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Sample records for fluorescence lifetime-based microsensor

  1. Fluorescence lifetime based bioassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Almes, Franz-Josef

    2017-12-01

    Fluorescence lifetime (FLT) is a robust intrinsic property and material constant of fluorescent matter. Measuring this important physical indicator has evolved from a laboratory curiosity to a powerful and established technique for a variety of applications in drug discovery, medical diagnostics and basic biological research. This distinct trend was mainly driven by improved and meanwhile affordable laser and detection instrumentation on the one hand, and the development of suitable FLT probes and biological assays on the other. In this process two essential working approaches emerged. The first one is primarily focused on high throughput applications employing biochemical in vitro assays with no requirement for high spatial resolution. The second even more dynamic trend is the significant expansion of assay methods combining highly time and spatially resolved fluorescence data by fluorescence lifetime imaging. The latter approach is currently pursued to enable not only the investigation of immortal tumor cell lines, but also specific tissues or even organs in living animals. This review tries to give an actual overview about the current status of FLT based bioassays and the wide range of application opportunities in biomedical and life science areas. In addition, future trends of FLT technologies will be discussed.

  2. Three-dimensional fluorescence lifetime tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godavarty, Anuradha; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.; Eppstein, Margaret J.

    2005-01-01

    Near-infrared fluorescence tomography using molecularly targeted lifetime-sensitive, fluorescent contrast agents have applications for early-stage cancer diagnostics. Yet, although the measurement of fluorescent lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) is extensively used in microscopy and spectroscopy applications, demonstration of fluorescence lifetime tomography for medical imaging is limited to two-dimensional studies. Herein, the feasibility of three-dimensional fluorescence-lifetime tomography on clinically relevant phantom volumes is established, using (i) a gain-modulated intensified charge coupled device (CCD) and modulated laser diode imaging system, (ii) two fluorescent contrast agents, e.g., Indocyanine green and 3-3'-Diethylthiatricarbocyanine iodide differing in their fluorescence lifetime by 0.62 ns, and (iii) a two stage approximate extended Kalman filter reconstruction algorithm. Fluorescence measurements of phase and amplitude were acquired on the phantom surface under different target to background fluorescence absorption (70:1, 100:1) and fluorescence lifetime (1:1, 2.1:1) contrasts at target depths of 1.4-2 cm. The Bayesian tomography algorithm was employed to obtain three-dimensional images of lifetime and absorption owing to the fluorophores

  3. Quantitative analysis of fluorescence lifetime measurements of the macula using the fluorescence lifetime imaging ophthalmoscope in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dysli, Chantal; Quellec, Gwénolé; Abegg, Mathias; Menke, Marcel N; Wolf-Schnurrbusch, Ute; Kowal, Jens; Blatz, Johannes; La Schiazza, Olivier; Leichtle, Alexander B; Wolf, Sebastian; Zinkernagel, Martin S

    2014-04-03

    Fundus autofluorescence (FAF) cannot only be characterized by the intensity or the emission spectrum, but also by its lifetime. As the lifetime of a fluorescent molecule is sensitive to its local microenvironment, this technique may provide more information than fundus autofluorescence imaging. We report here the characteristics and repeatability of FAF lifetime measurements of the human macula using a new fluorescence lifetime imaging ophthalmoscope (FLIO). A total of 31 healthy phakic subjects were included in this study with an age range from 22 to 61 years. For image acquisition, a fluorescence lifetime ophthalmoscope based on a Heidelberg Engineering Spectralis system was used. Fluorescence lifetime maps of the retina were recorded in a short- (498-560 nm) and a long- (560-720 nm) spectral channel. For quantification of fluorescence lifetimes a standard ETDRS grid was used. Mean fluorescence lifetimes were shortest in the fovea, with 208 picoseconds for the short-spectral channel and 239 picoseconds for the long-spectral channel, respectively. Fluorescence lifetimes increased from the central area to the outer ring of the ETDRS grid. The test-retest reliability of FLIO was very high for all ETDRS areas (Spearman's ρ = 0.80 for the short- and 0.97 for the long-spectral channel, P macula in healthy subjects. By using a custom-built software, we were able to quantify fluorescence lifetimes within the ETDRS grid. Establishing a clinically accessible standard against which to measure FAF lifetimes within the retina is a prerequisite for future studies in retinal disease.

  4. Plasmonic-based instrument response function for time-resolved fluorescence: toward proper lifetime analysis

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    Szlazak, Radoslaw; Tutaj, Krzysztof; Grudzinski, Wojciech; Gruszecki, Wieslaw I.; Luchowski, Rafal, E-mail: rafal.luchowski@umcs.pl [Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, Department of Biophysics, Institute of Physics (Poland)

    2013-06-15

    In this report, we investigated the so-called plasmonic platforms prepared to target ultra-short fluorescence and accurate instrumental response function in a time-domain spectroscopy and microscopy. The interaction of metallic nanoparticles with nearby fluorophores results in the increase of the dye fluorescence quantum yield, photostability and decrease of the lifetime parameter. The mentioned properties of platforms were applied to achieve a picosecond fluorescence lifetime (21 ps) of erythrosin B, used later as a better choice for deconvolution of fluorescence decays measured with 'color' sensitive photo-detectors. The ultra-short fluorescence standard based on combination of thin layers of silver film, silver colloidal nanoparticles (about 60 nm in diameter), and top layer of erythrosin B embedded in 0.2 % poly(vinyl) alcohol. The response functions were monitored on two photo-detectors; microchannel plate photomultiplier and single photon avalanche photodiode as a Rayleigh scattering and ultra-short fluorescence. We demonstrated that use of the plasmonic base fluorescence standard as an instrumental response function results in the absence of systematic error in lifetime measurements and analysis.

  5. Refractive index sensing using Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging (FLIM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Carolyn; Suhling, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    The fluorescence lifetime is a function of the refractive index of the fluorophore's environment, for example in the case of the biologically important green fluorescent protein (GFP). In order to address the question whether this effect can be exploited to image the local environment of specific proteins in cell biology, we need to determine the distance over which the fluorophore's lifetime is sensitive to the refractive index. To this end, we employ Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging (FLIM) of fluorescein in NaOH buffer at an interface. This approach allows us to map the fluorescence lifetime as a function of distance from a buffer/air and buffer/oil interface. Preliminary data show that the fluorescence lifetime of fluorescein increases near a buffer/air interface and decreases near a buffer/oil interface. The range over which this fluorescence lifetime change occurs is found to be of the order several μm which is consistent with a theoretical model based on the full width at half maximum of the emission spectrum proposed by Toptygin

  6. Fluorescence lifetime imaging of skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patalay, Rakesh; Talbot, Clifford; Munro, Ian; Breunig, Hans Georg; König, Karsten; Alexandrov, Yuri; Warren, Sean; Neil, Mark A. A.; French, Paul M. W.; Chu, Anthony; Stamp, Gordon W.; Dunsby, Chris

    2011-03-01

    Fluorescence intensity imaging and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) using two photon microscopy (TPM) have been used to study tissue autofluorescence in ex vivo skin cancer samples. A commercially available system (DermaInspect®) was modified to collect fluorescence intensity and lifetimes in two spectral channels using time correlated single photon counting and depth-resolved steady state measurements of the fluorescence emission spectrum. Uniquely, image segmentation has been used to allow fluorescence lifetimes to be calculated for each cell. An analysis of lifetime values obtained from a range of pigmented and non-pigmented lesions will be presented.

  7. Fluorescence intensity and lifetime-based cyanide sensitive probes for physiological safeguard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badugu, Ramachandram; Lakowicz, Joseph R.; Geddes, Chris D.

    2004-01-01

    We characterize six new fluorescent probes that show both intensity and lifetime changes in the presence of free uncomplexed aqueous cyanide, allowing for fluorescence based cyanide sensing up to physiological safeguard levels, i.e. 2 to the anionic R-B - (CN) 3 form, a new cyanide binding mechanism which we have recently reported. The presence of an electron deficient quaternary heterocyclic nitrogen nucleus, and the electron rich cyanide bound form, provides for the intensity changes observed. We have determined the disassociation constants of the probes to be in the range ∼15-84 μM 3 . In addition we have synthesized control compounds which do not contain the boronic acid moiety, allowing for a rationale of the cyanide responses between the probe isomers to be made. The lifetime of the cyanide bound probes are significantly shorter than the free R-B(OH) 2 probe forms, providing for the opportunity of lifetime based cyanide sensing up to physiologically lethal levels. Finally, while fluorescent probes containing the boronic acid moiety have earned a well-deserved reputation for monosaccharide sensing, we show that strong bases such as CN - and OH - preferentially bind as compared to glucose, enabling the potential use of these probes for cyanide safeguard and determination in physiological fluids, especially given that physiologies do not experience any notable changes in pH

  8. Towards sensitive, high-throughput, biomolecular assays based on fluorescence lifetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioanna Skilitsi, Anastasia; Turko, Timothé; Cianfarani, Damien; Barre, Sophie; Uhring, Wilfried; Hassiepen, Ulrich; Léonard, Jérémie

    2017-09-01

    Time-resolved fluorescence detection for robust sensing of biomolecular interactions is developed by implementing time-correlated single photon counting in high-throughput conditions. Droplet microfluidics is used as a promising platform for the very fast handling of low-volume samples. We illustrate the potential of this very sensitive and cost-effective technology in the context of an enzymatic activity assay based on fluorescently-labeled biomolecules. Fluorescence lifetime detection by time-correlated single photon counting is shown to enable reliable discrimination between positive and negative control samples at a throughput as high as several hundred samples per second.

  9. Modulated electron-multiplied fluorescence lifetime imaging microscope: all-solid-state camera for fluorescence lifetime imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiaole; Schelen, Ben; Schouten, Raymond; van den Oever, Rein; Leenen, René; van Kuijk, Harry; Peters, Inge; Polderdijk, Frank; Bosiers, Jan; Raspe, Marcel; Jalink, Kees; Geert Sander de Jong, Jan; van Geest, Bert; Stoop, Karel; Young, Ian Ted

    2012-12-01

    We have built an all-solid-state camera that is directly modulated at the pixel level for frequency-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) measurements. This novel camera eliminates the need for an image intensifier through the use of an application-specific charge coupled device design in a frequency-domain FLIM system. The first stage of evaluation for the camera has been carried out. Camera characteristics such as noise distribution, dark current influence, camera gain, sampling density, sensitivity, linearity of photometric response, and optical transfer function have been studied through experiments. We are able to do lifetime measurement using our modulated, electron-multiplied fluorescence lifetime imaging microscope (MEM-FLIM) camera for various objects, e.g., fluorescein solution, fixed green fluorescent protein (GFP) cells, and GFP-actin stained live cells. A detailed comparison of a conventional microchannel plate (MCP)-based FLIM system and the MEM-FLIM system is presented. The MEM-FLIM camera shows higher resolution and a better image quality. The MEM-FLIM camera provides a new opportunity for performing frequency-domain FLIM.

  10. Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging in Stargardt Disease: Potential Marker for Disease Progression

    OpenAIRE

    Dysli Chantal; Wolf Sebastian; Hatz Katja; Zinkernagel Martin

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to describe autofluorescence lifetime characteristics in Stargardt disease (STGD) using fluorescence lifetime imaging ophthalmoscopy (FLIO) and to investigate potential prognostic markers for disease activity and progression. METHODS Fluorescence lifetime data of 16 patients with STGD (mean age, 40 years; range, 22-56 years) and 15 age-matched controls were acquired using a fluorescence lifetime imaging ophthalmoscope based on a Heidelberg Eng...

  11. Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy using near-infrared contrast agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nothdurft, R; Sarder, P; Bloch, S; Culver, J; Achilefu, S

    2012-08-01

    Although single-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) is widely used to image molecular processes using a wide range of excitation wavelengths, the captured emission of this technique is confined to the visible spectrum. Here, we explore the feasibility of utilizing near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent molecular probes with emission >700 nm for FLIM of live cells. The confocal microscope is equipped with a 785 nm laser diode, a red-enhanced photomultiplier tube, and a time-correlated single photon counting card. We demonstrate that our system reports the lifetime distributions of NIR fluorescent dyes, cypate and DTTCI, in cells. In cells labelled separately or jointly with these dyes, NIR FLIM successfully distinguishes their lifetimes, providing a method to sort different cell populations. In addition, lifetime distributions of cells co-incubated with these dyes allow estimate of the dyes' relative concentrations in complex cellular microenvironments. With the heightened interest in fluorescence lifetime-based small animal imaging using NIR fluorophores, this technique further serves as a bridge between in vitro spectroscopic characterization of new fluorophore lifetimes and in vivo tissue imaging. © 2012 The Author Journal of Microscopy © 2012 Royal Microscopical Society.

  12. A fast global fitting algorithm for fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy based on image segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelet, S; Previte, M J R; Laiho, L H; So, P T C

    2004-10-01

    Global fitting algorithms have been shown to improve effectively the accuracy and precision of the analysis of fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy data. Global analysis performs better than unconstrained data fitting when prior information exists, such as the spatial invariance of the lifetimes of individual fluorescent species. The highly coupled nature of global analysis often results in a significantly slower convergence of the data fitting algorithm as compared with unconstrained analysis. Convergence speed can be greatly accelerated by providing appropriate initial guesses. Realizing that the image morphology often correlates with fluorophore distribution, a global fitting algorithm has been developed to assign initial guesses throughout an image based on a segmentation analysis. This algorithm was tested on both simulated data sets and time-domain lifetime measurements. We have successfully measured fluorophore distribution in fibroblasts stained with Hoechst and calcein. This method further allows second harmonic generation from collagen and elastin autofluorescence to be differentiated in fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy images of ex vivo human skin. On our experimental measurement, this algorithm increased convergence speed by over two orders of magnitude and achieved significantly better fits. Copyright 2004 Biophysical Society

  13. The enhanced cyan fluorescent protein: a sensitive pH sensor for fluorescence lifetime imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poëa-Guyon, Sandrine; Pasquier, Hélène; Mérola, Fabienne; Morel, Nicolas; Erard, Marie

    2013-05-01

    pH is an important parameter that affects many functions of live cells, from protein structure or function to several crucial steps of their metabolism. Genetically encoded pH sensors based on pH-sensitive fluorescent proteins have been developed and used to monitor the pH of intracellular compartments. The quantitative analysis of pH variations can be performed either by ratiometric or fluorescence lifetime detection. However, most available genetically encoded pH sensors are based on green and yellow fluorescent proteins and are not compatible with multicolor approaches. Taking advantage of the strong pH sensitivity of enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (ECFP), we demonstrate here its suitability as a sensitive pH sensor using fluorescence lifetime imaging. The intracellular ECFP lifetime undergoes large changes (32 %) in the pH 5 to pH 7 range, which allows accurate pH measurements to better than 0.2 pH units. By fusion of ECFP with the granular chromogranin A, we successfully measured the pH in secretory granules of PC12 cells, and we performed a kinetic analysis of intragranular pH variations in living cells exposed to ammonium chloride.

  14. Measuring and sorting cell populations expressing isospectral fluorescent proteins with different fluorescence lifetimes.

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    Bryan Sands

    Full Text Available Study of signal transduction in live cells benefits from the ability to visualize and quantify light emitted by fluorescent proteins (XFPs fused to different signaling proteins. However, because cell signaling proteins are often present in small numbers, and because the XFPs themselves are poor fluorophores, the amount of emitted light, and the observable signal in these studies, is often small. An XFP's fluorescence lifetime contains additional information about the immediate environment of the fluorophore that can augment the information from its weak light signal. Here, we constructed and expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae variants of Teal Fluorescent Protein (TFP and Citrine that were isospectral but had shorter fluorescence lifetimes, ∼ 1.5 ns vs ∼ 3 ns. We modified microscopic and flow cytometric instruments to measure fluorescence lifetimes in live cells. We developed digital hardware and a measure of lifetime called a "pseudophasor" that we could compute quickly enough to permit sorting by lifetime in flow. We used these abilities to sort mixtures of cells expressing TFP and the short-lifetime TFP variant into subpopulations that were respectively 97% and 94% pure. This work demonstrates the feasibility of using information about fluorescence lifetime to help quantify cell signaling in living cells at the high throughput provided by flow cytometry. Moreover, it demonstrates the feasibility of isolating and recovering subpopulations of cells with different XFP lifetimes for subsequent experimentation.

  15. Fluorescence lifetime imaging of oxygen in dental biofilm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerritsen, Hans C.; de Grauw, Cees J.

    2000-12-01

    Dental biofilm consists of micro-colonies of bacteria embedded in a matrix of polysaccharides and salivary proteins. pH and oxygen concentration are of great importance in dental biofilm. Both can be measured using fluorescence techniques. The imaging of dental biofilm is complicated by the thickness of the biofilms that can be up to several hundred micrometers thick. Here, we employed a combination of two-photon excitation microscopy with fluorescence lifetime imaging to quantify the oxygen concentration in dental biofilm. Collisional quenching of fluorescent probes by molecular oxygen leads to a reduction of the fluorescence lifetime of the probe. We employed this mechanism to measure the oxygen concentration distribution in dental biofilm by means of fluorescence lifetime imaging. Here, TRIS Ruthenium chloride hydrate was used as an oxygen probe. A calibration procedure on buffers was use to measure the lifetime response of this Ruthenium probe. The results are in agreement with the Stern-Volmer equation. A linear relation was found between the ratio of the unquenched and the quenched lifetime and the oxygen concentration. The biofilm fluorescence lifetime imaging results show a strong oxygen gradient at the buffer - biofilm interface and the average oxygen concentration in the biofilm amounted to 50 μM.

  16. Azadioxatriangulenium: exploring the effect of a 20 ns fluorescence lifetime in fluorescence anisotropy measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogh, Sidsel A.; Bora, Ilkay; Rosenberg, Martin; Thyrhaug, Erling; Laursen, Bo W.; Just Sørensen, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Azaoxatriangulenium (ADOTA) has been shown to be highly emissive despite a moderate molar absorption coefficient of the primary electronic transition. As a result, the fluorescence lifetime is ~20 ns, longer than all commonly used red fluorescent organic probes. The electronic transitions in ADOTA are highly polarised (r 0  =  0.38), which in combination with the long fluorescence lifetime extents the size-range of biomolecular weights that can be detected in fluorescence polarisation-based experiments. Here, the rotational dynamics of bovine serum albumin (BSA) are monitored with three different ADOTA derivatives, differing only in constitution of the reactive linker. A detailed study of the degree of labelling, the steady-state anisotropy, and the time-resolved anisotropy of the three different ADOTA-BSA conjugates are reported. The fluorescence quantum yields (ϕ fl) of the free dyes in PBS solution are determined to be ~55%, which is reduced to ~20% in the ADOTA-BSA conjugates. Despite the reduction in ϕ fl, a ~20 ns intensity averaged lifetime is maintained, allowing for the rotational dynamics of BSA to be monitored for up to 100 ns. Thus, ADOTA can be used in fluorescence polarisation assays to fill the gap between commonly used organic dyes and the long luminescence lifetime transition metal complexes. This allows for efficient steady-state fluorescence polarisation assays for detecting binding of analytes with molecular weights of up to 100 kDa.

  17. A high-throughput direct fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based assay for analyzing apoptotic proteases using flow cytometry and fluorescence lifetime measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Miho; Sakata, Ichiro; Sakai, Takafumi; Tomioka, Hiroaki; Nishigaki, Koichi; Tramier, Marc; Coppey-Moisan, Maïté

    2015-12-15

    Cytometry is a versatile and powerful method applicable to different fields, particularly pharmacology and biomedical studies. Based on the data obtained, cytometric studies are classified into high-throughput (HTP) or high-content screening (HCS) groups. However, assays combining the advantages of both are required to facilitate research. In this study, we developed a high-throughput system to profile cellular populations in terms of time- or dose-dependent responses to apoptotic stimulations because apoptotic inducers are potent anticancer drugs. We previously established assay systems involving protease to monitor live cells for apoptosis using tunable fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based bioprobes. These assays can be used for microscopic analyses or fluorescence-activated cell sorting. In this study, we developed FRET-based bioprobes to detect the activity of the apoptotic markers caspase-3 and caspase-9 via changes in bioprobe fluorescence lifetimes using a flow cytometer for direct estimation of FRET efficiencies. Different patterns of changes in the fluorescence lifetimes of these markers during apoptosis were observed, indicating a relationship between discrete steps in the apoptosis process. The findings demonstrate the feasibility of evaluating collective cellular dynamics during apoptosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Fluorescence lifetime imaging using light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, Gordon T; Munro, Ian; Poher, Vincent; French, Paul M W; Neil, Mark A A [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Elson, Daniel S [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Hares, Jonathan D [Kentech Instruments Ltd, Unit 9, Hall Farm Workshops, South Moreton, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 9AG (United Kingdom)], E-mail: gordon.kennedy@imperial.ac.uk

    2008-05-07

    We demonstrate flexible use of low cost, high-power light emitting diodes as illumination sources for fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM). Both time-domain and frequency-domain techniques have been implemented at wavelengths spanning the range 450-640 nm. Additionally, we demonstrate optically sectioned fluorescence lifetime imaging by combining structured illumination with frequency-domain FLIM.

  19. Mesh adaptation technique for Fourier-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soloviev, Vadim Y.

    2006-01-01

    A novel adaptive mesh technique in the Fourier domain is introduced for problems in fluorescence lifetime imaging. A dynamical adaptation of the three-dimensional scheme based on the finite volume formulation reduces computational time and balances the ill-posed nature of the inverse problem. Light propagation in the medium is modeled by the telegraph equation, while the lifetime reconstruction algorithm is derived from the Fredholm integral equation of the first kind. Stability and computational efficiency of the method are demonstrated by image reconstruction of two spherical fluorescent objects embedded in a tissue phantom

  20. Miniaturized side-viewing imaging probe for fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM): validation with fluorescence dyes, tissue structural proteins and tissue specimens

    OpenAIRE

    Elson, DS; Jo, JA; Marcu, L

    2007-01-01

    We report a side viewing fibre-based endoscope that is compatible with intravascular imaging and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). The instrument has been validated through testing with fluorescent dyes and collagen and elastin powders using the Laguerre expansion deconvolution technique to calculate the fluorescence lifetimes. The instrument has also been tested on freshly excised unstained animal vascular tissues.

  1. Thermally activated delayed fluorescence organic dots for two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Tingchao; Ren, Can; Li, Zhuohua; Xiao, Shuyu; Li, Junzi; Lin, Xiaodong; Ye, Chuanxiang; Zhang, Junmin; Guo, Lihong; Hu, Wenbo; Chen, Rui

    2018-05-01

    Autofluorescence is a major challenge in complex tissue imaging when molecules present in the biological tissue compete with the fluorophore. This issue may be resolved by designing organic molecules with long fluorescence lifetimes. The present work reports the two-photon absorption (TPA) properties of a thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) molecule with carbazole as the electron donor and dicyanobenzene as the electron acceptor (i.e., 4CzIPN). The results indicate that 4CzIPN exhibits a moderate TPA cross-section (˜9 × 10-50 cm4 s photon-1), high fluorescence quantum yield, and a long fluorescence lifetime (˜1.47 μs). 4CzIPN was compactly encapsulated into an amphiphilic copolymer via nanoprecipitation to achieve water-soluble organic dots. Interestingly, 4CzIPN organic dots have been utilized in applications involving two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM). Our work aptly demonstrates that TADF molecules are promising candidates of nonlinear optical probes for developing next-generation multiphoton FLIM applications.

  2. Clinical results of fluorescence lifetime imaging in ophthalmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, D.; Quick, S.; Klemm, M.; Hammer, M.; Jentsch, S.; Dawczynski, J.; Becker, W.

    2009-07-01

    A laser scanner ophthalmoscope was developed for in vivo fluorescence lifetime measurements at the human retina. Measurements were performed in 30 degree fundus images. The fundus was excited by pulses of 75 ps (FWHM). The dynamic fluorescence was detected in two spectral channels K1(490-560nm), K2(560-700 nm) by time-correlated single photon counting. The decay of fluorescence was three-exponentially. Local and global alterations in lifetimes were found between healthy subjects and patients suffering from age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and vessel occlusion. The lifetimes T1, T2, and T3 in both channels are changed to longer values in AMD and diabetic retinopathy in comparison with healthy subjects. The lifetime T2 in K1 is most sensitive to metabolic alterations in branch arterial vessel occlusion.

  3. A Fast Global Fitting Algorithm for Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy Based on Image Segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Pelet, S.; Previte, M.J.R.; Laiho, L.H.; So, P.T. C.

    2004-01-01

    Global fitting algorithms have been shown to improve effectively the accuracy and precision of the analysis of fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy data. Global analysis performs better than unconstrained data fitting when prior information exists, such as the spatial invariance of the lifetimes of individual fluorescent species. The highly coupled nature of global analysis often results in a significantly slower convergence of the data fitting algorithm as compared with unconstrained ana...

  4. Single photon counting fluorescence lifetime detection of pericellular oxygen concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosny, Neveen A; Lee, David A; Knight, Martin M

    2012-01-01

    Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy offers a non-invasive method for quantifying local oxygen concentrations. However, existing methods are either invasive, require custom-made systems, or show limited spatial resolution. Therefore, these methods are unsuitable for investigation of pericellular oxygen concentrations. This study describes an adaptation of commercially available equipment which has been optimized for quantitative extracellular oxygen detection with high lifetime accuracy and spatial resolution while avoiding systematic photon pile-up. The oxygen sensitive fluorescent dye, tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) chloride hexahydrate [Ru(bipy)(3)](2+), was excited using a two-photon excitation laser. Lifetime was measured using a Becker & Hickl time-correlated single photon counting, which will be referred to as a TCSPC card. [Ru(bipy)(3)](2+) characterization studies quantified the influences of temperature, pH, cellular culture media and oxygen on the fluorescence lifetime measurements. This provided a precisely calibrated and accurate system for quantification of pericellular oxygen concentration based on measured lifetimes. Using this technique, quantification of oxygen concentrations around isolated viable chondrocytes, seeded in three-dimensional agarose gel, revealed a subpopulation of cells that exhibited significant spatial oxygen gradients such that oxygen concentration reduced with increasing proximity to the cell. This technique provides a powerful tool for quantifying spatial oxygen gradients within three-dimensional cellular models.

  5. Fluorescence Lifetime Readouts of Troponin-C-Based Calcium FRET Sensors: A Quantitative Comparison of CFP and mTFP1 as Donor Fluorophores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, Romain; Stuckey, Daniel W.; Manning, Hugh; Warren, Sean C.; Kennedy, Gordon; Carling, David

    2012-01-01

    We have compared the performance of two Troponin-C-based calcium FRET sensors using fluorescence lifetime read-outs. The first sensor, TN-L15, consists of a Troponin-C fragment inserted between CFP and Citrine while the second sensor, called mTFP-TnC-Cit, was realized by replacing CFP in TN-L15 with monomeric Teal Fluorescent Protein (mTFP1). Using cytosol preparations of transiently transfected mammalian cells, we have measured the fluorescence decay profiles of these sensors at controlled concentrations of calcium using time-correlated single photon counting. These data were fitted to discrete exponential decay models using global analysis to determine the FRET efficiency, fraction of donor molecules undergoing FRET and calcium affinity of these sensors. We have also studied the decay profiles of the donor fluorescent proteins alone and determined the sensitivity of the donor lifetime to temperature and emission wavelength. Live-cell fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) of HEK293T cells expressing each of these sensors was also undertaken. We confirmed that donor fluorescence of mTFP-TnC-Cit fits well to a two-component decay model, while the TN-L15 lifetime data was best fitted to a constrained four-component model, which was supported by phasor analysis of the measured lifetime data. If the constrained global fitting is employed, the TN-L15 sensor can provide a larger dynamic range of lifetime readout than the mTFP-TnC-Cit sensor but the CFP donor is significantly more sensitive to changes in temperature and emission wavelength compared to mTFP and, while the mTFP-TnC-Cit solution phase data broadly agreed with measurements in live cells, this was not the case for the TN-L15 sensor. Our titration experiment also indicates that a similar precision in determination of calcium concentration can be achieved with both FRET biosensors when fitting a single exponential donor fluorescence decay model to the fluorescence decay profiles. We therefore suggest that mTFP-based

  6. Theoretical lifetimes and fluorescence yields for multiply-ionized fluorine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunnell, T.W.; Can, C.; Bhalla, C.P.

    1978-01-01

    Theoretical lifetimes and multiplet partial fluorescence yields for various fluorine ions with a single K-shell vacancy were calculated. For few-electron systems, the lifetimes and line fluorescence yields were computed in the intermediate coupling scheme with the inclusion of the effects arising from configuration interactions. 6 references

  7. Fluorescence lifetime evaluation of whole soils from the Amazon rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolodelli, Gustavo; Tadini, Amanda Maria; Nogueira, Marcelo Saito; Pratavieira, Sebastião; Mounier, Stephane; Huaman, Jose Luis Clabel; Dos Santos, Cléber Hilário; Montes, Célia Regina; Milori, Débora Marcondes Bastos Pereira

    2017-08-20

    Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TRFS) is a new tool that can be used to investigate processes of interaction between metal ions and organic matter (OM) in soils, providing a specific analysis of the structure and dynamics of macromolecules. To the best of our knowledge, there are no studies in the literature reporting the use of this technique applied to whole/non-fractionated soil samples, making it a potential method for use in future studies. This work describes the use of TRFS to evaluate the fluorescence lifetimes of OM of whole soils from the Amazon region. Analysis was made of pellets of soils from an oxisol-spodosol system, collected in São Gabriel da Cachoeira (Amazonas, Brazil). The fluorescence lifetimes in the oxisol-spodosol system were attributed to two different fluorophores. One was related to complexation of an OM fraction with metals, resulting in a shorter fluorophore lifetime. A short fluorescence lifetime (2-12 ns) could be associated with simpler structures of the OM, while a long lifetime (19-66 ns) was associated with more complex OM structures. This new TRFS technique for analysis of the fluorescence lifetime in whole soil samples complies with the principles of green chemistry.

  8. GPU accelerated real-time confocal fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) based on the analog mean-delay (AMD) method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byungyeon; Park, Byungjun; Lee, Seungrag; Won, Youngjae

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrated GPU accelerated real-time confocal fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) based on the analog mean-delay (AMD) method. Our algorithm was verified for various fluorescence lifetimes and photon numbers. The GPU processing time was faster than the physical scanning time for images up to 800 × 800, and more than 149 times faster than a single core CPU. The frame rate of our system was demonstrated to be 13 fps for a 200 × 200 pixel image when observing maize vascular tissue. This system can be utilized for observing dynamic biological reactions, medical diagnosis, and real-time industrial inspection. PMID:28018724

  9. Time variation of fluorescence lifetime in enhanced cyan fluorescence protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Soonhyouk; Kim, Soo Yong; Park, Kyoungsook; Jeong, Jinyoung; Chung, Bong Hyun; Kim, Sok Won

    2010-01-01

    The lifetime variations of enhanced cyan fluorescence protein (ECFP) in relatively short integration time bins were studied via time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) measurement. We observed that minimum photon counts are necessary for the lifetime estimation to achieve a certain range of variance. The conditions to decrease the variance of lifetime were investigated and the channel width of the measurement of TCSPC data was found to be another important factor for the variance of lifetime. Though the lifetime of ECFP is best fit by a double exponential, a mono exponential fit for the same integration time is more stable. The results may be useful in the analysis of photophysical dynamics for ensemble molecules in short measurement time windows.

  10. Ns-scaled time-gated fluorescence lifetime imaging for forensic document examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xin; Wang, Xinwei; Zhou, Yan

    2018-01-01

    A method of ns-scaled time-gated fluorescence lifetime imaging (TFLI) is proposed to distinguish different fluorescent substances in forensic document examination. Compared with Video Spectral Comparator (VSC) which can examine fluorescence intensity images only, TFLI can detect questioned documents like falsification or alteration. TFLI system can enhance weak signal by accumulation method. The two fluorescence intensity images of the interval delay time tg are acquired by ICCD and fitted into fluorescence lifetime image. The lifetimes of fluorescence substances are represented by different colors, which make it easy to detect the fluorescent substances and the sequence of handwritings. It proves that TFLI is a powerful tool for forensic document examination. Furthermore, the advantages of TFLI system are ns-scaled precision preservation and powerful capture capability.

  11. Fluorophore:dendrimer ratio impacts cellular uptake and intracellular fluorescence lifetime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Casey A; Vaidyanathan, Sriram; Orr, Bradford G; Banaszak Holl, Mark M

    2015-02-18

    G5-NH2-TAMRAn (n = 1-4, 5+, and 1.5(avg)) were prepared with n = 1-4 as a precise dye:dendrimer ratio, 5+ as a mixture of dendrimers with 5 or more dye per dendrimer, and 1.5(avg) as a Poisson distribution of dye:dendrimer ratios with a mean of 1.5 dye per dendrimer. The absorption intensity increased sublinearly with n whereas the fluorescence emission and lifetime decreased with an increasing number of dyes per dendrimer. Flow cytometry was employed to quantify uptake into HEK293A cells. Dendrimers with 2-4 dyes were found to have greater uptake than dendrimer with a single dye. Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) showed that the different dye:dendrimer ratio alone was sufficient to change the fluorescence lifetime of the material observed inside cells. We also observed that the lifetime of G5-NH2-TAMRA5+ increased when present in the cell as compared to solution. However, cells treated with G5-NH2-TAMRA1.5(avg) did not exhibit the high lifetime components present in G5-NH2-TAMRA1 and G5-NH2-TAMRA5+. In general, the effects of the dye:dendrimer ratio on fluorescence lifetime were of similar magnitude to environmentally induced lifetime shifts.

  12. Two-dimensional fluorescence lifetime correlation spectroscopy. 2. Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kunihiko; Tahara, Tahei

    2013-10-03

    In the preceding article, we introduced the theoretical framework of two-dimensional fluorescence lifetime correlation spectroscopy (2D FLCS). In this article, we report the experimental implementation of 2D FLCS. In this method, two-dimensional emission-delay correlation maps are constructed from the photon data obtained with the time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC), and then they are converted to 2D lifetime correlation maps by the inverse Laplace transform. We develop a numerical method to realize reliable transformation, employing the maximum entropy method (MEM). We apply the developed actual 2D FLCS to two real systems, a dye mixture and a DNA hairpin. For the dye mixture, we show that 2D FLCS is experimentally feasible and that it can identify different species in an inhomogeneous sample without any prior knowledge. The application to the DNA hairpin demonstrates that 2D FLCS can disclose microsecond spontaneous dynamics of biological molecules in a visually comprehensible manner, through identifying species as unique lifetime distributions. A FRET pair is attached to the both ends of the DNA hairpin, and the different structures of the DNA hairpin are distinguished as different fluorescence lifetimes in 2D FLCS. By constructing the 2D correlation maps of the fluorescence lifetime of the FRET donor, the equilibrium dynamics between the open and the closed forms of the DNA hairpin is clearly observed as the appearance of the cross peaks between the corresponding fluorescence lifetimes. This equilibrium dynamics of the DNA hairpin is clearly separated from the acceptor-missing DNA that appears as an isolated diagonal peak in the 2D maps. The present study clearly shows that newly developed 2D FLCS can disclose spontaneous structural dynamics of biological molecules with microsecond time resolution.

  13. Fluorescence lifetime assays: current advances and applications in drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritz, Stephan; Doering, Klaus; Woelcke, Julian; Hassiepen, Ulrich

    2011-06-01

    Fluorescence lifetime assays complement the portfolio of established assay formats available in drug discovery, particularly with the recent advances in microplate readers and the commercial availability of novel fluorescent labels. Fluorescence lifetime assists in lowering complexity of compound screening assays, affording a modular, toolbox-like approach to assay development and yielding robust homogeneous assays. To date, materials and procedures have been reported for biochemical assays on proteases, as well as on protein kinases and phosphatases. This article gives an overview of two assay families, distinguished by the origin of the fluorescence signal modulation. The pharmaceutical industry demands techniques with a robust, integrated compound profiling process and short turnaround times. Fluorescence lifetime assays have already helped the drug discovery field, in this sense, by enhancing productivity during the hit-to-lead and lead optimization phases. Future work will focus on covering other biochemical molecular modifications by investigating the detailed photo-physical mechanisms underlying the fluorescence signal.

  14. Azadioxatriangulenium: a long fluorescence lifetime fluorophore for large biomolecule binding assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sørensen, Thomas Just; Thyrhaug, Erling; Szabelski, Mariusz; Gryczynski, Ignacy; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Luchowski, Rafal; Laursen, Bo W

    2013-01-01

    Of the many optical bioassays available, sensing by fluorescence anisotropy has great advantages as it provides a sensitive, instrumentally simple, ratiometric method of detection. However, it is hampered by a severe limitation, as the emission lifetime of the label needs to be comparable to the correlation lifetime (tumbling time) of the biomolecule which is labelled. For proteins of moderate size this is on the order of 20–200 ns, which due to practical issues currently limits the choice of labels to the dansyl-type dyes and certain aromatic dyes. These have the significant drawback of UV/blue absorption and emission as well as an often significant solvent sensitivity. Here, we report the synthesis and characterization of a new fluorescent label for high molecular weight biomolecule assay based on the azadioxatriangulenium motif. The NHS ester of the long fluorescence lifetime, red-emitting fluorophore: azadioxatriangulenium (ADOTA-NHS) was conjugated to anti-rabbit Immunoglobulin G (antiIgG). The long fluorescence lifetime was exploited to determine the correlation time of the high molecular weight antibody and its complex with rabbit Immunoglobulin G (IgG) with steady-state fluorescence anisotropy and time-resolved methods: solution phase immuno-assay was performed following either steady-state or time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy. By performing a variable temperature experiment it was determined that the binding of the ligand resulted in an increase in correlation time of more than 75%, and an increase in the steady-state anisotropy of 18%. The results show that the triangulenium class of dyes can be used in anisotropy assay to detect binding events involving biomolecules of far larger size than what is possible with most other red-emitting organic dyes. (paper)

  15. Azadioxatriangulenium: a long fluorescence lifetime fluorophore for large biomolecule binding assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Just Sørensen, Thomas; Thyrhaug, Erling; Szabelski, Mariusz; Luchowski, Rafal; Gryczynski, Ignacy; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Laursen, Bo W.

    2013-06-01

    Of the many optical bioassays available, sensing by fluorescence anisotropy has great advantages as it provides a sensitive, instrumentally simple, ratiometric method of detection. However, it is hampered by a severe limitation, as the emission lifetime of the label needs to be comparable to the correlation lifetime (tumbling time) of the biomolecule which is labelled. For proteins of moderate size this is on the order of 20-200 ns, which due to practical issues currently limits the choice of labels to the dansyl-type dyes and certain aromatic dyes. These have the significant drawback of UV/blue absorption and emission as well as an often significant solvent sensitivity. Here, we report the synthesis and characterization of a new fluorescent label for high molecular weight biomolecule assay based on the azadioxatriangulenium motif. The NHS ester of the long fluorescence lifetime, red-emitting fluorophore: azadioxatriangulenium (ADOTA-NHS) was conjugated to anti-rabbit Immunoglobulin G (antiIgG). The long fluorescence lifetime was exploited to determine the correlation time of the high molecular weight antibody and its complex with rabbit Immunoglobulin G (IgG) with steady-state fluorescence anisotropy and time-resolved methods: solution phase immuno-assay was performed following either steady-state or time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy. By performing a variable temperature experiment it was determined that the binding of the ligand resulted in an increase in correlation time of more than 75%, and an increase in the steady-state anisotropy of 18%. The results show that the triangulenium class of dyes can be used in anisotropy assay to detect binding events involving biomolecules of far larger size than what is possible with most other red-emitting organic dyes.

  16. Chemical microsensors based on polymer fiber composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessick, Royal F.; Levit, Natalia; Tepper, Gary C.

    2005-05-01

    There is an urgent need for new chemical sensors for defense and security applications. In particular, sensors are required that can provide higher sensitivity and faster response in the field than existing baseline technologies. We have been developing a new solid-state chemical sensor technology based on microscale polymer composite fiber arrays. The fibers consist of an insulating polymer doped with conducting particles and are electrospun directly onto the surface of an interdigitated microelectrode. The concentration of the conducting particles within the fiber is controlled and is near the percolation threshold. Thus, the electrical resistance of the polymer fiber composite is very sensitive to volumetric changes produced in the polymer by vapor absorption. Preliminary results are presented on the fabrication and testing of the new microsensor. The objective is to take advantage of the very high surface to volume ratio, low thermal mass and linear geometry of the composite fibers to produce sensors exhibiting an extremely high vapor sensitivity and rapid response. The simplicity and low cost of a resistance-based chemical microsensor makes this sensing approach an attractive alternative to devices requiring RF electronics or time-of-flight analysis. Potential applications of this technology include battlespace awareness, homeland security, environmental surveillance, medical diagnostics and food process monitoring.

  17. Fluorescence lifetime measurement of radical ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichinose, Nobuyuki; Kinugasa, Jun-ichiro; Hagiri, Masahide; Nakayama, Toshihiro; Murakami, Hiroshi; Kishimoto, Maki; Daido, Hiroyuki

    2004-01-01

    One-photonic excitation of a charge transfer complex of hexamethoxybenzene (HMB) and nitrosonium tetrafluoroborate (NO + BF 4 - ) in acetonitrile afforded fluorescences emission from excited radical cation of HMB (HMB + *). Lifetime of the excited radical ion species was measured to be 7 ps by the pump-probe transient absorption technique. The lifetime was much shorter than that of free radical ion (63 ps), indicating the presence of an interaction between HMB + * and NO in the excited complex. (author)

  18. Fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy in multiple-scattering environments: an application to biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerussi, Albert E.; Gratton, Enrico; Fantini, Sergio

    1999-07-01

    Over the past few years, there has been significant research activity devoted to the application of fluorescence spectroscopy to strongly scattering media, where photons propagate diffusely. Much of this activity focused on fluorescence as a source of contrast enhancement in optical tomography. Our efforts have emphasized the quantitative recovery of fluorescence parameters for spectroscopy. Using a frequency-domain diffusion-based model, we have successfully recovered the lifetime, the absolute quantum yield, the fluorophore concentration, and the emission spectrum of the fluorophore, as well as the absorption and the reduced scattering coefficients at the emission wavelength of the medium in different measurements. In this contribution, we present a sensitive monitor of the binding between ethidium bromide and bovine cells in fresh milk. The spectroscopic contrast was the approximately tenfold increase in the ethidium bromide lifetime upon binding to DNA. The measurement clearly demonstrated that we could quantitatively measure the density of cells in the milk, which is an application vital to the tremendous economic burden of bovine subclinical mastitis detection. Furthermore, we may in principle use the spirit of this technique as a quantitative monitor of the binding of fluorescent drugs inside tissues. This is a first step towards lifetime spectroscopy in tissues.

  19. Portable fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy system for in-situ interrogation of biological tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito Nogueira, Marcelo; Cosci, Alessandro; Teixeira Rosa, Ramon Gabriel; Salvio, Ana Gabriela; Pratavieira, Sebastião; Kurachi, Cristina

    2017-12-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy and lifetime techniques are potential methods for optical diagnosis and characterization of biological tissues with an in-situ, fast, and noninvasive interrogation. Several diseases may be diagnosed due to differences in the fluorescence spectra of targeted fluorophores, when, these spectra are similar, considering steady-state fluorescence, others may be detected by monitoring their fluorescence lifetime. Despite this complementarity, most of the current fluorescence lifetime systems are not robust and portable, and not being feasible for clinical applications. We describe the assembly of a fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy system in a suitcase, its characterization, and validation with clinical measurements of skin lesions. The assembled system is all encased and robust, maintaining its mechanical, electrical, and optical stability during transportation, and is feasible for clinical measurements. The instrument response function measured was about 300 ps, and the system is properly calibrated. At the clinical study, the system showed to be reliable, and the achieved spectroscopy results support its potential use as an auxiliary tool for skin diagnostics.

  20. Label-free identification of macrophage phenotype by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso-García, Alba; Smith, Tim D.; Datta, Rupsa; Luu, Thuy U.; Gratton, Enrico; Potma, Eric O.; Liu, Wendy F.

    2016-04-01

    Macrophages adopt a variety of phenotypes that are a reflection of the many functions they perform as part of the immune system. In particular, metabolism is a phenotypic trait that differs between classically activated, proinflammatory macrophages, and alternatively activated, prohealing macrophages. Inflammatory macrophages have a metabolism based on glycolysis while alternatively activated macrophages generally rely on oxidative phosphorylation to generate chemical energy. We employ this shift in metabolism as an endogenous marker to identify the phenotype of individual macrophages via live-cell fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). We demonstrate that polarized macrophages can be readily discriminated with the aid of a phasor approach to FLIM, which provides a fast and model-free method for analyzing fluorescence lifetime images.

  1. A Lateral Differential Resonant Pressure Microsensor Based on SOI-Glass Wafer-Level Vacuum Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Xie

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the fabrication and characterization of a resonant pressure microsensor based on SOI-glass wafer-level vacuum packaging. The SOI-based pressure microsensor consists of a pressure-sensitive diaphragm at the handle layer and two lateral resonators (electrostatic excitation and capacitive detection on the device layer as a differential setup. The resonators were vacuum packaged with a glass cap using anodic bonding and the wire interconnection was realized using a mask-free electrochemical etching approach by selectively patterning an Au film on highly topographic surfaces. The fabricated resonant pressure microsensor with dual resonators was characterized in a systematic manner, producing a quality factor higher than 10,000 (~6 months, a sensitivity of about 166 Hz/kPa and a reduced nonlinear error of 0.033% F.S. Based on the differential output, the sensitivity was increased to two times and the temperature-caused frequency drift was decreased to 25%.

  2. Remote UV Fluorescence Lifetime Spectrometer, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this project is to develop, demonstrate, and deliver to NASA an innovative, portable, and power efficient Remote UV Fluorescence Lifetime Spectrometer...

  3. Quantitative fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy in turbid media: comparison of theoretical, experimental and computational methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishwanath, Karthik; Mycek, Mary-Ann; Pogue, Brian

    2002-01-01

    A Monte Carlo model developed to simulate time-resolved fluorescence propagation in a semi-infinite turbid medium was validated against previously reported theoretical and computational results. Model simulations were compared to experimental measurements of fluorescence spectra and lifetimes on tissue-simulating phantoms for single and dual fibre-optic probe geometries. Experiments and simulations using a single probe revealed that scattering-induced artefacts appeared in fluorescence emission spectra, while fluorescence lifetimes were unchanged. Although fluorescence lifetime measurements are generally more robust to scattering artefacts than are measurements of fluorescence spectra, in the dual-probe geometry scattering-induced changes in apparent lifetime were predicted both from diffusion theory and via Monte Carlo simulation, as well as measured experimentally. In all cases, the recovered apparent lifetime increased with increasing scattering and increasing source-detector separation. Diffusion theory consistently underestimated the magnitude of these increases in apparent lifetime (predicting a maximum increase of ∼15%), while Monte Carlo simulations and experiment were closely matched (showing increases as large as 30%). These results indicate that quantitative simulations of time-resolved fluorescence propagation in turbid media will be important for accurate recovery of fluorophore lifetimes in biological spectroscopy and imaging applications. (author)

  4. Time-Domain Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Techniques Suitable for Solid-State Imaging Sensor Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert K. Henderson

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We have successfully demonstrated video-rate CMOS single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD-based cameras for fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM by applying innovative FLIM algorithms. We also review and compare several time-domain techniques and solid-state FLIM systems, and adapt the proposed algorithms for massive CMOS SPAD-based arrays and hardware implementations. The theoretical error equations are derived and their performances are demonstrated on the data obtained from 0.13 μm CMOS SPAD arrays and the multiple-decay data obtained from scanning PMT systems. In vivo two photon fluorescence lifetime imaging data of FITC-albumin labeled vasculature of a P22 rat carcinosarcoma (BD9 rat window chamber are used to test how different algorithms perform on bi-decay data. The proposed techniques are capable of producing lifetime images with enough contrast.

  5. Portable fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy system for in-situ interrogation of biological tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito Nogueira, Marcelo; Cosci, Alessandro; Teixeira Rosa, Ramon Gabriel; Salvio, Ana Gabriela; Pratavieira, Sebastião; Kurachi, Cristina

    2017-10-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy and lifetime techniques are potential methods for optical diagnosis and characterization of biological tissues with an in-situ, fast, and noninvasive interrogation. Several diseases may be diagnosed due to differences in the fluorescence spectra of targeted fluorophores, when, these spectra are similar, considering steady-state fluorescence, others may be detected by monitoring their fluorescence lifetime. Despite this complementarity, most of the current fluorescence lifetime systems are not robust and portable, and not being feasible for clinical applications. We describe the assembly of a fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy system in a suitcase, its characterization, and validation with clinical measurements of skin lesions. The assembled system is all encased and robust, maintaining its mechanical, electrical, and optical stability during transportation, and is feasible for clinical measurements. The instrument response function measured was about 300 ps, and the system is properly calibrated. At the clinical study, the system showed to be reliable, and the achieved spectroscopy results support its potential use as an auxiliary tool for skin diagnostics. (2017) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  6. Xanthophyll cycle-dependent quenching of photosystem II chlorophyll a fluorescence: Formation of a quenching complex with a short fluorescence lifetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmore, A.M.; Hazlett, T.L.; Govindjee [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

    1995-03-14

    Excess light triggers protective nonradiative dissipation of excitation energy in photosystem II through the formation of a trans-thylakoid pH gradient that in turn stimulates formation of zeaxanthin and antheraxanthin. These xanthophylls when combined with protonation of antenna pigment-protein complexes may increase nonradiative dissipation and, thus, quench chlorophyll a fluorescence. Here we measured, in parallel, the chlorophyll a fluorescence lifetime and intensity to understand the mechanism of this process. Increasing the xanthophyll concentration in the presence of a pH gradient (quenched conditions) decreases the fractional intensity of a fluorescence lifetime component centered at {approx}2 ns and increases a component at {approx}0.4 ns. Uncoupling the pH gradient (unquenched conditions) eliminates the 0.4-ns component. Changes in the xanthophyll concentration do not significantly affect the fluorescence lifetimes in either the quenched or unquenched sample conditions. However, there are differences in fluorescence lifetimes between the quenched and unquenched states that are due to pH-related, but nonxanthophyll-related, processes. Quenching of the maximal fluorescence intensity correlates with both the xanthophyll concentration and the fractional intensity of the 0.4-ns component. The unchanged fluorescence lifetimes and the proportional quenching of the maximal and dark-level fluorescence intensities indicate that the xanthophyllact on antenna, not reaction center processes. Further, the fluorescence quenching is interpreted as the combined effect of the pH gradient and xanthophyll concentration, resulting in the formation of a quenching complex with a short ({approx}0.4 ns) fluorescence lifetime. 33 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Azadioxatriangulenium (ADOTA+): A long fluorescence lifetime fluorophore for large biomolecule binding assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Thomas Just; Thyrhaug, Erling; Szabelski, Mariusz; Luchowski, Rafal; Gryczynski, Ignacy; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Laursen, Bo W.

    2013-01-01

    Of the many optical bioassays available, sensing by fluorescence anisotropy have great advantages as it provides a sensitive, instrumentally simple, ratiometric method of detection. However, it is hampered by a severe limitation as the emission lifetime of the label needs to be comparable to the correlation lifetime (tumbling time) of the biomolecule which is labelled. For proteins of moderate size this is in the order of 20–200 ns, which due to practical issues currently limits the choice of labels to the dansyl-type dyes and certain aromatics dyes. These have the significant drawback of UV/blue absorption and emission as well as an often significant solvent sensitivity. Here, we report the synthesis and characterization of a new fluorescent label for high molecular weight biomolecules assay based on the azadioxatriangulenium motif. The NHS ester of the long fluorescence lifetime, red emitting fluorophore: azadioxatriangulenium (ADOTA-NHS) was conjugated to anti-rabbit Immunoglobulin G (antiIgG). The long fluorescence lifetime was exploited to determine the correlation time of the high molecular weight antibody and its complex with rabbit Immuniglobulin G (IgG) with steady-state fluorescence anisotropy and time-resolved methods: solution phase immuno-assay was performed following either steady-state or time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy. By performing a variable temperature experiment it was determined that the binding of the ligand resulted in an increase in correlation time by more than 75 %, and a change in the steady-state anisotropy increase of 18%. The results show that the triangulenium class of dyes can be used in anisotropy assay for detecting binding events involving biomolecules of far larger size than what is possible with the other red emitting organic dyes. PMID:24058730

  8. Community detection for fluorescent lifetime microscopy image segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dandan; Sarder, Pinaki; Ronhovde, Peter; Achilefu, Samuel; Nussinov, Zohar

    2014-03-01

    Multiresolution community detection (CD) method has been suggested in a recent work as an efficient method for performing unsupervised segmentation of fluorescence lifetime (FLT) images of live cell images containing fluorescent molecular probes.1 In the current paper, we further explore this method in FLT images of ex vivo tissue slices. The image processing problem is framed as identifying clusters with respective average FLTs against a background or "solvent" in FLT imaging microscopy (FLIM) images derived using NIR fluorescent dyes. We have identified significant multiresolution structures using replica correlations in these images, where such correlations are manifested by information theoretic overlaps of the independent solutions ("replicas") attained using the multiresolution CD method from different starting points. In this paper, our method is found to be more efficient than a current state-of-the-art image segmentation method based on mixture of Gaussian distributions. It offers more than 1:25 times diversity based on Shannon index than the latter method, in selecting clusters with distinct average FLTs in NIR FLIM images.

  9. Refractive Index Sensing of Green Fluorescent Proteins in Living Cells Using Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Manen, Henk-Jan; Verkuijlen, Paul; Wittendorp, Paul; Subramaniam, Vinod; van den Berg, Timo K.; Roos, Dirk; Otto, Cees

    2008-01-01

    We show that fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) of green fluorescent protein (GFP) molecules in cells can be used to report on the local refractive index of intracellular GFP. We expressed GFP fusion constructs of Rac2 and gp91phox, which are both subunits of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase enzyme, in human myeloid PLB-985 cells and showed by high-resolution confocal fluorescence microscopy that GFP-Rac2 and GFP-gp91phox are targeted to the cytosol and to membranes, respectively. Frequency-domain FLIM experiments on these PLB-985 cells resulted in average fluorescence lifetimes of 2.70 ns for cytosolic GFP-Rac2 and 2.31 ns for membrane-bound GFP-gp91phox. By comparing these lifetimes with a calibration curve obtained by measuring GFP lifetimes in PBS/glycerol mixtures of known refractive index, we found that the local refractive indices of cytosolic GFP-Rac2 and membrane-targeted GFP-gp91phox are ∼1.38 and ∼1.46, respectively, which is in good correspondence with reported values for the cytosol and plasma membrane measured by other techniques. The ability to measure the local refractive index of proteins in living cells by FLIM may be important in revealing intracellular spatial heterogeneities within organelles such as the plasma and phagosomal membrane. PMID:18223002

  10. Lifetime-based optical sensor for high-level pCO2 detection employing fluorescence resonance energy transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueltzingsloewen, Christoph von; McEvoy, Aisling K.; McDonagh, Colette; MacCraith, Brian D.

    2003-01-01

    An optical sensor for the measurement of high levels of carbon dioxide in gas phase has been developed. It is based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between a long-lifetime ruthenium polypyridyl complex and the pH-active disazo dye Sudan III. The donor luminophore and the acceptor dye are both immobilised in a hydrophobic silica sol-gel/ethyl cellulose hybrid matrix material. Tetraoctylammonium hydroxide (TOA-OH) is used as an internal buffering system. Fluorescence lifetime is measured in the frequency domain, using low-cost phase modulation measurement technology. The use of Sudan III as an acceptor dye has enabled the sensor to have a dynamic range up to 100% carbon dioxide. The sensor displays 11.2 deg. phase shift between the limit of detection (LOD) of 0.06 and 100% CO 2 with a resolution of better than 2%. The encapsulation in the silica/polymer hybrid material has provided the sensor with good mechanical and chemical stability. The effect of molecular oxygen, humidity and temperature on the sensor performance was studied in detail

  11. Multiphoton Laser Microscopy and Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging for the Evaluation of the Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Seidenari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiphoton laser microscopy is a new, non-invasive technique providing access to the skin at a cellular and subcellular level, which is based both on autofluorescence and fluorescence lifetime imaging. Whereas the former considers fluorescence intensity emitted by epidermal and dermal fluorophores and by the extra-cellular matrix, fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM, is generated by the fluorescence decay rate. This innovative technique can be applied to the study of living skin, cell cultures and ex vivo samples. Although still limited to the clinical research field, the development of multiphoton laser microscopy is thought to become suitable for a practical application in the next few years: in this paper, we performed an accurate review of the studies published so far, considering the possible fields of application of this imaging method and providing high quality images acquired in the Department of Dermatology of the University of Modena.

  12. Assessment of post-implantation integration of engineered tissues using fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elahi, Sakib F.; Lee, Seung Y.; Lloyd, William R.; Chen, Leng-Chun; Kuo, Shiuhyang; Zhou, Ying; Kim, Hyungjin M.; Kennedy, Robert; Marcelo, Cynthia; Feinberg, Stephen E.; Mycek, Mary-Ann

    2018-02-01

    Clinical translation of engineered tissue constructs requires noninvasive methods to assess construct health and viability after implantation in patients. However, current practices to monitor post-implantation construct integration are either qualitative (visual assessment) or destructive (tissue histology). As label-free fluorescence lifetime sensing can noninvasively characterize pre-implantation construct viability, we employed a handheld fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy probe to quantitatively and noninvasively assess tissue constructs that were implanted in a murine model. We designed the system to be suitable for intravital measurements: portability, localization with precise maneuverability, and rapid data acquisition. Our model tissue constructs were manufactured from primary human cells to simulate patient variability and were stressed to create a range of health states. Secreted amounts of three cytokines that relate to cellular viability were measured in vitro to assess pre-implantation construct health. In vivo optical sensing assessed tissue integration of constructs at one-week and three-weeks post-implantation. At one-week post-implantation, optical parameters correlated with in vitro pre-implantation secretion levels of all three cytokines (p clinical optical diagnostic tools based on label-free fluorescence lifetime sensing of endogenous tissue fluorophores could noninvasively monitor post-implantation integration of engineered tissues.

  13. Encapsulated microsensors for reservoir interrogation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Eddie Elmer; Aines, Roger D.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.

    2016-03-08

    In one general embodiment, a system includes at least one microsensor configured to detect one or more conditions of a fluidic medium of a reservoir; and a receptacle, wherein the receptacle encapsulates the at least one microsensor. In another general embodiment, a method include injecting the encapsulated at least one microsensor as recited above into a fluidic medium of a reservoir; and detecting one or more conditions of the fluidic medium of the reservoir.

  14. In vivo multiphoton tomography and fluorescence lifetime imaging of human brain tumor tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantelhardt, Sven R; Kalasauskas, Darius; König, Karsten; Kim, Ella; Weinigel, Martin; Uchugonova, Aisada; Giese, Alf

    2016-05-01

    High resolution multiphoton tomography and fluorescence lifetime imaging differentiates glioma from adjacent brain in native tissue samples ex vivo. Presently, multiphoton tomography is applied in clinical dermatology and experimentally. We here present the first application of multiphoton and fluorescence lifetime imaging for in vivo imaging on humans during a neurosurgical procedure. We used a MPTflex™ Multiphoton Laser Tomograph (JenLab, Germany). We examined cultured glioma cells in an orthotopic mouse tumor model and native human tissue samples. Finally the multiphoton tomograph was applied to provide optical biopsies during resection of a clinical case of glioblastoma. All tissues imaged by multiphoton tomography were sampled and processed for conventional histopathology. The multiphoton tomograph allowed fluorescence intensity- and fluorescence lifetime imaging with submicron spatial resolution and 200 picosecond temporal resolution. Morphological fluorescence intensity imaging and fluorescence lifetime imaging of tumor-bearing mouse brains and native human tissue samples clearly differentiated tumor and adjacent brain tissue. Intraoperative imaging was found to be technically feasible. Intraoperative image quality was comparable to ex vivo examinations. To our knowledge we here present the first intraoperative application of high resolution multiphoton tomography and fluorescence lifetime imaging of human brain tumors in situ. It allowed in vivo identification and determination of cell density of tumor tissue on a cellular and subcellular level within seconds. The technology shows the potential of rapid intraoperative identification of native glioma tissue without need for tissue processing or staining.

  15. In vivo fluorescence lifetime imaging for monitoring the efficacy of the cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardeshirpour, Yasaman; Chernomordik, Victor; Hassan, Moinuddin; Zielinski, Rafal; Capala, Jacek; Gandjbakhche, Amir

    2014-07-01

    Advances in tumor biology created a foundation for targeted therapy aimed at inactivation of specific molecular mechanisms responsible for cell malignancy. In this paper, we used in vivo fluorescence lifetime imaging with HER2-targeted fluorescent probes as an alternative imaging method to investigate the efficacy of targeted therapy with 17-DMAG (an HSP90 inhibitor) on tumors with high expression of HER2 receptors. HER2-specific Affibody, conjugated to Alexafluor 750, was injected into nude mice bearing HER2-positive tumor xenograft. The fluorescence lifetime was measured before treatment and monitored after the probe injections at 12 hours after the last treatment dose, when the response to the 17-DMAG therapy was the most pronounced as well as a week after the last treatment when the tumors grew back almost to their pretreatment size. Imaging results showed significant difference between the fluorescence lifetimes at the tumor and the contralateral site (∼0.13 ns) in the control group (before treatment) and 7 days after the last treatment when the tumors grew back to their pretreatment dimensions. However, at the time frame that the treatment had its maximum effect (12 hours after the last treatment), the difference between the fluorescence lifetime at the tumor and contralateral site decreased to 0.03 ns. The results showed a good correlation between fluorescence lifetime and the efficacy of the treatment. These findings show that in vivo fluorescence lifetime imaging can be used as a promising molecular imaging tool for monitoring the treatment outcome in preclinical models and potentially in patients. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. In-vivo fluorescence lifetime imaging for monitoring the efficacy of the cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardeshirpour, Yasaman; Chernomordik, Victor; Hassan, Moinuddin; Zielinski, Rafal; Capala, Jacek; Gandjbakhche, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Advances in tumor biology created a foundation for targeted therapy aimed at inactivation of specific molecular mechanisms responsible for cell malignancy. In this paper, we used in-vivo fluorescence lifetime imaging with HER2 targeted fluorescent probes as an alternative imaging method to investigate the efficacy of targeted therapy with 17-DMAG (an HSP90 inhibitor) on tumors with high expression of HER2 receptors. Experimental Design HER2-specific Affibody, conjugated to Alexafluor 750, was injected into nude mice, bearing HER2-positive tumor xenograft. The fluorescence lifetime was measured before treatment and monitored after the probe injections at 12 hours after the last treatment dose, when the response to the 17-DMAG therapy was the most pronounced as well as a week after the last treatment when the tumors grew back almost to their pre-treatment size. Results Imaging results showed significant difference between the fluorescence lifetimes at the tumor and the contralateral site (~0.13ns) in the control group (before treatment) and 7 days after the last treatment when the tumors grew back to their pretreatment dimensions. However, at the time frame that the treatment had its maximum effect (12 hours after the last treatment) the difference between the fluorescence lifetime at the tumor and contralateral site decreased to 0.03ns. Conclusions The results showed a good correlation between fluorescence lifetime and the efficacy of the treatment. These findings show that in-vivo fluorescence lifetime imaging can be used as a promising molecular imaging tool for monitoring the treatment outcome in preclinical models and potentially in patients. PMID:24671949

  17. Multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging of chemotherapy distribution in solid tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Marjorie; Watson, Adrienne L.; Anderson, Leah; Largaespada, David A.; Provenzano, Paolo P.

    2017-11-01

    Doxorubicin is a commonly used chemotherapeutic employed to treat multiple human cancers, including numerous sarcomas and carcinomas. Furthermore, doxorubicin possesses strong fluorescent properties that make it an ideal reagent for modeling drug delivery by examining its distribution in cells and tissues. However, while doxorubicin fluorescence and lifetime have been imaged in live tissue, its behavior in archival samples that frequently result from drug and treatment studies in human and animal patients, and murine models of human cancer, has to date been largely unexplored. Here, we demonstrate imaging of doxorubicin intensity and lifetimes in archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections from mouse models of human cancer with multiphoton excitation and multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). Multiphoton excitation imaging reveals robust doxorubicin emission in tissue sections and captures spatial heterogeneity in cells and tissues. However, quantifying the amount of doxorubicin signal in distinct cell compartments, particularly the nucleus, often remains challenging due to strong signals in multiple compartments. The addition of FLIM analysis to display the spatial distribution of excited state lifetimes clearly distinguishes between signals in distinct compartments such as the cell nuclei versus cytoplasm and allows for quantification of doxorubicin signal in each compartment. Furthermore, we observed a shift in lifetime values in the nuclei of transformed cells versus nontransformed cells, suggesting a possible diagnostic role for doxorubicin lifetime imaging to distinguish normal versus transformed cells. Thus, data here demonstrate that multiphoton FLIM is a highly sensitive platform for imaging doxorubicin distribution in normal and diseased archival tissues.

  18. Chlorophyll fluorescence lifetime imaging provides new insight into the chlorosis induced by plant virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Rong; Jiang, Hongshan; Hu, Fan; Yan, Jin; Zhu, Shuifang

    2017-02-01

    Leaf chlorosis induced by plant virus infection has a short fluorescence lifetime, which reflects damaged photosynthetic complexes and degraded chloroplasts. Plant viruses often induce chlorosis and necrosis, which are intimately related to photosynthetic functions. Chlorophyll fluorescence lifetime measurement is a valuable noninvasive tool for analyzing photosynthetic processes and is a sensitive indicator of the environment surrounding the fluorescent molecules. In this study, our central goal was to explore the effect of viral infection on photosynthesis by employing chlorophyll fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM), steady-state fluorescence, non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and pigment analysis. The data indicated that the chlorophyll fluorescence lifetime of chlorotic leaves was significantly shorter than that of healthy control leaves, and the fitted short lifetime component of chlorophyll fluorescence of chlorotic leaves was dominant. This dominant short lifetime component may result from damage to the structure of thylakoid, which was confirmed by TEM. The NPQ value of chlorotic leaves was slightly higher than that of healthy green leaves, which can be explained by increased neoxanthin, lutein and violaxanthin content relative to chlorophyll a. The difference in NPQ is slight, but FLIM can provide simple and direct characterization of PSII structure and photosynthetic function. Therefore, this technique shows great potential as a simple and rapid method for studying mechanisms of plant virus infection.

  19. Refractive index sensing of green fluorescent proteins in living cells using fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Manen, Henk-Jan; Verkuijlen, Paul; Wittendorp, Paul; Subramaniam, Vinod; van den Berg, Timo K; Roos, Dirk; Otto, Cees

    2008-01-01

    We show that fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) of green fluorescent protein (GFP) molecules in cells can be used to report on the local refractive index of intracellular GFP. We expressed GFP fusion constructs of Rac2 and gp91(phox), which are both subunits of the phagocyte NADPH

  20. Non-invasive imaging of skin cancer with fluorescence lifetime imaging using two photon tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patalay, Rakesh; Talbot, Clifford; Alexandrov, Yuriy; Munro, Ian; Breunig, Hans Georg; König, Karsten; Warren, Sean; Neil, Mark A. A.; French, Paul M. W.; Chu, Anthony; Stamp, Gordon W.; Dunsby, Christopher

    2011-07-01

    Multispectral fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) using two photon microscopy as a non-invasive technique for the diagnosis of skin lesions is described. Skin contains fluorophores including elastin, keratin, collagen, FAD and NADH. This endogenous contrast allows tissue to be imaged without the addition of exogenous agents and allows the in vivo state of cells and tissues to be studied. A modified DermaInspect® multiphoton tomography system was used to excite autofluorescence at 760 nm in vivo and on freshly excised ex vivo tissue. This instrument simultaneously acquires fluorescence lifetime images in four spectral channels between 360-655 nm using time-correlated single photon counting and can also provide hyperspectral images. The multispectral fluorescence lifetime images were spatially segmented and binned to determine lifetimes for each cell by fitting to a double exponential lifetime model. A comparative analysis between the cellular lifetimes from different diagnoses demonstrates significant diagnostic potential.

  1. Nanoantenna array-induced fluorescence enhancement and reduced lifetimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakker, R. M.; Drachev, V. P.; Liu, Z.

    2008-01-01

    Enhanced fluorescence is observed from dye molecules interacting with optical nanoantenna arrays. Elliptical gold dimers form individual nanoantennae with tunable plasmon resonances depending upon the geometry of the two particles and the size of the gap between them. A fluorescent dye, Rhodamine...... 800, is uniformly embedded in a dielectric host that coats the nanoantennae. The nanoantennae act to enhance the dye absorption. In turn, emission from the dye drives the plasmon resonance of the antennae; the nanoantennae act to enhance the fluorescence signal and change the angular distribution...... of emission. These effects depend upon the overlap of the plasmon resonance with the excitation wavelength and the fluorescence emission band. A decreased fluorescence lifetime is observed along with highly polarized emission that displays the characteristics of the nanoantenna's dipole mode. Being able...

  2. Rotational multispectral fluorescence lifetime imaging and intravascular ultrasound: bimodal system for intravascular applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dinglong; Bec, Julien; Yankelevich, Diego R.; Gorpas, Dimitris; Fatakdawala, Hussain; Marcu, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. We report the development and validation of a hybrid intravascular diagnostic system combining multispectral fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIm) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) for cardiovascular imaging applications. A prototype FLIm system based on fluorescence pulse sampling technique providing information on artery biochemical composition was integrated with a commercial IVUS system providing information on artery morphology. A customized 3-Fr bimodal catheter combining a rotational side-view fiberoptic and a 40-MHz IVUS transducer was constructed for sequential helical scanning (rotation and pullback) of tubular structures. Validation of this bimodal approach was conducted in pig heart coronary arteries. Spatial resolution, fluorescence detection efficiency, pulse broadening effect, and lifetime measurement variability of the FLIm system were systematically evaluated. Current results show that this system is capable of temporarily resolving the fluorescence emission simultaneously in multiple spectral channels in a single pullback sequence. Accurate measurements of fluorescence decay characteristics from arterial segments can be obtained rapidly (e.g., 20 mm in 5 s), and accurate co-registration of fluorescence and ultrasound features can be achieved. The current finding demonstrates the compatibility of FLIm instrumentation with in vivo clinical investigations and its potential to complement conventional IVUS during catheterization procedures. PMID:24898604

  3. Use of multiphoton tomography and fluorescence lifetime imaging to investigate skin pigmentation in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancik, Yuri; Favre, Amandine; Loy, Chong Jin; Zvyagin, Andrei V.; Roberts, Michael S.

    2013-02-01

    There is a growing body of literature showing the usefulness of multiphoton tomography (MPT) and fluorescence lifetime imaging for in situ characterization of skin constituents and the ensuing development of noninvasive diagnostic tools against skin diseases. Melanin and pigmentation-associated skin cancers constitute some of the major applications. We show that MPT and fluorescence lifetime imaging can be used to measure changes in cutaneous melanin concentration and that these can be related to the visible skin color. Melanin in the skin of African, Indian, Caucasian, and Asian volunteers is detected on the basis of its emission wavelength and fluorescence lifetimes in solution and in a melanocyte-keratinocyte cell culture. Fluorescence intensity is used to characterize the melanin content and distribution as a function of skin type and depth into the skin (stratum granulosum and stratum basale). The measured fluorescence intensities in given skin types agree with melanin amounts reported by others using biopsies. Our results suggest that spatial distribution of melanin in skin can be studied using MPT and fluorescence lifetime imaging, but further studies are needed to ascertain that the method can resolve melanin amount in smaller depth intervals.

  4. Standard reference for instrument response function in fluorescence lifetime measurements in visible and near infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chib, Rahul; Shah, Sunil; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Fudala, Rafal; Borejdo, Julian; Gryczynski, Ignacy; Zelent, Bogumil; Corradini, Maria G; Ludescher, Richard D

    2016-01-01

    Allura red (AR) fluorophore, a common dye in the food industry, displays a broad emission spectrum in water (visible-to-near infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum) and has a remarkably short fluorescence lifetime of about 10 ps. This short lifetime does not depend on the emission (observation) wavelength. We examined time responses of AR fluorescence across emission wavelengths from 550 nm to 750 nm and found that it is an ideal candidate for impulse response functions in fluorescence lifetime measurements. (technical note)

  5. An electronically tunable ultrafast laser source applied to fluorescence imaging and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunsby, C; Lanigan, P M P; McGinty, J; Elson, D S; Requejo-Isidro, J; Munro, I; Galletly, N; McCann, F; Treanor, B; Oenfelt, B; Davis, D M; Neil, M A A; French, P M W

    2004-01-01

    Fluorescence imaging is used widely in microscopy and macroscopic imaging applications for fields ranging from biomedicine to materials science. A critical component for any fluorescence imaging system is the excitation source. Traditionally, wide-field systems use filtered thermal or arc-generated white light sources, while point scanning confocal microscope systems require spatially coherent (point-like) laser sources. Unfortunately, the limited range of visible wavelengths available from conventional laser sources constrains the design and usefulness of fluorescent probes in confocal microscopy. A 'hands-off' laser-like source, electronically tunable across the visible spectrum, would be invaluable for fluorescence imaging and provide new opportunities, e.g. automated excitation fingerprinting and in situ measurement of excitation cross-sections. Yet more information can be obtained using fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM), which requires that the light source be pulsed or rapidly modulated. We show how a white light continuum, generated by injecting femtosecond optical radiation into a micro-structured optical fibre, coupled with a simple prism-based tunable filter arrangement, can fulfil all these roles as a continuously electronically tunable (435-1150 nm) visible ultrafast light source in confocal, wide-field and FLIM systems

  6. CVD grown 2D MoS{sub 2} layers: A photoluminescence and fluorescence lifetime imaging study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezden, Ayberk; Madenoglu, Buesra [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey); Sar, Hueseyin; Ay, Feridun; Perkgoez, Nihan Kosku [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey); Yeltik, Aydan [Department of Physics, UNAM Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, Ankara (Turkey); Sevik, Cem [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey)

    2016-11-15

    In this letter, we report on the fluorescence lifetime imaging and accompanying photoluminescence properties of a chemical vapour deposition (CVD) grown atomically thin material, MoS{sub 2}. μ-Raman, μ-photoluminescence (PL) and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) are utilized to probe the fluorescence lifetime and photoluminescence properties of individual flakes of MoS{sub 2} films. Usage of these three techniques allows identification of the grown layers, grain boundaries, structural defects and their relative effects on the PL and fluorescence lifetime spectra. Our investigation on individual monolayer flakes reveals a clear increase of the fluorescence lifetime from 0.3 ns to 0.45 ns at the edges with respect to interior region. On the other hand, investigation of the film layer reveals quenching of PL intensity and lifetime at the grain boundaries. These results could be important for applications where the activity of edges is important such as in photocatalytic water splitting. Finally, it has been demonstrated that PL mapping and FLIM are viable techniques for the investigation of the grain-boundaries. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Monitoring macular pigment changes in macular holes using fluorescence lifetime imaging ophthalmoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Lydia; Peters, Sven; Schmidt, Johanna; Schweitzer, Dietrich; Klemm, Matthias; Ramm, Lisa; Augsten, Regine; Hammer, Martin

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the impact of macular pigment (MP) on fundus autofluorescence (FAF) lifetimes in vivo by characterizing full-thickness idiopathic macular holes (MH) and macular pseudo-holes (MPH). A total of 37 patients with MH and 52 with MPH were included. Using the fluorescence lifetime imaging ophthalmoscope (FLIO), based on a Heidelberg Engineering Spectralis system, a 30° retinal field was investigated. FAF decays were detected in a short (498-560 nm; ch1) and long (560-720 nm; ch2) wavelength channel. τ m , the mean fluorescence lifetime, was calculated from a three-exponential approximation of the FAF decays. Macular coherence tomography scans were recorded, and macular pigment's optical density (MPOD) was measured (one-wavelength reflectometry). Two MH subgroups were analysed according to the presence or absence of an operculum above the MH. A total of 17 healthy fellow eyes were included. A longitudinal FAF decay examination was conducted in nine patients, which were followed up after surgery and showed a closed MH. In MH without opercula, significant τ m differences (p hole area (MHa) and surrounding areas (MHb) (ch1: MHa 238 ± 64 ps, MHb 181 ± 78 ps; ch2: MHa 275 ± 49 ps, MHb 223 ± 48 ps), as well as between MHa and healthy eyes or closed MH. Shorter τ m , adjacent to the hole, can be assigned to areas with equivalently higher MPOD. Opercula containing MP also show short τ m . In MPH, the intactness of the Hele fibre layer is associated with shortest τ m . Shortest τ m originates from MP-containing retinal layers, especially from the Henle fibre layer. Fluorescence lifetime imaging ophthalmoscope (FLIO) provides information on the MP distribution, the pathogenesis and topology of MH. Macular pigment (MP) fluorescence may provide a biomarker for monitoring pathological changes in retinal diseases. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Parallel excitation-emission multiplexed fluorescence lifetime confocal microscopy for live cell imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming; Li, Yu; Peng, Leilei

    2014-05-05

    We present a novel excitation-emission multiplexed fluorescence lifetime microscopy (FLIM) method that surpasses current FLIM techniques in multiplexing capability. The method employs Fourier multiplexing to simultaneously acquire confocal fluorescence lifetime images of multiple excitation wavelength and emission color combinations at 44,000 pixels/sec. The system is built with low-cost CW laser sources and standard PMTs with versatile spectral configuration, which can be implemented as an add-on to commercial confocal microscopes. The Fourier lifetime confocal method allows fast multiplexed FLIM imaging, which makes it possible to monitor multiple biological processes in live cells. The low cost and compatibility with commercial systems could also make multiplexed FLIM more accessible to biological research community.

  9. A fusion-spliced near-field optical fiber probe using photonic crystal fiber for nanoscale thermometry based on fluorescence-lifetime measurement of quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Takuro; Taguchi, Yoshihiro; Saiki, Toshiharu; Nagasaka, Yuji

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a novel nanoscale temperature-measurement method using fluorescence in the near-field called fluorescence near-field optics thermal nanoscopy (Fluor-NOTN). Fluor-NOTN enables the temperature distributions of nanoscale materials to be measured in vivo/in situ. The proposed method measures temperature by detecting the temperature dependent fluorescence lifetimes of Cd/Se quantum dots (QDs). For a high-sensitivity temperature measurement, the auto-fluorescence generated from a fiber probe should be reduced. In order to decrease the noise, we have fabricated a novel near-field optical-fiber probe by fusion-splicing a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) and a conventional single-mode fiber (SMF). The validity of the novel fiber probe was assessed experimentally by evaluating the auto-fluorescence spectra of the PCF. Due to the decrease of auto-fluorescence, a six- to ten-fold increase of S/N in the near-field fluorescence lifetime detection was achieved with the newly fabricated fusion-spliced near-field optical fiber probe. Additionally, the near-field fluorescence lifetime of the quantum dots was successfully measured by the fabricated fusion-spliced near-field optical fiber probe at room temperature, and was estimated to be 10.0 ns.

  10. Generation of a new spectral format, the lifetime synchronous spectrum (LiSS), using phase-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaver, J.M.; McGown, L.B.

    1994-01-01

    A new fluorescence spectral format is introduced in which fluorescence lifetime is shown as a function of synchronously scanned wavelength to generate a Lifetime Synchronous Spectrum (LiSS). Lifetimes are determined in the frequency domain with the use of Phase-Resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy (PRFS) to obtain the phase of the fluorescence signal. Theory and construction of the LiSS are presented and experimental results are shown for solutions of single components and simple binary and ternary mixtures. These results show how the lifetime information in the LiSS augments the steady-state intensity information of a standard synchronous spectrum, providing unique information for identification of components and resolution of overlapping spectral peaks. The LiSS technique takes advantage of noise reduction inherent in the extraction of lifetime from PRFS in addition to standard spectral smoothing techniques. The precision of phase determination through PRFS is found to be comparable to that of direct phase measurements at normal fluorescence intensities and superior for low-intensity signals

  11. Measurements of fluorescence lifetime of group III metalo-8-quinolinolates and their use in analytical chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikawa, Y; Hiraki, K; Morishige, K; Takahashi, K [Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology; Shigematsu, T

    1976-07-01

    8-Quinolinolates of aluminum, gallium, and indium in chloroform exhibit strong yellowish green fluorescence with an emission maximum at 510, 526, and 528 nm, respectively. The time resolved fluorescence spectra and the fluorescence lifetime properties of these chelates were measured with a time-resolved spectrofluorometer. The fluorescence intensity of these chelates decays exponentially with time t, and obeys the following equation: F=F/sub 0/e-t/tau=F/sub 0/e-k sub(f).t where F/sub 0/ and F are the fluorescence intensity when the exciting light is irradiating and shut off, respectively; tau and k sub(f) being the lifetime and the rate constant for the process of fluorescence emission. The lifetimes of these chelates in chloroform solution at the ordinary temperature were 17.8, 10.1, and 8.4 ns for Al(C/sub 9/H/sub 6/ON)/sub 3/, Ga(C/sub 9/H/sub 6/ON)/sub 3/, and In(C/sub 9/H/sub 6/ON)/sub 3/, respectively. Thus, 8-quinolinolates of group III metals emit the same type radiation with different lifetimes. Between Al-chelate and In-chelate, there were significant difference in the lifetime by 9.4 ns. Then, the logarithmic plot of the composite fluorescence intensity against time is the overlap of some straight lines with different slopes which indicate k sub(f) of various decay processes. The linear portion of the logarithmic plot of the composite fluorescence intensity corresponded to the longer lifetime component (Al-chelate), and by substracting this component from the whole one, the straight line due to the shorter lifetime component (In-chelate) is obtained. Aluminum and indium contents were then determined by comparing the fluorescence intensity of the sample with that of the standard at a definite time (extrapolated to t=0). By using this composite decay curve, the composition of mixtures of nx10/sup -4/ mol/l of Al and In-chelates in chloroform could be determined.

  12. Two-photon excitation with pico-second fluorescence lifetime imaging to detect nuclear association of flavanols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller-Harvey, Irene, E-mail: i.mueller-harvey@reading.ac.uk [Chemistry and Biochemistry Laboratory, Food Production and Quality Research Division, School of Agriculture, Policy and Development, University of Reading, P O Box 236, Reading RG6 6AT (United Kingdom); Feucht, Walter, E-mail: walter.feucht@gmail.com [Department of Plant Sciences, Technical University of Munich (TUM), Wissenschaftszentrum Weihenstephan (WZW), D-85354 Freising (Germany); Polster, Juergen, E-mail: j.polster@wzw.tum.de [Department of Physical Biochemistry, Technical University of Munich (TUM), Wissenschaftszentrum Weihenstephan (WZW), D-85354 Freising (Germany); Trnkova, Lucie, E-mail: lucie.trnkova@uhk.cz [University of Hradec Kralove, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Rokitanskeho 62, 50003 Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Burgos, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.burgos@stfc.ac.uk [Central Laser Facility, Research Complex at Harwell, Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell-Oxford, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Parker, Anthony W., E-mail: tony.parker@stfc.ac.uk [Central Laser Facility, Research Complex at Harwell, Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell-Oxford, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Botchway, Stanley W., E-mail: stan.botchway@stfc.ac.uk [Central Laser Facility, Research Complex at Harwell, Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell-Oxford, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2012-03-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) technique for flavanols overcomes autofluorescence interference in cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Plant flavanols differed in their lifetimes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dissolved and bound flavanols revealed contrasting lifetime changes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This technique will allow studying of flavanol trafficking in live cells. - Abstract: Two-photon excitation enabled for the first time the observation and measurement of excited state fluorescence lifetimes from three flavanols in solution, which were {approx}1.0 ns for catechin and epicatechin, but <45 ps for epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). The shorter lifetime for EGCG is in line with a lower fluorescence quantum yield of 0.003 compared to catechin (0.015) and epicatechin (0.018). In vivo experiments with onion cells demonstrated that tryptophan and quercetin, which tend to be major contributors of background fluorescence in plant cells, have sufficiently low cross sections for two-photon excitation at 630 nm and therefore do not interfere with detection of externally added or endogenous flavanols in Allium cepa or Taxus baccata cells. Applying two-photon excitation to flavanols enabled 3-D fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy and showed that added EGCG penetrated the whole nucleus of onion cells. Interestingly, EGCG and catechin showed different lifetime behaviour when bound to the nucleus: EGCG lifetime increased from <45 to 200 ps, whilst catechin lifetime decreased from 1.0 ns to 500 ps. Semi-quantitative measurements revealed that the relative ratios of EGCG concentrations in nucleoli associated vesicles: nucleus: cytoplasm were ca. 100:10:1. Solution experiments with catechin, epicatechin and histone proteins provided preliminary evidence, via the appearance of a second lifetime ({tau}{sub 2} = 1.9-3.1 ns), that both flavanols may be interacting with histone proteins. We conclude that there

  13. Indium Tin Oxide Resistor-Based Nitric Oxide Microsensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jennifer C.; Hunter, Gary W.; Gonzalez, Jose M., III; Liu, Chung-Chiun

    2012-01-01

    A sensitive resistor-based NO microsensor, with a wide detection range and a low detection limit, has been developed. Semiconductor microfabrication techniques were used to create a sensor that has a simple, robust structure with a sensing area of 1.10 0.99 mm. A Pt interdigitated structure was used for the electrodes to maximize the sensor signal output. N-type semiconductor indium tin oxide (ITO) thin film was sputter-deposited as a sensing material on the electrode surface, and between the electrode fingers. Alumina substrate (250 m in thickness) was sequentially used for sensor fabrication. The resulting sensor was tested by applying a voltage across the two electrodes and measuring the resulting current. The sensor was tested at different concentrations of NO-containing gas at a range of temperatures. Preliminary results showed that the sensor had a relatively high sensitivity to NO at 450 C and 1 V. NO concentrations from ppm to ppb ranges were detected with the low limit of near 159 ppb. Lower NO concentrations are being tested. Two sensing mechanisms were involved in the NO gas detection at ppm level: adsorption and oxidation reactions, whereas at ppb level of NO, only one sensing mechanism of adsorption was involved. The NO microsensor has the advantages of high sensitivity, small size, simple batch fabrication, high sensor yield, low cost, and low power consumption due to its microsize. The resistor-based thin-film sensor is meant for detection of low concentrations of NO gas, mainly in the ppb or lower range, and is being developed concurrently with other sensor technology for multispecies detection. This development demonstrates that ITO is a sensitive sensing material for NO detection. It also provides crucial information for future selection of nanostructured and nanosized NO sensing materials, which are expected to be more sensitive and to consume less power.

  14. The LB Films of Dansyl Chloride Labeled Octadecylamine and Its Fluorescence Lifetime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Octadecylamine was derivatized with dansyl chloride (5-dimethylaminonaphthalene-1-sulfonyl chloride) in order to simplify and understand the LB films of fluorescent probe labeling proteins.Its monolayer and multilayers in the absence and presence of stearic acid were deposited by LB technique.Fluorescence spectra and lifetimes of the fluorescent products were studied to elucidate the microenvironment of molecules in the LB films.

  15. Fluorescence lifetime imaging of lipids during 3T3-L1 cell differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Young Sik; Won, Young Jae; Lee, Sang-Hak; Kim, Dug Young

    2014-03-01

    Obesity is becoming a big health problem in these days. Since increased body weight is due to increased number and size of the triglyceride-storing adipocytes, many researchers are working on differentiation conditions and processes of adipocytes. Adipocytes also work as regulators of whole-body energy homeostasis by secreting several proteins that regulate processes as diverse as haemostasis, blood pressure, immune function, angiogenesis and energy balance. 3T3-L1 cells are widely used cell line for studying adipogenesis because it can differentiate into an adipocyte-like phenotype under appropriate conditions. In this paper, we propose an effective fluorescence lifetime imaging technique which can easily distinguish lipids in membrane and those in lipid droplets. Nile red dyes are attached to lipids in 3T3-L1 cells. Fluorescence lifetime images were taken for 2 week during differentiation procedure of 3T3-L1 cells into adipocytes. We used 488 nm pulsed laser with 5MHz repetition rate and emission wavelength is 520 nm of Nile Red fluorescent dye. Results clearly show that the lifetime of Nile red in lipid droplets are smaller than those in cell membrane. Our results suggest that fluorescence lifetime imaging can be a very powerful tool to monitor lipid droplet formation in adipocytes from 3T3-L1 cells.

  16. Bessel beam fluorescence lifetime tomography of live embryos (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dongli; Peng, Leilei

    2016-03-01

    Optical tomography allows isotropic 3D imaging of embryos. Scanning-laser optical tomography (SLOT) has superior light collecting efficiency than wide-field optical tomography, making it ideal for fluorescence imaging of live embryos. We previously reported an imaging system that combines SLOT with a novel Fourier-multiplexed fluorescence lifetime imaging (FmFLIM) technique named FmFLIM-SLOT. FmFLIM-SLOT performs multiplexed FLIM-FRET readout of multiple FRET sensors in live embryos. Here we report a recent effort on improving the spatial resolution of the FmFLIM-SLOT system in order to image complex biochemical processes in live embryos at the cellular level. Optical tomography has to compromise between resolution and the depth of view. In SLOT, the commonly-used focused Gaussian beam diverges quickly from the focal plane, making it impossible to achieve high resolution imaging in a large volume specimen. We thus introduce Bessel beam laser-scanning tomography, which illuminates the sample with a spatial-light-modulator-generated Bessel beam that has an extended focal depth. The Bessel beam is scanned across the whole specimen. Fluorescence projection images are acquired at equal angular intervals as the sample rotates. Reconstruction artifacts due to annular-rings of the Bessel beam are removed by a modified 3D filtered back projection algorithm. Furthermore, in combination of Fourier-multiplexing fluorescence lifetime imaging (FmFLIM) method, the Bessel FmFLIM-SLOT system is capable of perform 3D lifetime imaging of live embryos at cellular resolution. The system is applied to in-vivo imaging of transgenic Zebrafish embryos. Results prove that Bessel FmFLIM-SLOT is a promising imaging method in development biology research.

  17. Alterations in cerebral metabolism observed in living rodents using fluorescence lifetime microscopy of intrinsic NADH (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaseen, Mohammad A.; Sakadžić, Sava; Sutin, Jason; Wu, Weicheng; Fu, Buyin; Boas, David A.

    2017-02-01

    Monitoring cerebral energy metabolism at a cellular level is essential to improve our understanding of healthy brain function and its pathological alterations. In this study, we resolve specific alterations in cerebral metabolism utilizing minimally-invasive 2-Photon fluorescence lifetime imaging (2P-FLIM) measurements of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) fluorescence, collected in vivo from anesthetized rats and mice. Time-resolved lifetime measurements enables distinction of different components contributing to NADH autofluorescence. These components reportedly represent different enzyme-bound formulations of NADH. Our observations from this study confirm the hypothesis that NADH FLIM can identify specific alterations in cerebral metabolism. Using time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) equipment and a custom-built multimodal imaging system, 2-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) was performed in cerebral tissue with high spatial and temporal resolution. Multi-exponential fits for NADH fluorescence lifetimes indicate 4 distinct components, or 'species.' We observed distinct variations in the relative proportions of these components before and after pharmacological-induced impairments to several reactions involved in anaerobic glycolysis and aerobic oxidative metabolism. Classification models developed with experimental data correctly predict the metabolic impairments associated with bicuculline-induced focal seizures in separate experiments. Compared to traditional intensity-based NADH measurements, lifetime imaging of NADH is less susceptible to the adverse effects of overlying blood vessels. Evaluating NADH measurements will ultimately lead to a deeper understanding of cerebral energetics and its pathology-related alterations. Such knowledge will likely aid development of therapeutic strategies for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's disease, and stroke.

  18. In Vivo Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Monitors Binding of Specific Probes to Cancer Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardeshirpour, Yasaman; Chernomordik, Victor; Zielinski, Rafal; Capala, Jacek; Griffiths, Gary; Vasalatiy, Olga; Smirnov, Aleksandr V.; Knutson, Jay R.; Lyakhov, Ilya; Achilefu, Samuel; Gandjbakhche, Amir; Hassan, Moinuddin

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important factors in choosing a treatment strategy for cancer is characterization of biomarkers in cancer cells. Particularly, recent advances in Monoclonal Antibodies (MAB) as primary-specific drugs targeting tumor receptors show that their efficacy depends strongly on characterization of tumor biomarkers. Assessment of their status in individual patients would facilitate selection of an optimal treatment strategy, and the continuous monitoring of those biomarkers and their binding process to the therapy would provide a means for early evaluation of the efficacy of therapeutic intervention. In this study we have demonstrated for the first time in live animals that the fluorescence lifetime can be used to detect the binding of targeted optical probes to the extracellular receptors on tumor cells in vivo. The rationale was that fluorescence lifetime of a specific probe is sensitive to local environment and/or affinity to other molecules. We attached Near-InfraRed (NIR) fluorescent probes to Human Epidermal Growth Factor 2 (HER2/neu)-specific Affibody molecules and used our time-resolved optical system to compare the fluorescence lifetime of the optical probes that were bound and unbound to tumor cells in live mice. Our results show that the fluorescence lifetime changes in our model system delineate HER2 receptor bound from the unbound probe in vivo. Thus, this method is useful as a specific marker of the receptor binding process, which can open a new paradigm in the “image and treat” concept, especially for early evaluation of the efficacy of the therapy. PMID:22384092

  19. In vivo fluorescence lifetime imaging monitors binding of specific probes to cancer biomarkers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasaman Ardeshirpour

    Full Text Available One of the most important factors in choosing a treatment strategy for cancer is characterization of biomarkers in cancer cells. Particularly, recent advances in Monoclonal Antibodies (MAB as primary-specific drugs targeting tumor receptors show that their efficacy depends strongly on characterization of tumor biomarkers. Assessment of their status in individual patients would facilitate selection of an optimal treatment strategy, and the continuous monitoring of those biomarkers and their binding process to the therapy would provide a means for early evaluation of the efficacy of therapeutic intervention. In this study we have demonstrated for the first time in live animals that the fluorescence lifetime can be used to detect the binding of targeted optical probes to the extracellular receptors on tumor cells in vivo. The rationale was that fluorescence lifetime of a specific probe is sensitive to local environment and/or affinity to other molecules. We attached Near-InfraRed (NIR fluorescent probes to Human Epidermal Growth Factor 2 (HER2/neu-specific Affibody molecules and used our time-resolved optical system to compare the fluorescence lifetime of the optical probes that were bound and unbound to tumor cells in live mice. Our results show that the fluorescence lifetime changes in our model system delineate HER2 receptor bound from the unbound probe in vivo. Thus, this method is useful as a specific marker of the receptor binding process, which can open a new paradigm in the "image and treat" concept, especially for early evaluation of the efficacy of the therapy.

  20. Carrier Lifetimes in Fluorescent 6H-SiC for LEDs Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivickas, Vytautas; Gulbinas, Karolis; Jokubavičius, Valdas

    Recently it was shown a new approach based on all-semiconductor material technology which is composed with a near ultra-violet GaN LED excitation source and fluorescent silicon carbide (f-6H-SiC) substrate which generates a visible broad spectral light by N and B dopants and an efficient donor...... to acceptor pair recombination [1,2]. This combination can achieve higher electric-light conversion efficiency and high color rendering in comparison with today’s used blue GaN LED based and phosphors. The devices are promising candidates for general lightning applications and may obtain stability...... under co-linear and orthogonal probe geometry was used to measure carrier lifetimes in the layers under variable injection conditions. Same results are shown in Fig. 1 exaggerating the fact that longer electron lifetime responsible for higher emission and n-type doping should prevail the p-type doping...

  1. Fluorescence lifetime, dipole orientation and bilayer polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Xuan Long; Chen, Po-Jui; Woon, Wei-Yen; White, Jonathon David

    2017-10-01

    Bilayer films consisting of the optically transparent polymers, polystyrene (PS) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) were spin-cast on glass substrates. The upper 13.5 nm layer (PS) was lightly doped with Rhodamine-6 G (RH6G) or MEH-PPV. While the fluorescence of MEH-PPV was independent of PMMA thickness, the lifetime of RH6G increased 3-fold as the underlying PMMA thickness increased from 0 to 500 nm while the collected flux decreased suggesting a reorientation of the smaller molecule's dipole with respect to the air-polymer interface with PMMA thickness. This suggests lifetime may find application for nondestructive thickness measurements of transparent films with sub-micron lateral resolution and large range.

  2. Online multispectral fluorescence lifetime values estimation and overlay onto tissue white-light video frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorpas, Dimitris; Ma, Dinglong; Bec, Julien; Yankelevich, Diego R.; Marcu, Laura

    2016-03-01

    Fluorescence lifetime imaging has been shown to be a robust technique for biochemical and functional characterization of tissues and to present great potential for intraoperative tissue diagnosis and guidance of surgical procedures. We report a technique for real-time mapping of fluorescence parameters (i.e. lifetime values) onto the location from where the fluorescence measurements were taken. This is achieved by merging a 450 nm aiming beam generated by a diode laser with the excitation light in a single delivery/collection fiber and by continuously imaging the region of interest with a color CMOS camera. The interrogated locations are then extracted from the acquired frames via color-based segmentation of the aiming beam. Assuming a Gaussian profile of the imaged aiming beam, the segmentation results are fitted to ellipses that are dynamically scaled at the full width of three automatically estimated thresholds (50%, 75%, 90%) of the Gaussian distribution's maximum value. This enables the dynamic augmentation of the white-light video frames with the corresponding fluorescence decay parameters. A fluorescence phantom and fresh tissue samples were used to evaluate this method with motorized and hand-held scanning measurements. At 640x512 pixels resolution the area of interest augmented with fluorescence decay parameters can be imaged at an average 34 frames per second. The developed method has the potential to become a valuable tool for real-time display of optical spectroscopy data during continuous scanning applications that subsequently can be used for tissue characterization and diagnosis.

  3. Fluorescence lifetime FRET imaging of receptor-ligand complexes in tumor cells in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudkouskaya, Alena; Sinsuebphon, Nattawut; Intes, Xavier; Mazurkiewicz, Joseph E.; Barroso, Margarida

    2017-02-01

    To guide the development of targeted therapies with improved efficacy and accelerated clinical acceptance, novel imaging methodologies need to be established. Toward this goal, fluorescence lifetime Förster resonance energy transfer (FLIM-FRET) imaging assays capitalize on the ability of antibodies or protein ligands to bind dimerized membrane bound receptors to measure their target engagement levels in cancer cells. Conventional FLIM FRET microscopy has been widely applied at visible wavelengths to detect protein-protein interactions in vitro. However, operation at these wavelengths restricts imaging quality and ability to quantitate lifetime changes in in vivo small animal optical imaging due to high auto-fluorescence and light scattering. Here, we have analyzed the uptake of iron-bound transferrin (Tf) probes into human breast cancer cells using FLIM-FRET microscopy in the visible and near-infrared (NIR) range. The development of NIR FLIM FRET microscopy allows for the use of quantitative lifetime-based molecular assays to measure drug-target engagement levels at multiple scales: from in vitro microscopy to in vivo small animal optical imaging (macroscopy). This novel approach can be extended to other receptors, currently targeted in oncology. Hence, lifetime-based molecular imaging can find numerous applications in drug delivery and targeted therapy assessment and optimization.

  4. Long-term fluorescence lifetime imaging of a genetically encoded sensor for caspase-3 activity in mouse tumor xenografts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zherdeva, Victoria; Kazachkina, Natalia I.; Shcheslavskiy, Vladislav; Savitsky, Alexander P.

    2018-03-01

    Caspase-3 is known for its role in apoptosis and programmed cell death regulation. We detected caspase-3 activation in vivo in tumor xenografts via shift of mean fluorescence lifetimes of a caspase-3 sensor. We used the genetically encoded sensor TR23K based on the red fluorescent protein TagRFP and chromoprotein KFP linked by 23 amino acid residues (TagRFP-23-KFP) containing a specific caspase cleavage DEVD motif to monitor the activity of caspase-3 in tumor xenografts by means of fluorescence lifetime imaging-Forster resonance energy transfer. Apoptosis was induced by injection of paclitaxel for A549 lung adenocarcinoma and etoposide and cisplatin for HEp-2 pharynx adenocarcinoma. We observed a shift in lifetime distribution from 1.6 to 1.9 ns to 2.1 to 2.4 ns, which indicated the activation of caspase-3. Even within the same tumor, the lifetime varied presumably due to the tumor heterogeneity and the different depth of tumor invasion. Thus, processing time-resolved fluorescence images allows detection of both the cleaved and noncleaved states of the TR23K sensor in real-time mode during the course of several weeks noninvasively. This approach can be used in drug screening, facilitating the development of new anticancer agents as well as improvement of chemotherapy efficiency and its adaptation for personal treatment.

  5. Time gated fluorescence lifetime imaging and micro-volume spectroscopy using two-photon excitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sytsma, J.; Vroom, J.M.; de Grauw, C.J.; Gerritsen, H.C.

    A scanning microscope utilizing two-photon excitation in combination with fluorescence lifetime contrast is presented. The microscope makes use of a tunable femtosecond titanium:sapphire laser enabling the two-photon excitation of a broad range of fluorescent molecules, including UV probes.

  6. Enhancement of early cervical cancer diagnosis with epithelial layer analysis of fluorescence lifetime images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Gu

    Full Text Available This work reports the use of layer analysis to aid the fluorescence lifetime diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN from H&E stained cervical tissue sections. The mean and standard deviation of lifetimes in single region of interest (ROI of cervical epithelium were previously shown to correlate to the gold standard histopathological classification of early cervical cancer. These previously defined single ROIs were evenly divided into layers for analysis. A 10-layer model revealed a steady increase in fluorescence lifetime from the inner to the outer epithelial layers of healthy tissue sections, suggesting a close association with cellular maturity. The shorter lifetime and minimal lifetime increase towards the epithelial surface of CIN-affected regions are in good agreement with the absence of cellular maturation in CIN. Mean layer lifetimes in the top-half cervical epithelium were used as feature vectors for extreme learning machine (ELM classifier discriminations. It was found that the proposed layer analysis technique greatly improves the sensitivity and specificity to 94.6% and 84.3%, respectively, which can better supplement the traditional gold standard cervical histopathological examinations.

  7. FLIMX: A Software Package to Determine and Analyze the Fluorescence Lifetime in Time-Resolved Fluorescence Data from the Human Eye.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Klemm

    Full Text Available Fluorescence lifetime imaging ophthalmoscopy (FLIO is a new technique for measuring the in vivo autofluorescence intensity decays generated by endogenous fluorophores in the ocular fundus. Here, we present a software package called FLIM eXplorer (FLIMX for analyzing FLIO data. Specifically, we introduce a new adaptive binning approach as an optimal tradeoff between the spatial resolution and the number of photons required per pixel. We also expand existing decay models (multi-exponential, stretched exponential, spectral global analysis, incomplete decay to account for the layered structure of the eye and present a method to correct for the influence of the crystalline lens fluorescence on the retina fluorescence. Subsequently, the Holm-Bonferroni method is applied to FLIO measurements to allow for group comparisons between patients and controls on the basis of fluorescence lifetime parameters. The performance of the new approaches was evaluated in five experiments. Specifically, we evaluated static and adaptive binning in a diabetes mellitus patient, we compared the different decay models in a healthy volunteer and performed a group comparison between diabetes patients and controls. An overview of the visualization capabilities and a comparison of static and adaptive binning is shown for a patient with macular hole. FLIMX's applicability to fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy is shown in the ganglion cell layer of a porcine retina sample, obtained by a laser scanning microscope using two-photon excitation.

  8. FLIMX: A Software Package to Determine and Analyze the Fluorescence Lifetime in Time-Resolved Fluorescence Data from the Human Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, Matthias; Schweitzer, Dietrich; Peters, Sven; Sauer, Lydia; Hammer, Martin; Haueisen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence lifetime imaging ophthalmoscopy (FLIO) is a new technique for measuring the in vivo autofluorescence intensity decays generated by endogenous fluorophores in the ocular fundus. Here, we present a software package called FLIM eXplorer (FLIMX) for analyzing FLIO data. Specifically, we introduce a new adaptive binning approach as an optimal tradeoff between the spatial resolution and the number of photons required per pixel. We also expand existing decay models (multi-exponential, stretched exponential, spectral global analysis, incomplete decay) to account for the layered structure of the eye and present a method to correct for the influence of the crystalline lens fluorescence on the retina fluorescence. Subsequently, the Holm-Bonferroni method is applied to FLIO measurements to allow for group comparisons between patients and controls on the basis of fluorescence lifetime parameters. The performance of the new approaches was evaluated in five experiments. Specifically, we evaluated static and adaptive binning in a diabetes mellitus patient, we compared the different decay models in a healthy volunteer and performed a group comparison between diabetes patients and controls. An overview of the visualization capabilities and a comparison of static and adaptive binning is shown for a patient with macular hole. FLIMX's applicability to fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy is shown in the ganglion cell layer of a porcine retina sample, obtained by a laser scanning microscope using two-photon excitation.

  9. Diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma by two photon excited fluorescence combined with lifetime imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shunping; Peng, Xiao; Liu, Lixin; Liu, Shaoxiong; Lu, Yuan; Qu, Junle

    2014-02-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common type of human skin cancer. The traditional diagnostic procedure of BCC is histological examination with haematoxylin and eosin staining of the tissue biopsy. In order to reduce complexity of the diagnosis procedure, a number of noninvasive optical methods have been applied in skin examination, for example, multiphoton tomography (MPT) and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). In this study, we explored two-photon optical tomography of human skin specimens using two-photon excited autofluorescence imaging and FLIM. There are a number of naturally endogenous fluorophores in skin sample, such as keratin, melanin, collagen, elastin, flavin and porphyrin. Confocal microscopy was used to obtain structures of the sample. Properties of epidermic and cancer cells were characterized by fluorescence emission spectra, as well as fluorescence lifetime imaging. Our results show that two-photon autofluorescence lifetime imaging can provide accurate optical biopsies with subcellular resolution and is potentially a quantitative optical diagnostic method in skin cancer diagnosis.

  10. Measurement of the Extracellular pH of Adherently Growing Mammalian Cells with High Spatial Resolution Using a Voltammetric pH Microsensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munteanu, Raluca-Elena; Stǎnicǎ, Luciana; Gheorghiu, Mihaela; Gáspár, Szilveszter

    2018-05-15

    There are only a few tools suitable for measuring the extracellular pH of adherently growing mammalian cells with high spatial resolution, and none of them is widely used in laboratories around the world. Cell biologists very often limit themselves to measuring the intracellular pH with commercially available fluorescent probes. Therefore, we built a voltammetric pH microsensor and investigated its suitability for monitoring the extracellular pH of adherently growing mammalian cells. The voltammetric pH microsensor consisted of a 37 μm diameter carbon fiber microelectrode modified with reduced graphene oxide and syringaldazine. While graphene oxide was used to increase the electrochemically active surface area of our sensor, syringaldazine facilitated pH sensing through its pH-dependent electrochemical oxidation and reduction. The good sensitivity (60 ± 2.5 mV/pH unit), reproducibility (coefficient of variation ≤3% for the same pH measured with 5 different microsensors), and stability (pH drift around 0.05 units in 3 h) of the built voltammetric pH sensors were successfully used to investigate the acidification of the extracellular space of both cancer cells and normal cells. The results indicate that the developed pH microsensor and the perfected experimental protocol based on scanning electrochemical microscopy can reveal details of the pH regulation of cells not attainable with pH sensors lacking spatial resolution or which cannot be reproducibly positioned in the extracellular space.

  11. Improving the performance of electrochemical microsensors based on enzymes entrapped in a redox hydrogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitala, J.J.; Michael, A.C.

    2006-01-01

    Microsensors based on carbon fiber microelectrodes coated with enzyme-entrapping redox hydrogels facilitate the in vivo detection of substances of interest within the central nervous system, including hydrogen peroxide, glucose, choline and glutamate. The hydrogel, formed by cross-linking a redox polymer, entraps the enzymes and mediates electron transfer between the enzymes and the electrode. It is important that the enzymes are entrapped in their enzymatically active state. Should entrapment cause enzyme denaturation, the sensitivity and the selectivity of the sensor may be compromised. Synthesis of the redox polymer according to published procedures may yield a product that precipitates when added to aqueous enzyme solutions. Casting hydrogels from solutions that contain the precipitate produces microsensors with low sensitivity and selectivity, suggesting that the precipitation disrupts the structure of the enzymes. Herein, we show that a surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), can prevent the precipitation and improve the sensitivity and selectivity of the sensors

  12. The Use of Wearable Microsensors to Quantify Sport-Specific Movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Ryan; Gabbett, Tim J; Cole, Michael H; Beard, Adam

    2015-07-01

    Microtechnology has allowed sport scientists to understand the locomotor demands of various sports. While wearable global positioning technology has been used to quantify the locomotor demands of sporting activities, microsensors (i.e. accelerometers, gyroscopes and magnetometers) embedded within the units also have the capability to detect sport-specific movements. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which microsensors (also referred to as inertial measurement units and microelectromechanical sensors) have been utilised in quantifying sport-specific movements. A systematic review of the use of microsensors and associated terms to evaluate sport-specific movements was conducted; permutations of the terms used included alternate names of the various technologies used, their applications and different applied environments. Studies for this review were published between 2008 and 2014 and were identified through a systematic search of six electronic databases: Academic Search Complete, CINAHL, PsycINFO, PubMed, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science. Articles were required to have used athlete-mounted sensors to detect sport-specific movements (e.g. rugby union tackle) rather than sensors mounted to equipment and monitoring generic movement patterns. A total of 2395 studies were initially retrieved from the six databases and 737 results were removed as they were duplicates, review articles or conference abstracts. After screening titles and abstracts of the remaining papers, the full text of 47 papers was reviewed, resulting in the inclusion of 28 articles that met the set criteria around the application of microsensors for detecting sport-specific movements. Eight articles addressed the use of microsensors within individual sports, team sports provided seven results, water sports provided eight articles, and five articles addressed the use of microsensors in snow sports. All articles provided evidence of the ability of microsensors to detect sport

  13. Study on the effect of deposition rate and concentration of Eu on the fluorescent lifetime of CsI: Tl thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Yijun; Guo, Lina [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, Chengdu 610054 (China); Liu, Shuang, E-mail: shuangliu@uestc.edu.cn [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, Chengdu 610054 (China); Wang, Qianfeng; Zhang, Shangjian; Liu, Yong [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, Chengdu 610054 (China); Zhong, Zhiyong [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2017-06-21

    Although there are many new scintillators being developed recently, CsI: Tl is still very efficient among them. The fluorescent lifetime is a very important parameter of CsI: Tl thin film and two series of experiments have been conducted to learn about it. Our experiments, however, have demonstrated that the deposition rate and the codoping of Eu{sup 2+} will significantly influence its fluorescent lifetime. In order to increase the efficiency of the imaging system, we intend to obtain a higher fluorescent lifetime for CsI: Tl thin film by controlling these two conditions. - Highlights: • We used vacuum vapor deposition method to grow the high-quality thin films. • The relationship between the deposition rate and the fluorescent lifetime of CsI: Tl thin film was tested. • Concentration of Eu on fluorescent lifetime of the CsI: Tl thin film was studied.

  14. Selective plane illumination microscopy (SPIM) with time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) for volumetric measurement of cleared mouse brain samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funane, Tsukasa; Hou, Steven S.; Zoltowska, Katarzyna Marta; van Veluw, Susanne J.; Berezovska, Oksana; Kumar, Anand T. N.; Bacskai, Brian J.

    2018-05-01

    We have developed an imaging technique which combines selective plane illumination microscopy with time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (SPIM-FLIM) for three-dimensional volumetric imaging of cleared mouse brains with micro- to mesoscopic resolution. The main features of the microscope include a wavelength-adjustable pulsed laser source (Ti:sapphire) (near-infrared) laser, a BiBO frequency-doubling photonic crystal, a liquid chamber, an electrically focus-tunable lens, a cuvette based sample holder, and an air (dry) objective lens. The performance of the system was evaluated with a lifetime reference dye and micro-bead phantom measurements. Intensity and lifetime maps of three-dimensional human embryonic kidney (HEK) cell culture samples and cleared mouse brain samples expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) (donor only) and green and red fluorescent protein [positive Förster (fluorescence) resonance energy transfer] were acquired. The results show that the SPIM-FLIM system can be used for sample sizes ranging from single cells to whole mouse organs and can serve as a powerful tool for medical and biological research.

  15. Fluorescence lifetime microscopy for monitoring cell adhesion using metal induced energy transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Wonsang; Seo, JinWon; Song, Jun ho; Kim, DongEun; Won, YoungJae; Choi, In-Hong; Yoo, Kyung-Hwa; Kim, Dug Young

    2018-02-01

    A precise control and a reliable monitoring tool for the adhesion properties of a cell are very important in atherosclerosis studies. If endothelial cells in contact with the intracellular membrane are not attached securely, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles can enter into the inner membrane. It is therefore necessary to measure conditions under which endothelial cell detachment occurs. When a cell is attached to a metal thin film, the lifetime of a fluorescence probe attached to the membrane of the cell is reduced by the metal-induced energy transfer (MIET). Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) is used to monitor the attachment condition of a cell to a metal surface using FRET. However, this requires high numerical aperture (NA) objective lens because axial confocal resolution must be smaller than the cell thickness. This requirement limits the field of view of the measurement specimen. In this study we provides a new method which can measure adhesion properties of endothelial cells even with a low NA objective lens by resolving two lifetime components in FLIM.

  16. Time-Resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy for Characterization of Dendritic Polymer Nanoparticles and Applications in Nanomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Boreham

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The emerging field of nanomedicine provides new approaches for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, for symptom relief and for monitoring of disease progression. One route of realizing this approach is through carefully constructed nanoparticles. Due to the small size inherent to the nanoparticles a proper characterization is not trivial. This review highlights the application of time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM for the analysis of nanoparticles, covering aspects ranging from molecular properties to particle detection in tissue samples. The latter technique is particularly important as FLIM allows for distinguishing of target molecules from the autofluorescent background and, due to the environmental sensitivity of the fluorescence lifetime, also offers insights into the local environment of the nanoparticle or its interactions with other biomolecules. Thus, these techniques offer highly suitable tools in the fields of particle development, such as organic chemistry, and in the fields of particle application, such as in experimental dermatology or pharmaceutical research.

  17. Time-Resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy for Characterization of Dendritic Polymer Nanoparticles and Applications in Nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boreham, Alexander; Brodwolf, Robert; Walker, Karolina; Haag, Rainer; Alexiev, Ulrike

    2016-12-24

    The emerging field of nanomedicine provides new approaches for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, for symptom relief and for monitoring of disease progression. One route of realizing this approach is through carefully constructed nanoparticles. Due to the small size inherent to the nanoparticles a proper characterization is not trivial. This review highlights the application of time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) for the analysis of nanoparticles, covering aspects ranging from molecular properties to particle detection in tissue samples. The latter technique is particularly important as FLIM allows for distinguishing of target molecules from the autofluorescent background and, due to the environmental sensitivity of the fluorescence lifetime, also offers insights into the local environment of the nanoparticle or its interactions with other biomolecules. Thus, these techniques offer highly suitable tools in the fields of particle development, such as organic chemistry, and in the fields of particle application, such as in experimental dermatology or pharmaceutical research.

  18. Fluorescence lifetime imaging of endogenous molecules in live mouse cancer models (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svindrych, Zdenek; Wang, Tianxiong; Hu, Song; Periasamy, Ammasi

    2017-02-01

    NADH and FAD are important endogenous fluorescent coenzymes participating in key enzymatic reactions of cellular metabolism. While fluorescence intensities of NADH and FAD have been used to determine the redox state of cells and tissues, this simple approach breaks down in the case of deep-tissue intravital imaging due to depth- and wavelength-dependent light absorption and scattering. To circumvent this limitation, our research focuses on fluorescence lifetimes of two-photon excited NADH and FAD emission to study the metabolic state of live tissues. In our custom-built scanning microscope we combine tunable femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser (operating at 740 nm for NADH excitation and 890 nm for FAD excitation), two GaAsP hybrid detectors for registering individual fluorescence photons and two Becker and Hickl time correlator boards for high precision lifetime measurements. Together with our rigorous FLIM analysis approach (including image segmentation, multi-exponential decay fitting and detailed statistical analysis) we are able to detect metabolic changes in cancer xenografts (human pancreatic cancer MPanc96 cells injected subcutaneously into the ear of an immunodeficient nude mouse), relative to surrounding healthy tissue. Advantageously, with the same instrumentation we can also take high-resolution and high-contrast images of second harmonic signal (SHG) originating from collagen fibers of both the healthy skin and the growing tumor. The combination of metabolic measurements (NADH and FAD lifetime) and morphological information (collagen SHG) allows us to follow the tumor growth in live mouse model and the changes in tumor microenvironment.

  19. Fluorescence lifetime measurements of native and glycated human serum albumin and bovine serum albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Narahari V.; Joshi, Virgina O. d.; Contreras, Silvia; Gil, Herminia; Medina, Honorio; Siemiarczuk, Aleksander

    1999-05-01

    Nonenzymatic glycation, also known as Maillard reaction, plays an important role in the secondary complications of the diabetic pathology and aging, therefore, human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were glycated by a conventional method in our laboratory using glucose as the glycating agent. Fluorescence lifetime measurements were carried out with a laser strobe fluorometer equipped with a nitrogen/dye laser and a frequency doubler as a pulsed excitation source. The samples were excited at 295 nm and the emission spectra were recorded at 345 nm. The obtained decay curves were tried for double and triple exponential functions. It has been found that the shorter lifetime increases for glycated proteins as compared with that of the native ones. For example, in the case of glycated BSA the lifetime increased from 1.36 ns to 2.30 ns. Similarly, for HSA, the lifetime increases from 1.58 ns to 2.26 ns. Meanwhile, the longer lifetime changed very slightly for both proteins (from 6.52 ns to 6.72 ns). The increase in the lifetime can be associated with the environmental effect; originated from the attachment of glucose to some lysine residues. A good example is Trp 214 which is in the cage of Lys 225, Lys 212, Lys 233, Lys 205, Lys 500, Lys 199 and Lys 195. If fluorescence lifetime technique is calibrated and properly used it could be employed for assessing glycation of proteins.

  20. Fluorescence lifetime microscopy of NADH distinguishes alterations in cerebral metabolism in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaseen, Mohammad A; Sutin, Jason; Wu, Weicheng; Fu, Buyin; Uhlirova, Hana; Devor, Anna; Boas, David A; Sakadžić, Sava

    2017-05-01

    Evaluating cerebral energy metabolism at microscopic resolution is important for comprehensively understanding healthy brain function and its pathological alterations. Here, we resolve specific alterations in cerebral metabolism in vivo in Sprague Dawley rats utilizing minimally-invasive 2-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging (2P-FLIM) measurements of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) fluorescence. Time-resolved fluorescence lifetime measurements enable distinction of different components contributing to NADH autofluorescence. Ostensibly, these components indicate different enzyme-bound formulations of NADH. We observed distinct variations in the relative proportions of these components before and after pharmacological-induced impairments to several reactions involved in glycolytic and oxidative metabolism. Classification models were developed with the experimental data and used to predict the metabolic impairments induced during separate experiments involving bicuculline-induced seizures. The models consistently predicted that prolonged focal seizure activity results in impaired activity in the electron transport chain, likely the consequence of inadequate oxygen supply. 2P-FLIM observations of cerebral NADH will help advance our understanding of cerebral energetics at a microscopic scale. Such knowledge will aid in our evaluation of healthy and diseased cerebral physiology and guide diagnostic and therapeutic strategies that target cerebral energetics.

  1. Characterization of porcine eyes based on autofluorescence lifetime imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Ana; Breunig, Hans Georg; Uchugonova, Aisada; Morgado, António Miguel; König, Karsten

    2015-03-01

    Multiphoton microscopy is a non-invasive imaging technique with ideal characteristics for biological applications. In this study, we propose to characterize three major structures of the porcine eye, the cornea, crystalline lens, and retina using two-photon excitation fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (2PE-FLIM). Samples were imaged using a laser-scanning microscope, consisting of a broadband sub-15 femtosecond (fs) near-infrared laser. Signal detection was performed using a 16-channel photomultiplier tube (PMT) detector (PML-16PMT). Therefore, spectral analysis of the fluorescence lifetime data was possible. To ensure a correct spectral analysis of the autofluorescence lifetime data, the spectra of the individual endogenous fluorophores were acquired with the 16-channel PMT and with a spectrometer. All experiments were performed within 12h of the porcine eye enucleation. We were able to image the cornea, crystalline lens, and retina at multiple depths. Discrimination of each structure based on their autofluorescence intensity and lifetimes was possible. Furthermore, discrimination between different layers of the same structure was also possible. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first time that 2PE-FLIM was used for porcine lens imaging and layer discrimination. With this study we further demonstrated the feasibility of 2PE-FLIM to image and differentiate three of the main components of the eye and its potential as an ophthalmologic technique.

  2. Fluorescence lifetime imaging of microviscosity changes during ER autophagy in live cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ying; Samanta, Soham; Gong, Wanjun; Liu, Wufan; Pan, Wenhui; Yang, Zhigang; Qu, Junle

    2018-02-01

    Unfolded or misfolded protein accumulation inside Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) will cause ER stress and subsequently will activate cellular autophagy to release ER stress, which would ultimately result in microviscosity changes. However, even though, it is highly significant to gain a quantitative assessment of microviscosity changes during ER autophagy to study ER stress and autophagy behaviors related diseases, it has rarely been reported yet. In this work, we have reported a BODIPY based fluorescent molecular rotor that can covalently bind with vicinal dithiols containing nascent proteins in ER and hence can result in ER stress through the inhibition of the folding of nascent proteins. The change in local viscosity, caused by the release of the stress in cells through autophagy, was quantified by the probe using fluorescence lifetime imaging. This work basically demonstrates the possibility of introducing synthetic chemical probe as a promising tool to diagnose ER-viscosity-related diseases.

  3. A Compact Fluorescence Lifetime Excitation-Emission Spectrometer (FLEXEMS) for Detecting Trace Organics, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) effort, Leiden Measurement Technology (LMT) proposes to design and build the Fluorescence Lifetime Excitation...

  4. A Compact Fluorescence Lifetime Excitation-Emission Spectrometer (FLEXEMS) for Detecting Trace Organics, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) effort, Leiden Measurement Technology (LMT) proposes to design and build the Fluorescence Lifetime Excitation...

  5. Using non-empirically tuned range-separated functionals with simulated emission bands to model fluorescence lifetimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Z C; Fan, W Y; Chwee, T S; Sullivan, Michael B

    2017-08-09

    Fluorescence lifetimes were evaluated using TD-DFT under different approximations for the emitting molecule and various exchange-correlation functionals, such as B3LYP, BMK, CAM-B3LYP, LC-BLYP, M06, M06-2X, M11, PBE0, ωB97, ωB97X, LC-BLYP*, and ωB97X* where the range-separation parameters in the last two functionals were tuned in a non-empirical fashion. Changes in the optimised molecular geometries between the ground and electronically excited states were found to affect the quality of the calculated lifetimes significantly, while the inclusion of vibronic features led to further improvements over the assumption of a vertical electronic transition. The LC-BLYP* functional was found to return the most accurate fluorescence lifetimes with unsigned errors that are mostly within 1.5 ns of experimental values.

  6. Time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy of organic ligands by europium: Fluorescence quenching and lifetime properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouhi, A.; Hajjoul, H.; Redon, R.; Gagné, J. P.; Mounier, S.

    2018-03-01

    Time-resolved Laser Fluorescence Spectroscopy (TRLFS) has proved its usefulness in the fields of biophysics, life science and geochemistry to characterize the fluorescence probe molecule with its chemical environment. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the applicability of this powerful technique combined with Steady-State (S-S) measurements. A multi-mode factor analysis, in particular CP/PARAFAC, was used to analyze the interaction between Europium (Eu) and Humic substances (HSs) extracted from Saint Lawrence Estuary in Canada. The Saint Lawrence system is a semi-enclosed water stream with connections to the Atlantic Ocean and is an excellent natural laboratory. CP/PARAFAC applied to fluorescence S-S data allows introspecting ligands-metal interactions and the one-site 1:1 modeling gives information about the stability constants. From the spectral signatures and decay lifetimes data given by TRLFS, one can deduce the fluorescence quenching which modifies the fluorescence and discuss its mechanisms. Results indicated a relatively strong binding ability between europium and humic substances samples (Log K value varies from 3.38 to 5.08 at pH 7.00). Using the Stern-Volmer plot, it has been concluded that static and dynamic quenching takes places in the case of salicylic acid and europium interaction while for HSs interaction only a static quenching is observed.

  7. Exciton-polaron quenching in organic thin-film transistors studied by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Baunegaard With; Leißner, Till; Osadnik, Andreas

    Organic semiconductors show great potential in electronic and optical applications. However, a major challenge is the degradation of the semiconductor materials that cause a reduction in device performance. Here, we present our investigations of Organic Thin Film Transistors (OTFT) based...... that correlates with the local charge density indicates a pronounced exciton quenching by the injected charges. Subsequent FLIM measurements on previously biased OTFT devices show a general decrease in fluorescence lifetime suggesting degradation of the organic semiconductor. This is correlated with the results...

  8. Fluorescence life-time imaging and steady state polarization for examining binding of fluorophores to gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Shmulik; Fixler, Dror; Popovtzer, Rachela; Shefi, Orit

    2015-11-01

    Nanocomposites as multifunctional agents are capable of combing imaging and cell biology technologies. The conventional methods used for validation of the conjugation process of nanoparticles (NPs) to fluorescent molecules such as spectroscopy analysis and surface potential measurements, are not sufficient. In this paper we present a new and highly sensitive procedure that uses the combination of (1) fluorescence spectrum, (2) fluorescence lifetime, and (3) steady state fluorescence polarization measurements. We characterize and analyze gold NPs with Lucifer yellow (LY) surface coating as a model. We demonstrate the ability to differentiate between LY-GNP (the conjugated complex) and a mixture of coated NP and free dyes. We suggest the approach for neuroscience applications where LY is used for detecting and labeling cells, studying morphology and intracellular communications. Histograms of Fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) of free LY dye (Left) in comparison to the conjugated dye to gold nanoparticles, LY-GNP (Middle) enable the differentiation between LY-GNP (the conjugated complex) and a mixture of coated NP and free dyes (Right). © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Fabrication and Characterization of Polyaniline/PVA Humidity Microsensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Zhi Yang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the fabrication and characterization of a humidity microsensor that consists of interdigitated electrodes and a sensitive film. The area of the humidity microsensor is about 2 mm2. The sensitive film is polyaniline doping polyvinyl alcohol (PVA that is prepared by the sol-gel method, and the film has nanofiber and porous structures that help increase the sensing reaction. The commercial 0.35 mm Complimentary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS process is used to fabricate the humidity microsensor. The sensor needs a post-CMOS process to etch the sacrificial layer and to coat the sensitive film on the interdigitated electrodes. The sensor produces a change in resistance as the polyaniline/PVA film absorbs or desorbs vapor. Experimental results show that the sensitivity of the humidity sensor is about 12.6 kΩ/%RH at 25 °C.

  10. Fluorescence lifetime measurements to determine the core-shell nanostructure of FITC-doped silica nanoparticles: An optical approach to evaluate nanoparticle photostability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santra, Swadeshmukul; Liesenfeld, Bernd; Bertolino, Chiara; Dutta, Debamitra; Cao Zehui; Tan Weihong; Moudgil, Brij M.; Mericle, Robert A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we described a novel fluorescence lifetime-based approach to determine the core-shell nanostructure of FITC-(fluorescein isothiocyanate, isomer I) doped fluorescent silica nanoparticles (FSNPs). Because of phase homogeneity between the core and the shell, electron microscopic technique could not be used to characterize such core-shell nanostructure. Our optical approach not only revealed the core-shell nanostructure of FSNPs but also evaluated photobleaching of FSNPs both in the solvated and non-solvated (dry) states. The FSNPs were produced via Stoeber's method by hydrolysis and co-condensation reaction of tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and fluorescein linked (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (FITC-APTS conjugate) in the presence of ammonium hydroxide catalyst. To obtain a pure silica surface coating, FSNPs were then post-coated with TEOS. The average particle size was 135 nm as determined by TEM (transmission electron microscope) measurements. Fluorescence excitation and emission spectral data demonstrated successful doping of FITC dye molecules in FSNPs. Fluorescence lifetime data revealed that approximately 62% of dye molecules remained in the solvated silica shell, while 38% of dye molecules remained in the non-solvated (dry) silica core. Photobleaching experiments of FSNPs were conducted both in DI water (solution state) and in air (dry state). Severe photobleaching of FSNPs was observed in air. However, FSNPs were moderately photostable in the solution state. Photostability of FSNPs in both solution and dry states was explained on the basis of fluorescence lifetime data

  11. Single pulse two photon fluorescence lifetime imaging (SP-FLIM) with MHz pixel rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eibl, Matthias; Karpf, Sebastian; Weng, Daniel; Hakert, Hubertus; Pfeiffer, Tom; Kolb, Jan Philip; Huber, Robert

    2017-07-01

    Two-photon-excited fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) is a chemically specific 3-D sensing modality providing valuable information about the microstructure, composition and function of a sample. However, a more widespread application of this technique is hindered by the need for a sophisticated ultra-short pulse laser source and by speed limitations of current FLIM detection systems. To overcome these limitations, we combined a robust sub-nanosecond fiber laser as the excitation source with high analog bandwidth detection. Due to the long pulse length in our configuration, more fluorescence photons are generated per pulse, which allows us to derive the lifetime with a single excitation pulse only. In this paper, we show high quality FLIM images acquired at a pixel rate of 1 MHz. This approach is a promising candidate for an easy-to-use and benchtop FLIM system to make this technique available to a wider research community.

  12. Identification of soft drinks using MEMS-IDT microsensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Jose K.; Karjathkar, Sonal; Jacesko, Stefany; Varadan, Vijay K.; Gardner, Julian W.

    2005-05-01

    Development of a taste sensor with high sensitivity, stability and selectivity is highly desirable for the food and beverage industries. The main goal of a taste sensor is to reproduce five kinds of senses of humans, which is quite difficult. The importance of knowing quality of beverages and drinking water has been recognized as a result of increase in concern in environmental pollution issues. However, no accurate measuring system appropriate for quality evaluation of beverages is available. A highly sensitive microsensor using horizontally polarized Surface Acoustic Waves (SH-SAW) for the detection and identification of soft drinks is presented in this paper. Different soft drinks were tested using this sensor and the results which could distinguish between two popular soft drinks like Pepsi and Coca cola is presented in this paper. The SH-SAW microsensors are fabricated on 36°-rotated Y cut X propagating LiTaO3 (36YX.LT) substrate. This design consists of a dual delay line configuration in which one line is free and other one is metallized and shielded. Due to high electromechanical coupling of 36YX.LT, it could detect difference in electrical properties and hence to distinguish different soft drinks. Measured electrical characteristics of these soft drinks at X-band frequency using free space system show distinguishable results. It is clear from these results that the microsensor based on 36YX.LT is an effective liquid identification system for quantifying human sensory expressions.

  13. Efficacy of photodynamic therapy against larvae of Aedes aegypti: confocal microscopy and fluorescence-lifetime imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, L. M.; Pratavieira, S.; Inada, N. M.; Kurachi, C.; Corbi, J.; Guimarães, F. E. G.; Bagnato, V. S.

    2014-03-01

    Recently a few demonstration on the use of Photodynamic Reaction as possibility to eliminate larvae that transmit diseases for men has been successfully demonstrated. This promising tool cannot be vastly used due to many problems, including the lake of investigation concerning the mechanisms of larvae killing as well as security concerning the use of photosensitizers in open environment. In this study, we investigate some of the mechanisms in which porphyrin (Photogem) is incorporated on the Aedes aegypti larvae previously to illumination and killing. Larvae at second instar were exposed to the photosensitizer and after 30 minutes imaged by a confocal fluorescence microscope. It was observed the presence of photosensitizer in the gut and at the digestive tract of the larva. Fluorescence-Lifetime Imaging showed greater photosensitizer concentration in the intestinal wall of the samples, which produces a strong decrease of the Photogem fluorescence lifetime. For Photodynamic Therapy exposition to different light doses and concentrations of porphyrin were employed. Three different light sources (LED, Fluorescent lamp, Sun light) also were tested. Sun light and fluorescent lamp shows close to 100% of mortality after 24 hrs. of illumination. These results indicate the potential use of photodynamic effect against the LARVAE of Aedes aegypti.

  14. Magnetic field and temperature dependence of the fluorescence lifetime of Cr sup(3+) in GdA103

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helman, J.S.; Caride, A.O.; Basso, H.C.; Terrile, M.C.; Carvalho, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    The fluorescence lifetime of Cr sup(3+) in GdA10 sub(3) was measured in the range 1.8 - 4.2 K in magnetic fields up to 6 T. The results show a remarkable dependence of the transition probabilities on magnetic order. A model based on the exchange interaction between Cr sup(3+) in highly excited states and the Gd sup(3+) ions is proposed. (author)

  15. Amperometric Carbon Fiber Nitrite Microsensor for In Situ Biofilm Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    A highly selective needle type solid state amperometric nitrite microsensor based on direct nitrite oxidation on carbon fiber was developed using a simplified fabrication method. The microsensor’s tip diameter was approximately 7 µm, providing a high spatial resolution of at lea...

  16. Fluorescence lifetime of emitters with broad homogeneous linewidths modified in opal photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolaev, Ivan S.; Lodahl, Peter; Vos, Willem L.

    2008-01-01

    We have investigated the dynamics of spontaneous emission from dye molecules embedded in opal photonic crystals. Fluorescence lifetimes of Rhodamine 6G (R6G) dye were measured as a function of both optical frequency and crystal lattice parameter of the polystyrene opals. Due to the broad...

  17. Fluorescence lifetime measurement with confocal endomicroscopy for direct analysis of tissue biochemistry in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngjae Won

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Confocal endomicroscopy is a powerful tool for in vivo real-time imaging at cellular resolution inside a living body without tissue resection. Microscopic fluorescence lifetime measurement can provide information about localized biochemical conditions such as pH and the concentrations of oxygen and calcium. We hypothesized that combining these techniques could assist accurate cancer discrimination by providing both biochemical and morphological information. We designed a dual-mode experimental setup for confocal endomicroscopic imaging and fluorescence lifetime measurement and applied it to a mouse xenograft model of activated human pancreatic cancer generated by subcutaneous injection of AsPC-1 tumor cells. Using this method with pH-sensitive sodium fluorescein injection, we demonstrated discrimination between normal and cancerous tissues in a living mouse. With further development, this method may be useful for clinical cancer detection.

  18. Actin cytoskeleton-dependent Rab GTPase-regulated angiotensin type I receptor lysosomal degradation studied by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hewang; Yu, Peiying; Sun, Yuansheng; Felder, Robin A.; Periasamy, Ammasi; Jose, Pedro A.

    2010-09-01

    The dynamic regulation of the cellular trafficking of human angiotensin (Ang) type 1 receptor (AT1R) is not well understood. Therefore, we investigated the cellular trafficking of AT1R-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) (AT1R-EGFP) heterologously expressed in HEK293 cells by determining the change in donor lifetime (AT1R-EGFP) in the presence or absence of acceptor(s) using fluorescence lifetime imaging-fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) microscopy. The average lifetime of AT1R-EGFP in our donor-alone samples was ~2.33 ns. The basal state lifetime was shortened slightly in the presence of Rab5 (2.01+/-0.10 ns) or Rab7 (2.11+/-0.11 ns) labeled with Alexa 555, as the acceptor fluorophore. A 5-min Ang II treatment markedly shortened the lifetime of AT1R-EGFP in the presence of Rab5-Alexa 555 (1.78+/-0.31 ns) but was affected minimally in the presence of Rab7-Alexa 555 (2.09+/-0.37 ns). A 30-min Ang II treatment further decreased the AT1R-EGFP lifetime in the presence of both Rab5- and Rab7-Alexa 555. Latrunculin A but not nocodazole pretreatment blocked the ability of Ang II to shorten the AT1R-EGFP lifetime. The occurrence of FRET between AT1R-EGFP (donor) and LAMP1-Alexa 555 (acceptor) with Ang II stimulation was impaired by photobleaching the acceptor. These studies demonstrate that Ang II-induced AT1R lysosomal degradation through its association with LAMP1 is regulated by Rab5/7 via mechanisms that are dependent on intact actin cytoskeletons.

  19. Design, construction, and validation of a rotary multifunctional intravascular diagnostic catheter combining multispectral fluorescence lifetime imaging and intravascular ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bec, Julien; Xie, Hongtao; Yankelevich, Diego R; Zhou, Feifei; Sun, Yang; Ghata, Narugopal; Aldredge, Ralph; Marcu, Laura

    2012-10-01

    We report the development and validation of an intravascular rotary catheter for bimodal interrogation of arterial pathologies. This is based on a point-spectroscopy scanning time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy technique enabling reconstruction of fluorescence lifetime images (FLIm) and providing information on arterial intima composition and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) providing information on arterial wall morphology. The catheter design allows for independent rotation of the ultrasonic and optical channels within an 8 Fr outer diameter catheter sheath and integrates a low volume flushing channel for blood removal in the optical pathways. In the current configuration, the two channels consist of (a) a standard 3 Fr IVUS catheter with single element transducer (40 MHz) and (b) a side-viewing fiber optic (400 μm core). Experiments conducted in tissue phantoms showed the ability of the catheter to operate in an intraluminal setting and to generate coregistered FLIm and IVUS in one pull-back scan. Current results demonstrate the feasibility of the catheter for simultaneous bimodal interrogation of arterial lumen and for generation of robust fluorescence lifetime data under IVUS guidance. These results facilitate further development of a FLIm-IVUS technique for intravascular diagnosis of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases including vulnerable plaques.

  20. Biomechanical model-based displacement estimation in micro-sensor motion capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, X L; Sun, S Y; Wu, J K; Zhang, Z Q; 3 Building, 21 Heng Mui Keng Terrace (Singapore))" data-affiliation=" (Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore (NUS), 02-02-10 I3 Building, 21 Heng Mui Keng Terrace (Singapore))" >Wong, W C

    2012-01-01

    In micro-sensor motion capture systems, the estimation of the body displacement in the global coordinate system remains a challenge due to lack of external references. This paper proposes a self-contained displacement estimation method based on a human biomechanical model to track the position of walking subjects in the global coordinate system without any additional supporting infrastructures. The proposed approach makes use of the biomechanics of the lower body segments and the assumption that during walking there is always at least one foot in contact with the ground. The ground contact joint is detected based on walking gait characteristics and used as the external references of the human body. The relative positions of the other joints are obtained from hierarchical transformations based on the biomechanical model. Anatomical constraints are proposed to apply to some specific joints of the lower body to further improve the accuracy of the algorithm. Performance of the proposed algorithm is compared with an optical motion capture system. The method is also demonstrated in outdoor and indoor long distance walking scenarios. The experimental results demonstrate clearly that the biomechanical model improves the displacement accuracy within the proposed framework. (paper)

  1. Using multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging to characterize liver damage and fluorescein disposition in liver in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorling, Camilla A.; Studier, Hauke; Crawford, Darrell; Roberts, Michael S.

    2016-03-01

    Liver disease is the fifth most common cause of death and unlike many other major causes of mortality, liver disease rates are increasing rather than decreasing. There is no ideal measurement of liver disease and although biopsies are the gold standard, this only allows for a spot examination and cannot follow dynamic processes of the liver. Intravital imaging has the potential to extract detailed information over a larger sampling area continuously. The aim of this project was to investigate whether multiphoton and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy could detect early liver damage and to assess whether it could detect changes in metabolism of fluorescein in normal and diseased livers. Four experimental groups were used in this study: 1) control; 2) ischemia reperfusion injury; 3) steatosis and 4) steatosis with ischemia reperfusion injury. Results showed that multiphoton microscopy could visualize morphological changes such as decreased fluorescence of endogenous fluorophores and the presence of lipid droplets, characteristic of steatosis. Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy showed increase in NADPH in steatosis with and without ischemia reperfusion injury and could detect changes in metabolism of fluorescein to fluorescein monoglurcuronide, which was impaired in steatosis with ischemia reperfusion injury. These results concluded that the combination of multiphoton microscopy and fluorescence lifetime imaging is a promising method of assessing early stage liver damage and that it can be used to study changes in drug metabolism in the liver as an indication of liver disease and has the potential to replace the traditional static liver biopsy currently used.

  2. In situ applications of a new diver-operated motorized microsensor profiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Miriam; Faerber, Paul; Meyer, Volker; Lott, Christian; Eickert, Gabriele; Fabricius, Katharina E; De Beer, Dirk

    2007-09-01

    Microsensors are powerful tools for microenvironment studies, however their use has often been restricted to laboratory applications due to the lack of adequate equipment for in situ deployments. Here we report on new features, construction details, and examples of applications of an improved diver-operated motorized microsensor profiler for underwater field operation to a water depth of 25 m. The new motorized profiler has a final precision of 5 microm, and can accommodate amperometric Clark-type microsensors for oxygen and hydrogen sulfide, potentiometric microsensors (e.g., for pH, Ca2+), and fiber-optic irradiance microsensors. The profiler is interfaced by a logger with a signal display, and has pushbuttons for underwater operation. The system can be pre-programmed to autonomous operation or interactively operated by divers. Internal batteries supply power for up to 24 h of measurements and 36 h of data storage (max. 64 million data points). Two flexible stands were developed for deployment on uneven or fragile surfaces, such as coral reefs. Three experimental pilot studies are presented, where (1) the oxygen distribution in a sand ripple was 3-D-mapped, (2) the microenvironment of sediment accumulated on a stony coral was studied, and (3) oxygen dynamics during an experimental sedimentation were investigated. This system allows SCUBA divers to perform a wide array of in situ measurements, with deployment precision and duration similar to those possible in the laboratory.

  3. Polymer Electrolyte-Based Ambient Temperature Oxygen Microsensors for Environmental Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Xu, Jennifer C.; Liu, Chung-Chiun

    2011-01-01

    An ambient temperature oxygen microsensor, based on a Nafion polymer electrolyte, has been developed and was microfabricated using thin-film technologies. A challenge in the operation of Nafion-based sensor systems is that the conductivity of Nafion film depends on the humidity in the film. Nafion film loses conductivity when the moisture content in the film is too low, which can affect sensor operation. The advancement here is the identification of a method to retain the operation of the Nafion films in lower humidity environments. Certain salts can hold water molecules in the Nafion film structure at room temperature. By mixing salts with the Nafion solution, water molecules can be homogeneously distributed in the Nafion film increasing the film s hydration to prevent Nafion film from being dried out in low-humidity environment. The presence of organics provides extra sites in the Nafion film to promote proton (H+) mobility and thus improving Nafion film conductivity and sensor performance. The fabrication of ambient temperature oxygen microsensors includes depositing basic electrodes using noble metals, and metal oxides layer on one of the electrode as a reference electrode. The use of noble metals for electrodes is due to their strong catalytic properties for oxygen reduction. A conducting polymer Nafion, doped with water-retaining components and extra sites facilitating proton movement, was used as the electrolyte material, making the design adequate for low humidity environment applications. The Nafion solution was coated on the electrodes and air-dried. The sensor operates at room temperature in potentiometric mode, which measures voltage differences between working and reference electrodes in different gases. Repeat able responses to 21-percent oxygen in nitrogen were achieved using nitrogen as a baseline gas. Detection of oxygen from 7 to 21 percent has also been demonstrated. The room-temperature oxygen micro sensor developed has extremely low power

  4. Active voltammetric microsensors with neural signal processing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, M. C.

    1998-12-11

    Many industrial and environmental processes, including bioremediation, would benefit from the feedback and control information provided by a local multi-analyte chemical sensor. For most processes, such a sensor would need to be rugged enough to be placed in situ for long-term remote monitoring, and inexpensive enough to be fielded in useful numbers. The multi-analyte capability is difficult to obtain from common passive sensors, but can be provided by an active device that produces a spectrum-type response. Such new active gas microsensor technology has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The technology couples an electrocatalytic ceramic-metallic (cermet) microsensor with a voltammetric measurement technique and advanced neural signal processing. It has been demonstrated to be flexible, rugged, and very economical to produce and deploy. Both narrow interest detectors and wide spectrum instruments have been developed around this technology. Much of this technology's strength lies in the active measurement technique employed. The technique involves applying voltammetry to a miniature electrocatalytic cell to produce unique chemical ''signatures'' from the analytes. These signatures are processed with neural pattern recognition algorithms to identify and quantify the components in the analyte. The neural signal processing allows for innovative sampling and analysis strategies to be employed with the microsensor. In most situations, the whole response signature from the voltammogram can be used to identify, classify, and quantify an analyte, without dissecting it into component parts. This allows an instrument to be calibrated once for a specific gas or mixture of gases by simple exposure to a multi-component standard rather than by a series of individual gases. The sampled unknown analytes can vary in composition or in concentration, the calibration, sensing, and processing methods of these active voltammetric microsensors can

  5. Active voltammetric microsensors with neural signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Michael C.; Skubal, Laura R.

    1999-02-01

    Many industrial and environmental processes, including bioremediation, would benefit from the feedback and control information provided by a local multi-analyte chemical sensor. For most processes, such a sensor would need to be rugged enough to be placed in situ for long-term remote monitoring, and inexpensive enough to be fielded in useful numbers. The multi-analyte capability is difficult to obtain from common passive sensors, but can be provided by an active device that produces a spectrum-type response. Such new active gas microsensor technology has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The technology couples an electrocatalytic ceramic-metallic (cermet) microsensor with a voltammetric measurement technique and advanced neural signal processing. It has been demonstrated to be flexible, rugged, and very economical to produce and deploy. Both narrow interest detectors and wide spectrum instruments have been developed around this technology. Much of this technology's strength lies in the active measurement technique employed. The technique involves applying voltammetry to a miniature electrocatalytic cell to produce unique chemical 'signatures' from the analytes. These signatures are processed with neural pattern recognition algorithms to identify and quantify the components in the analyte. The neural signal processing allows for innovative sampling and analysis strategies to be employed with the microsensor. In most situations, the whole response signature from the voltammogram can be used to identify, classify, and quantify an analyte, without dissecting it into component parts. This allows an instrument to be calibrated once for a specific gas or mixture of gases by simple exposure to a multi-component standard rather than by a series of individual gases. The sampled unknown analytes can vary in composition or in concentration; the calibration, sensing, and processing methods of these active voltammetric microsensors can detect, recognize, and

  6. CONSTRAINING THE LIFETIME AND OPENING ANGLE OF QUASARS USING FLUORESCENT Ly α EMISSION: THE CASE OF Q0420–388

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisova, Elena; Lilly, Simon J.; Cantalupo, Sebastiano; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Rakic, Olivera; Worseck, Gabor

    2016-01-01

    A toy model is developed to understand how the spatial distribution of fluorescent emitters in the vicinity of bright quasars could be affected by the geometry of the quasar bi-conical radiation field and by its lifetime. The model is then applied to the distribution of high-equivalent-width Ly α emitters (with rest-frame equivalent widths above 100 Å, threshold used in, e.g., Trainor and Steidel) identified in a deep narrow-band 36 × 36 arcmin 2 image centered on the luminous quasar Q0420–388. These emitters are found near the edge of the field and show some evidence of an azimuthal asymmetry on the sky of the type expected if the quasar is radiating in a bipolar cone. If these sources are being fluorescently illuminated by the quasar, the two most distant objects require a lifetime of at least 15 Myr for an opening angle of 60° or more, increasing to more than 40 Myr if the opening angle is reduced to a minimum of 30°. However, some other expected signatures of boosted fluorescence are not seen at the current survey limits, e.g., a fall off in Ly α brightness, or equivalent width, with distance. Furthermore, to have most of the Ly α emission of the two distant sources to be fluorescently boosted would require the quasar to have been significantly brighter in the past. This suggests that these particular sources may not be fluorescent, invalidating the above lifetime constraints. This would cast doubt on the use of this relatively low equivalent width threshold and thus also on the lifetime analysis in Trainor and Steidel.

  7. CONSTRAINING THE LIFETIME AND OPENING ANGLE OF QUASARS USING FLUORESCENT Ly α EMISSION: THE CASE OF Q0420–388

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borisova, Elena; Lilly, Simon J.; Cantalupo, Sebastiano [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zurich, Zurich, CH-8093 (Switzerland); Prochaska, J. Xavier [UCO/Lick Observatory, UC Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Rakic, Olivera; Worseck, Gabor, E-mail: borisova@phys.ethz.ch [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Heidelberg, D-69117 (Germany)

    2016-10-20

    A toy model is developed to understand how the spatial distribution of fluorescent emitters in the vicinity of bright quasars could be affected by the geometry of the quasar bi-conical radiation field and by its lifetime. The model is then applied to the distribution of high-equivalent-width Ly α emitters (with rest-frame equivalent widths above 100 Å, threshold used in, e.g., Trainor and Steidel) identified in a deep narrow-band 36 × 36 arcmin{sup 2} image centered on the luminous quasar Q0420–388. These emitters are found near the edge of the field and show some evidence of an azimuthal asymmetry on the sky of the type expected if the quasar is radiating in a bipolar cone. If these sources are being fluorescently illuminated by the quasar, the two most distant objects require a lifetime of at least 15 Myr for an opening angle of 60° or more, increasing to more than 40 Myr if the opening angle is reduced to a minimum of 30°. However, some other expected signatures of boosted fluorescence are not seen at the current survey limits, e.g., a fall off in Ly α brightness, or equivalent width, with distance. Furthermore, to have most of the Ly α emission of the two distant sources to be fluorescently boosted would require the quasar to have been significantly brighter in the past. This suggests that these particular sources may not be fluorescent, invalidating the above lifetime constraints. This would cast doubt on the use of this relatively low equivalent width threshold and thus also on the lifetime analysis in Trainor and Steidel.

  8. The increase of NADH fluorescence lifetime is associated with the metabolic change during osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Han Wen; Yu, Jia Sin; Hsu, Shu Han; Wei, Yau Huei; Lee, Oscar K.; Wang, Hsing Wen

    2011-03-01

    Fluorescence lifetime of NADH had been used as an optical marker for monitoring cellular metabolism. In our pervious studies, we have demonstrated that NADH lifetime of hMSCs increase gradually with time of osteogenic differentiation. In this study, we measured NADH lifetime of hMSCs from a different donor as well as the corresponding metabolic indices such as ATP level, oxygen consumption and lactate release. We also measure the quantity of Complex I, III, IV and V. The results show that during differentiation more oxygen consumed, higher ATP level expressed and less lactate released, and the increase of NADH lifetime was associated with ATP level. Higher expression of the total Complex protein was observed at 3 and 4 weeks after differentiation than controls. However, Complex I expression did not show significant correlation with the increase of NADH fluorescence lifetime. In summary, we demonstrated that the change of NADH lifetime was associated with the metabolic change during osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs. The increase of NADH lifetime was in part due to the increased Complex protein interaction in mitochondria after differentiation.

  9. The fluorescence lifetime of BRI1-GFP as probe for the noninvasive determination of the membrane potential in living cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgass, K.; Caesar, K.; Schleifenbaum, F.; Meixner, A. J.; Harter, K.

    2010-02-01

    As the excited state lifetime of a fluorescent molecule depends on its environment, it is possible to use it as a probe for physico-chemical parameters of the surrounding medium. Whereas this is well known for many solid guest/host systems, only few reports of quantitative, temporal resolved in vivo studies to monitor the nano-environment for a protein-coupled chromophore such as GFP are known from literature. Here we present a novel approach to determine the membrane potential of living (plant) cells based on the fluorescence lifetime (FLT) analysis of membrane-located GFP. By using confocal sample scanning microscopy (CSSM) combined with fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, we recently showed that the phytohormone brassinolide (BL) induces cell wall expansion and a decrease in the FLT of the BRI1-GFP in living cells of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. BRI1 is the dominant functional receptor for BL in Arabidopsis and locates to the plasma membrane. Although the dependence of the FLT of GFP on its physico-chemical environment such as pH-value, refractive index and pressure has been reported, the observed FLT decrease of BRI1-GFP in response to BL application could not be explained by these parameters. However, our in vivo FLT and CSSM analyses indicate that the BLinduced change in the FLT of BRI1-GFP is caused by hyperpolarisation of the plasma membrane (Em). Thus, our results indicate that BRI1-GFP serves as sensitive and non-invasive probe for recording the Em of the plasma membrane in living plant cells with high spatio-temporal resolution.

  10. Fully integrated low-noise readout circuit with automatic offset cancellation loop for capacitive microsensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Haryong; Park, Yunjong; Kim, Hyungseup; Cho, Dong-Il Dan; Ko, Hyoungho

    2015-10-14

    Capacitive sensing schemes are widely used for various microsensors; however, such microsensors suffer from severe parasitic capacitance problems. This paper presents a fully integrated low-noise readout circuit with automatic offset cancellation loop (AOCL) for capacitive microsensors. The output offsets of the capacitive sensing chain due to the parasitic capacitances and process variations are automatically removed using AOCL. The AOCL generates electrically equivalent offset capacitance and enables charge-domain fine calibration using a 10-bit R-2R digital-to-analog converter, charge-transfer switches, and a charge-storing capacitor. The AOCL cancels the unwanted offset by binary-search algorithm based on 10-bit successive approximation register (SAR) logic. The chip is implemented using 0.18 μm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process with an active area of 1.76 mm². The power consumption is 220 μW with 3.3 V supply. The input parasitic capacitances within the range of -250 fF to 250 fF can be cancelled out automatically, and the required calibration time is lower than 10 ms.

  11. Fully Integrated Low-Noise Readout Circuit with Automatic Offset Cancellation Loop for Capacitive Microsensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryong Song

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Capacitive sensing schemes are widely used for various microsensors; however, such microsensors suffer from severe parasitic capacitance problems. This paper presents a fully integrated low-noise readout circuit with automatic offset cancellation loop (AOCL for capacitive microsensors. The output offsets of the capacitive sensing chain due to the parasitic capacitances and process variations are automatically removed using AOCL. The AOCL generates electrically equivalent offset capacitance and enables charge-domain fine calibration using a 10-bit R-2R digital-to-analog converter, charge-transfer switches, and a charge-storing capacitor. The AOCL cancels the unwanted offset by binary-search algorithm based on 10-bit successive approximation register (SAR logic. The chip is implemented using 0.18 μm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS process with an active area of 1.76 mm2. The power consumption is 220 μW with 3.3 V supply. The input parasitic capacitances within the range of −250 fF to 250 fF can be cancelled out automatically, and the required calibration time is lower than 10 ms.

  12. The modifier effects of chymotrypsin and trypsin enzymes on fluorescence lifetime distribution of "N-(1-pyrenyl)maleimide-bovine serum albumin" complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özyiğit, İbrahim Ethem; Karakuş, Emine; Pekcan, Önder

    2016-02-01

    Chymotrypsin and trypsin are the well known proteolytic enzymes, both of which are synthesized in the pancreas as their precursors - the inactive forms; chymotrypsinogen and trypsinogen - and then are released into the duodenum to cut proteins into smaller peptides. In this paper, the effects of activities of chymotrypsin and trypsin enzymes on fluorescence lifetime distributions of the substrat bovine serum albumin (BSA) modified with N-(1-pyrenyl)maleimide (PM) were examined. In the labeling study of BSA with PM, it is aimed to attach PM to the single free thiol (Cys34) and to all the free amine groups in accessible positions in order to produce excimers of pyrene planes of the possible highest amount to form the lifetime distributions in the widest range, that may show specifically distinguishing changes resulting from the activities of the proteases. The time resolved spectrofluorometer was used to monitor fluorescence decays, which were analyzed by using the exponential series method (ESM) to obtain the changes of lifetime distributions. After the exposure of the synthesized substrat PM-BSA to the enzymes, the fluorescence lifetime distributions exhibited different structures which were attributed to the different activities of the proteases.

  13. A resonant magnetic field microsensor with high quality factor at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera-May, A L; García-Ramírez, P J; Martínez-Castillo, J; Sauceda-Carvajal, A; García-González, L; Aguilera-Cortés, L A; Figueras-Costa, E

    2009-01-01

    A resonant magnetic field microsensor with a high quality factor at atmospheric pressure has been designed, fabricated and tested. This microsensor does not require vacuum packaging to operate efficiently and presents a compact and simple geometrical configuration of silicon. This geometry permits us to decrease the size of the structure and facilities its fabrication and operation. It is constructed of a seesaw plate (400 × 150 × 15 µm 3 ), two torsional beams (60 × 40 × 15 µm 3 ), four flexural beams (130 × 12 × 15 µm 3 ) and a Wheatstone bridge with four p-type piezoresistors. The resonant device exploits the Lorentz force principle and operates at its first resonant frequency (136.52 kHz). A sinusoidal excitation current of 22.0 mA with a frequency of 136.52 kHz and magnetic fields from 1 to 400 G are considered. The mechanical response of the microsensor is modeled with the finite element method (FEM). The structure of the microsensor registered a maximum von Mises stress of 53.8 MPa between the flexural and the torsional beams. Additionally, a maximum deflection (372.5 nm) is obtained at the extreme end of the plate. The proposed microsensor has the maximum magnetic sensitivity of 40.3 µV G −1 (magnetic fields −1/2 , theoretical resolution of 1.43 mG Hz −1/2 and power consumption less than 10.0 mW

  14. Integrated circuit microsensor for selectively detection nitrogen dioxide and diisopropyl methylphosphonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolesar, E.S. Jr. (Air Force Inst. of Technology, Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, OH (United States)); Brothers, C.P. Jr. (Air Force Inst. of Technology, Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, OH (United States)); Howe, C.P. (Air Force Inst. of Technology, Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, OH (United States)); Jenkins, T.J. (Air Force Inst. of Technology, Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, OH (United States)); Moosey, A.T. (Air Force Inst. of Technology, Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, OH (United States)); Shin, J.E. (Air Force Inst. of Technology, Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, OH (United States)); Wiseman, J.M. (Air Force Inst. of Technology, Dept. of Electrical an

    1992-11-20

    A novel gas-sensitive microsensor, known as the interdigitated gate electrode field effect transistor (IGEFET), was realized by selectively depositing a chemically-active, electron-beam evaporated copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) thin film onto an integrated circuit (IC). When isothermally operated at 150 C, the microsensor can selectively and reversibly detect parts-per-billion concentration levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO[sub 2]) and diisopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP). The selectivity feature of the microsensor was established by operating it with a 5 V peak amplitude, 2 [mu]s duration, 1000 Hz repetition frequency pulse, and then analyzing its time- and frequency-domain responses. The envelopes associated with the normalized-difference Fourier transform magnitude spectra, and their derivatives, reveal features which unambiguously distinguish the NO[sub 2] and DIMP challenge gas responses. Furthermore, the area beneath each response envelope may correspondingly be interpreted as the microsensor's sensitivity for a specific challenge gas concentration. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize the morphology of the CuPc thin film. Additionally, infrared (IR) spectroscopy was employed to verify the [alpha]- and [beta]-phases of the sublimed CuPc thin films and to study the NO[sub 2]- and DIMP-CuPc interactions. (orig.)

  15. Emerging biomedical applications of time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakowicz, Joseph R.; Szmacinski, Henryk; Koen, Peter A.

    1994-07-01

    Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy is presently regarded as a research tool in biochemistry, biophysics, and chemical physics. Advances in laser technology, the development of long-wavelength probes, and the use of lifetime-based methods are resulting in the rapid migration of time-resolved fluorescence to the clinical chemistry lab, to the patient's bedside, to flow cytometers, to the doctor's office, and even to home health care. Additionally, time-resolved imaging is now a reality in fluorescence microscopy, and will provide chemical imaging of a variety of intracellular analytes and/or cellular phenomena. In this overview paper we attempt to describe some of the opportunities available using chemical sensing based on fluorescence lifetimes, and to predict those applications of lifetime-based sensing which are most likely in the near future.

  16. FUNDUS AUTOFLUORESCENCE LIFETIMES AND CENTRAL SEROUS CHORIORETINOPATHY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dysli, Chantal; Berger, Lieselotte; Wolf, Sebastian; Zinkernagel, Martin S

    2017-11-01

    To quantify retinal fluorescence lifetimes in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) and to identify disease specific lifetime characteristics over the course of disease. Forty-seven participants were included in this study. Patients with central serous chorioretinopathy were imaged with fundus photography, fundus autofluorescence, optical coherence tomography, and fluorescence lifetime imaging ophthalmoscopy (FLIO) and compared with age-matched controls. Retinal autofluorescence was excited using a 473-nm blue laser light and emitted fluorescence light was detected in 2 distinct wavelengths channels (498-560 nm and 560-720 nm). Clinical features, mean retinal autofluorescence lifetimes, autofluorescence intensity, and corresponding optical coherence tomography (OCT) images were further analyzed. Thirty-five central serous chorioretinopathy patients with a mean visual acuity of 78 ETDRS letters (range, 50-90; mean Snellen equivalent: 20/32) and 12 age-matched controls were included. In the acute stage of central serous chorioretinopathy, retinal fluorescence lifetimes were shortened by 15% and 17% in the respective wavelength channels. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that fluorescence lifetimes were significantly influenced by the disease duration (P autofluorescence lifetimes, particularly in eyes with retinal pigment epithelial atrophy, were associated with poor visual acuity. This study establishes that autofluorescence lifetime changes occurring in central serous chorioretinopathy exhibit explicit patterns which can be used to estimate perturbations of the outer retinal layers with a high degree of statistical significance.

  17. Quantitative time domain analysis of lifetime-based Förster resonant energy transfer measurements with fluorescent proteins: Static random isotropic fluorophore orientation distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexandrov, Yuriy; Nikolic, Dino Solar; Dunsby, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    Förster resonant energy transfer (FRET) measurements are widely used to obtain information about molecular interactions and conformations through the dependence of FRET efficiency on the proximity of donor and acceptor fluorophores. Fluorescence lifetime measurements can provide quantitative...... into new software for fitting donor emission decay profiles. Calculated FRET parameters, including molar population fractions, are compared for the analysis of simulated and experimental FRET data under the assumption of static and dynamic fluorophores and the intermediate regimes between fully dynamic...... analysis of FRET efficiency and interacting population fraction. Many FRET experiments exploit the highly specific labelling of genetically expressed fluorescent proteins, applicable in live cells and organisms. Unfortunately, the typical assumption of fast randomization of fluorophore orientations...

  18. The modifier effects of chymotrypsin and trypsin enzymes on fluorescence lifetime distribution of "N-(1-pyrenyl)maleimide-bovine serum albumin" complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özyiğit, İbrahim Ethem; Karakuş, Emine; Pekcan, Önder

    2016-02-05

    Chymotrypsin and trypsin are the well known proteolytic enzymes, both of which are synthesized in the pancreas as their precursors - the inactive forms; chymotrypsinogen and trypsinogen - and then are released into the duodenum to cut proteins into smaller peptides. In this paper, the effects of activities of chymotrypsin and trypsin enzymes on fluorescence lifetime distributions of the substrat bovine serum albumin (BSA) modified with N-(1-pyrenyl)maleimide (PM) were examined. In the labeling study of BSA with PM, it is aimed to attach PM to the single free thiol (Cys34) and to all the free amine groups in accessible positions in order to produce excimers of pyrene planes of the possible highest amount to form the lifetime distributions in the widest range, that may show specifically distinguishing changes resulting from the activities of the proteases. The time resolved spectrofluorometer was used to monitor fluorescence decays, which were analyzed by using the exponential series method (ESM) to obtain the changes of lifetime distributions. After the exposure of the synthesized substrat PM-BSA to the enzymes, the fluorescence lifetime distributions exhibited different structures which were attributed to the different activities of the proteases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A Fiberoptic Scalar Irradiance Microsensor - Application for Spectral Light Measurements in Sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LASSEN, C.; PLOUG, H.; JØRGENSEN, BB

    1992-01-01

    in sediments was measured at 100-mu-m spatial resolution. Light was available for photosynthesis near the sediment surface at a higher intensity and a different spectral composition than could be expected from the illumination. By the combination of oxygen microelectrodes and the present fibre......The manufacturing of a new spherical fibreoptic microsensor is described. The microsensor measures scalar irradiance, i.e. the spherically integrated light at a point in space. The light collector of the probe was a 70-mu-m diffusing sphere cast on the tip of a 125-mu-m wide optical fibre tapered......-optic microsensor it is now possible to study the depth distribution of microbenthic photosynthesis in relation to the available photosynthetically active radiation at less-than-or-equal-to 100-mu-m resolution....

  20. ConA-based glucose sensing using the long-lifetime azadioxatriangulenium fluorophore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Brian; Simpson, Jonathan; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Sørensen, Thomas Just; Laursen, Bo W.; Graham, Duncan; Birch, David; Coté, Gerard

    2014-02-01

    Fluorescent glucose sensing technologies have been identified as possible alternatives to current continuous glucose monitoring approaches. We have recently introduced a new, smart fluorescent ligand to overcome the traditional problems of ConA-based glucose sensors. For this assay to be translated into a continuous glucose monitoring device where both components are free in solution, the molecular weight of the smart fluorescent ligand must be increased. We have identified ovalbumin as a naturally-occurring glycoprotein that could serve as the core-component of a 2nd generation smart fluorescent ligand. It has a single asparagine residue that is capable of displaying an N-linked glycan and a similar isoelectric point to ConA. Thus, binding between ConA and ovalbumin can potentially be monovalent and sugar specific. This work is the preliminary implementation of fluorescently-labeled ovalbumin in the ConA-based assay. We conjugate the red-emitting, long-lifetime azadioxatriangulenium (ADOTA+) dye to ovalbumin, as ADOTA have many advantageous properties to track the equilibrium binding of the assay. The ADOTA-labeled ovalbumin is paired with Alexa Fluor 647-labeled ConA to create a Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) assay that is glucose dependent. The assay responds across the physiologically relevant glucose range (0-500 mg/dL) with increasing intensity from the ADOTA-ovalbumin, showing that the strategy may allow for the translation of the smart fluorescent ligand concept into a continuous glucose monitoring device.

  1. Light extraction efficiency enhancement for fluorescent SiC based white light-emitting diodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Haiyan; Ou, Yiyu; Argyraki, Aikaterini

    Fluorescent SiC based white light-emitting diodes(LEDs) light source, as an innovative energy-efficient light source, would even have longer lifetime, better light quality and eliminated blue-tone effect, compared to the current phosphor based white LED light source. In this paper, the yellow...

  2. Integrated luminescent chemical microsensors based on GaN LEDs for security applications using smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, Guillermo; Muñoz, Elias; Gil-Herrera, Luz K.; Muñoz, Pablo; Lopez-Gejo, Juan; Palacio, Carlos

    2012-09-01

    Development of PCB-integrateable microsensors for monitoring chemical species is a goal in areas such as lab-on-a-chip analytical devices, diagnostics medicine and electronics for hand-held instruments where the device size is a major issue. Cellular phones have pervaded the world inhabitants and their usefulness has dramatically increased with the introduction of smartphones due to a combination of amazing processing power in a confined space, geolocalization and manifold telecommunication features. Therefore, a number of physical and chemical sensors that add value to the terminal for health monitoring, personal safety (at home, at work) and, eventually, national security have started to be developed, capitalizing also on the huge number of circulating cell phones. The chemical sensor-enabled "super" smartphone provides a unique (bio)sensing platform for monitoring airborne or waterborne hazardous chemicals or microorganisms for both single user and crowdsourcing security applications. Some of the latest ones are illustrated by a few examples. Moreover, we have recently achieved for the first time (covalent) functionalization of p- and n-GaN semiconductor surfaces with tuneable luminescent indicator dyes of the Ru-polypyridyl family, as a key step in the development of innovative microsensors for smartphone applications. Chemical "sensoring" of GaN-based blue LED chips with those indicators has also been achieved by plasma treatment of their surface, and the micrometer-sized devices have been tested to monitor O2 in the gas phase to show their full functionality. Novel strategies to enhance the sensor sensitivity such as changing the length and nature of the siloxane buffer layer are discussed in this paper.

  3. In vivo imaging of cerebral energy metabolism with two-photon fluorescence lifetime microscopy of NADH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaseen, Mohammad A; Sakadžić, Sava; Wu, Weicheng; Becker, Wolfgang; Kasischke, Karl A; Boas, David A

    2013-02-01

    Minimally invasive, specific measurement of cellular energy metabolism is crucial for understanding cerebral pathophysiology. Here, we present high-resolution, in vivo observations of autofluorescence lifetime as a biomarker of cerebral energy metabolism in exposed rat cortices. We describe a customized two-photon imaging system with time correlated single photon counting detection and specialized software for modeling multiple-component fits of fluorescence decay and monitoring their transient behaviors. In vivo cerebral NADH fluorescence suggests the presence of four distinct components, which respond differently to brief periods of anoxia and likely indicate different enzymatic formulations. Individual components show potential as indicators of specific molecular pathways involved in oxidative metabolism.

  4. Multimodal optical coherence tomography and fluorescence lifetime imaging with interleaved excitation sources for simultaneous endogenous and exogenous fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Sebina; Serafino, Michael J; Rico-Jimenez, Jesus; Park, Jesung; Chen, Xi; Zhaorigetu, Siqin; Walton, Brian L; Jo, Javier A; Applegate, Brian E

    2016-09-01

    Multimodal imaging probes a variety of tissue properties in a single image acquisition by merging complimentary imaging technologies. Exploiting synergies amongst the data, algorithms can be developed that lead to better tissue characterization than could be accomplished by the constituent imaging modalities taken alone. The combination of optical coherence tomography (OCT) with fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) provides access to detailed tissue morphology and local biochemistry. The optical system described here merges 1310 nm swept-source OCT with time-domain FLIM having excitation at 355 and 532 nm. The pulses from 355 and 532 nm lasers have been interleaved to enable simultaneous acquisition of endogenous and exogenous fluorescence signals, respectively. The multimodal imaging system was validated using tissue phantoms. Nonspecific tagging with Alexa Flour 532 in a Watanbe rabbit aorta and active tagging of the LOX-1 receptor in human coronary artery, demonstrate the capacity of the system for simultaneous acquisition of OCT, endogenous FLIM, and exogenous FLIM in tissues.

  5. Gentamicin differentially alters cellular metabolism of cochlear hair cells as revealed by NAD(P)H fluorescence lifetime imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zholudeva, Lyandysha V.; Ward, Kristina G.; Nichols, Michael G.; Smith, Heather Jensen

    2015-05-01

    Aminoglycoside antibiotics are implicated as culprits of hearing loss in more than 120,000 individuals annually. Research has shown that the sensory cells, but not supporting cells, of the cochlea are readily damaged and/or lost after use of such antibiotics. High-frequency outer hair cells (OHCs) show a greater sensitivity to antibiotics than high- and low-frequency inner hair cells (IHCs). We hypothesize that variations in mitochondrial metabolism account for differences in susceptibility. Fluorescence lifetime microscopy was used to quantify changes in NAD(P)H in sensory and supporting cells from explanted murine cochleae exposed to mitochondrial uncouplers, inhibitors, and an ototoxic antibiotic, gentamicin (GM). Changes in metabolic state resulted in a redistribution of NAD(P)H between subcellular fluorescence lifetime pools. Supporting cells had a significantly longer lifetime than sensory cells. Pretreatment with GM increased NAD(P)H intensity in high-frequency sensory cells, as well as the NAD(P)H lifetime within IHCs. GM specifically increased NAD(P)H concentration in high-frequency OHCs, but not in IHCs or pillar cells. Variations in NAD(P)H intensity in response to mitochondrial toxins and GM were greatest in high-frequency OHCs. These results demonstrate that GM rapidly alters mitochondrial metabolism, differentially modulates cell metabolism, and provides evidence that GM-induced changes in metabolism are significant and greatest in high-frequency OHCs.

  6. Preparation and properties of Nd{sup 3+}:SrAlF{sub 5} nanocrystals embedded fluorophosphate transparent glass-ceramic with long fluorescence lifetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Ruilin; Wang, Jinlong; Zhang, Liaolin; Liu, Chunxiao; Wei, Wei [Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, School of Optoelectronic Engineering, Nanjing (China)

    2016-07-15

    Nd{sup 3+}:SrAlF{sub 5} nanocrystals embedded fluorophosphate glass-ceramics were prepared by the melt quenching and subsequent thermal treatment method. The formation of SrAlF{sub 5} nanocrystals in the glass was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope. The fluorescence intensity and lifetime of the glass-ceramics increased with the increase of size of nanocrystals. Importantly, by controlling growth of nanocrystals, an obvious enhancement of lifetime (725 μs) emerged in the glass-ceramics heat-treated at 510 C and the transmittance can reach to 72.2 % at 1049 nm. The enhanced fluorescence intensity and lifetime were ascribed to the comfortable local environment to the Nd{sup 3+} ion and scattering of the nanoparticle embedded into the glass matrix. (orig.)

  7. Measurement of pH micro-heterogeneity in natural cheese matrices by fluorescence lifetime imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana eBurdikova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cheese, a product of microbial fermentation may be defined as a protein matrix entrapping fat, moisture, minerals and solutes as well as dispersed bacterial colonies. The growth and physiology of bacterial cells in these colonies may be influenced by the microenvironment around the colony, or alternatively the cells within the colony may modify the microenvironment (e.g. pH, redox potential due to their metabolic activity. While cheese pH may be measured at macro level there remains a significant knowledge gap relating to the degree of micro-heterogeneity of pH within the cheese matrix and its relationship with microbial, enzymatic and physiochemical parameters and ultimately with cheese quality, consistency and ripening patterns. The pH of cheese samples was monitored both at macroscopic scale and at microscopic scale, using a non-destructive microscopic technique employing C-SNARF-4 and Oregon Green 488 fluorescent probes. The objectives of this work were to evaluate the suitability of these dyes for microscale pH measurements in natural cheese matrices and to enhance the sensitivity and extend the useful pH range of these probes using fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM. In particular, fluorescence lifetime of Oregon Green 488 proved to be sensitive probe to map pH micro heterogeneity within cheese matrices. Good agreement was observed between macroscopic scale pH measurement by FLIM and by traditional pH methods, but in addition considerable localized microheterogeneity in pH was evident within the curd matrix with pH range between 4.0 and 5.5. This technique provides significant potential to further investigate the relationship between cheese matrix physico-chemistry and bacterial metabolism during cheese manufacture and ripening.

  8. Measurement of pH micro-heterogeneity in natural cheese matrices by fluorescence lifetime imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdikova, Zuzana; Svindrych, Zdenek; Pala, Jan; Hickey, Cian D; Wilkinson, Martin G; Panek, Jiri; Auty, Mark A E; Periasamy, Ammasi; Sheehan, Jeremiah J

    2015-01-01

    Cheese, a product of microbial fermentation may be defined as a protein matrix entrapping fat, moisture, minerals and solutes as well as dispersed bacterial colonies. The growth and physiology of bacterial cells in these colonies may be influenced by the microenvironment around the colony, or alternatively the cells within the colony may modify the microenvironment (e.g., pH, redox potential) due to their metabolic activity. While cheese pH may be measured at macro level there remains a significant knowledge gap relating to the degree of micro-heterogeneity of pH within the cheese matrix and its relationship with microbial, enzymatic and physiochemical parameters and ultimately with cheese quality, consistency and ripening patterns. The pH of cheese samples was monitored both at macroscopic scale and at microscopic scale, using a non-destructive microscopic technique employing C-SNARF-4 and Oregon Green 488 fluorescent probes. The objectives of this work were to evaluate the suitability of these dyes for microscale pH measurements in natural cheese matrices and to enhance the sensitivity and extend the useful pH range of these probes using fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM). In particular, fluorescence lifetime of Oregon Green 488 proved to be sensitive probe to map pH micro heterogeneity within cheese matrices. Good agreement was observed between macroscopic scale pH measurement by FLIM and by traditional pH methods, but in addition considerable localized microheterogeneity in pH was evident within the curd matrix with pH range between 4.0 and 5.5. This technique provides significant potential to further investigate the relationship between cheese matrix physico-chemistry and bacterial metabolism during cheese manufacture and ripening.

  9. Polar plot representation of time-resolved fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichorst, John Paul; Wen Teng, Kai; Clegg, Robert M

    2014-01-01

    Measuring changes in a molecule's fluorescence emission is a common technique to study complex biological systems such as cells and tissues. Although the steady-state fluorescence intensity is frequently used, measuring the average amount of time that a molecule spends in the excited state (the fluorescence lifetime) reveals more detailed information about its local environment. The lifetime is measured in the time domain by detecting directly the decay of fluorescence following excitation by short pulse of light. The lifetime can also be measured in the frequency domain by recording the phase and amplitude of oscillation in the emitted fluorescence of the sample in response to repetitively modulated excitation light. In either the time or frequency domain, the analysis of data to extract lifetimes can be computationally intensive. For example, a variety of iterative fitting algorithms already exist to determine lifetimes from samples that contain multiple fluorescing species. However, recently a method of analysis referred to as the polar plot (or phasor plot) is a graphical tool that projects the time-dependent features of the sample's fluorescence in either the time or frequency domain into the Cartesian plane to characterize the sample's lifetime. The coordinate transformations of the polar plot require only the raw data, and hence, there are no uncertainties from extensive corrections or time-consuming fitting in this analysis. In this chapter, the history and mathematical background of the polar plot will be presented along with examples that highlight how it can be used in both cuvette-based and imaging applications.

  10. Segmented frequency-domain fluorescence lifetime measurements: minimizing the effects of photobleaching within a multi-component system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwani, Hadi M; Lowry, Mark; Keating, Patrick; Warner, Isiah M; Cook, Robert L

    2007-11-01

    This study introduces a newly developed frequency segmentation and recombination method for frequency-domain fluorescence lifetime measurements to address the effects of changing fractional contributions over time and minimize the effects of photobleaching within multi-component systems. Frequency segmentation and recombination experiments were evaluated using a two component system consisting of fluorescein and rhodamine B. Comparison of experimental data collected in traditional and segmented fashion with simulated data, generated using different changing fractional contributions, demonstrated the validity of the technique. Frequency segmentation and recombination was also applied to a more complex system consisting of pyrene with Suwannee River fulvic acid reference and was shown to improve recovered lifetimes and fractional intensity contributions. It was observed that photobleaching in both systems led to errors in recovered lifetimes which can complicate the interpretation of lifetime results. Results showed clear evidence that the frequency segmentation and recombination method reduced errors resulting from a changing fractional contribution in a multi-component system, and allowed photobleaching issues to be addressed by commercially available instrumentation.

  11. Pattern recognition of estradiol, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in children's saliva samples using stochastic microsensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stefan-van Staden, R.I.; Gugoaşă, L.A.; Calenic, B.; Legler, J.

    2014-01-01

    Stochastic microsensors based on diamond paste and three types of electroactive materials (maltodextrin (MD), α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) and 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21H,23H porphyrin (P)) were developed for the assay of estradiol (E2), testosterone (T2) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in children's saliva.

  12. An image fiber based fluorescent probe with associated signal processing scheme for biomedical diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaishakh, M; Murukeshan, V M; Seah, L K

    2008-01-01

    A dual-modality image fiber based fluorescent probe that can be used for depth sensitive imaging and suppression of fluorescent emissions with nanosecond lifetime difference is proposed and illustrated in this paper. The system can give high optical sectioning and employs an algorithm for obtaining phase sensitive images. The system can find main application in in vivo biomedical diagnostics for detecting biochemical changes for distinguishing malignant tissue from healthy tissue

  13. Identification of Cross-Country Skiing Movement Patterns Using Micro-Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale Chapman

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the potential of micro-sensors for use in the identification of the main movement patterns used in cross-country skiing. Data were collected from four elite international and four Australian athletes in Europe and in Australia using a MinimaxXTM unit containing accelerometer, gyroscope and GPS sensors. Athletes performed four skating techniques and three classical techniques on snow at moderate velocity. Data from a single micro-sensor unit positioned in the centre of the upper back was sufficient to visually identify cyclical movement patterns for each technique. The general patterns for each technique were identified clearly across all athletes while at the same time distinctive characteristics for individual athletes were observed. Differences in speed, snow condition and gradient of terrain were not controlled in this study and these factors could have an effect on the data patterns. Development of algorithms to process the micro-sensor data into kinematic measurements would provide coaches and scientists with a valuable performance analysis tool. Further research is needed to develop such algorithms and to determine whether the patterns are consistent across a range of different speeds, snow conditions and terrain, and for skiers of differing ability.

  14. Comparitive study of fluorescence lifetime quenching of rhodamine 6G by MoS2 and Au-MoS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, Jyoti; Kasana, Parath; Mohanty, T.

    2018-04-01

    Time resolved fluorescence study of Rhodamine 6G (R6G) in the presence of Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanosheets and gold doped MoS2 (Au-MoS2) have been carried out and discussed. We have analyzed the fluorescence decay curves of R6G and it is observed that Au-MoS2 is a better fluorescence lifetime quencher as compare to MoS2 nanosheets. Also, the energy transfer efficiency and energy transfer rate from R6G to MoS2 and Au-MoS2 has been calculated and found higher for Au-MoS2.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of titania-based monodisperse fluorescent europium nanoparticles for biolabeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Mingqian; Wang Guilan; Ye Zhiqiang; Yuan Jingli

    2006-01-01

    Inorganic-organic hybrid titania-based nanoparticles covalently bound to a fluorescent Eu 3+ chelate of 4,4'-bis(1'',1'',1'',2'',2'',3'',3''-heptafluoro-4'',6''-hexanedion-6''-yl) chlorosulfo-o-terphenyl (BHHCT-Eu 3+ ) were synthesized by a sol-gel technique. A conjugate of BHHCT with 3-[2-(2-aminoethylamino) ethylamino]propyl-trimethoxysilane (APTS) was used as a precursor for the nanoparticle preparation and monodisperse nanoparticles consisting of titania network and silica sub-network covalently bound to the Eu 3+ chelate were prepared by the copolymerization of APTS-BHHCT conjugate, titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) and free APTS in EuCl 3 water-alcohol solution. The effects of reaction conditions on size and fluorescence lifetime of the nanoparticles were investigated. The characterizations by transmission electron microscopy and fluorometric methods indicate that the nanoparticles are near spherical and strongly fluorescent having a fluorescence quantum yield of 11.6% and a long fluorescence lifetime of ∼0.4 ms. The direct-introduced amino groups on the nanoparticle's surface by using free APTS in nanoparticle preparation facilitated the biolabeling process of the nanoparticles. The nanoparticle-labeled streptavidin (SA) was prepared and used in a sandwich-type time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TR-FIA) of human prostate-specific antigen (PSA) by using a 96-well microtiter plate as the solid phase carrier. The method gives a detection limit of 66 pg/ml for the PSA assay

  16. Using Microsensor Technology to Quantify Match Demands in Collegiate Women's Volleyball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlantes, Travis G; Readdy, Tucker

    2017-12-01

    Vlantes, TG and Readdy, T. Using microsensor technology to quantify match demands in collegiate women's volleyball. J Strength Cond Res 31(12): 3266-3278, 2017-The purpose of this study was to quantify internal and external load demands of women's NCAA Division I collegiate volleyball competitions using microsensor technology and session rating of perceived exertion (S-RPE). Eleven collegiate volleyball players wore microsensor technology (Optimeye S5; Catapult Sports, Chicago, IL, USA) during 15 matches played throughout the 2016 season. Parameters examined include player load (PL), high impact PL, percentage of HI PL, explosive efforts (EEs), and jumps. Session rating of perceived exertion was collected 20 minutes postmatch using a modified Borg scale. The relationship between internal and external load was explored, comparing S-RPE data with the microsensor metrics (PL, HI PL, % HI PL, EEs, and jumps). The setter had the greatest mean PL and highest number of jumps of all positions in a 5-1 system, playing all 6 rotations. Playing 4 sets yielded a mean PL increase of 25.1% over 3 sets, whereas playing 5 sets showed a 31.0% increase in PL. A multivariate analysis of variance revealed significant differences (p < 0.01) across all position groups when examining % HI PL and jumps. Cohen's d analysis revealed large (≥0.8) effect sizes for these differences. Defensive specialists recorded the greatest mean S-RPE values over all 15 matches (886 ± 384.6). Establishing positional load demands allows coaches, trainers, and strength and conditioning professionals to implement training programs for position-specific demands, creating consistent peak performance, and reducing injury risk.

  17. Mercury effects on Thalassiosira weissflogii: Applications of two-photon excitation chlorophyll fluorescence lifetime imaging and flow cytometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yun; Zeng Yan; Qu, Jianan Y.; Wang Wenxiong

    2012-01-01

    The toxic effects of inorganic mercury [Hg(II)] and methylmercury (MeHg) on the photosynthesis and population growth in a marine diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii were investigated using two methods: two-photon excitation fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) and flow cytometry (FCM). For photosynthesis, Hg(II) exposure increased the average chlorophyll fluorescence lifetime, whereas such increment was not found under MeHg stress. This may be caused by the inhibitory effect of Hg(II) instead of MeHg on the electron transport chain. For population growth, modeled specific growth rate data showed that the reduction in population growth by Hg(II) mainly resulted from an increased number of injured cells, while the live cells divided at the normal rates. However, MeHg inhibitory effects on population growth were contributed by the reduced division rates of all cells. Furthermore, the cell images and the FCM data reflected the morphological changes of diatom cells under Hg(II)/MeHg exposure vividly and quantitatively. Our results demonstrated that the toxigenicity mechanisms between Hg(II) and MeHg were different in the algal cells.

  18. Fluorescence lifetime components reveal kinetic intermediate states upon equilibrium denaturation of carbonic anhydrase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemtseva, Elena V; Lashchuk, Olesya O; Gerasimova, Marina A; Melnik, Tatiana N; Nagibina, Galina S; Melnik, Bogdan S

    2017-12-21

    In most cases, intermediate states of multistage folding proteins are not 'visible' under equilibrium conditions but are revealed in kinetic experiments. Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy was used in equilibrium denaturation studies. The technique allows for detecting changes in the conformation and environment of tryptophan residues in different structural elements of carbonic anhydrase II which in its turn has made it possible to study the intermediate states of carbonic anhydrase II under equilibrium conditions. The results of equilibrium and kinetic experiments using wild-type bovine carbonic anhydrase II and its mutant form with the substitution of leucine for alanine at position 139 (L139A) were compared. The obtained lifetime components of intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence allowed for revealing that, the same as in kinetic experiments, under equilibrium conditions the unfolding of carbonic anhydrase II ensues through formation of intermediate states.

  19. The modelling of a capacitive microsensor for biosensing applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bezuidenhout, PH

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Microsensing is a leading field in technology due to its wide application potential, not only in bio-engineering, but in other fields as well. Microsensors have potentially low-cost manufacturing processes, while a single device type can have...

  20. A UAV based system for real time flash flood monitoring in desert environments using Lagrangian microsensors

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelkader, Mohamed

    2013-05-01

    Floods are the most common natural disasters, causing thousands of casualties every year in the world. In particular, flash flood events are particularly deadly because of the short timescales on which they occur. Most casualties could be avoided with advance warning, for which real time monitoring is critical. While satellite-based high resolution weather forecasts can help predict floods to a certain extent, they are not reliable enough, as flood models depend on a large number of parameters that cannot be estimated beforehand. In this article, we present a novel flood sensing architecture to monitor large scale desert hydrological basins surrounding metropolitan areas, based on unmanned air vehicles. The system relies on Lagrangian (mobile) microsensors, that are released by a swarm of UAVs. A preliminary testbed implementing this technology is briefly described, and future research directions and problems are discussed. © 2013 IEEE.

  1. Picosecond wide-field time-correlated single photon counting fluorescence microscopy with a delay line anode detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirvonen, Liisa M.; Le Marois, Alix; Suhling, Klaus, E-mail: klaus.suhling@kcl.ac.uk [Department of Physics, King' s College London, Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Becker, Wolfgang; Smietana, Stefan [Becker & Hickl GmbH, Nahmitzer Damm 30, 12277 Berlin (Germany); Milnes, James; Conneely, Thomas [Photek Ltd., 26 Castleham Rd, Saint Leonards-on-Sea TN38 9NS (United Kingdom); Jagutzki, Ottmar [Institut für Kernphysik, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    We perform wide-field time-correlated single photon counting-based fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) with a crossed delay line anode image intensifier, where the pulse propagation time yields the photon position. This microchannel plate-based detector was read out with conventional fast timing electronics and mounted on a fluorescence microscope with total internal reflection (TIR) illumination. The picosecond time resolution of this detection system combines low illumination intensity of microwatts with wide-field data collection. This is ideal for fluorescence lifetime imaging of cell membranes using TIR. We show that fluorescence lifetime images of living HeLa cells stained with membrane dye di-4-ANEPPDHQ exhibit a reduced lifetime near the coverslip in TIR compared to epifluorescence FLIM.

  2. Effect of pharmacologically induced retinal degeneration on retinal autofluorescence lifetimes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dysli, Chantal; Dysli, Muriel; Zinkernagel, Martin S; Enzmann, Volker

    2016-12-01

    Fluorescence lifetime imaging ophthalmoscopy (FLIO) was used to investigate retinal autofluorescence lifetimes in mouse models of pharmacologically induced retinal degeneration over time. Sodium iodate (NaIO 3 , 35 mg/kg intravenously) was used to induce retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) degeneration with subsequent loss of photoreceptors (PR) whereas N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU, 45 mg/kg intraperitoneally) was employed for degeneration of the photoreceptor cell layer alone. All mice were measured at day 3, 7, 14, and 28 after the respective injection of NaIO 3 , MNU or NaCl (control). Fluorescence lifetime imaging was performed using a fluorescence lifetime imaging ophthalmoscope (Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany). Fluorescence was excited at 473 nm and fluorescence lifetimes were measured in a short and a long spectral channel (498-560 nm and 560-720 nm). Corresponding optical coherence tomography (OCT) images were consecutively acquired and histology was performed at the end of the experiments. Segmentation of OCT images and histology verified the cell type-specific degeneration process over time. Retinal autofluorescence lifetimes increased from day 3 to day 28 in mice after NaIO 3 treatment. Finally, at day 28, fluorescence lifetimes were prolonged by 8% in the short and 61% in the long spectral channel compared to control animals (p = 0.21 and p = 0.004, respectively). In mice after MNU treatment, the mean retinal autofluorescence lifetimes were already decreased at day 3 and retinal lifetimes were finally shortened by 27% in the short and 51% in the long spectral channel at day 28 (p = 0.0028). In conclusion, degeneration of the RPE with subsequent photoreceptor degeneration by NaIO 3 lead to longer mean fluorescence lifetimes of the retina compared to control mice, whereas during specific degeneration of the photoreceptor layer induced by MNU shorter lifetimes were measured. Therefore, short retinal fluorescence lifetimes may originate

  3. Wireless implantable electronic platform for chronic fluorescent-based biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdastri, Pietro; Susilo, Ekawahyu; Förster, Thilo; Strohhöfer, Christof; Menciassi, Arianna; Dario, Paolo

    2011-06-01

    The development of a long-term wireless implantable biosensor based on fluorescence intensity measurement poses a number of technical challenges, ranging from biocompatibility to sensor stability over time. One of these challenges is the design of a power efficient and miniaturized electronics, enabling the biosensor to move from bench testing to long term validation, up to its final application in human beings. In this spirit, we present a wireless programmable electronic platform for implantable chronic monitoring of fluorescent-based autonomous biosensors. This system is able to achieve extremely low power operation with bidirectional telemetry, based on the IEEE802.15.4-2003 protocol, thus enabling over three-year battery lifetime and wireless networking of multiple sensors. During the performance of single fluorescent-based sensor measurements, the circuit drives a laser diode, for sensor excitation, and acquires the amplified signals from four different photodetectors. In vitro functionality was preliminarily tested for both glucose and calcium monitoring, simply by changing the analyte-binding protein of the biosensor. Electronics performance was assessed in terms of timing, power consumption, tissue exposure to electromagnetic fields, and in vivo wireless connectivity. The final goal of the presented platform is to be integrated in a complete system for blood glucose level monitoring that may be implanted for at least one year under the skin of diabetic patients. Results reported in this paper may be applied to a wide variety of biosensors based on fluorescence intensity measurement.

  4. Assessment of air quality microsensors versus reference methods: The EuNetAir joint exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, C.; Costa, A. M.; Ginja, J.; Amorim, M.; Coutinho, M.; Karatzas, K.; Sioumis, Th.; Katsifarakis, N.; Konstantinidis, K.; De Vito, S.; Esposito, E.; Smith, P.; André, N.; Gérard, P.; Francis, L. A.; Castell, N.; Schneider, P.; Viana, M.; Minguillón, M. C.; Reimringer, W.; Otjes, R. P.; von Sicard, O.; Pohle, R.; Elen, B.; Suriano, D.; Pfister, V.; Prato, M.; Dipinto, S.; Penza, M.

    2016-12-01

    The 1st EuNetAir Air Quality Joint Intercomparison Exercise organized in Aveiro (Portugal) from 13th-27th October 2014, focused on the evaluation and assessment of environmental gas, particulate matter (PM) and meteorological microsensors, versus standard air quality reference methods through an experimental urban air quality monitoring campaign. The IDAD-Institute of Environment and Development Air Quality Mobile Laboratory was placed at an urban traffic location in the city centre of Aveiro to conduct continuous measurements with standard equipment and reference analysers for CO, NOx, O3, SO2, PM10, PM2.5, temperature, humidity, wind speed and direction, solar radiation and precipitation. The comparison of the sensor data generated by different microsensor-systems installed side-by-side with reference analysers, contributes to the assessment of the performance and the accuracy of microsensor-systems in a real-world context, and supports their calibration and further development. The overall performance of the sensors in terms of their statistical metrics and measurement profile indicates significant differences in the results depending on the platform and on the sensors considered. In terms of pollutants, some promising results were observed for O3 (r2: 0.12-0.77), CO (r2: 0.53-0.87), and NO2 (r2: 0.02-0.89). For PM (r2: 0.07-0.36) and SO2 (r2: 0.09-0.20) the results show a poor performance with low correlation coefficients between the reference and microsensor measurements. These field observations under specific environmental conditions suggest that the relevant microsensor platforms, if supported by the proper post processing and data modelling tools, have enormous potential for new strategies in air quality control.

  5. Second-harmonic generation and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy through a rodent mammary imaging window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Pamela A.; Nazir, Muhammad; Szulczewski, Michael J.; Keely, Patricia J.; Eliceiri, Kevin W.

    2012-03-01

    Tumor-Associated Collagen Signatures (TACS) have been identified that manifest in specific ways during breast tumor progression and that correspond to patient outcome. There are also compelling metabolic changes associated with carcinoma invasion and progression. We have characterized the difference in the autofluorescent properties of metabolic co-factors, NADH and FAD, between normal and carcinoma breast cell lines. Also, we have shown in vitro that increased collagen density alters metabolic genes which are associated with glycolysis and leads to a more invasive phenotype. Establishing the relationship between collagen density, cellular metabolism, and metastasis in physiologically relevant cancer models is crucial for developing cancer therapies. To study cellular metabolism with respect to collagen density in vivo, we use multiphoton fluorescence excitation microscopy (MPM) in conjunction with a rodent mammary imaging window implanted in defined mouse cancer models. These models are ideal for the study of collagen changes in vivo, allowing determination of corresponding metabolic changes in breast cancer invasion and progression. To measure cellular metabolism, we collect fluorescence lifetime (FLIM) signatures of NADH and FAD, which are known to change based on the microenvironment of the cells. Additionally, MPM systems are capable of collecting second harmonic generation (SHG) signals which are a nonlinear optical property of collagen. Therefore, MPM, SHG, and FLIM are powerful tools with great potential for characterizing key features of breast carcinoma in vivo. Below we present the current efforts of our collaborative group to develop intravital approaches based on these imaging techniques to look at defined mouse mammary models.

  6. Correlation of Chemisorption and Electronic Effects for Metal Oxide Interfaces: Transducing Principles for Temperature Programmed Gas Microsensors. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semancik, S.; Cavicchi, R. E.; DeVoe, D. L.; McAvoy, T. J.

    2001-01-01

    This Final Report describes efforts and results for a 3-year DoE/OST-EMSP project centered at NIST. The multidisciplinary project investigated scientific and technical concepts critical for developing tunable, MEMS-based, gas and vapor microsensors that could be applied for monitoring the types of multiple analytes (and differing backgrounds) encountered at DoE waste sites. Micromachined ''microhotplate'' arrays were used as platforms for fabricating conductometric sensor prototypes, and as microscale research tools. Efficient microarray techniques were developed for locally depositing and then performance evaluating thin oxide films, in order to correlate gas sensing characteristics with properties including composition, microstructure, thickness and surface modification. This approach produced temperature-dependent databases on the sensitivities of sensing materials to varied analytes (in air) which enable application-specific tuning of microsensor arrays. Mechanistic studies on adsorb ate transient phenomena were conducted to better understand the ways in which rapid temperature programming schedules can be used to produce unique response signatures and increase information density in microsensor signals. Chemometric and neural network analyses were also employed in our studies for recognition and quantification of target analytes

  7. Development of windows based software to analyze fluorescence decay with time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) setup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallick, M.B.; Ravindranath, S.V.G.; Das, N.C.

    2002-07-01

    A VUV spectroscopic facility for studies in photophysics and photochemistry is being set up at INDUS-I synchrotron source, CAT, Indore. For this purpose, a data acquisition system based on time-correlated single photon counting method is being developed for fluorescence lifetime measurement. To estimate fluorescence lifetime from the data collected with this sytem, a Windows based program has been developed using Visual Basic 5.0. It uses instrument response function (IRF) and observed decay curve and estimates parameters of single exponential decay by least square analysis and Marquardt method as convergence mechanism. Estimation of parameters was performed using data collected with a commercial setup. Goodness of fit was judged by evaluating χR 2 , weighted residuals and autocorrelation function. Performance is compared with two commercial software packages and found to be satisfactory. (author)

  8. Effect of calcinations temperature on the luminescence intensity and fluorescent lifetime of Tb3+-doped hydroxyapatite (Tb-HA nanocrystallines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hairong Yin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxyapatite luminescent nanocrystallines doped with 6 mol.% Tb3+ (Tb-HA were prepared via chemical deposition method and calcined at different temperature, and the effects of calcinations temperature on the luminescence intensity and fluorescent lifetime were studied. TEM image of Tb-HA revealed that the shape of nanocrystallines changed from needle-like to short rod-like and sphere-like with the increase of calcinations temperature; while the particles sizes decreased from 190 nm to 110 nm. The crystallinity degree increased. The typical emission peaks attributed to Tb3+ ions were observed in emission spectra of 6 mol.% Tb-HA under 378 nm excitation. The luminescent intensity of Tb-HA, which showed the fluorescence quenching, firstly enhanced and then decreased at 700 °C; while the fluorescent lifetime increased firstly and then decreased after 600 °C. Furthermore, the ratio of intensity between 545 nm and 490 nm corresponding to electric-dipole and magnetic-dipole transition (IR: IO increases firstly and then decreases, which revealed that the proportion of substitute type and site of Ca2+ ions by Tb3+ ions were helpful to realize the substitute process and functional structure design.

  9. Differentiation of ocular fundus fluorophores by fluorescence lifetime imaging using multiple excitation and emission wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, M.; Schweitzer, D.; Schenke, S.; Becker, W.; Bergmann, A.

    2006-10-01

    Ocular fundus autofluorescence imaging has been introduced into clinical diagnostics recently. It is in use for the observation of the age pigment lipofuscin, a precursor of age - related macular degeneration (AMD). But other fluorophores may be of interest too: The redox pair FAD - FADH II provides information on the retinal energy metabolism, advanced glycation end products (AGE) indicate protein glycation associated with pathologic processes in diabetes as well as AMD, and alterations in the fluorescence of collagen and elastin in connective tissue give us the opportunity to observe fibrosis by fluorescence imaging. This, however, needs techniques able to differentiate particular fluorophores despite limited permissible ocular exposure as well as excitation wavelength (limited by the transmission of the human ocular lens to >400 nm). We present an ophthalmic laser scanning system (SLO), equipped with picosecond laser diodes (FWHM 100 ps, 446 nm or 468 nm respectively) and time correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) in two emission bands (500 - 560 nm and 560 - 700 nm). The decays were fitted by a bi-exponential model. Fluorescence spectra were measured by a fluorescence spectrometer fluorolog. Upon excitation at 446 nm, the fluorescence of AGE, FAD, and lipofuscin were found to peak at 503 nm, 525 nm, and 600 nm respectively. Accordingly, the statistical distribution of the fluorescence decay times was found to depend on the different excitation wavelengths and emission bands used. The use of multiple excitation and emission wavelengths in conjunction with fluorescence lifetime imaging allows us to discriminate between intrinsic fluorophores of the ocular fundus. Taken together with our knowledge on the anatomical structure of the fundus, these findings suggest an association of the short, middle and long fluorescence decay time to the retinal pigment epithelium, the retina, and connective tissue respectively.

  10. Structural and dynamical aspects of skin studied by multiphoton excitation fluorescence microscopy-based methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Maria; Brewer, Jonathan R.; Bagatolli, Luis

    2013-01-01

    ' parameters. Specifically, by applying these methods, spatially resolved maps of water dipolar relaxation (generalized polarization function using the 6-lauroyl-2-(N,N-dimethylamino)naphthale probe), activity of protons (fluorescence lifetime imaging using a proton sensitive fluorescence probe--2,7-bis-(2......-carboxyethyl)-5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein) and diffusion coefficients of distinct fluorescence probes (raster imaging correlation spectroscopy) can be obtained from different regions of the tissue. Comparative studies of different tissue strata, but also between equivalent regions of normal and abnormal......This mini-review reports on applications of particular multiphoton excitation microscopy-based methodologies employed in our laboratory to study skin. These approaches allow in-depth optical sectioning of the tissue, providing spatially resolved information on specific fluorescence probes...

  11. Continuous glucose monitoring microsensor with a nanoscale conducting matrix and redox mediator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesantez, Daniel

    The major limiting factor in kidney clinical transplantation is the shortage of transplantable organs. The current inability to distinguish viability from non-viability on a prospective basis represents a major obstacle in any attempt to expand organ donor criteria. Consequently, a way to measure and monitor a relevant analyte to assess kidney viability is needed. For the first time, the initial development and characterization of a metabolic microsensor to assess kidney viability is presented. The rate of glucose consumption appears to serve as an indicator of kidney metabolism that may distinguish reversible from irreversible kidney damage. The proposed MetaSense (Metabolic Sensor) microdevice would replace periodic laboratory diagnosis tests with a continuous monitor that provides real-time data on organ viability. Amperometry, a technique that correlates an electrical signal with analyte concentration, is used as a method to detect glucose concentrations. A novel two-electrode electrochemical sensing cell design is presented. It uses a modified metallic working electrode (WE) and a bare metallic reference electrode (RE) that acts as a pseudo-reference/counter electrode as well. The proposed microsensor has the potential to be used as a minimally invasive sensor for its reduced number of probes and very small dimensions achieved by micromachining and lithography. In order to improve selectivity of the microdevice, two electron transfer mechanisms or generations were explored. A first generation microsensor uses molecular oxygen as the electron acceptor in the enzymatic reaction and oxidizes hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to get the electrical signal. The microsensor's modified WE with conductive polymer polypyrrole (PPy) and corresponding enzyme glucose oxidase (GOx) immobilized into its matrix, constitutes the electrochemical detection mechanism. Photoluminescence spectroscopic analysis confirmed and quantified enzyme immobilized concentrations within the matrix. In

  12. Demonstration of the lack of cytotoxicity of unmodified and folic acid modified graphene oxide quantum dots, and their application to fluorescence lifetime imaging of HaCaT cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goreham, Renee V; Schroeder, Kathryn L; Holmes, Amy; Bradley, Siobhan J; Nann, Thomas

    2018-01-24

    The authors describe the synthesis of water-soluble and fluorescent graphene oxide quantum dots via acid exfoliation of graphite nanoparticles. The resultant graphene oxide quantum dots (GoQDs) were then modified with folic acid. Folic acid receptors are overexpressed in cancer cells and hence can bind to functionalized graphene oxide quantum dots. On excitation at 305 nm, the GoQDs display green fluorescence with a peak wavelength at ~520 nm. The modified GoQDs are non-toxic to macrophage cells even after prolonged exposure and high concentrations. Fluorescence lifetime imaging and multiphoton microscopy was used (in combination) to image HeCaT cells exposed to GoQDs, resulting in a superior method for bioimaging. Graphical abstract Schematic representation of graphene oxide quantum dots, folic acid modified graphene oxide quantum dots (red), and the use of fluorescence lifetime to discriminate against green auto-fluorescence of HeCaT cells.

  13. In vivo multiphoton and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy of the healthy and cholestatic liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Daria S.; Dudenkova, Varvara V.; Rodimova, Svetlana A.; Bobrov, Nikolai V.; Zagainov, Vladimir E.; Zagaynova, Elena V.

    2018-02-01

    A cholestatic liver disease presents one of the most common liver diseases and can potentially progress to cirrhosis or even cholangiocarcinoma. Conventional techniques are insufficient to precisely describe the complex internal structure, heterogeneous cell populations and the dynamics of biological processes of the liver. Currently, the methods of multiphoton and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy are actively introducing to biomedical research. Those methods are extremely informative and non-destructive that allows studying of a large number of processes occurring inside cells and tissues, analyzing molecular cellular composition, as well as evaluating the state of connective tissue fibers due to their ability to generate a second optical harmonic. Multiphoton and FLIM microscopy do not need additional staining of samples or the incorporation of any markers to study metabolism, lipid composition, microstructure analysis, evaluation of fibrous structures. These parameters have pronounced changes in hepatocytes of liver with common pathological diseases. Thereby in this study we investigated metabolic changes in the healthy and cholestatic liver based on the fluorescence of the metabolic co-factors NAD(P)H and FAD by multiphoton microscopy combined with FLIM. To estimate the contribution of energy metabolism and lipogenesis in the observed changes of the metabolic profile, a separate analysis of NADH and NADPH was presented. The data can be used to develop new criteria for the identification of hepatic pathology at the level of hepatocyte changes directed to personalized medicine in the future.

  14. Heat flux microsensor measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, J. P.; Hager, J. M.; Onishi, S.; Diller, T. E.

    1992-01-01

    A thin-film heat flux sensor has been fabricated on a stainless steel substrate. The thermocouple elements of the heat flux sensor were nickel and nichrome, and the temperature resistance sensor was platinum. The completed heat flux microsensor was calibrated at the AEDC radiation facility. The gage output was linear with heat flux with no apparent temperature effect on sensitivity. The gage was used for heat flux measurements at the NASA Langley Vitiated Air Test Facility. Vitiated air was expanded to Mach 3.0 and hydrogen fuel was injected. Measurements were made on the wall of a diverging duct downstream of the injector during all stages of the hydrogen combustion tests. Because the wall and the gage were not actively cooled, the wall temperature reached over 1000 C (1900 F) during the most severe test.

  15. Interrogation of metabolic and oxygen states of tumors with fiber-based luminescence lifetime spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukina, Maria; Orlova, Anna; Shirmanova, Marina; Shirokov, Daniil; Pavlikov, Anton; Neubauer, Antje; Studier, Hauke; Becker, Wolfgang; Zagaynova, Elena; Yoshihara, Toshitada; Tobita, Seiji; Shcheslavskiy, Vladislav

    2017-02-15

    The study of metabolic and oxygen states of cells in a tumor in vivo is crucial for understanding of the mechanisms responsible for tumor development and provides background for the relevant tumor's treatment. Here, we show that a specially designed implantable fiber-optic probe provides a promising tool for optical interrogation of metabolic and oxygen states of a tumor in vivo. In our experiments, the excitation light from a ps diode laser source is delivered to the sample through an exchangeable tip via a multimode fiber, and the emission light is transferred to the detector by another multimode fiber. Fluorescence lifetime of a nicotinamid adenine dinucleotide (NAD(P)H) and phosphorescence lifetime of an oxygen sensor based on an iridium (III) complex of enzothienylpyridine (BTPDM1) are explored both in model experiment in solutions and in living mice.

  16. Non-Euclidean phasor analysis for quantification of oxidative stress in ex vivo human skin exposed to sun filters using fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osseiran, Sam; Roider, Elisabeth M.; Wang, Hequn; Suita, Yusuke; Murphy, Michael; Fisher, David E.; Evans, Conor L.

    2017-12-01

    Chemical sun filters are commonly used as active ingredients in sunscreens due to their efficient absorption of ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Yet, it is known that these compounds can photochemically react with UV light and generate reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress in vitro, though this has yet to be validated in vivo. One label-free approach to probe oxidative stress is to measure and compare the relative endogenous fluorescence generated by cellular coenzymes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotides and flavin adenine dinucleotides. However, chemical sun filters are fluorescent, with emissive properties that contaminate endogenous fluorescent signals. To accurately distinguish the source of fluorescence in ex vivo skin samples treated with chemical sun filters, fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy data were processed on a pixel-by-pixel basis using a non-Euclidean separation algorithm based on Mahalanobis distance and validated on simulated data. Applying this method, ex vivo samples exhibited a small oxidative shift when exposed to sun filters alone, though this shift was much smaller than that imparted by UV irradiation. Given the need for investigative tools to further study the clinical impact of chemical sun filters in patients, the reported methodology may be applied to visualize chemical sun filters and measure oxidative stress in patients' skin.

  17. A novel integrated multifunction micro-sensor for three-dimensional micro-force measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weizhong; Zhao, Yulong; Qin, Yafei

    2012-01-01

    An integrated multifunction micro-sensor for three-dimensional micro-force precision measurement under different pressure and temperature conditions is introduced in this paper. The integrated sensor consists of three kinds of sensors: a three-dimensional micro-force sensor, an absolute pressure sensor and a temperature sensor. The integrated multifunction micro-sensor is fabricated on silicon wafers by micromachining technology. Different doping doses of boron ion, placement and structure of resistors are tested for the force sensor, pressure sensor and temperature sensor to minimize the cross interference and optimize the properties. A glass optical fiber, with a ladder structure and sharp tip etched by buffer oxide etch solution, is glued on the micro-force sensor chip as the tactile probe. Experimental results show that the minimum force that can be detected by the force sensor is 300 nN; the lateral sensitivity of the force sensor is 0.4582 mV/μN; the probe length is linearly proportional to sensitivity of the micro-force sensor in lateral; the sensitivity of the pressure sensor is 0.11 mv/KPa; the sensitivity of the temperature sensor is 5.836 × 10(-3) KΩ/°C. Thus it is a cost-effective method to fabricate integrated multifunction micro-sensors with different measurement ranges that could be used in many fields.

  18. A Novel Integrated Multifunction Micro-Sensor for Three-Dimensional Micro-Force Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yafei Qin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available An integrated multifunction micro-sensor for three-dimensional micro-force precision measurement under different pressure and temperature conditions is introduced in this paper. The integrated sensor consists of three kinds of sensors: a three-dimensional micro-force sensor, an absolute pressure sensor and a temperature sensor. The integrated multifunction micro-sensor is fabricated on silicon wafers by micromachining technology. Different doping doses of boron ion, placement and structure of resistors are tested for the force sensor, pressure sensor and temperature sensor to minimize the cross interference and optimize the properties. A glass optical fiber, with a ladder structure and sharp tip etched by buffer oxide etch solution, is glued on the micro-force sensor chip as the tactile probe. Experimental results show that the minimum force that can be detected by the force sensor is 300 nN; the lateral sensitivity of the force sensor is 0.4582 mV/μN; the probe length is linearly proportional to sensitivity of the micro-force sensor in lateral; the sensitivity of the pressure sensor is 0.11 mv/KPa; the sensitivity of the temperature sensor is 5.836 × 10−3 KΩ/°C. Thus it is a cost-effective method to fabricate integrated multifunction micro-sensors with different measurement ranges that could be used in many fields.

  19. Emergence of White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Xiao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs have attracted both academic and industrial interest due to their extraordinary characteristics, such as high efficiency, low driving voltage, bright luminance, lower power consumption and potentially long lifetime. In this invited review, the fundamental concepts of TADF have been firstly introduced. Then, main approaches to realize WOLEDs based on TADF have been summarized. More specifically, the recent development of WOLEDs based on all TADF emitters, WOLEDs based on TADF and conventional fluorescence emitters, hybrid WOLEDs based on blue TADF and phosphorescence emitters and WOLEDs based on TADF exciplex host and phosphorescence dopants is highlighted. In particular, design strategies, device structures, working mechanisms and electroluminescent processes of the representative WOLEDs based on TADF are reviewed. Finally, challenges and opportunities for further enhancement of the performance of WOLEDs based on TADF are presented.

  20. Autofluorescence Lifetimes in Geographic Atrophy in Patients With Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dysli, Chantal; Wolf, Sebastian; Zinkernagel, Martin S

    2016-05-01

    To investigate fluorescence lifetime characteristics in patients with geographic atrophy (GA) in eyes with age-related macular degeneration and to correlate the measurements with clinical data and optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings. Patients with GA were imaged with a fluorescence lifetime imaging ophthalmoscope. Retinal autofluorescence lifetimes were measured in a short and a long spectral channel (498-560 nm and 560-720 nm). Mean retinal fluorescence lifetimes were analyzed within GA and the surrounding retina, and data were correlated with best corrected visual acuity and OCT measurements. Fluorescence lifetime maps of 41 eyes of 41 patients (80 ± 7 years) with GA were analyzed. Mean lifetimes within areas of atrophy were prolonged by 624 ± 276 ps (+152%) in the short spectral channel and 418 ± 186 ps (+83%) in the long spectral channel compared to the surrounding tissue. Autofluorescence lifetime abnormalities in GA occurred with particular patterns, similar to those seen in fundus autofluorescence intensity images. Within the fovea short mean autofluorescence lifetimes were observed, presumably representing macular pigment. Short lifetimes were preserved even in the absence of foveal sparing but were decreased in patients with advanced retinal atrophy in OCT. Short lifetimes in the fovea correlated with better best corrected visual acuity in both spectral channels. This study established that autofluorescence lifetime changes in GA present with explicit patterns. We hypothesize that the short lifetimes seen within the atrophy may be used to estimate damage induced by atrophy and to monitor disease progression in the context of natural history or interventional therapeutic studies.

  1. Hybrid electronic tongue based on optical and electrochemical microsensors for quality control of wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Manuel; Llobera, Andreu; Vila-Planas, Jordi; Capdevila, Fina; Demming, Stefanie; Büttgenbach, Stephanus; Mínguez, Santiago; Jiménez-Jorquera, Cecilia

    2010-07-01

    A multiparametric system able to classify red and white wines according to the grape varieties and for analysing some specific parameters is presented. The system, known as hybrid electronic tongue, consists of an array of electrochemical microsensors and a colorimetric optofluidic system. The array of electrochemical sensors is composed of six ISFETs based sensors, a conductivity sensor, a redox potential sensor and two amperometric electrodes, an Au microelectrode and a microelectrode for sensing electrochemical oxygen demand. The optofluidic system is entirely fabricated in polymer technology and comprises a hollow structure, air mirrors, microlenses and self-alignment structures. The data obtained from these sensors has been treated with multivariate advanced tools; Principal Component Analysis (PCA), for the patterning recognition and classification of wine samples, and Partial-Least Squares (PLS) regression, for quantification of several chemical and optical parameters of interest in wine quality. The results have demonstrated the utility of this system for distinguishing the samples according to the grape variety and year vintage and for quantifying several sample parameters of interest in wine quality control.

  2. Application of time-correlated single photon counting and stroboscopic detection methods with an evanescent-wave fibre-optic sensor for fluorescence-lifetime-based pH measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, Paul E; Geissinger, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Quasi-distributed optical fibre sensor arrays containing luminescent sensor molecules can be read out spatially resolved utilizing optical time-of-flight detection (OTOFD) methods, which employ pulsed laser interrogation of the luminosensors and time-resolved detection of the sensor signals. In many cases, sensing is based on a change in sensor luminescence intensity; however, sensing based on luminescence lifetime changes is preferable because it reduces the need for field calibration. Because in OTOFD detection is time-resolved, luminescence-lifetime information is already available through the signal pulses, although in practise applications were restricted to sensors with long luminescence lifetimes (hundreds of ns). To implement lifetime-based sensing in crossed-optical-fibre-sensor arrays for sensor molecules with lifetimes less than 10 ns, two time-domain methods, time-correlated single photon counting and stroboscopic detection, were used to record the pH-dependent emission of a fluorescein derivative covalently attached to a highly-porous polymer. A two-term nonexponential decay function yielded both a good fit for experimental lifetime data during reconvolution and a pH response that matches Henderson–Hasselbalch behaviour, yielding a sensor accuracy of 0.02 pH units. Moreover, strong agreement was obtained for the two lifetime determination methods and with intensity-based measurements taken previously. (paper)

  3. Fluorescence lifetime studies of MeV erbium implanted silica glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidgard, A.; Polman, A.; Jacobsen, D.C.; Blonder, G.E.; Kistler, R.; Poate, J.M.; Becker, P.C.

    1991-01-01

    MeV erbium ion implantation into various SiO 2 glasses has been studied with the aim of incorporating the rare-earth dopant as an optically active ion in the silica network. The lifetime of the excited state ranges from 1.6 to 12.8 ms, depending on base material and implantation fluence. These results have positive implications for silica-based integrated optical technology. (Author)

  4. Fluorescence lifetime studies of MeV erbium implanted silica glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lidgard, A.; Polman, A.; Jacobsen, D.C.; Blonder, G.E.; Kistler, R.; Poate, J.M.; Becker, P.C. (AT and T Bell Labs., Murray Hill, NJ (USA))

    1991-05-23

    MeV erbium ion implantation into various SiO{sub 2} glasses has been studied with the aim of incorporating the rare-earth dopant as an optically active ion in the silica network. The lifetime of the excited state ranges from 1.6 to 12.8 ms, depending on base material and implantation fluence. These results have positive implications for silica-based integrated optical technology. (Author).

  5. Nanoporous-carbon adsorbers for chemical microsensors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overmyer, Donald L.; Siegal, Michael P.; Staton, Alan W.; Provencio, Paula Polyak; Yelton, William Graham

    2004-11-01

    Chemical microsensors rely on partitioning of airborne chemicals into films to collect and measure trace quantities of hazardous vapors. Polymer sensor coatings used today are typically slow to respond and difficult to apply reproducibly. The objective of this project was to produce a durable sensor coating material based on graphitic nanoporous-carbon (NPC), a new material first studied at Sandia, for collection and detection of volatile organic compounds (VOC), toxic industrial chemicals (TIC), chemical warfare agents (CWA) and nuclear processing precursors (NPP). Preliminary studies using NPC films on exploratory surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) devices and as a {micro}ChemLab membrane preconcentrator suggested that NPC may outperform existing, irreproducible coatings for SAW sensor and {micro}ChemLab preconcentrator applications. Success of this project will provide a strategic advantage to the development of a robust, manufacturable, highly-sensitive chemical microsensor for public health, industrial, and national security needs. We use pulsed-laser deposition to grow NPC films at room-temperature with negligible residual stress, and hence, can be deposited onto nearly any substrate material to any thickness. Controlled deposition yields reproducible NPC density, morphology, and porosity, without any discernable variation in surface chemistry. NPC coatings > 20 {micro}m thick with density < 5% that of graphite have been demonstrated. NPC can be 'doped' with nearly any metal during growth to provide further enhancements in analyte detection and selectivity. Optimized NPC-coated SAW devices were compared directly to commonly-used polymer coated SAWs for sensitivity to a variety of VOC, TIC, CWA and NPP. In every analyte, NPC outperforms each polymer coating by multiple orders-of-magnitude in detection sensitivity, with improvements ranging from 103 to 108 times greater detection sensitivity! NPC-coated SAW sensors appear capable of detecting most analytes

  6. Thermally activated delayed fluorescence of fluorescein derivative for time-resolved and confocal fluorescence imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiaoqing; Song, Fengling; Wang, Jingyun; Zhang, Yukang; Xue, Yingying; Sun, Liangliang; Jiang, Na; Gao, Pan; Tian, Lu; Peng, Xiaojun

    2014-07-09

    Compared with fluorescence imaging utilizing fluorophores whose lifetimes are in the order of nanoseconds, time-resolved fluorescence microscopy has more advantages in monitoring target fluorescence. In this work, compound DCF-MPYM, which is based on a fluorescein derivative, showed long-lived luminescence (22.11 μs in deaerated ethanol) and was used in time-resolved fluorescence imaging in living cells. Both nanosecond time-resolved transient difference absorption spectra and time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC) were employed to explain the long lifetime of the compound, which is rare in pure organic fluorophores without rare earth metals and heavy atoms. A mechanism of thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) that considers the long wavelength fluorescence, large Stokes shift, and long-lived triplet state of DCF-MPYM was proposed. The energy gap (ΔEST) of DCF-MPYM between the singlet and triplet state was determined to be 28.36 meV by the decay rate of DF as a function of temperature. The ΔE(ST) was small enough to allow efficient intersystem crossing (ISC) and reverse ISC, leading to efficient TADF at room temperature. The straightforward synthesis of DCF-MPYM and wide availability of its starting materials contribute to the excellent potential of the compound to replace luminescent lanthanide complexes in future time-resolved imaging technologies.

  7. Accurate Rapid Lifetime Determination on Time-Gated FLIM Microscopy with Optical Sectioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Susana F; Domingues, José Paulo; Morgado, António Miguel

    2018-01-01

    Time-gated fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) is a powerful technique to assess the biochemistry of cells and tissues. When applied to living thick samples, it is hampered by the lack of optical sectioning and the need of acquiring many images for an accurate measurement of fluorescence lifetimes. Here, we report on the use of processing techniques to overcome these limitations, minimizing the acquisition time, while providing optical sectioning. We evaluated the application of the HiLo and the rapid lifetime determination (RLD) techniques for accurate measurement of fluorescence lifetimes with optical sectioning. HiLo provides optical sectioning by combining the high-frequency content from a standard image, obtained with uniform illumination, with the low-frequency content of a second image, acquired using structured illumination. Our results show that HiLo produces optical sectioning on thick samples without degrading the accuracy of the measured lifetimes. We also show that instrument response function (IRF) deconvolution can be applied with the RLD technique on HiLo images, improving greatly the accuracy of the measured lifetimes. These results open the possibility of using the RLD technique with pulsed diode laser sources to determine accurately fluorescence lifetimes in the subnanosecond range on thick multilayer samples, providing that offline processing is allowed.

  8. Statistical filtering in fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macháň, Radek; Kapusta, Peter; Hof, Martin

    Roč. 406 , č. 20 (2014), s. 4797-4813 ISSN 1618-2642 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP208/12/G016 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Filtered fluorescence correlation spectroscopy * Fluorescence lifetime correlation spectroscopy * Fluorescence spectral correlation spectroscopy Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.436, year: 2014

  9. Laser induced fluorescence lifetime characterization of Bacillus endospore species using time correlated single photon counting analysis with the multi-exponential fit method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Clint; Edwards, Jarrod; Fisher, Andmorgan

    2010-04-01

    Rapid detection of biological material is critical for determining presence/absence of bacterial endospores within various investigative programs. Even more critical is that if select material tests positive for bacillus endospores then tests should provide data at the species level. Optical detection of microbial endospore formers such as Bacillus sp. can be heavy, cumbersome, and may only identify at the genus level. Data provided from this study will aid in characterization needed by future detection systems for further rapid breakdown analysis to gain insight into a more positive signature collection of Bacillus sp. Literature has shown that fluorescence spectroscopy of endospores could be statistically separated from other vegetative genera, but could not be separated among one another. Results of this study showed endospore species separation is possible using laser-induce fluorescence with lifetime decay analysis for Bacillus endospores. Lifetime decays of B. subtilis, B. megaterium, B. coagulans, and B. anthracis Sterne strain were investigated. Using the Multi-Exponential fit method data showed three distinct lifetimes for each species within the following ranges, 0.2-1.3 ns; 2.5-7.0 ns; 7.5-15.0 ns, when laser induced at 307 nm. The four endospore species were individually separated using principle component analysis (95% CI).

  10. Microsensors for rapid estimation of the degree of contamination due to organic matter in waste waters; Microsensores para la estimacion rapida del grado de contaminacion por materia organica de las aguas residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orozco Holguin, J.; Fernandez Sanchez, C.; Jimenez Jorquera, C.

    2008-07-01

    The chemical oxygen demand, COD, is an indicative of the contamination grade by organic matter in wastewater effluents. Its measurement is usually performed with conventional instrumentation and techniques which are time-consuming and requires highly pollutant and dangerous reagents. electrochemical oxygen demand, EOD, is proposed as an alternative parameter to COD. This works reports on a chemical microsensor as an attractive option to get this parameter, thanks to its high speed of response, robustness, feasibility and low-cost of production. The microsensor developed, modified with a conductive composite, has been characterized and used to estimate the EOD of wastewater samples coming from a production line of parenteral food and from a wine making process. (Author) 34 refs.

  11. Double-gated spectral snapshots for biomolecular fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Ryosuke; Hamada, Norio; Ichida, Hideki; Tokunaga, Fumio; Kanematsu, Yasuo

    2007-01-01

    A versatile method to take femtosecond spectral snapshots of fluorescence has been developed based on a double gating technique in the combination of an optical Kerr gate and an image intensifier as an electrically driven gate set in front of a charge-coupled device detector. The application of a conventional optical-Kerr-gate method is limited to molecules with the short fluorescence lifetime up to a few hundred picoseconds, because long-lifetime fluorescence itself behaves as a source of the background signal due to insufficiency of the extinction ratio of polarizers employed for the Kerr gate. By using the image intensifier with the gate time of 200 ps, we have successfully suppressed the background signal and overcome the application limit of optical-Kerr-gate method. The system performance has been demonstrated by measuring time-resolved fluorescence spectra for laser dye solution and the riboflavin solution as a typical sample of biomolecule

  12. Optimisation of Lagrangian Flash Flood Microsensors Dropped by Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    KAUST Repository

    Abdulaal, Mohammed

    2014-05-01

    Abstract Physical Sciences and Engineering Division Mechanical Engineering Department Master of Science Optimisation of Lagrangian Flash Flood Microsensors Dropped by Unmanned Aerial Vehicle by Mohammed Abdulaal Floods are the most common natural disasters, causing thousands of casualties every year in the world. In particular, ash ood events are particularly deadly because of the short timescales on which they occur. Classical sensing solutions such as xed wireless sensor networks or satellite imagery are either too expensive or too inaccurate. Nevertheless, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles equipped with mobile microsensors could be capable of sensing ash oods in real time for a low overall cost, saving lives and greatly improving the e ciency of the emergency response. Using ood simulation data, we show that this system could be used to detect ash oods. We also present an ongoing implementation of this system using 3D printed sensors and sensor delivery systems on a UAV testbed as well as some preliminary results.

  13. Multiphoton autofluorescence lifetime imaging of induced pluripotent stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchugonova, Aisada

    2017-06-01

    The multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging tomograph MPTflex with its flexible 360-deg scan head, articulated arm, and tunable femtosecond laser source was employed to study induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS) cultures. Autofluorescence (AF) lifetime imaging was performed with 250-ps temporal resolution and submicron spatial resolution using time-correlated single-photon counting. The two-photon excited AF was based on the metabolic coenzymes NAD(P)H and flavin adenine dinucleotide/flavoproteins. iPS cells generated from mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and cocultured with growth-arrested MEFs as feeder cells have been studied. Significant differences on AF lifetime signatures were identified between iPS and feeder cells as well as between their differentiating counterparts.

  14. From morphology to biochemical state - intravital multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging of inflamed human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huck, Volker; Gorzelanny, Christian; Thomas, Kai; Getova, Valentina; Niemeyer, Verena; Zens, Katharina; Unnerstall, Tim R.; Feger, Julia S.; Fallah, Mohammad A.; Metze, Dieter; Ständer, Sonja; Luger, Thomas A.; Koenig, Karsten; Mess, Christian; Schneider, Stefan W.

    2016-03-01

    The application of multiphoton microscopy in the field of biomedical research and advanced diagnostics promises unique insights into the pathophysiology of inflammatory skin diseases. In the present study, we combined multiphoton-based intravital tomography (MPT) and fluorescence lifetime imaging (MPT-FLIM) within the scope of a clinical trial of atopic dermatitis with the aim of providing personalised data on the aetiopathology of inflammation in a non-invasive manner at patients’ bedsides. These ‘optical biopsies’ generated via MPT were morphologically analysed and aligned with classical skin histology. Because of its subcellular resolution, MPT provided evidence of a redistribution of mitochondria in keratinocytes, indicating an altered cellular metabolism. Two independent morphometric algorithms reliably showed an even distribution in healthy skin and a perinuclear accumulation in inflamed skin. Moreover, using MPT-FLIM, detection of the onset and progression of inflammatory processes could be achieved. In conclusion, the change in the distribution of mitochondria upon inflammation and the verification of an altered cellular metabolism facilitate a better understanding of inflammatory skin diseases and may permit early diagnosis and therapy.

  15. Dual fluorescence of single LH2 antenna nanorings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freiberg, A.; Raetsep, M.; Timpmann, K.; Trinkunas, G.

    2004-01-01

    A dual nature of fluorescence from LH2 pigment-protein complexes, which is a part of the light harvesting system of purple bacteria, is confirmed by fluorescence-lifetime dependence on recording wavelength and spectrally selective spectroscopy. An analysis based on the Holstein molecular crystal model, modified by allowing diagonal disorder, suggests coexistence of large- and small-radius self-trapped excitons, which serve as the origin of the dual fluorescence

  16. High speed fluorescence imaging with compressed ultrafast photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J. V.; Mason, J. D.; Beier, H. T.; Bixler, J. N.

    2017-02-01

    Fluorescent lifetime imaging is an optical technique that facilitates imaging molecular interactions and cellular functions. Because the excited lifetime of a fluorophore is sensitive to its local microenvironment,1, 2 measurement of fluorescent lifetimes can be used to accurately detect regional changes in temperature, pH, and ion concentration. However, typical state of the art fluorescent lifetime methods are severely limited when it comes to acquisition time (on the order of seconds to minutes) and video rate imaging. Here we show that compressed ultrafast photography (CUP) can be used in conjunction with fluorescent lifetime imaging to overcome these acquisition rate limitations. Frame rates up to one hundred billion frames per second have been demonstrated with compressed ultrafast photography using a streak camera.3 These rates are achieved by encoding time in the spatial direction with a pseudo-random binary pattern. The time domain information is then reconstructed using a compressed sensing algorithm, resulting in a cube of data (x,y,t) for each readout image. Thus, application of compressed ultrafast photography will allow us to acquire an entire fluorescent lifetime image with a single laser pulse. Using a streak camera with a high-speed CMOS camera, acquisition rates of 100 frames per second can be achieved, which will significantly enhance our ability to quantitatively measure complex biological events with high spatial and temporal resolution. In particular, we will demonstrate the ability of this technique to do single-shot fluorescent lifetime imaging of cells and microspheres.

  17. Fluorescence Decay Dynamics of Ethidium Bromide in Polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jee, Ah Young; Min Yung

    2010-01-01

    The fluorescence lifetimes of EB in five polymers covering LDPE, HDPE, PC, PS, and PAA were measured by picosecond time-correlated single photon counting. The lifetime change of EB has been previously described by hydrogen bonding ability. In this work, we have observed that the lifetime of EB depends strongly on the Young's modulus of medium. Thus, it is possible that the fluorescence decay dynamics of EB could be influenced by medium rigidity rather than hydrogen bonding ability in polymer. The medium influence on the fluorescence decay dynamics of ethidium bromide (EB) has been investigated in various environments. For example, Ohmstead and Kearns related the fluorescence lifetime of EB to the excited-state proton transfer process. In addition, they reported that the solvent viscosity plays a minor role in the excited state decay process of EB. Chirico et al. measured the fluorescence decay of EB as 1.7 ns in water and 6.5 ns in ethanol and concluded that hydrogen bonding ability is a key factor for the nonradiative relaxation. Pal et al. measured the fluorescence decay time of EB in acetone, acetonitrile, and their mixtures. They observed that the fluorescence decay processes were independent on the solvent polarity. These results show that the EB lifetime does not depend much on polarity or viscosity, but is mainly influenced by hydrogen bonding. Overall, EB is one of most widely used dyes for probing DNA. When EB is intercalated into the helical structure of DNA, a large increase in the fluorescence lifetime has been observed in comparison with water environment, and the fluorescence enhancement was attributed to the blocking of the excited-state proton transfer

  18. Automatic segmentation of fluorescence lifetime microscopy images of cells using multiresolution community detection--a first study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, D; Sarder, P; Ronhovde, P; Orthaus, S; Achilefu, S; Nussinov, Z

    2014-01-01

    Inspired by a multiresolution community detection based network segmentation method, we suggest an automatic method for segmenting fluorescence lifetime (FLT) imaging microscopy (FLIM) images of cells in a first pilot investigation on two selected images. The image processing problem is framed as identifying segments with respective average FLTs against the background in FLIM images. The proposed method segments a FLIM image for a given resolution of the network defined using image pixels as the nodes and similarity between the FLTs of the pixels as the edges. In the resulting segmentation, low network resolution leads to larger segments, and high network resolution leads to smaller segments. Furthermore, using the proposed method, the mean-square error in estimating the FLT segments in a FLIM image was found to consistently decrease with increasing resolution of the corresponding network. The multiresolution community detection method appeared to perform better than a popular spectral clustering-based method in performing FLIM image segmentation. At high resolution, the spectral segmentation method introduced noisy segments in its output, and it was unable to achieve a consistent decrease in mean-square error with increasing resolution. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2013 Royal Microscopical Society.

  19. Thermoelectric infrared microsensors based on a periodically suspended thermopile integrating nanostructured Ge/SiGe quantum dots superlattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziouche, K., E-mail: katir.ziouche@iemn.univ-lille1.fr, E-mail: Zahia.bougrioua@iemn.univ-lille1.fr; Bougrioua, Z., E-mail: katir.ziouche@iemn.univ-lille1.fr, E-mail: Zahia.bougrioua@iemn.univ-lille1.fr; Lejeune, P.; Lasri, T.; Leclercq, D. [IEMN, Institute of Electronics, Microelectronics and Nanotechnology, CNRS and Lille 1 University, F-59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Savelli, G.; Hauser, D.; Michon, P.-M. [CEA, LITEN, Thermoelectricity Laboratory, F-38054 Grenoble (France)

    2014-07-28

    This paper presents an original integration of polycrystalline SiGe-based quantum dots superlattices (QDSL) into Thermoelectric (TE) planar infrared microsensors (μSIR) fabricated using a CMOS technology. The nanostructuration in QDSL results into a considerably reduced thermal conductivity by a factor up to 10 compared to the one of standard polysilicon layers that are usually used for IR sensor applications. A presentation of several TE layers, QDSL and polysilicon, is given before to describe the fabrication of the thermopile-based sensors. The theoretical values of the sensitivity to irradiance of μSIR can be predicted thanks to an analytical model. These findings are used to interpret the experimental measurements versus the nature of the TE layer exploited in the devices. The use of nanostructured QDSL as the main material in μSIR thermopile has brought a sensitivity improvement of about 28% consistent with theoretical predictions. The impact of QDSL low thermal conductivity is damped by the contribution of the thermal conductivity of all the other sub-layers that build up the device.

  20. Multi-Fibre Optode Microsensors: affordable designs for monitoring oxygen in soils under varying environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezanezhad, F.; Milojevic, T.; Parsons, C. T.; Smeaton, C. M.; Van Cappellen, P.

    2017-12-01

    Molecular oxygen (O2) measurements in field and laboratory soil and sediment systems provide useful insight into the biogeochemical functioning of natural environments. However, monitoring soil and sediment O2 is often challenging due to high costs, analyte consumption, and limited customizability and durability of existing O2 sensors. To meet this challenge, an in-house luminescence-based Multi Fibre Optode (MuFO) microsensor system was developed to monitor O2 levels under changing moisture and temperature regimes. The design is simplified by the use of a basic DSLR camera, LED light and fibre optic cables. The technique is based on O2 quenching the luminescent light intensity emitted from a luminophore (platinum(II) meso-tetra(pentafluorophenyl)porphyrin, PtTFPP) that is dip-coated onto the tips of the fibre optic cables, where increasing O2 corresponds to decreasing light intensity, based on the classic Stern-Volmer relationship. High-resolution digital images of the sensor-emitted light are then converted into % O2 saturation. The method was successfully tested in two artificial soil (20% peat, 80% sand) column experiments designed to simulate freeze-thaw cycles (temperature cycling from -10°C to 25°C) and water table fluctuations under controlled conditions. Depth distributions of O2 levels were monitored without interruption for multiple freeze-thaw and water table cycles. No degradation of optode performance or O2 signals were observed for the duration of the column experiments, which supports the long-term deployment of the microsensors for continuous O2 monitoring in field and laboratory settings. The technical specifications of the system are fair, with a detection limit of 0.2% O2 saturation. The main advantages of the MuFO system over commercial applications are the comparatively low cost ($1,800 USD; about ¼ the cost of commercial versions) and ease of customizability. The system has been further developed for near real-time monitoring in the field

  1. Nanoparticle discrimination based on wavelength and lifetime-multiplexed cathodoluminescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garming, Mathijs W H; Weppelman, I Gerward C; de Boer, Pascal; Martínez, Felipe Perona; Schirhagl, Romana; Hoogenboom, Jacob P; Moerland, Robert J

    2017-08-31

    Nanomaterials can be identified in high-resolution electron microscopy images using spectrally-selective cathodoluminescence. Capabilities for multiplex detection can however be limited, e.g., due to spectral overlap or availability of filters. Also, the available photon flux may be limited due to degradation under electron irradiation. Here, we demonstrate single-pass cathodoluminescence-lifetime based discrimination of different nanoparticles, using a pulsed electron beam. We also show that cathodoluminescence lifetime is a robust parameter even when the nanoparticle cathodoluminescence intensity decays over an order of magnitude. We create lifetime maps, where the lifetime of the cathodoluminescence emission is correlated with the emission intensity and secondary-electron images. The consistency of lifetime-based discrimination is verified by also correlating the emission wavelength and the lifetime of nanoparticles. Our results show how cathodoluminescence lifetime provides an additional channel of information in electron microscopy.

  2. Amperometric Microsensors Monitoring Glutamate-Evoked In Situ Responses of Nitric Oxide and Carbon Monoxide from Live Human Neuroblastoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yejin Ha

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the brain, nitric oxide (NO and carbon monoxide (CO are important signaling gases which have multifaceted roles, such as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, and vasodilators. Even though it is difficult to measure NO and CO in a living system due to their high diffusibility and extremely low release levels, electrochemical sensors are promising tools to measure in vivo and in vitro NO and CO gases. In this paper, using amperometric dual and septuple NO/CO microsensors, real-time NO and CO changes evoked by glutamate were monitored simultaneously for human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y cells. In cultures, the cells were differentiated and matured into functional neurons by retinoic acid and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. When glutamate was administrated to the cells, both NO and CO increases and subsequent decreases returning to the basal levels were observed with a dual NO/CO microsensor. In order to facilitate sensor’s measurement, a flower-type septuple NO/CO microsensor was newly developed and confirmed in terms of the sensitivity and selectivity. The septuple microsensor was employed for the measurements of NO and CO changes as a function of distances from the position of glutamate injection. Our sensor measurements revealed that only functionally differentiated cells responded to glutamate and released NO and CO.

  3. Direct Vpr-Vpr Interaction in Cells monitored by two Photon Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy and Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mély Yves

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 encodes several regulatory proteins, notably Vpr which influences the survival of the infected cells by causing a G2/M arrest and apoptosis. Such an important role of Vpr in HIV-1 disease progression has fuelled a large number of studies, from its 3D structure to the characterization of specific cellular partners. However, no direct imaging and quantification of Vpr-Vpr interaction in living cells has yet been reported. To address this issue, eGFP- and mCherry proteins were tagged by Vpr, expressed in HeLa cells and their interaction was studied by two photon fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. Results Results show that Vpr forms homo-oligomers at or close to the nuclear envelope. Moreover, Vpr dimers and trimers were found in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus. Point mutations in the three α helices of Vpr drastically impaired Vpr oligomerization and localization at the nuclear envelope while point mutations outside the helical regions had no effect. Theoretical structures of Vpr mutants reveal that mutations within the α-helices could perturb the leucine zipper like motifs. The ΔQ44 mutation has the most drastic effect since it likely disrupts the second helix. Finally, all Vpr point mutants caused cell apoptosis suggesting that Vpr-mediated apoptosis functions independently from Vpr oligomerization. Conclusion We report that Vpr oligomerization in HeLa cells relies on the hydrophobic core formed by the three α helices. This oligomerization is required for Vpr localization at the nuclear envelope but not for Vpr-mediated apoptosis.

  4. Fully time-resolved near-field scanning optical microscopy fluorescence imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Eun-Soo; Vanden Bout, David A.

    2003-01-01

    Time-correlated single photon counting has been coupled with near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) to record complete fluorescence lifetime decays at each pixel in an NSOM image. The resulting three-dimensional data sets can be binned in the time dimension to create images of photons at particular time delays or images of the fluorescence lifetime. Alternatively, regions of interest identified in the topography and fluorescence images can be used to bin the data in the spatial dimensions resulting in high signal to noise fluorescence decays of particular regions of the sample. The technique has been demonstrated on films of poly(vinylalcohol), doped with the fluorescent dye, cascade blue (CB). The CB segregates into small circular regions of high concentration within the films during the drying process. The lifetime imaging shows that the spots have slightly faster excited state decays due to quenching of the luminescence as a result of the higher concentration. The technique is also used to image the fluorescence lifetime of an annealed film of poly(dihexylfluorene). The samples show high contrast in the total intensity fluorescence image, but the lifetime image reveals the sample to be extremely uniform

  5. Precision lifetime measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, C.E.

    1994-01-01

    Precision measurements of atomic lifetimes provide important information necessary for testing atomic theory. The authors employ resonant laser excitation of a fast atomic beam to measure excited state lifetimes by observing the decay-in-flight of the emitted fluorescence. A similar technique was used by Gaupp, et al., who reported measurements with precisions of less than 0.2%. Their program includes lifetime measurements of the low lying p states in alkali and alkali like systems. Motivation for this work comes from a need to test the atomic many-body-perturbation theory (MBPT) that is necessary for interpretation of parity nonconservation experiments in atomic cesium. The authors have measured the cesium 6p 2 P 1/2 and 6p 2 P 3/2 state lifetimes to be 34.934±0.094 ns and 30.499±0.070 ns respectively. With minor changes to the apparatus, they have extended their measurements to include the lithium 2p 2 P 1/2 and 2p 2 P 3/2 states

  6. Real-time tracking of vertebral body movement with implantable reference microsensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mularski, Sven; Picht, Thomas; Kuehn, Björn; Kombos, Theodoros; Brock, Mario; Suess, Olaf

    2006-05-01

    In the spine, navigation techniques serve mainly to control and accurately target insertion of implants. The main source of error is that the spine is not a rigid organ, but rather a chain of semiflexible movement segments. Any intraoperative manipulation of the patient alters the geometry and volumetry as compared to the 3D volume model created from the image data. Thus, the objective of the study was to implement the theoretical principle of microsensor referencing in a model experiment and to clarify which anatomical structures are suitable for intermittent implantation of positional sensors, as illustrated with cervical vertebral bodies. Laboratory tests were conducted using 70 models of human cervical vertebral bodies. The first experiment investigated whether arbitrary movements of vertebral bodies can be tracked with the positional information from the implanted microsensors. The accuracy of this movement monitoring was determined quantitatively on the basis of positional error measurement. In the second experiment, different ventral and dorsal surgical operations were simulated on five models of the cervical spine. Quantifiable measurement values such as the spatial extension of the intervertebral space and the relative positions of the planes of the upper plates were determined. With respect to the differing anatomy of the individual vertebral bodies of the cervical spine, the sensors could be placed securely with a 5x2 mm drill. The registration error (RE) was determined as a root mean square error. The mean value was 0.9425 mm (range: 0.57-1.2 mm; median: 0.9400 mm; SD: 0.1903 mm). The precision of the movement monitoring of the vertebral body was investigated along its three main axes. The error tolerance between post-interventional 3D reconstruction and direct measurement on the model did not exceed 1.3 mm in the distance measurements or 2.5 degrees in the angular measurements. The tomograms on the system monitor could be updated in close to real time

  7. Chemical Microsensors For Detection Of Explosives And Chemical Warfare Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoguang; Swanson, Basil I.

    2001-11-13

    An article of manufacture is provided including a substrate having an oxide surface layer and a layer of a cyclodextrin derivative chemically bonded to said substrate, said layer of a cyclodextrin derivative adapted for the inclusion of selected compounds, e.g., nitro-containing organic compounds, therewith. Such an article can be a chemical microsensor capable of detecting a resultant mass change from inclusion of the nitro-containing organic compound.

  8. Real-time monitoring of luminescent lifetime changes of PtOEP oxygen sensing film with LED/photodiode-based time-domain lifetime device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Shaomin; Wu, Wanhua; Wu, Yubo; Zhao, Taiyang; Zhou, Fuke; Yang, Yubin; Zhang, Xin; Liang, Xiaofen; Wu, Wenting; Chi, Lina; Wang, Zhonggang; Zhao, Jianzhang

    2009-05-01

    A cost-effective LED/photodiode(PD)-based time-domain luminescent lifetime measuring device with rugged electronics and simplified algorithms was assembled and successfully used to characterize oxygen sensing films, by continuously monitoring phosphorescence lifetime changes of phosphorescent platinum octaethylporphyrin (PtOEP) in cardo poly(aryl ether ketone) polymer (IMPEK-C) vs. variation of the oxygen partial pressure in a gas mixture (O(2)/N(2)). The results determined by both phosphorescence lifetime and intensity monitoring were compared and the lifetime mode gave results which are in good agreement with the intensity mode. The lifetime-based linear Stern-Volmer plot indicates that the PtOEP molecules are nearly homogeneously distributed in the sensing film. The phosphorescent lifetime of the PtOEP film changes from 75 micros in neat N(2) to less than 2 micros in neat O(2). The sensing system (by combination of the PtOEP sensing film with the home-assembled lifetime device) gives a high lifetime-based O(2) sensing resolution, e.g. about 2 micros Torr(-1) for low O(2) concentration (below 3.5% O(2), V/V). This feasible lifetime device configuration is affordable to most sensor laboratories and the device may facilitate the study of O(2) sensing material with the continuous lifetime monitoring method.

  9. Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustavsson, Thomas; Mialocq, Jean-Claude

    2007-01-01

    This article addresses the evolution in time of light emitted by a molecular system after a brief photo-excitation. The authors first describe fluorescence from a photo-physical point of view and discuss the characterization of the excited state. Then, they explain some basic notions related to fluorescence characterization (lifetime and decays, quantum efficiency, so on). They present the different experimental methods and techniques currently used to study time-resolved fluorescence. They discuss basic notions of time resolution and spectral reconstruction. They briefly present some conventional methods: intensified Ccd cameras, photo-multipliers and photodiodes associated with a fast oscilloscope, and phase modulation. Other methods and techniques are more precisely presented: time-correlated single photon counting (principle, examples, and fluorescence lifetime imagery), streak camera (principle, examples), and optical methods like the Kerr optical effect (principle and examples) and fluorescence up-conversion (principle and theoretical considerations, examples of application)

  10. Automatic Segmentation of Fluorescence Lifetime Microscopy Images of Cells Using Multi-Resolution Community Detection -A First Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dandan; Sarder, Pinaki; Ronhovde, Peter; Orthaus, Sandra; Achilefu, Samuel; Nussinov, Zohar

    2014-01-01

    Inspired by a multi-resolution community detection (MCD) based network segmentation method, we suggest an automatic method for segmenting fluorescence lifetime (FLT) imaging microscopy (FLIM) images of cells in a first pilot investigation on two selected images. The image processing problem is framed as identifying segments with respective average FLTs against the background in FLIM images. The proposed method segments a FLIM image for a given resolution of the network defined using image pixels as the nodes and similarity between the FLTs of the pixels as the edges. In the resulting segmentation, low network resolution leads to larger segments, and high network resolution leads to smaller segments. Further, using the proposed method, the mean-square error (MSE) in estimating the FLT segments in a FLIM image was found to consistently decrease with increasing resolution of the corresponding network. The MCD method appeared to perform better than a popular spectral clustering based method in performing FLIM image segmentation. At high resolution, the spectral segmentation method introduced noisy segments in its output, and it was unable to achieve a consistent decrease in MSE with increasing resolution. PMID:24251410

  11. Recent Trends in Monitoring of European Water Framework Directive Priority Substances Using Micro-Sensors: A 2007–2009 Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Jaffrezic-Renault

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses from a critical perspective the development of new sensors for the measurement of priority pollutants targeted in the E.U. Water Framework Directive. Significant advances are reported in the paper and their advantages and limitations are also discussed. Future perspectives in this area are also pointed out in the conclusions. This review covers publications appeared since December 2006 (the publication date of the Swift report. Among priority substances, sensors for monitoring the four WFD metals represent 81% of published papers. None of analyzed publications present a micro-sensor totally validated in laboratory, ready for tests under real conditions in the field. The researches are mainly focused on the sensing part of the micro-sensors. Nevertheless, the main factor limiting micro-sensor applications in the environment is the ruggedness of the receptor towards environmental conditions. This point constitutes the first technological obstacle to be overcome for any long-term field tests.

  12. Reliability-based assessment of polyethylene pipe creep lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khelif, Rabia; Chateauneuf, Alaa; Chaoui, Kamel

    2007-01-01

    Lifetime management of underground pipelines is mandatory for safe hydrocarbon transmission and distribution systems. The use of high-density polyethylene tubes subjected to internal pressure, external loading and environmental variations requires a reliability study in order to define the service limits and the optimal operating conditions. In service, the time-dependent phenomena, especially creep, take place during the pipe lifetime, leading to significant strength reduction. In this work, the reliability-based assessment of pipe lifetime models is carried out, in order to propose a probabilistic methodology for lifetime model selection and to determine the pipe safety levels as well as the most important parameters for pipeline reliability. This study is enhanced by parametric analysis on pipe configuration, gas pressure and operating temperature

  13. Reliability-based assessment of polyethylene pipe creep lifetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khelif, Rabia [LaMI-UBP and IFMA, Campus de Clermont-Fd, Les Cezeaux, BP 265, 63175 Aubiere Cedex (France); LR3MI, Departement de Genie Mecanique, Universite Badji Mokhtar, BP 12, Annaba 23000 (Algeria)], E-mail: rabia.khelif@ifma.fr; Chateauneuf, Alaa [LGC-University Blaise Pascal, Campus des Cezeaux, BP 206, 63174 Aubiere Cedex (France)], E-mail: alaa.chateauneuf@polytech.univ-bpclermont.fr; Chaoui, Kamel [LR3MI, Departement de Genie Mecanique, Universite Badji Mokhtar, BP 12, Annaba 23000 (Algeria)], E-mail: chaoui@univ-annaba.org

    2007-12-15

    Lifetime management of underground pipelines is mandatory for safe hydrocarbon transmission and distribution systems. The use of high-density polyethylene tubes subjected to internal pressure, external loading and environmental variations requires a reliability study in order to define the service limits and the optimal operating conditions. In service, the time-dependent phenomena, especially creep, take place during the pipe lifetime, leading to significant strength reduction. In this work, the reliability-based assessment of pipe lifetime models is carried out, in order to propose a probabilistic methodology for lifetime model selection and to determine the pipe safety levels as well as the most important parameters for pipeline reliability. This study is enhanced by parametric analysis on pipe configuration, gas pressure and operating temperature.

  14. Anthracene Fluorescence Quenching by a Tetrakis (Ketocarboxamide Cavitand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor Zoltan Janosi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Quenching of both fluorescence lifetime and fluorescence intensity of anthracene was investigated in the presence of a newly derived tetrakis (ketocarboxamide cavitand at various concentrations. Time-correlated single photon counting method was applied for the lifetime measurements. A clear correlation between the fluorescence lifetime of anthracene as a function of cavitand concentration in dimethylformamide solution was observed. The bimolecular collisional quenching constant was derived from the decrease of lifetime. Fluorescence intensity was measured in the emission wavelength region around 400 nm as a result of excitation at 280 nm. Effective quenching was observed in the presence of the cavitand. The obtained Stern-Volmer plot displayed upward curvature. The results did not follow even extended Stern-Volmer behavior, often used to describe deviations from static bimolecular quenching. To explain our results we adopted the Smoluchowski model and obtained a reasonable estimate for the molecular radius of the cavitand in solution.

  15. A New Theoretical Approach to Single-Molecule Fluorescence Optical Studies of RNA Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xinghai; Shan Guangcun; Bao Shuying

    2011-01-01

    Single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy in condensed phases has many important chemical and biological applications. The single-molecule fluorescence measurements contain information about conformational dynamics on a vast range of time scales. Based on the data analysis protocols methodology proposed by X. Sunney Xie, the theoretical study here mainly focuses on the single-molecule studies of single RNA with interconversions among different conformational states, to with a single FRET pair attached. We obtain analytical expressions for fluorescence lifetime correlation functions that relate changes in fluorescence lifetime to the distance-dependent FRET mechanism within the context of the Smoluchowski diffusion model. The present work establishes useful guideline for the single-molecule studies of biomolecules to reveal the complicated folding dynamics of single RNA molecules at nanometer scale.

  16. Multimodal fluorescence imaging spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stopel, Martijn H W; Blum, Christian; Subramaniam, Vinod; Engelborghs, Yves; Visser, Anthonie J.W.G.

    2014-01-01

    Multimodal fluorescence imaging is a versatile method that has a wide application range from biological studies to materials science. Typical observables in multimodal fluorescence imaging are intensity, lifetime, excitation, and emission spectra which are recorded at chosen locations at the sample.

  17. Charge-transfer-based terbium MOF nanoparticles as fluorescent pH sensor for extreme acidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zewan; Chen, Yang

    2017-01-15

    Newly emerged metal organic frameworks (MOFs) have aroused the great interest in designing functional materials by means of its flexible structure and component. In this study, we used lanthanide Tb 3+ ions and small molecular ligands to design and assemble a kind of pH-sensitive MOF nanoparticle based on intramolecular-charge-transfer effect. This kind of made-to-order MOF nanoparticle for H + is highly specific and sensitive and could be used to fluorescently indicate pH value of strong acidic solution via preset mechanism through luminescence of Tb 3+ . The long luminescence lifetime of Tb 3+ allows eliminating concomitant non-specific fluorescence by time-revised fluorescence techniques, processing an advantage in sensing H + in biological media with strong autofluorescence. Our method showed a great potential of MOF structures in designing and constructing sensitive sensing materials for specific analytes directly via the assembly of functional ions/ligands. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Plasmonic enhancement of ultraviolet fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Xiaojin

    Plasmonics relates to the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and conduction electrons at metallic interfaces or in metallic nanostructures. Surface plasmons are collective electron oscillations at a metal surface, which can be manipulated by shape, texture and material composition. Plasmonic applications cover a broad spectrum from visible to near infrared, including biosensing, nanolithography, spectroscopy, optoelectronics, photovoltaics and so on. However, there remains a gap in this activity in the ultraviolet (UV, research. Motivating factors in the study of UV Plasmonics are the direct access to biomolecular resonances and native fluorescence, resonant Raman scattering interactions, and the potential for exerting control over photochemical reactions. This dissertation aims to fill in the gap of Plasmonics in the UV with efforts of design, fabrication and characterization of aluminium (Al) and magnesium (Mg) nanostructures for the application of label-free bimolecular detection via native UV fluorescence. The first contribution of this dissertation addresses the design of Al nanostructures in the context of UV fluorescence enhancement. A design method that combines analytical analysis with numerical simulation has been developed. Performance of three canonical plasmonic structures---the dipole antenna, bullseye nanoaperture and nanoaperture array---has been compared. The optimal geometrical parameters have been determined. A novel design of a compound bullseye structure has been proposed and numerically analyzed for the purpose of compensating for the large Stokes shift typical of UV fluorescence. Second, UV lifetime modification of diffusing molecules by Al nanoapertures has been experimentally demonstrated for the first time. Lifetime reductions of ~3.5x have been observed for the high quantum yield (QY) laser dye p-terphenyl in a 60 nm diameter aperture with 50 nm undercut. Furthermore, quantum-yield-dependence of lifetime reduction has been

  19. Fluorescence kinetics of Trp-Trp dipeptide and its derivatives in water via ultrafast fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Menghui; Yi, Hua; Chang, Mengfang; Cao, Xiaodan; Li, Lei; Zhou, Zhongneng; Pan, Haifeng; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Sanjun; Xu, Jianhua

    2015-08-01

    Ultrafast fluorescence dynamics of Tryptophan-Tryptophan (Trp-Trp/Trp2) dipeptide and its derivatives in water have been investigated using a picosecond resolved time correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) apparatus together with a femtosecond resolved upconversion spectrophotofluorometer. The fluorescence decay profiles at multiple wavelengths were fitted by a global analysis technique. Nanosecond fluorescence kinetics of Trp2, N-tert-butyl carbonyl oxygen-N'-aldehyde group-l-tryptophan-l-tryptophan (NBTrp2), l-tryptophan-l-tryptophan methyl ester (Trp2Me), and N-acetyl-l-tryptophan-l-tryptophan methyl ester (NATrp2Me) exhibit multi-exponential decays with the average lifetimes of 1.99, 3.04, 0.72 and 1.22ns, respectively. Due to the intramolecular interaction between two Trp residues, the "water relaxation" lifetime was observed around 4ps, and it is noticed that Trp2 and its derivatives also exhibit a new decay with a lifetime of ∼100ps, while single-Trp fluorescence decay in dipeptides/proteins shows 20-30ps. The intramolecular interaction lifetime constants of Trp2, NBTrp2, Trp2Me and NATrp2Me were then calculated to be 3.64, 0.93, 11.52 and 2.40ns, respectively. Candidate mechanisms (including heterogeneity, solvent relaxation, quasi static self-quenching or ET/PT quenching) have been discussed. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Portable Electronic Tongue Based on Microsensors for the Analysis of Cava Wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez-Gómez, Pablo; Escudé-Pujol, Roger; Capdevila, Fina; Puig-Pujol, Anna; Jiménez-Jorquera, Cecilia; Gutiérrez-Capitán, Manuel

    2016-10-27

    Cava is a quality sparkling wine produced in Spain. As a product with a designation of origin, Cava wine has to meet certain quality requirements throughout its production process; therefore, the analysis of several parameters is of great interest. In this work, a portable electronic tongue for the analysis of Cava wine is described. The system is comprised of compact and low-power-consumption electronic equipment and an array of microsensors formed by six ion-selective field effect transistors sensitive to pH, Na⁺, K⁺, Ca 2+ , Cl - , and CO₃ 2- , one conductivity sensor, one redox potential sensor, and two amperometric gold microelectrodes. This system, combined with chemometric tools, has been applied to the analysis of 78 Cava wine samples. Results demonstrate that the electronic tongue is able to classify the samples according to the aging time, with a percentage of correct prediction between 80% and 96%, by using linear discriminant analysis, as well as to quantify the total acidity, pH, volumetric alcoholic degree, potassium, conductivity, glycerol, and methanol parameters, with mean relative errors between 2.3% and 6.0%, by using partial least squares regressions.

  1. Portable Electronic Tongue Based on Microsensors for the Analysis of Cava Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Giménez-Gómez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Cava is a quality sparkling wine produced in Spain. As a product with a designation of origin, Cava wine has to meet certain quality requirements throughout its production process; therefore, the analysis of several parameters is of great interest. In this work, a portable electronic tongue for the analysis of Cava wine is described. The system is comprised of compact and low-power-consumption electronic equipment and an array of microsensors formed by six ion-selective field effect transistors sensitive to pH, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Cl−, and CO32−, one conductivity sensor, one redox potential sensor, and two amperometric gold microelectrodes. This system, combined with chemometric tools, has been applied to the analysis of 78 Cava wine samples. Results demonstrate that the electronic tongue is able to classify the samples according to the aging time, with a percentage of correct prediction between 80% and 96%, by using linear discriminant analysis, as well as to quantify the total acidity, pH, volumetric alcoholic degree, potassium, conductivity, glycerol, and methanol parameters, with mean relative errors between 2.3% and 6.0%, by using partial least squares regressions.

  2. Analyzing the factors affecting network lifetime cluster-based wireless sensor network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, A.S.; Qureshi, A.

    2010-01-01

    Cluster-based wireless sensor networks enable the efficient utilization of the limited energy resources of the deployed sensor nodes and hence prolong the node as well as network lifetime. Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (Leach) is one of the most promising clustering protocol proposed for wireless sensor networks. This paper provides the energy utilization and lifetime analysis for cluster-based wireless sensor networks based upon LEACH protocol. Simulation results identify some important factors that induce unbalanced energy utilization between the sensor nodes and hence affect the network lifetime in these types of networks. These results highlight the need for a standardized, adaptive and distributed clustering technique that can increase the network lifetime by further balancing the energy utilization among sensor nodes. (author)

  3. QUANTIFYING THE SHORT LIFETIME WITH TCSPC-FLIM: FIRST MOMENT VERSUS FITTING METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LINGLING XU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Combing the time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC with fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM provides promising opportunities in revealing important information on the microenvironment of cells and tissues, but the applications are thus far mainly limited by the accuracy and precision of the TCSPC-FLIM technique. Here we present a comprehensive investigation on the performance of two data analysis methods, the first moment (M1 method and the conventional least squares (Fitting method, in quantifying fluorescence lifetime. We found that the M1 method is more superior than the Fitting method when the lifetime is short (70 ~ 400 ps or the signal intensity is weak (<103 photons.

  4. Synthesis of water-soluble, ring-substituted squaraine dyes and their evaluation as fluorescent probes and labels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatarets, Anatoliy L. [SSI ' Institute for Single Crystals' of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 60 Lenin Ave., Kharkov 61001 (Ukraine); Fedyunyayeva, Irina A. [SSI ' Institute for Single Crystals' of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 60 Lenin Ave., Kharkov 61001 (Ukraine); Dyubko, Tatyana S. [SSI ' Institute for Single Crystals' of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 60 Lenin Ave., Kharkov 61001 (Ukraine); Povrozin, Yevgeniy A. [SSI ' Institute for Single Crystals' of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 60 Lenin Ave., Kharkov 61001 (Ukraine); Doroshenko, Andrey O. [Institute of Chemistry, V.N. Karazin National University, 4 Svobody Sq., Kharkov 61077 (Ukraine); Terpetschnig, Ewald A. [SETA BioMedicals, LLC, 2014 Silver Ct East, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States) and ISS, Inc., 1602 Newton Drive, Champaign, IL 61822 (United States)]. E-mail: ewaldte@juno.com; Patsenker, Leonid D. [SSI ' Institute for Single Crystals' of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 60 Lenin Ave., Kharkov 61001 (Ukraine); SETA BioMedicals, LLC, 2014 Silver Ct East, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2006-06-16

    A series of ring-substituted squaraines absorbing and emitting in the red and NIR spectral region was synthesized and their spectral and photophysical properties (quantum yields, fluorescence lifetimes) and photostabilities were measured and compared to Cy5, a commonly used fluorescent label. The absorption maxima in aqueous media were found to be between 628 and 667 nm and the emission maxima are between 642 and 685 nm. Squaraine dyes exhibit high extinction coefficients (163,000-265,000 M{sup -1} cm{sup -1}) and lower quantum yields (2-7%) in aqueous buffer but high quantum yields (up to 45%) and long fluorescence lifetimes (up to 3.3 ns) in presence of BSA. Dicyanomethylene- and thio-substituted squaraines exhibit an additional absorption around 400 nm with extinction coefficients between 21,500 and 44,500 M{sup -1} cm{sup -1}. These dyes are excitable not only with red but also with blue diode lasers or light emitting diodes. Due to the favourable spectral and photophysical properties these dyes can be used as fluorescent probes and labels for intensity- and fluorescence lifetime-based biomedical applications.

  5. Synthesis of water-soluble, ring-substituted squaraine dyes and their evaluation as fluorescent probes and labels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatarets, Anatoliy L.; Fedyunyayeva, Irina A.; Dyubko, Tatyana S.; Povrozin, Yevgeniy A.; Doroshenko, Andrey O.; Terpetschnig, Ewald A.; Patsenker, Leonid D.

    2006-01-01

    A series of ring-substituted squaraines absorbing and emitting in the red and NIR spectral region was synthesized and their spectral and photophysical properties (quantum yields, fluorescence lifetimes) and photostabilities were measured and compared to Cy5, a commonly used fluorescent label. The absorption maxima in aqueous media were found to be between 628 and 667 nm and the emission maxima are between 642 and 685 nm. Squaraine dyes exhibit high extinction coefficients (163,000-265,000 M -1 cm -1 ) and lower quantum yields (2-7%) in aqueous buffer but high quantum yields (up to 45%) and long fluorescence lifetimes (up to 3.3 ns) in presence of BSA. Dicyanomethylene- and thio-substituted squaraines exhibit an additional absorption around 400 nm with extinction coefficients between 21,500 and 44,500 M -1 cm -1 . These dyes are excitable not only with red but also with blue diode lasers or light emitting diodes. Due to the favourable spectral and photophysical properties these dyes can be used as fluorescent probes and labels for intensity- and fluorescence lifetime-based biomedical applications

  6. Characterization of a pulsed x-ray source for fluorescent lifetime measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blankespoor, S.C.; Derenzo, S.E.; Moses, W.W.; Rossington, C.S.; Ito, M.; Oba, K.

    1994-01-01

    To search for new, fast, inorganic scintillators, the authors have developed a bench-top pulsed x-ray source for determining fluorescent lifetimes and wavelengths of compounds in crystal or powdered form. This source uses a light-excited x-ray tube which produces x-rays when light from a laser diode strikes its photocathode. The x-ray tube has a tungsten anode, a beryllium exit window, a 30 kV maximum tube bias, and a 50 μA maximum average cathode current. The laser produces 3 x 10 7 photons at 650 nm per ∼100 ps pulse, with up to 10 7 pulses/sec. The time spread for the laser diode, x-ray tube, and a microchannel plate photomultiplier tube is less than 120 ps fwhm. The mean x-ray energy at tube biases of 20, 25, and 30 kV is 9.4, 10.3, and 11.1 keV, respectively. The authors measured 140, 230, and 330 x-ray photons per laser diode pulse per steradian, at tube biases of 20, 25, and 30 kV, respectively. Background x-rays due to dark current occur at a rate of 1 x 10 6 and 3 x 10 6 photons/sec/steradian at biases of 25 and 30 kV, respectively. Data characterizing the x-ray output with an aluminum filter in the x-ray beam are also presented

  7. Principles of fluorescence techniques

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence techniques are being used and applied increasingly in academics and industry. The Principles of Fluorescence Techniques course will outline the basic concepts of fluorescence techniques and the successful utilization of the currently available commercial instrumentation. The course is designed for students who utilize fluorescence techniques and instrumentation and for researchers and industrial scientists who wish to deepen their knowledge of fluorescence applications. Key scientists in the field will deliver theoretical lectures. The lectures will be complemented by the direct utilization of steady-state and lifetime fluorescence instrumentation and confocal microscopy for FLIM and FRET applications provided by leading companies.

  8. Metabolic Mapping of Breast Cancer with Multiphoton Spectral and Lifetime Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    2002. Spectrally resolved fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy. Appl. Spec- trosc. 56 :155-166. 38. Becker, W., A. Bergmann, E. Haustein , Z...photon fluores- cence lifetime imaging microscopy of macrophage-mediated antigen processing. J. Microsc. 185 :339-353. 45. Lin, H.J., P. Herman , and

  9. Deployment-based lifetime optimization model for homogeneous Wireless Sensor Network under retransmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruiying; Liu, Xiaoxi; Xie, Wei; Huang, Ning

    2014-12-10

    Sensor-deployment-based lifetime optimization is one of the most effective methods used to prolong the lifetime of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) by reducing the distance-sensitive energy consumption. In this paper, data retransmission, a major consumption factor that is usually neglected in the previous work, is considered. For a homogeneous WSN, monitoring a circular target area with a centered base station, a sensor deployment model based on regular hexagonal grids is analyzed. To maximize the WSN lifetime, optimization models for both uniform and non-uniform deployment schemes are proposed by constraining on coverage, connectivity and success transmission rate. Based on the data transmission analysis in a data gathering cycle, the WSN lifetime in the model can be obtained through quantifying the energy consumption at each sensor location. The results of case studies show that it is meaningful to consider data retransmission in the lifetime optimization. In particular, our investigations indicate that, with the same lifetime requirement, the number of sensors needed in a non-uniform topology is much less than that in a uniform one. Finally, compared with a random scheme, simulation results further verify the advantage of our deployment model.

  10. Fluorescence Lifetime Correlation Spectroscopy (FLCS): Concepts, Applications and Outlook

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kapusta, Peter; Macháň, Radek; Benda, A.; Hof, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 10 (2012), s. 12890-12910 E-ISSN 1422-0067 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP208/12/G016 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) * time correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) * fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (FCCS) Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.464, year: 2012

  11. Using the fluorescence of DBO to study the aggregation of asphaltenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zixin; Bohne, Cornelia [Department of Chemistry, University of Victoria (Canada)], email: xyang@uvic.ca

    2010-07-01

    Asphaltene, operationally defined as the fraction of bitumen that is insoluble in heptane but soluble in toluene, is the least characterized component of crude oil. It can aggregate at low concentrations, causing problems in the reservoir and during transport and processing. Fluorescence techniques have been employed to characterize asphaltenes, e.g. by adding external probes. DBO (2,3-diazabicyclo [2.2.2]oct-2-ene), a fluorescence probe molecule with a long fluorescence lifetime, was made sensitive to the presence of aliphatic C-H bonds. DBO was used as an external fluorescent probe to characterize the aggregation of Athabasca asphaltene. The lifetime of DBO was measured using single photon counting. Preliminary lifetime measurements show that AA-5 quenches the emission of DBO, leading to a shortening of the DBO lifetime. The abrupt decrease in lifetime may be related to the interaction of DBO with the AA-5 aggregate; further studies are being performed to test this hypothesis. In conclusion, DBO interacts with asphaltene components and has the potential for being used as a probe to study the asphaltene aggregation.

  12. Automated detection of breast cancer in resected specimens with fluorescence lifetime imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Jennifer E.; Gorpas, Dimitris; Unger, Jakob; Darrow, Morgan; Bold, Richard J.; Marcu, Laura

    2018-01-01

    Re-excision rates for breast cancer lumpectomy procedures are currently nearly 25% due to surgeons relying on inaccurate or incomplete methods of evaluating specimen margins. The objective of this study was to determine if cancer could be automatically detected in breast specimens from mastectomy and lumpectomy procedures by a classification algorithm that incorporated parameters derived from fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIm). This study generated a database of co-registered histologic sections and FLIm data from breast cancer specimens (N  =  20) and a support vector machine (SVM) classification algorithm able to automatically detect cancerous, fibrous, and adipose breast tissue. Classification accuracies were greater than 97% for automated detection of cancerous, fibrous, and adipose tissue from breast cancer specimens. The classification worked equally well for specimens scanned by hand or with a mechanical stage, demonstrating that the system could be used during surgery or on excised specimens. The ability of this technique to simply discriminate between cancerous and normal breast tissue, in particular to distinguish fibrous breast tissue from tumor, which is notoriously challenging for optical techniques, leads to the conclusion that FLIm has great potential to assess breast cancer margins. Identification of positive margins before waiting for complete histologic analysis could significantly reduce breast cancer re-excision rates.

  13. Assessment of subsurface VOCs using a chemical microsensor array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batterman, S.A.; Zellers, E.T.

    1993-06-01

    This report describes the results of laboratory investigations of several performance parameters relevant to surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) chemical sensor arrays for the measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in contaminated soil and groundwater. The small size, low cost, sensitivity and selectivity of such instruments promise improvements in the quality and quantity of data used to guide site assessment and restoration efforts. In this investigation, calibrations were performed for 15 different coated SAW sensors. Each sensor was exposed to six VOCs selected to represent three chemical classes of contaminants that are commonly found at waste sites (i.e., aliphatic, aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons). A new pattern recognition method was developed for determining which coated sensors would maximize the selectivity and accuracy of quantitation for a given set of vapor contaminants. Using this method, an optimal subwet of four coated sensors was selected for testing in a prototype microsensor instrument. Additional laboratory experiments were performed with this optimized array to assess the limits of detection and linear response ranges for the representative vapors, as well as the additivity of responses to vapors in binary mixtures, temperature and humidity effects, aging effects, and other performance parameters related to the application of this technology to soil and groundwater VOC monitoring. Results demonstrate that SAW microsensor arrays can identify and quantify specific VOCs at concentrations in the μg/L to mg/L range when present alone or in simple (e.g., binary) mixtures. SAW sensor technology offers a potentially effective alternative to existing field instrumentation for headspace analysis, soil vapor monitoring, and vacuum extraction process monitoring of VOCs in subsurface media

  14. Quantifying the physical demands of collision sports: does microsensor technology measure what it claims to measure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbett, Tim J

    2013-08-01

    The physical demands of rugby league, rugby union, and American football are significantly increased through the large number of collisions players are required to perform during match play. Because of the labor-intensive nature of coding collisions from video recordings, manufacturers of wearable microsensor (e.g., global positioning system [GPS]) units have refined the technology to automatically detect collisions, with several sport scientists attempting to use these microsensors to quantify the physical demands of collision sports. However, a question remains over the validity of these microtechnology units to quantify the contact demands of collision sports. Indeed, recent evidence has shown significant differences in the number of "impacts" recorded by microtechnology units (GPSports) and the actual number of collisions coded from video. However, a separate study investigated the validity of a different microtechnology unit (minimaxX; Catapult Sports) that included GPS and triaxial accelerometers, and also a gyroscope and magnetometer, to quantify collisions. Collisions detected by the minimaxX unit were compared with video-based coding of the actual events. No significant differences were detected in the number of mild, moderate, and heavy collisions detected via the minimaxX units and those coded from video recordings of the actual event. Furthermore, a strong correlation (r = 0.96, p sports. Until such validation research is completed, sport scientists should be circumspect of the ability of other units to perform similar functions.

  15. A ratiometric nanoprobe based on silver nanoclusters and carbon dots for the fluorescent detection of biothiols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuming; Lin, Bixia; Yu, Ying; Cao, Yujuan; Guo, Manli; Shui, Lingling

    2018-04-01

    Ratiometric fluorescent probes could eliminate the influence from experimental factors and improve the detection accuracy. In this article, a ratiometric nanoprobe was constructed based on silver nanoclusters (AgNCs) with nitrogen-doped carbon dots (NCDs) and used for the detection of biothiols. The fluorescence peak of AgNCs was observed at 650 nm with excitation wavelength at 370 nm. In order to construct the ratiometric fluorescent probe, NCDs with the excitation and emission wavelengths at 370 nm and 450 nm were selected. After adding AgNCs, the fluorescence of NCDs was quenched. The mechanism of the fluorescence quenching was studied by fluorescence, UV-Vis absorption and the fluorescence lifetime spectra. The results indicated that the quenching could be ascribed to the inner filter effect (IFE). With the addition of biothiols, the fluorescence of AgNCs at 650 nm decreased due to the breakdown of AgNCs, and the fluorescence of NCDs at 450 nm recovered accordingly. Thus, the relationship between the ratio of the fluorescence intensities (I450/I650) and biothiol concentration was used to establish the determination method for biothiols. Cysteine (Cys) was taken as the model of biothiols, and the working curve for Cys was I450/I650 = 0.60CCys - 1.86 (CCys: μmol/L) with the detection limit of 0.14 μmol/L (S/N = 3). Then, the method was used for the detection of Cys in human urine and serum samples with satisfactory accuracy and recovery ratios. Furthermore, the probe could be applied for the visual semi-quantitative determination of Cys by naked eyes.

  16. Fluorescence enhancement by Au nanostructures: nanoshells and nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardhan, Rizia; Grady, Nathaniel K; Cole, Joseph R; Joshi, Amit; Halas, Naomi J

    2009-03-24

    Metallic nanoparticles influence the quantum yield and lifetime of adjacent fluorophores in a manner dependent on the properties of the nanostructure. Here we directly compare the fluorescence enhancement of the near-infrared fluorophore IR800 by Au nanoshells (NSs) and Au nanorods (NRs), where human serum albumin (HSA) serves as a spacer layer between the nanoparticle and the fluorophore. Our measurements reveal that the quantum yield of IR800 is enhanced from approximately 7% as an isolated fluorophore to 86% in a NSs-HSA-IR800 complex and 74% in a NRs-HSA-IR800 complex. This dramatic increase in fluorescence shows tremendous potential for contrast enhancement in fluorescence-based bioimaging.

  17. Handheld Fluorescence Microscopy based Flow Analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Manish; Jayakumar, Nitin; Gorthi, Sai Siva

    2016-03-01

    Fluorescence microscopy has the intrinsic advantages of favourable contrast characteristics and high degree of specificity. Consequently, it has been a mainstay in modern biological inquiry and clinical diagnostics. Despite its reliable nature, fluorescence based clinical microscopy and diagnostics is a manual, labour intensive and time consuming procedure. The article outlines a cost-effective, high throughput alternative to conventional fluorescence imaging techniques. With system level integration of custom-designed microfluidics and optics, we demonstrate fluorescence microscopy based imaging flow analyzer. Using this system we have imaged more than 2900 FITC labeled fluorescent beads per minute. This demonstrates high-throughput characteristics of our flow analyzer in comparison to conventional fluorescence microscopy. The issue of motion blur at high flow rates limits the achievable throughput in image based flow analyzers. Here we address the issue by computationally deblurring the images and show that this restores the morphological features otherwise affected by motion blur. By further optimizing concentration of the sample solution and flow speeds, along with imaging multiple channels simultaneously, the system is capable of providing throughput of about 480 beads per second.

  18. The photoluminescence of a fluorescent lamp: didactic experiments on the exponential decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onorato, Pasquale; Gratton, Luigi; Malgieri, Massimiliano; Oss, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    The lifetimes of the photoluminescent compounds contained in the coating of fluorescent compact lamps are usually measured using specialised instruments, including pulsed lasers and/or spectrofluorometers. Here we discuss how some low cost apparatuses, based on the use of either sensors for the educational lab or commercial digital photo cameras, can be employed to the same aim. The experiments do not require that luminescent phosphors are hazardously extracted from the compact fluorescent lamp, that also contains mercury. We obtain lifetime measurements for specific fluorescent elements of the bulb coating, in good agreement with the known values. We also address the physical mechanisms on which fluorescence lamps are based in a simplified way, suitable for undergraduate students; and we discuss in detail the physics of the lamp switch-off by analysing the time dependent spectrum, measured through a commercial fiber-optic spectrometer. Since the experiment is not hazardous in any way, requires a simple setup up with instruments which are commonly found in educational labs, and focuses on the typical features of the exponential decay, it is suitable for being performed in the undergraduate laboratory.

  19. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer imaging of CFP/YFP labeled NDH in cyanobacterium cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Dongmei; Lv Wei; Huang Zhengxi; Xia Andong; Xu Min; Ma Weimin; Mi Hualing; Ogawa Teruo

    2007-01-01

    The laser confocal scanning microscopy combined with time-correlated single photon counting imaging technique to obtain fluorescence intensity and fluorescence lifetime images for fluorescence resonance energy transfer measurement is reported. Both the fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) and intensity images show inhomogeneous cyan fluorescent protein and yellow fluorescent protein (CFP /YFP) expression or inhomogeneous energy transfer between CFP and YFP over whole cell. The results presented in this work show that FLIM could be a potential method to reveal the structure-function behavior of NAD(P)H dehydrogenase complexes in living cell

  20. Radiative transport-based frequency-domain fluorescence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Amit; Rasmussen, John C; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M; Wareing, Todd A; McGhee, John

    2008-01-01

    We report the development of radiative transport model-based fluorescence optical tomography from frequency-domain boundary measurements. The coupled radiative transport model for describing NIR fluorescence propagation in tissue is solved by a novel software based on the established Attila(TM) particle transport simulation platform. The proposed scheme enables the prediction of fluorescence measurements with non-contact sources and detectors at a minimal computational cost. An adjoint transport solution-based fluorescence tomography algorithm is implemented on dual grids to efficiently assemble the measurement sensitivity Jacobian matrix. Finally, we demonstrate fluorescence tomography on a realistic computational mouse model to locate nM to μM fluorophore concentration distributions in simulated mouse organs

  1. Evaluation of Fluorescent Analogs of Deoxycytidine for Monitoring DNA Transitions from Duplex to Functional Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogini P. Bhavsar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Topological variants of single-strand DNA (ssDNA structures, referred to as “functional DNA,” have been detected in regulatory regions of many genes and are thought to affect gene expression. Two fluorescent analogs of deoxycytidine, Pyrrolo-dC (PdC and 1,3-diaza-2-oxophenoxazine (tC∘, can be incorporated into DNA. Here, we describe spectroscopic studies of both analogs to determine fluorescent properties that report on structural transitions from double-strand DNA (dsDNA to ssDNA, a common pathway in the transition to functional DNA structures. We obtained fluorescence-detected circular dichroism (FDCD spectra, steady-state fluorescence spectra, and fluorescence lifetimes of the fluorophores in DNA. Our results show that PdC is advantageous in fluorescence lifetime studies because of a distinct ~2 ns change between paired and unpaired bases. However, tC∘ is a better probe for FDCD experiments that report on the helical structure of DNA surrounding the fluorophore. Both fluorophores provide complementary data to measure DNA structural transitions.

  2. Novel Fluorescent Microemulsion: Probing Properties, Investigating Mechanism, and Unveiling Potential Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Mengna; Dang, Leping; Liu, Tiankuo; Guo, Yun; Wang, Zhanzhong

    2017-08-09

    Nanoscale microemulsions have been utilized as delivery carriers for nutraceuticals and active biological drugs. Herein, we designed and synthesized a novel oil in water (O/W) fluorescent microemulsion based on isoamyl acetate, polyoxyethylene castor oil EL (CrEL), and water. The microemulsion emitted bright blue fluorescence, thus exhibiting its potential for active drug detection with label-free strategy. The microemulsion exhibited excitation-dependent emission and distinct red shift with longer excitation wavelengths. Lifetime and quantum yield of fluorescent microemulsion were 2.831 ns and 5.0%, respectively. An excellent fluorescent stability of the microemulsion was confirmed by altering pH, ionic strength, temperature, and time. Moreover, we proposed a probable mechanism of fluorochromic phenomenon, in connection with the aromatic ring structure of polyoxyethylene ether substituent in CrEL. Based on our findings, we concluded that this new fluorescent microemulsion is a promising drug carrier that can facilitate active drug detection with a label-free strategy. Although further research is required to understand the exact mechanism behind its fluorescence property, this work provided valuable guidance to develop new biosensors based on fluorescent microemulsion.

  3. Dual lanthanide-doped complexes: the development of a time-resolved ratiometric fluorescent probe for anthrax biomarker and a paper-based visual sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi-Xian; Xue, Shi-Fan; Chen, Zi-Han; Ma, Shi-Hui; Zhang, Shengqiang; Shi, Guoyue; Zhang, Min

    2017-08-15

    In this work, a novel time-resolved ratiometric fluorescent probe based on dual lanthanide (Tb: terbium, and Eu: europium)-doped complexes (Tb/DPA@SiO 2 -Eu/GMP) has been designed for detecting anthrax biomarker (dipicolinic acid, DPA), a unique and major component of anthrax spores. In such complexes-based probe, Tb/DPA@SiO 2 can serve as a stable reference signal with green fluorescence and Eu/GMP act as a sensitive response signal with red fluorescence for ratiometric fluorescent sensing DPA. Additionally, the probe exhibits long fluorescence lifetime, which can significantly reduce the autofluorescence interferences from biological samples by using time-resolved fluorescence measurement. More significantly, a paper-based visual sensor for DPA has been devised by using filter paper embedded with Tb/DPA@SiO 2 -Eu/GMP, and we have proved its utility for fluorescent detection of DPA, in which only a handheld UV lamp is used. In the presence of DPA, the paper-based visual sensor, illuminated by a handheld UV lamp, would result in an obvious fluorescence color change from green to red, which can be easily observed with naked eyes. The paper-based visual sensor is stable, portable, disposable, cost-effective and easy-to-use. The feasibility of using a smartphone with easy-to-access color-scanning APP as the detection platform for quantitative scanometric assays has been also demonstrated by coupled with our proposed paper-based visual sensor. This work unveils an effective method for accurate, sensitive and selective monitoring anthrax biomarker with backgroud-free and self-calibrating properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Planar potentiometric sensors based on Au and Ag microelectrodes and conducting polymers for flow-cell analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ToczyIowska, Renata; Pokrop, RafaI; Dybko, Artur; Wroblewski, Wojciech

    2005-01-01

    Back-side contact Au and Ag microelectrodes were used as transducers to construct planar all-solid-state electrodes suitable for flow-through analysis. The microsensors were based on plasticized PVC potassium-selective membranes containing ion-electron conducting polymer-polypyrrole doped with di(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate. The proposed technique allowed simple construction of microsensors in one step, by membrane solution casting directly on the surface of the planar metallic transducers. The performance of the microsensors based on Au and Ag transducers were determined and compared with planar sensors based on internal electrolyte immobilized in polyHEMA. The addition of the polypyrrole to the membrane composition did not influence on the selectivity, reproducibility and long-term stability of the microsensors but improved their standard potential stability in time in comparison with coated-wire type sensors. Moreover, all-solid-state microsensors based on Au transducers exhibited better signal stability than Ag based sensors

  5. Fluorescent chemosensor for pyridine based on N-doped carbon dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, B B; Abellán, C; Zougagh, M; Jimenez-Jimenez, J; Rodríguez-Castellón, E; Esteves da Silva, J C G; Ríos, A; Algarra, M

    2015-11-15

    Fluorescent carbon dots (CDs) and its nitrogen doped (N-CDs) nanoparticles have been synthesized from lactose as precursor using a bottom-up hydrothermal methodology. The synthesized nanoparticles have been characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR, Raman, TEM, DLS, XPS, and steady-state and life-time fluorescence. The synthesized carbon nanoparticles, CDs and N-CDs, have a size at about 7.7±2.4 and 50±15nm, respectively, and quantum yields of 8% (CDs) and 11% (N-CDs). These techniques demonstrated the effectiveness of the synthesis procedure and the functionalization of the CDs surface with amine and amide groups in the presence of NH3 in aqueous media. The effect of excitation wavelength and pH on the luminescent properties was studied. Under the optimal conditions, the nitrogen doped nanoparticles can be used as pyridine sensor in aqueous media because they show an enhancement of its fluorescence with a good linear relationship. The analytical method is simple, reproducible and very sensitive for pyridine determination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. An acetone microsensor with a ring oscillator circuit fabricated using the commercial 0.18 μm CMOS process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming-Zhi; Dai, Ching-Liang; Shih, Po-Jen

    2014-07-17

    This study investigates the fabrication and characterization of an acetone microsensor with a ring oscillator circuit using the commercial 0.18 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. The acetone microsensor contains a sensitive material, interdigitated electrodes and a polysilicon heater. The sensitive material is α-Fe2O3 synthesized by the hydrothermal method. The sensor requires a post-process to remove the sacrificial oxide layer between the interdigitated electrodes and to coat the α-Fe2O3 on the electrodes. When the sensitive material adsorbs acetone vapor, the sensor produces a change in capacitance. The ring oscillator circuit converts the capacitance of the sensor into the oscillation frequency output. The experimental results show that the output frequency of the acetone sensor changes from 128 to 100 MHz as the acetone concentration increases 1 to 70 ppm.

  7. Lifetime measurement of the 8s level in francium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, E.; Sprouse, G.D.; Orozco, L.A.; Galvan, A. Perez

    2005-01-01

    We measure the lifetime of the 8s level of 210 Fr atoms on a magneto-optically trapped sample with time-correlated single-photon counting. The 7P 1/2 state serves as the resonant intermediate level for two-step excitation of the 8s level completed with a 1.3-μm laser. Analysis of the fluorescence decay through the 7P 3/2 level gives 53.30±0.44 ns for the 8s level lifetime

  8. Fluorescent nanoparticles for intracellular sensing: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruedas-Rama, Maria J.; Walters, Jamie D.; Orte, Angel; Hall, Elizabeth A.H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Analytical applications of fluorescent nanoparticles (NPs) in intracellular sensing. ► Critical review on performance of QDots, metal NPs, silica NPs, and polymer NPs. ► Highlighted potential of fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). - Abstract: Fluorescent nanoparticles (NPs), including semiconductor NPs (Quantum Dots), metal NPs, silica NPs, polymer NPs, etc., have been a major focus of research and development during the past decade. The fluorescent nanoparticles show unique chemical and optical properties, such as brighter fluorescence, higher photostability and higher biocompatibility, compared to classical fluorescent organic dyes. Moreover, the nanoparticles can also act as multivalent scaffolds for the realization of supramolecular assemblies, since their high surface to volume ratio allow distinct spatial domains to be functionalized, which can provide a versatile synthetic platform for the implementation of different sensing schemes. Their excellent properties make them one of the most useful tools that chemistry has supplied to biomedical research, enabling the intracellular monitoring of many different species for medical and biological purposes. In this review, we focus on the developments and analytical applications of fluorescent nanoparticles in chemical and biological sensing within the intracellular environment. The review also points out the great potential of fluorescent NPs for fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). Finally, we also give an overview of the current methods for delivering of fluorescent NPs into cells, where critically examine the benefits and liabilities of each strategy.

  9. Nanodiamond arrays on glass for quantification and fluorescence characterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, Ashleigh H; Greentree, Andrew D; Gibson, Brant C

    2017-08-23

    Quantifying the variation in emission properties of fluorescent nanodiamonds is important for developing their wide-ranging applicability. Directed self-assembly techniques show promise for positioning nanodiamonds precisely enabling such quantification. Here we show an approach for depositing nanodiamonds in pre-determined arrays which are used to gather statistical information about fluorescent lifetimes. The arrays were created via a layer of photoresist patterned with grids of apertures using electron beam lithography and then drop-cast with nanodiamonds. Electron microscopy revealed a 90% average deposition yield across 3,376 populated array sites, with an average of 20 nanodiamonds per site. Confocal microscopy, optimised for nitrogen vacancy fluorescence collection, revealed a broad distribution of fluorescent lifetimes in agreement with literature. This method for statistically quantifying fluorescent nanoparticles provides a step towards fabrication of hybrid photonic devices for applications from quantum cryptography to sensing.

  10. Reliability and Validity of an Internet-based Questionnaire Measuring Lifetime Physical Activity

    OpenAIRE

    De Vera, Mary A.; Ratzlaff, Charles; Doerfling, Paul; Kopec, Jacek

    2010-01-01

    Lifetime exposure to physical activity is an important construct for evaluating associations between physical activity and disease outcomes, given the long induction periods in many chronic diseases. The authors' objective in this study was to evaluate the measurement properties of the Lifetime Physical Activity Questionnaire (L-PAQ), a novel Internet-based, self-administered instrument measuring lifetime physical activity, among Canadian men and women in 2005–2006. Reliability was examined u...

  11. Solvent isotope effect on the fluorescence of azoalkanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirbach, M.J.; Mirbach, M.F.; Cherry, W.R.; Turro, N.J.; Engel, P.

    1977-01-01

    A study of fluorescence quantum yields and fluorescence lifetimes of two cyclic azoalkanes reveal a striking dependence of phisub(F) and tausub(F) on solvent and on isotopic substitution (OH → OD). A mechanism involving specific deactivation of the fluorescent state from a hydrogen bonded complex is proposed to rationalize the data. (orig./HK) [de

  12. Enhancement of uranyl fluorescence using trimesic acid: Ligand sensitization and co-fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maji, S. [Chemistry Group, Materials Chemistry Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Viswanathan, K.S., E-mail: vish@igcar.gov.in [Chemistry Group, Materials Chemistry Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)

    2011-09-15

    Trimesic acid (TMA) was shown to sensitize and enhance uranyl fluorescence in aqueous medium, with the enhancement being a maximum at pH 5.0. Fluorescence spectra and lifetime data together suggest that TMA complexes with uranyl (UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}). The fluorescence of UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} in its acid complex is further enhanced by more than two orders of magnitude following the addition of Y{sup 3+}; a process referred to as co-fluorescence, leading to the possibility of detecting uranium at sub ng/mL level. The present study demonstrates, for the first time, fluorescence enhancement of the uranyl species due to co-fluorescence. - Highlights: > Trimesic acid was shown to sensitize and enhance the fluorescence of uranium in aqueous medium. > This ligand also exhibited co-fluorescence of uranium with Y{sup 3+}. > To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of co-fluorescence in uranium. > The enhancement of uranium fluorescence, resulted in detection limits in the ng/mL regime.

  13. Autofluorescence lifetime imaging during transoral robotic surgery: a clinical validation study of tumor detection (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagarto, João. L.; Phipps, Jennifer E.; Unger, Jakob; Faller, Leta M.; Gorpas, Dimitris; Ma, Dinglong M.; Bec, Julien; Moore, Michael G.; Bewley, Arnaud F.; Yankelevich, Diego R.; Sorger, Jonathan M.; Farwell, Gregory D.; Marcu, Laura

    2017-02-01

    Autofluorescence lifetime spectroscopy is a promising non-invasive label-free tool for characterization of biological tissues and shows potential to report structural and biochemical alterations in tissue owing to pathological transformations. In particular, when combined with fiber-optic based instruments, autofluorescence lifetime measurements can enhance intraoperative diagnosis and provide guidance in surgical procedures. We investigate the potential of a fiber-optic based multi-spectral time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy instrument to characterize the autofluorescence fingerprint associated with histologic, morphologic and metabolic changes in tissue that can provide real-time contrast between healthy and tumor regions in vivo and guide clinicians during resection of diseased areas during transoral robotic surgery. To provide immediate feedback to the surgeons, we employ tracking of an aiming beam that co-registers our point measurements with the robot camera images and allows visualization of the surgical area augmented with autofluorescence lifetime data in the surgeon's console in real-time. For each patient, autofluorescence lifetime measurements were acquired from normal, diseased and surgically altered tissue, both in vivo (pre- and post-resection) and ex vivo. Initial results indicate tumor and normal regions can be distinguished based on changes in lifetime parameters measured in vivo, when the tumor is located superficially. In particular, results show that autofluorescence lifetime of tumor is shorter than that of normal tissue (p robot assisted cancer removal interventions.

  14. Design of peptide substrates for nanosecond time-resolved fluorescence assays of proteases: 2,3-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-ene as a noninvasive fluorophore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Andreas; Florea, Mara; Roth, Doris; Enderle, Thilo; Nau, Werner M

    2007-01-15

    Fluorescence protease assays were investigated with peptide substrates containing a 2,3-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-ene-labeled asparagine (Dbo) as a fluorescent amino acid. The special characteristic of the fluorophore Dbo is its exceedingly long fluorescence lifetime (ca. 300 ns in water under air), which allows the use of nanosecond time-resolved fluorescence (Nano-TRF) detection to efficiently suppress shorter-lived background emission. In addition, the natural amino acids tryptophan and tyrosine can be employed as intramolecular fluorescence quenchers, which facilitates substrate design. Fourteen synthetic peptide substrates (composed of 2-19 amino acids) and five enzymes (trypsin, pepsin, carboxypeptidase A, leucine aminopeptidase, and chymotrypsin) were investigated and, in all 28 examined combinations, enzymatic activity was detected by monitoring the increase in steady state fluorescence with time and determining the reaction rates as kcat/Km values, which ranged from 0.2 to 80x10(6) M-1 min-1. The results suggest an excellent compatibility of the very small and hydrophilic fluorescent probe Dbo with solid-phase peptide synthesis and the investigated proteases. For all 14 peptides the fluorescence lifetimes before and after enzymatic cleavage were measured and Nano-TRF measurements were performed in 384-well microplates. The fluorescence lifetimes of the different peptides provide the basis for the rational design of Dbo-based fluorescent substrates for protease assays. Measurements in Nano-TRF mode revealed, in addition to efficient suppression of background fluorescence, an increased differentiation between cleaved and uncleaved substrate. The Dbo-based assays can be adapted for high-throughput screening.

  15. Absorbance and fluorescence studies on porphyrin Nanostructures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this work was to study some photophysical properties of PNR for application as light harvester in dye sensitized solar cells. These properties included absorbance, fluorescence, and fluorescence quantum yield and lifetime. The results of Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) images showed the formation of ...

  16. Fluorescent Biosensors Based on Single-Molecule Counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fei; Li, Ying; Tang, Bo; Zhang, Chun-Yang

    2016-09-20

    Biosensors for highly sensitive, selective, and rapid quantification of specific biomolecules make great contributions to biomedical research, especially molecular diagnostics. However, conventional methods for biomolecular assays often suffer from insufficient sensitivity and poor specificity. In some case (e.g., early disease diagnostics), the concentration of target biomolecules is too low to be detected by these routine approaches, and cumbersome procedures are needed to improve the detection sensitivity. Therefore, there is an urgent need for rapid and ultrasensitive analytical tools. In this respect, single-molecule fluorescence approaches may well satisfy the requirement and hold promising potential for the development of ultrasensitive biosensors. Encouragingly, owing to the advances in single-molecule microscopy and spectroscopy over past decades, the detection of single fluorescent molecule comes true, greatly boosting the development of highly sensitive biosensors. By in vitro/in vivo labeling of target biomolecules with proper fluorescent tags, the quantification of certain biomolecule at the single-molecule level is achieved. In comparison with conventional ensemble measurements, single-molecule detection-based analytical methods possess the advantages of ultrahigh sensitivity, good selectivity, rapid analysis time, and low sample consumption. Consequently, single-molecule detection may be potentially employed as an ideal analytical approach to quantify low-abundant biomolecules with rapidity and simplicity. In this Account, we will summarize our efforts for developing a series of ultrasensitive biosensors based on single-molecule counting. Single-molecule counting is a member of single-molecule detection technologies and may be used as a very simple and ultrasensitive method to quantify target molecules by simply counting the individual fluorescent bursts. In the fluorescent sensors, the signals of target biomolecules may be translated to the

  17. Fluorescent nanoparticles for intracellular sensing: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruedas-Rama, Maria J., E-mail: mjruedas@ugr.esmailto [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Granada, Campus Cartuja, 18071, Granada (Spain); Walters, Jamie D. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge, UK CB2 1QT (United Kingdom); Orte, Angel [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Granada, Campus Cartuja, 18071, Granada (Spain); Hall, Elizabeth A.H., E-mail: lisa.hall@biotech.cam.ac.uk [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge, CB2 1QT (United Kingdom)

    2012-11-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Analytical applications of fluorescent nanoparticles (NPs) in intracellular sensing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Critical review on performance of QDots, metal NPs, silica NPs, and polymer NPs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Highlighted potential of fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). - Abstract: Fluorescent nanoparticles (NPs), including semiconductor NPs (Quantum Dots), metal NPs, silica NPs, polymer NPs, etc., have been a major focus of research and development during the past decade. The fluorescent nanoparticles show unique chemical and optical properties, such as brighter fluorescence, higher photostability and higher biocompatibility, compared to classical fluorescent organic dyes. Moreover, the nanoparticles can also act as multivalent scaffolds for the realization of supramolecular assemblies, since their high surface to volume ratio allow distinct spatial domains to be functionalized, which can provide a versatile synthetic platform for the implementation of different sensing schemes. Their excellent properties make them one of the most useful tools that chemistry has supplied to biomedical research, enabling the intracellular monitoring of many different species for medical and biological purposes. In this review, we focus on the developments and analytical applications of fluorescent nanoparticles in chemical and biological sensing within the intracellular environment. The review also points out the great potential of fluorescent NPs for fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). Finally, we also give an overview of the current methods for delivering of fluorescent NPs into cells, where critically examine the benefits and liabilities of each strategy.

  18. Monitoring of bentonite pore water with a probe based on solid-state microsensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orozco, Jahir; Baldi, Antoni; Martin, Pedro L.; Bratov, Andrei; Jimenez, Cecilia

    2006-01-01

    Repositories for the disposal of radioactive waste generally rely on a multi-barrier system to isolate the waste from the biosphere. This multi-barrier system typically comprises Natural geological barrier provided by the repository host rock and its surroundings and an engineered barrier system (EBS). Bentonite is being studied as an appropriated porous material for an EBS to prevent or delay the release and transport of radionuclides towards biosphere. The study of pore water chemistry within bentonite barriers will permit to understand the transport phenomena of radionuclides and obtain a database of the bentonite-water interaction processes. In this work, the measurement of some chemical parameters in bentonite pore water using solid-state microsensors is proposed. Those sensors are well suited for this application since in situ measurements are feasible and they are robust enough for the long periods of time that monitoring is needed in an EBS. A probe containing an ISFET (ion sensitive field effect transistor) for measuring pH, and platinum microelectrodes for measuring conductivity and redox potential was developed, together with the required instrumentation, to study the chemical changes in a test cell with compacted bentonite. Response features of the sensors' probe and instrumentation performance in synthetic samples with compositions similar to those present in bentonite barriers are reported. Measurements of sensors stability in a test cell are also presented

  19. Dansyl-based fluorescent film sensor for nitroaromatics in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang Jianping; Ding Liping; Lue Fengting; Zhang Shujuan; Fang Yu

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate the preparation, characterization and performance evaluation of a fluorescent film sensor for the specific detection of nitroaromatics in aqueous solution. The film sensor was fabricated by covalent immobilization of a fluorophore, dansyl, on a glass slide surface via reaction with diaminopropane and then with an epoxide-terminated self-assembled monolayer. Nitroaromatics like nitrobenzene, 4-nitrotoluene, 3, 5-dinitrotoluene, and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, etc were found to strongly quench the fluorescence emission of the film while some other commonly-used quenchers like nitromethane, KI, acrylamide, etc showed no or slight quenching effect on the emission. The quenching mechanism was examined through fluorescence lifetime measurements and it was proved that the quenching is static in nature and may be caused by electron transfer from the fluorophore to the nitroaromatics. The presence of other aromatics like benzene, toluene, etc had little effect upon the sensing performance of the film to nitroaromatics. Solvent effect studies revealed that the conformations adopted by the spacer connecting the fluorophore and the substrate played a crucial role in the performance of the film sensor. Furthermore, the response of the film to nitroaromatics is fast and reversible

  20. Dansyl-based fluorescent film sensor for nitroaromatics in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang Jianping; Ding Liping; Lue Fengting; Zhang Shujuan; Fang Yu [Key Laboratory for Macromolecular Science of Shaanxi Province, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China)

    2006-12-07

    We demonstrate the preparation, characterization and performance evaluation of a fluorescent film sensor for the specific detection of nitroaromatics in aqueous solution. The film sensor was fabricated by covalent immobilization of a fluorophore, dansyl, on a glass slide surface via reaction with diaminopropane and then with an epoxide-terminated self-assembled monolayer. Nitroaromatics like nitrobenzene, 4-nitrotoluene, 3, 5-dinitrotoluene, and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, etc were found to strongly quench the fluorescence emission of the film while some other commonly-used quenchers like nitromethane, KI, acrylamide, etc showed no or slight quenching effect on the emission. The quenching mechanism was examined through fluorescence lifetime measurements and it was proved that the quenching is static in nature and may be caused by electron transfer from the fluorophore to the nitroaromatics. The presence of other aromatics like benzene, toluene, etc had little effect upon the sensing performance of the film to nitroaromatics. Solvent effect studies revealed that the conformations adopted by the spacer connecting the fluorophore and the substrate played a crucial role in the performance of the film sensor. Furthermore, the response of the film to nitroaromatics is fast and reversible.

  1. Dansyl-based fluorescent film sensor for nitroaromatics in aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jianping; Ding, Liping; Lü, Fengting; Zhang, Shujuan; Fang, Yu

    2006-12-01

    We demonstrate the preparation, characterization and performance evaluation of a fluorescent film sensor for the specific detection of nitroaromatics in aqueous solution. The film sensor was fabricated by covalent immobilization of a fluorophore, dansyl, on a glass slide surface via reaction with diaminopropane and then with an epoxide-terminated self-assembled monolayer. Nitroaromatics like nitrobenzene, 4-nitrotoluene, 3, 5-dinitrotoluene, and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, etc were found to strongly quench the fluorescence emission of the film while some other commonly-used quenchers like nitromethane, KI, acrylamide, etc showed no or slight quenching effect on the emission. The quenching mechanism was examined through fluorescence lifetime measurements and it was proved that the quenching is static in nature and may be caused by electron transfer from the fluorophore to the nitroaromatics. The presence of other aromatics like benzene, toluene, etc had little effect upon the sensing performance of the film to nitroaromatics. Solvent effect studies revealed that the conformations adopted by the spacer connecting the fluorophore and the substrate played a crucial role in the performance of the film sensor. Furthermore, the response of the film to nitroaromatics is fast and reversible.

  2. New fluorescent pH sensors based on covalently linkable PET rhodamines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigner, Daniel; Borisov, Sergey M.; Orriach Fernández, Francisco J.; Fernández Sánchez, Jorge F.; Saf, Robert; Klimant, Ingo

    2012-01-01

    A new class of rhodamines for the application as indicator dyes in fluorescent pH sensors is presented. Their pH-sensitivity derives from photoinduced electron transfer between non-protonated amino groups and the excited chromophore which results in effective fluorescence quenching at increasing pH. The new indicator class carries a pentafluorophenyl group at the 9-position of the xanthene core where other rhodamines bear 2-carboxyphenyl substituents instead. The pentafluorophenyl group is used for covalent coupling to sensor matrices by “click” reaction with mercapto groups. Photophysical properties are similar to “classical” rhodamines carrying 2′-carboxy groups. pH sensors have been prepared with two different matrix materials, silica gel and poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate). Both sensors show high luminescence brightness (absolute fluorescence quantum yield ΦF≈0.6) and high pH-sensitivity at pH 5–7 which makes them suitable for monitoring biotechnological samples. To underline practical applicability, a dually lifetime referenced sensor containing Cr(III)-doped Al2O3 as reference material is presented. PMID:22967541

  3. Steady state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy of quinine sulfate dication bound to sodium dodecylsulfate micelles: Fluorescent complex formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Sunita; Pant, Debi D., E-mail: ddpant@pilani.bits-pilani.ac.in

    2014-01-15

    Interaction of quinine sulfate dication (QSD) with anionic, sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS) surfactant has been studied at different premicellar, micellar and postmicellar concentrations in aqueous phase using steady state, time-resolved fluorescence and fluorescence anisotropy techniques. At premicellar concentrations of SDS, the decrease in absorbance, appearance of an extra fluorescence band at lower wavelengths and tri-exponential decay behavior of fluorescence, are attributed to complex formation between QSD molecules and surfactant monomers. At postmicellar concentrations the red shift in fluorescence spectrum, increase in quantum yield and increase in fluorescence lifetimes are attributed to incorporation of solute molecules to micelles. At lower concentrations of SDS, a large shift in fluorescence is observed on excitation at the red edge of absorption spectrum and this is explained in terms of distribution of ion pairs of different energies in the ground state and the observed fluorescence lifetime behavior corroborates with this model. The temporal fluorescence anisotropy decay of QSD in SDS micelles allowed determination of restriction on the motion of the fluorophore. All the different techniques used in this study reveal that the photophysics of QSD is very sensitive to the microenvironments of SDS micelles and QSD molecules reside at the water-micelle interface. -- Highlights: • Probe molecule is very sensitive to microenvironment of micelles. • Highly fluorescent ion-pair formation has been observed. • Modulated photophysics of probe molecule in micellar solutions has been observed. • Probe molecules strongly bind with micelles and reside at probe–micelle interface.

  4. A CMOS Luminescence Intensity and Lifetime Dual Sensor Based on Multicycle Charge Modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Guoqing; Sonkusale, Sameer R

    2018-06-01

    Luminescence plays an important role in many scientific and industrial applications. This paper proposes a novel complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) sensor chip that can realize both luminescence intensity and lifetime sensing. To enable high sensitivity, we propose parasitic insensitive multicycle charge modulation scheme for low-light lifetime extraction benefiting from simplicity, accuracy, and compatibility with deeply scaled CMOS process. The designed in-pixel capacitive transimpedance amplifier (CTIA) based structure is able to capture the weak luminescence-induced voltage signal by accumulating photon-generated charges in 25 discrete gated 10-ms time windows and 10-μs pulsewidth. A pinned photodiode on chip with 1.04 pA dark current is utilized for luminescence detection. The proposed CTIA-based circuitry can achieve 2.1-mV/(nW/cm 2 ) responsivity and 4.38-nW/cm 2 resolution at 630 nm wavelength for intensity measurement and 45-ns resolution for lifetime measurement. The sensor chip is employed for measuring time constants and luminescence lifetimes of an InGaN-based white light-emitting diode at different wavelengths. In addition, we demonstrate accurate measurement of the lifetime of an oxygen sensitive chromophore with sensitivity to oxygen concentration of 7.5%/ppm and 6%/ppm in both intensity and lifetime domain. This CMOS-enabled oxygen sensor was then employed to test water quality from different sources (tap water, lakes, and rivers).

  5. Assessment of subsurface VOCs using a chemical microsensor array. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batterman, S.A.; Zellers, E.T. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). School of Public Health

    1993-06-01

    This report describes the results of laboratory investigations of several performance parameters relevant to surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) chemical sensor arrays for the measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in contaminated soil and groundwater. The small size, low cost, sensitivity and selectivity of such instruments promise improvements in the quality and quantity of data used to guide site assessment and restoration efforts. In this investigation, calibrations were performed for 15 different coated SAW sensors. Each sensor was exposed to six VOCs selected to represent three chemical classes of contaminants that are commonly found at waste sites (i.e., aliphatic, aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons). A new pattern recognition method was developed for determining which coated sensors would maximize the selectivity and accuracy of quantitation for a given set of vapor contaminants. Using this method, an optimal subwet of four coated sensors was selected for testing in a prototype microsensor instrument. Additional laboratory experiments were performed with this optimized array to assess the limits of detection and linear response ranges for the representative vapors, as well as the additivity of responses to vapors in binary mixtures, temperature and humidity effects, aging effects, and other performance parameters related to the application of this technology to soil and groundwater VOC monitoring. Results demonstrate that SAW microsensor arrays can identify and quantify specific VOCs at concentrations in the {mu}g/L to mg/L range when present alone or in simple (e.g., binary) mixtures. SAW sensor technology offers a potentially effective alternative to existing field instrumentation for headspace analysis, soil vapor monitoring, and vacuum extraction process monitoring of VOCs in subsurface media.

  6. From morphology to clinical pathophysiology: multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging at patients' bedside

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mess, Christian; Zens, Katharina; Gorzelanny, Christian; Metze, Dieter; Luger, Thomas A.; König, Karsten; Schneider, Stefan W.; Huck, Volker

    2017-02-01

    Application of multiphoton microscopy in the field of biomedical research and advanced diagnostics promises unique insights into the pathophysiology of skin diseases. By means of multiphoton excitation, endogenous biomolecules like NADH, collagen or elastin show autofluorescence or second harmonic generation. Thus, these molecules provide information about the subcellular morphology, epidermal architecture and physiological condition of the skin. To gain a deeper understanding of the linkage between cellular structure and physiological processes, non-invasive multiphotonbased intravital tomography (MPT) and fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) were combined within the scopes of inflammatory skin, chronic wounds and drug delivery in clinical application. The optical biopsies generated via MPT were morphologically analyzed and aligned with classical skin histology. Because of its subcellular resolution, MPT provided evidence of a redistribution of mitochondria in keratinocytes, indicating an altered cellular metabolism. Independent morphometric algorithms reliably showed a perinuclear accumulation in lesional skin in contrast to an even distribution in healthy skin. Confirmatively, MPT-FLIM showed an obvious metabolic shift in lesions. Moreover, detection of the onset and progression of inflammatory processes could be achieved. The feasibility of primary in vivo tracking of applied therapeutic agents further broadened our scope: We examined the permeation and subsequent distribution of agents directly visualized in patientś skin in short-term repetitive measurements. Furthermore, we performed MPT-FLIM follow-up investigations in the long-term course of therapy. Therefore, clinical MPT-FLIM application offers new insights into the pathophysiology and the individual therapeutic course of skin diseases, facilitating a better understanding of the processes of inflammation and wound healing.

  7. Smart optical probes for near-infrared fluorescence imaging of Alzheimer's disease pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, Scott B.; Bacskai, Brian J.; Skoch, Jesse; Hills, Ivory D.; Swager, Timothy M.; Nesterov, Evgueni E.

    2008-01-01

    Near-infrared fluorescent probes for amyloid-beta (Aβ) are an exciting option for molecular imaging in Alzheimer's disease research and may translate to clinical diagnostics. However, Aβ-targeted optical probes often suffer from poor specificity and slow clearance from the brain. We are designing smart optical probes that emit characteristic fluorescence signal only when bound to Aβ. We synthesized a family of dyes and tested Aβ-binding sensitivity with fluorescence spectroscopy and tissue-staining. Select compounds exhibited Aβ-dependent changes in fluorescence quantum yield, lifetime, and emission spectra that may be imaged microscopically or in vivo using new lifetime and spectral fluorescence imaging techniques. Smart optical probes that turn on when bound to Aβ will improve amyloid detection and may enable quantitative molecular imaging in vivo. (orig.)

  8. A Flexible Three-in-One Microsensor for Real-Time Monitoring of Internal Temperature, Voltage and Current of Lithium Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi-Yuan; Peng, Huan-Chih; Lee, Shuo-Jen; Hung, I-Ming; Hsieh, Chien-Te; Chiou, Chuan-Sheng; Chang, Yu-Ming; Huang, Yen-Pu

    2015-05-19

    Lithium batteries are widely used in notebook computers, mobile phones, 3C electronic products, and electric vehicles. However, under a high charge/discharge rate, the internal temperature of lithium battery may rise sharply, thus causing safety problems. On the other hand, when the lithium battery is overcharged, the voltage and current may be affected, resulting in battery instability. This study applies the micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology on a flexible substrate, and develops a flexible three-in-one microsensor that can withstand the internal harsh environment of a lithium battery and instantly measure the internal temperature, voltage and current of the battery. Then, the internal information can be fed back to the outside in advance for the purpose of safety management without damaging the lithium battery structure. The proposed flexible three-in-one microsensor should prove helpful for the improvement of lithium battery design or material development in the future.

  9. Fluorescent sensors based on bacterial fusion proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateu, Batirtze Prats; Pum, Dietmar; Sleytr, Uwe B; Toca-Herrera, José L; Kainz, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    Fluorescence proteins are widely used as markers for biomedical and technological purposes. Therefore, the aim of this project was to create a fluorescent sensor, based in the green and cyan fluorescent protein, using bacterial S-layers proteins as scaffold for the fluorescent tag. We report the cloning, expression and purification of three S-layer fluorescent proteins: SgsE-EGFP, SgsE-ECFP and SgsE-13aa-ECFP, this last containing a 13-amino acid rigid linker. The pH dependence of the fluorescence intensity of the S-layer fusion proteins, monitored by fluorescence spectroscopy, showed that the ECFP tag was more stable than EGFP. Furthermore, the fluorescent fusion proteins were reassembled on silica particles modified with cationic and anionic polyelectrolytes. Zeta potential measurements confirmed the particle coatings and indicated their colloidal stability. Flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy showed that the fluorescence of the fusion proteins was pH dependent and sensitive to the underlying polyelectrolyte coating. This might suggest that the fluorescent tag is not completely exposed to the bulk media as an independent moiety. Finally, it was found out that viscosity enhanced the fluorescence intensity of the three fluorescent S-layer proteins. (paper)

  10. Direct spraying method for fabrication of paper-based microfluidic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ning; An, Hong-Jie; Lew, Wen Siang; Xu, Jing; Phan, Dinh-Tuan; Hashimoto, Michinao

    2017-01-01

    Direct spraying of hydrophobic materials is an affordable, easy-to-use and equipment-free method for fabrication of flexible microsensors, albeit not yet widely adopted. To explore its application potential, in this paper, we propose and demonstrate two novel hybrid methods to fabricate paper-based components. Firstly, through combing direct spraying with Parafilm embedding, a leak-free paper-based sample preconcentrator for fluorescence sensing was fabricated. The leak-free device worked on the principle of ion concentration polarization (ICP) effect, and achieved enhancement of fluorescent tracer by 220 folds on a paper substrate. Secondly, by using the sprayed hydrophobic patterns, paper-based microsized supercapacitors (mSCs) were fabricated. Vacuum filtration was used to deposit multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT)-dispersed solution on a porous substrate to form electrodes. A volumetric capacitance of 42.5 mF cm −3 at a current density of 2 mA cm −3 was obtained on the paper-based mSC. Our demonstrations have shown the versatility of direct spraying for the fabrication of integrative paper-based microfluidic devices. (paper)

  11. Fluorescence detection of single molecules using pulsed near-field optical excitation and time correlated photon counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrose, W.P.; Goodwin, P.M.; Martin, J.C.; Keller, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    Pulsed excitation, time correlated single photon counting and time gated detection are used in near-field optical microscopy to enhance fluorescence images and measure the fluorescence lifetimes of single molecules of Rhodamine 6G on silica surfaces. Time gated detection is used to reject prompt scattered background and to improve the image signal to noise ratio. The excited state lifetime of a single Rhodamine 6G molecule is found to depend on the position of the near-field probe. We attribute the lifetime variations to spontaneous emission rate alterations by the fluorescence reflected from and quenching by the aluminum coated probe

  12. Study of lifetimes of fluorescence levels of tetravalent uranium in the incommensurate phase of thorium tetrabromide and tetrachloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milicic, A.

    1989-01-01

    The lifetimes of radiative levels of tetravalent uranium in the incommensurate phase of thorium tetrahalides have been measured as a function of different parameters: site symmetry, temperature and concentration. The incommensurate phase of thorium tetrabromide and tetrachloride is characterized by a continuous distribution of site symmetries induced by a continuous and weak displacement of the halides around the thorium (uranium) ions. At low temperature, 4.2 K, the lifetime variation as a function of excited classes of symmetry is governed by the radiative process probability as well as the energy transfer between uranium ions in different sites. At higher temperature, a model based on a Boltzmann equilibrium between closed energy levels is able to reproduce the experimental lifetime variation as a function of the temperature, for a given class of symmetry. For the variation of lifetime as a function of uranium ion concentrations, at high dilution and in the case of U 4+ : ThBr 4 , there is a competition between the energy transfer and thermal population of excited states [fr

  13. Sensitive determination of nucleic acids using organic nanoparticle fluorescence probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yunyou; Bian, Guirong; Wang, Leyu; Dong, Ling; Wang, Lun; Kan, Jian

    2005-06-01

    This paper describes the preparation of organic nanoparticles by reprecipitation method under sonication and vigorous stirring. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to characterize the size and size distribution of the luminescent nanoparticles. Their average diameter was about 25 nm with a size variation of ±18%. The fluorescence decay lifetime of the nanoparticles also was determined on a self-equipped fluorospectrometer with laser light source. The lifetime (˜0.09 μs) of nanoparticles is about three times long as that of the monomer. The nanoparticles were in abundant of hydrophilic groups, which increased their miscibility in aqueous solution. These organic nanoparticles have high photochemical stability, excellent resistance to chemical degradation and photodegradation, and a good fluorescence quantum yield (25%). The fluorescence can be efficiently quenched by nucleic acids. Based on the fluorescence quenching of nanoparticles, a fluorescence quenching method was developed for determination of microamounts of nucleic acids by using the nanoparticles as a new fluorescent probe. Under optimal conditions, maximum fluorescence quenching is produced, with maximum excitation and emission wavelengths of 345 and 402 nm, respectively. Under optimal conditions, the calibration graphs are linear over the range 0.4-19.0 μg ml -1 for calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) and 0.3-19.0 μg ml -1 for fish sperm DNA (fs-DNA). The corresponding detection limits are 0.25 μg ml -1 for ct-DNA and 0.17 μg ml -1 for fs-DNA. The relative standard deviation of six replicate measurements is 1.3-2.1%. The method is simple, rapid and sensitive with wide linear range. The recovery and relative standard deviation are very satisfactory.

  14. Quantitative frequency-domain fluorescence spectroscopy in tissues and tissue-like media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerussi, Albert Edward

    1999-09-01

    In the never-ending quest for improved medical technology at lower cost, modern near-infrared optical spectroscopy offers the possibility of inexpensive technology for quantitative and non-invasive diagnoses. Hemoglobin is the dominant chromophore in the 700-900 nm spectral region and as such it allows for the optical assessment of hemoglobin concentration and tissue oxygenation by absorption spectroscopy. However, there are many other important physiologically relevant compounds or physiological states that cannot be effectively sensed via optical methods because of poor optical contrast. In such cases, contrast enhancements are required. Fluorescence spectroscopy is an attractive component of optical tissue spectroscopy. Exogenous fluorophores, as well as some endogenous ones, may furnish the desperately needed sensitivity and specificity that is lacking in near-infrared optical tissue spectroscopy. The main focus of this thesis was to investigate the generation and propagation of fluorescence photons inside tissues and tissue-like media (i.e., scattering dominated media). The standard concepts of fluorescence spectroscopy have been incorporated into a diffusion-based picture that is sometimes referred to as photon migration. The novelty of this work lies in the successful quantitative recovery of fluorescence lifetimes, absolute fluorescence quantum yields, fluorophore concentrations, emission spectra, and both scattering and absorption coefficients at the emission wavelength from a tissue-like medium. All of these parameters are sensitive to the fluorophore local environment and hence are indicators of the tissue's physiological state. One application demonstrating the capabilities of frequency-domain lifetime spectroscopy in tissue-like media is a study of the binding of ethidium bromide to bovine leukocytes in fresh milk. Ethidium bromide is a fluorescent dye that is commonly used to label DNA, and hence visualize chromosomes in cells. The lifetime of

  15. Study on the fluorescence characteristics of carbon dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xiao-Jiao; Zheng, Hu-Zhi; Long, Yi-Juan; Du, Juan; Hao, Jian-Yu; Wang, Ling-Ling; Zhou, Dong-Bo

    2010-02-01

    Herein, we prepared water-soluble fluorescent carbon dots with diameter about 1.5 nm from cheap commercial lampblack. These fluorescent carbon nanoparticles are stable toward photobleaching and stable in water for more than half a year without fluorescence decrease. In order to improve its fluorescence properties, we passivated these nanoparticles with bisamino-terminated polyethylene glycol (PEG 1500N). Therefore, both fluorescence quantum yield and lifetime increased after this progress. In addition, the passivated carbon dots were more inert to solvent than the bare one and showed different responses to pH change.

  16. Phosphorescence and delayed fluorescence properties of fluorone dyes in bio-related films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penzkofer, A.; Tyagi, A.; Slyusareva, E.; Sizykh, A.

    2010-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The spectral and temporal phosphorescence and delayed fluorescence behaviour of five fluorescein dyes in gelatine, starch, and chitosan is studied and basic parameters are determined. Research highlights: → Phosphorescence quantum yields of fluorone dyes in bio-related films are measured at room temperature. → Delayed fluorescence quantum yields of fluorone dyes in bio-related films are measured at room temperature. → Phosphorescence lifetimes of fluorone dyes in bio-related films are measured at room temperature. → Delayed fluorescence lifetimes of fluorone dyes in bio-related films are measured at room temperature. → General theory of short-pulse excited phosphorescence and delayed fluorescence is presented and relevant parameters are extracted. - Abstract: The phosphorescence and delayed fluorescence behaviour of the fluorone dyes disodium fluorescein (FL, uranine), 4,5-dibromofluorescein (DBF), eosin Y (EO), erythrosine B (ER), and rose bengal (RB) in bio-films of gelatine, starch, and chitosan at room temperature is studied. Phosphorescence and delayed fluorescence quantum yields and lifetimes were measured. The singlet-triplet dynamics is described and applied to the fluorone dyes for parameter extraction. For uranine films at room temperature no phosphorescence could be resolved. The efficiency of singlet-triplet intersystem crossing increased in the order φ ISC (DBF) ISC (EO) ISC (ER) ISC (RB) due to the heavy atom effect on spin-orbit coupling. The phosphorescence quantum yields increased in the order φ P (DBF) P (EO) P (RB) P (ER). The phosphorescence lifetimes followed the order τ P (DBF) > τ P (EO) > τ P (ER) > τ P (RB).

  17. Microscopic oxygen imaging based on fluorescein bleaching efficiency measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beutler, Martin; Heisterkamp, Ines M.; Piltz, Bastian

    2014-01-01

    by a charge-coupled-device (ccd) camera mounted on a fluorescence microscope allowed a pixelwise estimation of the ratio function in a microscopic image. Use of a microsensor and oxygen-consuming bacteria in a sample chamber enabled the calibration of the system for quantification of absolute oxygen......Photobleaching of the fluorophore fluorescein in an aqueous solution is dependent on the oxygen concentration. Therefore, the time-dependent bleaching behavior can be used to measure of dissolved oxygen concentrations. The method can be combined with epi-fluorescence microscopy. The molecular...... states of the fluorophore can be expressed by a three-state energy model. This leads to a set of differential equations which describe the photobleaching behavior of fluorescein. The numerical solution of these equations shows that in a conventional wide-field fluorescence microscope, the fluorescence...

  18. A Flexible Three-in-One Microsensor for Real-Time Monitoring of Internal Temperature, Voltage and Current of Lithium Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Yuan Lee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Lithium batteries are widely used in notebook computers, mobile phones, 3C electronic products, and electric vehicles. However, under a high charge/discharge rate, the internal temperature of lithium battery may rise sharply, thus causing safety problems. On the other hand, when the lithium battery is overcharged, the voltage and current may be affected, resulting in battery instability. This study applies the micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS technology on a flexible substrate, and develops a flexible three-in-one microsensor that can withstand the internal harsh environment of a lithium battery and instantly measure the internal temperature, voltage and current of the battery. Then, the internal information can be fed back to the outside in advance for the purpose of safety management without damaging the lithium battery structure. The proposed flexible three-in-one microsensor should prove helpful for the improvement of lithium battery design or material development in the future.

  19. Distinct roles of the photosystem II protein PsbS and zeaxanthin in the regulation of light harvesting in plants revealed by fluorescence lifetime snapshots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylak-Glassman, Emily J; Malnoë, Alizée; De Re, Eleonora; Brooks, Matthew D; Fischer, Alexandra Lee; Niyogi, Krishna K; Fleming, Graham R

    2014-12-09

    The photosystem II (PSII) protein PsbS and the enzyme violaxanthin deepoxidase (VDE) are known to influence the dynamics of energy-dependent quenching (qE), the component of nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) that allows plants to respond to fast fluctuations in light intensity. Although the absence of PsbS and VDE has been shown to change the amount of quenching, there have not been any measurements that can detect whether the presence of these proteins alters the type of quenching that occurs. The chlorophyll fluorescence lifetime probes the excited-state chlorophyll relaxation dynamics and can be used to determine the amount of quenching as well as whether two different genotypes with the same amount of NPQ have similar dynamics of excited-state chlorophyll relaxation. We measured the fluorescence lifetimes on whole leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana throughout the induction and relaxation of NPQ for wild type and the qE mutants, npq4, which lacks PsbS; npq1, which lacks VDE and cannot convert violaxanthin to zeaxanthin; and npq1 npq4, which lacks both VDE and PsbS. These measurements show that although PsbS changes the amount of quenching and the rate at which quenching turns on, it does not affect the relaxation dynamics of excited chlorophyll during quenching. In addition, the data suggest that PsbS responds not only to ΔpH but also to the Δψ across the thylakoid membrane. In contrast, the presence of VDE, which is necessary for the accumulation of zeaxanthin, affects the excited-state chlorophyll relaxation dynamics.

  20. Determination of absolute Ba densities during dimming operation of fluorescent lamps by laser-induced fluorescence measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadrath, S; Beck, M; Garner, R C; Lieder, G; Ehlbeck, J

    2007-01-01

    Investigations of fluorescent lamps (FL) are often focused on the electrodes, since the lifetime of the lamps is typically limited by the electrode lifetime and durability. During steady state operation, the work function lowering emitter material, in particular, barium, is lost. Greater barium losses occur under dimming conditions, in which reduced discharge currents lead to increased cathode falls, the result of the otherwise diminished heating of the electrode by the bombarding plasma ions. In this work the barium density near the electrodes of (FL), operating in high frequency dimming mode is investigated using the high-sensitivity method of laser-induced fluorescence. From these measurements we infer barium loss for a range of discharge currents and auxiliary coil heating currents. We show that the Ba loss can very easily be reduced by moderate auxiliary coil heating

  1. Time-resolved fluorescence microscopy (FLIM) as an analytical tool in skin nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexiev, Ulrike; Volz, Pierre; Boreham, Alexander; Brodwolf, Robert

    2017-07-01

    The emerging field of nanomedicine provides new approaches for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, for symptom relief, and for monitoring of disease progression. Topical application of drug-loaded nanoparticles for the treatment of skin disorders is a promising strategy to overcome the stratum corneum, the upper layer of the skin, which represents an effective physical and biochemical barrier. The understanding of drug penetration into skin and enhanced penetration into skin facilitated by nanocarriers requires analytical tools that ideally allow to visualize the skin, its morphology, the drug carriers, drugs, their transport across the skin and possible interactions, as well as effects of the nanocarriers within the different skin layers. Here, we review some recent developments in the field of fluorescence microscopy, namely Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM)), for improved characterization of nanocarriers, their interactions and penetration into skin. In particular, FLIM allows for the discrimination of target molecules, e.g. fluorescently tagged nanocarriers, against the autofluorescent tissue background and, due to the environmental sensitivity of the fluorescence lifetime, also offers insights into the local environment of the nanoparticle and its interactions with other biomolecules. Thus, FLIM shows the potential to overcome several limits of intensity based microscopy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Combination of confocal principle and aperture stop separation improves suppression of crystalline lens fluorescence in an eye model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, Matthias; Blum, Johannes; Link, Dietmar; Hammer, Martin; Haueisen, Jens; Schweitzer, Dietrich

    2016-09-01

    Fluorescence lifetime imaging ophthalmoscopy (FLIO) is a new technique to detect changes in the human retina. The autofluorescence decay over time, generated by endogenous fluorophores, is measured in vivo. The strong autofluorescence of the crystalline lens, however, superimposes the intensity decay of the retina fluorescence, as the confocal principle is not able to suppress it sufficiently. Thus, the crystalline lens autofluorescence causes artifacts in the retinal fluorescence lifetimes determined from the intensity decays. Here, we present a new technique to suppress the autofluorescence of the crystalline lens by introducing an annular stop into the detection light path, which we call Schweitzer's principle. The efficacy of annular stops with an outer diameter of 7 mm and inner diameters of 1 to 5 mm are analyzed in an experimental setup using a model eye based on fluorescent dyes. Compared to the confocal principle, Schweitzer's principle with an inner diameter of 3 mm is able to reduce the simulated crystalline lens fluorescence to 4%, while 42% of the simulated retina fluorescence is preserved. Thus, we recommend the implementation of Schweitzer's principle in scanning laser ophthalmoscopes used for fundus autofluorescence measurements, especially the FLIO device, for improved image quality.

  3. Predicting the life-time benefit of school-based smoking prevention programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jit, Mark; Aveyard, Paul; Barton, Pelham; Meads, Catherine A

    2010-06-01

    School-based smoking prevention programmes may delay the age of smoking initiation, but do not appear to achieve lasting reductions in smoking prevalence beyond school-leaving age. We explored whether delaying the age at which someone initiates smoking may have life-time benefits by increasing the likelihood of quitting in later life. Data from the General Household Survey of Great Britain were used in a logistic regression model to examine the association between age at which someone initiates regular smoking and the probability that the person will quit smoking later in life. The effect of confounding variables (sex, ethnicity, socio-economic class, education and geographical location) was taken into account. The predicted relationship was used in a cohort model to estimate the life-time reduction in smoking prevalence and all-cause mortality of a school-based smoking prevention programme. Age of regular smoking initiation was associated strongly with the probability of quitting later in life (coefficient -0.103, P < 0.001). The strength of the association was slightly reduced but still significant when confounding variables were included (coefficient -0.075, P < 0.001). An intervention that delays smoking initiation without decreasing smoking prevalence at age 18 may reduce adult smoking prevalence by 0.13-0.32% (depending on age) and all-cause mortality by 0.09% over the life-time of the sample. School-based smoking prevention programmes have potential for a beneficial effect over the life-time of the participants even if they have no apparent effect at school-leaving age.

  4. Improving fluorescence diagnosis of cancer by SLIM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rück, Angelika; Dolp, Frank; Kinzler, Ingrid; Hauser, Carmen; Scalfi-Happ, Claudia

    2006-02-01

    Although during the last years, significant progress was made in cancer diagnosis, using either intrinsic or specially designed fluorophores, still problems exist, due to difficulties in spectral separation of highly overlapping probes or in lack of specificity. Many of the problems could be circumvented by focusing on time-resolved methods. In combination with spectral resolved detection (spectral fluorescence lifetime imaging, SLIM) highly sophisticated fluorescence lifetime imaging can be performed which might improve specificity of cell diagnosis. To record lifetime images (τ-mapping) with spectral resolution a setup was realized consisting of a laser scanning microscope equipped with a 16 channel array for time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) and a spectrograph in front of the array. A Ti:Saphir laser can be used for excitation or alternatively ps diode lasers. With this system the time- and spectral-resolved fluorescence characteristics of different fluorophores were investigated in solution and in cell culture. As an example, not only the mitochondria staining dye rhodamine 123 could be easily distinguished from DAPI, which intercalates into nucleic acids, but also different binding sites of DAPI. This was proved by the appearance of different lifetime components within different spectral channels. Another example is Photofrin, a photosensitizer which is approved for bladder cancer and for palliative lung and esophageal cancer in 20 countries, including the United States, Canada and many European countries. Photofrin is a complex mixture of different monomeric and aggregated porphyrins. The phototoxic efficiency during photodynamic therapy (PDT) seems to be correlated with the relative amounts of monomers and aggregates. With SLIM different lifetimes could be attributed to various, spectrally highly overlapping compounds. In addition, a detailed analysis of the autofluorescence by SLIM could explain changes of mitochondrial metabolism during

  5. Riboflavin enhanced fluorescence of highly reduced graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliut, Maria; Gabudean, Ana-Maria; Leordean, Cosmin; Simon, Timea; Teodorescu, Cristian-Mihail; Astilean, Simion

    2013-10-01

    The improvement of graphene derivates' fluorescence properties is a challenging topic and very few ways were reported up to now. In this Letter we propose an easy method to enhance the fluorescence of highly reduced graphene oxide (rGO) through non-covalent binding to a molecular fluorophore, namely the riboflavin (Rb). While the fluorescence of Rb is quenched, the Rb - decorated rGO exhibits strong blue fluorescence and significantly increased fluorescence lifetime, as compared to its pristine form. The data reported here represent a promising start towards tailoring the optical properties of rGOs, having utmost importance in optical applications.

  6. Spectroscopic Analysis of Red Fluorescent Proteins and Development of a Microfluidic Cell Sorter for the Generation of Improved Variants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubbeck, Jennifer L.

    The discovery of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) launched the development of a wide variety of fluorescent protein (FP) mutants whose spectral and photophysical diversity revolutionized in vivo imaging. The excitation and emission spectra of red fluorescent proteins (RFPs), in particular, have been ideally tuned to a window optically favorable for in vivo work. However, their quantum yields, photostabilities and fluorescence intermittency properties require improvement if they are to be broadly employed for low-copy or single-molecule measurements. Attempts to engineer improved RFPs often result in optimization of one photophysical property at the expense of others. We developed a microfluidic-based cytometer for screening HeLa cell-based genetic RFP-libraries simultaneously on the basis of fluorescence lifetime (a proxy for quantum yield), photostability, and brightness. Ten 532 nm excitation beams interrogate each cell in flow. The first is electro-optically modulated (30 MHz) to enable lifetime measurement with phase fluorimetry. The remaining beams act as a pulse sequence for isolating the irreversible photobleaching time constant. Optical-force switching is employed to sort cells based on any combination of the photophysical parameters. Screening with this instrument enables identification of regions of the structure that synergistically affect quantum yield and photostability and the sorting capability provides a new tool for accelerating the development of next generation RFPs.

  7. Nuclear lifetime measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillaume, Georges

    Three direct techniques of lifetime measurement are emphasized: electronic methods and two methods based on the Doppler effect (the recoil distance methods or RDM, the Doppler shift attenuation methods or DSAM). Said direct methods are concerned with the direct measurement of the radioactive decay constants of nuclear excited states. They allow lifetimes of nucleus bound states whose deexcitations occur by electromagnetic transitions, to be determined. Other methods for measuring lifetimes are also examined: microwave techniques and those involving the blocking effect in crystals (direct methods) and also various indirect methods of obtaining lifetimes (γ resonance scattering, capture reactions, inelastic electron and nucleus scattering, and Coulomb deexcitation) [fr

  8. Fluorescence lifetime correlation spectroscopy combined with lifetime tuning: New perspectives in supported phospholipid bilayer research

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Benda, Aleš; Fagulová, Veronika; Deyneka, Alexander; Enderlain, J.; Hof, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 23 (2006), s. 9580-9585 ISSN 0743-7463 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/05/2308; GA MŠk LC06063 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : spectroscopy * fluorescence * FLCS Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.902, year: 2006

  9. Fluorescent probes for "off-on" highly sensitive detection of Hg²⁺ and L-cysteine based on nitrogen-doped carbon dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Cui, Peipei; Zhang, Feng; Feng, Xiaoting; Wang, Yaling; Yang, Yongzhen; Liu, Xuguang

    2016-05-15

    Fluorescent nitrogen-doped carbon dots (NCDs) were synthesized by a facile, and low-cost one-step hydrothermal strategy using citric acid as carbon source and ammonia solution as nitrogen source for the first time. The obtained NCDs show stable blue fluorescence with a high quantum yield of 35.4%, along with the fluorescence lifetime of ca. 6.75 ns. Most importantly, Hg(2+) can completely quench the fluorescence of NCDs as a result of the formation of a non-fluorescent stable NCDs-Hg(2+) complex. Static fluorescence quenching towards Hg(2+) is proved by the Stern-Volmer equation, ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra, temperature dependent quenching and fluorescence lifetime measurements. Subsequently, the fluorescence of the NCDs-Hg(2+) system is completely recovered with the addition L-cysteine (L-Cys) owing to the dissociation of NCDs-Hg(2+) complex to form a more stable Hg(2+)-L-Cys complex by Hg(2+)-S bonding. Therefore, such NCDs can be used as an effective fluorescent "turn-off" probe for rapid, rather highly selective and sensitive detection of Hg(2+), with a limit of detection (LOD) as low as 1.48 nM and a linear detection range of 0-10 μM. Interestingly, NCDs-Hg(2+) system can be conveniently employed as a fluorescent "turn-on" sensor for highly selective and sensitive detection of L-Cys with a low LOD of 0.79 nM and a wide linear detection range of 0-50 μM. Further, the sensitivity of NCDs to Hg(2+) is preserved in tap water with a LOD of 1.65 nM and a linear detection range of 0-10 μM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Microsensor Measurements of Sulfate Reduction and Sulfide Oxidation in Compact Microbial Communities of Aerobic Biofilms Rid A-1977-2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    KUHL, M.; JØRGENSEN, BB

    1992-01-01

    The microzonation of O2 respiration, H2S oxidation, and SO4(2-) reduction in aerobic trickling-filter biofilms was studied by measuring concentration profiles at high spatial resolution (25 to 100-mu-m) with microsensors for O2, S2-, and pH. Specific reaction rates were calculated from measured...

  11. In vivo detection of oral epithelial cancer using endogenous fluorescence lifetime imaging: a pilot human study (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Javier A.; Hwang, Dae Yon; Palma, Jorge; Cheng, Shuna; Cuenca, Rodrigo; Malik, Bilal; Jabbour, Joey; Cheng, Lisa; Wright, John; Maitland, Kristen

    2016-03-01

    Endogenous fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) provides direct access to the concomitant functional and biochemical changes accompanying tissue transition from benign to precancerous and cancerous. Since FLIM can noninvasively measure different and complementary biomarkers of precancer and cancer, we hypothesize that it will aid in clinically detecting early oral epithelial cancer. Our group has recently demonstrated the detection of benign from premalignant and malignant lesions based on endogenous multispectral FLIM in the hamster cheek-pouch model. Encouraged by these positive preliminary results, we have developed a handheld endoscope capable of acquiring multispectral FLIM images in real time from the oral mucosa. This novel FLIM endoscope is being used for imaging clinically suspicious pre-malignant and malignant lesions from patients before undergoing tissue biopsy for histopathological diagnosis of oral epithelial cancer. Our preliminary results thus far are already suggesting the potential of endogenous FLIM for distinguishing a variety of benign lesions from advanced dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). To the best of out knowledge, this is the first in vivo human study aiming to demonstrate the ability to predict the true malignancy of clinically suspicious lesions using endogenous FLIM. If successful, the resulting clinical tool will allow noninvasive real-time detection of epithelial precancerous and cancerous lesions in the oral mucosa and could potentially be used to assist at every step involved on the clinical management of oral cancer patients, from early screening and diagnosis, to treatment and monitoring of recurrence.

  12. [A cell-based detection of ciguatoxin using sodium fluorescence probe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jian-hui; Yang, Hui; Tang, Huan-wen; Huang, Wei; Xu, Xin-yun; Liu, Jian-jun; Ke, Yue-bin; Cheng, Jin-quan; Zhuang, Zhi-xiong

    2011-04-01

    To establish a cell-based detection method of ciguatoxin using fluorescence assay. Mouse neuroblastoma N-2A cells were exposed to ouabain and veratridine and different concentrations of standard ciguatoxin samples (P-CTX-1) to establish the curvilinear relationship between the toxin dosage and fluorescence intensity using the sodium fluorescence probe CoroNaTM Green. The toxicity curvilinear relationship was also generated between the toxin dosage and cell survival using CCK-8 method. Based on these standard curves, the presence of ciguatoxin was detected in 33 samples of deep-sea coral fish. A correlation was found between the detection results of cell-based fluorescence assay and cytotoxicity assay, whose detection limit reached 103 g/ml and 1012 g/ml, respectively. The cell-based fluorescent assay sensitivity showed a higher sensitivity than cytotoxicity assay with a 2-4 h reduction of the detection time. The cell-based fluorescent assay can quickly and sensitively detect ciguatoxin and may serve as a good option for preliminary screening of the toxin.

  13. Combination of confocal principle and aperture stop separation improves suppression of crystalline lens fluorescence in an eye model

    OpenAIRE

    Klemm, Matthias; Blum, Johannes; Link, Dietmar; Hammer, Martin; Haueisen, Jens; Schweitzer, Dietrich

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence lifetime imaging ophthalmoscopy (FLIO) is a new technique to detect changes in the human retina. The autofluorescence decay over time, generated by endogenous fluorophores, is measured in vivo. The strong autofluorescence of the crystalline lens, however, superimposes the intensity decay of the retina fluorescence, as the confocal principle is not able to suppress it sufficiently. Thus, the crystalline lens autofluorescence causes artifacts in the retinal fluorescence lifetimes d...

  14. Detection of radiation-induced brain necrosis in live rats using label-free time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TRFS) (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartl, Brad A.; Ma, Htet S. W.; Sridharan, Shamira; Hansen, Katherine; Klich, Melanie; Perks, Julian; Kent, Michael; Kim, Kyoungmi; Fragoso, Ruben; Marcu, Laura

    2017-02-01

    Differentiating radiation-induced necrosis from recurrent tumor in the brain remains a significant challenge to the neurosurgeon. Clinical imaging modalities are not able to reliably discriminate the two tissue types, making biopsy location selection and surgical management difficult. Label-free fluorescence lifetime techniques have previously been shown to be able to delineate human brain tumor from healthy tissues. Thus, fluorescence lifetime techniques represent a potential means to discriminate the two tissues in real-time during surgery. This study aims to characterize the endogenous fluorescence lifetime signatures from radiation induced brain necrosis in a tumor-free rat model. Fischer rats received a single fraction of 60 Gy of radiation to the right hemisphere using a linear accelerator. Animals underwent a terminal live surgery after gross necrosis had developed, as verified with MRI. During surgery, healthy and necrotic brain tissue was measured with a fiber optic needle connected to a multispectral fluorescence lifetime system. Measurements of the necrotic tissue showed a 48% decrease in intensity and 20% increase in lifetimes relative to healthy tissue. Using a support vector machine classifier and leave-one-out validation technique, the necrotic tissue was correctly classified with 94% sensitivity and 97% specificity. Spectral contribution analysis also confirmed that the primary source of fluorescence contrast lies within the redox and bound-unbound population shifts of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. A clinical trial is presently underway to measure these tissue types in humans. These results show for the first time that radiation-induced necrotic tissue in the brain contains significantly different metabolic signatures that are detectable with label-free fluorescence lifetime techniques.

  15. Gated Detection Measurements of Phosphorescence Lifetimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yordan Kostov

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available A low-cost, gated system for measurements of phosphorescence lifetimes is presented. An extensive description of the system operating principles and metrological characteristics is given. Remarkably, the system operates without optical filtering of the LED excitation source. A description of a practical system is also given and its performance is discussed. Because the device effectively suppresses high-level background fluorescence and scattered light, it is expected to find wide-spread application in bioprocess, environmental and biomedical fields.

  16. Confocal fluorescence techniques in industrial application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggeling, Christian; Gall, Karsten; Palo, Kaupo; Kask, Peet; Brand, Leif

    2003-06-01

    The FCS+plus family of evaluation tools for confocal fluorescence spectroscopy, which was developed during recent years, offers a comprehensive view to a series of fluorescence properties. Originating in fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and using similar experimental equipment, a system of signal processing methods such as fluorescence intensity distribution analysis (FIDA) was created to analyze in detail the fluctuation behavior of fluorescent particles within a small area of detection. Giving simultaneous access to molecular parameters like concentration, translational and rotational diffusion, molecular brightness, and multicolor coincidence, this portfolio was enhanced by more traditional techniques of fluorescence lifetime as well as time-resolved anisotropy determination. The cornerstones of the FCS+plus methodology will be shortly described. The inhibition of a phosphatase enzyme activity gives a comprehensive industrial application that demonstrates FCS+plus' versatility and its potential for pharmaceutical drug discovery.

  17. Real Mission Profile Based Lifetime Estimation of Fuel-cell Power Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dao; Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    . This paper describes a lifetime prediction method for the power semiconductors used in the power conditioning of a fuel cell based backup system, considering both the long-term standby mode and active operation mode. The annual ambient temperature profile is taken into account to estimate its impact...... on the degradation of MOSFETs during the standby mode. At the presence of power outages, the backup system is activated into the operation mode and the MOSFETs withstand additional thermal stresses due to power losses. A study case of a 1 kW backup system is presented with two annual mission profiles in Denmark...... and India, respectively. The ambient temperature, occurrence frequency of power outages, active operation time and power levels are considered for the lifetime prediction of the applied MOSFETs. Comparisons of the accumulated lifetime consumptions are performed between standby mode and operation mode...

  18. Facile and Scalable Preparation of Fluorescent Carbon Dots for Multifunctional Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of fluorescent nanomaterials has received considerable attention due to the great potential of these materials for a wide range of applications, from chemical sensing through bioimaging to optoelectronics. Herein, we report a facile and scalable approach to prepare fluorescent carbon dots (FCDs via a one-pot reaction of citric acid with ethylenediamine at 150 °C under ambient air pressure. The resultant FCDs possess an optical bandgap of 3.4 eV and exhibit strong excitation-wavelength-independent blue emission (λEm = 450 nm under either one- or two-photon excitation. Owing to their low cytotoxicity and long fluorescence lifetime, these FCDs were successfully used as internalized fluorescent probes in human cancer cell lines (HeLa cells for two-photon excited imaging of cells by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy with a high-contrast resolution. They were also homogenously mixed with commercial inks and used to draw fluorescent patterns on normal papers and on many other substrates (e.g., certain flexible plastic films, textiles, and clothes. Thus, these nanomaterials are promising for use in solid-state fluorescent sensing, security labeling, and wearable optoelectronics.

  19. Time-Resolved Fluorescence of Water-Soluble Pyridinium Salt: Sensitive Detection of the Conformational Changes of Bovine Serum Albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Yi, Hua; Jia, Menghui; Chang, Mengfang; Zhou, Zhongneng; Zhang, Sanjun; Pan, Haifeng; Chen, Yan; Chen, Jinquan; Xu, Jianhua

    2016-06-20

    In this paper, we report a pyridinium salt "turn-on" fluorescent probe, 4-[2-(4-Dimethylamino-phenyl)-vinyl]-1-methylpyridinium iodide (p-DASPMI), and applied its time-resolved fluorescence (TRF) to monitor the protein conformational changes. Both the fluorescence lifetime and quantum yield (QY) of p-DASPMI were increased about two orders of magnitude after binding to the protein bovine serum albumin (BSA). The free p-DASPMI in solution presents an ultrashort fluorescence lifetime (12.4 ps), thus it does not interfere the detection of bound p-DASPMI which has nanosecond fluorescence lifetime. Decay-associated spectra (DAS) show that p-DASPMI molecules bind to subdomains IIA and IIIA of BSA. The TRF decay profiles of p-DASPMI can be described by multi-exponential decay function ([Formula: see text]), and the obtained parameters, such as lifetimes ([Formula: see text]), fractional amplitudes ([Formula: see text]), and fractional intensities ([Formula: see text]), may be used to deduce the conformational changes of BSA. The pH and Cu 2+ induced conformational changes of BSA were investigated through the TRF of p-DASPMI. The results show that the p-DASPMI is a candidate fluorescent probe in studying the conformational changes of proteins through TRF spectroscopy and microscopy in the visible range. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Simultaneous fluorescence light-up and selective multicolor nucleobase recognition based on sequence-dependent strong binding of berberine to DNA abasic site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fei; Shao, Yong; Ma, Kun; Cui, Qinghua; Liu, Guiying; Xu, Shujuan

    2012-04-28

    Label-free DNA nucleobase recognition by fluorescent small molecules has received much attention due to its simplicity in mutation identification and drug screening. However, sequence-dependent fluorescence light-up nucleobase recognition and multicolor emission with individual emission energy for individual nucleobases have been seldom realized. Herein, an abasic site (AP site) in a DNA duplex was employed as a binding field for berberine, one of isoquinoline alkaloids. Unlike weak binding of berberine to the fully matched DNAs without the AP site, strong binding of berberine to the AP site occurs and the berberine's fluorescence light-up behaviors are highly dependent on the target nucleobases opposite the AP site in which the targets thymine and cytosine produce dual emission bands, while the targets guanine and adenine only give a single emission band. Furthermore, more intense emissions are observed for the target pyrimidines than purines. The flanking bases of the AP site also produce some modifications of the berberine's emission behavior. The binding selectivity of berberine at the AP site is also confirmed by measurements of fluorescence resonance energy transfer, excited-state lifetime, DNA melting and fluorescence quenching by ferrocyanide and sodium chloride. It is expected that the target pyrimidines cause berberine to be stacked well within DNA base pairs near the AP site, which results in a strong resonance coupling of the electronic transitions to the particular vibration mode to produce the dual emissions. The fluorescent signal-on and emission energy-modulated sensing for nucleobases based on this fluorophore is substantially advantageous over the previously used fluorophores. We expect that this approach will be developed as a practical device for differentiating pyrimidines from purines by positioning an AP site toward a target that is available for readout by this alkaloid probe. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  1. Time resolved fluorescence of cow and goat milk powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandao, Mariana P.; de Carvalho dos Anjos, Virgílio; Bell., Maria José V.

    2017-01-01

    Milk powder is an international dairy commodity. Goat and cow milk powders are significant sources of nutrients and the investigation of the authenticity and classification of milk powder is particularly important. The use of time-resolved fluorescence techniques to distinguish chemical composition and structure modifications could assist develop a portable and non-destructive methodology to perform milk powder classification and determine composition. This study goal is to differentiate milk powder samples from cows and goats using fluorescence lifetimes. The samples were excited at 315 nm and the fluorescence intensity decay registered at 468 nm. We observed fluorescence lifetimes of 1.5 ± 0.3, 6.4 ± 0.4 and 18.7 ± 2.5 ns for goat milk powder; and 1.7 ± 0.3, 6.9 ± 0.2 and 29.9 ± 1.6 ns for cow's milk powder. We discriminate goat and cow powder milk by analysis of variance using Fisher's method. In addition, we employed quadratic discriminant analysis to differentiate the milk samples with accuracy of 100%. Our results suggest that time-resolved fluorescence can provide a new method to the analysis of powder milk and its composition.

  2. Lifetime costs of cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Marie; Michelsen, Susan Ishøy; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht

    2009-01-01

    This study quantified the lifetime costs of cerebral palsy (CP) in a register-based setting. It was the first study outside the US to assess the lifetime costs of CP. The lifetime costs attributable to CP were divided into three categories: health care costs, productivity costs, and social costs....... social care costs and productivity costs associated with CP point to a potential gain from labour market interventions that benefit individuals with CP.......This study quantified the lifetime costs of cerebral palsy (CP) in a register-based setting. It was the first study outside the US to assess the lifetime costs of CP. The lifetime costs attributable to CP were divided into three categories: health care costs, productivity costs, and social costs...... in 2000. The prevalence of CP in eastern Denmark was approximately 1.7 per 1000. Information on productivity and the use of health care was retrieved from registers. The lifetime cost of CP was about euro860 000 for men and about euro800 000 for women. The largest component was social care costs...

  3. Nanostructure induced changes in lifetime and enhanced second-harmonic response of organic-plasmonic hybrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leißner, Till [NanoSYD, Mads Clausen Institute, University of Southern Denmark, Alsion 2, 6400 Sønderborg (Denmark); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, 5230 Odense (Denmark); Kostiučenko, Oksana; Rubahn, Horst-Günter; Fiutowski, Jacek, E-mail: fiutowski@mci.sdu.dk [NanoSYD, Mads Clausen Institute, University of Southern Denmark, Alsion 2, 6400 Sønderborg (Denmark); Brewer, Jonathan R. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, 5230 Odense (Denmark)

    2015-12-21

    In this letter we show that the optical response of organic nanofibers, grown from functionalized para-quaterphenylene molecules, can be controlled by forming organic-plasmonic hybrid systems. The interaction between nanofibers and supporting regular arrays of nanostructures leads to a strongly enhanced second harmonic response. At the same time, the fluorescence lifetime of the nanofibers is reduced from 0.32 ns for unstructured gold films to 0.22 ns for gold nanosquare arrays, demonstrating efficient organic–plasmonic interaction. To study the origin of these effects, we applied two-photon laser scanning microscopy and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy. These findings provide an effective approach for plasmon-enhanced second-harmonic generation at the nanoscale, which is attractive for nanophotonic circuitry.

  4. Two-photon excited fluorescence microscopy application for ex vivo investigation of ocular fundus samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Sven; Hammer, Martin; Schweitzer, Dietrich

    2011-07-01

    Two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) imaging of ocular tissue has recently become a promising tool in ophthalmology for diagnostic and research purposes. The feasibility and the advantages of TPEF imaging, namely deeper tissue penetration and improved high-resolution imaging of microstructures, have been demonstrated lately using human ocular samples. The autofluorescence properties of endogenous fluorophores in ocular fundus tissue are well known from spectrophotometric analysis. But fluorophores, especially when it comes to fluorescence lifetime, typically display a dependence of their fluorescence properties on local environmental parameters. Hence, a more detailed investigation of ocular fundus autofluorescence ideally in vivo is of utmost interest. The aim of this study is to determine space-resolved the stationary and time-resolved fluorescence properties of endogenous fluorophores in ex vivo porcine ocular fundus samples by means of two-photon excited fluorescence spectrum and lifetime imaging microscopy (FSIM/FLIM). By our first results, we characterized the autofluorescence of individual anatomical structures of porcine retina samples excited at 760 nm. The fluorescence properties of almost all investigated retinal layers are relatively homogenous. But as previously unknown, ganglion cell bodies show a significantly shorter fluorescence lifetime compared to the adjacent mueller cells. Since all retinal layers exhibit bi-exponential autofluorescence decays, we were able to achieve a more precise characterization of fluorescence properties of endogenous fluorophores compared to a present in vivo FLIM approach by confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (cSLO).

  5. Laser diagnostics in combustion. Elastic scattering and picosecond laser-induced fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ossler, Frederik

    1999-05-01

    Elastic scattering and the Lorenz-Mie (LM) theory in particular is used for the characterization of sub-micron- and micron-sized droplets of organic fuels in sprays and aerosols. Calculations on the Lorenz-Mie theory show that backward-sideward scattered visible radiation can be used for unambiguous detection of ensembles of homogeneous droplets of organic substances with diameters around 1 micrometer (size parameter between 2 and 6). A backward feature in the polarization ratio appears with a value considerably higher than one, on the opposite to the case of the rainbow observed for larger droplets. A comparison between measurements and LM calculations showed that a large amount of droplets in aerosols and well-atomized sprays were smaller than one micrometer in diameter. The LM theory was also used to characterize different size groups in a burning spray. A 3 - D technique based on a picosecond laser and a streak camera was demonstrated for measurements of fast and turbulent biphase flows. The entire 3 - D information was obtained within a time-span of less than 15 nanoseconds. A 2 - D technique for lifetime measurements based on a picosecond laser and a streak camera has been demonstrated on static objects. An analysis indicates that the technique may be applied to measurements of lifetimes around or below one picosecond employing femtosecond lasers and femtosecond streak-cameras. The technique may in principle be used to study dynamic systems when two detectors are used. Fluorescence lifetime measurements on hydrogen and oxygen atoms in flames at atmospheric pressure demonstrate the need of lasers with suiting spectral properties such as jitter and linewidth and the need of detectors with high sensitivity in the near IR in the case of oxygen atoms. The fluorescence lifetimes of gas phase acetone and 3-pentanone at 266 nm excitation wavelength have been measured for mixtures with nitrogen and air at temperatures between 323 and 723 K and pressures between 0

  6. A dark green fluorescent protein as an acceptor for measurement of Förster resonance energy transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakoshi, Hideji; Shibata, Akihiro C E; Nakahata, Yoshihisa; Nabekura, Junichi

    2015-10-15

    Measurement of Förster resonance energy transfer by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM-FRET) is a powerful method for visualization of intracellular signaling activities such as protein-protein interactions and conformational changes of proteins. Here, we developed a dark green fluorescent protein (ShadowG) that can serve as an acceptor for FLIM-FRET. ShadowG is spectrally similar to monomeric enhanced green fluorescent protein (mEGFP) and has a 120-fold smaller quantum yield. When FRET from mEGFP to ShadowG was measured using an mEGFP-ShadowG tandem construct with 2-photon FLIM-FRET, we observed a strong FRET signal with low cell-to-cell variability. Furthermore, ShadowG was applied to a single-molecule FRET sensor to monitor a conformational change of CaMKII and of the light oxygen voltage (LOV) domain in HeLa cells. These sensors showed reduced cell-to-cell variability of both the basal fluorescence lifetime and response signal. In contrast to mCherry- or dark-YFP-based sensors, our sensor allowed for precise measurement of individual cell responses. When ShadowG was applied to a separate-type Ras FRET sensor, it showed a greater response signal than did the mCherry-based sensor. Furthermore, Ras activation and translocation of its effector ERK2 into the nucleus could be observed simultaneously. Thus, ShadowG is a promising FLIM-FRET acceptor.

  7. Fluorescence-Based Bioassays for the Detection and Evaluation of Food Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Nishi, Kentaro; Isobe, Shin-Ichiro; Zhu, Yun; Kiyama, Ryoiti

    2015-01-01

    We summarize here the recent progress in fluorescence-based bioassays for the detection and evaluation of food materials by focusing on fluorescent dyes used in bioassays and applications of these assays for food safety, quality and efficacy. Fluorescent dyes have been used in various bioassays, such as biosensing, cell assay, energy transfer-based assay, probing, protein/immunological assay and microarray/biochip assay. Among the arrays used in microarray/biochip assay, fluorescence-based mi...

  8. DNA-Based Self-Assembly of Fluorescent Nanodiamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Neumann, Andre; Lindlau, Jessica; Wu, Yuzhou; Pramanik, Goutam; Naydenov, Boris; Jelezko, Fedor; Schüder, Florian; Huber, Sebastian; Huber, Marinus; Stehr, Florian; Högele, Alexander; Weil, Tanja; Liedl, Tim

    2015-08-12

    As a step toward deterministic and scalable assembly of ordered spin arrays we here demonstrate a bottom-up approach to position fluorescent nanodiamonds (NDs) with nanometer precision on DNA origami structures. We have realized a reliable and broadly applicable surface modification strategy that results in DNA-functionalized and perfectly dispersed NDs that were then self-assembled in predefined geometries. With optical studies we show that the fluorescence properties of the nitrogen-vacancy color centers in NDs are preserved during surface modification and DNA assembly. As this method allows the nanoscale arrangement of fluorescent NDs together with other optically active components in complex geometries, applications based on self-assembled spin lattices or plasmon-enhanced spin sensors as well as improved fluorescent labeling for bioimaging could be envisioned.

  9. Risk based lifetime assessment of piping under creep-fatigue conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bielak, O.; Bina, V.; Korous, J.

    2003-01-01

    The analysis of the steam pipeline lifetime is based on: (i) technical procedures supplied by Nuclear Electric R5; (ii) random interpretation of material damage accumulation laws for creep and fatigue; (iii) a stochastic model of the creep process (creep rupture strength, deformation characteristics); (iv) probabilistic description of geometrical quantities of the steam pipeline. The probabilistic procedure results in the calculation of the crack initiation risks both for the critical localities and for the steam pipeline as a whole (its subsystems, if need be). The residual lifetime was calculated from the conditional (a posteriori) probabilities. The risks of crack initiation was calculated for different operating periods (inspection frequency), and the periods were optimised to meet (i) the minimum risk of crack initiation and (2) the operation and economy criteria. The method also involves calculation of the residual lifetime from the updated data (material properties, dimensions). In the standard service-life calculations there is no difference between the weld and BM, the justification being that the weld is exposed to axial stress caused by internal pressure, which is one half of the hoop stress. Thus, the low creep resistant properties of the weld were ignored, as well as the uneven state of stress and its redistribution. In a number of cases it is the welds that are a weak point and therefore should receive considerable attention. The probabilistic method of lifetime and reliability assessment was verified on over 29 piping systems in power and petrochemical plants

  10. In-vitro investigations of a pH- and ionic-strength-responsive polyelectrolytic hydrogel using a piezoresistive microsensor

    OpenAIRE

    Schulz, Volker; Guenther, Margarita; Gerlach, Gerald; Magda, Jules J.; Tathireddy, Prashant; Rieth, Loren; Solzbacher, Florian

    2009-01-01

    Environmental responsive or smart hydrogels show a volume phase transition due to changes of external stimuli such as pH or ionic strength of an ambient solution. Thus, they are able to convert reversibly chemical energy into mechanical energy and therefore they are suitable as sensitive material for integration in biochemical microsensors and MEMS devices. In this work, micro-fabricated silicon pressure sensor chips with integrated piezoresistors were used as transducers for the conversion o...

  11. Microviscosity of supercooled water confined within aminopropyl-modified mesoporous silica as studied by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Akira; Namekawa, Manato; Itoh, Tetsuji; Teramae, Norio

    2012-01-01

    The fluorescence dynamics of rhodamine B (RhB) immobilized on the pore surface of aminopropyl (AP)-modified mesoporous silica (diameter of the silica framework, 3.1 nm) was examined at temperatures between 293 and 193 K to study the microviscosity of supercooled water confined inside the pores. The mesoporous silica specimen with a dense AP layer (2.1 molecules nm(-2)) was prepared, and RhB isothiocyanate was covalently bound to part of the surface AP groups. The fluorescence lifetime of the surface RhB increased with decreasing temperature from 293 to 223 K, indicating that freezing of the confined water did not occur in this temperature range. The microviscosity of the supercooled confined water was evaluated from an analysis of the lifetime data based on a frequency-dependent friction model.

  12. Fluorescence decay data analysis correcting for detector pulse pile-up at very high count rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patting, Matthias; Reisch, Paja; Sackrow, Marcus; Dowler, Rhys; Koenig, Marcelle; Wahl, Michael

    2018-03-01

    Using time-correlated single photon counting for the purpose of fluorescence lifetime measurements is usually limited in speed due to pile-up. With modern instrumentation, this limitation can be lifted significantly, but some artifacts due to frequent merging of closely spaced detector pulses (detector pulse pile-up) remain an issue to be addressed. We propose a data analysis method correcting for this type of artifact and the resulting systematic errors. It physically models the photon losses due to detector pulse pile-up and incorporates the loss in the decay fit model employed to obtain fluorescence lifetimes and relative amplitudes of the decay components. Comparison of results with and without this correction shows a significant reduction of systematic errors at count rates approaching the excitation rate. This allows quantitatively accurate fluorescence lifetime imaging at very high frame rates.

  13. Assisted Interpretation of Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectra of Egg-Based Binding Media Using Total Emission Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anglos, D.; Nevin, A.

    2006-01-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy can provide nondestructive, qualitative analysis of protein-based binding media found in artworks. Fluorescence emissions from proteins in egg yolk and egg white are due to auto fluorescent aromatic amino acids as well as other native and age-related fluorophores, but the potential of fluorescence spectroscopy for the differentiation between binding media is dependent on the choice of a suitable excitation wavelength and limited by problems in interpretation. However, a better understanding of emission spectra associated with LIF can be achieved following comparisons with total emission fluorescence spectra where a series of consecutive emission spectra are recorded over a specific range. Results using nanosecond UV laser sources for LIF of egg-based binding media are presented which are rationalised following comparisons with total emission spectra. Specifically, fluorescence is assigned to tryptophan and oxidation products of amino acids; in the case of egg yolk, fatty-acid polymerisation and age-related degradation products account for the formation of fluorophores.

  14. Monitoring Volatile Organic Tank Waste Using Cermet Microsensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward G. Gatliff, Ph.D.; Laura R. Skubal, Ph.D.; Michael C. Vogt, Ph.D.

    2006-03-13

    Presently, very few inexpensive technologies exist in the marketplace that can determine the contents of tank waste or monitor the chemistry of tank constituents in near-real time. The research addressed this problem by developing and assessing ceramic-metallic based microsensors for determining the constituents of a liquid organic storage tank by examining the gases in the headspace of the tank. Overall, the WBO and YSZ sensors responded well to the chemicals in this study. Responses to various concentrations were distinguishable visually. This is a clear indication that pattern recognition tools will be effective in resolving the constituents and concentrations. In tests, such as the test with acetophenone, one sensor, the WBO sensor is not extremely effective. However, the other sensor, the YSZ sensor, is effective in resolving the concentrations. This supports the need to use an array of sensors, as one sensor may be reactive to a compound while another may not. In the course of this research, several interesting phenomena surfaced. New sensors, that were fabricated but not used in a contaminant gas, seemed to function more effectively and predictably if a ?conditioning? step was imposed upon them prior to use in square wave voltammetry. A conditioning step consists of running cyclic voltammetry prior to running square wave voltammetry. This step tends to ?cleanse? the sensor surface by providing a full -1.0 V to +1.0V sweep and both oxidizing and reducing compounds on the sensor surface. [Note: squarewave voltammetry will simply oxidize or reduce compounds ? it will not induce both reactions.] This sweep is essential for recovery between samples.

  15. Lifetime of organic photovoltaics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corazza, Michael; Krebs, Frederik C; Gevorgyan, Suren A.

    2015-01-01

    tests. Comparison of the indoor and outdoor lifetimes was performed by means of the o-diagram, which constitutes the initial steps towards establishing a method for predicting the lifetime of an organic photovoltaic device under real operational conditions based on a selection of accelerated indoor...

  16. Mining the bulk positron lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aourag, H.; Guittom, A.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a new approach to investigate the bulk positron lifetimes of new systems based on data-mining techniques. Through data mining of bulk positron lifetimes, we demonstrate the ability to predict the positron lifetimes of new semiconductors on the basis of available semiconductor data already studied. Informatics techniques have been applied to bulk positron lifetimes for different tetrahedrally bounded semiconductors in order to discover computational design rules. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Distribution of diffusion times determined by fluorescence (lifetime) correlation spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pánek, Jiří; Loukotová, Lenka; Hrubý, Martin; Štěpánek, Petr

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 8 (2018), s. 2796-2804 ISSN 0024-9297 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1507 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polymer solution * fluorescence correlation spectroscopy * diffusion time distribution Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 5.835, year: 2016

  18. Simultaneous determination of glycols based on fluorescence anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Sanchez, F.; Navas Diaz, A.; Lopez Guerrero, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Simultaneous determination of non-fluorescent glycols in mixtures without separation or chemical transformation steps is described. Two methods based in the measure of fluorescence anisotropy of a probe such as fluorescein dissolved in the analyte or analyte mixtures are described. In the first method, the anisotropy spectra of pure and mixtures of analytes are used to quantitative determination (if the fluorophor concentration is in a range where fluorescence intensity is proportional to concentration). In the second method, a calibration curve anisotropy-concentration based on the application of the Perrin equation is established. The methods presented here are capable of directly resolving binary mixtures of non-fluorescent glycols on the basis of differences on the fluorescence anisotropy of a fluorescence tracer. Best analytical performances were obtained by application of the method based on Perrin equation. This method is simple, rapid and allows the determination of mixtures of glycols with reasonable accuracy and precision. Detection limits are limited by the quantum yield and anisotropy values of the tracer in the solvents. Recovery values are related to the differences in anisotropy values of the tracer in the pure solvents. Mixtures of glycerine/ethylene glycol (GL/EG), ethylene glycol/1,2-propane diol (EG/1,2-PPD) and polyethylene glycol 400/1,2-propane diol (PEG 400/1,2-PPD) were analysed and recovery values are within 95-120% in the Perrin method. Relative standard deviation are in the range 1.3-2.9% and detection limits in the range 3.9-8.9%

  19. Fluorescence of sanguinarine: fundamental characteristics and analysis of interconversion between various forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janovská, Marika; Kubala, Martin; Simánek, Vilím; Ulrichová, Jitka

    2009-09-01

    The quaternary isoquinoline alkaloid, sanguinarine (SG) plays an important role in both traditional and modern medicine, exhibiting a wide range of biological activities. Under physiological conditions, there is an equilibrium between the quaternary cation (SG+) and a pseudobase (SGOH) forms of SG. In the gastrointestinal tract, SG is converted to dihydrosanguinarine (DHSG). All forms exhibit bright fluorescence. However, their spectra overlap, which limited the use of powerful techniques based on fluorescence spectroscopy/microscopy. Our experiments using a combination of steady-state and time-resolved techniques enabled the separation of individual components. The results revealed that (a) the equilibrium constant between SG+ and SGOH is pKa = 8.06, while fluorescence of DHSG exhibited no changes in the pH range 5-12, (b) the SGOH has excitation/emission spectra with maxima at 327/418 nm and excited-state lifetime 3.2 ns, the spectra of the SG+ have maxima at 475/590 nm and excited-state lifetime 2.4 ns. The DHSG spectra have maxima at 327/446 nm and 2-exponential decay with components 4.2 and 2.0 ns, (c) NADH is able to convert SG to DHSG, while there is no apparent interaction between NADH and DHSG. These techniques are applicable for monitoring the SG to DHSG conversion in hepatocytes.

  20. Guanidinium: A Route to Enhanced Carrier Lifetime and Open-Circuit Voltage in Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, Nicholas; Zhou, Huanping; Chen, Qi; Sun, Pengyu; Liu, Zonghao; Meng, Lei; Yao, En-Ping; Liu, Yongsheng; Schiffer, Andy; Yang, Yang

    2016-02-10

    Hybrid perovskites have shown astonishing power conversion efficiencies owed to their remarkable absorber characteristics including long carrier lifetimes, and a relatively substantial defect tolerance for solution-processed polycrystalline films. However, nonradiative charge carrier recombination at grain boundaries limits open circuit voltages and consequent performance improvements of perovskite solar cells. Here we address such recombination pathways and demonstrate a passivation effect through guanidinium-based additives to achieve extraordinarily enhanced carrier lifetimes and higher obtainable open circuit voltages. Time-resolved photoluminescence measurements yield carrier lifetimes in guanidinium-based films an order of magnitude greater than pure-methylammonium counterparts, giving rise to higher device open circuit voltages and power conversion efficiencies exceeding 17%. A reduction in defect activation energy of over 30% calculated via admittance spectroscopy and confocal fluorescence intensity mapping indicates successful passivation of recombination/trap centers at grain boundaries. We speculate that guanidinium ions serve to suppress formation of iodide vacancies and passivate under-coordinated iodine species at grain boundaries and within the bulk through their hydrogen bonding capability. These results present a simple method for suppressing nonradiative carrier loss in hybrid perovskites to further improve performances toward highly efficient solar cells.

  1. Fluorescent metal nanoshell and CK19 detection on single cell image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jian; Fu, Yi; Li, Ge; Lakowicz, Joseph R.; Zhao, Richard Y.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Novel metal nanoshell as fluorescence imaging agent. → Fluorescent mAb-metal complex with enhanced intensity and shortened lifetime. → Immuno-interactions of mAb-metal complexes with CK19 molecules on CNCAP and HeLa cell surfaces. → Isolation of conjugated mAb-metal complexes from cellular autofluorescence on cell image. -- Abstract: In this article, we report the synthesis strategy and optical properties of a novel type of fluorescence metal nanoshell when it was used as imaging agent for fluorescence cell imaging. The metal nanoshells were made with 40 nm silica cores and 10 nm silver shells. Unlike typical fluorescence metal nanoshells which contain the organic dyes in the cores, novel metal nanoshells were composed of Cy5-labelled monoclonal anti-CK19 antibodies (mAbs) on the external surfaces of shells. Optical measurements to the single nanoparticles showed that in comparison with the metal free labelled mAbs, the mAb-Ag complexes displayed significantly enhanced emission intensity and dramatically shortened lifetime due to near-field interactions of fluorophores with metal. These metal nanoshells were found to be able to immunoreact with target cytokeratin 19 (CK19) molecules on the surfaces of LNCAP and HeLa cells. Fluorescence cell images were recorded on a time-resolved confocal microscope. The emissions from the metal nanoprobes could be clearly isolated from the cellular autofluorescence backgrounds on the cell images as either individuals or small clusters due to their stronger emission intensities and shorter lifetimes. These emission signals could also be precisely counted on single cell images. The count number may provide an approach for quantifying the target molecules in the cells.

  2. Lifetime of Organic Photovoltaics: Status and Predictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gevorgyan, Suren; Madsen, Morten Vesterager; Roth, Bérenger

    2016-01-01

    The results of a meta-analysis conducted on organic photovoltaics (OPV) lifetime data reported in the literature is presented through the compilation of an extensive OPV lifetime database based on a large number of articles, followed by analysis of the large body of data. We fully reveal the prog......The results of a meta-analysis conducted on organic photovoltaics (OPV) lifetime data reported in the literature is presented through the compilation of an extensive OPV lifetime database based on a large number of articles, followed by analysis of the large body of data. We fully reveal...... the progress of reported OPV lifetimes. Furthermore, a generic lifetime marker has been defi ned, which helps with gauging and comparing the performance of different architectures and materials from the perspective of device stability. Based on the analysis, conclusions are drawn on the bottlenecks...

  3. Residual lifetime prediction for lithium-ion battery based on functional principal component analysis and Bayesian approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Yujie; Lu, Chen; Li, Tieying; Tao, Laifa

    2015-01-01

    Existing methods for predicting lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery residual lifetime mostly depend on a priori knowledge on aging mechanism, the use of chemical or physical formulation and analytical battery models. This dependence is usually difficult to determine in practice, which restricts the application of these methods. In this study, we propose a new prediction method for Li-ion battery residual lifetime evaluation based on FPCA (functional principal component analysis) and Bayesian approach. The proposed method utilizes FPCA to construct a nonparametric degradation model for Li-ion battery, based on which the residual lifetime and the corresponding confidence interval can be evaluated. Furthermore, an empirical Bayes approach is utilized to achieve real-time updating of the degradation model and concurrently determine residual lifetime distribution. Based on Bayesian updating, a more accurate prediction result and a more precise confidence interval are obtained. Experiments are implemented based on data provided by the NASA Ames Prognostics Center of Excellence. Results confirm that the proposed prediction method performs well in real-time battery residual lifetime prediction. - Highlights: • Capacity is considered functional and FPCA is utilized to extract more information. • No features required which avoids drawbacks induced by feature extraction. • A good combination of both population and individual information. • Avoiding complex aging mechanism and accurate analytical models of batteries. • Easily applicable to different batteries for life prediction and RLD calculation.

  4. Origins of fluorescence in evolved bacteriophytochromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Shyamosree; Auldridge, Michele E; Lehtivuori, Heli; Ihalainen, Janne A; Forest, Katrina T

    2014-11-14

    Use of fluorescent proteins to study in vivo processes in mammals requires near-infrared (NIR) biomarkers that exploit the ability of light in this range to penetrate tissue. Bacteriophytochromes (BphPs) are photoreceptors that couple absorbance of NIR light to photoisomerization, protein conformational changes, and signal transduction. BphPs have been engineered to form NIR fluorophores, including IFP1.4, Wi-Phy, and the iRFP series, initially by replacement of Asp-207 by His. This position was suggestive because its main chain carbonyl is within hydrogen-bonding distance to pyrrole ring nitrogens of the biliverdin chromophore, thus potentially functioning as a crucial transient proton sink during photoconversion. To explain the origin of fluorescence in these phytofluors, we solved the crystal structures of IFP1.4 and a comparison non-fluorescent monomeric phytochrome DrCBDmon. Met-186 and Val-288 in IFP1.4 are responsible for the formation of a tightly packed hydrophobic hub around the biliverdin D ring. Met-186 is also largely responsible for the blue-shifted IFP1.4 excitation maximum relative to the parent BphP. The structure of IFP1.4 revealed decreased structural heterogeneity and a contraction of two surface regions as direct consequences of side chain substitutions. Unexpectedly, IFP1.4 with Asp-207 reinstalled (IFPrev) has a higher fluorescence quantum yield (∼9%) than most NIR phytofluors published to date. In agreement, fluorescence lifetime measurements confirm the exceptionally long excited state lifetimes, up to 815 ps, in IFP1.4 and IFPrev. Our research helps delineate the origin of fluorescence in engineered BphPs and will facilitate the wide-spread adoption of phytofluors as biomarkers. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Monosodium glutamate derived tricolor fluorescent carbon nanoparticles for cell-imaging application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Nannan; Ding, Sha; Zhou, Xingping

    2016-06-01

    Fluorescent carbon nanoparticle (FCN) is a new type of carbon-based materials. Because of its wide raw material sources, excellent optical properties and good biocompatibility, FCN is getting more and more attentions. However, its synthesis from resources at low cost under mild conditions is still a challenge. Here we report a novel and simple method derived from monosodium glutamate carbonization to make tricolor fluorescent carbon nanoparticles with an average size below 10nm, a high yield up to 35.2% based on the carbon content in the resource, a long life-time of 3.71ns, and a high fluorescence quantum yield up to 51.5% by using quinine sulfate as the standard substance. We discovered that the fluorescent stability of the FCNs was very excellent under UV irradiation for hours in aqueous solutions of pH ranged from 2.0 to 9.0. The cell viability tested under a pretty high concentration of FCNs indicated their safety for biological applications. Based on their high fluorescence quantum efficiency and the advantages mentioned above, these FCNs were then used for cell imaging and exhibited a perfect performance under 3 kinds of excitation bands (UV, blue, and green lights). Thus, they can be practically applied to immune labeling and imaging in vivo in the near future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Charmed particle lifetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosner, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    Conventional estimates are reviewed for charmed particle lifetimes. Free-quark models give values of (a few) x 10 -13 sec to (a few) x 10 -12 sec. The shorter of these values also follows from an extrapolation based on D → Ke/sup nu/. Possible differences among the lifetimes and production rates of D 0 , D + , F + , C 0 + , the heavy lepton tau, and the fifth quark b are discussed. Extreme values of mixing angles in a six-quark model could extend charmed particle lifetimes by a factor of at most three from the above estimates, while shorter lifetimes than those predicted could occur for some species like D 0 or F + if their nonleptonic decays were enhanced. The predictions are discussed in the light of some current experimental results, and it is estimated that sigma(pp → charm) approx. = 10 μb at 400 GeV/c. 95 references

  7. Lifetime-management and lifetime-extension at PAKS nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katona, Tamas; Ratkai, Sandor; Janosi, Agnes Biro

    2002-01-01

    Paks Nuclear Power Plant provides 38-40% of domestic generation at lowest price. It has an important energy-policy role in Hungary. NPP Paks shall be a decisive and perspectively permanent element of the domestic electricity generation during the next two decades, which shall be ensured by plant safe operation, the lifetime extension and power uprating. Paks Nuclear Power Plant investigated the nuclear power plant's lifetime extension possibilities and alternatives, as well as technical and business feasibility of such alternatives. The feasibility study is based on the evaluation of a representative set of systems, structures and components, operational, test, in-service inspection and maintenance practice, experience and findings of the Periodic Safety Review. The most important results of this study showing the feasibility of 20 years lifetime extension is summarised in the paper. It was found that there are no technical or safety issues or limits, which may inhibit the operation of the Nuclear Power Plant Paks up to 50 years. In case of most systems and equipment the recent monitoring, maintenance and regular reconstruction practice of the NPP Paks allows the lifetime extension without outstanding cost. Replacement or reconstruction of a few equipment and systems requires significant investment costs. Material of reactor vessels of VVER/213 incorporated at Paks, compared to vessels of the similar units, is less sensitive to the embrittlement. At units 3-4 reactor vessels do not require any measure, consequently, any additional cost, even in case of a lifetime of 50 years. At unit 2 to extend the lifetime of the reactor vessel, only heating-up of emergency core cooling tanks is needed in order to decrease thermal stress levels caused by pressure thermal shock (PST) transients. For this purpose cost-effective technical solutions are available. At unit 1, beside the heating-up of the emergency core cooling tanks annealing of the welded joint No. 5/6 close to the

  8. Novel biosensor system model based on fluorescence quenching by a fluorescent streptavidin and carbazole-labeled biotin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xianwei; Shinohara, Hiroaki; Miyatake, Ryuta; Hohsaka, Takahiro

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, a novel molecular biosensor system model was designed by using a couple of the fluorescent unnatural mutant streptavidin and the carbazole-labeled biotin. BODIPY-FL-aminophenylalanine (BFLAF), a fluorescent unnatural amino acid was position-specifically incorporated into Trp120 position of streptavidin by four-base codon method. On the other hand, carbazole-labeled biotin was synthesized as a quencher for the fluorescent Trp120BFLAF mutant streptavidin. The fluorescence of fluorescent Trp120BFLAF mutant streptavidin was decreased as we expected when carbazole-labeled biotin was added into the mutant streptavidin solution. Furthermore, the fluorescence decrease of Trp120BFLAF mutant streptavidin with carbazole-labeled biotin (100 nM) was recovered by the competitive addition of natural biotin. This result demonstrated that by measuring the fluorescence quenching and recovery, a couple of the fluorescent Trp120BFLAF mutant streptavidin and the carbazole-labeled biotin were successfully applicable for quantification of free biotin as a molecular biosensor system. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Real-time label-free quantitative fluorescence microscopy-based detection of ATP using a tunable fluorescent nano-aptasensor platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Sajal; Sohn, Il-Yung; Son, Young-Min; Lee, Won-Il; Lee, Nae-Eung

    2015-11-01

    Although real-time label-free fluorescent aptasensors based on nanomaterials are increasingly recognized as a useful strategy for the detection of target biomolecules with high fidelity, the lack of an imaging-based quantitative measurement platform limits their implementation with biological samples. Here we introduce an ensemble strategy for a real-time label-free fluorescent graphene (Gr) aptasensor platform. This platform employs aptamer length-dependent tunability, thus enabling the reagentless quantitative detection of biomolecules through computational processing coupled with real-time fluorescence imaging data. We demonstrate that this strategy effectively delivers dose-dependent quantitative readouts of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration on chemical vapor deposited (CVD) Gr and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) surfaces, thereby providing cytotoxicity assessment. Compared with conventional fluorescence spectrometry methods, our highly efficient, universally applicable, and rational approach will facilitate broader implementation of imaging-based biosensing platforms for the quantitative evaluation of a range of target molecules.Although real-time label-free fluorescent aptasensors based on nanomaterials are increasingly recognized as a useful strategy for the detection of target biomolecules with high fidelity, the lack of an imaging-based quantitative measurement platform limits their implementation with biological samples. Here we introduce an ensemble strategy for a real-time label-free fluorescent graphene (Gr) aptasensor platform. This platform employs aptamer length-dependent tunability, thus enabling the reagentless quantitative detection of biomolecules through computational processing coupled with real-time fluorescence imaging data. We demonstrate that this strategy effectively delivers dose-dependent quantitative readouts of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration on chemical vapor deposited (CVD) Gr and reduced graphene oxide (r

  10. Validity of LIDAS (LIfetime Depression Assessment Self-report): a self-report online assessment of lifetime major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bot, M; Middeldorp, C M; de Geus, E J C; Lau, H M; Sinke, M; van Nieuwenhuizen, B; Smit, J H; Boomsma, D I; Penninx, B W J H

    2017-01-01

    There is a paucity of valid, brief instruments for the assessment of lifetime major depressive disorder (MDD) that can be used in, for example, large-scale genomics, imaging or biomarker studies on depression. We developed the LIfetime Depression Assessment Self-report (LIDAS), which assesses lifetime MDD diagnosis according to DSM criteria, and is largely based on the widely used Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Here, we tested the feasibility and determined the sensitivity and specificity for measuring lifetime MDD with this new questionnaire, with a regular CIDI as reference. Sensitivity and specificity analyses of the online lifetime MDD questionnaire were performed in adults with (n = 177) and without (n = 87) lifetime MDD according to regular index CIDIs, selected from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) and Netherlands Twin Register (NTR). Feasibility was tested in an additional non-selective, population-based sample of NTR participants (n = 245). Of the 753 invited persons, 509 (68%) completed the LIDAS, of which 419 (82%) did this online. User-friendliness of the instrument was rated high. Median completion time was 6.2 min. Sensitivity and specificity for lifetime MDD were 85% [95% confidence interval (CI) 80-91%] and 80% (95% CI 72-89%), respectively. This LIDAS instrument gave a lifetime MDD prevalence of 20.8% in the population-based sample. Measuring lifetime MDD with an online instrument was feasible. Sensitivity and specificity were adequate. The instrument gave a prevalence of lifetime MDD in line with reported population prevalences. LIDAS is a promising tool for rapid determination of lifetime MDD status in large samples, such as needed for genomics studies.

  11. Sensitive and selective detection of adenine using fluorescent ZnS nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meerabai Devi, L; Negi, Devendra P S

    2011-01-01

    We have used fluorescent ZnS nanoparticles as a probe for the determination of adenine. A typical 2 x 10 -7 M concentration of adenine quenches 39.3% of the ZnS fluorescence. The decrease in ZnS fluorescence as a function of adenine concentration was found to be linear in the concentration range 5 x 10 -9 -2 x 10 -7 M. The limit of detection (LOD) of adenine by this method is 3 nM. Among the DNA bases, only adenine quenched the fluorescence of ZnS nanoparticles in the submicromolar concentration range, thus adding selectivity to the method. The amino group of adenine was important in determining the quenching efficiency. Steady-state fluorescence experiments suggest that one molecule of adenine is sufficient to quench the emission arising from a cluster of ZnS consisting of about 20 molecules. Time-resolved fluorescence measurements indicate that the adenine molecules block the sites on the surface of ZnS responsible for emission with the longest lifetime component. This method may be applied for the determination of adenine in biological samples since the measurements have been carried out at pH 7.

  12. Lifetime-vibrational interference effects in resonantly excited x-ray emission spectra of CO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skytt, P.; Glans, P.; Gunnelin, K. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    The parity selection rule for resonant X-ray emission as demonstrated for O{sub 2} and N{sub 2} can be seen as an effect of interference between coherently excited degenerate localized core states. One system where the core state degeneracy is not exact but somewhat lifted was previously studied at ALS, namely the resonant X-ray emission of amino-substituted benzene (aniline). It was shown that the X-ray fluorescence spectrum resulting from excitation of the C1s at the site of the {open_quotes}aminocarbon{close_quotes} could be described in a picture separating the excitation and the emission processes, whereas the spectrum corresponding to the quasi-degenerate carbons could not. Thus, in this case it was necessary to take interference effects between the quasi-degenerate intermediate core excited states into account in order to obtain agreement between calculations and experiment. The different vibrational levels of core excited states in molecules have energy splittings which are of the same order of magnitude as the natural lifetime broadening of core excitations in the soft X-ray range. Therefore, lifetime-vibrational interference effects are likely to appear and influence the band shapes in resonant X-ray emission spectra. Lifetime-vibrational interference has been studied in non-resonant X-ray emission, and in Auger spectra. In this report the authors discuss results of selectively excited soft X-ray fluorescence spectra of molecules, where they focus on lifetime-interference effects appearing in the band shapes.

  13. Containerless high temperature property measurements by atomic fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, R. A.; Walker, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) techniques for containerless study of high temperature processes and material properties was studied. Gas jet and electromagnetic levitation and electromagnetic and laser heating techniques are used with LIF in earth-based containerless high temperature experiments. Included are the development of an apparatus and its use in the studies of (1) chemical reactions on Al2O3, molybdenum, tungsten and LaB6 specimens, (2) methods for noncontact specimen temperature measurement, (3) levitation jet properties and (4) radiative lifetime and collisional energy transfer rates for electronically excited atoms.

  14. Reliability and validity of an internet-based questionnaire measuring lifetime physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vera, Mary A; Ratzlaff, Charles; Doerfling, Paul; Kopec, Jacek

    2010-11-15

    Lifetime exposure to physical activity is an important construct for evaluating associations between physical activity and disease outcomes, given the long induction periods in many chronic diseases. The authors' objective in this study was to evaluate the measurement properties of the Lifetime Physical Activity Questionnaire (L-PAQ), a novel Internet-based, self-administered instrument measuring lifetime physical activity, among Canadian men and women in 2005-2006. Reliability was examined using a test-retest study. Validity was examined in a 2-part study consisting of 1) comparisons with previously validated instruments measuring similar constructs, the Lifetime Total Physical Activity Questionnaire (LT-PAQ) and the Chasan-Taber Physical Activity Questionnaire (CT-PAQ), and 2) a priori hypothesis tests of constructs measured by the L-PAQ. The L-PAQ demonstrated good reliability, with intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from 0.67 (household activity) to 0.89 (sports/recreation). Comparison between the L-PAQ and the LT-PAQ resulted in Spearman correlation coefficients ranging from 0.41 (total activity) to 0.71 (household activity); comparison between the L-PAQ and the CT-PAQ yielded coefficients of 0.58 (sports/recreation), 0.56 (household activity), and 0.50 (total activity). L-PAQ validity was further supported by observed relations between the L-PAQ and sociodemographic variables, consistent with a priori hypotheses. Overall, the L-PAQ is a useful instrument for assessing multiple domains of lifetime physical activity with acceptable reliability and validity.

  15. Development of a lifetime prediction model for lithium-ion batteries based on extended accelerated aging test data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Madeleine; Gerschler, Jochen B.; Vogel, Jan; Käbitz, Stefan; Hust, Friedrich; Dechent, Philipp; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2012-10-01

    Battery lifetime prognosis is a key requirement for successful market introduction of electric and hybrid vehicles. This work aims at the development of a lifetime prediction approach based on an aging model for lithium-ion batteries. A multivariable analysis of a detailed series of accelerated lifetime experiments representing typical operating conditions in hybrid electric vehicle is presented. The impact of temperature and state of charge on impedance rise and capacity loss is quantified. The investigations are based on a high-power NMC/graphite lithium-ion battery with good cycle lifetime. The resulting mathematical functions are physically motivated by the occurring aging effects and are used for the parameterization of a semi-empirical aging model. An impedance-based electric-thermal model is coupled to the aging model to simulate the dynamic interaction between aging of the battery and the thermal as well as electric behavior. Based on these models different drive cycles and management strategies can be analyzed with regard to their impact on lifetime. It is an important tool for vehicle designers and for the implementation of business models. A key contribution of the paper is the parameterization of the aging model by experimental data, while aging simulation in the literature usually lacks a robust empirical foundation.

  16. Investigation of the inclusion behavior between p-sulfoniccalix[8]arene and norfloxacin by fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xueying; Luo Chuannan; Lv Zhen; Lu Fuguang

    2011-01-01

    The host-guest complexation between p-sulfoniccalix[8]arene (SC 8 A) and norfloxacin (NFLX) in aqueous solution was investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy. Strong fluorescence intensity of the NFLX aqueous solution alone and obvious fluorescence quenching of NFLX solution in the presence of SC 8 A were observed. The fluorescence lifetimes of NFLX and SC 8 A-NFLX inclusion complex were determined and the effect of temperature on SC 8 A-NFLX inclusion complex was studied. The static quenching of the inclusion was obtained, that is the SC 8 A can form a nonfluorescent ground-state inclusion complex with NFLX. As the results show, the combined ratio (n) was 1:1 and association constant K was 1.17x10 5 L/mol. Based on the experimental results, the mechanism of the inclusion complex was explored. The space matching, electrostatic force and hydrogen bond play important effects in the inclusion process. Subsequently, the addition of bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution led to the recovery of fluorescence intensity. It is indicated that BSA can liberate the NFLX into the solution by destructing the SC 8 A-NFLX inclusion complex. Hence SC 8 A may be used for controlled-release drug delivery in the pharmaceutical industry. - Highlights: → Fluorescence lifetimes of NFLX and SC8A-NFLX inclusion complex were determined. → Mechanism of the SC8A-NFLX inclusion complex was explored. → It is proved that SC8A can form a nonfluorescent ground-state inclusion complex with NFLX.

  17. Preparation and characterization of alginate based-fluorescent magnetic nanoparticles for fluorescence/magnetic resonance multimodal imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yong-Su; Choi, Kee-Bong; Lim, Hyungjun; Lee, Sunghwi; Lee, Jae-Jong

    2018-06-01

    Simple and versatile methodologies have been reported that customize the surface of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles and impart additional fluorescence capabilities to these contrast agents. Herein, we present the rational design, synthesis, characterization, and biological applications of a new magnetic-based fluorescent probe. The dual modality imaging protocol was developed by labeling fluorophore with alginate natural polymers that have excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability, and using gelification method to form nanocomposites containing SPIO. The formation of alginate-based fluorescent magnetic (AFM) nanoparticles was observed in spherical and elliptical forms with a diameter of less than 500 nm by a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The fluorescent wavelength band in the range of 560 nm was also confirmed in the UV–visible spectrophotometer. In this study, we demonstrate that the multi-tasking design of AFM nanoparticles provides an ideal platform for building balanced dual-image probes of magnetic resonance imaging and optical imaging.

  18. The fluorescence behaviour of methyl and phenyl salicylate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, D.; Thistlethwaite, P. J.; Woolfe, G. J.

    1980-01-01

    Fluorcsccnce lifetimes tor the 450 nm emission of methyl and phenyl salicylate in various solvents have been measured. Qucnching studics on the 340 nm fluorescence of these molecules point to the existence of three distinct ground state conformers.

  19. Fluorescent Nanodiamonds in Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitura, Katarzyna Anna; Włodarczyk, Elżbieta

    2018-04-18

    Nanoparticles have an extended surface and a large surface area, which is the ratio of the size of the surfacearea to the volume. A functionalized surface can give rise to more modifications and therefore allows this nanomaterial to have new properties. Fluorescent molecules contain fluorophore, which is capable of being excited via the absorption of light energy at a specific wavelength and subsequently emitting radiation energy of a longer wavelength. A chemically modified surface of nanodiamond (ND; by carboxylation) demonstrated biocompatibility with DNA, cytochrome C, and antigens. In turn, fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs) belong to a group of new nanomaterials. Their surface can be modified by joining functional groups such as carboxyl, hydroxyl, or amino, after which they can be employed as a fluorescence agent. Their fluorescent properties result from defects in the crystal lattice. FNDs reach dimensions of 4-100 nm, have attributes such as photostability, long fluorescence lifetimes (10 ns), and fluorescence emission between 600 and 700 nm. They are also nontoxic, chemically inert, biocompatible, and environmentally harmless. The main purpose of this article was to present the medical applications of various types of modified NDs.

  20. A new front-face optical cell for measuring weak fluorescent emissions with time resolution in the picosecond time scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryczynski, Z; Bucci, E

    1993-11-01

    Recent developments of ultrafast fluorimeters allow measuring time-resolved fluorescence on the picosecond time scale. This implies one is able to monitor lifetimes and anisotropy decays of highly quenched systems and of systems that contain fluorophores having lifetimes in the subnanosecond range; both systems that emit weak signals. The combination of weak signals and very short lifetimes makes the measurements prone to distortions which are negligible in standard fluorescence experiments. To cope with these difficulties, we have designed a new optical cell for front-face optics which offers to the excitation beam a horizontal free liquid surface in the absence of interactions with optical windows. The new cell has been tested with probes of known lifetimes and anisotropies. It proved very useful in detecting tryptophan fluorescence in hemoglobin. If only diluted samples are available, which cannot be used in front-face optics, regular square geometry can still be utilized by inserting light absorbers into a cuvette of 1 cm path length.

  1. Advances in Contactless Silicon Defect and Impurity Diagnostics Based on Lifetime Spectroscopy and Infrared Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Schmidt

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a review of some recent developments in the field of contactless silicon wafer characterization techniques based on lifetime spectroscopy and infrared imaging. In the first part of the contribution, we outline the status of different lifetime spectroscopy approaches suitable for the identification of impurities in silicon and discuss—in more detail—the technique of temperature- and injection-dependent lifetime spectroscopy. The second part of the paper focuses on the application of infrared cameras to analyze spatial inhomogeneities in silicon wafers. By measuring the infrared signal absorbed or emitted from light-generated free excess carriers, high-resolution recombination lifetime mappings can be generated within seconds to minutes. In addition, mappings of non-recombination-active trapping centers can be deduced from injection-dependent infrared lifetime images. The trap density has been demonstrated to be an important additional parameter in the characterization and assessment of solar-grade multicrystalline silicon wafers, as areas of increased trap density tend to deteriorate during solar cell processing.

  2. Time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, F. J.; De la Rosa, J.; Gallegos, F. J.

    2006-02-01

    Fluorescence methods are being used increasingly in the measurement of species concentrations in gases, liquids and solids. Laser induced fluorescence is spontaneous emission from atoms or molecules that have been excited by laser radiation. Here we present a time resolved fluorescence instrument that consists of a 5 μJ Nitrogen laser (337.1 nm), a sample holder, a quartz optical fiber, a spectrometer, a PMT and a PC that allows the measurement of visible fluorescence spectra (350-750 nm). Time response of the system is approximately 5 ns. The instrument has been used in the measurement of colored bond paper, antifreeze, diesel, cochineal pigment and malignant tissues. The data acquisition was achieved through computer control of a digital oscilloscope (using General Purpose Interface Bus GPIB) and the spectrometer via serial (RS232). The instrument software provides a graphic interface that lets make some data acquisition tasks like finding fluorescence spectra, and fluorescence lifetimes. The software was developed using the Lab-View 6i graphic programming package and can be easily managed in order to add more functions to it.

  3. Environmentally Sensitive Fluorescent Sensors Based on Synthetic Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Choulier

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Biosensors allow the direct detection of molecular analytes, by associating a biological receptor with a transducer able to convert the analyte-receptor recognition event into a measurable signal. We review recent work aimed at developing synthetic fluorescent molecular sensors for a variety of analytes, based on peptidic receptors labeled with environmentally sensitive fluorophores. Fluorescent indicators based on synthetic peptides are highly interesting alternatives to protein-based sensors, since they can be synthesized chemically, are stable, and can be easily modified in a site-specific manner for fluorophore coupling and for immobilization on solid supports.

  4. Endogenous Fluorescence Signatures in Living Pluripotent Stem Cells Change with Loss of Potency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squirrell, Jayne M.; Fong, Jimmy J.; Ariza, Carlos A.; Mael, Amber; Meyer, Kassondra; Shevde, Nirupama K.; Roopra, Avtar; Lyons, Gary E.; Kamp, Timothy J.; Eliceiri, Kevin W.; Ogle, Brenda M.

    2012-01-01

    The therapeutic potential of stem cells is limited by the non-uniformity of their phenotypic state. Thus it would be advantageous to noninvasively monitor stem cell status. Driven by this challenge, we employed multidimensional multiphoton microscopy to quantify changes in endogenous fluorescence occurring with pluripotent stem cell differentiation. We found that global and cellular-scale fluorescence lifetime of human embryonic stem cells (hESC) and murine embryonic stem cells (mESC) consistently decreased with differentiation. Less consistent were trends in endogenous fluorescence intensity with differentiation, suggesting intensity is more readily impacted by nuances of species and scale of analysis. What emerges is a practical and accessible approach to evaluate, and ultimately enrich, living stem cell populations based on changes in metabolism that could be exploited for both research and clinical applications. PMID:22952742

  5. Smart phone based bacterial detection using bio functionalized fluorescent nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajendran, Vinoth Kumar; Bakthavathsalam, Padmavathy; Ali, Baquir Mohammed Jaffar

    2014-01-01

    We are describing immunochromatographic test strips with smart phone-based fluorescence readout. They are intended for use in the detection of the foodborne bacterial pathogens Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157. Silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) were doped with FITC and Ru(bpy), conjugated to the respective antibodies, and then used in a conventional lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA). Fluorescence was recorded by inserting the nitrocellulose strip into a smart phone-based fluorimeter consisting of a light weight (40 g) optical module containing an LED light source, a fluorescence filter set and a lens attached to the integrated camera of the cell phone in order to acquire high-resolution fluorescence images. The images were analysed by exploiting the quick image processing application of the cell phone and enable the detection of pathogens within few minutes. This LFIA is capable of detecting pathogens in concentrations as low as 10 5 cfu mL −1 directly from test samples without pre-enrichment. The detection is one order of magnitude better compared to gold nanoparticle-based LFIAs under similar condition. The successful combination of fluorescent nanoparticle-based pathogen detection by LFIAs with a smart phone-based detection platform has resulted in a portable device with improved diagnosis features and having potential application in diagnostics and environmental monitoring. (author)

  6. Intermolecular G-quadruplex structure-based fluorescent DNA detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hui; Wu, Zai-Sheng; Shen, Guo-Li; Yu, Ru-Qin

    2013-03-15

    Adopting multi-donors to pair with one acceptor could improve the performance of fluorogenic detection probes. However, common dyes (e.g., fluorescein) in close proximity to each other would self-quench the fluorescence, and the fluorescence is difficult to restore. In this contribution, we constructed a novel "multi-donors-to-one acceptor" fluorescent DNA detection system by means of the intermolecular G-quadruplex (IGQ) structure-based fluorescence signal enhancement combined with the hairpin oligonucleotide. The novel IGQ-hairpin system was characterized using the p53 gene as the model target DNA. The proposed system showed an improved assay performance due to the introduction of IGQ-structure into fluorescent signaling probes, which could inhibit the background fluorescence and increase fluorescence restoration amplitude of fluoresceins upon target DNA hybridization. The proof-of-concept scheme is expected to provide new insight into the potential of G-quadruplex structure and promote the application of fluorescent oligonucleotide probes in fundamental research, diagnosis, and treatment of genetic diseases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Novel online security system based on rare-earth-doped glass microbeads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Officer, Simon; Prabhu, G. R.; Pollard, Pat; Hunter, Catherine; Ross, Gary A.

    2004-06-01

    A novel fluorescent security label has been produced that could replace numerous conventional fluorescent dyes in document security. This label utilizes rare earth ions doped in a borosilicate glass matrix to produce sharp spectral fluorescence peaks with characteristic long lifetimes due to the rare earth ions. These are subsequently detected by an online detection system based on fluorescence and the long lifetimes to avoid any interference from other fluorophores present in the background. Security is further enhanced by the interaction of the rare earth ions with each other and the effect of the host on the emission spectra and therefore the number of permutations that could be produced. This creates a very secure label with various applications for the security market.

  8. Fluorescein Derivatives in Intravital Fluorescence Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S. Roberts

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Intravital fluorescence microscopy enables the direct imaging of fluorophores in vivo and advanced techniques such as fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM enable the simultaneous detection of multiple fluorophores. Consequently, it is now possible to record distribution and metabolism of a chemical in vivo and to optimise the delivery of fluorophores in vivo. Recent clinical applications with fluorescein and other intravital fluorescent stains have occurred in neurosurgery, dermatology [including photodynamic therapy (PDT] and endomicroscopy. Potential uses have been identified in periodontal disease, skin graft and cancer surgery. Animal studies have demonstrated that diseased tissue can be specifically stained with fluorophore conjugates. This review focuses on the fluorescein derived fluorophores in common clinical use and provides examples of novel applications from studies in tissue samples.

  9. A fluorescence switch based on a controllable photochromic naphthopyran group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Lizhen; Wang Guang; Zhao Xiancai

    2011-01-01

    A fluorescence switch based on photoisomerization of naphthopyran (NP) has been designed by employing 2-(pyridin-2-yl)-benzimidazole (BPI) and the naphthopyran containing two pyran rings (NP) as fluorescent dye and photochromic compound, respectively. The fluorescence switch of benzimidazole derivative can be modulated either by controlling the irradiation time of UV light or by adjusting the amount ratio of fluorescent benzimidazole derivative to photochromic naphthopyran in both solution and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) film. The experimental results indicated that the decrease of fluorescence intensity of benzimidazole derivative is attributed to the interaction of benzimidazole with naphthopyran. - Highlights: → Naphthopyran was first used to fabricate fluorescence switch with benzimidazole derivative. → Fluorescence intensity can be modulated by controlling the UV irradiation time. → Fluorescence intensity can be adjusted by changing the ratio of benzimidazole derivative to naphthopyran. → Decrease of fluorescence intensity is attributed to the interaction of benzimidazole derivative and naphthopyran.

  10. GaN-based superluminescent diodes with long lifetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiglia, A.; Rossetti, M.; Matuschek, N.; Rezzonico, R.; Duelk, M.; Vélez, C.; Carlin, J.-F.; Grandjean, N.

    2016-02-01

    We report on the reliability of GaN-based super-luminescent light emitting diodes (SLEDs) emitting at a wavelength of 405 nm. We show that the Mg doping level in the p-type layers has an impact on both the device electro-optical characteristics and their reliability. Optimized doping levels allow decreasing the operating voltage on single-mode devices from more than 6 V to less than 5 V for an injection current of 100 mA. Furthermore, maximum output powers as high as 350 mW (for an injection current of 500 mA) have been achieved in continuous-wave operation (CW) at room temperature. Modules with standard and optimized p-type layers were finally tested in terms of lifetime, at a constant output power of 10 mW, in CW operation and at a case temperature of 25 °C. The modules with non-optimized p-type doping showed a fast and remarkable increase in the drive current during the first hundreds of hours together with an increase of the device series resistance. No degradation of the electrical characteristics was observed over 2000 h on devices with optimized p-type layers. The estimated lifetime for those devices was longer than 5000 h.

  11. Fluorescent BODIPY Rotor: Viscometer for Cellular Organelles and Membrane-Mimicking Vesicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, J.; Raut, S.; Fudala, R.; Doan, H.; Maliwal, B.; Sabnis, N.; Lacko, A.; Gryczynski, I.; Dzyuba, S.; Gryczynski, Z.

    2015-03-01

    Many cellular processes, such as mass and signal transport, metabolism and protein-protein interactions are governed in part by diffusion, and thus affected by their local microviscosity. Changes in this microviscosity has also been linked to various diseases, including atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and diabetes. Therefore, directly measuring the heterogeneous viscosity of cellular constitutes can lead to greater understanding of these processes. To this effect, a novel homodiemeric BODIPY dye was evaluated as a fluorescent rotor probe for this application. A linear dependence on viscosity in the range of typical cellular microviscosity was established for steady-state and time-resolved properties of the dye. It was then embedded in vitro to membrane-mimicking lipid vesicles (DPPC, POPC, and POPC plus cholesterol) and results indicated it to be a viable sensor for lifetime-based determination of microviscosity. The BODIPY dye was lastly endocytosed by SKOV3 cells and Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM) was performed, successfully mapping the viscosity of internal cell components. This work was supported by the NIH Grant R01EB12003, the NSF Grant CBET-1264608, and the INFOR Grant from TCU.

  12. Highly Sensitive Ratiometric Fluorescent Sensor for Trinitrotoluene Based on the Inner Filter Effect between Gold Nanoparticles and Fluorescent Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongzhi; Quan, Shuai; Xu, Shoufang

    2017-11-08

    In this work, we developed a simple and sensitive ratiometric fluorescent assay for sensing trinitrotoluene (TNT) based on the inner filter effect (IFE) between gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and ratiometric fluorescent nanoparticles (RFNs), which was designed by hybridizing green emissive carbon dots (CDs) and red emissive quantum dots (QDs) into a silica sphere as a fluorophore pair. AuNPs in their dispersion state can be a powerful absorber to quench CDs, while the aggregated AuNPs can quench QDs in the IFE-based fluorescent assays as a result of complementary overlap between the absorption spectrum of AuNPs and emission spectrum of RFNs. As a result of the fact that TNT can induce the aggregation of AuNPs, with the addition of TNT, the fluorescent of QDs can be quenched, while the fluorescent of CDs would be recovered. Then, ratiometric fluorescent detection of TNT is feasible. The present IFE-based ratiometric fluorescent sensor can detect TNT ranging from 0.1 to 270 nM, with a detection limit of 0.029 nM. In addition, the developed method was successfully applied to investigate TNT in water and soil samples with satisfactory recoveries ranging from 95 to 103%, with precision below 4.5%. The simple sensing approach proposed here could improve the sensitivity of colorimetric analysis by changing the ultraviolet analysis to ratiometric fluorescent analysis and promote the development of a dual-mode detection system.

  13. Real-time label-free quantitative fluorescence microscopy-based detection of ATP using a tunable fluorescent nano-aptasensor platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Sajal; Sohn, Il-Yung; Son, Young-Min; Lee, Won-Il; Lee, Nae-Eung

    2015-12-14

    Although real-time label-free fluorescent aptasensors based on nanomaterials are increasingly recognized as a useful strategy for the detection of target biomolecules with high fidelity, the lack of an imaging-based quantitative measurement platform limits their implementation with biological samples. Here we introduce an ensemble strategy for a real-time label-free fluorescent graphene (Gr) aptasensor platform. This platform employs aptamer length-dependent tunability, thus enabling the reagentless quantitative detection of biomolecules through computational processing coupled with real-time fluorescence imaging data. We demonstrate that this strategy effectively delivers dose-dependent quantitative readouts of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration on chemical vapor deposited (CVD) Gr and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) surfaces, thereby providing cytotoxicity assessment. Compared with conventional fluorescence spectrometry methods, our highly efficient, universally applicable, and rational approach will facilitate broader implementation of imaging-based biosensing platforms for the quantitative evaluation of a range of target molecules.

  14. Validation of Lifetime Prediction of IGBT Modules Based on Linear Damage Accumulation by Means of Superimposed Power Cycling Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Ui-Min; Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the lifetime prediction of power device modules based on the linear damage accumulation is studied in conjunction with simple mission profiles of converters. Superimposed power cycling conditions, which are called simple mission profiles in this paper, are made based on a lifetime ...... prediction of IGBT modules under power converter applications.......In this paper, the lifetime prediction of power device modules based on the linear damage accumulation is studied in conjunction with simple mission profiles of converters. Superimposed power cycling conditions, which are called simple mission profiles in this paper, are made based on a lifetime...... model in respect to junction temperature swing duration. This model has been built based on 39 power cycling test results of 600-V 30-A three-phase-molded IGBT modules. Six tests are performed under three superimposed power cycling conditions using an advanced power cycling test setup. The experimental...

  15. Uptake Of Trivalent Actinides (Cm(III)) And Lanthanides (Eu(III)) By Cement-Type Minerals: A Wet Chemistry And Time-Resolved Laser Fluorescence Spectroscopy (TRLFS) Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tits, J.; Stumpf, T; Wieland, E.; Fanghaenel, T

    2003-03-01

    The interaction of the two chemical homologues Cm (III) and Eu(III) with calcium silicate hydrates at pH 13.3 has been investigated in batch-type sorption studies using Eu(III), and complemented with time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy using Cm(III). The sorption data for Eu(III) reveal fast sorption kinetics, and a strong uptake by CSH phases, with distribution ratios of 6({+-}3)*105 L kg-1. Three different types of sorbed Cm(III) species have been identified: a non-fluorescing species, which was identified as Cm cluster present either as surface precipitate or as Cm(III) colloid in solution, and two sorbed fluorescing species. The sorbed fluorescing species have characteristic emission spectra (main peak maxima at 618.9 nm and 620.9 nm) and fluorescence emission lifetimes (289 {+-} 11 ms and 1482{+-} 200 ms). From the fluorescence lifetimes, it appears that the two fluorescing Cm(III) species have, respectively, one to two or no water molecules left in their first coordination sphere, suggesting that these species are incorporated into the CSH structure. A structural model for Cm(III) and Eu(III) incorporation into CSH phases is proposed based on the substitution of Ca at two different types of sites in the CSH structure. (author)

  16. Photon-number statistics in resonance fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenstra, D.

    1982-12-01

    The theory of photon-number statistics in resonance fluorescence is treated, starting with the general formula for the emission probability of n photons during a given time interval T. The results fully confirm formerly obtained results by Cook that were based on the theory of atomic motion in a traveling wave. General expressions for the factorial moments are derived and explicit results for the mean and the variance are given. It is explicitly shown that the distribution function tends to a Gaussian when T becomes much larger than the natural lifetime of the excited atom. The speed of convergence towards the Gaussian is found to be typically slow, that is, the third normalized central moment (or the skewness) is proportional to T-12. However, numerical results illustrate that the overall features of the distribution function are already well represented by a Gaussian when T is larger than a few natural lifetimes only, at least if the intensity of the exciting field is not too small and its detuning is not too large.

  17. Fluorescent derivatives of nucleotides. Metal ion interactions and pH dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderkooi, J M; Weiss, C J; Woodrow, G V

    1979-02-01

    The fluorescence parameters of ethenoadenosine derivatives are influenced by metal cations and pH, as summarized here. The pH profile of ethenoadenosine determined by fluorescence intensity gives a normal titration curve and is not affected by ionic strength. In contrast, the pH titration curves of etheno-ATP, etheno ADP, and etheno AMP depend upon ionic strength. At high ionic strength normal curves are obtained, whereas at low ionic strength anomalies are obtained; this suggests that the phosphates can interact with the ring, possibly by hydrogen binding to the ring nitrogens. The room temperature fluorescence of ethenoadenosine occurs from the base form, although excitation of either the acid or base forms can contribute to the emission. This result can be explained if the excited state pK is lower than the ground state pK, and if deprotonation occurs within the time scale of the excited state. At low pH values the fluorescence lifetime of the base form is dependent upon the buffer concentration, indicating that the reverse reaction, protonation, occurs. The affinity constants for the binding of metals to the ethenoadenosine phosphates resemble those for the corresponding adenosine phosphates. Ni(II) and Co(II) are more effective than Mn(II) in quenching the fluorescence of ethenoadenosine phosphates; this result is predicted by Förster's theory for energy transfer based upon the overlap between donor emission spectrum and acceptor absorption spectrum. The diamagnetic ions Mg(II), Ca(II), and Zn(II) do not appear to affect the fluorescence of the ethenoadenosine phosphates directly, but rather to affect the conformation of the molecule, thereby affecting the quantum yield.

  18. Fabrication and Optimization of a Nanoporous Platinum Electrode and a Non-enzymatic Glucose Micro-sensor on Silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younghun Kim

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, optimal conditions for fabrication of nanoporous platinum (Pt were investigated in order to use it as a sensitive sensing electrode for silicon CMOS integrable non-enzymatic glucose micro-sensor applications. Applied charges, voltages, and temperatures were varied during the electroplating of Pt into the formed nonionic surfactant C16EO8 nano-scaled molds in order to fabricate nanoporous Pt electrodes with large surface roughness factor (RF, uniformity, and reproducibility. The fabricated nanoporous Pt electrodes were characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM and electrochemical cyclic voltammograms. Optimal electroplating conditions were determined to be an applied charge of 35 mC/mm2, a voltage of -0.12 V, and a temperature of 25 °C, respectively. The optimized nanoporous Pt electrode had an electrochemical RF of 375 and excellent reproducibility. The optimized nanoporous Pt electrode was applied to fabricate non-enzymatic glucose micro-sensor with three electrode systems. The fabricated sensor had a size of 3 mm x 3 mm, air gap of 10 µm, working electrode (WE area of 4.4 mm2, and sensitivity of 37.5 µA•L/mmol•cm2. In addition, it showed large detection range from 0.05 to 30 mmolL-1 and stable recovery responsive to the step changes in glucose concentration.

  19. Photoluminescence decay lifetime measurements of hemicyanine derivatives of different alkyl chain lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Taekyu; Lee, Myounghee; Kim, Sungho; Sung, Jaeho; Rhee, Bum Ku; Kim, Doseok; Kim, Hyunsung; Yoon, Kyung Byung

    2004-01-01

    The fluorescence upconversion setup for the detection of photoluminescence (PL) decay lifetime with subpicosecond time resolution was constructed, and the photoluminescence phenomena of several hemicyanine dyes with alkyl chains of different chain lengths tethered to the N atom of the pyridine moiety (HC-n, n=6, 15, 22) in methanol were investigated. The average decay lifetimes of the solutions determined from the measured data by multi-order exponential decay curve fitting were ∼27 ps at the PL peak wavelength. It was found that the PL decay properties did not depend on the alkyl chain length in the molecule, implying that the twist of the alkylpyridinium ring of the molecule is not possible as a nonfluorescing relaxation pathway. The time-dependent PL spectra constructed from the PL lifetime data showed the dynamic Stokes shift of ∼1000 cm -1

  20. 5f state interaction with inner coordination sphere ligands: einsteinium 3+ ion fluorescence in aqueous and organic phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitz, J.V.; Wester, D.W.; Williams, C.W.

    1983-01-01

    The interaction between 5f electron states of einsteinium 3+ ion and coordinated ligands in solution has been probed using laser-induced fluorescence. Aquo einsteinium 3+ ion was observed to fluoresce from its first excited J = 5 state in a broad-band peaking at 9260 wavenumbers. The observed fluorescence lifetimes were 1.05 microseconds and 2.78 microseconds in H 2 O and D 2 O (99+ % D atom), respectively. The non-radiative decay rates derived from the lifetime data are compared with previously reported data for Cm, Sm, Eu, Tb, and Dy aquo 3+ ions. The 5f actinide states exhibit substantially greater non-radiative decay rates than do lanthanide 4f states of similar energy gap. This provides evidence that actinide 5f electrons interact more strongly with their inner coordination sphere than do lanthanide ion 4f electrons. The fluorescence lifetime of einsteinium 3+ ion complexed with 1 formal di(2-ethylhexyl)orthophosphoric acid in h-heptane was 2.34 microseconds. 3 figures, 1 table

  1. Novel fluorescent carbonic nanomaterials for sensing and imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demchenko, Alexander P; Dekaliuk, Mariia O

    2013-01-01

    Small brightly fluorescent carbon nanoparticles have emerged as a new class of materials important for sensing and imaging applications. We analyze comparatively the properties of nanodiamonds, graphene and graphene oxide ‘dots’, of modified carbon nanotubes and of diverse carbon nanoparticles known as ‘C-dots’ obtained by different methods. The mechanisms of their light absorption and luminescence emission are still unresolved and the arguments are presented for their common origin. Regarding present and potential applications, we provide critical comparison with the other types of fluorescence reporters, such as organic dyes and semiconductor quantum dots. Their most prospective applications in sensing (based on the changes of intensity, FRET and lifetime) and in imaging technologies on the level of living cells and whole bodies are overviewed. The possibilities for design on their basis of multifunctional nanocomposites on a broader scale of theranostics are outlined. (topical review)

  2. Radiation-induced polymerization monitored in situ by time-resolved fluorescence of probe molecules in methyl methacrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frahn, Mark S.; Abellon, Ruben D.; Luthjens, Leonard H.; Vermeulen, Martien J.W.; Warman, John M.

    2003-01-01

    A technique is presented for monitoring radiation-induced polymerizations in situ based on the measurement of the fluorescence lifetime of molecular probes dissolved in the polymerizing medium. This method is illustrated with results on methyl methacrylate (MMA) using two fluorogenic probe molecules; N-(2-anthracene)methacrylamide (AnMA) and maleimido-fluoroprobe (MFP), a molecule which has a highly dipolar excited state

  3. Catheter-based time-gated near-infrared fluorescence/OCT imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuankang; Abran, Maxime; Cloutier, Guy; Lesage, Frédéric

    2018-02-01

    We developed a new dual-modality intravascular imaging system based on fast time-gated fluorescence intensity imaging and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) for the purpose of interventional detection of atherosclerosis. A pulsed supercontinuum laser was used for fluorescence and OCT imaging. A double-clad fiber (DCF)- based side-firing catheter was designed and fabricated to have a 23 μm spot size at a 2.2 mm working distance for OCT imaging. Its single-mode core is used for OCT, while its inner cladding transports fluorescence excitation light and collects fluorescent photons. The combination of OCT and fluorescence imaging was achieved by using a DCF coupler. For fluorescence detection, we used a time-gated technique with a novel single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) working in an ultra-fast gating mode. A custom-made delay chip was integrated in the system to adjust the delay between the excitation laser pulse and the SPAD gate-ON window. This technique allowed to detect fluorescent photons of interest while rejecting most of the background photons, thus leading to a significantly improved signal to noise ratio (SNR). Experiments were carried out in turbid media mimicking tissue with an indocyanine green (ICG) inclusion (1 mM and 100 μM) to compare the time-gated technique and the conventional continuous detection technique. The gating technique increased twofold depth sensitivity, and tenfold SNR at large distances. The dual-modality imaging capacity of our system was also validated with a silicone-based tissue-mimicking phantom.

  4. Fluorescence-based bioassays for the detection and evaluation of food materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Kentaro; Isobe, Shin-Ichiro; Zhu, Yun; Kiyama, Ryoiti

    2015-10-13

    We summarize here the recent progress in fluorescence-based bioassays for the detection and evaluation of food materials by focusing on fluorescent dyes used in bioassays and applications of these assays for food safety, quality and efficacy. Fluorescent dyes have been used in various bioassays, such as biosensing, cell assay, energy transfer-based assay, probing, protein/immunological assay and microarray/biochip assay. Among the arrays used in microarray/biochip assay, fluorescence-based microarrays/biochips, such as antibody/protein microarrays, bead/suspension arrays, capillary/sensor arrays, DNA microarrays/polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based arrays, glycan/lectin arrays, immunoassay/enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based arrays, microfluidic chips and tissue arrays, have been developed and used for the assessment of allergy/poisoning/toxicity, contamination and efficacy/mechanism, and quality control/safety. DNA microarray assays have been used widely for food safety and quality as well as searches for active components. DNA microarray-based gene expression profiling may be useful for such purposes due to its advantages in the evaluation of pathway-based intracellular signaling in response to food materials.

  5. Fluorescence-Based Bioassays for the Detection and Evaluation of Food Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Nishi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We summarize here the recent progress in fluorescence-based bioassays for the detection and evaluation of food materials by focusing on fluorescent dyes used in bioassays and applications of these assays for food safety, quality and efficacy. Fluorescent dyes have been used in various bioassays, such as biosensing, cell assay, energy transfer-based assay, probing, protein/immunological assay and microarray/biochip assay. Among the arrays used in microarray/biochip assay, fluorescence-based microarrays/biochips, such as antibody/protein microarrays, bead/suspension arrays, capillary/sensor arrays, DNA microarrays/polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based arrays, glycan/lectin arrays, immunoassay/enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA-based arrays, microfluidic chips and tissue arrays, have been developed and used for the assessment of allergy/poisoning/toxicity, contamination and efficacy/mechanism, and quality control/safety. DNA microarray assays have been used widely for food safety and quality as well as searches for active components. DNA microarray-based gene expression profiling may be useful for such purposes due to its advantages in the evaluation of pathway-based intracellular signaling in response to food materials.

  6. Comparative study of the fatty acid binding process of a new FABP from Cherax quadricarinatus by fluorescence intensity, lifetime and anisotropy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiayao Li

    Full Text Available Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs are small cytosolic proteins, largely distributed in invertebrates and vertebrates, which accomplish uptake and intracellular transport of hydrophobic ligands such as fatty acids. Although long chain fatty acids play multiple crucial roles in cellular functions (structural, energy metabolism, regulation of gene expression, the precise functions of FABPs, especially those of invertebrate species, remain elusive. Here, we have identified and characterized a novel FABP family member, Cq-FABP, from the hepatopancreas of red claw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus. We report the characterization of fatty acid-binding affinity of Cq-FABP by four different competitive fluorescence-based assays. In the two first approaches, the fluorescent probe 8-Anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonate (ANS, a binder of internal cavities of protein, was used either by directly monitoring its fluorescence emission or by monitoring the fluorescence resonance energy transfer occurring between the single tryptophan residue of Cq-FABP and ANS. The third and the fourth approaches were based on the measurement of the fluorescence emission intensity of the naturally fluorescent cis-parinaric acid probe or the steady-state fluorescence anisotropy measurements of a fluorescently labeled fatty acid (BODIPY-C16, respectively. The four methodologies displayed consistent equilibrium constants for a given fatty acid but were not equivalent in terms of analysis. Indeed, the two first methods were complicated by the existence of non specific binding modes of ANS while BODIPY-C16 and cis-parinaric acid specifically targeted the fatty acid binding site. We found a relationship between the affinity and the length of the carbon chain, with the highest affinity obtained for the shortest fatty acid, suggesting that steric effects primarily influence the interaction of fatty acids in the binding cavity of Cq-FABP. Moreover, our results show that the binding affinities

  7. Cucurbiturils: molecular nanocapsules for time-resolved fluorescence-based assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, Cesar; Huang, Fang; Nau, Werner M

    2004-03-01

    A new fluorescent host-guest system based on the inclusion of the fluorophore 2,3-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-ene (DBO) into the cavity of the molecular container compound cucurbit[7]uril (CB7) has been designed which possesses an exceedingly long-lived emission (690 ns in aerated water). The large binding constant of (4 +/- 1) x 10(5) M(-1) along with the resistance of the CB7.DBO complex toward external fluorescence quenchers allow the use of CB7 as an enhancer in time-resolved fluorescence-based assays, e.g., to screen enzyme activity or inhibition by using DBO-labeled peptides as substrates. The response of CB7.DBO to different environmental conditions and possible quenchers are described.

  8. Imaging molecular interactions in cells by dynamic and static fluorescence anisotropy (rFLIM and emFRET)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lidke, D.S.; Nagy, P.; Barisas, B.G.; Heintzmann, R.; Post, Janine Nicole; Lidke, K.A.; Clayton, A.H.A.; Arndt-jovin, D.J.; Jovin, T.M.

    2003-01-01

    We report the implementation and exploitation of fluorescence polarization measurements, in the form of anisotropy fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (rFLIM) and energy migration Förster resonance energy transfer (emFRET) modalities, for wide-field, confocal laser-scanning microscopy and flow

  9. Evaluation of a fluorescence-based method for antibabesial drug screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guswanto, Azirwan; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Rizk, Mohamed Abdo; Elsayed, Shimaa Abd Elsalam; Youssef, Mohamed Ahmed; ElSaid, ElSaid El Shirbini; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Igarashi, Ikuo

    2014-08-01

    In vitro evaluation of chemotherapeutic agents against Babesia and Theileria parasites has become routine, and the effectiveness of these chemicals is usually determined by comparing the parasitemia dynamics of untreated and treated parasites. Although microscopy is widely used to calculate parasitemia, several disadvantages are associated with this technique. The present study evaluated a fluorescence-based method using SYBR green I stain (SG I) to screen antibabesial agents in in vitro cultures of Babesia bovis. The linearity between relative fluorescence units (RFU) and parasitemia was found to be well correlated with a 0.9944 goodness-of-fit (r(2)) value. Subsequently, 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values were calculated for 3 antiprotozoan agents, diminazene aceturate, nimbolide, and gedunin, by this method. For diminazene aceturate and nimbolide, the IC(50)s determined by the fluorescence-based method (408 nM and 8.13 μM, respectively) and microscopy (400.3 nM and 9.4 μM, respectively) were in agreement. Furthermore, the IC50 of gedunin determined by the fluorescence-based method (19 μM) was similar to the recently described microscopy-based value (21.7 μM) for B. bovis. Additionally, the Z' factor (0.80 to 0.90), signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio (44.15 to 87.64), coefficient of variation at the maximum signal (%CVmax) (0.50 to 2.85), and coefficient of variation at the minimum signal (%CVmin) (1.23 to 2.21) calculated for the fluorescence method using diminazene aceturate were comparable to those previously determined in malaria research for this assay. These findings suggest that the fluorescence-based method might be useful for antibabesial drug screening and may have potential to be developed into a high-throughput screening (HTS) assay. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. A Starting Point for Fluorescence-Based Single-Molecule Measurements in Biomolecular Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Gust

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Single-molecule fluorescence techniques are ideally suited to provide information about the structure-function-dynamics relationship of a biomolecule as static and dynamic heterogeneity can be easily detected. However, what type of single-molecule fluorescence technique is suited for which kind of biological question and what are the obstacles on the way to a successful single-molecule microscopy experiment? In this review, we provide practical insights into fluorescence-based single-molecule experiments aiming for scientists who wish to take their experiments to the single-molecule level. We especially focus on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET experiments as these are a widely employed tool for the investigation of biomolecular mechanisms. We will guide the reader through the most critical steps that determine the success and quality of diffusion-based confocal and immobilization-based total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. We discuss the specific chemical and photophysical requirements that make fluorescent dyes suitable for single-molecule fluorescence experiments. Most importantly, we review recently emerged photoprotection systems as well as passivation and immobilization strategies that enable the observation of fluorescently labeled molecules under biocompatible conditions. Moreover, we discuss how the optical single-molecule toolkit has been extended in recent years to capture the physiological complexity of a cell making it even more relevant for biological research.

  11. Angular shaping of fluorescence from synthetic opal-based photonic crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiko, Vitalii; Dovbeshko, Galyna; Dolgov, Leonid; Kiisk, Valter; Sildos, Ilmo; Loot, Ardi; Gorelik, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Spectral, angular, and temporal distributions of fluorescence as well as specular reflection were investigated for silica-based artificial opals. Periodic arrangement of nanosized silica globules in the opal causes a specific dip in the defect-related fluorescence spectra and a peak in the reflectance spectrum. The spectral position of the dip coincides with the photonic stop band. The latter is dependent on the size of silica globules and the angle of observation. The spectral shape and intensity of defect-related fluorescence can be controlled by variation of detection angle. Fluorescence intensity increases up to two times at the edges of the spectral dip. Partial photobleaching of fluorescence was observed. Photonic origin of the observed effects is discussed.

  12. Statistical inference for the lifetime performance index based on generalised order statistics from exponential distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vali Ahmadi, Mohammad; Doostparast, Mahdi; Ahmadi, Jafar

    2015-04-01

    In manufacturing industries, the lifetime of an item is usually characterised by a random variable X and considered to be satisfactory if X exceeds a given lower lifetime limit L. The probability of a satisfactory item is then ηL := P(X ≥ L), called conforming rate. In industrial companies, however, the lifetime performance index, proposed by Montgomery and denoted by CL, is widely used as a process capability index instead of the conforming rate. Assuming a parametric model for the random variable X, we show that there is a connection between the conforming rate and the lifetime performance index. Consequently, the statistical inferences about ηL and CL are equivalent. Hence, we restrict ourselves to statistical inference for CL based on generalised order statistics, which contains several ordered data models such as usual order statistics, progressively Type-II censored data and records. Various point and interval estimators for the parameter CL are obtained and optimal critical regions for the hypothesis testing problems concerning CL are proposed. Finally, two real data-sets on the lifetimes of insulating fluid and ball bearings, due to Nelson (1982) and Caroni (2002), respectively, and a simulated sample are analysed.

  13. Synthesis of dye/fluorescent functionalized dendrons based on cyclotriphosphazene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélien Hameau

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Functionalized phenols based on tyramine were synthesized in order to be selectively grafted on to hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene, affording a variety of functionalized dendrons of type AB5. The B functions comprised fluorescent groups (dansyl or dyes (dabsyl, whereas the A function was provided by either an aldehyde or an amine. The characterization of these dendrons is reported. An unexpected behaviour of a fluorescent and water-soluble dendron based on dansyl groups in mixtures of dioxane/water was observed.

  14. Fluorescence ELISA for sensitive detection of ochratoxin A based on glucose oxidase-mediated fluorescence quenching of CdTe QDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Yi; Huang, Xiaolin; Yu, Ruijin; Zhou, Yaofeng; Xiong, Yonghua

    2016-01-01

    The present study described a novel fluorescence enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) used to detect ochratoxin A (OTA) by using the glucose oxidase (GOx)-mediated fluorescence quenching of mercaptopropionic acid-capped CdTe quantum dots (MPA-QDs), in which GOx was used as an alternative to horseradish peroxidase (HRP) for the oxidization of glucose into hydrogen peroxide (H_2O_2) and gluconic acid. The MPA-QDs were used as a fluorescent signal output, whose fluorescence variation was extremely sensitive to the presence of H_2O_2 or hydrogen ions in the solution. Under the optimized conditions, the proposed fluorescence ELISA demonstrated a good linear detection of OTA in corn extract from 2.4 pg mL"−"1 to 625 pg mL"−"1 with a limit of detection of 2.2 pg mL"−"1, which was approximately 15-fold lower than that of conventional HRP-based ELISA. Our developed fluorescence immunoassay was also similar to HRP-based ELISA in terms of selectivity, accuracy, and reproducibility. In summary, this study was the first to use the GOx-mediated fluorescence quenching of QDs in immunoassay to detect OTA, offering a new possibility for the analysis of other mycotoxins and biomolecules. - Highlights: • A novel fluorescence ELISA was first developed for the detection of OTA by using GOx-mediated fluorescence quenching of QDs. • The pH- and H_2O_2-sensitive MPA-capped CdTe QDs were used as a fluorescent signal output to improve the detection sensitivity. • This novel method open up a different vision to detect other mycotoxins and biomolecules.

  15. Wake Effects on Lifetime Distribution in DFIG-based Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Jie; Zhou, Dao; Su, Chi

    2017-01-01

    With the increasing size of the wind farms, the impact of the wake effect on the energy yields and lifetime consumption of wind turbine can no longer be neglected. In this paper, the affecting factors like the wind speed and wind direction are investigated in terms of the single wake and multiple...... wakes. As the power converter is the most fragile component among the turbine system, its lifetime estimation can be calculated seen from the thermal stress of the power semiconductor. On the basis of the relationship of the power converter in a 5 MW Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) wind turbine...... system and the wind speed, the lifetime consumption of the individual turbine in a 10-turbine and an 80-turbine wind farms can be calculated by considering the real distributions of the wind speed and direction. It can be seen that there is significant lifetime difference among individual turbines...

  16. Long term optical stability of fluorescent solar concentrator plates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slooff, L.H.; Bakker, N.J.; Sommeling, P.M.; Büchtemann, A.; Wedel, A.; Sark, W.G.J.H.M. van

    2014-01-01

    Fluorescent solar concentrators offer an alternative approach for low-cost photovoltaic energy conversion. For successful application, not only the power conversion efficiency and cost are important, but also lifetime or stability of the devices. As today’s concentrator is made of polymer sheets

  17. Long-term optical stability of fluorescent solar concentrator plates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slooff, Lenneke H.; Bakker, Nicolaas J.; Sommeling, Paul M.; Büchtemann, Andreas; Wedel, Armin; Van Sark, Wilfried G J H M

    2014-01-01

    Fluorescent solar concentrators offer an alternative approach for low-cost photovoltaic energy conversion. For successful application, not only the power conversion efficiency and cost are important, but also lifetime or stability of the devices. As today's concentrator is made of polymer sheets

  18. Fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy: potential for in-vivo estimation of skin fluorophores changes after low power laser treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferulova, Inesa; Lihachev, Alexey; Spigulis, Janis

    2013-11-01

    The impact of visible cwlaser irradiation on skin autofluorescence lifetimes was investigated in spectral range from 450 nm to 600 nm. Skin optical provocations were performed during 1 min by 405 nm low power cw laser with power density up to 20 mW/cm2. Autofluorescence lifetimes were measured before and immediately after the optical provocation.

  19. Fluorescent nanocellulosic hydrogels based on graphene quantum dots for sensing laccase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Palomero, Celia; Benítez-Martínez, Sandra; Soriano, M. Laura; Valcárcel, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    A novel low-cost fluorimetric platform based on sulfur, nitrogen-codoped graphene quantum dots immersed into nanocellulosic hydrogels is designed and applied in detecting the laccase enzyme. Although most of methods for detecting laccase are based on their catalytic activity, which is strongly dependent on environmental parameters, we report a sensitive and selective method based on the fluorescence response of hydrogels containing graphene quantum dots (GQDs) acting as luminophore towards laccase. The easily-prepared gel matrix not only improves the fluorescence signal of GQDs by avoiding their self-quenching but also stabilizes their fluorescence signal and improves their sensitivity towards laccase. Noncovalent interactions between the sensor and the analyte are believed to be causing this significant quenching without peak-shifts of GQD fluorescence via energy transfer. The selective extraction of laccase was proved in different shampoos as complex matrices achieving a detection limit of 0.048 U mL −1 and recoveries of 86.2–94.1%. As the unusual properties of nanocellulose and GQDs, the fluorescent sensor is simple, eco-friendly and cost-efficient. This straightforward strategy is able to detect and stabilize laccase, being an added-value for storage and recycling enzymes. - Highlights: • Fluorescent hydrogels were constructed by combining nanocellulose and graphene quantum dots. • The resulting hydrogels exhibited fluorescence quenching in presence of laccase. • Equilibrium in the optical signal of S,N-graphene quantum dots in presence of laccase was achieved faster within hydrogels. • The proposed method to determine laccase using fluorescent hydrogels was successfully applied in shampoo.

  20. Fluorescence-Based Multiplex Protein Detection Using Optically Encoded Microbeads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae Hong Jeong

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Potential utilization of proteins for early detection and diagnosis of various diseases has drawn considerable interest in the development of protein-based multiplex detection techniques. Among the various techniques for high-throughput protein screening, optically-encoded beads combined with fluorescence-based target monitoring have great advantages over the planar array-based multiplexing assays. This review discusses recent developments of analytical methods of screening protein molecules on microbead-based platforms. These include various strategies such as barcoded microbeads, molecular beacon-based techniques, and surface-enhanced Raman scattering-based techniques. Their applications for label-free protein detection are also addressed. Especially, the optically-encoded beads such as multilayer fluorescence beads and SERS-encoded beads are successful for generating a large number of coding.

  1. Excited-state lifetime measurement of silicon vacancy centers in diamond by single-photon frequency upconversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Youying; Ma, Jianhui; Chen, Lingxiao; Liu, Yan; Siyushev, Petr; Wu, Botao; Pan, Haifeng; Jelezko, Fedor; Wu, E.; Zeng, Heping

    2018-05-01

    We report a method with high time resolution to measure the excited-state lifetime of silicon vacancy centers in bulk diamond avoiding timing jitter from the single-photon detectors. Frequency upconversion of the fluorescence emitted from silicon vacancy centers was achieved from 738 nm to 436 nm via sum frequency generation with a short pump pulse. The excited-state lifetime can be obtained by measuring the intensity of upconverted light while the pump delay changes. As a probe, a pump laser with pulse duration of 11 ps provided a high temporal resolution of the measurement. The lifetime extracted from the pump–probe curve was 0.755 ns, which was comparable to the timing jitter of the single-photon detectors.

  2. Preparation of Plasmonic Platforms of Silver Wires on Gold Mirrors and Their Application to Surface Enhanced Fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In this report we describe a preparation of silver wires (SWs) on gold mirrors and its application to surface enhanced fluorescence (SEF) using a new methodology. Silica protected gold mirrors were drop-coated with a solution of silver triangular nanoprisms. The triangular nanoprisms were slowly air-dried to get silver wires that self-assembled on the gold mirrors. Fluorescence enhancement was studied using methyl azadioxatriangulenium chloride (Me-ADOTA·Cl) dye in PVA spin-coated on a clean glass coverslip. New Plasmonic Platforms (PPs) were assembled by placing a mirror with SWs in contact with a glass coverslip spin-coated with a uniform Me-ADOTA·Cl film. It was shown that surface enhanced fluorescence is a real phenomenon, not just an enhancement of the fluorescence signal due to an accumulation of the fluorophore on rough nanostructure surfaces. The average fluorescence enhancement was found to be about 15-fold. The lifetime of Me-ADOTA·Cl dye was significantly reduced (∼4 times) in the presence of SWs. Moreover, fluorescence enhancement and lifetime did not show any dependence on the excitation light polarization. PMID:25296293

  3. Nonmydriatic fluorescence-based quantitative imaging of human macular pigment distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifzadeh, Mohsen; Bernstein, Paul S.; Gellermann, Werner

    2006-10-01

    We have developed a CCD-camera-based nonmydriatic instrument that detects fluorescence from retinal lipofuscin chromophores ("autofluorescence") as a means to indirectly quantify and spatially image the distribution of macular pigment (MP). The lipofuscin fluorescence intensity is reduced at all retinal locations containing MP, since MP has a competing absorption in the blue-green wavelength region. Projecting a large diameter, 488 nm excitation spot onto the retina, centered on the fovea, but extending into the macular periphery, and comparing lipofuscin fluorescence intensities outside and inside the foveal area, it is possible to spatially map out the distribution of MP. Spectrally selective detection of the lipofuscin fluorescence reveals an important wavelength dependence of the obtainable image contrast and deduced MP optical density levels, showing that it is important to block out interfering fluorescence contributions in the detection setup originating from ocular media such as the lens. Measuring 70 healthy human volunteer subjects with no ocular pathologies, we find widely varying spatial extent of MP, distinctly differing distribution patterns of MP, and strongly differing absolute MP levels among individuals. Our population study suggests that MP imaging based on lipofuscin fluorescence is useful as a relatively simple, objective, and quantitative noninvasive optical technique suitable to rapidly screen MP levels and distributions in healthy humans with undilated pupils.

  4. The use of fluorescent intrabodies to detect endogenous gankyrin in living cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinaldi, Anne-Sophie; Freund, Guillaume; Desplancq, Dominique; Sibler, Annie-Paule; Baltzinger, Mireille; Rochel, Natacha; Mély, Yves; Didier, Pascal; Weiss, Etienne

    2013-01-01

    Expression of antibody fragments in mammalian cells (intrabodies) is used to probe the target protein or interfere with its biological function. We previously described the in vitro characterisation of a single-chain Fv (scFv) antibody fragment (F5) isolated from an intrabody library that binds to the oncoprotein gankyrin (GK) in solution. Here, we have isolated several other scFvs that interact with GK in the presence of F5 and tested whether they allow, when fused to fluorescent proteins, to detect by FRET endogenous GK in living cells. The binding of pairs of scFvs to GK was analysed by gel filtration and the ability of each scFv to mediate nuclear import/export of GK was determined. Binding between scFv-EGFP and RFP-labelled GK in living cells was detected by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). After co-transfection of two scFvs fused to EGFP and RFP, respectively, which form a tri-molecular complex with GK in vitro, FRET signal was measured. This system allowed us to observe that GK is monomeric and distributed throughout the cytoplasm and nucleus of several cancer cell lines. Our results show that pairs of fluorescently labelled intrabodies can be monitored by FLIM–FRET microscopy and that this technique allows the detection of lowly expressed endogenous proteins in single living cells. Highlights: ► Endogenous GK in living cells was targeted with pairs of fluorescently-tagged scFvs. ► Tri-molecular complexes containing two scFvs and one molecule GK were formed. ► GK was detected using fluorescence lifetime-based FRET imaging. ► GK is monomeric and homogeneously distributed in several cancer cell lines. ► This technique may have many applications in live-cell imaging of endogenous proteins

  5. The use of fluorescent intrabodies to detect endogenous gankyrin in living cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinaldi, Anne-Sophie; Freund, Guillaume; Desplancq, Dominique; Sibler, Annie-Paule; Baltzinger, Mireille [Ecole Supérieure de Biotechnologie de Strasbourg, UMR 7242, CNRS/Université de Strasbourg, boulevard Sébastien Brant, 67412 Illkirch (France); Rochel, Natacha [Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, UMR 7104, CNRS/INSERM/Université de Strasbourg, rue Laurent Fries, 67404 Illkirch (France); Mély, Yves; Didier, Pascal [Faculté de Pharmacie, UMR 7213, CNRS/Université de Strasbourg, route du Rhin, 67401 Illkirch (France); Weiss, Etienne, E-mail: eweiss@unistra.fr [Ecole Supérieure de Biotechnologie de Strasbourg, UMR 7242, CNRS/Université de Strasbourg, boulevard Sébastien Brant, 67412 Illkirch (France)

    2013-04-01

    Expression of antibody fragments in mammalian cells (intrabodies) is used to probe the target protein or interfere with its biological function. We previously described the in vitro characterisation of a single-chain Fv (scFv) antibody fragment (F5) isolated from an intrabody library that binds to the oncoprotein gankyrin (GK) in solution. Here, we have isolated several other scFvs that interact with GK in the presence of F5 and tested whether they allow, when fused to fluorescent proteins, to detect by FRET endogenous GK in living cells. The binding of pairs of scFvs to GK was analysed by gel filtration and the ability of each scFv to mediate nuclear import/export of GK was determined. Binding between scFv-EGFP and RFP-labelled GK in living cells was detected by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). After co-transfection of two scFvs fused to EGFP and RFP, respectively, which form a tri-molecular complex with GK in vitro, FRET signal was measured. This system allowed us to observe that GK is monomeric and distributed throughout the cytoplasm and nucleus of several cancer cell lines. Our results show that pairs of fluorescently labelled intrabodies can be monitored by FLIM–FRET microscopy and that this technique allows the detection of lowly expressed endogenous proteins in single living cells. Highlights: ► Endogenous GK in living cells was targeted with pairs of fluorescently-tagged scFvs. ► Tri-molecular complexes containing two scFvs and one molecule GK were formed. ► GK was detected using fluorescence lifetime-based FRET imaging. ► GK is monomeric and homogeneously distributed in several cancer cell lines. ► This technique may have many applications in live-cell imaging of endogenous proteins.

  6. Time-resolved fluorescence monitoring of cholesterol in peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinakova, Z.; Horilova, J.; Lajdova, I.; Marcek Chorvatova, A.

    2014-12-01

    Precise evaluation of intracellular cholesterol distribution is crucial for improving diagnostics of diseased states associated with cholesterol alteration. Time-resolved fluorescence techniques are tested for non-invasive investigation of cholesterol in living cells. Fluorescent probe NBD attached to cholesterol was employed to evaluate cholesterol distribution in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) isolated from the human blood. Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM) was successfully applied to simultaneously monitor the spatial distribution and the timeresolved characteristics of the NBD-cholesterol fluorescence in PBMC. Gathered data are the first step in the development of a new perspective non-invasive diagnostic method for evaluation of cholesterol modifications in diseases associated with disorders of lipid metabolism.

  7. Fluorescent nanoparticles for intracellular sensing: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruedas-Rama, Maria J; Walters, Jamie D; Orte, Angel; Hall, Elizabeth A H

    2012-11-02

    Fluorescent nanoparticles (NPs), including semiconductor NPs (Quantum Dots), metal NPs, silica NPs, polymer NPs, etc., have been a major focus of research and development during the past decade. The fluorescent nanoparticles show unique chemical and optical properties, such as brighter fluorescence, higher photostability and higher biocompatibility, compared to classical fluorescent organic dyes. Moreover, the nanoparticles can also act as multivalent scaffolds for the realization of supramolecular assemblies, since their high surface to volume ratio allow distinct spatial domains to be functionalized, which can provide a versatile synthetic platform for the implementation of different sensing schemes. Their excellent properties make them one of the most useful tools that chemistry has supplied to biomedical research, enabling the intracellular monitoring of many different species for medical and biological purposes. In this review, we focus on the developments and analytical applications of fluorescent nanoparticles in chemical and biological sensing within the intracellular environment. The review also points out the great potential of fluorescent NPs for fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). Finally, we also give an overview of the current methods for delivering of fluorescent NPs into cells, where critically examine the benefits and liabilities of each strategy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Filter replacement lifetime prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Hendrik F.; Klein, Levente I.; Manzer, Dennis G.; Marianno, Fernando J.

    2017-10-25

    Methods and systems for predicting a filter lifetime include building a filter effectiveness history based on contaminant sensor information associated with a filter; determining a rate of filter consumption with a processor based on the filter effectiveness history; and determining a remaining filter lifetime based on the determined rate of filter consumption. Methods and systems for increasing filter economy include measuring contaminants in an internal and an external environment; determining a cost of a corrosion rate increase if unfiltered external air intake is increased for cooling; determining a cost of increased air pressure to filter external air; and if the cost of filtering external air exceeds the cost of the corrosion rate increase, increasing an intake of unfiltered external air.

  9. In vivo time-gated fluorescence imaging with biodegradable luminescent porous silicon nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Luo; Hall, David J; Qin, Zhengtao; Anglin, Emily; Joo, Jinmyoung; Mooney, David J; Howell, Stephen B; Sailor, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescence imaging is one of the most versatile and widely used visualization methods in biomedical research. However, tissue autofluorescence is a major obstacle confounding interpretation of in vivo fluorescence images. The unusually long emission lifetime (5-13 μs) of photoluminescent porous silicon nanoparticles can allow the time-gated imaging of tissues in vivo, completely eliminating shorter-lived (50-fold in vitro and by >20-fold in vivo when imaging porous silicon nanoparticles. Time-gated imaging of porous silicon nanoparticles accumulated in a human ovarian cancer xenograft following intravenous injection is demonstrated in a live mouse. The potential for multiplexing of images in the time domain by using separate porous silicon nanoparticles engineered with different excited state lifetimes is discussed.

  10. Measurement of drug-target engagement in live cells by two-photon fluorescence anisotropy imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegoni, Claudio; Fumene Feruglio, Paolo; Brand, Christian; Lee, Sungon; Nibbs, Antoinette E; Stapleton, Shawn; Shah, Sunil; Gryczynski, Ignacy; Reiner, Thomas; Mazitschek, Ralph; Weissleder, Ralph

    2017-07-01

    The ability to directly image and quantify drug-target engagement and drug distribution with subcellular resolution in live cells and whole organisms is a prerequisite to establishing accurate models of the kinetics and dynamics of drug action. Such methods would thus have far-reaching applications in drug development and molecular pharmacology. We recently presented one such technique based on fluorescence anisotropy, a spectroscopic method based on polarization light analysis and capable of measuring the binding interaction between molecules. Our technique allows the direct characterization of target engagement of fluorescently labeled drugs, using fluorophores with a fluorescence lifetime larger than the rotational correlation of the bound complex. Here we describe an optimized protocol for simultaneous dual-channel two-photon fluorescence anisotropy microscopy acquisition to perform drug-target measurements. We also provide the necessary software to implement stream processing to visualize images and to calculate quantitative parameters. The assembly and characterization part of the protocol can be implemented in 1 d. Sample preparation, characterization and imaging of drug binding can be completed in 2 d. Although currently adapted to an Olympus FV1000MPE microscope, the protocol can be extended to other commercial or custom-built microscopes.

  11. The fiscal consequences of ADHD in Germany: a quantitative analysis based on differences in educational attainment and lifetime earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsopoulos, Nikolaos; Connolly, Mark P; Sobanski, Esther; Postma, Maarten J

    2013-03-01

    To estimate the long-term fiscal consequences of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on the German government and social insurance system based on differences in educational attainment and the resulting differences in lifetime earnings compared with non-ADHD cohorts. Differences in educational attainment between ADHD and non-ADHD cohorts were linked to education-specific earnings data. Direct and indirect tax rates and social insurance contributions were linked to differences in lifetime, education-specific earnings to derive lost tax revenue in Germany associated with ADHD. For ADHD and non-ADHD cohorts we derived the age-specific discounted net taxes paid by deducting lifetime transfers from lifetime gross taxes paid. The lifetime net tax revenue for a non-ADHD individual was approximately EUR 80,000 higher compared to an untreated ADHD individual. The fiscal burden of untreated ADHD, based on a cohort of n=31,844 born in 2010, was estimated at EUR 2.5 billion in net tax revenue losses compared with an equally-sized non-ADHD cohort. ADHD interventions providing a small improvement in educational attainment resulted in fiscal benefits from increases in lifetime tax gains. ADHD results in long-term financial loss due to lower education attainment and lifetime reduced earnings and resulting lifetime taxes and social contributions paid. Investments in ADHD interventions allowing more children to achieve their educational potential may offer fiscal benefits generating a positive rate of return.

  12. Delayed fluorescence of meso-tetraphenylporphyrin in acetone and in dimethylsulphoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korinek, M.; Klinger, P.; Dedic, R.; Psencik, J.; Svoboda, A.; Hala, J.

    2007-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy is based on photosensitisation of singlet oxygen by porphyrin-like molecules. We have performed a systematic study of delayed fluorescence of tetraphenylporphyrin in acetone (used as a spectroscopic standard) and in dimethylsulphoxide (clinically used solvent) to obtain spectra, kinetics, and quantum yields, including their dependencies on tetraphenylporphyrin concentration. In dimethylsulphoxide the repopulation of excited singlets and subsequent delayed fluorescence is caused by triplet-triplet quenching with rate constant of (2.2±1.0)x10 9 l mol -1 s -1 . However, repopulation of excited singlets in acetone is also caused by singlet oxygen reaction with triplet tetraphenylporphyrin causing monoexponential delayed fluorescence decay with the lifetime 0.3 μs. Due to much lower viscosity of acetone compared to dimethylsulphoxide, triplet-triplet quenching constant in acetone is much higher (1.7±0.7)x10 10 l mol -1 s -1 . The rate constant for the reaction of singlet oxygen with triplet of tetraphenylporphyrin is (2.0±0.8)x10 10 l mol -1 s -1 in acetone

  13. Mechanical Damage Detection of Indonesia Local Citrus Based on Fluorescence Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, T. H.; Ahmad, U.; Sutrisno; Maddu, A.

    2018-05-01

    Citrus experienced physical damage in peel will produce essential oils that contain polymethoxylated flavone. Polymethoxylated flavone is fluorescence substance; thus can be detected by fluorescence imaging. This study aims to study the fluorescence spectra characteristic and to determine the damage region in citrus peel based on fluorescence image. Pulung citrus from Batu district, East Java, as a famous citrus production area in Indonesia, was used in the experiment. It was observed that the image processing could detect the mechanical damage region. Fluorescence imaging can be used to classify the citrus into two categories, sound and defect citruses.

  14. Fluorescence ELISA for sensitive detection of ochratoxin A based on glucose oxidase-mediated fluorescence quenching of CdTe QDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Yi [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University, Nanchang, 330047 (China); Jiangxi-OAI Joint Research Institute, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047 (China); Huang, Xiaolin [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University, Nanchang, 330047 (China); Yu, Ruijin [College of Science, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Zhou, Yaofeng [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University, Nanchang, 330047 (China); Xiong, Yonghua, E-mail: yhxiongchen@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University, Nanchang, 330047 (China); Jiangxi-OAI Joint Research Institute, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047 (China)

    2016-09-14

    The present study described a novel fluorescence enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) used to detect ochratoxin A (OTA) by using the glucose oxidase (GOx)-mediated fluorescence quenching of mercaptopropionic acid-capped CdTe quantum dots (MPA-QDs), in which GOx was used as an alternative to horseradish peroxidase (HRP) for the oxidization of glucose into hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and gluconic acid. The MPA-QDs were used as a fluorescent signal output, whose fluorescence variation was extremely sensitive to the presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} or hydrogen ions in the solution. Under the optimized conditions, the proposed fluorescence ELISA demonstrated a good linear detection of OTA in corn extract from 2.4 pg mL{sup −1} to 625 pg mL{sup −1} with a limit of detection of 2.2 pg mL{sup −1}, which was approximately 15-fold lower than that of conventional HRP-based ELISA. Our developed fluorescence immunoassay was also similar to HRP-based ELISA in terms of selectivity, accuracy, and reproducibility. In summary, this study was the first to use the GOx-mediated fluorescence quenching of QDs in immunoassay to detect OTA, offering a new possibility for the analysis of other mycotoxins and biomolecules. - Highlights: • A novel fluorescence ELISA was first developed for the detection of OTA by using GOx-mediated fluorescence quenching of QDs. • The pH- and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-sensitive MPA-capped CdTe QDs were used as a fluorescent signal output to improve the detection sensitivity. • This novel method open up a different vision to detect other mycotoxins and biomolecules.

  15. A fluorescence-based method for direct measurement of submicrosecond intramolecular contact formation in biopolymers: an exploratory study with polypeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudgins, Robert R; Huang, Fang; Gramlich, Gabriela; Nau, Werner M

    2002-01-30

    A fluorescent amino acid derivative (Fmoc-DBO) has been synthesized, which contains 2,3-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-ene (DBO) as a small, hydrophilic fluorophore with an extremely long fluorescence lifetime (325 ns in H2O and 505 ns in D2O under air). Polypeptides containing both the DBO residue and an efficient fluorescence quencher allow the measurement of rate constants for intramolecular end-to-end contact formation. Bimolecular quenching experiments indicated that Trp, Cys, Met, and Tyr are efficient quenchers of DBO (k(q) = 20, 5.1, 4.5, and 3.6 x 10(8) M(-1) x s(-1) in D2O), while the other amino acids are inefficient. The quenching by Trp, which was selected as an intrinsic quencher, is presumed to involve exciplex-induced deactivation. Flexible, structureless polypeptides, Trp-(Gly-Ser)n-DBO-NH2, were prepared by standard solid-phase synthesis, and the rates of contact formation were measured through the intramolecular fluorescence quenching of DBO by Trp with time-correlated single-photon counting, laser flash photolysis, and steady-state fluorometry. Rate constants of 4.1, 6.8, 4.9, 3.1, 2.0, and 1.1 x 10(7) s(-1) for n = 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 10 were obtained. Noteworthy was the relatively slow quenching for the shortest peptide (n = 0). The kinetic data are in agreement with recent transient absorption studies of triplet probes for related peptides, but the rate constants are significantly larger. In contrast to the flexible structureless Gly-Ser polypeptides, the polyproline Trp-Pro4-DBO-NH2 showed insignificant fluorescence quenching, suggesting that a high polypeptide flexibility and the possibility of probe-quencher contact is essential to induce quenching. Advantages of the new fluorescence-based method for measuring contact formation rates in biopolymers include high accuracy, fast time range (100 ps-1 micros), and the possibility to perform measurements in water under air.

  16. A reagentless enzymatic fluorescent biosensor for glucose based on upconverting glasses, as excitation source, and chemically modified glucose oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Barrio, Melisa; Cases, Rafael; Cebolla, Vicente; Hirsch, Thomas; de Marcos, Susana; Wilhelm, Stefan; Galbán, Javier

    2016-11-01

    Upon near-infrared excitation Tm(3+)+Yb(3+) doped fluorohafnate glasses present upconversion properties and emit visible light. This property permits to use these glasses (UCG) as excitation sources for fluorescent optical biosensors. Taking this into account, in this work a fluorescent biosensor for glucose determination is designed and evaluated. The biosensor combines the UCG and the fluorescence of the enzyme glucose oxidase chemically modified with a fluorescein derivative (GOx-FS), whose intensity is modified during the enzymatic reaction with glucose. Optical parameters have been optimized and a mathematical model describing the behavior of the analytical signal is suggested. Working in FIA mode, the biosensor responds to glucose concentrations up to, at least, 15mM with a limit of detection of 1.9mM. The biosensor has a minimum lifetime of 9 days and has been applied to glucose determination in drinks. The applicability of the sensor was tested by glucose determination in two fruit juices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. An eco-friendly molecularly imprinted fluorescence composite material based on carbon dots for fluorescent detection of 4-nitrophenol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Tongfan; Wei, Xiao; Nie, Yijing; Zhou, Zhiping; Xu, Yeqing; Yan, Yongsheng

    2016-01-01

    We on report an eco-friendly molecularly imprinted material based on carbon dots (C-dots) via a facile and efficient sol–gel polymerization for selective fluorescence detection of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP). The amino-modified C-dots were firstly synthesized by a hydrothermal process using citric acid as the carbon source and poly(ethyleneimine) as the surface modifier, and then after a sol–gel molecular imprinting process, the molecularly imprinted fluorescence material was obtained. The material (MIP-C-dots) showed strong fluorescence from C-dots and high selectivity due to the presence of a molecular imprint. After the detection conditions were optimized, the relative fluorescence intensity (F_0/F) of MIP-C-dots presented a good linearity with 4-NP concentrations in the linear range of 0.2 − 50 μmol L"-"1 with a detection limit (3σ/k) of 0.06 μmol L"-"1. In addition, the correlation coefficient was 0.9978 and the imprinting factor was 2.76. The method was applicable to the determination of trace 4-NP in Yangtze River water samples and good recoveries from 92.6–107.3 % were obtained. The present study provides a general strategy to fabricate materials based on C-dots with good fluorescence property for selective fluorescence detection of organic pollutants. (author)

  18. Fluorescence quenching of Rhodamine B base by two amines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakkialakshmi, S.; Selvarani, P.; Chenthamarai, S.

    2013-03-01

    Fluorescence quenching of Rhodamine B base (RhB) in DMF solution has been studied at different concentrations of the amine Triethyl amine (TEA) and n-butyl amine (NBA) at room temperature. It has been observed that the fluorescence intensity of RhB decrease with increase in the concentration of the TEA and NBA. It has been observed that the quenching due to amines proceeds via dynamic quenching process. The rate constants for the quenching process have been calculated using Stern-Volmer equation. Time resolved fluorescence study and 1H NMR spectral study have also been carried out and discussed.

  19. Couplings between hierarchical conformational dynamics from multi-time correlation functions and two-dimensional lifetime spectra: Application to adenylate kinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Junichi [Department of Theoretical and Computational Molecular Science, Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan); Takada, Shoji [Department of Theoretical and Computational Molecular Science, Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan); Department of Biophysics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Saito, Shinji, E-mail: shinji@ims.ac.jp [Department of Theoretical and Computational Molecular Science, Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan); The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan)

    2015-06-07

    An analytical method based on a three-time correlation function and the corresponding two-dimensional (2D) lifetime spectrum is developed to elucidate the time-dependent couplings between the multi-timescale (i.e., hierarchical) conformational dynamics in heterogeneous systems such as proteins. In analogy with 2D NMR, IR, electronic, and fluorescence spectroscopies, the waiting-time dependence of the off-diagonal peaks in the 2D lifetime spectra can provide a quantitative description of the dynamical correlations between the conformational motions with different lifetimes. The present method is applied to intrinsic conformational changes of substrate-free adenylate kinase (AKE) using long-time coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations. It is found that the hierarchical conformational dynamics arise from the intra-domain structural transitions among conformational substates of AKE by analyzing the one-time correlation functions and one-dimensional lifetime spectra for the donor-acceptor distances corresponding to single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer experiments with the use of the principal component analysis. In addition, the complicated waiting-time dependence of the off-diagonal peaks in the 2D lifetime spectra for the donor-acceptor distances is attributed to the fact that the time evolution of the couplings between the conformational dynamics depends upon both the spatial and temporal characters of the system. The present method is expected to shed light on the biological relationship among the structure, dynamics, and function.

  20. Tomato seeds maturity detection system based on chlorophyll fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cuiling; Wang, Xiu; Meng, Zhijun

    2016-10-01

    Chlorophyll fluorescence intensity can be used as seed maturity and quality evaluation indicator. Chlorophyll fluorescence intensity of seed coats is tested to judge the level of chlorophyll content in seeds, and further to judge the maturity and quality of seeds. This research developed a detection system of tomato seeds maturity based on chlorophyll fluorescence spectrum technology, the system included an excitation light source unit, a fluorescent signal acquisition unit and a data processing unit. The excitation light source unit consisted of two high power LEDs, two radiators and two constant current power supplies, and it was designed to excite chlorophyll fluorescence of tomato seeds. The fluorescent signal acquisition unit was made up of a fluorescence spectrometer, an optical fiber, an optical fiber scaffolds and a narrowband filter. The data processing unit mainly included a computer. Tomato fruits of green ripe stage, discoloration stage, firm ripe stage and full ripe stage were harvested, and their seeds were collected directly. In this research, the developed tomato seeds maturity testing system was used to collect fluorescence spectrums of tomato seeds of different maturities. Principal component analysis (PCA) method was utilized to reduce the dimension of spectral data and extract principal components, and PCA was combined with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to establish discriminant model of tomato seeds maturity, the discriminant accuracy was greater than 90%. Research results show that using chlorophyll fluorescence spectrum technology is feasible for seeds maturity detection, and the developed tomato seeds maturity testing system has high detection accuracy.

  1. Enhancing molecular logic through modulation of temporal and spatial constraints with quantum dot-based systems that use fluorescent (Förster) resonance energy transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claussen, Jonathan C.; Algar, W. Russ; Hildebrandt, Niko; Susumu, Kimihiro; Ancona, Mario G.; Medintz, Igor L.

    2013-10-01

    Luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals or quantum dots (QDs) contain favorable photonic properties (e.g., resistance to photobleaching, size-tunable PL, and large effective Stokes shifts) that make them well-suited for fluorescence (Förster) resonance energy transfer (FRET) based applications including monitoring proteolytic activity, elucidating the effects of nanoparticles-mediated drug delivery, and analyzing the spatial and temporal dynamics of cellular biochemical processes. Herein, we demonstrate how unique considerations of temporal and spatial constraints can be used in conjunction with QD-FRET systems to open up new avenues of scientific discovery in information processing and molecular logic circuitry. For example, by conjugating both long lifetime luminescent terbium(III) complexes (Tb) and fluorescent dyes (A647) to a single QD, we can create multiple FRET lanes that change temporally as the QD acts as both an acceptor and donor at distinct time intervals. Such temporal FRET modulation creates multi-step FRET cascades that produce a wealth of unique photoluminescence (PL) spectra that are well-suited for the construction of a photonic alphabet and photonic logic circuits. These research advances in bio-based molecular logic open the door to future applications including multiplexed biosensing and drug delivery for disease diagnostics and treatment.

  2. Multiwavelength FLIM: new concept for fluorescence diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rück, Angelika; Lorenz, S.; Hauser, Carmen; Mosch, S.; Kalinina, S.

    2012-03-01

    Fluorescence guided tumor resection is very well accepted in the case of bladder cancer and brain tumor, respectively. However, false positive results are one of the major problems, which will make the discrimination between tumor tissue and inflammation difficult. In contrast fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) and especially spectral resolved FLIM (SLIM) can significantly improve the analysis. The fluorescence decay of a fluorophore in many cases does not show a simple monoexponential profile. A very complex situation arises, when more than one compound has to be analyzed. This could be the case when endogenous fluorophores of living cells and tissues have to be discriminated to identify oxidative metabolic changes. Other examples are PDT, when different photosensitizer metabolites are observed simultaneously. In those cases a considerable improvement could be achieved when time-resolved and spectral-resolved techniques are simultaneously incorporated. Within this presentation the principles of spectral and time-resolved fluorescence imaging will be discussed. Successful applications as autofluorescence and 5-ALA induced porphyrin fluorescence will be described in more detail.

  3. A Zinc Oxide Nanorod Ammonia Microsensor Integrated with a Readout Circuit on-a-Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chyan-Chyi Wu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A zinc oxide nanorod ammonia microsensor integrated with a readout circuit on-a-chip fabricated using the commercial 0.35 mm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS process was investigated. The structure of the ammonia sensor is composed of a sensitive film and polysilicon electrodes. The ammonia sensor requires a post-process to etch the sacrificial layer, and to coat the sensitive film on the polysilicon electrodes. The sensitive film that is prepared by a hydrothermal method is made of zinc oxide. The sensor resistance changes when the sensitive film adsorbs or desorbs ammonia gas. The readout circuit is used to convert the sensor resistance into the voltage output. Experiments show that the ammonia sensor has a sensitivity of about 1.5 mV/ppm at room temperature.

  4. Example-Based Super-Resolution Fluorescence Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shu; Han, Boran; Kutz, J Nathan

    2018-04-23

    Capturing biological dynamics with high spatiotemporal resolution demands the advancement in imaging technologies. Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy offers spatial resolution surpassing the diffraction limit to resolve near-molecular-level details. While various strategies have been reported to improve the temporal resolution of super-resolution imaging, all super-resolution techniques are still fundamentally limited by the trade-off associated with the longer image acquisition time that is needed to achieve higher spatial information. Here, we demonstrated an example-based, computational method that aims to obtain super-resolution images using conventional imaging without increasing the imaging time. With a low-resolution image input, the method provides an estimate of its super-resolution image based on an example database that contains super- and low-resolution image pairs of biological structures of interest. The computational imaging of cellular microtubules agrees approximately with the experimental super-resolution STORM results. This new approach may offer potential improvements in temporal resolution for experimental super-resolution fluorescence microscopy and provide a new path for large-data aided biomedical imaging.

  5. An extremely sensitive monoboronic acid based fluorescent sensor for glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xiangying; Liu Bin; Jiang Yunbao

    2004-01-01

    An extremely sensitive monoboronic acid based fluorescent sensor for glucose was developed. This was carried out by assembling a fluorescent monoboronic acid, 3-aminophenylboronic acid (PBA) indirectly onto gold surface via its electrostatic interaction with cysteine (Cys) that was directly assembled on the gold surface. The formation of self-assembled bilayers (SAB) was confirmed and primarily characterized by cyclic voltammetry and X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS). The SAB containing PBA was found fluorescent and its fluorescence showed an extremely high sensitivity to the presence of glucose and other monosaccharides such as galactose and fructose with quenching constants at 10 8 M -1 order of magnitude compared to those at 10 2 M -1 in bulk solutions. The quenching constants were found to vary in the order of D-glucose>D-galactose>D-fructose>D-mannose that is different from that in bulk solution which shows the highest binding affinity toward D-fructose and very low sensitivity toward glucose. The reported monoboronic acid based SAB fluorescent sensor showed the highest sensitivity towards glucose with the capacity of detecting saccharides of concentration down to nanomolar level. It was also demonstrated that the fluorescence from PBA/Cys/Au can be easily recovered after each measurement event and therefore also represents a new reusable method for immobilizing reagent in fabricating chemosensors

  6. Phenylboronic acid functionalized reduced graphene oxide based fluorescence nano sensor for glucose sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basiruddin, SK; Swain, Sarat K., E-mail: swainsk2@yahoo.co.in

    2016-01-01

    Reduced graphene has emerged as promising tools for detection based application of biomolecules as it has high surface area with strong fluorescence quenching property. We have used the concept of fluorescent quenching property of reduced graphene oxide to the fluorescent probes which are close vicinity of its surface. In present work, we have synthesized fluorescent based nano-sensor consist of phenylboronic acid functionalized reduced graphene oxide (rGO–PBA) and di-ol modified fluorescent probe for detection of biologically important glucose molecules. This fluorescent graphene based nano-probe has been characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), Atomic force microscope (AFM), UV–visible, Photo-luminescence (PL) and Fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Finally, using this PBA functionalized reduced GO based nano-sensor, we were able to detect glucose molecule in the range of 2 mg/mL to 75 mg/mL in aqueous solution of pH 7.4. - Highlights: • Easy and simple synthesis of PBA functionalized reduced GO based nano probe. • PBA functionalized reduced GO graphene based nano-probes are characterized. • PBA functionalized reduced GO nano probe is used to detect glucose molecules. • It is very cost-effective and enzyme-free detection of glucose in solution.

  7. Proximal Sensing of Plant-Pathogen Interactions in Spring Barley with Three Fluorescence Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Leufen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last years fluorescence spectroscopy has come to be viewed as an essential approach in key research fields of applied plant sciences. However, the quantity and particularly the quality of information produced by different equipment might vary considerably. In this study we investigate the potential of three optical devices for the proximal sensing of plant-pathogen interactions in four genotypes of spring barley. For this purpose, the fluorescence lifetime, the image-resolved multispectral fluorescence and selected indices of a portable multiparametric fluorescence device were recorded at 3, 6, and 9 days after inoculation (dai from healthy leaves as well as from leaves inoculated with powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis or leaf rust (Puccinia hordei. Genotype-specific responses to pathogen infections were revealed already at 3 dai by higher fluorescence mean lifetimes in the spectral range from 410 to 560 nm in the less susceptible varieties. Noticeable pathogen-induced modifications were also revealed by the ‘Blue-to-Far-Red Fluorescence Ratio’ and the ‘Simple Fluorescence Ratio’. Particularly in the susceptible varieties the differences became more evident in the time-course of the experiment i.e., following the pathogen development. The relevance of the blue and green fluorescence to exploit the plant-pathogen interaction was demonstrated by the multispectral fluorescence imaging system. As shown, mildewed leaves were characterized by exceptionally high blue fluorescence, contrasting the values observed in rust inoculated leaves. Further, we confirm that the intensity of green fluorescence depends on the pathogen infection and the stage of disease development; this information might allow a differentiation of both diseases. Moreover, our results demonstrate that the detection area might influence the quality of the information, although it had a minor impact only in the current study. Finally, we highlight the relevance of

  8. A Lifetime Optimization Algorithm Limited by Data Transmission Delay and Hops for Mobile Sink-Based Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yourong Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the lifetime of mobile sink-based wireless sensor networks and considering that data transmission delay and hops are limited in actual system, a lifetime optimization algorithm limited by data transmission delay and hops (LOA_DH for mobile sink-based wireless sensor networks is proposed. In LOA_DH, some constraints are analyzed, and an optimization model is proposed. Maximum capacity path routing algorithm is used to calculate the energy consumption of communication. Improved genetic algorithm which modifies individuals to meet all constraints is used to solve the optimization model. The optimal solution of sink node’s sojourn grid centers and sojourn times which maximizes network lifetime is obtained. Simulation results show that, in three node distribution scenes, LOA_DH can find the movement solution of sink node which covers all sensor nodes. Compared with MCP_RAND, MCP_GMRE, and EASR, the solution improves network lifetime and reduces average amount of node discarded data and average energy consumption of nodes.

  9. A luminescence lifetime assisted ratiometric fluorimeter for biological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Hung; Kostov, Yordan; Rao, Govind; Tolosa, Leah

    2009-12-01

    In general, the most difficult task in developing devices for fluorescence ratiometric sensing is the isolation of signals from overlapping emission wavelengths. Wavelength discrimination can be achieved by using monochromators or bandpass filters, which often lead to decreased signal intensities. The result is a device that is both complex and expensive. Here we present an alternative system—a low-cost standalone optical fluorimeter based on luminescence lifetime assisted ratiometric sensing (LARS). This paper describes the principle of this technique and the overall design of the sensor device. The most significant innovation of LARS is the ability to discriminate between two overlapping luminescence signals based on differences in their luminescence decay rates. Thus, minimal filtering is required and the two signals can be isolated despite significant overlap of luminescence spectra. The result is a device that is both simple and inexpensive. The electronic circuit employs the lock-in amplification technique for the signal processing and the system is controlled by an onboard microcontroller. In addition, the system is designed to communicate with external devices via Bluetooth.

  10. A Simple BODIPY-Based Viscosity Probe for Imaging of Cellular Viscosity in Live Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Su

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular viscosity is a fundamental physical parameter that indicates the functioning of cells. In this work, we developed a simple boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY-based probe, BTV, for cellular mitochondria viscosity imaging by coupling a simple BODIPY rotor with a mitochondria-targeting unit. The BTV exhibited a significant fluorescence intensity enhancement of more than 100-fold as the solvent viscosity increased. Also, the probe showed a direct linear relationship between the fluorescence lifetime and the media viscosity, which makes it possible to trace the change of the medium viscosity. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that BTV could achieve practical applicability in the monitoring of mitochondrial viscosity changes in live cells through fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM.

  11. Advances in Spiropyrans/Spirooxazines and Applications Based on Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET with Fluorescent Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Xia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the following were reviewed: (1 the structure of spiropyrans and spirooxazines (two kinds of spiro compounds under external stimuli and (2 the construction and applications of composite systems based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET with fluorescent materials. When treated with different stimuli (light, acids and bases, solvents, metal ions, temperature, redox potential, and so on, spiropyrans/spirooxazines undergo transformations between the ring-closed form (SP, the ring-opened merocyanine (MC form, and the protonated ring-opened form (MCH. This is due to the breakage of the spiro C–O bond and the protonation of MC, along with a color change. Various novel, multifunctional materials based on photochromic spiropyrans and spirooxazines have been successfully developed because of the vastly differently physiochemical properties posssed by the SP, MC and MCH forms. Among the three different structural forms, the MC form has been studied most extensively. The MC form not only gives complexes with various inorganic particles, biological molecules, and organic chemicals but also acts as the energy acceptor (of energy from fluorescent molecules during energy transfer processes that take place under proper conditions. Furthermore, spiropyran and spirooxazine compounds exhibit reversible physicochemical property changes under proper stimuli; this provides more advantages compared with other photochromic compounds. Additionally, the molecular structures of spiropyrans and spirooxazines can be easily modified and extended, so better compounds can be obtained to expand the scope of already known applications. Described in detail are: (1 the structural properties of spiropyrans and spirooxazines and related photochromic mechanisms; (2 composite systems based on spiropyrans and spirooxazines, and (3 fluorescent materials which have potential applications in sensing, probing, and a variety of optical elements.

  12. A Graphene Oxide-Based Fluorescent Aptasensor for the Turn-on Detection of CCRF-CEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jie; Lai, Zongqiang; Zhong, Liping; Zhang, Zhenghua; Zheng, Rong; Su, Jing; Huang, Yong; Huang, Panpan; Song, Hui; Yang, Nuo; Zhou, Sufang; Zhao, Yongxiang

    2018-04-01

    A convenient, low-cost, and highly sensitive fluorescent aptasensor for detection of leukemia has been developed based on graphene oxide-aptamer complex (GO-apt). Graphene oxide (GO) can absorb carboxyfluorescein-labeled Sgc8 aptamer (FAM-apt) by π-π stacking and quench the fluorescence through fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). In the absence of Sgc8 target cell CCRF-CEM, the fluorescence is almost all quenched. Conversely, when the CCRF-CEM cells are added, the quenched fluorescence can be recovered rapidly and significantly. Therefore, based on the change of fluorescence signals, we can detect the number of CCRF-CEM cells in a wide range from 1 × 10 2 to 1 × 10 7  cells/mL with a limit of detection (LOD) of 10 cells/mL. Therefore, this strategy of graphene oxide-based fluorescent aptasensor may be promising for the detection of cancer.

  13. Steady state and time resolved fluorescence studies of azadioxatriangulenium (ADOTA) fluorophore in silica and PVA thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chib, Rahul; Raut, Sangram; Shah, Sunil

    2015-01-01

    A cationic azadioxatriangulenium dye was entrapped in silica thin films obtained by the sol-gel process and in poly (vinyl) alcohol (PVA) thin films. Azadioxatriangulenium is a red emitting fluorophore with a long fluorescence lifetime of ∼20 ns. The fluorescent properties of azadioxatriangulenium...

  14. FastFLIM, the all-in-one engine for measuring photoluminescence lifetime of 100 picoseconds to 100 milliseconds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuansheng; Coskun, Ulas; Liao, Shih-Chu Jeff; Barbieri, Beniamino

    2018-02-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) refers to light emission initiated by any form of photon excitation. PL spectroscopy and microscopy imaging has been widely applied in material, chemical and life sciences. Measuring its lifetime yields a new dimension of the PL imaging and opens new opportunities for many PL applications. In solar cell research, quantification of the PL lifetime has become an important evaluation for the characteristics of the Perovskite thin film. Depending upon the PL process (fluorescence, phosphorescence, photon upconversion, etc.), the PL lifetimes to be measured can vary in a wide timescale range (e.g. from sub-nanoseconds to microseconds or even milliseconds) - it is challenging to cover this wide range of lifetime measurements by a single technique efficiently. Here, we present a novel digital frequency domain (DFD) technique named FastFLIM, capable of measuring the PL lifetime from 100 ps to 100 ms at the high data collection efficiency (up to 140-million counts per second). Other than the traditional nonlinear leastsquare fitting analysis, the raw data acquired by FastFLIM can be directly processed by the model-free phasor plots approach for instant and unbiased lifetime results, providing the ideal routine for the PL lifetime microscopy imaging.

  15. Enhanced speed in fluorescence imaging using beat frequency multiplexing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Hideharu; Kobayashi, Hirofumi; Wang, Yisen; Hamad, Syed; Ozeki, Yasuyuki; Goda, Keisuke

    2016-03-01

    Fluorescence imaging using radiofrequency-tagged emission (FIRE) is an emerging technique that enables higher imaging speed (namely, temporal resolution) in fluorescence microscopy compared to conventional fluorescence imaging techniques such as confocal microscopy and wide-field microscopy. It works based on the principle that it uses multiple intensity-modulated fields in an interferometric setup as excitation fields and applies frequency-division multiplexing to fluorescence signals. Unfortunately, despite its high potential, FIRE has limited imaging speed due to two practical limitations: signal bandwidth and signal detection efficiency. The signal bandwidth is limited by that of an acousto-optic deflector (AOD) employed in the setup, which is typically 100-200 MHz for the spectral range of fluorescence excitation (400-600 nm). The signal detection efficiency is limited by poor spatial mode-matching between two interfering fields to produce a modulated excitation field. Here we present a method to overcome these limitations and thus to achieve higher imaging speed than the prior version of FIRE. Our method achieves an increase in signal bandwidth by a factor of two and nearly optimal mode matching, which enables the imaging speed limited by the lifetime of the target fluorophore rather than the imaging system itself. The higher bandwidth and better signal detection efficiency work synergistically because higher bandwidth requires higher signal levels to avoid the contribution of shot noise and amplifier noise to the fluorescence signal. Due to its unprecedentedly high-speed performance, our method has a wide variety of applications in cancer detection, drug discovery, and regenerative medicine.

  16. Theoretical calculations of positron lifetimes for metal oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Masataka; Araki, Hideki; Shirai, Yasuharu

    2004-01-01

    Our recent positron lifetime measurements for metal oxides suggest that positron lifetimes of bulk state in metal oxides are shorter than previously reported values. We have performed theoretical calculations of positron lifetimes for bulk and vacancy states in MgO and ZnO using first-principles electronic structure calculations and discuss the validity of positron lifetime calculations for insulators. By comparing the calculated positron lifetimes to the experimental values, it wa found that the semiconductor model well reproduces the experimental positron lifetime. The longer positron lifetime previously reported can be considered to arise from not only the bulk but also from the vacancy induced by impurities. In the case of cation vacancy, the calculated positron lifetime based on semiconductor model is shorter than the experimental value, which suggests that the inward relaxation occurs around the cation vacancy trapping the positron. (author)

  17. Fluorescence spectral studies of Gum Arabic: Multi-emission of Gum Arabic in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhenadhayalan, Namasivayam, E-mail: ndhena@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Mythily, Rajan, E-mail: rajanmythily@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Dwaraka Doss Goverdhan Doss Vaishnav College (Autonomous), 833, Gokul Bagh, E.V.R. Periyar Road, Arumbakkam, Chennai 600 106 (India); Kumaran, Rajendran, E-mail: kumaranwau@rediffmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Dwaraka Doss Goverdhan Doss Vaishnav College (Autonomous), 833, Gokul Bagh, E.V.R. Periyar Road, Arumbakkam, Chennai 600 106 (India)

    2014-11-15

    Gum Arabic (GA), a food hydrocolloid is a natural composite obtained from the stems and branches of Acacia Senegal and Acacia Seyal trees. GA structure is made up of highly branched arabinogalactan polysaccharides. Steady-state absorption, fluorescence, and time-resolved fluorescence spectral studies of acid hydrolyzed GA solutions were carried out at various pH conditions. The fluorescence in GA is predominantly attributed to the presence of tyrosine and phenylalanine amino acids. The presence of multi-emissive peaks at different pH condition is attributed to the exposure of the fluorescing amino acids to the aqueous phase, which contains several sugar units, hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties. Time-resolved fluorescence studies of GA exhibits a multi-exponential decay with different fluorescence lifetime of varying amplitude which confirms that tyrosine is confined to a heterogeneous microenvironment. The existence of multi-emissive peaks with large variation in the fluorescence intensities were established by 3D emission contour spectral studies. The probable location of the fluorophore in a heterogeneous environment was further ascertained by constructing a time-resolved emission spectrum (TRES) and time-resolved area normalized emission spectrum (TRANES) plots. Fluorescence spectral technique is used as an analytical tool in understanding the photophysical properties of a water soluble complex food hydrocolloid containing an intrinsic fluorophore located in a multiple environment is illustrated. - Highlights: • The Manuscript deals with the steady state absorption, emission, fluorescence lifetime and time-resolved emission spectrum studies of Gum Arabic in aqueous medium at various pH conditions. • The fluorescence emanates from the tyrosine amino acid present in GA. • Change in pH results in marked variation in the fluorescence spectral properties of tyrosine. • Fluorescence spectral techniques are employed as a tool in establishing the

  18. Microsensor Studies of Oxygen and Light-Distribution in the Green Macroalga Codium Fragile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LASSEN, C.; BEBOUT, LE; PAERL, HW

    1994-01-01

    to multiple scattering in the medullary tissue. The constant intensity of visible light below 0.2 mm was thus a result of the combined effects of absorption and backscattering from the medulla. The oxygen exchange between the alga and the surrounding water was diffusion-limited with a steep O-2 gradient......Scalar irradiance, oxygen concentration, and oxygenic photosynthesis were measured at 0.1 mm spatial resolution within the tissue of the siphonous green macroalga Codium fragile subsp. tomentosoides (van Goer) Silva by fiber-optic scalar irradiance microsensors and oxygen microelectrodes......, The scalar irradiance of visible light was strongly attenuated in the outer 0.2 mm of the tissue but was nearly constant for the subsequent 1.0 mm of photosynthetic tissue. Far-red scalar irradiance at 750 nm increased below the tissue surface to a maximum of 200% of incident irradiance at 1.2 mm depth due...

  19. Transparent Flexible Active Faraday Cage Enables In Vivo Capacitance Measurement in Assembled Microsensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mahdi; Rajamani, Rajesh; Sezen, Serdar

    2017-10-01

    Capacitive micro-sensors such as accelerometers, gyroscopes and pressure sensors are increasingly used in the modern electronic world. However, the in vivo use of capacitive sensing for measurement of pressure or other variables inside a human body suffers from significant errors due to stray capacitance. This paper proposes a solution consisting of a transparent thin flexible Faraday cage that surrounds the sensor. By supplying the active sensing voltage simultaneously to the deformable electrode of the capacitive sensor and to the Faraday cage, the stray capacitance during in vivo measurements can be largely eliminated. Due to the transparency of the Faraday cage, the top and bottom portions of a capacitive sensor can be accurately aligned and assembled together. Experimental results presented in the paper show that stray capacitance is reduced by a factor of 10 by the Faraday cage, when the sensor is subjected to a full immersion in water.

  20. Fluorescence spectroscopy and confocal microscopy of the mycotoxin citrinin in condensed phase and hydrogel films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Milena H; Gehlen, Marcelo H; de Jesus, Karen; Berlinck, Roberto G S

    2014-05-01

    The emission spectra, quantum yields and fluorescence lifetimes of citrinin in organic solvents and hydrogel films have been determined. Citrinin shows complex fluorescence decays due to the presence of two tautomers in solution and interconversion from excited-state double proton transfer (ESDPT) process. The fluorescence decay times associated with the two tautomers have values near 1 and 5 ns depending on the medium. In hydrogel films of agarose and alginate, fluorescence imaging showed that citrinin is not homogeneously dispersed and highly emissive micrometer spots may be formed. Fluorescence spectrum and decay analysis are used to recognize the presence of citrinin in hydrogel films using confocal fluorescence microscopy and spectroscopy.

  1. Fluorescence quantum yields of natural organic matter and organic compounds: Implications for the fluorescence-based interpretation of organic matter composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wünsch, Urban; Murphy, Kathleen R.; Stedmon, Colin

    2015-01-01

    to more than 200 modeled spectra (PARAFAC components) in the OpenFluor database. Apparent matches, based on spectral similarity, were subsequently evaluated using molar fluorescence and absorbance. Five organic compounds were potential matches with PARAFAC components from 16 studies; however, the ability......Absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy are economical tools for tracing the supply, turnover and fate of dissolved organic matter (DOM). The colored and fluorescent fractions of DOM (CDOM and FDOM, respectively) are linked by the apparent fluorescence quantum yield (AQY) of DOM, which reflects...... the likelihood that chromophores emit fluorescence after absorbing light. Compared to the number of studies investigating CDOM and FDOM, few studies have systematically investigated AQY spectra for DOM, and linked them to fluorescence quantum yields (Φ) of organic compounds. To offer a standardized approach...

  2. Fluorescence Behavior and Dural Infiltration of Meningioma Analyzed by 5-Aminolevulinic Acid-Based Fluorescence: Operating Microscope Versus Mini-Spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knipps, Johannes; Beseoglu, Kerim; Kamp, Marcel; Fischer, Igor; Felsberg, Joerg; Neumann, Lisa M; Steiger, Hans-Jakob; Cornelius, Jan F

    2017-12-01

    To compare fluorescence intensity of tumor specimens, as measured by a fluorescence-guided surgery microscope and a spectrometer, to evaluate tumor infiltration of dura mater around meningiomas with help of these 2 different 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA)-based fluorescence tools, and to correlate fluorescence intensity with histopathologic data. In a clinical series, meningiomas were resected by 5-ALA fluorescence-guided surgery. Fluorescence intensity was semiquantitatively rated by the surgeon at predefined points. Biopsies were harvested and fluorescence intensity measured by a spectrometer and histopathologically analyzed. Sampling was realized at the level of the dura in a centrifugal direction. A total of 104 biopsies (n = 13 tumors) were analyzed. Specificity and sensitivity of the microscope were 0.96 and 0.53 and of the spectrometer 0.95 and 0.93, respectively. Fluorescence intensity as measured by the spectrometer was correlated to histologically confirmed tumor burden. In a centrifugal direction, tumor burden and fluorescence intensity continuously decreased (along the dural tail). Below a threshold value of 639 arbitrary units no tumor was histologically detectable. At the level of the dura the spectrometer was highly sensitive for detection of meningioma cells. The surgical microscope showed false negative results and missed residual tumor cells in more than one half of the cases. The complementary use of both fluorescence tools may improve resection quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Lifetimes of partial charge transfer exciplexes of 9-cyanophenanthrene and 9-cyanoanthracene

    OpenAIRE

    Dolotova, Elena; Dogadkin, Denis; Soboleva, Irina; Kuzmin, Michael; Nicolet, Olivier; Vauthey, Eric

    2003-01-01

    The fluorescence decays of several exciplexes with partial charge transfer have been investigated in solvents of various polarity. The measured lifetimes are found to be in reasonable agreement with the activation enthalpy and entropy of exciplex decay obtained earlier from the temperature dependence of the exciplex emission quantum yields. For exciplexes with 9-cyanophenanthrene substantial contribution of the higher local excited state into the exciplex electronic structure is found and bor...

  4. Ultrabright planar optodes for luminescence life-time based microscopic imaging of O2 dynamics in biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staal, Marc Jaap; Borisov, S M; Rickelt, L F

    2011-01-01

    New transparent optodes for life-time based microscopic imaging of O2 were developed by spin-coating a µm-thin layer of a highly luminescent cyclometalated iridium(III) coumarin complex in polystyrene onto glass cover slips. Compared to similar thin-film O2 optodes based on a ruthenium(II) polypy......New transparent optodes for life-time based microscopic imaging of O2 were developed by spin-coating a µm-thin layer of a highly luminescent cyclometalated iridium(III) coumarin complex in polystyrene onto glass cover slips. Compared to similar thin-film O2 optodes based on a ruthenium...

  5. Nuclear lifetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caraca, J.M.G.

    1976-01-01

    The importance of the results obtained in experiments of measurement of lifetimes for a detailed knowledge of nuclear structure is referred. Direct methods of measurement of nuclear lifetimes are described, namely, electronic methods, recoil-distance method, doppler shift atenuation method and blocking-method. A brief reference is made to indirect methods for measurement of life-times

  6. A fluorescence-based rapid screening assay for cytotoxic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya, Jessica; Varela-Ramirez, Armando; Estrada, Abril; Martinez, Luis E.; Garza, Kristine; Aguilera, Renato J.

    2004-01-01

    A simple fluorescence-based assay was developed for the rapid screening of potential cytotoxic compounds generated by combinatorial chemistry. The assay is based on detection of nuclear green fluorescent protein (GFP) staining of a human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa) carrying an integrated histone H2B-GFP fusion gene. Addition of a cytotoxic compound to the HeLa-GFP cells results in the eventual degradation of DNA and loss of the GFP nuclear fluorescence. Using this assay, we screened 11 distinct quinone derivatives and found that several of these compounds were cytotoxic. These compounds are structurally related to plumbagin an apoptosis-inducing naphthoquinone isolated from Black Walnut. In order to determine the mechanism by which cell death was induced, we performed additional experiments with the most cytotoxic quinones. These compounds were found to induce morphological changes (blebbing and nuclear condensation) consistent with induction of apoptosis. Additional tests revealed that the cytotoxic compounds induce both necrotic and apoptotic modes of death

  7. Prolonging fuel cell stack lifetime based on Pontryagin's Minimum Principle in fuel cell hybrid vehicles and its economic influence evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, C. H.; Xu, G. Q.; Park, Y. I.; Lim, W. S.; Cha, S. W.

    2014-02-01

    The lifetime of fuel cell stacks is a major issue currently, especially for automotive applications. In order to take into account the lifetime of fuel cell stacks while considering the fuel consumption minimization in fuel cell hybrid vehicles (FCHVs), a Pontryagin's Minimum Principle (PMP)-based power management strategy is proposed in this research. This strategy has the effect of prolonging the lifetime of fuel cell stacks. However, there is a tradeoff between the fuel cell stack lifetime and the fuel consumption when this strategy is applied to an FCHV. Verifying the positive economic influence of this strategy is necessary in order to demonstrate its superiority. In this research, the economic influence of the proposed strategy is assessed according to an evaluating cost which is dependent on the fuel cell stack cost, the hydrogen cost, the fuel cell stack lifetime, and the lifetime prolonging impact on the fuel cell stack. Simulation results derived from the proposed power management strategy are also used to evaluate the economic influence. As a result, the positive economic influence of the proposed PMP-based power management strategy is proved for both current and future FCHVs.

  8. Fluorescent carbon dots and nanodiamonds for biological imaging: preparation, application, pharmacokinetics and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia-Hui; Yang, Sheng-Tao; Chen, Xin-Xin; Wang, Haifang

    2012-10-01

    The rapid advancement of nanotechnology has brought us some new types of fluorescent probes, which are indispensable for bioimaging in life sciences. Because of their innate biocompatibility, good resistance against photobleaching, long fluorescence lifetime and wide fluorescence spectral region, fluorescent carbon quantum dots (C-Dots) and nanosized diamonds (nanodiamonds, NDs) are gradually evolving into promising reagents for bioimaging. In this review, we summarize the recent achievements in fluorescent C-Dots and NDs with emphases on their preparation, properties, imaging application, pharmacokinetics and toxicity. Perspectives on further investigations and opportunities to develop C-Dots and NDs into the safer and more sensitive imaging probes for both living cells and animal models are discussed.

  9. Modeling and optimization of membrane lifetime in dead-end ultra filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zondervan, E.; Roffel, B.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a membrane lifetime model is developed and experimentally validated. The lifetime model is based on the Weibull probability density function. The lifetime model can be used to determine an unambiguous characteristic membrane lifetime. Experimental results showed that membrane lifetime

  10. Potential of Fluorescence Imaging Techniques To Monitor Mutagenic PAH Uptake by Microalga

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), is one of the major environmental pollutants that causes mutagenesis and cancer. BaP has been shown to accumulate in phytoplankton and zooplankton. We have studied the localization and aggregation of BaP in Chlorella sp., a microalga that is one of the primary producers in the food chain, using fluorescence confocal microscopy and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy with the phasor approach to characterize the location and the aggregation of BaP in the cell. Our results show that BaP accumulates in the lipid bodies of Chlorella sp. and that there is Förster resonance energy transfer between BaP and photosystems of Chlorella sp., indicating the close proximity of the two molecular systems. The lifetime of BaP fluorescence was measured to be 14 ns in N,N-dimethylformamide, an average of 7 ns in Bold’s basal medium, and 8 ns in Chlorella cells. Number and brightness analysis suggests that BaP does not aggregate inside Chlorella sp. (average brightness = 5.330), while it aggregates in the supernatant. In Chlorella grown in sediments spiked with BaP, in 12 h the BaP uptake could be visualized using fluorescence microscopy. PMID:25020149

  11. Surface plasmon-enhanced molecular fluorescence induced by gold nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, Y.; Ueno, K.; Shi, X.; Aoyo, D.; Misawa, H.; Qiu, J.

    2012-01-01

    The authors report on surface plasmon-enhanced fluorescence of Eosin Y molecules induced by gold nanostructures. Al 2 O 3 films deposited by atomic layer deposition with sub-nanometer resolution were used as the spacer layer to control the distance between molecules and the gold surface. As the thickness of the Al 2 O 3 film increased, the fluorescence intensity first increased and then decreased. The highest enhancement factor is achieved with a 1 nm Al 2 O 3 film. However, the trend for the fluorescence lifetime is the opposite. It first decreased and then increased. The changes in the fluorescence quantum yield were also calculated. The yield shows a similar trend to the fluorescence intensity. The competition between the surface plasmon-induced increase in the radiative decay rate and the gold-induced fluorescence quenching is responsible for the observed phenomenon. In addition, this competition strongly depends on the thickness of the spacer layer between Eosin Y molecules and the gold surface. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Fluorescence properties of 3-amino phenylboronic acid and its interaction with glucose and ZnS:Cu quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kur-Kowalska, Karolina; Przybyt, Małgorzata; Ziółczyk, Paulina; Sowiński, Przemysław; Miller, Ewa

    2014-08-14

    Preliminary results of a study of the interaction between 3-amino phenylboronic acid and glucose or ZnS:Cu quantum dots are presented in this paper. ZnS:Cu quantum dots with mercaptopropionic acid as a capping agent were obtained and characterized. Quenching of 3-amino phenylboronic acid fluorescence was studied by steady-state and timeresolved measurements. For fluorescence quenching with glucose the results of steady-state measurements fulfill Stern-Volmer equation. The quenching constants are increasing with growing pH. The decay of fluorescence is monoexponential with lifetime about 8.4 ns, which does not depend on pH and glucose concentration indicating static quenching. The quenching constant can be interpreted as apparent equilibrium constant of estrification of boronic group with diol. Quantum dots are also quenching 3-amino phenylboronic acid fluorescence. Fluorescence lifetime, in this case, is slightly decreasing with increasing concentration of quantum dots. The quenching constants are increasing slightly with pH's growth. Quenching mechanism of 3-amino phenylboronic acid fluorescence by quantum dots needs further experiments to be fully explained. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. MicroSensors Systems: detection of a dismounted threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Bill; Berglund, Victor; Falkofske, Dwight; Krantz, Brian

    2005-05-01

    The Micro Sensor System (MSS) is a layered sensor network with the goal of detecting dismounted threats approaching high value assets. A low power unattended ground sensor network is dependant on a network protocol for efficiency in order to minimize data transmissions after network establishment. The reduction of network 'chattiness' is a primary driver for minimizing power consumption and is a factor in establishing a low probability of detection and interception. The MSS has developed a unique protocol to meet these challenges. Unattended ground sensor systems are most likely dependant on batteries for power which due to size determines the ability of the sensor to be concealed after placement. To minimize power requirements, overcome size limitations, and maintain a low system cost the MSS utilizes advanced manufacturing processes know as Fluidic Self-Assembly and Chip Scale Packaging. The type of sensing element and the ability to sense various phenomenologies (particularly magnetic) at ranges greater than a few meters limits the effectiveness of a system. The MicroSensor System will overcome these limitations by deploying large numbers of low cost sensors, which is made possible by the advanced manufacturing process used in production of the sensors. The MSS program will provide unprecedented levels of real-time battlefield information which greatly enhances combat situational awareness when integrated with the existing Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (C4ISR) infrastructure. This system will provide an important boost to realizing the information dominant, network-centric objective of Joint Vision 2020.

  14. Recommendations for fluorescence instrument qualification: the new ASTM Standard Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRose, Paul C; Resch-Genger, Ute

    2010-03-01

    Aimed at improving quality assurance and quantitation for modern fluorescence techniques, ASTM International (ASTM) is about to release a Standard Guide for Fluorescence, reviewed here. The guide's main focus is on steady state fluorometry, for which available standards and instrument characterization procedures are discussed along with their purpose, suitability, and general instructions for use. These include the most relevant instrument properties needing qualification, such as linearity and spectral responsivity of the detection system, spectral irradiance reaching the sample, wavelength accuracy, sensitivity or limit of detection for an analyte, and day-to-day performance verification. With proper consideration of method-inherent requirements and limitations, many of these procedures and standards can be adapted to other fluorescence techniques. In addition, procedures for the determination of other relevant fluorometric quantities including fluorescence quantum yields and fluorescence lifetimes are briefly introduced. The guide is a clear and concise reference geared for users of fluorescence instrumentation at all levels of experience and is intended to aid in the ongoing standardization of fluorescence measurements.

  15. Lifetimes of charm and beauty hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellini, G.; Dornan, P.J.

    1997-01-01

    Major breakthroughs have been achieved in the determination of the lifetimes of charm and beauty hadrons. Much larger data samples than previously have become available and new experimental devices and techniques have been developed and employed. The lifetimes of all weakly decaying singly charmed hadrons have been measured, some with an accuracy of a few percent. The difference in the shortest lifetime - τ(Ω c ) - and the longest one - τ(D + ) - is given by a factor of close to ten. The experimental status of beauty lifetimes, while less complete, has still reached a new level of quality and is now better than 5% for the commoner states. New theoretical tools, based mainly on heavy quark expansions, have been developed; they incorporate as well as transcend earlier phenomenological descriptions. The observed pattern in the charm lifetime ratios is reproduced in a semi-quantitative manner as well as could be expected; as far as the beauty lifetime ratios are concerned some problems may well be emerging. The maturity level achieved in the measurements bodes quite well for future challenges where reliable and efficient tracking of the decay vertices will be crucial. (orig.)

  16. Theoretical and experimental investigation of atomic radiative lifetimes and hyperfine structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joensson, Per.

    1992-01-01

    Atomic radiative lifetimes and hyperfine structures as well as other properties, such as total energy and specific mass shift, have been studied theoretically and experimentally. Computer programs to calculate hyperfine structure constants from non-relativistic multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock (MCHF) and relativistic multi-configuration Dirac-Fock (MCDF) wavefunctions have been written. Using these programs large-scale calculations of hyperfine structures in lithium and sodium have been performed. It is shown, that the MCHF method is able to predict hyperfine structures to an accuracy of a few per mille in lithium, whereas for the more complex hyperfine structures to an accuracy of a few per mille in lithium, whereas for the more complex sodium atom an accuracy of a few per cent is obtainable. For lithium convergence of the total energy, ionization energy, specific mass shift and hyperfine parameters has been studied with the MCHF method. Radiative lifetimes and hyperfine structures of excited states in sodium and silver have been experimentally determined using time-resolved laser spectroscopy. By recording the fluorescence light decay curves following VUV excitation, the radiative lifetimes and hyperfine structures of the 7p 2 P states in silver were measured. The delayed-coincidence technique has been used to make very accurate measurements of the radiative lifetimes and hyperfine structures of the lowest P states in sodium and silver

  17. A chromenoquinoline-based fluorescent off-on thiol probe for bioimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kand, Dnyaneshwar; Kalle, Arunasree Marasanapalli; Varma, Sreejith Jayasree; Talukdar, Pinaki

    2012-03-11

    A new chromenoquinoline-based fluorescent off-on thiol probe 2 is reported. In aqueous buffer solutions at physiological pH, the probe exhibited 223-fold enhancement in fluorescence intensity by a Michael addition of cysteine to the maleimide appended to a chromenoquinoline. Cell permeability and live cell imaging of thiols are also demonstrated. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  18. An aptamer-based fluorescence bio-sensor for chiral recognition of arginine enantiomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Haiyan; Huang, Yunmei; Yang, Jidong; Guo, Yuan; Zeng, Xiaoqing; Zhou, Shang; Cheng, Jiawei; Zhang, Yuhui

    2018-07-05

    In this study, a novel aptamer - based fluorescence bio-sensor (aptamer-AuNps) was developed for chiral recognition of arginine (Arg) enantiomers based on aptamer and gold nanoparticles (AuNps). Carboxyfluorescein (FAM) labeled aptamers (Apt) were absorbed on AuNps and their fluorescence intensity could be significantly quenched by AuNps based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). Once d-Arg or l-Arg were added into the above solution, the aptamer specifically bind to Arg enantiomers and released from AuNps, so the fluorescence intensity of d-Arg system and l-Arg system were all enhanced. The affinity of Apt to l-Arg is tighter to d-Arg, so the enhanced fluorescence signals of l-Arg system was stronger than d-Arg system. What's more, the enhanced fluorescence were directly proportional to the concentration of d-Arg and l-Arg ranging from 0-300 nM and 0-400 nM with related coefficients of 0.9939 and 0.9952, respectively. Furthermore, the method was successfully applied to detection l-Arg in human urine samples with satisfactory results. Eventually, a simple "OR" logic gate with d-Arg &l-Arg as inputs and AuNps aggregation state as outputs was fabricated, which can help us understand the chiral recognition process deeply. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Single-label kinase and phosphatase assays for tyrosine phosphorylation using nanosecond time-resolved fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Harekrushna; Hennig, Andreas; Florea, Mara; Roth, Doris; Enderle, Thilo; Nau, Werner M

    2007-12-26

    The collision-induced fluorescence quenching of a 2,3-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-ene-labeled asparagine (Dbo) by hydrogen atom abstraction from the tyrosine residue in peptide substrates was introduced as a single-labeling strategy to assay the activity of tyrosine kinases and phosphatases. The assays were tested for 12 different combinations of Dbo-labeled substrates and with the enzymes p60c-Src Src kinase, EGFR kinase, YOP protein tyrosine phosphatase, as well as acid and alkaline phosphatases, thereby demonstrating a broad application potential. The steady-state fluorescence changed by a factor of up to 7 in the course of the enzymatic reaction, which allowed for a sufficient sensitivity of continuous monitoring in steady-state experiments. The fluorescence lifetimes (and intensities) were found to be rather constant for the phosphotyrosine peptides (ca. 300 ns in aerated water), while those of the unphosphorylated peptides were as short as 40 ns (at pH 7) and 7 ns (at pH 13) as a result of intramolecular quenching. Owing to the exceptionally long fluorescence lifetime of Dbo, the assays were alternatively performed by using nanosecond time-resolved fluorescence (Nano-TRF) detection, which leads to an improved discrimination of background fluorescence and an increased sensitivity. The potential for inhibitor screening was demonstrated through the inhibition of acid and alkaline phosphatases by molybdate.

  20. Homogeneous non-competitive bioaffinity assay based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokko, Tiina; Kokko, Leena; Soukka, Tero; Loevgren, Timo

    2007-01-01

    A homogeneous non-competitive assay principle for measurement of small analytes based on quenching of fluorescence is described. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) occurs between the donor, intrinsically fluorescent europium(III)-chelate conjugated to streptavidin, and the acceptor, quencher dye conjugated to biotin derivative when the biotin-quencher is bound to Eu-streptavidin. Fluorescence can be measured only from those streptavidins that are bound to biotin of the sample, while the fluorescence of the streptavidins that are not occupied by biotin are quenched by quencher-biotin conjugates. The quenching efficiencies of the non-fluorescent quencher dyes were over 95% and one dye molecule was able to quench the fluorescence of more than one europium(III)-chelate. This, however, together with the quadrovalent nature of streptavidin limited the measurable range of the assay to 0.2-2 nmol L -1 . In this study we demonstrated that FRET could be used to design a non-competitive homogeneous assay for a small analyte resulting in equal performance with competitive heterogeneous assay

  1. Liquid Core ARROW Waveguides: A Promising Photonic Structure for Integrated Optofluidic Microsensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genni Testa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce a liquid core antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide (ARROW as a novel optofluidic device that can be used to create innovative and highly functional microsensors. Liquid core ARROWs, with their dual ability to guide the light and the fluids in the same microchannel, have shown great potential as an optofluidic tool for quantitative spectroscopic analysis. ARROWs feature a planar architecture and, hence, are particularly attractive for chip scale integrated system. Step by step, several improvements have been made in recent years towards the implementation of these waveguides in a complete on-chip system for highly-sensitive detection down to the single molecule level. We review applications of liquid ARROWs for fluids sensing and discuss recent results and trends in the developments and applications of liquid ARROW in biomedical and biochemical research. The results outlined show that the strong light matter interaction occurring in the optofluidic channel of an ARROW and the versatility offered by the fabrication methods makes these waveguides a very promising building block for optofluidic sensor development.

  2. Determination of solvents permeating through chemical protective clothing with a microsensor array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J; Zellers, E T

    2000-08-01

    The performance of a novel prototype instrument in determining solvents and solvent mixtures permeating through samples of chemical protective clothing (CPC) materials was evaluated. The instrument contains a mini-preconcentrator and an array of three polymer-coated surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) microsensors whose collective response patterns are used to discriminate among multiple permeants. Permeation tests were performed with a 2.54 cm diameter test cell in an open-loop configuration on samples of common glove materials challenged with four individual solvents, three binary mixtures, and two ternary mixtures. Breakthrough times, defined as the times required for the permeation rate to reach a value of 1 microg cm(-2) min(-1), determined by the instrument were within 3 min of those determined in parallel by manual sampling and gas chromatographic analysis. Permeating solvents were recognized (identified) from their response patterns in 59 out of 64 measurements (92%) and their vapor concentrations were quantified to an accuracy of +/- 31% (typically +/- 10%). These results demonstrate the potential for such instrumentation to provide semi-automated field or bench-top screening of CPC permeation resistance.

  3. A fluorescence detection of D-penicillamine based on Cu(2+)-induced fluorescence quenching system of protein-stabilized gold nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Li, Bang Lin; Li, Nian Bing; Luo, Hong Qun

    2015-01-25

    In this contribution, a luminescent gold nanoclusters which were synthesized by bovine serum albumin as novel fluorescent probes were successfully utilized for the determination of D-penicillamine for the first time. Cupric ion was employed to quench the strong fluorescence of the gold nanoclusters, whereas the addition of D-penicillamine caused obvious restoration of fluorescence intensity of the Cu(2+)-gold nanoclusters system. Under optimum conditions, the increment in fluorescence intensity of Cu(2+)-gold nanoclusters system caused by D-penicillamine was linearly proportional to the concentration of D-penicillamine in the range of 2.0×10(-5)-2.39×10(-4) M. The detection limit for D-penicillamine was 5.4×10(-6) M. With the off-on fluorescence signal at 650 nm approaching the near-infrared region, the present sensor for D-penicillamine detection had high sensitivity and low spectral interference. Furthermore, the novel gold nanoclusters-based fluorescent sensor has been applied to the determination of D-penicillamine in real biological samples with satisfactory results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Fluorescent properties of novel dendrimer dyes based on thiazole orange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fei Xuening; Gu Yingchun; Lan Yunquan; Shi Bin

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers with active amino group of some generations (G=0.5-2) were prepared from commercial aminoacetaldehyde diethyl acetal by the divergent method. After that, thiazole orange (TO) with -COOH was incorporated with dendrimers of G=1 and 2 to afford novel dendrimer-TO dyes. The fluorescent properties studies showed that the fluorescent intensity of the same concentration of dendrimer-TO (G=2) was higher than that of the dendrimer-TO (G=1), and both of them were much stronger than free TO with -COOH. There was a fluorescent enhancement of the dendrimer dyes compared with free dye. The dendrimer dyes were of well-defined chemical structure,with little aggregation and self-quenching as well as good fluorescence properties of good stability, high intensity and sensitivity, which could be used in labeling cancer cells and further in diagnosis and detection of early-stage tumors. - Highlights: → A kind of dendrimer probe based on TO was designed and synthesized. → Dendrimers showed an obvious fluorescence enhancement compared to free dye. → Dendrimers labeled with BSA also showed fluorescence enhancement. → Dendrimers may be used in diagnosis and detection of early-stage tumors.

  5. Lifetime measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossan, D.B.; Warburton, E.K.

    1974-01-01

    Lifetime measurements are discussed, concentrating on the electronic technique, the recoil distance method (RDM), and the Doppler shift attenuation method (DSAM). A brief review of several indirect timing techniques is given, and their specific advantages and applicability are considered. The relationship between lifetimes of nuclear states and the nuclear structure information obtained from them is examined. A short discussion of channeling and microwave methods of lifetime measurement is presented. (23 figures, 171 references) (U.S.)

  6. Simulation and application of micro X-ray fluorescence based on an ellipsoidal capillary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jing; Li, Yude; Wang, Xingyi; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Lin, Xiaoyan, E-mail: yangjing_928@126.com

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • A micro X-ray fluorescence setup based on an ellipsoidal capillary was presented. • The optimal parameters of ellipsoidal capillary were designed. • The 2D mapping image of biological sample was obtained. - Abstract: A micro X-ray fluorescence setup was presented, based on an ellipsoidal capillary and a traditional laboratorial X-ray source. Using Ray-tracing principle, we have simulated the transmission path of X-ray beam in the ellipsoidal capillary and designed the optimal parameters of the ellipsoidal capillary for the micro X-ray fluorescence setup. We demonstrate that ellipsoidal capillary is well suited as condenser for the micro X-ray fluorescence based on traditional laboratorial X-ray source. Furthermore, we obtain the 2D mapping image of the leaf blade sample by using the ellipsoidal capillary we designed.

  7. Imaging Amyloid Tissues Stained with Luminescent Conjugated Oligothiophenes by Hyperspectral Confocal Microscopy and Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, Sofie; Bäck, Marcus; Nilsson, K Peter R; Hammarström, Per

    2017-10-20

    Proteins that deposit as amyloid in tissues throughout the body can be the cause or consequence of a large number of diseases. Among these we find neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease afflicting primarily the central nervous system, and systemic amyloidosis where serum amyloid A, transthyretin and IgG light chains deposit as amyloid in liver, carpal tunnel, spleen, kidney, heart, and other peripheral tissues. Amyloid has been known and studied for more than a century, often using amyloid specific dyes such as Congo red and Thioflavin T (ThT) or Thioflavin (ThS). In this paper, we present heptamer-formyl thiophene acetic acid (hFTAA) as an example of recently developed complements to these dyes called luminescent conjugated oligothiophenes (LCOs). hFTAA is easy to use and is compatible with co-staining in immunofluorescence or with other cellular markers. Extensive research has proven that hFTAA detects a wider range of disease associated protein aggregates than conventional amyloid dyes. In addition, hFTAA can also be applied for optical assignment of distinct aggregated morphotypes to allow studies of amyloid fibril polymorphism. While the imaging methodology applied is optional, we here demonstrate hyperspectral imaging (HIS), laser scanning confocal microscopy and fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM). These examples show some of the imaging techniques where LCOs can be used as tools to gain more detailed knowledge of the formation and structural properties of amyloids. An important limitation to the technique is, as for all conventional optical microscopy techniques, the requirement for microscopic size of aggregates to allow detection. Furthermore, the aggregate should comprise a repetitive β-sheet structure to allow for hFTAA binding. Excessive fixation and/or epitope exposure that modify the aggregate structure or conformation can render poor hFTAA binding and hence pose limitations to accurate imaging.

  8. Mobility-lifetime product in epitaxial GaAs X-ray detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, G.C. [GESEC R and D, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Bat.11, 140 rue de Lourmel, 75015 Paris (France)]. E-mail: guocsun@ccr.jussieu.fr; Zazoui, M. [LPMC, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques-Mohammedia, B.P. 146 Bd Hassan II, Mohammedia, Maroc (Morocco); Talbi, N. [Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Gabes, Route de Medenine, 6029 Gabes (Tunisia); Khirouni, K. [Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Gabes, Route de Medenine, 6029 Gabes (Tunisia); Bourgoin, J.C. [GESEC R and D, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Bat.11, 140 rue de Lourmel, 75015 Paris (France)

    2007-04-01

    Self-supported thick (200-500 {mu}m), non-intentionally doped, epitaxial GaAs layers are good candidates for X-ray imaging for the following reasons. Their electronic properties are homogeneous over large areas, they can be grown at low cost, the technology to realize pixel detectors of various size is standard, the defect concentration is low and the fluorescence yield is small. Here, we characterize the defects present in the material and evaluate the mobility-lifetime product, using Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy combined with current-voltage and charge collection measurements.

  9. Interpretation of measurements of dynamic fluorescence of the eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, Dietrich; Hammer, Martin; Jentsch, Susanne; Schenke, Stefan

    2007-09-01

    First pathological alterations occur at cellular level, most in metabolism. An indirect estimation of metabolic activity in cells is measurement of microcirculation. Measurements of tissue autofluorescence are potentially suited for direct investigation of cellular metabolism. Besides redox pairs of co-enzymes (NADH-NAD, FADH2-FAD) several other fluorophores are excited in tissue. In addition, a number of anatomical structures are simultaneously excited, when investigating the eye-ground. In this study, spectral and time resolved comparison was performed between purified substances, single ocular structures and in vivo measurements of the time-resolved autofluorescence at the human eye. In human eyes, the ageing pigment lipofuscin covers other fluorophores at the fundus in long - wave visible range. Applying lifetime measurements, weakly emitting fluorophores can be detected, when the lifetimes are different from the strongly emitting fluorophore. For this, the autofluorescence was excited at 468 nm and detected in two spectral ranges (500 nm-560 nm, 560 nm-700 nm). In tri-exponential fitting, the short lifetime corresponds to retinal pigment epithelium, the mean lifetime corresponds probably to neural retina and the long lifetime is caused by fluorescence of connective tissue.

  10. Radiative-lifetime measurements and calculations of odd-parity highly excited levels in Ba i

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wei; Du Shan; Palmeri, Patrick; Quinet, Pascal; Biemont, Emile; Dai Zhenwen

    2010-01-01

    Natural radiative lifetime measurements have been performed for 70 odd-parity highly excited levels of neutral barium in the energy range from 308 15.512 to 417 59.93 cm -1 by a time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence technique in a laser-produced plasma. The lifetime values measured in this paper are in the range from 11.3 to 901 ns. They are compared with the published lifetimes of four levels. Two of them are in good agreement, whereas for the other two our measurements are slightly longer than the published data. The reasons for the discrepancies are discussed. Comparisons with theoretical results of the Hartree-Fock method with relativistic corrections illustrate the difficulties associated with the use of Cowan's codes for obtaining accurate branching fractions for transitions depopulating highly excited levels along the Rydberg series of heavy neutral elements. This work will be useful to extend the set of oscillator strengths available in Ba i.

  11. Pancreatic tumor detection using hypericin-based fluorescence spectroscopy and cytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavu, Harish; Geary, Kevin; Fetterman, Harold R.; Saxton, Romaine E.

    2005-04-01

    Hypericin is a novel, highly fluorescent photosensitizer that exhibits selective tumor cell uptake properties and is particularly resistant to photobleaching. In this study, we have characterized hypericin uptake in human pancreatic tumor cells with relation to incubation time, cell number, and drug concentration. Ex vivo hypericin based fluorescence spectroscopy was performed to detect the presence of MIA PaCa-2 pancreatic tumor cells in the peritoneal cavity of BALB/c nude mice, as well as to quantify gross tumor burden. Hypericin based cytology of peritoneal lavage samples, using both one and two photon laser confocal microscopy, demonstrated more than a two-fold increase in fluorescence emission of pancreatic tumor cells as compared to control samples. In vitro treatment of pancreatic cancer cells with hypericin based photodynamic therapy showed tumor cell cytotoxicity in a drug dose, incident laser power, and time dependent manner. For these experiments, a continuous wavelength solid-state laser source (532 nm) was operated at power levels in the range of 100-400 mW. Potential applications of hypericin in tumor diagnosis, staging, and therapy will be presented.

  12. Molecularly imprinted fluorescent probe based on FRET for selective and sensitive detection of doxorubicin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhifeng, E-mail: 897061147@qq.com [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Hengyang Normal University, Key Laboratory of Functional Organometallic Materials of Hunan Province University, Hengyang 421008 (China); Deng, Peihong; Li, Junhua [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Hengyang Normal University, Key Laboratory of Functional Organometallic Materials of Hunan Province University, Hengyang 421008 (China); Xu, Li [Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Materials and Energy, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Tang, Siping [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Hengyang Normal University, Key Laboratory of Functional Organometallic Materials of Hunan Province University, Hengyang 421008 (China)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • FRET-based molecularly imprinted probe for detection of doxorubicin was prepared. • The detection limit of the probe was 13.8 nM for doxorubicin. • The FRET-based probe had a higher selectivity for the template than ordinary MIMs. - Abstract: In this work, a new type of fluorescent probe for detection of doxorubicin has been constructed by the combined use of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) technology and molecular imprinting technique (MIT). Using doxorubicin as the template, the molecularly imprinted polymer thin layer was fabricated on the surfaces of carbon dot (CD) modified silica by sol-gel polymerization. The excitation energy of the fluorescent donor (CDs) could be transferred to the fluorescent acceptor (doxorubicin). The FRET based fluorescent probe demonstrated high sensitivity and selectivity for doxorubicin. The detection limit was 13.8 nM. The fluorescent probe was successfully applied for detecting doxorubicin in doxorubicin-spiked plasmas with a recovery of 96.8–103.8%, a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 1.3–2.8%. The strategy for construction of FRET-based molecularly imprinted materials developed in this work is very promising for analytical applications.

  13. Excitation and deexcitation of N2 molecular levels. Induced fluorescence by electrons and laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Fernandez-Mayoralas, A.

    1989-01-01

    The electron impact excitation followed by fluorescence induced by N 2 -laser absorption was used to study the lifetime of the lowest vibrational level of the B 3 π g electronic state of N 2 . The experimental result of this work is 13 + 1 μs. To measure the lifetime of B 3 π g (v=2,3,5,6,7,8) levels the delayed coincidence method by electron impact was use. The lifetime values were compared with recent experimental and theoretical results. The relative intensi-ties of 3 π g --- A 3 Σ Ω + system bands, in the range (6540-10500 A o ) was measured using a hollow cathode lamp as spectral source. The relative transition moments and its dependence versus the r-centroid was obtained. Total cross sections for electron scattering by N molecules in the range 600 - 5000 eV have been obtained from measurements of the attenuation of a linear electron beam. The results have been compared with available experimental cross sections and with theoretical calculations based on the first Born approximation. (Author)

  14. Changes of fluorescent spectral features after successive rare earth doping of gadolinium oxide powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznik, W. [Chemical Department, Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice (Poland); Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia 142, Tartu 51014 (Estonia); Brik, M.G. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia 142, Tartu 51014 (Estonia); Cieslik, I.; Majchrowski, A.; Jaroszewicz, L. [Institute of Applied Physics, Military University of Technology, Kaliskiego 2, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); AlZayed, N.S. [Physics and Astronomy Dept., College of Science, P.O. Box 2455, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); El-Naggar, A.M. [Physics and Astronomy Dept., College of Science, P.O. Box 2455, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Permanent address: Physics department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Abassia, Cairo 11566 (Egypt); Sildos, I.; Lange, S.; Kiisk, V. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia 142, Tartu 51014 (Estonia); Kityk, I.V., E-mail: ikityk@el.pcz.czest.pl [Electrical Engineering Department, Czestochowa University of Technology, Armii Krajowej 17, Czestochowa (Poland); Physics and Astronomy Dept., College of Science, P.O. Box 2455, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: > Principally new phosphors based on rare earth moped Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} are obtained. > The time-resolved fluorescent spectra show drastic changes with the doping. > Temperature measurements were done. - Abstract: We present a complex fluorescence study of a series of gadolinium oxide polycrystalline powders singly, doubly and triply doped with trivalent rare earth ions (Er{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+}, and Dy{sup 3+}), to explore a possibility of their use as materials for white light emitting diodes. The excitation and luminescence spectra along with the decay kinetics were measured in the temperature range from 6 to 300 K. The luminescence efficiency was studied within the visible spectral range, i.e. -400 nm to 750 nm under excitation by 355 nm third harmonic Nd:YAG laser pulses. Singly doped Er{sup 3+} sample gave stronger luminescence signals, but others showed significantly larger decay lifetimes. The successive rare earths doping leads to substantial changes of the spectral positions due to the up-conversion processes. In the singly (Er{sup 3+}) doped sample, following the time resolved spectrum and decay curves, there are two different types of emissions: at 660 nm and at shorter wavelengths (below 640 nm) the red emission's lifetime is ten times longer than at shorter wavelengths. The singly doped sample shows unclear temperature-dependence of luminescence with lifetime at 550 nm (the longest at 100 K, similarly at 6 K and 300 K) and achieved luminous efficacy 73.5 lm/W.

  15. Label free selective detection of estriol using graphene oxide-based fluorescence sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushwaha, H. S.; Sao, Reshma; Vaish, Rahul

    2014-07-01

    Water-soluble and fluorescent Graphene oxide (GO) is biocompatible, easy, and economical to synthesize. Interestingly, GO is also capable of quenching fluorescence. On the basis of its fluorescence and quenching abilities, GO has been reported to serve as an energy acceptor in a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) sensor. GO-based FRET biosensors have been widely reported for sensing of proteins, nucleic acid, ATP (Adenosine triphosphate), etc. GO complexes with fluorescent dyes and enzymes have been used to sense metal ions. Graphene derivatives have been used for sensing endocrine-disrupting chemicals like bisphenols and chlorophenols with high sensitivity and good reproducibility. On this basis, a novel GO based fluorescent sensor has been successfully designed to detect estriol with remarkable selectivity and sensitivity. Estriol is one of the three estrogens in women and is considered to be medically important. Estriol content of maternal urine or plasma acts as an important screening marker for estimating foetal growth and development. In addition, estriol is also used as diagnostic marker for diseases like breast cancer, osteoporosis, neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases, insulin resistance, lupus erythematosus, endometriosis, etc. In this present study, we report for the first time a rapid, sensitive with detection limit of 1.3 nM, selective and highly biocompatible method for label free detection of estriol under physiological conditions using fluorescence assay.

  16. Strategies of molecular imprinting-based fluorescence sensors for chemical and biological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qian; Li, Jinhua; Wang, Xiaoyan; Peng, Hailong; Xiong, Hua; Chen, Lingxin

    2018-07-30

    One pressing concern today is to construct sensors that can withstand various disturbances for highly selective and sensitive detecting trace analytes in complicated samples. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) with tailor-made binding sites are preferred to be recognition elements in sensors for effective targets detection, and fluorescence measurement assists in highly sensitive detection and user-friendly control. Accordingly, molecular imprinting-based fluorescence sensors (MI-FL sensors) have attracted great research interest in many fields such as chemical and biological analysis. Herein, we comprehensively review the recent advances in MI-FL sensors construction and applications, giving insights on sensing principles and signal transduction mechanisms, focusing on general construction strategies for intrinsically fluorescent or nonfluorescent analytes and improvement strategies in sensing performance, particularly in sensitivity. Construction strategies are well overviewed, mainly including the traditional indirect methods of competitive binding against pre-bound fluorescent indicators, employment of fluorescent functional monomers and embedding of fluorescence substances, and novel rational designs of hierarchical architecture (core-shell/hollow and mesoporous structures), post-imprinting modification, and ratiometric fluorescence detection. Furthermore, MI-FL sensor based microdevices are discussed, involving micromotors, test strips and microfluidics, which are more portable for rapid point-of-care detection and in-field diagnosing. Finally, the current challenges and future perspectives of MI-FL sensors are proposed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. TR-LIF LIFETIME MEASUREMENTS AND HFR+CPOL CALCULATIONS OF RADIATIVE PARAMETERS IN VANADIUM ATOM (V I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Q.; Jiang, L. Y.; Shang, X.; Tian, Y. S.; Dai, Z. W.; Quinet, P.; Palmeri, P.; Zhang, W.

    2014-01-01

    Radiative lifetimes of 79 levels belonging to the 3d 3 4s4p, 3d 4 4p, 3d 3 4s5p, 3d 4 5p, and 3d 3 4s4d configurations of V I with energy from 26,604.807 to 46,862.786 cm –1 have been measured using time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence (TR-LIF) spectroscopy in laser-produced plasma. The lifetime values reported in this paper are in the range of 3.3-494 ns, and the uncertainties of these measurements are within ±10%. A good agreement was obtained with previous data. HFR+CPOL calculations have been performed and used to combine the calculated branching fractions with the available experimental lifetimes to determine semi-empirical transition probabilities for 784 V I transitions

  18. Lifetime value in business process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Souček

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on lifetime value assessment and its implementation and application in business processes. The lifetime value is closely connected to customer relationship management. The paper presents results of three consecutive researches devoted to issues of customer relationship management. The first two from 2008 and 2010 were conducted as quantitative ones; the one from 2009 had qualitative nature. The respondents were representatives of particular companies. The means for data collection was provided by ReLa system. We will focus on individual attributes of lifetime value of a customer, and relate them to approaches of authors mentioned in introduction. Based on the qualitative research data, the paper focuses on individual customer lifetime value parameters. These parameters include: the cost to the customer relationship acquisition and maintenance, profit generated from a particular customer, customer awareness value, the level of preparedness to adopt new products, the value of references and customer loyalty level. For each of these parameters, the paper provides specific recommendations. Moreover, it is possible to learn about the nature of these parameter assessments in the Czech environment.

  19. Graphene oxide based photoinduced charge transfer label-free near-infrared fluorescent biosensor for dopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jin-Long; Yan, Xiu-Ping; Meng, Kang; Wang, Shu-Feng

    2011-11-15

    While the super fluorescence quenching capacity of graphene and graphene oxide (GO) has been extensively employed to develop fluorescent sensors, their own unique fluorescence and its potential for chemo-/biosensing have seldom been explored. Here we report a GO-based photoinduced charge transfer (PCT) label-free near-infrared (near-IR) fluorescent biosensor for dopamine (DA). The multiple noncovalent interactions between GO and DA and the ultrafast decay at the picosecond range of the near-IR fluorescence of GO resulted in effective self-assembly of DA molecules on the surface of GO, and significant fluorescence quenching, allowing development of a PCT-based biosensor with direct readout of the near-IR fluorescence of GO for selective and sensitive detection of DA. The developed method gave a detection limit of 94 nM and a relative standard deviation of 2.0% for 11 replicate detections of 2.0 μM DA and was successfully applied to the determination of DA in biological fluids with quantitative recovery (98-115%).

  20. Fluorescence properties of novel near-infrared phosphor CaSc{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Ce{sup 3+}, Nd{sup 3+}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, J.X., E-mail: tmjx@jnu.edu.c [Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Institute of Nanochemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Zhang, F.J.; Peng, W.F.; Wan, W.J.; Xiao, Q.L.; Chen, Q.Q.; Cao, L.W. [Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Wang, Z.L. [School of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Yunnan Nationalities University, Kunming 650031 (China)

    2010-10-15

    Research highlights: Novel near-infrared (NIR) phosphor, CaSc{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Ce{sup 3+}, Nd{sup 3+}, was synthesized. The phosphor gives strong Nd{sup 3+} characteristic NIR emissions in the range of 880-930 nm. The NIR emission intensity gets a 200 times enhancement benefited from the efficient energy transfer from a co-doped Ce{sup 3+}. The energy transfer mechanism was also briefly based on detailed investigation on spectrum and fluorescence lifetime. - Abstract: Novel near-infrared (NIR) phosphor, CaSc{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Ce{sup 3+}, Nd{sup 3+}, was synthesized by co-precipitation method followed by firing at 1300 {sup o}C in reduced atmosphere. When irradiated with blue light, the phosphor gives strong Nd{sup 3+} characteristic NIR emissions in the range of 880-930 nm. The NIR emission intensity gets a 200 times enhancement by co-doping of Ce{sup 3+}. Detailed investigation on spectrum and fluorescence lifetimes indicated the NIR luminescence enhancement is obtained from an energy transfer process. The process initiates with efficient absorption of blue light by Ce{sup 3+} ions via an allowed 4f-5d transition, follow by efficient energy transfer from Ce{sup 3+} to Nd{sup 3+}, and emitting strong Nd{sup 3+} characteristic fluorescence.

  1. Label-free detection of kanamycin based on a G-quadruplex DNA aptamer-based fluorescent intercalator displacement assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yun-Peng; Liu, Chun; Zhou, Xiao-Hong; Shi, Han-Chang

    2015-01-01

    This work was the first to report that the kanamycin-binding DNA aptamer (5'-TGG GGG TTG AGG CTA AGC CGA-3') can form stable parallel G-quadruplex DNA (G4-DNA) structures by themselves and that this phenomenon can be verified by nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and circular dichroism spectroscopy. Based on these findings, we developed a novel label-free strategy for kanamycin detection based on the G4-DNA aptamer-based fluorescent intercalator displacement assay with thiazole orange (TO) as the fluorescence probe. In the proposed strategy, TO became strongly fluorescent upon binding to kanamycin-binding G4-DNA. However, the addition of kanamycin caused the displacement of TO from the G4-DNA-TO conjugate, thereby resulting in decreased fluorescent signal, which was inversely related to the kanamycin concentration. The detection limit of the proposed assay decreased to 59 nM with a linear working range of 0.1 μM to 20 μM for kanamycin. The cross-reactivity against six other antibiotics was negligible compared with the response to kanamycin. A satisfactory recovery of kanamycin in milk samples ranged from 80.1% to 98.0%, confirming the potential of this bioassay in the measurement of kanamycin in various applications. Our results also served as a good reference for developing similar fluorescent G4-DNA-based bioassays in the future.

  2. Reactor pressure vessel embrittlement of NPP borssele: Design lifetime and lifetime extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blom, F.J.

    2007-01-01

    Embrittlement of the reactor pressure vessel of the Borssele nuclear power plant has been investigated taking account of the design lifetime of 40 years and considering 20 years subsequent lifetime extension. The paper presents the current licensing status based on considerations of material test data and of US nuclear regulatory standards. Embrittlement status is also evaluated against German and French nuclear safety standards. Results from previous fracture toughness and Charpy tests are investigated by means of the Master curve toughness transition approach. Finally, state of the art insights are investigated by means of literature research. Regarding the embrittlement status of the reactor pressure vessel of Borssele nuclear power plant it is concluded that there is a profound basis for the current license up to the original end of the design life in 2013. The embrittlement temperature changes only slightly with respect to the acceptance criterion adopted postulating further operation up to 2033. Continued safe operation and further lifetime extension are therefore not restricted by reactor pressure vessel embrittlement

  3. Fluorescent nanohybrids based on asymmetrical cyanine dyes decorated carbon nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Çavuşlar, Özge; Cavuslar, Ozge

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, we focused on imparting new optical properties to carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to allow their optical detection and visualization in biomedical applications. We investigated the interactions of CNTs and DNA wrapped CNTs with asymmetrical cyanine dye molecules to study the applicability of resulting hybrid materials to fluorescent based systems. When CNTs interacted with asymmetrical cyanine dyes, they constructed a light absorbing nanoarray. However, the fluorescence emission of th...

  4. Profit-Based Model Selection for Customer Retention Using Individual Customer Lifetime Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Óskarsdóttir, María; Baesens, Bart; Vanthienen, Jan

    2018-03-01

    The goal of customer retention campaigns, by design, is to add value and enhance the operational efficiency of businesses. For organizations that strive to retain their customers in saturated, and sometimes fast moving, markets such as the telecommunication and banking industries, implementing customer churn prediction models that perform well and in accordance with the business goals is vital. The expected maximum profit (EMP) measure is tailored toward this problem by taking into account the costs and benefits of a retention campaign and estimating its worth for the organization. Unfortunately, the measure assumes fixed and equal customer lifetime value (CLV) for all customers, which has been shown to not correspond well with reality. In this article, we extend the EMP measure to take into account the variability in the lifetime values of customers, thereby basing it on individual characteristics. We demonstrate how to incorporate the heterogeneity of CLVs when CLVs are known, when their prior distribution is known, and when neither is known. By taking into account individual CLVs, our proposed approach of measuring model performance gives novel insights when deciding on a customer retention campaign. The method is dependent on the characteristics of the customer base as is compliant with modern business analytics and accommodates the data-driven culture that has manifested itself within organizations.

  5. LIFETIME LUNG CANCER RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH INDOOR RADON EXPOSURE BASED ON VARIOUS RADON RISK MODELS FOR CANADIAN POPULATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing

    2017-04-01

    This study calculates and compares the lifetime lung cancer risks associated with indoor radon exposure based on well-known risk models in the literature; two risk models are from joint studies among miners and the other three models were developed from pooling studies on residential radon exposure from China, Europe and North America respectively. The aim of this article is to make clear that the various models are mathematical descriptions of epidemiologically observed real risks in different environmental settings. The risk from exposure to indoor radon is real and it is normal that variations could exist among different risk models even when they were applied to the same dataset. The results show that lifetime risk estimates vary significantly between the various risk models considered here: the model based on the European residential data provides the lowest risk estimates, while models based on the European miners and Chinese residential pooling with complete dosimetry give the highest values. The lifetime risk estimates based on the EPA/BEIR-VI model lie within this range and agree reasonably well with the averages of risk estimates from the five risk models considered in this study. © Crown copyright 2016.

  6. Lifetime measurements in Crsub(I) by laser excitation from the metastable states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiatkowski, M.; Micali, G.; Werner, K.; Zimmermann, P.

    1981-01-01

    A combination of collisional and laser excitation was used to measure radiative lifetimes in Cr I. By a discharge an atomic beam of metastable atoms in the 3d 5 4sa 5 S, a 5 G, b 5 D, a 3 I, b 1 I and 3d 4 4s 2 a 5 D terms was produced. Spatially separated from the place of collisional excitation laser radiation selectively populated levels belonging to the 3d 5 4p z 5 P, y 5 P, u 5 F, u 5 D, x 3 I, y 1 I, 3d 5 5pz 5 G and 3d 4 4s4px 5 G terms. Time-resolved observation of the reemitted resonance fluorescence yielded the lifetimes of 28 levels. The values are compared with other experimental and theoretical results. (orig.)

  7. Cyclic plasticity and lifetime of the nickel-based Alloy C-263: Experiments, models and component simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maier G.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the thermomechanical fatigue and low-cycle fatigue behavior of C-263 in two different material conditions. Microstructural characteristics and fracture modes are investigated with light and electron microscopy. The experimental results indicate that viscoplastic deformations depend on the heat treatment or rather on the current state of the microstructure. The measured data are used to adjust the parameters of a Chaboche type model and a fracture-mechanics based model for fatigue lifetime prediction. The Chaboche model is able to describe the essential phenomena of time and temperature dependent cyclic plasticity including the complex cyclic hardening during thermo-cyclic loading of both material conditions with a unique set of material parameters. This could be achieved by including an additional internal variable into the Chaboche model which accounts for changes in the precipitation microstructure during high temperature loading. Furthermore, the proposed lifetime model is well suited for a common fatigue life prediction of both investigated heats. The deformation and lifetime models are implemented into a user defined material routine. In this work, the material routine is applied for the lifetime prediction of a critical power plant component using the finite element method.

  8. Ratiometric fluorescent nanosensor based on carbon dots for the detection of mercury ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yusha; Mei, Jing; Bai, Jianliang; Chen, Xu; Ren, Lili

    2018-05-01

    A novel ratiometric fluorescent nanosensor based on carbon dots has been synthesized via bonding rhodamine B hydrazide to the carbon dots surface by an amide reaction. The ratiometric fluorescent nanosensor showed only a single blue fluorescence emission around 450 nm. While, as mercury ion was added, due to the open-ring of rhodamine moiety bonded on the CDs surface, the orange emission of the open-ring rhodamine would increase obviously according to the concentration of mercury ion, resulting in the distinguishable dual emissions at 450 nm and 575 nm under a single 360 excitation wavelength. Meanwhile, the ratiometric fluorescent nanosensor based on carbon dots we prepared is more sensitive to qualitative and semi-quantitative detection of mercury ion in the range of 0–100 μM, because fluorescence changes gradually from blue to orange emission under 365 nm lamp with the increasing of mercury ion in the tested solution.

  9. Frequency domain fluorescent diffuse tomography of small animals with DsRed2-expressed tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchin, Ilya V.; Savitsky, Alexander P.; Kamensky, Vladislav A.; Plehanov, Vladimir I.; Orlova, Anna G.; Sergeeva, Ekaterina A.; Kleshnin, Mikhail S.; Shirmanova, Marina V.

    2006-02-01

    The main applications of fluorescent proteins (FPs) are monitoring tumor growth, angiogenesis, metastases formation and effects of new classes of drugs. Different types of tomography allow fluorescence imaging of tumors located deep in human or animal tissue. These techniques were used for investigation of the distribution of near-infrared fluorescent probes, but only a few works are devoted to fluorescence tomography in visible light. In this work, preliminary results of the frequency domain fluorescent diffuse tomography (FD FDT) method in application to DsRed2 protein as a fluorescent agent are presented. For the first step of our experiments we utilized second harmonic generation of Nd:YAG laser (532 nm) modulated by low frequency (1 kHz) in the experimental setup. The transilluminative planar configuration was used in the setup. A series of model experiments has been conducted and show good agreement between theoretical and experimental fluorescence intensity. Post mortem experiments with capsules containing DsRed2 and scattering solution introduced into esophagus of rats to simulate tumor formation have been conducted. The results of these experiments show that sensitivity of the setup is sufficient to detect DsRed2 in concentrations similar to those in FP-expressed tumor, but the contrast is not enough high to separate fluorescence of DsRed2 and surrounding tissues. The setup can be significantly improved by utilizing high-frequency modulation (110 MHz using acousto-optical modulator) of the excitation light and precise phase measurements due to difference in fluorescence life-time of FPs and surrounding tissues. An algorithm of processing a fluorescent image based on calculating zero of maximum curvature was employed for detection of fluorescent inclusions boundaries in the image.

  10. Oxidation-induced phase transformations and lifetime limits of chromia-forming nickel-base alloy 625

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chyrkin, Anton

    2011-12-05

    in literature as uphill-diffusion phenomenon. Also the M{sub 6}C carbide is found to dissolve in the subsurface zone during high-temperature oxidation of alloy 625 although chromium is only a minor constituent in this (Ni{sub 3}Mo{sub 3})C base carbide The thermodynamic calculations revealed the carbide dissolution to find its cause in the increasing carbon activity with decreasing chromium content which forced carbon to diffuse back from the subscale zone towards the bulk alloy resulting in carbide dissolution beneath the chromia scale. SPE is experimentally found to be substantially less pronounced in thin foils than in thick specimens of alloy 625. It could be shown that this effect is related to the smaller reservoirs of the scale-forming element chromium as well as that of the δ-Ni{sub 3}Nb phase stabilizing element niobium in the thin specimens. As the thinner specimens (thickness in the range of 0.1 mm) become more rapidly depleted in chromium resulting in flatter chromium depletion profiles, a smaller driving force for uphill-diffusion of Nb towards the scale/alloy interface leads to a substantially less pronounced δ-phase enrichment/depletion than in specimens of a few mm thickness. Decreasing specimen thickness suppresses the enrichment/depletion process of the δ-Ni{sub 3}Nb phase and results in complete dissolution of the M{sub 6}C carbide after longer exposure times. SPE is not observed during oxidation of extremely thin-walled specimens, e.g. extremely thin foils or metal foam particles fabricated from alloy 625. During high-temperature oxidation of metal foams consisting of e.g. 20-60 µm diameter particles, the δ-Ni{sub 3}Nb phase enrichment at the scale/alloy interface does not occur and can thus be virtually ignored when modelling the oxidation-induced lifetime limits of alloy 625 metal foams. The lifetime prediction based on the finite-difference calculation of the chromium depletion at the metal/oxide interface of a spherical metal foam

  11. Silica nanodisks as platforms for fluorescence lifetime-based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400 076, India ... The nanoconjugates are found to sense the pH of the medium, through systematic ..... form pH sensing with a good level of sensitivity, with.

  12. Enzyme entrapment in polyaniline films observed via fluorescence anisotropy and antiquenching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemzer, Louis R.; McCaffrey, Marisa; Epstein, Arthur J.

    2014-05-01

    The facile entrapment of oxidoreductase enzymes within polyaniline polymer films by inducing hydrophobic collapse using phosphate buffered saline (PBS) has been shown to be a cost-effective method for fabricating organic biosensors. Here, we use fluorescence anisotropy measurements to verify enzyme immobilization and subsequent electron donation to the polymer matrix, both prerequisites for an effective biosensor. Specifically, we measure a three order of magnitude decrease in the ratio of the fluorescence to rotational lifetimes. In addition, the observed fluorescence antiquenching supports the previously proposed model that the polymer chain assumes a severely coiled conformation when exposed to PBS. These results help to empirically reinforce the theoretical basis previously laid out for this biosensing platform.

  13. Synchronous fluorescence based biosensor for albumin determination by cooperative binding of fluorescence probe in a supra-biomolecular host-protein assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Digambara

    2010-01-15

    A synchronous fluorescence probe based biosensor for estimation of albumin with high sensitivity and selectivity was developed. Unlike conventional fluorescence emission or excitation spectral measurements, synchronous fluorescence measurement offered exclusively a new synchronous fluorescence peak in the shorter wavelength range upon binding of chrysene with protein making it an easy identification tool for albumin determination. The cooperative binding of a fluorescence probe, chrysene, in a supramolecular host-protein assembly during various albumin assessments was investigated. The presence of supramolecular host molecules such as beta-cyclodextrin, curucurbit[6]uril or curucurbit[7]uril have little influence on sensitivity or limit of detection during albumin determination but reduced dramatically interference from various coexisting metal ion quenchers/enhancers. Using the present method the limit of detection for BSA and gamma-Globulin was found to be 0.005 microM which is more sensitive than reported values. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The role of defects in fluorescent silicon carbide layers grown by sublimation epitaxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schimmel, Saskia; Kaiser, Michl; Jokubavicius, Valdas

    2014-01-01

    Donor-acceptor co-doped SiC is a promising light converter for novel monolithic all-semiconductor white LEDs due to its broad-band donor-acceptor pair luminescence and potentially high internal quantum efficiency. Besides sufficiently high doping concentrations in an appropriate ratio yielding...... short radiative lifetimes, long nonradiative lifetimes are crucial for efficient light conversion. The impact of different types of defects is studied by characterizing fluorescent silicon carbide layers with regard to photoluminescence intensity, homogeneity and efficiency taking into account...

  15. Effects of short term changes in the blood glucose level on the autofluorescence lifetime of the human retina in healthy volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, Matthias; Nagel, Edgar; Schweitzer, Dietrich; Schramm, Stefan; Haueisen, Jens

    2016-03-01

    Purpose: Fluorescence lifetime imaging ophthalmoscopy (FLIO) provides in vivo metabolic mapping of the ocular fundus. Changes in FLIO have been found in e.g. diabetes patients. The influence of short term metabolic changes caused by blood glucose level changes on is unknown. Aim of this work is the detection of short-term changes in fundus autofluorescence lifetime during an oral glucose tolerance test. Methods: FLIO was performed in 10 healthy volunteers (29+/-4 years, fasting for 12h) using a scanning laser ophthalmoscope (30° fundus, 34μm resolution, excitation with 473nm diode laser with 70 ps pulses at 80 MHz repetition rate, detection in two spectral channels 500-560nm (ch1) and 560-720nm (ch2) using the timecorrelated single photon counting method). The blood glucose level (BGL) was measured by an Accu-Chek® Aviva self-monitoring device. Before and after a glucose drink (300ml solution, containing 75g of glucose (Accu-Chek® Dextrose O.G.T.), BGL and FLIO were measured every 15min. The FLIMX software package was applied to compute the average fluorescence lifetime τ on the inner ring of the ETDRS grid using a modified 3-exponential approach. Results: The results are given as mean +/- standard deviation over all volunteers in ch1. Baseline measurement: BGL: 5.3+/-0.4 mmol/l, τ1: 49+/-6ps. A significant reduction (α=5% Wilcoxon rank-sum test) in τ1 is detected after 15min (BGL: 8.4+/-1.1 mmol/l, τ1: 44+/-5ps) and after 90min (BGL: 6.3+/-1.4 mmol/l, τ1: 41+/-5ps). Results of ch2 show smaller reductions in the fluorescence lifetimes over time.

  16. Selective detection of heavy metal ions by calixarene-based fluorescent molecular sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haitao; Faye, Djibril; Zhang, Han; Lefevre, Jean-Pierre; Delaire, J. A.; Leray, Isabelle

    2012-06-01

    The synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and complexing properties of calixarene-based fluorescent sensors are reported. The calixarene bearing four dansyl fluorophores (Calix-DANS4) exhibits a very high affinity for the detection of lead. A fluorimetric micro-device based on the use of a Y-shape microchannel was developed and allows lead detection with a 5 ppb detection limit. For mercury detection, a fluorescent molecular sensor containing a calixarene anchored with four 8-quinolinoloxy groups (Calix-Q) has been synthesized. The absorption and fluorescence spectra of this sensor are sensitive to the presence of metal cations. An efficient fluorescence quenching is observed upon mercury complexation because of a photoinduced electron transfer from the fluorophore to the bound mercury. Calix-Q shows a high selectivity towards Hg2+ over interfering cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+) and a 70 ppb sensitivity.

  17. Hydrogen sulfide deactivates common nitrobenzofurazan-based fluorescent thiol labeling reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Leticia A; Pluth, Michael D

    2014-06-17

    Sulfhydryl-containing compounds, including thiols and hydrogen sulfide (H2S), play important but differential roles in biological structure and function. One major challenge in separating the biological roles of thiols and H2S is developing tools to effectively separate the reactivity of these sulfhydryl-containing compounds. To address this challenge, we report the differential responses of common electrophilic fluorescent thiol labeling reagents, including nitrobenzofurazan-based scaffolds, maleimides, alkylating agents, and electrophilic aldehydes, toward cysteine and H2S. Although H2S reacted with all of the investigated scaffolds, the photophysical response to each scaffold was significantly different. Maleimide-based, alkylating, and aldehydic thiol labeling reagents provided a diminished fluorescence response when treated with H2S. By contrast, nitrobenzofurazan-based labeling reagents were deactivated by H2S addition. Furthermore, the addition of H2S to thiol-activated nitrobenzofurazan-based reagents reduced the fluorescence signal, thus establishing the incompatibility of nitrobenzofurazan-based thiol labeling reagents in the presence of H2S. Taken together, these studies highlight the differential reactivity of thiols and H2S toward common thiol-labeling reagents and suggest that sufficient care must be taken when labeling or measuring thiols in cellular environments that produce H2S due to the potential for both false-positive and eroded responses.

  18. Cosmological constraints on the neutron lifetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvati, L.; Pagano, L.; Melchiorri, A. [Physics Department, Università di Roma ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185, Rome (Italy); Consiglio, R., E-mail: laura.salvati@roma1.infn.it, E-mail: luca.pagano@roma1.infn.it, E-mail: rconsiglio@na.infn.it, E-mail: alessandro.melchiorri@roma1.infn.it [Physics Department, Università di Napoli ' ' Federico II' ' , Complesso Universitario Monte S. Angelo, Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy)

    2016-03-01

    We derive new constraints on the neutron lifetime based on the recent Planck 2015 observations of temperature and polarization anisotropies of the CMB. Under the assumption of standard Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, we show that Planck data constrains the neutron lifetime to τ{sub n} = (907±69) [s] at 68% c.l.. Moreover, by including the direct measurements of primordial Helium abundance of Aver et al. (2015) and Izotov et al. (2014), we show that cosmological data provide the stringent constraints τ{sub n} = (875±19) [s] and τ{sub n} = (921±11) [s] respectively. The latter appears to be in tension with neutron lifetime value quoted by the Particle Data Group (τ{sub n} = (880.3±1.1) [s]). Future CMB surveys as COrE+, in combination with a weak lensing survey as EUCLID, could constrain the neutron lifetime up to a ∼ 6 [s] precision.