8}He nuclei provides identification of their decays at stopping, evaluation of the possibility of α range spectrometry, and observation of drift of thermalized {sup 8}He atoms. Correlations of α particles studied in {sup 12}C → 3α splitting induced by 14.1 MeV neutrons indicate the presence of a superposition of 0{sup +} and 2{sup +} states of the {sup 8}Be nucleus in the ground state of {sup 12}C. Angular correlations of fragments are studied in boron-enriched NTE, and the prospects of NTE application in radioactivity and nuclear fission research are discussed. It is proposed to use an automated microscope to search for collinear tripartition of heavy nuclei implanted in NTE. Surface irradiation of NTE by a {sup 252}Cf source is started. Planar events containing fragment pairs and long range α particles, as well as fragment triples, are studied. NTE samples are calibrated using Kr and Xe ions with an energy of 1.2 and 3 A MeV.

  15. Application of Electroporation Technique in Biofuel Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousuf Abu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels production is mostly oriented with fermentation process, which requires fermentable sugar as nutrient for microbial growth. Lignocellulosic biomass (LCB represents the most attractive, low-cost feedstock for biofuel production, it is now arousing great interest. The cellulose that is embedded in the lignin matrix has an insoluble, highly-crystalline structure, so it is difficult to hydrolyze into fermentable sugar or cell protein. On the other hand, microbial lipid has been studying as substitute of plant oils or animal fat to produce biodiesel. It is still a great challenge to extract maximum lipid from microbial cells (yeast, fungi, algae investing minimum energy.Electroporation (EP of LCB results a significant increase in cell conductivity and permeability caused due to the application of an external electric field. EP is required to alter the size and structure of the biomass, to reduce the cellulose crystallinity, and increase their porosity as well as chemical composition, so that the hydrolysis of the carbohydrate fraction to monomeric sugars can be achieved rapidly and with greater yields. Furthermore, EP has a great potential to disrupt the microbial cell walls within few seconds to bring out the intracellular materials (lipid to the solution. Therefore, this study aims to describe the challenges and prospect of application of EP technique in biofuels processing.

  16. Application of fieldbus techniques in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xu; Chen Hang; Yu Shuxin; Zhang Xinli

    2012-01-01

    The successful application experience of fieldbus techniques in thermal power plants and nuclear power plants are outlined first. And then, the application of fieldbus techniques in domestic 3rd-generation nuclear power plant (NPP) project is discussed. After that, the solution to the potential problems of fieldbus techniques application in NPP is provided. (authors)

  17. Determination of lead in clay enameled by X-ray fluorescence technique in Total reflection and by Scanning Electron Microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarazua O, G.; Carapia M, L.

    2000-01-01

    This work has the objective of determining lead free in the glazed commercial stewing pans using the X-ray fluorescence technique in Total reflection (FRX) and the observation and semiquantitative determination of lead by Analytical Scanning Electron Microscopy (ASEM). (Author)

  18. Measurement of resistance to solute transport across surfactant-laden interfaces using a Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Edward P.; Nivaggioli, Thierry; Hatton, T. Alan

    1994-01-01

    A noninvasive fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) technique is under development to measure interfacial transport in two phase systems without disturbing the interface. The concentration profiles of a probe solute are measured in both sides of the interface by argon-ion laser, and the system relaxation is then monitored by a microscope-mounted CCD camera.

  19. Application of Radionuclide Tracer Techniques in Research on Bio-Effects of Carbon Nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Ying; Ran Tiecheng; Li Qingnuan; Xu Jingying; Li Wenxin

    2010-01-01

    There are few effective means to detect and analyze nanomaterials, therefore, radionuclide labeling and tracing techniques play an important role in the studies of interaction between nanoparticles and living systems. This paper briefly summarizes the main results from the application of radionuclide tracer techniques in the studies of interaction between carbon nanoparticles (fullerenes, carbon nanotubes and nano-carbon blacks) and animals and mammalian cells, cites the experimental information on absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of nanomaterials, and indicates the signification of these information in the drug development and bio-safety studies of nanomaterials. Based on the novel properties of carbon nanoparticles, the superiority of radionuclide tracer techniques over fluorescent labeling techniques is stressed. It is expected that the radionuclide tracer techniques have an increasing application prospect in the interdisciplinary fields of nanoscience and life science. (authors)

  20. Application of Σ-ΔADC in fluorescence measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Yan; Chen Ziyu; Shen Ji

    2011-01-01

    It introduces the measurement system of fluorescence intensity, the Σ-ΔADC used as its core components. The system consisted of ADS1255, microcontrollers LPC2368 devices, etc. LPC2368 is used as the control, data process and communication interface. Diagram of the system is given. The linear response experiments, frequency response experiments, measurement accuracy experiments and long-time stability experiments were carried out. Experiments show that the system reaches a good linear response, and the measurement accuracy reaches up to 0.01%. (authors)

  1. Ambient measurements of biological aerosol particles near Killarney, Ireland: a comparison between real-time fluorescence and microscopy techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, D. A.; Huffman, J. A.; O'Connor, D. J.; Pöhlker, C.; Pöschl, U.; Sodeau, J. R.

    2014-08-01

    Primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs) can contribute significantly to the coarse particle burden in many environments. PBAPs can thus influence climate and precipitation systems as cloud nuclei and can spread disease to humans, animals, and plants. Measurement data and techniques for PBAPs in natural environments at high time- and size resolution are, however, sparse, and so large uncertainties remain in the role that biological particles play in the Earth system. In this study two commercial real-time fluorescence particle sensors and a Sporewatch single-stage particle impactor were operated continuously from 2 August to 2 September 2010 at a rural sampling location in Killarney National Park in southwestern Ireland. A cascade impactor was operated periodically to collect size-resolved particles during exemplary periods. Here we report the first ambient comparison of a waveband integrated bioaerosol sensor (WIBS-4) with a ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UV-APS) and also compare these real-time fluorescence techniques with results of fluorescence and optical microscopy of impacted samples. Both real-time instruments showed qualitatively similar behavior, with increased fluorescent bioparticle concentrations at night, when relative humidity was highest and temperature was lowest. The fluorescent particle number from the FL3 channel of the WIBS-4 and from the UV-APS were strongly correlated and dominated by a 3 μm mode in the particle size distribution. The WIBS FL2 channel exhibited particle modes at approx. 1 and 3 μm, and each was correlated with the concentration of fungal spores commonly observed in air samples collected at the site (ascospores, basidiospores, Ganoderma spp.). The WIBS FL1 channel exhibited variable multimodal distributions turning into a broad featureless single mode after averaging, and exhibited poor correlation with fungal spore concentrations, which may be due to the detection of bacterial and non-biological fluorescent

  2. Techniques and Applications of Urban Data Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    AlHalawani, Sawsan N.

    2016-05-26

    Digitization and characterization of urban spaces are essential components as we move to an ever-growing ’always connected’ world. Accurate analysis of such digital urban spaces has become more important as we continue to get spatial and social context-aware feedback and recommendations in our daily activities. Modeling and reconstruction of urban environments have thus gained unprecedented importance in the last few years. Such analysis typically spans multiple disciplines, such as computer graphics, and computer vision as well as architecture, geoscience, and remote sensing. Reconstructing an urban environment usually requires an entire pipeline consisting of different tasks. In such a pipeline, data analysis plays a strong role in acquiring meaningful insights from the raw data. This dissertation primarily focuses on the analysis of various forms of urban data and proposes a set of techniques to extract useful information, which is then used for different applications. The first part of this dissertation presents a semi-automatic framework to analyze facade images to recover individual windows along with their functional configurations such as open or (partially) closed states. The main advantage of recovering both the repetition patterns of windows and their individual deformation parameters is to produce a factored facade representation. Such a factored representation enables a range of applications including interactive facade images, improved multi-view stereo reconstruction, facade-level change detection, and novel image editing possibilities. The second part of this dissertation demonstrates the importance of a layout configuration on its performance. As a specific application scenario, I investigate the interior layout of warehouses wherein the goal is to assign items to their storage locations while reducing flow congestion and enhancing the speed of order picking processes. The third part of the dissertation proposes a method to classify cities

  3. Proximal Sensing of Plant-Pathogen Interactions in Spring Barley with Three Fluorescence Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Leufen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last years fluorescence spectroscopy has come to be viewed as an essential approach in key research fields of applied plant sciences. However, the quantity and particularly the quality of information produced by different equipment might vary considerably. In this study we investigate the potential of three optical devices for the proximal sensing of plant-pathogen interactions in four genotypes of spring barley. For this purpose, the fluorescence lifetime, the image-resolved multispectral fluorescence and selected indices of a portable multiparametric fluorescence device were recorded at 3, 6, and 9 days after inoculation (dai from healthy leaves as well as from leaves inoculated with powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis or leaf rust (Puccinia hordei. Genotype-specific responses to pathogen infections were revealed already at 3 dai by higher fluorescence mean lifetimes in the spectral range from 410 to 560 nm in the less susceptible varieties. Noticeable pathogen-induced modifications were also revealed by the ‘Blue-to-Far-Red Fluorescence Ratio’ and the ‘Simple Fluorescence Ratio’. Particularly in the susceptible varieties the differences became more evident in the time-course of the experiment i.e., following the pathogen development. The relevance of the blue and green fluorescence to exploit the plant-pathogen interaction was demonstrated by the multispectral fluorescence imaging system. As shown, mildewed leaves were characterized by exceptionally high blue fluorescence, contrasting the values observed in rust inoculated leaves. Further, we confirm that the intensity of green fluorescence depends on the pathogen infection and the stage of disease development; this information might allow a differentiation of both diseases. Moreover, our results demonstrate that the detection area might influence the quality of the information, although it had a minor impact only in the current study. Finally, we highlight the relevance of

  4. Applications of Electromigration Techniques: Applications of Electromigration Techniques in Food Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Piotr; Ligor, Magdalena; Buszewski, Bogusław

    Electromigration techniques, including capillary electrophoresis (CE), are widely used for separation and identification of compounds present in food products. These techniques may also be considered as alternate and complementary with respect to commonly used analytical techniques, such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), or gas chromatography (GC). Applications of CE concern the determination of high-molecular compounds, like polyphenols, including flavonoids, pigments, vitamins, food additives (preservatives, antioxidants, sweeteners, artificial pigments) are presented. Also, the method developed for the determination of proteins and peptides composed of amino acids, which are basic components of food products, are studied. Other substances such as carbohydrates, nucleic acids, biogenic amines, natural toxins, and other contaminations including pesticides and antibiotics are discussed. The possibility of CE application in food control laboratories, where analysis of the composition of food and food products are conducted, is of great importance. CE technique may be used during the control of technological processes in the food industry and for the identification of numerous compounds present in food. Due to the numerous advantages of the CE technique it is successfully used in routine food analysis.

  5. Facile and Scalable Preparation of Fluorescent Carbon Dots for Multifunctional Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of fluorescent nanomaterials has received considerable attention due to the great potential of these materials for a wide range of applications, from chemical sensing through bioimaging to optoelectronics. Herein, we report a facile and scalable approach to prepare fluorescent carbon dots (FCDs via a one-pot reaction of citric acid with ethylenediamine at 150 °C under ambient air pressure. The resultant FCDs possess an optical bandgap of 3.4 eV and exhibit strong excitation-wavelength-independent blue emission (λEm = 450 nm under either one- or two-photon excitation. Owing to their low cytotoxicity and long fluorescence lifetime, these FCDs were successfully used as internalized fluorescent probes in human cancer cell lines (HeLa cells for two-photon excited imaging of cells by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy with a high-contrast resolution. They were also homogenously mixed with commercial inks and used to draw fluorescent patterns on normal papers and on many other substrates (e.g., certain flexible plastic films, textiles, and clothes. Thus, these nanomaterials are promising for use in solid-state fluorescent sensing, security labeling, and wearable optoelectronics.

  6. Sensing of nucleosides, nucleotides and DNA using luminescent Eu complex by normal and time resolved fluorescence techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azab, Hassan A.; Anwar, Zeinab M. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, 41522 Ismailia (Egypt); Kamel, Rasha M., E-mail: rashamoka@yahoo.com [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Suez University, 43518 Suez (Egypt); Rashwan, Mai S. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, 41522 Ismailia (Egypt)

    2016-01-15

    The interaction of Eu-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane (Cyclen) complex by using 4,4,4 trifluoro-1-(2-naphthyl)1,3-butanedione (TNB) as antenna with some nucleosides (guanosine, adenosine, cytidine and inosine), nucleotides (AMP, GMP, CMP, ATP and IMP) and DNA is studied using fluorescence technique. Two detection modes are employed one is the time-resolved mode, and the other is the normal luminescence mode. The time-resolved mode is more sensing than the normal luminescence mode in the present study. By using Benesi–Hildebrand equation binding constants were determined at various temperatures. Thermodynamic parameters showed that the reaction is spontaneous through the obtained negative values of free energy change ΔG. The enthalpy ΔH and the entropy ΔS of reactions were all determined. - Highlights: • This is an application for the detection of biologically important ligands. • The detection limits, binding constants and thermodynamic parameters were evaluated. • Effect of some interferents on the detection of DNA has been investigated.

  7. Sensing of nucleosides, nucleotides and DNA using luminescent Eu complex by normal and time resolved fluorescence techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azab, Hassan A.; Anwar, Zeinab M.; Kamel, Rasha M.; Rashwan, Mai S.

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of Eu-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane (Cyclen) complex by using 4,4,4 trifluoro-1-(2-naphthyl)1,3-butanedione (TNB) as antenna with some nucleosides (guanosine, adenosine, cytidine and inosine), nucleotides (AMP, GMP, CMP, ATP and IMP) and DNA is studied using fluorescence technique. Two detection modes are employed one is the time-resolved mode, and the other is the normal luminescence mode. The time-resolved mode is more sensing than the normal luminescence mode in the present study. By using Benesi–Hildebrand equation binding constants were determined at various temperatures. Thermodynamic parameters showed that the reaction is spontaneous through the obtained negative values of free energy change ΔG. The enthalpy ΔH and the entropy ΔS of reactions were all determined. - Highlights: • This is an application for the detection of biologically important ligands. • The detection limits, binding constants and thermodynamic parameters were evaluated. • Effect of some interferents on the detection of DNA has been investigated.

  8. Laboratory Scale X-ray Fluorescence Tomography: Instrument Characterization and Application in Earth and Environmental Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laforce, Brecht; Vermeulen, Bram; Garrevoet, Jan; Vekemans, Bart; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Janssen, Colin; Vincze, Laszlo

    2016-03-15

    A new laboratory scale X-ray fluorescence (XRF) imaging instrument, based on an X-ray microfocus tube equipped with a monocapillary optic, has been developed to perform XRF computed tomography experiments with both higher spatial resolution (20 μm) and a better energy resolution (130 eV @Mn-K(α)) than has been achieved up-to-now. This instrument opens a new range of possible applications for XRF-CT. Next to the analytical characterization of the setup by using well-defined model/reference samples, demonstrating its capabilities for tomographic imaging, the XRF-CT microprobe has been used to image the interior of an ecotoxicological model organism, Americamysis bahia. This had been exposed to elevated metal (Cu and Ni) concentrations. The technique allowed the visualization of the accumulation sites of copper, clearly indicating the affected organs, i.e. either the gastric system or the hepatopancreas. As another illustrative application, the scanner has been employed to investigate goethite spherules from the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary, revealing the internal elemental distribution of these valuable distal ejecta layer particles.

  9. Nuclear Techniques in Agriculture: Status and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurdali, F.

    2007-01-01

    This paper is focused on the role of nuclear techniques and their applications in agriculture science for plant and animal production, and to study the relationships among soil, plant, air, water, nutrients and agricultural pests. For example, carbon isotope discrimination 12 C/ 13 C can be used to select appropriate plant genotypes which are tolerant to drought and salinity stress. Using 15 N to study, symbiotic N 2 fixation, inorganic N dynamics in the soil, plant system, mineralization of organic N in soils, efficient use of chemical and organic N fertilizers and microbial protein production in ruminants. Neutron gauges are used for soil moisture measurements to assess crop water use efficiencies, crops water requirements, and irrigation scheduling for conventional and new methods of irrigation. The use of environmental isotopes ( 18 O, 2 H, 3 H and 14 C) in hydrology; and 137 Cs to study soil erosion. Using 32 P to study the fate of applied P fertilizers (chemical fractionation and availability), their use efficiency and phosphorus metabolism in animals. Ionizing radiation is used to improve the quality and productivity of major crops, to induce mutations, to improve the metabolisable and digestible energy of unconventional feeds and the nutritive value of agricultural residues, and to protect crops against agricultural pests and in food conservation. Radioimmunoassay is used in studies to improve the production and reproductive performance of indigenous small ruminants. (author)

  10. The laser principles and application techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillet, H.

    1990-01-01

    In this book on laser applications chapter 4 is devoted to uranium isotopic separation and chapter 5 to laser inertial fusion, other topics include machining, medical applications, measurements, military applications, holography, reprography, telecommunications, compact discs, light shows and safety [fr

  11. Application of recombinant fluorescent mammalian cells as a toxicity biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, E J; Lee, Y; Lee, J E; Gu, M B

    2002-01-01

    With respect to developing a more sensitive biosensor, a recombinant fluorescent Chinese Hamster Ovary cell line was used for the monitoring of various toxicants. Both cell lines, EFC-500 and KFC-A10, were able to detect toxicants sensitively. They were characterized with mitomycin C and gamma-ray as genotoxicants and bisphenol A, nonylphenol, ziram and methyl bromide as possible and known EDCs. When compared to each other, the response of KFC-A10 was generally more informative and sensitive. Compared to typical bacterial biosensor systems, these cell lines offered a sensitivity of 2- to 50-fold greater for the tested chemicals. Based on these results, the use of mammalian cells offers a sensitive biosensor system that is not only fast, cheap and reproducible but also capable of monitoring the endocrine-like characteristics of environmental toxicants.

  12. Application of indocyanine green-fluorescence imaging to full-thickness cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Kiyomi; Ishizawa, Takeaki; Tani, Keigo; Harada, Nobuhiro; Shimizu, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Takemura, Nobuyuki; Kaneko, Junichi; Aoki, Taku; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Sugawara, Yasuhiko; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2014-05-01

    Fluorescence imaging using indocyanine green (ICG) has recently been applied to laparoscopic surgery to identify cancerous tissues, lymph nodes, and vascular anatomy. Here we report the application of ICG-fluorescence imaging to visualize the boundary between the liver and subserosal tissues of the gallbladder during laparoscopic full-thickness cholecystectomy. A patient with a potentially malignant gallbladder lesion was administered 2.5-mg intravenous ICG just before laparoscopic full-thickness cholecystectomy. Intraoperative fluorescence imaging enabled the real-time delineation of both extrahepatic bile duct anatomy and hepatic parenchyma throughout the procedure, which resulted in complete removal of subserosal tissues between liver and gallbladder. Safe and feasible ICG-fluorescence imaging can be widely applied to laparoscopic hepatobiliary surgery by utilizing a biliary excretion property of ICG. © 2014 Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Asia Endosurgery Task Force and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. Using X-Ray Fluorescence Technique to Quantify Metal Concentration in Coral Cores from Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsley, C.; Bhattacharya, A.; Hangsterfer, A.; Carilli, J.; Field, D. B.

    2016-12-01

    Caribbean coral reefs are some of the most threatened marine ecosystems in the world. Research appears to suggest that environmental stressors of local origin, such as sediment run off, can reduce the resilience of these reefs to global threats such as ocean warming. Sedimentation can stunt coral growth, reduce its resilience, and it is possible that trapped material could render coral skeletons brittle (personal discussions). Material trapped in coral skeletons can provide information on the sources of particulate matter in the ocean ecosystem. Despite the importance of quantifying sources and types of materials trapped in corals, the research community is yet to fully develop techniques that allow accurate representation of trapped matter, which is potentially a major source of metal content in reef building coral skeletons. The dataset presented here explores the usefulness of X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), a widely used tool in environmental studies (but generally not in corals), to estimate metal content in coral cores collected from four locations near Belize, with varying degrees of impact from coastal processes. The coral cores together cover a period of 1862-2006. Trace, major, and minor metal content from these cores have been well-studied using solution-based ICP-MS, providing us with the unique opportunity to test the efficacy of XRF technique in characterizing metal content in these coral cores. We have measured more than 50 metals using XRF every two millimeters along slabs removed from the middle of a coral core to characterize materials present in coral skeletons. We compared the results from XRF to solution-based ICP-MS - that involves dissolving subsamples of coral skeleton to measure metal content. Overall, it appears that the non-destructive XRF technique is a viable supplement in determining sediment and metal content in coral cores, and may be particularly helpful for assessing resistant phases such as grains of sediment that are not fully

  14. Forensic application of total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for elemental characterization of ink samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhara, Sangita; Misra, N.L.; Maind, S.D.; Kumar, Sanjukta A.; Chattopadhyay, N.; Aggarwal, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    The possibility of applying Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence for qualitative and quantitative differentiation of documents printed with rare earth tagged and untagged inks has been explored in this paper. For qualitative differentiation, a very small amount of ink was loosened from the printed documents by smoothly rubbing with a new clean blade without destroying the manuscript. 50 μL of Milli-Q water was put on this loose powder, on the manuscript, and was agitated by sucking and releasing the suspension two to three times with the help of a micropipette. The resultant dispersion was deposited on quartz sample support for Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence measurements. The Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence spectrum of tagged and untagged inks could be clearly differentiated. In order to see the applicability of Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence for quantitative determinations of rare earths and also to countercheck such determinations in ink samples, the amounts of rare earth in painted papers with single rare earth tagged inks were determined by digesting the painted paper in HNO 3 /HClO 4 , mixing this solution with the internal standard and recording their Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence spectra after calibration of the instrument. The results thus obtained were compared with those obtained by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry and were found in good agreement. The average precision of the Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence determinations was 5.5% (1σ) and the average deviation of Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence determined values with that of Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry was 7.3%. These studies have shown that Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence offers a promising and potential application in forensic work of this nature.

  15. Forensic application of total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for elemental characterization of ink samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhara, Sangita [Fuel Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Misra, N.L., E-mail: nlmisra@barc.gov.i [Fuel Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Maind, S.D. [NAA Unit of Central Forensic Science Laboratory Hyderabad at Analytical Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Kumar, Sanjukta A. [Analytical Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Chattopadhyay, N. [NAA Unit of Central Forensic Science Laboratory Hyderabad at Analytical Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Aggarwal, S.K. [Fuel Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2010-02-15

    The possibility of applying Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence for qualitative and quantitative differentiation of documents printed with rare earth tagged and untagged inks has been explored in this paper. For qualitative differentiation, a very small amount of ink was loosened from the printed documents by smoothly rubbing with a new clean blade without destroying the manuscript. 50 muL of Milli-Q water was put on this loose powder, on the manuscript, and was agitated by sucking and releasing the suspension two to three times with the help of a micropipette. The resultant dispersion was deposited on quartz sample support for Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence measurements. The Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence spectrum of tagged and untagged inks could be clearly differentiated. In order to see the applicability of Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence for quantitative determinations of rare earths and also to countercheck such determinations in ink samples, the amounts of rare earth in painted papers with single rare earth tagged inks were determined by digesting the painted paper in HNO{sub 3}/HClO{sub 4}, mixing this solution with the internal standard and recording their Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence spectra after calibration of the instrument. The results thus obtained were compared with those obtained by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry and were found in good agreement. The average precision of the Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence determinations was 5.5% (1sigma) and the average deviation of Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence determined values with that of Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry was 7.3%. These studies have shown that Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence offers a promising and potential application in forensic work of this nature.

  16. Applications of Liquid Chromatography with Fluorescence Detector Diodes and the Analysis of Environmental Pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, S.; Perez, R. M.

    2012-01-01

    It presents a review on the determination of major types of organic pollutants in environmental samples by HPLC with diode array or fluorescence molecular detectors. Main objective has been to make a compilation of the analytical potential of the technique based on literature and our laboratory studies on the main aspects of analytical methodology used in the determination of these compounds. (Author) 53 refs.

  17. Possible applications of radionuclide techniques in criminology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stverak, B.; Kopejtko, J.; Chodora, F.; Chyska, J.

    1976-01-01

    The use of radioindicator methods in dactyloscopy is described, in which is used the bond of suitable radioindicators to certain components of the sweat secretion with subsequent detection of the local distribution of these radionuclides using the autoradiographic method. The use of autoradiography and gamma spectrometry is given in ballistics, neutron activation analysis and X-ray fluorescence analysis in the investigation of motor car accidents and in the verification of historical objects, in forensic medicine, the use of autoradiography in the expertise of photographs, beta radiography in graphology and the use of radioactive labelling for trapping criminals. (J.P.)

  18. Probing the mechanism of sister chromatid exchange formation with the fluorescent plus Giemsa technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, L.C.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of x rays and light flashes on the SCE formation in BrdUrd-substituted Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are examined using the fluorescent plus Giemsa (FPG) technique, which allows SCE's to be visualized with greater precision than 3 H autoradiography does. Near-diploid cells are selected and scoring SCE from every chromosome of near-diploid cells or from chromosome no. 1 is found to give a more accurate measure of the SCE induction. Double synchronous cells are used for the x ray study and asynchronous cells are used for the light flash study. The results indicate that x rays can induce SCE's throughout the cell cycle with S the most sensitive stage and G 2 the least sensitive stage. Light flashes can induce an appreciable amount of SCE's while no appreciable amount of chromosomal aberrations can be detected under conditions used in this study. For x-ray-induced chromosomal aberrations, G 2 is the most sensitive stage with G 1 being slightly more sensitive than S, which is consistent with other observations. Additionally, aberration induction is shown to be a more sensitive indicator of x-ray-induced cell damage than SCE induction, but SCE induction is a potentially good indicator of mutation induction. This study also suggests that symmetrically reunited isochromatid breaks can not be the sole source of SCE's and SCE induction is a different but not independent radiobiological effect from chromosomal aberration induction. SCE formation is proposed to be a consequence of specific type(s) of single strand breaks in DNA

  19. Molecular engineering of two-photon fluorescent probes for bioimaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-Wen; Liu, Yongchao; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Xiao-Bing

    2017-03-01

    During the past two decades, two-photon microscopy (TPM), which utilizes two near-infrared photons as the excitation source, has emerged as a novel, attractive imaging tool for biological research. Compared with one-photon microscopy, TPM offers several advantages, such as lowering background fluorescence in living cells and tissues, reducing photodamage to biosamples, and a photobleaching phenomenon, offering better 3D spatial localization, and increasing penetration depth. Small-molecule-based two-photon fluorescent probes have been well developed for the detection and imaging of various analytes in biological systems. In this review, we will give a general introduction of molecular engineering of two-photon fluorescent probes based on different fluorescence response mechanisms for bioimaging applications during the past decade. Inspired by the desired advantages of small-molecule two-photon fluorescent probes in biological imaging applications, we expect that more attention will be devoted to the development of new two-photon fluorophores and applications of TPM in areas of bioanalysis and disease diagnosis.

  20. Comparison of mouse mammary gland imaging techniques and applications: Reflectance confocal microscopy, GFP Imaging, and ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilli, Maddalena T; Parrish, Angela R; Cotarla, Ion; Jones, Laundette P; Johnson, Michael D; Furth, Priscilla A

    2008-01-01

    Genetically engineered mouse models of mammary gland cancer enable the in vivo study of molecular mechanisms and signaling during development and cancer pathophysiology. However, traditional whole mount and histological imaging modalities are only applicable to non-viable tissue. We evaluated three techniques that can be quickly applied to living tissue for imaging normal and cancerous mammary gland: reflectance confocal microscopy, green fluorescent protein imaging, and ultrasound imaging. In the current study, reflectance confocal imaging offered the highest resolution and was used to optically section mammary ductal structures in the whole mammary gland. Glands remained viable in mammary gland whole organ culture when 1% acetic acid was used as a contrast agent. Our application of using green fluorescent protein expressing transgenic mice in our study allowed for whole mammary gland ductal structures imaging and enabled straightforward serial imaging of mammary gland ducts in whole organ culture to visualize the growth and differentiation process. Ultrasound imaging showed the lowest resolution. However, ultrasound was able to detect mammary preneoplastic lesions 0.2 mm in size and was used to follow cancer growth with serial imaging in living mice. In conclusion, each technique enabled serial imaging of living mammary tissue and visualization of growth and development, quickly and with minimal tissue preparation. The use of the higher resolution reflectance confocal and green fluorescent protein imaging techniques and lower resolution ultrasound were complementary

  1. Laser-induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy for applications in chemical sensing and optical refrigeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumi Barimah, Eric

    limit of detection for ClO4, was determined to be 14.7 +/- 0.5 wt%/wt for the given experimental conditions. In the second part of this research, the temperature-dependent absorption and emission properties of Tm doped KPb2Cl5 (KPC) and KPb2Br5 (KPB) were evaluated for applications in laser cooling. A Tm doped Y3Al5O12 (YAG) crystal was also included for comparative studies. Under laser pumping, all crystals exhibited broad IR fluorescence at room temperature with a mean fluorescence wavelength of ˜1.82 mum and bandwidth of 0.14 mum (FWHM) for Tm:KPC/KPB and ˜1.79 mum for Tm:YAG. Initial experiments on laser-induced heating/cooling were performed using a combined IR imaging and fluorescence thermometry setup. Employing a continuous-wave laser operating at 1.907 mum, Tm: KPC and Tm: KPB crystals revealed a very small heat load resulting in temperature increase of ˜ 0.3 ( +/- 0.1)°C. The heat loading in Tm:YAG was signicantly larger and resulted in a temperature increase of ˜0.9 (+/-0.1)°C. The results derived from IR imaging were also conrmed by the fluorescence thermometry experiments, which showed only minimal changes in the FIR intensity ratio of the green Er3+ fluorescence lines from Er:KPC.

  2. Hyperspectral solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence of urban tree leaves: Analyses and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wittenberghe, Shari

    Solar energy is the primary energy source for life on Earth which is converted into chemical energy through photosynthesis by plants, algae and cyanobacteria, releasing fuel for the organisms' activities. To dissipate excess of absorbed light energy, plants emit chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence (650-850 nm) from the same location where photosynthesis takes place. Hence, it provides information on the efficiency of primary energy conversion. From this knowledge, many applications on vegetation and crop stress monitoring could be developed, a necessity for our planet under threat of a changing global climate. Even though the Chl fluorescence signal is weak against the intense reflected radiation background, methods for retrieving the solar-induced Chl fluorescence have been refined over the last years, both at leaf and airborne scale. However, a lack of studies on solar-induced Chl fluorescence gives difficulties for the interpretation of the signal. Within this thesis, hyperspectral upward and downward solar-induced Chl fluorescence is measured at leaf level. Fluorescence yield (FY) is calculated as well as different ratios characterizing the emitted Chl fluorescence shape. The research in this PhD dissertation illustrates the influence of several factors on the solar-induced Chl fluorescence signal. For instance, both the intensity of FY and its spectral shape of urban tree leaves are able to change under influence of stress factors such as traffic air pollution. This shows how solar-induced Chl fluorescence could function as an early stress indicator for vegetation. Further, it is shown that the signal contains information on the ultrastructure of the photosynthetic apparatus. Also, it is proven that the leaf anatomical structure and related light scattering properties play a role in the partitioning between upward and downward Chl fluorescence emission. All these findings indicate how the Chl fluorescence spectrum is influenced by factors which also influence

  3. Potential National Security Applications of Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, Glen A.; Peplowski, Patrick N.; Caggiano, Joseph A.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this report is to document the initial investigation into the possible research issues related to the development of NRF-based national security applications. The report discusses several potential applications ranging from measuring uranium enrichment in UF6 canisters to characterization of gas samples. While these applications are varied, there are only a few research issues that need to be addressed to understand the limitation of NRF in solving these problems. These research issues range from source and detector development to measuring small samples. The next effort is to determine how best to answer the research issues, followed by a prioritization of those questions to ensure that the most important are addressed. These issues will be addressed through either analytical calculations, computer simulations, analysis of previous data or collection of new measurements. It will also be beneficial to conduct a thorough examination of a couple of the more promising applications in order to develop concrete examples of how NRF may be applied in specific situations. The goals are to develop an understanding of whether the application of NRF is limited by technology or physics in addressing national security applications, to gain a motivation to explore those possible applications, and to develop a research roadmap so that those possibilities may be made reality.

  4. Applications of nuclear techniques for in vivo body composition studies at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.; Ellis, K.J.; Vartsky, D.; Vaswani, A.N.; Wielopolski, L.

    1981-01-01

    A series of technical developments and their clinical applications in various nuclear technologies at Brookhaven National Laboratory is described. These include the development of a portable neutron activation facility for measuring cadmium in vivo in kidney and liver, a technique for the measurement of body iron utilizing nuclear resonant scattering of gamma rays, a non-invasive measure of the skeletal levels of lead by an x-ray fluorescence technique, and the development of a pulsed Van de Graaff generator as a source of pulsed neutrons for the measurement of lung silicon

  5. Applications of nuclear techniques for in vivo body composition studies at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohn, S.H.; Ellis, K.J.; Vartsky, D.; Vaswani, A.N.; Wielopolski, L.

    1981-01-01

    A series of technical developments and their clinical applications in various nuclear technologies at Brookhaven National Laboratory is described. These include the development of a portable neutron activation facility for measuring cadmium in vivo in kidney and liver, a technique for the measurement of body iron utilizing nuclear resonant scattering of gamma rays, a non-invasive measure of the skeletal levels of lead by an x-ray fluorescence technique, and the development of a pulsed Van de Graaff generator as a source of pulsed neutrons for the measurement of lung silicon. (ACR)

  6. Multicolor fluorescence technique to detect apoptotic cells in advanced coronary atherosclerotic plaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Soldani

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis occurring in atherosclerotic lesions has been suggested to be involved in the evolution and the structural stability of the plaques. It is still a matter of debate whether apoptosis mainly involves vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs in the fibrous tissue or inflammatory (namely foam cells, thus preferentially affecting the cell-poor lipid core of the atherosclerotic plaques. The aim of the present investigation was to detect the presence of apoptotic cells and to estimate their percentage in a series of atherosclerotic plaques obtained either by autopsy or during surgical atherectomy. Apoptotic cells were identified on paraffinembedded sections on the basis of cell nuclear morphology after DNA staining and/or by cytochemical reactions (TUNEL assay, immunodetection of the proteolytic poly (ADP-ribose polymerase-1 [PARP-1] fragment; biochemical procedures (identifying DNA fragmentation or PARP-1 proteolysis were also used. Indirect immunofluorescence techniques were performed to label specific antigens for either vSMCs or macrophages (i.e., the cells which are most likely prone to apoptosis in atherosclerotic lesions: the proper selection of fluorochrome labeling allowed the simultaneous detection of the cell phenotype and the apoptotic characteristics, by multicolor fluorescence techniques. Apoptotic cells proved to be less than 5% of the whole cell population, in atherosclerotic plaque sections: this is, in fact, a too low cell fraction to be detected by widely used biochemical methods, such as agarose gel electrophoresis of low-molecular-weight DNA or Western-blot analysis of PARP-1 degradation. Most apoptotic cells were of macrophage origin, and clustered in the tunica media, near or within the lipid-rich core; only a few TUNEL-positive cells were labeled for antigens specific for vSMCs. These results confirm that, among the cell populations in atherosclerotic plaques, macrophage foam-cells are preferentially involved in apoptosis

  7. A novel fluorescent in situ hybridization technique for detection of Rickettsia spp. in archival samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Claus Bo; Boye, Mette; Struve, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    A novel, sensitive and specific method for detecting Rickettsia spp. in archival samples is described. The method involves the use of fluorescently marked oligonucleotide probes for in situ hybridization. Specific hybridization of Ricekttsia was found without problems of cross-reactions with bact......A novel, sensitive and specific method for detecting Rickettsia spp. in archival samples is described. The method involves the use of fluorescently marked oligonucleotide probes for in situ hybridization. Specific hybridization of Ricekttsia was found without problems of cross...

  8. Dendrimer-based fluorescent indicators: in vitro and in vivo applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Albertazzi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The development of fluorescent proteins and synthetic molecules whose fluorescence properties are controlled by the environment makes it possible to monitor physiological and pathological events in living systems with minimal perturbation. A large number of small organic dyes are available and routinely used to measure biologically relevant parameters. Unfortunately their application is hindered by a number of limitations stemming from the use of these small molecules in the biological environment. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present a novel dendrimer-based architecture leading to multifunctional sensing elements that can overcome many of these problems. Applications in vitro, in living cells and in vivo are reported. In particular, we image for the first time extracellular pH in the brain in a mouse epilepsy model. CONCLUSION: We believe that the proposed architecture can represent a useful and novel tool in fluorescence imaging that can be widely applied in conjunction with a broad range of sensing dyes and experimental setups.

  9. Fluorescence quenching of fluoroquinolones by gold nanoparticles with different sizes and its analytical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amjadi, Mohammad, E-mail: amjadi@tabrizu.ac.ir; Farzampour, Leila

    2014-01-15

    The interaction of some fluoroquinolones including norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, danofloxacin and ofloxacin with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) of different sizes (8, 20 and 75 nm) was studied. In the studied systems, fluoroquinolones are noncovalently adsorbed onto the surface of AuNPs, which results in severe quenching of fluoroquinolones fluorescence possibly as a result of fluorescence resonance energy transfer. Stern–Volmer quenching constants were obtained and found to increase with an increase in the size of AuNPs. Moreover, the interactions between some thiols and fluoroquinolone-adsorbed AuNPs were investigated to explore the analytical applicability of the systems. It was found that upon the addition of thiols to fluoroquinolone-AuNPs systems the fluorescence of fluoroquinolones switches to “turn-on” due to the strong binding of thiols to AuNPs and removal of quinolines from NP surface. Under the optimum conditions, the fluorescence enhancement showed a linear relationship with the concentration of thiols, indicating the analytical usefulness of the system. -- Highlights: • Interaction of fluoroquinolones with AuNPs of different sizes was investigated. • The fluorescence of fluoroquinolones is efficiently quenched by AuNPs. • The fluorescence quenching efficiency increases by increasing NP size. • Fluoroquinolone-AuNPs systems can be used as sensitive turn-on sensors for thiols. • Danofloxacin-20-nm AuNPs system exhibits the highest sensitivity for thiols.

  10. Magnetofluorescent nanocomposites and quantum dots used for optimal application in magnetic fluorescence-linked immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, H Y; Li, S Y; Fuh, C Bor

    2018-03-01

    Magnetofluorescent nanocomposites with optimal magnetic and fluorescent properties were prepared and characterized by combining magnetic nanoparticles (iron oxide@polymethyl methacrylate) with fluorescent nanoparticles (rhodamine 6G@mSiO 2 ). Experimental parameters were optimized to produce nanocomposites with high magnetic susceptibility and fluorescence intensity. The detection of a model biomarker (alpha-fetoprotein) was used to demonstrate the feasibility of applying the magnetofluorescent nanocomposites combined with quantum dots and using magnetic fluorescence-linked immunoassay. The magnetofluorescent nanocomposites enable efficient mixing, fast re-concentration, and nanoparticle quantization for optimal reactions. Biofunctional quantum dots were used to confirm the alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) content in sandwich immunoassay after mixing and washing. The analysis time was only one third that required in ELISA. The detection limit was 0.2 pg mL -1 , and the linear range was 0.68 pg mL -1 -6.8 ng mL -1 . This detection limit is lower, and the linear range is wider than those of ELISA and other methods. The measurements made using the proposed method differed by less than 13% from those obtained using ELISA for four AFP concentrations (0.03, 0.15, 0.75, and 3.75 ng mL -1 ). The proposed method has a considerable potential for biomarker detection in various analytical and biomedical applications. Graphical abstract Magnetofluorescent nanocomposites combined with fluorescent quantum dots were used in magnetic fluorescence-linked immunoassay.

  11. Application of X-ray fluorescence in investigation of historical monuments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cechak, Tomas; Trojek, Tomas; Musilek, Ladislav; Paulusova, Hana

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear techniques represent invaluable tools in non-destructive diagnostics applied to archaeological findings and objects of arts, mainly for dating and determining the composition of materials used in the production of artefacts. In this work we present the application of X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRFA). The X-ray fluorescence apparatus built and operated in the Laboratory of Quantitative Methods in Research of Ancient Monuments, constituent part of the Department of Dosimetry and Application of Ionizing Radiation, FNSPE, was used for the purpose of old relics measurements. The X-ray sources (radionuclides) generate the characteristic X-ray photons from the sample. After processing the resulting signal, we obtain information about the chemical composition of the tested sample. These results give data for qualitative and quantitative analysis of samples. XRFA is relatively simple and non-destructive method. Capability of in-situ measurement is one of big advantages of this method. The radionuclide sources of exciting radiation (e.g. 55 Fe enables the excitation of elements with Z up to 23, 238 Pu is used in interval of Z from 20 to 39 etc.) and X-ray tube with Mo anode were used. Narrow collimation of the exciting beam makes it possible to select the measured area of e.g. pigments in old manuscripts. X-ray fluorescence analysis, both in its energy form and in its wave dispersive form, is one of the most widespread methods using ionising radiation to study the elemental composition of materials. It is frequently used for studies of various cultural and historic relicts and objects of art. This work summarizes the author's experience with X-ray fluorescence analysis in investigating historical relicts namely by means of portable spectroscopic devices. Utilization of these methods is demonstrated in the investigation of fresco paintings, metal objects and old manuscripts. The results of these measurements provide the information on the composition of

  12. Artificial Intelligence Techniques: Applications for Courseware Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dear, Brian L.

    1986-01-01

    Introduces some general concepts and techniques of artificial intelligence (natural language interfaces, expert systems, knowledge bases and knowledge representation, heuristics, user-interface metaphors, and object-based environments) and investigates ways these techniques might be applied to analysis, design, development, implementation, and…

  13. Application of synchrotron radiation to x-ray fluorescence analysis of trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, B.M.; Jones, K.W.; Hanson, A.L.

    1986-08-01

    The development of synchrotron radiation x-ray sources has provided the means to greatly extend the capabilities of x-ray fluorescence analysis for determinations of trace element concentrations. A brief description of synchrotron radiation properties provides a background for a discussion of the improved detection limits compared to existing x-ray fluorescence techniques. Calculated detection limits for x-ray microprobes with micrometer spatial resolutions are described and compared with experimental results beginning to appear from a number of laboratories. The current activities and future plans for a dedicated x-ray microprobe beam line at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) of Brookhaven National Laboratory are presented

  14. Application of fluorescence in robotic general surgery: review of the literature and state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marano, Alessandra; Priora, Fabio; Lenti, Luca Matteo; Ravazzoni, Ferruccio; Quarati, Raoul; Spinoglio, Giuseppe

    2013-12-01

    The initial use of the indocyanine green fluorescence imaging system was for sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients with breast or colorectal cancer. Since then, application of this method has received wide acceptance in various fields of surgical oncology, and it has become a valid diagnostic tool for guiding cancer treatment. It has also been employed in numerous conventional surgical procedures with much success and benefit to the patient. The advent of minimally invasive surgery brought with it a new use for fluorescence in helping to improve the safety of these procedures, particularly for single-site procedures. In 2010, a near-infrared camera was integrated into the da Vinci Si System, creating a combination of technical and minimally invasive advantages that have been embraced by several experienced surgeons. The use of fluorescence, although useful, is considered challenging. Only a few studies are currently available on the use of fluorescence in robotic general surgery, whereas many articles have focused on its application in open and laparoscopic surgery. Many of these reports describe promising and satisfactory results, although with some shortcomings. The purpose of this article is to review the current status of the use of fluorescence in general surgery and particularly its role in robotic surgery. We also review potential uses in the future.

  15. Application of fluorescent in situ hybridisation for demonstration of Coxiella burnetti in placentas from ruminant abortions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tim Kåre; Montgomery, Donald L.; Jaeger, Paula T.

    2007-01-01

    A fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) assay targeting 16S ribosomal RNA was developed for detection of the zoonotic bacterium Coxiella burnetii in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue, and applied on placentas from ruminant abortions. The applicability of the FISH assay was compared...

  16. Teachers of Advertising Media Courses Describe Techniques, Show Computer Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Kent M.; Martin, Thomas C.

    1989-01-01

    Reports on a survey of university advertising media teachers regarding textbooks and instructional aids used, teaching techniques, computer applications, student placement, instructor background, and faculty publishing. (SR)

  17. Application of total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Applicability of total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometry for trace elemental analysis of rainwater samples was studied. The study was used to develop these samples as rainwater standards by the National University of Singapore (NUS). Our laboratory was one of the participants to use TXRF for this study.

  18. Application of Machine Learning Techniques in Aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Akhlaqur; Tasnim, Sumaira

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present applications of different machine learning algorithms in aquaculture. Machine learning algorithms learn models from historical data. In aquaculture historical data are obtained from farm practices, yields, and environmental data sources. Associations between these different variables can be obtained by applying machine learning algorithms to historical data. In this paper we present applications of different machine learning algorithms in aquaculture applications.

  19. Audit Techniques for Service Oriented Architecture Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Adrian COTFAS

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Service Oriented Architecture (SOA approach enables the development of flexible distributed applications. Auditing such applications implies several specific challenges related to interoperability, performance and security. The service oriented architecture model is described and the advantages of this approach are analyzed. We also highlight several quality attributes and potential risks in SOA applications that an architect should be aware when designing a distributed system. Key risk factors are identified and a model for risk evaluation is introduced. The top reasons for auditing SOA applications are presented as well as the most important standards. The steps for a successful audit process are given and discussed.

  20. Determination of Cu, Cr, and As in preserved wood (Eucalyptus sp.) using x-ray fluorescent spectrometry techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergio Matias Pereira Junior; Vera Akiko Maihara; Edson Goncalves Moreira; Vera Lucia Ribeiro Salvador; Ivone Mulako Sato

    2016-01-01

    Energy dispersive (EDXRF) and Portable (PXRF) X-ray fluorescence techniques are proposed for wood treatment control process and wood waste assortment. In this study, different retentions of chromated copper arsenate preservative were applied to Eucalyptus sp. sapwood samples. Cu, Cr and As were determined by XRF techniques in treated sapwood massive blocks and treated sapwood sawdust samples were analyzed by FAAS spectrometry (Flame Atomic Absorption) and INAA (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis). Cu, Cr and As mean values, obtained by FAASS and INAA, showed to be statically equal; however, XRF analysis showed considerable deviations, presenting the absorption and the enhancement effects in analytical lines. (author)

  1. Applications of total reflection X-ray fluorescence in multi-element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaelis, W.; Prange, A.; Knoth, J.

    1985-01-01

    Although Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (TXRF) became available for practical applications and routine measurements only few years ago, the number of programmes that make use of this method is increasing rapidly. The scope of work is widespread over environmental research and monitoring, mineralogy, mineral exploration, oceanography, biology, medicine and biochemistry. The present paper gives a brief survey of these applications and summarizes some of them which are typical for quite different matrices. (orig.)

  2. The application of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry to prospecting potential gold deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang Fengjun; Wang Haixia; Zhou Rongsheng

    2001-01-01

    The fieldwork high-sensitivity X-ray fluorescence analysis (FXFA) adopting miniaturized X-ray tube, Si-PIN detector with peltier cooler and notebook PC spectrometry is presented. Using this system, the authors carried out a preliminary research of its application to some gold mine in Sichuan. According to the close relationship between the high-grade element arsenic and gold in ore-forming components, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry can be used to reveal the existence of potential gold mineralization in fields rapidly. This is of great significance in guiding the field geological collection

  3. Practical applications of activation analysis and other nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, W.S.

    1982-01-01

    Neeutron activation analysis (NAA) is a versatile, sensitive multielement, usually nondestructive analytical technique used to determine elemental concentrations in a variety of materials. Samples are irradiated with neutrons in a nuclear reactor, removed, and for the nondestructive technique, the induced radioactivity measured. This measurement of γ rays emitted from specific radionuclides makes possible the quantitative determination of elements present. The method is described, advantages and disadvantages listed and a number of examples of its use given. Two other nuclear methods, particle induced x-ray emission and synchrotron produced x-ray fluorescence are also briefly discussed

  4. Application of nuclear techniques on environmental pollution problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumatra, Made

    1998-01-01

    Radioanalysis and tracer techniques that can be used on environmental pollution problems. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry are the two methods that are used frequently on such problems. These methods are used for metal analysis. Tracer technique with radioactive labeled compounds are used to study the fate of the pollution substances in environmental systems. It is very important to validate every new developed analysis method, due to the environmental pollution problem closely related to the low enforcement. (author)

  5. Combination of Small Molecule Microarray and Confocal Microscopy Techniques for Live Cell Staining Fluorescent Dye Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Bokros

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Discovering new fluorochromes is significantly advanced by high-throughput screening (HTS methods. In the present study a combination of small molecule microarray (SMM prescreening and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM was developed in order to discover novel cell staining fluorescent dyes. Compounds with high native fluorescence were selected from a 14,585-member library and further tested on living cells under the microscope. Eleven compartment-specific, cell-permeable (or plasma membrane-targeted fluorochromes were identified. Their cytotoxicity was tested and found that between 1–10 micromolar range, they were non-toxic even during long-term incubations.

  6. Global Monitoring of Terrestrial Chlorophyll Fluorescence from Moderate-spectral-resolution Near-infrared Satellite Measurements: Methodology, Simulations, and Application to GOME-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, J.; Gaunter, L.; Lindstrot, R.; Voigt, M.; Vasilkov, A. P.; Middleton, E. M.; Huemmrich, K. F.; Yoshida, Y.; Frankenberg, C.

    2013-01-01

    Globally mapped terrestrial chlorophyll fluorescence retrievals are of high interest because they can provide information on the functional status of vegetation including light-use efficiency and global primary productivity that can be used for global carbon cycle modeling and agricultural applications. Previous satellite retrievals of fluorescence have relied solely upon the filling-in of solar Fraunhofer lines that are not significantly affected by atmospheric absorption. Although these measurements provide near-global coverage on a monthly basis, they suffer from relatively low precision and sparse spatial sampling. Here, we describe a new methodology to retrieve global far-red fluorescence information; we use hyperspectral data with a simplified radiative transfer model to disentangle the spectral signatures of three basic components: atmospheric absorption, surface reflectance, and fluorescence radiance. An empirically based principal component analysis approach is employed, primarily using cloudy data over ocean, to model and solve for the atmospheric absorption. Through detailed simulations, we demonstrate the feasibility of the approach and show that moderate-spectral-resolution measurements with a relatively high signal-to-noise ratio can be used to retrieve far-red fluorescence information with good precision and accuracy. The method is then applied to data from the Global Ozone Monitoring Instrument 2 (GOME-2). The GOME-2 fluorescence retrievals display similar spatial structure as compared with those from a simpler technique applied to the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT). GOME-2 enables global mapping of far-red fluorescence with higher precision over smaller spatial and temporal scales than is possible with GOSAT. Near-global coverage is provided within a few days. We are able to show clearly for the first time physically plausible variations in fluorescence over the course of a single month at a spatial resolution of 0.5 deg × 0.5 deg

  7. Global monitoring of terrestrial chlorophyll fluorescence from moderate-spectral-resolution near-infrared satellite measurements: methodology, simulations, and application to GOME-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Joiner

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Globally mapped terrestrial chlorophyll fluorescence retrievals are of high interest because they can provide information on the functional status of vegetation including light-use efficiency and global primary productivity that can be used for global carbon cycle modeling and agricultural applications. Previous satellite retrievals of fluorescence have relied solely upon the filling-in of solar Fraunhofer lines that are not significantly affected by atmospheric absorption. Although these measurements provide near-global coverage on a monthly basis, they suffer from relatively low precision and sparse spatial sampling. Here, we describe a new methodology to retrieve global far-red fluorescence information; we use hyperspectral data with a simplified radiative transfer model to disentangle the spectral signatures of three basic components: atmospheric absorption, surface reflectance, and fluorescence radiance. An empirically based principal component analysis approach is employed, primarily using cloudy data over ocean, to model and solve for the atmospheric absorption. Through detailed simulations, we demonstrate the feasibility of the approach and show that moderate-spectral-resolution measurements with a relatively high signal-to-noise ratio can be used to retrieve far-red fluorescence information with good precision and accuracy. The method is then applied to data from the Global Ozone Monitoring Instrument 2 (GOME-2. The GOME-2 fluorescence retrievals display similar spatial structure as compared with those from a simpler technique applied to the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT. GOME-2 enables global mapping of far-red fluorescence with higher precision over smaller spatial and temporal scales than is possible with GOSAT. Near-global coverage is provided within a few days. We are able to show clearly for the first time physically plausible variations in fluorescence over the course of a single month at a spatial resolution of 0

  8. Organic fluorescent dye-based nanomaterials: Advances in the rational design for imaging and sensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svechkarev, Denis; Mohs, Aaron M

    2018-02-25

    Self-assembled fluorescent nanomaterials based on small-molecule organic dyes are gaining increasing popularity in imaging and sensing applications over the past decade. This is primarily due to their ability to combine spectral property tunability and biocompatibility of small molecule organic fluorophores with brightness, chemical, and colloidal stability of inorganic materials. Such a unique combination of features comes with rich versatility of dye-based nanomaterials: from aggregates of small molecules to sophisticated core-shell nanoarchitectures involving hyperbranched polymers. Along with the ongoing discovery of new materials and better ways of their synthesis, it is very important to continue systematic studies of fundamental factors that regulate the key properties of fluorescent nanomaterials: their size, polydispersity, colloidal stability, chemical stability, absorption and emission maxima, biocompatibility, and interactions with biological interfaces. In this review, we focus on the systematic description of various types of organic fluorescent nanomaterials, approaches to their synthesis, and ways to optimize and control their characteristics. The discussion is built on examples from reports on recent advances in design and applications of such materials. Conclusions made from this analysis allow a perspective on future development of fluorescent nanomaterials design for biomedical and related applications. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Bathymetric techniques and Indian Ocean applications

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, B.; Fernandes, W.A.

    reefs on the seabed to large water reservoirs and palynology. The book consists of contributions from internationally-known scientists from India, Australia, Malaysia, Norway, Mexico, USA, Germany, and Brazil, and shows applications around the world...

  10. Moving objects management models, techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Meng, Xiaofeng; Xu, Jiajie

    2014-01-01

    This book describes the topics of moving objects modeling and location tracking, indexing and querying, clustering, location uncertainty, traffic aware navigation and privacy issues as well as the application to intelligent transportation systems.

  11. Long term storage of virus templated fluorescent materials for sensing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seetharam, Raviraja N; Guerra, Charles; Satir, Peter [Department of Anatomy and Structural Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, NY 10461 (United States); Blum, Amy Szuchmacher; Soto, Carissa M; Ratna, Banahalli R [Center for Bio/Molecular Science and Engineering, Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Whitley, Jessica L [Geo-Centers, Incorporated, Newton, MA 02459 (United States); Sapsford, Kim E [George Mason University, 10910 University Boulevard, Manassas, VA 20110 (United States); Chatterji, Anju; Lin Tianwei; Johnson, John E [Department of Molecular Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States)], E-mail: amy.blum@nrl.navy.mil

    2008-03-12

    Wild type, mutant, and chemically modified Cowpea mosaic viruses (CPMV) were studied for long term preservation in the presence and absence of cryoprotectants. Viral complexes were reconstituted and tested via fluorescence spectroscopy and a UV/vis-based RNase assay for structural integrity. When viruses lyophilized in the absence of cryoprotectant were rehydrated and RNase treated, UV absorption increased, indicating that the capsids were damaged. The addition of trehalose during lyophilization protected capsid integrity for at least 7 weeks. Measurements of the fluorescence peak maximum of CPMV lyophilized with trehalose and reconstituted also indicate that the virus remained intact. Microarray binding assays indicated that CPMV particles chemically modified for use as a fluorescent tracer were intact and retained binding specificity after lyophilization in the presence of trehalose. Thus, we demonstrate that functionalized CPMV nanostructures can be stored for the long term, enabling their use in practical sensing applications.

  12. Application of the laser scanning confocal microscope in fluorescent film sensor research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongyan; Liu, Wei-Min; Zhao, Wen-Wen; Dai, Qing; Wang, Peng-Fei

    2010-10-01

    Confocal microscopy offers several advantages over conventional optical microscopy; we show an experimental investigation laser scanning confocal microscope as a tool to be used in cubic boron nitride (cBN) film-based fluorescent sensor research. Cubic boron nitride cBN film sensors are modified with dansyl chloride and rhodamine B isothiocyanate respectively. Fluorescent modification quality on the cubic boron nitride film is clearly express and the sensor ability to Hg2+ cations and pH are investigated in detail. We evidence the rhodamine B isothiocyanate modified quality on cBN surface is much better than that of dansyl chloride. And laser scanning confocal microscope has potential application lighttight fundus film fluorescent sensor research.

  13. Long term storage of virus templated fluorescent materials for sensing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seetharam, Raviraja N; Guerra, Charles; Satir, Peter; Blum, Amy Szuchmacher; Soto, Carissa M; Ratna, Banahalli R; Whitley, Jessica L; Sapsford, Kim E; Chatterji, Anju; Lin Tianwei; Johnson, John E

    2008-01-01

    Wild type, mutant, and chemically modified Cowpea mosaic viruses (CPMV) were studied for long term preservation in the presence and absence of cryoprotectants. Viral complexes were reconstituted and tested via fluorescence spectroscopy and a UV/vis-based RNase assay for structural integrity. When viruses lyophilized in the absence of cryoprotectant were rehydrated and RNase treated, UV absorption increased, indicating that the capsids were damaged. The addition of trehalose during lyophilization protected capsid integrity for at least 7 weeks. Measurements of the fluorescence peak maximum of CPMV lyophilized with trehalose and reconstituted also indicate that the virus remained intact. Microarray binding assays indicated that CPMV particles chemically modified for use as a fluorescent tracer were intact and retained binding specificity after lyophilization in the presence of trehalose. Thus, we demonstrate that functionalized CPMV nanostructures can be stored for the long term, enabling their use in practical sensing applications

  14. Applications of two-photon fluorescence microscopy in deep-tissue imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chen-Yuan; Yu, Betty; Hsu, Lily L.; Kaplan, Peter D.; Blankschstein, D.; Langer, Robert; So, Peter T. C.

    2000-07-01

    Based on the non-linear excitation of fluorescence molecules, two-photon fluorescence microscopy has become a significant new tool for biological imaging. The point-like excitation characteristic of this technique enhances image quality by the virtual elimination of off-focal fluorescence. Furthermore, sample photodamage is greatly reduced because fluorescence excitation is limited to the focal region. For deep tissue imaging, two-photon microscopy has the additional benefit in the greatly improved imaging depth penetration. Since the near- infrared laser sources used in two-photon microscopy scatter less than their UV/glue-green counterparts, in-depth imaging of highly scattering specimen can be greatly improved. In this work, we will present data characterizing both the imaging characteristics (point-spread-functions) and tissue samples (skin) images using this novel technology. In particular, we will demonstrate how blind deconvolution can be used further improve two-photon image quality and how this technique can be used to study mechanisms of chemically-enhanced, transdermal drug delivery.

  15. Optical coherence tomography: Technique and applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jakob Borup; Sander, Birgit; Mogensen, Mette

    2009-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive optical imaging modality providing real-time video rate images in two and three dimensions of biological tissues with micrometer resolution. OCT fills the gap between ultrasound and confocal microscopy, since it has a higher resolution than...... of retinal diseases. The potential of OCT in many other applications is currently being explored, such as in developmental biology, skin cancer diagnostics, vulnerable plaque detection in cardiology, esophageal diagnostics and a number of other applications within oncology....

  16. Industrial and environmental applications of nuclear analytical techniques. Report of a workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    The IAEA has programme the utilisation of nuclear analytical techniques (NATs), in particular for industrial and environmental applications. A major purpose is to help the developing Member States apply their analytical capabilities optimally for socio-economic progress and development. A large number of institutions in Europe, Africa, Latin America and Asia have established X ray fluorescence (XRF) and gamma ray measurement techniques and facilities for neutron activation analysis (NAA) have been initiated in institutions in these regions. Moreover, there is a growing interest among many institutes in applying more advanced analytical techniques, such as particle induced X ray emission (PIXE) and microanalytical techniques based on X ray emission induced by conventional sources or synchrotron radiation to the analysis of environmental and biological materials and industrial products. In order to define new areas of application of NATs and to extend the range of these techniques, a number of initiatives have recently been taken. It includes a workshop on industrial and environmental applications of nuclear analytical techniques, organized by the IAEA in Vienna, 7-11 September 1998. The main objectives of the workshop were as follows: (1) to review recent applications of NATs in industrial and environmental studies; (2) to identify emerging trends in methodologies and applications of NATs; (3) to demonstrate analytical capabilities of selected NATs. The following topics were reviewed during the workshop: (1) XRF and accelerator based analytical techniques; (2) portable XRF systems and their applications in industry, mineral prospecting and processing, (3) portable gamma ray spectrometers; and (4) NAA and its applications in industry and environmental studies. Micro-XRF and micro-PIXE methods and their applications in the above fields were also discussed, including aspects of synchrotron radiation induced X ray emission.

  17. Industrial and environmental applications of nuclear analytical techniques. Report of a workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-11-01

    The IAEA has programme the utilisation of nuclear analytical techniques (NATs), in particular for industrial and environmental applications. A major purpose is to help the developing Member States apply their analytical capabilities optimally for socio-economic progress and development. A large number of institutions in Europe, Africa, Latin America and Asia have established X ray fluorescence (XRF) and gamma ray measurement techniques and facilities for neutron activation analysis (NAA) have been initiated in institutions in these regions. Moreover, there is a growing interest among many institutes in applying more advanced analytical techniques, such as particle induced X ray emission (PIXE) and microanalytical techniques based on X ray emission induced by conventional sources or synchrotron radiation to the analysis of environmental and biological materials and industrial products. In order to define new areas of application of NATs and to extend the range of these techniques, a number of initiatives have recently been taken. It includes a workshop on industrial and environmental applications of nuclear analytical techniques, organized by the IAEA in Vienna, 7-11 September 1998. The main objectives of the workshop were as follows: (1) to review recent applications of NATs in industrial and environmental studies; (2) to identify emerging trends in methodologies and applications of NATs; (3) to demonstrate analytical capabilities of selected NATs. The following topics were reviewed during the workshop: (1) XRF and accelerator based analytical techniques; (2) portable XRF systems and their applications in industry, mineral prospecting and processing, (3) portable gamma ray spectrometers; and (4) NAA and its applications in industry and environmental studies. Micro-XRF and micro-PIXE methods and their applications in the above fields were also discussed, including aspects of synchrotron radiation induced X ray emission

  18. Determination of rhenium in molybdenite by X-ray fluorescence: A combined chemical-spectrometric technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solt, M W; Wahlberg, J S; Myers, A T

    1969-01-01

    Rhenium in molybdenite is separated from molybdenum by distillation of rhenium heptoxide from a perchloric-sulphuric acid mixture. It is concentrated by precipitation of the sulphide and then determined by X-ray fluorescence. From 3 to 1000 microg of rhenium can be measured with a precision generally within 2%. The procedure tolerates larger amounts of molybdenum than the usual colorimetric methods.

  19. Determination of rhenium in molybdenite by X-ray fluorescence. A combined chemical-spectrometric technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solt, M.W.; Wahlberg, J.S.; Myers, A.T.

    1969-01-01

    Rhenium in molybdenite is separated from molybdenum by distillation of rhenium heptoxide from a perchloric-sulphuric acid mixture. It is concentrated by precipitation of the sulphide and then determined by X-ray fluorescence. From 3 to 1000 ??g of rhenium can be measured with a precision generally within 2%. The procedure tolerates larger amounts of molybdenum than the usual colorimetric methods. ?? 1969.

  20. A novel frequency domain fluorescence technique for determination of triplet decay times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterenborg, H. J.; Janson, M. E.; van Gemert, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    Frequency domain fluorescence measurement using two diode lasers with amplitude modulation in the kHz range yields a signal component at the sum frequency. This intermodulation phenomenon was observed in an aqueous solution of haematoporphyrin (HP) and could be related to triplet state population

  1. Potential of Fluorescence Imaging Techniques To Monitor Mutagenic PAH Uptake by Microalga

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), is one of the major environmental pollutants that causes mutagenesis and cancer. BaP has been shown to accumulate in phytoplankton and zooplankton. We have studied the localization and aggregation of BaP in Chlorella sp., a microalga that is one of the primary producers in the food chain, using fluorescence confocal microscopy and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy with the phasor approach to characterize the location and the aggregation of BaP in the cell. Our results show that BaP accumulates in the lipid bodies of Chlorella sp. and that there is Förster resonance energy transfer between BaP and photosystems of Chlorella sp., indicating the close proximity of the two molecular systems. The lifetime of BaP fluorescence was measured to be 14 ns in N,N-dimethylformamide, an average of 7 ns in Bold’s basal medium, and 8 ns in Chlorella cells. Number and brightness analysis suggests that BaP does not aggregate inside Chlorella sp. (average brightness = 5.330), while it aggregates in the supernatant. In Chlorella grown in sediments spiked with BaP, in 12 h the BaP uptake could be visualized using fluorescence microscopy. PMID:25020149

  2. 48 CFR 9904.413-50 - Techniques for application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Techniques for application... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.413-50 Techniques for application. (a) Assignment of... subject to this phase-in. (v) If a segment is closed due to a sale or other transfer of ownership to a...

  3. 48 CFR 9904.410-50 - Techniques for application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Techniques for application... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.410-50 Techniques for application. (a) G&A expenses of a... practice was to use a cost of sales or sales base, that business unit may use the transition method set out...

  4. The laser principles and application techniques. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillet, H.

    1986-01-01

    Specialists of each field gathered to give a complete overview of laser techniques possibilities. Operation principles, properties and the different kinds of lasers are detailed. Inertial fusion, isotope separation, medecine are part of the laser application fields presented, and application techniques in these fields are described [fr

  5. Expert System Techniques and Applications in AEC-Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tom

    This part of a book presents expert system techniques applicable to building design and construction, and it reports and evaluates on systems developed in thar domain.......This part of a book presents expert system techniques applicable to building design and construction, and it reports and evaluates on systems developed in thar domain....

  6. Big data for development : applications and techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Anwaar; Qadir, Junaid; ur Rasool, Raihan; Sathiaseelan, Arjuna; Zwitter, Andrej; Crowcroft, Jon

    2016-01-01

    With the explosion of social media sites and proliferation of digital computing devices and Internet access, massive amounts of public data is being generated on a daily basis. Efficient techniques/algorithms to analyze this massive amount of data can provide near real-time information about

  7. Application of luminescence techniques in retrospective dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Jungner, H.

    1999-01-01

    Luminescence signals measured from minerals within bricks or ceramic samples can provide information about the absorbed radiation dose. This feature has for several years been used in dating archaeological and geological samples and recently luminescence techniques have been intensively used far ...

  8. Monosodium glutamate derived tricolor fluorescent carbon nanoparticles for cell-imaging application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Nannan; Ding, Sha; Zhou, Xingping

    2016-06-01

    Fluorescent carbon nanoparticle (FCN) is a new type of carbon-based materials. Because of its wide raw material sources, excellent optical properties and good biocompatibility, FCN is getting more and more attentions. However, its synthesis from resources at low cost under mild conditions is still a challenge. Here we report a novel and simple method derived from monosodium glutamate carbonization to make tricolor fluorescent carbon nanoparticles with an average size below 10nm, a high yield up to 35.2% based on the carbon content in the resource, a long life-time of 3.71ns, and a high fluorescence quantum yield up to 51.5% by using quinine sulfate as the standard substance. We discovered that the fluorescent stability of the FCNs was very excellent under UV irradiation for hours in aqueous solutions of pH ranged from 2.0 to 9.0. The cell viability tested under a pretty high concentration of FCNs indicated their safety for biological applications. Based on their high fluorescence quantum efficiency and the advantages mentioned above, these FCNs were then used for cell imaging and exhibited a perfect performance under 3 kinds of excitation bands (UV, blue, and green lights). Thus, they can be practically applied to immune labeling and imaging in vivo in the near future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Fluorescence from the maillard reaction and its potential applications in food science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matiacevich, Silvia B; Santagapita, Patricio R; Buera, M Pilar

    2005-01-01

    The chemistry of the Maillard reaction involves a complex set of steps, and its interpretation represents a challenge in basic and applied aspects of Food Science. Fluorescent compounds have been recognized as important early markers of the reaction in food products since 1942. However, the recent advances in the characterization of fluorophores' development were observed in biological and biomedical areas. The in vivo non-enzymatic glycosylation of proteins produces biological effects, promoting health deterioration. The characteristic fluorescence of advanced glycosylation end products (AGEs) is similar to that of Maillard food products and represents an indicator of the level of AGE-modified proteins, but the structure of the fluorescent groups is, typically, unknown. Application of fluorescence measurement is considered a potential tool for addressing key problems of food deterioration as an early marker or index of the damage of biomolecules. Fluorophores may be precursors of the brown pigments and/or end products. A general scheme of the Maillard reaction is proposed in this article, incorporating the pool concept. A correct interpretation of the effect of environmental and compositional conditions and their influences on the reaction kinetics may help to define the meaning of fluorescence development for each particular system.

  10. Accurate study of FosPeg® distribution in a mouse model using fluorescence imaging technique and fluorescence white monte carlo simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Haiyan; Liu, Haichun; Svenmarker, Pontus

    2010-01-01

    Fluorescence imaging is used for quantitative in vivo assessment of drug concentration. Light attenuation in tissue is compensated for through Monte-Carlo simulations. The intrinsic fluorescence intensity, directly proportional to the drug concentration, could be obtained....

  11. Rapid fluorescence detection of pathogenic bacteria using magnetic enrichment technique combined with magnetophoretic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Yulan; Xu, Yi; Wang, Renjie; Chen, Li

    2017-08-01

    A rapid and sensitive analytical method was developed to detect pathogenic bacteria which combined magnetic enrichment, fluorescence labeling with polyethylene glycol (PEG) magnetophoretic chromatography. As pathogenic bacteria usually exist in complex matrixes at low concentration, an efficient enrichment is essential for diagnosis. In order to capture series types of pathogenic bacteria in samples, amino-modified magnetic nanoparticles (Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 -NH 2 ) were prepared for efficient enrichment by the electrostatic interaction with pathogenic bacteria. It was shown that the capture efficiency reached up to 95.4% for Escherichia coli (E. coli). Furthermore, quantitative analysis of the bacteria was achieved by using acridine orange (AO) as a fluorescence probe for the captured E. coli due to its ability of staining series types of bacteria and rapid labeling. In order to remove the free magnetic nanoparticles and redundant fluorescent reagent, the labeled suspension was poured into a PEG separation column and was separated by applying an external magnetic field. The presence of 100 cfu mL -1 E. coli could be detected for semi-quantitative analysis by observing the separation column with the naked eye, and the concentration could be further evaluated by fluorescence detection. All the above processes were finished within 80 min. It was demonstrated that a good linear relationship existed between the fluorescence intensity and the concentration of E. coli ranging from 10 2 to 10 6  cfu mL -1 , with a detection limit of 100 cfu mL -1 when E. coli acted as target bacteria. The recovery rate of E. coli was 93.6∼102.0% in tap water and cooked meat samples, and the RSD was lower than 7% (n = 6); the result coincided with the conventional plate count method. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  12. Flash fluorescence with indocyanine green videoangiography to identify the recipient artery for bypass with distal middle cerebral artery aneurysms: operative technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Hernández, Ana; Lawton, Michael T

    2012-06-01

    Distal middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms frequently have nonsaccular morphology that necessitates trapping and bypass. Bypasses can be difficult because efferent arteries lie deep in the opercular cleft and may not be easily identifiable. We introduce the "flash fluorescence" technique, which uses videoangiography with indocyanine green (ICG) dye to identify an appropriate recipient artery on the cortical surface for the bypass, enabling a more superficial and easier anastomosis. Flash fluorescence requires 3 steps: (1) temporary clip occlusion of the involved afferent artery; (2) videoangiography demonstrating fluorescence in uninvolved arteries on the cortical surface; and (3) removal of the temporary clip with flash fluorescence in the involved efferent arteries on the cortical surface, thereby identifying a recipient. Alternatively, temporary clips can occlude uninvolved arteries, and videoangiography will demonstrate initial fluorescence in efferent arteries during temporary occlusion and flash fluorescence in uninvolved arteries during reperfusion. From a consecutive series of 604 MCA aneurysms treated microsurgically, 22 (3.6%) were distal aneurysms and 11 required a bypass. The flash fluorescence technique was used in 3 patients to select the recipient artery for 2 superficial temporal artery-to-MCA bypasses and 1 MCA-MCA bypass. The correct recipient was selected in all cases. The flash fluorescence technique provides quick, reliable localization of an appropriate recipient artery for bypass when revascularization is needed for a distal MCA aneurysm. This technique eliminates the need for extensive dissection of the efferent artery and enables a superficial recipient site that makes the anastomosis safer, faster, and less demanding.

  13. Multitracer techniques: applications in chemical and life sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayak, Dalia

    2001-01-01

    The scope and approaches of the 'multitracer technique' have briefly been reviewed. The various aspects of the 'multitracer technique' include, the methods of accelerator production of 'multitracers' and their separation, the application of this technique in the study of adsorption of metal ions on solid surfaces and in the study of distribution of trace elements in plants and animals

  14. Synthesis and characterization of bioresorbable calcium phosphosilicate nanocomposite particles for fluorescence imaging and biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Thomas T.

    Organically doped calcium phosphosilicate nanoparticles (CPSNPs) were developed and characterized, driven by the need for non-toxic vectors for drug delivery and fluorescence biological imaging applications. In particular, advancement in drug delivery for the chemotherapeutic treatment of cancers is required to increase drug efficacy and improve patient quality of life. Additionally, brighter and more photostable fluorophores are needed to meet demands for improved sensitivity and experimental diversity, which may lead to improvements in early detection of solid tumors and advancement in understanding of biological processes. A literature survey on the state of the field for nanoparticle based biological fluorescence imaging and drug delivery is presented in Chapter 1. Chapter 2 focuses on the characterization techniques used in this work. The development and optical characterization of 20-40 nm diameter, citrate functionalized Cy3 amidite doped calcium phosphosilicate nanoparticles (Cy3 CPSNPs) for in vitro fluorescence imaging is outlined in Chapters 3 and 4, respectively. In particular, sodium citrate was used to functionalize the surface and provide electrosteric dispersion of these particles. CPSNPs stabilized with sodium citrate routinely exhibited highly negative zeta potentials greater than -25 mV in magnitude. Furthermore, the fluorescence quantum yield of the encapsulated fluorophore was improved by more than 4.5-fold when compared to the unencapsulated dye. The bioimaging and drug delivery capability of CPSNPs was explored. Cy3 CPSNPs dissolved quickly in the acidic environment experienced during endocytosis, releasing the encapsulated fluorophore. This is consistent with solution phase experiments that show the particles are dissolved at pH 5. CPSNPs loaded with fluorescein and a hydrophobic growth inhibitor, ceramide C6, proved the ability to simultaneously image and delivery of the hydrophobic drug to cells in vitro. Chapter 5 examined the colloidal

  15. Using Concept Map Technique in Accounting Education: Uludag University Application

    OpenAIRE

    Ertan, Yasemin; Yücel, Elif; Saraç, Mehlika

    2014-01-01

    In recent years accounting applications become more complicated because of the growing markets and developing technology. Therefore the requirements of accounting education have increased and trying some new learning techniques have become necessary. Thus, this study was prepared to measure the contribution of concept map technique, used in accounting lessons, to the effect on students learning level. In the first part of the study, the concept map technique and its applications were explaine...

  16. Techniques for Finding Vulnerabilities in Web Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Mihai Sandulescu

    2014-01-01

    The current trend is to move everything on the Internet. Because a lot of companies store sensitive user information, security has become mandatory. Usually, software developers don’t follow some basic practices in order to secure their applications. This paper will present in the second chapter, the white-box, black-box and gray-box methods which can be used in order to test applications for possible vulnerabilities. It focuses on fuzz testing, which is a black-box testing method, presented ...

  17. Dynamic Binary Modification Tools, Techniques and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hazelwood, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic binary modification tools form a software layer between a running application and the underlying operating system, providing the powerful opportunity to inspect and potentially modify every user-level guest application instruction that executes. Toolkits built upon this technology have enabled computer architects to build powerful simulators and emulators for design-space exploration, compiler writers to analyze and debug the code generated by their compilers, software developers to fully explore the features, bottlenecks, and performance of their software, and even end-users to extend

  18. Application of spectroscopic techniques to the study of illuminated manuscripts: A survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessanha, S.; Manso, M.; Carvalho, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    This work focused on the application of the most relevant spectroscopic techniques used for the characterization of illuminated manuscripts. The historical value of these unique and invaluable artworks, together with the increased awareness concerning the conservation of cultural heritage, prompted the application of analytical techniques to the study of these illuminations. This is essential for the understanding of the artist's working methods, which aids conservation–restoration. The characterization of the pigments may also help assign a probable date to the manuscript. For these purposes, the spectroscopic techniques used so far include those that provide information on the elemental content: X-ray fluorescence, total reflection X-ray fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive spectroscopy and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Complementary techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy, reveal information regarding the compounds present in the samples. The techniques, suitability, technological evolution and development of high-performance detectors, as well as the possibility of microanalysis and the higher sensitivity of the equipment, will also be discussed. Furthermore, issues such as the necessity of sampling, the portability of the equipment and the overall advantages and disadvantages of different techniques will be analyzed. - Highlights: ► The techniques used for studying illuminated manuscripts are described and compared. ► For in situ, non-destructive analysis the most suitable technique is EDXRF. ► For quantitative analysis TXRF is more appropriate. ► Raman spectroscopy is mostly used for pigments identification. ► FTIR was used for the characterization of binders and parchment.

  19. Application of nuclear techniques in food conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarado, A.; Arias., L.

    1990-01-01

    This book has the following objectives: 1) determine the possibilities of establishing an investigation project, and the application of food irradiation in Costa Rica. 2) Promote national legislation and regulations in the field of irradiated foods. 3) Coordinate with the Comision de Energia Atomica de Costa Rica, the promotion of the food irradiation technology, at the producer/industrial/institutional/consumer level. 10 refs

  20. Non-conventional applications of a noninvasive portable X-ray diffraction/fluorescence instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiari, Giacomo; Sarrazin, Philippe; Heginbotham, Arlen

    2016-01-01

    Noninvasive techniques have become widespread in the cultural heritage analytical domain. The popular handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF) devices give the elemental composition of all the layers that X-rays can penetrate, but no information on how atoms are bound together or at which depth they are located. A noninvasive portable X-ray powder diffraction/X-ray fluorescence (XRD/XRF) device may offer a solution to these limitations, since it can provide information on the composition of crystalline materials. This paper introduces applications of XRD beyond simple phase recognition. The two fundamental principles for XRD are: (1) the crystallites should be randomly oriented, to ensure proper intensity to all the diffraction peaks, and (2) the material should be positioned exactly in the focal plane of the instrument, respecting its geometry, as any displacement of the sample would results in 2θ shifts of the diffraction peaks. In conventional XRD, the sample is ground and set on the properly positioned sample holder. Using a noninvasive portable instrument, these two requirements are seldom fulfilled. The position, size and orientation of a given crystallite within a layered structure depend on the object itself. Equation correlating the displacement (distance from the focal plane) versus peak shift (angular difference in 2θ from the standard value) is derived and used to determine the depth at which a given substance is located. The quantitative composition of two binary Cu/Zn alloys, simultaneously present, was determined measuring the cell volume and using Vegard's law. The analysis of the whole object gives information on the texture and possible preferred orientations of the crystallites, which influences the peak intensity. This allows for the distinction between clad and electroplated daguerreotypes in the case of silver and between ancient and modern gilding for gold. Analyses of cross sections can be carried out successfully. Finally, beeswax, used in Roman

  1. CO2-switchable fluorescence of a dendritic polymer and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chunmei; Lü, Shaoyu; Liu, Mingzhu; Wu, Can; Xiong, Yun

    2015-12-01

    The synthesis and properties of CO2 responsive and fluorescent dendritic polymers, poly(amido amine)/Pluronic F127 (PAMAM/F127), are reported in this paper. The morphologies and sizes of PAMAM/F127 dendritic polymers were investigated by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). PAMAM/F127 dendritic polymers showed unimolecular micelle morphologies at low concentrations, and changed to multimolecular micelles at higher concentrations. Additionally, fluorescence spectra and confocal laser scanning microscopy images showed that PAMAM/F127 dendritic polymers exhibited a fluorescent enhancement response to the presence of CO2. Apart from that, the release behavior of PAMAM/F127 gels under simulated body fluids was investigated by choosing curcumin as the hydrophobic drug. The results indicated that PAMAM/F127 dendritic polymers can be used to improve the solubility of curcumin, and the drug released faster in the presence of CO2. Such CO2 responsive fluorescent dendritic polymers are potentially applicable in cellular imaging or drug controlled release.The synthesis and properties of CO2 responsive and fluorescent dendritic polymers, poly(amido amine)/Pluronic F127 (PAMAM/F127), are reported in this paper. The morphologies and sizes of PAMAM/F127 dendritic polymers were investigated by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). PAMAM/F127 dendritic polymers showed unimolecular micelle morphologies at low concentrations, and changed to multimolecular micelles at higher concentrations. Additionally, fluorescence spectra and confocal laser scanning microscopy images showed that PAMAM/F127 dendritic polymers exhibited a fluorescent enhancement response to the presence of CO2. Apart from that, the release behavior of PAMAM/F127 gels under simulated body fluids was investigated by choosing curcumin as the hydrophobic drug. The results indicated that PAMAM/F127 dendritic polymers can be used to improve the

  2. Trends in hard X-ray fluorescence mapping: environmental applications in the age of fast detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombi, E.; Donner, E. [University of South Australia, Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, Mawson Lakes, South Australia (Australia); CRC CARE, PO Box 486, Salisbury, South Australia (Australia); Jonge, M.D. de; Paterson, D. [Australian Synchrotron, X-ray Fluorescence Microscopy, 800 Blackburn Road, Clayton, Victoria (Australia); Ryan, C.G. [CSIRO Earth Science and Resource Engineering, Normanby Road, Clayton, Victoria (Australia)

    2011-06-15

    Environmental samples are extremely diverse but share a tendency for heterogeneity and complexity. This heterogeneity poses methodological challenges when investigating biogeochemical processes. In recent years, the development of analytical tools capable of probing element distribution and speciation at the microscale have allowed this challenge to be addressed. Of these available tools, laterally resolved synchrotron techniques such as X-ray fluorescence mapping are key methods for the in situ investigation of micronutrients and inorganic contaminants in environmental samples. This article demonstrates how recent advances in X-ray fluorescence detector technology are bringing new possibilities to environmental research. Fast detectors are helping to circumvent major issues such as X-ray beam damage of hydrated samples, as dwell times during scanning are reduced. They are also helping to reduce temporal beamtime requirements, making particularly time-consuming techniques such as micro X-ray fluorescence ({mu}XRF) tomography increasingly feasible. This article focuses on {mu}XRF mapping of nutrients and metalloids in environmental samples, and suggests that the current divide between mapping and speciation techniques will be increasingly blurred by the development of combined approaches. (orig.)

  3. Characterization of microenvironment polarity and solvent accessibility of polysilsesquioxane xerogels by the fluorescent probe technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shea, K.J.; Zhu, H.D. [Univ., of California, Irvine, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Loy, D.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Poly (1, 4 bis(triethoxysilyl)benzene) (PTESB), a representative of a new type of organic-inorganic hybrid polysilsesquioxane material, was characterized by fluorescence spectroscopy for both microenvironmental polarity and solvent accessibility. A dansyl fluorescent molecule was incorporated into the bulk as well as onto the surface of both PTESB and silica materials. Information about the microenvironment polarity and accessibility of PTESB to various organic solvents was determined and compared to that of silica gel. This study found that both the bulk and surface of PTESB are less polar than that of the silica material. The silica material is accessible to polar solvents and water, while YMB is accessible to polar solvents but not to water. The hydrophobicity of PTESB differentiates these new materials from silica gel.

  4. Hyperspectral fluorescence imaging coupled with multivariate image analysis techniques for contaminant screening of leafy greens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everard, Colm D.; Kim, Moon S.; Lee, Hoyoung

    2014-05-01

    The production of contaminant free fresh fruit and vegetables is needed to reduce foodborne illnesses and related costs. Leafy greens grown in the field can be susceptible to fecal matter contamination from uncontrolled livestock and wild animals entering the field. Pathogenic bacteria can be transferred via fecal matter and several outbreaks of E.coli O157:H7 have been associated with the consumption of leafy greens. This study examines the use of hyperspectral fluorescence imaging coupled with multivariate image analysis to detect fecal contamination on Spinach leaves (Spinacia oleracea). Hyperspectral fluorescence images from 464 to 800 nm were captured; ultraviolet excitation was supplied by two LED-based line light sources at 370 nm. Key wavelengths and algorithms useful for a contaminant screening optical imaging device were identified and developed, respectively. A non-invasive screening device has the potential to reduce the harmful consequences of foodborne illnesses.

  5. Neutron Scattering in Biology Techniques and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Fitter, Jörg; Katsaras, John

    2006-01-01

    The advent of new neutron facilities and the improvement of existing sources and instruments world wide supply the biological community with many new opportunities in the areas of structural biology and biological physics. The present volume offers a clear description of the various neutron-scattering techniques currently being used to answer biologically relevant questions. Their utility is illustrated through examples by some of the leading researchers in the field of neutron scattering. This volume will be a reference for researchers and a step-by-step guide for young scientists entering the field and the advanced graduate student.

  6. Inverse Raman effect: applications and detection techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, L.J. Jr.

    1980-08-01

    The processes underlying the inverse Raman effect are qualitatively described by comparing it to the more familiar phenomena of conventional and stimulated Raman scattering. An experession is derived for the inverse Raman absorption coefficient, and its relationship to the stimulated Raman gain is obtained. The power requirements of the two fields are examined qualitatively and quantitatively. The assumption that the inverse Raman absorption coefficient is constant over the interaction length is examined. Advantages of the technique are discussed and a brief survey of reported studies is presented

  7. Inverse Raman effect: applications and detection techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, L.J. Jr.

    1980-08-01

    The processes underlying the inverse Raman effect are qualitatively described by comparing it to the more familiar phenomena of conventional and stimulated Raman scattering. An experession is derived for the inverse Raman absorption coefficient, and its relationship to the stimulated Raman gain is obtained. The power requirements of the two fields are examined qualitatively and quantitatively. The assumption that the inverse Raman absorption coefficient is constant over the interaction length is examined. Advantages of the technique are discussed and a brief survey of reported studies is presented.

  8. Oncologic applications of diagnostic imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrest, L.J.; Thrall, D.E.

    1995-01-01

    Before appropriate therapy can be instituted for a cancer patient, the presence and extent of tumor must be evaluated. Deciding which imaging technique to use depends on tumor location, type, and biologic behavior. Conventional radiography provides important information at a relatively low cost compared with other imaging modalities. Ultrasound is a valuable adjunct to radiography, but does not replace it because both imaging modalities provide unique information. Nuclear medicine procedures contribute additional, unique data by providing physiological information, but specificity is lacking. Both CT and MRI provide images with exquisite anatomic detail, but availability and cost prohibit their general use

  9. A Novel Molecular Fluorescent Technique for Imaging the Somatostatin Receptor 2, Using a DOTATOC Lanthanide Conjugate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune Wiik; Prakash, Vineet; Stensballe, Allan

    -functional DOTATOC component.                       METHOD AND MATERIALS            The chelation of Europium and Samarium to DOTATOC was proven using MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry. The rise in quantum yield between unchelated lanthanides and those bound by DOTATOC was examined using fluorescence spectroscopy...

  10. Applications of probabilistic techniques at NRC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thadani, A.; Rowsome, F.; Speis, T.

    1984-01-01

    The NRC is currently making extensive use of probabilistic safety assessment in the reactor regulation. Most of these applications have been introduced in the regulatory activities in the past few years. Plant Probabilistic Safety Studies are being utilized as a design tool for applications for standard designs and for assessment of plants located in regions of particularly high population density. There is considerable motivation for licenses to perform plant-specific probabilistic studies for many, if not all, of the existing operating nuclear power plants as a tool for prioritizing the implementation of the many outstanding licensing actions of these plants as well as recommending the elimination of a number of these issues which are judged to be insignificant in terms of their contribution to safety and risk. Risk assessment perspectives are being used in the priorization of generic safety issues, development of technical resolution of unresolved safety issues, assessing safety significance of proposed new regulatory requirements, assessment of safety significance of some of the occurrences at operating facilities and in environmental impact analyses of license applicants as required by the National Environmental Policy Act. (orig.)

  11. Application of activation techniques to biological analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, H.J.M.

    1981-01-01

    Applications of activation analysis in the biological sciences are reviewed for the period of 1970 to 1979. The stages and characteristics of activation analysis are described, and its advantages and disadvantages enumerated. Most applications involve activation by thermal neutrons followed by either radiochemical or instrumental determination. Relatively little use has been made of activation by fast neutrons, photons, or charged particles. In vivo analyses are included, but those based on prompt gamma or x-ray emission are not. Major applications include studies of reference materials, and the elemental analysis of plants, marine biota, animal and human tissues, diets, and excreta. Relatively little use of it has been made in biochemistry, microbiology, and entomology, but it has become important in toxicology and environmental science. The elements most often determined are Ag, As, Au, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, I, K, Mn, Mo, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, and Zn, while few or no determinations of B, Be, Bi, Ga, Gd, Ge, H, In, Ir, Li, Nd, Os, Pd, Pr, Pt, Re, Rh, Ru, Te, Tl, or Y have been made in biological materials

  12. Application of exploration geochemistry techniques in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, G.P. Jr.; Fernandez, L.G.; Petrache, C.A.; Almoneda, R.V.; Rosales, C.M.

    1989-01-01

    Soil samples collected from Tarlac, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Bulacan, Laguna and Quezon provinces were analyzed for Zn, Mn, Cu, Fe, Co, Pb, and Ni using two analytical methods - Smith and Lynch (S and L) element extraction technique used in exploration geochemical survey and the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) technique for determining zinc availability in soil. The analytical results were treated statistically using the method of Lepeltier to obtain the background values. The background, or average concentrations of the elements obtained by the S and L method were an order-higher than those computed for the IRRI method. The different metal value contour maps of northwestern Luzon were multiplied by its corresponding metal ratio, IRRI/S and L to produce the agri-geochemical maps or agri-maps that show approximate trace element levels available to the plant. The agri-maps of northwestern Luzon show a region wide deficiency in Cu, Zn, Mn, Pb, Co, and Ni, with the exception of Baguio Area. It has been recognized that excess deficiency in certain minor or trace elements in, particularly the essential micronutrient elements, is one of the important factors in agricultural productivity. It is therefore, recommended that in order to assure the necessary level of trace elements in northwestern Luzon, additions of at least copper, zinc and manganese be provided together with the needed fertilizer. (Author). 14 figs.; 14 refs.; 4 tabs

  13. Applications of observational techniques in pavement engineering

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, WJVDM

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available available at CSIR BE. The technology used to obtain the images at each of the resolutions and wavelengths, as well as the benefits and limitations and typical applications of the groups of images are as follows: 3.1 Visible waveband, Mm resolution... of technology enabled an increase in the scope of potential observations that is spreading towards the larger and smaller realms of visibility. In this sense observations can be made on a scale from very large artefacts (such as the earth) to very small...

  14. Real analysis modern techniques and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Folland, Gerald B

    1999-01-01

    An in-depth look at real analysis and its applications-now expanded and revised.This new edition of the widely used analysis book continues to cover real analysis in greater detail and at a more advanced level than most books on the subject. Encompassing several subjects that underlie much of modern analysis, the book focuses on measure and integration theory, point set topology, and the basics of functional analysis. It illustrates the use of the general theories and introduces readers to other branches of analysis such as Fourier analysis, distribution theory, and probability theory.This edi

  15. A Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) Technique for the Measurement of Solute Transport Across Surfactant-Laden Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Edward P.; Hatton, T. Alan

    1996-01-01

    The technique of Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) has been applied to the measurement of interfacial transport in two-phase systems. FRAP exploits the loss of fluorescence exhibited by certain fluorophores when over-stimulated (photobleached), so that a two-phase system, originally at equilibrium, can be perturbed without disturbing the interface by strong light from an argon-ion laser and its recovery monitored by a microscope-mounted CCD camera as it relaxes to a new equilibrium. During this relaxation, the concentration profiles of the probe solute are measured on both sides of the interface as a function of time, yielding information about the transport characteristics of the system. To minimize the size of the meniscus between the two phases, a photolithography technique is used to selectively treat the glass walls of the cell in which the phases are contained. This allows concentration measurements to be made very close to the interface and increases the sensitivity of the FRAP technique.

  16. Quick synthesis of 2-propanol derived fluorescent carbon dots for bioimaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angamuthu, Raja; Palanisamy, Priya; Vasudevan, Vasanthakumar; Nagarajan, Sedhu; Rajendran, Ramesh; Vairamuthu, Raj

    2018-04-01

    Herein, for the first time, we present a one-pot ingenious preparative method for fluorescent carbon dots from 2-propanol (2P-CDs) without external treatments. Structure, morphology, chemical composition and fluorescence properties of the 2P-CDs were examined. These results confirm that the as-synthesized 2P-CDs are amorphous, monodispersed, spherical and the average particle size is 2.5 ± 0.7 nm. Most importantly, excitation-dependent emission properties were observed, which suggest that these 2P-CDs may be used in multicolor bioimaging applications. When incubated with HeLa cells, the 2P-CDs exhibit low cytotoxicity, and positive biocompatibility. Confocal microscopy image shows the uptake of 2P-CDs by HeLa cells and the application of probable biomarker is demonstrated.

  17. Multifunctional Fluorescent-Magnetic Polymeric Colloidal Particles: Preparations and Bioanalytical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewsaneha, Chariya; Tangboriboonrat, Pramuan; Polpanich, Duangporn; Elaissari, Abdelhamid

    2015-10-28

    Fluorescent-magnetic particles (FMPs) play important roles in modern materials, especially as nanoscale devices in the biomedical field. The interesting features of FMPs are attributed to their dual detection ability, i.e., fluorescent and magnetic modes. Functionalization of FMPs can be performed using several types of polymers, allowing their use in various applications. The synergistic potentials for unique multifunctional, multilevel targeting nanoscale devices as well as combination therapies make them particularly attractive for biomedical applications. However, the synthesis of FMPs is challenging and must be further developed. In this review article, we summarized the most recent representative works on polymer-based FMP systems that have been applied particularly in the bioanalytical field.

  18. Demonstration of lipofuscin and Nissl bodies in crystal violet stained sections using a fluorescence technique or pyronin Y stain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terr, L I

    1986-09-01

    This paper presents two simple, reliable methods for identification of lipofuscin and Nissl bodies in the same section. One method shows that lipofuscin stained with crystal violet retains its ability to fluoresce and can be observed under the fluorescence microscope after the stain has faded. Fading is accompanied by a gradual increase in the intensity of the fluorescence and is complete in about 5 min. Exciting illumination from this part of the spectrum also substantially fades staining of other autofluorescing tissue elements, such as lipids. Nonfluorescing structures, such as Nissl bodies, remain stained. By changing from transillumination with tungsten light to epifluorescent illumination and vice versa, both types of structures--Nissl bodies and lipofuscin--can be identified in the same section. The second technique uses pyronin Y for staining Nissl bodies in preparations previously stained with crystal violet. Nissl bodies are stained pink but lipofuscin remains violet. Lipofuscin in these sections also remains autofluorescent after the crystal violet stain has faded under violet or near-UV light.

  19. Numerical evaluation of droplet sizing based on the ratio of fluorescent and scattered light intensities (LIF/Mie technique)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charalampous, Georgios; Hardalupas, Yannis

    2011-01-01

    The dependence of fluorescent and scattered light intensities from spherical droplets on droplet diameter was evaluated using Mie theory. The emphasis is on the evaluation of droplet sizing, based on the ratio of laser-induced fluorescence and scattered light intensities (LIF/Mie technique). A parametric study is presented, which includes the effects of scattering angle, the real part of the refractive index and the dye concentration in the liquid (determining the imaginary part of the refractive index). The assumption that the fluorescent and scattered light intensities are proportional to the volume and surface area of the droplets for accurate sizing measurements is not generally valid. More accurate sizing measurements can be performed with minimal dye concentration in the liquid and by collecting light at a scattering angle of 60 deg. rather than the commonly used angle of 90 deg. Unfavorable to the sizing accuracy are oscillations of the scattered light intensity with droplet diameter that are profound at the sidescatter direction (90 deg.) and for droplets with refractive indices around 1.4.

  20. Characterization of sediments laid on Solimoes/Amazonas river flood plains, using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, Ana E.V.; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F. do

    1997-01-01

    This paper proposes sediment analysis with high light elements fraction using dispersive energy X-ray fluorescence technique with radioisotopic excitation, The proposed procedure is based on the Fundamental Parameters for analytical elements (Z ≥ 13) evaluation, and coherent and incoherent scattered radiation for quantification of the light fraction of the matrix (Z < 13). Laid sediments samples on Solimoes/Amazonas river flood plains were analyzed, determining simultaneously the Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Sc, V, Mn, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr and Zr element concentrations, thus allowing chemical characterization and spatial variability, and some mineralogical and weathering sediments aspects. (author). 15 refs., 11 tabs

  1. Chemical characterization of particulate material at Piracicaba and Atibaia rivers, SP, Brazil, through X-ray fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valencia, Edwin Pastor Espinoza; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F.; Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP

    2000-01-01

    Samples of the particulate materials from Piracicaba and Atibaia rivers were collected on the period form winter(dry period) to summer(wet period) of 1996, at locations on the Piracicaba river bay, SP, by using cellulose acetate membrane of 0.45μm of pore diameter. The analysis have been done by using the energy dispersion instrumental x-ray fluorescence technique, activating those samples with x-ray tubes (target of Mo and filter of Zr on 25 kV - 20 mA) and quantifying the elements K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn by film methodology

  2. Some dispersive X-ray fluorescence applications in energies with radioisotopic excitation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelfang, P.; Vazquez, C.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of this work is based on the use of interelemental correction coefficients which are calculated through fundamental parameters. To this purpose, it is necessary to know about the physical constants for each element including the absorption coefficient values and fluorescence yield, the incidence radiation energy, geometric and instrumental parameters. Besides, a special application of the program for the determination of a Nd-La mixed crystal formula is included. (Author) [es

  3. Application of instrumental neutron activation analysis and X-ray fluorescence analysis in art pieces investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panczyk, E.; Kierzek, J.; Walis, L.; Ligeza, M.

    1996-01-01

    The application of instrumental neutron activation analysis have been shown for the trace element identification in dyes of old painting and other art objects. The recognition of their composition is a important measure for attribution. Also the X-ray fluorescence analysis has been frequently used for examination of art objects. The age determination of the old chinese porcelain is a good example described in the paper. 20 refs, 4 figs

  4. Fluorescence-based biosensor for monitoring of environmental pollutants: From concept to field application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidmanova, Sarka; Kotlanova, Marketa; Rataj, Tomas; Damborsky, Jiri; Trtilek, Martin; Prokop, Zbynek

    2016-10-15

    An advanced optical biosensor was developed based on the enzymatic reaction with halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons that is accompanied by the fluorescence change of pH indicator. The device is applicable for the detection of halogenated contaminants in water samples with pH ranging from 4 to 10 and temperature ranging from 5 to 60°C. Main advantages of the developed biosensor are small size (60×30×190mm(3)) and portability, which together with short measurement time of 1min belong to crucial attributes of analytical technique useful for routine environmental monitoring. The biosensor was successfully applied for the detection of several important halogenated pollutants under laboratory conditions, e.g., 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,2,3-trichloropropane and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane, with the limits of detection of 2.7, 1.4 and 12.1mgL(-1), respectively. The continuous monitoring was demonstrated by repetitive injection of halogenated compound into measurement solution. Consequently, field trials under environmental settings were performed. The presence of 1,2-dichloroethane (10mgL(-1)) was proved unambiguously on one of three potentially contaminated sites in Czech Republic, and the same contaminant was monitored on contaminated locality in Serbia. Equipped by Global Positioning System, the biosensor was used for creation of a precise map of contamination. Concentrations determined by biosensor and by gas chromatograph coupled with mass spectrometer exhibited the correlation coefficient of 0.92, providing a good confidence for the routine use of the biosensor system in both field screening and monitoring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Micro-beam X-ray fluorescence and absorption imaging techniques at the IAEA Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegrzynek, Dariusz; Markowicz, A.; Bamford, S.; Chinea-Cano, E.; Bogovac, M.

    2005-01-01

    X-ray tube based, micro-beam X-ray fluorescence scanning spectrometer has been equipped with two energy dispersive X-ray detectors. The two-detector configuration allows for simultaneous collection of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and transmitted X-ray beam signals with a spatial resolution in the range of 10-50 μm, depending on the X-ray focussing element in use. The XRF signal is collected with a standard, liquid nitrogen cooled Si(Li) detector. The X-ray beam transmitted through the sample is acquired with a thermoelectrically cooled, silicon drift (SD) detector. The data acquisition is carried out in a fully automatic way under control of the SPECTOR-LOCATOR software. The software controls the scanning procedure and X-ray spectra acquisition during the scan. The energy dispersive X-ray spectra collected at every 'pixel' are stored for off-line processing. For selected regions of interest (ROI's), the element maps are constructed and displayed on-line. The spectrometer has been used for mapping elemental distributions and for performing 2D- and 3D-tomograpic imaging of minute objects in X-ray absorption and in X-ray fluorescence mode. A unique feature of the described system is simultaneous utilization of the two detectors, Si(Li) and SD, which adds new options for quantitative analysis and data interpretation. Examples of elemental mapping and 3D tomographic imaging as well as the advanced features of the SPECTOR-LOCATOR measurement control and data acquisition software are presented in this work

  6. A novel pH sensitive water soluble fluorescent nanomicellar sensor for potential biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Nikolai I; Bryaskova, Rayna; Tzoneva, Rumiana; Ugrinova, Iva; Detrembleur, Christophe; Miloshev, Stoyan; Asiri, Abdullah M; Qusti, Abdullah H; Bojinov, Vladimir B

    2013-11-01

    Herein we report on the synthesis and sensor activity of a novel pH sensitive probe designed as highly water-soluble fluorescent micelles by grafting of 1,8-naphthalimide-rhodamine bichromophoric FRET system (RNI) to the PMMA block of a well-defined amphiphilic diblock copolymer-poly(methyl methacrylate)-b-poly(methacrylic acid) (PMMA48-b-PMAA27). The RNI-PMMA48-b-PMAA27 adduct is capable of self-assembling into micelles with a hydrophobic PMMA core, containing the anchored fluorescent probe, and a hydrophilic shell composed of PMAA block. Novel fluorescent micelles are able to serve as a highly sensitive pH probe in water and to internalize successfully HeLa and HEK cells. Furthermore, they showed cell specificity and significantly higher photostability than that of a pure organic dye label such as BODIPY. The valuable properties of the newly prepared fluorescent micelles indicate the high potential of the probe for future biological and biomedical applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A review on syntheses, properties, characterization and bioanalytical applications of fluorescent carbon dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo, Pengli; Lu, Xiuhua; Sun, Zhigang; Guo, Yuhan; He, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dots (C-dots) are a kind of fluorescent nanoparticles that are strongly fluorescent, non-blinking, and can be easily synthesized at low cost. Their emission color can be tuned by varying the excitation wavelength. Their properties make them strong competitors to semiconductor quantum dots. Synthetic approaches for C-dots can be classified into two categories, viz. top-down and bottom-up methods. Surface passivated and functionalized C-dots can be utilized to sense pH values, metal ions and organic molecules. Owing to their low cytotoxicity, biocompatibility and impressive photostability, long-term observations become possible. C-dots also show promise as labels and for bioimaging. This review (with 142 refs.) is divided into several sections. The first covers commonly used methods for preparation of C-dots including laser ablation, arc discharge, electrochemical methods, pyrolytic processes, template based methods, microwave assisted methods, chemical oxidation methods, reverse micelle based methods, etc. The first section also covers methods for surface functionalization and passivation. We continue by discussing the spectroscopic properties and other physical and chemical properties of C-dots (fluorescence, up-conversion fluorescence, methods for enhancing photoluminescence, effects of pH value, cytotoxicity, etc.). Another section covers the characterization including TEM and XRD. Applications in biology are summarized and subdivided into in vitro imaging, in vivo imaging, chemical probe, quantitation of biomacromolecules, but also in drug delivery, photoacoustic imaging and anticancer therapy. We finally discuss current challenges and perspectives in this promising field. (author)

  8. Trace elements in tobacco and tobacco smoke by x-ray fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, U.C.; Shaikh, G.N.; Sadasivan, S.

    1986-01-01

    Trace elements in tobacco and tobacco smoke of a large number of commonly available brands of cigarettes were analyzed by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence. This work supplements the data on the same samples gathered by INAA and reported earlier. Data on some toxic elements like Pb, Cu and Ni that could not be measured by INAA are presented. A number of chewing and snuff tobacco samples were also analyzed. The concentrations of Ca, K, Cl, Br, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, Ti and Zn in all these samples are presented and their relative hazards are discussed. (author)

  9. Application of tracer technique in cement industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baran'ai, L.

    1979-01-01

    Application is stated of the radioisotope indication method in the cement industry. The method was applied in three directions. In the first direction, by means of labelling of 300 steel mill balls by cobalt-60, wear of them was examined. The degree of wear of milling balls in the process of milling was determined according to the decrease of their weight. Radioactive label served only for tracing controll balls. In the second direction, according to the natural radioactivity being presented in ashes by radioisotopes radium-226 and thorium-229, amount of ashes in the products of cement milling was determined (in the mill product, cement product, flying dust and back loading groats). In the third direction, by means of labelling of definite fractions of mille by radioisotope gold-198, optimization of technological parameters of silos were raw meal is homogenization. The following technological parameters have been established: amount of homogenized material; time of homogenization and frequency of intensity changing of supplied compressed air jet [ru

  10. Application of on-line analytical processing technique in accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Dong; Li Weimin; He Duohui; Liu Gongfa; Xuan Ke

    2005-01-01

    A method of application of the on-line analytical processing technique in accelerator is described, which includes data pre-processing, the process of constructing of data warehouse and on-line analytical processing. (authors)

  11. Portable flash X-ray systems: applications and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, L.E.

    1976-01-01

    Three portable flash x-ray equipments are described, and applications such as jet and high explosive studies, bullet impact and lead casting experiments are given as well as techniques for triggering and protection of equipment and film

  12. Application of portable in situ UV fluorescence sensors in natural and engineered aquatic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Bethany; Rushworth, Cathy; Atrridge, John

    2016-04-01

    Natural organic matter (NOM) is ubiquitous throughout aquatic systems. This heterogeneous mixture of organic matter is central for aquatic ecosystems and, both local and global, biogeochemical cycling. Improvements in technology and data analysis has allowed for advances in the understanding and characterisation of aquatic organic matter. However, much of the technological expansions have focussed on benchtop instruments. In recent years, there has been interest in the continued development of portable in situ sensors for monitoring NOM characteristics within a wide range of applications, spanning both natural and engineered systems. The UviLux (Chelsea Technologies Group Ltd., UK) is an in situ portable UV fluorescence sensor that can be configured to monitor a range of NOM in aquatic systems, as well as anthropogenic inputs such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and optical brighteners. Here we will focus on the use of the Tryptophan and CDOM UviLux sensors across a variety of applications in both natural systems, such as rivers and leachate into groundwater, and engineered systems, including drinking water and waste water treatment. Recent work has focused on standardising the fluorescence output across the UviLux range of sensors, reporting data in quinine sulphate units (QSU), which enables the output from two different fluorometers to be directly compared both to each other, and to bench-top data. A key advantage of deploying multiple sensors is the ability to fingerprint the fluorescence, by providing, for example, a Tryptophan/CDOM ratio. From the data collected, the ratio of the different fluorescence regions has been shown to provide more robust in situ data and help identify true temporal variations and patterns across multiple applications and sampling locations.

  13. Dosimetry techniques for applications of incorporated radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, R.W.; Rao, D.V.; Haydock, C.

    1989-01-01

    Beta particle emitters are attracting attention as the radiolabels of choice for therapeutic radiopharmaceutical. Their use in cancer therapy has drawn attention to a variety of problems in estimating the absorbed dose to primary tumors and metastases from incorporated Β-emitters. Experimental evidence indicates that the distribution of radiopharmaceutical, such as radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies, is highly nonuniform in tumor tissue. Three levels of nonuniformity may be noted: (1) inhomogeneity at the macroscopic level due to poor penetration of the radiopharmaceutical into the tumor, (2) microscopic inhomogeneity due to large variations in the number of binding sites on the tumor cells, and (3) nonuniformity at the subcellular level. Conventional application of the MIRD Schema for calculating absorbed doses from incorporated radionuclides may be inadequate under these circumstances since this approach assumes that the, distribution of radioactivity in the organ is uniform. The conventional dosimetry may be modified to handle inhomogeneous activity distributions by dividing the tumor into a number of subregions. At the macroscopic level a spherical tumor may be broken up into a group of concentric annular regions of tissue. At the microscopic level the tumor or metastasis may be considered as a multicellular cluster which in essence divides the tumor into many subtumors of cellular dimensions. Finally, at the subcellular level, a cancer cell may be viewed as consisting of several compartments: the cell membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus. In each case absorbed fractions, and therefore the total absorbed doses, may be calculated for the various subregions of the tumor using standard MIRD procedures. Using macroscopic and multicellular dosimetry models, the relative importance of these various levels of inhomogeneity in radionuclide distribution is examined. A dosimetry model which accounts for the possible time dependence of the tumor mass is formulated

  14. Recent Applications of Fluorescence Recovery after Photobleaching (FRAP) to Membrane Bio-Macromolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayan, Gamal; Guet, Jean-Erik; Taulier, Nicolas; Pincet, Frederic; Urbach, Wladimir

    2010-01-01

    This review examines some recent applications of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) to biopolymers, while mainly focusing on membrane protein studies. Initially, we discuss the lateral diffusion of membrane proteins, as measured by FRAP. Then, we talk about the use of FRAP to probe interactions between membrane proteins by obtaining fundamental information such as geometry and stoichiometry of the interacting complex. Afterwards, we discuss some applications of FRAP at the cellular level as well as the level of organisms. We conclude by comparing diffusion coefficients obtained by FRAP and several other alternative methods. PMID:22219695

  15. Recent Applications of Fluorescence Recovery after Photobleaching (FRAP to Membrane Bio-Macromolecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal Rayan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This review examines some recent applications of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP to biopolymers, while mainly focusing on membrane protein studies. Initially, we discuss the lateral diffusion of membrane proteins, as measured by FRAP. Then, we talk about the use of FRAP to probe interactions between membrane proteins by obtaining fundamental information such as geometry and stoichiometry of the interacting complex. Afterwards, we discuss some applications of FRAP at the cellular level as well as the level of organisms. We conclude by comparing diffusion coefficients obtained by FRAP and several other alternative methods.

  16. The determination of gold in activated charcoal by use of a loose-powder technique and x-ray-fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaes, A.M.E.

    1984-01-01

    The method of analysis described is applicable to samples of activated charcoal with a gold concentration of 15g/t and higher. The use of a loose-powder technique minimizes the time taken for the preparation of samples. A platinum internal standard is used for the correction for matrix effects and for differences that could be caused by the packing of the loose charcoal into liquid-sample cups. The precision of the method ranges from a relative standard deviation of 0,085 to 0,016 for concentrations of gold from 67 to 3800g/t respectively. The agreement between the recommended values for a set of reference samples and the values obtained by the X-ray-fluorescence method is better than 3 per cent. The overall time required for the analysis of ten samples and standards is approximately 1 hour. A detailed laboratory method and a computer programme for the calculations are given as appendices

  17. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence and archaeometry: Application in the Argentinean cultural heritage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, Cristina [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral Paz 1499 (B1650KNA) San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Laboratorio de Quimica de Sistemas Heterogeneos, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Buenos Aires, P. Colon 850 (C1063ACU), Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: Cristina.Vazquez@cnea.gov.ar; Albornoz, Ana [Agencia Rio Negro Cultura, Museo de la Patagonia F.P.Moreno, Centro Civico s/n Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina); Hajduk, Adam [CONICET, Museo de la Patagonia F.P.Moreno, Centro Civico s/n Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina); Elkin, Dolores [CONICET Instituto Nacional de Antropologia y Pensamiento Latinoamericano, 3 de febrero 1378 (C1426AEL) Buenos Aires (Argentina); Custo, Graciela; Obrustky, Alba [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral Paz 1499 (B1650KNA) San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2008-12-15

    Archaeometry is an interdisciplinary research area involved in the development and use of scientific methods in order to answer questions concerned with the human history. In this way the knowledge of archaeological objects through advanced chemical and physical analyses permits a better preservation and conservation of the cultural heritage and also reveals materials and technologies used in the past. In this sense, analytical techniques play an important role in order to provide chemical information about cultural objects. Considering the non destructive characteristic of this study, analytical techniques must be adequate in order to prevent any alteration or damage and in addition to allow the conservation of their integrity. Taking into account the irreplaceable character of the archaeological and artistic materials considered in this study, analytical techniques must be adequate in order to prevent any alteration or damage and in addition to allow the conservation of their integrity. Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry as a geometric variant of conventional X-ray fluorescence is a proved microanalytical technique considering the small amount of sample required for the analysis. A few micrograms are enough in order to reveal valuable information about elemental composition and in this context it is highly recommended for artwork studies. In this paper a case study is presented in which Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry has been successfully employed in the archaeometry field. Examples from Argentinean cultural heritage sites related with the determination of pigments in paintings on canvas and in rock sites as well as in underwater archaeology research are shown.

  18. Elemental chemical characterization of coins of currently national circulating by X-ray fluorescence non-destructive techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivera, Paula; Calcina, Esly

    2013-01-01

    Given the frequent counterfeit bills and coins is proposed in this paper to identify the elemental chemical composition; for now, the current official currencies circulating in our country, by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence technique and non-destructive methods, the goal is to compare with the false and establish the differences that could help identify them immediately taking advantage of the fast response of this technique. Have been identified the elements Al in the coins of 5 cents, Cu and Zn for 10 and 20 cents, Ni, Cu and Zn for 50 cents and a Un Nuevo Sol and Cr, Cu and Zn 2 coins 5 Nuevos Soles. 57 Peruvian coins of different production years and a counterfeit coin of 5 Nuevos Soles have been analyzed, finding Cu and Zn in central part and Fe in circulating edge ring, looking for this one the absence of Ni and Cr, which in the official currency was found. (authors).

  19. Establishment of 60Co dose calibration curve using fluorescent in situ hybridization assay technique: Result of preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimah Abdul Rahim; Noriah Jamal; Noraisyah Mohd Yusof; Juliana Mahamad Napiah; Nelly Bo Nai Lee

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at establishing an in-vitro 60 Co dose calibration curve using Fluorescent In-Situ Hybridization assay technique for the Malaysian National Bio dosimetry Laboratory. Blood samples collected from a female healthy donor were irradiated with several doses of 60 Co radiation. Following culturing of lymphocytes, microscopic slides are prepared, denatured and hybridized. The frequencies of translocation are estimated in the metaphases. A calibration curve was then generated using a regression technique. It shows a good fit to a linear-quadratic model. The results of this study might be useful in estimating absorbed dose for the individual exposed to ionizing radiation retrospectively. This information may be useful as a guide for medical treatment for the assessment of possible health consequences. (author)

  20. Use of Modern Chemical Protein Synthesis and Advanced Fluorescent Assay Techniques to Experimentally Validate the Functional Annotation of Microbial Genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent, Stephen [University of Chicago

    2012-07-20

    The objective of this research program was to prototype methods for the chemical synthesis of predicted protein molecules in annotated microbial genomes. High throughput chemical methods were to be used to make large numbers of predicted proteins and protein domains, based on microbial genome sequences. Microscale chemical synthesis methods for the parallel preparation of peptide-thioester building blocks were developed; these peptide segments are used for the parallel chemical synthesis of proteins and protein domains. Ultimately, it is envisaged that these synthetic molecules would be ‘printed’ in spatially addressable arrays. The unique ability of total synthesis to precision label protein molecules with dyes and with chemical or biochemical ‘tags’ can be used to facilitate novel assay technologies adapted from state-of-the art single molecule fluorescence detection techniques. In the future, in conjunction with modern laboratory automation this integrated set of techniques will enable high throughput experimental validation of the functional annotation of microbial genomes.

  1. The application of different techniques to determine activated sludge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The application of different techniques to determine activated sludge kinetic parameters in a food industry wastewater. ... method) and a respirometric technique based on oxygen consumption measurements, were used to compare microbial parameters using a wastewater model system of a potato processing plant.

  2. Radioanalytical techniques and their application in forensic science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, N.

    1998-01-01

    Neutron techniques mainly in the form of Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) is suitable for determination of very low amounts of many elements and can be effectively applied in crime investigation. Trace element analysis plays a significant role in forensic science. Different aspects of radioanalytical techniques, role of a few typical elements and their forensic application in different types of samples are discussed

  3. An integrated fluorescence detection system in poly(dimethylsiloxane) for microfluidic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabinyc, M L; Chiu, D T; McDonald, J C; Stroock, A D; Christian, J F; Karger, A M; Whitesides, G M

    2001-09-15

    This paper describes a prototype of an integrated fluorescence detection system that uses a microavalanche photodiode (microAPD) as the photodetector for microfluidic devices fabricated in poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS). The prototype device consisted of a reusable detection system and a disposable microfluidic system that was fabricated using rapid prototyping. The first step of the procedure was the fabrication of microfluidic channels in PDMS and the encapsulation of a multimode optical fiber (100-microm core diameter) in the PDMS; the tip of the fiber was placed next to the side wall of one of the channels. The optical fiber was used to couple light into the microchannel for the excitation of fluorescent analytes. The photodetector, a prototype solid-state microAPD array, was embedded in a thick slab (1 cm) of PDMS. A thin (80 microm) colored polycarbonate filter was placed on the top of the embedded microAPD to absorb scattered excitation light before it reached the detector. The microAPD was placed below the microchannel and orthogonal to the axis of the optical fiber. The close proximity (approximately 200 microm) of the microAPD to the microchannel made it unnecessary to incorporate transfer optics; the pixel size of the microAPD (30 microm) matched the dimensions of the channels (50 microm). A blue light-emitting diode was used for fluorescence excitation. The microAPD was operated in Geiger mode to detect the fluorescence. The detection limit of the prototype (approximately 25 nM) was determined by finding the minimum detectable concentration of a solution of fluorescein. The device was used to detect the separation of a mixture of proteins and small molecules by capillary electrophoresis; the separation illustrated the suitability of this integrated fluorescence detection system for bioanalytical applications.

  4. DIRECT AND INDIRECT FLUORESCENT-ANTIBODY TECHNIQUES FOR THE PSITTACOSIS-LYMPHOGRANULOMA VENEREUM-TRACHOMA GROUP OF AGENTS1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Martin R.; Borman, Earle K.

    1963-01-01

    Ross, Martin R. (Connecticut State Department of Health, Hartford) and Earle K. Borman. Direct and indirect fluorescent-antibody techniques for the psittacosis-lymphogranuloma venereum-trachoma group of agents. J. Bacteriol. 85:851–858. 1963.—Direct and indirect fluorescent-antibody (FA) techniques were developed for the detection of group antigen in infected tissue cultures and the titration of group antibody in human antiserum. The growth of the agent of meningopneumonitis (MP) in mouse embryo lung cell monolayers was followed by infectivity and complement-fixing (CF) antigen titrations, and cytological examination of FA stained cultures. Although infectivity and CF antigen reached a peak at 2 days and remained constant for an additional 3 days, only cells tested 2 to 3 days after infection were suitable for FA staining with labeled anti-MP serum because of excessive artifacts in the older cultures. Fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled rooster and guinea pig anti-MP serums and human antipsittacosis serums were titrated in direct FA and hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) tests. The rooster conjugate showed brighter staining and higher antibody titers than the guinea pig or human conjugates and was more effective in detecting minimal amounts of virus antigen. FA staining reactions with 1 and 2 units of labeled rooster serum were inhibited by unlabeled rooster serum but clear-cut inhibition with human antipsittacosis serum could not be demonstrated. The indirect FA technique was successfully used for the titration of group antibody in human serum. A comparison of the indirect FA, HI, and CF tests showed the indirect FA technique to be intermediate in sensitivity between the HI and CF tests. None of the three tests showed significant cross reactions with human serums reactive for influenza A and B; parainfluenza 1, 2, and 3; respiratory syncytial virus; Q fever; or the primary atypical pneumonia agent. PMID:14044954

  5. In vivo mitochondrial oxygen tension measured by a delayed fluorescence lifetime technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mik, Egbert G.; Johannes, Tanja; Zuurbier, Coert J.; Heinen, Andre; Houben-Weerts, Judith H. P. M.; Balestra, Gianmarco M.; Stap, Jan; Beek, Johan F.; Ince, Can

    2008-01-01

    Mitochondrial oxygen tension (mitoPO(2)) is a key parameter for cellular function, which is considered to be affected under various pathophysiological circumstances. Although many techniques for assessing in vivo oxygenation are available, no technique for measuring mitoPO(2) in vivo exists. Here we

  6. X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy: the Potential of Astrophysics-developed Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvis, M.; Allen, B.; Hong, J.; Grindlay, J.; Kraft, R.; Binzel, R. P.; Masterton, R.

    2012-12-01

    X-ray fluorescence from the surface of airless bodies has been studied since the Apollo X-ray fluorescence experiment mapped parts of the lunar surface in 1971-1972. That experiment used a collimated proportional counter with a resolving power of ~1 and a beam size of ~1degree. Filters separated only Mg, Al and SI lines. We review progress in X-ray detectors and imaging for astrophysics and show how these advances enable much more powerful use of X-ray fluorescence for the study of airless bodies. Astrophysics X-ray instrumentation has developed enormously since 1972. Low noise, high quantum efficiency, X-ray CCDs have flown on ASCA, XMM-Newton, the Chandra X-ray Observatory, Swift and Suzaku, and are the workhorses of X-ray astronomy. They normally span 0.5 to ~8 keV with an energy resolution of ~100 eV. New developments in silicon based detectors, especially individual pixel addressable devices, such as CMOS detectors, can withstand many orders of magnitude more radiation than conventional CCDs before degradation. The capability of high read rates provides dynamic range and temporal resolution. Additionally, the rapid read rates minimize shot noise from thermal dark current and optical light. CMOS detectors can therefore run at warmer temperatures and with ultra-thin optical blocking filters. Thin OBFs mean near unity quantum efficiency below 1 keV, thus maximizing response at the C and O lines.such as CMOS detectors, promise advances. X-ray imaging has advanced similarly far. Two types of imager are now available: specular reflection and coded apertures. X-ray mirrors have been flown on the Einstein Observatory, XMM-Newton, Chandra and others. However, as X-ray reflection only occurs at small (~1degree) incidence angles, which then requires long focal lengths (meters), mirrors are not usually practical for planetary missions. Moreover the field of view of X-ray mirrors is comparable to the incident angle, so can only image relatively small regions. More useful

  7. Hybrid fluorescent curcumin loaded zein electrospun nanofibrous scaffold for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brahatheeswaran, Dhandayuthapani; Mathew, Anila; Aswathy, Ravindran Girija; Nagaoka, Yutaka; Yoshida, Yasuhiko; Maekawa, Toru; Sakthikumar, D; Venugopal, K

    2012-01-01

    Nanomedicine utilizes engineered nanodevices and nanostructures for monitoring, repair, construction and control of human biological systems at the molecular level. In this study, we investigated the feasibility and potential of zein nanofiber as a delivery vehicle for curcumin in biomedical applications. By optimizing the electrospinning parameters, ultrafine zein fluorescence nanofibers containing curcumin were developed with interconnected fibrous networks. We found that these nanofibers show an increase in fluorescence due to the incorporation of curcumin. The morphology and material properties of the resulting multifunctional nanofiber including the surface area were examined by a field emission-scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and confocal microscopy. The surface area and pore size were characterized by N 2 adsorption–desorption isotherm. SEM and fluorescence images showed that the uniform fibers with smooth surface had an average diameter of about 310 nm. An in vitro degradation study showed significant morphological changes. The in vitro evaluations suggested that the curcumin incorporated zein nanofibers showed sustained release of curcumin and maintained its free radical scavenging ability. It provides an attractive structure for the attachment and growth of fibroblast as cell culture surfaces. The results demonstrate that the curcumin loaded zein nanofiber could be a good candidate for soft tissue engineering scaffolds and has the potential for further applications in drug delivery system. (paper)

  8. Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustavsson, Thomas; Mialocq, Jean-Claude

    2007-01-01

    This article addresses the evolution in time of light emitted by a molecular system after a brief photo-excitation. The authors first describe fluorescence from a photo-physical point of view and discuss the characterization of the excited state. Then, they explain some basic notions related to fluorescence characterization (lifetime and decays, quantum efficiency, so on). They present the different experimental methods and techniques currently used to study time-resolved fluorescence. They discuss basic notions of time resolution and spectral reconstruction. They briefly present some conventional methods: intensified Ccd cameras, photo-multipliers and photodiodes associated with a fast oscilloscope, and phase modulation. Other methods and techniques are more precisely presented: time-correlated single photon counting (principle, examples, and fluorescence lifetime imagery), streak camera (principle, examples), and optical methods like the Kerr optical effect (principle and examples) and fluorescence up-conversion (principle and theoretical considerations, examples of application)

  9. Fluorescence background subtraction technique for hybrid fluorescence molecular tomography/x-ray computed tomography imaging of a mouse model of early stage lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ale, Angelique; Ermolayev, Vladimir; Deliolanis, Nikolaos C; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2013-05-01

    The ability to visualize early stage lung cancer is important in the study of biomarkers and targeting agents that could lead to earlier diagnosis. The recent development of hybrid free-space 360-deg fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) and x-ray computed tomography (XCT) imaging yields a superior optical imaging modality for three-dimensional small animal fluorescence imaging over stand-alone optical systems. Imaging accuracy was improved by using XCT information in the fluorescence reconstruction method. Despite this progress, the detection sensitivity of targeted fluorescence agents remains limited by nonspecific background accumulation of the fluorochrome employed, which complicates early detection of murine cancers. Therefore we examine whether x-ray CT information and bulk fluorescence detection can be combined to increase detection sensitivity. Correspondingly, we research the performance of a data-driven fluorescence background estimator employed for subtraction of background fluorescence from acquisition data. Using mice containing known fluorochromes ex vivo, we demonstrate the reduction of background signals from reconstructed images and sensitivity improvements. Finally, by applying the method to in vivo data from K-ras transgenic mice developing lung cancer, we find small tumors at an early stage compared with reconstructions performed using raw data. We conclude with the benefits of employing fluorescence subtraction in hybrid FMT-XCT for early detection studies.

  10. Measurement of uranium quantities by fluorescence-X using neuronal techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigneron, V.; Martinez, J.M.; Simon, A.C.; Junca, R.

    1995-01-01

    Layered neural networks are a class of models based on neural computation in biological systems. Connexionists models are made of a large number of simple computing structures, highly interconnected. The weights assigned to the connections enable the encoding of the knowledge required for a task. They can be trained to learn any input-output relation after selecting a suitable architecture. This method appears useful in those cases in which a simple operation and a fast response are needed, together with a reasonable accuracy. They are applied here to the automatic analysis of X-ray fluorescence spectra, obtained with plastic bottles irradiate by collimated beam of photons, emitted by a sealed source of iridium. The method could allow the surveillance of the measurement of uranium quantities in nuclear fuel cycles in processing plants. (authors). 11 refs., 4 figs

  11. Quantitative X ray analysis system. User's manual and guide to X ray fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This guide covers trimmed and re-arranged version 3.6 of the Quantitative X ray Analysis System (QXAS) software package that includes the most frequently used methods of quantitative analysis. QXAS is a comprehensive quantitative analysis package that has been developed by the IAEA through research and technical contracts. Additional development has also been carried out in the IAEA Laboratories in Seibersdorf where QXAS was extensively tested. New in this version of the manual are the descriptions of the Voigt-profile peak fitting, the backscatter fundamental parameters' and emission-transmission methods of chemical composition analysis, an expanded chapter on the X ray fluorescence physics, and completely revised and increased number of practical examples of utilization of the QXAS software package. The analytical data accompanying this manual were collected in the IAEA Seibersdorf Laboratories in the years 2006/2007

  12. Dual Colorimetric and Fluorescent Authentication Based on Semiconducting Polymer Dots for Anticounterfeiting Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wei-Kai; Lai, Yung-Sheng; Tseng, Po-Jung; Liao, Chia-Hsien; Chan, Yang-Hsiang

    2017-09-13

    Semiconducting polymer dots (Pdots) have recently emerged as a novel type of ultrabright fluorescent probes that can be widely used in analytical sensing and material science. Here, we developed a dual visual reagent based on Pdots for anticounterfeiting applications. We first designed and synthesized two types of photoswitchable Pdots by incorporating photochromic dyes with multicolor semiconducting polymers to modulate their emission intensities and wavelengths. The resulting full-color Pdot assays showed that the colorimetric and fluorescent dual-readout abilities enabled the Pdots to serve as an anticounterfeiting reagent with low background interference. We also doped these Pdots into flexible substrates and prepared these Pdots as inks for pen handwriting as well as inkjet printing. We further applied this reagent in printing paper and checks for high-security anticounterfeiting purposes. We believe that this dual-readout method based on Pdots will create a new avenue for developing new generations of anticounterfeiting technologies.

  13. A dansyl based fluorescence chemosensor for Hg2+ and its application in the complicated environment samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shuai; Zhou, Ze-Quan; Zhao, Xuan-Xuan; Xiao, Yu-Hao; Xi, Gang; Liu, Jin-Ting; Zhao, Bao-Xiang

    2015-09-01

    We have developed a novel fluorescent chemosensor (DAM) based on dansyl and morpholine units for the detection of mercury ion with excellent selectivity and sensitivity. In the presence of Hg2+ in a mixture solution of HEPES buffer (pH 7.5, 20 mM) and MeCN (2/8, v/v) at room temperature, the fluorescence of DAM was almost completely quenched from green to colorless with fast response time. Moreover, DAM also showed its excellent anti-interference capability even in the presence of large amount of interfering ions. It is worth noting that DAM could be used to detect Hg2+ specifically in the Yellow River samples, which significantly implied the potential applications of DAM in the complicated environment samples.

  14. A dansyl based fluorescence chemosensor for Hg(2+) and its application in the complicated environment samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shuai; Zhou, Ze-Quan; Zhao, Xuan-Xuan; Xiao, Yu-Hao; Xi, Gang; Liu, Jin-Ting; Zhao, Bao-Xiang

    2015-09-05

    We have developed a novel fluorescent chemosensor (DAM) based on dansyl and morpholine units for the detection of mercury ion with excellent selectivity and sensitivity. In the presence of Hg(2+) in a mixture solution of HEPES buffer (pH 7.5, 20 mM) and MeCN (2/8, v/v) at room temperature, the fluorescence of DAM was almost completely quenched from green to colorless with fast response time. Moreover, DAM also showed its excellent anti-interference capability even in the presence of large amount of interfering ions. It is worth noting that DAM could be used to detect Hg(2+) specifically in the Yellow River samples, which significantly implied the potential applications of DAM in the complicated environment samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Intelligent techniques in engineering management theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Onar, Sezi

    2015-01-01

    This book presents recently developed intelligent techniques with applications and theory in the area of engineering management. The involved applications of intelligent techniques such as neural networks, fuzzy sets, Tabu search, genetic algorithms, etc. will be useful for engineering managers, postgraduate students, researchers, and lecturers. The book has been written considering the contents of a classical engineering management book but intelligent techniques are used for handling the engineering management problem areas. This comprehensive characteristics of the book makes it an excellent reference for the solution of complex problems of engineering management. The authors of the chapters are well-known researchers with their previous works in the area of engineering management.

  16. Contrast-enhanced Spectral Mammography: Technique, Indications, and Clinical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhimani, Chandni; Matta, Danielle; Roth, Robyn G; Liao, Lydia; Tinney, Elizabeth; Brill, Kristin; Germaine, Pauline

    2017-01-01

    Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM) combines the benefits of full field digital mammography with the concept of tumor angiogenesis. Technique and practical applications of CESM are discussed. An overview of the technique is followed by a demonstration of practical applications of CESM in our practice. We have successfully implemented CESM into our practice as a screening, diagnostic, staging, and treatment response tool. It is important to understand the technique of CESM and how to incorporate it into practice. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Application of functional analysis techniques to supervisory systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, Manuel; Riera, Bernard; Martel, Gregory

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to apply firstly two interesting functional analysis techniques for the design of supervisory systems for complex processes, and secondly to discuss the strength and the weaknesses of each of them. Two functional analysis techniques have been applied, SADT (Structured Analysis and Design Technique) and FAST (Functional Analysis System Technique) on a process, an example of a Water Supply Process Control (WSPC) system. These techniques allow a functional description of industrial processes. The paper briefly discusses the functions of a supervisory system and some advantages of the application of functional analysis for the design of a 'human' centered supervisory system. Then the basic principles of the two techniques applied on the WSPC system are presented. Finally, the different results obtained from the two techniques are discussed

  18. Applications of Optical Interferometer Techniques for Precision Measurements of Changes in Temperature, Growth and Refractive Index of Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami Reddy Bommareddi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Optical metrology techniques used to measure changes in thickness; temperature and refractive index are surveyed. Optical heterodyne detection principle and its applications for precision measurements of changes in thickness and temperature are discussed. Theoretical formulations are developed to estimate crystal growth rate, surface roughness and laser cooling/heating of solids. Applications of Michelson and Mach-Zehnder interferometers to measure temperature changes in laser heating of solids are described. A Mach-Zehnder interferometer is used to measure refractive index and concentration variations of solutions in crystal growth experiments. Additionally, fluorescence lifetime sensing and fluorescence ratio method are described for temperature measurement. For all the above techniques, uncertainty calculations are included.

  19. Review on Micro- and Nanolithography Techniques and Their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werayut Srituravanich

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews major micro- and nanolithography techniques and their applications from commercial micro devices to emerging applications in nanoscale science and engineering. Micro- and nanolithography has been the key technology in manufacturing of integrated circuits and microchips in the semiconductor industry. Such a technology is also sparking a magnificent transformation of nanotechnology. The lithography techniques including photolithography, electron beam lithography, focused ion beam lithography, soft lithography, nanoimprint lithography and scanning probe lithography are discussed. Furthermore, their applications are reviewed and summarized into four major areas: electronics and microsystems, medical and biotech, optics and photonics, and environment and energy harvesting.

  20. Application of radioactive techniques in the petrochemical plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Weisheng; Wang Guorong; Yan Xiangfu

    2006-01-01

    Gamma scanning and neutron backscatter techniques, which are widely used in petrochemical plants, are briefly introduced. The fundamental is explained and the major applications in the petrochemical plants are given. Emphasis is placed on the industrial application of gamma scanning in tower operation and the neutron backscatter in the level detection of an industrial gas/liquid separator and a hydrogenation reactor. The application results show that radioactive techniques can play a key role in trouble shooting, optimization and predictive maintenance of the petrochemical devices. (authors)

  1. Application of CFD technique for HYFLEX aerodynamic design

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Yukimitsu; Watanabe, Shigeya; Ishiguro, Mitsuo; Ogasawara, Ko; 山本 行光; 渡辺 重哉; 石黒 満津夫; 小笠原 宏

    1994-01-01

    An overview of the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technique for the HYFLEX (Hypersonic Flight Experiment) aerodynamic design by using the numerical simulation codes in the supersonic and hypersonic speed ranges is presented. Roles of CFD required to make up for the short term of development and small amount of the wind tunnel test cases, application in the HYFLEX aerodynamic design and their application methods are described. The procedure of CFD code validation by the expe...

  2. Measurement of liquid film thickness by optical fluorescence and its application to an oscillating piston positive displacement flowmeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, Charlotte E; Baker, Roger C; Hutchings, Ian M

    2011-01-01

    The movement of the circular piston in an oscillating piston positive displacement flowmeter is important in understanding the operation of the flowmeter, and the leakage of liquid past the piston plays a key role in the performance of the meter. The clearances between the piston and the chamber are small, typically less than 60 µm. In order to measure this film thickness a fluorescent dye was added to the water passing through the meter, which was illuminated with UV light. Visible light images were captured with a digital camera and analysed to give a measure of the film thickness with an uncertainty of less than 7%. It is known that this method lacks precision unless careful calibration is undertaken. Methods to achieve this are discussed in the paper. The grey level values for a range of film thicknesses were calibrated in situ with six dye concentrations to select the most appropriate one for the range of liquid film thickness. Data obtained for the oscillating piston flowmeter demonstrate the value of the fluorescence technique. The method is useful, inexpensive and straightforward and can be extended to other applications where measurement of liquid film thickness is required

  3. Measurement of the internal pH of mast cell granules using microvolumetric fluorescence and isotopic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Young, M.B.; Nemeth, E.F.; Scarpa, A.

    1987-01-01

    The intragranular pH of isolated mast cell granules was measured. Because of the minute amounts of isolated granules available, two techniques were developed by modifying aminoacridine fluorescence and [ 14 C]methylamine accumulation techniques to permit measurements with microliter sample volumes. Granule purity was demonstrated by electron microscopy, ruthenium red exclusion, and biochemical (histamine, mast cell granule protease) analysis. The internal pH was determined to be 5.55 +/- 0.06, indicating that the pH environment within mast cell granules is not significantly different from that of previously studied granule types (i.e., chromaffin, platelet, pancreatic islet, and pituitary granules). Collapse of the pH gradient by NH+4 was demonstrated with both techniques. No evidence of Cl-/OH- or specific cation/H+ transport was found, and major chloride permeability could not be unequivocably demonstrated. Ca 2+ and Cl- at concentrations normally present extracellularly destabilized granules in the presence of NH+4, but this phenomenon does not necessarily indicate a role for these ions in the exocytotic release of granule contents from intact cells. The pH measurement techniques developed for investigating the properties of granules in mast cells may be useful for studying other granules that can be obtained only in limited quantities

  4. Line-Scan Hyperspectral Imaging Techniques for Food Safety and Quality Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwei Qin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperspectral imaging technologies in the food and agricultural area have been evolving rapidly over the past 15 years owing to tremendous interest from both academic and industrial fields. Line-scan hyperspectral imaging is a major method that has been intensively researched and developed using different physical principles (e.g., reflectance, transmittance, fluorescence, Raman, and spatially resolved spectroscopy and wavelength regions (e.g., visible (VIS, near infrared (NIR, and short-wavelength infrared (SWIR. Line-scan hyperspectral imaging systems are mainly developed and used for surface inspection of food and agricultural products using area or line light sources. Some of these systems can also be configured to conduct spatially resolved spectroscopy measurements for internal or subsurface food inspection using point light sources. This paper reviews line-scan hyperspectral imaging techniques, with introduction, demonstration, and summarization of existing and emerging techniques for food and agricultural applications. The main topics include related spectroscopy techniques, line-scan measurement methods, hardware components and systems, system calibration methods, and spectral and image analysis techniques. Applications in food safety and quality are also presented to reveal current practices and future trends of line-scan hyperspectral imaging techniques.

  5. Applications of new biophysical techniques to supramolecular structure of ATP synthase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jie; Wang Guodong

    2007-01-01

    The developing modern physical techniques offer a series of abundant and effective methods to study ATP synthase in structure and function. Firstly we stressed on the dialectic relationship between physical techniques and the improvement of science in history, and introduced a lot of physical techniques in common use in protein researches such as mass spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, synchronization X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and ultraviolet spectroscopy, and then reviewed their application status in quo to ATP synthase. Secondly we paid out attention to the burgeoning unconventionally instruments, i.e., the atomic force microscope and the fluorescence resonance energy transform (FRET) which have attracted the professional attention, and introduced latest application and researches' achievements. Compared the development of the techniques in recent years, we have set forth the shortcoming and excellence of all kinds of equipments introduced. And it was ended with the conclusion that it is necessary to manage the possible instruments effectively and sufficient for the personalities, and given out the optimum research routes which emphasized on the new techniques and novel methods, i.e., the atomic force microscope and FRET. (authors)

  6. Sample preparation for total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis using resist pattern technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, K.; Yomogita, N.; Konyuba, Y.

    2018-06-01

    A circular resist pattern layer with a diameter of 9 mm was prepared on a glass substrate (26 mm × 76 mm; 1.5 mm thick) for total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) analysis. The parallel cross pattern was designed with a wall thickness of 10 μm, an interval of 20 μm, and a height of 1.4 or 0.8 μm. This additional resist layer did not significantly increase background intensity on the XRF peaks in TXRF spectra. Dotted residue was obtained from a standard solution (10 μL) containing Ti, Cr, Ni, Pb, and Ga, each at a final concentration of 10 ppm, on a normal glass substrate with a silicone coating layer. The height of the residue was more than 100 μm, where self-absorption in the large residue affected TXRF quantification (intensity relative standard deviation (RSD): 12-20%). In contrast, from a droplet composed of a small volume of solution dropped and cast on the resist pattern structure, the obtained residue was not completely film but a film-like residue with a thickness less than 1 μm, where self-absorption was not a serious problem. In the end, this sample preparation was demonstrated to improve TXRF quantification (intensity RSD: 2-4%).

  7. A technique for temperature mapping in fluorocarbon plasmas using planar laser-induced fluorescence of CF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffens, Kristen L.; Sobolewski, Mark A.

    2004-01-01

    Planar laser-induced fluorescence measurements of CF A 2 Σ + -X 2 Π(1,0) were used to determine two-dimensional maps of rotational temperature in CF 4 plasmas. Measured rotational temperatures are expected to be in equilibrium with the gas temperature due to the long chemical lifetime of CF relative to the collision rate. Experiments were performed in the capacitively coupled Gaseous Electronics Conference rf reference cell at pressures from 26.7 Pa (200 mTorr) to 107 Pa (800 mTorr) and powers of 10 to 30 W deposited in the plasma. Temperatures, which ranged from 273±15 K to 480±15 K, were fairly axially symmetric and increased with pressure and power. All plasmas were coolest near the electrodes, which provided a substantial sink for heat in the plasma. Highest temperatures were found at a radial position near the edge of the electrodes. The strong temperature gradients observed in the plasmas can have serious effects on density measurements that probe a single rotational level, as well as on reaction rate constants and interpretation of density gradients. The effects of water-cooling the electrodes and the presence of a silicon wafer on temperature were also measured

  8. In vivo monitoring of toxic metals: assessment of neutron activation and x-ray fluorescence techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, K.J.

    1986-01-01

    To date, cadmium, lead, aluminum, and mercury have been measured in vivo in humans. The possibilities of monitoring other toxic metals have also been demonstrated, but no human studies have been performed. Neutron activation analysis appears to be most suitable for Cd and Al measurements, while x-ray fluorescence is ideally suited for measurement of lead in superficial bone. Filtered neutron beams and polarized x-ray sources are being developed which will improve in vivo detection limits. Even so, several of the current facilities are already suitable for use in epidemiological studies of selected populations with suspected long-term low-level ''environmental'' exposures. Evaluation and diagnosis of patients presenting with general clinical symptoms attributable to possible toxic metal exposure may be assisted by in vivo examination. Continued in vivo monitoring of industrial workers, especially follow-up measurements, will provide the first direct assessment of changes in body burden and a direct measure of the biological life-times of these metals in humans. 50 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Kα resonance fluorescence in Al, Ti, Cu and potential applications for X-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Sultana N.; Pradhan, Anil K.

    2015-04-01

    The Kα resonance fluorescence (RFL) effect via photoabsorptions of inner shell electrons as the element goes through multiple ionization states is studied. We demonstrate that the resonances observed recently in Kα (1s-2p) fluorescence in aluminum plasmas by using a high-intensity X-ray free-electron laser [1] are basically K-shell resonances in hollow atoms going through multiple ionization states at resonant energies as predicted earlier for gold and iron ions [2]. These resonances are formed below the K-shell ionization edge and shift toward higher energies with ionization states, as observed. Fluorescence emission intensities depend on transition probabilities for each ionization stage of the given element for all possible Kα (1 s → 2 p) transition arrays. The present calculations for resonant photoabsorptions of Kα photons in Al have reproduced experimentally observed features. Resonant cross sections and absorption coefficients are presented for possible observation of Kα RFL in the resonant energy ranges of 4.5-5.0 keV for Ti ions and 8.0-8.7 keV for Cu ions respectively. We suggest that theoretically the Kα RFL process may be driven to enhance the Auger cycle by a twin-beam monochromatic X-ray source, tuned to the K-edge and Kα energies, with potential applications such as the development of narrow-band biomedical X-ray devices.

  10. Bio-degradable highly fluorescent conjugated polymer nanoparticles for bio-medical imaging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repenko, Tatjana; Rix, Anne; Ludwanowski, Simon; Go, Dennis; Kiessling, Fabian; Lederle, Wiltrud; Kuehne, Alexander J C

    2017-09-07

    Conjugated polymer nanoparticles exhibit strong fluorescence and have been applied for biological fluorescence imaging in cell culture and in small animals. However, conjugated polymer particles are hydrophobic and often chemically inert materials with diameters ranging from below 50 nm to several microns. As such, conjugated polymer nanoparticles cannot be excreted through the renal system. This drawback has prevented their application for clinical bio-medical imaging. Here, we present fully conjugated polymer nanoparticles based on imidazole units. These nanoparticles can be bio-degraded by activated macrophages. Reactive oxygen species induce scission of the conjugated polymer backbone at the imidazole unit, leading to complete decomposition of the particles into soluble low molecular weight fragments. Furthermore, the nanoparticles can be surface functionalized for directed targeting. The approach opens a wide range of opportunities for conjugated polymer particles in the fields of medical imaging, drug-delivery, and theranostics.Conjugated polymer nanoparticles have been applied for biological fluorescence imaging in cell culture and in small animals, but cannot readily be excreted through the renal system. Here the authors show fully conjugated polymer nanoparticles based on imidazole units that can be bio-degraded by activated macrophages.

  11. Development and application of a fluorescence protein microarray for detecting serum alpha-fetoprotein in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Aiying; Yin, Chengzeng; Wang, Zhenshun; Zhang, Yonghong; Zhao, Yuanshun; Li, Ang; Sun, Huanqin; Lin, Dongdong; Li, Ning

    2016-12-01

    Objective To develop a simple, effective, time-saving and low-cost fluorescence protein microarray method for detecting serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Method Non-contact piezoelectric print techniques were applied to fluorescence protein microarray to reduce the cost of prey antibody. Serum samples from patients with HCC and healthy control subjects were collected and evaluated for the presence of AFP using a novel fluorescence protein microarray. To validate the fluorescence protein microarray, serum samples were tested for AFP using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results A total of 110 serum samples from patients with HCC ( n = 65) and healthy control subjects ( n = 45) were analysed. When the AFP cut-off value was set at 20 ng/ml, the fluorescence protein microarray had a sensitivity of 91.67% and a specificity of 93.24% for detecting serum AFP. Serum AFP quantified via fluorescence protein microarray had a similar diagnostic performance compared with ELISA in distinguishing patients with HCC from healthy control subjects (area under receiver operating characteristic curve: 0.906 for fluorescence protein microarray; 0.880 for ELISA). Conclusion A fluorescence protein microarray method was developed for detecting serum AFP in patients with HCC.

  12. A comparison of hyperspectral reflectance and fluorescence imaging techniques for detection of contaminants on leafy greens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensuring the supply of safe, contaminant free fresh fruit and vegetables is of importance to consumers, suppliers and governments worldwide. In this study, three hyperspectral imaging (HSI) configurations coupled with two multivariate image analysis techniques are compared for detection of fecal con...

  13. Implementation and evaluation of the fluorescent tracer technique in greenhouse exposure studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bierman, E.P.B.; Brouwer, D.H.; Hemmen, J.J. van

    1998-01-01

    Knowledge of the level of exposure is important for health risk estimation and risk management. Recently, the occurrence of dermal exposure in many situations has been recognized and estimated to be relevant for worker health. Dermal exposure measurement techniques are therefore needed and several

  14. A borax fusion technique for quantitative X-ray fluorescence analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Willigen, J.H.H.G.; Kruidhof, H.; Dahmen, E.A.M.F.

    1971-01-01

    A borax fusion technique to cast glass discs for quantitative X-ray analysis is described in detail. The method is based on the “nonwetting” properties of a Pt/Au alloy towards molten borax, on the favourable composition of the flux and finally on the favourable form of the casting mould. The

  15. The use of vitamins as tracer dyes for laser-induced fluorescence in liquid flow applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zähringer, Katharina

    2014-04-01

    Tracers commonly used in experimental flow studies are mostly nocuous to the environment and human health. Particularly, in large flow installations, this can become a problem. In this study, a solution of this problem is presented, based on using water-soluble vitamins. Five of them are examined here for their applicability in flow studies. Vitamins B2 and B6 turned out to be the most promising candidates, and the dependency of their fluorescence intensity on parameters like concentration, laser energy, temperature, and pH are determined for two commonly used laser excitation wavelengths (532, 355 nm). Two examples of application in a static mixer and a spray flow are shown and demonstrate the applicability of the vitamin tracers.

  16. Chemometrics application in fuel's MTR type chemical characterization by X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Clayton Pereira da

    2012-01-01

    In Brazil and worldwide the nuclear power has occupied a prominent position with many applications in industry, power generation, environment and medicine, improving the quality of tests and treatments, therefore people's lives. Uranium is the main element used in nuclear facilities and it s employed as base material to generation of electricity in the manufacture of radiopharmaceuticals. In the '50s, during the Cold War, the then newly created International Atomic Energy Agency proposed to oversee nuclear facilities and encourage the manufacture of nuclear fuels with low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel came then type Material Test Reactor (MTR), manufactured initially in U 3 O 8 and U 3 Si 2 later, both dispersed in aluminum. The use of this technology requires a constant improvement of all processes involving the manufacture of MTR subject to several international protocols, which seek to ensure the reliability of the fuel from the standpoint of practical and environmental. In this context, the control of impurities, from the point of view of neutron economy, directly affects the quality of any nuclear fuel, so strict control is necessary. The literature has reported procedures which, beyond generating residues, are lengthy and costly, they need calibration curve and consequently reference materials. The aim of this work is to establish and validate a methodology for nondestructive quantitative chemical analysis, low cost and analysis time, as well as minimize the generation of waste, for multielement determination of major constituents (Utotal and Si) and impurities (B, Mg, Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, Cd and others) present in U3O8 and U 3 Si 2 , meeting the needs of nuclear reactors in the nuclear fuel qualification type MTR. For that purposes, will be applied the X-ray fluorescence technique which allows fast chemical and nondestructive analysis, aside from sample preparation procedures that do not require previous chemical treatments (dissolving

  17. Investigation of kinetics and thermodynamics of DNA hybridization by means of 2-D fluorescence spectroscopy and soft/hard modeling techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebrahimi, Sara; Kompany-Zareh, Mohsen, E-mail: kmpz@dr.com

    2016-02-04

    Reversible hybridization reaction plays a key role in fundamental biological processes, in many laboratory techniques, and also in DNA based sensing devices. Comprehensive investigation of this process is, therefore, essential for the development of more sophisticated applications. Kinetics and thermodynamics of the hybridization reaction, as a second order process, are systematically investigated with the aid of the soft and hard chemometric methods. Labeling two complementary 21 mer DNA single strands with FAM and Texas red fluorophores, enabled recording of the florescence excitation−emission matrices during the experiments which led to three-way data sets. The presence of fluorescence resonance energy transfer in excitation and emission modes and the closure in concentration mode, made the three-way data arrays rank deficient. To acquire primary chemical information, restricted Tucker3 as a soft method was employed. Herein a model-based method, hard restricted trilinear decomposition, is introduced for in depth analysis of rank deficient three-way data sets. By employing proposed hard method, the nonlinear model parameters as well as the correct profiles could be estimated. In addition, a simple constraint is presented to extract chemically reasonable output profiles regarding the core elements of restricted Tucker3 model. - Highlights: • Hard restricted trilinear decomposition (HrTD) was introduced for model-based analysis of three-way rank deficient data. • DNA hybridization was investigated by two-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy and soft/hard multi-way techniques. • Restricted Tucker3 analysis enabled accurate estimation of pure FRET profiles in the hybridized form. • HrTD was successfully employed to estimate kinetic and equilibrium parameters of DNA hybridization system. • The performance of the proposed methods in response to different physical stimuli was successfully evaluated.

  18. X-ray fluorescence holography

    CERN Document Server

    Hayashi, K; Takahashi, Y

    2003-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence holography (XFH) is a new structural analysis method of determining a 3D atomic arrangement around fluorescing atoms. We developed an XFH apparatus using advanced X-ray techniques and succeeded in obtaining high-quality hologram data. Furthermore, we introduced applications to the structural analysis of a thin film and the environment around dopants and, discussed the quantitative analysis of local lattice distortion. (author)

  19. Active noise control technique and its application on ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Kean

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid development during past three decades, Active Noise Control(ANC has become a highly complementary noise control approach in comparison with traditional approaches, and has formed a complete system including basic theory, investigation approach, key techniques and system implementation. Meanwhile, substantial progress has been achieved in such fields as the practical application, industrialization development and commercial popularization of ANC, and this developed technique provides a practical and feasible choice for the active control of ship noise. In this review paper, its sound field analysis, system setup and key techniques are summarized, typical examples of ANC-based engineering applications including control of cabin noise and duct noise are briefly described, and a variety of forefronts and problems associated with the applications of ANC in ship noise control, such as active sound absorption, active sound insulation and smart acoustic structure, are subsequently discussed.

  20. Instrumental analytical techniques in geochemistry: Requirements and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    Geochemists must analyse an extremely wide range of terrestrial and planetary materials. The instrumental techniques necessary to cope with this difficult task are considered. The most important analytical techniques in use by the geochemist today are AAS, ICP-OES, INAA, MSID and XRFS, and the electron microscope for in situ mineral analysis. Some applications of these techniques to solving major problems in geochemistry are discussed. The importance of certified reference materials and of high quality geochemical data are emphasized. It is concluded that the general quality of trace element data has improved over the past 25 years, as a direct result of the application of modern instrumental techniques. Surprisingly, the quality of data reported for certain major elements has deteriorated over that time, when compared with data obtainable by classical chemical methods. Predictions are made concerning the instrumentation needs of the next generation of geochemists. (orig.) [de

  1. State-of-the-Art Fluorescence Fluctuation-Based Spectroscopic Techniques for the Study of Protein Aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Akira; Kinjo, Masataka

    2018-03-23

    Neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease, are devastating proteinopathies with misfolded protein aggregates accumulating in neuronal cells. Inclusion bodies of protein aggregates are frequently observed in the neuronal cells of patients. Investigation of the underlying causes of neurodegeneration requires the establishment and selection of appropriate methodologies for detailed investigation of the state and conformation of protein aggregates. In the current review, we present an overview of the principles and application of several methodologies used for the elucidation of protein aggregation, specifically ones based on determination of fluctuations of fluorescence. The discussed methods include fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), imaging FCS, image correlation spectroscopy (ICS), photobleaching ICS (pbICS), number and brightness (N&B) analysis, super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI), and transient state (TRAST) monitoring spectroscopy. Some of these methodologies are classical protein aggregation analyses, while others are not yet widely used. Collectively, the methods presented here should help the future development of research not only into protein aggregation but also neurodegenerative diseases.

  2. Emerging Raman Applications and Techniques in Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, Michael D

    2010-01-01

    The book presents the latest technological advances in Raman spectroscopy that are presently redrawing the landscape of many fields of biomedical and pharmaceutical R&D. Numerous examples are given to illustrate the application of the new methods and compared with established and related techniques. The book is suitable for both new researchers and practitioners in this area as well as for those familiar with the Raman technique but seeking to keep abreast of the latest dramatic advances in this field.

  3. Application of artificial intelligence techniques to TRR operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, L.; Tseng, C.; Chang, S.

    1986-01-01

    It has been over ten years since TRR had its initial critical. To collect the experiences of shift operators and technique staffs and transfer these experts' knowledge to a computer and build an expert system is a typical application of artificial intelligence techniques to nuclear business. The system can provide the correct information of TRR operation for shift personnel, new staffs and other technical people

  4. Application of the Delphi technique in healthcare maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njuangang, Stanley; Liyanage, Champika; Akintoye, Akintola

    2017-10-09

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the research design, issues and considerations in the application of the Delphi technique to identify, refine and rate the critical success factors and performance measures in maintenance-associated infections. Design/methodology/approach In-depth literature review through the application of open and axial coding were applied to formulate the interview and research questions. These were used to conduct an exploratory case study of two healthcare maintenance managers, randomly selected from two National Health Service Foundation Trusts in England. The results of exploratory case study provided the rationale for the application of the Delphi technique in this research. The different processes in the application of the Delphi technique in healthcare research are examined thoroughly. Findings This research demonstrates the need to apply and integrate different research methods to enhance the validity of the Delphi technique. The rationale for the application of the Delphi technique in this research is because some healthcare maintenance managers lack knowledge about basic infection control (IC) principles to make hospitals safe for patient care. The result of first round of the Delphi exercise is a useful contribution in its own rights. It identified a number of salient issues and differences in the opinions of the Delphi participants, noticeably between healthcare maintenance managers and members of the infection control team. It also resulted in useful suggestions and comments to improve the quality and presentation of the second- and third-round Delphi instruments. Practical implications This research provides a research methodology that can be adopted by researchers investigating new and emerging issues in the healthcare sector. As this research demonstrates, the Delphi technique is relevant in soliciting expert knowledge and opinion to identify performance measures to control maintenance-associated infections in

  5. Review and classification of variability analysis techniques with clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravi, Andrea; Longtin, André; Seely, Andrew J E

    2011-10-10

    Analysis of patterns of variation of time-series, termed variability analysis, represents a rapidly evolving discipline with increasing applications in different fields of science. In medicine and in particular critical care, efforts have focussed on evaluating the clinical utility of variability. However, the growth and complexity of techniques applicable to this field have made interpretation and understanding of variability more challenging. Our objective is to provide an updated review of variability analysis techniques suitable for clinical applications. We review more than 70 variability techniques, providing for each technique a brief description of the underlying theory and assumptions, together with a summary of clinical applications. We propose a revised classification for the domains of variability techniques, which include statistical, geometric, energetic, informational, and invariant. We discuss the process of calculation, often necessitating a mathematical transform of the time-series. Our aims are to summarize a broad literature, promote a shared vocabulary that would improve the exchange of ideas, and the analyses of the results between different studies. We conclude with challenges for the evolving science of variability analysis.

  6. Review and classification of variability analysis techniques with clinical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of patterns of variation of time-series, termed variability analysis, represents a rapidly evolving discipline with increasing applications in different fields of science. In medicine and in particular critical care, efforts have focussed on evaluating the clinical utility of variability. However, the growth and complexity of techniques applicable to this field have made interpretation and understanding of variability more challenging. Our objective is to provide an updated review of variability analysis techniques suitable for clinical applications. We review more than 70 variability techniques, providing for each technique a brief description of the underlying theory and assumptions, together with a summary of clinical applications. We propose a revised classification for the domains of variability techniques, which include statistical, geometric, energetic, informational, and invariant. We discuss the process of calculation, often necessitating a mathematical transform of the time-series. Our aims are to summarize a broad literature, promote a shared vocabulary that would improve the exchange of ideas, and the analyses of the results between different studies. We conclude with challenges for the evolving science of variability analysis. PMID:21985357

  7. [Cardiac computed tomography: new applications of an evolving technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, María; Corros, Cecilia; Calvo, Juan; Mesa, Alicia; García-Campos, Ana; Rodríguez, María Luisa; Barreiro, Manuel; Rozado, José; Colunga, Santiago; de la Hera, Jesús M; Morís, César; Luyando, Luis H

    2015-01-01

    During the last years we have witnessed an increasing development of imaging techniques applied in Cardiology. Among them, cardiac computed tomography is an emerging and evolving technique. With the current possibility of very low radiation studies, the applications have expanded and go further coronariography In the present article we review the technical developments of cardiac computed tomography and its new applications. Copyright © 2014 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  8. Knowledge based systems advanced concepts, techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    1997-01-01

    The field of knowledge-based systems (KBS) has expanded enormously during the last years, and many important techniques and tools are currently available. Applications of KBS range from medicine to engineering and aerospace.This book provides a selected set of state-of-the-art contributions that present advanced techniques, tools and applications. These contributions have been prepared by a group of eminent researchers and professionals in the field.The theoretical topics covered include: knowledge acquisition, machine learning, genetic algorithms, knowledge management and processing under unc

  9. 9th International Conference on Optimization : Techniques and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Song; Wu, Soon-Yi

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the latest research findings and state-of-the-art solutions on optimization techniques and provides new research direction and developments. Both the theoretical and practical aspects of the book will be much beneficial to experts and students in optimization and operation research community. It selects high quality papers from The International Conference on Optimization: Techniques and Applications (ICOTA2013). The conference is an official conference series of POP (The Pacific Optimization Research Activity Group; there are over 500 active members). These state-of-the-art works in this book authored by recognized experts will make contributions to the development of optimization with its applications.

  10. Privacy-aware knowledge discovery novel applications and new techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bonchi, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    Covering research at the frontier of this field, Privacy-Aware Knowledge Discovery: Novel Applications and New Techniques presents state-of-the-art privacy-preserving data mining techniques for application domains, such as medicine and social networks, that face the increasing heterogeneity and complexity of new forms of data. Renowned authorities from prominent organizations not only cover well-established results-they also explore complex domains where privacy issues are generally clear and well defined, but the solutions are still preliminary and in continuous development. Divided into seve

  11. A general X-ray fluorescence spectrometric technique based on simple corrections for matrix effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruidhof, H.

    1978-01-01

    The method reported, which is relatively simple and generally applicable for most materials, involves a combination of borax fusion with matrix effect corrections. The latter are done with algorithms, which are derived from the intensity formulae, together with empirical coefficients. (Auth.)

  12. Designing of fluorescent and magnetic imprinted polymer for rapid, selective and sensitive detection of imidacloprid via activators regenerated by the electron transfer-atom transfer radical polymerization (ARGET-ATRP) technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Karfa, Paramita; Madhuri, Rashmi; Sharma, Prashant K.

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we report on a dual-behavior electrochemical/optical sensor for sensitive determination of Imidacloprid by fluorescent dye (fluorescein, FL) and imprinted polymer modified europium doped superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (FL@SPIONs@MIP). The imidacloprid (IMD)-imprinted polymer was directly synthesized on the Eu-SPIONs surface via Activators regenerated by the electron transfer-atom transfer radical polymerization (ARGET-ATRP) technique. Preparation, characterization and application of the prepared FL@SPIONs@MIP were systematically investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), fluorescence spectroscopy and electrochemical techniques. The electrochemical experiments exhibited a remarkable selectivity of the prepared sensor towards IMD. Determination of IMD by the square wave stripping voltammetry method represented a wide linear range of 0.059-0.791 μg L-1 with a detection limit of 0.0125 μg L-1. In addition, the fluorescence method shows a linear range of 0.039-0.942 μg L-1 and LOD of 0.0108 μg L-1. The fluorescence property of prepared FL@SPIONs@MIP was used for rapid, on-spot but selective detection of IMD in real samples. The proposed electrode displayed excellent repeatability and long-term stability and was successfully applied for quantitative and trace level determination of IMD in several real samples.

  13. Group decision-making techniques for natural resource management applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlan, Beth A.K.; Armour, Carl L.

    1992-01-01

    This report is an introduction to decision analysis and problem-solving techniques for professionals in natural resource management. Although these managers are often called upon to make complex decisions, their training in the natural sciences seldom provides exposure to the decision-making tools developed in management science. Our purpose is to being to fill this gap. We present a general analysis of the pitfalls of group problem solving, and suggestions for improved interactions followed by the specific techniques. Selected techniques are illustrated. The material is easy to understand and apply without previous training or excessive study and is applicable to natural resource management issues.

  14. Ultrasonic testing technique for users in practical application. Pt. 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corsepius, H.W.

    1978-01-01

    In the present, eighth part of ultrasonic testing technique for users in practical application, the two methods 1) testing by gap coupling and 2) testing by the dipping technique are treated. By the first method the probe is clamped in a holding device in such manner that a water-filled gap remains between probe and surface. Through this gap the sonic signal gets into the specimen without mechanical contact between probe and specimen taking place. By the dipping technique testing is performed in a tank filled with water, the probe being guided over the specimen under water. (RW) [de

  15. A novel colorimetric and off–on fluorescent sensor for Hg2+ and its application in live cell imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Man; Jiang, Yuhua; Zhang, Di; Ding, Peigang; Wang, Zhenji; Ye, Yong; Zhao, Yufen

    2014-01-01

    A novel rhodamine-based fluorescent probe L2 with two “S” groups was synthesized and characterized. As expected, L2 exhibited high selectivity and sensitivity for Hg 2+ over other commonly coexistent metal ions. Its selectivity is excellent, and the detection limit was measured to be 1 ppm. The significant changes in the fluorescence color could be used for naked-eye detection. Furthermore, fluorescence imaging experiments of Hg 2+ ions in living EC-109 cells demonstrated its value of practical applications in biological systems. -- Highlights: • A new rhodamine-based chemodosimeter (L2) was synthesized and characterized. • L2 exhibited high selectivity and excellent sensitivity detection of Hg 2+ . • The significant changes in color could be used for naked-eye detection. • The fluorescence imaging experiments of Hg 2+ ions in living EC-109 cells demonstrated its value of practical applications in biological systems

  16. Natural gas hydrates. Experimental techniques and their applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Yuguang; Liu, Changling (eds.) [Qingdao Institute of Marine Geology (China). Gas Hydrate Laboratory

    2013-07-01

    Focuses on gas hydrate experiment in laboratory. Intends to provide practical significant parameters for gas hydrate exploration and exploitation in the oceanic and permafrost environments. Consists of different themes that present up-to-date information on hydrate experiments. ''Natural Gas Hydrates: Experimental Techniques and Their Applications'' attempts to broadly integrate the most recent knowledge in the fields of hydrate experimental techniques in the laboratory. The book examines various experimental techniques in order to provide useful parameters for gas hydrate exploration and exploitation. It provides experimental techniques for gas hydrates, including the detection techniques, the thermo-physical properties, permeability and mechanical properties, geochemical abnormalities, stability and dissociation kinetics, exploitation conditions, as well as modern measurement technologies etc.

  17. In-focal-plane characterization of excitation distribution for quantitative fluorescence microscopy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Klaus; Brülisauer, Martina; ćaǧin, Emine; Bertsch, Dietmar; Lüthi, Stefan; Heeb, Peter; Stärker, Ulrich; Bernard, André

    2017-06-01

    The applications of fluorescence microscopy span medical diagnostics, bioengineering and biomaterial analytics. Full exploitation of fluorescent microscopy is hampered by imperfections in illumination, detection and filtering. Mainly, errors stem from deviations induced by real-world components inducing spatial or angular variations of propagation properties along the optical path, and they can be addressed through consistent and accurate calibration. For many applications, uniform signal to noise ratio (SNR) over the imaging area is required. Homogeneous SNR can be achieved by quantifying and compensating for the signal bias. We present a method to quantitatively characterize novel reference materials as a calibration reference for biomaterials analytics. The reference materials under investigation comprise thin layers of fluorophores embedded in polymer matrices. These layers are highly homogeneous in their fluorescence response, where cumulative variations do not exceed 1% over the field of view (1.5 x 1.1 mm). An automated and reproducible measurement methodology, enabling sufficient correction for measurement artefacts, is reported. The measurement setup is equipped with an autofocus system, ensuring that the measured film quality is not artificially increased by out-of-focus reduction of the system modulation transfer function. The quantitative characterization method is suitable for analysis of modified bio-materials, especially through patterned protein decoration. The imaging method presented here can be used to statistically analyze protein patterns, thereby increasing both precision and throughput. Further, the method can be developed to include a reference emitter and detector pair on the image surface of the reference object, in order to provide traceable measurements.

  18. International Conference on Soft Computing Techniques and Engineering Application

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xiaolong

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of ICSCTEA 2013 is to provide a platform for researchers, engineers and academicians from all over the world to present their research results and development activities in soft computing techniques and engineering application. This conference provides opportunities for them to exchange new ideas and application experiences face to face, to establish business or research relations and to find global partners for future collaboration.

  19. A cost-effective fluorescence mini-microscope for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu Shrike; Ribas, João; Nadhman, Akhtar; Aleman, Julio; Selimović, Šeila; Lesher-Perez, Sasha Cai; Wang, Ting; Manoharan, Vijayan; Shin, Su-Ryon; Damilano, Alessia; Annabi, Nasim; Dokmeci, Mehmet Remzi; Takayama, Shuichi; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2015-01-01

    We have designed and fabricated a miniature microscope from off-the-shelf components and a webcam, with built-in fluorescence capability for biomedical applications. The mini-microscope was able to detect both biochemical parameters, such as cell/tissue viability (e.g. live/dead assay), and biophysical properties of the microenvironment such as oxygen levels in microfabricated tissues based on an oxygen-sensitive fluorescent dye. This mini-microscope has adjustable magnifications from 8-60×, achieves a resolution as high as microscope was able to chronologically monitor cell migration and analyze beating of microfluidic liver and cardiac bioreactors in real time, respectively. The mini-microscope system is cheap, and its modularity allows convenient integration with a wide variety of pre-existing platforms including, but not limited to, cell culture plates, microfluidic devices, and organs-on-a-chip systems. Therefore, we envision its widespread application in cell biology, tissue engineering, biosensing, microfluidics, and organs-on-chips, which can potentially replace conventional bench-top microscopy where long-term in situ and large-scale imaging/analysis is required.

  20. A Cost-Effective Fluorescence Mini-Microscope with Adjustable Magnifications for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu Shrike; Ribas, João; Nadhman, Akhtar; Aleman, Julio; Selimović, Šeila; Lesher-Perez, Sasha Cai; Wang, Ting; Manoharan, Vijayan; Shin, Su-Ryon; Damilano, Alessia; Annabi, Nasim; Dokmeci, Mehmet Remzi; Takayama, Shuichi; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2015-01-01

    We have designed and fabricated a miniature microscope from off-the-shelf components and webcam, with built-in fluorescence capability for biomedical applications. The mini-microscope was able to detect both biochemical parameters such as cell/tissue viability (e.g. Live/Dead assay), and biophysical properties of the microenvironment such as oxygen levels in microfabricated tissues based on an oxygen-sensitive fluorescent dye. This mini-microscope has adjustable magnifications from 8-60X, achieves a resolution as high as microscope was able to chronologically monitor cell migration and analyze beating of microfluidic liver and cardiac bioreactors in real time, respectively. The mini-microscope system is cheap, and its modularity allows convenient integration with a wide variety of pre-existing platforms including but not limited to, cell culture plates, microfluidic devices, and organs-on-a-chip systems. Therefore, we envision its widespread applications in cell biology, tissue engineering, biosensing, microfluidics, and organs-on-chips, which can potentially replace conventional bench-top microscopy where long-term in situ and large-scale imaging/analysis is required. PMID:26282117

  1. Optimization of Fluorescent Silicon Nano material Production Using Peroxide/ Acid/ Salt Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abuhassan, L.H.

    2009-01-01

    Silicon nano material was prepared using the peroxide/ acid/ salt technique in which an aqueous silicon-based salt solution was added to H 2 O 2 / HF etchants. In order to optimize the experimental conditions for silicon nano material production, the amount of nano material produced was studied as a function of the volume of the silicon salt solution used in the synthesis. A set of samples was prepared using: 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 ml of an aqueous 1 mg/ L metasilicate solution. The area under the corresponding peaks in the infrared (ir) absorption spectra was used as a qualitative indicator to the amount of the nano material present. The results indicated that using 10 ml of the metasilicate solution produced the highest amount of nano material. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that the peroxide/ acid/ salt technique results in the enhancement of the production yield of silicon nano material at a reduced power demand and with a higher material to void ratio. A model in which the silicon salt forms a secondary source of silicon nano material is proposed. The auxiliary nano material is deposited into the porous network causing an increase in the amount of nano material produced and a reduction in the voids present. Thus a reduction in the resistance of the porous layer, and consequently reduction in the power required, are expected. (author)

  2. Europium Uptake and Partitioning in Oat (Avena sativa) Roots as studied By Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Confocal Microscopy Profiling Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellows, Robert J.; Wang, Zheming; Ainsworth, Calvin C.

    2003-01-01

    The uptake of Eu3+ by elongating oat plant roots was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy, fluorescence lifetime measurement, as well as laser excitation time-resolved confocal fluorescence profiling technique. The results of this work indicated that the initial uptake of Eu(III) by oat root was most evident within the apical meristem of the root just proximal to the root cap. Distribution of assimilated Eu(III) within the roots differentiation and elongation zone was non-uniform. Higher concentrations were observed within the vascular cylinder, specifically in the phloem and developing xylem parenchyma. Elevated levels of the metal were also observed in the root hairs of the mature root. The concentration of assimilated Eu3+ dropped sharply from the apical meristem to the differentiation and elongation zone and then gradually decreased as the distance from the root cap increased. Fluorescence spectroscopic characteristics of the assimilated Eu3+ suggested that the Eu3+ exists a s inner-sphere mononuclear complexes inside the root. This work has also demonstrated the effectiveness of a time-resolved Eu3+ fluorescence spectroscopy and confocal fluorescence profiling techniques for the in vivo, real-time study of metal[Eu3+] accumulation by a functioning intact plant root. This approach can prove valuable for basic and applied studies in plant nutrition and environmental uptake of actinide radionuclides

  3. Fluorescent carbon dots from mono- and polysaccharides: synthesis, properties and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Hill

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescent carbon dots (FCDs are an emerging class of nanomaterials made from carbon sources that have been hailed as potential non-toxic replacements to traditional semiconductor quantum dots (QDs. Particularly in the areas of live imaging and drug delivery, due to their water solubility, low toxicity and photo- and chemical stability. Carbohydrates are readily available chiral biomolecules in nature which offer an attractive and cheap starting material from which to synthesise FCDs with distinct features and interesting applications. This mini-review article will cover the progress in the development of FCDs prepared from carbohydrate sources with an emphasis on their synthesis, functionalization and technical applications, including discussions on current challenges.

  4. Economical and green synthesis of bagasse-derived fluorescent carbon dots for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Fengyi; Zhang, Miaomiao; Li, Xiaofeng; Jiang, Xinyi; Li, Zhang; Hua, Ye; Shao, Genbao; Jin, Jie; Shao, Qixiang; Gong, Aihua; Li, Jianan; Zhou, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Carbon quantum dots (CDs) are promising nanomaterials in biomedical, photocatalytical and photoelectronic applications. However, determining how to explore an ideal precursor for a renewable carbon resource is still an interesting challenge. Here, for the first time, we report that renewable wastes of bagasse as a new precursor were prepared for fluorescent CDs by a hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) process. The characterization results show that such bagasse-derived CDs are monodispersed, contain quasi spherical particles with a diameter of about 1.8 nm and exhibit favorable photoluminescence properties, super-high photostability and good dispersibility in water. Most importantly, bagasse-derived CDs have good biocompatibility and can be easily and quickly internalized by living cancer cells; they can also be used for multicolour biolabeling and bioimaging in cancer cells. It is suggested that bagasse-derived CDs might have potential applications in biomedical and photoelectronic fields. (paper)

  5. Tuning of gold nanoclusters sensing applications with bovine serum albumin and bromelain for detection of Hg2+ ion and lambda-cyhalothrin via fluorescence turn-off and on mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhamore, Jigna R; Jha, Sanjay; Basu, Hirakendu; Singhal, Rakesh Kumar; Murthy, Z V P; Kailasa, Suresh Kumar

    2018-04-01

    Herein, fluorescent gold nanoclusters (Au NCs) were obtained by one-pot synthetic method using bovine serum albumin (BSA) and bromelain as templates. As-synthesized fluorescent Au NCs were stable and showed bright red fluorescence under UV lamp at 365 nm. The fluorescent Au NCs exhibit the emission intensity at 648 nm when excited at 498 nm. Various techniques were used such as spectroscopy (UV-visible, fluorescence, and Fourier-transform infrared), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and dynamic light scattering for the characterization of fluorescent Au NCs. The values of I 0 /I at 648 nm are proportional to the concentrations of Hg 2+ ion in the range from 0.00075 to 5.0 μM and of lambda-cyhalothrin in the range from 0.01 to 10 μM with detection limits of 0.0003 and 0.0075 μM for Hg 2+ ion and lambda-cyhalothrin, respectively. The practical application of the probe was successfully demonstrated by analyzing Hg 2+ ion and lambda-cyhalothrin in water samples. In addition, Au NCs used as probes for imaging of Simplicillium fungal cells. These results indicated that the as-synthesized Au NCs have proven to be promising fluorescent material for the sensing of Hg 2+ ion and lambda-cyhalothrin in environmental and for imaging of microorganism cells in biomedical applications.

  6. The development and application of high-capacity thickening techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Zhenwan; Song Yuejie

    1995-01-01

    On the basis of sedimentation theory and comparison between the high-capacity and conventional thickening techniques, the authors analyse the ways to increase capacity and to improve technological parameters of thickeners, describes the construction features, development, application, automatic control and test installations of high-capacity thickeners at home and abroad

  7. 48 CFR 9904.408-50 - Techniques for application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... 9904.408-50 Section 9904.408-50 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.408-50 Techniques for application. (a) Determinations...

  8. 48 CFR 9904.415-50 - Techniques for application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... deferred compensation for each cost accounting period shall be the present value of the future benefits of.... 9904.415-50 Section 9904.415-50 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.415-50 Techniques for application. (a) The contractor...

  9. On the applicability of schema integration techniques to database interoperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, Mark W.W.; Apers, Peter M.G.

    1996-01-01

    We discuss the applicability of schema integration techniques developed for tightly-coupled database interoperation to interoperation of databases stemming from different modelling contexts. We illustrate that in such an environment, it is typically quite difficult to infer the real-world semantics

  10. 48 CFR 9904.416-50 - Techniques for application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.416-50 Techniques for application. (a) Measurement of.... 9904.416-50 Section 9904.416-50 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD... be assigned pro rata among the cost accounting periods covered by the policy term, except as provided...

  11. Application of integrated modeling technique for data services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper, therefore, describes the application of the integrated simulation technique for deriving the optimum resources required for data services in an asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) based private wide area network (WAN) to guarantee specific QoS requirement. The simulation tool drastically cuts the simulation ...

  12. Application for trackless mining technique in Benxi uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Bingguo

    1998-01-01

    The author narrates the circumstances achieving constructional target in Benxi Uranium Mine under relying on advance of science and technology and adopting small trackless mining equipment, presents the application of trackless mining equipment at mining small mine and complex mineral deposit and discusses the unique superiority of trackless mining technique in development work, mining preparation work and backstoping

  13. 48 CFR 9904.407-50 - Techniques for application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... 9904.407-50 Section 9904.407-50 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.407-50 Techniques for application. (a)(1) A contractor's...

  14. 48 CFR 9904.417-50 - Techniques for application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... capitalized, such as the method used for financial accounting and reporting, may be used, provided the.... 9904.417-50 Section 9904.417-50 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.417-50 Techniques for application. (a) The cost of money...

  15. Application of nuclear analysis techniques in ancient chinese porcelain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Songlin; Xu Qing; Feng Xiangqian; Lei Yong; Cheng Lin; Wang Yanqing

    2005-01-01

    Ancient ceramic was fired with porcelain clay. It contains various provenance information and age characteristic. It is the scientific foundation of studying Chinese porcelain to analyze and research the ancient ceramic with modern analysis methods. According to the property of nuclear analysis technique, its function and application are discussed. (authors)

  16. 48 CFR 9904.401-50 - Techniques for application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... 9904.401-50 Section 9904.401-50 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.401-50 Techniques for application. (a) The standard...

  17. 48 CFR 9904.405-50 - Techniques for application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... 9904.405-50 Section 9904.405-50 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.405-50 Techniques for application. (a) The detail and...

  18. 48 CFR 9904.403-50 - Techniques for application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... 9904.403-50 Section 9904.403-50 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.403-50 Techniques for application. (a)(1) Separate...

  19. 48 CFR 9904.406-50 - Techniques for application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... 9904.406-50 Section 9904.406-50 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.406-50 Techniques for application. (a) The cost of an...

  20. 48 CFR 9904.404-50 - Techniques for application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... 9904.404-50 Section 9904.404-50 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.404-50 Techniques for application. (a) The cost to...

  1. 48 CFR 9904.414-50 - Techniques for application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the case of process cost accounting systems, the contracting parties may agree to substitute an.... 9904.414-50 Section 9904.414-50 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.414-50 Techniques for application. (a) The investment...

  2. Validation of diffuse correlation spectroscopy sensitivity to nicotinamide-induced blood flow elevation in the murine hindlimb using the fluorescent microsphere technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Ashley R.; Ramirez, Gabriel A.; Han, Songfeng; Liu, Ziping; Bubel, Tracy M.; Choe, Regine

    2018-03-01

    Nicotinamide has been shown to affect blood flow in both tumor and normal tissues, including skeletal muscle. Intraperitoneal injection of nicotinamide was used as a simple intervention to test the sensitivity of noninvasive diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) to changes in blood flow in the murine left quadriceps femoris skeletal muscle. DCS was then compared with the gold-standard fluorescent microsphere (FM) technique for validation. The nicotinamide dose-response experiment showed that relative blood flow measured by DCS increased following treatment with 500- and 1000-mg / kg nicotinamide. The DCS and FM technique comparison showed that blood flow index measured by DCS was correlated with FM counts quantified by image analysis. The results of this study show that DCS is sensitive to nicotinamide-induced blood flow elevation in the murine left quadriceps femoris. Additionally, the results of the comparison were consistent with similar studies in higher-order animal models, suggesting that mouse models can be effectively employed to investigate the utility of DCS for various blood flow measurement applications.

  3. Development of a tentacle propulsion technique for underwater application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alamgir, T; Rashid, M M; Khan, M R

    2013-01-01

    As robotic technology matures and more platforms are fielded in unstructured real-world situations, the more new areas of applications are being thought for robotic deployment. After successes in industrial robots, researchers are now trying to explore new robots with biological features of different biological creatures like, snake, bird, and spider for their stunning advantages. Underwater exploration using robots is a new avenue. Research on the tentacle robot for underwater application is a new field of research besides the other research in this arena. There are few researches on this topic are explored and mostly are on biological robot. Besides those researches this paper aims to propose and demonstrate another technique to build a tentacle for propulsion purposes. Therefore, in this paper will discuss more on mathematical development for the propulsion technique and its software verification technique in considering the environmental constrains

  4. Applications of radiations, radioisotopes and nuclear techniques in biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, C.R.

    1994-01-01

    Applications of radiations, radioisotopes and other nuclear techniques has contributed a great deal in our understanding of microbial plant and animal biochemistry and molecular biology. Electron microscopy has provided visual evidence for molecular events. Developments in cell tissue culture of both plants and animals and immunology have contributed to advances in what we now refer as biotechnology. This paper focuses on the applications in the high-tech end of biotechnology, limited to the use of recombinant-DNA techniques. Molecular identification of the genes, their cloning and horizontal transfer across the species of microbes, plants and animals and expression of the transferred genes is the major strength of modern biotechnology. The techniques described in this paper have played a significant role in the development of biotechnology. 6 refs

  5. Scanning tunneling microscopy II further applications and related scanning techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Güntherodt, Hans-Joachim

    1995-01-01

    Scanning Tunneling Microscopy II, like its predecessor, presents detailed and comprehensive accounts of the basic principles and broad range of applications of STM and related scanning probe techniques. The applications discussed in this volume come predominantly from the fields of electrochemistry and biology. In contrast to those described in STM I, these studies may be performed in air and in liquids. The extensions of the basic technique to map other interactions are described in chapters on scanning force microscopy, magnetic force microscopy, and scanning near-field optical microscopy, together with a survey of other related techniques. Also described here is the use of a scanning proximal probe for surface modification. Together, the two volumes give a comprehensive account of experimental aspects of STM. They provide essential reading and reference material for all students and researchers involved in this field. In this second edition the text has been updated and new methods are discussed.

  6. Scanning tunneling microscopy II further applications and related scanning techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Güntherodt, Hans-Joachim

    1992-01-01

    Scanning Tunneling Microscopy II, like its predecessor, presents detailed and comprehensive accounts of the basic principles and broad range of applications of STM and related scanning probe techniques. The applications discussed in this volume come predominantly from the fields of electrochemistry and biology. In contrast to those described in Vol. I, these sudies may be performed in air and in liquids. The extensions of the basic technique to map other interactions are described inchapters on scanning force microscopy, magnetic force microscopy, scanning near-field optical microscopy, together with a survey of other related techniques. Also described here is the use of a scanning proximal probe for surface modification. Togehter, the two volumes give a comprehensive account of experimental aspcets of STM. They provide essentialreading and reference material for all students and researchers involvedin this field.

  7. Conference on Techniques of Nuclear and Conventional Analysis and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Full text : With their wide scope, particularly in the areas of environment, geology, mining, industry and life sciences; analysis techniques are of great importance in research as fundamental and applied. The Conference on Techniques for Nuclear and Conventional Analysis and Applications (TANCA) are Registered in the national strategy of opening of the University and national research centers on their local, national and international levels. This conference aims to: Promoting nuclear and conventional analytical techniques; Contribute to the creation of synergy between the different players involved in these techniques include, Universities, Research Organizations, Regulatory Authorities, Economic Operators, NGOs and others; Inform and educate potential users of the performance of these techniques; Strengthen exchanges and links between researchers, industry and policy makers; Implement a program of inter-laboratory comparison between Moroccan one hand, and their foreign counterparts on the other; Contribute to the research training of doctoral students and postdoctoral scholars. Given the relevance and importance of the issues related to environment and impact on cultural heritage, this fourth edition of TANCA is devoted to the application of analytical techniques for conventional and nuclear Questions ied to environment and its impact on cultural heritage.

  8. Seven-hour fluorescence in situ hybridization technique for enumeration of Enterobacteriaceae in food and environmental water sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ootsubo, M; Shimizu, T; Tanaka, R; Sawabe, T; Tajima, K; Ezura, Y

    2003-01-01

    A fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technique using an Enterobacteriaceae-specific probe (probe D) to target 16S rRNA was improved in order to enumerate, within a single working day, Enterobacteriaceae present in food and environmental water samples. In order to minimize the time required for the FISH procedure, each step of FISH with probe D was re-evaluated using cultured Escherichia coli. Five minutes of ethanol treatment for cell fixation and hybridization were sufficient to visualize cultured E. coli, and FISH could be performed within 1 h. Because of the difficulties in detecting low levels of bacterial cells by FISH without cultivation, a FISH technique for detecting microcolonies on membrane filters was investigated to improve the bacterial detection limit. FISH with probe D following 6 h of cultivation to grow microcolonies on a 13 mm diameter membrane filter was performed, and whole Enterobacteriaceae microcolonies on the filter were then detected and enumerated by manual epifluorescence microscopic scanning at magnification of x100 in ca 5 min. The total time for FISH with probe D following cultivation (FISHFC) was reduced to within 7 h. FISHFC can be applied to enumerate cultivable Enterobacteriaceae in food (above 100 cells g-1) and environmental water samples (above 1 cell ml-1). Cultivable Enterobacteriaceae in food and water samples were enumerated accurately within 7 h using the FISHFC method. A FISHFC method capable of evaluating Enterobacteriaceae contamination in food and environmental water within a single working day was developed.

  9. Fluorescence-tagged metallothionein with CdTe quantum dots analyzed by the chip-CE technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guszpit, Ewelina, E-mail: ewelina.guszpit@gmail.com [Wroclaw Medical University, Department of Biomedical and Environmental Analysis, Faculty of Pharmacy (Poland); Krizkova, Sona [Mendel University in Brno, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy (Czech Republic); Kepinska, Marta [Wroclaw Medical University, Department of Biomedical and Environmental Analysis, Faculty of Pharmacy (Poland); Rodrigo, Miguel Angel Merlos [Mendel University in Brno, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy (Czech Republic); Milnerowicz, Halina [Wroclaw Medical University, Department of Biomedical and Environmental Analysis, Faculty of Pharmacy (Poland); Kopel, Pavel; Kizek, Rene [Mendel University in Brno, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy (Czech Republic)

    2015-11-15

    Quantum dots (QDs) are fluorescence nanoparticles (NPs) with unique optic properties which allow their use as probes in chemical, biological, immunological, and molecular imaging. QDs linked with target ligands such as peptides or small molecules can be used as tumor biomarkers. These particles are a promising tool for selective, fast, and sensitive tagging and imaging in medicine. In this study, an attempt was made to use QDs as a marker for human metallothionein (MT) isoforms 1 and 2. Four kinds of CdTe QDs of different sizes bioconjugated with MT were analyzed using the chip-CE technique. Based on the results, it can be concluded that MT is willing to interact with QDs, and the chip-CE technique enables the observation of their complexes. It was also observed that changes ranging roughly 6–7 kDa, a value corresponding to the MT monomer, depend on the hydrodynamic diameters of QDs; also, the MT sample without cadmium interacted stronger with QDs than MT saturated with cadmium. Results show that MT is willing to interact with smaller QDs (blue CdTe) rather than larger ones QDs (red CdTe). To our knowledge, chip-CE has not previously been applied in the study of CdTe QDs interaction with MT.Graphical Abstract.

  10. Fluorescence-tagged metallothionein with CdTe quantum dots analyzed by the chip-CE technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guszpit, Ewelina; Krizkova, Sona; Kepinska, Marta; Rodrigo, Miguel Angel Merlos; Milnerowicz, Halina; Kopel, Pavel; Kizek, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) are fluorescence nanoparticles (NPs) with unique optic properties which allow their use as probes in chemical, biological, immunological, and molecular imaging. QDs linked with target ligands such as peptides or small molecules can be used as tumor biomarkers. These particles are a promising tool for selective, fast, and sensitive tagging and imaging in medicine. In this study, an attempt was made to use QDs as a marker for human metallothionein (MT) isoforms 1 and 2. Four kinds of CdTe QDs of different sizes bioconjugated with MT were analyzed using the chip-CE technique. Based on the results, it can be concluded that MT is willing to interact with QDs, and the chip-CE technique enables the observation of their complexes. It was also observed that changes ranging roughly 6–7 kDa, a value corresponding to the MT monomer, depend on the hydrodynamic diameters of QDs; also, the MT sample without cadmium interacted stronger with QDs than MT saturated with cadmium. Results show that MT is willing to interact with smaller QDs (blue CdTe) rather than larger ones QDs (red CdTe). To our knowledge, chip-CE has not previously been applied in the study of CdTe QDs interaction with MT.Graphical Abstract

  11. Usability evaluation techniques in mobile commerce applications: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Azham; Mkpojiogu, Emmanuel O. C.

    2016-08-01

    Obviously, there are a number of literatures concerning the usability of mobile commerce (m-commerce) applications and related areas, but they do not adequately provide knowledge about usability techniques used in most of the empirical usability evaluation for m-commerce application. Therefore, this paper is aimed at producing the usability techniques frequently used in the aspect of usability evaluation for m-commerce applications. To achieve the stated objective, systematic literature review was employed. Sixty seven papers were downloaded in usability evaluation for m-commerce and related areas; twenty one most relevant studies were selected for review in order to extract the appropriate information. The results from the review shows that heuristic evaluation, formal test and think aloud methods are the most commonly used methods in m-commerce application in comparison to cognitive walkthrough and the informal test methods. Moreover, most of the studies applied control experiment (33.3% of the total studies); other studies that applied case study for usability evaluation are 14.28%. The results from this paper provide additional knowledge to the usability practitioners and research community for the current state and use of usability techniques in m-commerce application.

  12. One-step synthesis and applications of fluorescent Cu nanoclusters stabilized by L-cysteine in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xiaoming; Feng, Yuanjiao; Zhu, Shanshan; Luo, Yawen; Zhuo, Yan; Dou, Yao

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: An innovative and simple strategy for synthesizing high-fluorescent Cu nanoclusters stabilized with L-cysteine has been successfully established in aqueous solution. Significantly, the Cu nanoclusters were employed for sensitive and selective detections of Hg 2+ , coding and fluorescent staining, suggesting their potential toward various applications. - Highlights: • A novel, one-step strategy for synthesizing water-soluble CuNCs was established. • A simple, selective, and cost-effective assay for Hg 2+ was developed. • CuNCs may broaden ways for fluorescent staining and coding. - Abstract: Herein, an innovative and simple strategy for synthesizing high fluorescent Cu nanoclusters was successfully established while L-cysteine played a role as the stabilizer. Meaningfully, the current Cu nanoclusters together with a quantum yield of 14.3% were prepared in aqueous solution, indicating their extensive applications. Subsequently, the possible fluorescence mechanism was elucidated by fluorescence, UV–vis, HR-TEM, FTIR, XPS, and MS. Additionally, the CuNCs were employed for assaying Hg 2+ on the basis of the interactions between Hg 2+ and L-cysteine; thus facilitating the quenching of their fluorescence. The proposed analytical strategy permitted detections of Hg 2+ in a linear range of 1.0 × 10 −7 mol L −1 × 10 −3 mol L −1 , with a detection limit of 2.4 × 10 −8 mol L −1 at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. Significantly, this CuNCs described here were further applied for coding and fluorescent staining, suggesting may broaden avenues toward diverse applications

  13. One-step synthesis and applications of fluorescent Cu nanoclusters stabilized by L-cysteine in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiaoming, E-mail: ming4444@swu.edu.cn; Feng, Yuanjiao; Zhu, Shanshan; Luo, Yawen; Zhuo, Yan; Dou, Yao

    2014-10-17

    Graphical abstract: An innovative and simple strategy for synthesizing high-fluorescent Cu nanoclusters stabilized with L-cysteine has been successfully established in aqueous solution. Significantly, the Cu nanoclusters were employed for sensitive and selective detections of Hg{sup 2+}, coding and fluorescent staining, suggesting their potential toward various applications. - Highlights: • A novel, one-step strategy for synthesizing water-soluble CuNCs was established. • A simple, selective, and cost-effective assay for Hg{sup 2+} was developed. • CuNCs may broaden ways for fluorescent staining and coding. - Abstract: Herein, an innovative and simple strategy for synthesizing high fluorescent Cu nanoclusters was successfully established while L-cysteine played a role as the stabilizer. Meaningfully, the current Cu nanoclusters together with a quantum yield of 14.3% were prepared in aqueous solution, indicating their extensive applications. Subsequently, the possible fluorescence mechanism was elucidated by fluorescence, UV–vis, HR-TEM, FTIR, XPS, and MS. Additionally, the CuNCs were employed for assaying Hg{sup 2+} on the basis of the interactions between Hg{sup 2+} and L-cysteine; thus facilitating the quenching of their fluorescence. The proposed analytical strategy permitted detections of Hg{sup 2+} in a linear range of 1.0 × 10{sup −7} mol L{sup −1} × 10{sup −3} mol L{sup −1}, with a detection limit of 2.4 × 10{sup −8} mol L{sup −1} at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. Significantly, this CuNCs described here were further applied for coding and fluorescent staining, suggesting may broaden avenues toward diverse applications.

  14. Studying gas-sheared liquid film in horizontal rectangular duct with laser-induced fluorescence technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherdantsev, Andrey; Hann, David; Azzopardi, Barry

    2013-11-01

    High-speed LIF-technique is applied to study gas-sheared liquid film in horizontal rectangular duct with 161 mm width. Instantaneous distributions of film thickness resolved in both longitudinal and transverse coordinates were obtained with a frequency of 10 kHz and spatial resolution from 0.125 mm to 0.04 mm. Processes of generation of fast and slow ripples by disturbance waves are the same as described in literature for downwards annular pipe flow. Disturbance waves are often localized by transverse coordinate and may have curved or slanted fronts. Fast ripples, covering disturbance waves, are typically horseshoe-shaped and placed in staggered order. Their characteristic transverse size is of order 1 cm and it decreases with gas velocity. Entrainment of liquid from film surface can also be visualized. Mechanisms of ripple disruption, known as ``bag break-up'' and ``ligament break-up,'' were observed. Both mechanisms may occur on the same disturbance waves. Various scenarios of droplet deposition on the liquid film are observed, including the impact, slow sinking and bouncing, characterized by different outcome of secondary droplets or entrapped bubbles. Number and size of bubbles increase greatly inside the disturbance waves. Both quantities increase with gas and liquid flow rates. EPSRC Programme Grant MEMPHIS (EP/K003976/1), and Roll-Royce UTC (Nottingham, for access to flow facility).

  15. Application of fluorescence spectroscopy for dissolved organic matter characterization in constructed wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardana, A.; Aziz, T. N.; Cottrell, B. A.

    2017-12-01

    In this presentation we will discuss our ongoing work to characterize the photochemical behavior of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from wastewater treated in constructed wetlands. We have used a suite of spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques to characterize the DOM and to quantify the potential production of reactive oxygenated species (ROS). In the present study, DOM was fractionated based on its hydrophobicity and both the natural water isolates and fractionated DOM were characterized using SUVA254, spectral slope ratios, excitation emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy (EEMs) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR). Photodegradation of wetland DOM and the formation of the hydroxyl radical (*OH), singlet oxygen (1O2), and the triplet-excited state (3DOM*) was also determined to assess the reactivity of DOM. EEM spectra exhibited the four main fluorescence peaks that are characteristic of DOM: peak A humic-like DOM, Peak C (fulvic or chromophoric DOM), Peak M (marine-like DOM), and peak T (tryptophan or protein-like absorbance). Two additional observed peaks with shorter emission wavelengths (A' Ex/Em = 243/278 nm and T' Ex/Em = 272/319 nm) were attributed to the microbial DOM in wastewater effluent. The spectral slope ratios decreased from 1.46 at the wetland inlet to 0.89 at the wetland outlet. The protein-like Peak T fluorescence decreased from 50% at the wetland inlet to 6.7% at the Wetland 2 outlet. A negative correlation between the percent fluorescence of Peak T and Peaks A, C and M confirmed the transition from the spectrum of pure wastewater with a primarily protein-like signature to a spectrum characteristic of terrestrially derived DOM. This transition coincided with enhanced formation rates and steady state concentrations of photochemically produced reactive intermediates (PPRIs). Size Exclusion Chromatography demonstrated that the influent wastewater had a lower molecular weight as compared to downstream wetland locations

  16. Hue-shifted monomeric variants of Clavularia cyan fluorescent protein: identification of the molecular determinants of color and applications in fluorescence imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidson Michael W

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the 15 years that have passed since the cloning of Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein (avGFP, the expanding set of fluorescent protein (FP variants has become entrenched as an indispensable toolkit for cell biology research. One of the latest additions to the toolkit is monomeric teal FP (mTFP1, a bright and photostable FP derived from Clavularia cyan FP. To gain insight into the molecular basis for the blue-shifted fluorescence emission we undertook a mutagenesis-based study of residues in the immediate environment of the chromophore. We also employed site-directed and random mutagenesis in combination with library screening to create new hues of mTFP1-derived variants with wavelength-shifted excitation and emission spectra. Results Our results demonstrate that the protein-chromophore interactions responsible for blue-shifting the absorbance and emission maxima of mTFP1 operate independently of the chromophore structure. This conclusion is supported by the observation that the Tyr67Trp and Tyr67His mutants of mTFP1 retain a blue-shifted fluorescence emission relative to their avGFP counterparts (that is, Tyr66Trp and Tyr66His. Based on previous work with close homologs, His197 and His163 are likely to be the residues with the greatest contribution towards blue-shifting the fluorescence emission. Indeed we have identified the substitutions His163Met and Thr73Ala that abolish or disrupt the interactions of these residues with the chromophore. The mTFP1-Thr73Ala/His163Met double mutant has an emission peak that is 23 nm red-shifted from that of mTFP1 itself. Directed evolution of this double mutant resulted in the development of mWasabi, a new green fluorescing protein that offers certain advantages over enhanced avGFP (EGFP. To assess the usefulness of mTFP1 and mWasabi in live cell imaging applications, we constructed and imaged more than 20 different fusion proteins. Conclusion Based on the results of our

  17. Analysis of SHLW by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vadivu, Senthil; Seshadreesan, N.P.; Kumar, R.; Venkatasubramani, C.R.

    2012-01-01

    The simulated high level liquid waste (SHLW) sample expected from fuel reprocessing experiments containing uranium and about 20 various other elements were analysed by EDXRF technique. An investigation with respect to Nd estimation, a burn up monitor, in presence of varying concentrations of U was also carried out. The simulated raffinate solution with a mixture of 20 expected elements was used as standard solution. Four samples of varying concentrations were prepared by appropriate dilution from the standard solution. Calibrations were carried out for its various constituent elements. The elements such as Cs, Mo, Sr,Y, Cd, Ba, Ce, U and La were analysed using W-filter whereas the elements such as Nd, Fe and Ni were analysed using Ge secondary target. The results of 4 simulated samples analysed using FDXRF are given. These values for each element are the mean of the three values obtained. The results obtained for different simulated waste are also shown. These solutions are of different compositions and therefore, vary in their matrix effects. Nevertheless, the medium of second simulated waste is in 3.5N HNO 3 where as the calibration is done with 0.1N HNO 3 medium and hence this might be the cause for large deviations observed in some of the results. A trend of the non-interference of the Uranium matrix in the assay of Nd was demonstrated typically at a fixed concentration of 92.3 ppm in uranium matrix of 900 and 6000 ppm. In both the cases, it was observed that the concentration of Nd measured remained same. This is in accordance to the fact that the characteristic X-ray energy peaks of Nd (L-lines) and U (M-lines) are well separated in the spectrum and the contribution of the low energy peak of Uranium to the higher energy peak of Nd is negligible. But the limiting concentration of Uranium may be the one in which a overlapping of its peak occurs

  18. Ultra-sensitive high performance liquid chromatography-laser-induced fluorescence based proteomics for clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Ajeetkumar; Bhat, Sujatha; Pai, Keerthilatha M; Rai, Lavanya; Kartha, V B; Chidangil, Santhosh

    2015-09-08

    An ultra-sensitive high performance liquid chromatography-laser induced fluorescence (HPLC-LIF) based technique has been developed by our group at Manipal, for screening, early detection, and staging for various cancers, using protein profiling of clinical samples like, body fluids, cellular specimens, and biopsy-tissue. More than 300 protein profiles of different clinical samples (serum, saliva, cellular samples and tissue homogenates) from volunteers (normal, and different pre-malignant/malignant conditions) were recorded using this set-up. The protein profiles were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA) to achieve objective detection and classification of malignant, premalignant and healthy conditions with high sensitivity and specificity. The HPLC-LIF protein profiling combined with PCA, as a routine method for screening, diagnosis, and staging of cervical cancer and oral cancer, is discussed in this paper. In recent years, proteomics techniques have advanced tremendously in life sciences and medical sciences for the detection and identification of proteins in body fluids, tissue homogenates and cellular samples to understand biochemical mechanisms leading to different diseases. Some of the methods include techniques like high performance liquid chromatography, 2D-gel electrophoresis, MALDI-TOF-MS, SELDI-TOF-MS, CE-MS and LC-MS techniques. We have developed an ultra-sensitive high performance liquid chromatography-laser induced fluorescence (HPLC-LIF) based technique, for screening, early detection, and staging for various cancers, using protein profiling of clinical samples like, body fluids, cellular specimens, and biopsy-tissue. More than 300 protein profiles of different clinical samples (serum, saliva, cellular samples and tissue homogenates) from healthy and volunteers with different malignant conditions were recorded by using this set-up. The protein profile data were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA) for objective

  19. The multi-resolution capability of Tchebichef moments and its applications to the analysis of fluorescence excitation-emission spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bao Qiong; Wang, Xue; Li Xu, Min; Zhai, Hong Lin; Chen, Jing; Liu, Jin Jin

    2018-01-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy with an excitation-emission matrix (EEM) is a fast and inexpensive technique and has been applied to the detection of a very wide range of analytes. However, serious scattering and overlapping signals hinder the applications of EEM spectra. In this contribution, the multi-resolution capability of Tchebichef moments was investigated in depth and applied to the analysis of two EEM data sets (data set 1 consisted of valine-tyrosine-valine, tryptophan-glycine and phenylalanine, and data set 2 included vitamin B1, vitamin B2 and vitamin B6) for the first time. By means of the Tchebichef moments with different orders, the different information in the EEM spectra can be represented. It is owing to this multi-resolution capability that the overlapping problem was solved, and the information of chemicals and scatterings were separated. The obtained results demonstrated that the Tchebichef moment method is very effective, which provides a promising tool for the analysis of EEM spectra. It is expected that the applications of Tchebichef moment method could be developed and extended in complex systems such as biological fluids, food, environment and others to deal with the practical problems (overlapped peaks, unknown interferences, baseline drifts, and so on) with other spectra.

  20. Fluorescence in situ hybridization techniques (FISH) to detect changes in CYP19a gene expression of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, June-Woo; Tompsett, Amber; Zhang, Xiaowei; Newsted, John L.; Jones, Paul D.; Au, Doris; Kong, Richard; Wu, Rudolf S.S.; Giesy, John P.; Hecker, Markus

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a sensitive in situ hybridization methodology using fluorescence-labeled riboprobes (FISH) that allows for the evaluation of gene expression profiles simultaneously in multiple target tissues of whole fish sections of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). To date FISH methods have been limited in their application due to autofluorescence of tissues, fixatives or other components of the hybridization procedure. An optimized FISH method, based on confocal fluorescence microscopy was developed to reduce the autofluorescence signal. Because of its tissue- and gender-specific expression and relevance in studies of endocrine disruption, gonadal aromatase (CYP19a) was used as a model gene. The in situ hybridization (ISH) system was validated in a test exposure with the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole. The optimized FISH method revealed tissue-specific expression of the CYP19a gene. Furthermore, the assay could differentiate the abundance of CYP19a mRNA among cell types. Expression of CYP19a was primarily associated with early stage oocytes, and expression gradually decreased with increasing maturation. No expression of CYP19a mRNA was observed in other tissues such as brain, liver, or testes. Fadrozole (100 μg/L) caused up-regulation of CYP19a expression, a trend that was confirmed by RT-PCR analysis on excised tissues. In a combination approach with gonad histology, it could be shown that the increase in CYP19a expression as measured by RT-PCR on a whole tissue basis was due to a combination of both increases in numbers of CYP19a-containing cells and an increase in the amount of CYP19a mRNA present in the cells

  1. Simulation tools for industrial applications of phased array inspection techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahaut, St.; Roy, O.; Chatillon, S.; Calmon, P.

    2001-01-01

    Ultrasonic phased arrays techniques have been developed at the French Atomic Energy Commission in order to improve defects characterization and adaptability to various inspection configuration (complex geometry specimen). Such transducers allow 'standard' techniques - adjustable beam-steering and focusing -, or more 'advanced' techniques - self-focusing on defects for instance -. To estimate the performances of those techniques, models have been developed, which allows to compute the ultrasonic field radiated by an arbitrary phased array transducer through any complex specimen, and to predict the ultrasonic response of various defects inspected with a known beam. Both modeling applications are gathered in the Civa software, dedicated to NDT expertise. The use of those complementary models allows to evaluate the ability of a phased array to steer and focus the ultrasonic beam, and therefore its relevancy to detect and characterize defects. These models are specifically developed to give accurate solutions to realistic inspection applications. This paper briefly describes the CIVA models, and presents some applications dedicated to the inspection of complex specimen containing various defects with a phased array used to steer and focus the beam. Defect detection and characterization performances are discussed for the various configurations. Some experimental validation of both models are also presented. (authors)

  2. Performance Evaluation Of Furrow Lengths And Field Application Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issaka

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study evaluated performance of furrow lengths and field application techniques. The experiment was conducted on 2000 m2 field at Bontanga irrigation scheme. Randomized Complete Block Design RCBD was used with three replicates. The replicates include Blocks A B and C of furrow lengths 100 m 75 m and 50 m respectively. Each replicate had surge cut-off cut-back and bunds treatments. Water was introduced into the furrows and the advance distances and time were measured. Results of the study showed that at Block A surge technique recorded the highest advance rate of 1.26 minm and opportunity time of 11 min whilst bunds recorded the lowest advance rate of 0.92 minm. Significant difference 3.32 pamp88050.05 occurred between treatment means of field application techniques at Block A 100 m. Significant difference 2.71 pamp88050.05 was also recorded between treatment means. At Block B 75 m there was significant difference 2.71 pamp88050.05 between treatment means. No significant difference 0.14 pamp88040.05 was observed among surge cut-back and bunds techniques. There was significant difference 2.60 pamp88050.05 between treatment means but no significant difference between cut-back and bunds techniques in Block C 50 m. Their performance was ranked in the order Surge Cut-back Cut-off Bunds for furrow lengths 100 m 75 m and 50 m respectively.

  3. Facility and application of nuclear and supplementary analytical techniques at Dalat Nuclear Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Mong Sinh; Ho Manh Dung; Nguyen Thanh Binh

    2006-01-01

    The main applications of the nuclear and supplementary analytical techniques (N and SATs) in the Dalat Nuclear Research Institute (DNRI) and the facilities for the techniques are presented. The NATs in DNRI include the neutron activation analysis (NAA) with instrumental, radiochemical and prompt gamma methods (INAA, RNAA, PGNAA), the X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRFA) and the low-level counting and spectrometry. The sample irradiation sites for NAA, the automatic and manual pneumatic transfer systems, were installed at channels 7-1 and 13-2 and rotary rack on the Dalat research reactor. An ORTEC automatic sample changer (model ASC2) for γ-ray counting was equipped. A computer software for NAA based on the k 0 -standardization method for calculation of elemental concentration was developed. The low-level counting and spectrometry techniques have been setup. The devices required for sampling, sample preparation and data processing have also been equipped. The applications of N and SATs for determination of elemental composition, particularly important in providing data so-called trace elements, radionuclides and multi-element have been enlarged for objects of geology, archaeology, bio-agriculture, health-nutrition and environment. The implementation a quality system for N and SATs has been planned and initiated. (author)

  4. Technical meeting on commercial applications of nuclear analytical techniques. Meeting report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes the findings of the Technical Meeting on the Commercial Applications of Nuclear Analytical Techniques held in Vienna on 23-26 November 2004, where an assessment was initiated of the world capacity and market potentials for neutron activation analysis and nuclear spectroscopy, including an estimation of economic revenues. Industry and governmental agencies were identified as stakeholders for these laboratories. Examples are given of potential benefits of these techniques to the stakeholders. The potentials for commercial applications of neutron activation analysis and nuclear spectroscopy (measurement of alpha, beta and gamma ray emitting radionuclides) are addressed. First estimates are given of the worldwide capacity of these laboratories, suggestions and examples are given for potential markets and the typical organizational and technical constraints are discussed. Two case studies of commercial neutron activation analysis laboratories at a small and a medium-size reactor are given in the 'individual contributions' section of this document. An assessment of other nuclear analytical techniques such as X ray Fluorescence Spectrometry, Particle Induced X ray Emission Spectrometry or Ion Beam Analysis Spectrometry has been completed after a comprehensive collection of background information

  5. Technical meeting on commercial applications of nuclear analytical techniques. Meeting report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This report summarizes the findings of the Technical Meeting on the Commercial Applications of Nuclear Analytical Techniques held in Vienna on 23-26 November 2004, where an assessment was initiated of the world capacity and market potentials for neutron activation analysis and nuclear spectroscopy, including an estimation of economic revenues. Industry and governmental agencies were identified as stakeholders for these laboratories. Examples are given of potential benefits of these techniques to the stakeholders. The potentials for commercial applications of neutron activation analysis and nuclear spectroscopy (measurement of alpha, beta and gamma ray emitting radionuclides) are addressed. First estimates are given of the worldwide capacity of these laboratories, suggestions and examples are given for potential markets and the typical organizational and technical constraints are discussed. Two case studies of commercial neutron activation analysis laboratories at a small and a medium-size reactor are given in the 'individual contributions' section of this document. An assessment of other nuclear analytical techniques such as X ray Fluorescence Spectrometry, Particle Induced X ray Emission Spectrometry or Ion Beam Analysis Spectrometry has been completed after a comprehensive collection of background information.

  6. Cytotoxicity and fluorescence studies of silica-coated CdSe quantum dots for bioimaging applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vibin, Muthunayagam; Vinayakan, Ramachandran; John, Annie; Raji, Vijayamma; Rejiya, Chellappan S.; Vinesh, Naresh S.; Abraham, Annie

    2011-01-01

    The toxicological effects of silica-coated CdSe quantum dots (QDs) were investigated systematically on human cervical cancer cell line. Trioctylphosphine oxide capped CdSe QDs were synthesized and rendered water soluble by overcoating with silica, using aminopropyl silane as silica precursor. The cytotoxicity studies were conducted by exposing cells to freshly synthesized QDs as a function of time (0–72 h) and concentration up to micromolar level by Lactate dehydrogenase assay, MTT [3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide] assay, Neutral red cell viability assay, Trypan blue dye exclusion method and morphological examination of cells using phase contrast microscope. The in vitro analysis results showed that the silica-coated CdSe QDs were nontoxic even at higher loadings. Subsequently the in vivo fluorescence was also demonstrated by intravenous administration of the QDs in Swiss albino mice. The fluorescence images in the cryosections of tissues depicted strong luminescence property of silica-coated QDs under biological conditions. These results confirmed the role of these luminescent materials in biological labeling and imaging applications.

  7. Cytotoxicity and fluorescence studies of silica-coated CdSe quantum dots for bioimaging applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vibin, Muthunayagam [University of Kerala, Department of Biochemistry (India); Vinayakan, Ramachandran [National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology (CSIR), Photosciences and Photonics (India); John, Annie [Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute of Medical Sciences and Technology, Biomedical Technology Wing (India); Raji, Vijayamma; Rejiya, Chellappan S.; Vinesh, Naresh S.; Abraham, Annie, E-mail: annieab2@yahoo.co.in [University of Kerala, Department of Biochemistry (India)

    2011-06-15

    The toxicological effects of silica-coated CdSe quantum dots (QDs) were investigated systematically on human cervical cancer cell line. Trioctylphosphine oxide capped CdSe QDs were synthesized and rendered water soluble by overcoating with silica, using aminopropyl silane as silica precursor. The cytotoxicity studies were conducted by exposing cells to freshly synthesized QDs as a function of time (0-72 h) and concentration up to micromolar level by Lactate dehydrogenase assay, MTT [3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide] assay, Neutral red cell viability assay, Trypan blue dye exclusion method and morphological examination of cells using phase contrast microscope. The in vitro analysis results showed that the silica-coated CdSe QDs were nontoxic even at higher loadings. Subsequently the in vivo fluorescence was also demonstrated by intravenous administration of the QDs in Swiss albino mice. The fluorescence images in the cryosections of tissues depicted strong luminescence property of silica-coated QDs under biological conditions. These results confirmed the role of these luminescent materials in biological labeling and imaging applications.

  8. Biocompatible fluorescent zein nanoparticles for simultaneous bioimaging and drug delivery application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girija Aswathy, Ravindran; Sivakumar, Balasubramanian; Brahatheeswaran, Dhandayudhapani; Fukuda, Takahiro; Yoshida, Yasuhiko; Maekawa, Toru; Sakthi Kumar, D

    2012-01-01

    We report the synthesis of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) loaded biocompatible fluorescent zein nanoparticles. Zein is the storage protein in corn kernels that has a variety of unique characteristics and functionalities that makes zein valuable in various commercial applications. It is classified as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). We synthesized zein nanoparticles of around 800 nm in size and conjugated with quantum dot ZnS:Mn. The nanoparticle was in turn encapsulated with the drug 5-FU. The luminescent properties of these nanoparticles were studied by using fluorescence microscopy. The nanoparticles were characterized and the drug release profile was studied. The biocompatibility of zein nanoparticle and the cytotoxicity with drug-loaded nanoparticle was studied in L929 and MCF-7 cell lines. The nanoparticles were successfully employed for cellular imaging. In vitro drug release studies were also performed. The biocompatibility of the nanoparticle showed that nanoparticles at higher concentrations are compatible for cells and are expected to be promising agents for the targeted delivery of drugs in the near future

  9. Development and application of laser techniques for studying fuel dynamics and NO formation in engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Oeivind

    2000-11-01

    In this work a number of laser techniques have been applied in new ways for combustion diagnostics in engines. The applications cover small two-stroke engines, ordinary spark ignition (SI) engines, direct-injection spark ignition (DISI) engines, and heavy-duty diesel truck engines. In an investigation of unmodified two-stroke engines running at high engine speed, it has been shown that cycle-resolved laser diagnostics are applicable to real-world engines. The emission of unburned fuel was detected at the exhaust port with successful discrimination against other unburned hydrocarbons. Although a few problems remain to be solved in order to get quantitative concentration data, valuable information can nonetheless be attained using this technique. The technique would benefit from the use of a non-fluorescing lubricant, as that would decrease the background fluorescence. Laser-based techniques also provide a useful tool for studying the fuel dynamics inside the cylinder. In the development of DISI engines it is of particular importance to acquire knowledge about the distribution of fuel around the spark plug. Numerical computer codes are often used as design tools in these applications. Laser techniques are capable of yielding instantaneous multi-point concentration information with high spatial and temporal resolution, making them ideal both for validation of CFD simulations and for testing designs. The feasibility of using laser diagnostics in the development of DISI engines has been shown. Future research should be aimed at simplifying the procedure for quantifying the data, since a fairly simple and reliable technique would be an important asset for the industry. In a more fundamental study, it has been shown that it is possible to simultaneously detect a substance in both liquid and vapour phase. Water was used in the study since it is easily produced in both phases. Liquid drops were detected using spontaneous Raman scattering, whereas the vapour surrounding them

  10. Development and application of laser techniques for studying fuel dynamics and NO formation in engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Oeivind

    2000-11-01

    In this work a number of laser techniques have been applied in new ways for combustion diagnostics in engines. The applications cover small two-stroke engines, ordinary spark ignition (SI) engines, direct-injection spark ignition (DISI) engines, and heavy-duty diesel truck engines. In an investigation of unmodified two-stroke engines running at high engine speed, it has been shown that cycle-resolved laser diagnostics are applicable to real-world engines. The emission of unburned fuel was detected at the exhaust port with successful discrimination against other unburned hydrocarbons. Although a few problems remain to be solved in order to get quantitative concentration data, valuable information can nonetheless be attained using this technique. The technique would benefit from the use of a non-fluorescing lubricant, as that would decrease the background fluorescence. Laser-based techniques also provide a useful tool for studying the fuel dynamics inside the cylinder. In the development of DISI engines it is of particular importance to acquire knowledge about the distribution of fuel around the spark plug. Numerical computer codes are often used as design tools in these applications. Laser techniques are capable of yielding instantaneous multi-point concentration information with high spatial and temporal resolution, making them ideal both for validation of CFD simulations and for testing designs. The feasibility of using laser diagnostics in the development of DISI engines has been shown. Future research should be aimed at simplifying the procedure for quantifying the data, since a fairly simple and reliable technique would be an important asset for the industry. In a more fundamental study, it has been shown that it is possible to simultaneously detect a substance in both liquid and vapour phase. Water was used in the study since it is easily produced in both phases. Liquid drops were detected using spontaneous Raman scattering, whereas the vapour surrounding them

  11. Photogrammetry: applications of a three-dimensional remote measurement technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peak, K.

    1988-01-01

    Photogrammetry is defined as the precise art of abstracting measurements from photographic images. Used for many years as a means to produce the world's maps, it has, in recent years, been applied in many engineering environments. The nuclear industry has, in particular, benefitted from the close range applications of photogrammetry. This paper sets out to describe the techniques involved, from the site photography through to the analytical data extraction. It will include a number of examples of where photogrammetry has been used in the nuclear industry as a remote measurement technique, from simple monitoring exercises to the compilation of complex three-dimensional as-built computer models. (author)

  12. Application of the PRBS/FFT technique to digital simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinds, H.W.

    1977-01-01

    This paper describes a method for obtaining a small-signal frequency response from a digital dynamic simulation. It employs a modified form of the PRBS/FFT technique, whereby a system is perturbed by a pseudo-random binary sequence and its response is analyzed using a fast Fourier transform-based program. Two applications of the technique are described; one involves a set of two coupled, second-order, ordinary differential equations; the other is a set of non-linear partial differential equations describing the thermohydraulic behaviour of water boiling in a fuel channel. (author)

  13. Radiation scattering techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edmonds, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation backscattering techniques are useful when access to an item to be inspected is restricted to one side. These techniques are very sensitive to geometrical effects. Scattering processes and their application to the determination of voids, thickness measuring, well-logging and the use of x-ray fluorescence techniques are discussed. (U.K.)

  14. Validation Techniques for Sensor Data in Mobile Health Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Miguel Pires

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile applications have become a must in every user’s smart device, and many of these applications make use of the device sensors’ to achieve its goal. Nevertheless, it remains fairly unknown to the user to which extent the data the applications use can be relied upon and, therefore, to which extent the output of a given application is trustworthy or not. To help developers and researchers and to provide a common ground of data validation algorithms and techniques, this paper presents a review of the most commonly used data validation algorithms, along with its usage scenarios, and proposes a classification for these algorithms. This paper also discusses the process of achieving statistical significance and trust for the desired output.

  15. Mercury in Environmental and Biological Samples Using Online Combustion with Sequential Atomic Absorption and Fluorescence Measurements: A Direct Comparison of Two Fundamental Techniques in Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizdziel, James V.

    2011-01-01

    In this laboratory experiment, students quantitatively determine the concentration of an element (mercury) in an environmental or biological sample while comparing and contrasting the fundamental techniques of atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). A mercury analyzer based on sample combustion,…

  16. Application of ESPI techniques for the study of dynamic vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupka, Rene

    2004-06-01

    Full field optical measurement techniques have already entered into various fields of industrial applications covering static as well as dynamic phenomena. The electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) allows the non contact, sensitive and three dimensional measurement of displacements in the sub micron range of objects with dimensions from mm2 to m2. For dynamic and transient phenomena, the use of pulsed laser have already been reported for various applications and successfully proven for the determination of the structural response of different components. In this paper we would like to present recent developments in the field of pulsed ESPI applications where emphasis is put onto the full field measurement result. The use of a completely computer controlled system allows easy access to mode shape characterization, deformation measurements and the characterization of transient events like shock wave propagation. Recent developments of the 3D-PulseESPI technique led to a very compact and complete system with improved characteristics regarding robustness and operation. The integrated design of the illumination laser and sensors for image acquisition allows easy aiming and adjustments with respect to the object of inspection. The laser is completely computer controlled which is advantageously used in a completely automatic brake squeal inspection system, which captures the squealing signal, automatically fires the laser and provides the complete deformation map of the component under test. Examples of recent applications in the field of dynamic structure response, with an emphasis in the field of automotive applications are given.

  17. Tracer-based laser-induced fluorescence measurement technique for quantitative fuel/air-ratio measurements in a hydrogen internal combustion engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blotevogel, Thomas; Hartmann, Matthias; Rottengruber, Hermann; Leipertz, Alfred

    2008-12-10

    A measurement technique for the quantitative investigation of mixture formation processes in hydrogen internal combustion engines (ICEs) has been developed using tracer-based laser-induced fluorescence (TLIF). This technique can be employed to fired and motored engine operation. The quantitative TLIF fuel/air-ratio results have been verified by means of linear Raman scattering measurements. Exemplary results of the simultaneous investigation of mixture formation and combustion obtained at an optical accessible hydrogen ICE are shown.

  18. Cloud computing and digital media fundamentals, techniques, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Kuan-Ching; Shih, Timothy K

    2014-01-01

    Cloud Computing and Digital Media: Fundamentals, Techniques, and Applications presents the fundamentals of cloud and media infrastructure, novel technologies that integrate digital media with cloud computing, and real-world applications that exemplify the potential of cloud computing for next-generation digital media. It brings together technologies for media/data communication, elastic media/data storage, security, authentication, cross-network media/data fusion, interdevice media interaction/reaction, data centers, PaaS, SaaS, and more.The book covers resource optimization for multimedia clo

  19. Advances in dental veneers: materials, applications, and techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pini, Núbia Pavesi; Aguiar, Flávio Henrique Baggio; Lima, Débora Alves Nunes Leite; Lovadino, José Roberto; Terada, Raquel Sano Suga; Pascotto, Renata Corrêa

    2012-01-01

    Laminate veneers are a conservative treatment of unaesthetic anterior teeth. The continued development of dental ceramics offers clinicians many options for creating highly aesthetic and functional porcelain veneers. This evolution of materials, ceramics, and adhesive systems permits improvement of the aesthetic of the smile and the self-esteem of the patient. Clinicians should understand the latest ceramic materials in order to be able to recommend them and their applications and techniques, and to ensure the success of the clinical case. The current literature was reviewed to search for the most important parameters determining the long-term success, correct application, and clinical limitations of porcelain veneers.

  20. Literature survey of heat transfer enhancement techniques in refrigeration applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, M.K.; Shome, B. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Aeronautical Engineering and Mechanics

    1994-05-01

    A survey has been performed of the technical and patent literature on enhanced heat transfer of refrigerants in pool boiling, forced convection evaporation, and condensation. Extensive bibliographies of the technical literature and patents are given. Many passive and active techniques were examined for pure refrigerants, refrigerant-oil mixtures, and refrigerant mixtures. The citations were categorized according to enhancement technique, heat transfer mode, and tube or shell side focus. The effects of the enhancement techniques relative to smooth and/or pure refrigerants were illustrated through the discussion of selected papers. Patented enhancement techniques also are discussed. Enhanced heat transfer has demonstrated significant improvements in performance in many refrigerant applications. However, refrigerant mixtures and refrigerant-oil mixtures have not been studied extensively; no research has been performed with enhanced refrigerant mixtures with oil. Most studies have been of the parametric type; there has been inadequate examination of the fundamental processes governing enhanced refrigerant heat transfer, but some modeling is being done and correlations developed. It is clear that an enhancement technique must be optimized for the refrigerant and operating condition. Fundamental processes governing the heat transfer must be examined if models for enhancement techniques are to be developed; these models could provide the method to optimize a surface. Refrigerant mixtures, with and without oil present, must be studied with enhancement devices; there is too little known to be able to estimate the effects of mixtures (particularly NARMs) with enhanced heat transfer. Other conclusions and recommendations are offered.